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Chinese immigration : its social, moral, and political effect California. Legislature. Senate. Special Committee on Chinese Immigration 1878

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.^S^prw/, Mdtak;-and Political Ejfm^
Sxifornia state %mm
wecial gommittei on gkinese w^mmm
1 18-7^^ The University of British Columbia Library
Its Social, Moral, and Political Effect.
Hon. CREED HAYMONT>, Chairman ^..Sacramento.
Hon. FRANK  McCOPPIN J.San Francisco.
Hon. W. M. PIERSON I San Francisco.
Hon. M. J. DONOVAN San Francisco.
Hon. GEORGE H. ROGERS San Francisco.
Hon. E. J. LEWIS Tehama.
Hon. GEORGE S. EVANS _. San Joaquin.  CONTENTS.
Abandonment of children 81
Abandonment of sick and helpless 145, 153, 173, 176, 182, 185,191, 192, 196, 199, 208
Address of Committee 7
Address, when adopted 56
Address, Rev. S. V. Rlakeslee___ j 241
Address, Hon. Edwin R. Meade 291
Address, Hon. Wm. M. Evarts, to Envoys of China :274, 275
Agreements of Chinese women to serve master 135
Agriculture in China 72, 80
Aitken, Andrew, testimony of 41, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225
Altemeyer, Abram, testimony of 30, 114, 115, 116, 117
America, Chinese regard for 87
America, trade of, with China 74, 79
America, effects of Chinese in 237
American institutions, Chinese regard for -Mm- ^> ^^
American slavery, compared with Chinese 247, 248
Americans in China 74, 95, 101, 105
Architecture, Chinese 84, 105       li^ff!
A*ea of Chinese Empire 232
Area of Chinese Provinces | ; 232
Argonaut, papers from 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274,
275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284
Army, Chinese 81
Arrivals and departures 236, 237
Assassinations, offers of reward for 126,165, 167,175,186, 193, 204, 207, 212, 258
Assassination, acts of 126,166, 185, 187, 194, 209, 210, 211
Assessment of Chinese property  61, 147, 237
Assimilation of races 87,260
Appropriation for Committee 4
Appropriation for State Prison _ __238
Radlam, Alex., testimony of 146,147,148
Ben Wong, testimony of 21, 164, 165, 166, 167
Benefits derived from presence of Chinese 47, 87
Bills of sale, copy of 20
Blakeslee, Rev. S. V., Address of | 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249
Boalt, Hon. John H., Essay on Immigration 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256,
257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262 Vi CONTENTS.
Bonds required of Chinese servants 30, 48
Bones of the dead returned to China 76, 90, 130
Bonte, Rev. J. H. C, testimony of 38, 41, 226
Bovee, James H., testimony of 21, 173, 174
Boys, white and Chinese prostitutes 25, 26, 27, 28,100,124,127,146, 153, 166,
168,172,174,177,178,181,183,190,191, 196
Bribery of public officers, attempts at 140,188
Brigandage in China .—80, 82
Brooks, Charles W., testimony of 16 17,100,101,102,103,104,105, 106,107,108
Burlingame treaty, benefits of 71, 74
Burlingame treaty, effects of modification of 64, 71, 89, 100, 151, 240
Burlingame treaty, making of 88, 100.
California, how regarded by Chinese 87*
California, how affected by presence of Chinese 237"
Caste among Chinese 28, 60, 63, 72, 86
Canton, emigration from 70, 83, 90, 104, 110, 130, 141, 150,166, 203
Canton, population of _ -ft—162
Chastity in China 73, 86, 94,.
Christianity, effects on 62, 63, 224, 225
China, area of ---232*
China, population of 232'
China, agriculture in 72, 80
Chinese Empire, area of ^ _232
Chinese cities, condition of 31, 42, 48, 83,142, 151, 170
Chinese cities, population of 232
Chinese religious fanaticism 256, 257, 258, 259
Chinese may obtain citizenship, how . 300, 301
Chinese quarters in San Francisco 94,110, 112,124, 125, 134,135,145, 153, 155, 258, 259-
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, condition of 34, 173, 176, 20£
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, extent of 32, 111, 124
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, population of 92, 106, 109, 111, 127, 153, 214, 258, 259-
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, character of population in 113, 118, 125, 134,147, 148r
155, 158, 173, 176, 258, 259
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, fires in ^ 29, 33, 117
Chinese quarters in San Francisco, property owned by Chinese in 29, 143, 237*
Chinese, taxes paid by 147
Chinese quarters in Sacramento 180
Chinese quarters in Sacramento, condition of 180, 190, 191, 192, 202, 207
Chinese quarters in Sacramento, population of 1805
Chinese quarters in mining towns 191
Chinese Government   31
Chinese, character of   31  32 85 104
Chinese, arrivals and departures of   236
Chinese, our moral and legal rights against 272, 273, 274
Chinese, estimated number in California  ___236-
Chinese, effect of, in California 237, 265, 266, 267, 268*
Chinese cheap labor, review on  _ 269 270 271  272:
Chinese children, abandoned-
ontracted from women by white boys 153, 168,172,178,196- \I
Chinese, domestic relations of  73
Chinese, want of cleanliness among___33, 34, 35, 36, 47, 48, 83, 111, 118,124, 131,134,137,142,
143, 145, 151, 153, 156, 157, 170, 173, 180, 190, 191, 192, 202, 207
Chinese weights and measures, equivalent values of , 233
Chinese Christians 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 93, 119, 131, 136, 139, 143, 144,
146,147, 148,152, 153, 159, 160, 162, 163, 166, 169, 174, 177,183,
189, 192,194, 195, 198, 201, 204, 206, 207, 209, 215, 222, 227, 229
Chinese, education of 48, 72, 80, 84, 90, 92, 151
Chung, Ah, testimony of 174, 175
Chung Hung, testimony of 179
Clark, Alfred, testimony of 19, 20, 128, 129
Clark, Alfred, recalled 134,135, 156, 157
Clement, H. N., articles of. 265, 266, 267, 268, 569, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274,
275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284
Coffey, James, testimony of 191, 192
Cohen, Samuel H., testimony of 157, 158
Commission, organization of 69
Commission, proceedings of , 69
Copy*>f Chinese bills of sale 20
Copy of Senate resolutions 7, 59, 68
Commerce, California and China 79
Commerce, not affected by restriction j 55
Committee, how and why created  7
Committee, Address of 7
Committee, members and expenses of . 4
Committee, Report of 3
Companies, Chinese, number of 109
Companies, Chinese, kinds of 70
Companies, Chinese, character, power, and authority of 77, 82, 91
Companies, Chinese, enforcement of decrees 78
Companies, Chinese, contract with Pacific Mail Steamship Company 78, 91, 122,131,137
Companies,. Chinese, how supported 130
Companies, Chinese, number of men in each 109
Companies, Chinese, controlling women 98, 164,174,175
Competition of whites and Chinese 61, 116, 132, 133
Compromising crimes 98, 113, 181,188
Concubinage among Chinese 73, 82, 86, 93, 120, 121, 151
Confucius, works of character, etc. 94, 104
Congress, power of, to modify treaty 71, 262
Contracts, labor 71, 75,101, 115, 122
Contracts, to repay passage money  71,101,122, 206
Contracts, enforcement of —77
Contracts, of marriage 1 73
Contracts, for prostitution - 98, 124, 128, 135
Convents in China  81
Courts used to recover escaped women ___98,112,120,124, 134,158, 173,177,180,187, 202, 208
Cook, Lung, testimony of 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134
Coolie, what is a 63, 92, 95,101, 121,138,150, 163,170, 214
Coolie trade 75,92, 95,101, 150
Coolie labor 63, 81,101
Crime, compromising of  98,113,181,188 Vlll
Crime, suppressing of- J36,-37, 126, 128,135, 181,189
Criminal population, a 32, 113, 118, 125, 134,' 145, 147,  148, 155, 158,173, 176, 182,189, 197
Dan, Ah, testimony of 11,12, 185,186, 187,188, 189
Death rate of Chinese in California , 237
Deceased, remains of, returned to China 76, 88, 130
Departure of Chinese, regulation of 78, 91,122,131, 137
Departures and arrivals, number of 236, 237
Devotion of Chinese to parents 80
Diseases in China t 73,105
Diseases among prostitutes in California • 100
Diseases contracted by white boys 153, 168, 172,178,196
Displacement of whites by Chinese 116, 132,133, 190,195,197
Domestic relations of Chinese 73
Draper, Professor J. W., opinion of 287
Duffy, James, testimony of 48, 190,191
Duffield, George W., testimony of 23, 33, 35, 111, 112,113, 114
Durkee, John L., testimony of 33, 34,117,118
Education in China , 48, 72, 80, 84, 90, 92,151
Education, effects of, in America 38, 39, 40, 46, 237 !
Effects of Chinese in California 237 j
Effects of Chinese, beneficial or injurious •_ 265,266, 267, 268
Effects of Chinese on society 297,298,299,300 i
Effects of Chinese on Christianity 62, 63, 224, 225 '
Ellis, H. H., testimony of 11, 15,176,177, 178
Emigration from China 70, 76, 77, 83, 87, 96, 101, 150, 164, 218 i
Employment of Chinese in San Francisco 162
Employment of Chinese in Sacramento 184
Evarts, Hon. William M., address by, to sovereign of China__ 274, 275
Escaped women, how recaptured 98,112, 120, 124, 134, 158,166,173, 177, 180,189, 202, 207 ;
Exports to China 79, 234, 236
Exports to China, table of j 234
Exports to China, comparison of 235
Families, Chinese . j
Families, Chinese, in California 86,108,136,138, 162,180, 199
Favored nation clause in treaty . 71,100
Felonies, compromising of 98 113 181 188
Females, condition of 61,92, 98,124,145,151
Females, abandonment of, young 81
Filial devotion of Chinese  ___80
Fires in Chinese quarters _' :  _    33 34 ]]f 197
Fraser, J. P. M., testimony of 150, 151 152
Galloway, James, testimony of  _ 59 51 219 220 221
Gambling, Chinese 109,112, 125,165,175,' 187,189,' 217 -
Gambling, Chinese, suppression of 126, 128,181, 189, 197
Gibbs, F. A., testimony of -. 27,152,153
[Gibson, Rev. Otis, testimony of 17,18, 29, 90
Girls, white, visiting Chinese prostitutes 183
Girls, white, driven to prostitution 195
Gordon, F. L., testimony of •_ 82, 85, 104,105,106, 107,108
Government, Chinese 82, 85,104
Government, Chinese, of San Francisco 155, 157,159,176
'Government, Chinese, provincial 151
Gray, Giles H., testimony of 218, 219
Hing, George, testimony of . 198
JHoolong, Billy, testimony of 199, 200
[Honesty, lack of, among Chinese 63, 84, 93, 113,114, 123, 145,154,158, 190, 213, 223
Hongkong, relation to China 70, 83,104
Hongkong, area, population, etc. 74, 77, 104,105
Hoodlumism, cause of 117,196
Hop-wo Company, President of 159
Hop-wo Company, members of 159
Hospitals, Chinese inmates in 152
jHow, Sin, testimony of 160, 161, 162
Hown, Lee Ming 135,136,137,138
Ignorance of Chinese 92,104,119
jlmmigration, origin of.; 77, 87
Immigration, effect on labor__61, 64, 86, 103, 110, 114, 116, 132, 142,190, 192, 195, 196, 197, 209
jlmmigration, effects on manufactures 87, 116
jlmmigration, effects on mining interests ^ 61, 220
[Immigration, influence on moral and religious interests 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246
jlmmigration, coolie, remedy for 61, 89, 229, 270, 281
jlmmigration, benefits of 63, 90, 94
jtmmigration, free 91, 121, 130, 138/142, 185, 214
jlmmigration of lowest classes 29, 92, 104, 119, 141, 144,150
Immigration, yearly increase of 104, 236
Immigration, causes of 107, 110,121, 132, 136, 142,149,161
Immigration, regulations of, etc. 61, 218
Immigration, loss arising from 54
Imports from China ^ 233
imports, table of annual comparisons of 235
[Industries, how affected by Chinese 87,114,116,132, 260
infanticide among Chinese 99, 107, 121, 152
Infidelity, punishment of j 73
Intermarriage, whites and Chinese 87
Intermixture of races 89
Intelligence offices, Chinese, promoters of crime 127
Innocent men ruined _ 148,193
Investigation, character of _ 7 Ii
Jackson, Oliver C, testimony of _—-24, 49, 207, 208, 209, 21J
Japanese, character of lo7> 230|
Java, effect of Chinese immigration in 8a
Jones, Charles^., testimony of  ----- 12> 13> 187' 188> 189|
Joy, Captain R. H., testimony of 1 30> U1> 142> 143|
Justice, interference with administration of_ 102, 113, 146, 147, 156, 158,164, 1661
173,177,178, 188,192,194, 2051
Kan Lee, testimony of 214, 2lM
Karcher, Matt, testimony of 13, 14, 22, 23, 28, 49, 50, 192,193, 194,195,196, 197, 19 J
Kennedy, Thomas, testimony of 140,1411
KinselJa, W. H., testimony of 144, 145, 146|
Kong-chow Company, President of 160 J
Kong-chow Company, members of 160]|
Kong-chow Company, election of officers 161a
Labor, contracts for	
Labor, how affected by Chinese immigration _
.„_47-, 48, 49, 61, 86, 103, 110, 114,116, 132jj
142, 190, 192,195, 196, 197, 209, 216, 2611
Laborers, Chinese 71, 72, 79,149j
Languages,.conflict between 2551
Lee, Sam, testimony of : *. 206, 20TJ
Leprosy among Chinese | 74, 152, 154, 183, 1971
Lewis, Hon. E. J., report of 35,108, 109, 11(W
Literature, Chine
Living, manner of Chinele 94,106,109, 111, 116, I25J
Living, cost of 2611
Lodging houses, Chinese I 94,109, 111, 207, 217*1
London Times, opinion of 2S9 j
Loomis, Rev. A. W 19, 48, 118, 119, 120,121, 122, 12
Lotteries in San Francisco 125,135>1
Louderback, David, testimony of 15  158 159
Low, F. F., testimony of 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78,
rs, employment of Chinese by I 115, fi6,
Marriage _
Marriage contracts J  *J
Memorial of Committee 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65
Memorial of Committee, when and where adopted  69
McKenzie, Andrew, testimony of  ~21~ 153~ lM^^
Meade, Hon. Edwin R., discourse of—_291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298; 299, 300, 301, 303gj
Mines and mining, how affected by Chinese
ionary labors, results, characters, etc.__
Missionary schools	
Money, improper use of_.
Money, sent to China ___
 50, 51, 220 I
-93, 99, 119, 122, 136, 143, 144, 169,
170, 177, 201, 206, 222, 223, 226, 229
 222, 2261
 99,127, 213, 214,
 101,133, 2371 CONTENTS.
Money, comparison of, value of \ !___ _T 233
Morals, Chinese 31, 63, 94,104, 106,120,14L, 144,151,157, ifo
Morals, effects of presence of Chinese on whites 127, 146, 147, 148, 159, 170, 172, 1.74,
177, 178, 190,192, 195, 2$, 223, 227, 228
Morgenthau, Max, testimony of ____131,,132,.133, 134
Murder, rewards for —126, 165,167, 175, 186,193, 204, 207, 211
Murder, acts of _. 126, 166, 185, 187; i94,j0jjfel0, 211
Murder, threats to I j 165,186
Murphy, Dy. J., testimony of 10, 32,147, 148
Naturalization of Chinese  179
Naturalization, manner of, reviewed 300, 301
Ning-yeung Company, President of 1129
Ning-yeung Company, members of 129
Oath, Chinese regard for 113,125, 140,141,146, 148, 158,173, 177, 180, 183,189, 208
O'Neil, Charles P., testimony of 22,179,180,181, 182, 183,184
O'Neil, Charles P., recalled _*__ __210, 211
Opium, consumption of 74, 107, 114, 183, 218, 220
Opium, effects on Chinese 73,107
Opium, physical effects of 73, 107, 173
Opposition to Chinese, based upon what :__283, 284
Parental authority 78, 80
Passions, Chinese under influence of m 83, 152
Physical peeuliaritjies of Chinese 254
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, coru)ract with six companies 51, 78, 91,122,131,137
Polygamy 73, 82, 86, 93, 120,121,151
Population of China ~ 73
Population of Canton  162
Population of Hongkong ! 74, 104
Population of Chinese in California, San Francisco, and Pacific Coast 32, 60, 92,106,109, 111,
127,153, 214, 233, 237
Property, how affected by Chinese 118
Property, owned by Chinese 147, 237
Property, assessed value 237
Prostitutes, importation of 86,165, 174
Prostitutes, attempts to send back to China 156
Prostitution in China 81, 94
Prostitution, Chinese in San Francisco 98, 111, 112, 120, 124,125, 136, 138,
146, 158, 162, 164, 165, 174, 213, 223
Prostitution, suppression of 126,128, 181, 189, 197
Prostitution, contracts for 1 98, 124,128, 135
Prostitution, a slavery 1 98, 112, 113,120, 124, 134, 145, 154,158, 164,
165, 173,174, 180, 185, 191,193, 201, 209
Prostitution, effect of, on white boys 25, 26, 27, 28,100, 124, 127,146,153, 166, 168,
172,174, 177, 178, 181,183, 190, 191,196
Provinces^ area of Chinese --232
Quon, Si, testimony of  162, 1631
Races, intermixture of 891
Races, conflict of— ^^1
Races, interests antagonistic 255, 2581
Religion of Chinese 100, 119, 256, 257, 258, 259j
Republic, effect of Chinese on 29|
Report of Committee --3|
Resolutions creating Committee, etc. i 7, 59, 68 j
Resolutions adopted by Congregational Ministers ,24(1
Rewards offered for assassinations 126, 165, 167, 175, 186, 193, 204, 207, 212, 258j
Rice, Rev. H. H., testimony of 38, 226, 227, 22J
Rights, legal and moral, against Chinese 272, 273, 27|j
Rights, legal and moral, under international law 275, 276
Rights, legal and moral, under law of nations 276, 277, 278
Riotous Chinese 83, 153, 2181
Robbery in China 80, 82i
Rogers, James R., testimony of 10,124,125,126, 127, 128|
Rogers, James R., recalled 14m
Rogers, James R., report of - 216, 2*tf|H
Result required, how to be obtained 65  i
Sam-yup Company, President of 135
Sam-yup Company, members of 136:
San Francisco, Chinese quarters in 94, 110,112, 124, 125, 134, 135, 145, 153, 155, 258, 259
San Francisco, Chinese quarters, condition of 34, 173, 176, 203;
San Francisco, Chinese quarters, extent of 52, 111, 124
San Francisco, Chinese quarters, population of 92, 106, 109, 111, 127, 153, 214, 258, 259
San Francisco, Chinese quarters, character of 113, 118, 125, 134,147,148,
155, 158, 173, 176, 258, 259
San Francisco, fires in Chinese quarters of 29, 33, llil
San Francisco, property Owned by Chinese in 29, 143, 237'i
Schaum, Lem, testimony of 14,15, 24, 45, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206
Schell, A., testimony of 148, 149, 15C*;
Schools for Chinese 109, 126
Secret tribunals 9, 60, 181, 188, 193, 194, 205, 208, 209
Servants, bonds required of 30 84
Shaw, W. J., testimony of 25, 30, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 9$|
Shorb, Dr. J. C, testimony of 28,171 172
Sick, treatment of 29, 99, 112, 120, 124, 137, 145, 153, 154,160;
162, 164, 173, 176, 182, 185, 191, 192, 196, 199, 208J
Slavery in China       ___92
Slavery on Pacific Coast 17^ 28, 53, 62, 246
Slavery of women 17, g4, 98, 112,113, 120, 124, 134, 145, 154, 158, 164,
165, 173, 174, 180, 185, 191, 193, 201, 207, 214, 215, 258
Smith, Goldwin, opinion of  288
Society, Chinese presence, effect on  ___297 298 299 300
Stay in California, length of __ 194 jg^ CONTENTS.
State Prison, nativity of convicts 60, 238
State Prison, appropriation for ' 238
Supple, David, testimony of 145,146
Taxes, amount paid by Chinese , j 34, 60, 237
Taylor, Bayard, extract from *Ji.___32
Testimony of Andrew Aitken 41, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225
Testimony of Abram Altemeyer 30,114,115,116,117
Testimony of Alexander Badlam 146, 147, 148
Testimony of Ben Wong 21, 165, 166,167
Testimony of Rev. J. H. C. Bonte 38, 41, 226
Testimony of James H. Bovee 21,173, 174
Testimony of C. W. Brooks 16, 17, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104,105, 106,107, 108
Testimony of Ah Chung 174, 175
Testimony of Hung Chung 179
Testimony of Alfred Clark 19, 20, 128, 129, 134, 135,156, 157
Testimony of James Coffey 191,192
Testimony of Samuel H. Cohen 157, 158
Testimony of Lung Cook 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134
Testimony of Ah Dan 11, 12,185, 186,187, 188, 189
Testimony of James Duffy 49, 190, 191
Testimony of George W. Duffield 23, 33, 35, 111, 112, 113, 114
Testimony of John L. Durkee 33, 34,117,118
Testimony of H. H. Ellis 11, 15,176, 177,178
Testimony 6f J. P. M. Fraser 150, 151, 152
Testimony of James Galloway 50, 51, 219, 220, 221
Testimony of F. A. Gibbs 27,152,153
Testimony of Rev. Otis Gibson * 17,18, 29, 90
Testimony of F. L. Gordon- 82, 85, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108
Testimony of Giles H. Gray 218, 219
Testimony of George Hing 198
Testimony of Billy Hoolong 199, 200
Testimony of Lin How 160,161,162
Testimony of Lee Ming Hown 135, 136, 137
Testimony of Oliver C. Jackson 24, 49, 207, 208, 209, 210 -.
Testimony of Charles T. Jones 12, 13,187, 188, 189
Testimony of Captain R. H. Joy 30,141, 142, 143
Testimony of Lee Kan 214, 215
Testimony of Matt. Karcher 13,14, 22, 23, 28, 49, 50, 192, 193, 194, 195,196, 197, 198
Testimony of Thomas Kennedy 140,141
Testimony of W. H. Kinsella 144, 145, 146
Testimony of Sam Lee 206, 207
Testimony of Rev. A. W. Loomis 19, 48, 118,119,120,121, 122, 123
Testimony of Judge David Louderback 15, 158, 159
Testimony of F. F. Low 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79
Testimony of Andrew McKenzie 21, 153, 154,155, 156
Testimony of Max Morgenthau 131,132,133,134
Testimony of D. J. Murphy -10, 32,147, 148
Testimony of Charles P. O'Neil 22,179,180,181,182,183,184, 210, 211
Testimony, of Si Quon 162,163 xjv CONTENTS.
Testimony of Rev. H. H. Rice 38, 226, 227, 228|
Tesitmony of James R. Rogers 10, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 140;
Testimony of Lem Schaum 14,15, 24, 45, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206
Testimony of A. Schell 148, 149, 150
Testimony of W. J. Shaw 25, 30, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
Testimony of Dr. J. C. Shorb 28,171, 172
Testimony of David Supple 145, 146
Testimony of Dr. H. H. Toland 25, 26, 27,167, 168,169, 170
Testimony of Yung Ty 159, 160
Testimony of William M. Webster 170, 171
Testimony of David C. Woods -27, 28, 178,179
Testimony of Ah You  138, 139, 14«j
Testimony of Ah You (No. 2) -138, 198, 199
Thieving among Chinese 29, 30, 33, 84, 113, 158, 182, 185, 190, 194, 195, 220'
Thefts, security against 30, 84, 115
Threats to kill 165, 186
Times, London, editorial extract from 2891
Toland, Dr. H. H., testimony of 25, 26, 27, 167, 168, 169, 170'J
Trade, Chinese, with other countries 23S|
Treaty, Chinese, protected by 64|
Treaty, our, relations with China 278, 279 1
Treaty, restrictions of 2493
Treaty, method of relief by 64]
Treaty, modification of, necessary ^ 64-
Treaty, Congress power to modify 71, 26%
Tribunals, secrecy of J 60
Ty Yung, testimony of 159, 160i
Universal brotherhood of man 2273
Veracity, Chinese lack of 33, 63, 102, 113, 125, 140, 141, 146, 148, 155,173J
177, 181,183, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 208, 258J
Wages in China 48, 72,105, 119, 121, 136, 162
Wages in California  45) 48j U5^ 132
Wages, comparison of 296
Webster, Wm. M., testimony of £  _ 179 171
Weights, Chinese, equivalent to what  232
White labor vs. Chinese  62, 116,132|
Wives, plurality of, Chinese 73, 82, 120'1
 j 73, 120,157
tlative positions	
hmese, in California 86^ 93^ i06^ 13^ i38j i62) 199
social position of. 78,81,84
Women, refusal to leave China 86|
Women, how held m slavery 20, 21, 98,124, 145, 180,185,191, 193, 200, 214, 215|
^om -atment of ^ n2^ UQ> -^ u^ ^ lg2
Worn !ted °l     h 106,113'12i} 145' *200, 201, 207 j
Wooa^D^VL C   '    •        m ~~~  —-" 21, 1651
istimony of  27, 28,178, 179 V-'** - '     '
Yan-wo Company, Presidentof 163
Yan-wo Company, members of 163
You, Ah, testimony of 138,139
You, Ah (No. 2), testimony of 198, 199
Yung-wo Company, President of ! 162
Yung-wo Company, members of 1 1 162 / REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE
Mr. President : - Your committee, appointed at the last session of
he Senate, and charged with the investigation of questions con-
lected with Chinese immigration to this State, beg leave to submit
phe following report:
| Since the adjournment of the Senate we have been in session at
San Francisco and Sacramento, and have taken a large amount of
reliable testimony bearing upon the subject.
We have transmitted to the Governor, to be sent to the Congress
pf the United States, a memorial (prepared for the committee by
Senator Pierson) setting forth the views of your committee.
We have also prepared an address to the people of the United
[States, in which yoi&r committee discuss at length the questions
Of these documents, more than ten thousand copies have been by
your committee distributed through the mails to members of Congress, Governors of States, and to the newspapers of the Union,
popies of these documents are herewith submitted.
Since the preparation of the memorial and address the Congregational Church of this State has, in an authoritative manner, given
ito the world the opinion of its large and respectable membership
iupon the subject under consideration. This being the first expression upon the subject by a church organization, and one that will go
far to dissipate an erroneous impression that exists in religious circles
in the East, we have deemed it advisable to submit herewith the resolutions unanimously adopted at the recent session of the General
Association of Congregational Churches and ministers in California,
and also a very able address delivered before that body by Rev. S.
V. Blakeslee.
We also herewith submit for your consideration—
1. An Essay on Chinese Immigration, by Judge Boalt, a distinguished member of the San Francisco Bar.
2. A series of able papers upon the subject, by H. N. Clement, of
San Francisco, which lately appeared in the Argonaut, a literary
journal published in that city.
3. The opinions of Professor Draper and Goldwin Smith, as to the
dangers of this immigration.
4. An extract from an editorial of the London Times.
5. A paper read at the annual meeting of the Social Science Association of America, held at Saratoga, New York, September seventh,
eighteen hundred and seventy-seven, by the Hon. Edwin B. Mead, a
wJ Report of Special Corvumitbee.
member of the Congressional Committee charged with the investigation of this subject. \
We note a marked change in the expressions of the Eastern press
since the circulation of the testimony taken by this committee, and
are confident that the interest of our people in this behalf will speedily receive fit recognition at the hands of the General Government.
Since the presentation of our first report to the Governor of this
State the popular feeling against Chinese immigration has steadily
increased.   Wherever organization has enabled voice to be given to
this sentiment it has been heard in unmistakable tones.   Religious,
social, and labor organizations throughout the State have united in
protests against this growing evil, and wecan safely assert that, with =
the exception of those who have been directly employed as counsel \
by the Chinese companies, public opinion in California is wholly and j
entirely in direct repugnance to this class of immigration.   Not in
the form of force or violence, not in the spirit of mob or massacre,
but in an earnest and emphatic appeal to the law-maker, the treaty-
making power—the Federal Government—to turn back this tide and
to free the land from what is a monstrous evil and promises to be a
lasting curse.
The people of California have patiently endured this burden for
years; they will continue patiently to endure it until all peaceable
and lawful means have been exhausted. The late ebullitions of riotous feeling in our large cities toward the Chinese are not to be construed as meeting with the approbation of the people of this State.
Threats of fire and sword have proceeded from a very few—not from
the people. The public at large have but one' disposition upon this
grave subject, and that is an open and pronounced demand upon the
Federal Government for relief; and they sincerely believe that that
demand will be listened to and granted.
. The sum of two thousand dollars was appropriated to defray the
expenses of the committee. Of that sum eighteen hundred and
forty dollars has been expended, as follows:
Paid Phonographic Reporter | $1,000 00
Paid Sergeant-at-Arms  250 00
Paid postage and mailing expenses  436 86
Paid Bradley & Rulofson  50 00
Paid for reporting for use of committee speeches delivered
in Union Hall, April, 1876  65 60
Paid for stationery, expressage, telegrams, etc  37 55
$1,840 01
A detailed account of these expenditures will, by our Secretary, be
submitted to the Committee on Contingent Expenses, to which we
respectfully ask this portion of our report be referred.
Respectfully submitted.
McCOPPIN,   ^Committee.
To the People of the  United States, other than those of the State of
California :
Fellow-citizens : On the third day of April, eighteen hundred
and seventy-six, in the Senate of the State of California, the Hon.
Creed Haymond, Senator from the Eighteenth Senatorial District,
offered the following resolutions, which were unanimously adopted:
Be it resolved by the Senate of the State of California, That a committee of five Senators be
appointed, with power to sit at any time or place within the State, and the said committee
shaU make inquiry: r . ,
1. As to the number of Chinese in this State, and the effect their presence has upon the
social and political condition of the State. .
2. As to the probable result of Chinese immigration upon the country, if such immigration
be not discouraged. ,,      „ ,, .   .     ",   , ...
3. As to the means of exclusion, if such committee should be of the opinion that the presence
of the Chinese element in our midst is detrimental to the interests of the country.
4. As to such other matters as, in the judgment of the committee, have a bearing upon the
question of Chinese immigration.   And be it further ;
Resolved, That said committee * * * shall prepare a memorial to the Congress of the
United States, which memorial must set out at length the facts m relation to the subject ol this
inquiry, and such conclusions as the committee may have arrived at as to the policy and means
of excluding Chinese from the country.   And be it further
Resolved, That said committee is authorized and directed to have printed, at the State Printing Office, a sufficient number of copies of such memorial, and of the testimony taken by said
committee, to furnish copies thereof to the leading newspapers of the United States, five copies
to each member of Congress, ten copies to the Governor of each State and to deposit two.
thousand copies with the Secretary of State of California for general distribution.   And be it
ReZlved, That such committee shall * * * furnish to the Governor of the State of California two copies of said memorial, properly engrossed, and the Governor upon receipt thereof,
be requested to transmit, through the proper channels, one of said copies to the Senate and the
other to the House of Representatives of the United States.   And be it further .
Resolved, That said committee have full power to send for persons and papers, and to'administer oaths, and examine witnesses under oath, and that a majority of said committee shall
constitute a quorum. y & | & %
Resolved, That said committee report to the Senate, at its next session, the proceedings had
To the investigation with which we were charged—quasi judicial in
its character, and in the unsettled state of the country of the highest
importance—we addressed ourselves, having but one object in view, /
8 Address to the People of the United States.
the ascertainment of truth. The facts herein stated are found fror
evidence adduced before us by all parties in interest. The results in
the memorial to the Congress of the United States and this paper
stated are the solemn convictions that have been forced upon our
There are in the State of California over one hundred thousand
subjects of the Empire of China. Of this number, all but about
three thousand are male adults, and that three thousand are females
held in slavery by their own people for the basest purposes. The
male adult Chinese population in this State very nearly equals the
number of voters in the State. Their influence upon our interests
are much more serious than it would be if this population was made
up of families. Then, according to the accepted ratio, it would on|jfl
represent a male adult population of about twenty thousand. This
is a view of the situation not fairly presented as yet to the citizens of
our sister States.
It has often been said that the State of California is the "Child of
the Union." It is certainly true that her citizens are the representatives of society as it exists in the other States. They brought with
them to this State that love of law and order which is part of the
traditions of our race, and far from eastern civilization have founded
upon the Pacific Coast a State Government and municipal governments which for a quarter of a century and more have compared
favorably with any known to civilization. The laws have been
enforced, financial obligations have been met with religious fidelity,
and in all things governmental we have been worthy—we urge it with
a just pride—of that exalted station which the States of this Union
have taken in the world's empire. We call the attention of the
Representatives in Congress from our sister States to these facts, that
when they come to the consideration of the grave problem forced
upon this State, and upon the Union, they may not attribute the
evils which have resulted in this State from Chinese immigration to
anything peculiar to the people or government of this State, or to
any lack of willingness or ability upon the part of either to grapple
with the question. The accident of locality brought the evil to our
door, as it might have brought it or some other to yours.
All must admit that the safety of our institutions depends upon
the homogeneity, culture, and moral character of our people. It is
true that the Republic has invited the people of foreign countries to
our borders, but the invitation was given with the well founded hope
that they would, in time, by association with our people, and through
the influence of our public schools, become assimilated to our native
The Chinese came without any special invitation. They came
before we had time to consider the propriety of their admission to
our country. If any one ever hoped they would assimilate with our
people that hope has long since been dispelled.
The Chinese have now lived among us, in considerable numbers, Address to the People of the United States.
,for a quarter of a century, and yet they remain separate, distinct '
from, and antagonistic to our people in thinking, mode of life, in
tastes and principles, and are as far from assimilation as when they
first arrived.
They fail to comprehend our system of government; they perform
no duties of citizenship ; they are not available as jurymen; cannot
be called upon as a posse comitatus to preserve order, nor be relied
upon as soldiers.
They do not comprehend or appreciate our social ideas, and they
contribute but little to the support of any of our institutions, public
or private.
They bring no children with them, and there is, therefore, no possibility of influencing them by our ordinary educational appliances.
There is, indeed, no point of contact between the Chinese and our
people through which we can Americanize them. The rigidity
which characterizes these people forbids the hope of any essential
change in their relations to^our own people or our government.
We respectfully submit the admitted proposition that no nation,
much less a republic, can safely permit the presence of a large and
increasing element among its people which cannot be assimilated
or made to comprehend the responsibilities of citizenship.
The great mass of the Chinese residents of California are not
amenable to our laws. It is almost impossible to procure the conviction of Chinese criminals, and we are never sure that a conviction, even when obtained, is in accordance with justice.
This difficulty arises out of our ignorance of the Chinese language,
and the fact that their moral ideas are wholly distinct from our own.
They do not recognize the sanctity of an oath, and utterly fail to
comprehend the crime of perjury. Bribery, intimidation, and other
methods of baffling judicial action, are considered by them as perfectly legitimate. It is an established fact that the administration
of justice among the Chinese is almost impossible, and we are, therefore, unable to protect them against the persecutions of their own
countrymen, or punish them for offenses against our own people.
This anomalous condition, in which the authority of law is so generally vacated, imperils the existence of our republican institutions to
a degree hitherto unknown among us.
This mass of aliens are not only not amenable to law, but they are
governed by secret tribunals unrecognized and unauthorized by law.
The records of these tribunals have been discovered, and are found
to be antagonistic to our legal system.
These tribunals are formed by the several Chinese companies or
guilds, and are recognized as legitimate authorities by the Chinese
population. They levy taxes, command masses of men, intimidate
interpreters and witnesses, enforce perjury, regulate trade, punish
the refractory, remove witnesses beyond the reach of our Courts,
control liberty of action, and prevent the return of Chinese to their
homes, in China without their consent. In short, they exercise a
despotic sway over one-seventh of the population of the State ot
California. .
They invoke the processes of law only to punish the independent
action of their subjects; and it is claimed that they execute the
death penalty upon those who refuse obedience to their decrees.
We are disposed to acquit these companies and secret tribunals ot Address to the People of the United States.
the charge of deliberate intent to supersede the authority of the
State The system is inherent and part of the fibre of the Chinese
mind' and exists because the Chinese are thoroughly and permanently alien to us in language and interests. It is nevertheless a
fact that these companies or tribunals do nullify and supersede the
State and National authorities. m j
Their government in the mam may be just, but is subject to the
terrible abuse which always belongs to irresponsible personal government. But whether just or unjust, the fact remains, that they
constitute  a foreign   government within   the  boundaries of  the
That we have not overstated the facts, we beg to refer briefly to
some of the testimony of reputable witnesses, given under the sanction of an oath, before this Committee. UefsM
James R. Rogers, a San Francisco officer of intelligence and experience, testifies as follows, (see volume of testimony herewith transmitted, p. 61):
A.—I do not know of my own knowledge that such a tribunal
exists (secret Chinese tribunal). I only know that when a Chinaman swears differently from what they want him to his life is in
danger. They sometimes use our Courts to enforce their orders, just
as policy may direct. They have no regard for our laws, and obey
them, so far as they do, only through fear.
D. J. Murphy, District Attorney of the City and County of San
Francisco, and one of the ablest and most experienced criminal
lawyers in the State, testifies as follows, (Evidence, pp. 82 and 83):
Q.—In your official capacity, have you been brought into contact!
with Chinese ?
A.—Yes, sir; I have looked on my docket for two years, and I find
that of seven hundred cases that I examined before the Grand Jury
one hundred and twenty were Chinese, principally burglaries, grand
larcenies, and murders—chiefly burglary. They are very adroit and
expert thieves. I have not had time to examine for the last two andS
a naif years, but the proportion has largely increased during that'
Q-—Do you find any difficulty in the administration of justice,
where they are concerned ?
. A.—Yes, sir. In capital cases, particularly, we are met with perjury. : I have no doubt but that they act under the direction of
superiors, and swear as ordered. In many cases witnesses are spirited away, or alibis are proven. They can produce so many witnesses as to create a doubt in the minds of jurymen, and thus escape
justice. In cases where I have four or n\e witnesses for the prosecution, they will bring m ten or fifteen on the part of the defense. They
seem to think that numbers must succeed, and it very frequently so
Happens. It frequently occurs that before the Grand Jury, or on
preliminary examination, witnesses swear so as to convict, but on
tne trial they turn square around and swear the other way. I have
neara it said that they have secret tribunals where they settle all
tnese tnmgs, but I know nothing of that. It is my impression that
sometnmg ot the kind exists, and I think they sometimes use our Address to the People of the United States. 11
Courts to enforce their decrees. I have had to appeal to Executive
clemency for pardon for Chinamen sent to the State Prison by false
swearing, under circumstances which led me to believe them to have
been the victims of some organization of that kind.
Q.—Innocent men can be convicted ?
A.—Yes; and I have no doubt innocent men are convicted through
the medium of perjury and "jobs" fixed up on them. I have had
doubts, during the last three months, in cases of magnitude, involving long terms of imprisonment.
Q.—Among reputable lawyers of this city, who have had experience with Chinese testimony in the Courts, what value has that
testimony, standing by itself?
A.—By itself, and without being corroborated by extrinsic factsjar
white testimony, it is very unreliable.
Mr. Ellis, Chief of Police of the City of San Francisco, and who
has been attached to the police force of that city for twenty years,
testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 112): " That it is generally believed
that the Chinese have a Court where differences are settled; and
that, if, in secret, it determines to convict or acquit a Chinaman (on
trial before our Courts) that judgment is carried out. In a great
many cases I believe they have convicted innocent men upon perjured evidence."
Ah Dan, the Chinese interpreter of one of the Sacramento Courts,
testifies as follows, (Evidence, pp. 121 and 122):
Q.—Do you know District Attorney Jones ?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q —Did you tell him last week that some of them threatened to
kill you?
A.—Yes, sir; some of them. A man came to me a few days ago
and told me they were going to kill a Police Court interpreter,
advising me to leave the city, because he said somebody would come
and kill me; some men had put up rewards, and some men whom I
did not know were coming from San Francisco to kill me. I was
before the Grand Jury and explained the game of " tan," and for this
they put up the reward, and I am to be killed by three men from
San Francisco I don't know. The reward offered for my life is five
or six hundred dollars. I have heard of rewards of this kind being
put up here and elsewhere. I have not seen any here, but have in
San Francisco. They are in Chinese, and posted up, saying that
these men will make agreement, if some man kill another, to pay the
murderer so much money. These agreements for murder are red
papers written in Chinese, and say they will give so much money on
condition, you kill so-and-so, naming the person. If the murderer
is arrested they will get good counsel to defend him. If he is sent
to prison, they will pay him so much money to recompense him, and
if he is hung they will send so much money to his relatives in China.
Q—Did you go to officer Jackson and ask him not to subpoena
you, if he could help it, in the Hung Hi case?
A.—Yes.   I said to him, "I don't know about the case.   It you
put me on the stancl, and it don't go as they want it, they will blame
Q— Didn't you tell him you were afraid they would kill you? 12
Address to the People of the United States.
A.—I did tell him so.
Q.— You were afraid?
A—Yes sir. I told Charley O'Neil some put up money to kill
me * He told me not to fear—to keep a look out for myself. In case
I testify here to all I know, I'm afraid they will kill me.
Mr Charles T. Jones, who for several years past has been the able
and efficient District Attorney of Sacramento County (the county in
which is located our State Capitol), testifies as follows, (Evidence,
pp. 124 and 125):
A.—During my term of office I have had considerable to do with
Chinese criminals, and always have great difficulty in convicting
them of any crime. I remember well the case of Ah Quong, spoken i
of a few moments ago by Ah Dan. At the time I was defending
three parties charged with kidnaping,, and I had Ah Quong as
interpreter, knowing him to be honest and capable. The circumstances of the case were these: A Chinaman wanted to marry a
woman then in a house of prostitution. She desired to marry him,
and he went with two of his frien ds to the house. She went with thein.
They drove out of town to get married, when the Chinaman who
owned her heard of it and started some officers after her. She was
arrested and surrendered to these Chinamen, with instructions to
bring her into Court next day. I had this man to interpret for me,
being well satisfied that she would swear that she was not being kidnapped. The next day the owners brought into Court a woman whom
the defendants informed me was not the one at all, but another,
The attorneys for the other side insisted that it was, believing
the statements of their Chinamen to that effect. The case waa|
postponed for two or three days, when it was shown that the womanf
offered was not the one taken away. This interpreter told me theyi
would kill him as sure as these defendants were not convicted. We
went out of the Court-room, and he told me he was afraid to go on I
street. I told him not to go then, but I did not think they would
trouble him. Half an hour afterwards he was brought back, shot in
the back, and a hatchet having been used on him, mutilating him
terribly. This was in broad daylight, about eleven o'clock in the
morning, on Third and I streets, one of the most public places in
the City of Sacramento. There were hundreds of Chinese around
there at the time, but it was difficult, in the prosecution of the case,
to get any Chinese testimony at all. It happened that there were ■
few white men passing at the time, and we were enabled to identify*
two men, and they were convicted and sent to the State Prison for
life, after three trials. They attempted to prove an alibi, and after
swearing a large lot of Chinamen they said they had twenty more.
Ihe Chinese use the Courts to gain possession of women. Sometimes'
it happens that where a man is married to a woman, they get out ■
warrant tor his arrest, and before he can get bail they have stolen
the woman and carried her off to some distant place. I have ha*
Oninamen come tome to find out how many witnesses I had in
cases. If they found out they would get sufficient testimony to over-
£ lme/   ?ei°r5 LWas Dis,trict Attorney I have had Chinese come
!^^fw defend them' fnd ask me how many witnesses I wanted,
and wnat was necessary to prove in order to acquit Address to the People of the United States. 13
| Q — Do you often find that upon preliminary examinations and
before the Grand Jury there is enough testimony to warrant a conviction, but on the trial these same witnesses swear to an exactly
jopposite state of facts ?
A.—Very frequently.
Q.—To what do you attribute that ?
A.—I attribute that to the fact that they had tried the case in Chinese Courts, where it had been finally settled. I have records in my
office of a Chinese tribunal of that kind, where they tried offenders
according to their own rules, meted out what punishment they
deemed proper, etc. These records were captured in a room on I
street, between Fourth and Fifth. I had them translated by an interpreter from San Francisco, and used them on the trial of the robbery cases. The records recite that the members enter into a solemn
compact not to enter into partnership with a foreigner; that a certain man did so, and the company offers so many round dollars to
the man who will kill him. They promise to furnish a man to assist
the murderer, and they promise, if he is arrested, they will employ
able counsel to defend him. If convicted, he should receive, I think,
three dollars for every day he would be confined, and in case he died,
certain money would be sent to his relatives. These records appeared
in evidence and were admitted; also, a poster that was taken from a
house, offering a reward for the killing of this man. This poster was
placed on a house in a public street. Being written in Chinese, of
course they alone knew its contents, and informed us of them.
Mat. Karcher, for many years past Chief of Police for the City of
Sacramento, testifies as follows, (Evidence, pp. 128 and 129):
Q.—Do you know anything about their putting up offers of rewards
upon walls and street corners, written in Chinese, for the murder or
assassination of given Chinamen?
A.—Yes. Of course I could not read Chinese, but I secured some
of these posters, and had an interpreter from San Francisco come up
here and interpret them. They were rewrards for the murder of some
Chinamen who did something contrary to their laws. They have
their own tribunals where they try Chinamen, and their own laws to
govern them. In this way the administration of justice is often
defeated entirely, or, at least, to a very great extent. I know this,
because I was present at a meeting of one of their tribunals about seven
years ago. There was some thirty or forty Chinamen there, one
appearing to act as Judge. Finally, the fellow- on trial was convicted
and had to pay so much money, as a fine for the commission of the
offense with which he was charged. Generally, their punishments
are in the nature of fines; but sometimes they sentence the defendant to death. In cases in the Police Court we have often found it
difficult to make interpreters act. They would tell us that they
would be killed if they spoke the truth; that their tribunals would
sentence them to death, and pay assassins to dispatch them. About
two years and a half or three years ago Ah Quong was killed. During the trial, at which he was interpreter, there were a great many
Chinamen. I stationed officers at the doors, and then caused each
one to be searched as he came out of the room, the interpreter having
told me that he feared they would murder him.   Upon these China- 14
Address to the People of the United States.
men I found all sorts of weapons—hatchets, pistols, bowie-knives,
Chinese swords, and many others.   There were forty-five weapons in j
all, I think, concealed about their persons in all kinds of ways.   The j
interpreter testified in that case, and half an hour after leaving the
Court-room he was brought back, shot, and cut with hatchets.   He
was terribly mutilated, and lived only a few moments after being
brought to the station-house.   The murderers were arrested, but
attempted to prove an alibi, and had a host of Chinese witnesses
present for that purpose.   Although there were some hundreds of
Chinese present at the time of the murder, the prosecution was forced
to rely upon the evidence of a few white men who chanced to see the ;
deed committed.   We were opposed at every turn by the Chinamen
and the Chinese companies.   As a general thing it is utterly impos- *
sible to enforce the laws with any certainty against those people,
while they will themselves use our laws to persecute innocent men
who have gained their enmity.   They seem to have no ideas con- ;
cerning the moral obligation of an oath, and care not for our form
of swearing.
Lem Schaum, a Christian Chinaman, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 139):
Q.—Do you know anything about notices of rewards being posted
up in Chinese quarters in San Francisco or here, for the punishment
of certain men—a notice of this kind: Five hundred dollars or six
hundred dollars will be given for the assassination or murder of
some Chinaman?
A.—I do. That is a Chinese custom. When members of a com-;
pany do anything against the rules of that company they are punished. Suppose one member of a company comes to me and says: i
| Go and steal a woman from a Chinaman," and I do so for him. I
Because I favor him, his enemies prove I stole the woman, and put^
up a reward of five hundred or one thousand dollars to have me
killed.   That is the way they do.
Q — Do they post those rewards up publicly ?
A.—I think not; I think they do that in secret.
Q—Has it been your experience that those secret judgments are
carried into execution ?
A.— *     *     Every time.
Q.—Almost every time a judgment is entered that a man shall die,
and they oiler so much money to have him killed, the man is killed ?
Q— They take every advantage?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q— That is regarded as a death sentence?
A.—-Yes, sir. The man knows he has to die, but gets out of the
way if he can. to
Q.—That makes it difficult for any Chinamen, if they are disposed,
to protect women ? *       '
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—If a Chinaman takes a woman
reward will be offered?
A.—Yes, sir; most likely.
Q.—Do you know of their custom of settling cases that get into th
to the Mission, that sort of Address to the People of the United States. 15
[Courts? For instance, a Chinaman is arrested for kidnaping one
[of these women. Do you know anything about their settling that
[among themselves and keeping the testimony away from the Courts?
A.—I believe they do that.
Q.—They have some sort of tribunal in which they settle this thing
|for themselves?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Have they a tribunal which punishes for offenses against their
A.—Yes, sir. For instance, suppose I should march myself out
[and kill a Chinaman. I am brought before the company and made
[to pay a fine. They take the money and send it back to the family
[of the killed party to support his mother.
Q.—If you kill a member of the See-yup Company, the See-yup
[Company will determine, through this tribunal, that you shall pay
[so much money?
A.—Yes, sir.
—Suppose you pay that money?
—Then I will be all right.
—They would not try to punish you by law?
—No, sir.
—Suppose you refuse to pay the money ?
—I must go through the American Courts.
Mr. Ellis. Chief of Police for San Francisco, testifies as follows,
(Evidence, p. 112):
Q.—What are the difficulties in the way of enforcing laws in cases
| where the Chinese are concerned?
A.—The Chinese will swear to anything, according to orders.
Their testimony is so unreliable that they cannot be believed.
Q.—What is the greatest difficulty in the way of suppressing prostitution and gambling?
A.—To suppress these vices would require a police force so great
that the city could not stand the expense. It is difficult to administer justice, because we do not understand their language, and thus
all combine to defeat the laws.
Q.—What is their custom of settling cases among themselves, and
then refusing to furnish testimony?
A.—It is generally believed to be true that the Chinese have a Court
of arbitration where they settle differences.
Q.—After this settlement is made, is it possible to obtain testimony
from the Chinese?
A.—If in secret they determine to convict a Chinaman, or to acquit.
him, that judgment is carried out.   In a great many cases I believe
they have convicted innocent men through perjured evidence.
Mr. Davis Louderback, for several years past Judge of the Police
Court of San Francisco, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 93):
Q—What do^you know about the habits, customs, and social and
moral status of the Chinese population of this city ?
A.—I think they are a very immoral, mean, mendacious, dishonest,
thieving people, as a general thing. Q.—-What are the difficulties in the way of the administration of
justice where they are concerned?
A.—As witnesses, their veracity is of the lowest degree. m They do
not appear to realize the sanctity of an oath, and it is difficult to
enforce the laws, where they are concerned, for that reason. They
are very apt, in all cases and under all circumstances, to resort to
perjury and the subornation of perjury. They also use our criminal
law to revenge themselves upon their enemies, and malicious prosecutions are frequent.
Mr. Charles Wolcott Brooks, for sixteen years Japanese Consul in
San Francisco, and one of the attaches of the Japanese Embassy to
the Great Powers, testifies (Evidence, p. 37) that one of the great
difficulties about this immigration "is the organization of a foreign
hostile force within the territory of the United States. It is a very
difficult thing, however, to tell how you are going to administer justice when Chinese tribunals of that kind exist. It is practicallyN
impossible. The Chinese are very deceitful, and that very deceit is-
an indication of a weaker race. A weak man makes up in lying
what he lacks in strength. They feel that weakness, and they conceal it by strategy and deceit."
And, again, (Evidence, p. 38):
" The Chinese are bad for us, because they do not assimilate and
cannot assimilate with our people. They are a race that cannot mix
with other races, and we don't wish them to. The Chinese are bad
for us, because they come here without their families. Families are
the centers of all that is elevating in mankind, yet here we have a
very large Chinese male population. The Chinese females that are
here make this element more dangerous still."
And, again, (Evidence, pp. 42 and 43) :
Q.—Do you think that they (the Chinese) have any particular love
for our institutions ?
A.—I don't think they have any at all. They come purely as a
matter of gain—as a matter of dollars and cents. If it is profitable,
they will come. If it is not profitable, they will not come. The very
fact of their retaining their own dress and customs, and keeping
themselves so entirely separate, as a people, shows that they have not.
Contrast them with the Japanese. The Japanese who go abroad are
persons who have money to spend, and they go for pleasure and information. They adopt the manners and customs of Americans. Our
dress and our language they seek. The Chinese come abroad, not to
spend, but to accumulate. They maintain their own customs and
language. The Japanese like our institutions. The Chinese do not,
but hate us most cordially, and hate the Japanese more than any
other people—a hate which is as cordially returned by the Japanese.
I here is nothing m common between them. In eighteen hundred
and torty:two, the population of China was four hundred and ffiir-
teen million two hundred and sixty-seven thousand and thirty,
lhat is the latest census that I have any account of.
Q— Japan is a young, growing country? Address to the People of the United States. 17
A.—Yes, sir. Compared with China, it is like comparing a young,
growing nation with an old, dying one. It is generally supposed
that they are the same race; but this is not so. They are of absolutely different origin, and there is no sympathy, no similarity
between them, They are an enterprising people. I think that the
Japanese are of Turkish blood; of the same race as the Turks or
The Chinese have, through certain guilds or companies, established
a peculiar, but revolting, kind of slavery upon the Pacific Coast.
Hundreds of Chinese women are bought and sold at prices ranging
from three to eight hundred dollars. These women are compelled
to live as prostitutes for the pecuniary profit of their owners; they
are under constant and unceasing surveillance; they are cruelly
beaten if they fail to make money for their owners; and they are
left to starve and die uncared for when they become sick or unprofitable. The great majority of these slaves do not know that they have
rights, though they would be glad to escape if they could. Sometimes they wish to marry and escape with their chosen husband, but
they are speedily kidnaped and returned to their owners.
Sometimes their owners invoke the aid of our Courts, arrest the
Chinese who seek to marry these women, upon some criminal charge,
and keep them in prison until they obtain, possession of the women,
when the prosecution is suffered to go oy default. Warrants are
easily procured for these purposes, because our officers are ignorant
of the Chinese language, and because of the extraordinary cunning
of the Chinamen who control this business. And thus these women
are held in slavery for life without hope of relief.
We do not charge the better classes of the Chinese, or the six companies, with complicity in this crime, and we are confident that they
desire the suppression of this evil. It is evident, therefore, that this
form of slavery is sustained by an organization which is all-powerful
as against the six companies and the municipal and State governments of California.
The Rev. Otis Gibson, a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, formerly a missionary to China, and now at the head of the
Chinese Mission of that church in the City of San Francisco, testifies
as follows, (Evidence, p. 33):
The women as a general thing are held as slaves (referring to the
Chinese women in this State). They are bought or stolen in China
and brought here. They have a sort of agreement, to cover up the
slavery business, but 'it is all a sham. That paper makes the girl say
that she owes you four hundred dollars or so, passage money and
outfit from China, and has nothing to pay. I being the girl this
man comes up and offers to lend me the money to pay you if I will
agree to serve him, to prostitute my body at his pleasure, wherever
he shall put me, for four, five, or six years. For that promise of
mine, made on the paper, he hands him the four hundred dollars,
and I pay the debt I owe you according to contract. It is also put in
the contract that if I am sick fifteen days no account shall be taken
of that, but if I am sick more than that I shall make up double. If
3 18 Address to the People of the United States.
I am found to be pregnant within a month, you shall return th
money and take me again.   If I prove to have epilepsy, leprosy
am a stone woman, the same thing is done.
Q — Are these contracts regarded as moral among the people w
make them ?
A.—-Well, there is a certain class of knaves among Chinamen w.
have no morals at all.
q—These contracts are sustained by the great mass of Chinamen!
here, are they not ?
A.—I think there is in existence now—there has been—a company
of men engaged in this traffic of women ; not the six companies, bull
a guild like the Washing Company.   They have their rules and theiri
regulations, and they stand by each other.   One of these companies!
is called the Hip-ye-Tong.   When a Chinaman runs away with m
woman from one of these brothels and marries her, he is followed byl
these companies and asked to pay them her value or look out for the
consequences.   It is a common thing for them to use the processes of
our Courts to protect their interests—their assumed rights.   If a
woman escapes from a brothel, she is arrested  for some crime, and
possession is obtained in that way.   Where she marries, the chances 1
are that both man and woman will be arrested, or the man will be
arrested and the woman run off to some other place.   Sometimes 1
Chinese come to me to get married.   I don't care to marry them, and, 1
to   discourage   it have set my price at ten dollars,   whereas the!
Justices' fees are only two^dollars.   They seem to have a sort of indefi-1
nite and unreasonable idea of protection when they come to me.
Q.—You used the term " stone woman." What do you understand!
by that?
A.—I did not know and asked them. They said it was a woman!
so naturally disabled that a man could not have any intercourse I
with her.
Q.—Then, so far as the women are concerned, they are in slavery,^
with more hard features than have been known to white races ?
A —Yes, sir.   And even after the term of prostitution service is
up, the owners so manage as to have the women in debt more than I
ever, so that their slavery becomes life-long.   There is no release |
from it.
Q.—When these people become sick and helpless, what becomes ofl
A.—They are left to die.,
Q.—No care taken of them ?
A.—Sometimes, where the women have friends.
Q— Don't the companies take care of them ?
A.—Not frequently.
Q— Is it not a frequent thing that they are put out on the side-1
walk to die, or in some room without water or food?
A—I have heard of such things; I don't know. I don't think 1
they are kind; I think they are very unkind to the sick. Some-l
times the women take opium to kill themselves. They do not know!
they have any rights, but think they must keep their contracts, andl
believe^themselves under obligations to serve in prostitution.
Q.—-ty hat is their treatment ?   Is it harsh ?
A.—They have come to the asylum all bruises. They are beaten ]
and punished cruelly if they fail to make money.  When they become [worn out and unable to make any more money, they are turned out
to die.
The Rev. A. W. Loomis, a Presbyterian clergyman, at the head of
the Chinese Mission established by his church in San Francisco,
says, (Evidence, pp. 55 and 56):
These Chinawomen that you see on the streets here were brought
for the accommodation of white people, not for the accommodation
of Chinese; and if you pass along the streets where they are to be
found, you will see that they are visited not so much by Chinese as
by others—sailors and low people. The women are in a condition of
servitude. Some of them are inveigled away from home under promise of marriage to men here, and some to be secondary wives, while
some are stolen. They are sold here. Many women are taken from
the Chinese owners, and are living as wives and as secondary wives.
Some have children, and these children are legitimate.
Q.—These women engaged in prostitution are nothing more than
slaves to them ?
A.—Yes, sir; and every one would go home to-day if she were free
and had her passage paid.
Q.—They are not allowed to release themselves from that situation, are they ?
A.—I think they are under the surveillance of men and women, so
that they cannot get away. They would fear being caught and sold
again, and carried off to a condition even worse than now.
Q.—Are not the laws here used to restrain them from getting
away—are they not arrested for crime ?
A.—Oh, yes. They will trump up a case, have the woman arrested,
and bring people to swear what they want. In this way they manage
to get possession of her again.
Q.—Have they at any time interfered with the women brought to
your mission?
A.—We have not at our Mission, but I think Mr. Gibson has had
interference from them.
Q.—Do you know what they do with the women when they become
sick and useless ?
A.—I do not know. I have seen some on the street that looked in
bad condition, and I have heard of their being abandoned to die/but
I have never seen any case of that kind.
Q.—Do you know how they treat these people?
A.—I understand they treat them very badly. Women have come
to the Home T#ith bruises and marks of violence on their persons.
I think their cwLdition is a very hard one.
Q.—Then it is a slavery which, from the very first, destroys body,
soul, and everything else ?
A.—Yes, sir; and the women would be glad to escape from it if
they knew they would be protected.
Mr. Alfred Clark, for nineteen years past connected with the police
force of San Francisco, and for the last eight years Clerk of the Chief
of Police, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 63): " In regard to the
vice of prostitution,! have here a bill of sale of a Chinawoman, and 20
Address to the People of the United States.
a translation of the same."    Witness submits a paper written
. Chinese characters, and reads the translation, as follows :
An agreement to assist the woman Ah Ho, because coming fror
China to San Francisco she became indebted to her mistress for pas'
age. Ah Ho herself asks Mr. YeeKwan to advance for her six hu|
dred and thirty dollars, for which Ah Ho distinctly agrees to give h
body to Mr. Yee for service' of prostitution for a term of fo
years. There shall be no interest on the money. Ah Ho shaj_
receive no wages. At the expiration of four years Ah Ho shall bel
her own master. Mr. Yee Kwan shall not hinder or trouble her. If J
Ah Ho runs away before her time is out, her mistress shall find her
and return her, and whatever expense is incurred in finding ani
returning her Ah Ho shall pay. On this day of agreement Ah Ho,^
with her own hands, has received from Mr. Yee Kwan six hundred;
and thirty dollars. If Ah Ho shall be sick at any time for more thanj
ten days, she shall make up by an extra month of service for every
ten days sickness. Now, this agreement has proof— this paper
received by Ah Ho is witness.
Twelfth year, ninth month, and fourteenth day (about middle of I
October,, eighteen hundred and seventy-three.)
The Chinese women are kept in confinement more by fear than by j
anything else. They believe the contracts to be good and binding,!
and fear the consequences of any attempt at escape.
Mr. Clark was recalled, and testified as follows, (EvidenJH
p. 69):
Q.—Suppose a Chinawoman escapes, what do the owners do ?
A.—Follow her and take her back. If they fail, they generally I
have her arrested for larceny, and get possession in that way. They j
use the processes of our Courts to keep these women in a state of 1
slavery. They do not let them get out of their clutches, however, if I
they can help it, for they know that there is no legal way of reclaim-!
ing them. When they become sick and helpless, there are instances j
where they have been turned out to die. The bones of women are
not returned to China, as are the bones of the men. The six companies 1
do not control this woman business; it is under the management of 1
an independent company, called the Hip-ye-Tong. Whether they 1
import the women or not, I don't know, but they look after affairs §
here. A Chinaman married a woman at Gibson'sj, and after the I
marriage received notice that he must pay for the woman or be dealt 1
with according to the Chinese custom. He was%iade to believe 1
that he would suffer personally if he did not comply with their 1
demands. Acting upon information, we arrested a number of them, I
and got some of their books, which we had translated. On the rolls, j
I think there were one hundred and seventy women. Seven or eight 1
Chinamen were arrested, but all the witnesses we could get for the I
prosecution did not exceed three or four, and no conviction was had. 1
He also produced other "bills of sale" similar to the one above I
quoted, which had been taken by the police. Address to the People of the United States. 21
Mr. Andrew McKenzie, a local officer, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 89):
Q.—How are Chinese women held here ?
A.—I think Mr. Rogers can inform you on that point better than
I can.   He was employed by the Chinese up at the barricoon.    *    *
Q.—What do you mean by barricoon ?
A.—A place where women coming from the ships are placed. It
is underneath the joss-house or the old theatre fronting on St. Louis
Alley, and running to Dupont Street. They are kept there until
apportioned out.
Q.—Is it not a notorious fact that these Chinese prostitutes are held
as slaves, subject to the pleasure of their owners?
A.—Yes, sir.
Wong Ben, a Chinaman in the service of the San Francisco police
force, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 100):
Q.—Who bring the Chinese women here ?
A.—Wong Fook Soi, Bi Chee, An Geo, and Wong Woon.
Q.—What do these men do ?
A.—They keep gambling-houses and houses of prostitution.
Q.—To what company do these men belong?
A.—An Geo belongs to the See-yup Company; Wong Woon to the
Sam-yup Company. That fellow has got lots of money. He buys
women in China for two hundred or three hundred dollars, and
brings them out here and sells them for eight hundred or nine hundred dollars, to* be prostitutes.
Q.—How do they get those women in China ?
A.—In Tartary. They are ■ big feet" women, and are sometimes
bought for ninety dollars. When they bring them out here they
sell them for nine hundred dollars.
Q.—What do they do with them ?
A.—They make them be prostitutes. If they don't want to be
prostitutes they make them be.
Q.—Can they get away?
A.—No, sir.
Q.—What do they do with them when they get sick and can not
work any longer ?
A.—They donVtreat them well at all. They don't take as much
care of them, wlHther they are sick or well, as white people do a dog.
Chinawomen in China are treated first rate, but in California these
" big feet" women are treated worse than dogs.
Mr. Bovee testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 108):
Q—Are these prostitutes bought and sold and held in bondage?
A.—Yes; that has always been my idea.
Q.—How do they treat their sick and helpless ?
A.—I have seen them thrown out on the street and on the sidewalk, and I have seen them put into little rooms, without light, bedding, or food.   They were left to die.
Q —What opportunities have these women to escape, if they should
desire ? 22
Address to the People of the United States.
A.—I don't see that they have any at all, for where a woman escapes!
a reward is offered and she is brought back.   Where they can get her
in no other way they use our Courts.
Charles P. O'Neil, an officer of the Sacramento police force, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 115):
Q.—Do you know how these women are held—whether they areI
owned by anybody, or whether anybody claims to own them ?
A.—Only from heresay. I have heard them (the Chinamen) frequently say that they bought them. On one occasion I was called!
into a Chinese house, and there saw four hundred and fifty dollars!
pass between a woman and a man. They wanted me to be a witness
to the fact, and I witnessed it. Some time afterwards the woman tolcffl
me that her boss had sold her for four hundred and 'fifty dollars*
That was the contract I witnessed, but it being in Chinese I did now
understand it at the time. The woman soon after committed suicide^
She did not like this man to whom she had been sold, and committed!
suicide by drowning. From my experience as an officer, I know thai!
these women are kept under close surveillance.
Q.—Is it possible for them to escape, or is there any reasonable!
probability that any of them could escape from that servitude ?
A.—No; not without they are protected by the white people.   I
have known them to attempt to escape, and have known them to
have been sent for and brought back.   To do this they use different
means, principally money.    They use, also, the machinery of the
American Courts to enforce these contracts, it being customary to
have these women arrested for larceny or some crime, in order to ge™
the more secure possession of them.   In the prevention of this thing!
the principal difficulty lies in the fact that we don't understand thejM
language.   We do not know what they are getting at, and they wilM
tell such well concocted stories that it is almost impossible to get at
the truth as we can with white persons.   A Chinaman has a right tcj
go before a magistrate and make out that a crime has been commit-!
ted by a person, and a magistrate, having no means of ascertaining!
the truth, must issue his warrant.
This officer also testifies that these women are kept closely confined, and are often beaten; that when one of them became sick or
helpless they are turned out to die.
Mat. Karcher, for many years Chief of Police for Sacramento CiffM
m testifies, (Evidence, p. 131):
Q.—Do you know what they do with their sick when they become!
helpless and unable to make more money ?
A—Put them in some out-house, or on the sidewalk, to die.
Q.—Without food or bedding ?
A—Generally. I have found men and women, both, in that con-1
dition. I have found them by accident, while hunting for other!
things—stolen goods, criminals, etc.
Q.—You found women without food or drink, and without cov- 1
A.—Yes, sir. Address to the People of the United States. 23
Q.—And death would have come from disease or starvation, or
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Is that the common way of disposing of these women when
they become^useless?
A.—Yes, sir, if not the only way.
Q.—They are less cared for than are useless domestic animals by
the white race ?
A.—A great deal less.
And, again, Mr. Karcher testifies, (Evidence, p. 128):
A.—Where one is young and good looking, and makes plenty of
money, she is well treated. Those who are unable to make much
are treated very badly.
Q.—How young are the youngest that you know of as being held ?
A.—I have seen them as young as fifteen years.
Q.—What chance have they to escape from this life, if they desire ?
A.—They have very little chance.
Q—Why is that?
A.—Because the Chinese will swear to almost anything, and if one
is taken away by another she is simply run off into another locality
to be sold into slavery again. Sometimes the farce of marrying is
gone throughx with in order to get the woman, who may be beyond
their reach. As soon as the newly-made husband gets possession of
his bride, he turns her over to her former owners.
Q.—Do you know of cases wmere they have had Chinamen arrested
and convicted of crime simply because they have interfered with
A.—Yes, sir. The arresting officer and the District Attorney have
to be very careful lest they be made the instruments of sending innocent men to State Prison.
Mr. Duffield, an officer of the San Francisco police force, testifies
as follows, (Evidence, p. 80):
Q.—How many families are there among the Chinese ?
A.—Very few. I have never seen a decent, respectable Chinawoman in my life.
Q.—What is the understanding here in regard to the manner in
which these women are held ?
A.—They are held in bondage, bought and sold. I have had bills
of sale translated by Gibson.
Q.—Is it possible for these women to escape from that life, even if
they desire it ?
A.—Sometimes the Chief of Police can give some protection, but
it is customary for the owners to charge them with crimes in order
to get possession of them again. Sometimes they kidnap them, and
even unscrupulous white men have been found to assist them.
Q.—Do you know what they do with them when they become sick
and helpless ?
A.—They put them out on the street to die. I have had charge of
the dead myself, on the street. I have seen sick and helpless women
turned out in that way. 24
Address to the People of the United States.
Lem Schaum, an intelligent Chinaman, a convert to Christianity,!
educated by Mr. Rowle and the Revs. Drs. Moore and Gamble, of j
Oakland, in this State, testifies as follows, (Evidence, pp. 136 and|
Q—Do you know how these bad women are brought here ?
A.—They are stolen and bought in China, and brought here the j
same as we buy and sell stock.
Q._Their condition is a very horrible one, then?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Do you know how they are treated ?
A.—Yes, sir. The parties who own them generally treat themJ
pretty roughly. If they don't go ahead and make money the ownersi
will give them a good thrashing.
Q.—Is it not very common, when those women try to get away, fori
the people who own them to have them arrested for larceny, andl
things of that kind ?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q — They are held by fear of punishment if they try to escape ?
Q.—There are cases where Chinamen have cut them all to pieces J
with knives for running away, are there not?
A.—I have never seen any, but this is what I have heard.
Q.—They torture them ?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Do they buy and sell these women here ?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—And hold them in slavery ?
Mr. Oliver Jackson, a Sacramento police officer, testifies as follows, |
(Evidence, p. 143) :
Q.—Do you know how these Chinese prostitutes are held—whether]
in slavery or not ?
A.—I think they are all held in slavery. They are all bought and I
sold the same as horses and cows, bringing prices according to agef
and beauty.
Q.—Do you know how they are treated ?
A.—As slaves, and punished as the owners may choose.
Q.—What sort of punishments are inflicted?
A.—I do not know, only from hearsay.
Q— What chance have these women to escape if they should sol
A.—Very little chance. Where they do get away they are gener- i
ally caught and brought back to the owners again.
Q— Do they resort to the processes of our Courts in order to recover
women who have escaped ?
A.—Yes, sir; in a great many cases to my knowledge. They will^
swear out a warrant for her arrest for grand lanceny or some felony.
Sometimes it is sworn out against the man who has her, and some-1
times against both. As soon as they get possession of the woman, \
they trifle with the cases until they fall through. It is almost impos-J
si Die tor a woman to escape. Address to the People of the United States.
Q.—Do you know what is done with these women when they
become sick, helpless, and incurably diseased ?
A.—Where they see that they will be of no further use to make
money, they turn them out on the sidewalk to die. I have seen men
and women also turned out to die in this manner. I have found
dead men while searching for stolen property, and have had the
Coroner attend to them.
We now come to an aspect of the question more revolting still.
We would shrink from the disgusting details did not a sense of duty
demand that they be presented. Their lewd women induce, by the
cheapness of their offers, thousands of boys and young men to enter
their dens, very many of whom are inoculated with venereal diseases
of the worst type. Boys of eight and ten years of age have been
found with this disease, and some of our physicians treat a half dozen
cases daily. The fact that these diseases have their origin chiefly
among the Chinese is well established.
The Hon. W. J. Shaw, a distinguished citizen of this State, whose
opportunities for investigation have been ample, declares, (Evidence,
p. 16): " That prostitution in China is not regarded as a disgrace, but
is regarded as a profession or calling. That the condition of the
lower classes is as near that of brutes as can be found in any human
society." Indeed, the Chinese appear to have very little appreciation
of the weaker sex. Says Mr. Shaw, (Evidence, p. 16): " It is nor are
occurrence when a girl is born to place it on the street and abandon
it to its fate." And, again, (Evidence, p. 19): " The women in China
occupy the same position as in most parts of Asia—virtually slaves;
mere creatures, to pander to the wishes of the males, and promote
their happiness." And Mr. Charles Walcott Brooks, who, from his
position, opportunities, and ability, is high authority upon this topic,
. observes, (Evidence, p. 42): | That the population of China has been
decreasing lately, caused, in a great measure, by the scarcity of
women.   They drown their females as we drown kittens."
Dr. H. H. Toland, a man standing at the head of his profession,
testifies as follows, (Evidence, pp. 103 and 104):
11 have practiced medicine in this State twenty-three years."
Q.—And during that time have you had ope of the leading positions, from a medical point of view, in this city ?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q— You are the founder of the "Toland Medical University?"
A.—Yes, sir.
Q— A member of the San Francisco Board of Health?
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Of what institution were you a graduate ?
A.—Transylvania University, Kentucky, in eighteen hundred and
thirty-two—one of the first Western Universities that was established
at Lexington, Kentucky.
Q— It has been stated that these Chinese houses of prostitution are
open to small boys, and that a great many have been diseased. Do
you know anything about that ? A.—I know that is so. I have seen boys eight and ten years old
with diseases they told me they contracted on Jackson Street. It isj
astonishing how soon they commence indulging" in that passion. 1
Some of the worst cases of syphilis I have ever seen in my life occui||
in children not more than ten or twelve years old. They generally!
try to conceal their condition from their parents. They come to mej
and I help screen it from their parents, and cure them without coni-j
pensation. Sometimes parents, unaware of what is the matter, bring ,
their boys to me, and I do all I can to keep the truth from them.
Q.—Are these cases of frequent occurrence ?
A.—Yes, sir. You will find children from twelve to fifteen that|
are often diseased. In consequence of neglect, they finally become!
the worst cases we have to treat. ^m
Q.—What effect will that have upon the health of the community, |
in the end ?
A.—It must have a bad effect, because a great many of these
children get secondary syphilis, and it runs until it becomes almost!
incurable. Under the most favorable circumstances it takes a long
time to eradicate it, but when it becomes constitutional, it is anl
exceedingly difficult thing to cure it. When they come to me for]
treatment, they sometimes have secondary syphilis; sometimes|
chancre; sometimes a tertiary form. Under most favorable cireum-J
stances it takes two or three years to eradicate syphilis.
Q.—Unless you have complete control of the patient for that time J
is it not certain that the seeds of the disease remain in the system|
through life ?
A.—It destroys life.   I can show a dozen cases in the County Hos-|
pital, where, if they recover, it will be after a long course of treatment, I
and some of them will not recover at all.   The whole system becomes
poisoned and debilitated. ^ They are so diseased, and the system is so
exhausted, perhaps by a big sore, or something of that sort, that they 1
cannot be cured.
Q.—When syphilis assumes a secondary and tertiary form, what -
effect will it have upon the children of such persons?
A.—The disease is hereditary, and will be transmitted to the
children.   I have positive evidence of that in a family that I have]
been treating, where the children are diseased.   The father had the
disease when he married a healthy woman, and of three children :
born every one exhibited symptoms of syphilis.
Q.—From your observation what would you say as to the effect it \
must have upon this community if these Chinese prostitutes are
allowed to remain in the country ?
A—It will fill our hospitals with invalids, and I think it would be
a very great relief to the younger portion of the community to get
rid ot them.
Q.—Judge Hager says, when he was in the United States Senate,
and endeavored to take some steps to prevent immigration of this i
people, he was met by the proposition that their coming to this country tended to advance Christian civilization, and the humanitarians
ot the East would not aid him for that reason. What is your
opinion ?
A—It does not tend to the advancement of Christian civilization,
but it has the contrary effect. There is scarcely a single day that
there are not a dozen young men come to my office with syphilis or Address to the People of the United States.
gonorrhoea. A great many of them have not means to be treated
properly and the disease runs on until it becomes constitutional; and
in nine cases out of ten it is the ruin of them. I have treated a
great many boys, and I have treated the parents. Sometimes the
parents would come, and after going through a course of treatment
would bring their children.
Mr. Pierson—To what extent do these diseases come from Chinese
prostitutes ?
A.—I suppose nine-tenths. When these persons come to me I ask
them where they got the disease, and they generally tell me that they
have been with Chinawomen. They think diseases contracted from
Chinawomen are harder to cure than those contracted elsewhere, so
they tell me as a matter of self-protection. I am satisfied, from my
experience, that nearly all the boys in town, who have venereal disease, contracted it in Chinatown. They have no difficulty there, for
the prices are so low that they can go whenever they please. The
women do not care how old the boys are, whether five years old or
more, so long as they have money.
Q.—Then the maintenance of this population in our midst, instead
of advancing civilization, would seem to be a crime against it ?
A.—That is my opinion.
Mr. Donovan—Have you ever read or heard of any country in the
world where there were so many children diseased as there are in
San Francisco ?
A.—No, sir.   I lived in a town of one hundred and fifty or two
hundred students, and we had not many public houses, but the students were not near so diseased, in proportion to their number, as are«
the boys here in this city.
Mr. Haymond—Can you approximate the number of boys affected
here during any given year ?
A.—I cannot tell exactly, because my attention has not been particularly directed to it; but I treat half a dozen every day in the year
of three hundred and sixty-five days.
Q.—Is not that a fearful condition of things ?
A.—It is most frightful. Generally they are improperly treated,
and the syphilis or gonorrhoea runs on from week to week until
stricture results, and that is almost as bad as constitutional syphilis,
because it requires a long time to cure it.
Mr. Gibbs, Chairman of the Committee on San Francisco Hospitals, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 88): " There are many cases
of young men in the hospital suffering from syphilis contracted in
the Chinese quarter." Mr. David C. Woods testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 113):
Mr. Haymond—How long have you resided in this State ?
A.—Twenty-five years off and on.
Q— What position do you hold?
A.—Superintendent of the Industrial School.
Q.—How long have you occupied that position ?
A.—Two years and three months.
Q.—Do you know anything about the effect the presence of a large
Chinese population has upon the boys that are growing up here ?
A.—I think it has a very bad effect.   I find .that the larger propor- 28 Address to the People of the United States.
tion of boys who come to the school, large enough to cohabit with
women, are afflicted with venereal diseases.
Q.—How many boys are usually in that school ?
A.—One hundred and eighty, on an average.
Q.—What proportion do you think are affected wTith that disease ?,
A.—I think that, during the time I have been there, fifty have
come with venereal diseases.
Q.—Do you attribute that to the presence of Chinese prostitutes in
this city?
A.—They tell me so themselves. I question them, and they say
they got it in Chinatown.
Q.—What are the ages of those boys?
A.—We have had them as young as thirteen, with gonorrhoea; they ;
have all sorts of venereal diseases.   There is nd time that I have less
than two or four down with them.
Mr. Karcher testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 131) :
Q.—Would boys be liable to visit the houses of white prostitutes ?
A.—They would not be so liable.
Q.—Why is that?
A.—The prices are higher, and boys of that age will not take the
liberties with white women that they do in Chinatown. In addition to that, it can be said on behalf of the white women that they
would not allow boys of ten, eleven, or fourteen years of age to enter
their houses. No such cases have ever been reported to the police,
while the instances where Chinese women have enticed these youths
are very frequent. Some three years ago two boys, one thirteen and
the other fifteen, were taken from a Chinese house of prostitution and
brought to the Station House. One belonged here and the other to
San Francisco. I met the San Francisco boy about a month afterwards, and found him suffering from a loathsome disease, which he
said he contracted in that house.
Dr. Shorb, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, and a
member of the Board of Health of the City of San Francisco, fully
corroborates the testimony of Dr. Toland. All "physicians agree that
the result must be a marked increase of disease in the generation to
The people of California are thus compelled to endure a form of
slavery more obnoxious than any hitherto known in the history of
the world, and we are more helpless in this connection than the Colonies of England which are allowed to govern their internal affairs
without interference from the home government.
The Pacific Coast has become a Botany Bay to which the criminal
classes of China are brought in large numbers, and the people of this
coast are compelled to endure this affliction. We do not claim that
all the Chinese belong to the criminal classes, for many well-behaved
people are found among them. There are various grades of character among these people : The merchants and business men, who are
often worthy of high esteem; the cooks and house servants, who are Address to the People of the United States.
often bright and trustworthy ; a class of laborers who are diligent, a
class of laborers who are extremely dishonest, and a large number of
professional thieves and fighters.
We are confident that the criminal class outnumber the others in
the proportion of seven to one. These criminal classes entail upon
our city, county, and State governments an expense that we are not
able to bear—indeed, an adequate effort to meet the necessities of the
situation would bankrupt our treasuries. Our police force, our constabulary, and the machinery of our judicial system, are overwhelmed by the pressure of these necessities without ascertainable
advantage to our people.
An additional and very heavy expense is imposed upon our people
by the care of their sick, who are invariably cast into the streets and
abandoned by their companions. A further expense is laid upon our
people by their refusal to conform to our fire ordinances; indeed, our
cities and villages are in constant danger of extensive conflagrations
by reason of their mode of living.
And while these people entail upon us these heavy expenses they
evade the payment of taxes to an extent not tolerated in any other
country. They contribute nothing to the support of our hospitals,
and the cost of maintaining the Chinese in our State Prison is in
excess of the whole amount of property taxes paid by the Chinese.
population. And yet we have no means of knowing whether these
convicts in our prisons are justly imprisoned or the victims of the
malice of their own countrymen.
We claim that these facts, proved by the. evidence of good men,
show a condition of affairs which threaten, in time, to undermine
the foundations of the Republic within the scope of country now
occupied by the Chinese.
Upon the topics last referred to, we may be pardoned if we call the
attention of Congress to some of the evidence taken before this committee.
Mr. F. F. Low, a distinguished citizen who has held many positions of honor and trust under the State and Federal Government,
among which have been that of Governor of California, Representative in Congress, and Minister to China, says, (Evidence, p. 5): " That
the immigration comes, with but slight exceptions, from the single
Province of Canton, and that it is of the lowest class."
The Rev. Otis Gibson (Evidence, p. 27), testifies as follows:
Q.—From what class is our Chinese immigration?
A.—From the lowest class.
Q.—By that you mean laborers.
A.—Yes, sir.
Q.—Do you mean degraded in a moral sense?
A.—I think they are the lowest class of people. Most of the Chinese who come to this country are ignorant—very. I do not think
there is one in five that can read a page of a book, and not one in
ten that can read a small tract, or book, or newspaper through intelligently. Nearly all of them can read the signs over the stores;
nearlyall can do that much reading, but to take a book and read it,
they cannot do it. Mr. W. J. Shaw says, (Evidence, p. 19):
Regarding their honesty, I can mention this fact, which may interest the Committee: I was assured by all the merchants with whom
I conversed on the subject in the towns that I visited in China,
where there are foreign merchants residing, that nobody hired a
Chinese servant without taking a bond from some responsible person that he would be responsible for any thefts that servant might
perpetrate. It was considered there, among those with whom I conversed on the subject, that Chinamen are so constituted that they
must sooner or later steal something. It is their nature. Consequently they are not trusted in any house until they bring their
bondsmen. When thefts are committed, and they are not of rare
occurrence, the bondsmen pay for the things stolen. As far as I
know and heard, no one thought of hiring a servant without taking
a bond to meet any deficiency caused by theft.
Mr. Altemeyer, an old resident of San Francisco, and a member of
the firm of Einstein Brothers & Co., boot and shoe manufacturers, a
firm that at one time employed from three to five hundred Chinamen, testifies as follows, (Evidence, p. 50):
Q.—Have you any contract for recompense for anything they steal?
A.—Yes, sir. It is to the effect that in case a man is dishonest, or
steals anything, the agent shall be responsible.
Q.—Have you found them dishonest?
A.—I have, in several instances.
Q.—Are they honest