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Account of the Russian discoveries between Asia and America : to which are added, the conquest of Siberia,… Coxe, Wiiliam, 1747-1828 1780

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  . .4-^r V    V. i ■»»
March 27, 1780.  R      E
A      C      E.
' ^HE late Ruffian Difcoveries between Afia and
Ameriea have, for feme time, engaged the attention of the curious ; more especially fince Dr. Robertfon's
admirable Hiftory of America has been in the hands of
the public. In thai valuable performance tlfe elegant
and ingenious author has communicated to the world,
with an accuracy and judgement which fo eminently dif-
tinguifh all his writings, the moft exact information
at that time to be obtained, concerning thofe important difcoveries* During my ftay at Petersburg, my inquiries were particularly directed to this interefting fubject:, in order to learn if any new light had been thrown
on an article of knowledge of fuch confequence to the
hiftory of mankind- For this purpofe I endeavoured to<
collect the refpective journals of the feveral voyages
fubfequent to the expedition of Beering and TfchirikofiT
in 1741, with, which the celebrated Muller concludes
his- account of the firft Ruffian navigations*        ijj
During VI
During the courfe of my refearches I was informed,
that a treatife in the German language, publiihed at
Hamburg and Leipfic in 1776, contained a full and
exact narrative of the Ruffian voyages, from 1.745 to
As the author has not prefixed his name, I fliould
have paid little attention to an anonymous publication,
if I had not been affured, from very good authority, that
the work in queftion was compiled from the original
journals. JNfot refting however upon this intelligence, I
took the liberty of applying to Mr. Muller himfelf, who,
by order of the Emprefs, had arranged the fame journals, from which the anonymous author is faid to
have drawn his materials. Previous to my application,
Mr. Muller had compared the treatife with the original
papers.; and he favoured me with the following
flrong teftimony to its exactnefs and autheatifikvi.;
" Volis feres bien de traduire pour Pufage de vos com-
" patriotes le petit livre fur les ifles fituees entre le Kamt-
" chatka et l'Amerique. II n'y a point de doute, que
" l'auteur n'ait ete pourvu de bons mempires, et qu'il ne
" s'en foit fervi fidelement.   J'ai confronte le livre avecles
* The title of the book is, Neue Nachrichten von denen Neue'ndeqk"
ten Infuln in der See zwifchen Afia und Amerika aus mitgetheiltfeW'lfr-
kunden und Aufzuegen verfaffet von J. L. S.
originaiiXA' PREFACE.
originaux." Supported therefore by this very refpec-
table authority, I coniidered this treatife as a performance
of the higheft credit, and well worthy of being more
generally known and perufed. 1 have accordingly, in
the firft part of the prefent publication, fubmitted a tranf-.
lation of it to the reader's candour; and added occafional
notes to fuch paflages as feemed to require an explanation.
The original is divided into fections without any references. But as it feemed to be more convenient to divide it into chapters ; and to accompany each chapter
with a fummary of the contents, and marginal references;
I have moulded it into that form, without making however any alteration in the order of the journals.
The additional intelligence which I procured at
Peterfburg, is thrown into an appendix: It con-
lifts .©f fome new information, and of three journals gy never before given to the public. Amongft
thefe I muft particularly mention that of Krenitzin and
Levafheff, together with the chart of their voyage,
which was communicated to Dr. Robertfbn, by order of
the.Emprefs of Ruffia ; and which that juftly admired
hiftorian ha% in the politeft and moft obliging manner,!
* The journals of Krenitzin and Levafheff, the fhort account of Synd's
voyage, and the narrative of ShalaurofPs expedition, N° I. IX. 3Q.
4 permitted .
PRE   F-IA    C   E.
permitted me to make ufe of in this collection. This
voyage, which redounds greatly to the honour of the
fovereign who planned it, confirms in general the authenticity of the treatife above-mentioned ; and afcertains
the reality of the difcoveries made by the private merchants.
As a farther illuftration of this fubject, I collected the
bell charts which could be procured at Peterfburg,
ami of which a lift Will be given in the following advertisement. From all thefe cifieunlftances, I may venture, perhaps, to hope that the cftrious and inquifitive
reader will- not only find in the following pages the
moft authentic and circumftantial account of the pro-
gfcefs and extent of the-Ruffian dffeovtsi^es, which has
hitiserto appeared in any language! but be enabled hereafter to compare them With thofe more laMy made by
that great and mi&h to be regretted negator, Captain
Cooke, when his jo^fttaj; fhall be comiilHSdcated to the
As all the fur§ vflitelfc a£e brought from the New-
D&fcovefed Iflands a& fold to the CItfhefe, 1 was naturally led to make enquiries concerning the commerce
between Ruffia and China; and Ending this branch of
traffic much more important than is commonly imagined,
Jljhdught that a general fketch of its prefent ftate,
iS 3 together PREFACE.
together with a fuccinct view of the transactions between
the two nations, would not he unacceptable.
The conqueft of Siberia, as it firft opened a communication with China, and paved the way to all the in-
terefting difcoveries related in the prefent attempt, will
not appear unconnected, 1 trult, with its principal
The materials of this fecond part, as alfo of the preliminary obfervations concerning Kamtchatka, and the
commerce to the new-difcovered iflands, are drawn from
books of eftablifhed and undoubted reputation. Mr. Muller and Mr. Pallas, from whole interefting works thefe
hiftorical and commercial fubjects are chiefly compiled,
are too well known in the literary world to require any
other vouchers for their judgement, exactnefs, and fidelity, than the bare mentioning of their names. I have
only farther to apprize the reader, that, befides the intelligence extracted from thefe publications, he will find
fome additional circumftances relative to the Ruffian commerce with China, which I collected during my continuance in Ruffia.
m r * 3
I CANNOT clofe this addrefs to the reader without
embracing with peculiar fatisfaction the juft occafion,
which the enfuing treatifes upon the Ruffian difcoveries
and commerce afford me, of joining with every friend
of fcience in the warmelt admiration of that enlarged and liberal fpirit, which fo ftrikingly marks the
character of the prefent Emprefs of Ruffia. Since
her acceffion to the throne, the invefugation and difcovery of ufeful knowledge has been the conftant object of
her generous encouragement. The authentic records of
the Ruffian Hiftory have, by her exprefs orders, been properly arranged; and permiffion is readily granted of inflecting them. The moft diftant parts of her vaft dominions
have, at her expence, been explored and defcribed by per-
ions of great abilities and extenfive learning; by which
means new and important lights have been thrown upon
the geography and natural niftory of thofe remote regions. In a word, this truly great princefs has contributed more, in the compafs of only a few years, towards
civilizing and informing the minds of her fubjects, than
had been effected by all the fovereigns her predeceflbrs
fince the glorious ser#of Peter the Great.
• X1   J
In order to prevent the frequent mention of the full
title of the books referred to in the courfe of this performance, the following catalogue is fubjoined, with
the abbreviations.
Miiller's Samlung Ruffifcher Gefchichte, IX volumes, 8vo. printed at
St. Peterfburg in 1732, and the following years ; it is referred to in the
following manner : S. R. G. with the volume and page annexed.
From this excellent collection I have made ufe of the following
vol. IL p. 293, &c. Gefchichte der Gegenden an dem Fluffe Amur.
There is a French translation of this treatife, called Hiftoire du
Fleuve Amur, iamo, Amfterdam, 1766.
vol. III. p. 1, &c. Nachrichten von See Reifen, &c.
There is an Engiifh and a French translation of this work; the former
is called " Voyages from Afia to America for completing the Difcoveries
of the North Weft Coaft of America," &c. 4*0, London^ 1764. The
tide of the latter is Voyages et Decouvertes faites par les Ruffes, &c.
12010, Amfterdam, 1766. p.413. NachnchtenVonderHanlunginSibirien.
Vol. VI. p. 109, Sibirifche Gefhichte.
Vol. VIII. p. 504, Nachricht Von der Ruffifchen "Handlung   nach
Pallas Reife durch verfchiedene Provinzen des Ruffifchen Reichs, in
Three Parts, 460, St. Peterfburg, 1771, 1773, and 1776, thus cited,
Pallas Reife.
Georgi Bemerkungen einer Reife im Ruffifchen Reich in Jahre, 1772,
III volumes, 4to, St. Peterfburg, 1775, cited Georgi Reife.
Fifcher Sibirifche Gefchichte, 2 volumes, 8vo, St..Peterfburg, cited
Fif. Sib. Gef.
Gmelin Reife durch Sibirien, Tome TV? 8vo. Gottingen, 1752, cited
Gmelin Reife.
b 2. There [   x"   ]
There is a French tranflation of this work, called Voyage en Siberie,
&c. par M. Gmelin.   Paris, 1767.
Neuefte Nachrichten von Kamtchatka aufgefetft im Junius des
i773st,n Yahren von dem dafigen Befehls-haber Herrn Kapitain Smalew.
Aus dem abhandlungen der freyen Ruffifchen Gefellfchaft Mofkau.
In the journal of St. Peterfburg, April, 1776.—cited Journal of St. Pet.
Explanation of fome Ruffian words made ufe of in the
following work.
Baidar, a fmall boat.
Guba, a bay.
Kamen, a rock. •
Kotche, a veffel. **$ WM
Krepoft, a regular fortrefs.
Nofs, a cape.
Oftrog, a fortrefs furrounded with palifadoes.
OJiroffj an ifland.
Oftrova, iflands.
Quafs, a fort of fermented liquor.
Reka, a river.
The Ruffians, in their proper names of perfons, make ufe of patronymics ; thefe patronymics are formed in fome cafes by .adding
Fitch to the chriftian name of the father ; in others Off or Eff: the
former termination is applied only to perfons of. condition; the latter
to thofe of an inferior rank.    As, for inftance,
Among perfons of condition Ivan Ivanovitch,
of inferior rank, Ivan Jvdnqff
Michael Alexievitch,~\ Michael the fon
Michael Alexeeff,     J  of Alexey.
Sometimes a furname is added, Ivan Ivanovitch Romanoff.
Ivan the fon of Ivan.
J t M 3
Table of Ruffian Weights, Meafures   of Length, and
Value of Money.
A pood weighs 40 Ruffian pounds = 36 Engiifh.
16 verfhocks = an arfheen.
An arfheen = 28 inches.
Three arfheens, or feven feet = a fathom *, or fazfhen.
500 fazfhens = a verft.
A degree of longitude ■comprifes 104^ verfts = 69^ Engiifh miles.    A
mile is therefore 1,515 parts of a verft; two miles may then be efti-"
mated equal to three verfts, omitting a fmall fraction.
A rouble =100 copecs.
Its value varies according to the exchange from 3s. 8d. to 4s. 2d.
Upon an average, however, the value of a rouble is reckoned at four
* The fathom for meafuring the deptlb of water Is-the fame as the Engiifh fathom = 6 feet. [   iiv 1
F. 2 3, Reference, for Appendix I. N° I. read N° II.
' ^ for Appendix L N° n. read N° HI.
30, for Rogii read Kogii.
46, for Rikfa read Kifka.
96, /»r Korovin read Korelin.
186, Note—-for Tobob read Tobol.
154, Note—Line 2, after handpauken omitted 5ron verfchiedenen Klangi
11^ for Saktunk read Saktunak.
134, Line 6, for were read was.
188, 1.16. /or pretention rW prote&ion,
1 do, 1, 5. for nor read not.
IQS>/or Snngur r^iSirgut,
225,1. 13. read other has an.
226, /or b'arlbadeers read halberdiers.
234, Note—line 3, dele See hereafter, p. 242.
246, for Marvin read Narym.
256, Note—for called byLinfiaerfs Lutra Marina Tread Lutra Marina, -called by
Linnaeus Muftela Lutris, &c.
257, Line 5,/er made of the bone, &c read made of bone, or the Mft£&c.
^78, Note 2—line 2, for Corbus read Comas,
324, Note—line 4, dele was.
313, Note—line 3, dele that.
Ibid. Note—line 10, " I fhould not" &c. is afeparate note, and relates tjt the
txtratl in the text Beginning " In 164V &c»
adve'r- r xv ]
A S no aftronomical obfervations have been taken in
the voyages related in this collection, the longitude
and latitude afcribed to the new-difeovere4 iflands in the
journals and upon the charts cannot be abfolutely depended upon. Indeed the reader will percjfve, that the
pofition * of the Fo# Iflands upon the general map of
Ruffia is materially different from tfeat affigned to them
upon the chart of Krenitzin and Levafheff. Without
endeavouring to clear up any .difficulties which may
arife from this uncertainty, I thought it would be moft
fatisfactory to have the beft charts engraved : the reader
will then be able to compare them with each other, and
with the feveral journals. Which reprefentation of the
new-difcovered iflands deferves the preferance, will probably be afcertained upon the return of captain Gierke
from his prefent expedition.    |||
* See p. 286. m ]
Lift of the Charts, and Directions for placing themv
CH.ART I. A reduced copy of the general map of Ruffia, pub-
lifhed by the Academy of Sciences at St. Peterfburg, 1776. to face the title-page,
II. Chart of the voyage made by Krenitzin and Leva
fheff to the Fox Iflands, communicated by Dr. Ro-
bertfon, to face p. 25 r.
III. Chart of Synd's Voyage towards Tfchukotfkoi-
Nofs, p. 300.
IV. Chart of ShalaurofFs Voyage to Shelatfkoi-Nofs,
with a fmall chart of the Bear-Iflands, p.. 3 2 3..
View of Maimatfchin, p. 211*
Communicated by a gentleman who has been upoa
the fpot.
CON- C   xva   J
E      N
Dedication, |p
Catalogue of books quoted in this work,
Explanation ofjome Ruffian words made ufe of,
p. in.
p. v.
p. xi.
p. xiii.
Itable of Ruffian Weights, Meafutw of Lengthy and Falue
of Money, p.i^v.
Advertifernen% p. xv.
£J0 of Charts, and ftireclions for placing them,       p. xvi.
"        :   '.'If"'     P   A   R   T     L     f. . " .'    '     ■"
Containing Preliminary Observations concerning Kamtchatka, and Account of the New Discoveries made
by the l&JssiANS, p. 3—16.
Chap. I. Difcovery and Canquejl of Kamtchatka—^Prefent
*£ate of that Peninfula—Population—Tribute-.—Productions, &c p. 3.
Chap. II. General idea of the commerce carried on to the
New Difcovered iflands—Equipment oftbeveffels—Rifks
of the trade, profits, &c. p. 8.
Chap.^tll. Furs and fkins procured from Kamtchatka and
the New Difcovered Iflands, p. 12.
Account of the Russian. Discoveries, p. 19.
Chap. I. Commencement and progrefs of the Ruffian Difcoveries in the fea of Kamtchatka—General divifion of
the New Difcovered Iflands, ibid.
c Chap. BB*
EN   T   S.
Chap. II. Voyages in 1745 — Firft difcovery of the Aleutian
Ifles, by Michael NevodfikofF, p. 29;
Chap. III. Succefftve voyages, from 1747 to 1753? t0
Beering's and Copper Ifland, and to the Aleutian Ifles-—
Swne account of the inhabitants, p. 37*
Chaps IV. Voyages from 1753 to 1 ffj 6.    Some* of the fur-
. ther Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by Serebrani-
koff's veffel—Some account of the natives,. p. 48*:
Chap. V.  Voyages from 1756/0 1758, p.54 -
Chap..VI. Voyages in 1758, 1759, and 1760, /o /M
Fox, Iflands, in the St. Vladimir, fitted out. by Trapefnikoff—and in, the. Gabriel,. ^Bethfhevin—The latter,,
under the command of Pufhkareff, fails to Alakfu, or
Alachfhak, one of the remoteft Eaftern Iflands hitherto
vifited—Some account of its inhabitants, and productions, which latter are different from thofe of the more
Weftern iflands,. p. 61..
Chap. VII. Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk, in the St. Andrean.
and Natalia—Difcovery of fome New Iflands, called
AndreanofBky Oftrova—Defcription of fix of thofe
iflands, p. 71.
Chap. VIII. Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted,
out by KulkofL~ and ^'commanded by Daufinin—They fail
to Umnak and Unalafhka, and winter upon the latter
ifland—The veffel deftroyed, and. all the crew, except
four,, murdered by the iflanders—The adventures of thoje j
four Ruffians,... and. their wonderful efcape, p. 80.
Chap.. C   O   N . T   E   N   T   S.
^Chap. IX. Voyage of the veffel called the Trinity, under
' the command of Korovin—Sails to the Fox Iflands—
Winters at Unalafhka—Puts to fea the fpring following—The veffel is ftfanded in a bay of the ifland Umnak, and the crew attacked by the natives—Many of
them killed—others carried off by ficknefs—They are reduced to great fir eights—Relieved by Glottoff, tzvelve of
the whole company only remaining—Defcription of Umnak and Unalafhka, p. 89.
Chap. X. Voyage of Stephen Glottoff—He reaches the
Fox Iflands—Sails beyond Unalafhfka to Kadyak—
Winters upon that ifland—Repeated attempts of the natives to deftroy the crew—They are repulfed, reconciled,
and prevailed upon to trade with the Ruffians—Account
of Kadyak—Its inhabitants, animals, produclions—
Glottoff fails back to Umnak—winters there—returns to
Kamtchatka—Journal of bis voyage, p. 106.
Chap. XI. SoloviofPs voyage—He reaches Unalafhka, and
paffes two winters upon that ifland—Relation of what
paffed there—fruitlefs attempts* of the natives to deftroy
the crew—Return of Solovioff to Kamtchatka—Journal
of bis voyage in returning—Defcription of the iflands of
Umnak and Unalafhka, produclions, inhabitants, their
manners, cuftoms, &c.  &c. p. 131.
Chap. XII. Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon
Umnak—Arrival of Levafheff upon Unalafhka:—Return of Otcheredin to Ochotfk, p. 156.
c 2 Chap.
xix xxu
C   O   N   T
N° VI. Conjeclures concerning the proximity of the Fox
Iflands to the continent of America. p. 291.
N° VII. Of the Tfchutfki—-reports of the vicinity of America to their coafl, firft propagated by them, feem to be
confirmed by late accounts from thofe parts.      p. 293.
N° VIII. Lift of the New Difcovered Iflands, procured from
an Aleutian chief-—catalogue of iflands called by different
names in-the account of the Ruffian difcoveries. p. 297.
N° IX. Voyage of Lieutenant Synd to the North Eaft of
Siberia—he discovers a clufler of iflands, and a promontory, which hefuppofes to belong to the continent of America,'lying near the coaft of the Tfchutski. p. 300.
N° X. Specimen of the Aleutian language. p. 303.
N° XI. Attempts of the Ruffians to dif cover a North Eajl
paffage—voyages from Archangel towards the Lena—
from the Lena towards Kamtchatka—extracl from
Muller's account of Deihneff's voyage round Tfchukot-
skoi Nofs—narrative of a voyage made by Shalauroff
from the Lena to Shelatskoi Nofs. p. 304.
Appendix II. Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the
Bucharian merchants—method of examining and pur -
chafing the roots—different fpecies of rheum which yield
thefineji rhubarb—price of rhubarb in Ruffia—exportation—fuperiorjty of the Tartarian over the Indian
rhubarb., p. 332.
Table of the longitude and -latitude of the principal places
mentioned in this work; j p. 344.
concernin g
CHAP.    I.
Difcovery and Cohqueft of Kamtchatka—Prefent flate of
that Peninfula*-~Population~-—<Iribute---Produtlions, ^f c.'
TH E Peninfula of Kamtchatka was not difcovered FjrftDifcoyery
or Ksuhtchat-
by the Ruffians before the latter end of the laftka*
century.    The firft expedition towards thofe parts was
made in 1696, by fixteen Coffacs, under the command
of Lucas Semsenoff Morofko, who was fent againft the
Koriacks  of the river Opooka by  Volodimirl Atlaffoff
commander of Anadirfk.    Morofko continued his march ife
until he  came within  four days journey of the Tivef
Kamtchatka, and having rendered a Kamtchadak village
tributary, he returned to Anadirfk *. '
S. R. G. V. IU. p. 72.
The following year Atlaffoff himfelf at the head of
a larger body of troops penetrated into the Peninfula,
took poffeffion of the river Kamtchatka .by erecting a
crofs upon its banks; and built fome huts upon the
fpot, where Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog now ftands.
• cok>D'
the Ruffians
Thefe expeditions were continued during the following
Sab™ years :  Upper and Lower Kamtchatkoi-Oftrdgs and Bol-
-cheretfk   were  built ;   the   Southern diftrict conquered
.and colonifed;   and in 1711 the whole Peninfula was
finally reduced under the dominion of the Ruffians.
During   fome -years the   poffeffion   of   Kamtchatka
"brought very little advantage to the crown, excepting
£he fmall  tribute of furs exacted from the inhabitants.
The Ruffians indeed occasionally hunted in that Penin-
rtfula foxes,  wolves,  ermines., fables, and other animals,
-whofe valuable fkins  form an extenfiye article of ccjjn-
merce among  the  Eaftern  nations.    But the fur trade
carried on from  thence was  in confiderable 4   until the
Ruffians difcovered the iflands fituated between Afia and
America, in a feries of voyages,  the journals of which
will be exhibited in the  iubfequent Since
thefe difcoveries, the variety of rich   furs,  which are
procured from thofe Iflands, has greatly encreafed  the
trade of Kamtchatka, and rendered it a very important
feranch of the Ruffian commerce.
The iCO:N-.C^:R-.N.LN;G   K A M X C H A TK A,   &c
. The Peninfula of Kamtchatka lies between 51 and
€2 degrees of North latitude, and 173 and 182 of
longitude from the lile of Hero. It is bounded on
the Eaft and South by the Sea of Kamtchatka, on the
Weft by. the Seas of Ochotfk and Penfhinfk, and on the
North by the country of the Koriacs.
ft is-.divided into four diftricts, Bolcherefk, Tigilfkaia p«M
' ' & State of Kamt-
Xrepoft, Verchnei-or Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, andchatka"
Nifhnei or Lower Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The govern-Government,
ment is vefted in the chancery of Bolcherefk^ which depends upon and is fubject to the iofpection of the chancery of Ochotfk. The whole Ruffian force ftationed in
the PenMula confiils of no more than three hundred
meii% . Ae.. ...
The prefent population of Kamtchatka is very fmall, Population,
amounting tit fcaree four thoufand fouls. Formerly the
inhabitants were more numerous, but in 1768, that
country "was greatly depopulated by the ravages of the
fhiall-pox, by which diforder five thoufand three hundred ^ind fixty^eight perfons were carried off. There are
now only feven hundred and fix males in the whole Peninfula who are tributary, and an hundred and fourteen
in the Kuril Ifles, wfcach are fubject to Ruffia.
* Journal of St. Peterfburg for April 1777.
The Tribute.-
The fixed annual tribute confifts in 279 fables, 464
red foxes, 50 fea-otters with a dam, and 38 cub fea-
Otters. All furs exported from Kamtchatka pay a duty
of 1 o per cent, to the crown ; the tenth of the cargoes-
brought from the new difcovered iflands is alfo delivered
into the cuftoms.
Volcanos. Many traces of Volcanos have been obferved in this
Peninfula ; and there are fome mountains, which are at
prefent in a burning ftate.    The moft confiderable  of
thefe Volcanos is fituated near the Lower Oftrog. || to
1762 a great noife was heard iffuing from the infide of
that mountain, and flames of fire were feen to burft from
different parts.    Thefe flames were immediately fucceed-*
ed by a large ftream of melted fnow water, which flowed
into the neighbouring valley,  and drowned two Kamt—
chadals, who were at that time upon an hunting party.
The afhes, and other combuftible matter, thrown front
the mountain, fpread to the circumference of three hundred verfts.    In 1767 there was another difcharge,   but
lefs confiderable.    Every night flames of fire were obferved ftreaming from the mountain; and the eruption
which attended them, did no fmall damage to the inhabitants of the Lower Oftrog.    Since that year no flames
have been  feen; but the mountain  emits  a  conftant
fmoke.   The fame phaenomenon is alfo obferved upou
another mountain, called Tabaetlhinfkian.
The face of the country throughout the Peninfula is?™
chiefly mountainous. It produces in fome parts birch,
poplars, alders, willows, underwood, and berries of different forts. Greens and other vegetables are raifed with
great facility; fuch as white cabbage, turneps, radifhes,
t>eetroot, carrots, and fome cucumbers. Agriculture is
in a very low ftate, which is ci^efly owing to the nature
of the foil and the fevere hoar frofts ; for though fome
trials have been made with refpect to the cultivation of
corn, and oats, barley and rye have been fown ; yet
Ho crop has ever been procured fufficient in quality or
•quality to anfwer the pains and expence of railing it.
Hemp however has of late years been cultivated with great
Every year a veflel, belonging to the crown, fails from
Ochotfk to Kamtchatka laden with fait, provifions, corn,
and Ruffian manufactures; and returns in June or July
of the following year with fkins and furs.
* Journal of St. Peterfburg.
£   H:   A    P.
€eneral idea of the commerce carried on to the New ffljfir1
covered Iflands.—Equipment of tbcveffels.—Rifks of tbet
trade, profits,'^c.
QlN.CE the conclufibn of Beering's voyage,, which;
was made at the expence of the crown, the profecu*-
tionof the New E&fcoveries began by him has been al—
moft entirely carried on by individuals.. Thefe perfons
were principally merchants of Irkutfk,, Yakutfk, and other"
natives of Siberia, who formed themfelves into fmall
trading companies, and fitted, out veflels at their joint:
Equipment ot
the velTels.
Moft of the veflels which are equipped fos ttoefe expeditions are two mailed : they are commonly built without ironj, and in general fo badly conftructed, that it is
wonderful how they can weather fo ftormy a fea. They
are called in Ruffian Skitiki or fewed veflels, becaufe the
planks *are fewed together with thongs of leather. Some
few are built in the river of Kamtchatka;. but they are.
for the moft part conftructed at the haven .of Ochotfk..
The largeft of thefe velTels are manned with feventy men,,
and the fmalleft with forty. The crew generally confifts
of an equal number of Ruffians and Kamtchadals. The
5 latter CONCERNING   K-lif-CHAfKA,   A §
latter occafion a confiderable faying, as their pay is
fmall; they alfo refift, more eafily than the former,
the attacks of the fcurvy. But Ruffian mariners are
more enterprifing and more to be depended upon in
time of danger than the others, fome therefore are
unavoidably neceflary,
The expences of building and fitting out the veflels SSSTSib**
are very confiderable : for there is nothing at Ochotfk-tra -
but.timber for their conftruction. Accordingly cordage,
fails, and fome provifions, muft be brought from Ya-
kutfk upon horfes. The dearnefs of corn and flour,
which muft be tranfported from the diftricts lying about
the river Lena, renders it impofljble to lay-in asiy
large quantity for the fubfiftence of the crew during
a voyage^ which commonly lafts three or four year&j;
For this reafon no more is provided,, than is neceflary
to fupply the Ruffian mariners wifch quafs and other
fermented liquors.
From the exceffive fcarcity of cattle both at Ochotfk
and I Kamtchatka very little provifion is laid in at
either of thofe places; but the crew provide themfelves^:.
* InT^72 there were only 570 head of cattle upon the whole Peninfula. A cow fold from 50 to 60 Roubles, an ox from 60 to 100. A
pound of frefir beef fold upon an average for i2f copecs. The exceffive dearnefs of this^rMce will be eafily conceived, when it is known,
tfiag at Mofcow a pound of beef fells for about three copecs. Journ.
St. Peterfb.
with »c
with a large ftore of the flefh of fea animals, which?
are caught and cured upon Beering's Ifland,, where the:
veffels for the molt part winter.
/ - - a---
After all expences are paid, the equipment of each
veflel ordinarily cofts from 15,000 to 20,000 Roubles..
And fometimes the expences amount to 30,000. Every
veflel is divided into a certain number of fhares, generally from thirty to fifty; and each fhare is worth;
from 300 to 500 Roubles.
The rifk of the trade is very great, as fhipwrecks are"
common in the fea of Kamtchatka, which is full of rocks
and very tempeftuous.   Befides, the crew3 are frequently
furprifed and killed by the  iflanders,   and  the veflels
Profits,    deftroyed.     In return the  profits arifihg   from  thefe-
voyages are very confiderable, and compenfate the in-
convenieneies and dangers  attending them.    For  if a
fhip comes back after having made a profitable voyage,
the  gain'at the  moft moderate computation amounts
to cent,  per cent,  and frequently to as much   more.
Should  the veffel be capable of   performing  a feconbT
expedition,    the   expences  are of   courfe  confiderably
leffened, and the fhares are at a lower price.
Some notion of the general profits afifing from
this trade (when the voyage is fuccefsful), may be
deduced from the fale of a rich cargo of furs, brought
to Kamtchatka, on the  2d of June,   1772,  from   the
new-difcovered iflands, in a veflel belonging to Ivan
Popoit;    ' - 0-
The tenth part of the fkins being delivered to the
xuftoms, the remainder was diftributed in fifty-five
fhares. Each fhare confifted of twenty fea-otters,
fixteen black and brown foxes, ten red foxes, three
fea-otter tails ; and fuch a portion was fold upon the
fpot from 800 to 1000 Roubles : fb that according to
this price the whole lading was worth about 50,000
Roubles *.
* Georgi Reife Tom. I. p» 23,& feq. Journal of St. Peterfburg 12
Furs and fkins promrtid from Kamtchatka and the New-
Difcovered Iflands\.
Furs and Skins
brought from
and the New
n H E principal furs and fkins = procured from the
< . Peninfula of Kamtehatka and the New Difcovered
Iflands are fea-otters, foxes, fables, ermines, wolves,.bears,,
&x.—Thefe furs are tranfported to Ochotfk by fea, and:
from thence carried utp * Kiachta upon the frontiers of
Siberia; where the greateft part of them are fold to?
the Chinefe at a very confiderable profit.
sea-otters'. Of all thefe furs, the fkins of the fea-otters are the
richeft and moft valuable. Thofe animals refort in great
numbers to the Aleutian and Fox Iflands: they are
called, by the Ruffians Bobry Morfki or fea-beavers, and.
fometimes Kamtchadal beavers, on account of the refemblance of their fur to that of the common beaver.
From thefe circumftances feVeral authors have been led
into a miftake, and have fuppofed that this animal is
of the beaver fpecies; whereas it is the true fea-otter t.
||| * See Part II. Chap. IIL
I S.R.G. III. p. |fe
The female are called Matka or dams ; and the cubs
till five months old Medviedki or little bears, becaufe their
coat refembles that of a bear ; they lofe that coat after
five months, and then are called Kofchloki..
The fur of the fineft fort is thick and long, of a dark
colour, and a fine gloffy hue. They are taken four
ways ;i ftruck with darts as they are fleeping upon their
Backs m the fea, followed in boats and hunted down
till they are tired, furprifed in caverns, and taken in
Their fkins fetch different prices according to their
At Kamtchatka* the belt fell for
per fkin from     -     -     - 30 to 40 Roubles.
Middle fort 20 to 30
Worft fort 15 to 25
At Kiachta t the old and middle-
aged fea-otter fkins are fold
to the Chinefe per fkin from    80 to ioo
The worft fort   30 to 40
* Journal St. Peterfburg.
-j- Pallas Reife. Part III. p. 137.
As H
As thefe furs fetch fo great a price to the Ghinefe,
they are feldom brought into Ruffia for fale : and feveral, which have been carried to Mofcow as a tribute, were
purchafed for 30 Roubles per fkin; and fent from
thence to the Chinefe frontiers, where they were difpofed
,of at a very high intereft.
Different {peeks of Foxes.
There are feveral fpecies of Foxes, whofe fkins are
fent from Kamtchatka into Siberia and Ruffia. . Of thefe
the principal are the black foxes, the Petfi or Arctic
foxes, the red and ftone foxes.
The fineft black foxes are in different  parts
of Siberia, and more commonly oraxcm regions
between the Rivers Lena, Indigirka, aria Kovyma: the
black foxes found upon the remote!! Eaftern iflands
difcovered by the Ruffians, or the Lyffie Oftrova, are not
fo valuable. They are very black and large; but the
coat for the moft part is as coarfe as that of a wolf.
The great difference in the finenefs of the fur, between thefe foxes and thofe of Siberia, arifes probably
from the following circumftances. In thofe iflands
the cold is not fo- fevere as in Siberia; and as
there is no wood, the foxes live in holes and caverns of the rocks; whereas in the abovementioned
parts of Siberia, there are large tracts of forefts in
which   they   find  fhelter.     Some   black   "foxes   how-
Mm S. R. G. V. JII. Pallas Reife.
ever are occafionally caught in the remoteft Eaftern
Iflands, not wholly, deftitute of wood, and thefe are
of great value. In general the.Chinefe, who pay the
deareft for black furs, do not give more for the black
foxes of the new-difcovered iflands than from 20 to
30 Roubles per fkin.
The arctic or ice foxes are very common upon fome of
the New-Difcovered Iflands. They are called Petfi by the
Ruffians, and by the Germans blue foxes.    Their naturalTenna?es
■* . Synopfis.
colour is of a bluifh grey or afh colour; but they change
their coat at different ages, and in di|fererent feafons of
the year. In general they are born brown, are white in
winter, and brown in fummer; and in fpring and autumn,
as the hair gradually falls off, the coat is marked with-
different fpecks and- croftes..
2 1 Roubles^
80 copecs.
At Kiachta* all the feveral varieties fell upon an average to the Chinefe per fkin from 50
copecs to -
Stone Foxes at Kamtchatka per fkin
from -
Red Foxes from 80 copecs to
At Kiachta from 80 copecs to
Common wolves fkins at per fkin
Beft fort per fkin from —
Sables per ditto      -        —       .-*■
1 Pallas Reife.
A pood i6
A pood of the-beft fea-horfe teetfr* fells
At Yakutfk for - - I 6 Roubies.
Of the middling - 8
Inferior ditto - | from 5 to 7.
Four, five, or fix teeth generally weigh a pood, an.4
fometimes, but very rarely, three. They are fold to the
Chinefe, Monguls,  and Calmucs.
I S. R. G. V IIL
WITH   NOTES   BY   THE   TRANSLATOR.  [    *9    I
A       C       C       O      U      N       T
OF     THE
C H A P.    J,
Commencement and progrefs of the Ruffian Difcoveries
in the fea of Kamtchatka—General divifion of the
New Difcovered I/lands.
\ Thirft after riches was the chief motive which
excited the Spaniards to the difcovery of America;
and which turned the attention of other maritime nations
to that quarter. The fame paffion for riches occafioned,
about the middle of the fixteenth century, the difcovery
knd conquer! of Northern Afia, a country, before .that time,
as unknown to the Europeans, as ThuTe to the ancients.
The firft foundation of this conqueft was laid by the £>n<*ueft of
* J } Siberia.
celebrated Yermac *, at the head of a band of adventurers, lefs civilized, but at the fame tkne, not fo inhuman as the conquerors of America. By the acceffion of
this vaft territory, now known by the name of Siberia, the
Ruffians have acquired an extent of empire never before
attained by any other nation.
* The reader will find an account of this conqueft by Yermac in
Part II. Chap. I. *
P  2 The 20
Commencement of the
New Difcoveries!.
The firft project * for making difcoveries in that tem-
peftuous fea, which lies between Kamtchatka and America,, was conceived and planned by Peter I. the greateft
fovereign who ever fat upon the Ruffian throne, until
it was adorned by the prefent emprefs. The nature and
completion of this project under his immediate fuccef-
fors are well known to the public from the relation of
the celebrated Muller.    No fooner had t Beering and
* There feems a want of connection in this place, which will be cleared
up by confidering, that, by the conquefl of Siberia, the Ruffians advanced
to the fhores of the Eaftern Ocean, the fcene- of the difcoveries here alluded to.
•f- Beering had already made feveral expeditions in the fea of iKtrfct-
chatka, by orders of the crown, before he undertook the voyage mentioned in the text.
In 1728, he departed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river, in
company with TfchirikofF. The purport of this voyage was to afcer-
tain, whether the two Continents of Afia and America were feparated;
•and Peter I. a fhort time before his death, had drawn up inftru&ions
with his own hand for that purpofe. Beering coafted the Eaftern fhore
of Siberia as high as latitude 670 18'; but made no difcovery of the
oppofite Continent.
In 1729, he fet fail again for the profecution of the fame defign ; but
this fecond attempt equally failed of fuccefs.
In 1741, Beering and TfchirikofF went out upon the celebrated expedition (alluded to in the text, and which is fo often mentioned in the
courfe of mis wprfc) towards the coafls of America. This expedition led
.the way to all the important difcoveries fince made by the Ruffians.
Beering's veffel was wrecked in December of the fame \ year; and
TfchirikofF landed at Kamtchatka on the 9th of October, 1742.
S. R. G. III. Nachrichten von See Reifen, &c. and Robertfon's Hiftory of America, Vol. L p. 273, & feq.
I Tfchirikoff, RUSSIAN   DISCOV ^-R I E S. &
Tfchirikoff, in the profecution of this plan, opened their
*way to* iflands abounding in valuable furs, than private
merchants immediately engaged with ardour in fimilar
expeditiofis; and, within a period of ten years, more im- Tr^sir Pro~
portant difcoveries were made by thefe individuals, at
their own private colt, than had been hitherto effedted by
all the expenfive efforts of the crown.
Soon after the return of Beering's crew from the
ifland where he was fhip-wrecked and died, and which
is called after his name, tiie inhabitants of Kamtchatka
ventured over to that ifland, to which the fea-otters and
other fea-animals were aceuftomed to refort in great
numbers. Mednoi Oftroff, or Copper Ifland, which
takes that appellation from, large mafles of native copper
found upon the beach, and which lies full in fight of
Beering's Ifle, was an eafy and fpeedy difcovery.
Thefe two fmall uninhabited fpots were for fome time
the only iflands that were known : until a fcarcity of land
and fea-animals, whofe numbers were greatly diminifhed
by the Ruffian hunters, occafioned other expeditions.
Several of the veflels which were fent out upon thefe
voyages were driven by ftormy weather to the South-
eaft; and difcovered by that means the Aleutian Ifles,
Situated about the 195th* degree of longitude, and but
moderately peopled.
it-?*'1'"' ' t • -"    r\"i
* The author reckons, throughout this treatife, the longitude from
the 42
From the year 1745, when it feems thefe iflands were
firft vifited, until 1750, when the firft tribute of furs
was brought from thence to Ochotfk, the government
appears not to have been fully informed of their difcovery*
In the laft mentioned year, one Lebedeff was commander
of Kamtchatka. From 17 5 5 to 17 60, Captain Tiherejdoff
and Lieutenant Kafhkareff were his fucceflbrs. In 1760,
Feodor Ivanovitch Soimonoff, governor of Tobolfk, turned
his attention to the abovementioned iflands.; and, the
fame year, Captain Rtiftfheff, at Ochotfk, inftructed Lieutenant Shmaleff, the fame who was afterwards commander
in Kamtchatka, to promote and favour all expeditions in
thofe feas. Until this time, all the difcoveries fubfe-
quent to Beering's voyage were made, without the inter-
pofition of the court, by private merchants in fmall vef-
fels fitted out at their own expence.
^SmS? The prefent Emprefs (to whom every circumftance which
wdsSJwKf- contributes to aggrandize the Ruffian empire is an object of
attention) has given new life to thefe difcoveries. The merchants engaged* in them have been animated by recom-
pences.    The importance and true polition of the Ruffian
the firft meridian of the ifle of Fero. The longitude and latitude, which
he gives to the Fox Iflands, correfponds exactly with thofe in which they
are laid down upojj the General Map of Ruffia. The longitude of
Beering's, Copper Ifland, and of the Aleutian Ifles, are fomewhat different. See Advertifement relating £.0 the Charts, and alfo Appendix
I. N° IV,
iflands have been afcertained by an expenfive voyage #,
made by order of the crown ; and much additional in-r
formation wiilbe dew ved from tke.(journals and charts
of the officers employed in that expedition, whenever
they fhall be publiflied.
Meanwhile, we may reft affured, tha| feveral modern
geographersdfcfave erred in advancingAmefSca too much
to the Weft^ and in queftioning the extent of Siberia Eaft-
wardsj as laid doWn by the Ruffians. It appears, indeed,
^s&dent, that the accounts and even coniectt$f,es of the
celebrated Muller, concerning the pofitiqn of thofe diftant
regions, are more and more confirmed by facts; in the
fame manned as the'ijuftnefs of his f^ppofitobn concerning the form of the coaft cf the fea of Ochotfk t has
b&eh lately eft&Snflied. With reflect to the extent of
Siberia, it appears almoft beyond a doubt from the moft
recent* obf^rvatiOn^ thatbits Eaftern extremity is fituated
beyond J 200 degrees of longitude. In regard to the
Weftern cOaft$r©f America, all the navigations to the
New4)ifcovered'Iflands evidently ihew,that, between 50
* The author here alludes to the fecret expedition of Captain Kre-
mfein and LevahefF3 wliofe joipraalJaad efrart were fent^ by order ofT tfca
Emprefs of Ruffia, to Dr. Robertfon. See Robertfon's Hiftory. of Ame~
rica, Vol. I. p. 2.76 and 460.    See Appendix I. N° I.
-j- Mr. Muller formerly conje&ured, that the coaft of the fea of
Ochotfk. ftretched South-weft towards the river Ud^. and 'fjoom thence to
die mouth of the Amoor South-eaft: and the truth of qiis conjedture
had been fince confirmed by a coafting voyage made by Captain Synd.-
Appendix It N' I.
and 24
and 60 degrees of latitude, that Continent advances no
where nearer to Afia than the p coafts touched j at by
Beering and TfchirikofF, or about 236 degrees of longi*
Petition of the
' vered Iflands.
As to the New Difcovered Iflands, no credit muft be
given to a chart publi&ed in the Geographical Calendar
of St. Peterfburg for 1774; in which they are inaccurately laid down. Nor is the antient chart of the New*
Difcoveries, publifhed by the Imperial Academy, antr
which feems to have been drawn up from mere repoiite^
more deferving of attention t.
The late navigators give a far different defection 0?
the Northern Archipelago. From thetr accounts we
learn, that Beering's Ifland is fixated due Ea#*from Kamtchatkoi Nofs, in the 18 5th degree of longitude. Near it is
Copper Ifland ; and, at fome diftance from them, Eaft-
fouth-eaft, there are three fmall iflands, named by their
inhabitants, Attak, Semitfhi, and Shemiya: thefe are
properly the Aleutian Ifles; they illetch fr$m Weft-
north-weft towards Eaft-fouth-eaft, in the fame direction
as Beering's \and Copper IflanoV pf the :lQngitude of
195, and latitude 54.
* Appendix I. N° II.
' /j? Appendix I. N° IV. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
To the North-eaft of thefe, at the diftance of 600 Or
800 verfts, lies another group of fix or more iflands,
known by the name of the Andreanofffkie Oftrova.
South-eaft, or Eaft-fouth, of thefe, at the diftance of
about 15 degrees, and North by Eaft of the Aleutian, be-
gins the chain of Lyffie Oftrova, or Fox Iflands: this chain
of rocks and ifles ftretches Eaft-north-eaft between 56 and
61 degrees of North latitude, from 211 degrees of longitude moft probably to the Continent of America; and in a
line of direction, which crofles with that in which the
Aleutian ifles lie. The largeft and moft remarkable of
thefe iflands are Umnak, Aghunalafhka, or, as it is commonly fhortened, Unalafhka, Kadyak, and Alagfliak.
Of thefe and the Aleutian Ifles, the diftance and pofi-
tion are tolerably well afcertained by fhips reckonings,
and latitudes taken by pilots. But the fituation of the
Andreanoffiky Ifles J is ftill fomfewhat doubtful, though
I probably their direction is Eaft and Weft ; and fome of
them may unite with that part of the Fox Iflands which
are moft contiguous to the oppofite Continent.
The main land of America has not been touched at by
any of the veflels in the late expeditions ; though poffibly
* Thefe are the fame iflands which are called, by Mr. Stashlin, Ana-
dirfky Iflands, from their fuppofed vicinity to the river Anadyr. See
Appendix I. N° V.
M E the 26
the time is not far diftant when fome of the Ruffian adventurers will fall in with that coaft*. More to the
North perhaps, at leaft as high as 70 degrees latitude,
the Continent of America may ftretch out nearer to tft&
coaft of the Tfchutfki; and form a large promontory,
accompanied with iflands, which have no connection
with any of the preceding ones. That fuch a promontory really exifts, and advances to within a very fmall
diftance from Tfchukotfkcd Nofs, can hardly be doubted;
at leaft it feems to be confirmed by all the lateft accounts
Which have been procured from thofe parts -j-. That
prolongation, therefore, of America, which by Delille is
made to extend Weft ward, and is laid down juft oppofite
to Kamtchatka, between 50 and 60 degrees latitude, muft
be entirely removed; for many of the voyages related
in this collection lay through that part of the ocean*
where this imaginary Continent was marked down.
It is even more than probable, that the Aleutian, and
fome of the Fox Iflands, now well known, are the very
fame which Beering fell-in with-upon his return; though,
from the unfteadinefs of his courfe, their true pofition
could not be exactly laid down in the chart of that expedition %.
'      - ■■'■%l -   ■ As
I Appendix I. N° VI.
-f Appendix I. N° VIL.
I This error is however fo fmall, and particularly with' refpecl: to the
more Eaftern coafts and iflands, as laid down in Beering's chart, fuch as
Cape Hermogenes, Toomanoi, Shumaghin's Ifland, and mountain of St.
As the fea of Kamtchatka is now fo much frequented,
thefe conjectures cannot remain long undecided; and it
is only to be wifhed, that fome expeditions were tp be
made North-eaft, in order to difcover the neareft coafts
of America. For there is no reafon to expect a fuccefs-
ful voyage by taking any other direction ; as all the vef-
fels, which have fteered a more foutherly courfe, have
failed through an open fea, without meeting with any
figns of land.
A very full and judicious account of all the difcoveries
hitherto made in the Eaftern ocean may be expected from
the celebrated Mr. Muller *. Meanwhile, I hope the
following account, extracted from the, original papers,
and procured from the belt intelligence, will be the more
acceptable to the public; as it may prove an inducement
to the Ruffians to publilh fuller and more circumftantial
relations. Betides, the reader will find here a narrative
more authentic and accurate, than what has been pub-
Polmat, that if they were to be placed upon the general map. of
Ruffia, which is prefixed to this work, they would coincide with the
very chain of the Fox Iflands.
* Mr. Muller has already arranged and put in order feveral of the
journals, and fent them to the board of admiralty at St. Peterfburg,
where they are at prefent kept, together with the charts of the re-
fpe&ive voyages.
E   2
iifhed 28
fifhed in the abovementioned calendar*; and feveral mif-
takes in that memoir are here corrected.
* A German copy of the treatife alluded to in the text, was fent, by
its author, Mr. Staehlin Counfellor of State to the Emprefs of Ruffia, to
the late Dr. Maty; and it is mentioned, in the Philofophical Tranfadtions
for 1774, under the following title: "A New Map and Preliminary
ei Defcription of the New Archipelago in the North, difcovered a few
<c Years ago by the Ruffians in the N. E. beyond Kamtchatka." A
tranflation of this treatife was publifhed the fame year by Heydinger.
Voyages in 1745.—Firft difcovery of the Aleutian Ifles by
Michael Nevodtfikoff.
>V Voyage made in the year 17,45 by Emilian Baflbff
~*- -** is fcarce worth mentioning; as he only reached
Beering's Ifland, and two fmaller ones, which lie South
of the former,, andreturned on the 31 ft of July, 1746.
The firft voyage which is in any wife remarkable, was Voyage of,
J    & J 7 Nevodtfikoff
undertaken in the year 1745. The veffel was a Shitikln 1745'
named Eudokia, fitted out at the expence of Aphanaffei
Tfebaefskoi, Jacob Tfiuproff and others ; fhe failed from
the Kamtchatka river Sept. 19, under the command of
Michael Nevodtfikoff a native of Tobolfk. Having difcovered three unknown iflands, they wintered. upon one Differs the
of them, in order to kill fea-otters, of which there was Jfl»ds-
a large  quantity.    Thefe iflands were undoubtedly the.
neareft * Aleutian Iflands : the language of the inhabit
* The fmall group of iflands lying S. E. of Beering's Ifland, are the;
real Aleutian ifles : they are fometimes called the Neareft. Aleutian Iffands ;
and the Fox Iflands the Furtheft Aleutian Ifles.
tants 3°
tants was not underftood by an interpreter, whom they
had brought with them from Kamtchatka. For the
purpofe therefore of learning this language, they carried
back with them one of the Iflanders; and prefented
him to the chancery of Bolcheretfk, with a falfe account
of their proceedings. This iflander was examined as
foon as he had acquired a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language; and as it is faid, gave the following report. He was called Temnac, andAtt was the name of
the ifland of which he was a native. At fome diftance
from thence lies a great ifland called Sabya, of which
the inhabitants are denominated Rogii: thefe inhabitants, as the Ruffians underftood or thought they underftood him, made croffes, had books and fire-arms, and
navigated in baidars or leathern canoes. At no great
diftance from the ifland where they wintered, there- were
two well-inhabited iflands : the firft lying E. S. E. and
S. E. by South, the fecond Eaft and Eaft by South. The
above-mentioned Iflander was baptifed under the name
of Paul, and fent to Ochotfk.
As the mifconduct of the (hip's crew towards the na-
tives was fufpected, partly from thelofs of feverai men,
and partly from the report of thofe Ruffians, who were
not concerned in the difbrderly contact of their companions, a ftrict examination took place ; by which the
following circumftances relating to the voyage were
brought to light.
According to the account of fome of the creW, and^arr?tiveof
o i the v oyage.
particularly of the commander, after Jsii days failing they
Came in fight of the firft ifland on the 24th of September, at mid-day. They failed by, and towards eveffemg
they difcovered the fecond ifland; where they lay at anchor until the next irroming.
The 25th feveral inhabitants appeared on ti^e coaft,
and the pilot was making towards fhore in the fmall
boat, with an intention of landing ; but obferving their
numbers increafe to about an hundred, he was afraid of
venturing among them, although they beckoned to him.
He contented himfelf therefore with flinging fome
needles amongft them: the iflanders in retur^e threw
into the boat fome fea-fowl of the cormorant kind. He
endeavoured to hold a converfation with them by means
of the interpreters, but no one could underftand their
language. And now the crew endeavoured to row the
veflel out to fea; but the wind being contrary, they
were driven to the other fide of the fame ifland, where
they eaft anchor.
The 26th, Tfiuproff having landed with fome of the
crew in order to look for water, met feveral inhabitants :
he gave them fome tobacco and fmall GMhefe pipes; ami
received in return a prefent of a ftick, upon which the
head of a feal was carved. They endeavoured to wreft his:
4 _ hunting 32
hunting gun from him; but upon his refuting to part
with it and retiring to the fmall boat, the iflanders ran
after him ; and feized the rope by which the boat was
made faft to fhore. This violent attack obliged Tfiuproff
to fire ; and having wounded one perfon in the hand,
they all let go their hold; and he rowed off to the fhip.
The Savages no fooner faw that their companion was hurt,
than they threw off their cloaths, carried the wounded
perfon naked into the fea, and wafhed him. In confe-
quence of this encounter the fhip's crew would not venture to winter at this place, but rowed back again to the
other ifland, where they came to an anchor.
The next morning Tfiuproff, and a certain Shaffyrin
landed with a more confiderable party: they obferved
feveral traces of inhabitants; but meeting no one they
returned to the fhip, and coafted along the ifland. The
following day the Coffac Shekurdin went on fhore, accompanied by five failors : two of whom he fent back
with a fupply of water; and remained himfelf with the
others in order to hunt fea-otters. At night they came
to fome dwellings inhabited by five families : upon their
approach the natives abandoned their huts with precipitation, and hid themfelves among the rocks. Shekurdin no fooner returned to the fhip, than he was again
fent oh fhore with a larger company, in order to look out
for a proper place to lay up the veffel during winter : In
their way they obferved fifteen iflanders upon an height;
and threw them fome fragments of dried fiftr in order to
entice them to approach nearer.     But as this overture
-did riot fucceed, TfiuprofF, who was one of the party,
ordered fome of the crew to mount the height, and to
feize one of the inhabitants, for the purpofe of learning
:their languages this  Order  was j accordingly executed,
.iiotwithftandiiig the refinance which the iflanders made
with their bone fpears ;   the Ruffians  immediately returned with their prifoner to the fhip.     They Were foon
afterwards driven to fea by a violent ftorm,   and beat
about from the 2d to the 9th of October, during which
=time they loft their anchor and boat;    at length   they
carfie bad& to  the  fame ifland, where they paffed the
Soon after their landing they found in an adjacent hut
€ne dean obdies of two of the inhabitants, who had probably been killed in the laft encounter.    In' their way the
Ruffians were met by an old woman, who had been taken
eprifoner, and fet at liberty.     She was accompanied with
thirty-four iflanders of both fexes, who all came dancing
;to the found of a drum ; and brought with them a prefent of coloured earth.     Pieces of cloth, thimbles, and
needles, were diftributed among them in  return ;   and
?triey -parted amicably.    Before the end  of October, the
;fame perfons, together with the old woman and feveral
.children, returned dancing as before, and brought birds,
'foil,.and other provifion.    Having paffed the night with
B F the 34
the Ruffians, they took their leave. Soon after their departure, Tfiuproff, Shaffyrin, andNevodfikoff, accompanied
with feven of the crew, went after them, and found them
among the rocks. In this interview the natives behaved
in the moft friendly manner, and exchanged a baidar and
fome fkins for two fhirts. They were obferved to have
hatchets of fharpened ftone, and needles made of bone :
they lived upon the flefh of fea-otters, feals, and fea-
lions, which they killed with clubs and bone lances.
So early as the 24th of October, Tfiuproff had fent
ten perfons, under the command of Larion Belayeff, upon
.a reconnoitring party. The latter.treated the inhabitants
in anhoftile manner; upon which they defended themfelves as well as they could With their bone lances. This
refiftance gave him a pretext for firing; and accordingly
he fhot the whole number, amounting to fifteen men,
in order to get at their wives.
Shekurdin, fhocked at thefe cruel proceedings, retired unperceived to the fhip, and brought an account of
all that had paffed. Tfiuproff, inftead of punifhing thefe
cruelties as they deferved, was fecretly pleafed with them;
for he himfelf was affronted at the iflanders for having
refufed to give him an iron bolt, which he faw in their
poffeffion. He had, in confequence of their refufal,
committed feveral acts of hoftilities againft them; and
had even formed the horrid defign of poifbning
them with a mixture of corrofive fublimate.     In order
however to preferve appearances, he difpatched Shekur-
din and Nevodfikoffto reproach Belay eff for his diforderlv
conduct; but fent him at the fame time, by the above-
mentioned perfons, more powder and balj.
The Ruffians continued upon this ifland, where they
caught a large quantity of fea otters, until the 14th
of September, 1746 ; when, no longer thinking themfelves fecure, they put to fea with an intention of looking
out for fome uninhabited iflands. Being however overtaken by a violent ftorm, they were driven about until
the 30th of October, when their veflel ftruck upon a
rocky fhore, and was fhipwrecked, with the lofs of al-
moft all the tackle, and the greateft $art of the furs.
Worn out at length with cold and fatigue, they ventured,
the firft of November, to penetrate into the interior
part of the country, which they found rocky and uneven. Upon their coming to fome huts, they were informed, that they were eaft away upon the ifland of
Karaga, the inhabitants of which were tributary to Ruffia,
and of the Koraki tribe. The iflanders behaved to them
with great kindnefs, until Belay eff had the imprudence
to make propofals to the wife of the chief. The woman
gave immediate intelligence to her hufband; and the
natives were incenfed to fuch a degree, that they threatened the whole crew with immediate death: but means
were found to pacify them, and they continued to live
with the Ruffians upon the fame good terms as before.
F  2
The 11
The 30th of May, 1747, a party of Olotorians madea^
defcent upon the ifland in three baidars, and attacked
the natives; but, after fome lofs on both fides, they went
away.. They returned foon after with a larger force, and.
were again forced to retire. But as they threatened to
come again in a fhort time, and to de&rpy all the ggfetfejr
tants who paid tribute, the latter advji^<f the Ruffians to
fcetare from the ifland, and aflifted them in buj$$Sig two
baidars. With thefe they put to fea the 2.7th of Junje^
and landed the 21ft of Jflaly at Kamtchatka^ with the
reft of their cargo, confining of 320 fea-otters,j^|.which
they paid the tenth into the cuftoms*. During this expe?-
4ition twelve men were loft..,
chap.   nr..
Succeffive voyages, from 1747 to r7 53> i0 Beering*j and
Copper Ifland, and to the Aleutian Ifles -—Some account
of the .inhabitqntsr
FN the year 1747- two veflels failed from the Kamtchatka river, according to a permiffion granted by the
chancery of Bolckeretfk for hunting   fea-otters..     One
was fitted out by Andrew "Wfevidoff, and carried forty-
fix men, befides eight Coffacs : the other belonged to
Feodor Cholodiloff, Andrew Tolftyk,. and company ; and
Jaad on bdard a crew,, confining of forty-one Ruffians and
J£amtchadals, with fix Coffacs.
The latter veffel failed the 20th of October, and was.
forced, by ftrefs of weather and other accidents; to winter
at Beering's Ifland. From thence they departed May the
31ft, 1748, and touched at another fmall ifland, in order
to provide themfelves with water and other necefjaries.
They then fteered S. E. for a confiderable way;without
* It may be neceflary to inform the reader, that, i-n this- smd the two
following chapters^ fome cttcumffenees are occasionally omitted,?j$()&ieh
are to be found in the original.    Thefe omiffions relate chiefly to the
names of fome of the partners engaged in the equipments, and to a de-
* tail of immaterial occurrences prior to the a&ual departure <j£ the v*ffels.
uifcovering. 8
difcovering any new iflands; and, being in great want
of provifions, returned into Kamtchatka. River, Auguft
14, with a cargo of 250 old fea-otter-fkins, above I o o
young* ones, 148 petfi or arctic fox-fkins, which were all
flain upon Beering's Ifland.
Voyage of
Emihan lu>
We have no fufficient account of Wfevidoff's voyage.
All that is known amounts only to this, that he returned
the 25th of July, 1749, after having probably touched
upon one of the neareft Aleutian Ifles which was uninhabited : his cargo confifted of the fkins of 1040 fea-
otters, and 2000 arctic foxes.
Emilian Yugoff, a merchant of Yakutfk, obtained from
the fenate of St. Peterfburg the per million of fitting out
four veflels for himfelf and his aflbciates. He procured, at
the fame time, the exciufive privilege of hunting fea-
otters upon Beering's and Copper Ifland during thefe
expeditions ; and for this monopoly he agreed to deliver
to the cuftoms the tenth of the furs.
October 6, 1750, he put to fea from Bolcherefk, in
the Hoop John, manned with twenty-five Ruffians and
Kamtchadals, and two Coffacs : he was foon overtaken
by a ftorm, and the veflel driven on fhore between the
mouths of the rivers Kronotfk and Tfchafminfk.
October 17 51, he again fet fail.    He had been commanded to take on board fome officers of the Ruffian
navy; and, as he difobeyed this injunction, the chancery
of Irkutfk iflued an order to confifeate his fhip and cargo
upon his return. The fhip returned on the 2 2d of July,
1754, to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog, laden with the fkins
of 755 old fea-otters, of 35 cub fea-otters, of 447 cubs
of fea-bears, and of 7044 arctic fox-fkins: of the
latter 2000 were white, and 1765 black. Thefe furs
were procured upon Beering's and Copper Ifland. Yu-
goff himfelf died upon the laft-mentioned ifland. The
cargo of the fhip was, according to the above-mentioned
order, fealed and properly fecured.. But as it appeared
that certain perfons had depofited money in Yugoff's
hand, for the purpofe of equipping a fecond veffel, the
crown delivered up the confifcated cargo, after referving.
the third part according to the original ftipulation.
This kind of charter-company, if it may be fo called,
being foon diflblved for mifbonduct and want of fufficient
ftock, other merchants were allowed the privilege of fitting out veflels, even before the return of Yugoff's fhip ;
and thefe perfons were more fortunate in making new
difcoveries than the above-mentioned monopolift;
Nikiphor Trapefnikoff, a merchant of Irkutfk, ob- voyage of the.
Boris and
tained the permiffion of fending out a fhip, called theGlebb*
Boris and Glebb, upon the condition of paying, befides
the tribute which might be exacted, the tenth of all the
furs.     The Coflac Sila Shefryrin went on board this
veffel 40
VelSel for the purpofe of collecting the tribute. They failed:
ii$ Auguft, 1749, from the Kamtchatka river; and reentered it the 16th of the fame month,,-' If 5-3., with a
large cargo of furs. In the fpriilg of the fame year,;
they had touched upon an unknown iflattd, probably One
of the Aleutians, where feveral of 'the •inhabitants were
prevailed upon to pay a tribute of fea otter fkins. The
names of the iflanders Who had been .made tributary,
were Igya, Oeknu, Ogogoektack, Shabukia-nck, Alak,
Tutun, Ononufhan, Rotb^H^ TfchinlMi Vatfch, Afhagat,
A?v^|aniihaga, Unafliayupu, Lak, Yanfhi^alik, Umgali-
kan, Shati, KyipagO, arid Oloihkot *\; another AleXitlan'
had contributed three fea-otters; They brought \¥80
them 320 beft foawstter flilf^ 4&*fc of-fK^ fecond, afl®
400 of trig■ third fort, 500 fe male; and "-middle aged, and
220 medwedki or young ones.
Voyage of Afr
drew Xolfivk
Andrew ToJityk,;- a merchant5 of Selenglpfk, Having
Sm^S*."8"1 obtained permiffioti froni' the chancery of Bblilieret^
refitted the fame fhip-" which had made a former voyage ;
he failed from 'Kamtchatka Aug-uftthe 19th., 17^, and
^returned jiSy the 30, 17I52.
According- to the commander's - account,  the fhip lay
'Pita'  -    *»'' ■' -
',at?-'anchor-from^the 6th of September, -17 ^97 to the 2oti?
's&. ' 'W     fift     'JMwjt$ ;i ' 9M86
* The author here remarks in a note, that the proper names of the
rfferidfers* mentioned' in this place, and in other part's, bear a furpriiihjg
refemblance^ bothyin'their found and termination, to thofe of- the Green*
of May, 1750, before Beering's Ifland, where they caught
only 47 fea-otters. From thence they made to thofe
Aleutian Iflands, which were * firft difcovered by Ne-
vodfikoff, and flew there 1662 old and middle-aged fea-
otters, and 119 cubs; befides which, their cargo confuted of the fkins of 720 blue foxes, and of 840 young
The inhabitants of thefe iflands appeared to have jie-
ver before paid tribute; and feemed to be a-kin to the
Tfchuktfki tribe, their women being ornamented with
different figures fewed into the fkin in the manner of that
people, and of the Tungufians of Siberia. They differed
however from them, by having two fmall holes cut
through the bottom of their under-lips, through each of
which they pafs a bit of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into
the form of a tooth, with a fmall button at one end to
keep it within the mouth when it is placed in the
hole. They had killed, without being provoked, two of
the Kamtchadals who belonged to the fhip. Upon the
third Ifland fome inhabitants had payed tribute ; their
names were reported to be Anitin, Altakukor, and Alefti-
kut, with his fon Atfchelap. The weapons of the whole
ifland confifted of no more than twelve fpears pointed
with flint, and one dart of bone pointed with the fame;
and the Ruffians obferved in the poffeffion of the natives two figures, carved out of wood, refembling fea-lions.
* See Chap. II.
G Auguft
li 4*
Vovage of
Au^oft 3, 1750, the ve^W§*$aseon a$|d Joh% fitted
out byf the above-mentioned Wfe$fctk>ff, agent for the
RufiilaS" merchant A. Rybenfkoi, and manned with fourteen- RuffiaHgs (who Were partly merchants and partly
hunters)- jathd thi^y Kamtchadafcy failed out for the
difcovery of new iflands, under the command o^: the
Coffac Vorobieff. They were driven by a violent current
and tempeftuous weather W a firlall defeat ifland, whofe
pofition is not determined ; hut which was;jprobably one
of thofe that lie near Beering's Iflands The fiiip beifig
fo fhattered by the ftorm, that it was no longer i® %
Condition to keep the fea, Vorobieff built another frmatt
veflel with drift-wood, which he called Jeremiah; in
whi^h he Kamtchatka in Autumn, 1.7 s^y*
Upon the above-mentioned ifland were taught 700:
old and 120 cub fea-otters, 1900 blue foxes, 5700 black
lea-bears, and 1310 Kotiki, or cub fea-bears.
A voyage made about this tirne from Aniadyrfk de-
ierves to be mentioned.
Auguft 24, 1749, Simeon Novikoff of Yakutfk, and
Voyage of
Novikoff and
AnTdyrflJ0"1 Ivan Bacchoff of Uftyug, agents for Ivan Shilkin, failed
from Anadyrfk into the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They affigned the infecurity of fhe roads as their reafon
for coming from Anadyrfk to Kamtchatka by fea; on
this account, having determined to rifk all the dangers
of Narrative of
of a fea voyage, they built a Veflel one hundred and
thilly verfts above Anadyr, after having emptied two'
years and five -months in its conftruction.
:The narrative of their expedition is -as follows. In
1748, they failed down the jiver Anadyr, and through
two bays, called Kopeikina andOnenienfic-aya, where they
found many fand"hanks, but pafled round them ^fhout
difficulty. From thence they fteered into the exterior
guiph, and waited for a favourable wind. «Here-they faw
feveral Tfchutfki, who appeared ^tfpon^fee heights-fingly
and not in bodies, as if to reconnoitre-; -wm«h made
them cautious. They had descended the ifewf and hs*
bays in nine days. In paffing the large opening of tto
exterior bay, they fteered between -the beach, that lies to-
the left, and a rock near it; where, at about an hundred
and twenty yards from the rock, «the depth ^of water is
from three to four fathoms. ~: Krbm the opening they
fteered *E. S. E. about *fiLfty verfts, in about four fathom
water ; then ^doubled a fandy point, which runs out directly againft the Tfhuktfhi coift, and tfiiis reached 'fhe
open fea.
From the toth of July to the 30th, they were driven
about by tempeftuous winds,.,at no gre,at diftance from
the mouth of .the Anadyr;  and ran up the fmajl river .
Katirka, upon whole banks dwell the^Koriacs, a people
G a tributary Wand.
tributary to Ruffia. The mouth of the river is from
fixty to eighty yards broad, from three to four fathoms
deep, and abounds in fifh. From thence they put again
to fea, and after having beat about for fome time, they
shipwreck up- at length reached Beering's Ifland.     Here they lay  at
on Beering's
anchor from the 15th of September to the 30th of October, when a violent ftorm blowing right from the fea,
drove the veflel upon the rocks, and dafhed her to pieces..
The crew however were faved 1 and now they looked.
out for the remains of Beering's wreck, in order to employ the materials for the conftructing of a boat* They
^ound indeed fome remaining materials, but almoft entirely rotten, and the iron-work corroded with. ruft.
Having Selected however the heft cables, and what ironwork was immediately neceflary, and collected,
drift-wood during the winter, they built with great difficult a fmall boat, whofe keel was only feventeen Ru£
fian ells and an half long, and which they named Capiton^
In this tltey put to fea, and failed in fearch of an unknown iCtad, which they thought they faw lying,
North-eaft;, but finding themfelves miftaken, they
tacked about, and flood far Copper Ifland ^ from,
thence they failed to Kamtchatka, where they arrived at
the time above-Bfientioned..
The new Conftructed veflel was granted in property to-
Ivan Shilkin as fome compenfation for his lbffes, and
with the privilege of employing it in a future expedition
to the New Difcovered Iflands. Accordingly he failed
therein on the 7th of October, 1757, with a crew of
twenty Ruffians, and the fame number of Kamtchadals:
he was accompanied by Studentzoff a Coflac, who was
fent to collect the tribute for the crown. An account of *
this expedition will be given hereafter fe
gAuguft,. 1734, Nikiphor Trapefnikoff fitted out the S3&*.«
Shitik St. Nicholas,, which failed from Kamtchatka under ^^
the command of the Coflac Kodion Durneff.    He firflf
touched at two of the Aleutian Ifles, and afterwards upon'
aathird,.which Bad not been yet difcovered^  He returned;
to Kamtchatka in  1747.    His cargo  confifted of the
fkins of 1220 fea-otters, of 410 female, and 665 cubs;
feefides which, the crew Had obtained in barter from the
iflanders the fkins of 652 fea-otters, of 30 female ditto,,
and.£0 cuhs..
From an account delivered in the 3d of May, 17 5 8,.N
by Durneff and Sheffyrin, who was fent as collector of
tfie tributes, it appears-that they failed in ten days as far
as Ataku, one ofthe Aleutian Iflands ; that they remained
there until the year- 1757$ and Jived upon amicable terms^
with the natives*
The fecond ifland,. which; is neareft to Ataku, and.^cjfcl°nof
* * the Akuoaa.
Which contains the greateft number of inhabitants, is Iflcs"
* See Chap.V.e Account of
called Agataku; and the third Shemya : they He from
forty to fifty verfts afunder. Upon all the three iflands
there are (exciufive of children) but fixty males, whomthey
made tributary. The inhabitants live upon roots which
grow wild, and fea animals: they do not employ themfelves
in catching fifh, although the rivers abound with all kinds
of-falmon, and the fea with turb.ot. Their cloaths are
made of the fkins of birds and of fea-otters. The Toigon
or chief of .the firft ifland informed them by means of a
boy, who underftood the Ruffian language, that Eaft-
ward there are three large and well peopled iflands,
IbLya, Rickfa, and Olas, whofe inhabitants fpeak a' different language. ShefTyrin and Durneff foun d upon the
ifland three round copper plates, with fome letters en-,
graved upon them, and ornamented with foliage, which
the Waves had eaft upon the fhore : they brought them,
together with other trifling curiofities, which they had
procured from the natives, to New KamtchatkoirQftrog.
Another fh$p built ;ef larch wood by the fame Trapef-
nikoff, wrhich failed in 1752 under the conduct of Alexei
Drufinin a merchant of Kurfk, had been wrecked at Beer*
ing's Ifland, where the crew conftructed another veflel
out of the wreck, which they named Abraham. In this
velTel they bore away for the more diftant iflands; but
being 'forced back^by contrary winds to the ftoe ifland,
and meeting with the St. Nicholas upon the point of failing
for the Aleutian Ifles, they embarked on that fhip, after
having left the new conftructed veffel under the care of
four of their own failors. The crew had flain upon Beering's Ifland five fea-otters, 1222 arctic foxes, and 2500
fea-bears ; their fhare of tfee furs, during their expedition
in the St. Nicholas, amounted to the fkins of 500 fea-
otters, and of 300 cubs, exciufive of 200 fea-otter-fkins,.
which they procured by barter. 43
Voyages from 17 S3 to 1756.
Some of the further Aleutian or Fox Iflands touched at by
SerebranikofPs veffel.—-Some account of the Natives.
f m * H R E E veflels were fitted out for the iflands in
1753, one by Gholodiloff, a fecond by Serebrani-
koff agent for the merchant Rybenikoy, and the third by
Jvan Kraffilnikoff a merchant of Kamtchatka.
choiodiiofps CholodilofPs fhip failed from Kamtchatka, the 19th of
Kamtchatka Auguft, manned with thirty-four men ; and anchored
the 28th before Beering's Ifland, where they propofed to
winter, in order to lay-in a ftock of provifions: as they
were attempting to land, the boat overfet, and nine of
?the crew were drowned.
June 30, 17 54, they flood out to fea in queft of new
•difcoveries: the weather however proving ftormy and
foggy, and the fhip fpringing a leak, they were all in
danger of perifliing: in this fituation they unexpectedly
reached one of the Aleutian iflands, were they lay from
<the 15th of September until the 9th of July, 1755.    In
the autumn of 1754 ^J were joined by a Kamtchadal,
and a Koriac : thefe perfons, together with four pthQEs,
had deferted from Trapefniktoff's crew; and hadremainr
ed upon the ifland in order to catch fea-otters for their
own profit. Four of thefe deferters were killed by the
iflanders for having debauched their wives: but as the
two perfons above-mentioned were not guilty of the fame
diforderly conduct, the inhabitants fupplied them with
women, and lived with them upon the belt terms. The
crew flew upon this ifland above 1600 fea-otters, and
came back fafe to Kamtchatkain autumn 1755.
SerebranikofPs veflel fafled in July 1753, manned
alfo witfe 4§firty-four Ruffians and Kamtchadals : tliey
difcovered feveral new iflands, which were probably
fome of the more diftant ones; but were not fo fortunate Departure of
in hunting fea-otters as Cholodiloff's crew. They fteered Veffel»
S. E. and on the 17th of Auguft anchored ander an unknown ifland ; whofe inhabftants^fpoke a language $iey
did not underftand. Here they propofed looking out for
a fafe harbour; but were prevented by the coming on of
a Sudden ftorm, which carried away their anchor. The
fliip being toft about for feveral days towards the $aft,
ftiey uifoovered not far from ttie firft ifland four others :
Sill more te%Tie Eaft ti&ee other Mands appeared in-fight;
but on neither of thefe were 'fiiey able to land* • The
veflel continued driving until the 2d of September, an4
was confiderably fhattered, when they fortunately came
H near <o
upon one of
the more diftant Iflands.
near an ifland and eaft anchor before it; they were however again forced from this ftation, the veflel wrecked
upon the coaft, and the crew with difficulty reached the
This ifland feemed to be right oppofite to Katyrfkoi
Nofs in the peninfula of Kamtchatka, and near it they
faw three others. Towards the end of September De-
mitri Trophin, accompanied with nine men, went out
in the boat upon an hunting and reconnoitring party:
they were attacked by a large body of inhabitants, who
hurled darts from a fmall wooden engine, and wounded
one of the company. The firft fire however drove them
back ; and although they returned feveral times to the
attack in numerous bodies, yet they were always re-
pulfed without difficulty.
Account of the
Thefe favages mark and colour their faces like the
Iflanders above-mentioned; and alfo thruft pieces of
bone through holes made in their under-lips.
Soon afterwards the Ruffians were joined in a friendly
manner by ten iflanders, who brought the flefli of fea-
animals and of fea-otters; this prefent was the more
welcome, as they had lived for fome time upon nothing
but fmall fhell-fifh and roots ; and had fuffered greatly
from hunger.     Several toys were in return diftribut-
Veflel, and
return to
ed  among; the favages.    The Ruffians remained until-TheCrewcon-
0      I ° ltruft another
June, 1754, upon tk*s ifland: at that time they departed in a fmall veflel, conftructed from the remains of
the wreck, and called the St. Peter and Paul : in this they
landed at Katyrfkoi Nofs ; where having collected 140
fea-horfe teeth, they got fafe to the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
During this voyage twelve Kamtchadals deferted;
of whom fix were flain, together with a female inhabitant, upon one of the moft diftant iflands. The
remainder, upon their return to Kamtchatka, were
examined ; and from them the following circumftances
came to light. The ifland, where the fhip was wrecked,
is about 70 verfts long, and 20 broad. "Around it lie
twelve other iflands of different fizes, from five to ten
verfts diftant from each other. Eight of them appear
to be no more than five verfts long. All thefe iflands
contain about a thoufand fouls. The dwellings of the
inhabitants are provided with no other furniture than
benches, and mats of platted grafs *. Their drefs confifts
of a kind of fhirt made of bird-fkins, and of an upper
garment of inteftines ftitched together; they wear wooden caps, ornamented with a fmall piece of board projecting forwards, as it feemed, for a defence againft the
arrows.    They are all provided with ftone knives, and a
* Matten aus einem geviffen Krautgeflochten.
H   2'
few |2
Departure of
few of them pollers iron ones J their only weapons toe
arrows with .points of bone or flint, which they flioot
from a wooden inftrument. There are no trees upon
the ifland : it produces however the eoW-parihif&^ which
grows at Kamtchatka. The climate is by no means
fevere, for the fnow does not He upon the ground above
a month in the year.
KrafiilnikofPs veflel failed in 1754, and amskoted on
the 1 8th of Octdber before Beering*s Ifland; where all
the fliips wnich make to the New Discovered Iflands are
accuftomed to w&rter, in order to procure a ftock of faltecl
provifion s from the fea-cows and other amphibious animals, that are found in great abundance. Here ^tt&f
refitted the veflel, w^iich had been damaged by-deriving
upon her anchor; and iiaving faid in a fufficient #ore
of all necenaries, weighed the ift of Augure, 1754.
The loth they were in fight of an ifland, whofe coaft
was lined With fuch a number of irihabttarrts, that they
durft not venture afhore. Accordingly they flood out
to fea, an'd being Overtaken by a ftorm, l&ey were reduced
to great diftrefs for Want of water ; at length they weris
driven upon Copper Ifland, where they landed ; and
having taken in wood and water, they again fet feil.
uSnWcopp?r They were beat back however by contrary winds, and
dropped both their anchors near the fhore; but the
I ftorm increafing at night, both the cables were broken,
and the fhip daihed to pieces upon the coaft.    All the
* Heracleum.
crew were fortunately faved ; and means were found to
get afhore the fhip's tackle, ammunition, guns, and the
remains of the wreck; the provifions, however, were
moftly fpoiled. Here they were expofed to a variety of
misfortunes; three of them were drowned on the 15th
of October, as they were going to hunt; others almoft
perifhed with hunger, having no nourifhment but fmall
fhell-fifh and roots. On the 29th of December great part
o£ the fhip's tackle, and all the wood, which they had
.collected from fhe wreck, was wafhed away during an
high fea. Notwithstanding their diftreffes, they continued their hunting parties, and caught 103 fea-ottejs,
together with 1390 blue foxes.
- In earing they put to fea for Jfeejing's Ifland in two 25S2rine.s
baidars, carrying with them all the ammunition, Jfe- Baidars?twu
arms, and remaining -tackle.    Having reached that ifland,
they found the fmall veflel Abraham, under the care of
the four failors who had been left afhore by the crew of
TrapefhikoiPs  fhip :   but  as that veflel was  not large
enough to contain the whole number, toother with their
cargo of fUK, they ftaid until Serebranikoff's and Tolftyk's
veflels arrived.    Thefe took in eleven of the crew, with
their part of the furs.    Twelve remained at Beering's
ifland, where they killed great numbers of ardtic foxes,
and returned to Kamtchatka in the Abraham, excepting. ■
two, who joined Shilkin's crew.
* See the preceding chapter.
C   H  A B. 54
CHAP.    V.
Voyages from 1756 to 1758.
IfdrSnToi- QEPTEMRER 17, 1756, the veflel Andrean and
Sek]jeutiit0 Natalia, fitted out by Andrean Tolftyk, merchant
of Selenginfk, and manned with thirty-eight Ruffians
and Kamtchadals, failed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river. The" autumnal ftorms coming on, and a
fcarcity of provifions enfuing, they made to Beering's
Ifland, where they continued until the 14th of June
1757. As no fea-otters came on fhore that winter, they
killed nothing but feals, fea-lions, and fea-cows; whofe
flefh ferved them for provifion, and their fkins for the
coverings of baidars.
June 13, 1757, they weighed anchor, and after
eleven days failing came to Ataku, one of the Aleutian
ifles difcovered by Nevodfikoff. Here they found the
- inhabitants, as well of that, as of the other two iflands,
affembled; thefe iflanders had juft taken leave of the
crew of Trapefnikoff's veffel, which had failed for
Kamtchatka. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of
perfuading them to pay tribute; with this view they
beckoned the Toigon, whbfe name was Tunulgafen : the
latter recollected one of the crew, a Koriac, who had
formerly been left upon thefe iflands, and who knew
fomething of their language. A copper kettle, a fur
and cloth coat, a pair of breeches, ftockings and boots,
were beftowed upon this chief, who was prevailed upon
by thefe prefents to pay tribute. Upon his departure
for his own ifland, he left behind him three women^and
a boy, in order to be taught the Ruffian language, which
the latter very foon learned.
The Ruffians wintered upon this ifland, and divided
themfelves, as ufual, into different hunting, parties : they
were compelled, by ft or my weather, to remain there
until the 17th of June, 1758: before they went away,
the above-mentioned chief returned with his family, and
paid a year's tribute.
This veflel brought to Kamtchatka the moft circum-
ftantial account of the Aleutian ifles which had been yet
The two largeft contained at that time about  fifty Accom* of
pup thofe Iflands;
males, with whom the Ruffians had lived in great harmony. They heard of a fourth ifland, lying at fome
diftance from the third,, called by the natives Iviya, but
which they did hot reach on account of the tempeftuous
The c6
The nrft ifland is about an hundred verfts long and
from five to twenty broad. They efteemed the diftance
from the nrft to the fecond, which lies Eaft by South, to
be about thirty verfts, and about forty from the latter to
the third, which ftands South Eaft. The original drefs
of theiflanders was made of the fkins of birds, fea-otters
and feals, which were tanned ; but the greateft part had
procured from the Ruffians dog»fkin coats, and under-
gannents of fheep-fkin, which they were very fond of.
They are reprefented as naturally talkative, quick of apprehension, and much attached to the Ruffians. Their
% dwellings are hollowed in the ground, and covered with
wooden roof's refembling the huts in the peninfula of
Kamtchatka. Their principal food is the flefh of fea
animals, which they harpoon with their bone lances ;
they alfo feed upon feveral fpecies of roots and berries ;
namely * cloud-berries, crake-berries, bilberries, and fer-
vices. "The rivulets abound with falmon, and othei;
fifh of the trout kind firnilar to thofe of Kamtchatka;
and the fea with turbot, which are caught with bone
^Thefe rflands produce quantities of fmall ofiers and
Underwood, hut no large trees: the fea however drives
afhore fir and larch, futficleTit for the construction of
* Rubus Chamaemorus—Empetrum.—Myrtillus—Sorbus.
their huts. There are a great number of arctic foxes
upon the firft ifland, as well as fea-otters ; and the fliores,
during ftormy weather, are covered with wild geeie and
ducks. %fm
The Ruffians,, according to the order Of the chancery
of Bolcheretfk, endeavoured to perfuade the Toigon of
thefe iflands to accompany them to Kamtchatka, but without fuccefs : upon their departure they diflxibuted among
the iflanders fome linen, and thirteen nets for the pur-
pofe of catching fea-otters, which were very thankfully
received. This veflel brought to Kamtchatka the fkins
of 5030 old and young fea-otters, of 1040 old and
young arctic foxes, and of 330 Jftedwedki or cubs of
fea-otters. rff
In the year 1757, Ivan Nikiphoroff, a merchant of
Mofcow, fent out a veffel: but we have no further account of this voyage, than that fhe failed to the Fox:
Iflands, at leaft as far as Umnak.
The fmall  veflel  Capiton,  the fame that  Was built voya$r?of
Ivan Shi kin in
upon Beering's Ifland,  and which was given to the mer- IRjj^SJR
chant 3*Ivan Shilkin, put to fea September 26,  1757,
carrying on board the Coffac Ignatius Studentfoff,  who
has given an account of the voyage.
* See chap. III.
They 5*
They had not long failed, before they were driven back
to the fhore of Kamtchatka by ftrefs of weather, and the
veflel ftranded; by which accident they loft the rudder
and one of the crew. This misfortune prevented them
from putting to fea again until the following year,   with
' thirty-nine of the original crew, feveral perfons being
left behind on account of ficknefs. They made directly
to Beering's Ifland, where they took up two of Krafilni-
koft's crew*, who had been fhip wrecked. They again
fet fail in Auguft of the fame year, and touched at the
neareft Aleutian Ifles, after fuffering greatly from ftorms.
They then continued their courfe to the remoter iflands
lying between Eaft and South Eaft ; and having palled
by the firft, they anchored before the fecond. A boat
being immediately fent out towards the fhore, the crew
was attacked by a numerous body of iflanders in fo fud-
den a manner, that they had fcarcely time to fecure themfelves by returning to the veflel. They had no fooner
got aboard, than a violent gale of wind blowing from the
fhore broke the cable, and drove them out to fea.    The
- weather became fuddenly thick and foggy ; and under
shipwrecked thefe circumftances the veffel was forced  upon a fmall
upon one of
the Fox       ifland at no  great diftanee from  the other, and fhip-
1 Hands. o ' K
wrecked. The crew got to fhore with difficulty, and
were able to fave nothing but the fire-arms and ammunition. Wm
* See chap. IV.
They had fcarcely got to land, before they were befet
by a member of favages, rowing in baidars from.the
Weftern point of the ifland. This attack was the more
£o be dreaded, became feveral of the Ruffians were dif-
abled by cold and wet; and there remained only .fifteen
capable of defending .themfelves. They advanced however without hefitation to the iflanders - and one Nicholas Tfiuproff (who had a flight knowledge of their
language) accofted and endeavoured to footh them, but
without fuccefs. For upon their approach the favages
gave a fudden fhout, and faluting them at the fame time
with a volley of darts, wounded one perfon in the hand.
Upon this the Ruffians fired, killed two of the affailants,
and forced the remainder to.retire : and although a frefh
body appeared in fight, as if they were coming to the
affiftance of their companions, yet no new attack was
made. Soon afterwards the favages left the ifland, and
rowed acrofs the ftrait.
From the 6th of September to the 23d of April, they
underwent all the extremities of famine : during that period their belt fare was lheil-fifh and roots; and they
were even at times reduced to ftill the cravings of their
appetite with the leather, which the waves wallied afhore
from the wreck. Seventeen died of hunger, and the reft
would foon have followed their companions, if they had
not fortunately difcovered a dead whale, which the Tea
had eaft afhore.    They remained upon this ifland another
I  2 winter, 6o
•niectewcoo-winter,   where  they flew  230 fea-otters;  and havinsr
flruaafmall ■ 6
,veffel, and are ^^r a fmall veflel out of the remains of the wreck, they
again imp- * J
put to fea in the beginning of fummer 1760. They
had fcarcely reached one of the Aleutian iflands, where
Serebranikoff's veflel lay at anchor, when they were again
fhipwrecked, and loft all the remaining tackle and furs.
Only thirteen of the crew now remained, who returned
on board the above-mentioned veflel to Kamtchatka July
Voyages in 1758, 1759, and 1760—-to-the Fox Iflands—
in the St. Vladimir,^/ted out by Trapefnikoff—and in the
Gabriel, by Betfhevin—The latter under the command of
Pufhkarefffails to Alakfu or Alachfkak, one of the re-
moteft Eaftern Iflands hitherto vifited—-Some account of
its inhabitants, and produclions, which latter are different from tbofe of the more Weflern Iflands.
SEPTEMBER   175-8, the merchant Simeon Krafil- y°^of.the
'*-»•» St. Vladimir,
nikoff andNikiphor Trapefnikoff fitted out two veffels gKT^i?
for the purpofe of catching fea-otters. One of thefe veffels, called the St. Vladimir, failed the 28th under thecom-
mand of Demetri Paikoff, carrying on board the Coflac Sila
Shaffyrin as collector of the tribute, and a crew of forty-
Eve men. In twenty-four hours they reached Beering's
Ifland, where they wintered. July 16, 1759, t^ie5r
fteered towards the South in order to difcover land, but
being difappointed, they bore away to the North for the
Aleutian Ifles: being prevented however by contrary
winds from reaching them, they failed ftreight towards
the diftant iflands, which are known at prefent under
the name of Lyflie Oftrova or the Fox Iflands.    Septem- Arrival * tte
Fox Illand.
ber 1, they reached the firft of thefe, called by the natives
Atchu, and by the Ruffians Goreloi or the Burnt Ifland :
1 but «2
but as the coafts were very fteep and craggy, they made
to Amlach, lying at a fmall diftance, where they determined to pafs the winter. They divided themfelves accordingly into three parties; the firft, at the head of
which was Alexey Drufinin, went over to a fmall ifi&nd
called in the journal Sitkin; the Coffac Shaffyrin led the
fecond, confining of ten perfons, to the ifland Atach; and
Simeon Polevoi remained aboard with the reft of the
crew. All thefe iflands were well peopled; the men had
Ipones thru ft through their ears, under lips, and gr^ftle
of their nofes; and the faces of the women were marked
with blackifh ftreaks made with a needle and thread in
the fkin, in the fame manner as a Coffac one of the crew
had obferved before upon fome of the Tfchutfki. The
inhabitants had no iron ; the points of their darts and
lances were tipped with bone and flint.
They at firft imagined, that Amlach was uninhabited;
but in one of their hunting parties they found a boy of
eight years old, whom they brought with them: they
gave him the name of Hermolai, and taught him the
Ruffian language, that he might ferve as an interpreter.
After penetrating further they difcovered an hut, wherein were two women, four men, and as many boys, whom
they treated kindly, and employed in hunting, fifliing,
and in digging of roots. This kind behaviour encouraged others to pay frequent vifits, and to exchange fifh
and flefh for goat's hair, horfes manes, and glafs beads.
They procured alfo four other iflanders with their wives,
who dug roots for them: and thus the winter paffed
away without any difturbance.
In the fpring the hunting parties returned; during
thefe excursions one man alone was killed upon the ifland
Atach, and his fire-arms taken away by the natives.
June 1760, the fame parties were fent again to the fame
iflands. Shaffyrin, who headed one of the parties, was
foon afterwards killed, with eleven men, by the inhabitants of Atach, but for what reafon is not known.—
Drufinin received the firft information of this maffacre
from fome inhabitants of Sitkin, where he then was;
and immediately fet out with the remaining hunters to
join their companions, who were left on board. Although he fucceeded in regaining the veflel, their number was by this time fo confiderably reduced that their
fituation appeared very dangerous: he was foon however
relieved from his apprehenfions by the arrival of the
merchant Betfhevin's veffel at the ifland of Atchu K
The two crews entered into partneriTiip: the St. Vladimir received twenty-two men, and transferred eleven
of her own to the other veffel. The former wintered
at Amlach, and the latter continued at anchor before
* Atach and Atchu are two names for the fame ifland, called alfo by
the Ruffians Goreloi or Burnt Ifland.
a This 6a
Voy*?e of
j 760.
This veffel, fitted out at the expence of Betflievin, a
merchant of Irkutfk, was called Gabriel; and put to fea
from the mouth of the Bolfhaia Reka July 31ft, 1760.
She was manned with forty Ruffians and twenty Kamt-
chadals, and carried on board Gabriel Puflikareff, of the
garrifon of Ochotfk, Andrew ShdanofF, Jacob Sharypoff,
Prokopei Lobafhkoff, together with Nikiphor Golodoff,
and Aphanaflei Ofkoloff, Betfhevins agents.
Having failed through the fecond ftrait of the Kuril
Ifles, they reached the Aleutian Ifles on the 24th of Auguft. They flood out from thence in order to make
new difcoveries among thofe more remote iflands, which
lie in one continued chain to the extent of 15 degrees
of longitude.
Reaches At-       September 25 they reached Atchu, or Burnt Ifland, and
chu, one ofthe' - * '
toe iflands. found the above-mentioned fhip the St. Vladimir, lying
twenty verfts from that ifland, before Amlach, In danger
of being attacked by the iflanders. They immediately
joined crews in order to enable the enfeebled company
of the St. Vladimir to continue hunting; and as it is ufual
in fuch cafes, entered into a contract for the divifion of
the profit. During that winter the two crews killed
partly upon Siguyam, about 800 fea otters of different
fizes, about ioo medwedki or cubs, fome river otters,
111 above R U Sr$rl.j4. N   D I S CjO V E R I E S. 65
above 400 red-, greyifhj and black foxes,  and collected
twelve pood of fea-horfe teeth. ||§
In June, of the following year, the two crews were
diftributed equally on board the two veflels: Kraflilni-
koff's. remained at Amlach, with an intention of returning to Kamtchatka, and Belfheyin's put to fea from Atchu
in queft of other iflands.    They touched firft at Umnak Departs from
' thence.
where they met Nikiphoroff's veffel. Here they took
in wood and water, and repaired their fails: they then
failed to the moft remote ifland Alakfu*, or Alachfhak, SK'"*"
where, having laid up the fhip in a bay, they built huts,
and made preparations for wintering. This ifland was
very well inhabited, and the natives behaved at firft in a
very friendly manner, for they trafficked with the Ruffians, and even delivered up nine of their children as
hoftages; but fuch was the lawlefs and irregular behaviour of the crew, that the iflanders were foon irritated
and provoked to hoftilities.
In January 1762, Golodoff and Pufhkareff went with
a party of twenty men along the fhore; and, as they were -
attempting to violate fome girls upon the ifland Uny-
umga, were furprifed by a numerous body of the natives: Golodoff and another Ruffian were killed, and
three were wounded.    Not long afterwards the watch of
* This is probably the fame ifland which is laid down in I&enitzin's
-chart under the name of Alaxa.
K the i
the crew was fuddenly attacked by the iflanders; four
men were flain upon the fpot, as^many wranued, and
the huts reduced to allies.
May 3, Lobafchkoff and another Ruffian were kmed,
as they were going to bathe in the warm fprings, Wincn
lie about five verfts from the haven : upon wnich feven
of the hoftages were put to death. The fame "month the
natives attempted to furprife the Ruffians in tneir huts;
but being fortunately difcovered in time were repu3fea\by
means of the fire arms. At length the Ruffians, finding
themfelves in continual danger from thefe attempts,
weighed anchor, and failed for Umnak, where they took
up two inhabitants with their wives and children, in \
order to fhew them other iflands. They were preventeoe
however by tempeftuous weather from reaching them ;
and were driven out to fea Weftward with fuch violence,
that all their fails were carried away : at length on the
23d of September they ftruck againft land, which they
took for the peninfula of Kamtchatka; and they found
it to be the diftrict of Stobolfkoi Oftrog. Six men were
immediately difpatched in the fmall boat and two baidars
fo land: they carried with them feveral girls (who had
been brought from the new difcovered iflands) in order
to gather berries. Mean while the crew endeavoured to
ply the fhip to the windward. When the boat returned,
thofe on board were fcarcely able, on account of the
ftorm, to row to the fhip, and to catm hold of a rope,
3d?  VQ
which was. flying out to them. Two men remained with
the baidars, and were afterwards carried by fome Kamt-
chadals to New Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. The fhip without
one fail remaining was driven along the coaft of Kamtchatka towards Avatcha, and about feventy verfts from
that harbour ran into the bay of Kalatzoff on the 25 th
of September. Their cargo confuted of the fkins of
900 old and young fea-otters, and of 350 foxes.
PulEkareff and his crew had during this voyage behaved with fuch inhumanity towards the iflanders, that
they were brought to trial in the year 1764; and the
above-mentioned account is taken from the concurring
evidence of feveral witneffes. It appears-alio, that they
tOTOughfcaway from Atchu and Amleg two Aleutian men
and three boys, Ivan an Aleutian interpreter, and above
twenty women and girls whom they debauched. Ivan,
and one oj^the. boys whom they called Mofesp were the
only perfons who arrived at Kamtchatka. Upon thUr
firft approach to that coaft, fourteen women were fent
afhore to dig roots and to gather berries. Of thefe, two
ran away, and a third was killed, as they were returning
to the fhip t?y one Gorelin : upon this the others in a fit
of defpair leaped into the fea and were drowned. All
the remaing Aleutians, excepting the two perfons above-
mentioned, were immediately thrown overboard by Pufh-
kareffs order. The account which follows, although it
is found in the depofitions, deferves not to be entirely
credited in all particulars.
K 2 The
* f*
i£^ig- on II boft^^pgg ulM<
et liWj.q^.Oj £m3$,.fp£J£ft
Account of
the Inhabitants
of Alackfu.
The natives of the abot%^e£Kioned iflands are very
tall and ftron^y made. They make their cloaths* of
the fkins of birds; and thruft bones through their unr
der-Iips by way of ornament. They were faid to ftrike
their nofes until they bled, in order to fuck the; blood;
but we are informed from fubfequent accounts, that the
blood thus drawn from themfelves was intended for other
purpofes *. They were accufed even of murdering
their own children in order to drink their bloOd^but
fkas is undoubtedly an invention of the criminals, who
reprefented the iflanders in the moftMdeous c$|eu&, in
order to eseufe their own cruelties. Their dwellings
under-ground are fimilar to thofe of the Kamtchadafe;;
and have feveral openings on the fides, through whidi
they make their efcape when the principal entrances
bef^t by an enemy. Their weapons confift of arrows
and lances pointed Wjth bone, which they dart at a o$&-
fiderable diftance.
The ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-deer, bears*
wild boars, wolves, otters, and a fpecies of dogs with
long ears, which are very fierce and v^d. And as the
greateft part of thefe animals are not found v?pon thofe
Fox'jlflands wfch lie nearer to the weft, tHts crfcum-
* It appears in the laft chapter of this tranflation, that theiflanders
"atfefaccuftomed to glue on the point of tfreir darts *mth blood*; and
that wis was thas'rfeal mottvje to tn^' practice mentioned in the texi*
ftance R U SjSjf AN   DISCOVERIES.
fiance feems to prove tfeat Alakfu is-fituated at no great
diftance from the Continent of Aisnericfc* jj As to red,
black, and^grey foxes, there is fo large a qjjgprity, that
they are feen in herds often or twenty at a time. Wood
is urleen upon the coaft in great abundance. The
ifland produces no large trees, having only fome underwood, and a great variety of bulbs, roots, and berries.
The coafts are frequented by large flocks of fea-birds,
thftdJfame which are obferved upon the fhore of the
fea of Penfliinfk.
Auguft 4, 1759, the Peter and Paul, fitted out at;,the JSSmSpaut
expence of the merchant Rybenfkoi by his agent An- Sm iflands,"
drew Serebranikoff, and manned with thirty-three per-
Ions, fet fail from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river.
They fteered fouthwards until the  20th of September
without feeing any land, when they flood for the Aleutian Ifles, one of which they reached the 27th of September.    They remained there until the 24th of June,
17 61 ;   during which time they killed upon this and
the two other iflands 1900 old and young fea-otters,
and obtained 450 more by bartering with the iflanders.
The Coffac Minyachin, who was on board as collector*
of the tribute, calls in his account the firft ifland by-the.:
Ruffian name of Krugloi,  or Round Ifland, which he
iuppofcs to be about fixty verfts in circumference : the
largeft ifland lies thirty verfts from thence, and is about-
an hundred and fifty round : the finalleft is about thirty
verfts ^'|*j;
verfts from the latter, and is forty in circumference.
Thefe three iflands contain feveral high rocky moun
tains.    The number of inhabitants  were computed to
be about forty-two men,   without   reckoning  women
and children.
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■j            iM
'   " ■ 1      1--' '-    '        .      :   :      '      1"    I RUSSTANDISCOVERIES.
'rmom^^innmE^^^v^t ^£fnco ?
Voyage of Andrean Tolftyk in the St. Andrean and Natalia—Difcovery of fome New Iflands called Andreanoff-
fkye Oftrova——Defcription of fix of thofe Iflands.
HE moft remarkable voyage hitherto made is that voyage of Andrean Tolftyk.
of the St. Andrean and Natalia, of which the fol- ?theSt.£n"
* drean and Na-
lowing extract is drawn from the Journals of the two
Coffacs, Peter Wafyutinfkoi and Maxim Lafaroff. This
veflel, fitted out by the above-mentioned merchant Andrean Tolftyk, weighed from the mouth of the Kamtchatka river September 27, 1760; fhe flood out to fea
right Eaftwards, and on the 29th reached Beering's
Ifland. There fhe lay at anchor in a bay, from whence
the crew brought all the tackle and lading afhore. Soon
.afterwards they were driven upon the fir ore by a violent
autumnal ftorm, without any other damage than the lofs
of an anchor. Here they paffed the winter ; and having
.refitted their veffel, put to fea June 24, 1761 : they
. paffed by Copper Ifland, which lies about an hundred
and fifty verfts from the former, and fleered S. E. towards the Alejtian Ifles, which they did not reach before
the 6th of Auguft. They eaft anchor in an open bay
near Attak, in order to procure an interpreter from the
Ip Toigon
1760- r*
Ayagh, one
the Andrea-
A C- C 0- U N T   O £   X HE
Toigon Tunulgafen ; but the latter being dead, they fent
prefents to the Toigon Bakutun. As there were already
three fhips lying at a&ftior before this Ifland, on the 19th
they again flood out to fea in queft of the more diftant
iflands, for the purpofe of exacting a tribute. They
carried on board a relation of the Toigon Bakutun, who
had a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language. They
fteered N. E. and N. E. by E. and were driven, on the
28th, by a high gale of wind towards an ifland, before
which they immediately eaft anchor. The following
morning the two Cofiacs with a party of eight perfons
went afhore to reconnoitre the ifland ; they faw no kiha-
bitants. Auguft 30, the veflel was brought into a fafe
bay. The next day fome of the crew were fent afhore
to procure wood, that the fhip might be refitted; but
there were no large trees to be met with upon the whole
ifland. Lafaroff, who was one of the party, had been
of there before in SerebranikofPs veflel: he called the aland
Ayagh or Kayachu; and another, which lay about the
diftance of twenty verfts, Kanaga. As they were returning to the fhip, they faw two iflanders rowing in
fmall canoes towards Kanaga, one of whom had ferved
as an interpreter, and was known to Lafaroff. The latter accordingly made them a prefent of fome frefh provifion, which the others gratefully accepted, and then
continued their courfe acrofs the ftrait to Kanaga. Soon
afterwards Lafaroff and eight men rowed over to that
ifland, and having invited the Toigon, who was a rela-
tion of the above-mentioned interpreter, to pay them a
vifit at Kayachu, they immediately returned to the fhip.
Near the place where they lay at anchor, a rivulet
falls into the bay; it flows from a lake that is about
two or three verfts in circumference, and which is formed from a number of fmall fprings. Its courfe is about
eight verfts long; and in fummer feveral fpecies of fal-
mon andother fifjfe£ fimilar to thofe which are found at
Kamtchatka, afcend the ftream as far as the lake.
Lafaroff was employed in fifhing in this rivulet, when
the Toigon of Kanaga, accompanied with a confiderable
number of the natives in fifteen baidars, arrived at the
fhip : he was hofpitably entertained* and received feveral
prefents. The Ruffians feized this opportunity of pervading the iflanders to acknowledge themfelves fubject
to the Emprefs, and to pay a regular tribute; to which
they made no great objection. By means of the interpreter, the following information was obtained from the
Toigon. The natives chiefly fubfift upon dried filli and
other fea animals. They catch *tmrbot of a I very large
fize, and take feals by means of harpoons, to which they
fallen bladders. They fifh for cod with bone hooks,
and lines made of a long and t<?ugh fpecies of feia-weed,.
I The author adds, that thefe turbot [paltus] weigh occafionally feven
or eight pood. ?4
which they dip in frefli water and draw out to the fize of
a fine packthread.
As foon as the veffel was laid up in a fecure place,
Tolftyk, Vaffyutin and Lafaroff, with feveral others,
went in four baidars to Kanaga. The firft remained
upon that ifland, but the two others rowed in two baidars to Tfetchina, which is feparated fiom Kanaga by a
ftrait about feven verfts in breadth : the iflanders received them amicably, and promifed to pay tribute. The
feveral parties returned all fafe to Kayachu, without
having procured any furs. Soon afterwards Tolftyk difpatched fome hunters in four baidars to Tagalak, Atchu,
and Amlach, which lay to the Eaft of Kayachu : none of
thefe party met with any oppofition from the natives;
they accordingly remained with great tranquillity upon
thefe feveral iflands until the year 1764. Their fuccefs
in hunting was not however very great; for they caught
no more than 1880 full grown fea-otters, 778 middle-*
aged, and 372 cubs.
Defcription of
the Andrea-
The following is Lafaroff's defcription of the above-
mentioned fix iflands* which lie in a chain fomewhat
to the North Weft of the Fox Iflands, and muft not be
blended with them. The firft certain account was
brought by  this  veflel, the St. Andrean  and Natalia,
* Thefe are the fix Iflands defcribed by Mr. Stsehlin in his defcription
of the New Archipelago.   See Appendix I. N°.V.
from whence they are called the Andreanofffkie Oftrova
or the Iflands of St. Andrean. l|jj
-Ayagh is about an hundred and fifty verfts in circum- Ayagh.
ference : it contains feveral high and rocky mountains,
the intervals of which are bare heath and moor ground t
not one foreft tree is to be found upon the whole ifland.
The vegetables feem for the moft part like thofe which
grow in Kamtchatka. Of berries there are found *crow
or crake-berries and the larger fort of bilberries, but in
fmall quantities. Of the roots of burnet and all kinds of
fnake weed, there is fuch abundance as to afford, in cafe
of necefllty, a plentiful provifion Tor the inhabitants.
The above-mentioned rivulet is the only one upon the
ifland. The number of inhabitants cannot fufficiently
be afcertained, becaufe the natives pais continually from
ifland to ifland in their baidars.
Kanaga ftaods Weft from Ayagh, and is two hundred Kanaga.
Verfts in cir^umfsreiic©. It contains an high volcano
where the natives find fulphur in fummer. At the foot
of this moujjta^n are hctf fpr^ogs, wherein they occasionally boil their provifion. There is no rivulet upon this
ifland; and the low grounds are fianilar to thofe of
Ayagh. The inhabitants are reckoned about two hundred fouls.
* Empetrum, Vaccina UHginofum, SanguifiKba, &: Biftafta.  j
L  2 Tfetchina     ft 76
Tfetchina. Tfetchina lies Eaftward about forty verfts from Kanaga,
and is about eighty in circumference. It is full of rocky
mountains, of which the Bielaia Sopka, or the White
Peak, is the higheft. In the valley there are alfo fome
warm fprings, but no rivulet. abounding in fifh: the
ifland contains only four families.
Tagalak. Tagalak is forty verfts in circumference, ten Eaft from
Tfetchina : it contains a few rocks, but neither rivulets
with fifh, nor any vegetable production fit for nourifh-
ment.; The coafts are rocky, and dangerous to approach
in baidars.    This  ifland is  alfo inhabited  by no more
than four families.
Atchu lies in the fame pofition forty verfts diftant
from Tagalak, and is about three hundred in circumference : near it is an harbour, where fhips may ride fe-
curely at anchor. It contains many rocky mountains ;
and feveral fmall rivulets that fall into the fea, and of
which one running Eaftwards abounds in fifh. The
roots which have juft before been mentioned, and bulbs
of white lilies, are found there in plenty. Its inhabitants
amount to^about fixty fouls.
Amlach is a mountainous ifland ftanding to the Eaft
more than  feven verfts from Atchu, and is alfo three
hundred in circumference.    It contains the fame num-
ber of inhabitants as Atchu, has a commodious
haven, and produces roots in abundance. Of feveral
fmall rivulets there is one only which flows towards the
North, that contains any fifh. Befides thefe a clufter of
other iflands were obferved ftretching farther to the
Eaft, which were not touched upon.
The inhabitants  of thefe fix iflands are tributary to Mf!^!
Ruffia.    They live in holes dug in the earth, in which fires even in winter.    Their clothes   are
made like fhirts, of the fkins of the *guillinot and puffin,
which they catch with fpringes.    Over thefe in  rainy
weather they wear an upper garment, made of the bladders and other dried inteftines of feals and fea-lions oiled
and ftitched together.    They catch cod and turbot with
bone hooks,  and eat themraw^;As they never lay in a
flore of provifion, they fuffer greatly from hunger in
ftormy weather, when they cannot go out to  fifh ; at
which time they are reduced to. live upon fmall fhell-fifh
and fea-wrack, which they pick up upon the beach and
eat raw.    In May and June they kill fea-otters in the fol~
lowing manner : When the weather is calm, they row
out to fea in feveral baidars: having found the animal,
they ftrike him with harpoons, and follow him fo clofely,-
that he cannot eafily efcape.     They take fea dogs in ther
fame manner.    In the fevereft weather they make  no-
addition to their ufual cloathing. ' In order to warm.
* Colymbus Troile, Alca Arclica^
themfelves r p
themfelves in winter, whenever it freezes very hard,
they burn a heap of dry grafs, over-which they ftand
and catch the heat under their clothes. The clothes of
the women and children are made of fea^tter fkins, in
the fame form as thofe belonging to the men. Whenever they pafs the night at a diftance from home, they
dig a hole in the earth, and lay themfelves down in it,
covered only with their clothes and mats of platted grafs.
Regardlefs of every thing but the prefent moment, defti-
tute of religion, and without the leaft appearance of decency, they feem but few degrees removed from brutes.
As foon as the feveral baidars fent out upon hunting
parties were returned, and the veffel got ready for their
departure, the Toigons of thefe iflands (excepting Kanaga) came in baidars to Tolftyk, accompanied wkxf a
confiderable number of the natives; their names were
Tfarkulini, Tihunila, Kayugofrlk and Mayatok. They
brought with them a voluntary tribute, making-prefents
of pieces of dried falmon, and unanimoufly expreffing
their satisfaction upon the good conduct of the Ruffians.
Tolftyk gave them in return fome toys and other trifles,
and defired them to recommend to the inhabitants of the
other iflands the like friendly behaviour towards the Ruffian merchants who fhould come amongft them, if they
had a mind to be treated in the fame manner.
June 14,   1764, they failed for Kamtchatka,  and an^
chared on the 19th before Shemiya, one of the Aleutian
Iflands. The 21ft they were forced from their anchor
by tempeftuous winds, and driven upon a rocky fhore.
This accident obliged them to fend the lading afhore, and
to draw the fhip upon land in order to repair the damage,
which was done not without great difficulty. On the
18th of Auguft they flood out to fea and made towards
Atchu, which they reached on the 20th. Having
fprung a leak they again refitted the veflel; and, after
taking on board the crew of a fhip which had been lately
eaft away, they failed for Kamtchatka. On the 4th of
September they came in fight of that peninfula near J^£hH««
Tzafchminfkoi Oftrog; and on the 18th, as they were en- Kamtchatk.*
deavouring to run into the mouth of the Kamtchatka
river, they were forced by a ftorm upon the coaft. The
veflel was deftroyed, and the greateft part of the cargo
C H^A P. 8o
HA     P.
Voyage of the Zacharias and Elizabeth, fitted out by Kul-
koff, and commanded by Drufinin—They fail to Umnak
and Unalafhka, and winter upon the latter ifland-—The
veffel deftroyed, and all the crew, except four, murdered
by the iflanders—The adventures of thefe four Ruffians,
and their wonderful efcape.
SHALL here barely mention that a veffel was fitted
A out in Auguft, 1760, at the expence of Terrenti
Tfebaeffkoi: but I fhall have occafion to be very cir-
cumftantial in my accounts concerning feveral others,
which failed during the following years : more copious
information concerning the Fox Iflands having been
procured from thefe voyages, although for the moft
part unfortunate, than from all the preceding ones.
In 1762 four veflels failed for the Fox Iflands
thefe only one returned fafe to Kamtchatka.
The firft was the Zacharias  and Elizabeth,  fitted out
Voyage of
Drufinin in the
E^ab«h,an by Kulkoff, a merchant of Vologda and Company, under
the command of Drufinin,  and manned by thirty-four
Ruffians, and three Kamtchadals.
September R U SrtSil AND I« -C 0 V E R I E S.
"September the 6th, they weighed anchor from Ochotfk,
and arrived October the nth in the haven of St. Peter
and Paul, where they wintered. June the 24th, 1763,
they- again put to fea, and having reached, after eleven
days failing, the neareft Aleutian Iflands, they anchored
r^efore Atach. They ftaid here about fourteen days,
and took up feven Ruffians who had been fhipwrecked
on this coaft. Among thefe was Korelin, who returned
to Kamtchatka, and brought back the following account
of the voyage.
July the 17th, they failed from Atach towards the
more diftant iflands. In the fame month they landed
upon an ifland, where the crew of the Andrean and
Natalia was engaged in hunting; and, having laid in a
provifion of water, continued their voyage.
In the beginning; of September they arrived-at Um- Arrival at
° F*»■ r • Umnak.
nak, one of the Fox Iflands, and eaft anchor about a
verft from the fhore. They found there Glottoff's veffel,
W;hofe voyage will be mentioned in a fucceeding chapter^
Drufinin immediately difpatched his firft mate Maefhifk
and Korelin, with thirty-four of the crew, to land. They
paffed over to the Eaftern extremity of the ifland, which
was diftant about feventy verfts from the veffel; and returned fafe on the 12th of September.    During this ex-
* Chap, X.
-.  M
pedition, 8i
Winters at
pedition, they faw feveral remains of fox-traps which
had been fet by the Ruffians ; and met with feveral
natives who lhewed fome tribute-quittances. The
fame day letters were brought by the iflanders from
Medvedeff and Korovin*, who were juft arrived at
Umnak and Unalafhka in two veflels fitted out by the
merchants Protaflbff and Trapefnikoff. Anfwers Were
returned by the fame meflengers.
On the 2 2d, Drufinin failed to the Northern point of
Unalafhka, which lies about fifteen verfts from Umnak i
the crew, having laid up the veflel in a fafe harbour,
and brought the lading afhore, made preparation to con-
ftruct an hut. Soon after their arrival, two Toigons
of the neareft village brought hoftages of their own accord ; their example was immediately followed by feveral
of the more diftant villages. Here they received information of an hunting party fent from Trapefnikoff's
fhip. Upon which Maefhyk alfo difpatched three companies upon the fame errand, one confifting of eleven
men, among whom was Korelin, under the command of
Peter Tfekaleff; a fecond of the fame number, under
Michael Kudyakoff; and a third of nine men, under
Tephim Kafkitfyn. Of thefe three parties, Tfekaleffs
was the only one of which we have received any eir-
cumftantial account: for not a tingle perfon of the
other two parties, or of the crew remaining on board,
ever returned to Kamtchatka.,
I See the following Chapter.. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
Kafkitfyn remained near the haven, and the two
other companies were difpatched to the Northern point
of the ifland. Kudyakoff flopped at a place called
Kalaktak, which contained about forty inhabitants ; Tfekaleff went on to Inalok, which lies about thirty verfts
from Kalaktak. He found there a dwelling with about
feventy inhabitants, whom he behaved to with kindnefs:
he built an hut for himfelf and his companions, and
kept a conftant watch.
December the 4th, fix of the party being difpatched
to look after the pit-falls, there remained only five Ruffians : namely, Peter Tfekaleff, Stephen Korelin, Dmitri
Bragin, Gregory Shaffyrin, and Ivan Kokovin : the
iflanders took this opportunity of giving the firft proofs
of their hoftile intentions, which they had hitherto
concealed. As Tfekaleff and Shaffyrin were upon a
vifit to the iflanders, the latter fuddenly, and without
any provocation, ftruck Tfekaleff upon the head with
a club, and afterwards ftabbed him with knives. They
next fell upon Shaffyrin, who defended himfelf with an
hatchet, and, though defperately wounded, forced his
way back to his companions. Bragin and Korelin, who
remained in the hut, had immediate recourfe to their
fire-arms ; but Kokovin, who was at a fmall diftance,
was furrounded by the favages, and thrown down.
They continued ftabbing him with kniyes and darts,
until Korelin came to iiis afliftance;   the latter having
M 2 wounded
All the-Cre*,
except four
Ruffians, deftroyed by the
Natives. AC COUNT   OW   THE
wounded two iflanders, and   driven away   the   others,
brought Kokovin half-dead to the hut.
The Adventures of the
four Ruffians
upon Unalafhka.
Soon afterwards the natives furrounded the hut, which
the Ruffians had taken the precaution to provide with
fhooting-holes. The fiege lafted four days without in-
termiffion. The iflanders were prevented indeed by the
fire-arms from ftorming the hut; but whenever the
Ruffians made their appearance, darts were immediately
fliot at them from all fides.; fo that they could not
venture to go out for water.- At length when Shaffyrin
and Kokovin were a little recovered, they all fallied out
upon the iflanders with their guns and lances; three
perfons were killed upon the fpot, and feveral wounded;
upon which the others fled away and difperfed. During the fiege the favages were feen at a little diftance
bearing fome arms and caps, and holding them up in
triumph : thefe things belonged to the fix Ruffians, who
had been fent to the pit-falls, and had fallen a facrifice
to the refentment of the natives.
The latter no fooner difappeared, than the Ruffians
dragged the baidar into the fea, and rowed without rao-
leftation out of the bay, which is about ten verfts broad.
They next landed near a fmall habitation : finding it
empty they drew the baidar afhore, and went with their
fire-arms and lances acrofs the mountains towards Kalaktak,  where they had left Kudyakoff's party.    As they
approached R U s sWa N   D I SWCf V-E-R I E S:-
approached that -place towards evening, they fired from
the heights; j but no fignal being returned, they concluded, as was really the cafe, that this company had
likewife 'been maffaered by the inhabitants. They themfelves narrowly efcaped the fame fate ; for, immediately
upon the report of the fire-arms, numerous-bodies of the
1 ifianders made their appearance, and clofely purfued the
Ruffians : darknefs however coming on, the latter found
means to efcape over the fandy fhore of a bay to a rock,
i where they were flieltered, and could defend themfelves.-
J 7
They here made  fo good  a ufe of their arms, that the
iflanders thought proper to retire : the fugitives, as foon
as   their   purfuers   were   withdrawn,    fHized  the   opportunity of proceeding towards the haven,  where their
veflel lay at anchor: they ran without interruption during
the whole night, and at break of day, when they were about
three verfts from the haven, they efpied a locker of the
veflel lying on the fhore.    Struck with aftonifhment ar
this alarming difcovery, they retreated, with precipitation*
to  the   mountains,  from  whence they   defcried feverall
iflanders rowing in canoes, but no appearance of their"
own veffel.-    During that day they kept themfelves clofely
concealed,  and durft not venture aeain towards the haven
before the evening.     Upon their arrival they found the
veflel broken to pieces,  and the dead bodies of their corrir-
panions lying  mangled along  the beach.     Having collected  all the provifion which had been untouched by
the favages, they returned, to the mountains.
m M
[eisre-r .■ ijjj||j - ■"■ e~>£,!q'-||pid-f
The following day they fcooped out a cavity at the
foot of a mountain fituated about three verfts from the
haven, arid covered it with a piece of a faih In the
evening they returned to the haven, and found there an
image of a faint ,and a prayer book ; all the tackle and
lading were taken away, excepting the facks for provifion.
Thefe facks were made of leather: the natives had
ript them up probably to fee if they contained any iron,
and had left them, together with the provifion, behind
as ufelefs. The Ruffians collected all that remained, and
dragged as much as they were able to carry into the
mountains to their retreat, where they lived in a very
wretched ftate from the 9th of December to the 2d of
February,   17 64. |i-
Mean while they employed themfelves in making a
little baidar, which they covered with the leather of the
facks. Having drawn it at night from the mountains to
the fea, they rowed without waiting for break of day
along the Northern coaft of Unalafchka, in order to reach
Trapefnikoff's veffel, which, as they had reafon to think,
lay at anchor fomewhere upon the coaft. They rowed
at fome diftance from the fhore, and by that means paffed three habitations unperceived. The following day
they obferved at fome diftance five iflanders in a baidar,
who  upon feeing them  made to Makufhinfk,   before
which place the fugitives were obliged to pafs. Darknefs
coming on, the Ruffians landed on a rock, and paffed the
night afhore. Early in the morning they difcovered the
iflanders advancing towards them from the bay of Ma-
kulliinfk. Upon this they placed themfelves in an advantageous poll, and prepared for defence.
The favages rowed clofe to the beach : part landing,
and part remaining in their baidars, they commenced
the affatilt by a volley of darts ; and notwithftanding the
Ruffians did great execution with their fire arms, the
fltirmifh continued the whole day. Towards evening the
enemy retired, and the fugitives betook themfelves with
their canoe to an adjoining cavern. The attack was again
renewed during the night; but the Ruffians were fo ad-
vantageoufly polled, that they repulfed the aflaHasts
without much difficulty. In this encounter Bragen
was flightly wounded. They remained in this place
three days; bufc-the fea riling at a fprlng-tide into the
rock, forced them to fally out towards a neighbouring
cavern, which they reached without lofs, notwithftand-
ing the oppofition of the iflanders^
They were imprifbned in this cave five weeks, and kept
watch by turns. During that time they feldom ventured twenty yards from the entrance \ and were obliged
to quench their thirft with fnow-Water, and with the
moifture dripping from the rock. They fullered alfo
I greatly fflF
.A-U: CmU N T   DT  T "H E
greatly from hunger, having no fuftenance but fmall-
fhell-fifh, > which they occaiionally found means to col-
lect Upon the beach. Compelled at length by extreme
want, they one night ventured to draw their baidar into
the fea, and were fortunate enough to get off unper^
Their Efcape
from Unalafh
They continued rowing :at night, but in the day they
inr"Iff?i£i" hid themfelves on the fhore ; by this means they efcaped
nixorx s veusi. 7       j j jt
-unobferved from the bay of Makufhinfk, and reached
Trapefnikoff's veffel the 30th of March, 1764. What
happened to them afterwards in company with the
crew of this veffel will be mentioned in the fucceeding
•chapter. | Shaffyrin alone of all the four died of
ficknefs during the voyage; but Korelin, Kohovin, and
Bragin* returned fafe to Kamtchatka. The names of-
'thefe brave men deferve our admiration, for the courage
and perfeveramce with -which they fupported and over-,
came fuch imminent dangers.
, who
* Thefe Ruffians were well kriown to feveral perfons of credit
have confirmed the authenticity of this relation. Among the reft the
celebrated naturalili Mr, Pallas, whofe name is well known in the literary world, faw Bragin at Irkutfk : from him he had a narrative of their
adventures and efcape ; which, as he affured me, perfectly tallied with
*the above account, which is drawn from the journal of Korelin,
CHAP.    IX.
Voyage of the veffel called the Trinity, under the command
of Korovin—Sails to the Fox Iflands—Winters at Unalafhka—Puts to fea the fpring following—The veffel is
ftranded in a bay of the ifland Umnak, and the crew
attacked by the natives—Many of them kitted—Others
carried offbyficknefs—Tbey are reduced to greatfir eights
—Relieved by Glottoff, twelve of the whole company only
remaining—Defcription of Umnak and Unalafhka.
THE fecond veflel which failed from Kamtchatka in voyage of
the year 1762,  was the Trinity, fitted out by the
trading company of Nikiphor Trapefnikoff, merchant of
Irkutfk,   under  the   command of   Ivan   Korovin,   and
manned with thirty-eight Ruffians and fix Kamtchadals.
September 15, they failed down the Kamtchatka river, Departs from
and flood out to fea the 29th, when they were driven
at large for ten days by contrary winds. At laft upon
the 8th of October they came in fight of Beering's and
Copper Ifland, where they eaft anchor before the South
fide of the former. Here they were refblved to winter
on account of the late feafon of the year. Accordingly
they laid up the veflel in a fecure harbour, and brought
N m     II all $°
ACCOUNT   0 F   t H E
Beenn >sJpon all the lading afhore.    They flaid here until the firft of
IffaDd\        Auguft, 1763 : during that time they killed about 500
arctic  foxes and  20 fea-otters;   the  latter animals retorted lefs frequently to this ifland,  in confequence of
the difturbance given them by the Ruffian hunters.
Korovin, having collected a fufficient ftore of provifion, feveral fkins of fea-cows for the coverings of bai-
dars> and fome iron which remained from the wreck of
Beering's fhip, prepared for his departure. Upon his
arrival at Beering's Iflaiad the preceding autumn, he
found there a Veffel fitted out by Jacob Protaffoff, merchant of Tiumen, under the command of Dennis Medvedeff*. Korovin had entered into a formal contract
with Medvedeff for the divifion of the furs. Here he
took on board ten of MedvedefPs crew, and gave him
feven in return.
Auguft 1, Korovin put to fea from Beering's Ifland with
thirty-feven men, and Medvedeff with forty-nine.  They
failed without coming in fight of the Aleutian Ifles : on
Reaches una* the 15 th, Korovin made Unalafhka, where Glottoff lay
at anchor, and Medvedeff reached Umnak. Korovin
received the news of the latter's fafe arrival, firft by
fome iflanders,  and afterwards by letters ;  both veflels
* This is the fourth veffel which failed in 1762. As the whole crew
was maffacred by the favages, we have no account -of the voyage.
Short mention of this maffacre is occafionally made in this and thefol-
lowing chapters.
lay at no greater diftance from each other than about
an hundred and fifty verfts, taking a ftreight line from
point to point acrofs the firth.
Korovin eaft anchor in a convenient bay at the diftance
of fixty yards from the fhore. On the 16th he landed
with fourteen men, and having found nothing but an
empty fried, he returned to the veflel. After having
taken a reinforcement, he again went afhore in order to
look for fome inhabitants. About feven verfts from
the haven, he came to two habitations, and faw three
hundred perfons aflembled together. Among them
were three Toigons, who recollected and accoiled in a
friendly manner one Barnafheff, a native of Tobolfk,
who had been there before with Glottoff; they fliewed
fome tribute-quittances, which they had lately received
from the Coffac Sabin Ponomareff. Two of thefe Toigons gave each a boy of twelve years of age as an
hoftage, Whom they paffed for their children ; and the
third delivered his fon of about fifteen years of age,
the fame who had been GlottofPs hoftage, and wtiom
Korovin called Alexey. With thefe hoftages he returned
to the fhip, which he laid up in the mouth of a river, Lays up ti»
, -*- Ship.
after having brought all the provifion and ladng afhore.
Soon afterwards the three Toigons came to fee the
hoftages ; and informed Korovin, that MedvedefFs veffel
rode fecurely at anchor before Umnafe. |
N   2
September llHl
September 15, when every thing was prepared for
wintering, Korovin and Barnafheff fet out in two baidars,
each with nine men and one of the hoftages, who had
a flight knowledge of the Ruffian language. They
went along the Northern coaft of the ifland, towards
its Weftern extremity, in order to hunt, and to enquire
after a certain interpreter called Kafhmak, who had been
employed by Glottoff on a former occafion. Having
rowed about twenty verfts, they paffed by a village,
and landed at another which lay about five verfts further. But as the number of inhabitants feemed to
amount to two hundred, they durft not venture to the
dwellings, but flayed by the baidar. Upon this the
Toigon of the place came to them, with his wife and
fon: he lhewed a tribute-quittance, and delivered his
fon, a boy of thirteen years of age and whom Korovin
called Stepanka, as an hoftage, for which he received a
prefent of corals.
They rowed-now further to a third village, about
fifteen verfts from the former, where they found the
interpreter Kafhmak ; the latter accompanied them to
the two Toigons, who gave them a friendly reception,
and lhewed their tribute-quittances. A few natives only
made their appearance ; the others, as the Toigons pretended, were gone out to fifh. The next morning each
Toigon gave a boy as an hoftage; one of the boys Korovin called Gregory, and the other Alexey. The Ruffians RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
fians were detained there two days by a violent ftorm;
during which time a letter from Medvedeff was brought
by an Aleutian, and an anfwer was returned by the fame
perfon. The ftorm at length fomewhat abating, they
rowed back to the next village, where they continued
two nights without any apprehenfions from the favages.
At length Korovin returned in fafety with the hoftages
to the crew.
In the beginning of October they built a winter-hut, 2,™"^,',]™?'*'
partly of wood and partly of feal-fkins, and made all fo'rwSe'
the neceflary preparations for hunting. On the 14th,
two companies, each confifting of eleven men, were fent
out upon an hunting party to the Eaftern point of the
ifland; they returned in four days with hoftages.
About fixty verfts from the haven, they had met a
party of twenty-five Ruffians, commanded by Drufinin.
About the fame time fome Toigons brought a prefent of
flurgeon and whale's blubber, and received in return
fome beads and provifion.
Korovin and his company now thought themfelves
fecure ; for which reafon twenty-three men, under the
command of the above-mentioned Barnafheff, were difpatched in two baidars upon an hunting party towards
the Weftern point of the ifland. Eight mufkets were
diftributed to each boat,  a  piftol and  a lance to each
man, •94
man, and alfo a fufficient ftore of ammunition and provifion. The following day two accounts were fent from
Barnafheff; and letters were alfo received from the creWt
of Protaflbff's veffel. From the 2d of November tfej&e
8th of December, the Ruffians, who remained with Kor.
rovin, killed forty-eight dark-coloured foxes, together
with an hundred and feventeen of the common fort:
during this expedition one man was loft. Some of the
natives came occafionally in baidars, and exchanged fea-
otters and fox fkins for corals. On the 8th of December letters were again brought from Barnafheff and alfo
from the crew of Protaflbff's fhip. Anfwers were returned by the fame meffengers.
j After the departure of thefe meffengers, the mother
of Alexey came with a meffage from the Toigon her huf-
band importing, that a large number of iflanders were
making towards the fhip. Upon this Korovin ordered
the men to arms, and foon after feventy natives approached and held up fome fea-otter fkins. The Ruffians cried
out that no more than ten at a time fhould come over the
brook towards their hut: upon which the iflanders left
their fkins with Korovin, and returned without attempting any hoftilities. Their apprehenfions were now fome-
what quieted, but they were again raifed by the arrival
of three Kamtchadals belonging to Kulkoff s fhip, who
flew for protection to Korovin: they brought the account that the crew had been killed by the favages, and
the veflel deftroyed. It was now certain that the feventy
iflanders above-mentioned had come with hoftile intentions. This information fpread fuch a fudden panic
among the Ruffians, ttiat it was even propofed to burn
the veffel, and to endeavour to find their companions^
who were gone upon hunting parties.
That day however paffed without any attack: but towards J^S^f^s-
me evening of the ioth of December, the favages af-
fembled in large bodies, and inverted the hut on all
fides. Four days and nights they never ceafed annoying
the Ruffians with their darts ; two of the latter were
killed, and the furvivors were nearly exhaufted by con-
tinual fatigue. Upon the fifth day the iflanders took poft
in a neighbouring cavern, where they continued watching the Ruffians fo clofely during a whole month, that
none of the latter durft venture fifty paces from
their dwelling. Korovin, finding himfelf thus annoyed
by the natives, ordeied the hut to be deftroyed : he
then retired to his veflel, which was brought for greater
fecurity out of the mouth of the rivulet to the diftance of
an hundred yards from the beach. There they lay at
anchor from the 5 th of March to the 26th of April,
during which time they fuffered greatly from want of
provifion, and ftill more from the fourvy.
During 56
During this period they were attacked by a large body
of the natives, who advanced in forty baidars with the
hopes of furprifing the veffel. Korovin had been warned
of their approach by two of the inhabitants, one of whom
.was a relation of the interpreter Kafhmak : accordingly
he was prepared for their reception. As foon as
the favages came near the veffel, they brandifhed
their darts and got ready for the attack. Korovin however had no fooner fired and killed one perfon, than they
were ftruck with a panic and rowed away. They were fo
incenfed at this failure of fuccefs, that they immediately
put to death the two good-natured natives, wbo had betrayed their defign to the Ruffians. Soon afterwards the
father of Alexey came and demanded his fon, who was
reftored to him : and on the 30th of March Korovin and
his three companions arrived as it is mentioned in the
preceding chapter. By this reinforcement the number
of the crew amounted to eighteen perfons.
April 26 Korovin put to fea from Unalafhka with the
vefleift.ancied crew andV eieveil hoftages.    The-veffel was driven until
upon Umnak. ° iS*®   &?.}
the 28th by contrary winds, and then ftranded in a bay
of the ifland Umnak. The ammunition and fails, tor
gether with the fkins for the conftrudlion of baidars,
were brought afhore with great difficulty. During the
difembarkation one lick man was drowned, another died
as foon as he came to land, and eight hoftages ran away
1 amidft,-
Korovin puts
amidft the general confufion. There ftill remained the
faithful interpreter Kafhmak and three hoftages. The
whole number of the Ruffians amounted to only fix-
teen perfons; and of thefe three were fick of the fcurvy.
Under thefe circumftances they fecured themfelves between their baidar and fome empty barrels, Which they
covered with feal-fkins, while the fails were fpread over
them in form of a tent. Two Ruffians kept watch;
and there being no appearance of any iflanders, the
others retired to fleep.
Before break of day, about an-hundred favages advancing fecretly from the fea-fide, threw their darts at
the diftance of twenty yards with fuch force, that many
of them pierced through the baidar and the fkins ;
Others fell from above through the fails. By this chf-
charge, the two perfons who kept watch, together with
the three hoftages, were killed upon the fpot; and all
the Ruffians were wounded. The latter indeed were fo
effectually furprifed, as to be prevented from having
recourfe to their fire-arms. In this diftrefs Korovin
fallied out, in company* with four Ruffians, and attacked the enemy with lances : two of the favages were
killed, and the others driven to flight. Korovin and
his party Were fo feverely wounded, that they had
Ibarcely ftrength fufficrent to return to their tent.
The 'Rufliam
in Danger of
being deftroyed by the Natives.
The latter
During i8
During the night the ftorm increafed to fuch a degree, that the veffel was entirely dafhed to pieces. The
greateft part of the wreck, which was eaft on fhore
by the fea, was carried away by the iflanders. They
alfo broke to pieces the barrels of fat, emptied the facks
of provifion, and deftroyed moft of the furs : having
thus fatisfied their refentment, they went away; and
did not again make their appearance until the 30th of
April. Upon their retiring, the Ruffians collected the
wretched remains which had been left untouched by
the favages, or which the waves had eaft on fhore fince
their departure.
April 30, a body of an hundred and fifty natives
advanced from the Eaftern point of the ifland towards
the tent; and, at the diftance of an hundred yards,
fhot at the Rsffians with fire arms, but luckily without
execution. They alfo fet on fire the high grafs, and
the wind blew the flames' towards the tent; but the
Ruffians firing forced the enemy to flight, and gained
time to extinguish the flarjaes.
This was the laft attack which was made upon Korovin;
although ficknefs and mifery detained him and his companions upon this fpot until the 21 ft of July. They then
put to fea in a baidar eight yards long, which they
had conftructed in order to make to Protaflbff's veffel,
with whofe fate they were as yet unacquainted. Their
number was now reduced to twelve perfons, among
whom were fix Kamtchadals.
After having roWed ten  days  they landed upon the The Ruffian*
& J J f difcoverthe
beach of the fame ifland Umnak;   there they obfervedJafh^ceun.
the remains of a veffel which had been burnt,  and faw HTe^rTmur
. dered by the
fome clothes, fails, and ropes, torn to pieces. At a fmall Natives".
diftance was an empty Ruffian dwelling, and near it a
bath-room', in which.they found, to their inexpreffible
terror, twenty dead bodies in their clothes. Each of
them had a thong of leather, or his own girdle, fattened
about the neck, with which he had been dragged along*
Korovin and his companions recollected them to have
been fome of thofe who had failed in ProtaffofPs veflel;
and could diftinguifh among the reft the commander
Medvedeff* They difcovered no further traces of the
remaining crew; and as none ever appeared, we have
no account of the circumftances with which this ca-
taftrophe was attended*
After having buried  his dead countrymen, Korovin Relieved.from
° their Diftreffes
and his companions began to build an hut :   they wereb?iJfA2ivaL
■c o . * ot vjiOttou.
prevented however from finifhing it, by the unexpected
arrival of Stephen Glottoff*, who came to them with
a fmall party by land. Korovin and his companions
accordingly joined Glottoff, and rowed the next day to
his veffel.
* See the following Chapter*
O   2
Soon afterwards Korovin was fent with a party or*
twenty men to coaft the ifland of Umnak, in order to
difcover if any part of Medvedeff's crew had made their
efcape from the general maffacre : but his enquiries
were without fuccefs. In the courfe of this expedition,
as he lay at anchor, in September, before a fmall ifland
fituated between Umnak and Unalafhka, fome favages
rowed towards the Ruffians in two large baidars ; and
having fhot at them with fire-arms, though, without
effect, inftantly retired. The fame evening Korovin
entered a bay of the ifland Umnak, with an intention
of paffing the night on fhore : but as he came near
the coaft, a large number of favages in an hundred baidars furrounded and faluted him with a volley of darts.
Korovin fired and foon difperfed them ; and immediately made to a large baidar, which he faw at fome dif-,
tance, in hopes of finding fome Ruffians. He was
however miftaken ; the iflanders who were aboard landed at his approach, and, after fhooting at him from their
fire-arms, retired to the mountains.
Korovin found there an empty baidar, which he knew
to be thefame in which Barnafheff had failed, when he
was fent upon an hunting party.. Within were nothing
but two hatchets and fome iron points for darts. Three
women were feized at the fame time; and two natives*
who refufed to furrender themfelves, were put to death.
They then made to the dwelling, from which all the
inhabitants had run away, and found therein pieces of
Ruffian leather, blades of fmall knives, fhirts, and other
things, which had belonged to the Ruffians. All the
information which they could procure from the women
whom they had taken prifoners, was, that the crew had
been killed, and this booty taken away by the inhabitants, who had retired to the ifland Unalafhka. Korovin
gave thefe women their liberty, and, being apprehenfive
of frefh attacks, returned to the haven.
Towards winter Korovin, with a party of twenty-two
men, was fent upon an hunting expedition to the Weft-
ern point of Unalafhka : he was accompanied by an
Aleutian interpreter, called Ivan Glottoff. Being informed by fome iflanders, that a Ruffian fhip, under
the command of Ivan Solovioff*, was then lying before
Unalafhka, he immediately rowed towards the haven
where fhe was at anchor. On the way he had a fharp
encounter with the natives, who endeavoured to prevent him from landing: of thefe, ten were killed
upon the fpot; and the remainder fled away, leaving
behind them fome women and children.
Korovin ftaid three days aboard SoloviofPs veflel,
and then returned to the place where he had been fo
lately attacked.     The  inhabitants   however,   for   this
* Chap. XI.
time, io2 t ACCOUNT   OF   THE
time, made no oppofition to his landing ; on the contrary, they received him with kindnefs, and permitted
him to hunt: they even delivered hoftages; and entered
into a friendly traffic, exchanging furs for heads. They
were alfo prevailed upon to reftore feveral mufkets
and other things, taken from the Ruffians who had
been maffacred.
A fhort time before his departure, the inhabitants
again lhewed their hoftile intentions ; for three of them
came up to the Ruffian centinel, and fuddenly fell upon
him with their knives. The centinel however difen-
gaging himfelf, and retreating into the hut, they ran
away. The Toigons of the village protefted ignorance
of this treachery ; and the offenders were foon afterwards difcovered and punifhed. Korovin, as he was
returning to Glottoff, was forced to engage with the
iflanders upon Unalafhka, and alfo upon Umnak, where
they endeavoured to prevent him from landing. Before the end of the year a ftorm drove the baidar upon
the beach of the latter ifland; and the tempeftuous
weather fetting in, they were detained there until the
6th of April, 1765. During-this time they were reduced, from a fcarcity of provifion, to live chiefly upon
fea-wrack and fmall fhell fifh. On the 2 2d they returned to Glottoff; and as they had been unfuccefsful
in hunting, their cargo of furs was very inconfiderable.
Three days after his arrival, Korovin quitted Glottoff,
and went over with five other Ruffians to SoloviefT, with
whom he returned the following year to Kamtchatka.
The fix Kamtchadals of Korovin's party joined Glottoff.
According to Korovin's account, the iflands Umnak
and Unalafhka are fituated not much more Northwards
than the mouth of the Kamtchatka river; and, according to the fhip's reckoning* about the diftance of 1700
Verfts Eaftwards from the fame place.    The circumference of Umnak is about two hundred and fifty verfts ;
Unalafhka is much larger.    Both thefe iflands are wholly
deftitute of trees; drift-wood is brought afhore in large
quantities.    There Were  five lakes upon the Northern
coaft of Unalafhka, and but one upon Umnak, of which
none were more than ten- verfts in circumference.   Thefe
lakes give rife to feveral fmall rivulets, which flow only
a.few verfts before they empty themfelves into the fea:
the fifh   enter the rivulets  in   the middle   of April,
they afcend the lakes in July, and continue there until
Auguft.     SeaKrtters  and   other   fea-animals refort but
feldom to thefe'iflands ; but there is great abundance of
red and black foxes.    North Eaftwards from Unalafhka
two iflands appeared in fight, at the diftance of five or
ten Verfts ;   but Korovin did not touch at them.-
Korovin's De;.
fcription of
Umnak and
The inhabitants of thefe iflands row in  their fmall Account of
the Inhabr-
baidars  from one ifland to the other.       They  are fo tants-
numerous, "and their manner of life fo unfettled, that
their  number  cannot   exactly   be determined.    Their
I dwelling 104
dwelling caves are made in the following manner. They
firft dig an hole in the earth proportioned to the fize of
their intended habitation, of twenty, thirty, or forty
yards in length, and from fix to ten broad. They
then fet up poles of larch, firs, and afli driven on the
coaft by the fea. Acrofs the top of thefe poles they
lay planks, which they cover with grafs and earth.
They enter through holes in the top by means of ladders. Fifty, an hundred, and even an hundred and fifty
perfons dwell together in fuch a cave. They light little
or no fires within, for which reafon thefe dwellings are
much cleaner than thofe of the Kamtchadals. When
they want to warm themfelves in the winter, they make
a fire of dry herbs, of which they have collected a large
ftore in fummer, and ftand over it until they are fuf-
ficiently warmed. A few of thefe iflanders wear fur-
ftockings in winter; but the greater! part go bare-footed,
and all are without breeches. The fkins of cormorants,
puffins, and fea-divers, ferve for the mens clothing ; and
the women wear the fkins of fea-bears, feals, and fea-otters.
They fleep upon thick mats, which they twift out of a
foft kind of grafs that grows upon the fhore, and have
no other covering but their ufual clothes. Many of the
men have five or fix wives; and he that is the beft
hunter or fiftier has the greateft number. The women
make their needles of the bones of birds wings, and ufe
finews for thread.
Their weapons are bows and arrows, lances asfd darts,
which they throw like the Greenlanders to the diftance of
fixty yards by means of a little hand-board. Both the darts
and arrows are feathered: the former are about an ell and
an half long; the fhaft, which is well made confidering
their want of inftruments, is often compofed of two pieces
that join into each other : the point is of flint, fharpened
by beating it between two ftones. Thefe darts as well as
the lances were formerly tipped with bone, but at prefent
the points are commonly made of the iron which they
procure from the Ruffians, and out of which they
ingenioufly form little hatchets and two-edged knives.
They fhape the iron by rubbing it between two ftones,
and whetting it frequently with fear water. With thefe
inftruments and ftone hatchets they build their baidars.
They have a ftrange cuftom of cutting holes in the
under-lip and through the griftle of the nofe. They
place in the former two little bones, wrought in the
form of teeth, which project fome inches from the
face. In the nofe a piece of bone is placed crofsways.
The deceafed are buried with their boat, weapons, and
clothes*. -
* The author repeats here feveral circumftances which have been
■mentioned before, and many of them will occur again : but my office
as a tranflator wOuld hot fuffer me to omit them. AM
C HAP. xo6
Voyage of Stephen Glottoff—He reaches the Fox Iflands—
Sails beyond Unalafhka to Kadyak—Winters upon that
Ifland—Repeated attempts of the Natives to deftroy the
Crew—They are repulfed,' reconciled, ■ and prevailed upon
to trade with the Ruffians—Account of Kadyak—Its
inhabitants—animals—produclions—Glottofffails back to
Umnak—Winters there—Returns to Kamtchatka—
Journal of bis voyage^
TJ ERE follows one of the moft memorable voyages
"*" yet made, which extended farther, and terminated
more fortunately,, than the laft mentioned expeditions^
voyage of Terenty   TfebaefHkoi   and   company,   merchants of
Glottoff in the
Andrean and   Lalik, fitted out the Andrean and Natalia under the conx-
Jiataha, 1762. '
mand of Stephen Glottoff^ an experienced and fkilful
feaman of Yarenfk. This veflel failed from the bay of
the river Kamtchatka the i ft of October, 1762, manned
with thirty-eight Ruffians and eight Kamtchadals. In
eight days they reached Mednoi Oftroff, or Copper Ifland,
where having fought out a convenient harbour, they
Winters upon unloaded and laid up the veflel for the winter.    Their
Copper Ifland.
firft care was to fupply themfelves with provifions; and
they killed afterwards a quantity of ice-foxes, and a con
fiderable number of fea-otters.
. For the benefit of the crown and their own ufe in cafe
of need, they refolved to take on board all the remaining
tackle and iron work of Beering's fhip, which had been
left behind on Commander's Ifland, and was buried in
the beach. For this purpofe they difpatched, on the 27th
of May, Jacob Malevinfkoy (who died foon after) with
thirteen men in a baidar to that ifland, which was feventy
verfts diftant. They brought back with them twenty-
two pood of iron, ten of old cordage fit for caulker's ufe,
fome lead and copper, and feveral thoufand beans.
Gopper Ifland has its name from the native cOpper
found on the coaft, particularly at the Weftern point on
its South fide. Of this native copper Malevinfkoy brought
with him two large pieces weighing together twelve
pounds, which were picked up between a rock and the
fea on a ftrand of about twelve yards in breadth. Amongft
other floating bodies which the fea drives upon the fhores
of this Ifland, the true right camphor Wood, and another
fort of wood very white, foft, and fweet-fcented, are
occafionally found. ^ ^t$$#l
Every preparation for continuing theTivoVage f^frfjtSails *?the
Je^^e -^ 6 J   ™ . o Fox Hands.
made, they failed from Copper Ifland the 26th of July,
^63,   and fteered for the Iflands Umnak and Aguna-
P 2 lafhka, xo8
Arrive ac
feffaka,, where Glottoflehad formerly obferved great nu»-
hers of black,foxes. On account of ftorms and contrary
winds, they were thirty days before they fetched Umnak.-
Here they arrived the 24th of Augnfiv and without dropping anchor or lofing any time,., they refolved to fail further for the difcovery of new Iflands : fchey paffed eighjtr
contiguous to-each other and feparated by ftraitsj whielfc
were to the beft of their eftimation from twenty
hundred verfts broad.*;;' Glottoff however did not land?
till he reached the laft anrf moft Eaftward of thefe ifland^*
called by the inhabitants. Kadyak, from which the, natives faid it was-not far to the-coaft of a; wide extended*
woody continent. No land however was^ to be feen from^
a little ifland called by the natives Aktunak, which is fitu-=-
ated about thirty verfts more-to. the. Eaft than.Kadyak..
September 8th,. the veflel ran up a creek, lying,Sottas
Eaft of Aktunak,.. through which a rivulet empties- itfelfr
into the fea; this- rivulet comes from a lake fix verfts
long, one broad, and about fifty fathoms deep^ff*-During:
the ebb of the tide the veflel was left aground ; but the
return of the water fet her again afloat. Near the fhojKe
were four large huts, fo crouded with people, that their
number could fcarcely be counted : however, fen after
Glottoff's arrival, all thefe inhabitants quitted their dwel-
iikigs, and retired with precipitation. The next day fome
, baidars approached the veffel, and accofted
the people on board : and as Ivan Glottoff, the Aleutian
interpreter, did not well underftand the language of thefe
iflanders,. they foon afterwards returned with a boy whom
they had.formerly taken prifoner from Ifanak,. one of
the iflands which lie to the Weft o£.iKadyak. Him the:
Aleutian interpreter perfectly underftood : and by his
means every neceflary explanation could be obtained^
from,the iflanders*..
In this manner they converfed with the favages, and
endeavoured to perfuade them to become tributary; they
ufed alfo every argument in their power to prevail upon
them to-give up the boy for an interpreter,; but all their
entreaties were for the^prefent without eflfect.. The fa^-
vages rowed back to the cliff called Aktalin, which lies
about three verfts to the South of Kadyak,. where they
feemed. to have habitations^.
On the 6th of September Kaplin was fent with thirteen men to the cliff, to treat peaceably with the iflanders—
He found=there ten huts, from which about an.hundred
of fbe natives came out. They behaved feemingly in a
friendly manner, and anfwered the interpreter by the
boy,, that they had nobody proper for miioftage; but
that they would deliver up the boy to the Ruffians agree*?
able to their defire. Kaplin received him very than^t
fully, and brought him on board, where ;^e was properly taken care of |k he afterwards ac€»rnganied Glottoff
to io ACCOUNT   OF   THE
to Kamtchatka, and was baptized by the name of Alex*
ander Popoff, being then about thirteen years of age.
For fome days after this conference the iflanders came off
in companies of five, ten, twenty, and thirty: they
were admitted on board in fmall numbers, and kindly
received, but with a proper degree of circumfpection.
On the 3 th of September the veflel was brought fui>
ther up the creek without unloading her cargo : and on
the 9th Glottoff with ten men proceeded to a village on
the fhore about two hundred yards from the veflel,
where the natives had begun to refide: it confifted of
three fummer-huts covered only with long grafs : they
were from eight to ten yards broad, twelve long, and
about four high : they faw there about an hundred men,
but neither women nor children.
Finding it impoffible to perfuade the favages to give
hoftages, Glottoff refolved to let his people remain together, and to keep a ftrong guard.
The Nath e3
attack the
Ruffians, but
are defeated.
The iflanders vilited them ftill in fmall bodies; it Was
however more and more vifible that their intentions were
•feSfcl. At laft on the ift of October, by day break, a
great" number having affembled together in the remote
-fferts of the-ifland, came unexpectedly acrofs the country* H^Fhey approached very near without being oSlco^
vered by the watch, and feeing nobody on deck but thofe
on duty, fhot fuddenly into the veffel with arrows. The
watch found refuge behind the quarter boards, and gave
the alarm withont firing. Glottoff immediately ordered
a volley to be fired over their heads with fmall arms;
upon which they immediately returned with great expedition. As foon as it was day there was no enemy to be
feen: but they difcovered a number of ladders, feveral
bundles of hay in which the favages had put fulphur,
likewife a quantity of birch-tree bark, which had been
left behind in their precipitate flight.
They now found it very neceflary to be on their guard
againft the attempts of thefe perfidious incendiaries.
Their fufpicions were fall further increafed by the fubfe-
quent conduct of the natives : for though the latter came
to the veflel in fmall bodies, yet it was obferved that they
examined every thing, and more particularly the Watch,
with the ftricteft attention; and they always returned
without paying any regard to the friendly proportions.
of the Ruffians.
On the 4th of October about two hundred iflanders
made their appearance, carrying wooden fhields before
them, and preparing with bows and arrows for an attack.
Glottoff endeavoured at firft by perfuafion to prevail
upen them to defift ; but obferving that they ilill continued advancing* he refolved to venture a fally. This in-
|lj .        mti     Si   iipetrepidii$3 1
trepidity difooncerted the iflanders, and they immediately
retreated without making'theHeaft refiftance.
The ^6th of October they wentured a third attack,
and advanced towards the veffel for this purpofe by daybreak : the watch however gave the ^alarm in due time,
and the whole crew wereim mediately under arms. The
approach of day-light difcovered to their view different!
parties of the enemy advancing ..under the protection of
wooden fereens.     Of thefe mo^g hreaft-works   they
^counted feven; and behind each from thirty to forty
men armed wfeh bone lances. Befides thefe a croud of
-armed men  advanced feparately to the attack, fome of
them bearing whale jaw-bones, and others wooden fihields.
'Diffuafion proving ineffectual, and the arrows beginning
to fall even aboard the fhip, Glottoff gave orders to fire.
The Natives  The fhot from the fmall arms however not being of fore©-5
*are finally re-
3mbmsT the enouil|k*® pierce the fGreens, the iflanders advanced under
their protection with fteadinefs and intrepidity. Glottoff
neverthelefs determined to rifk afally of his whole crew
armed with mufkets and lances. The iflanders inftantly
threw down their fereens, and fled with precipitation until
they gained their boats, into which they threw themfelves
and rowed off. They had about feventeen large baidars
;and a number of fmall canoes. The fereens which they
left behind were made of three rows of flakes placed per-
vpendicularly, and bound together with fea-weed andofiers;
they were twelve feet broad, and above half a yard thick.
The iflanders now appearing to be fufficiently intimi- The Rufll
g tft^1       m&- J ■ ■ winter at
dated, t&e Ruffians began to hiiild a wjftt&f hut of floated
wood, and waited in a body the aj>pearance of faring
without further annoyance. Although they few nobody
before the 2£th of December, yet Glgftoff kept feis people, together; fending out Qceafionally fmall hunting and
fifhijig parties to the lake, which lay about five verfts
from t$ie creek. Dugfog the whole winter they caught
in the Jfcke feveral different fpe.ef§s of tg©ut and falmp%
foles, and herrings of a fpan and a h#l£ long? and even
turbot and cod-fifh, which came up with the flood into
the lake,
Atlaft, on the 25 th of December, two iflanders came
to the fhip, and converfed at a diftance by means of
interpreters. Although propofals of peace, and trade
were held out to them in the moft friendly manner, yet they went off without feeming to put much
confidence in thefe offers: nor did any of them
appear again before the 4th of April, 1764. Want
of fufficient exercife in the mean time brought on a
violent fcurvy among the crew, by which diforder nine
perfons were carried off.
On the 4th of April four iflanders made their appear
ance, and .Teemed to pay more attention to the propo-
fal)s?3? one of them at laft advanced, and offered to barter
two fpx-fkins for beads.    They did not fet the leaft va-
Q lue 11 A.
are reconc
to-the Ruffians.
iuaed *ue npon other gpods of various kinds, fuch as fhirtsr
linen, and nankeen, but demanded glafs beads of different
colours, for which they exchanged their fkins witi&
pleafufe. This friendly traffic*, together with Glottoff &
entreaties, operated fo- powerfully, that, after holding a-
confultation with their countrymen, they returned with
a folemn declaration, that their brethren would in future:;
commit no hoflilities againft the Ruffians. From thafr
time until their departure a daily intercourfewas carried1'
on with the iflandersy who brought all* forts of fox and*
fea-otter fkins, and received in exchange a fiapulated-
number of beads. Some of them were even perfuaded'^
to pay a tribute of fkins, for which, receipts were givem-
Amongft other wares the Ruffians procured" two fmair.
carpets, worked or platted in a curious manner, and on.
one fide fet clbfe with beaver-wool like velvet:   they
could not  however learn whether thefe carpets   were
wrought by the iflanders.    The latter brought alfo for
fale well-dreffed fea-otter fkins, the hair of which was
fhorn quite fhort with fharp" flones, in fuch a* manner,.
that the remainder, which was of  a yeilowifh brown
colour, gllftened and appeared like velvet.    Their caps
had furprifing and fometimes very ornamental decorations : fome of them had on the forepart combs adorned
with manes like an helmet ;* others, feemingly peculiar
to the females, were made of inteftines ftitched together with rein-deer hair and finews in a moft elegant
tafte, and ornamented on the crown with long ftreamers
of hair died of a beautiful red. Of all thefe curiofities
Glottoff carried famples to Kamtchatka*.
The natives differ conliderably in drefs and language
from the inhabitants of the other Fox Iflands.: and feveral fpecies -of animals were obferved upon Kadyak,
which are not to be found upon the other iflands, viz.
ermines, martens, beavers, river otters, wolves, wild boars, Animals «f
and bears: the 1 aft-mentioned animal was not indeed
actually feen by the Ruffians, hut the prints of its feet
were traced. Some of the inhabitants had clothes made
of the fkins of reki-deer and jevras-; the latter of which
is a fort of fmall marrhofet. Both thefe fkinS were probably procured from the continent of America -f^ Black,
brown, and red foxes were feen in great numbers ; and
the coaft abounds with fea-dogs, fea-bears, fea-lions, and
fea-otters. The birds are cranes, geefe, ducks, gufls^
ptarmigans, crows, and magpies-; but no Uncommon
fpecies was any where difcovered.    The vegetable pro-
* Thefe.and feveral other ornaments of afimilar kind are preferved
in the cabinet of curiofities at the Academy of Sciences of St.. Peterfburg : a cabinet which well merits the attention of the curious traveller; for it contains a large colie<9&on of the drefTes of - the Eaftern
nations. Amongft the reft one compartment is entirely filled with the
dreffes3 arms, and implements, brought from the new difcovered iflands.
rf- Although this conjecture is probable, yet, when the reader^cecol-
lects that the ifland Alakfu is faid to contain rein-deer, lie will perceive
that the inhabitants of Oilyak might have been fjippHed with the fkms
<©£ that animal from thence.    See p. 68.
Q 2 ductions Account of th
. Inhabitants.
ductions are bilberries, cranberries, wortleberries, and
wild lily-roots. Kadyak likewife yields willows and alders, which circumftance affords the ftrongeft proof that
it lies at no great diftance from the continent of America.
The extent of Kadyak cannot be exactly ajcert2|tt»ed,
as the Ruffians, through apprehenfion of the natives, did
not venture to explore the country.
The inhabitants, like thofe of the Aleutian and nearer
iflands, make holes in the under-lips and through the
griftle of the nofe, in which they infert the bones of
birds and animals worked into the form of teeth. Their
clothes are made of the fkins of birds, foxes, fea-c^ters,
young rein-deer, and marmofets; they few them together
with finews. They wear alfo fur-ftockings of rein-deer
fkins, but no breeches. Their arms are bows, arrows,
and lances, whofe points, as well as their fmall hatchets,
are of fharp flint: fome few make kjpives and lance
points of rein-deer bones. Their wooden fhields are
called kuyaky, which amongft the Greenlanders fignifies
a fmall canoe. Their manners are altogether rude.
They have not the leaft difpofMon to give a courteous
reception to ftrangers : nor does there appear amongft
tbemfejves any kind of deference or fubmiffion from
one to another.
Their canoes are fome of them fo fmall as to contain
only one or two perfons; others are large baidars fimilar
to the women's boats of the Greenlanders. Their food
confifts chiefly of raw and dried filh, partly caught at
fea with bone hooks, and partly in rivulets, in bagnets
made of finews platted together. They call themfelves Kanagift, a name that has no fmall refemblance to
Karafit; by which appellation, theGreeiilanders and Efqui-
maux on the coaft of Labradore diftinguifli themfelves :
the difference between thefe two denominations is occasioned perhaps by a change of pronunciation, or by a
miftake of the Ruffian failors, who may have given it
this variation. Their numbers feem very confiderable
on that part of the ifland, where they had their fixed
The ifland Kadyak* makes,with Aghunalafhka, Umnak,
and the fmall iflands lying between them, a continued
Archipelago, extending N. E. and E. N. E. towards America : it lies by the {hip's reckoning in 230 degrees of
longitude ; fo that it cannot be far diftant from that
part of the American coaft which Beering formerly
touched at.
The large ifland Alakfu,  lying Northward from  Kadyak where PufJbkaref t wintered, muft be frill nearer the
* Kadyak is not laid down upon any chart of the neW difcovered
iflands : for we have no cWrt of *Gtotteff% /i^age ; and no other Ruffian navigator touched at th^tJifland.
-f See Chap. VI.
contment: rzo
and defired by the interpreter Glottoff and two of his
people to come on fhore and barter. Glottoff however, having fufncient caufe to diftruft the favages, refufed
to comply with their demands : upon this they immediately landed, and fliot from the fhore with fire-arms, Ifflaff
\tekhout doing any execution. They were even bold enough
to get into their canoes a fecond time, and to row near the
veffel. In order if poffible to procure intelligence from
them, every method of perfuadmg them to peace was tried
by means of the interpreters ; and at laft one of them
approached the fhip and demanded vilfcuals, which being
tferown to him, he came on board. He then related the
fate of the above-mentioned veflel, of which ,the inlanders:
had madcihemfelves mafters ; and gave likewife fome intelligence concerning the remaining fmall body of fugitives
under the command of Korovin. He alfo confeffed,
that their defign was to entice Glottoff on fhore, and
then to kill him; for which purpofe more than thirty
if&ndep were ported in ambufh behind the neareft
r0$ksw After cutting off the leader, they imagined $fc
would be an eafy matter to feize upon the fhip. Upon tfeis information Glottoff detained the iflander on
board, and landing with a ftrong party attacked the
£aarages_; the latter fhot with arrows, as well as from
the mufkets which they had feized, but without effect,
andewere. foon forced to retire to their canoes. RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
July the 14th a violent ftorm arofe, in which Glot-
ioff's veffel parted her cable, and was forced on fhore
without any other lofs than that of an anchor. The
-crew likewife,' through want of frefli provifions, began
to grow fo fickly, that they were almoft in a defencelefs
ftate. Glottoff however, with ten men, fet out the 28th
of July for that part of the ifland, where according to
information they expected to find Korovin. They difcovered only parts of the wrecks but none of the crew,
fo that they now gave them up for loft. But on the
2d of Auguft, as Glottoff was on his way back, five
iflanders approached him in canoes, and afked why the
baidar had been out; to which a falfe anfwer being
given, they told him, that on the other fide of the ifland
he would find Korovin with his people, who were
building an hut on the fide of the rivulet. Upon receiving this intelligence, Glottoff and his companions
went over land to the place pointed out by the iflanders,
and found every thing agreeable to their information t*
in this Korovin had not the leaft fhare, not having
been made privy to the tranfaction. The circumftances
of his joining, and afterwards feparating from Glottoff
have already been mentioned*.
* See the preceding Chapter.
Glottoff I
Glottoff" winters upon
Glottoff now refolved to winter upon Umnak, and accordingly laid up his veflel for that purpofe. On the 2d
of September Korovin, as is before related, was at his
own defire fent out with a hunting party in two baidars.
On his return, in May 1765, they had the firft fhtellrgence
of the arrival of Solovioff's veffel, which lay before
Unafafhkar and of which an account fhall be given*;
None of the iflanders appeared near the harbour during
the winter, and there were none probably at that time
upon Umnak ; for Glottoff made excurfions on all fides,
and went once round the ifland. .He likewife looked
into the habitations of the iflanders, and found them
empty: he examined the country and caufed a ftrict fearch
to be.made after the remains-of the plundered veffel.,
- According to his account Umnak is about 300 verfts in
circumference. It contains feveral fmall rivulets, which
take their rife from lakes, and fall into the fea after a
very fhort courfe. No trees were obferved upon the
ifland, and. the vegetables were the fame as thofe of
*• Chag^XIv
The following fummer fmall parties of the inhabitants
were feen ; but they immediately fled upon the approach
of the Ruffians. Some of them however were at laft
perfuaded to a friendly intercourfe and to pay a tribute:
by thefe means they got back part of the arms, anchors,
and iron work, of the plundered veffel. They continued
to barter with the natives during the fummer of 1765,
exchanging beads for the fkins of foxes and fea-otters.
The following winter hunting: parties were fent out departure from
& .      o   r Umnak.
in Umnak as well as to Unalafhka; and in July 1766
Glottoff, without meeting wifih any more difficulties
began his voyage homewards. We fhall here conclude
with giving a copy of the journal kept on board Glottoff's
veflel, the Andrean and Natalia; from which inferences with regard to the fituation of the jflands may
be drawn.
R 2
Journal i a*
Journal of Glottoff, on board the Andrean and Natalia-
Journal of the       I 7 6 2 .
Oct, i. Sailed from Kamtchatka Bay.
2. Wind Southerly, fteered between E. and S. E-
three hours.
3. Wind S* E. worked at N. E. courfe,  16 hours.
4. From midnight failed Eaft with a fair wind,  1 &
5. At Six o'clock A»Mv difcovered Beering's Ifland
diftant about 18 verfts.
6. At 1 o'clock came to anchor on the So^th Eaft
point of Gopper Ifland.
7. At 8 A.M. failed to the South fide of the Ifland^
anchored there at 10 o'clock.
1763- H .-' ' ■■•■
July 26.  Sailed from Copper Ifland at 5 P. M.
27. Sailed with a fair S.S. W. wind, 17 hours.
28. Made little way.
29. Drove—wind E. N. Es
30. Ditto.
31. Ditto.
Aug. 1. Ditto.
2. At n A.M. wmd N.E. fteeredE.
3. Wind W. S. W. failed 8 knots an hour, 250
4. Wind South—failed 150 verfts..
5. Wind ditto-—failed 126 verfts.
6. Wind ditto,  3 knots, 45 verfts.
7. Calm.
8. During the night gentle S, E. wind fteered, N.E.
at -*i knots.
9. Forenoon calm* At 2 o'clock P. M. gentle
N. E. wind, fteered between E. N. E. and S.E.
at the rate of three knots.
1 o. Morning, wind E. N. E. afterwards S. S. W. wish
which fteered N.E.
11. At 5 o'clock the wind S. S. E. fteered E. N. E.
at the rate of three knots.
12. Wind S. fteered E-at 2 ^ knots, failed 50 verfts.
13. Wind S.S.E. fteered E. at 44 knots, failed 90
14. Wind W. N. W. at 2 knots,  failed 30 verfts.
15. The wind  frefhened,   at   4   knots, failed 60
ifS. Wind N. N. E. fteered E. S. E. at 3 knots, failed 30 verfts.
17. Wind  E.S. E.  and   S.E.  light   breezes   and
At&. Wind S.E. fteered N.E. at 34 knots,  failed
in 12 hours 2 2 verfts.
j9. Wind S. and light breezes,* fteered E. at 3 knots
failed in 8 hours 1 t verfts.
2o« Before day-break cahn; three hours after funT
3JSfefe- a breeze fprung up at S. E. fteered E. N. E.
at 3 knots, and failed 20 verfts.
22.  Calm )u&
22*  Calm,
23. Wind S. S.E. during the night, the fhip failed
at the rate of 2 knots ; the wind afterwards
came round to the S. S. W- and the fhip failed
at   5  to  6 knots thefe  24 hours  150 verfts.
24. Saw land at day-break, at 3 knots failed 45
25. Wind W. S. W* failed along the coaft thefe. 24
hours 50 verfts.
.26. Wind N, W. fteered N.E. at 5 gj knots,  100
27. Wind  E- N. E. the fliip drove towards land,
on which difcovered a high mountain;
28. Wind N. E. and ftormy, the fhip drove.
29. Wind N. W. fteered E. N. E. at the rate of 3
30. Wind S. S. E. at 6 knots, fleering again towards land.
31. A violent ftorm, Wind weft.
Sept. 1.. Wind  Weft, fteered N. E.  at the  rate of 3
knots towards land.
2. Wind S. W. fteered N. E. towards land at 5 knots.
3. Wind S. W. drove N. N.E. along the coaft.
4. Wind W. N. W, fteered N. E. at 4 knots, failed
100 verfts.
5. Wind N. W. fteered E.N.E. at 3 knots, and to
wards evening came to anchor off the Ifland
1764. ■   ' •   • -     " ^   -
May 24.  Sailed from Kadyak.
25. Wind N. W. and made but little way W. S. Ws
26. Wind W. fhip drove towards S. E.
27. Wind W. S. W. fhip drove E. S. E. The fame
day the wind came round to the S. when fteered again towards Kadyak.
28. Wind E.S. E. fell in with the ifland Alafka or
29. Wind S.W. fteered N.W-
30. Wind W. N. W. the fhip drove under the
31. Wind W. drove to the Southward.
June 1. WindW. S. W. landed on the Iffend Saktunak,
for a fupply of water.
2. Wind S- E. fteered S. W. along the ifland at
. 3 knots.
3. Wind N. E. fteered W. S. W. at the rate of 3
to 4 knots,faUmginthefe 24 hours 100 verfts*.
4. Calm.
5. At 8 o'clock A. M. a fmall breeze S. E.
6. Wind E. afterwards calm. Towards evening;
the wind S. E. fteered S. W. at 3 knots, and
unexpectedly difcovered land ahead, which*
kept clear of with difficulty.
From the 7 th to. the iath. at anchor off a fmall
cliff.        .;......,.   - . ; ;§e
10.  A hard gale at S. the fhip drove foul of the;
anchor,, flood out to. fea fleering E..
5- 11. An- ACCOUNT   OF   THE
11. Anchored again at a fmall diftance from land.
13. Wind S. S* W. ftood  out to fea and  fteered
14. Wind W. S. W. fteered S. S. E. at the rate of
1 knot.
15. Calm.
16. Wind S. fteered W. at 1 knot, the fhip drove
a little to the Northward.
17. Wind S. S. E. fteered W. S. W. at 3 knots.
18. Calm,
19. Ditto.
20. Wind N. E.. fteered S. W. and failed this day
about 87 verfts.
21. The Wind blowing right ahead, came to
anchor off an unknown ifland, where continued till the
25. When ftood out to fea early in the morning.
26. Wind W. N. W. afterwards W. fteered S. E.
27. Calm, kk the night a fmall but favourable
28. Wind N. W. continued the courfe, at the
rate of 2 to 3 knots *.
29. Wind N. E. fteered W. at 3 to 4 knots, and
faw land.
30. Wind N. E. fteered S. W. at the rate of 7
Lief man bey nordweftwind auf den curs zu z bis 3 knoten.
TJuly i. With the fame wind and courfe, at the rate of
5 knots, failed 200 verfts.
.2. Fell in with the ifland Umnak, and came to
an anchor under a fmall ifland until next
day; when brought the fhip into the harbour, and laid her up-
June 13. Brought the fhip into the harbour, and continued at anchor there until the 3d of July.
July 3. Got under way.
4. Wind E.
5. A South Weft wind drove the fhip about 50
verfts N. E.
6. Wind S. failed about 60 verfts W.
ffM Wind W. S. W. the fhip drove to the Northward.
"8. Wind N. W. fteered S. at the rate of one knot.
^. Wind N. W. fteered the whole day W. S. W.
10. Wind S. S. W. failed about 40 verfts W. N. W.
11. Wind S. W. continued the fame courfe, failing
only 5 verfts.
12. Continued the fame courfe, and failed 55 verfts,
13. For the moft part:,calm.'
14. Wind W. N. W. and ftormy, the fhip drove
under the forefail.
15. Wind S. failed on the proper courfe 100 verfts.
16. Wind E. S. E. failed W. S. W. at the rate of 6
Hr knots, 100 verfts.
17. Wind N. N. W. failed S. W. at the rate of 2
knots, 30 verfts.
S 18. Wind r$o
18. Wind S» fteered W. at the rate of 5 knots,, arki
failed 130 verftf,
19. Wind S. W. the fhip drove under tttfc- forefail.
20. Wind:-E. N.E. fleered W-N.. W.   at the rate,
I of 3 knots.,
21. Wind E. N. E. at the rate of 4 to 5. knotsy failed
200 verfts.
22. Wind N.E. at 47 knots,. 150 verfts..
23.. Wind E. N.E. fteered W. at 3 knots,!00 verfts..
24. Wind E. fteered W^at the rate of 3; knots, 50*
25. Wind N. E. fteered W. at 5 knots 100 verfts*
26. The wind continued N. E. and frefhened, fleered*
W. at the rate of 7 knots,, 2 ao verfts,.
27. M final! breeze N. N.. W. with whi&h however:
felled 150 verfts.
2.8. Wind being W. S. W. drove 24 hours under
b are-poles-
29- Wind Sou^hy fteered W. at the rate of 2 knots,,
48 verfts—-"this day faw land..
30. Wind SrS.-E. failed,,at the rate of 4 knots, $&
verfts,. and approached the land, which found
to be the ifland Karaga—From the 1 ft to the
13th of Auguftj continued our voyage towards
the mouth of Kamtchatka river, fometimes
plying to windward, fometimes driving, and at
laft^arrived happily with a rich cargo.
CHAP. 8   sl a  p.
SoloviofPs voyage—-be reaches Unalafhka, and paffes two
winters upon that ifland**—relation of what paffed there
-—fruitlefs attempts of the natives to deftroy the crew—j
Return of Solovioff to Kamtchatka—-journal of his
voyage in returning——defcription of the iflands Urnnak
'-and Unalafhka—*-produBions-***inhabitants-*—-their manners—cuftoms, &c. 8§P^.
Tn the year 1764, Jacob Uledaikofly merchant of Ir-^^L-
kutfk and company, fitted out a fhip called the Holy*
A pottles Peter and Paul, under the command of Ivan
Solovioff,: fhe failed from the mouth of Kamtchatka
river the 25th of Auguft. The crew confined of fifty*
five men, amongft whom were fome of the owners,
and thirteen Kamtchadals.
Thev fteered at firft S. E. with the wind at N. W* but
on its coming foutherly they afterwards fhaped their
courfe E. N. E. The 27th one of the Ruffian failors
died off Kamtchatka point; the 31ft they made Beering's
I nana, which they paffed leaving it on their left. The
1 ft and 2d of September they were becalmed, and afterwards the wind fpringing up at W* S. W. they continued
& S 2 their :a:c count
their former courfe; until the 5th they failed on withe
the wind at fouth; but on the 5th and 6th, from;
changeable breezes and dead calms, made no progrefs.;;
from the 7th. to the 13th, they faired E. S. E. with
Southerly and Wefterly winds ; and from that time to*
the fifteenth Eaft,, with the wind at Wefl-
.Arriva] at
September 16, they made, the ifland Umnak,-where:'
Solovioff had formerly been in Nikiphoroff 's veffel^ As-
they failed alongvthe Northern coaft, three iflanders came
to' them in baidars; but, the crew having no. interpreter,,
they would not come on board. As they found no good,
bay on that fhore, they proceeded through a ftrait of
about a verft broad, which feparates Umnak from Unalafhka. They lay-to during the night;, and early on
the 17th dropped anchor at the diftance of about two
hundred yards from the fhore, in a bay on the North
fide of the laft mentioned ifland.
From thence the captain difpatched Gregory Korenoff
at the head of twenty men in a baidar, with orders to
land, reconnoitre the country, find out the neareft habitations, and report the difpofition of the people. Korenoff returned the fame day, with an account that he had
difcovered one of the dwelling-caves of the favages, but
abandoned and demolifhed, in which he had found traces
of Ruffians, viz. a written legend, and a broken mufket-
ftock.    In confequence of this intelligence, they brought
the fhip near the coaft, and endeavoured to get into the
mouth of a river called by the natives Tfikanok, and by
th^Ruffians Oiernia, but were prevented by fhallow water.
They landed however their tackle and lading. No na^-
. fives made their appearance until the 2 2d, when two-of
them came of their own accord, and welcomed the Ruffians on their-arrival. They told them names, and were
recognized by Solovioff; he had known them on a
former expedition, when Agiak, one of the two^ had
ferved as an interpreter; the other, whofe name was.
Kafhmak, had voluntarily continued fome time with.the:
crew on. the fame occafion.
Thefe two perfons recounted the particular circum-!-
fiances which attended the lofs of KulkofPs,. ProtaffofPs,
and Trapefnikoff's veflels;: from the laft of which Kafhmak had,-with great hazard of his life, efcaped by flight.
Agiak. had ferved as interpreter to Protaflbff's company^
and related that the iflanders, after murdering the bantr*
ing detachments of the Ruffians, came to: the harbour,
and entered the fhip under the moft friendly appearances.
Finding the crew in perfect fecurity, they fuddenly attacked and flew them, together with their commander.
He added, that he had.hid himfelf under a.bench until
the murderers were gone : that fince that time, he, as
weR as Kafhmak, had lived as fugitives ; and. in the
courfe of their wanderings had learned the following-
intelligence from the girls who were gathering berries in
vo«fc*it :34
the fields. The Toigons of Umnak, Akutan, anl
Tofliko, with their relations of Unalafhka^ had formed a
confederacy. They agreed not to difturb any Ruffians
on their firft landing, but to let them go out on different
hunting excurfions ; being thus feparated anftjgseakened,
the intention of the Toigons were to attack and cu£
them off at the fame time, fo that no one party fhould
have affiftance from any of the others. They acquainted
bim alfo with GlottofPs arrival at Umnak.
Thefe unfavourable reports filled Solovioff with anx*
iety; he accordingly doubled his watch, and ufed every
precaution in his power againft attacks from the favages^
But wanting wood to repair his veffel, and wiffiing for
more particular information concerning the fituation of
>the ifland, he difpatched the 29th a party of thirty men,
with the above-mentioned interpreter, to its weftern ex-.
trernity. In three or four hours they rowed to Anko-
nom, a point of land, where they faw a village, confifting
of two large caves, and over againft it a little ifland at no
great diftance. The foomentthe inhabitants faw therm
approaching, they got into their baidars, and put out to
fea, leaving their dwellings empty. The Ruffians found
therein feveral fkeletons, which, in the interpreter's'
opinion, were the remains of ten murdered failors of
TrapefhikofPs company. With much perfuafion the
interpreter prevailed on the iflanders to return to the place
which they had Jaft quitted: they kept however at a
wary diftance,   and were^tarmed for whatever   might
SoloviofFmttempting to cut off their retreat, in orde£Hoftiir«es be
tween Solovi-
to fecuie if poffible fome hoftages,. they took the alarm,.^^1*16
and began themfelves the attack. Upon this the Ruffians
fired, upon and purfued them; four were killed, and
fevemlliken prisoners, among whom was the Toigon of
the little ifland Sedak„ Thefe prifonersr being bound,
arid examined, eonfefled that a number of Korovin's crew
nad been murdered ki this place $* and the Toigon feng
peopleAo bring in a number of rnufkets, fome kettles
and tackle, whieh the natives had taken upon that occa—
fion* AePhey alfo brought intelligence that Korovin, with
a party in two baidarsr had taken fhelter at a place called
Inalga. Upon this information, letters were immediately
fent to Korovin ;. upon the receipt of which he joined;
fchem the 2d; of October..
At the time of Korovin's arrivalr the favages made
another attack on SoloviofPs watch with knives ; whic&s
obliged the latter- to fire, and fix of tire affailants were
left dead on the fpot.. The captive Toigon e^feufed
this attempt of his people by afcrifciBg it to their fears,,
left Korovin out of revenge fhould put all the prifoners to
death ; on which account this effect was made to refcue
them> Solovioff, for the greater fecurity, fent the pri-
foaera by land to the haven,; while Korovin and  his
W*9f i4$j
party went to the fame place by fea. The Toijgon however was treated kindly, and even permitted to returjfe>
home on condition of leaving his fon as an hoftage. In
eonfequenee of this kind behaviour the inhabitants of
three other villages, Agulak, KutchlcdLj.and Makufki pre-
fented hoftages of their own accord.
Solovioff lays
.ai.p the YeffeJ,
and winters
.upon Una-
From the remaining timber of the old dwelling-the
Ruffians built a new hut; and on the fourteenth they
laid up the veffel. Koronoff was then fent upon a reconnoitring party to the Southern fide of the ifland, w^kj|g
in that part was-not more-than five or S.X. verfts broad.:
he proceeded on w?ith his companions, fometimes rowing,
in canoes, fometimes travelling by land an^rdragging
them after. He returned the twentieth, and reported:
that he had found upon the coaft on the further fide of
the ifland an empty habitation. That he rowed from
thence Eaftward alongthe fhore, and behjindthe hjft point
of land came to an ifland in the next bay ; there he found
about forty iflanders of both fexes lodged under their
baidars, who by his friendly behaviour had beenjnduced
to give him three hoftages. Thefe people afterwards
Igttled in the above-mentioned empty hut, and came frequently: to the harbour.
-On the 28th of October, Solovioff himfelf went alfo
upon a Reconnoitring party along the North coaft, towtards
the North-Eaft end of the ifland.    He rowed from the
felt promontory aerofs a bay; and found on the oppofite
point of land a dwelling place called Agulok, which lies
about four hours row from the harbour. - He found there
thirteen men and about forty women and children, who
^delivered up feveral gun-barrels and fhip-ffores, and like-
wife informed him of two of Korovin's crew, who had
ibeen murdered*
November 5, they proceeded farther; and after five or
fe: haaFS>r»w*hg,-^chey faw on a point of land another
■dwelling called IkutcMok, beyond which the interpreter
lhewed them the haven, where Korovin's fhip had been
;at anchor. This was called Makufhirrfhy Bay ; and on
3fri iilafltfi Within it they foand two Toigons, called Itch-
adak and Kagumaga, with about an hundred and eighty
people of botK'fexes employed in hunting fea-bears.
Thefe na^ves Were not in the leaft hoftHe, and Solovioff
^endeavoured to eftabfifh and confirm a frMidfy intercourfe
betweetf -tfeem and Ms people. He remained with them
until fhe 10th, when the Toigons incited him to their
-winter quarters, wKfctf lay about five hours fail farther
3Saft: there he found two dwelling caves, eadb of forty
yards fquare, near a rivulet abounding with nfh which
-foil from a Ififee into a little bay. -m the neighbourhood
of this village is a hot fpriffg below the fea mark, Which
iscanl^fto be feen a£ebb tide.    $rom hence he departed
■4' the u*
the 25th, but was forced back by ftorms, and detained
there until the 6th of December.
Kagumaga then accompanied him to another village
called Totchikala ; both the Toigon and the interpreter:
advifed him to be on his guard againft the natives, whom
they reprefented as very favage, fworn enemies to the
Ruffians, and the murderers of nine of Kulkoff's crew.
Solovioff for thefe reafons paffed the night on the open
coaft, and next morning fent fhe Toigon before to infpire
the natives  with  more friendly fentiments.     Some of
them liftened to his reprefentations ; but the greateft part
fled upon Solovioff's approach, fo that he found the place
confifting of four large dwelling caves almoft empty, inc
which he fecured himfelf with fuitable precaution.    Here
he found three hundred darts and ten bows with arrows^
all which he deftroyed, only referving one bow and fe-
venteen arrows as fpecimens of their arms.    By the mofb*
friendly arguments he urged the few natives who- remained to lay afide their enmity, and to perfuade their?
leaders and relations to return to their habitations and?
live on terms of amity and friendfhip^   ^|§
On the 10th about-an hundred men and a ftill greater:
number of women returned..    But the faireft fpeeches
had no effect on thefe favages, who kept aloof and pre-.
lStfes0f   Parec* f°r hoftilities, which they began on the 17th by
an open attack.    Nineteen of them were killed, amongft
whom was Inlogufak one of their leaders, and the rridft
inveterate fomenter of hoftilities againft the Ruffians.
The other leader Aguladock being alive confeffed,
that on receiving the firft news of Solovioff's arrival
they had refolved to attack the crew and burn the
fhip. Notwithftanding this confeffion, no injury was
offered to Jaim : in confequence of this kind ufage he was
prevailed upon to deliver up his fon as an hoftage, and
to crder his people to live on friendly terms with the
Ruffians. During the month of January the natives delivered in three anchors, and a quantity of tackle Which
had been faved from a veffel formerly wrecked on that,
coaft; and at the fame time they brought three boys
and two young girls as hoftages and pledges of their
future fidelity.
vJanuary 25, Solovioff fet out for the haven where
his fhip lay : before his departure the Toigons of Maku-
fhinfk paid of their own accord a double tribute. |||
February 1, Kagumaga of Makufhink, Agidalok of
Totzikala, and Imaginak of Ugamitzi, Toigons of Unalafhka, with a great number of their relations, came to
Solovioff; they acquainted him with the arrival of a Ruffian fhip at Unimak, the fixth ifland to the Eaft of
Agunalafhka, adding that they knew none of the crew
excepting a Kamtchadal named Kirilko, who had been
there on a former occafion. They likewife informed
him that the natives, after having cut off part of the
T 2 crew A*C C O U N T   O r   T BE'
erew who had been fent out m two baidars, had^
found means to-overpowe*-- the remainder sad to deftroy
the veffel. • From the name of the Kara&chadal thoy con^-
efuded that this muft have been-'anomer veffel fitted our
|ly Nikiphor Trapefnikoff and company,, of which no-
farther*intelligence was ever received. prdn-
eure farther intelligence, they endeavoured to perfuade
the Toigons to fend a party of their peopleHO the above-
mentioned MI|nd*;~ but the latter exeufedtliemfelvesj.; orp
account of the great diftance and their- dread of t&e^
February 16,. Solovioff fet out a fecond; time for the
Weft end of the ifland, where they had formerly taken
prifoner, and afterwards fet at liberty,- the Toigon of
Sedak. From thence he proceeded to* Ikolga, which
lies on the bay, and corififts of only one hiuv On the
26th he,came to Takamitka, where there is likewife
only one hut on a point of land by the fide of a rivulet,
which falls from the mountains into the fea. Here he
met with Korovin, in whofe company he cut the blubber
of a whale, which the waves had eaft on fhore; after
this Korovin went acrofs the gulph to Umnak, and he
proceeded to Ikaltfhinfk, where on the 9th one of his
party was carried off by ficknefs.
March 15 he returned to the haven, having met with
no oppofition from the iflanders during this excurfion.
On ba^ return he found one of the <arew dead, and a
dreadful fcurvy ragbag amongft the reft; of that diftem-
per five Ruffians died in,March, eight and a Kamtchadal
\fk April, and fix more <in May. About this time the iflanders were obferved to pay frequentjvifits to the hoftages ;
and upon enquijspig |#jvately into; the reafon, fome of
the latter difcovered,. that the inhabitants of Makufhinfk
had formed the defign of cutting off the crew, and of
making themfelves maftei^; of the veflel. Solovioff had*
now great reafpns to be apptehenfive, for the crew were
afflicted wi^h,tb#t^^i,vy to fuch a violent degree, that out
of the wfeole number only twelve perfons were capable
erf .defending themfelgfs*. Thefe dfl&umftanees did not
efeap& «h§ opfervation of the natives; and they were accordingly infjared. with frefii courage to renew- their,
On the 27th of May the Ruffians perceived the Toigon 1
of Rchadak, who had formerly paid a voluntary .tribute,
near the fhore : he was accompanied by feveral:iflanders
in three baidaTiS. Solovioff calling to him by. the interpreter he came on fhore, but kept' at a diftance defiring
a conference with fome of: his relations. Solovioff gave
orders to feize him ; and they were lucky enough to take
jpfcm prifoner, together with two of his companions. He
immediately confelfed, that he had come wth a view of
enquiwg of the hoftages how many Ruffians were fti&
remaining: having procured the neceflary intelligence,
his 142
his intention was to furprife the watch at a convenient
feafon, and afterwards to fet fire to the fhip. As they
faw feveral iflanders row paft the harbour at the fame
time, and the Toigon likewife informed them, that they
were affembling to execute the abovementioned defign;
Solovioff refolved to be much upon his guard. They
feparated, however, without attempting "any hoftilities.
June 5, Glottoff arrived at the harbour on a vifit, and
returned on the 8th to his fhip. The captive Toigon
was now fet at liberty, after being ferioufly exhorted to
defift from hoftilities. In the courfe of this month two
more of the crew died ; fo that the arrival of Korovin,
who joined them about this time, with two of his own
and two of Kulkoff s crew, was of courfe a very agreeable circumftance. The lick likewife began to recover
by degrees.
July 22, Solovioff, with a party of his people, in two
baidars, made another excurfion Northwards; he paffed
by the places formerly mentioned as far as Igonok,
which lies ten verfts beyond Totzikala.<|l Igonok confiftf
of one dwelling cave on the fide of a rivulet, which falls
from the mountains, and empties itfelf into the fea. The
inhabitants amounted to about thirty men, who dwelt
there wkh their wives and children. From thence
Solovioff proceeded along the fhore into a bay; five verfts
further he found another rivulet, which has its fource
among the hills and flows through a plain.
Upon the fhore of the fame bay, oppofite to the
mouth of this rivulet, lay two villages, one of which
only was inhabited; it was called Ukunadok, and con-
fifted of fix dwelling; caves. About thirty-five of the
inhabitants were at that time employed in catching fal-
mon in the rivulet. Kulkoff's fhip had lain at anchor
about two miles from thence ; but there were no remains of her to be found. After coming out of the bay
he went forwards to the fummer village Umgaina diftant
about feven or eight leagues, and fituated on the fide
of a rivulet, which takes its rife in a lake abounding with
felmon. Here he found the Toigom Amaganak, with
about ten of the nativeSj employed in filhing. Fifteen
verfts farther along the fhore they found another fummer village called Kalaktak, where there was likewife
another rivulet, which came from the hills. The inhabitants were fixty men and an hundred and feventy
women and children : they gave Solovioff a very friendly
reception; and delivered up two hoftages, who were
brought from the neighbouring ifland Akutan; with
thefe he fet out on his return, and on the 6th of Auguft
jioined his crew,.
On fhe nth he went over-' to}Hijifland Umnak, accompanied by Korovin, to bring off fome fliips ftores
left there by the latter; andaeturued to the hayerion
the 27th. On the '3aft Shaffyrin died, the fame^erfoR
whofe adventures, have] been already related.
Sept. 19.   Korenoff was  %it  no^hwards   upon  an
hunting party ; he returned the 30th of January, 1766.
Although the Ruffians who remained at the haven  met
with no:moleftarion from the naiads during his[ abfence^
yet he .and his companions  were  repeate#y  attacked.
.Having di%ibute$ to the inh%^kan^ of the feveral villages through wlpiqri he paffed nets for the purpofe of
catching fea-otters,;:'he Wjentto the ^ft part ofcthe ifland
.as. far as Kalaktak wi$a, j an ^atentio^of hi^t'ii&g;     Upon
his arrival $t that place, tt£n the 33^ of Q$ofeer, $he i®r
habit antSgfied wi|jh precijpt^tgQRgfcignd as all &is e^rte to
connate their aff^^ons.^ere^efB#ual, /lieffouQfiifeffe*
quifite to be upon fes ga^rd. Nor was this^r^autiQifcun-
neceffary.; forv-on the following day t^ey r§tjJM?ned in a
iC^n^derable body,: armed w4tihlf&e$& ijjade w&h the
iroa, of tjbe j^uijbdered veflfftfec  l£©?en@jfj- k@$&W?t and
l&is companions,   who were prepared-to receive th#$a^
killed twenty-fix,   and  took  feveral prj^agsrsi;   upo©.
iwhich the others became more tractable.
Jffov. 19. Korenoff, uppa ^s return to the haven, eaftie
to Makufhinfk*. where he wa&fciqflly received by a Toigon
named Kuiumaga; biat with regard to|tchadak, it was plaia
that his defigns were ftill hof&le. Inftea4 °f §iying an
account of the nets which had been left wjth him, he
withdrew parivatelys and on j&e 19^ of January, a£*
companied by a numerous body of iflanders, made an attempt to furprife the Ruffians. Vi^ory, however, again
declared for Korenoff; and fifteen of the affailantsy
amongft whom was Jjtchadak l$mfelf, rgjmainejj-dead
upon the fpot. Kulumaga affurefjr £feer#, in the fljsonge|fc
imanner,. that the defign ha^r been carried on wj|hout hjs
knowledge ^ and protefted, that be ba$joJten prevented
iris ftiend from committing ho#j|i$i§£': againft the Ruf-
1 fians.
Korenofr? returned to the haven on the 3&th of January ; and on the 4th of February he went upon another
.hunting expedition tpw$fl$ the^eitejn pomt of tlae ifland.
During this excurfion he met^rwith a party fent out by
/©lottoff, at a place jcaJied T^kami^fi he then towed
over to t^nnak, whene hie cejlg^tgd a fipaH-gribute, and
returned o$r the 3d of Majs§fe> During his abfence
Kyginik, Kulumaga's fon, paid a vifit to the Ruffians, and
r-equefted rlhat h&»*ight be bagtized,. ,a#[d t/e permitted to
&o aboard the veffef; bi$ demand was immediately com-
plied with%
May J4$
A CC O U.N T   O F   T H E
May 13th. Korovin went, with fourteen meny to
Umnak, to bring off an anchor, which was buried in the
fand. On his return preparations were made for fibek
departure. Before the arrival of Korovin the hunters
had killed 150 black and brown foxes; and the farne
number of old and young fea-otters; firioe his arrival
they had caught 350 black foxes, the fame number of
common foxes,  and 150 fea-otters of different fizes.
This cargo being put on board*, the interpreter Kafhmak fet at liberty, with a certificate of, and prefents for
Ins- fidelity, and the-hoftages delivered up to the Toigons
and their relations, who had affembled at the haven,..
Solovioff put to fea on the ift of June, with an Eafterly
wind. Before his departure he received a letter from
Glottofly informing him that, he was likewife preparing
for his retunu
Journalofthe. y-^
Toyage home- J "Iiv.
2. Thefwlnd being contrary, they got but a fmall
way from land. Sfli|
5. Steered again towards the fhore, came to an
anchor, and fent a boat for a iapply of water,
which returned without having feen. any
6. Weighed* and fteered W. with a S. E»-whxL
1.  Favourable wind at N. E. and inthe afternoon
at N*
8. Winri RUSSIAN.DI S<C O V E R I E S.
8. Wind at N. W.^and ftormy, the fhip drove
under the forefail;
9 8c 10. Sailed Northwards, with a Wefterly wind.
11. Calm till noon ;  afterwards breeze fprung up
;at<6. With which they fteered W. till next day
at noon ; when the wind coming round to the
Wfcft£>ithey changed their courfe, and fteered
^12. Calm during the niffht.
13. A fmalLbreeze of Northerly wind, with which
they fteered W. in the afternoon it fell calm,
gliy and continued fo till the
16. at noon, when a breeze fpringing up at Eaft,
they fteered W. on which courfe they continued during the
18. with a S. S. E. wind.
From the 19  to the 22.   The wind  was  changeable
from the S. W. to N. W.  with which they
flill made a fhift to get to the W eft ward.
23. The wind E. they fteered betwixt N. &: W.
which courfe they continued the
jffl 24th,  25th,  26th, with a Northerly wind.
27. A. M. the wind changed to S. W.
28, 29,  30. Wind at Weft.
JEnly 1. The wind changed to E. with which they fteered
between W. and S. W. with little variations, till
the 3d.
Ill u a 4- They
H7 ACCOUNT  0$   Trig
4s. ^flrey reached Kaftftchatkoi Nofs, and on the
5th. Brought the fhip, in good condition, into Kamt-
diatka river*
Sofo^&diFs deffeftj&ion of tiSite iflaMs and the inha--
3$f?ahts being Lifitore ^Ireiia^antKa^ than the  accounts
given by:form&r navigators, deferve&Jto be inferted  at
full length.    According to  his eftimation,  the ifland
Unalafhka lies between i^bo- and 2000 verfts due Eaft
rrofn the rri&uth of the Itarntchatka river:  the other
iflands to the Eaftward ftretch towards N. E.    He reckons the length of Akutan at eighty verfts ;  Umnak at
an hundred aildSrty, andUnalanika at two hundred. No*
large trees were feen upbn any of the iflands which he
touched at. They produce unaerwood, fmall flirubs, and
plants, for the moft part fimila* to the common fpecies-
ibiind in Kamtch&ka.    The wkiter is much milder than
vm the^aftern parts of Siberia, and continues only from*
November to the end of March..    The fhow feldom lies
upon the gtouhd for any time..
Relh-de'eiv bears, Wolves, ice-foxes, are not to be
found on thefe iflands ; but they abound in black, grey,
brown, and red foxes ; for which reafon they have got:
&ie narne of Lyffie Oftrova, or Fox liHands. Thefe foxess
are ftronger than thofe of Yalcutfk, and their, hair is^
much coarfer.. During the day they lie in caves- and:
elrils Of rocks ; towards evening tbey eome to the fhore
in fearch of food; they have long ago extirpated the
brood of mice, and* other fmaReamtnals. Tnt^ are not
in the fmalleft degree afraid of the inhabitants, but dif-
tinguifh the Ruffians by #ie fcent; having experienced
the effects of their fire-arms. "The number of i^a-amV
snais, fuch as fea-lions, ^feW bears, and fea-otters, which
refortrtothefe fhores, are very confiderable. Upon fome
of the ifiands warm fprlogs and native fulpbair are to be
The Fox-rflands are In general very populous; t£aa- SSJjJhL
'lafhka, which, is the largeft ifland, is fuppofed to containInhaWtants<"
feveral thoufand inhabitants.   Thefe favages live together
in feparate conimunities, compofed of fifty, and fometimes of two or even three hundred perfons; they dwell
in large caves from forty to eighty yards long, from fix
to eight broad,, and from four to five high,.    The roof of
thefe caves is 2. kind of wooden grate,: which is firft fpread
over with a layer of grafs,   and then covered with learth..
Several openings are made in, the iop, through which*
the inhabitants go up and down by ladders : the fbialleft
dwellings have two or three entrances-of this fort, and.
the largeft five or fix.    Each cave isdivideffinto a\oerrain,
number of partjMjions, which are appropriated to the feveral famSies; and tJafcfe partitions are marked by means*
©f flakes driven into -the earth., ^be-men. and,women fi& &I<*
on the ground; and the children lie down, having their
legs bound together under them, in order to make them
learn to fit upon their hams. PJB
Although no fire is ever made in thefe caves, they
are generally fo warm, that both fexes fit naked.
Thefe people obey the calls of nature openly, and without efteeming it indecent. They wafti themfelves firft
with their own urine, and afterwards with water. In
winter they go always bare-footed; and when they
want to warm themfelves, efpecially before they go to
fleep, they fet fire to dry grafs and walk over it. Their
habitations being almoft dark, they ufe particularly in
winter a fort of large lamps, made by hollowing out a
ftone, into which they put a rufh-wick and burn train
.oil. A ftone fo hollowed is called Tfaaduck. The natives i are whites with black hair ; they have flat faces,
. arid are of a good ftature. The men fhave with a fharp
ftone or knife, the circumference and top of the head,
and let the hair which remains hang from the crown t.
The women cut their hair in a ftreight line over the forehead ; behind they let it grow to a confiderable length,
* Von geficht find fie platt undweifs durchgaengig mit fchwarzen
t- The original in this paffage is fomewhat obfcure. Die maenner
fcheeren mit einem Scharfen Stein oder meffer den Umkreifs des haar-
kopfs und die platte, und laffen die haare um die krone des kopfs run-
dum ueberhangen.
and tie it in a bunch.    Some of the men wear their
beards ; others fhave or pull them out by the roots.
They mark various figures on their faces, the backs
of their hands, and lower parts of their arms, by pricking them firft with a needle, and then rubbing the parts
with a fort of black clay. They make three incifions in
the under-lip ; they place in the middle one a flat bone,
or a fmall coloured ftone ;. and in each of the fide-
ones they fix a long pomted piece of bone, which
bends and reaches almoft to the ears. They likewife
make a hole through the griftle of the nofe, into which
they put a fmall piece of bone in fuch a manner as
to keep the noftrils extended. They alfo pierce holes
in their ears, and wear in them what little ornaments
they can procure.
Their drefs confifts of a cap and a fur-coat,  which
reaches down to the knee.    Some of them wear common caps  of a party coloured bird-fkin,. upon which
they leave part of the wings and tail.    On the fore-part
jef their hunting and fifhing. caps they  place a fm all-
board like a fcreen, adorned with the jaw-bones of fea-
bears, and ornamented with glafs beads, which they receive in barter from, the Ruffians..    At their feftivals andl
dancing parties they ufe a much more fhowyXortof caps.-
Their fur-coats are made like fhirts, being clofe. behind!
and before,   and  are   put on. over   the  head.      The
mens> w
metis drsfs is made of birds fkitfs, but the womens of
fea-otters and fea-bears. Thefe fkins are disd wi$i a
. fort of red earth, and neatly fewed with finews, and
ornamented with various ftripes of fea-otter fkims and
leather^ fringes. They have alfo upper garments made
of the inteftines of the largeft fea-calves and fea-lions.
Their veffels oonfift of two forts : the larger are leathern boats or baidar&y which have oars on both fides,
and are capable of holding thirty or forty people    The
fmaller veflels are Sowed with a double paddle, and re-
femble tke canoes of the Greenlanders, containing only
One or   two perfons:   they nearer weigh above   thirty
pounds,  being nothing but a than fkebeton of  a rboat
covered Wtth leather.    In thefe -however they pafs from
one ifland to another, and even venture out to fea to.a
confiderable diftance.    In calm weather they gp out in
-Ifeem to catch tuSFbof-and cod with bone-hooks and lines
made of Hfifcws or fea-Weed.    T&ey ftrifce fifh a» $ae
**§?ivulets with darts.     Whales  and   other fea^moials
-thrown afhoipe by the waves are carefuly tooked after,
I and no part, of them is loft.    The S|pjantity of provisions  which they procure   by   nitrating    and   fifMrig
being far too fiaaall for their wants, the greater!- part of
their food confifts of  fea-wraSk and fiielH&flv which
•$i*ey find on the tfhofe.
Na/ftranger jsiallowed to hurferor fifli near a 5*illag&,
or to carry^off any >t35fihg fife^br food. .^When they are
oh agdnrney^rrand their proYifioris are exhauftSd,-they
beg from viHage to viHkge, or call upon -their friends
and relations for affiftance. dSi$
They!feed upon thfecflefli of -all fbftsof fe^anirhafe,
and generally eat it raw. But if at any time they
choofeto drefs their victuals, they rnake ufe of an hoi4-
low ftone ; having placed the fifh or flefh. therein, they
coVfcr it with a&othe^ 'Bhd elofe tfte^ffterftifees with
Ifine or el£y. iTHey then lay it hoiiMht9ff^ upon two
3fon&, awl light a-fire under il» r,^e^6vMoR%h3c&.
Is -l&ehded for keeping is drf^sd ^w-fthcHit fait 3ft. fhe
ojpfch air. They; gather beftses ^^arious forts, and
lily roots of the fame fpecies WSIh thofe whidh grow
wfld-fil^alMlebktiea, T^ey:$S£ ^^cljBaih^d wife the
manne¥L@£ treffing the fowaparlaif), -as pra&ifed in thai
Peninfula; and do not underftand the art of diftilling
brandy or any other flrong liquor from it. They are
at prefent very fond of fnuff, which the Ruffians have
4nt^#aee3 :among them.
No traces were found of any. worfhip, neither did
they feerd fo have any for^e*erS' * among them.    If a
* In the laft Ghapfcer it is laid that there are forcerers among them.
X Whale 154
whale happens to be eaft on fhore, the inhabitants af-
femble with great marks of joy, and perform a number
of extraordinary ceremonies. They dance and beat
drums | of different fizes: they then cut up the fifhy
of which the greateft and belt part is confumed on
the fpot. On fuch occafions they wear fhowy.caps;
and fome of them dance naked in wooden mafks, which
reach down to their fhoulders, and reprefent various forts
of fea-animals. Their dances confift of fhort fteps forwards, accompanied with many ftrahge geftures.
Marriage ceremonies are unknown among them,
and each man takes as many wives as he can maintain?
but the number feldom exceeds four. Thefe women
are occafionally allowed to cohabit with other men;
they and their children are alfo not unfrequently bartered in exchange for commodities. When an iflander
dies, the body is bound with thongs, and afterwards ex-
pofed to the air in a fort of wooden cradle hung upon
I The expreffion in the original is " Schlagen auf groflen platten
" handpauken," which, Being literally tranflated, fignifies " They beat
" upon large flat hand-kettle drums of different founds."
By the accounts which I procured at Peterfburg, concerning the
form of thefe drums, they feem to refemble in fhape thofe made ufe of
by the forcerers of Kamtchatka, and are of different fizes. I had an
opportunity of feeing one of the latter at the Cabinet of Curiofities. It
is of an oval form, about two feet long and one broad: it is covered
only at one end like the tambour de bafque, and is worn upon the arm
like a fhield. v^gy
a crofs-bar, fupported by forks.    Upon thefe occafions
they cry and make bitter lamentations.
Their Toigons or Princes are thofe who have numerous families, and are fkilful and fuccefsful in hunting
and fifbing.
Their weapons confift of bows, arrows, and darts:
they throw the latter very dexteroufly, and to a great
diftance from a hand-board. For defence they ufe
wooden fhields, called kuyakin. Thefe iflanders are,
nptwithltanding their favagenefs, very docile; and the
boys, whom the Ruffians keep as hoftages, foon acquire a knowledge of their language.
CHAP ttf
A C C<0~-UJ& T   O F   T H E
C    H f A,    P*
Voyage of Otcheredin—He winters upon \Jmnafe**->Arrivaf
of Lewzftieff upon Unalafhka—Return of Otcheredin to
ot°dSnin FN the year 1-765 three merchants^ namely, OrechofF
jvV au> -^ ofc Yula, Lapim of - Solikamfk, and Sfait&ff of Uf-
tyug, fitted out a new veflel called1 the 2&_ Paul, undfcp
the command of Aphanaffei Otcheredin. She was built
in the harbour of Ochotfk : his - crew-copfilte&of li&tyr
two Ruffians and Kamtchadals, and fhe carried on board
two inhabitants of the Fox Iflands named John and Timothy Surgeff, who had been brought to Kamtchatka?
and baptifed.
September 1 o, they failed from Ochotfk, and arrived
the 2 2d in the bay of Bolcherefk where they wintered.
Auguft 1, 1776, they continued their voyage, and
having paffed the fecond of the Kuril Ifles, fteered on the
6th. into the open fea; on the 24th they reached the
neareft of the Fox Iflands, which the interpreters called
* Atchak. A ftorm arifing they call anchor in a bay,
but faw no inhabitants upon the fhore.    On the 26th
Called in a former journal Atchu, p. 63*.
tfj£y failed again, d$5ove$ed on the 27th Sagaugamak,
along which they fteered North Eaft, and on the 31ft
came fl^iin feven m$|£s of the ifland Umnak; where, Arrival at
on account of the latenefs of the feafon and the want of
provifion and water, they determined to winter. Accordingly on the 1 ft of September, by the advice of the
interpreters, they; brfjaglit ttjie veffel' into a convenient
hay near a point of lajnd iyjpg N. W. where they fattened it to the fhore with cables.
' UppHf their landing they? difcovered feveral pieces of at
wrack; and twojifjander^ who dwelled on the banks ofi
a rivulet Vr&ich empties itfelf into the bay, informed
them, that thefe werfe$J&rreinaAns of a Ruffian veffel,
w^ffcoomrnandeifs najie Wf#$£>en y%of From this j intelligence tliey offfl^uded that this? was Protaflbff's veffel,
fitted out afeQ^iptil^^ The^injialjitants of Umnafc*,. Unalafhka, andr of the Five Mountain, had aflemblej&gi&il"
mwdered.^e crewyj wbef^fef^ratod into ddfferentosbuntf-r
ing partie^y The fame iflanders alfo mentioned the fate.
oft, Ktuj^offjs; and^TrapeihikofF^j fbi$ft)7npon the. ifland
Unalafhka. Althoug^-.l^is in£ormatior$i o^c^fioned g£h
neral apprehenfions, yet they had no other refource than
to draw the veffffeaffiorej^apd^take every^'pofSbleipre-
cautjon agajin|l a furprize* Accordm^rthe^jkept a>o$fi#
f&nt-.WftteW made-pj^fenfcjto ^^T^»^>e^ar^bf:fe#f ]3TOJ
cipal inj3Labjtents»ta®i|3emanded fomoc&udrei&as h&ftages?
Eor fome timfjtho>^an^ers: behaved ye^y/j^aeeabl^v vg&*
t^otfe§^R.uffians endeavoured to perfiiade them to become
tributary 1 i58
ACCdUNT   OF   T ft E
tributary : upon which they gave fuch repeated figns of
their hoftile intentions, that the crew lived unde^f conH^
ntial alarms. In the beginning of September inform^
tion Was brought them of the arrival of a veffel, fitt^ff'
out by Ivan Popoff merchant of X-alfk,  at Unalafhka.
About the end of the faid month'the Toigon of the
Five Mountains came to Otcheredin, and was fo well fa-
tisfied with his reception, that he brought hoftages, and
not only affured them of his own friendfhip, but pro-
mifed to ufe his influence with the other Toigons, and
to perfuade them to the fame peaceable behaviour. But
fee other Toigons not only paid no regard to his perfua-
fions, but even barbaroufly killed one of his children.
From thefe and other circumftances the crew paffed the
winter under continual apprehenfions, and durft not venture far from the harbour upon'Hunting parties. Hence
enfued a fearcity of provisions; and hungerJ'rjOined to
the violent attacks of the fcurvy, made great havock
amongft them, infomuch that fix of them died, and feveral of the furvivors were reduced to fo weak a condition,
that they were fcarce able to move?!
The health of the crew being re-eftaMifhed in the
Ipfing, twenty-three men were fent on the 25 th of
June in twoffooats to the Five Mountains, in order to
perfuade the inhabitants to pay tribute. On the 26th
they landed online ifland Ulaga, w&ere they were attacked RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
tacked with great fpirit by a large body of the inhabitants ; and though three of the Ruffians were wounded,
yet the favages wererepulfed with confiderable lofs: they
were fo terrified by their defeat, that they fled before the
Ruffians during their continuance on that ifland. The
latter were detained there by tempeftuous weather until
the 9th of, July; during which time they found two
rutty firelocks belonging to Protaflbff's crew. On the
1 oth they returned to the harbour ; and it was immediately refolved to difpatch fome companies upon hunting expeditions.
Accordingly on the lit of Auguft Matthew PolofkofljJ
a native of Hinfk, was fent with twenty-eight men in
two boats to Unalafhka with the following orders;
that if the weather and other circumftances were favourable, they were to make to Akutan and Akun, the
two neareft iflands to the Eaft, but to proceed no further.
In confequence of this,. Polofkoff reached Akutan^about
the end of the month ; and being kindly received by
the inhabitants, he left fix of his party to hunt; with
the remainder he went to Akun, which lies about two
verfts from Akutan. From thence he difpatched five
men to the neighbouring iflands, where he was informed
by the interpreters there were great quantities of foxes..
Polofkoff and h|s. companjps continued the whole
autumn upon Akun without being annoyed; but on the. H€o
A C C fill T   OF   THE
i 2th of December the inhabitants o'f the different fnttrrtfs
aflerribled in great numbers^Snd attacked them by land
and fea. They informed Polofkoff, by^means of the
interpreters, thaAhe Rtfffians wnorti htr'had fent to
the neighbouring 'nlands were killed; that the two
^Veflels at Umnak and Unalafhka were' plundered, and
the crew put to death/; *and that they were now come
to make him and ms party fhare the fame fatff ^The
Huffia'n fire-arms however kept them in due refpect;
and towards evening they difperfed. The fame night
the interpreter deferted, probably at the TSmgation^ft'
his countrymen, who neverthelefs killed him, as it was
faid, that winter.
^January i'6, the ^ravages 'ventured to make^a Tecoha
attack. r Pfeving furprifed the guard oy night, they tore
off the roof of the Ruffian aweilmg, and "!ftiot down
into the hut, malSrig at me^Taine time great '(Outcries :
•by this unexpected affatilt four Ruffians Were killed,
and three wounded; but the fuTvivfts no foofier ha&
retburfe to their fire-arms,' than tfre^eneniy was orivin
to flight 'Meanwhile another body' of tne^affveV^aT-
tempted fo feize the two veftels, but *w%h$$t fuccefs;
they however cut off the party^fef iix; men left by Polofkoff at Akutan, together With the fivPhunters difpatched to the contiguous iflands, and two of Popoff's
iSrew who'were at t$fe W^termoft jlirt of Uffalainxai
Polofkoff continued upon Akun in great danger until
the 2oth of February ; when, the wounded being recovered, he failed over with a fair wind to PopofPs veffel at Unalafhka; and on the ioth of May returned to
In April) itopofPs veffel being got ready for the voyage, all the hoftages, whofe number amounted to fortyr
were delivered to Otcheredin. July the 30th a veffel:
belonging to the fame Popoff arrived from Beering's
Ifland,. and eaft anchor in the fame bay where Otchere-
din'& lay;. and both crews entered into an agreement
to fiiare: ineommon the profits of hunting. Strengthened by this alliance,. Otcheredin prevailed upon a num-:
ber of the inhabitants to pay tribute^ Auguft the 2 2d.
Oteheredm's mate was fent with? fix boats and fifty-
eight men to hunt upon Unalafhka and Akutan; and:
there remained thirty men with the veflels in the harbour, who kept conftant watch..
Soon afterwards Otcheredm and the other commanderotcheredin V&-
ccives an Ac-
received a letter, from Levafheff: Captain Lieutenant of. co"nt °f *re-
A vafljett s Ar-
the Imperial, fleet,, who accompanied Captain Krenitzin £&ka.c Un**
in  the   fecret expedition to   thofe iflands..   The letter;
was dated September 11, 1768 :   it informed, them he
was   arrived  at Unalafhka im the  St.-Paul,. andTay at
anchor in the fame bay in wfciferb Kulkoff's veffel had:
Y been. i6z ACCOUNT   OF   THE
been loft. He likewife required a circumftantial ac»«
count of their voyages. By another order of the 24th
he fent for four of the principal hoftages, and demanded
the tribute of fkins which had been exacted from the
iflanders. But as the weather was generally tempeftuous
at this feafon of the year, they deferred fending them
till the fpring. May the 31ft Levaiheff fet fail for
Kamtchatka ; and in 17 71 returned fafely from his expedition at St. Peterfburg.
The two veffels remained at Umnak until the year
1770, during which time the crews met with no opposition from the iflanders. They continued their hunt*,
ing parties, in which they had. fuch good fortune, that
the fhare of Otcheredin's veffel (whofe voyage is here
chiefly related) confifted in 530 large fea-otter fkins,
40 young ones and 30 cubs, the fkins of 656 fine black
foxes, 100 of an inferior fort, and about 1250 red fox
With this large cargo of furs Otcheredin fet fail on the
22d of May, 1770, from Umnak, leaving Popoff's crew
behind. A fhort time before their departure, the other
interpreter Ivan Surgeff, at the mitigation of his relations,
Return of
^Otcheredin to
After having touched at the neareft of the Aleutian
Iflands, Otcheredin and his crew arrived on the 24th of
M    ' "I: -     \     I Jul7 RUSSIAN   DISCOVERIES.
July at Ochotfk. They brought two iflanders with
them, whom they baptized. The one was named
Alexey Solovieff; the other Boris Otcheredin. Thefe
iflanders unfortunately died on their way to Peterfburg ;
the firft between Yakutfk and Irkutfk; and the latter
at Irkutfk, where he arrived on the ift of February*
rofition of ^
Beering's and
•: Copper Iflands.
Of the Aleu-
-. dan Ifles.
,C  HAP.
■JConolufion—General pofition and fituation of the Aleutian
and Fox Iflands—their diftance from each other—Further defcription of the drefs, manners, and cuftoms of
.the inhabitants—ibeir feafts and ceremonies, &c.
CCORDI N--.G to the lateft informations brought
by Otcheredin's and Popoff's veflels, the North
Weft point of Commandorfkoi Oftroff, or Beering's
Ifland, lies due Eaft from the mouth of the Kamtchatka
river, at the diftance of 250 verfts. It is from 70 to
80 verfts long^ and ftretches from North Weft to South
Eaft, in the fame direction as Copper Ifland. The latter
is fituated about 60 or 70 verfts from the South Eaft
point of Beering's Ifland, and is about 50 verfts in length.
About 300 verfts Eaft by South of Copper Ifland lie
the Aleutian Ifles, of which Attak is the neareft : it is
rather larger than Beering's Ifland, of the fame
fhape, and ftretches from Weft to South Eaft. From
thence about 20 verfts Eaftwards is fituated Semitfhi,
extending from Weft to Eaft, and near its Eaftern point
another fmall ifland. To the South of the ftrait, which
feparates the two latter iflands, and at the diftance of
40 verfts from both of them, lies Shemiya in a fimilar ■
pofition,   and not above 25 verfts in length.     All thefe
iflands ftretch between  54 and  55  degrees of   North
The Fox Iflands are fituated E. N. E. from the Aleii- gfa^Fox
tians : the neareft of thefe, Atchak, is about 800 verfts
diftant; it lies in about 56 degrees North latitude, and,ex-"
tends from W. S. W. towards E. N. E. It greatly re-
fembles Copper Ifland, and is provided with a commodious harbour on the Notrh. From thence all the
other iflands of this chain ftretch in a direction towards
N. E. by Eaft.
The next to Atchak is Amlak, about 15 verfts diftant;
it is nearly of the fame fize; and has an harbour
on its South fide. Next follows Sagaugamak, at about
the fame diftance, but fomewhat fmaller; from that it
is 5 o verfts to Amuchta, a fmall rocky ifland ; and the
fame diftance from the latter to Yunakfan, another fmall
ifland. About 20 verfts from Yunakfan there is a duller
of five fmall iflands, or rather mountains, Kigalgift,
Kagarnila, Tfigulak, Ulaga, and Tana-Unok, and which
are therefore called by the Ruffians Pit Sopki, or the
Five Mountains. Of thefe Tana-Unok lies moft to the
N. E. towards which the Weftern point of Umnak advances within the diftance of 20 verfts. i66
Umnak ftretches from. S. N. E.; it is 150 verfts
in length, and has a very confiderable bay on the Weft
end of the Northern coaft, in which there is a fmall
ifland or rock, called Adugak ; and on the South fide is
Shemalga, another rock. The Weftern point of Aghun—
Alafhka, or Unalafhka, is feparated.from the Eaft end of
Umnak by a ftrait near 20 verfts in breadth. The pofi-
tion of thefe two iflands is fimilar; but Aghunalafhka
is much the largeft, and is above 200 verfts long. It is
divided towards the N. E. into three promontories, one
of which runs out in a Wefterly direction, forming one
fide of a large bay on the North coaft of the ifland :
the fecond ftretches out N. E. ends in three points, and
is connected with the ifland by a fmall neck of land..
The third or molt Southerly one is feparated from the
laft mentioned promontory by a deep bay. Near Unalafhka towards the Eaft lies another fmall ifland called
About 20 verfts from the North Eaft promontory of
Aghunalafhka lie four iflands: the firft, Akutan, is
about half as big as Umnak; a verft further is the fmall
ifland Akun ; a little beyond is Akunok ; and laftly Ki-
galga, which is the fmalleft of thefe four, and ftretches
with Akun and Akunok almoft from N. to S.. Kigalga
is fituated about tlie 61 ft degree of latitude.    About
lite 100
too verfts from thence lies an ifland called Unimak*,
upon which Captain Krenitzin wintered ; and beyond it
the inhabitants faid there was a large tract of country
called Alafhka, of which they did not know the boundaries*
The Fox Iflands are in general very rocky, without
containing any remarkable high mountains : they are
deftitute of wood, but abound in rivulets and lakes,
which are moftly without fiih. The winter is much
milder than in Siberia; the fnow feldom falls before
the beginning of January, and continues on the ground
till the end of Marctu
There is a volcano in Amuchta; in Kagamila fulphur
flows from a mountain ; in Taga-Unok there are warm
fprings^hot enough to boil provifions; and flames of
fulphur are occafionally feen at night upon the mountains of Unalafhka and Akutan*
The Fox Iflands are tolerably populous in proportion ^SEtt-l?
to their fize.    The inhabitants are entirely free, and pay l        " s'
tribute to no one : they are of a middle ftature ;   and
live, both in fummer and winter,  in holes dug in the
earth.    No figns of religion were found amongft them.
* Krenitzin wintered at Alaxa, and not at Unimak*   See Appendix I.
Several 1-68
Several .perfojag indeed pafs for forcerers, pretending to
know things paft and to come, and are accordingly
held in high efteem, but without receiving any emolument. Filial duty and refpect towards the aged are
not held in eftimation by thefe iflanders. They are
not however deficient in fidelity to each other ; they
are of lively and chearful tempers, though rather impetuous, and naturally prone to anger» In general they
do not obferve any rules of decency, but follow all the
calls of nature publicly, and without the leaft referve.
They wafti themfelves with their own urine.
Their Food. Their principal food confifts in. fifh and other
fea-animals, fmall fhell-fifh and fea-plants: their
greateft delicacies are wild lilies and other rootSj. together with different kinds of berries. When they have
laid in a ftore of provifions, they eat at any tin^of the
day without' diftinction; but in cafe of neceffity they
are capable of falling feveral days together. They fel-
dom heat their dwellings ; but when they are defirous
of warming themfelves, they light a bundle of hay, and
itand over it; or elfe they fet fire to train oil, which:
they pour into a hollow ftone.
They feed their children when very young with theu
coarfeft flefh, and for the moft part raw.    If an infant
cries, the mother immediately carries it to the fea-fide,.
and be it fummer or winter holds it naked in the water /
ter until it is quiet. This cuftom is fo far from doing
the children any harm, that it hardens them againft
the cold ; and they accordingly go bare-footed through
the winter without the leaft inconvenience. They are
alfo trained to bathe frequently in the fea; and it is
an opinion generallly received among the iflanders, that
by that means they are rendered bold, and become fortunate in fifhing.
The men wear fhirts made of the fkins of cormo-Drefs.
rants, fea-divers, and gulls ; and, in order to keep out
the rain, they have upper garments of the bladders and
other inteftines of fea-lions, fea-calves, and whales,
blown up and dried. They cut their hair in a circular
form clofe to their ears ; and fhave alfo a, round place
upon the top. The women, on the contrary, let the
hair defcend over the forehead as low as the eye-brows,
and tie the remaining part in a knot upon the top of
the head. They pierce the ears, and hang therein
bits of coral which they get from the Ruffians. Both
fexes make holes in the griftle of the nofe, and in
the under-lips, in which they thruft pieces of bone,
and are very fond of fuch kind of ornaments. They
mark alfo and colour their faces with different figures.
They barter among one another fea-otters, fea-bears,
clothes made of bird-fkins and of dried inteftines, fkins
of fea-lions and fea-calves for the coverings of baidars,
Z wooden 170
wooden mafks, dartV, thread made of n¥reWsand reinde^f
hair, which they j^et frfrm trie country of Alafka.
Their houfh'ola utenfils are fquare '{KrchSrs ^hd IaPgfe
troughs, which they make out of the wood driven afhore
by the fea. Their weapons are bow's' iirM arrows $&fiitfed
with flints, and javenns of two yards in length, .which
they throw from a fmall board. Infteau of hatchets t^y
ufe crooked knives of flint or bone. Some iron knives*
hatchets, anoyances, were obferved, amon^tt tli^erh, wfticb
they had probably got by plundering the'Rufiiarts►
According to the reports of the oldeft-'inhabitarf&^df
Umnak and Unalafhka, they have never been engaged
in any war either amongft thefnYerves or wlra their
neighbours, except once With the people of Alauika, the
occafion of which was as follows : The Toigon of Urrr-
hak's fon had a maimed'hand ; and 'fom%4nrra(bitants of
Alafhka, Who came upon a vifit to that ifland, fafterrfco:
to his arm a drum, out of mockery, and invited him}¥d-
dance. The parents and relations of the boy were offended at this infult: hence a quarrel enfued ; and^fronlt
that time the.two people have lived in continual enmity
attacking and plundering each other oy turlis. Accoro-
ing to the reports of trie'iflanders, there are'ttburlr^rns
upon Alatnka, and 'woods of gFeat^extent^rt: fome^%rf-
tance from tfie coaft.    T/he natives'W^ar^IotRe^r^de of
thg fldns of reindeer, wolves, and foxes, and are not
tribjygaify to any of their neighbour's, fhe inhabitants
of tlje Fox-iflands feem to have no knowledge of any
country beyond Alaihka.
Feafls are very common among thefe iflanders; and
more particularly when the inhabitants of one ifland are
yifited by thofe of the others. The men of the vffiage
meet their guefts beating drums, and preceded by the
women, whp fing and dance. At the conclufion of the
dance the hoftstjnvite tl^gm to partake of the feafls ; after
$f£iich ceremony &e farmer return fir$ to their ^Wjfll-
ings, glace mats in order, and ferve up Aeir l?eft pro-
*|&on. rghe gue/jts next enter, take th^eir j^aces, and
after they are fatisfled -the diyerfions begin.
^jFirft, the qk$dr^ flange and cage£, -at the fagae time
making a noife with their fmall drums, while the om*
ers of the hut of both fexes fing. Next, the men dance
almojftif^ed, ltr^p^ng after one ^n^ther, and beating
drurns of a lajcger fige : ft^en ^J^e are weary, l^hey are
r^U©sed byithgtW£E$en, who dance in their clothes, the
xgen cqntji§iui©gjin thejU^an^t^ne to^ngar^d beat their
drums. At ^aftffjhe fire is put out, wb^ch had been kindled fos£he ceremony. The nignner of obtaining fire is
J^ifnfeking &vp pi?6es of dry wogd, or/iip^t commonly by
fcJHJgg ^weoSifi5st^2g1*feerJ W& letting t^e jCparks £g$
Z 2 upon 172
upon fome fea-otter's hair mixed with fulphur. If any
forcerer is prefent, it is then his turn to play his tricks in
the dark; if not, the guefts immediately retire to their
huts, which are made on that occafion of their canoes
and mats. The natives,1 who have feveral wives, do not
withhold them from their guefts ; but where the owner
of the hut has himfelf but one wife, he then makes the
offer of a female fervant.
Their hunting feafon is principally from the end of
October to the beginning of December, during which
time they kill large quantities of young fea-bears for their
clothing. They pafs all December in feaflings and di-
verfions fimilar to that above mentioned: with this difference, however, that the men dance in wooden mafks,
reprefenting various fea-animals, and painted red, green,
or black, with coarfe coloured earths found upon thefe
During thefe feltivals they vifit each other from village to village, and from ifland to ifland. The feafls
concluded, mafks and drums are broken to pieces, or de-
polited in caverns among the rocks, and never afterwards made ufe of. In fpring they go out to kill old fea-
bears, fea-lions, and whales. During fummer, and even
in winter when it is calm, they row out to fea, and catch
cod and other fifh. Their hooks are of bone; and for
lines they make ufe of a firing made of a long tenacious
fea-weed, which is fometimes found in thofe feas near one
hundred and fixty yards in length.
Whenever they are Wounded in any encounter, or
bruifed by any accident, they apply a fort of yellow root
to the wound, and fait for fome time. When their
head achs, they open a vein in that part with a ftone
. lancet. When they want to glue the points of their arrows to the fhaft, they ftrike their nofe till it bleeds, and-
ufe the blood as glue.
Murder is not punifhed amongft them, for they have
no judge. With refpect to their ceremonies of burying
the dead, they are as follow : The bodies of poor people
are wrapped up in their own clothes, or in mats ; then
laid in a grave, and covered over with earth. The bodies
of the rich are put, together with their clothes and arms*.,
in a fmall boat made of the wood driven afhore by the
fea: this boat is hung upon poles placed crofs-ways; and-
the body is thus left to rot in the open air.
The cuftoms and manners of the inhabitants of the
Aleutian Ifles are nearly fimilar to thofe of the inhabitants of the Fox Iflands.    The former indeed are rendered 174 A   C   C   O   U   N   T,     Sec
dered tributary, and entirely fubject to Ruffia ; and moft
of them have a flight acquaintance with the Ruffian
language, which they have learned from the crews of the
different veflels who have landed there.
A   N   D
OF        THE
BETWEEN    RUSSIA   AND    CHINA.  C    l77   3
CHAP.     I.
Firft irruption of the Ruffians into Siberia—Second inroad
—Yermac driven by the Tzar of Mufcovy from the
Volga, retires to Orel a Ruffian Settlement—Enters
Siberia with an army of Coffacks—His progrefs and
exploits—Defeats Kutchum Chan—conquers his dominions—cedes them to the Tzar—receives a reinforcement of Ruffian troops—isfurprized by Kutchum
Chan—his defeat and death—Veneration paid to his
memory—Ruffian troops evacuate Siberia—re-enter
and conquer the whole country—their progrefs flopped by
the Chinefe.
IBERIA was fcarcely known to the Ruffians before -?«& i™p&on
of the Ruffians
the middle of the fixteenth century *. For although |™|„ £**
... . 3        ^-i *■*&: r   -r »,-    rr*    Reign of Ivan
an expedition was made, under the reign or Ivan Vaffi- vattiiievitch i.
lievitch I. into the North Weftern Parts of that country,
as far as the river Oby, by which feveral Tartar tribes
were rendered tributary, and fome of their chiefs brought
prifoners to Mofcow ; yet this incurfion bore a greater .
refemblance to the defultory inroads of barbarians, than
to any permanent eftablifhment of empire by a civilized
nation.    Indeed the effects of that expedition foon va-
.* £>. R. G. Vr. p. 199—211.    Fif, Sift. Gef. Tom.l.
A a niflied ; CON CLU EST   OF   SIBERIA.
nifhed; nor does any trace of the leaft communication
with Siberia again appear in the Ruffian hiftory before
the reign of Ivan Vaffilievitch II. At that period Siberia
again became an object of attention, by means of one
Anika Strogonoff, a Ruffian merchant, who had eftab-
lifhed fome falt-works at Solvytfhegodfkaia, a town in the
government of Archangel.
^ffktrad«°g0" This perfon carried on a trade of barter with the in-
pie of Siberia, habitants of the North-Weftern parts of Siberia, who
brought every year to the abovementioned town large
quantities of. the choiceft furs. Upon their return to
their country Strogonoff was accuftomed to fend with them
fome Ruffian merchants, who croffed the mountains,
and traded with the natives. By thefe means a confiderable number of very valuable furs were procured at
an eafy rate, in exchange for toys and other commodities of trifling value.
This traffic was continued for feveral years, without
any interruption; during which Strogonoff rapidly
amaffed a very confiderable fortune*". At length the
Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch II. forefeeing the advantages
which would accrue to his fubjects, from eftablifhing a
more general and regular commerce with thefe people,
* S. R. G. VL p. 220—223.   Fif. Sib. Gef. p. 182.
determined CON QJJ EST   OF   SIBERIA.
determined to enlarge the communication already opened
with Siberia.     Accordingly he fent a corps of troops into S^rfS0*"
that country.   I They followed the fame route which had Siberia in the
Reign of Ivan
been difcovered by the Ruffians in the former expedition, vafnfievitchir.
and which was lately frequented by the merchants of
Solvytihegodfkaia. It lay along the banks of the Petf-
chora, and from thence croffed theYugorian mountains,
which form the North Eaftern boundary of Europe.
Thefe troops, however, do not feem to have paffed the
Irtifh, or to have penetrated further than the Weftern
branch of the river Oby* Some Tartar tribes were indeed laid under contribution ; and a chief, whofe name
was Yediger, confented to pay an annual tribute of a
thoufand fables. But this expedition Was not productive
of any lafting effects ; for foon afterwards Yediger was
defeated, and taken prifoner by Kutchum Chan ; the latter
Was a lineal defcendant of the celebrated Zinghis Chan ;
and had newly eftabliflied his empire in thofe parts.
This fecond inroad was probably made about the middle of the fixteenth century ; for the Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch aflumed the title of Lord of all the Siberian lands
fo early as 1558, before the conquefls made by Yermac in that kingdom*. But probably the name of
Siberia was  at that time only confined to the diflrict
* S. R. G.VI. p. 217.
A a 2
then 180 CON QJI EST   OF   SIBERIA.
then rendered tributary ; and as the Ruffians extended
their conquefls, this appellation was afterwards applied
to the whole tract of country which now bears that
For fome time after the above-menjioned expedition*,
the Tzar does not appear to have made any attempts towards recovering his loft authority in thofe diftant regions. But his attention was again turned to that quarter by a concurrence of incidents ; which, though begun
without his immediate interpofition,. terminated in avail
acceffion of territory.
for°s°seri Strogonoff, in recompence for having, firft opened a
£?KaiMand trade with the inhabitants of Siberia,, obtained from the
Tchuffovaia.    _, , c i        t t       ■>      t        r i    t        ■>
Tzar large grants ot land; accordingly he founded colo?
nies upon the banks of the rivers Kama and Tchuffovaia;
and thefe fettlements gave rife to the entire fubjection of
Siberia by the refuge which they not long afterwards afforded to Yermac Timofeeff.
This perfon was nothing more than a fugitive Coffac,
of the Don, and chief of a troop of banditti who infefted
the fhores of the Cafpian fea. But as he was the inftru-
ment by which fuch a vaft extent of dominion was added
to the Ruffian Empire, it will not be uninterefting to
develop the principal circumftances, which brought this
Coflac from the fhores of the Cafpian to the banks of the
Kama; and to trace the progrefs which he afterwards
made in-the diftanTregions of Siberia.
By the victories which the Tzar Ivan Vaffilievitch had
gained over the Tatars of Cafan and Aftracan, that mof-
narch extended his dominions as far as the Cafpian Sea ;
and thereby eftabftfhed a commerce with the Perfians and
Bucharians. But as the merchants who traded to thofe ^^^
parts were continually pillaged by the  CoffaCs of the the cafpLr
I fea.
Don; and as the roads which layby the fide of thatA- d. 1577
river, and of the Volga, were infefted with thofe banditti; tlie Tzar fent a confiderable force againft them.
Accordingly, they were attacked and routed; part were
flain, part made prifoners, and the reft efcaped by flight.
Among the latter was a corps of fix thoufand Coffacs,
under the command of the above-mentioned YermaC
That celebrated adventurer,  being driven  from his JJ2J
ufual haunts, retired, with his followers, into the interior settlement**
part of the province of Cafan.    From thence he directed
his courfe along the hanks of the Kama,., until he came
to Orel -f.    That place was one of the Ruffian fettlements
recently planted, and was governed by Maxim grandfbn
* S. R. G. VI. p. 232. Fif. Sib. J§jpf. I. p. 185.
■f S. R. G. VI. p. 233.
of Determines to
invade Siberia.
of Anika Strogonoff. Yermac, inftead of ftorming the
place, and pillaging the inhabitants, acted with a degree
of moderation unufual in a chief of banditti. Being
hofpitably received by Strogonoff, and fupplied with
every thing that was neceflary for the fubfiftence of his
troops, he fixed his winter quarters at that fettlement.
His reftlefs genius however did not fuffer him to continue
for any length of time in a ftate of inactivity ; and from
the intelligence he procured concerning the fituation of
the neighbouring Tartars of Siberia, he turned his arms
toward that quarter.
Siberia was at that time partly divided among a num^
ber of feparate princes ; and partly inhabited by the
various tribes of independent Tartars. Of the former
Kutchum Chan was the moft powerful Sovereign. His
dominions confifted of that tract of country which now
forms the South Weftern part of the province of Tobolfk;
and ftretched from the banks of the Irtilli and Oby to
thofe of the.Tobol and Tura. His principal refidence
was at Sibir %   a fmall fortrefs upon the river Irifh, not
* Several authors have fuppofed the name of Siberia to derive its
origin from this fortrefs, foon aftgr it was firft taken by the Ruffians
under Yermac. But this opinion is advanced without fufficient foundation ; for the name of Sibir was unknown to the Tartars, that fort being
by them called Ifker. Befides, the Southern part of the province of
Tobolfk, to which the name of Siberia was originally applied, was thus
far from the prefent town of Tobolfk; and of which
fome ruins are frill to be feen. Although his power
was very confiderable, yet there were fome circumftances which feemed to enfure fuccefs to an enterpriz-
ing invader. He had newly acquired a large part of
his territories by conqueft; and had, in a great meafure,
alienated the affections of his idolatrous fubjects by the
intolerant zeal, with which he introduced and diffeminated
the Mahometan religion *.
Strogonoff did not fail of displaying to Yermac this
inviting pofture of affairs, as well with a view of removing him from his- prefent ftation, as becaufe he himfelf
was perfonally exafperated againft Kutchum Chan: for
the latter had fecretly inftigated a large body of Tartars
to invade the Ruffian fettlements upon the river Tchuflb-
vaia; and had afterwards commenced open hoftilities
againft them with a.body of forces under the command
of his coufin Mehemet Kul. And although both thefe
attempts had failed of fuccefs, yet the troops engaged in
them had left behind traces of havock and devaftation too
lafling to be eafily effaced t.
denominated by the Ruffians before the invafion of Yermac. This
denomination probably firft came from the Permians and Sirjanians,
who brought the firft accounts of Siberia, to the Ruffians.
S.R.G.Vl. p. 180.
* i R.G. VI. p. 180...
-f Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 187.
a A.lf
i8< 184
Marches' towards Siberi
"Returns to
All thefe various confiderations were not loft upon
Yermac : having therefore employed the winter in preparations for his intended expedition, he began his
march in the fummer of the folio wing year, 1.578, along:
the banks of the Tchuffovaia. The want of proper
guides, and a neglect of other neceflary precautions,
greatly retarded his march, and he was overtaken by the;
winter before he had made any Confiderable progrefs.
And at the appearance of fpring he found his ftock of
pro villous fo nearly exhaufled, that he was reduced to the
neceffity of returning to jQreL
•But this failure of fuccefs by no means extingul-fhed i
his ardour for the profecution of the enterprize ; it only
ferved to make him ftill more felicitous in guarding
againft the poffibility of a future mifcarriage. By threats
he extorted from Strogonoff every -affiftance which the
nature of the expedition feemed to require. Eefldes a
fufficient quantity of provifions, all his followers, who
were before unprovided with fire-arms, were fuppl^^j
with mufkets and ammunition ; and, in order to give
the appearance of a regular army to his troops, colours
were diftributed to each company, which were ornamented with the images of faints, after the mapner of
the Ruffians.
Having thus made all previous arrangements, he
thought himfelf in a condition to force his way into
Siberia. Accordingly* in the month of June, 1579, he
fet   out upon this fecond   expedition.      His followers His fecond
amounted to five thoufand men; adventurers inured to
hardfhips, and regardlefs of danger: they placed implicit confidence in their leader, and feemed to be all
animated with one and the fame fpirit. He continued
his route partly by land, and partly by water : the
navigation however of the rivers was fo tedious, and
the roads fo rugged and difficult, that eighteen months
elapfed before he reached Tchingi, a fmall town upon Arrives upon
* ° * the Banks of
the banks of the Tura g
the Tura.
Here he muttered his troops, and found his army con-
fiderably reduced : part had been exhaufted by fatigue,
part carried off by ficknefs, and part cut off in fkir-
miffies with the Tartars. The whole remaining number amounted to about fifteen hundred effective men ;
and yet with this handful of troops Yermac did not
hefitate a moment in advancing againft Kutchum Chan.
That prince was already in a pofture of defence; and
refolved to guard his crown to the laft extremity. Having collected his forces, he difpatched feveral flying
parties againft Yermac, himfelf remaining behind with
:* S* R. G. VI. p. 243—248—262.
B b
the i86
the flower of his troops : but all thefe detachments were
driven back with confideFableTbfs; and worfted in many
fucceffive fkirmilhes. Yermac continued his march
without intermiffion, bearing down all refiftance until
he reached the center of his adverfary's dominions*
Thefe fueceffes however were dearly bought; for his
army was now reduced- to five hundred men* Kutchum
Chan was encamped* at no great diftance upon the
banks of the Irtifh, with a very liiperior force, and determined to give him battle. Yermac, who was not to
be daunted by the inequality of numbers-, prepared for
the engagement wkh a confidence which never forfook
him; his troops were equally impatient for action, and
knew no medium between conquer! and death. The
event of the combat correfponded with this magnanimity.
After an obftinate and well fought battle, victory declared
in favour of Yermac: the Tartars were entirely routed,
and the carnage was fo general, that Kutchum Chan
himfelf efcaped with difficulty.
This defeat proved decifive : Kutchum Chan was deferted by his fubjects ; and Yermac, who knew how to
improve  as  well  as gain a victory,  marched without
* The place where the Tartar army lay encamped was called Tfchu-
vatch : it is a neck of land wafhed by the Irtifh, near the foot where
the Tobob falls into that river.   Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 203. JH
delay CON C^U E S T   O F    S I B E R I A. 187
delay to Sibir, the refidence of the Tartar princes. He
was well aware, that the only method to fecure his conquer! was to get poffeffion of that important fortrefs.
He expected therefore to have found in that place a
confiderable garrifon, determined to facrifice their lives
in its defence. But the news of the late defeat -had
diffufed univerfal contternation, and Sibir was entirely
deferted. A body of troops whom he fent before him,
to reduce the fortrefs, found it quite deferted : he himfelf foon after made his triumphant entry,  and  featedSeats Em&if
upon the .
himfelf upon the throne without the leaft oppofition.Throne-
Here he fixed his refidence, and received the allegiance of the neighbouring people, who poured in from
all quarters upon the news of this unexpected revolution. The Tartars were fo ftruck with his gallant intrepidity and brilliant exploits, that they fubmitted to
bis authority without hefitation, and acquiefced in the
payment of the ufual tribute.
Thus this enterprifing Coffac was fuddenly exalted
from the ftation of a chief of banditti to the rank of
a fovereign prince. It does not appear from hiftory
whether it were at firft his defign to conquer Siberia,
or folely to amafs a confiderable booty. The latter
indeed feems the more probable conjecture. The rapid tide of fuccefs with which he was carried on,
and the entire defeat of Kutchum Chan, afterwards
expanded his views, and opened a larger fcene to his
Bb 2 ambition. 188 CON C-_U EST   OF   SIBERIA,
ambition. But whatever were his original projecls^
he feems worthy, fo far as intrepidity and prudence
form a bafis of merit, of the final fuccefs which*
flowed in upon hirm For he was neither elated with
unexpected prosperity, nor dazzled with the fudden
glare of royalty : on the contrary, the dignity of his-
deportment was as confident and unaffected, as, if he
had been born a fovereigm
Situation of
And now Yermac and his followers feemed to enjoy
thofe rewards which they had dearly purchafed by a
courfe of unremitted fatigue,- and by victories which-,
almoft exceeded belief. Not only the tribes in the
neigbourhood of Sibir wore the appearance of the moft
unreferved fubmiffion; but even princes continued
flocking in from diftant parts, to acknowledge themfelves tributary, and to claim his protection. However,
this calm was of fhort duration. Infurrections were
concerted by Kutchum Chan ; who, though driven from
his dominions, yet itill retained no fmall degree of
ihfluence over his former fubjects.
Yermac faw and felt the precarioufnefs of his prefent grandeur; the inconfiderable number of his followers
who had furvived the conqueft of Sibir, had been ftill
further diminifhed by an ambufcade of the enemy ;
and as he could not depend on the affection of his
new fubjects, he found himfelf under the neceffity either
ef calling in foreign affiitance, or of relinquishing his
dominion. Under thefe circumftances he had recourfe
to the Tzar of Mufcovy ; and made a tender of his new
acquifitions to that monarch, upon condition of receiving
immediate and effectual fupport. The judicious manner
in which he conducted this meafure, fhews him, no lefs:
able in the arts of negotiation than of war-
One of his moft confidential followers was difpatched?
to   Mofcow   at the  head   of   fifty  Goflacs.      He had
orders to reprefent to the   court  the progrefs- which
the Ruffian troops, under the command of Yermac, had
made in Siberia : he was artfully to add, that an extenfive Cedes his
I Conquefls tow
empire was conquered in the name of the Tzar; that^uf^°f
the natives Were reduced to fwear allegiance to that
monarchy and confented to pay an annual tribute.
This reprefentation was accompanied with a prefent oC
the choicer! and moft valuable furs jl The embafladoii
was received at Mofcow with the ftrongeft marks of fatis-
faction : a public thankfgiving was-celebrated in the cathedral; the Tzar acknowledged and extolled the good
fervices of Yermac; he granted him.a pardon for all
former offences ; and, as a teftimony of his favour, distributed prefents for him and his followers. Amongft
thofe which were fent to Yermac was a fur robe,, which:
the Tmv himfelf had worn, and which- was the greatefiL
* S. R.G. VI. p. 304.
mark: Receives a Reinforcement of
mark of diftinction that could be conferred upon a fubjecte
To thefe was added a fum of money, and .a- promife .of
fpeedy and effectuaLaffiftance.
Meanwhile Yermac, notwithftandingfhe inferior number of his troops, did nor remain inactive within the
fortrefs of Sibir. He defeated all attempts of Kutchum
Chan to recover his crown; and took, his principal general prifoner. He made occafional inroads into the adjacent provinces, and extended his conquefls up to the
fource of the river Taffda on one fide, and on the other
as far as the diftri'ct which lies upon the river Oby above
its junction with thelrtilli.
Atlength the promifedfuccours arrived at Sibir. They
confifted of five hundred Ruffians, under ethe command
of prince Bolkofky, who was appointed wayvode or governor of Siberia. Strengthened by this reinJt^rcemenfe
Yermac continued his excurfions on all fides with his
ufual activity ; and gained feveral bloody victories over
different princes, who were imprudent enough to .affert
their independence.
In one of thefe expeditions he laid fiege to Kullara,
a? iinall fortrefs upon the banks of the Irtifh, which flill
belonged to Kutchum Chan: but he found it fo bravely
defended by that monarch, that all his efforts to carry it
by ftorm proved ineffectual.    Upon  his return to" Sibir
he was followed at fome diftance by that prince, who
hung unperceived upon his rear ; and was prepared to
feize any fortunate moment of attack which might occur;
nor was it long before a favourable opportunity prefented
itfelf. The Ruffians to the number of about three hum-
dred lay negligently polled in a fmall ifland,. formed by
two branches of the Irtifh. The night was obfcure and iurpi
rainy ; and the troops, who were fatigued with a long an
march, repofed" themfelves- without fufpicion of danger.
Kutchum.Chan,apprifed of their fituation, filently advanced
at midnightwith a felect body of troops ;> and having forded
the riverycame with fuch rapidity upon the Ruffians, as to
preclude the ufe of their arms.- In the darknefs and
confufion of the night,, the latter were cut to pieces
almoft without oppofition; and fell a refiltlefs prey to
thofe adverfaries^ whomthey had been accuifomed to conquer and defpife. The maflacre was fo univerfal, that
only one man is recorded to have'efeaped, and to have
brought the news of this cataftrophe to his countrymen.
at Sibir..
Yermac himfelf perifhed in the rout, though he did yi
not fall by the fword of the enemy.    In all the hurry
of furprife, he was not fo much infected with the general panic, as to forget his ufual intrepidity^ which feemed
to be encreafed rather than abated by the danger of his»
prefent fituation.    After many defperate acts of hereifm,,
Death of
ermac.. 1£2
he cut his way through the troops who furrounded
him, and made to the banks of the Irtifh*. Being
clofely purfued by a detachment of the enemy, he endeavoured to throw himfelf into a boat which lay near
the fhore; but ftepping fhort, he fell into the water,
and being incumbered with the weight of his armour,
funk inftantly to the bottom i.
His body was not long afterwards taken out of the
Irtifh, and expofed, by order of Kutchum Chan, to all
the infults which revenge ever fuggefted to barbarians
in the frenzy of fuccefs. But thefe firft tranfpbrts of
refentmerit had no fooner fubfided, than the Tartars
cteftiiied the molt pointed indignation at the ungenerous
| Many difficulties have arifen concerning the branch of the Irtifh in
ewhich Yermac was drowned,; but it is now fufficiently afcertained that
it was a canal, which fome time before this cataftrophe had been cut by
«©rder of that Coffee: Not far from the fpoV,where the Vagai falls inte*
the Irtifh, the latter river forms a bend of fix verfts; by cutting a canal
in a ftreight line from the two extreme points of this fweep, he fhortened
-.the length of the navigation.    S. R. G. p. 365—366.
*}- Cyprian was appointed the firft archbifhop of Siberia,in 1621. Upon
his arrival at Tobolfk, he enquired for federal of the anttefif. "&>llowers
of Yermac who were ftill alive; and from them he made himfelf acquainted with the principal circumftances attending the expedition of
that Coffac, and the conqueft of Siberia. Thofe circumftances he tranf-
«sU£ed to wrf&tigj and thefe papers. %*e the archives of the Siberian
hiftory; from which the fevssral hiftorians of that country have drawn
-their relations. Sava Yefimoff, who was himfelf one of Yermac's followers, is one of the moft accurate hiftorians of thofe times. He carries
<&wn his hiftory to the year 1636.    Fif. Sib. Gef. I. p. 430.
ferocity CON QJJ E S T   O F   S IBERIA.
ferocity gjf their leader. The prowefs of Yermac, his
•confummate- valour and magnanimity, virtues which
barbarians know how to prize, rofe upon their recollection. They made a ludden tran&ion from one extreme to the other : they reproached their leader for
ordering, themfelves for being the inftruments of indignity to fuch venerable remains. At length their heated
imaginations proceeded even to confecrate his memory i
they interred his body with all the rites of Pagan fu-
perftition,; and offered up facrifices to his manes.
Many miraculous ftories were foon fpread abroad, "and v?!erali?11
J sr ? paid to his
met with implicit belief. The touch of his body was Memory'
fuppofed to have been an inftantaneous cure for all dif-
orders ; and even his clothes and ar«ms were faid to be
endowed with the fame efficacy. A flame of fife was
■reprefented as fometimes hovering about his tomb, and
fometimes as ftretching in one luminous body from the
fame fpot towards the heavens. A prefiding influence
over the affairs of the chace and of war was attributed
to Ms departed fpirit; and numbers reforted to his tomb
to invoke his tutelary aid in concerns fo interefting to
uncivilized nations. Thefe idle fables, though they
^evince the fuperftitious credulity of the Tartars, convey
at the fame time the ftrongeft teftimony of their veneration for the memory of Yermac ;   and this  veneration
C c greatly ts4 CG&Q^UEST   OF   SIBERIA.
greatly contributed to the fubfequent progrefs  of the
Ruffians in tftofe regions %&:
The Ruffians:
quit Siberia...
With Yermac expired for a time the Ruffian empire
fe> Siberia. The news of his defeat and1 ®eath no fboner
reached the garrifon of Sibir, than an hundred and fifty
troops, the fad remains of that formidable army whreii-
had gained fuch a llrles of almoft incredible victories,
retired from the fortrefs, and evacuated Siberia. Not-
withftandffeg tfe difafter, the court of Mofcow did not
abandon its defign upon that country ; which a variety
of favourable circumftances ftill concurred to render a
flattering object of Ruffian rmbifeon. Yermac's fagacity
had dilbovered new and commodious routes for tfee
march of troops acrofs thofe inho^itable regions. The
rapidity wkh which- he had overrun the territories of
Kutchum Chan, taught the Ruffians to confider the
Tartars as an eafy prey. Many of the tribes who had
been rendered tributary by Y^ieac, had teftified a cheer-
* Even fo late;as»^e middle of the next cental, this, veneration for
the memory of Yermac had not fubfided. Allai, a powerful prince of
the Calmucs, is faid to have been cured <of a dangerous diforder, by
jUHaabg-fbme earthttaken from- Yermac's tomb in water, and drihMng
tfeefjpfufion. Thqt gr£nce is ajfo reporjted to have carried with him a
fmall portion of the fame earth, whenever he engaged in any important
enterprize. Tins earth he fuperffitioufly confidered as a kind of charm j
andwas perfuaded^thftt he alwaysfecuretfa profperons iffue to his affairs;
by this precaution.   S. R. G, V. VI. jj* 3 91.
ful aequiefcence under the fovereignty of the Tzar; and
were inclined to renew their allegiance upon the firft
opportunity. Others looked upon all refiftance as un-
availing, and had learned, from dear-bought experience,
to trembtetat the very name of a Ruffian. The natural
flrength of the country, proved not to be irreflftibte
"when united, was confiderably weakened by ks inteftine
commotions* Upon the retreat of the garrifaa Ifif Sibir,
fbat fortrefs, together with the adjacent diflrict, was
leized by Seyidyak, fon of the farmer fovereign, whom
Kutchum Chan had dethroned and put to death. OtlS#r
princes availed themfe&es of the general confufion to
affert independency ; and Kutchum Chan was able to
regain only a fmall portion of thofe dominions, of which
be had been %ipped by Yermac.
Influenced by  thefe motives,   the court of Mofcow TheRuffi*BS
1 - * re-enter
fent a body of three hundred troops into Siberia-,Slbena"
who penetrated to the banks of the Tura as far as
Tfehingi almoft without oppofition. There they buiff
the fort of Tumen, and re-eftablifhed their authority
over the neighbouring diflrict. Being foon afterwards
reinforced by an additional number of troops, they were
enabled to extend their operations, and to erect the for-
treffes of Tobolfk, Sungur, and Tara.    The erection of Re-conquer
I ° their antient
thefe and  other   fortrefles   was foon   attended with aTerrilones*
C c 2 yp fpeedy 196 C CTN QJU EST   OF   SI B"I R I A.
l!peedy recovery; of the: whole territory, which- Yermas*
Jhad reducedipender the Ruffian yoke.
All Siberia
This fuccefs was only the fore-runner of ftiH greater^"
acquifitions*. The Ruffians pufhed- their eonqueft far
and wide : wherever they appeared, the Tartars were
either reduced or exterminated. New towns were built'
and colonies were planted on all fides^#. Before a century
md   ' x
had well elapfed, all that* vaft tract of country now called-^
Siberia, which ftretches from the confines of Europe to^
the Eaftern Ocean, and from the Frozen Sea to the prefent frontiers of Chinaj.was annexed to the Ruffian>;do—
Progrefs of
the Ruffians
checked by
~he Chinefe.
A ftill larger extent of territory had probably been?
won ; and all the various tribes of independent Tartary
which lie between the South-Eaftern extremity of the
Ruffian empire, and the Chinefe Wall, would have followed the fate of the Siberian, hordes,-, if the power of
China had not fuddenly interpofed.
CHAP. I w ]
chap.   n.
Commencement of "hoftilities between the Ruffians and*.
Chinefe—Difputes concerning the: limits of the twor
empires—Treaty ofNe&fbinsh—Embaffies from the court<
of Ruffia to Pekin—Treaty of Kiachta—Fftablifbment:
of the commerce between the two nations..
r     ^OWARDS the middle of the feventeenth century,,
the Ruffians- were  rapidly extending themfelves*
Eaftward   through that important territory, which lies
on each fide of the. river** .Amoor...   They foon reduced^fc?f aniaw-
■' "noes between.
feveral independent Tungufian.horde s; and built a chain LdcSfcL
of fmall fortreffes along^the banks of the above-men-
fened river, of;Which the principal were Albafin, and
Kamarfkoi Oftrog.    Not   long afterwards,  the Chinefe
under- i Camhi conceived-a limilar  defign of fubduing.
*' Ahaoor is the «name given by the Ruffians to this river; it is called
Sakalin-Ula by the Manfhurs, and was formerly denominated Karamu-.-
ran, or the Black River, by the Mongols* S. R. G. II. p. 293.
4»„ Camhi "was the fecond emperor of the Manfhur race, who madeA
themfelves matters of China in 1624.
The Manfhurs were originally an obfcure tribe of the TUngufian Tartars, whofe. territories lay South of the Amoor, and bordered upon the
kingdom of Corea, and-the province of Leaotong. They emerge.-
ftomri ■1^8
Albafin destroyed by the
Albafin rebuilt
by the Ruffians, is befieg-
ed by the
the fame hordes. Accordingly the two great powers of
Ruffia and China, thus pointing their views to the fame
object, unavoidably clafhed ; and, after feveral. jealoufies
and intrigues, broke out into open hoftilities about the
year 1680. The Chinefe laid liege to Kamarfkoi Oftrog,
and though repulfed in tjiis attempt, found means to cut
off feveral ftr'aggling parties of:Ruffians. Thefe anirno-
fities Induced the Tzar Alexey Michaeloyiteh to fend an
embaffy to Pekin ; but this meafure did not produce the
defired effect. The Chinefe attacked Albafin with a confiderable force : having compelled the Ruffian garrifon
to capitulate, they demolifhed that and all the Ruffian
forts upon the Amoor ; and returned^ ^ith a large number of prifoners, to their own country.
Not long after their departure, a body of fixteen hundred Ruffians advanced along the Amoor; and e^ftftructed
a new fort, under the old name of Albafin. The Chinefe were no fooner appirifed of their return than they
from obfcurity at the beginning of the feventeenth century. About that'
<$$e their chief Aifchin-Giord reduced feveraL neighbouring hordes;
and, having incorporated them with his own tribe, under the general
name, of Manfhur, he became formidable even to the Chinefe. Shuntfchi
grandfon of this chief, by an extraordinary concurrence of circumftances,
Was. jsifejd^while an infant to the throne of China, of which his fucceflbrs
full continue in poffeffion. Shuntfchi died, in 1662., and was fucceeded
by Gamjijifr. who. is well known from the accounts of the jefuit mifEori-
For an account of the revolution of China, fee Duhalde, Defer, de la
Chine, Bell's Journey to Pekin, and Fif. jSic. Gef. torn. I. p. 463.
marched R U S S:r:'A   A N D   CHIN A.
marched irtftantly towards  that river, and fat down before Albafin with an army of feven thoufand men,  and
a large train  of artillery.    They battered the new* fortrefs for feveral weeks, Withbnt being able to make a
breach, and without attempting to take is by ftorm. The
befieged, though not nUich annoyed by the unfkilful
operatioife of the enemy, Were exhaufted with the complicated miferies of ficknefs and famine; and nolwith>
ftanding they continued to make a gallant re fi fiance*,
they muft foon have funk under their diftrefles, if the
Chfnefe had not voluntarily retired, in cofefequence of a
treaty being fet afoot between the two courts of Mofcow
and Pekin..     For this purpofe the Rttffian embaflador
(jblowin had left Mofcow fo early as the year 1685, accompanied1 by a large body of troops, in order to feeute
his perfon, and enforce  refpect to his embaffy.    The
difficulty of procuring fubfiftence for any confiderable
number of men in thofe defofete regions, joined to the
ruggednefs of the roads,  aocf the length of the march,
prevented his- arrival1 at Selefi-gifk until the year 1-6 8%
From thence  meffengers were immediately  difpatebed
with overtures  of peace to the Chinefe government at
After feveral delays, oeeafioned. partly %f poHcy, and
partly by the pofihare of- affairs in trie Tartar country
through which the Chinefe were to pafs, embafladors
left 1
■^Treaty of
Tl A*N s^c-t ions -b e t w e en
left Pekin in the ^beginning of June 3:689. Gofoyin
had propofed receiving them at Albafin^ but while he proceeding to that fortrefs, the Chinefe embaffador^
prefented. themfelves at the' gates of Nerihinfk, efcorted
by fuch.a numerous army, and fuch ?c formidable train
of artillery, that Golovin was conftrained, from motives
of fear, to conclude the negotiation. almoft upon their
own terms.
The 1 conferences were held under tents, in an open
plain, near the town of Nerihinfk; where the treaty
-was figned and fealed by the plenipotentaries of the tw©
-courts. When it was propofed to ratify it by oath, the
.Chinefe embaffadors offered to fwear upon a crucifix^;"
but Golovin preferred their taking an oath in the name
of their own gods.
This treaty firft checked the progrefs of the -Ruffian
arms in thofe parts ; and laid the foundations of an important and regular commerce between the two nations.
3y the firft and fecond articles, the South-Ealtera
boundaries of the Ruffian empire were formed by a
•ridge.of mountains, ftretching North of the Amoor
from the fea of Ochotfk to the fource of the fmall river
Oofbitza^,*then by that river to its influx into the
Amoor, and laitly by the Argoon, from its junction with
the Shilka up to its fource,
By the fifth article reciprocal liberty of trade was
granted to all the fubjects of the two empires, who were
provided with pafs-ports from their refpective courts t-
This treaty Was figned on the 2.7th of Auguft, in the
year 1689, under the reign of Ivan and Peter Alexie-
witch, by which the Ruffians loft, exclufively of a large
territory, the navigation of the river Amoor. The importance of this lofs was not at that time underftood ;
and has only been felt fince the difcovery of Kamtchatka,
and of the iflands between Afia and America. The products of thefe new-difcovered countries might, by means
of the Amoor, have been conveyed by water into the
diflrict  of Nerihinfk,   from   whence there is  an eafy
* There are two Gorbitzas; the fifcft falls into the Amoor, near the
-conflux of the Argoon and Shilka; the fecond falls into the Shilka. The
former was meant by the Ruffians; but the Chinefe fixed upon the latter
for the boundary, and have carried their point. Accordingly the prefent
limits are forfteWhat different from thofe mentioned in the text. They
-are carried -fbom-the point, where the Shilka and Argoon unite to form
the Amoor, Weftward along the Shilka, until they reach the mouth of
tha Weflern Gorbitza; from thence they are continued to the fource of
she laft-mentioned river, and along the chain of mountains as before. By
this alteration the Ruffian limits are fomewhat abridged.
f S. R.G. II. p«435-
D d tranfport 205
Rife of the
with China.
tranfport by land to Kiachta: whereas the fame mer-
chandife, after being landed- at Ochotfk, is now carried
over a large tract of country, partly upon rivers of difficult
navigation, and partly along rugged, and almoft impaffa-
ble roads.
In return, the Ruffians obtained what they long and
repeatedly aimed at, a regular and permanent trade with
the Chinefe. The firft intercourfe between Ruffia and
China commenced in the beginning of the feventeenth
century*. At that period a fmall quantity of Chinefe
merchandife was procured, by the merchants of Tomfk
and other adjacent towns, from the Calmucs. The rapid arid profitable fale of thefe commodities encouraged
certain Wayvodes of Siberia to attempt a direct and open
communication with China. For this purpofe feveral
deputations were fent at different times to Pekin from
Tobolfk, Tomfk, and other Ruffian fettlements: thefe
deputations, although they failed of obtaining the grant
of a regular commerce, were neverthelefs attended with
feme important confequences. The general good reception, which the agents met with, tempted the Ruffian merchants to fend occafional traders to Pekin. By
thefe means a faint connection with that metropolis was
kept alive: the Chinefe learned the  advantages of the
S. R. G. VIII. p. 504,  & feq.
Ruffian R'USSIA.AND   CHINA. 2,03
Rnilian trade, -and were gradually prepared for its fub-
-Cejqu'eRt eftablifhraent. This commerce, carried on by
intervals, was entirely fufpended by the hoftilities upon
the river Amoor. But no fooner was the treaty of Ner-
Ihinfk figned, than the. Ruffians engaged with extraordinary alacrity in this favourite branch of traffic. The
advantages of this trade were foon found to be fo considerable, that Peter I. conceived an idea of ftill'farther
^enlarging it. Accordingly, in 1692, he fent Isbrand
Ives, a-Dutchman in his fervice* to Pekin, whorequefted
-and obtained, that the liberty of trading to China, which low™ trade
-    -        to Pekin.
by the late treaty was granted to individuals, fhould be
Extended to caravans.
In confequence of this arrangement, fucceffive caravans went from Ruffia to -Pekin, where a caravanfary
was .abetted for their reception; and all their expences
during their continuance in that metropolis defrayed by
the Emperor of China. The right of fending thefe caravans, and the profits refulting from them, belonged to
the crown of Ruffia. In the mean time, private merchants -continued as before to carry on a feparate trade
wi£& the Chinefe, not only at Pekin, but alfo at the head
quarters of the Mongols. The camp of thefe roving
Tartars was generally to be found near the conflux of the
Orchon and Tola, between the Southern frontiers of
Siberia and the Mongol defert.    A kind of annual fair
Dd i was BETWEEN
was held at this fpot by the Ruffian and Chinefe merchants ; where they brought their refpective goods for*
fate ; and continued until they were difpofed of. This,
rendezvous foon became a fcene of riot and confufion ;
and repeated complaints were tranfmitted to the Chinefe
Emperor of the drunkenneis and mifconduct of the Ruffians. Thefe complaints made a frill greater impreffion
from a coincidence of fimilar excefles, for which the Ruffians at Pekin had become notorious..
Exafperated by  the  frequent reprefentatiOns  of his-
fubjects, Camhi threatened to expell the Ruffians from,
his dominions, and to prohibit them from carrying on
any commerce,  as well, in China as in. the country of the
Thefe untoward circumftances occafibned another
embaffy to Pekin, in the year 1719, Leff Vaffilievitch
Ifmailoff, a captain of the Ruffian guards, who was fent
embaffador. upon this occafion, fucceeded in the negotiation, and adjufted every difficulty to the fatisfaction
of both parties. At his departure he was permitted to
leave behind Laurence Lange, who had accompanied him
to Pekin, in the character of agent for the caravans ; for
the purpofe of fuperintending the conduct of the Ruffians. His refidence however in that metropolis was but
fhort;   for he was foon afterwards compelled, by the
Ghinefev RUSSIA   AND   CHINA. 2
Chinefe, to return. His difmiffion was owing, partly,
to a fudden caprice of that fufpicious people, and partly
to a mifunderftanding, which had recently broke out
between the two courts, in relation to fome Mongol tribes
who bordered upon Siberia. A fmall number of thefe
Mongols had put themfelves under the protection of
Ruffia, and were immediately demanded by the Chinefe;
but the Ruffians refufed compliance, under pretence that
no article in the treaty of Nerihinfk could, with any appearance of probability, be conftrued as extending to the
Mongols. The Chinefe were mcenfed at this refufal;'
and their refentment was ftill further inflamed by the
diforderly conduct' of the Ruffian traders, who, freed
from- all controul by the departure of their agent, had
indulged, without reftraint, their ufual propenfity to
excefs. This concurrence of unlucky incidents extorted,
in 1722', an order from Camhi for the total expulfion of ^Jd^"
the Ruffians from the Chinefe and Mongol territories.
Thefe orders were regoroufly executed ; and all inter-
courfe between-the two nations immediately ceafed.
Affairs continued* in this ftate until the year  lys'Tjf^Se.
when the count Sava Vladiflavitch Ragufinfki, a Dalmatian in the fervice of Ruffia, was difpatched • to Pekhr. \
His orders were at all events to compofe the differences^
betweenthe two courts relating to the Mongol tribes ; to
fettle the Southern frontiers of the Ruffian empire in
that quarter; and to obtain the permiffion of renewing
the trade with China. Accordingly that embaffador
prefonted a new plan for a treaty of limits and commerce to Yundfchin, fon and fuccefibr of Camhi; by
Avhich the frontiers of the two empires were -finally
traced as they exift at prefent, and the commerce efta-
blifhed upon a permanent bafis, calculated to prevent
as far as poffible all future fources of rnifunderftand-
iog. This plan being approved by the emperor, Chinefe commiffioners were immediately-appointed to negotiate -with the Ruffian embaffador npon the banks
of the Bura, a fmall river which flows, South of the
confines of Siberia, into the Orchon near its junction
with the Selenga,
Treaty of
At this conference^ the old limits, which are mentioned
in the treaty of Nerihinfk, ■ were continued from the
Source of the Argoon Weftwards as far as the mountain
Sabyntaban, which is fituated at a fmall diftance from
the fpot where the conflux of the two rivers. Uleken and
oKemtzak form the Yenisei: tlpds boundary feparates the
Ruffian dominions from the territory of the Mongols,
who are under the protection of China,
It was likewife flipulated, that for the future all. negotiations fhould be  tranfacted between the tribunal of
5 foreign RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
foreign affairs at Pekin, and the board of foreign affairs
at St. Peterfburg ; or in matters of inferior moment
between the commanders of the frontiers •*.-.
The moft  important articles relating to commerce,
were as follow:
A caravan was allowed to go to Pekin every three Account of
the Treaty-
VearS, on condition  of its not confifting of more7 than
two hundred perfons ;    during their refidence in that
metropolis, their expences were no longer to be defrayed
by the emperor of China.    Notice was to be fent to the
Chinefe court   immediately   upon their   arrival at  the
frontiers ; where an officer was to meet and. accompany
them to Pekin..
The privilege before enjoyed by individuals of carrying on a promifcuous traffic in the Chinefe and Mongol
territories was taken away, and no merchandize belonging to private perfons was permitted to be brought for
fale beyond the frontiers. For the purpofe of pre-
ferving, confiftently with this regulation, the privilege
of commerce to individuals, two places of refort were
* This article was inferred, becaufe the Chinefe emperor, from a,
ridiculous idea of fuperiority, had contemptuoufly refufed to hold any
correfpondence with the court of Ruffia.
appointed fr
appointed on tfie confines of Siberia: one called Ki-
iitchta, from a rivulet of that name near which it
ftands; and. the other Zuruchaitu: at thefe places a
free trade was reciprocally indulged to the fubjects of
the two nations.
A permiffion was at the fame time obtained for
building a Ruffian church within the precincts of their
caravanfary; and for the celebration of divine ferviCe,
four priefts were allowed to reilde at Pekin jg. The
fame favour was alfo extended to fome Ruffian Scholars t,
* The firft Ruffian church at Pekin was built for the accommodation
of the Ruffians taken prifoners at Albafin. Thefe perfons were carried
to Pekin, and the place appointed for their habitation in that city was
called the Ruffian Street, a name it flill retains. They were fo well received by the Chinefe, that, upon the conclufion of the treaty of Ner-
fhinfk, they refufed to return to their native country. And as they
intermarried with the Chinefe women, their defcendants are quite naturalized ; and have for the moft part adopted not only the language,
but even the religion of the Chinefe. Hence, the above-mentioned
church, though it frill exifts, is no longer applied to the purpofe of
divine worfhip : its prieft was transferred to the church, which was built
within the walls of the caravanfary.
-j- The good effe&s of this inftitution have already been perceived;
A Ruffian, whofe name is Leontieff, after having refided ten years at
Pekin, is returned to Peterfburg. He has given feveral tranflations and
extracts of fome interefling Chinefe publications, viz. Part of the Hiftory
of China; the Code of the Chinefe Laws; Account of the Towns and
Revenues, &c. of the Chinefe Empire, extracted from a Treatife of
Geography, lately printed at Pekin. A fhort account of this Extracl is
given in the Journal of St. Peterfburg for April, 1779.
for the pufpdfe of learning the Ghinefe tongue; in or-*
der to qualify themfelves for interpreters between the
two nations.
This treaty, called the treaty of Kiachta, was, on the
fourteenth of June, 1728, concluded and ratified by the
drant Ragufinfki and three Chinefe plenipotentaries upon
the fpot, where Kiachta was afterwards built: it is the
balls of all tranfactions fince carried on between Ruffia
and China*.
One innovation in the mode of carrying on the trade
to China, which has been introduced fince the acceffion
of the prefent emprefs Catherine II. deferves to be mentioned in this place. Since the year 1755 no caravans
have been fent to Pekin. Their firft difcontinuance was <
owing to a mifunderftanding between the two courts of
Peterfburg and Pekin in 1759. Their difufe after
the reconciliation had taken place, arofe from the following circumftances. The exportation and importation
of many principal commodities, particularly the moft
valuable furs, were formerly prohibited to individuals,
and folely appropriated to caravans belonging to the
crown.    By thefe reltrictiohs the Ruffian trade to China
The prefent
was ereatly  fhackled and  circumfcribed.
S. R.G. VIII. p. 513.
E e
emprefs TRAILS A CTT anys between; &c*
Monopoly of
tlie Fur Trade
emprefs (who* amidit many excellent regulations; whic&.
characterife her reign, has fhewn' herfesbf inaaniably attentive to the improvement of the Ruffian, commeroe)^
abolifhed, in 1762, the monopoly of the fur trade, and
renounced in favour of her fubjecls the exciufive privilege which the crown enjoyed of fending caravans to
Pekin j$$ By thefe conceffions the profits of the trade?
$pave been confiderably encreafed t the great expense*
hazard, and delay, of tranfportmg the merchandife occa-
fionally from the frontiers of Siberia to Pekin* has been
retrenched ; and Kiachta is now rendered the center
ef the Ruffian andCbinefe commerce*
* S,.RvG» VIH. p. £20*.
CHAP.  Vmw- .of foi   CfrMp^ff^rwtfar oJorwz,   MAIMATSCHIN  unlA dt  Biro ok Kiachta, /^/^ 44
• _ 7 _ _ ' ^^^^  c
CHAP.    HI.
Account of the Ruffian and Chinefe fettlements upon the
confines of Siberia—defcription of the Ruffian frontier
town Kiachta—of the Chinefe frontier town Maimatfchin-—its buildings, pagodas, &c.
T3 Y the laft mentioned treaty it was ftipulated, that
*~" the commerce between Ruffia and China fhould be
tranfacted at the frontiers. Accordingly two fpots were
marked out for that purpofe apon the confines of Siberia,
where they border updfi the Mongol defert;   one nearR»ffi»aa<r
^ffeAHfc i   Chinefe Settle-
the brook Kiachta, and the other at Zuriicnaitu.    '^Tfa^mentupoathe
defcription of the former of thefe places forms the fub> KUchta*
ject of this chapter.
This fettlement confifts of a Ruffian and Chinefe
town, both fituated in a romantic valley, furryunded
by high, rocky, and for the moft part well-wooded, mountains. This valley is interfered by the brook Kiachta,
which rifes in Siberia, and, after wafhing both the Ruffian
and Chinefe town, falls into the Bura, at a fmall diftance
from the frontiers.
-The Ruffian   fettlement is called Kiachta from the |ltuitiDBHfthe
Human  fron
tier Town
abovementioned brook:   it lies in  124 degrees 18 mi-^ach«T
E e 2
nutes 212 COMMERCE   BE T W E E N
nutes longitude from the ille of Fero, and 35 degrees
N. latitude, at the diftance of 5514 verfts from Mofcow,
and 1532 from Pekim
TheFortreft. it confilts of a fortrefs and a fmall fuburb^. The
fortrefs, which is built upon a gentle rife, is a fqjiare
enclofed with palifadoes, an^: ftrengtb&ned with, wooden
baftions at the feveral angles* There are three gates,
at which guards are conftantly ftationed : one of the
gates faces the North, a. fecond the. Soutb towards the
Chinefe frontiers, and a third the Eaft clofe to the brook
Kiachta. The principal public, buildings in the fortrefs
are a wooden church,T the governor's houfe*, the cuflom
houfe, the magazine for provifions* and tb,ef guard-houfe.
It contains alfo a range of fhops and warehoufes, barracks for the garrifon, and feyeral houfes belonging to
the crown; the latter are generally inhabited by the
principal merchants.. Thefe buildings are moftly of
Wood.. Ill
suhwb. The fuburb, which is furrounded with a wooden wall
covered at the top with chevaux de frize, contains na
more than an hundred and twenty houfes very irregularly built; . it has the fame number of gates as the
fortrefs, which are alio guarded. Without this fuburb,
upon the high road leading to Selenginfk, ftand a few
houfes, and the magazine for rhubarb.
This fettlement. is but indifferently provided with
water both in quality and quantity ; for although the
brook Kiachta is dammed up as it flows by the fortrefs,
3£©t it is fo fballow in fummer, that, unlefs after heavy
rains, it is fcarcely fufficient to fupply the inhabitants.
Its ftream .is troubled and unwholefome, and the fprings
which, rife in the, neighbourhood are either foul or
brackifti: from thefe circumftances, the principal inhabitants ar§ obliged to fend for water from, a fpring in
the Chinefe diftrict^- The foil of the adjacent country
is moftly fand or rock, and extremely barren. If the.
frontiers of Ruffia were extended about nine verfts more
South to the rivulet e£ Bura;. the inhabitants of Kiachta
would thenenjoy good water, a fruitful foil, and plenty
of fifjh, all which advantages are at prefent confined to
the Chinefe.
The garrifon of Kiachta confilts of a company of
regular foldiers, ai£d a certain number of Coffacs ; the
former at^| occafionafty changed, but the latter are fixed
inhabitants of the place. It is the. province of the
commander to infpect the frontiers, and, in conjunction
with the prefident of the Chinefe merchants, to fettle
all afraks of an inferior nature ; but in matters of importance recourfe muft be had to the chancery of Selen-
gtnfl£, and to me governor of Irkutfk. The Ruffian.
4 merchants
merchants, and the agents of the Ruffian trading company, are the principal inhabitants of Kiachta.
The limits Weftwards from this fettlement to the
river Selenga, and Eaftwards as far as Tchikoi, are
bounded with chevaux de frize, placed there to pre-*
vent a contraband trade in cattle, for the exportation of
which a confiderable duty is paid to the crown * All
the outpofts along the frontiers Weftwards as far as the
government of Tobo&k, and Eaftwards to the mountaiif$
of fnow, are under the command of the governor of
The moft elevated of the mountains that furround
the valley of Kiachta, and which is called by the Mon~
gols Rurgulfei, commands the Ruffian as well as the-
Chinefe town; for this reafon, the Chinefe, at the con-
clufion | of the laft frontier treaty, demanded the ceffion
of this mountain under the pretexl, that fome of their
deified anceftors were buried upon its fnmmit. The
Ruffians gave way to their requeft, and fuffered the
boundary to be brought back to the North fide of the
tue Chinefe
Town. , 3
The Chinefe town is called by the Chinefe and Mongols, Maimatfchin, which fignifies fortrefs of commerce.
The Ruffians  term it the Chinefe Village   (Kitaifkaia
i Sloboda) RUSSIA   ANB   C Hi N A,
Sloboda) and alfo Naimatfchin, which is a corruption of
Maimatfchin.. It is fituated about an hundred and forty/;
yards South of the fortrefs of Kiachta, and nearly parallel to it. Midway between this place and the Ruffian
fortrefs, two pofts about ten feet high are planted in
order to mark the frontiers of the two empires: one is
infcribed with Ruffian, the other with Manfhur characters H|
Mainatfehin has no other fortification than a wooden
wall, and a fmall ditch of about three feet broad ; the
latter was dug in the year 1756, during the war between the Chinefe and the Calmucsr The town is of
an oblong form : its length is feven hundred yards?
and its breadth four hundred. On each of the four
fides a large gate faces: the principal ftreets; over each;
of thefe gates there is a wooden guard-houfe for the
Chinefe4 garrifbn, which coniifts of Mongols in tattered
clothes, and armed- with clubs. Without the gate, which
looks to the Ruffian frontiers, and about the diftance of
eigfet yards from the entrance, the Chinefe have raifed
a wobden fcreen, fo conftructed as to intercept all view
of the ftreets from without.
* Upon the: mountain:, to the Well of -Kiachta,. the -limit is agaro
marked, on the Ruffian fide by an heap of flones and. earth, ornamented
cm the top with, a crofs; anWon the Cninefe by a pile of flones in. the
fhape of a pjsramid.   Pallas:Reife>P. Utp-no.       ||p
This i
This town contains two hundred houfes and about
twelve hundred inhabitants. A^t has two principal ftreets
of about eight yards broad, croffing each other in the
middle at right angles, with two by-ftreets running from
North to South. They are not paved, but are laid with
gravel, and kept remarkably clean. tM
The houfes are fpacious, uniformly built of wood, of
only one ftory, not more than fourteen feet high, plaif-
tered and white-wafhed ; they are conftructed round a
court yard of about feventy feet fquare, wh^ph is ftrewed
with gravel, and has an appearance of neatnefs. Each
houfe confifts of a fitting room, fome warehoufes
and a kitchen. In the houfes of the wealthier fort
the roof is made of plank; but in meaner habitations of lath covered over with turf. Towards the
ftreets moft of the houfes have arcades of wood projecting forwards from the roof like a penthoufe, and
fupported by ftrong pillars. The windows are large
after the European manner, but on account of the dearnefs of glafs and Ruffian talk are generally of paper,
excepting a few panes of glafs in the fitting room.
The fitting room looks feldom towards the ftreets :
it is a kind of fliop, where the feveral 'patterns of
merchandize are placed in recefles, fitted up w^h iheives,
and fecured with paper doors for the purpofe of keeping
out the duft.    The windows are generally ornamented
with little   paintings,   and   the   walls   are hung with
Chinefe   paper.     Half   the   floor is    of  hard   beaten
clay; the other half  is covered with boards,   and rifes
about    two    feet   in   height.       Here   the   family   fit
in the day-time and fleep at night.    By the fide of this
railed part,  and nearly upon the fame level, there is a
fquare brick ftove, with a ftreight perpendicular cylindrical  excavation, which is  heated with fmall pieces of
wood.    From the bottom of this ftove a tube defcends,
and is   carried zigzag  under the boarded floor above-
mentioned, and from thence to a chimney which opens
into the ftreet.    By this contrivance, although the ftove
is  always open and the flame vifible, yet the room is
never troubled in the leaft degree With fmoke.   There is
fcarcely any furniture in the room, excepting one large
dining table   in  the lower   part,   and  two   fmall lackered  ones   upon the raifed floor:   one of thefe tables
is always provided with  a chaffing difh,. which ferves
to light their pipes when the ftove is not heated.
hi this room there are feveral fmall niches covered
with filken curtains, before which are placed lamps
that are lighted upon feftivals; thefe niches contain painted paper idols, a ftone or metal veffel, wherein
the allies of incenfe are collected, feveral fmall orna-
ments and artificial flowers : the Chinefe readily allow
flrangers to draw afide the curtains, and look at the
The Buchanan | merchants inhabit the South Weft
quarter of Maimatfchin. Their houfes are not fo large
nor commodious as thofe of the <Hfiinefe, although the
greateft part of them carry on a very confiderable
The Governor j   The Surgutfchei, or governor of Maimatfchin, has the
of Maimatfchin. Q2YQ 0f fjQe ppljce, as well as the direction of all affairs
relating  to   commerce :    he  is generally  a perfon of
rank, oftentimes   a   Mandarin,   who   has   mifbehaved
himfelf in janother flation, and is fent here as a kind
of puotthment.    He is diftinguifhed from the reft by
#ie cryftal button of his cap, and by a peacock's | fea-
* " The chief merchandizes which the Bucharians bring to Ruffia,
* are cotton, fluffs, and half-filks, fpun and raw cotton, lamb-fkins,
precious flones, gold-duft, unprepared nitre, fal-ammoniac, &c."
See Ruffia, or a complete Hiflorical Account of all the nations that
compofe that empire. V. II. p. 141, a very curious and interefting work
lately publifhed.
•f- In China the princes of the blood wear three peacock's feathers,
nobles of the higheft diftmdion two, and the lower clafs of the nobility
eae* It is alfo a mark of high rank to drive a carriage with four
wheels. The governor of Maimatfchin rode in one with only tw£
wheels. All the Chinefe wear buttons of different colours in their caps,
which alfo denote the rank.   Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 126.
ther ftUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
give   him   the
ther hanging behind. The Chinefe
ii0e of Amban, which fignifies commander in chief;
and no one appears before^him without bending the
knee, in which pollute the perfon who brings a petMidft
muft remain until he receives the governor's anfwer.
His falary is not large ; but the prefents which he receives from the merchants amount annually to a confix
derable fum.
The moft remarkable public buildings in Maimatfchin, are the governor's houfe, the theatre, and two
The governors houfe is larger than the others, and Houfe of the
0 **   ' Governor.
better furnifhed ; it is diftinguilhed by a chamber where
the court of juftiee is held, and by two high poles before
the entrance ornamented with flags.
The theatre is fituated clofe to the wall of the town Theatre,
near the great pagoda : it is a kind of fmall fried, neatly
painted, open in front, and merely fpacious enough to
contain the flage; the audience ftand in the ftreet.
Near it are two high poles, upon which large flags with
Chinefe infcriptions are hoifted on feftivals. On fuch
occafions the fervants belonging to the merchants pla^"
fhort burlefque farces in honour of their idols.
F f 2
The 220
-The fmall
The Idol
The fmaHeft of the two Pagodas is a- wooden bunding,,
Handing, upon pillars, in the centre of the town, at the
place where the two principal ftreets orofs* It is a Chis-
nefe tower of two ftories, adorned on the outride with
fmall columns, paintings,, and little iron bells, 820;
The firft ftory isfquare,. the fecond octangular. In the
lower ftory is a picture reprefenting the God Tien, wihich.
fignifies,. according to. the explanation of the moft. inteW
ligent Chinefe, the molt high God, who rules over the:
thirty-two heavens. The Manlliurs', it-is faid, call'this-
.idol Abcho; andtthe Mongols, Tingheru. heaven,- or the
God of heaven. He is reprefented fitting. with his head
uncovered, and encircled with a ray* of glory fimilar to
that which furrounds the head of otir Saviour in the Roman catholic paintings ; his hair is longhand flowing;
he holds in his right hand a drawn fword, and his left
is extended as in the act of giving a benediction. On one
fide of this figure two youths, on the other a maiden,
and a grey-headed: old man, are delineated^
* When Mr-. Pallas obtained permiffion' of the governor to fee this
temple, the latter allured him that the Jefuits of Pekin and their-con-
verts adored this idol. From whence he ingenioufly conjectures, either
that the refemblance between this idol, and the reprefentations of our
Saviour by the Roman Catholicks, was the occafion of this affertion ; or
that the Jefuits, in order to excite the devotion of the converts, have,
out of policy, given to the piclure of our Saviour a refemblance' to the
Tien of the Chinefe.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 119.
The upper ftory contains the picture of another idol in
a black and white checquered.cap, with the fame figures
of three young perfons and a little old man. There are
no altars in this temple, and no other ornaments excepting thefe pictures andtheir frames. It is opened only on
feftrvals,. and ftrangers cannot fee it without.permiffion..
The  great  Pagoda^   fituated Before  the- governor's The great pa«
goda and its.
houfe, and near the principal gate looking to the fouth*ldoh-
is larger amf more magnificent than the former..
Strangers are allowed- to. fee it at all times,' without the
leaft difficulty,, provided they are accompanied by one of
the priefts, who are always to be found in the area of
the temple. This area is furrounded with chevaux de
frize : the entrance is from, the fouth through two gates
with a fmall building, between them* In the infide of
this building are two reeeffes with rails before them, behind which the images of two.horfes as big as life are
coarfly mouldedout of clay ; they arefaddled and bridled,
and attended by twoi human figures drefled like grooms; i
the horfe to the right is of. a chefnut colour, the other
is dun with a black" mane and tail, the former; is in the
I The great Pagoda is omitted in the engraving of Maimatfcnm prefixed to this chapter; this omiffion was owing tathe artifTs being obliged .
to. Igave Kiachta  before he had  time. to . finifh  the drawing,.   In.
every other  refpecl,   the   view,   as  I was   informed by  a. gentleman who has been on the fpot, is complete, and reprefented,with the-.
greateft exadtnefsi~'
^ attitude. COMMERCE   BETWEEN
attitude of fpringing, fhe latter of walking. Near each
horfe a banner of yellow filk, painted with filver dragons,
is difplayed. gj
In the middle of this area are two wooden turrets fur-
rounded with galleries ; a large bell of call iron which is
ftruck occafionally with a large wooden mallet, hangs in
the Eaftern turret; the other contains two kettle drums
of an enormous fize, fimilar to thofe made ufe of in the
religious ceremonies of the Calmucs. On each fide of
this area are ranges of buildings inhabited by the prieft
of the temple.
This area communicates by means of an handfbme
gateway with the inner court, which is bordered on each
fide by fmall compartments open in front, with rails before them; in the infide of thefe compartments the
legendary ftories of the idols are exhibited in a feries
of hiftorical paintings. At the farther extremity
of this court Hands a large building, conftructed in the
fame ftyle of architecture as the temple. The infide is
fixty feet long and thirty broad : it is ftored with antient
weapons, and inftruments of war of a prodigious fize;
fuch as ipears, fcythes, and long pikes, with broad
blades, fhields, coats of arms, and military enfigns re-
prefenting hands *,   dragons  heads,   and other carved
* Thefe hands refemble the manipulary flandards of the Romans.
e. figures. RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
figures. All thefe warlike inftruments are richly gilded,
and ranged in order upon fcaftblds along the wall. Op-
polite the entrance a large yellow flandard, embroidered
with foliage and filver dragons, is erected; under it, upon
a kind of altar, there is a feries of little oblong tables,
bearing Chinefe infcriptions.
An open gallery, adorned on both fides With flowerpots, leads from the back door of the armoury to the colo-
nade of the temple. In this colonade two flate tablets
are placed, in wooden frames, about fix feet high and.
two broad, with long infcriptions relating to the building
of the temple. Before one of thefe plates a fmall idol of
an hideous form Hands upon the ground,, enclofed in a
wooden cafe.
The temple itfelf is an elegant Chinefe building,
richly decorated on the outfide with columns lackered,
and gilded carved-work, fmall bells, and other ornaments peculiar to the Chinefe architecture. Within there
is a rich profufion of gilding, which correfponds with
the gaudinefs of the exterior. The walls are covered
thick With paintings, exhibiting the moft celebrated ex-
ploits of the principal idol.
This temple contains five idols of a coloflal ftature,,
fitting crofs-legged upon pedeftalsin three recefles, which
fill the whole Northern fide.
The -principal idol is Teated alone, in the middle recefs, between two columns, entwined with gilded dragons. Large ftreamers of filk, hanging from the roof
of the temple, veil in fome meafure the upper part of
the image. His name is Ghedfur, or GhefTur Chan * ^
the Chinefe call him Loo-ye, or the firft and moil an-
tient*; and the 'Manfhurs, 'Guariloe, or the fuperior god.
He is of a gigantic fize, furpaffing more than fourfold
the human ftature, with a face gliftening like burnifhed
gold, black hair and beard. He wears a crown upon
his head, and is richly dreffed in the-Chinefe fafhion:
his garments are not moulded out of clay, as thofe of
the other idols ; -but are made of the fineft filk. He
holds in his hands a kind of tablet, which he feems to
read with deep attention. Two fmall female figures, re-
fembling girls of about fourteen years of age, fland on
* The Mongols and Calmucs call .him by this name of GhefTur Chan,;
and although they do not reckon him among their divinities; yet they
confider him as a great hero, the Bacchus and Hercules of Eaftern Tar-
- tsary, .who was born at t&e fource of the Choango, and who vanquifhed
, many monflers. They have in their language a very long hiftory of
his heroical deeds. His title, in the Mongol tongue, is as follows :
LAxban Zeeghi Effin^GheffurBogdo Chan : the king of the ten points of
the compafs, or the monarch GhefTur Chan.
I poffefs a copy of this manufcript, containing the Hiftory of GhefTur
Chan.; it is in the original Mongol language, and was a prefent from
Mr.Pallas: 1 fhould be very happy to communicate it to any perfou-
■y.erfed in.the Eaftern languages.
each. RUSSIA   A"RT>   CHlKA,
■teach fide of the idol, upon the fame pedeftal; one of
which grafps a roll of paper. At the right-hand of the
idol lie feven golden arrows, and at his left a bow.
Before the idol -is a fpacious enclofure, furrounded
with rails, within Which ftands an altar with four colof-
fal figures, intended probably to reprefent the principal
mandarins of the deified GhefTur. Two of thefe figures
-are drefled like judges, and hold before them fmall
tablets, fimilar to that in the hands of the principal idol,
"The two other figures are accoutred incomplete armours
one wears a turban ; and carries,x upon the left fhoulder,
a large fword fheathed, with the hilt upwards. The
other hasan hideous copper-coloured face, a large belly,
iand grafps in his right hand a lance with a broad
blade. |eu
Although all the remaining idols in the temple are of
an enormous fize, yet they are greatly furpaffed in magnitude by GhefTur Chan.
>The ^sft idol in the recefs to the right is called Maoo- Maooang.
ang, or the Otfchibanni of the Mongols. He has three
ghaftly copper-coloured faces, and fix arms ; two of his
■ax^s-brandifh two fabres orofs ways over the head; a
£hM bears a looking glafs, and a fourth a kind of fquare,
-wbieh refembles a piece of ivory.    The two remaining
G g arms
MS Niu-o..
arms are employed in drawing a bow, with an arrow laid
upon it, ready to be difcharged. This idol has a mirror upon his breaft", and an eye in his navel: near it are
placed two fmall, figures ; one holds an arrow, and the
other a little animal*.
The next idol in tire fame recefs is called by the Chinefe Tfaudfing, or the gold and filver god; and by the
Mongols Tfagan-Dfambala. He wears a black cap, and
is drefled, after the Chinefe fafhion, in fumptuous robes
of ftate; he bears in his hand a fmall jewel' cafket. Near
him alfo Hand two little figures, one of which holds a.
truncated, brancm,
Ih the recefs to the left fs the god Chufhoj called by
the Manfhurs Chua-fchan, and by the Mongols Galdi, or^
the Fire God. He is reprefented with a frightful fiery,
reddifh face ; clad in complete armour he wields a fword
half drawn out of the fcabbard, and feems on the point
of ftarting up from his feat. He is attended by two
little harlbadeers, one of whom is crying ; and the other.
bears a. fowl upon his hand, which refembles a fea-
The other idol in the fame recefs is the god ofoxen,
Niu-o. He appears to be fitting in a compofed pofture;
he is habited like a Mandarin, and is diftinguifhed by a*
Wk* crowifc RUSSIA   AND   CHINA.
. crown upon his head. He has, in common with the
other idols, a mirror upon his breaft. The Chinefe
imagine him to be the fame with the Yamandaga of the
Mongols; and it is faid his Manfliurifli name is Chain
Killova; his Mongol name, which relates to the hiftory
of Gheflur, is Bars-Batir, the Hero of Tygers.
Before thefe feveral idols there are tables, or altars, on-
which cakes, paltry, dried fruit, and flefh, are placed,
on  feftivals  and prayer   days : I on particular occafions
even whole carcafes of fheep are offered  up.    Tapers
and lamps are kept burning day and  night before the
idols.    Among the utenfiis of the temple, the moft remarkable is a veffel fhaped like a quiver, and filled with
flat pieces of cleft reed, on which fhort Chinefe devices
are infcribed.    Thefe devices are taken out by the Chinefe on new-years  day, and are confidered as oracles,
which foretel the good or ill luck of the perfon, by whom
they are drawn, during the following year.    There lies ,
alfo upon a table an hollow wooden black lackered helmet, which all perfons of devotion ftrike with a wooden
hammer, whenever they enter the temple.    This helmet is regarded with fuch peculiar awe, that no ftrangers
are permitted to handle it, although they are allowed to
touch even the idols themfelves.
The firft day of the new and full moon is appointed
for the celebration of worfhip.    Upon each of thofe days
no Chinefe ever fails to make his appearance once in the
temple ; he enters without taking off his cap*, joins his
hands before his face, bows five times to each idol,,
touches with-his forehead me pedeftal on which the idol
fits, and then retires.- Their principal feftivals are held
in the firft month of their year, which anfwers to February. It is called by them, as- welk as- by the Mongols,,
the white month ;. and is confidered as a lucky time for
the tranfaction of bufinefs^ at that' time they hoift flags-
before the temples; and place meat upon the tables of
the idols, which the priefis take away in the evening, and eat in the fmall apartments of the interior
court.- On thefe folemnities plays are performed m the-
theatre, in honour of the idols : the pieces are generally
fatyrical,,. and moftly written againft unjuft magiftrates-
and judges.
But although the Chinefe have fuch few ceremonies in
their fyftem of religious worfhip, yet they are remarkably infected with fuperftition. Mr. Pallas gives the
following defcription of their behaviour at Maimatfchin during an eclipfe of th,e moon. At the clofe of
the evening in wljtich the eclipfe appeared, all the inhabitants were indefatigable in railing an inceflant uproar,
* They do not take off their caps out of refpeQ:; for among the
fShiaefe, as well as other Eaftern nations, it is reckoned a mark of difre-
fpe& to uncover the head before a fupejior.
fome by hideous fhrieks, others by knocking wood, and
beating cauldrons; the din was heightened by ftriking
the bell: and beating the kettle drums of the great Pagoda. The Chinefe fuppofe, that during an eclipfe the
wicked fpirit of the air,-, called by the Mongols Arachul-:
la, is attacking the rnoon | and that he is frightened
away by thefe hideous fhrieks and noifes. Another in-
ftance^of fuperftition fell under the obfervation of Mr.
Pallas,, while he was at Maimatfchin. A fire broke out
in that town with fuch violence that feveral houfes were
in flames. None of the inhabitants, however, attempted
to extkiguifh it; they ftood indeed in idle confternation
round the fire; and fome of them- fprinkled occafionally
water among the flames,, in order to. footh the fire god,,
who, as they imagined, had chofen their houfes for a;
facrifice. Indeed if the Ruffians had not exerted themfelves in quenching the fire, the whole place would probably have been reduced to afhes .*■..
*. This account of Kiachta and Maimatfchin is taken from Mr* Pal-
las's defcription of Kiachta, in the Journal of his travels through Siberia,,
p. iii. p. 109—126-  Every circumflance relating to the religious wor--
fhip of the Eaftern nations is- in- itfelf fo interefting that I would
not be unacceptable to my readers to give a tranflation of the above paf-
fages refpec^ring the Chinefe Pagodas and Idols 1. although in a work
treating of the new difcoveries, and the commerce which is connecled -
"With them.    In the abovementiooed journal the ingenious author continues to defcribe from his own obfervations the manners, cuftoms, drefs,,
diet, and feveral other particulars relative to - the Chinefe; which, although exceedingly curious and interefting, are foreign to my prefent
purpofe, and would have been incompatible with the fize of the prefent:
No- COMMERCE,   &c.
No writer has placed the religion and hiftory of the Tartar-nation6
in a more explicit point of view than Mr. Pallas ; every page in his interefting journal aflbrds ftriking proofs of this aflertion. He has lately
thrown new lights upon this obfcure fubjed, in a recent publication^
concerning the Tartars, who inhabit parts of Siberia, and the territory
which lies between that country and the Chinefe-wall. Of this excellent
work the firft volume appeared in 1776, and contains the genealogy,
hiftory, laws|' manners, and cuftoms, of the extraordinary people, as
they are divided into Calmucs, Mongols, and Burats. The fecond
volume is expected with impatience, and will afcertain, with minutenefs
and accuracy, the tenets and religious ceremonies which diftinguifli the
votaries of Shamanifm from the followers of Dalai-Lama, the two
great feels into which thefe tribes are diftinguifhed. Pallas Samlung
hiftorifcher Nachrichten ueber die Mongolifchen Volkerfchafter.
CHAP, [    »3*    3
Commerce between the Chinefe and Ruffians—lift of the
principal exports and imports—duties—average amount
of the Ruffian trade.-
"* H E merchants  of   Maimatfchin come from  the Merchants of.;
Northern provinces of China, chiefly from Pekin,
Nankin,  Sandchue,  and  other principal towns.    They
are not fettled at this place with their wives and families :   for it is a remarkable circumftance, that there is
not one woman-in Maimatfchin.    This reftriction arifes
from  the   policy of  the1 Chinefe  government; which
totally prohibits the women from having the flighteft
intercourfe  with   foreigners.       No   Chinefe  merchant
engages in the trade to Siberia who: has not   a partner.     Thefe    perfons   mutually   relieve   each   other,
Qne remains for   a   flated   time,   ufually   a   year,   at:
Kiachta;    and when his partner arrives with a freifi.
cargo of Chinefe merchandize, he then ■ returns, hornet
with the Ruffian commodities*.'
Moft of the Chinefe merchants underftand the Mongol tongue, in which language commercial affairs are
* Pallas Reife, P. HI. p. 125.
Hj generally/ COM M EH C E   BE T W EI N
generally tranfacted. Some few indeed fpeak broken
Ruffian, but their pronunciation is fo foft and delicate,
that it is difficult to comprehend them. They are not
able to pronounce the R, but inllead of it make ufe of
an L; and when two conforiants come together, which
frequently occurs in the Ruffian tongue, they divide
them by the interpofition of a vowel *. This failure
In articulating the Ruffian language feems peculiar to
the Chinefe, and is not obfervable in the Calmucs,
Mongols, and other neighbouring nations t. \
The commerce between the Ruffians and Chinefe is
ea^irely a trade ojfcbarter, that is, an exchange of one
merchandize for another. The Ruffians are prohibited
to export their own coin, nor indeed cQ$ld the Chinefe
* Bayer, in his Mufeura Skucum, gives feveral curious inflances of
the Chinefe mode of articulating thofe founds, which they have not in
their own language. For inftance they change B D'R XZ iito P T LS'S.
-feEhus for Maria J^bey fay Ma-li-ya;
for crux,
vfor baptizo,
for cardinalis,
for fpiritus,
for Adam,
for Eva,
for Chriftus,
Hoc, eft, corpus, meum——ho-ke, nge-fu-tu,  co-ul-pu,fu, rap»v«m,
Bayer, Muf. Sin. Tom. L p. 15,
f Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 134.
ki-li-fu-tu-fu ?
receive it, even fhould that prohibition be taken off;
for no fpecie is current amongft them except bullion*.
And the Ruffians find it more advantageous to take
'merchandize in exchange, than to receive bullion at
the Chinefe flandard. The common method of tranf-
acting bufinefs is as follows. The Chinefe merchant
comes firft to Kiachta, and examines the merchandize he
has occafion for in the warehoufe of the Ruffian trader;
* The Chinefe have no gold or filver coin. Thefe metals are always
paid in bullion; and for the purpofe of afcertaining the weight, every
Chinefe merchant is conftantly provided with a pair of fcales. As
gold is very fcarce in China, filver is the great vehicle of commerce.
When feveral authors affirm that the Ruffians draw large quantities of
filver from China, they miftake an accidental occurrence for a general
and Handing fact. During the war between the Chinefe and Calmucs,
the former had occafion to purchafe at Kiachta provifion, horfes,
and camels, for which they paid filver. This traffic brought
fuch a profufion of that metal into Siberia, that its price was
greatly reduced below its real value. A pound of filver was at
that period occafionally fold at the frontiers for 8 or 9 roubles, which
•at prefent fetches 15 or 16. But fince the conclufion of thefe wars by
the total reduction of the Calmucs under the Chinefe yoke, Ruffia receives a very fmall quantity of filver from the Chinefe. S. R. G. III.
p. 593 & feq.
The filver imported to Kiachta is chiefly brought by the Buchanan merchants, who fell cattle to the Chinefe in exchange for that
metal, which they afterwards difpofe of to the Ruffians for Europeaa
manufactures. Gold-duft is alfo occafionally obtained from the fame
merchants; the quantity however of thofe metals procured at
Kiachta is fo inconfiderable, as fcarcely to deferve mention. The
whole fum imported to Kiachta, in 1777, amounted to only 18,215
Ruffian Ex*
he then goes to the houfe of the latter, and adjufts
the price over a difh of tea. Both parties next return to the magazine, and the goods in queftion are
there carefully fealed in the prefence of the Chinefe
merchant. When this ceremony is over, they both
repair to Maimatfchin; the Ruffian choofes the commodities he wants, not forgetting to guard againft fraud by
a ftrict infpection. He then takes the precaution to
leave behind a perfon of confidence, who remains in the
warehoufe until the Ruffian goods are delivered, when
he returns to Kiachta with the Chinefe merchandize m
The principal- commodities which Ruffia exports ta
China are as follow i
It would be uninterefting to enumerate all the furs
and fkins *fe brought for fale to Kiachta, which form,
the moft important article of exportation on the fide of
the Ruffians. The moft valuable of thefe furs are the
fkins of fea-otters, beavers, foxes,' wolves, bears, Bucha-
rian lambs, Aftracan fheep,. martens,, fables,, ermines*
I Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 135-
m The lift of all the furs and fkins brought to Kiachta, with their
feveral prices, is to be found in Pallas Reife, Part III. p. 136 to p. 142-
See hereafter, p. 242.
The greateft part of thefe furs and fkins are drawn
from Siberia and the New Difcovered Iflands: this tup-
ply however is not alone fully adequate to the demand
of the market at Kiachta. Foreign furs are therefore
imported to St. Peterfburg, and from thence fent to the
frontiers. England alone furnifhes a large quantity of
beaver and other fkins, which fhe draws from Hudfon's
Bay and Canada *
Cloth forms the fecond article of exportation which
Ruffia exports to China.
* Lift of furs fent from England to Peterfburg in the following
Beaver-fkins.        Otter-&ras.*
The fineft Hudfon's beavers have been fold upon an average at Peterfburg from ■ 70 to 90 roubles per 10 fkins.
Inferior ditto and beff Canada beavers from 50 — 75
Young or eub-beavers h&iA 20 — 35
Beft ottj0f4kmsff?om           -                   90 —100
Inferior ones from
The qualities of thefe fkins being very different occafion great variations in the prices.
At Kiachta, the beft Hudfon's Bdy beaver
fetches from ■ 7 to 20 roubles per fkin.
Otters* ditto     6—35
Black foxes fkins from Canada are alfou foretimes fent from England
to Peterfburg.
At Kiachta they fetch from 1 to loo-roubles per fkirj.
H h a
The coarfe fort is manufactured in Ruffia;  the finer
fort is foreign, chiefly Engiifh, Pruffian, and French;
An arfhire of foreign cloth fetches, according to its finenefs, from 2 to 4 roubles..
White flannels, both Ruffian and foreign..
The remaining articles are,
Rich fluffs.    -       'l;^p       'lJ    #\
Coarfe linen, chiefly manufactured ki Ruffia..
Ruffia leather..
Tanned hides.
Glafs ware and looking glaffes.
Hardware, namely, knives,, fciflars, kicks, &c.
Tin.      * , ■]   X, \
Ruffian talk.
Cattle, chiefly camels, horfes, and horned cattle.
The Chinefe alfo pay very dear for hounds, greyhounds, barbets, and dogs for hunting wild boars.
Provifions *».
* In the year 1772, the Chinefe purchafed meat at Kiachta,  at the
following prices : Wm
A pound of beef 3^ copecs.
lamb 2^
Horfe flefh for the Tartars i.~ Pallas Reife, P. III. p.
Meal.—The Chinefe no longer   import   fuch large
quantities of meal as formerly,   fince they  have employed the Mongols to cultivate the   lands lying near
the river Orchon *, 8cc. Sec-
Lift of the moft valuable  commodities procured
from China.
a|rAV7 AND  MANUFACTURED SILK. |      impoi
The exportation of raw filk is prohibited in China
under pain of death: large quantities however are
frnuggled every year into Kiachta, but not fufficient to
anfwer the demands of the Ruffian merchants.
A pood of the beft fort is eftimated at 15 o roubles;
of the worft fort at 75
The manufactured filks are of various forts, fafliions,
and prices, viz. fattins, taffaties, damafks, and gauzes,
fcanes of filk died of all colours, ribbands, Sec. &c.
Raw. cotton is  imported'in   very   large   quantities;
a great part of this commodity is employed in packing
up the china ware, and by thefe means is conveyed into
* S. R. O. III. p. 495—571.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. 136—144-
* .-. ->- :-r    .-".4*0..
the inland part of Ruffia without any additional expence
of carriage.
A pood fells for — from 4 roubles, 80 cop. to 12.
Of the manufactured cotton, that which the Ruffians
call Kitaika, and the Engiifh Nankeen, has the molt
rapid fale. It is the moft durable, and, in proportion
to its goodnefs, the cheaper! of all the Chinefe fluffs;
it is flained red, brown, green, and black.
"   ';'   '      .     ;     ■   ■ % ■     TEA S. -       ;  •
The teas 'which are brought into Ruffia are much
fuperior in flavour and quality to thofe which are fent
to Europe from Canton. The original goodnefs of the
teas is probably the fame in both cafes ; but it Is con-*
jectured, that the transport by fea confiderably impairs
g| the aromatic flavour of the plant. This commodity,
now become fo favourite an object of European luxury,
is efteemed by the Ruffian merchants the moft profitable
article of importation.
At Kiachta a pound of the beft tea % is
eftimated at — — —— 2 roubles.
Common ditto at        — — 1
Inferior at
—        — 40 copecs.
At Peterfburg a pound of the beft green tea fetches 3 roubles.
For fome years part the Chinefe have brought to
Kiachta parcels of porcelain, painted with European
figures, with copies of feveral favourite prints and images
of the Grecian and Roman deities.
Furniture, particularly Japan cabinets and cafes, lackered and varnifhed tables and chairs, boxes inlaid wit&
mother-of-pearl, 8cc. 8cc.
Fans, toys, and other fmall wares.
Artificial flowers.
Tiger and Panther fkins.
Rubies *, but neither in large quantities nor of great
White lead, vermilion, and other colours.
Sugar Candy.
Preferved ginger, and other fweetmeats.
Rhubarb f.
* Rubies are generally procured by fmugglingj- and By the fame
means pearls are occafionally difpofed of to the Chinefe, at a very deaf
sate.   Pearls are much fought for by the Chinefe ; and might be made:
a very profitable article.
-jr See Appendix II-
It is very difficult to procure the genuine Thibet
mufk, becaufe the Chinefe purchafe a bad fort, Which
comes from Siberia,   with which   they adulterate that
Ruffia draws great advantages from the Chinefe trade.
By this traffic, its natural productions, and particularly
its furs and fkins, are difpofed of in a very profitable
manner. Many of thefe furs procured from the
moft Eafterly parts of Siberia, are of fuch little value
that they would not anfwer the expence of carriage into
Ruffia; while the richer furs, which are fold to the
Chinefe at a very high price, would, on account of
their dearnefs, feldom meet with purchafers in the Ruffian dominions. In exchange for thefe commodities the
Ruffians receive from China feveral valuable'articles of
commerce, which they would otherwife be obliged to buy
at a much dearer rate from the European powers, to the
great difadvantageof the balance of their trade,
I have before obferved, that formerly the exportation
and importation of the moft valuable goods were prohibited to individuals ; at prefent only the following articles are prohibited. Among the exports, fire-arms and
artillery; gunpowder and ball; gold and filver, coined
X S. R. G.III. p. 572-
Pallas Reife, p. III. p. 144.—153.
and uncoined, ftallions and mares; fkins of deer, reift*-
deer, elks, and horfes; beaver's hair, potafh, rofin,
thread, and p tinfel-lace: among the imports,, fait, brandy,
poifons, copper-money, and rhubarb.
The duties paid by the R&flian-merchants are very
confiderable; great part of the merchandife is taxed
at 25 per cent.
Furs, -cattle, and provifions, pay a duly of 23.
Ruffian manufactures 18.
One per cent, is alfo deducted from *h©^ptice of all
goods for the expence of deepening the river Selenga;
and 7 per ,cent for the fupport of the cu^on^fioufe.
Some articles, both of -export and 4mpo#t, pay no duty>
The exported are, writing^ royal, .and poft paper, Ruffia
cloth of all forts and colours* excepting peaf^nts cloth.
The irnported are,, latins, raw and ftained cottons, porcelain, earthen-ware, glafs corals, beads, fans, all mu-
fical inftruments, furnijtore, lackeretf .and enamelled ornaments^ needles, wboterlea4 rice, race/erve^l giflg^T
and other fweet-meats t.
* Tinfel lace is fmuggled to the'Chinefe, with confiderable profit 5
iorthey pay nearly as much for it as if it was folid filver.
S, R, GAIH. p. 588.
-j-. Pallas Reife, P. Ill, p. 154.
I i The
I Cuftom-houfe duties,
Importatipn of Chinefe goods, to
the value of
Of gold and* ftlvep&
Total of Importation
Exportation of Ruffian commodities   1,313*62 r «n&5 •
The importance pf this trade will appear from the foh
Table of exportation and importation at Kiachta,
in the year 1777.
Rbles. Cop-
481,460. 59I.
1,466,497. j|3f.
1,484,712.    3fl
From this table it appears, that the
total fum of export and import a-
mounts to 2,868/333.-
In this calculation however the contraband trade is-
not included, which is very large; and as the year-
1777 was not fo favourable to this traffic as the preceding ones% we may  venture to eftimate the grofs
* In the year 1770, 1771,. 1772, the cuftom-houfe duties at Kiachta
(according to Mr. Pallas, P. III. p. 154*) produced!' 5^50,000 roubles.
amount of the average trade to China at near 4,000,000
By taking therefore the medium between that fum and 481,460, the
amount of the duties in 1777, the average fum of the duties will be
^15,730 ; and, as the duties in 1777 make nearly a fixth of the whole
fum of exportation and importation, by multiplying 515,730 by 6, we
have the grofs amount of the average exports and imports at 3,094,380.
But as feveral goods pay no duty, and as the contraband trade according
to the loweft valuation is eftimated at the fifth part of the exports and
imports ; the grofs amount of the average trade to China may befairly
computed at near 4,000,00.0. the fum ftated above.
4  P C 2& J
CHAP.    V.
c&efcripti6n of ZurucbWtu—-and its frWe-^ranfport of
the mercbandife through Siberia*
II ~^H E liberal account of the :&uffian commerce to
China has been given in the preceding, chapter,,
becaufe almoft the whole traffic is confined to Kiachta..
The defcription of Zuruchaitu, which, was alfo fixed by
tbe treaty of Kiachta for the purpofe of carrying on the
fame trade,, will, be comprifed of courfe in a narrow^
Zuruchaitu is fituated m 13 70 longitude, and 490. 20''
N. latitude, upon the Weftern branch of the rkrer Argoon, at a fmall diftance from ks- fource.    It is provided*
with a fmall garriforv and a few wretched barracks fur-
munded with chevauxde frife.   No merchants are fettled'
at this place ; they come every fummer from Nerfhinfk,^
and. other* Ruffian towns in order to meet two parties of
Mongol, troops-:- thefe troops are fent from the Chinefe
towns* Naun and Mergben, and arrive at the frontiers-
about July.    They encamp near Zuruchaitu upon the
other, fide of. the river- Argoon,   and barter with the <
Siberian: RUSSIA   AND   CHIUA,
Siberian merchants a few Chinefe commodities, which
they bring with them.
Formerly the commerce carried on at Zuruchaitu was
more confiderable ; but at prefent it is fo trifling, that
it hardly deferves to be mentioned. Thefe Mongols
furnifti the diflrict of Nerfhinfk with bad tea and to-ComD3erc*
bacco, bad ftlks, and fome tolerable cottons. They receive in return ordinary furs, doth,, cattle, and Ruffiart
leather. TThis trade laits about a month or fix weeks,.
and the annual duties of the cuftoms amount upon an
average to no-more than 500 roubles. About the middle of Auguft the-Mongols retire; part proceed immediately to Ghina, and the others defcend the ftream of
titie Amoor as far as its mouth, in order to obferve if
there has been no ufurpation upon the limits. At the
fame time the Ruffian merchants return to Nerfhinfk,
and, were it not for the fmall garrifon, Zuruchaitu would
remain uninhabited ■*..
The Ruffian commodities are  transported   by   laME||S|
and whine le*
from Peterfburg and Mofcow to Tobolfk.    From thence commodities
° througlrSi--
the merchants* may embark upon the Irtifh down to itsberia-
junction with the Oby ;- then they either tow up their
boats,   or fail up the laft   mentioned  river   as far as-
* S. R. G* III. p. 465.    Pallas Reife, P. III. p. -428.
7, Marym, s 246
Marym, where they enter the Ket, which they afcend
to Makofffkoi Oftrog. At that place the merchandize is
carried about ninety verfts by land to the Yenifei. The
merchants then afcend that river, the Tungufka, and
Angara, to Irkutfk, crofs the lake Baikal, and go up
the river Selenga almoft to Kiachta.
It is a work of fuch difficulty to afeend the ftreams
of fo many rapid rivers, that this navigation Eaftwards
can hardly be finifhed in one fummer te; for which
reafon the merchants commonly prefer the way by land.
Their general rendezvous is the fair of Irbit near Tobolfk ; from thence they go in fledges during winter to
Kiachta where they arrive about February, the feafon
in which the chief commerce is carried on with the
Chinefe. They buy in their route all the furs they find
in the fmall towns, where they are brought from the
adjacent countries. When the merchants return in
fpring with the Chinefe goods, which are of greater- bulk
and weight than the Ruffian commodities, they proceed
by water ; they then defcend the ftreams of moft of
the rivers, namely, the Selenga, Angara, Tungufka, Ket,
and Oby to its junction with the Irtifh; they afcend
that river to Tobolfk, and continue by land to Mofcow
and Peterfburg.
I Some of thefe rivers are only navigable in fpring wh€fr the fnow
water is melting; in winter the rivers are in general frozen.
Before the paflasre from Ochotfk to Bolcherefk wasTra£fpo^of
-■■ *-* the Furs from
cBfcovered in 1716, the only communication between lucfi.*1"to
Kamtchatka and  Siberia was  by land;   the   road  lay
by Anadirfk   to Yakutfk.    The furs .* of Kamtchatka
and  of  the   Eaftern   ifles   are   now   conveyed   from
that   pemnfula   by   water    to  Ochotfk;   from   thence
to Yakutfk by land on  horfe-back, or by  rein-deer :
the roads   are fo very  bad,   lying either   through  a
rugged mountainous country, or   through  marfhy fo-
refts, that the journey lafts at leaft fix weeks.    Yakutfk
is fituated upon the Lena, and: is the principal  town,
where  the choicer! furs are brought in  their  way to
Kiachta, as well from Kamtchatka as from the Northern
parts of Siberia, which lay upon the rivers Lena, Yana,
and Endigirka.    At Yakutfk the goods  are  embarked
upon the Lena, towed up the ftream of that river as far
as Vercholenfk, or ftill farther to Katfheg ;  from thence j
they are tranfported over a fhort tract of land to the
rivulet Buguldeika, down that ftream to the lake Baikal,
acrofs that lake to the mouth of the Selenga, and up>
that river tortile neighbourhood of Kiachta.
*• The furs, which, are generally landed upon the' Eaftern coaft of
Kamtchatka, are either fent by fea to Bolchorefk, or are tranfported
acrofs the Peninfula in fledges drawn by dogs. The latter conveyance
is only-ufedin winter : it is the ufual mode of travelling in that country*
In fummer there is no conveyance, as the Peninfula contains neither»
oxen, horfes, or rein-deer.   S» R. G. III. p. 478.
In order to give the reader fome; notion of that vaft
tract of country, over which the merchandise is frequently tranfported by land carriage, a Iht of the dif*
tances is here fubjoined.
From Peterfburg-to Mofcow
734 verffe*
Mofcow to Tobolfk           —
^385 J§£ *•
Tobolfk to Irkutfk           —
Irkutfk to Kiachta         —
From Irbit to Toboiflc          «	
From Irkutfk to Nerfhinfk
NeffMnfk to ZuruchaitA
*■' 370   e     .e
From Ochotfk to Yakutfk          —$
<■  9*7
Yakutfk *6 irkutfk          —
From Selenginfk to Zuruchaitu
.'■   850 gLe.
Zuruchaitu to Pekin         —
1588   1
Kiachta to Pekin             —
TKfe Chinefe tranfport their goods to Kiachta chiefly
upon camels. It is four or five days journey from TPekin
to the wall of China, and forty^fix from thence acrofs
the;Mohgol deleft % Kiachta*.
* Pallas Reife, P. IIL p. 134.
APPENDIX    I.   Sc   II.
OF       THE
K k   ■■- -■ />uMf/ie<£A/irur/$„ ySo. acam&ny 6? Jf"//<'''* [      2SI
Extract from tbe journal of a voyage made by Captain
Krenitzin and Lieutenant Levafheff to tbe Fox Iflands,
in 1768, 1769, by order of tbe Emprefs of Ruffia—
tbey fail from Kamtchatka—arrive at Beering's and
Copper Iflands—reach the Fox Iflands—Krenitzin'
winters at Alaxa—Levafheff upon Unalafhka—produclions of Unalafhka—defcription of tbe inhabitants of tbe
Fox Iflands—their manners and cuftoms, &rc.
N the 23d of July Captain Krenitzin failed in the Kremtzm and
Levafheff fail
Galliot St. Catherine from the mouth of the Kamt-£<*» %
Mouth of the
ohatka river towards America: he was accompanied .by K
Lieutenant Levafheff, in the Hooker St. Paul. Their
inftructions were regulated by information derived from
Beering's expedition in 17 41. Shaping their courfe accordingly, they found themfelves more to the North
than they expected; and were told by the Ruffian
traders and huntersj that a fimilar* miftake was com-
* This paflage is obfcurely exprefled. Its meaning may be ascertaining by comparing Krenitzin s* chart with that of Beering's Voyage
prefixed to Mullet's account of the Ruffian Difcoveries. The route of
Krenitzin's veffel was confiderably to the North of the courfe held by
Beering and TfchirikofF, and confequently he failed through the middle
of what they had iuppofed to be a continent, and which he found to*
be an open fea. See Robertfon's Hiftory of America, p. 461, and
p. 26, of this work.
K k .2
mitted 2~Z
They reach
mitted in the chart of that expedition, j Thefe traders,
who for fome years jpaft were accuftomed to ramble to
the diftant iflands in queft of furs, faid that they were
fituated much more to the South, and farther Eaft thanr
was imagined. On the 27th they faw Commodore's or
Beering's Ifland, which is low and rocky, efpecially to
the S. W. On this fide they obferved a fmall harbour,,
diftinguiflied by two hillocks like boats, and not far
from \ it they found a frefh water lake.
and Copper
To the S.E. lies another ifland, called by the Ruffians
Mednoi Oltroff, or Copper Ifland, from a great quantity
of copper found upon its N. E. coaft, the only fide which,
is known to the Ruffians. It is waftied up by the fea,
and covers the fhore in fuch abundance, that many fhips-
may load with it. Perhaps an India trader might make
a profitable voyage from thence to China, where this*
metal is in high demand. This copper is moftly in a
metallic or malleable ftate, and many pieces feem as if
they had formerly been in fufion. The ifland is not
high, but has many hillocks, each of which has the
appearance of having formerly been the funnel of a
volcano. We may here, once for all^obferve, that all the
iflands reprefented in this chart* abound with fuch
funnels, called in Ruffian Sopka, in fo much that no
ifland, however fmall,  was found without one;    and
* Namely, the chart which is prefixed to this journal..
many APPENDIX      I.
many of them confifted of nothing elfe. In fhort,
the chain of iflands here laid doWJi may, without any
violent ftretch of imagination, be confidered as thrown
up by fome late volcano's. The apparent novelty of
every thing feems to juftify this conjecture : nor can
any objection be derived from the vegetable productions
with which thefe iflands abound; for the fummer after the lower diflrict of Zutpheri in Holland was gained
from the fea, it was covered over with wild muftard.
All thefe lands are fubject to violent and frequent earthquakes, and abound in fulphur. The writer of the
journal was not able to inform us whether any lava was
found upon them; but he fpeaks of a party-coloured
ftone as heavy as iron. From this account it is by no
means improbable, that the copper abovementioned has.
been melted in fome eruption ►
After leaving Copper Ifland, no land was feen froar.Ajjgjjjj*
either of the fhips (which had parted company in a fog)
till on the S. E. quarter of their tract, was difcovered
the chain of nlands or headlands laid down in the
charts Thefe m general appeared low, the fhore badr
without creeks, and the water between them very fhal-
low. During their courfe outwards, as well as during,
their return, they had frequent fogs. It appears from
the journal, as weR as from the relation of the hunters*
that APPENDIX      I.
that it is very uncommon to have clear weather for five
days together, even dNeing fummer.
The St. Catherine wintered in the ftraits of Alaxa,
where they hauled her into fhoal water. The inftructions
given to the captain fet forth, that a private fhip had
in 1762 found there a commodious haven; but he
looked for it in vain. The entrance of this ftrait from
the N. E. was extremely difficult on account of flats, and
ftrong currents both flood and ebb : the entrance however
from the S. E. was afterwards found to be much eafier
with not lefs than 5^ fathoms water. Upon furvey-
ing this ftrait, and the coaft of Alaxa, many funnels were obferved in the low grounds clofe to the"
fhore, and the foil produced few plants. May not
this allow one to fuppofe that the coaft had fuffered
confiderable changes fince the year 1762? Few of
the iflands produce wood, and that only in the Val-
lles by the rivulets. Unalga and Alaxa contain thfe>
molt; they abound with frefh water ftrearfis, arid even
rivers; from Which we may infer that they are exten-
flve. The fo$ is in general boggy, and covered with
mofs; but Alaxa has more foil and produces much grafsv
winters upon
The St. Paul wintered in Unalaflika.    This wintering
WIUICIS   ujjuu O
unaiaihka.    l>lace wls 0bferVed to &e in 5 30 29' North latitude, and
its .longitude   from the mouth of  Kamtchatka river,
com- APPENDIX      I.
computed by the fhipfe journal, was 27°0 5/Eaft£. Unalafhka is abput fifty miles long from N. E. to S. W.
and has on the N. E. fide three bays. One of them
.called Udagha ftretches thirty miles E. N.. E. and
•W. S. W. nearly through the middle ..of the
ifland. Another called Igunck, lying N.N. E. and
S. S. W. is a pretty good harbour, with, three and a half
-fathom water at high tide, and fandy ground. It is well
fheltered from the Nortii fwell at ks entrance by rocks^
fome of which are under water. I The tide flows here
five feet at full and change, and the fhore is in general
bold and rocky, except in the bay, at the mouth of a
imall river* There are two burning mountains on this
lUland, <one called Ayaghifh, ao.d the other (by the Ruffians) the Roaring Mountain.. Near the former is a
very copious hot fpring. The land is in general rocky,
with loamy and clayey grounds; but the grafs is extremely coarfe, and unfit for pafture. Hardly any wood
is to be found on it. Its plants are dwarf cherry (t Xy>-
lofteum of Tournefort^ wortle berry, (Vaccinium Ufi-
gmofum of Linnaeus), rafberry, farana and fhikfhu of
^Kamtchat&a and kutage, larch, white poplar, pine and
Produftions of
* According to the general map of Ruffia, the mouth, of the Kamtchatka river is in 178° 25'from Fero. Unalafhka therefore, according
to this eftimatioo, is 405° 30' from Fero, oar 1870 5/ 15" from Greenwich.
^ TheLonicera Pyrenaicaof Linnseus. It is not a dwarf cherry,,
but a fpecies of honeyfuckle*
birch*. .2,0
birch *. The land animals are foxes of .different colours,
mice, and weafels; there are alfo beavers t, fea cats, and
fea lions as at Kamtchatka. Among their fifh we may
reckon cod, perch, pilchards, fmelts, roach, needle fifh,
terpugh, and tchavitcha. The birds are eagles, partridges, ducks, teals, urili, ari, and gadi. The animals for whofe Ruffian names I can find no tranilations,
are (excepting the Ari) defcribed in KiraflnninikofPs Hiftory of Kamtchatka, or in Steller's relation contained in
the fecond volume of ..the Memoirs of the Academy of
Accountofthe     The inhabitants  of Alaxa, Umnak, Unalakftia, and
Inhabitants of
Stab! the neighbouring iflands, are of a middle ftature, tawny
brown colour, and black hair. In fummer they wear
coats (parkif) made of bird fkins, over which, in bad
weatber, and in their boats, they throw cloaks, called
kamli, made of thin whale guts.; On their heacfe they
wear wooden   caps, ornamented with duck's I feathers,
* AH the other journalifts uniformly defcribe Unalafhka as containing
nothing but underwood ; we muft therefore fuppofe that the trees here
mentioned were very low and fmall, and this agrees with what goes before, " hardly any wood is to be found on it."
J By beavers the journalifts certainly mean fea-otters, called by the
Ruffians fea-beavers. See p. 12. For a defcription of the fea-otter, called
by Linnaeus Lutra Marina, fee Nov. Com. Petr. vol. II. p. 367, et.feq.
X Parki in Ruffian fignifies a fhirr, the coats of thefe iflanders being
made like Hurts.
and the ears of the fea-animal, called Scivutcha or fea-
lion; they alfo adorn thefe caps with beads of different
colours, and with little figures of bone or ftone. In
the partition of the noftrils they place a pin, about
four inches long, made of the bone, or of the ftalk
of a certain black plant; from the ends of this pin or
bodkin they hang, in fine weather and on feftivals, rows
of beads, one below the other. They thruft beads, and
bits of pebble cut like teeth, into holes made in the un-
der-lips. They alfo wear firings of beads in their ears,
with bits of amber, which the inhabitants of the other
iflands procure from Alaxa, in exchange for arrows and'
They cut their hair before juft above the eyes, and
fome fliave the top of their heads like monks. Behind
the hair is loofe. The drefs of the women hardly differs from that of the men, excepting that it is made
of filh-fkins. They few with bone needles, and thread
made of fifh guts, fattening their work to the ground
before them with bodkins. They go with the head
uncovered, and the hair cut like that of the men before, but tied up behind in a high knot. They paint
their cheeks with ftrokes- of blue and red, and wear
nofe-pins, beads, and ear-rings like the men ; they hang
beads round their neck, and checkered firings round
their arms and legs.
L  1
In their perfons we fhould reckon 4bem extremely
nafty. They eat the vermin with which their bodies
are covered, and fwaUow the mucus from the nofeie
Having, w allied themfelves, according, to cuftom, firft
with urine, and then Wjkh water, they fuck their hands
$isy&t: When thfy are- fick, they lie three or four days
without food ;. and, if bleeding is neceflary, they ©pen a
vein with lapels mad%of flint,  and e%ck the blood.
Their principal nourishment is fifh and whale fat,
which they commonly eat raw. They alfo feed upon
fea-wrack and roots, particularly the faran, a fpecies of
lily ; they eat a herb, called kutage, on account of its
bitternefs, onJy with fifh or fat*. They fometimes kindle
fire by catching, a fpark among dry leaves and powder of
folphur ? but the moft *|ommon method is by rubbing
two pieces of wood together, m the manner practifed at
Kamtchatka % and which Vakfel,. Beering's heutenant,
found to be injftfe hi that part of North America which
he faw in £$41* They are very fond of Ruffian oil
and butter* but not o& hiead..    T&ey could not be pre-
* The inftrument made ufe- of by the Kamtchadals, to procure fire,
is a board with feveral- holes ia it, and a flick i the latter, is put into
the holes, and turned about fwiftiy, until life wood within the hole&
$egjns to. burn,, where thesis, tinder ready to catch the fparks.
S. R. G. III. p. 205.
- Sit-'
vailed APPENDIX    ft
^sailed upon to tafte any fugar until, the commander
fhe wed the example; finding it stweet, they put it up
to carry it home to tbeir wives.
The hotifes of thefe iflanders are huts built precSfely
in tbe manner of thofe in Kamtchatka, with the entrv
tferough a hole in the middle of the roof* In one of
thefe huts live feveral ramilifes, to the amount of thirty-
or forty perfons. They keep themfelves warm by
means of whale fat ferant in fhells, which they place
between their legs. The women fet apart from the
Sh£ or feven of thefe huts or yourts make a tillage,
of which there are fixteen in Unalafhka. The iflands
feem in general to be well inhabited, as may be conjectured from the great number of boats which are feen
continually prying along £he fhbre* There are upwards
of a thoufand inhabitants on Unalafhka, and they fay
that It was formerly much more populous. They have
fuffered greatly by their dif$aites with the Ruffians, and
by a famawran the year 1762 ; but moft of all from
a change in their way of life. No longer contested
with their original fiaapiicity, they long, for Ruffian
luxuries : in order therefore to obtain a few <ielicacife$$
which are prJefettrly confumed, they dee&cate tbe greateft
part of their time to hunting, for the purpofe of pro-
L 1 2 curing 26> A   P   P   E   N   D    I   X     I.
curing furs for the Ruffians : by thefe means, they
neglect to lay uj> a provifion of fifh and roots; and
fuffer their children frequently to. die of hungetf4$
Their principal food is fifh, which they catch with
bone hooks. Their boats, in wbich they row to a
, great dii&ance from land, are made, like thofe of the
Innuet or Efquamaux, of thin flips of wood and fkins:
thefe fkins cover the top as well as the fides ofifche
boat, and aretedrawn tight i round the waift of the
rower.. The oar is a paddle, broad at both ends. Some
of their boats hold two perfons ; one of whom rows^
and the other fifties : but thefe kind of boats feem
appropriated to their chiefs. They have alfo large
boats capable of holding forty men. They kill, birds
and beafts with darts made of bone, or of wood tipped
with fharpened ftone : they ufe thefe kind of darts in
war, which break with the blow given by them, and
leave the point in the wound*
The manners and character of thefe people are what
we fhould expect from thei$ neceffitous fituation, extremely rude and favage. i The inhabitants however of
Unalafhka are foraewhat lefs barbarous^in their manners
and behaviour to each other, and alfo more civile to
ftrangers than the natives of the other iflands; but
©sq even
■ APPENDIX     i
even they are engaged in frequent and bloody quarrels,
and commit murder without the leaft compunction.
Their difpofition engages>fhem in continual wars," in
which they always endeavour to gain their point by
ftratagem. The inhabitants of Unimak are formidable
to all the reft; they frequently invade the other iflands,
and carry off women, the chief object of their wars.:
Alaxa is moft fubject to thefe incurfions, probably be-
caufe it is more populous and extenlwe. They all
join in hating the Ruffians, whom they confider as general invaders, and therefore kill them wherever they
can. The people of Unalafhka however are more
friendly ; for Lieutenant Levafheff, being informed that
there was a Ruffian veflel in the ftraits of Alaxa,
prevailed on fome Unalafhkans to carry a letter, which?
ffiey undertook, notwithftanding the danger they were
expofed to from the inhabitants of the intervening:
The journalift. fays, that thefe people have no kind;
of religion, nor any notion of a God. We obferve
however among them: fufficient marks of fuch a religion
as m^ht be expected from people .in their fituation.
For the journalift informs us, that they have fortunetellers employed by them at their feftivals. Thefe perfons pretend to. foretel events byythe information of the
Kugans or Daemons.    In their divinations they put on.
wooden. >M A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X    |
wooden masks, made in the form in which they fay
the Kugan appeared to them; they then dance with
violent motions, beating at the fame time drums covered
with fifh fkins. The inhabitants alfo wear little figures
on their caps, and place others round their huts, to keep!
off the, devils. . Tbefe are fufficient marks of a favage
religion. -|$i| apt:'
r.It is common for them to haire two, three, or four
wJbres,;3nd fome have alfo an object of unnatural affection, who is drafted like the women. The wives do not
all Mve togeifaer, | but£ like the Kamtchadate, in different
ynuctsra j It is not unufual foe the men to exchange their
wives, and even fell them, in time of dearth, for a blad-?
der of fat; the hufband afterwards endeavours to get
back his. wife, if fhe is a>fetvourite, and if unfuccefs-
ful, ;he fometimes kills himfelf. When ftrangers arv
rive at a village, it is always cuftomary for the women to
go out to meet them, while, the men remain atvhome;
this, is confidered as a pledge;of friendfhip and fecmity*
When a man dies ,in the hut belonging to his wife, fhe
retires into a dark hole, where fhe remains forty days..
T^ge^ufbandtpays the fame compliment to his favourite
Ti^.upon^erdeatjsu^y^'hen both parents die, the chJlF
dren ais deft, to; ftiiitibnjmemfelves. The Ruffians foundi
many in this fituation, and fome were brought foj?
fake j ij&^jj liffi IH APPENDIX    I.
In each village there is a fort of chief, called Tookoo,
who is not dlftinguiftied by any particular rank or author
lity. He decides differences by arbitration, and the
neighbours enforce the fenterfce. When he goes out to
tea- he is exempted from working, and has a fervant,
eailed Kale, for the purpofe of rowing the canoe ; this is
the only mark of his dignity r at aH other times he labours
Bke the reft. The office is not hereditary ; but is generally conferred on him who is moft remarkable for his
perfonal qualities ; or who poffeffes a great influence by
fhe number of his friends. Hence it frequently happens, that the perfon who has the largeft family is
During their feftivaTs, which are held after the fifhing
feafon ends in April,, the men and women, fing fongs;
Ae women dance, fometimes fingly, and fometimes in
pairs,, waving in their hands blown bladders ; they begin
with gentle movements, which become at laft extremely
a fhe inhabitants of Unalafhka are called Kogholaghi..
Thofe of Akutan, and farther Eaft to Unimak, are called,
feghiguli ; and thofe of Unimak and Alaxa are called.
Kataghayekiki. They cannot tell whence they have
thefe names, and now begin to call themfelves by the
general name of Aleyut, given them, by the Ruffians*,
7- |2> and! A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X -   I..
and borrowed from fome of the | Kuril iflands. Upon
being asked concerning their origin, they faid that they
had always inhabited thefe iflands, and knew nothing of
any other country beyond them. All that could be gathered from them was, that the greater! numbers came
from Alaxa, and that they did not know whether that
land had any bounds. The Ruffians furveyed this ifland
very far to the N. E. in boats, being out about a fortnight, and fet up a crofs at the end of their furvey. The
boats of the iflanders are like thofe of the Americans. It
appears however from their cuftoms and way of life, fo
far as thefe are not necefTarily prefcribed to them by
their fituation, that they are of Kamtchatdal original.
Their huts, their manner of kindling fire, and their objects of unnatural affections, lead to this conjecture. Add
to this, the almoft-continual Wefterly winds, which muft
render the pa ffage Weft ward extremely difficult. Beering
and Tchirikoff could never obtain Eailerly winds but by
going to the Southward.
The Ruffians have for fome years paft been accuftomed
to go to thefe iflands in queft of furs, of which they
have impofed a tax on the inhabitants. The manner, of
carrying on this trade is as follows. The Ruffian traders
go in Autumn to Beering's and Copper ifland, and there
winter: they then  employ  themfelves in catching the
I I cannot find, that any of the Kuril Ifles are called Aleyut in the
catalogue of thofe iflands given by Mr. Muller, S. R. G. III. p. 86—o:>.
Neither are any of them laid do'wfi under that name in the Ruffian charts.
fea-cat, and afterwards the Scivutcha, or fea-lion. The
flefh of the latter is prepared for food, and it is very delicate. They carry the skins of thefe fea-animals to the
Eaftern iflands. Next fummer they go Eaft ward, to the
.Fox-iflands; and again lay their fhips up for the winter.
They then endeavour to procure, either by perfuafion
or force, the Children of the inhabitants, particularly of
the Tookoos, as .hoftages. This being accompliflied,
they deliver to the inhabitants fox-traps, and alfo skins
for.their boats, for which they oblige them to bring furs
and provilions during the winter. After obtaining from
them a certain quantity of furs, by way of tax, for which
they givethem quittances ; the Ruffians pay for the reft
in beads, falfe pearls, goat's wool, copper kettles, hatchets,
;&c. In the fpring they get back their traps, and deliver
up their hoftages. They dare not hunt alone, nor in
fmall numbers, on account of the hatred of the natives.
Thefe people could not, for fome time, comprehend for
what purpofe the Ruffians impofed a tribute of fkins,
which were not to be their own property, but belonged
to an abfent perfon ; for their Tookoos have no revenue.
Nor could they be made to believe, that there Were any
more Ruffians than thofe who came among them; for
in their own country all the men of an ifland" go out
together. At prefent they comprehend fomething of
Kamtchatka, ■ bv means of the Kamtohadals -and Koriacs
whorcorhe -ale&is: with: the "Ruffians ; -and on their rarrival
M m
love APPENDIX     I.
love to affociate with people whole manner of life refem-
bles their own.
Krenitzin and Levafheff returned from this expedition into the mouth of tne Kamtchatka river in  autumn
The chart which accompanies this journal was com-
pofed by the pilot Jacob Yakoff, under the infpection of
the commanders * Krenitzin and Levafheff. The track
of the St. Paul is marked both in going out and returning. The harbour of the St. Paul in the ifland Unalatfr*
ka, and the ftraits of Alaxa, are laid down from obferva-
tions made during the winter 1768 ; and the iflands
connected by bearings and diftances taken during a cruife
of the St. Paul twice repeated.
In this chart the variation is faid to be
In Lat. Long. Points
204. 2 Eaft..
201 I-i
19S i~
192 30 1
188 1 .. .. ?Su
182 30 of
180 30 of
* Krenitzin was drowned foon after his return to Kamtchatka: in a.
canoe belonging to the natives.   n
54° 4°'-
52 20
52 5Q
53 20
53 4°-
54 5o
>i^° ll-   ■", .  ■
Concerning tbe longitude of Kamtchatka, and of tbe Eaftern
extremity of Afia, as laid down by tbe Ruffian Geographers.
'     ^ H E important queftion concerning the longitude j£°^wd
•*■ of the extreme parts of Afia has been fo differ-Pans of Afia;
ently ftated by the moft celebrated geographers, that it
may not be amifs to refer the curious reader to the
principal treatifes upon that fubject. The proofs by
which Mr. Muller and the Ruffian geographers place the by Mr. Mut-
ler and the
longitude of the Eaftern extremity of Afia beyond  200 Ru^anGeo-
0 - -. graphers i
degrees from the firft meridian of Fero, or 180° 6' 15"'
from Paris, are drawn from the obfervations of the fa-
tellites of Jupiter, made by Kraffilnikoff at Kamtchatka,
and in different parts of Siberia, and from the expeditions of the Ruffians by land and fea towards Tfchukot-
fkoi Nofs.
Mr. Engel calls  in queftion  the  exacrneis  of thefe by Mr. EngeL
obfervations, and takes off twenty-nine degrees from the
M 2
longitude At    P
P   E   N    D   I   X
by Mr. Vai
longitude of Kamtchatka,  as laid down by the Ruffians..
To this purpofe he has given to the public,
i. Memoires et obfervations geographiques et critiques fur la fituation des Pays Septentrionaux de l'Afie
et de l'Amerique..    A Laufanne, 1765.
2. Geographifche und Critifctie Nachricht ueber die
Lage der noerdlichen Gegenden von Alien und America.     Mittau,   1772.
It appears to Monlieur de Vaugondy,. that there are
not: fufficient grounds for fo extraordinary a-diminution:
accordingly he fhortens the continent of Alia only
eleven degrees of longitude; and upon this fubject he
has given the two following treatifes: ,
1. Lettre au fujet d'une carte fyftematique des Pays
Septentrionaux de FAfie et de l'Amerique.   Paris, 1768.
12. Nouveau lyfteme geographique, par lequel on
concilie les aneiennes connoiflances fur les Pays au
Nord Oueft de FAmerique.    Paris, 17.74..,
Monr. Buache     In oppolition to thefe authors, Monlieur Buache has
lupports the
§Jfcof ^ publiihed an excellent   treatife,   entitled Memoires  fur
wdvaujofdy.les Pays de 1'Afie et de^l'Amerigue.    Paris, 1775- A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X   - I.
Ih this memoir he drffents from the opinions of
Mfeffrs Engel and Vaugondy ; and defends the fyftem
of the Ruffian geographers in the following manner.
Monlieur Maraldi, after comparing the obfervations
of the fatellites of Jupiter, taken at Kamtchatka by
Kraffihiikoff, with the tables, has determined the longitude of Ochotfk, Bolcheresk, and the port of St. Peter
and Paul from the firft meridian of Paris as follows:
* Longitude of Ochotfk 9  23  50
of Bolcherefk    to   17   17
of the Port        10-25     5
Latitude of Ochotfk 590 22',  of Bolcherefk 520 55', of
the Port 530 1'.
* -Kraffilnikbff compared his obfervations with correfponding ones
taken at Peterfburg, which gave refults as follow :.
From comparing an obfervation of an eclipfe of the firft fatellite,
taken at Ochotfk the 17th of January, 1743, with an obfervation of an
eclipfe of the fame fatellite taken at Peterfburg on the 15th of January
in the fame year, the difference of longitude between Peterfburg and
Ochotfk appeared to be
j'29';   from a comparifon of two other
finrilar obfervations-the difference of longitude.was 7h. 31 33 a mean,
of" which is 7h. 31' 34, being the true difference between the meridians
of Peterfburg and Ochotfk according to thefe obfervations. By adding
the difference of the longitude between Peterfburg and Paris, which is
ih. 52' 25", we have the longitude of Ochotfk from Paris 9h. 23' 59",.
which differs 29'' only from the refult of Monf. MaxaleLi. Nov. Comm.
Pet. III. p. 470. HH
The eomparifon of the following refults, deduced
from correfponding obfervations* of the eclipfes of Jupiter's fatellites taken at Bolcherefk at the port of Peter
and Paul by Krafldnikoff" and at Pekin by the Jefuit mif-
fionaries, will lhew from their near agreement the care
and attention which muft have been given to the obfervations ; and from hence there is reafon to fuppofe, that
the fufpicions of inaccuracy imputed to Kraffilnikoff
are ill founded.
1741, Old Stile.
J-..-.     «*»      "!?.-«     -r     C-i«- -r « S        /> ^    at the port of St. Peter
an. 27, £,m. 1  bat. 12       9     25 andPaiL
9     20     35  at Pekin,
Difference of the meridian at Pekin
and the Port
48 50
Jan. 30, I mm. 111 Sat.      12       5     30  at the Port.
9     16     30 at Pekin.
In the fame manner the longitude of Bolcherefk appears from the cor*
refponding obfervations taken at that .place and at Peterfburg to be
loh. 20' 22" differing from'Mr. Maraldi about 2 5". Nov. Com. p. 469.
But the longitude of the port of St. Peter and Paul, eftimated in thg
fame manner from correfponding obfervations, differs from the longitude
as computed by Monf. Maraldi no more than 20 feconds, p. 469.
* Obf. Aft. Ecc. Sat. Jovis, &c. Nov. Com. Petr. vol. III. p. 452,
Obf. Aft. Pekini facta?. .Ant.  Hallerftein—Curante Max. Hell.
Vindibons,  1768.
Feb. A   P   P   E
N   D
I   X
I.                                       271
Feb. 5,  i Sat.
at the Port*
at Pekin.
-^rm.njfel    >;■    '   ^  ;, -e,
Feb. 12, Em. I Sat.
fcir:   ,::
And the longitude from Paris
to Pekin being
The difference of the meridians of
Paris and the Port will be
Which differs only 31 fecouds from the determination, of Mr. MaraldL
March 23, Em. 11 Sat.
ih -
at Bolcherefk.
at Pekin*
at Bolcherefk.
Dec* 31, Im. 1 Sat.
"" B
Difference of the meridians of Pekin
and Bolcherefk
By taking trieinedium thedifference of the long
between Bolcherefk and Pekin will be found to
~~   8
at Pekin ^
itude  _
be     -*
Between Bolcherefk and Paris
Which differs only one minute and one
fecond fro
m the de
termination of Mr. Mara'.dL.
- edsri'                            l||s
^ s
||||| 2.y&
P . E   N   D   I   X
"In order to call in queftion the conclufions drawn from
the obfervations of KraffilnikofT, Monlieur de Vaugondy
pretends that the inftruments and pendulums, which he
made ufe of at KamtGhatka, -were much damaged by the
length of the journey ; and that the perfon who was
fent to repair them -was an unskilful workman. But
this opinion feems to -have -been advanced without fuf-
ficient foundation. Indeed KraffilnikofT* himfelf allows that his pendulum occafionally flopt, even when
neceflary to ascertain the true time of the obfervation.
He admits therefore that the obfervations which he took
under thefe difadvantages (when he could not correct
them by preceding or fubfeguent obfervations of the fun
or liars) are not to be depended upon, and has accordingly diftinguifhed them by an aiterisk ; there are however a number of others, which were not liable to any
exception of this kind ; and the obfervations already
mentioned in this .number-are comprifed under this clafs.
If the arguments which have been already produced
fhould not appear fufficiently fatisfactory, we have the
further teftimony of Mr. Muller, who was in thofe parts
at the fame time ^with -Kraffilnikoff, and who is the only
competent judge of this matter now alive.    For .that re-
"* Nov. Com. 'Pet. III. p. 444.
4        Wd
fpectable APPENDIX
fpectable author has given me the moft pofitive aflur-
ances, that the inftruments were not damaged in fuch a
manner as to effect the accuracy of the obfervations when
in the hands of a skilful obferver.
That the longitude of Kamtchatka is laid down with £*2I^rrf
o the Rutin a
fufficient accuracy by the Ruffian geographers, will ap-  e°sraPhers-
pear by .comparing it with the longitude of Yakutsk; for
as the latter has been clearly eftablifhed by a variety of
obfervations, taken at different times  and by different
perfons, if there is any error in placing Kamtchatka fo
far to the Eaft, it will be found in the longitude between   •
Yakutsk and Bolcheresk.    A fhort comparifon therefore
of fome of the different obfervations made at Yakutsk
will help  to fettle the longitude of JCamtchatka,   an^Lj
will ftill farther confirm the character of a skilful obferver,  which has been given to Kraffilnikoff.
Kraffilnikoff in returning from Kamtchatka obferved
at Yakutsk feveral eclipfes of the fatellites of Jupiter,
of which the following are mentioned by him as the
moft exact. *jjfe
Old Style.
iS  35
31   11
6  54
23 5°
Nov. Comm. Petr. T. III. p. 460.
N n The
^Feb. 7. Imm.     i.Sat. 11
22. Imm. 11. Sat. 10
29. Imm. 11. Sat. 13
Mar.   1. Imm.    1. Sat. 11
Apr.   9. Em.      1. Sat. 12
fomewhat doubtful.
all exact.
;• -e 1 .*,?£ i APPENDIX      J.
The fame eclipfes, as calculated by the tables of Mr,
Wargentin, for the meridian of Paris, are as follow:
h     *      //
Difference of 8  29 35
the meridians 8  21     1
of Paris —    8  28  37
and Yakutsk    8  29  23
8  29 46
Feb.    7.1mm.    1. 2  49
27. Imm. 1. 12    3 10
29. Imm. 11. 4 38  17
Mar.   1. Imm.  1.  3     3 3.7
Apr.   9. Em.    1. 3  54 12
The mean of which is
8  29    5
The obfervations of Mr. Ifleaiefft,rnade at Yak4fcsk in
the year 17 69, to which place he was fent to obferve
the tranfit of Venus, have received the fanction of the
Imperial Academy. The longitude which he fixes for
Yakutsk is 8b 29/ 34". this correfponds, to a'fuffieient
degree of exactnefs, with the longitude inferred from
the obfervations of Kraffilnikoff.
Thins the longi&bde of Yakutsk from Paris being
8h 29/ 4*1. or in degrees 127 16 o. and of Bolcherefk 10 17 17, or in degrees 1500 19* 15. the difference of the longitude of thefe two places, from aftro^
jnomical obfervations, amounts to 1 48 8. or in degrees 270 3' o. The latitude of Bolcherefk is 520 5^ 0".
and that of Yakutfk 620  i' 50*.  and the difference of
* For IfleniefFs obfervatioass at Yakutfk, fee Nov. Com. Tom. XIV.
Part III. |L&68 1x^3 21.
their longitudes being from the preceding determination 27 3 o. the direct diftance between the places
meafured on a great circle of the earth will appear by
trigonometry to be 160 57'. or about 1773 verfts reckoning 104I verfts to a degree. This diftance confilts
partly of fea, and partly of land ; and a conftant inter-
courfe is kept up between the two places, by means of
Ochotsk, which lies between them. The diftance by fea
from Bolcheresk to Ochotsk is eftimated by fhips reckonings to be 1254 verfts, and the diftance by land from
Ochotsk to Yakutsk is 927 verfts, making altogether
2181. The direct diftance deduced by trigonometry,
(on a fuppofition that the difference of longitude between
Bolcheresk and Yakutsk is 270 3'.) is 1773, falling
fhort of 2181 by 408. a difference naturally to be expected from confidering, that neither roads by land, or
the courfe of fhips at fea, are ever performed precifely
on a great circle of the earth, which is the fhorteft Kne
that can be drawn on the earthjs furface between two
By this agreement between the diftance thus eftimated,
and that deduced by computation, on fuppofing the difference of longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk to'
be 270 3?. it feems very improbable, that there fhould
be an error ■of many degrees in the aftronomical determination.
N n 2
Since APPENDIX      I«
Since then the longitude between Fero and Peter£-
burgh is acknowledged to be 480—that between Peterf-
burgh and Yakutfk 990 21'—and as the diftance in longitude between Yakutfk and Bolcherefk cannot be materially lefs than 27** 3'. it follows that the longitude of
Bolcherefk from Fero cannot be much lefe than 1740 24'^
Where then fhall we find place for fo great an error as,
27 degrees,, which, according to Mr.Engel, or even of
ii°. which, according to. Monf. Vaugondy, is imputed,
to the Ruffian geographers* in fixings the longitude of
Kamtchatka I
From the ifle of Fero
Longitude of Yakutfk 147    o    o
of Ochotfk 1.60     7
of Bolcherefk
17-4 T3
of the Port of St. Peter and Paul 176  1 a
Longitude of      As no aftronomical obfervations have been made fur—
parts of Ana  *^eic to^the Eaft than the Port of St.. Peter and Paul, it is;
determined by '
the Ruffians, ^pofg^le to fix, with any degree of certainty, the Ion-*
gitude of the North-Eaftern promontory of Afla. It appears however from Beering's and Synd's coafting voyages-
towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, and from other expeditions-
to the parts by land and fea, that the coaft of Afia ih
lat. 64. ftretches at leaft 23° 2 30. from the Port, or
to about 2000 longitude from the Ifle of Fero.
m     -      \ N° nL ,' ■'-:   ~
Summary of the proofs tending tofhew, that Beering and
Tfchirikoff either reached America in 1741, or came
very near it*
* *HE coaft which Beering reached, and called Cape
St. Elias, lay, according to his eftimation, in
58°. 28'. N..latitude, and in longitude 236°. from Fero:
the coaft touched at by Tfchirikoff was fituated in lat..
5 6°. long, 2410*.
Steller, who accompanied Beering in his expedition Argumemsad-
?^He ' •*- *-* A vanced by
towards Americay endeavours to prove, that they difco- p^Jfdm
3    ■.- ~?*#**3 -i 1        f- ti - mi       Beering and
vered that continent by the following arguments t: The.Tfchmkoff
coafts were bold,  prefenting continued chains of high?America-
mountains, fome of which were fo elevated, that their
tops were covered with fhow,. their fides were cloathed
* The reader will find the narrative of this- voyage made by Beerinpr
and Tfchirikoff   in   Muller's    account   of   the   Ruffian   Difcoveries,
S.R.G. III. 193, &c.
•f See KrafhininikofFs account of Kamtchatka, Chap. X.  French:
Tranflationi Chap..IV. Engiifh trahflation.
from the bottom to the top with large tracts of thick and
fine wood J.
Steller went afhore, where he remained only a few
hours ; during which time he obferved feveral fpecies of
birds which are not known in Siberia : amongft thefe was
the bird defcribed by * Catefby, under the name of Blue
Jay; and which has never yet been found in any country
but North America. The foil was very different from
that of the neighbouring iflands, and at Kamtchatka:
and he collected feveral plants, which are deemed by
botanifts peculiar to America.
The following lift of thefe plants was communicated
to me by Mr. Pallas : I infert them however without pre-
% The recent navigations in thofe feas ftrongly confirm this argument.
For in general all the new difcovered iflands are quite deflitute ofSJrees;
even the largeft produce nothing hut underwood, one of the moft Eaf»
terly Kadyak alone excepted, upon which fmall willows and alders were
obferved growing in vallies at fome diftance from the coaft. See
p. ii 8.
* See Catefby's Natural Hiftory of Florida, Carolina, &c. This bird
is called by Linnzeus Corbus Criftatus. I have feen, in Mr. Pennant's
MS account of the hiftory of the animals, birds, &c. of N. America,
and the Northern hemifphere, as high as lat. 60, an exa<£t defcription of
this bird. Whenever that ingenioas. author, to whom we are indebted
for many elegant and interefting publications, gives this part of his labours to the world, the zoology of thefe countries will be fully and accurately confidered.
fuming APPENDIX      t,
fuming to decide, whether they are the exciufive growtjx
of North America: the determination of this point is the
province of botany.
Trillium Erectum.
Fumaria Cucullaria.
A fpecies of Dracontium^withleaves like theCannalndica.
Uvularia Perfoliata.
Heuchera Americana* j|
Mimulus Lttteus^ a Peruvian plants
A fpecies of Rubus, probably  a variety of the Rubus
Idaeus, but with larger berries* and a large laciniated
red calyx. j|
None of thefe plants are found in Kamtchatka, or in
any of the neighbouring; iflands *»
* According to Mr. Pallas, the plants of the new-difcovered iflands
are moftly alpine, like thofe of Siberia j. this he attributes to the fhort-
nefs and coldnefs of the fummer, occafioned by the frequency of the
North winds.   His words are u " Quoique les hivres de ces ifles foient
aflez temperes par fair de la mer, de fa^on. que les neiges- ne  couvrent
jamais-la terre que par intervalles, la plupart deyplantes y font alpines,
comme en Siberie, par la raifon que fete y eft tout auffi:courte et froide,,
a caufe des vents de nord qui y regnent.'*   This paffage is taken from a
MS treatife in the French language, relative to the new-difcovered iflands
communicated to me by my very learned and ingenious friend Mr. Pallas,
profeffor of natural hiftory at St. Peterfburg; from which ihave been,
enabled to colled: a confiderable degree of information.   This treatife was
fent to Monf. Buffon; and that celebrated naturaliffc has made great ufe
of it in the fifth.volume of his Supplement a FHiftoire Naturelle-
Though? ir    1
SEVN   D   I   X     I.
Thougbtithefe circumftances fhould not be coafidered
as affording decifive proofs, that Beering reached America ; yet they will furely be admitted as ftron^prefump-
tions, that he very nearly approached that continent f.
-\- The  reader  will recollect in this place, that the native's of the
contiguous iflands touched at by Beering and Tfchirikoff " prefente&to
i the Ruffians the calumet, or pipe of peace, which is a fymbof of
friendfhip univerfal among the people of North America, and  an
ufage of arbitrary inftitution peculiar to them.**    See Robertfon's Hift.
Am. vol. I. p. 276.    S. R. G. III. p. 214.
N° IV.
Lift of tbe principal charts reprefenting the Ruffian
r*HE following is an authentic lift of the  principal
charts of the Ruffian difcoveries hitherto publilhed.
It is accompanied with a few explanatory remarks.
1. Carte des nouvelles decouvertes au nord de la mer
du fud, tant a fEit de la SIberie et du Kamtchatka, qu'a
rOueft de la Nouvelle France drefle fur les memoires de
Mr. de l'lile, par Philippe Buache, 1750. A memoir relative to this chart was foon afterwards publilhed, with
the following title, Explication de la carte des nouvelles
decouvertes au Nord de la mer du fud par Mr. de l'lfle
Paris, 1752, 4to.
This map is alluded to, p. 26 of this work.
2. Carte des nouvelles decouvertes entre la partie
orientale de PAlie et l'Occidentale de l'Amerique, avec des
vues fur la grande terre reconnue, par les Ruffes, en 1741,
par Phil. Buache, I752-
3. Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaif-
feaux Ruffiens aux cotes inconnus de l'Amerique fepten-
trionale avec les pais adjacens, drefses fur les memoires
O o authentiques
Lift of the-
Charts of the
Difcoveries. %%z APPENDIX!.
authentiques de ceux qui ont affilte a ces decouvertes, et
fur d'autres connoiflances ; dont on rend raifon dans uq«
memoire fepare : a St. Peterfburg^ a 1'Academic Imperiale
des fciences, 1754.  1758.
This map was publilhed under the mfpection of Mr.
Muller, and is ftill prefixed to his account of the Ruffian,
difcoveries*. The part which exhibits the new difcovered
ifles and the coaft of America, was chiefly taken from,
the chart of Beering's expedition. Accordingly that continent is reprefented as advancing, between 50 and 60
degrees of latitude, to within a fmall diftance of Kamtchatka. Nor could there be any reafon to fufpect, that
fuch experienced failors as Beering and Tfchirikoff had
miftaken a chain of iflands for promontories belonging to
America, until fubfequent navigators had actually failed
through that very part, which was fuppofed to be a
continent. &~|
4. A fecond chart publilhed by the Academy, but not
under the inflection of Mr. Muller, bears the fame title
as the former.
Nouvelle carte des decouvertes faites par des vaifleaux
Ruffiens aut cotes inconnus de l'Amerique,  &c.   1773.
* This map was publifhed by Jefferys under the following title : " A
" Map of the Lifcoveries made by the Ruffians on the North Weft
" coafl of .America, publifhed by the Royal Academy of Sciences at
• Peterfburg. Republifhed by Thomas Jefferys, Geographer to his
I Majefty, 1761."
It is for the moft part a copy of a manufcript chart
3mown on Ruffia by the name of the chart of the Promy-
fhlenics, or merchant adventurers, and which was
fketched from the mere reports of perfons who had failed
to the New Difeovered Iflands. As to the fize and po-
: fition of the New Difcovered Iflands, this chart of the
Academy is extremely erroneous: it is however free
from the above-mentioned miftake, which runs through
all the former charts, namely, the reprefenting of the
coaft of America, between 50 and 60 degrees of latitude, as contiguous to Kamtchatka. It likewife removes that part of the fame continent lying in latitude
66, from 2100 longitude to 2240, and in its ftead lays
down a large ifland, which ftretches between latitude
f>4° and 710 30', from 2070 longitude to 218% to
within a fmall diftance of both continents. But whether this latter alteration be equally jultifiable or not,
is a queftion, the dedlion of which muft be left to future navigators *,
5. Carte
* Mr. Muller has long ago acknowledged, in the molt candid and
public manner, the incorredtnefs of the former chart, as far as it relates
to the part which reprefeats Amerka, as contiguous to Kamtchatka:
but he Sill maintains his opinion concerning the actual vicinity of the
two continents in an higher latitude. The following quotation is taken
irpm a letter written by Mr. Muller, in 1774, of which I have a cjipy
in my poffeffion. " Pofterity muft judge if the new chart of the Aca-
« demy is to be preferred to the former one for removing the conti-
O o 2
nent 284
5. Carte du nouvel Archipel du Nord decouvert
paries Ruffes dans la mer de Kamtchatka et d'Anadir.
This chart is prefixed to Mr. Stoehlin's account of the
New Northern Archipelago- In the Engiifh tranflation
it is called, A Map of the New Northern Archipelagoy
difcovered by the Ruffians in the feas of Kamtchatka
and Anadyr. It differs from the laft mentioned chart
only in the fize and pofition of a few of the iflands,
and in the ackhtion of five or fix new ones, and is
equally incorrect. The New Difcovered Iflands are
claffed in this chart into three 'groups,, which are called
the Ifles of Anadyr %Athe Olutoriant Ifles, and the Aleutian Ifles. The two laft mentioned charts are alluded
to, p. 26 of this. work.
6. An
nent of America (which. Is reprefented as lying near the coaft of
Tfchutfki) to a greater diftance. Synd, who is more to be trufied
" than the Promyfchlenics, perfifts in the old fyftem. He places Ame-
" rica as near as before to Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, but knows nothing of a?
" large ifland called Alafhka, which takes up the place of the conti-
f? nent, and which ought to be laid down, much more to- the South or
I South Eaft.""
* Monfieur Buffon has adopted the apellation and erroneous repre-
fentation of the ifles of Anadyr, in his Carte de deux regions Polaires,
lately publifhed.    See Supplement a. l'Hift. Nat. vol.. V. p. 615:
^ The Olotorian Ifles are fo named from the fmall river of Olotora
which flows into the fea at Kamtchatka, about latitude 61 °.    The fol-
pffg lowing APPENDIX
6. An excellent map of the Empire of Ruffia, publifhed by the geographical department of the Academy
of Sciences at St. Peterfburg in 1776, comprehends the
greateft part of the New Difcovered Iflands. A reduced
copy of this chart being prefixed to this work, I ihali
only mention the authorities from whence the compilers have laid down the New Difcovered Iflands.
The Aleutian ifles are partly taken from Beering's
chart, partly from * Otcheredin's, whofe voyage is related
in   the  eleventh  chapter, and partly from other MS.
lowing remarks upon this group of iflands are taken from a letter of
Mr. Muller mentioned in the laft note. " This appellation of Olu-
<c torian Ifles is not in ufe at Kamtchatka. Thefe iflands, called upon
" this chart Olutorians, He according to the chart of the Promyfchle-
" nics, and the chart of the Academy, very remote from the river Olu-
'* tora : and it feems- as if they were advanced upon this chart nearer
" to Kamtchatka only in favour of the name. They cannot be fitu-
" ated fo near that coaft, becaufe they were neither feen "by Beering
" in 1728, nor by the Promyfchlenics, Novikoff and Bacchoff, when
" they failed in 1748 from the Anadyr to Beering's Ifland." Seep. 42.
* I have a MS. copy of Otcheredin's chart in my poffeffion • but as
the Fox Iflands, in the general Map of Ruffia, are copied from thence,
the reader will find them laid down upon the reduced map prefixed to
this work. The anonymous author of the account of the Ruffian Difcoveries, of whofe work I have given a tranflation in Part I. feems to
have followed, in moft particulars, Otcheredin's chart and journal for
the longitude, latitude, fize, and pofition of the New Difcovered Iflands.
For this reafon, I fhould have had his chart engraved if the Fox Iflands
upon the general map had not been taken from thence : there feemed
no occafion therefore for increafing the expence of this work, already
too great from the number of charts, by the addition of another not
abfoftiteiy neceflary*
3 charts •>S6
charts of different navigators. The iflands near the
coaft of the Tfchutfki are copied from Synd's chart.
The Fox Iflands are laid down from the chart of Otcheredin. The reader will perceive, that the pofition of
the. Fox Iflands, upon this general map of Ruffia, is
materially different from that affiened to them in the
chart of Krenitzin's and Levafheff's voyage- j In the
former they are reprefented as ftretching between
5 6° 6r' North latitude, and 2100 and 2300 longitude
from the ifle of Fero: in the latter they are fituated
between 5 i° 40' and 550 20' latitude, and 199° 30' and
207° 30' longitude. According to the moft recent accounts received from Peterfburg, the pofition given to
them upon this general map is coniiderahly too much
to the North and Eaft; confequently that affigned to
them upon Krenitzin's chart is probably the moft to be
depended upon.
7. Carte des decouvertes Ruffes dans la mer orientate et en Amerique, pour fervir a rEffai | fur le com-
*     merce
f. The twelfth chapter of this Eflay relates to the difcoveries and
commerce of the Ruffians in the Eaftern Ocean. The account of the
Ruffian difcoveries is a tranflation of Mr. Staehlin's Defcription of the
New Northern Archipelago. In addition, he has fubjoined an account
of Kamtchatka, and a fhort fketeh of the Ruffian commerce to the New
Difcovered Iflands, and to America. If we may believe the author of
this Eflay, the Ruffians have not only difcovered America, but they alfo
every year form occafional fetdements upon that continent, fimilar to
thofe of the Europeans in Newfoundland. His words are : "11 eft done
Ugl certain, APPENDIX
merce de Ruffie, 1778, Amfterdam. It is natural to
expect, that a chart fo recently publifhed fhould be fu-
perior to all the preceding ones ; whereas, on the contrary, it is by far the moft incorrect reprefentation of
the New Difcovered Iflands which has yet appeared.
eertain, que les Ruffes ont decouvert le continent de l'Amerique ; mais
on peut aflurer qu'ils n'y ont encore aucun port, aucun compfoir.
II en eft des etabliffements de cette nation dans la grande terre, comme
de ceux des nations Europeennes dans l'ifle de Terse Neve. Ses vaif-
feaux ou fregates arrivent en Amexique; leurs equipages et les Cofaques
chaffeurs s'etabliflent fur la cote; les uns fe retranchent, et les autres
y font la chafle et la p£che du chien marin et du narval. lis revien-
nent enfuite au Kamtchatka, apses avoir ete releves par d'autres frigates fur les memes parages, ou a des difiances plus ou moins eloignes,
&c. &c." See Effai fur le commerce de la Ruffie, p. 292—293. Thus the
publick is impofed upon by fictitious and exaggerated accounts.
Pofition of the Andreanoffsky Ifles afcertained—^Number
of tbe Aleutian Ifles.
HEN the anonymous author publilhed his account of the Ruffian Difcoveries in 1766, the
pofition of the Andreanoffsky Ifles was not afcertained.
It was generally fuppofed, that they formed part of that
clutter of iflands, which Synd* fell in with in his voyage towards Tfchukotfkoi Nofs ; and Button t reprefents
them to be the fame with thofe laid down in Staehlin's
chart, under the name of Anadirsky Ifles. The anonymous author in the paffage here referred to, fuppofes
them to be N. E. of the Aleutian Ifles ; §j at the diftance
" of 600 or 800 verfts ; that their direction is probably
fj Eaft and Weft, and that fome of them may unite
" with that part of the Fox Iflands which are moft
" contiguous to the oppofite continent." This conjecture was advanced upon a fuppofition that the
Andreanoffsky Ifles lay near the coaft of the Tfchutski;
* See N° IX. of this Appendix.
•f Ifles Anadyr ou Andrien. Supp. vol. V. p. 591.
and APPENDIX*. If}
and that fome of the Fox -Iflands. were fituated in latitude 61, as they are laid down upon the general map
«f Ruffia. But according to fubfequent informatioa>
the Andreanoffsky Ifles Ik between the Aleutian and th@Pof.tion of i&e
■ Andreanoffsky
Fox Iflands, and complete the connexion between111"*
Kanitdteatka and America*. Their cbain is fuppofed to.
begin in about latitude 5 3* near .the moft Eafte$y of the
Aleutian Ifles, and to extend in a fcattered feries towards
the Fox Iflands. The moft North Eafterly of thefe
iflands are faid to be fo near the moft Southerly of the
Fox Iflands, that they feem occafionally to have been
taken for them. An inftanee of this occurs in p, 61
and 6 2 of this work; where Atchu and Amlach are
"reckoned among the Fox Iflands. It is however more
probable, that they are part of the group called by the
Aleutian chief Negho t, and known to the Ruffians
under the name of Andreanoffsky Iflands, becaufe they
were fuppofed to have been firft difcovered by Andrean
Tolftyk, whofe voyage is related in the feventh chapter of the Firft Part.
I take this opportunity of adding, that the anonymous Number of the
Aleutiaa Iftes*
author,   in defcribing the Aleutian Ifles, ' both  in the
firft  and laft chapter of  the  account of  the  Ruffian
* P. 58. Some of the remoter iflands are faid to be E. -S. E. of the.
Aleutian Ifles ; thefe muft be either part of the Andreanoffsky Ifles, or
the moft Southerly of the Fox Iflands,
-f See N° VIII. of this Appendix.,
SK P P difeo- I
difcoveries, mentions only three; namely,. Attak, Se^
mitfhi, Shemiya. But the Aleutian Ifles confift of a
much larger number*; and their chain includes all. the
iflands comprehended by the iflander in the two groups
of Khao and Safignan** Many of them are laid down
upon the general map of Ruffia;■ and fome of them
are occafionally alluded to in the journals- of tbe Ruffian voyages t..
* See No-Vim
•f- See p. 30, and particularly p. 46, where fome of thefe iflands arj£r
mentioned under the names of Ibiya^ Kifka, and Olas*.
- ;-'.   :    ,.,:-.   :;i#N°   VI.:':    ..-;,•/:.      ,||
Conjeclures concerning tbe proximity of tbe Fox Iflands to
tbe continent of America,
j""* H E anonymous author, in the courfe of his account of the Ruffian difcoveries, has advanced
many proofs drawn from natural hiftory, from which
he fuppofes the Fox Iflands to be at a fmall diftance
from the continent of America : hence he grounds his
conjecture, that f* the time is not far diftant when fome
of the Ruffian navigators will fall in with that coaft."
The fmall willows and alders which, according to
Glottoff, were found growing upon Kadyak, do not appear to have been fufficient either in fize or quantity Proofs of the
Vicinity of the
to afcertain, with any degree of certainty, the clofe vi- America!^ t0
cinity of that ifland to America. River-otters, wolves,
bears, and wild boars, which were obferved upon the
fame ifland, will perhaps be thought to afford a ftronger
prefumption in favour of a neighbouring continent;
martens were alfo caught there, an animal which is not
known in the Eaftern ports of Siberia, nor found upon
any of the other iflands. All the above mentioned animals, martens alone excepted, were feen upon Alakfu,
which is fituated more to the North Eaft than Kadyak,
P p 2 and U A   F. B- E  R  B   I   X    7.
and alfo rein-deers and wild dogs. To thefe proofs
drawn from natural hiftory, we muft add the reports of
a mountainous country.feovered with forefts, and of a
great promontory called Atachtak, lying Hill more, to the
N. E. which were preiy^enf^aiaong the inhabitants of
Alakfu and Kady^u
Although thefe circumftances have been already mentioned *, yet I have thought proper to recapitulate them
here, in order to lay before. the reader in one point of
view the feveral proofs advanced by the anonymous author, which feem tofhewy that the Fox Iflands are fituated
near America. Many of them afford, beyond a doubtj.
evident figns of a lefs open fea ;. and give certain marks
of a nearer approach towards the oppofite continent..
But how far that diftance may be fuppofed, muft be
left to the judgment of the reader; and remains to be
afcertained by fubfequent navigators. All that we know for
certain, is, that as far as any Ruffian veflels have hitherto
failed, a chain of iflands has been difcovered lying E. or
N. E. by E. from Kamtchatka, and ftretching towards.
America. Part of this chain has only been touched at;;
the reft is unknown; and all beyond is uncertainty
and conjecture.
* See p. 68 and 69—116—11S—i*fed
^e::-;-^,   .-'       A    N°  V»J-"    " •       '.    -       f
€/ /&? Tfchutski-^**-Fceporfs of the vieiMty of America to
their coaft,firfi propagated by them, feem to be confirmed
by late accounts from thofe parts.
'T^HE TfchttffM, it is w$I knew?!, inhabit the North TheTfchudkl-
"ffEaftern part of Sifcteria; their country is a ftnall
tfadVof ^nd, bounded on the North bf the Froz&ri Sea,
cfei the Eaft by $ie Eaftern Ocean j. €8* fhe South it borders
tTpbn river Anadyr, and oft that of Kiovyma to the Weft.
The N. £. cape of this eOu&try is called Tffchukotfkoi-
Woftf, or the promontory of the Tfehufflsf. It£ inhabitants*
ire the only people of Siberia who have not yet been
fuWtsea by the Ruffians.
THe aricferymous  author  agrees with  Mr. Muller i*i*
fCippofifrig,. that America advances to w&hki a fmall dif-
tarrce of $ie coaft of the Tfchutski;  wfcich he feys "is   .
confirmed by the^ lateft  accounts procured ftsan thefe
The firft intelligence concerning the fuppofed vicinity
between Alia and America was derived from the reports
of The Reports
concerning the
Proximity of
America to
their Coaft.
of the Tfchutski in their intercourfe with the Ruffians.
Vague and uncertain accounts, drawn from a barbarous
people, cannot deferve implicit credit; but as they have
been uniformly and invariably propagated by the inhabitants of thofe regions from the middle of the laft century
to the prefent time, they muft merit at leaft the attention
of every curious enquirer.
Thefe reports were firft related in Midler's account of
the Ruffian difcoveries, and have been lately thought
worthy of notice by Dr. Robertfon % in his hiftory of
America. Their probability feems itill further increafed
by the following circumftances. One Plenifner, a native of Courland, was appointed commander of Ochotsk,
in the year 1760, with an exprefs order from the court
to proceed as far as t Anadirsk, and to procure all pof-
fible intelligence concerning the North Eaftern part of
Siberia, and the oppoflte continent. In confequence of
this order Plenifner repaired to Anadirsk, and proceeded
likewife to Kovimskoi Oftrog: the former of thefe Ruffian
fettlements is fituated near the Southern; the latter near
the Weftern limits of the Tfchutski. Not content however with collecting all the information in his power from
the neighbouring Koriacs,  who have frequent intercourfe
* Hift. of America, vol.1, p. 274—277.
4- Anadirfk has been-Iately deftroyed by the Ruffians themfelves.
with the Tfchutski; he alfo fent one Daurkin into their
country. This perfon was a native Tfchutski, who
had been taken prifoner, and bred up by the Ruffians ;
he continued two years with his countrymen, and made
feveral expeditions with them to the neighbouring iflands,
which He off the Eaftern coaft of Siberia*
The fum of the intelligence brought back by thfe
Daurkin was as follows : that Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs is a
very narrow peninfula; that the Tfchutiki carry on a
trade of barter with the inhabitants of America; that
they employ fix days in palling the ftrait which feparates
"the two continents : they direct their courfe from ifland
to ifland, and the diftance from the one to the other is
fo fmall, that they are able to pais every night afhore.
More to the North he defcribes the two continents as approaching ftill nearer to each other, with only two iflands,
lying- between them.
- This intelligence remarkably coincided with the accounts collected by Plenifner himfelf among the Koriacs.
Plenifner returned to Peterfburg in 1776, and brought
witbhim feveral* maps and. charts of the North Eaftern
* The moft important of thefe maps comprehends the country of the
Tfchutfki, together with the nations which border immediately upon
them.    This map was chiefly taken during a fecond expedition made by
major a^6 A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X    I.
parts of Siberia, which were afterwards made ufe of in
the comp^afioa of tfaie general map of RiiffiB, published
by the acadbmy'iqi 1776L By thefe means the country
of the Tfcjmtfki has been laid down with a greater degree of accuracy than heretofore. Thefe are probably
the late accounts from thofe parta which the anctagrmous
author alludes to.
major Pauleffsky- againft the Tfchutfki; and- his march into that couafcey
is •%rjc^d upprii'j^e Tfcft frfi -ejr.petH$fc$n of th^t Ruffian ofit&erzifn ^tieh
he penetjsafed as, far a^-Tf^uiQtfjkoi-Nftfs, is.: related by Mr. Miller,
S. K. G. III. p. 134—138. We have no account of this fecond expedition, during which he had feveral fkkrmifhes with th&^RfeJrtrt&i, anil
came off victorious; but' upon his return wa$ ^ipjiijed and kjljled'by
them.    This expedition was made about the year 1750.
if TJiis detajl I proqured during my continuance At Peterfburg from
feveral perfons of credit, who had frequently converfed with Plenifner
fince his return to the capital, where he died m the lattef end of the
year 177&.
£#? 0/ tbe new-difcovered Iflands, procured from an
Aleutian chief—Catalogue of iflands called by different
names in tbe Account of tbe Ruffian Difcoveries.
r ^HE fuhfequent lift of the new-difcovered iflands
was procured from an Aleutian chief brought to
Petersburg in 1771, and examined at the defire of the Emprefs by Mr. Muller, who divides them into four principal J^'def t*r
groups.    He regulates this divifion partly by a fimilantyX^k*^
r !• .   ,    1 . four Groups.
of the language fpoken by the inhabitants, and partly by
vicinity of fituation.
The  firft group *, called   by the iflander Safignan, Firft Group,
called Safig-
comprehends* 1. Beering's Ifland.      2. Copper Ifland.nan-
3. Otma.     4. Samya, orShemiya. -   5. Anakta.
The fecond group is called Khao, and comprifes eight Khao, the
iflands 1 1. Immak.     1. Kifka.   3. Tchetchina.   4. Ava. c
5. Kavia.     6. Tfchagulak.     7.  Ulagama.     8. Amtf-
* Thefe two firft groups probably belong to the: Aleutian Ifles~
Qq The APPENDIX     I.
The third general name is Negho, and comprehends
the iflands known by the Ruffians under the name of
Andreanoffskye Oftrova : Sixteen were mentioned by the
iflander, under the following names :
i. Amatkinak. 2. Ulak. 3. Unalga. 4. Navotfha.
5. Uliga. 6. Anagin. 7. Kagulak. 8. Illafk, or
Illak. 9. Takavanga, upon which is a volcano. 10. Ka-
which has alfo a volcano. 11. Leg. 12. Shet-
fhuna. 13. Tagaloon: near the coafts of the three
laft mentioned iflands feveral fmall rocky ifles are fituated. 14. An ifland without a name, called by the
Ruffians Goreloi *.     15. Atchu.    16. Amla.
fourtbcroup! Tne fourth group is denominated Kavalang; and
comprehends fixteen iflands : thefe are called by the Ruffians Lyflie Oftrova, or the Fox Iflands.
i.Amuchta. 2. Tfchigama. 3. Tfchegula. 4. Unif-
tra. 5. Ulaga. 6. Tana-gulana. 7.Kagamin. 8. Ki-
galga. 9. Schelmaga. 10. Umnak. 11. Aghun-Alafh-
ka. 12. Unimga. At a fmall diftance from Unimga,
towards the North, ftretches a promontory called by the
iflanders the Land of Black Foxes, with a fmall river
called Alafhka, which empties itfelf oppofite to the laft-
* Goreloi is fuppofed by the Ruffian navigators to be the fame ifland
as Atchu, and is reckoned by them among the Fox Iflands. See part I.
p. 61. andN°V. of this appendix.
2 mentioned APPENDIX
mentioned ifland into a gulf proper for a haven. The
extent of this land is not known. To the South Eaft of
this promontory lie four little iflands. 13.
14. Antun-duflume.     15. Semidit.
16. Senagak.
Many of thefe names are neither found in the journals
or charts ; while others are wanting in this lift which are
mentioned in both journals and charts. Nor is this to be
wondered at; for the names of the iflands have been
certainly altered and corrupted by the Ruffian navigators.
Sometimes the fame name has been applied to different
iflands by the different journalifts ; at other times the
fame ifland has been called by different names. Several
inftances of thefe changes feem to occur in the account
of the Ruffian difcoveries : namely,
Art, Attak, and Ataku.
Shemiya and Sabiya.
Atchu, Atchak, Atach, Goreloi or Burned Ifland.
Amlach, Amlak, Amleg.
Ayagh, Kayachu.
Alakfu, Alagfhak, Alachfhak.
Aghunalafhka, Unalafhka.
Iflands called
by different
Names in the
Qq 2
\|.N» IX. ..
Voyage of Lieutenant Synd to the North Eaft of Siberia——
He dif covers a   ciufter  of iflands, and a promontory%
.  which he fuppofes to belong to tbe continent of America,.
tying near the coaft of tbe TfchutfkL
T N 17 64 lieutenant Synd failed from, Ochotsk, upon a
voyage of difcovery towards the continent of America,
He was ordered to take a different courfe from that held
by the late Ruffian veflels, which lay due Eaft from the
coaft of Kamtchatka. As he fteered therefore his courfe;
more to the North Eaft than any of the preceding navigators, and as it appears- from all the voyages related in
the firft part of this work m that, the vicinity of America
is to be fought for in that quarter alone, any accurate
account of this expedition would not fail of being highly
interefting. It is therefore a great mortification to me,
that, while I raife the reader's curioiity, I am not able
fully to fatisfy it. The following intelligence concerning this voyage is all which I was able to procure. It is
accompanied with an authentic chart.
* See p. 27.
In  <ftitMAtdApi2tfPf6(>#?w/&>t<7 ^^^^/^nf^^^^^i^S^wii^. y  APPENDIX
In 1764 Synd put to fea from the port of Ochofife, btft
diil not pafs (we know not by what accident) the
fcutheiri Cape of Kamtehatka Mid Sfoufhruy the firft Kuril
Ifle, before 1766.- He then fteered his1 coiffe North at
no great diftance from the coaft of the Pehinfiria, but
made very little progrefs that yb&k, for he wmtered South
of the. river Uka.
The following year he failed from Ukinfki Point due
Eaft and North Eaft, until he fell in with a duller of
iflands* ltretching between 61 and 62 degrees of latitude,
and 1950 and 20 20 longitude* Thefe iflands lie South
Eaft and Eaft of the coaft of the Tfchutfki; and feveral
of them are fituated very near the fhore.- Befides thefe
fmall iflands, he difcovered alfo a mountainous coaft
lying within one degree of the coaft of the Tfchutski,.
between 64 and 66 North latitude; its moft Weftern
extremity was fituated in longitude 38° 15' from
Ochotsk, or 199° i' from Fero. This ifland is laid
down in his chart as part of the continent of America; but we cannot determine upon what proofs he
grounds this reprefentation, until a more circurjaftantial
account of his voyage is communicated to the public.
* Thefe are certainly fome of the iflands which the Tfchutfki refort
to'in their way to what they call the continent of America.
1 Synd ;o2 A    P   P   E   N    P   I    X       I.
Synd feems to have made but a fhort flay afhore. In-
Head of endeavouring to furvey its coafts, or of fleering
more to the Eaft, he almoft inftantly fhaped his courfe
due Weft towards the courfe of the Tfchutskay then
turned directly South and South Weft, until he came
oppofite to Chatyrskoi Nofs. From that point he continued to coaft the peninfula of Kamtchatka, doubled*the
cape, and reached Ochotsk in 1768.
N°    X.'
Specimen of the Aleutian language.
Earth hut
Sea otter
Name of the
It is very remarkable, that none of thefe words bear
the leaft refemblance to thofe of" the fame fignification,
which are found ih the different dialects fpoken by the
Koriaks, Kamtchadals, and the inhabitants of the Kuril
N° XL 3<H
N°    XL
Attempts of the Rrnjians to 4fcover a North Eaft paffage—
Voyages from Archangel towards tbe Lena—From the
Lena towards Kamtchatka—Extracl from Muller's account o/"Defc]inetPs voyage round Tschukotskoi Nofs—
Narrative of a voyage made by Shala^uroff from the Lena
to Shelatskoi Nofs.
r "^HE only communication hitherto known between
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, or between Europe
and the ^aft Indies, is nmde either by failing round the
Cape of Gqod Pjope, or by doubling Cape Horn. But as
both thefe navigations are very long and dangerous, tbe
great object oij feveral late European voyages has been
turned towards the difcovery of a North Eaft or. a No#h
Weft paffage. As this work- is entirely- confined to the
Ruffian navigations,, any difquifition concerning the
North Weft paffage is totally foreign to the purpofe ; and
for the fame reafon in wlrat relates to the l^brth Eaft, thefe
refeard^es extend only to the attempts of the Ruffians for
tjhe djfcoyery of that paffage.
The advocates for the North Eaft paffage have divided
that navigation into three. principal parts; and by endeavouring to fliew that thefe three parts  have been
paffed at  different times, they conclude from thence,
that the whole when taken collectively is practicable.
Thefe three parts are, I. from Archangel to the Lena;
2. from the Lena to Kamtchatka ; 3. from Kamtchatka'
to Japan. With refpect to the latter, the connection between the feas of Kamtchatka and Japan firft appeared from fome Japanefe veflels, which were wrecked
upon the coaft of Kamtchatka in the beginning of this
century ; and this communication has been unqueftion-
ably proved from feveral voyages made by the Ruffians
from Kamtchatka to Japan*.
No one ever aflerted that the firft part from Archangel
to the Lena was ever performed in one voyage ; but feveral perfons having advanced that this navigation has
been made by the Ruffians at different times, it becomes
neceflary to examine the accounts of the Ruffian voyages
in thofe feas.
In 1734 lieutenant Morovieff failed from Archangel voyages from
Archangel t»
toward the river Oby; and got no farther the firft yearthe Y«ufii.
than the mouth of the Petchora. The next fummer he
palled through the ftraits ef Weygatz into the fea of
Kara; and coafted along the Eaftern fide of that fea, as
high as latitude 720 30', but did not double the promontory which feparates the fea of Kara from the Bay of
* S.R.G. III. p. 78, and p. 166, &c.
R r
Oby, a p p e n rr i x
-'©by.    In 1738, the lieutenants Malgyin and Skurakoff
doubled that promontory with great difficulty,  and entered the bay of Oby.    During thefe expeditions the navigators met with great dangers and impediments from
the ice.    Several unfuccefsful attempts were made to pafs
"from the bay of Oby to the Yenifei, which was at laft
'effected, in 1738,  by two velTels commanded by lieute-
AtlSn" wul  nants Offzin and Kofkeleff.     The fame year the pilot
Y^uSTTothe Feodbr Menin failed from the Yenifei towards the Lena:
he fteered North as high as lat. 730.  15'. and-when he
came to the mouth of the Piafida he was flopped by the
ice ; and finding it impoffible to force a paffage, he returned to the Yenifei m
X7nSL      : J^ily?  I735>   lieutenant   Prontfliifffheff' failed   from
£a°towa«h Yakutsk up   the Lena  to  its  mouth, in order to pafs
the Yenifei. ■••'■»-• e\ • i n
from thence by fea to the Yenifei. The Weftern mouths
of the ifena were fo choaked up with ice, that he was
obliged to pafs through the molt' Eafterly one ; and was
prevented by contrary winds from getting out until the
i 3th of Auguft. Having fleered North Weft along the
iflands which lie fcattered before the mouths of the Lena,
he found himfelf in lat. 7 a0 4'. He faw much ice. to
the North and North Eaft; and obferved ice-mountains
from twenty-four to fixty feet in height. He fteered betwixt the ice, which in no place left a free ehanneLof
* P. 145 to 149.
greater APPENDIX      L
greater breadth than an hundred or two hundred yards.*
The veffel being much damaged, on the iff of September he ran up the mouth of the Olenek, which, according to his eftimation, lies in 72° 30', near which place
lie paffed the winter jy
He got out of the Olenek the beginning of Auguft in
the following year; and arrived on the third at the mouth
of the Anabara, which he found  to lie in lat. 730  ii.
There he continued until the 10th, while fome of the
orew went up the country in fearch of fome mines.    On
the 1 oth he proceeded on his voyage : before he reached
the mouth of the Ghatanga he was fo entirely furrounded
and hemmed in with ice,  that it was not without great
difficulty and danger he was able to get loofe.    He then
obferved a large field  of ice ftretching into the fea, on
which account he was obliged to continue near the fhore,
and to run up the Ghatanga.    The mouth of this river
was in lat 740 9'.   From thencehe bent his courfe moftly
Northward along the fhore, until he reached the mouth
of the Taimura on the 18th.     He then proceeded further, and followed the coaft towards the Pialida.    Near
the fhore were feveral fmall iflands, between which and
the land the ice was immovably fixed.    He then directed
biswcourfe toward the fea, in order to pafs round the
-* Gmelin Reife, II, 425 to 427.
R r 2
chain APPENDIX     I.
chain of iflands. At firft he found the fea more free
to the North of the iflands, while he obferved much ice
lying between them. He came at length to the laft iflan<$^
fituated in lat. 770 25'. Between this ifland and the:
fhore, as well as on the other fide of the ifland which lay
moft to the North, the ice was firm and immovable* He
attempted however to fleer ftill more to the North; andi
having advanced about fix miles, he was prevented b$r
a thick fog from proceeding : this fog being difjaerfed,.
he faw on each fide, arid before him, nothing bulliee ^
ch&Tcf hy a ^at towards the fea was not fixed ; but the accumulated
jfetiomge"6 manes were all fo clofe, that the fmalleft veffel could not
ting to the
Yenisei. have worked its way trough. Still attempting however
to pats to the North; he was forced by the ice N. E„
Apprehenfive of being hemmed in, he returned to the
Taimura; and from thence got, with much difficulty
and danger, to the Olenek, on the 2gtthof Auguft..
IPhis narrative of ProntffiiftlhefFs expedition is
extracted from the account of profeflbr *-GmeIin 1 according to Ms. MuHerf^ who has given a ci&fory relation:
of the fame voyage, ProntfhiMieff did not quite reaG&the
mouth of the Taimura;. for he there found the chain of
iflands ftretching from the continent far into tbie fea.
The channels between the iHauds were fo choaKed; up
* Gmelin Reifer vol. H. p^4^7 to p.. 434.
•f S. R. G. III. p. 149, 150.
with ice, that it was impoffible to force a paffage : after
peering as high-as lat. 770 25', he found fuch a plain
of fixed ice before him, that he had no profpect of
getting any farther. Accordingly he returned to the
Another attempt was made to pafs from the Lena to
the Yenifei ki 1739, by Chariton Laptiefl> with equal
bad fuccefs ; and he relates, that between the - rivers
Piafida and Taimura, a promontory ftretches into the
fea which he could not double, the fea being entirely
frozen up before he could pafs round *.
From all thefe circumftances we muft collect, that the SSJST**
whole fpace between Archangel and the Lena has  never Piafida never
yet doubled.
yet been navigated ; for in going Eaft from the Yenifei
the Ruflians could get no farther than the mouth of the
Piafida ; and, in coming Weft from the Lena, they were
flopped, according to Gmelin,. North of the Piafida;
and, according to Muller,, Eaft of the Taimura..
S The Ruffians, who fail almoft annually from. Archangel and other towns* to Nova Zemla, for the pur-
pofe of catching, fea-horfes, feals, and white bears, make
* Gmelin Reife, p. 440. Mr. Muller fays only, that Laptieff met
with the fame obllacles which forced Prontfhiftiheff ta return. S. R. G.
M. p. 150.
5 i 510
to the Weftern Coaft ; and no Ruffian veflel  has ever
paffed round its North Eaftern extremity j£
* Although this work is confined to the Ruffian Difcoveries, yet as
the N. E. paffage is a fubject of fuch interefting curiofity, it might feem
an omiffion in not mentioning, that feveral ■ Engiifh and Dutch veflels
have paffed through the Straits of Weygatz into the fea of Kara; they
all met with great obftructions from the ice, and had much difficulty in
getting through.    See Hiftoire Gen. Des Voyages, tome XV. pafEm.
In 1696 Heemfkirk and Barentz, after having failed along the Weftern
coaft of Nova Zemla, doubled the North Eaftern cape lying in latitude
770 20', and got no lower along the Eaftern coaft than 760, where they
See an account of this, remarkable voyage in Girard Le Ver's Vraye
Defcription De Trois Voyages De Mer, p. 13 to 45; and Hift. Gen.
des Voy. torn. XV. p. 111 to 139.
No veffel of any nation has ever paffed round that Cape, which extends
to the North of the Piafida, and is laid down in the Ruffian charts in
about 780 latitude. We have already feen that no Ruffian veflel has
ever got from the Piafida to the Chatanga, or from the Chatanga to the
Piafida; and yet-fome authors have pofitively afferted, that this promontory has been failed round.- In order therefora to elude the Ruffian accounts, which clearly afTert the contrary, it is pretended, that Gmelin
and Muller have purpofely concealed fome parts of the Ruffian journals,
and have impofed upon the world by a mifreprefentation of ^ fadts. But
without entering into any difpute on this head, I can venture to affirm,
that no fufficient proof has been as yet advanced in fupport of this af-
fertion ; and therefore until fome pofitive information fhall be produced,
we cannot deny plain fa<ff.s, or give the preference to hearfay evidence
over circumftantial and well attefted accounts.
Mr. Engel has a remarkable paffage in his Effai fur une route par la
Nord Eft, which it may be proper to confider in this place, becaufe
he aflerts in the moft pofitive manner, that two Dutch veflels formerly
paffed three Eundred leagues to the North Eaft of "Nova Zemla; from
The navigation from the Lena to Kamtchatka now re-^tt5,5? rf
o . the Ruffians to
mains to be confidered.    If we may believe fome authors, ^afrrthc
thence he infers that they muft have doubled the above-mentioned Cape
which extends to the North of the Piafida, and have got at leaft as far
Eaft as the mouth of the Olenek. His words are L'llluftre Societe Roy-
ale, fousl'an 1675, rapporte ce voyage et dit, que peu d'annees aupara-
vant une Societe demerchands d'Amfterdam avoit fait une tentative pour
chercher le paffage du Nord Eft, et equippa deuxvaifleaux les quels etant
paffe au feptante neuf ou huitantieme degre de latitude, avoient poufle felon Wood, jufqu* a trois cent lieues a l'Eft de laNouvelle Zemble, &c. &c
Upon this fact he founds his proof that the navigation from Archangel
to the Lena has been performed. Par confequent cette partie de la route
a ete faite. He refts the truth of this account on the authority of the
Philofophical Tranfadtions, and of Captain Wood, who failed upon a
voyage for the difcovery of the North Eaft paffage in 1676. The latter,
in the relation of his voyage, enumerates feveral arguments which induced him to believe the practicability of the North Eaft paffage.—
"J The feventh argument," he fays, "was another narration":, printed in
" the Tranfadtions, of two fhips of late that had-3*tt£mpted the paffage,
""failed 3oa4eagues to the Eaffward of -Nova-Zemla^ and had after profe-
" cuted the voyage, had there riot a difference arofe betwixt the undertakers
«'- and the Eaft-India company^" We here find that Captain Wood refers to the Philofophioaf T&nfadrions for his authority. The narration
printed in the Tranfadtidns, and which is alluded to by both Captain
Wood and Mr. Engel, is to be found in Vol. IX. of the Philofophical
TranfaQions,-p. 209, for December, 1674. It confifts of a very curious
"'Naftative of fome obfervations made upon feveral voyages, under-
"' taken to find a way for failing about the North to the Eaft-Indies ;
" together with inftrudtions given by the Dutch Eaft-India Company
" for the difcovery of the famous land of Jeflb near Japan." Thefe in-
ftrudrions were, in 1643, given to Maiftin Geritfes Vries, captain of the
fhip-Caftricum, "who fet out to difcover the unknown Eaftern coaft 3rf%
A*  1   P   |   N
I   X       I.
tji|s navigation has been open for above a century and
an half;    and feveral   veflels have at different times
" of Tartary, the kingdom of Catay, and the Weft coaft of America,
" together with the ifles fituate to the Eaft o3> Japan, cried up fee their
" riches of gold and filver." Thefe inftrudtions contain no relation of
two Dutch veffels, who paffed 300 leagues Eaft of Nova Zemla.
Mehtion is made of two Dutch veffels, " who were fent out in the
" year 1639, under the command -of Captain Kwaft, to difcover the
" Eaft coaft of the Great Tartary, efpecially the famous gold and filver
" iflands; though, by reafon of feveral -unfortunate accidents, they
" both returned re infedta." Short mention is afterwards made of Captain Kwaft's journal, together with the writings of the merchants who
were with him, as follows: " That in the South Sea, at the 37-*- de-
" grees Northern latitude, and about 400 Spanifh, or 343 Dutch miles*^
" that is, 28 degrees longitude Eaft of Japan, there lay a Very great
" and high ifland, inhabited by a white, handfome, kind and civilized
" people, exceedingly opulent in gold and filver, &c. &c."
From thefe extradts it appears, that, in the fhort accountjof the jour-,
nals of the two Dutch veflels, no longitude is mentioned to the Eaft of
Nova Zemla; but the diffoveries of Kwaft were made in the South
fea, to which place he, as well as Captain Vries afterwards, muft have
failed round the Cape of Good Hope. The author of the narrativ«
concludes, indeed, that the N. E paffage is practicable, in the follow*
ing words: " to promote this paffage out of the Ea#-Indies to the
" North into Europe, it were neceflary to fail from the Eaft-Indies to
the Weftward of Japan, all along Corea, to fee how the fea-coafts
trend to the North of the faid Corea, and with what conven^ency
" fhips might fail as far as Nova Zemla, and to the North of the fame.
" Where our author faith, that undoubtedly it w&uld be found, that
having paffed the North corner of Nova Zemla, or, through Wey-
gatz, the North end of Yelmer land, one might go on South-Eaft-
" ward, and make a fuccefeful voyage." But mere C0njedtures cannot
be admitted as evidence.   As we can find no other information relative
paffed round the North Eaftern extremity of Alia. But
if we confult the Ruffian accounts, wefhall find, that frequent expeditions have been unqueftionably made from
the Lena to the Kovyma; but that the voyage from the
Kovyma round Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, into the Eaftern ocean,
has been performed but once. According to Mr. Muller,
tibls formidable cape was doubled in the year 1648.
The material incidents of this remarkable voyage are as
fellow. W&
"In 1648 feven kotches or veffels failed  from the'SSE^/*
,        r    . . __. . . . voyage round
month ot the river Kovyma t, in order to penetrate into Tfchukotfkoi-
the Eaftern Ocean. Of thefe, four were never more
heard of: the remaining three were commanded by
Simon Defhneff, Gerafim Ankudinoff, two chiefs of the
Coflacs, and Fedot Alexeeff, the head of the Promyfh-
lenics.    Defhneff and Ankudinoff quarrelled before their
to the fadt mentioned by Captain Wood and Mr. Engel, (namely, that
two Dutch veflels have paffed 300 leagues to the Eaft of Nova Zemla)
that we have no reafon to credit mere affertions without proof: we
may therefore advance as a fadt, that hitherto we have uo authentic account, that any veffel has ever paffed the cape to the Eaft of Nova
Zemla, which lies North of the river Piafida. See Relation of Wood's
Voyage, &c. in the Account of feveral late Voyages and Difcoveries to
the South and North, &c. London, 1694, p. 148. See alfo Engel,
Mem. et Obf. Geog. p. 231 to 234.
I fhould not have fwelled my book with this extradt, if the Eng--
lifh tranflation of Mr. Muller's work" was not extremely erroneous in fome
material paffages.    S. R. G. III. j?. 8—:2o. |3|!
-f- Mr. Muller calls it Kolyma.
S s departure: 5*4
departure ?, this difpute was owing to the jealoufy of
Defhneff who was unwilling that Ankudinoff mould
ftiare with bini the honour, a# well as the profits, which
might refult from the expected difcoveries. Each veffei
Was prob^r>ly manned wj$k about thirty perfons ; An-
kudinQfPs, we certainly know, earried that number^
Defl%rieff prorpifed before-hand a tribute of feven fab^^
to be exacted from the inhabitants on the banks of Anadyr ; fo fanguine were his hopes of reaching that river.
This indeed he finally effected; but not fo foohs, nor with;
fo little difficulty as he. had prefumed-
On the 20th of Jv$*e, 1648, the three veflels failed
upon this remarkable expedition from the j^ver Kovyma*
Confidering the little knowledge we have of the extreme
regions of Afia, it is much to be regretted,, that all the
incidents of this voyage are not circumftan^iaUy related*
Defhneff*,   in  an account of his expedition  fent  to
* In order thoroughly to underftand this narrative, it is 3gce.fiary to*
inform the reader, that the. voyage made by Defhneff was entirely forgotten, until the year 1736, when Mr. Muller found.,, in the archives of
Xajkutfk, the original accounts of the Ruffian navigations in the Frozen
Thefe papers were extracted, under his mfpedtioo, at Yakutfk, and
feat to Peterfburg; where they are now preferved in the, library belonging to the Imperial Academy of Sciences : they confift of feveral folio
volumes. The circumftances relating to Defhneff are contained in the
fecond volume. Soliverftoff and Stadukin, having laid claim to the dif-
1 covery APPENDIX
Yakutsk, feems only as it Were accidentally to mention
his adventures by fea;   he takes no notice of any occurrence
xrovery-of the country on the mouth of the Anadyr, had aflerted, in
confequence of this claim, that they had arrived there by fea, after
having doubled Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, Defhneff, in anfwer, fent feveral
memof iafs, petitions, and complaints, againft Stadukirt and SoliverftofF,
to the commander of Yakutsk, in which he fets forth, that he had
the fole right to that difcovery, and refutes the arguments advanced by
the others. From thefe memorials Mr. Muller has extracted his account
of DefrM6fF*s voyage* Whefi I Was at Peterfburg I had an opportunity
of feeing4 thefe papers : and as they are* wtitt6fi in the Ruffian language,
1 prevailed upon my ingenious friend Mr. Pallas to infpedt the part
which relates to DelfifiefF. Accordmgly Mr. Pallas, with his Ufual readi-
uefs to oblige, not only cotiipafed the memorials with Mr, Muller's account, but even took trie trouble to' rfiake fome extradts in the moft
fiiaterial pafStges i thefe extradts are here fubjoined j-becaufe they will not
only ferve to confirm the exadtnefs of Mr. Muller j but alfo becaufe they
tend to throw fome light on fevefat obfeure paffages. In one of Defh-
nefFs memorials he fays, " To go from the river Kovyma to the Anadyr,
" a * great pf outonfofy frftrlt be doubled, which ftretches very far into
" the fea: it is not that promontory which lies next to the river
" Ttcfiukotskia. Stadukin never arrived at fSfe great piomontory:
** n&ff it are twO if&nds", whofe inhabitants make holes in their tmdeir-
" lips, attd fflfert therein pieces of the fea-horfe tufh, worked into the
*' form of teeth. This promontory ftretches between North and North
**¥&& : It is knerWh on the Ruffian fide by tne1 little river^Stanovie,
" wffich flows into the fea', near the fpot Where the Tfchutfki have eredt-
" ed a heap of whale-bones Me a tower. The* coaft from the prOmori-
** totf turns round towards the Anadyr, arid it is poffible to fail wfek a
" good wind frfrm the point to that river in* three days and nights, and
**■ r&rlSiote': and it WlfJ? take u*p' no more time to go by land to the fame
** river, becaufe it difcharges irfeff into a bay." In another memorial
Btefhneff faysj "that he was ordered to go by fea from the Indigutka
to -*,i6
rence until he reached the great promontory of the
Tfchutfki ; no obftructions from the ice are mentioned,
and probably there were none "r for he obferves upon
another occafion,  that the fea is not every year fo free
™ to the Kovyma i- and from thence with his crew to the Anadyr, which
"was then newly difcovered.    That the firft time he failed, from the
Kovyma, he was forced by the. ice to return to that river;, but that
next year he again failed from thence by fea,, and.after great danger,.
" misfortunes, and with the lofs of part of his fhipping, i arrived at laft;
" at the mouth of the Anadyr.    Stadukin having, in vain attempted to
" go by fea, afterwards pafs over the chain of mountains
then unknown;, and reached  by that means-  the Anadyr.   Soliverf-
" toff and his party,, who quarrelled withJDeihneff, went to the fame;
" place from the Kovyma by land; and the tribute was afterwards fent-
" to the laft mentioned river acrofs thcmountains, which were very dan-
" gerous to pafs amidft. the. tribes of Koriacs and Yukagirs, who. had
" been lately reduced by the Ruffians."
In another, memorial Defhneff complains bitterly of Soliverftoff;
and afferts,," that one Severka Martemyanoff, who .had been., gained':
" over .by Soliverftoff, was fent to Yakutfk,. with an account that he
" -(Soliverftoff) had difcovered.. the coafts to the North, of the Anadyr,.,
" where large numbers of fea-h.QrJes.are.found." Defhneff hereupon fays,
" that -Soliverftoff andJStadukin never reached the rocky promontory,
"which is inhabited by numerous bodies of the Tfchutfki; over againft
" which are iflands whofe inhabitants wear artificial teeth thruft through
" their under-lips. This is not the firft promontory from, the river Ko-
" vyma, called.Svatoi Nofs; but another far more confiderable, and
" very-well known to him (Defhneff), becaufe the veffel, of Ankunidoff
^was wrecked there. ;,,.and be.caufe he.,had.there taken ptrifoners fome of
H the people, who were rowing in their boats ; and feen the iflanders
" with teeth in their lips. He alfo well knew, that it was ftUl far from
"• that promontory to the river.Anadyr."
SI MM   from tj APPENDIX      i.
from ice as it was at this time. He com men^This^ narrative with a defcription of tbe great promontory: 'Alt
." is," fays he, |* very different from that which is fituated
" Weft of the Kovyma, near the river Tfchukotfkia. It
" lies between North and North Eaft, and bends, in a
M circular direction, towards the Anadyr. It is diftin-
" guilhed on the Ruffian (namely, the Weftern) fide, by
" a rivulet: which falls into the fea, clofe to which the
"-Tfchutfki have raifed a. pile, like a tower,, with the
" bones of whales.. Oppofite fhe promontory, (it is not
I faid on which fide), are two iflands, on which he ob-
" ferved people of the nation of the Tfchutfki, who had
jj pieces of the fea-horfe tooth thruft into holes made in
"■ their lips. With a good wind it is poffible to fail from ■
" this promontory to the. Anadyr in three days ; j and the
"journey by land may be performed in the fame fpace
f| of time, becaufe the Anadyr falls into a bay." An^-
kudinotPs kotche was wrecked on this promontory, and
the crew was diftributed on board the two remaining
veflels.. On the 20th of September Defhneff and Fedot
Alexeef went on fhore, and had a fkirmiih with the
Tfchutski, in which Alexeef was wounded.. The two
veffels foon afterwards loft light of each other, and never
again rejoined. Defhneff was driven about, by temped
tuous winds until October, when he was fhipwreeked
fas it appears from circumftances), confiderably to the
Seuth of the Anadyr, not far from the river Olutora.
»3»7 "1
What became of Fedot Alexeff and his crew will be riifcn-
tioned hereafter. Defhneff and his companions, who
amounted to twenty-five perfons, now fought for the
Anadyr; but being entirely unacquainted with the
country, ten weeks elapfed before they reached its banks
at a fmall diftance from its mouth : here he found neither
wood nor inhabitants, &c.
The following year he went further up the river, and
built Anadrffkoi Oftrog : here he was joined by fome
Ruffians on the 25th of April, 165O, who came by land
from the river Kovyma. In 1652, Defhneff having
conftructed a veffel, failed down the Anadyr as far as
its mouth, and obferved on the North fide a fand bank,
which ftretched a confiderable way into the fea. A
fand bank of this kind is called, in Siberia, Korga. Great
numbers of fea-horfes were found to refort to the
mouth of the Anadyr. Defhneff collected feveral of
their teeth, and thought himfelf amply compenfated by
this acquifition f&f the trouble of his expedition, in
the following year, Deffmeff ordered wood t& be foiled
for the purpofe of conflructmg a veflel, in which; he
propofed fending the tribute which he had cdHedtecI by
fea to Yakutfk *.    But this defign was laid afide from the
* That is,-by fea, from the mouth of tihe Anadyr, round Tfchukot-
fkoi Nofs to the river Lena, and, then up that river to Yakutfk.
if- want
want of other materials. It was alfo reported, that the
fca about Tfchukotfkjoi Nofs was not every year free
from ice.
Another expedition was made in 16T54 to the Korga,
for the purpofe of collecting fea-horfe teeth. A Coflac,
named Yufko Soliveriloff, was one of the party, the
fame who had not long before accompanied the Coffac
Michael Stadukin, upon a voyage of difcovery in the
Frozen Sea. This perfon was fent from Yakutfk to
collect fea-horfe teeth, for the benefit of the crown. In
his inftructions mention is made of tbe river Yentfhen-
don, which falls into the bay of Penfhinik, and of the
Anadyr; and he was ordered to exact a tribute from
the inhabitants dwelling near thefe rivers; for the adventures of Defhneff were not as yet known at Yakutfk.
This was the occafion of new difeontents. Soliverftoff
claimed to himfelf the difcovery of the Korga, as if he
had failed to that place in his voyage with Stadukin in?
1649. Defhneff, however, proved that Soliverftoff had
not even reached Tfchukotfkoi Nofs* which he delcribes-
as nothing but bare rock, and k was but too well known*
tp him, becaufe the veflel of Ankudinoff was fhip-
wrecked there. | Tfchukotfkoi Nofs," adds Defhneff,,
" is not the firft promontory which prefents kfelf un-
" der the name of Svatoi Nofs j|    It is known by the
P two
j * We may collect, from DefhnefTs reafbrring, that Sbfiverftbff,,in endeavouring to prove that he had failed round the Eaftern extremity of
Afia* APPENDIX      I.
two iflands fituated oppofite to it, whofe inhabitants-
% (as is before-mentioned) place pieces of the fea-horfe
tush into holes made in their lips. Defhneff alone
(C had feen thefe people, which neither Stadukin nor
<c Soliverftoff had pretended to have done : and the
" Korga, or fand-bank, at the mouth of the river Anadyr,
" was at fome diftance from thefe iflands."
While Defchneff was furveying the fea-coaft, he faw
in an habitation belonging to fome Koriacs a woman of
Yakutsk, who, as he recollected, belonged to F'edot
Alexieff. Upon his enquiry concerning the fate of her
mailer, fhe replied, " that Fedot and Gerafim (Ankudi-
% noff) had died of the fcurvy ; that part of the crew had
been llain ; that a few had efcaped in fmall velTels,
" and have never fince been heard off." Traces of the
latter were afterwards found in the peninfula of Kamt-
Afia, had miftaken a promontory called Svatoi Nofs for Tfchukotfkoi-
Nofs : for otherwife, why fhould Defhneff, in his refutation of Soliverftoff, begin by aflerting, that Svatoi Nofs was not Tfchukotfkoi Nofs ?
The only cape laid down in the Ruffian maps, under the name of Svatoi Nofs, is fituated 25 degrees to the Weft of the Kovyma : but we
cannot poflibly fuppofe this to be the promontory here alluded to ; be-
caufe, in failing fromthe Kovyma towards the Anadyr, "the firft promon-
", tory which prefents'itfelff muft neceffarily be Eaft of the Kovyma.-
Svatoi Nofs, in the Ruffian language; fignifies Sacred Promontory ; and
the Ruffians occafionally apply it to any cape which it is difficult to
double. It therefore moft probably here relates to the firft cape,
which Soliverftoff reached after he had failed from Kovyma.
7 chatka; A   P   P   E   N   D   I- 3£
chatka; to Which place they probably arrived with a
favourite wind, by following the coaft, and running up
the Kamtchatka river. Wti
When Volodimir Atlaffoff, in 1697, firft entered upon
"the reduction of Kamtchatka, he found that the inhabitants had already fome knowledge of the Ruffians. A
common tradition ftill prevails amongft them, that long
before the expedition of Atlaffoff, one ■* Fedotoff (who
was probably the foh of Fedot Alexeeff) and his companions had refided amongft them, and had intermarried
with the natives. They ftill fhew the fpot where the
fiuffian habitations ftood; namely, at the mouth of the fmall
river Nikul which falls into the-Kamtchatka river, and is
called by the Ruffians Fedofika. Upon AtlaflofPs arrival
fibne of the firft Ruffians remained. They are faid to
nave been held in great, veneration, and almoft deified
by the inhabitants, Who at firft imagined that no human
power could" hurt them, until they quarrelled amongft
themfelves, and the blood was feen to flow from the
wound,s which they gave each other : and-upon a fepara*
tion taking place between the Ruffians, part of them had
been killed by the Koriacs, as they were going to the
fea of Penfhinsk, and the remainder by the KamtCha-
dals.    The river Fedotika falls into the Southern fide of
* Fedotoff, in the Ruffian language, fignifies the fon of Fedot.
M   T t
the A
P   E   N.  D   I" X-    I.
the Kamtchatka river about an hundred and eighty verfts
below Upper Kamtchatkoi Oftrog. At the time of the
firft expedition to Kamtchatka, in 1697, the remains of
two 'villages ftill fubiifted, which had probably been inhabited by Fedotoff and his companions: and no one
knew which way they came into the peninfula, untiLit
was difcovered from the archives of Yakutfk in 11636."
* No other navigator, fubfequent to Defhneff, has ever
pretended to. have paffed the North Eaftern extremity of
I Mr. Engel indeed pretends that lieutenant Laptieff, in 1739^ doubled Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs, becaufe Gmelin fays, that " he paffed from the
" Kovyma to Anadirsk partly by water and partly by land." ForMn
Engel aflerts the impoffibility ofgetting from the Kovyma to Anadirsk*
partly by land and partly, by water,., without going from the Kovyma to
the mouth of the Anadyr by fea ; and from thence to Anadirsk by land.
ButMr. Muller (who has given a more particular account of the concfufion
of this expedition) informs us, that Laptieff and his crew, afterliaving
wintered near the Indigirka, paffed from its mouth in fmall boats to the
Kovyma; and as it was dangerous, on account of the Tfchutski, to follow the coaft any farther, either by land or water, he went through the
interior part of the country to Anadirsk, and from thence to. the mouth
of the Anadyr.   Gmelin Reife, vol. II. p.440.    S. R^G. III. P..157.
Mention is alfo made by Gmelin of a man who paffed in a fmall
boat from the Kovyma round Tfchukotskoi-Nofs into the fea of Kamtchatka : and Mr. Engel has not omitted to bring this paffage in fupport
of his fyftem, with this difference, that he refers to the authority of
Muller, inflead of Gmelin, for the truth of the fadt. But as we have
no account of this expedition, and as the manner in which it is mentioned
by Gmelin implies that he hadit merely from tradition, we cannot lay any
ftrefs  Cha mt of S HAIAlTlt Of's   Voyage .
2roB.TBiEJR.2r      on      F  R   n   z   E   zr      O   C   E"^-„ &
<fpuZ£Ji*Z4^/3?/p8owxx~*^ & Oct of#ar/4^nUyTG*frJ/in foStnvui.
TJBHmS-CSoty. ■■
2T   O    B     T   12T
Alia, notwithftanding all the attempts which have been
made to accomplilh this paffage, as well from * Kamtchatka as from the Frozen Ocean.
The following narrative of a late voyage performed
by one Shalauroff, from the Lena towards Tfchukotfkoi-
-Nois, will fhew the great impediments which obftruct a
coafting navigation in the Frozen Sea, even at the moft
favourable feafon of the year,
"Shalauroff, having- conftructed a   fhitik at   his own^g'^
' o Shalaurott.
'expence, went down the Lena in 1761. He was accompanied by an exiled midfhipman, whom he had
found at Yakutfk, and to whom we are indebted  for
ftrefs upon fuch vague and uncertain reports. The paffage is as follows :
" Es find fo gar Spuren vorhanden, dafs ein Kerl mit einem Schifflein,
" das nichtviel groeffer als ein Schifferkahn gevefen, von Kolyma bis
" Tfchukotfkoi-Nofs vorbey, und bis nach Kamtfchatka gekommen fey."
Gmelin Reife, II. p. 437. Mem. et Obf. Geog. &c. p. 10.
* Beering, in his voyage from Kamtchatka, in 1628, towards Tfchu-
kotskoi-Nofs, failed along the coaft of the Tfchutski as high as lat.
670 18'. and obferving the coaft take a Wefterly direction, he too haftily
concluded, that he had paffed the North Eaftern extremity. Apprehen-
five, if he had attempted to proceed, of being locked in by the ice, he returned to Kamtchatka. If he had followed the fhore, he would have
found, that what he took for the Northern ocean was nothing more
than a deep bay : and that the coaft of the Tfchutski, which he confidered
as turning uniformly to the Weft, took again a Northerly direction.
S. R. G. III. p. 117.
Tt  2 the 3*4
A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X     I.
the chart of this expedition. Shalauroff got out of the
Southern, mouth of the Lena in July, but was fo much
embarraffed by the ice, that he ..ran the vefTel -into the
mouth of the Yana, where he was detained by the ice
until the 29th of Aiiguft, when he again;fet fail. Being
prevented by the ice from keeping the open fea, he
coafted the fhore; and* having doubled Svatoi-Nois on
the 6th of September, difcovered at a -fmall' diftance, out
at fea, to the North, a mountainous land, Which is probably fome unknown ifland in the Frozen Sea. He was
employed from the #th to the 15 th in getting through
the ftrait between Diomed's :ifland and the xoaft .of
Siberia; which he effi|£ted, not without great difficulty.
From the 16t& he bad a free fea and a fair S. W. wfM*
which carried them in 24 hours beyond the mouth of the
Indigipka. The favourable breeze continuing, fee pafl€*$
on the iSth the Alafca. Soon afterwards, the veffel
approaching too near the fhore was entangled amongft
vaft floating maffes of -ice, between $bme iflands • •and
"* Thefe rllands are Medviedkie Oftrova, or the Bear Iflands ; they
are alfo called Kreffftofffkie Oftrova^ becaufe they lie oppofite the mouth
of the fmall river Kreftova. For a long time vague reports were propagated that the continent of America was ftretched along the Frozen
Ocean, very near the coafts of Siberia; and fome perfons pretended to
have difcovered its fhore not far from the rivers Kovyma and Kreftova.
But the faifify of thefe reports was proved by an expedition made in
1764, by fome Ruffian officers fent by Denys Ivanovitch Tfchitcherin,
governor APPENDIX
the main land. And now the late feafon of the year
obliged- Shalau^off to look out for a wintering place;
he accordingly ran the veflel into one of the mouths ofmS'JP^
the river Kovyma, where fhe was laid up. The crewKovyma'
immediately conftructed an hut, which they fecured
with a rampart of frozen fhow, and a battery of the
fmall guns. The wild rein-deers reforted to this place
in large herds, and were ftiot in great plenty from the
enclofure. Before the letting in of winter, various fpecies of falmon and trout came up the river in fhoals:
thefe fifh* afforded the crew a plentiful fubfiftence, and
preferved'them from the fcurvy*.
The mouth of the Kovyma was not freed from ice?6?31^
/ irom thence
"before the. 21ft of July,  1762, when Shalauroff againin   y*
governor of Tobolfk^; Thefe officers went Jn winter, when the fea was
frozen, in fledges drawn by dogs, from the mouth of the kreftova.
They found nothing but five fmall rocky iflands, fince called the Bear
Iflands, which were quite wanhabited; but fome traces were
found of former inhabitants, namely, the ruins of huts. They obferved
alfo on one of the iflands a kind of wooden ftage built of dr,ift-wobd,
which feemed as if it had been intended for defence. As far as they
?dur-ft -venture out over the Frozen Sea, no land could be feen, but
..high mountains of ice obftrudfced their paffage, and forced them to re-
turn. See the map of this expedition upon the chart of Shalauroff's
voyage  prefixed to this number.
* Raw-fifh are  confidered in thofe "Northern countries as a prefer-
yative againft the fcurvy.
put A   P   P   E "~N   D
put to fea, and fteered until the 28th N. E. by N. Et
^ E. Here he obferved the variation of the compafs
afhore, and found it to be n° 15" Eaft. The 28th a
contrary. wind, which was followed by a calm, obliged
him to come to an anchor, and kept him flationary
until the 10th of Auguft, when a favourable breeze
fpringing up he fet fail; he then endeavoured to fleer
t fome diftance from fhore, holding a more Eafterly
courfe, and N. E. by E. But the veffel was impeded by
large bodies of floating ice, and a ftrong current, which
feemed to bear Weftward at the rate of a verft an hour.
Thefe circumftances very much retarded his courfe. On
the i 8th, the weather being thick and foggy, he found
himfelf unexpectedly near the coaft with a number of
ice iflands before him, which on the 19th entirely fur>
rounded and hemmed in the veffel. He continued in
that fituation, and in a continual fog, until the 2^4,
when he got clear, and endeavoured by fleering N. E.
to regain the open fea, which was much lefs clogged
with ice than near the fhore; He was forced however, by contrary winds, S. E. and E. among large
maffes of floating ice. This drift of ice being pafted,
he again ftood to the N. E. in order to double She-
latfkoi Nofs *;   but before he could reach the iflands
f: He does -not feem to have been deterred from proceeding by any
fuppofed difficulty in paffing Shelatfkoi "Nofs, but to have veered about
merely on account of the late feafon of the year. Shelatfkoi Nofs is
fo called from the Sfhelagen, a tribe of the Tfchutfki, and has been
fuppofed to be the fame as Tfchukotfkoi Nofs.    S. R. G. III. p. 52.
Not being able,
to double
lying near it, he was fo retarded by contrary winds,
fchat he was obliged, on account of the advanced fea-
fon, to fearch for a wintering place^    He accordingly £*XSf
f "i    J     r- -i . Shelatfkoi
lailed  South  towards an open bay, which  lies on the W **»*&
towards the
Well fide of Shelatfkoi Nofs, and which no navigator Kovyma-
had explored before him. He fleered into it on the
25th, and got upon a fhoal between- a fmall:-ifland,
and a point of land which juts from the Eaftern
coaft of this bay. - Having got clear with much difficulty, he continued for a fhort time a S. E. courfe,
then turned S. W. He then landed in order to difcover
a fpot proper for their winter refidence ; and found two
fmall rivulets, but neither: trees nor drift wood. The
veffel was towed j along the Southerly fide of the bay as
far as the ifland Sabadei. On the 5th of September, he
faw fome huts of the Tfchutfki clofe to the narrow,
channel between Sabadei and the main land ; but the
inhabitants fled on his approach.
Not having met with a proper fituation, he ftood
out to fea, and got round the ifland Sabadei on the
8th, when he fattened the veflel to a large body of ice,
and was carried along by a current towards W. S. W.
at the rate of five verfts an hour.: On the 1 atti, he
faw far to the N. E. by N. a mountain, and fteered the
1.1th and 12th towards his former wintering  place  in winter* a j&
cond Time at
the river Kovyma.    Shalauroff propofed  to have madedi-Kovy^»
I •*■       *■ and returns t»;^
f-T-» p the Lena.. o-
APPENDIX      !.
the following year another attempt to double ShelatfJtol
Nofs; hwt* want of provifion, and the mutiny of the
crew, forced him to return to the Lena in 1763. It
is worth remarking, that during his whole voyage he
.fotend the Currents felting in almoft uniformly from
the Eaft. Two remarkable rocky were obferved by
Shalaur-off near the point Where the coaft turns to
the N. E. towards the channel which feparates the
ifland? Sabadei from the comment; thefe rocks may
.ferve to direct foEUTe* navigators : one is called Saetfhie
Kame§% or Hare's Rock, and rifes like a looked horn;
the othfer Baranei- Kamen, or Sheejfs Rook; it is in
the fir ape of a» peal*, narrower at the bottom than at top,
and rifeS twent^fiine yards ab$$e hrgh>Water marlb*
second Expe-»    Shalauroff, who concluded from his OwrP experience,
dition of Sha- * '
huroff. tMt- £he attempt to double- Tfchukotfkoi Nofs, though
difficult, was by no means imprarMcable, was not dif-
couraged by his former want of fuccefs from engaging
a fecond time in trW fame enterprise : he accordingly
fitted out the fame lnltik, and in #764- departed as before from the river Lenibv We have no pofitive accounts of this fecond voyage ; for ne&her Shalauroft? or
any of his creW have ever i&turned. The following
circumftances lead us to conclude, that both he and
his crew were killed near the Anadyr by the" Tfchutfki,
about the third year after their departure from the Lena.
About Of
About that time the Koriacs of the Anadyr refufed to
take from f-»e Ruffians the provifion of flour, which
they are accustomed to purchafe every year. Enquiry-
being made by the governor of Anadirsk, he found that
they had beea amply fupplied with that commodity
by the Tfchutfki. The latter had procured it from the
plunder of Shalauroff's veffel, the crew of which appeared No Account
of this Expedi
to have perifhed near the Anadvr*    From thefe facts, °?%he a°d.
* J ' his Crew oeins
which have been fince confirmed by repeated intelli- xfchurfki!
gesce from the Koriacs and Tfchutfki, it has' been af-
ferted, that Shalauroff had doubled the N. E. cape of
Afia. But this affertion amounts only to conjecture ; for
the arrival of the crew at the mouth of the Anadyr
affords no decifive proof that they had palled round the
Eaftern extremity of A^a; for they might have penetrated
to that river by land, from the Weftern fide of Tfchukotf-
In reviewing thefe feveral accounts of the Ruffian
voyages irf the Frozen Sea, as far as they relate to
a North Eaft paffage, we may obfervfe, that the cape
which ftretehes to the North of the Piafida has never'
been doubled; and that the exiftence of a paffage round
Tfchukotfkoi Nofs refts upon the Angle authority of
Defhneff. Admitting however a practicable navigation
round "thefe two promontories, yet when we confides
the difficulties   and   dangers   which the Ruffians  en-
U u countered
29 i in
countered in thofe parts of the Frozen Sea which they
have unqueftionably failed through ; how much time
they employed in making an inconliderable progrefs, and
how often their attempts were unfuccefsful: when we
reflect at the fame time, that thefe voyages can only be
performed in the midft of a fhort fummer, and even
then only when particular winds drive the ice into the
fea, and leave the fhores lefs obftructed ; we fhall reafon-
ably conclude, that a navigation, purfued along the
coafts in the Frozen Ocean, would probably be ufelefs for
commercial purpofes.
A navigation therefore in the Frozen Ocean, calculated
to anfwer any end of general utility, muft (if poflible) be
made in an higher latitude, at fome diftance from the
fhores of Nova Zemla and Siberia. And fhould we
even grant the portability of failing N. E. and Eaft of
Nova Zemla, without meeting with any infurmountable
obftacles from land or ice; yet the final completion
of a N. E. voyage muft depend upon the ex-
iftence of a free paffage * between the coaft of the
Tfchutfki and the continent of America.    But fuch dif-
* 1 have faid a free paffage, becaufe if we conclude from the narrative
of Defhneff's voyage, that there really does exift fuch a paffage;' yet if
that paffage is only occafionally navigable (and the Ruffians do not pretend to have paffed it more than once) it can never be of any general
and commercial utility.
quifitions APPENDIX     I..
quifitions as thefe do not fall under the intention of
this work, which is meant to ftate and examine facts,
not to lay down an hypothefis, or to make theoretical
enquiries *.
* I beg leave to afiure the reader, that throughout this whole work
I have entirely confined myfelf to the Ruffian accounts ; and have carefully avoided making ufe of any vague reports concerning the difcoveries
lately made by captains Cooke and Clerke in the fame feas. Many of
the geographical quefiions which have been occafionally treated in the
. courfe of this performance, will probably be cleared up, and the true
pofition of the Weftern coafts of America afcertained, from the journals of thofe experienced navigators.
U U   2
APPENDIX 1   333   3
A   P   P  E
d i x    at
Tartarian rhubarb brought to Kiachta by the Bucha-
rian Merchants—Method of examining and pur Chafing
the  roots—Different fpecies  of rheum  wbich yield the
fineft rhubarb—-Price of rhubarb in Ruffia—Exportation—Superiority of   the Tartarian   over   the Indian
J\ rtarian,-,or
l/UROPE is fupphed with rhubarb from Ruffia and
the Eaft Indies. The former is generally known by
the name of Turkey rhubarb, becaufe we ufed to import it from the Levant in our commerce with the Turks,
who procured it through Perfia from the Bucharians.
And it ftill retains its original name, although inftead of
being carried, as before, to Gonftantinople, it is now
brought to Kiachta by the Bucharian merchants, and
there difpofed of to the Ruffians. This appellation is
indeed the moft general; but*it is mentioned occafionally
by feveral authors, under the different denominations of
Ruffian, Tartarian, Bucharian, and Thibet, Rhubarb.
This fort is exported from Ruffia in large roundifli
pieces, freed from the bark, with an hole through the
middle : they are externally of a yellow colour, and
when cut appear variagated tyith lively reddifh ftreaks.
The T>
P   E   N   D "I . X     II.
Iff 9
The other fort is called by the Druggifts Indian Rhu-gjj
barb; and is procured from Canton in longer, harder,
.heavier, more compact pieces, than the former; it is
more altringent, and has fomewhat lefs of an aromatic
flavour; but, on account of its cheapnefs, is more generally ufed than the Tartarian or Turkey Rhubarb.
The government of Ruffia has referved to itfelf the
exclude privilege of purchafing rhubarb; it is
brought to Kiachta by fome Bucharian merchants,  who I?1**"3,!1
"-"■'-»c5d " ■'1        7T3; To     ' Rhubarb pro-
have entered into a contract to fupply   the crown withKiachu.
that drug in exchange for furs.     Thefe merchants come
from the town of Selin, which lies .South Weftward of
the Koko-Nor, or Blue Lake toward Thibet.    Selin, and
all the towns of Little Bucharia; viz. Kalhkar, Yerken,
Atrar, &c. are fubjecl to China.   jj£3j
The belt rliubarb puDihafed at Kiachta is produced
upon a chain of rock^,. which are very high, and for the
moft-part deftitute of wood : they lie North of Selin, and'
ftretch as far as the; Koko^or. .The good roots are
diftineuilhed by  large and thick ftems.    The Tanguts, The Rhubarb
o ■> <-» _ ?.:"••. Us ■': I ? Plant grows
who are employed in digging up the roots, enter upon E^,
that bufineii:in April or May.    As fait as they taketliem luchanl
i0ut of .the earth, they cleanfe them from the foil^ and
hang them upon the neigjb^urin^v^ees.:ripi;53ry,(
they 334
they remain until a fufficient quantity is procured: after
which they are delivered to the Bucharian merchants.
The roots are wrapped up in woollen facks, carefully
preferved from the leaft humidity; and are in this man*
ner tranfported to Kiachta upon camels.
The exportation of the beft rhubarb is prohibited by
the Chinefe, under the fevereft penalties. It is procured
however in fufficient quantities, fometimes by clandef-
tinely mixing it with inferior roots, and fometimes by
means of a contraband trade. The College of Commerce at Petersburg is folely empowered to receive this
drug, and appoints agents at Kiachta for that purpofe.
fxam^g the Much care is taken in the choice ; for it is examined, in
the prefence of the Bucharian merchants, by an apothecary commiffioned by government,' and refident at Kiachta. All the worm-eaten roots are rejected ; the remainder are bored through, in order to afcertain their found-
nefs; and all the parts which appear in the leaft damaged or decayed are cut away. By thefe means even
the beft roots are diminifhed a fixth part; and the refufe
is burnt,  in order to prevent its being brought another
roots at
I Pallas Reife, part III. p. 155—157. When Mr. Pallas was at
Kiachta, the Bucharian merchant, who fupplies the crown with rhubarb,
brought fome pieces of white rhubarb (von milchveiffen rha-
barber) which had a fweet tafte, and was equal in its effects to the
beft fort.
Linnaeus APPENDIX      II.
n , f*
3j •>
Rheum Pal-
Linnaeus  has diftinguifhed  the   different fpecies  of SJ^SS?"
rhubarb by the names Rheum Palmatum, R.Rhaphonti-
cum, ^R. Rhabarbarum, R. Compactum, andR. Ribes.
Botanifts have long differed in their opinions, which
of thefe feveral fpecies is the true rhubarb; and that
queftion does not appear to be as yet fatisfactorily cleared
up. However, according to the notion which is moft
generally received, it is fuppofed to be the Rheum 1 Palmatum ; the feeds of which were originally procured
from a Bucharian merchant, and diftributed to the principal botanifts of Europe. Hence this plant has been
cultivated with great fuccefs; and is now very common
in all our botanical gardens. The learned doctor J Hope,
profeflbr of medicine and botany in the univerfity of
Edinburgh, having made trials of the powder of this root,
in the fame dofes in which the foreign rhubarb is given,
found no difference in its effects ; and from thence con-
clufions have been drawn with great appearance of pro-
* See Murray's edition of Linnzeus Syftema Vegetab. Gott. 1774.
In the former editions of Linnaeus Rheum Rhabarbarum is called R.
4» Mr. Pallas (to whom I am chiefly indebted for this account of the
Tartarian and Siberian Rhubarb) affured me, that he never found the
R. Palmatum in any part of Siberia.
X Phil. Tranf. for 1765, p. 290.
1 bability, *$ Irk
R. Rhaponti
,   - APPENDIX       IL
■ babilitys, < that this is the plant which produces the true
rhubarb. But this inference does not appear to be ab-
folutely conciufive; for the fame trials have been; repeated, and with fimiiar fuccefs, upon the roots of the
R. Rhapontieum and R. Rhabarbarum.
The leaves of the R. Rhapontieum are round, and
fometimes broader than they are long. This fpecies is
found abundantly in the loamy and dry deferts between
the Volga and the Yaik*, towards the Cafpian Sea. It
was probably from this fort that the name Rhaj w&ieh is
the Tartarian appellation of the river Volga, was firft aJiU'
plied by the Arabian phyflcians to the feveral fpfceies of
rheum. The roots however wffich grow in thefe warm
plains are rather too aftringent; and therefore ought not
to be ufed in cafes where opening medicines are required.
The Calmucs call it Badfhona, or a ftomachic. The
young fhoots or'Hnis plant, which appear in March 6r;
April, are deemed a goxiu antifcorbutic ; and are ufed as
fuch by tjie Ruffians. The R. Rhapontieum is not to be
found to the Weft of the Volga. The feeds of this
fpecies produced at Petersburg plants of a much greater
fize than the wild ones : the leaves were large, and of a
roundifh cordated figure.
nl * The Yaik falls into  the Carpian Sea, about four degrees to the"
Eaft of the Volga.
■'■■   4   ' -Mfv- 6pi§Kwi.- •• ~llliM-:'3
The APPENDIX     &
The R. Rhabarbarum grows in the crevices of bareR.Ri»*a«>
rocky mountains, and alfo upon gravelly foils: it is
more particularly found in the high vallies of the romantic country fituated beyond Lake Baikal. Its buds <Jo
not fhoot before the end of April; and it continues in
flower during the wtiole month of May. The ftaJL^s of
the leaves are eaten raw by the Tartars : they produce
upon moft perfons, who are unaccuftomed to them, a
kind of fphafmodic contraction of the throat, which goes
off in a few hours; it returns however at every meal,
.trntfl.they become habituated to this kind of jd^t. The
Ruffians make ufe of the leaves in their hodge-podge :
accordingly, foups of this fort affect grangers in the manner above mentioned. In Siberia the ftalk is fometimes
preferved as a fweet-meat; and a cuftorn prevails among
the Germans of intfoducing at their tables the buds ;of
this plant, as well as of the Rheum Palmatum, infteadjof
The R. Rhapontieum which commonly grows nearr. m^oa-
the torrents has, as well as the R. Rhabarbarum of Siberia, the upper part of its roots commonly xotten, from
too much moifture: accordingly, a very fmall portion of
f*he low£r.extremityisrfit for ufe.    The Ruffian .College
®KJ J 3nT©^t8lmT^).A | .
,*>f Ph|fi<?ttns order, .Jor the ufe of their military hof-
mtols, large quantities of  thefe JCpotg to be dug up in
^Siberia, ,&#&* are prefcribed under the name of rha-
vrrjyuiiaaw *n -^-. * ngE*|2fILG3Q:fJom   Ouj   HO frOiJj31"EXT     iudaJhiax
ponjtjc.    But the perfons employed in digging and pre-     ^
gating it are fo ill inftru<Stea for that purpofe, that its
X x belt w
A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X'   #.
beft juices are frequently loft. Thefe roots ought to be
drawn up in fpring, foon after the melting of the fnows,
when the plant retains alF its lap and ftrength; whereas
°xhey are not taken out of the ground before Auguft*
when they are wafted by the increafe of the Item, iand
the expanfion of the leaves. Add to this, that the roots
are no fooner taken up, than they are immediately fliced
in fmall pieces, and thus dried: by which means the
medicinal qualities are fenfibly topaired.
iSeYootT For the *~ame roots, which in this inftance were of
jojakisn. fuch little efficacy, when dried With proper precaution,
have been found to yield a very excellent rhubarb. The
procefs obferved for this purpofe, by the ingenious Mr.
Pallas, was as follow^ I The roots, immediately^ • after
being drawn out, were^fufpended over a ftove,. where
bemg p^adually dried, they were cleanfed from the
earth: by thefe means, although they were actually
taken up in autumn, they fo nearly refembled the beft
Tartarian rhubarb in colour, texture, and purgative qualities, that they aniwered, in every refpec\ the fame
medicinal purpofes.
Ffcmtatibn of
Rhubarb, in
A German apothecary, named Zuchert, made fimilar
trials with the fame fuccefs, both ©n the Rheum Rhabarbarum and R. Rhapontieum, which grow hi great
perfection on the mountains in the neighbourhood of
Nerfhinfk. He formed plantations of thefe herbs on
3 I ^f:    W^  the APPENDIX
the d^ec^ty e^a rock % covered with one foot of good
mould, mixed with an equal quantity of fand and gravel.
If the fummer proved dry, the plants were left in the
ground; but if the feafon was rainy, after drawing
out the roots he left them for fome days in the fhade
to dry, and then replanted them. By this method of
cultivation he produced in feven or eight years very large
and found roots, which the rock had prevented from penetrating too deep; and when they were properly dried, theR.RhajW-
- I ticum and R.
onefcruple was as efficacious as half-a drachm of Tarta-Rhabarbaru5?r
* equal in their "
rian rhubarb. S^g^'
r Rhubarb."
From the foregoing obfervations it follows, that there
are other plants, belides the Rheum Palmatum, the roots
whereof have been found to be fimilar both in their ap-r
pearance and effects, to what is called the beft rhubarb.
And indeed^,upon enquiries made at Kiachta concerning
the form and leaves of the plant which produces that
drug, it feems not to be the R. Palmatum, but a fpecies
with roundifh fcolloped leaves, and moft probably the
R. Rhapontgcum : for Mr. Pallas, when he was at Kiachta, applied for information to a Bucharian merchant of
§§lin-Chotton, who now fupplies the crown with rhu-
* Jn order to fucceed fully in the plantation of rhubarb, and to procure found and dry roots, a dry^fight KtNrith ifitcky fftfundation, wh^re
the moiihire eafily filters off, is efferittlffi^nec^Q^ry. |§jr
X-x 2 ii^ barbfc
p iMan
barb ; and his defcription of that plant anfwered to the
figure of the Rheum Rhaponticunfc The truth of*$his
defcription was ftill further confirmed by fome-mongol
travellers who had been in the neighbourhood of the
Koko-Nor and Thibet; and" had obferved the rhufearb
growing wild upon thofe mountains-
The experiments alfo made by Zuchert and others
upon the roots of the R. Rhabarbarum and R. RhajSo^
ticum, fufliciently prove,, that tnis valuable drug was
procured from thofe roots in great perfection► But as
the feeds of the Rheum Palmatum were received from
the father of the above-mentioned Bucharian merchant
as taken from the plant which furfnfhes the true rhubarb, we have reafon to conjecture, that thefe three
(pedes, viz. R. Palmatum, R. Rhapontieum, and R. Rh£-
barbarum, when found in a dryer and milder alpine
SwobSy" climate, and in proper fituations, are indiferiminately
different spe™ drawn up; whenever the fize of the plant feems to pro"**
cies of Rheum.' r*-
mife a fine root. And perhaps the remarKable difference
of the rhubarb, imported to Kiacnta, is occafioned by thfs
indifcriminate method of collecting them. Moft ceftam
it is, that thefe plants grow wild upon the mountain^
without the leaft cultivation i ana; thofe are efteemed the
belt which are found near the Koko-Nor, and about the
fources of the river Koang&r
Formerly A   P   P   E   N   D   I   X      II. | 34*
Formerly the exportatibn of rhubarb was confined to
the crown of -Ruffia; and no perfons but thofe em-
pibyed by government were allowed the permiflion of
fending it to foreign countries; this monopoly however
has been taken off by the prefent emprefs, and the free
exportation of it from St. Petersburg granted to all perfons
upon paying the duty. It is fold in the firft inftance by the
College of Commerce for the profit of the Sovereign;.
and is preferved in their, magazines at St. Petersburg.
The current price-is fettled every year by the College
of Commerce*.
It is received .from the Bucharian merchants at Kiachta Price of Rhu-
-   barb in Ruffia*
in exchange for furs 5. and the prime- coft is rated at
16 roubles per pood.    By adding, the pay of the com-
miflioners who purchafe it, and of the apothecary who
examines it, and attowingffor other, neceflary expences,.
the value of a pood at Kiachta amounts to 2.5 roubles;
add to. this the carriage from.; the St.Peterfburg, and it. is calculated that the price of a pood Hands-
the crown at ^^l^bi^^^ip^ largeft exportation of
rhubarb ever known from Ruffia, was made in the year
1765, when, 1&50 : pe^d -wea^expcttted, at 65 Baubles
per pood.      W&.
&X- 53s
A   P   P   E   N ,D   I   X      II.
From St. Petersburg.
Exportation of -
burg. In 1777,  29 poods 13 pounds-
at 76^ Dutch* dollars^
or 91 roubles, 30 copecs per pood.
In 1778,  23 poods 7 pounds, at 80 ditto, or 96 roubles.
In 1778, 1055 poods were brought by the Bucharian
merchants to Kiachta; of which 680 poods 19 pounds
were felected. The interior confumption of the whole
empire of Ruffia for