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Life at Puget Sound, with sketches of travel in Washington Territory, British Columbia, Oregon, and California,… Leighton, Caroline C. 1884

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Array m
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§ Puget Sound
british columbia
1865*1881 THE
This book is a
0-ieCen and
'PfiiCip cAkri
m <J I'TTTl^rri.- *:::.- ^-l^i^^ll
^pii im
1884 m
All rights reserved.
The following selections from observations and
experiences during a residence of sixteen years on
the Pacific Coast, while they do not claim to describe fully that portion of the country, nor to
give any account of its great natural wealth and
resources, yet indicate something of its characteristic features and attractions, more especially those
of the Puget Sound region.
This remote corner of our territory, hitherto
almost unknown to the country at large, is rapidly coming into prominence, and is now made
easy of access by the completion of the Northern
Pacific Railroad. The vast inland sea, popularly
known as Puget Sound, ramifying in various directions, the wide-spreading and majestic forests, the
ranges of snow-capped mountains on either side,
the mild and equable climate, and the diversified IV
resources of this favored region, excite the astonishment and admiration of all beholders. To the
lovers of the grand and beautiful, unmarred as yet
by any human interference, who appreciate the
freedom from conventionalities which pertain to
longer-settled portions of the globe, it presents an
endless field for observation and enjoyment. There
is already a steady stream of emigration to this
new " land of promise," and every thing seems to
indicate for it a vigorous growth and development,
and a brilliant and substantial future. CONTENTS.
At Sea. — Mariguana Island. — Sea-Birds. — Shipwreck.
— Life on Roncador Reef. —The- Rescue. — Isthmus
of Panama.—Voyage to San Francisco. — The New
Port Angeles. — Indian " Hunter " and his Wife. — Sailor's Funeral. — Incantation. — Indian Graves. —
Chief Yeomans.—Mill-Settlements. — Port Gamble
Trail.—Canoe Travel.—The Memaloost. — Tommy
and his Mother. — Olympic Range. — Ediz Hook. —
Mrs. S. and her Children. — Grand Indian Wedding.
— Crows and Indians	
Indian Chief Seattle. — Frogs and Indians. — Spring
Flowers and Birds. — The Red Tamdhnous. — The
Little Pend d'Oreille. — Indian Legend. — From Seattle to Fort Colville. — Crossing the Columbia River
Bar. —The River and its Surroundings. — Its Former Magnitude.— The Grande Coulee.—Early Explorers, Heceta, Meares, Vancouver, Grey.— Curious Burial-Place. — Chinese Miners. — Umatilla. —
Walla Walla. — Sage - Brush and Bunch-Grass.— bttfcfcd ntVll I SSiaft li^'WJ'tfM'nfflrT"
Flowers in the Desert. — " Stick » Indians.—Klick-
atats. — Spokane Indian. — Snakes. — Dead Chiefs.
• —AKamasField.— Basaltic Rocks   ....
Two Hundred Miles on the Upper Columbia.—Steamer
"Forty-nine." — Navigation in a CaSon — Pend
d'Oreille River and Lake. — Rock-Paintings. — Tributaries of the Upper Columbia. — Arrow Lakes.—
Kettle Falls. — Salmon-Catching. — Salmon-Dance.
Old Fort CalVille.—Angus McDonald and his Indian
Family. — Canadian Voyageurs. — Father Joseph. —
Hardships of the Early Missionaries'. — The Cceurs
d'Alene and their Superstitions. — The Catholic
Ladder. — Sisters of Notre Dame. — Skill of the
Missionaries in instructing the Indians. — Father de
Smet and the Blackfeet.—A Native Dance.—Spo-
kanes. — Exclusiveness of the Cceurs d'Alene. —
Battle of Four Lakes. — The Yakima Chief and the
Road-Makers 75
Colville to Seattle. — " Red." — " Ferrins." — " Broke
Miners." — A Rare Fellow-Traveller. — The Bell-
Mar«. — Pelouse Fall. — Red-fox Road. — Early Cal-
ifornians. — Brying-pan Incense. ~-> Dragon-Flies. —
Death of the Chief Seattle 93
Port Angeles Village and the Indian Ranch.—A
"Ship's Klootchman," — Indian Mack-a-Muck.—
Disposition of an Old Indian Woman.—A Windy CONTENTS. vii
Trip to Victoria. — The Black Tamdhnous. — McDonald's in the Wilderness. — The Wild Cowlitz. — Up
the River during a Flood. — Indian  Boatmen. —
Birch-bark and Cedar Canoes 109
Voyage to San Francisco. —Fog-bound. — Port Angeles.
— Passing Cape Flattery in a Storm. — Off Shore. —
The "Brontes."—The Captain and his Men.—A
Fair Wind. — San Francisco Bar. — The City at
Night. —Voyage to Astoria. — Crescent City. — Iron-
bound Coast. —Mount St. Helen's.—Mount Hood.
— Cowlitz Valley and its Floods. — Monticello .      .   124
Victoria. — Its Mountain Views, Rocks, and Flowers.— .
Vancouver's Admiration of the Island. — San Juan
Islands. — Sir James Douglas. — Indian Wives. —
Northern Indians. — Indian Workmanship. — The
Thunder-bird.—Indian Offerings to the Spirit of a
Child. — Pioneers. — Crows and Sea-Birds.       .      .   137
Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters. — Its Early Explorers.— Towns, Harbors, and Channels.—Vancouver's
Nomenclature. — Juan  de  Fuca. — Mount  Baker.
— Chinese " Wing." — Ancient Indian Women. —
Pink Flowering Currant and Humming-Birds.—
"Ah Sing." 151
Rocky-mountain Region. — Railroad from Columbia
River to Puget Sound. — Mountain Changes. —Mixture of Nationalities. —Journey to Coos Bay, Oregon. — Mountain Canon. — A Branch of the Coquille. "Mmw&m^^m^^^m^mimf&^mmi^mm^:   *<««*
— Empire City. —Myrtle Grove. —Yaquina — Genial Dwellers in the Woods. — Our Unknown Neighbor. — Whales. — Pet Seal and Eagle. — A Mourning
Mother. — Visit from Yeomans 165
Puget Sound to San Francisco. — A Model Vessel. —
The Captain's Relation to his Men. —Rough Water.
— Beauty of the Sea. — Golden-gate Entrance.—
San Francisco Streets. — Santa Barbara. — Its Invalids. — Our Spanish Neighbors. — The Mountains
and the Bay. — Kelp. — Old Mission. —A Simoom. —
The Channel Islands. — A New Type of Chinamen.
—An Old Spanish House 182
Our Aerie.—The  Bay  and  the  Hills.— The  Little
Gnome. — Earthquake. — Temporary  Residents. —
. The Trade-Wind. — Seal-Rocks. — Farallon Islands.
— Exhilarating Air. — Approach of Summer. — Cen-  .
tennial Procession. — Suicides. —Mission Dolores. —
Father Pedro Font and his Expedition.—The Mission Indians. — Chinese Feast of the Dead. — Curious Weather 199
Quong. —His Protege". — His Peace-Offering.—The Chinese and their Grandmothers. — Ancient Ideas.—
Irish, French, and Spanish Chinamen. — Chinese
Ingenuity. — Hostility against the Chinese. — Their
Proclamations. — Discriminations against them.—
Their Evasion of the Law. — Their Perseverance'
against all Obstacles. — Their Reverence for their
Ancestors, and Fear of the Dead. — Their Medical
Knowledge. —Their Belief in the Future.—Their
Curious Festivals. —Indian Names for the Months. CONTENTS. ix
—Resemblance between the Indians and Chinese.
— Their Superstitions 220
Chun Fa's Funeral.—Alameda. — Gophers and Lizards.
— Poison Oak. — Sturdy Trees. — Baby Lizards. —
Old Alameda. — Emperor Norton. — California Gen-
• erosity. — The Dead Newsboy. — Anniversary of
the Goddess Kum Fa. — Chinese Regard for the
Moon and Flowers.—A Shin Worshipper .
At Sea. — Mariguana Island. — Sea-Birds. — Shipwreck. —
Life on Roncador Reef. —.The Rescue. — Isthmus of Panama. — Voyage to San Francisco. — The New Baby.
, Atlantic Ocean, May 26,1865.
T is a great experience to feel the loneliness
of the sea, — to see the whole circle of the
heavens, and nothing under it but the rising
and falling water, from morning till night, day
after day.
The first night we were out the porpoises
came up at twilight, and sported round the vessel. I saw some sea-birds that seemed to be
playing, — running1 and sliding on the green,
glassy waves. In the wake of the vessel were
most beautiful changing colors. Little Nelly
S. sat with us to watch the phosphorescence.
She said, " The stars in the sea call to me, with
little fine voices,' Nelly, Nelly, are you alive ?'; MARIGUANA ISLAND.
May 27,1865.
We have had our first sight of land, — Mari-
guana, a coral island, one of the Bahamas.
Every one stood in silence to see it, it was so
beautiful. The spray dashed so high, that, as
it fell, we at first took it for streams and cascades. It was just at sunrise; and we cast longing looks at the soft green hills, bathed in light.
Now it is gone, and we have only the wide ocean
again. But a new color has appeared in the
water, — a purplish pink, which looks very tropical ; and there are blotchss of yellow seaweed.
Some of it caught in the wheel, and stopped it.
The sailors drew it up, and gave it to the children to taste. It was like a little fruit, and
they say the birds eat it.
The sea is growing quite rough. I was thinking of being a little afraid, the vessel plunged
so; but Mother Cary's chickens came out, and
I thought I might as well consider myself as
one of them,.and not in any more danger than
they are.
Caribbean Sea, May 28,1865.
We have had a great experience of really
rough weather. The spray dashed over the
deck, and only the hardiest could keep up. Any
one who tried to move was thrown off his feet.
Preparations were made for divine service by
lashing two boxes together in the middle of the
deck, and spreading a flag over them. It was
conducted by a Scotch Presbyterian minister.
As he began his prayer, he received quite an
addition to his congregation, in a flock of great
birds, that appeared on my side of the vessel.
They wheeled round, and settled down softly
together. I do not know what they are, but
suppose they are gulls of some kind. They
have long, narrow wings, brown, with* a little
black, and snow-white underneath. I am half
inclined to envy these wild, soulless creatures,
that know no fear.
Roncadoe Reef, June 5, 1865.
On Tuesday morning, May 30, between three
and four o'clock, we were awakened by the
sharp stroke of the engine-bell, a deep grinding
sound, and the sudden stopping of the vessel.
We knew that we had not arrived at our port
of destination, and felt instinctively that something extraordinary had happened. For a moment all was silence; the'n inquiries arose from
all sides, as to what was the matter. The engine
seemed to be in a great state of commotion; and
the vessel began to writhe with a heavy, laborious movement, as if attempting to free herself
from the grasp of some monster.    We dressed 4 SHIPWRECK.
hastily, and went into the cabin, where we found
a good many of the passengers, and learned that
the vessel had struck on a coral-reef. We put
on life-preservers, and sat waiting until daylight,
expecting every moment the vessel would split.
As soon as it was light enough, we went upon
deck, and saw the sailors cut away the masts
and smoke-stacks, which went over the side of
the ship. The water dashed over the deck, so
that we were obliged to go below.   It seemed
o o
there as if we were under the ocean, with the
water breaking over our heads. Chandeliers,
glasses, and other movable articles were crashing together around us. The cabin was filled
with people, quietly sitting, ready for they knew
not what. But among all the seven hundred
passengers there was no shrieking nor crying
nor groaning, except from the little children,
who were disturbed by the noise and discomfort.
How well they met the expectation of death!
Faces that I had passed as most ordinary, fascinated me by their quiet, firm mouths, and eyes
so beautiful, I knew it must be the soul I saw
looking through them. Some parties of Swedish
emigrants took out their little prayer-books,
and sat clasping each other's hands, and reading them. A missionary bound for Micronesia
handed out his tracts in all directions, but no SHIPWRECK.
one took much notice of them. Generally, each
one seemed to feel that he could meet death
alone, and in his own way.
In the afternoon a faint semblance of land
was seen off on the horizon, and a boat was sent
out to explore. It was gone a long time, and
as night approached was anxiously looked for.
Just about dark, it appeared in sight. As it
drew near, we saw the men in it waving their
hats, and heard them shouting, by which we
knew they had succeeded in finding land. The
men on the vessel gave a hearty response, but
the women could not keep back their tears.
That night the women and children were
lowered with ropes, over the side of the vessel,
into boats, and taken to a raft near by, hastily
constructed on the rocks at the surface of the
water, from loose spars, stateroom-doors, and
such other available material as could be secured
from the vessel. All night long we lay there,
watching the dim outline of the ship, which
still had the men on board, as she rose and fell
with each wave, — the engine-bell tolling with
every shock. The lights that hung from the
side of the vessel increased the wild, funereal
appearance of every thing about us. They
continually advanced and receded, and seemed
to  motion  us to  follow them.    There was  a EM
strange fascination about them, which I could
not resist; and I watched them through the
whole night.
At daylight the next morning the ship's
boats began to take us over to the island dis-
covered the day before, which was slightly elevated above the surface of the water, and about
four miles distant from the wreck. As we approached the shore, some new birds, unlike any I
had seen before,—indolent-looking, quiet, and
amiable,—flew out, and hovered over the boat,
peering down at us, as if inquiring what
strange creatures were about to invade their
home. Probably they had msver seen any. human beings before. The sailors said they were
" boobies;" and they certainly appeared very
unsophisticated, and quite devoid of the wit
and sprightliness of most birds.
Only a few persons could be landed at a time,
and I wandered about at first almost alone. It
was two days before all the passengers were
transferred. Every thing was so new and
strange, that I felt as if I had been carried
off to another planet; and it certainly was a *
great experience, to walk over a portion of the
globe just as it was made, and wholly unaltered
by man.
I thought of an account of a wreck on this LIFE ON R0NCAD0R REEF. 7
same water I had once read, in which the Caribbean was spoken of as the most beautiful
though most treacherous of seas, and the intensity of color was mentioned. Such rose-
color I never saw before as in the shells and
mosses we find here, nor such lovely pale and
green tints as the water all about us shows.
We have been here on this bare reef six days,
with the breakers all around us, and do not
know whether we shall get off or not. We
amuse ourselves every morning with looking at
the pert little birds, as queer as the boobies,
though quite different from them, that sit and
nod to each other incessantly, and give each
other little hits with their bills, as if these were
their morning salutations, — a rough way of asking after each other's health.
San Fbancisco, July 2,1865.
We are safely here at last, after forty-two
days' passage,—longer than the children of
Israel were in the wilderness. When we return
it will be by a wagon-train, if the Pacific Railroad is not done.
When we landed on Roncador Reef, we had
no data for conjecturing where we were, except that we remembered passing the island of
Jamaica at twilight on the evening preceding [jfrjii'&if^
the wreck. We were afterwards informed that
the vessel was seized by a strong current, and
borne far away from her proper course. How
gay we were that night, with our music and
dancing, exhilarated all the more by the swift-
ness of the white, rushing water that drove us
on to our fate!
The heat on the island was so intense, that
our greatest necessity was for some shelter from
the sun. The only materials which the place
furnished us were rocks of coral, with which we-
built up walls, over which were spread pieces
of sail from the vessel. We lived in these
lodges, in little companies. We sat together in
ours in the daytime, and could not leave our
shelter for a moment without feeling as if we
were sunstruck. Every night we abandoned it,
and slept but on the rocks; but the frequent
little showers proved so uncomfortable that we
were driven to great extremity to devise some
covering. R.'s ingenuity proved equal to the
emergency. He secured an opportunity to visit
the vessel (which held together for some days)
in one of the boats which were continually plying between her and the island, bringing over
all available stores. All the mattresses and
other bedding that could be secured had been
distributed, mostly to the mothers and children. LIFE  ON RON CAD OR REEF.
His penetrating eye detected the materials for
a coverlet in the strips of painted canvas nailed
to the deck. He managed without tools to tear
off some pieces, and, by untwisting some tarred
rope, to fasten them together; thus providing
a quilt, which, if not comfortable, was at least
waterproof, and served to draw over us when a
shower came on. It was no protection, however, against the crabs, large and small, that
used to crawl under it, and eat pieces out of
our clothes, and even our boots, while we were
asleep. These crabs were of the hermit order.
Each one, from the minutest to the largest,
had taken possession of the empty shell of some
other creature, exactly large enough for him,
and walked about with it on his back, and drew
himself snugly into it when-molested. Every
little crevice in the rocks had a white or speckled ess in it when we landed, and from these
©© '
we made a few good meals. The one day the
women spent on the island alone with the birds
passed in the most friendly manner; but after
the men and boys came, the larger ones abandoned us.
We felt sorry not to bring away some of the
beautiful shells which were plentiful there, and
more gorgeous than any thing I ever saw before.
While the living creature is in them, they are 10
much brighter than after it is dead; and in the
length of time it takes to bring them from tropical countries, they fade almost like flowers.
Mrs. S. was so enterprising, and, I must say,
so unaesthetic, as to try to concoct a meal from
the occupants of some of the large conch-shells
taken from the beach, cooking it for a considerable length of time in a large brass kettle, the
only available utensil. Those who partook of
it in our little group had cause to repent of their
rashness; but we did not like to charge the injury to the lovely creatures which were sacrificed for this feast, preferring to " blame it on "
to the brass kettle, as the California children
would express it. The more cautious ones
contented themselves with their two sea-biscuits and fragment of beef or pork per day,
which were the regular rations served to each
from the stores saved from the ship. Some
surface water, found among the rocks, was
carefully guarded, and sparingly dealt out.
After we had been four or five days on the
island, two of the ship's boats were sent out to
seek assistance, manned by volunteer crews;
one headed for Aspinwall, which was thought
to be about two hundred and fifty miles distant,
and the other to search for what was supposed
to be the nearest land.
Very early on the morning of the tenth day
we heard the cry of " A sail! " We started up
from our rocky beds, and stood, without daring
J f ©
to speak. There was a little upright shadow,
about as large as a finger, against the sky.
Every eye was turned to it, but no one yet
dared to confirm it; and, even if it were a sail,
those  on board the vessel might not see our
island, it was so low, or our flag of distress, as
we had nothing on which to raise it very high.
We stood for several minutes, without daring
to look at each other with the consciousness
that we were saved. We presently saw that,
there were two little schooners beating up
against the wind, directly towards us, and that
they carried the red English flag. They had
been catching turtles on the Mosquito Coast.
As soon as our boat reached them, they unloaded
their turtles (which occupied them a day), with
the exception of three large ones which they
reserved for us, and then started at once.
These small vessels were unequal to carrying
away half the people on the island, and they
had no arrangements for the comfort of passengers. A considerable number decided to embark on them, and commenced doing so; while
the larger part of the company remained on the
spot, to take their chance of escape in some 12
other way, since communication with the world
was now established.
The next day we were all rejoiced by the
appearance of two United-States gunboats from
Aspinwall, which point was reached by our
other boat, after a rough experience; the waves
having capsized her during the passage, and
swallowed up the provisions and nautical instruments.
It was then decided that all the company
should be taken to Aspinwall by the United-
States vessels, and their boats and ours were at
once put to service in transferring the people
from the island; who, as they gathered up such
fragments of their property as had been rescued
from the wreck, and tied it up in bedquilts or
blankets, shouldered their bundles, and moved
slowly down to the point of departure, — their
garments weather-stained and crab-eaten, some
of them without shoes or hats, and all with
much-bronzed faces,—presented a picturesque
and beggarly appearance, in striking contrast
to their aspect before the wreck.
- We were treated with the greatest kindness
by every one connected with the gunboats.
They took us in their arms, and carried us into
the boats, and stood all night beside us, offering
ice-water and wine.   They greatly bewailed our
...   ft^&W^siiftsai THE RESCUE.
misfortunes, and told us, that, when they heard
of our condition, they put on every pound of
steam the vessels would bear, in order to reach
us as speedily as possible, fearing that some
greater calamity might befall us, —that our supply of water might entirely fail, or that the
trade-wind might .change, and a storm bring
the sea over the island. They told us, too, that
we were very far off the track of vessels; and, if
our boats had failed to bring succor, in all probability no one would ever have come there in
search of us.
The two schooners decided to remain a while,
and wreck the vessel.    As we steamed away
■from the reef, we passed her huge skeleton upon
the rocks, the bell still hanging to the iron-part
of the frame.
On the second day we reached Aspinwall, and
disembarked. As we sat on the wharf, in little
groups, on pieces of lumber or on our bundles,
waiting fqr arrangements to be made for our
transportation across the Isthmus, a black man,
employed there, fixed his eye upon our dark-
skinned Julia, and, approaching, asked if she
"got free in the Linkum war." I told him
that she did, and asked him where he came
from. He said he was from Jamaica; and I
said, " I suppose you have been free a long 14
time ? " to which he replied, with great energy,
" Before I was born, I was free," and repeated
it again and again, — " before I was born."
We found that Julia, to whom all things were
new in the land of freedom, thought that the
island where we spent so many days was a regular stopping-place on the way to California, and
that the wreck was a legitimate mode of stopping ; as one day she inquired if that was the
way they always went to San Francisco, and
said, if she had known travelling was so hard,
she would not have started. This accounted
for her equanimity, which surprised me, after
the vessel struck the reef, as she sat quietly eating Ker cakes, while every thing was going to'
destruction around us, and the sea broke above
our heads.
In crossing the Isthmus of Panama, we were
delighted with the neat appearance of the natives, whom we saw along the roadside, or sitting in their little huts near by, which were
made of the trunks of the tall palm-trees, in
columns, open at the side, and thatched with
leaves. These people were clad in clean white
garments, the women with muslins and laces
drooping from their bare shoulders, and with
bright flowers in their hair.
On reaching Panama, the women there greeted VOYAGE TO SAN FRANCISCO. 15
us with great kindness and sympathy. One of
them threw her arms around one of the first
women of our party that she saw, and exclaimed,
" Oh, we have thought so much about you! we
were afraid you would die for want of water."
It seemed strange that they should have cared
so much, when a little while before they never
knew of our existence. I felt as if I had hardly
had a chance before in my life to know what
mere humanity meant, apart from individual
interest, and how strong a feeling it is.    We
o o
realized still more the kindness of these " dear,
dark-eyed sisters," when we opened the trunk
of clothing which they sent on board the
"America," the steamer that took us to San
The voyage up the Pacific coast was long and
wearisome. For some days we felt seriously the
ill effects of the island life and the tropic heat,
and could only endure; until, one morning, we
came up on deck, and there were the beautiful
serrated hills of Old California. We had rounded
Cape St. Lucas, and had a strong, exhilarating
breeze from the coast, and began to be ourselves
The monotony of our sea-life was broken by
one event of special interest, — the addition of
another human being to our large number.   I -f^lK
must mention first, — for it seems as if they
brought her, — that all one day we sailed in a
cloud of beautiful gray-and-white gulls, flying-
incessantly over and around us, with their pretty
orange bills and fringed wings and white fan-
tails. They were very gentle and dove-like.
They staid with us only that day. The last
thing that I saw at night, far into the dark, was
one flying after us; and, the next morning, we
heard of the birth of the baby. She was christened in the cabin, the day after, by the Micro-
nesian missionary, in the presence of a large
company. A conch-shell from the reef served
as  the  christening-basin.    The American flag
© O
was festooned overhead; and, as far as possible,
the cabin was put into festive array. She was
named "Roncadora America," from the reef,
and the vessel on which she was born. The
captain gave her some little garments he was
carrying home to his own unborn baby, and the
gold ties for her sleeves. When her name was
pronounced, the ship's gun was fired; then the
captain addressed the father, who held her, and
presented him with a purse of fifty dollars from
the passengers, ending in triumph with —
" And now, my friends, see Eoncadora,
With freedom's banner floating o'er her.
The father then uncovered her; she having made
herself quite apparent before by wrestling with
her little fists under the counterpane, and uttering a variety of wild and incomprehensible
sounds. She proved a handsome baby, large
and red, with a profusion of soft, dark hair. II.
Port Angeles. — Indian " Hunter " and his Wife. — Sailor's
Funeral.— Incantation. — Indian Graves. — Chief Yeo-
mans. — Mill Settlements. — Port Gamble Trail. — Canoe
Travel. —The Memaloost.— Tommy and his Mother.
Olympic Range. — Ediz Hook. —Mrs. S. and her Children.
— Grand Indian Wedding. — Crows and Indians.
Port Angeles, Washington Territory,
July 20,1865.
"TTT'E reached here day before yesterday,
» V very early in the morning. We were
called to the forward deck; and before us was
a dark sea-wall of mountains, with misty ravines and silver peaks, — the Olympic Range,
a fit home for the gods.
A fine blue veil hung over the water, between us and the shore; and, the air being too
heavy for the smoke of the Indian village to
rise, it lay in great curved lines, like dim, rainbow-colored serpents, oyer sea and land.
I thought it was the loveliest place I had
ever seen. The old Spanish explorers must
have thought so too, as they named it "Port
of the Angels."
We found that the path to our house was an
Indian trail, winding about a mile up the bluff
from the beach; the trees shutting overhead,
and all about us a drooping white spirea, a
most bridal-looking flower. Here and there,
on some precipitous bank, was the red Indian-
flame. Every once in a while, we came to a
little opening looking down upon the sea; and
the sound of it was always in our ears. At
last we reached a partially cleared space, and
there stood the house; behind it a mountain
raiige, with snow filling all the ravines, and,
below, the fulness and prime of summer. We
are nearly at the foot of the hills, which send
us down their snow-winds night and morning,
and their ice-cold water. Between us and them
are the fir-trees, two hundred and fifty and
three hundred feet high ; and all around, in the
burnt land, a wilderness of bloom, — the purple
fire weed, that grows taller than our heads, and
in the richest luxuriance, of the same color as
the Alpine rose, — a beautiful foreground for
snowy hills.
The house is not ready for us. We are
obliged at present, for want of a chimney, to
stop with our nearest neighbor. But we pay
it frequent visits. Yesterday, as we sat there,
we received a call from two Indians, in extreme 20
undress. They walked in with perfect freedom,
and sat down on the floor. We shall endeavor
to procure from Victoria a dictionary of the
Haidah, Chinook, and other Indian languages,
by the aid of which we shall be able to receive
such visitors in a more satisfactory manner.
At present, we can only smile very much at
them. Fortunately, on this occasion, our carpenter was present, who told us that the man
was called " Hunter," which served as an introduction. Hunter took from the woman a white
bag, in which was a young wild bird, and put it
©7 J © JT
into my hands. The carpenter said that this
Indian had done some work for him, bringing
©        O
up lumber from the beach, etc., and had come
for his pay; that he would not take a white
man's word for a moment, but if, in making an
agreement with him, a white man gave him a
little bit of paper with any thing written on it,
he was perfectly satisfied, and said, " You my
tilikum [relation] — I wait."
The neighbor with whom we are stopping
says, that, the ^night before we came, a wildcat
glared in at her as she sat at her window.
It looks very wild here, the fir-trees are so
shaggy. I think the bears yet live under them.
Many of the trees are dead. When the setting
sun lights up the  bare, pointed  trunks, the SAILOR'S FUNERAL. 21
great  troops of firs  look like  an- army with
spears of gold, climbing the hills.
July 30,1865.
To-day, as- we were descending by the trail
from the bluff to the beach, we saw a funeral
procession slowly ascending the wagon-road.
It came from the Sailors' Hospital. We waited
until it passed. The cart containing the coffin
was drawn by oxen, and followed by a little
white dog and a few decrepit sailors. There
was no sign of mourning, but a reverent look
in their faces. The body had been wrapped in
a flag by brotherly hands. The deep music
of the surf followed them, and the dark fir-
branches met overhead.
In California, the poorest of people, by the
competition of undertakers, are furnished, at low
rates, with the use of silver-mounted hearses
and nodding plumes, a shrouding of crape, and
a long line of carriages. - Even those who have
really loved the one who is gone seem, in some
incomprehensible way, to find a solace in these
manifestations, and would have considered this
sailor's solitary funeral the extreme of desolation. But Nature took him gently to her
bosom; the soft sky and the fragrant earth
seemed to be calling him home.
■ TtC^S.
We found by inquiry that it Was the funeral
of an entirely unknown sailor, who had not even
any distant friends to whom he wished messages sent. His few possessions he left for the
use of the children of the place, and quietly
closed   his   eyes   among   strangers,  returning
J O O 7 o
peacefully to the unknown country whence he
Aug. 2,1865.
We went this morning to an Indian Tamdh-
nous (incantation), to drive away the evil spirits
from a sick man. He lay on a mat, surrounded
by women, who beat \ on instruments made by
stretching deer-skin over a frame, and accom-
panied the noise thus produced by a monotonous wail. Once in a while it became quite
stirring, and the sick man seemed to be im-
proved by it. Then an old man crept in
stealthily, on all-fours, and, stealing up to him,
put his mouth to the flesh, here and there, apparently sucking out the disease.
Aug. 17,1865.
Hunter stopped to rest to-day on our doorsteps. He had a haunch of elk-meat on his
back, one end resting on his head, with a cushion of green fern-leaves. He called me " Olashe
turn-turn" (Good Heart), and gave me a great
many beautiful smiles. INDIAN GRAVES.
We find that there are a number of canoes
suspended in the large fir-trees on some of our
land, with the mummies of Indians in them.
These are probably the bodies of chiefs, or persons of high rank. There is also a graveyard
on the beach, which is gay with bright blankets, raised like flags, or spread out and nailed
upon the roofs over the graves, and myriads
of tin pans: we counted thirty on one grave.
A looking-glass is one of the choicest of the
decorations. On one we noticed an old trunk,
and others were adorned with rusty guns.
Last night there came a prolonged, heavy,
booming sound, different from any thing we had
heard before. In the morning we saw that
there had been a great landslide on the moun-
tain back of us, bringing down rocks and trees.
Aug. 30, 1865.
Yeomans, an old Indian chief, the Tyee of
the Flat-heads at Port Angeles, came to see us
to-day. He pointed to himself, and said, " Me
all the same white man; " explaining that he did
not paint his face, nor drink whiskey. Mrs.
S., at the light-house, said that she had frequently invited him to dinner, and that he
handled his napkin with perfect propriety; although he is often to be seen sitting cross-legged
on the sand, eating his meal of sea-urchins. 24
He is very dramatic, and described to us by
sounds only, without our understanding any of
the words, how wild the water was at Cape
Flattery, and how the ships were rocked about
there. It was thrilling to hear the sounds of
the winds as he represented them: I felt as if
I were in the midst of a great storm.
His little tribe appear to have great respect
for his authority as a chief, and show a proper
deference towards him. He is a mild and gentle ruler, and not overcome by the pride and
dignity of his position. He is always ready
to assist in dragging our boat on to the beach,
and does not disdain the dime offered him in
compensation for the service.
His son, a grown man, no longer young, who
1 © * © */ ©*
introduced himself to us as "Mr. Yeomans's
son," and who appears to have no other designation, is much more of a wild Indian than the
old man.    Sometimes I see him at night, going
© '   O ©
out with his klootchman in their little canoe;
she, crouched in her scarlet blanket at one end,
holding the dark sail, and the great yellow
moon shining on them.
I used to wonder, when we first came here,
what their interests were, and what they were
thinking about all the time. Little by little we
find out.    To-night he came in to tell us that MILL SETTLEMENTS.
there was going to be a great potlaeh at the
coal-mines, where a large quantity of iktas
would be given away, — tin pans, guns, blankets, canoes, and money. How his eyes glistened
as he described it! It seems that any one who
aspires to be a chief must first give & potlaeh
to his tribe, at which he dispenses among them
all his possessions.
This afternoon, as I sat at my window, my
attention was attracted by a little noise. I
looked up; and there was a beautiful young
-L     J J ©
Indian girl, holding up a basket of fruit, of the
same color as her lips and cheeks. It was a
delicious wild berry that grows here, known as
the red huckleberry. Mrs. S. knew her, and
told me that she was the daughter of the old
chief, lately betrothed to a Cape-Flattery Indian.
Sept. 20,1865.
Everywhere about Puget Sound and the ad-
joining waters are little arms of the sea running
up into the land, like the fiords of Northern
Europe. Many of them have large sawmills
at the head. We have been travelling about,
stopping here and there at the little settlements
around the mills. We were everywhere most
hospitably received. All strangers are welcomed
as guests.    Every thing seems so comfortable, 26
and on such a liberal scale, that we never think
of the people as poor, although the richest here
have only bare wooden walls, and a few articles
of furniture, often home-made. It seems, rather,
as if we had moved two or three generations
back, when no one had any thing better; or, as
if we might perhaps be living in feudal times,
these great mill-owners have such authority in
the settlements. Some of them possess very
large tracts of land, have hundreds of men in
their employ, own steamboats and hotels, and
have large stores of general merchandise, in connection with their mill-business. They sometimes provide amusements for the men, —little
dramatic entertainments, etc., — to keep them
from resorting to drink; and encourage them to
© ■* ©
send for their families, and to make gardens
around their houses.
The house where we stopped at Port Madison
was very attractive. The maple-trees had been
cut down to build it; but life is so vigorous
here, that they grew up under the porch, and
then, as they became taller, came outside, and
curved up around it, so that it was a perfect
nest. The maple here is not just like the Eastern tree, but has a larger, darker leaf. Inside,
the rooms were large and low, with great fireplaces filled with flaming logs, that illuminated
them brilliantly. PORT GAMBLE TRAIL.
We began our expedition round the Sound
in a plunger, — the most atrocious little craft
ever constructed. Its character is well expressed by its name. These boats are dangerous enough in steady hands; but, as they are
exceedingly likely to be becalmed, the danger
is very much increased from the temptation to
drink that seems always to assail the captain
and men in these wearisome delays. t
To avoid waiting two or three days at- Port
© J
Madison for the steamer, we determined to
cross to the next port by an Indian trail through
the woods; though we were told that it was
very rough travelling, and that no white woman
had ever crossed there, and, also, that we might
have to take circuitous routes to avoid fires.
We started early in the morning, allowing the
whole day for the journey. We passed through
one of the burnt regions, where the trees were
still standing, so gray and spectral that it was
like a strange dream. Farther along we heard
a prolonged, mournful sound, that we could not
account for; but, in a little while, we came to
where the bright flames were darting from the
trunks and branches, and curling around them.
The poor old trees were creaking and groaning,
preparatory to falling. We were obliged, occasionally, to abandon  the  trail;  or, rather, it 28
abandoned us, being burnt through. Off the
path, the underbrush was almost impassable;
the vine-maple, with crooked stems and tangled
branches, with coarse briers and vines, knit
every thing together.    It  seemed more like a
J © ©
tropical than a northern forest, there were so
many glossy evergreen leaves. We recognized
among them the holly-leaf barberry (known
also as the Oregon grape), one of the most
beautiful of shrubs. Its pretty clusters of yellow flowers were withered, and its fruit not yet
ripe. We found also the sallal, — the Indian's
berry, — the salmon-colored raspberry, and the
coral-red huckleberry. Occasionally we heard
the scream of a hawk, or the whirring of great
wings above our heads; but, for the most part,
we tramped on in perfect silence. The woods
were too dark and dense for small birds.
It was curious to notice how much some of
the little noises sounded like whispers, or like
footsteps. There was hardly a chance that
there could be any other human beings there
besides ourselves. It recalled to me"the Indian's
dread of skookums (spirits) in the deep woods.
To him, the mere flutter of a leaf had a meaning ; the sighing of the wind was intelligible
language. So many generations of Indians had
crossed that trail, and so few white people, I PORT  GAMBLE  TRAIL.
felt as if some subtile aroma of Indian spirit
must linger still about the place, and steal into
our thoughts. Occasionally an owl 'stirred in
the thicket beside us, or we caught a glimpse
of the mottled beauty of a snake gliding across
our path. The great boom and crash of the
faUing trees startled us, until we were used to
it, and understood it.
Whenever we left the trail, we felt some
doubt lest we might not find it again, or might
O © ' o
happen upon an impassable stream that would
cut us off from farther progress; not feeling,
quite equal to navigating with a pole on a snag,
after the fashion of the Indians.
Near sunset, when the woods began to grow
darker around us, we saw a bird, about as large
as a robin, with a black crescent on his breast.
His song was very different from that of the
robin, and consisted of five or six notes, regularly descending in minor key. It thrilled me
to hear it in the solitary woods: it was like the
wail of an Indian spirit.
It began to be quite a serious question to us,
what we were to do for the night; as how near
© s
or how far Port Gamble might be, we could not
tell. There was no possibility of our climbing
the straight fir-trees, with branches high overhead ; and to stop on the ground was not to be 30
thought of, for fear of wild beasts. We hastened
on, but the trail became almost undistinguish-
able before the lights of Port Gamble appeared
below us. As we descended to the settlement,
we were met with almost as much excitement
on the part of the mill people, who had never
crossed the trail, as if we had risen from the
water, or floated down from the sky, among
We take great satisfaction in the recollection
of this one day of pure Indian life.
The next day we decided to try a canoe.
We should not have ventured to go alone with
the Indians, not understanding their talk; but
another passenger was to go with us, who represented that he had learned the only word it
would be necessary to use. He explained to us,
after we started, that the word was " hyae,"
which meant " hurry up;" the only danger being
that we should not reach Port Townsend before
dark, as they were apt to proceed in so leisurely
a way when left te* themselves. After a while,
the bronze paddlers — two siwashes (men) and
two klootchmen (women) — began to show some
abatement of zeal in their work, and our fellow-
passenger pronounced the talismanic word, with
some emphasis; whereat they laughed him to
scorn, and made some sarcastic remarks, half " CANOE  TRAVEL.
Chinook and half English, from which we
gathered that they advised him, if he wanted
to reach Port Townsend before dark, to tell the
sun to stop, and not tell them to hurry up. We
could only look on, and admire their magnifi-
cent indifference. They stopped whenever they
liked, and laughed, and told stories. The sky
darkened in a very threatening way, and a
heavy shower came on; but it made not the
slightest difference to them. After it was over,
there was a splendid rainbow, like the great
gate of heaven. This animated the Indians,
and their spirits rose, so that they began to
sing ; and we drifted along with them, catching
enough of their careless, joyous mood, not to
worry about Port Townsend, although we did
not reach the wharf till two or three hours after
A day or two after, we found, rather to our
regret, that we should be obliged to take a canoe
again, from Port Discovery. The intoxicated
"Duke of Wellington" — an Indian with a
wide gold band round his hat, and a dilapidated
naval uniform — came down, and invited us to
go in his sloop. We politely deelined the offer,
and selected Tommy, the only Indian, we were
told, who did not drink. With the aid of some
of the bystanders, we asked his views of the 32
weather. He said there would undoubtedly be
plenty of wind, and plenty of rain, but it
would not make any difference: he had mats
enough, and we could stop in the woods. But,
as we had other ideas of comfort, we waited two
days; and, as the weather was still unsettled,
we took the precaution, before starting, to give
him his directions for the trip: " JSalo wind,
Port Angeles; hyiu wind, Dungeness," meaning
that we were to have the privilege of stopping
at Dungeness if it should prove too stormy to
go on. So he and his little klootchman, about
as big as a child of ten, took us off. When we
reached the portage over which they had to
carry the canoe, he pointed out the place of the
memaloost (the dead). I see the Indians often
bury them between two bodies of water, and
have wondered if this had any significance to
them. I have noticed, too, that their burial-
places have always wild and beautiful surroundings. At this place, the blue blankets over the
graves waved in the wind, like the wings of
some great bird. A chief, was buried here; and
some enormous wooden figures, rudely carved,
stood to guard him. They looked old and worn.
They had long, narrow eyes, high cheek-bones,
and long upper lips, like true Indians, with
these features somewhat exaggerated.
We tried to talk with Tommy a little about
the memaloost. He said it was all the same with
an Indian, whether he was memaloost, or on the
illahie (the earth); meaning that he was equally
alive. We were told at the store, that Tommy
still bought sugar and biscuits for his child who
had died.
When we reached the other side of the portage, the surf roared so loud, it seemed frightful
to launch the canoe in it; but Tommy praised R.
as skookum (very strong) in helping to conduct it
over. He seemed much more good-natured than
the Indians we had travelled with before. He
smiled at the loon floating past us, and spoke
to it.
When we reached Dungeness, he represented
that it would be very rough outside, in the
straits. So he took us to a farmhouse. I began
to suspect his motive, when I saw that there
was a large Indian encampment there, and he
pointed to some one he said was all the same
as his mamma. It was the exact representation of a sphinx,—an old gray creature lying
on the sand, with the upper part of her body
raised, and her lower limbs concealed by her
blanket. I expected to see Tommy run and
embrace her: but he walked coolly by, without  giving   her any greeting whatever;  and 34
she remained perfectly imperturbable, never
stirred, and her expression did not change in
the least. I was horror-stricken, but afterwards
altered my views of her, and came to the conclusion that she was a good, kind mother, only
that it was their way to refrain from all appearance of emotion. When we started the next
morning, she came down to the canoe with the
little klootchman, loaded with presents, which she
carried in a basket on her back, supported by a
broad band round her head, — smoking-hot venison, and a looking-glass for the child's grave,
among them. The old lady waded into the
water, and pushed us off with great energy and
strong ejaculations.
As we approached Port Angeles, we had a
fine view of the Olympic Range of mountains,
—shining peaks of silver in clear outline ; later,
only dark points emerging from seas of yellow
light. Little clouds were drawn towards them,
and seemed like birds hovering over them, sometimes lighting, or sailing slowly off.
Ediz Hook Light, Sept. 23,1865.
This light-house is at the end of a long, nar-
row sand-spit, known by the unpoetical name
of Ediz Hook, which runs out for three miles
into the Straits of Fuca, in  a graceful curve, MRS. S. AND HER  CHILDREN.
forming the bay of Port Angeles. Outside are
the roaring surf and heavy swell of the sea;
inside that slender arm, a safe shelter.
In a desolate little house near by, lives Mrs.
S., whose husband was recently lost at sea.
She is a woman who awakens my deepest wonder, from her being so able to dispense with all
that most women depend on. She prefers still
to live here (her husband's father keeps the
light), and finds her company in her great organ. One of the last things her husband did
was to order it for her, and it arrived after his
death. I think the sailors must hear it as they
pass the light, and wonder where the beautiful
music comes from. There is something very
soft and sweet in her voice and touch.
Sometimes I see the four children out in the-
boat. The little girls are only four and six
years old, yet they handle the oars with ease.
As I look at their bare bright heads in the sunshine, they seem as pretty as pond-lilies. I
feel as if they were as safe, they are so used to
the water.
Port Angeles, Oct. 1,1865.
Port Angeles has been the scene of a grand
ceremony,—the marriage of Yeomans's daughter to the son of a Makah chief. Many of the
Makah tribe attended it.    They came in a fleet Wsbi
of fifty canoes,—large, handsome boats, their
high pointed beaks painted and carved, and
decorated with gay colors. The chiefs .had
eagle-feathers on their heads, great feather-fans
in their hands, and were dressed in black bearskins. Our Flat-heads in their blankets looked
quite tame in contrast with them. They approached the shore slowly, standing in the
canoes. When they reached the landing in
front of Yeomans's ranch, the congratulations
began, with wild gesticulations, leapings, and
contortions. They were tall, savage-looking
men. Some of them had rings in their noses;
and all had a much more primitive, uncivilized
look, than our Indians on the Sound. I could
hardly believe that the gentlemanly old Yeo-
mahs would deliver up his pretty daughter to
the barbarians that came to claim her, and
looked to see some one step forward and forbid
the banns; but the ceremony proceeded as if
every thing were satisfactory. There
more of the true old Indian in him than I
imagined; or perhaps this is a political movement to consolidate the friendship of the tribes.
When they landed, they formed a procession,
bearing a hundred new blankets, red and white,
as a potlach to the tribe. They brought also
some of the much-prized blue blankets, reserved
for special ceremonies and the use of chiefs. CROWS AND INDIANS.
What occurred inside the lodge, we could not
tell; but were quite touched at seeing Yeomans's
son take the flag from his dead sister's grave,
and plant it on the beach at high-water mark,
as if it were a kind of participation, on the part
of the dead girl, in the joy of the occasion.
Oct. 5, 1865.
Flocks of crows hover continually about the
Indian villages. The most proverbially suspicious of all birds is here familiar and confiding.
The Indian exercises superstitious care over
them, but whether from love or fear we could
never discover.' It is very difficult to find out
what an Indian believes. We have sometimes
heard that they consider the crows their ances
tors. It is a curious fact, that the Indians, in
talking, make so much use of the palate, — kl
and other guttural sounds occurring so often,
— and that the crow, in his deep "caw, caw,"
uses the same organ. It may be significant of
some psychological relationship between them. in.
Indian Chief Seattle. — Frogs and Indians. — Spring Flowers and Birds. —The Red Tamdhnous. — The little Pend
d'Oreille. — Indian Legend. —From Seattle to Fort Col-
ville. — Crossing the Columbia River Bar. — The River and
its Surroundings. — Its Former Magnitude.—.The Grande
Coulee. — Early Explorers, Heceta, Meares, Vancouver,
Grey. — Curious Burial-place. — Chinese Miners. — Umatilla.— Walla Walla. — Sage-brush and Bunch-grass.—
Flowers inthe Desert.—"Stick" Indians. — Klickatats.
— Spokane Indian. — Snakes.— Dead Chiefs. —AKamas
Field. — Basaltic Rocks.
Seattle, Washington Territory,
Nov. 5,1865.
~T~YT~E saw here a very dignified Indian, old
» ' and poor, but with something about him
that led us to suspect that he was a chief. We
found, upon inquiry, that it was Seattle, the old
chief for whom the town was named, and the
head of all the tribes on the Sound. He had
with him a little brown sprite, that seemed an
embodiment of the wind, — such a swift, elastic
little creature, — his great-grandson, with no
clothes about him, though it was a cold November day. To him, motion seemed as natural as
Here we first saw Mount Rainier. It was
called by the Indians Tacoma (The nourishing
breast). It is also claimed that the true Indian name is Tahoma (Almost to heaven). It
stands alone, nearly as high as Mont Blanc,
triple-pointed, and covered with snow, most
grand and inaccessible-looking.
We have a great laurel-tree beside our house.
It looks so Southern, it is strange to see it
among the firs. It has a dark outer bark, and
a soft inner skin; both of which are stripped
away by the tree in growing, and the trunk and
branches are left bare and flesh-colored. It has
glossy evergreen leaves, and bright red berries,
that look very cheerful in contrast with the
April 6,1866.
The frogs have begun to sing in the marsh,
and the Indians in their camps. How well
their voices chime together! All the bright
autumn days, we used to listen to the Indians
at sunset; but after that, we heard no sound of
them for several months. They sympathize too
much with Nature to sing in the winter. Now
the warm, soft air inspires them anew. All
through the cold and rainy months, as I looked
out from my window, there was always the
little black figure in the canoe, as free and as '48H
unembarrassed by any superfluities as the birds
that circled around it. It seemed a mistake,
when the most severe weather came, for them
to have made no preparation whatever to meet
it. It drove the women into our houses, with
their little bundles of " fire-sticks " (pitch-wood)
to sell. I offered one of them a pair of shoes ;
but she pointed to the snow, and 'said it was
"hot," and that it would make her feet too cold
to wear shoes.
We were told, before we came here, that this
climate was like that of Asia; and now an Asian
flower has come to confirm it. The marshes are
all gay with it: it is the golden club. The bot-
any calls it the Orontium, because it grows on
the banks of the Orontes; and it is very Asian-
looking. It has a great wrapper, like the rich
yellow silk in which the Japanese brought their
presents to President Lincoln. It is a relation
to the calla-lily, but is larger.
The very last day of winter, as if they could
not possibly wait a day longer, great flocks of
meadow-larks came, and settled down on the
field next to us. They are about as large as
robins, and have a braided work of black-and-
gold to trim off their wings, and a broad black
collar on their orange breasts. They appear to
have a very agreeable consciousness of being in THE RED  TAMAHNOUS.
the finest possible condition. The dear old robins look rather faded beside them. With them
came the crimson-headed linnets. In trying to
identify these little birds from our books, I found
that great confusion had prevailed in regard to
them, because their nuptial plumage differs so
much from their ordinary dress. These darlings
blushed all over with life and joy, which told
me their secret.
April 30, 1866.
In the winter we were told, that, when the
spring came fully on, the Indians would have
the '■'•Red Tamdknous," which means "love." A
little, gray old woman appeared yesterday morning at our door, with her cheeks all aglow, as if
her young blood had returned. Besides the
vermilion lavishly displayed on her face,, the
crease at the parting of her hair was painted
the same color. Every article of clothing she
had on was bright and new. I looked out, and
saw that no Indian had on any thing but red.
Even old blind Charley, whom we had never
seen in any thing but a black blanket, appeared
in a new one of scarlet. But I was most
touched by the change in this woman, because
she is, I suppose, the oldest creature that I ever
looked at. Nothing but a primeval rock ever
seemed to me so old; and when we had seen 42
her before, she was like a mummy generally
in her clothing. These most ancient creatures
have their little stiff legs covered with a kind
of blue cloth, sewed close round them, just like
the mummy-wrappings I have seen at Barnum's
Museum. She has more vivacity and animation
than any one else I ever saw. If anybody has
a right to bright -cheeks, she has. I like the
Indians' painting themselves, for in them it is
quite a different thing from what it is in fashionable ladies. They do it to show how they feel,
not commonly expressing their emotions in
This woman, who is a Pend d'Oreille, has the
most extraordinary power of modulation in her
voice. The Indians, by prolonging the sound
of words, add to their force, and vary their
meaning; so that the same word signifies more
or less, according as it is spoken quickly or
slowly. She has such a searching voice, especially when she is attempting to convict me of
any subterfuge or evasion, that I have to yield
to her at once. The Indians have no word, as
far as I can learn, for " busy." So, when I cannot entertain her, I have to make the nearest
approach I can to the truth, and tell her I am
sick, or something of that kind; but nothing
avails, with her, short of the absolute truth. AN INDIAN LEGEND.
She is so very fantastic and entertaining, that
I should cultivate her acquaintance more, if it
were not for this deficiency in the language,
which makes it impossible to convey the idea
to her when I want to get rid of her. As old
as she is, she still carries home the great sacks
of flour — a hundred pounds — on her back,
superintends the salmon-fishery for the family,
takes care of the tenas men (children), and
looks after affairs in general.
May 10, 1866.
We walked out to Lake Union, and found an
Indian and his wife living in a tree.    The most
primitive of the Indians, the old gray ones, who
look the most interesting, do not commonly
speak the Chinook at all, or have any intercourse with the whites. On the way there, we
found the peculiar rose that grows only on the
borders of the fir-forest, the wild white honeysuckle, and the glossy kinni-kinniek—the Indian
We saw a nest built on the edge of the lake,
rising and falling with the water, but kept in
place by the stalks of shrubs about it. A great
brown bird, with spotted breast, rose from it.
I recognized it as the dabchick. The Indians
say that this bird was once a human being, wife
to an Indian with whom she quarrelled.   He --ana
was transformed to the great blue heron, and
stalks about the marshes. With the remnant
of her woman's skill, she makes these curious
nests, in sheltered nooks, on the edges of lakes.
She dived below the water, and we peeped in
at her babies. Their floating nest was over-
hung by white spirea. They had silver breasts,
and pale blue bills. I wondered that their little
bleating cry did not call her back; but, though
below the water, she seemed to know that we
were near, and as long as we lingered about she
would not return.
We are going on a long journey to the north,
part of it over a desert table-land, where for
four days there will be no house, — a part of the
country frequented by the Snake River Indians
and the Nez Perces, who are inclined to be
hostile. It is near the territory of the Pend
d'Oreilles. I have seen one of them, with a
pretty, graceful ornament in her ear.
Fort Colville, Washington Territory,
June 8, 1866.
We travelled by steamer from Seattle to Portland, thence by a succession of steamers as far
as Wallulla. We then took the stage for Walla
Walla, at which point public accommodation
for travel ceases.    We stopped  there two or CROSSING THE COLUMBIA RIVER BAR.     45
three days, seeking a conveyance across the
country to this point; and finally secured a
wagoner, who agreed to transport us and our
luggage for a hundred dollars, the distance
being two hundred miles.
The most interesting part of the journey was
the passage of the Columbia. The bar at the
mouth of the river is a great hinderance to its
free navigation; and vessels are often detained
for days, and even weeks, waiting for a favorable
opportunity to cross. We waited five days outside in the fog, hearing all the time the deep,
solemn warning of the breakers, to keep off.
Our steadfast captain, as long as he could see
nothing, refused to go on, knowing well the risk,
©' O ©
though he sent the ship's boats out at times to
try to get his bearings.   In all that time, the fog
J © o o
never once lifted so that he could get the horizon-line. At the end of the fifth day, he entered in triumph, with a clear view of the river,
the grandest sight I have ever seen. The passengers seemed hardly to dare to breathe till we
were over the bar. Some of them had witnessed
a frightful wreck there a few years before, when,
after a similar waiting in the fog for nearly a
week, a vessel attempted to enter the river, and
struck on the bar. She was seen for two days
from Astoria, but the water was so rough that 46
no life-boat could reach her. The passengers
embarked on rafts, but were swept off by the
As we passed into the river, I sat on deck,
looking about. All at once I felt a heavy
thump on my back, and a wave broke over my
head,—a pretty rough greeting from the sea.
It seems that we slightly grounded, but were
off in an instant.
I had long looked forward to the wonderful
experience of seeing this immense river, seven
miles broad, rolling seaward, and the great line
of breakers at the bar; but no one can realize,
without actually seeing it, how much its grandeur is enhanced by the surroundings of inter-
min able forest, and the magnificence of its
snow-mountains. The character of the river
itself is in accordance with every thing about
it, especially where it breaks through the Cascade Mountains in four miles of rapids; and
still higher up, shut between basaltic walls,
rushes with deafening roar through the narrow
© o
passage of the Dalles, where it is compressed
into one-eighth of its width. For a long time
I could not receive any other sensation, nor
admit any other thought, but of its terrific
strength. The Indians say that in former times
the river flowed smoothly where are now the ITS FORMER MAGNITUDE.
whirling rapids of the Cascades, but that a
land-slide from the banks dammed up the
stream, and produced this great change. How
many generations have repeated the account of
this wonderful occurrence, from one to another,
to bring it down to our times! This is now
accepted by scientific men as undoubtedly the
It is hard to conceive the idea of the geolo-
gists, that this is only the remnant of a vastly
greater Columbia, that formerly occupied not
only its present bed, but other channels, now
abandoned, including the Grande Coule'e, between whose immense walls it poured a current
ten miles broad at the mouth; and that the
water was at some time one or two thousand
feet above the present level of the river, as
shown by the terraces along its banks, and fragments of drift caught in fissures of the rock.
The Grande Coule'e is like an immense roofless
ruin, extending north and south for fifty miles.
Strange forms of rock are scattered over the
great bare plain. To the Indians, it is the
home of evil spirits. They say there are rumblings in the earth, and that the rocks are hot,
and smoke. Thunder and lightning, so rare
elsewhere on the western coast, are here more
common.    The evidences of volcanic action are mmsm
everywhere apparent, — in the huge masses and
curious columns of basaltic and trap-rock, the
lava-beds through which the rivers have found
their way, and the powdery alkaline soil. The
marks of glaciers are also as distinct in the
bowlders, and the scooping-out of the beds of
lakes. The gravelly prairies between the Columbia and Puget Sound, and the Snoqualmie,
Steilaguamish, and other flats, show that the
Sound was formerly of much more extensive
proportions than at present.
The Columbia was first discovered on the
15th of August, 1775, by Bruno Heceta, a
Spanish explorer, who found an opening in the
coast, from which rushed so strong a current as
to prevent his entering. He concluded that
it was the mouth of some great river, or possibly the Straits of Fuca, which might have been
erroneously marked on his chart. As this was
the anniversary of the Assumption of the Virgin
Mary, he named the opening Ensenada de Asuncion (Assumption Inlet); and it was afterwards
6alled, in the charts published in Mexico, En&e-
fiada de Heceta, and Rio de San Rogue. He
gave to the point on the north side the name of
Cape San Roque; and, to that on the south,
Cape Frondoso (Leafy Cape).
Meares, in 1788, gave the name of Cape Dis- EARLY EXPLORERS.
appointment to the northern point, owing to
his not being able to make the entrance of the
river, and the mouth he called Deception Bay,
and asserted that there was no such river as the
St. Roc, as laid down in the Spanish charts.
Vancouver also, when exploring the Pacific
coast  in 1792, passed
this  great stream,
without suspecting that there was a river of
any importance there. He noticed the line of
breakers, and concluded, that, if there was any
river, it must be unnavigable, from shoals and
reefs. He had made up his mind, that all
the streams flowing into the Pacific between the
fortieth and forty-eighth parallels of latitude
were mere brooks, insufficient for vessels to
navigate, and not worthy his attention.
Capt. Grey, who reached the place shortly
■after, with keener observation and deeper insight, saw the indications of a great river there,
and after lying outside for nine days, waiting a
favorable opportunity to enter, succeeded in
doing so on the 11th of May, 1792, being the
first to accomplish that feat, and explored the
lower portion of it. He gave to the river and
to the southern point the names they now bear.
Vancouver failed in the same way to discover
the Fraser, the great river of British Columbia,
although he actually entered the delta of the 50
river, and sailed about among the sand-banks,
naming one of them Sturgeon ^Bank; while
the Spanish explorers, who were there about the
same time, recognized the fact of its existence
far out at sea, in the irregular currents, the
sand-banks, the drift of trees and logs, and also
in the depression in the Cascade Mountains,
which marks its channel.
In 1805 Lewis and Clarke, who reached the
mouth of the Columbia that year, found that
the Indians called the river " Shocatilcum"
(friendly water).
Tourists have not yet discovered what a
wonderful country this is for sight-seeing, fortunately for us. On our passage up the Columbia, after leaving Portland, we sat for two or
three days, almost alone, on the deck of the
steamer, with nothing to break the silence but
the deep breathing of the boat, which seemed
like its own appreciation of it; and sailed past
the great promontories, some of them a thousand feet high, and watched the slender silver
streams that fall from the rocks, and felt that
we were in a new world, — new to us, but older
and grander than any thing we had ever seen.
We were shown a high, isolated rock, rising
far above the water, on which was a scaffolding,
where, for many generations, the Indians had CURIOUS BURIAL-PLACE.
deposited their dead. They were wrapped in
skins, tied with cords of grass and bark, and
laid on mats." Their most precious possessions
were placed beside them, first made unserviceable for the living, to secure their remaining
undisturbed. The bodies were always laid with
the head toward the west, because the memaloose
illahie (land of the dead) lay that way.
In the instincts of children and of uncivilized
people, there seems something to trust. This
idea of Heaven's lying toward the west appears
to have been held by the New-England Indians
also, and is expressed in Whittier's lines, —
" O mighty Sowanna!
Thy gateways unfold,
From thy wigwam of sunset
Lift curtains of gold I
Take home the poor spirit whose journey is o'er —
Mat wonck kunna-monee !   We see thee no more!"
The Chinese have also the "peaceful land in
the west," lying far beyond the visible universe.
Farther up the river, we passed some abandoned diggings, where little colonies of patient,
toilsome Chinamen had established themselves,
and were washing and sifting the earth discarded
© o
by previous miners; making, we were told, on
the average, two or three cents to the pan.   The ■•mm
Chinaman regularly pays, as a foreigner (and is
almost the only foreigner who does so), his mining-license tax to the State.   He never seeks to
interfere with rich claims, and patiently submits to being driven away from any neglected
spot he may have chosen if a white man takes
a fancy to it.
We stopped one night at Umatilla City, a
cheerless little settlement at the junction of the
Umatilla River with the Columbia, in the midst
of a bleak, dreary waste of sand and sage-brush,
without a sign of a tree in any direction, a
perfect whirlwind blowing all the time. What
could induce people to live there, I could not
We stopped a day or two at Walla Walla,
where one of the early forts was established;
the post having been transferred from Wallula,
where it was called Fort "Nez Perces," from
the Indians in that vicinity, who Wore in their
noses a small white shell, like the fluke of an
The journey from Walla Walla to Fort Col-
ville occupied eleven days and nights, during
which time we did not take a meal in a house,
nor sleep in a bed. It was cold, rainy, and
windy, a good deal of the time, but we enjoyed
it notwithstanding.    To wake up in the clear SAGE-BRUSH AND BUNCH-GRASS.
bird sang all night;
air, with the bright sky above us, when it was
pleasant; and to reach at night the little oases
of willows and birches and running streams
where we camped, — was enough to repay us
for a good deal of discomfort.    At one of the
Cow Creek, — a beautiful
it sounded like bubbling
For several days we saw only great sleepy-
looking hills, stretching in endless succession,
as far as the horizon extended, from morning
till night, as if a billowy ocean had been suddenly transfixed in the midst of its motion.
They have only thin vegetation on them, — not
enough to disturb or conceal the beautiful forms,
the curves which the waves leave on the hills
they deposit. Their colors are very subdued, —
pale salmon from the dead grass, or light green
like a thin veil, with the red earth showing
dimly through. There is no change in looking
at them, but from light to shadow, as the clouds
move over them.
We travelled, for a long distance, over sagebrush and alkali plains. In this part of the
country, sage-brush is a synonym for any thing
that is worthless. We found the little woody
twigs of it available for our camping-fires; but
its amazing toughness reminded me of a story r7Hw5s»ra35
told by Mr. Boiler, in his book "Among the
Indians." He was taking a band of mustang
half-breeds from California to Montana, when,
to his surprise, one of the mares presented him
with a foal. Supposing it would be impossible
for it to keep up with the party, he took out his
revolver to shoot it. Twice he raised it, but the
little fellow trotted along so cheerily that his
heart failed him, and he returned it to the holster. The colt swam creeks breast-high for the
horses, and travelled on with sublime indifference to every thing but the gratification of its
keen little appetite. He resolved to take it
through, thinking it would never do to destroy
an animal of so much pluck, and named it
" Sage-brush." It swam every stream, flinched
from nothing, and arrived in good order in
Montana, a distance of three hundred miles,
having travelled every day from the time it was
half an hour old. Its name was. most appropriate, as an illustration of the character of the
Intermixed with the wastes of sage-brush
were patches of bunch-grass. The horses
sniffed it with delight as luxuriant pasturage.
It is curious to see how nature here acts in the
interest of civilization. The old settlers told
us that many acres formerly covered with sage- FLOWERS IN  THE DESERT.
brush were now all bunch-grass. It is a peculiarity of the sage-brush, that fire will not
spread in it. The bush which is fired will
burn to the ground, but the next will not catch
from it.    The grass steals in among the sage-
o © ©
brush; and, when that is burned, it carries the
fire from one bush to another.    Although the
grass itself is consumed, the roots strike deep;
and it springs up anew, overrunning the dead
Then we came to the most barren country I
ever saw, — nothing but broken, rusty, worm-
eaten looking rocks, where the rattlesnakes
live. But here grew the most beautiful flower,
peach-blossom color. It just thrust its head
out of the earth, and the long pink buds
stretched themselves out over the dingy bits
of rock; and that was all there was of it. We
took some of the roots, which are bulbous, and
shall try to furnish them with sufficient hardships to make them grow.
One night, while in this region, we camped
on a hill where the cayotes came up and cried
round us, which made it seem quite wild.
Wherever there was- any soil, there was
another little plant that was very pretty to
notice, both for itself, and because of its adaptation to the climate in the dry season.   It was 56
coated with a delicate fur; and long after the
hot sun was up, and when every thing else was
dry, great diamonds of dew glistened in its
soft hair. We saw a great many plants of the
lupine family, in every variety of shade, from
crimson, blue, and purple, to white.
On the last days we had all the time before
us dark mountains, with snow on their summits,
and troop's of trees on their sides, and ravines
with sun-lighted mists travelling through them.
© © O
It was like getting into an inhabited country,
to reach the trees again: they were almost
like human beings, after what we had seen.
The Spokane River divides the great treeless
plain on the south from the timbered mountainous country to the north.
During this journey, we came upon various
little bands of Indians, of different tribes. We
noticed the superiority of the " stick " Indians
(those who live in the woods) over those who
live by the sea. The former have herds of
horses, and hunt for their living. The Indians
who live by fishing are of tamer natures, poor
and degraded, compared to those of the interior.
We saw at Walla Walla some of. the Klick-
atats, from the mountains. They were very
bright and animated in their appearance, and
wore fringed dresses and ornamented leggings,
and moccasins of buffalo-skin. They were
mounted upon fancy-colored and spotted horses,
which they prize above all others. They presented such a striking contrast to the lazy
Clalams on the Sound, — who used to say to
us in reply to our inquiries as to their occupations and designs, " Oultus nannitsh, cultus mit-
light" (look about and do nothing), as if that
were their whole business all day long, — that I
was reminded of what some of the early explorers said, that no two nations of Europe differed
more widely from each other than the different
tribes of Indians.
One day we met an Spokane Indian, of very
striking appearance, with a face like Dante's, but
with a happier expression. He was most becomingly clothed in white blankets, compactly folded
about him, with two or three narrow red stripes
across his bonnet of the same material, which had
a red peaked border, completely encircling the
face, like an Irishwoman's night-cap, or rather
day-cap, but much more picturesque. He was
scouring the hills and plains between the Snake
and Spokane Rivers, mounted on a gay little
pony, in search of stolen horses. Upon being
questioned as to his abiding-place, he informed
us that he did not live*anywhere.
We saw some representatives of another tribe 58
of Indians, the Snakes. They call themselves
Shoshones, which means only " inland Indians."
The white people called them Snakes, probably
because of their marvellous power of eluding
pursuit, by crawling off in the long grass, or
diving in the water. They seemed more wild
and agile than any we had seen. The Snakes
were a very- numerous tribe when the traders
first came among them. When questioned as
to their number, .by the agents of " The Great
White Chief," they said, " It is the same as the
stars in the sky." They were a proud, independent people, living mostly on the plains,
hunting the buffalo. They'kept no canoes;
depending only on temporary rafts of bulrushes
or willows, if not convenient to ford or swim
across the streams. They were the only Indians
of this part of the country who had any knowledge of working in clay, — their necessities
obliging them to make rude jugs in which to
carry water across the bare plains. The mountain Snakes were outlaws, enemies to all other
tribes. They lived in bands, in rocky caverns;
and were said to have a wonderful power of
imitating all sounds of nature, from the singing
of birds to the howling of wolves, — by this
means diverting attention from themselves, and
escaping detection in their roving, predatory
expeditions. DEAD CHIEFS.
When we reached the ferry on the Snake
River, we saw some Indians swimming their
horses across. They were a hunting-party of
Spokanes and Nez Perces. Strapped on to one
of the horses, with a roll of blankets, was a Nez
Perces baby. This infant, though apparently
not over a year and a half old, sat erect, grasping the reins, with as spirited and fearless a
look as an old warrior's.
At one of the portages, we saw some graves
of chiefs; the bodies carefully laid in east-and-
west lines, and the opening of the lodge built
over them was toward the sunrise. On a frame
near the lodge were stretched the hides of their
horses, sacrificed to accompany them to another
world. The missionaries congratulate themselves that these barbarous ceremonies are no
longer observed, that the Indian is weaned from
his idea of the happy hunting-ground, and the
sacrilegious thought of ever meeting his horse
again is eradicated from his mind. I thought
with satisfaction that the missionary really
knows no more about the future than the Indian, who seems ill adapted to the conventional
idea of heaven. For my part, I prefer to think
of Mm, in the unknown future, as retaining
something of his earthly wildness and freedom,
rather than as a white-robed saint, singing
psalms, and playing on a harp. 60
Between the Snake and the Spokane are
several beautiful lakes. We met a hunter coming from one of them, who had shot a white
swan. He said he found it circling round and
round its dead mate, in so much distress that
he thought it was a kindness to kill it.
We passed two great smoking mounds, and,
on alighting to investigate, found that we were
in the midst of a kamas-field, where a great
many Indian women and children were busy
digging the root, and roasting it in the earth.
DO       O ' ©
Some of the old women wore the fringed
skirt, made of cloth spun and woven from the
soft inner bark of the young cedar, which they
used to wear before blankets were introduced.
The Indians eat other roots beside the kamas,
but that is the one on which they chiefly depend. As soon as the snow is off the ground,
they begin to search for a little bulbous root
they call the pohpoh. It looks like a small
onion, and has a dry, spicy taste. In May they
get the spatlam, or bitter-root. This is a delicate white root, that dissolves in boiling, and
forms a bitter jelly. The Bitter Root River and
Mountains get their name from this plant. In
June comes the kamas. It looks like a little
hyacinth-bulb, and when roasted is as nice as a
chestnut.   We have seen it in blossom, when
its pale-blue flowers covered the fields so closely
that, at a little distance, we took it for a lake.
One of the women, seeing our curiosity as we
watched them, drew some of the bulbs out of
the earth ovens, and handed them to us. As
we tasted them, they explained that they were
not ready to eat; that it would take two or
three days to roast them sufficiently. This they
live upon for two or three months; with the
salmon, it is their chief article of food. The
women stop at the kamas-grounds, while the
men go to the fishing-stations.
In August they gather the choke-berry and
service-berry, to dry for the winter. When
they are reduced to great extremity for food,
they sometimes boil and eat the moss and
lichens on the trees, which the deer eats. Most
of the work of digging the roots, and picking
the berries, falls upon the women. On this
account, a Spokane man in marrying joins the
tribe of his wife, instead of her joining his
tribe; thinking, if he takes her away from the
places where she has been accustomed to find
her roots and berries, she may not succeed, in a
new place, in discovering them.
We saw, in the vicinity of theJPelouse River,
some remarkable basaltic rocks, that looked
like  buildings with columns and turrets and 62
bastions. Some of them were like my idea of
the great kings' tombs of the Egyptians. The
colors on them were often very Egyptian-like,
— bright sulphur-yellow, and brown, and sometimes orange and dark red, —incrustations of
lichen and weather-staining. We saw, also,
walls of pentagonal columns of rock, packed
closely together.   Where the Pelouse enters the
J ©
Snake River, are immense ledges of square
blocks. When we camped there, and I lay
down beneath them at night, " Swedish trappa,
a stair," from the geological text-book, was.
always running in my mind, — this black trap-
rock made such great steps that led up towards
the sky.
We have seen here a splendid specimen of
gold, which is to be sent to the Exposition at
Paris. It is granulated, and sparkles as I never
saw gold before. Some one suggests that a thin
film of quartz may be crystallized over it.
Next week we hope to go up within sight
of the whirlpools of Death's Rapids, a long
distance above here, on the Columbia River.
These rapids are so named on account of the
number of persons who have been lost in attempting to navigate them. Their names are
cut into the rocks at the side of the passage;
their bodies have never been found. IV.
Two Hundred Miles on the Upper Columbia. — Steamer
" Forty-nine."—Navigation in a Canon.— Pend d'Oreille
River and Lake. — Rock Paintings. — Tributaries of the
Upper Columbia. — Arrow Lakes.—Kettle Falls. — Salmon-catching. — Salmon-dance. — Goose-dance.
Fort Colvtlle, July 20,1866.
~YTT~E have just returned from a trip on the
* » Columbia River, extending two hundred
miles north into British Columbia, on the little
steamer built in this vicinity for the purpose of
carrying passengers and supplies to the Big
Bend and other mines in the upper country.
We did not get to the " Rapids of the Dead."
The boat, this time, did not complete her ordinary trip. Some of the passengers came to the
conclusion that the river was nevfer intended to
be navigated in places she attempted to run
through. It is a very adventurous boat, called
the " Forty-nine," being the first to cross that
parallel, — the line separating Washington Territory from British Columbia. The more opposition she meets with, and the more predictions
63 64
there are against her success, the more resolute
she is to go through; on which account, we
were kept three weeks on the way, the ordinary
length of the passage being four days. I was
surprised, when we came to the first of what
was called the " bad water," to see the boat aim
directly for it. It was much better, the captain
said, to go I head on," than to run the risk of
being carried in by an eddy. I never saw any
river with such a tendency to whirl and fling
itself about as the Upper Columbia has. It
is all eddies, in places where there is the least
shadow of a reason for it, and even where there
is not; influenced, I suppose, by the adjoining
waters. Some of these whirl-pits are ten or fifteen feet deep, measured by the trees that are
sucked down into them.
The most remarkable part of the river is
where it is compressed to one-sixth of its width,
in passing through a mountain gorge three-
quarters of a mile long. The current is so
strong there, that it takes from four to six
hours for the steamer to struggle up against it,
and only one minute to come down. The men
who have passed down through it, in small
boats, say that it is as if they were shot from
the mouth of a cannon.
When we reached this canon, our real diffi- NAVIGATION IN A  CANON.
culties began. We attempted to enter it in
the afternoon, -but met with an accident which
delayed us until the next morning. Meanwhile
the river began to rise. It goes up very rapidly, fifty, sixty, I believe even seventy, feet,
sometimes. We waited twelve days in the
woods for it to subside. The captain cut us a
trail with his axe; and we sat and looked at the
great snow-fields up on the mountains, so brilliant that the whitest clouds looked dark beside
them. The magnificence of the scenery made
every one an artist, from the captain to the
cook, who produced a very beautiful drawing
of three snow-covered peaks, which he called
"The Three Sisters."
Everybody grew very impatient; and at
length, one night, the captain said he would
try it the next morning, although he had never
before been up when the water was so high. A
heavy rain came on, lasting all night, so that
it seemed rather desperate to attempt going
through, if the river was too high the night
before; and I could hardly believe it, when I
heard the engineer getting up the steam to
start. The wildest weather prevailed at this
time, and on all important occasions. As soon
as we went on board the boat, in first starting, a violent thunder-storm came on, lightning, 66
hail, and rain; and a great pine-tree came
crashing down, and fell across the bow of the
boat. A similar storm came again the first
time we tried to enter the canon; and the drift
it brought down so interfered with the steering, that it' led to the accident before men-
tioned. On this last morning, there were most
evident signs of disapproval all about us,—
the sky perfect gloom, and the river continually replenishing its resources from the pouring rain, and strengthening itself against us.
But we steamed up to the entrance of the
caHon. Then the boat was fastened by three
lines to the shore, and the men took out a
cable six hundred feet in length, which they
carried along the steep, slippery rocks, and
fastened to a great tree. One of them rolled
down fifty feet into the water, but was caught
«/ ' O
by his companions before he was whirled away.
They then returned to the boat, let on all the
steam, and began to wind up the cable on
the capstan. With the utmost power of the
men and steam, it was sometimes impossible to
see any progress. Finally, however, that line
was wound up; and the boat was again secured
to the bank, and the cable put out the second
time. This part of the passage was still more
difficult; and, after the line was arranged, two NAVIGATION IN A  CANON.
men were left on shore with grappling-irons
to keep it off the rocks, — a great, fine-looking
one, who appeared equal to any emergency, and
a little, common one, with sandy hair and a
lobster-colored face and neck. We watched
them intently; and, as we drew near, we saw
that the line had caught on something beneath
the surface of the water, so that they could
not extricate it. The little man toiled vigorously at it, standing in the water nearly up to
his head; but appeared to be feebly seconded
by the big one, who remained on the rocks. It
seemed as if the line would part from the
strain, or the boat strike the next moment.
The mate shouted and gesticulated to them;
but no voice could be heard above the raging
water, and they either could not understand
his motions, or could not do as they were directed. The boat bore directly down upon
them. Presently it seemed evident to us that
the little man must sacrifice himself for the
•steamer; but I did not know how it looked to
him, — people are all so precious to themselves.
He stopped a second, then flung back his cap
and pole, and threw himself under the boiling
water. Up came the rope to the surface, but
the man was gone. Instantly after, he scrambled  up the bank; and the great magnificent 68
man did nothing but clutch him on the back
when he was safely out.
We had then wound up about two-thirds of
the cable. Immediately after, this remarkable
occurrence took place: The great heavy line
came wholly up out of the water. A bolt flew
out of the capstan, which was a signal for the
men who were at work on it to spring out
of the way. The captain shouted, " Cut the
rope! I but that instant the iron capstan was
torn out of the deck, and jumped overboard,
with the cable attached to it. I felt thankful
for it, for I knew it was the only thing that
could put an end to our presumptuous attempt.
I had felt that this rope would be a great snare
to us in case of accident. Three of our four
rudders were broken; but the remaining one
enabled us to get into an eddy that carried us
to a little cove, where we stopped to repair
damages sufficiently to come down the river.
All day, the rain had never ceased; and the
river had seemed to me like some of those
Greek streams that Homer tells of, which had
so much personal feeling against individuals.
I felt as if we were going to be punished for
an audacious attempt, instead of rewarded for
what might otherwise have been considered a
brave one.   When the capstan disappeared, it ROCK PAINTINGS.
was just as if some great river-god, with a whiff
of his breath, or a snap of his fingers, had tossed
it contemptuously aside. So we turned back
defeated. But there was a great deal to enjoy,
when we came to think of it afterwards, and
were safely out of it. We had seen nothing so
bold and rugged before. An old Scotchman,
who knows more about it than any one else
here, had said to us before we started, " That
British Columbia is such a terrible country,
very little can ever be known of it." But there
was a great deal that was beautiful too. I was
particularly struck with the manner in which
the Pend d'Oreille springs into the Columbia.
Glen Ellis Fall, gliding down in its swiftness,
always seemed to me more beautiful than almost
any thing else I ever saw. But this river is
more demonstrative. It springs up, and falls
again in showers of spray, and comes with great
leaps out of the canon, in a way that I cannot
describe. There is in it more freedom and
strength and delight than in any thing else I
ever saw. Far to the south-east, this stream
widens into Lake Pend d'Oreille. On this lake
are the wonderful painted rocks, rising far above
the water, upon which, at the height of several
hundred feet, are the figures of men and animals, which the Indians say are the work of a 70     TRIBUTARIES  OF THE   UPPER  COLUMBIA.
race that preceded them. They are afraid to
approach the rocks, lest the waters should rise
in anger, and ingulf them. There are also
hieroglyphic figures far up on the rocks of
Lake Chelan, which is supposed to have once
been an arm of the Columbia. These paintings
or picture-writings must have been made when
the water was so high in the lakes that they
could be done by men in boats.
Most of the tributaries of the Upper Columbia are similar in character to the main stream,
—wild, unnavigable rivers, flowing through deep
canons, and full of torrents and rapids. With
Nature so vigorous and unsubdued about us,
all conventionalities seemed swept away; and
something fresh and strong awoke in us, as if
it had long slumbered until the presence of
its kindred in these mountain streams called
it to consciousness, — something of the force
and freedom of these wild, tireless Titans, that
poured down their white floods to the sea.
Most of these streams rise in lakes, and in
some part of their course spread again into one
or more lakes; as, the Arrow Lakes of the Columbia, the Flat-head, Kootenay, Pend d'Oreille,
and Cceur d'Alene, and the beautiful string of
lakes of the Okinakane, and many others.
As  we  passed  through  the   Upper Arrow KETTLE FALLS.
Lake and Lower Arrow Lake, wnicn
British Columbia, we had some splendid views
of mountain scenery. The Upper Lake is thirty-three miles long, and three in widtl
line water, surrounded by snow-covered peaks
and precipices, and forests of pine and cedar.
The second is sixteen miles below the first,
forty-two miles in length, and two and a half
wide. Innumerable arrows were sticking in
the crevices of the rocks. Formerly every Indian who passed deposited an arrow, —intended probably as an offering to the spirit that
rules over the chase, just as the Indian medicine-man, when he gathers his roots, makes an
offering to the earth.
The Catholic missionaries were much surprised to find crosses erected sometimes in
lonely places, and at first supposed some other
priests must have preceded them; but learned
that they were set up by the Indians, in honor
of the moon, to induce her to favor their
nightly expeditions for robbery or the chase.
July 22,1866.
We have been on an excursion to Kettle
Falls on the Columbia, where the river dashes
over the huge rocks in a most picturesque way.
These falls were called La Chaudiere by the 72
Canadian voyageurs, because the pool below
looks like a great boiling caldron. We noticed that limestone there replaced the black
basalt, of which we had seen so much, the water falling over a tabular bed of white marble.
There  we   saw   some   Indians   engaged   in
o   ©
spearing salmon, as the fish were attempting
to leap the falls, in their passage up the stream
to their breeding-places. They do not always
succeed in passing the falls at their first leap,
sometimes  failing  back  two  or  three  times.
Many of them are dashed on the rocks at the
Cascades, and at other points where the river
presents obstacles to their progress. An immense number become victims to the nets of
the fishermen, and the traps and spears of the
Indians ; and those that escape these dangers,
and reach the upper waters, are very much
bruised and battered, — " spent salmon " they
are called. After their long journey of six or
seven hundred miles from the sea, it seems as
if they would be filled with despair at the sight
of these boiling cataracts. They refuse bait on
the way, apparently never stopping for food,
from the time they leave the salt water. Often
with fins and tails so worn down as to be
almost useless, their noses worn to the bone,
their-"eyes  sunken,   sometimes  wholly  extin- SALMON-DANCE.
guished, they struggle on to the last gasp, to
ascend the streams to their sources. In calm
weather they swim near the surface, and close
to the shore, to avoid the strong current; and
they are so ppssessed with this one purpose, and
so regardless of every thing about them, that
the Indians catch hundreds of them by merely
slipping the gaff-hook under their bodies, and
lifting them out of the water, — selecting the
best to preserve for food, and throwing aside
those that they consider as worthless. These
pale, emaciated creatures, I looked at with the
greatest interest. How strong is the impulse
that carries them through, in spite of these
almost insurmountable obstacles! It is beyond
our knowledge, why, in coming in from the
sea, they pass certain streams to enter others;
but this they are known to do, so perfectly
do they understand the mysterious direction
given them.
The early explorers witnessed many ceremonies among the Indians not now observed by
them; as, the salmon-dance, to celebrate the
taking of the first salmon in the river. When
the earliest spring salmon was caught in the
Columbia, the Indians were extremely particular in their dealings with it. No white man
could obtain it at any price, lest, by opening it GOOSE-DANCE.
with a knife instead of a stone, he should drive
all following salmon from the river. Certain
parts must be eaten with the rising, and others
with the falling, tide; and many other minute
regulations carefully observed. After the salmon-berry ripened, they relaxed their vigilance,
feeling that by that time the influx was secure.
The Gros Ventres celebrated the goose-dance,
to remind the wild geese, as they left in the
autumn, that they had had good food all summer, and must come back in the spring. This
dance was performed by women, each one carrying a bunch of long seed-grass, the favorite food
of the wild goose. They danced to the sound
of the drum, circling about with shuffling steps. Old Fort Colville. — Angus McDonald and his Indian Family.
— Canadian Voyageurs. — Father Joseph. — Hardships of
the Early Missionaries. — The Cceurs d'Alene and their
Superstitions. —The Catholic Ladder. — Sisters of Notre
Dame. — Skill of the Missionaries in instructing the Indians. — Father de Smet and the Blackfeet. — A Native
Dance. — Spokanes. — Exclusiveness of the Cceurs d'Alene.
— Battle of Four Lakes. — The Yakima Chief and the
Fort Colville, July 25, 1866.
~T~E have been making a little visit to
Old Fort Colville, one of the Hudson
Bay stations, kept by Angus McDonald, an old
Scotchman, who has been there for a great
many years. He is an educated gentleman, of
a great deal of character and intelligence; and
his wife is 'an Indian woman, who cannot live
more than half the year in the house, and has
to wander about, the rest of it, with her tilicums
(relations and friends).
It was interesting to see how this cultivated
man, accustomed to the world as he had been,
had adapted himself to life in this solitary spot
on the frontier, with his Indian children for his
only companions. He has about ten. In some
of them the Scotch blood predominated, but
in most the Indian blood was more apparent.
The oldest son, a grown man, was a very dark
Indian, decorated with wampum. Christine,
the oldest daughter, resembled her father most.
She kept house for him, because, as she explained to us, her mother could not be much
in-doors. She spoke, too, of disliking to be
confined. I asked her where she liked best to
be; and she said, with the Blackfeet Indians,
because they had the prettiest dances, and could
do such beautiful bead-work; and described
their working on the softened skins of elk,
deer, and antelope, making dresses for chiefs
and warriors. We had a sumptuous meal of
Rocky-Mountain trout, buffalo-tongues, and
pemmican. Although Christine was, in some
respects, quite a civilized young lady, she occasionally betrayed her innocence of conventionalities, as when she came and whispered to me,
before the meal was announced, what the chief
dishes were to be. She mentioned, as one of
the delicacies of the Blackfeet, berries boiled in
Mr. McDonald told us many stories about
the Canadian voyageurs employed by the Hudson Bay Company, illustrating their power of CANADIAN  VOYAGEURS.
endurance and their elastic temperament. One
of their men, he said, was lost for thirty-five
days in the woods, and finally discovered by
the Indians, crawling on his hands and feet
towards a brook, nearly exhausted, but still
keeping up his courage. He asked us if we
could conjecture how he had kept alive all that
time, with no means whatever, outside of himself, to procure food. He had actually succeeded in making a fine net from his own hair,
with which he caught small fishes, devouring
them raw, accompanied by a little grass or moss;
not daring to eat any roots or berries, lest they
might be poisonous, as the country was new to
him. These Canadians are as brown as Indians,
from their constant exposure to the sun and
wind, and have adapted themselves completely
to Indian ways, wearing a blanket capote, leather
trousers, moccasins, and a fur cap, with a bright
sash or girdle to hold a knife and a tobacco-
pouch. Their half-breed children are generally
excellent canoe-men and hunters, with the vivacity of the father, and the endurance of the
mother's race. Marcel Bernier, one of these
French Canadians, was one of the early settlers
in the Cowlitz Valley; and we have travelled
with him between the Columbia River and
Puget Sound, and once stopped at his house FATHER JOSEPH.
over night. It was quite different from the
common Indian houses; having pillow-cases
trimmed with ruffles and lace, and great bearskin mats on the floor. The baby slept in a
little hammock swung from the ceiling. The
family were devoted Catholics, and sung matins and vespers, and had pictures and images
of saints about the room. We were quite impressed by the advance in civilization which the
little admixture of French blood had brought.
Christine took us to see an ancient Indian
woman, who remembers the country when there
were no white people in it. She has the fifth
generation of her children about her. She is
wholly blind, her eyes mostly closed, only little
bloodshot traces of them left. She sat serenely
in the sunshine, hollowing out a little canoe of
pine-bark for the youngest, two little girls who
swam in the arm of the river before the tent-
We went with Christine also up on the bluff
to see Father Joseph, a Catholic priest, who
represented to me a new class of men, whom I
had known before only in books. His eyes
were as clear blue as Emerson's ideal ones, that
tell the truth; and I knew he meant it, when he
answered a question I asked him, in a way that
surprised me, and which I should have taken, HARDSHIPS OF EARLY MISSIONARIES.
in some men, for cant. I asked him if it was
not ever solitary there; and he said, " It is
enough like my own home [Switzerland] for
that, but all countries are alike to me. We
have no home here below." For twenty-five
years he has lived on the top of that hill, with
only miserable Indians around him, who could
repay him very little for all his efforts. In the
Indian war, he was supposed to be so strongly
on the side of the Indians, that the government
agent, as I find by the printed report, recommended his removal; although he admitted that
£ ©
it was hard to say any thing against a man who
had made such unbounded sacrifices for what
he considered the good of the Indians. He had
books in all languages on his shelves, and was
very intelligent and courteous.
He described the condition of the country
when the first little band of Jesuits, of whom
he was one, entered upon the Oregon mission,
— Oregon then extending east as far as the
Rocky Mountains. They had often to travel
through dark forests, into which the daylight
never entered, and, axe in hand, make their own
paths through the wilderness, sometimes crawling on all-fours through labyrinths of fallen
trees, fording rivers where the water reached to
their shoulders, travelling afterwards in their 80
wet clothes, with swollen limbs, and moccasins
soaked in blood from' laceration of their feet by
the thorns of the prickly pear, and lying down
at night on their beds of brushwood, wrapped
in their buffalo-robes. The Indians were full
of curiosity to know what they were in search
of, and listened with great interest when they
attempted to talk with them. The first group
that Father Joseph gathered about him sat all
night to hear him, although they had come from
hard labor of hunting and fishing, and digging
© ©' oo       o
roots. He said, that, however degraded they
were, they were all eager to find some power
superior to man.
The tribe among whom he first established
himself—the Cceurs d'Alene—were renowned
among all the tribes for their belief in sorcery;
and he experienced great difficulty in making
an impression upon them, from the opposition
of the medicine-men (jugglers). Among this
tribe he found two relics held in great esteem,
of which the Indians gave him this account: —
They said that the first white man they ever
saw wore a spotted-calico shirt—which to them
appeared like the small-pox—and a great white
comforter. They thought the spotted shirt was
the Great Manitou himself, the master of the
alarming disease that swept them off in such WORSHIP OF MANITOUS.
vast numbers, and that the white comforter
was the Manitou of the snow; that, if they
could only secure and worship them, the smallpox would be banished, and abundant snows
would drive the buffalo down from the mountains. The white man agreed to give them
up, receiving in exchange several of their best
horses; and for many years these two Manitous
were carried in solemn procession to a hill consecrated to superstitious rites, laid reverently on
the grass, and the great medicine-pipe (which
is offered to the earth, the sun, and the water)
was presented to them; the whole band singing,
dancing, and howling around them.
Father Joseph treated the Indians altogether
as children, and devised a system of object-
teaching, making little images representing
what they were to shun, and what to seek, to
which he pointed in instructing them. He considered it a miracle, that they yielded their
hearts to his teaching; but it seemed to me, that
if the good priest's gentle ways and entire devotion to their welfare had produced no effect, it
would have been as contradictory to all the laws
of nature as any miracle could be. While instructing some savages from Puget Sound, he
o © o
said the idea came into the mind of one of the
priests, to represent by a ladder, which he made 82
on paper, the various truths and mysteries of
religion, in their chronological order. This
proved vastly beneficial in instructing them. It
was called the " Catholic ladder," and disseminated widely among the Indians; their progress
in religion being measured by their knowledge
of this ladder. At the same time that he sent
the ladder among them, he sent also roots and
seeds and agricultural tools. I could hardly
repress a smile at seeing that he spoke with the
same enthusiasm of their success with the beans
and potatoes, as with the ladder. The truth is,
that he had deeply at heart the good of these,
his "wild children of the forest," as he always
called them. It was quite touching to him, he
said, to see how ready they were to believe that
God took charge of earthly things as well as
of heavenly.
One of his associates in the early missions
was a Belgian priest, whose journal he showed
us. He brought over, to aid in the work, six
sisters of Notre Dame, in 1844. • The vessel
which brought them to the Pacific coast stopped
at Valparaiso and Lima, to inquire how to enter
the Columbia River. Not receiving any satis-
factory information, they sailed north till they
reached the forty-sixth degree of latitude.
Then  they explored for several days, and at SISTERS OF NOTRE DAME.
length saw a sail coming out of what appeared
to be the mouth of a river. They immediately
sent an officer to find out from this vessel how
to enter; but, as he did not return, they were
obliged to approach alone the " vast and fearful
mouth of the river," and soon found themselves
in the terrible southern channel, into which,
they were assured afterwards, no vessel had ever
sailed before. The commander of the fort at
Astoria had endeavored, by hoisting flags, by
great signal-fires, and guns, to warn them of
their danger. They saw the signals, but did
not suspect their intention. They sailed two
miles amidst fearful breakers. When at length
they reached stiller water, a canoe approached
them, containing an American man and some
Clatsop Indians. The white man told them he
would have come sooner to their aid, but the
Indians refused to brave the danger; and said
that he expected every moment to see the vessel
dashed into a thousand pieces. The Indians,
seeing it ride triumphantly over the dreadful
bar, considered it under the special guidance
of the Great Spirit, and greeted it "with wild
screams of delight. This was the introduction
of the serene sisters to their field of labor. My
idea of the sisters generally had been of pale,
sad beings, whose most appropriate place was ■
by the side of death-beds. These sisters of
Notre Dame were brisk, energetic women, of
lively temperaments. Finding the building
which was preparing for them not yet provided
with doors and windows, from the scarcity of
mechanics, they themselves set about planing,
glazing, and painting, to make every thing
neat and comfortable. Wilkes, in his account
of his exploring expedition, speaks regretfully
of the poor appearance the Protestant missions
presented, when compared with those of the
Catholics;  there  being among the former an
3 © O
unthrifty, dilapidated look, and the Indians he
saw there appeared to be employed only as
The Catholics took pains to make all their
ceremonies as imposing as circumstances would
permit; making free use of musketry, bright
colors, and singing, — things most attractive to
an Indian, — remarking often, "Noise is essential to the Indian's enjoyment," and, " Without
singing, the best instruction is of little value."
They showed the Indians that they regarded
the comfort and good of their bodies, as well
as of their souls; giving them at Easter a great
feast of potatoes, parsneps, turnips, beets, beans,
and pease, to impress upon them the advantages
of civilization, and taking pains that the re- THE CHIEF AND HIS PEOPLE.
quirements of religion should not interfere with
the fishery or the chase. All the good customs
and practices already established among them,
they confirmed and approved, and found much
to sympathize with in the Indians. The suavity
and dignified simplicity of the chiefs particularly pleased them, and the relation of the chief
to the people, — they consulting him in regard
to every public or private undertaking, as when
about to take a journey, or when entering upon
marriage; he regulating the gathering of roots
and berries, the hunting and fishing, and the
division of spoils. The priests said of the
chief, " He speaks calmly, but never in vain."
They admired the self-control of the Indians,
who never showed any impatience when misfortunes befell them; and said, that, the farther
they penetrated into the wilderness, the better
Indians they found. They were especially
pleased with those about the sources of the
Columbia, and said of their converts in that
region, " If it be true that the prayer of him
who possesses the innocence, the simplicity, and
the faith of a child, pierces the clouds, then will
the prayers of these dear children of the forest
reach the ear of Heaven." They were interested
in the different views of the future life held
by the different tribes.    To those who lived by FATHER DE SMET AND THE BLACKFEET.
woods and waters, heaven was a counriy of
lakes, streams, and forests; but the Blackfoot
heaven was of great sand-hills, stretching far
and wide, abounding in game.
They devoted themselves with great zeal to
reconciling hostile tribes, particularly the Blackfeet and Flat-heads. All the tribes feared the
Blackfeet, especially that terrible sub-tribe
called the " Blood Indians." The Snakes, too,
were a common enemy to all the river-tribes.
Father De Smet, the Belgian priest, with great
intrepidity started for the Blackfoot country,
although receiving numerous warnings of the
risk he incurred. He encamped in the heart of
their country. One of their chiefs sought him
out, and took a fancy to the fearless old man
at sight, embracing him in savage fashion,
"rough but cordial." This chief was ornamented from head to foot with eagle-feathers,
and dressed' in blue as a mark of distinction.
With this powerful friend, he immediately
gained a footing among them. He conducted
towards them with great wisdom and kindness,
interfering as little as possible with their old
customs. After he had made many converts
among them, they asked him, on one of the
great days of the Church, if he would like to
see them manifest their joy in their own way, A NATIVE DANCE.
— by painting, singing, and dancing ; to which
he gave courteous assent. The dance was performed wholly by women and children, although
in the dress of warriors. Some of them carried
arms, others only green boughs. All took.part
in it, from the toddling infant to the ancient
grandam whose feeble limbs required the aid
of a staff. They carried caskets of plumes,
which nodded in harmony with their movements,
and increased the graceful effect. There was
also jingling of bells, and drums beaten by the
men who surrounded them, and joined in the
songs. To break the monotony, occasionally a
sudden piercing scream was added. If the
dance languished, haranguers and those most
skilful in grimaces came to its aid. The movement consisted of a little jump, more or less
lively according to the beat of the drum. It
was danced on a beautiful green plain, under a
cluster of pines. All the Indians climbed the
trees, or sat round on their horses, to see it.
The missionaries secured some of their readiest converts among the Spokanes (children of
the sun), who lived mostly on a great open-
plain. Instead of being crafty and reserved,
like most of the tribes about them, they were
free and genial. They welcomed the earliest
explorers, and lived on friendly terms with the FATHER DE SMET'S LOVE OF NATURE.
settlers. They were more susceptible to civilization and improvement than most of the other
Father De Smet was enthusiastic in his enjoyment of the forests and the mountains;
speaking often of the "skyward palaces and
holy towers" among the hills, " the immortal
pine," the "rock-hung flower," the "fantastic
grace of the winding rivers." The desert country through which he travelled, and of which
*/ o i
we also saw something in coming to this place,
he called " a little Arabia shut in by stern,
Heaven-built walls of rock." In the narrow
valleys at the foot of the Cascade Mountains,
he found magnificent groves of rhododendrons,
thousands of them together, fifteen or twenty
feet high, — green  arches formed underneath
©     ' ©
by their intertwined branches; above, bouquets
of splendid flowers, shading from deepest crimson to pure white.
He mourned very much over the superstitions of the Indians; but said, nevertheless,
that an attack of severe illness, which he suffered after one of his journeys, was no doubt
sent as a punishment for his too carnal admiration of nature.
While we were talking with Father Joseph, EXCLUSIVENESS  OF COEURS D'ALENE.      89
and looking over the journal, a messenger rode
up to the door, and told him that Tenas Marie
(Little Mary) was dying. The Indian agent,
who stood by, said, " It is not much of a loss;
she is a worthless creature." Father Joseph
turned to him in a most dignified way, and said,
" It is a human being;" and then to Christine,
and asked if she would lend him a horse, she
having a whole herd at command. Presently
he started off for a whole night's ride. I
thought, if I were Little Mary, after my bad
life, when I must enter into account for it, I
should be a good deal cheered and supported
to see his kind eyes, and hear his firm voice
directing me at the last.
The Cceurs d'Aleme (pointed hearts, or hearts
of arrows — flint)1 were so called from their
determined resistance to having the white men
come among them. They did not desire to have
one of the Hudson Bay Company's posts upon
their land, although the other tribes favored
their establishment among them, wishing to
barter their skins and obtain fire-arms; but
said, that, if the white men saw their country,
they would want to take it from them, it was
. so beautiful.
1 To the Canadian voyageur, the word aline (awl) meant
any sharp-pointed instrument. 90
Father Joseph was their interpreter in the
negotiations between them  and   the  United-
States Government. They attacked Col. Step-
toe, while He was passing through their territory, because they had heard that the white
men were going to build a road which would
drive away the deer and the buffalo. It was
explained to them, that, although this was so,
other advantages would more than compensate
for it. This was beyond their comprehension.
To them, the advantages of civilization bore no
comparison to the charm of their free, roving
life. When the army officers entered the Cceur
d'Alene country, they declared that no conception of heaven could surpass the beauty of its
exquisite lakes, embosomed in the forest. This
tribe held firm against all propositions of the
government to treat with them, until Donati's
comet appeared in 1858; when, supposing it to
be a great fiery broom sent to sweep them from
the earth, they accepted a treaty.
The I Battle of Four Lakes " was fought in
this country. An old man whom we met at
the fort in Walla Walla, who saw this battle,
gave us some account of it. The lakes are
surrounded with rocks, covered with pine. Beyond them is a great rolling country of grassy
hills.    For about two miles, he said, this open BATTLE OF FOUR LAKES.
ground was all alive with the wildest,, most fantastic figures of mounted Indians, with painted
horses, having eagle-feathers braided into their
tails and manes; each Indian fighting separately
on his own account. He described to us the
appearance of the war chief as he rode to battle, his own head hidden by a wolf's head, with
stiff, sharp ears standing erect, ornamented
with bears' claws, and under it a circlet of
feathers. From this head depended a long
train of feathers that floated down his back;
the loss of which would be the loss of his honor,
and as great a disaster to him as, to a Chinaman, the loss of his cue. His war-horse was
painted, as well as his own person, and also
profusely decorated with feathers on head and
tail. The Indians have such a fancy for feathers, that, in some of their medicine ceremonies,
they smear their heads with a sticky substance,
and cover them all over with swan's-down.
Lieut. Mullan's surveying expedition roused
many of the tribes to desperation. Owhi, the
Yakima chief, when urged to give up his land,
—or, what amounted to the same thing, to allow
free passage to the surveying-party and the
road-makers, — argued that he could not give
away the home of his people; saying, " It is not
mine to give.    The Great Spirit has measured it 92
to my people." Not being successful in his
arguments, he organized the outbreak of the following winter. The army destroyed the caches
filled with dried berries, and the pressed cake
which the Indians prepare from roots for their
winter food, many lodges filled with grain, and
hundreds of horses; the officers mentioning in
their report, that it would insure the Indians
a winter of great suffering, and concluding in
these words: " Seldom has an expedition been
undertaken, the recollection of which is invested with so much that is agreeable, as that
against the Northern Indians." VI.
Colville to Seattle. — " Red." — *' Ferrins." — " Broke Miners." — A Rare Fellow-Traveller. — The Bell-Mare. —
Pelouse Fall. — Red-fox Road. — Early Californians. —
Frying-pan Incense. — Dragon-flies.—Death of the Chief
Seattle, Aug. 23,1866.
"TT7~E were detained at Fort Colville several
' V   days longer than we desired, seeking an
*j © o
opportunity to get back to the Columbia River,
by some chance wagon going down from the
mines, or from some of the supply-stations in
the upper country. In our expedition on the
"Forty-nine," we had seen a great many miners, and, among them, one horrid character,
with a flaming beard, who was known by every
one as "Red."    He had been mining in  the
snow mountains, far up in British Columbia,
and joined us to go down on the steamer to
Colville. He was terribly rough and tattered-
looking.    The mining-season in those northern
© O
mountains is so short, that he said he was going
back to winter at the mines, so as to be on the
93 5fi^S3ffi5!£EE]3-{ffwS3«*
spot for work in the spring, and that he should
take up about forty gallons of grease to keep
himself warm through the winter.
He and his companions told great stories
about  their   rough  times   in   the   mountains.
Some of them mentioned having been reduced
to the extremity of living on " ferrins" when
J ©
all other food had failed. These accounts were
generally received, by the rest of the miners, with
great outbursts of laughter. That appeared to
be their customary way of regarding all their
misfortunes, — at least, in the retrospect. We
wondered what the " ferrins" could be. Nobody seemed to resort to them, except in the
direst need. Upon inquiry, we found out that
they were boiled ferns. I have always noticed
that even insects of all kinds pass by ferns. I
suspect that even the hungriest man would find
them rather unsatisfying, but this light diet
seemed to have kept them in the most jovial
R. was rather averse to travelling in such
company, and always presented " Red " to me
as the typical miner, when opportunities offered
for our getting down from Colville with a party
from the mines. Finally I persuaded him to
accept either "Buffalo Bill," who offered to
take us by ourselves, or an Irishman who in- "BROKE MINERS.". 95
sisted upon having a few miners with him. I
think he was rather prejudiced against the
former, on account of his name; and we therefore made an agreement with the latter, to take
us, with only two miners, instead of ten as he
at first desired, that R. should see them before we started, and that we should have the
wagon to ourselves at night. As it happened,
we left in haste, and did not see the miners
until they leaped from the wagon, and began
to assist in putting in our baggage. That was
not an occasion, of course, for criticising them.
Besides that, I saw, when I first looked at
them, that they were rather harder to read
than most people I had met; and I could not
in a minute tell what to make of them. ^ Our
wagoner said they were " broke miners." I did
not know exactly what that meant, but thought
they might be very desperate characters, made
more so by special circumstances. One of
them looked like a brigand, with his dark hair
and eyes. But I 'didn't mind; for I was tired
of travelling about, and anxious to get home.
I thought I would sleep most of the way down ;
so I put back my head, and shut my eyes.
Presently the dark man began to talk with
R., in a musical voice, about the soft Spanish
names of places in California; and I could not
"fiP* 96
sleep much. Then he spoke of the primitive
forms in which minerals crystallized, the. five-
sided columns of volcanic rock, and the little
cubes of gold. I could make no pretence at
sleep any longer; I had to open my eyes; and
once in a while I asked a question or two, although I would not show much interest, and
determined not to become at all acquainted
with him, because we were necessarily to be
very intimate, travelling all day together, and
camping together at night. But I watched him
a great deal, and listened to his conversation
upon many subjects. I think, that not only on
this journey, but in all the time since we came
to this coast, we have not enjoyed any thing
else so much. He had uncommon powers of
expression, and of thought and feeling too, and
took great interest in every thing. He had even
a little tin box of insects. He showed us the
native grains, wild rice, etc., the footprints of
animals, the craters of old volcanoes, and called
us to listen to the wild doves at night, and the
cry of the loon and the curlew.
We travelled in a large freight-wagon, drawn
© © O '
by four mules. A pretty little "bell-mare"
followed the wagon. At night she was tied
out on the plain; and the mules were turned
loose to feed, and were kept from wandering A RARE FELLOW-TRAVELLER. 97
far away by the tinkle of the bell hung on her
neck. We slept on beautiful flowering grass,
which our wagoner procured for us on the way.
When he tied great bunches of it on the front
of the wagon, to feed the animals when they
came to a barren place, it looked as if we were
.preparing to take part in some floral procession.
The first night, we camped in the midst of the
pine-trees. When I woke in the night, and
looked round me, the row of dark figures on
either side seemed like the genii in " The Ara-
bian Nights," that used to guard sleeping princesses.
Besides the knowledge which our fellow-trav-
eller possessed of the country through which
we were passing, which made him a valuable
companion to us then, his general enthusiasm
would have made him interesting any where. I
remember a little incident at one of our noon
stopping-places, which - we thought was very
much to his credit. He always hastened to
make a fire as soon as we stopped. It was
rather hard to find good places, sheltered from
the wind, where it would burn, and which
would furnish us, too, with a little shade. On
this occasion there was a magnificent tree very
near us. We were passing out of the region of
trees, so it was a particularly welcome sight. 98
He started the fire close to it. It happened to
Be too near; the pitch caught fire, and presently the trunk was encircled with flame. He
was desperate to think that he should have
been guilty of an act of " such wanton destruc-
tiveness," as he called it, — especially as it was
the last fine tree on the road. He abandoned
all idea of dinner, and did nothing through
that fiery noon, when we could hardly stir from
the shade, —which we found farther off, —but
rush between the stream near by and the tree,
with his little camp-kettle of water, to try to
save it. He looked back with such a grateful
face, as we left the spot, to see that the flames
were smothered. There was something like a
child about him; that is, an uncommon freedom from the wickedness that seems to belong
to most men, certainly the class he is in the
habit of associating with. I doubt if there is
one of the men we saw on the " Forty-nine "
who would not have been delighted to burn that
tree down; and how few of them would have
thought, as he did, to put the little pieces of
wood that we had to spare, where fuel was
scarce, into the road, so that " some other old
fellow, who might chance to come along, might
see them and use them "!
He told us one beautiful story about miners, PELOUSE FALL.
though, in connection with the loss of the
" Central America." He had a friend on board
among the passengers, who were almost all
miners going home. When they all expected
to perish with the vessel, a Danish brig hove
in sight, and came to the rescue. But the passengers could not all be transferred to her.
They filled the ship's boats with their wives
and their treasure, and sent them off; and the
great body of them went down with a cheer
and a shout, as the vessel keeled over.
The event of special interest, in our journey
home, was our visit to the Pelouse Fall. We
had heard that there was a magnificent fall on
the Pelouse, twelve miles by trail from the wag-
on-road, which we were very desirous of seeing;
but no one could give us exact directions for
finding it. Our friend the miner wanted very
mUch to see it also; and as he seemed to have
quite an instinct for finding, his way, by rock
formations and other natural features of the
country, we ventured to attempt it with him.
The little bell-mare, which was a cayuse (Indian) horse, was offered for my use, and an old
Spanish wooden saddle placed upon her back..
I had no bridle; but I had been presented at
the fort with a hackama (a buffalo-hair rope),
such as the Indians use with their horses.   This 100
was attached to the head of the horse, so that
the miner could lead her. My saddle had an
arrangement in front by which to attach the
lasso, in catching animals. The miner said
that just the'same pattern was still in use in
Andalusia and other Spanish provinces. I felt
as if I were starting on quite a new career.
When he lifted me on to the horse, he said,
" How light you are!" It was because every
care had dropped off from me.
We rode over the wildest desert country,
with great black walls of rock, and wonderful
canons, with perpendicular sides, extending far
down into the earth. Mr. Bowles, in his book,
"Across the Continent," says he cannot compare any thing else to the exhilaration of the air
of the upland plains; neither sea nor mountain
air can equal it. The extreme heat, too, seemed
to intensify every thing in us, even our power
of enjoyment, notwithstanding the discomfort
of it. The thermometer marked 117° in the
shade. I felt as if I had never before known
what breezes and shadows and streams were.
Just as we had reached the last limit of possible endurance, the shadow of some great wall
of rock would fall upon us, or a little breeze
spring up, or we would find the land descend
ing to the bed of a stream.
At length our PELOUSE FALL.
miner, who had been for the last part of the
way looking and listening with the closest attention, struck almost directly to the spot,
hardly a step astray. It was all below the surface of the earth, so that hardly any sound rose
above; and there was no sign of any path to it,
not a tree, nor shrub, nor blade of grass near,
but an amphitheatre of rock, and the beautiful
white river, in its leap into the canon falling
a hundred and ninety feet. The cliffs and jagged pinnacles of basaltic rock around it were
several hundred feet high. It looked like a
great white bridal veil. It was made up of
myriads of snowy sheaves, sometimes with the
faintest amethyst tint. It shattered itself
wholly into spray before it struck the water
below, — that is, the outer circumference of it,
— and the inner part was all that made any
The miner looked upon it with perfect rapture. He said to me, " It is a rare pleasure to
travel with any one who enjoys any thing of
this kind."    I felt it so too.
His striking directly at the spot, after many
miles of travel, without any landmarks, reminded me of the experience of Ross, the Hudson Bay trader, when he travelled from Fort
Okanagan on foot, two hundred miles to the 102
coast, taking with him an Indian, who told him
they would go by the Red Fox road; that is,
the road by which Red Fox the chief and his
men used to go.    After they had travelled a
o «/
long distance over a pathless country, without
any sign of a trail, or climbed along the rocky
banks of streams, he asked his guide when they
would reach the Red Fox road. " This is it,
you are on," was the reply. " Where? " eagerly
inquired Ross: "I see no road here, not^even
so much as a rabbit could walk on." —" Oh,
there is no road," answered the Indian: "this
is the place where they used to pass."
At another time, when he was travelling with
an Indian guide, who was accompanied by some
of his relatives, the latter were left at a place
called Friendly Lake, and were to be called
for on their return. They went on to their
journey's end, and on their way back, some
days after, stopped at the place; but no sign of
the relatives appeared. The guide, however,
searched about diligently, and presently pointed
to a small stick, stuck up in the ground, with
a little notch in it. He said, " They are there,"
pointing in the direction in which the stick
slanted, — "one day's journey off." Exactly
there they were found.
There was a kind of generosity about this EARLY CALIFORNIANS.
" broke miner," that made us ready to forgive
a great deal in him. No doubt there would
have been a great deal to forgive if we had
known him more. He was, very likely, in the
habit of drinking and gambling, like the others
that we saw. I know he was a terrible tobacco
chewer and smoker. He has been seventeen
years on the Pacific side of the continent, came
out as a "forty-niner," has travelled a great
deal, and taken notes of all he has seen, and
said he thought of making use of them some
© o
time, if his employments would ever admit of
it. I think he is the best fitted to describe the
country, of all the persons I have met.
He gave us quite a vivid idea Of the semi-
barbarous life of the California pioneers, and of
the intense desire they sometimes felt for a
glimpse of their homes, their wives, and children. I remembered Starr King's.saying that
women and children had been more highly appreciated in California ever since, on account
of their scarcity during the first few years. I
rather think the sentiment of the miners was
somewhat intensified by the extreme difficulty
they found in doing women's work. One of
them, now an eminent physician, pricked and
scarred his fingers in the most distressing manner, in attempting to sew on his buttons, and
jf 104
patch the rents in his garments. Another
member of the camp, who was afterwards governor of the State, won his first laurels as a
cook, by the happy discovery, that, by combining an acid with the alkali used in the making
of their bread, the result was vastly more satisfactory than where the alkali alone was used.
In crossing the plains, they had used the alkali
water found there for this purpose.
A travelling theatrical company, who presented themselves with the announcement that
they would perform a drama entitled " The
Wife," met with unbounded appreciation. Carpenters were employed at sixteen dollars a day
to prepare for its presentation. This was the
first play ■ ever acted in San Francisco. The
company were encouraged to remain, and give
other performances; but, as there was only one
lady actor, every play had to be altered to
conform to this condition of things.
The most tempting advertisement a restaurant could offer was, " potatoes at every meal."
Those who indulged in fresh eggs did so at an
expense of one dollar per egg.
When the signal from Telegraph Hill announced the arrival of the monthly mail-steamer,
there was a general rush for the post-office; and
a long line was formed, reaching from the office EARLY CALIFORNIANS.
out to the tents in the chapparal. The building was a small one, and the facilities for assorting and delivering the mail so limited, that
many hours were consumed in the work. Large
prices were often paid for places near the head
of the line; and some of the more eager ones
would wrap their blankets around them, and
stand all night waiting, in order to get an early
Thus, with endless stories and anecdotes, accounts of his adventures as a miner and explorer,
and descriptions of the new and wonderful
places he had visited, and the curious people
he had met, our fellow-traveller beguiled the
tediousness of the journey, and continually entertained us.
As we approached Walla Walla, we made our
last camp at the Touchet, a lovely stream. I
woke in the morning feeling as if some terrible
O ©
misfortune had befallen us. I could not tell
what, until I was fully roused, and found it
could be nothing else than that we must sleep
in a bed that night.
We left our miner hi Walla Walla, to get
work, I think, as a machinist. My acquaintance with him was a lesson to me, never to
judge any one by appearance or occupation.
We met afterwards some little, common-look- 8Eggjgj*l^^j^23
ing men, who had been so  successful at the
mines that they could hardly carry their sacks
of gold-dust, which made hard white ridges in
their hands. They had fifteen thousand dollars
or more apiece. I thought, how unequally and
unwisely Fate distributes her. gifts ; but then,
as Mrs. S. said when there was such a rush for
the garments brought on board the steamer for
us at Panama, after our shipwreck, "Let those
have them who can least gracefully support the
want of them."
Among the miners of the upper country, who
had not seen a white woman for a year, I
received such honors, that I am afraid I should
have had a very mistaken impression of my
importance if I had lived long among them.
At every stopping-place they made little fires
in their frying-pans, and set them around me,
to keep off the mosquitoes, while I took my
meal. As the columns of smoke rose about me,
I felt like a heathen goddess, to whom incense
was being offered. The mosquitoes w^re terrible ; but we found our compensation Tor them
in the journey homeward. I remember the entomology used to call the dragon-fly the "mosquito-hawk ;" and such dragon-flies I never
before saw as we met with near the rivers, especially at the Pelouse.    There seemed to be a DRAGON-FLIES. 107
festival of them there, and one kind of such
a green as I believe never was seen before
on earth, — so exquisite a shade, and so vivid.
There were also burnished silver and gold ones,
and every beautiful variety of spotting and
marking. A little Indian boy appeared there,
dressed in feathers, with a hawk on his wrist,
— a wild, spirited-looking little creature.
On Sunday we reached Olympia, and saw the
waters of the Sound, and the old headlands
again. I had no idea it could look so homelike;
and when the mountain range began to reveal
© O
itself from the mist, I felt as if nothing we had
seen while we were gone had been more beautiful, more really impressive, than what we could
look at any day from our own kitchen-door.
As we approached Seattle, we began to gather
up the news. It is very much more of an event
to get back, when you have had no newspapers,
and only the rarest communication of any kind,
while you have been gone.
Seattle, the old chief, had died. When he
was near his end, he sent word over to the
nearest settlement, that he wished Capt. Meigs,
the owner of the great sawmill at Port Madison, to come when he was dead, and take him
by the hand, and bid him farewell.
We learned that the beautiful Port Angeles
^t^fV^ 7^ij-.-^a2—'iiji
was to be abandoned, — Congress having decided
to remove the custom-house to Port Townsend,
— and vessels would go in there. It
seemed like leaving Andromeda on her rock.
We are going down to make a farewell visit. 8b^HwKhw^SSP«SHd^SB3m3S
Port Angeles Village and the Indian Ranch. — A " Ship's
Klootchman." — Indian Muck-a-Muck.—Disposition of an
Old Indian Woman. — A Windy Trip to Victoria. —The
Black Tamdhnous. — McDonald's in the Wilderness. —
The Wild Cowlitz. -Up the River during a Flood. —Indian Boatmen. — Birch-bark and Cedar Canoes.
Ediz Hook, Oct. 21,1866.
~E are making a visit at the end of Ediz
Hook. No one lives here now but the
hght-keepers. When we feel the need of company, we look across to the village of Port
Angeles and the Indian ranch. It is very striking to see how much more picturesque one is
than the other, in the distance. In the village,
all the trees have been cut down; but the lodges
of the Indians stand in the midst of a maple
grove, and in this Indian-summer weather there
is always a lovely haze about it, bright leayes,
and blue beams of mist across the trees. Living so much out of doors as they do, and in
open lodges, their little fires are often seen, giving their ranch a hospitable look, and making
the appearance of the village very uninviting
in comparison.
Oct. 26,1866.
We have had a great storm; and last night,
about dark, a white figure of a woman appeared
in the water, rising and falling, outside the
breakers. Some Indians went out in their
cano'es, and took her in to the shore. One of
them came to tell us about it. A " ship's klooteh-
man" (wife or woman), he said it was, and a
" hyas [big] ship " must have gone down. It
was the figure-head of a vessel. The next
morning, I saw that the Indians had set it
up on the sand, with great wings — which they
made of broken pieces of spars — at the sides.
It was the large, handsome figure of a woman,
twice life-size. They seemed to regard it as a
kind of goddess; and I felt half inclined to, myself, she looked out so serenely at the water. I
sat down by her side, thinking about what had
probably happened, to try to get her calm way
of regarding it. A sloop was sent over from
the custom-house, to take it across the bay for
identification; but that proved impracticable.
The captain said that he knew the work, —
it* was English carving. Soon after, a vessel
came in, having lost her figure-head. The men
on board said that a strange ship ran into her DISPOSITION OF AN OLD INDIAN   WOMAN.    Ill
in the night, and immediately disappeared.
They supposed she was much injured, as they
afterwards saw a deck-load of lumber floating,
which they thought had come from her. They
said it might be the "Radama," bound for
Oct. 29,1866.
To-day, when we were coasting along • the
shore, we saw Yeomans preparing his canoe for
a long excursion.    It was lined with mats.    In
the middle were two of the baskets the Indians
weave from roots, filled with red salmon-spawn.
Against them lay a gray duck, with snowy
breast; then, deer-meat, and various kinds of
fishes. Over the whole he had laid great green
leaves that looked like the leaves of the tulip-
tree. The narrow end of the canoe was filled
with purple sea-urchins, all alive, and of the
most vivid color. I took one up, and asked him
if they were good to eat. He said, "Indian
muck-a-muck, not for Bostons " (whites). His
arrangements looked a great deal more picturesque than our preparations for picnics.
The light-keeper at Ediz Hook told us to-day
that he had exhumed an old Indian woman,
whom some of her tribe had buried alive, or,
rather, wrapped up and laid away in one of the
little wooden huts in their graveyard, according
to their custom of disposing of the dead. They
had apparently become tired of the care of her,
and concluded to anticipate her natural exit
from the world by this summary disposition
of her. Mr. S. heard her cries, and went to
the rescue. He restored her to the tribe, with
a reprimand for their barbarity, and told them
the Bostons would not tolerate such mesahchie
(outrageous) proceedings.
Port Angeles, Oct. 31,1866.
We made a spirited voyage to Victoria, across
the Straits of Fuca. There had been a very
severe storm, which we thought was over; but
it had a wild ending, after we were on our
way, and beyond the possibility of return. We
saw the California steamer, ocean-bound, putting back to port. Our only course was to
hasten on. The spray was all rainbows, and
there were low rainbows in the sky, — incomprehensible rainbows above and below, — and
the strongest wind that ever blew. It was all
too wonderful for us to be afraid: it was like a
new existence; as if we had cast off all connection with the old one, and were spirits only.
We flew past the high shores, and looked up
at the happy, homelike houses, with a strange
feeling of isolation and independence of all
earthly ties. THE BLACK TAMAHNOUS.
I staid on deck till every man had gone in,
feeling that I belonged wholly to wind and
wave, borne on like a bird. But the captain
came and took me in, lest I should be swept
from the deck. When we reached Victoria,
great wooden signs were being blown off the
stores, and knocking down the people in the
streets.   This is certainly the home of the winds.
Nov. 20,1866.
To-day we met on the beach Tleyuk (Spark
of Fire), a young Indian with whom we had
become acquainted. Instead of the pleasant
"Elahowya^ (How do you do?), with which he
was accustomed to greet us, he took "no notice
of us whatever. On coming nearer, we saw
hideous streaks of black paint on his face, and
on various parts of his body, and inquired what
they meant. His English was very meagre;
but he gave us to understand, in a few hoarse
gutturals, that they meant hostility and danger to any one that interfered with him. We
noticed afterwards other Indians, with dark,
threatening looks, and daubed with black
paint, gathering from different directions. The
old light-keeper was launching his boat to cross
over to the spit, and we turned to him for an
explanation.   He warned us to keep away from
the Indians, as this was the time of the " Black
Tamdhnous,'" when they call up all their hostility to the whites. He pointed to some Indian
children, who had a white elk-horn, like a dwarf
white man, stuck up in the sand to throw stones
at. I had noticed for the last few days, when
I met them in the narrow paths in the woods,
that they stopped straight before me, obliging
me to turn aside for them.
We saw them withdraw to an old lodge in
.the woods, as if to hold a secret council: We
did not feel much concerned as to the result
of it for ourselves, as we held such friendly
relations to Yeomans, the old chief, and had
always given the Indians all the sea-bread they
wanted, — that being the one article of our
food that they seemed most to appreciate. As
it proved, it was a mere thunder-cloud, dissipated after a few growls.
* McDonald's, Dec. 18,1866.
Not knowing the name of the nearest town,
I date this from McDonald's, that having been
our last stopping-place. It is on the stage-route
between Columbia River and Puget Sound, and
a place worth remembering. I wish I could
give an idea of its cheeriness, especially after
travelling a fortnight in the rain, as we have hShSS ^HH I ^^tMESf
done. At this season of the year, every thing
is deluged; and the roads, full of deep mud-
holes and formidable stumps, are now at their
worst. The heavy wagons move slowly and
laboriously forward, sometimes getting so deep
in the mire that it is almost impossible to extricate them, and at times impeded by fallen
trees, which the driver has to 'cut away. They
are poorly protected against the searching
rains, and for the last two days we have been
When we caught the first glimpse of the red
light in the distance, we felt very much inclined
to appreciate any thing approaching comfort,
tired and dripping as we were; but what our
happy Fates had in store for us, we never for a
moment imagined. We had hardly entered the
house before we felt that it was no common
place. The fireplace was like a great cavern,
full of immense logs and blazing bark. It
lighted up a most hospitable room. From a
beam in the low ceiling, hung a great branch
of apples. I counted twenty-three bright red
and yellow apples shining out from it.
Two stages meet here, and the main business
at this time of the year is drying the passengers sufficiently for them to proceed on their
way the next day.    The host and his family SXJtZSSSEEE
stood round the fire, handling and turning the
wet garments with unbounded good-nature and
patience. The stage-drivers cracked jokes and
told stories. A spirit of perfect equality prevailed, and a readiness to take every thing in
the best possible part. The family are Scotch,
— hard-working people; but they have not
worked so hard as to rub all the bloom off their
lives, as so many people have that we have
When supper was announced, another surprise awaited us. Instead of the unvarying
round of fried meat and clammy pie with which
we had hitherto been welcomed, we were refreshed with a dish of boiled meat, a corn-starch
pudding, and stewed plums. Why some other
dweller in the wilderness could not have introduced a little variety into his bill of fare, we
could never conceive. It seemed a real inspiration in McDonald, to send to California or
Oregon for a little dried fruit and some papers
of corn-starch. He gave us, too, what was even
more delightful than his wholesome food, — a
little glimpse of his home-life. To a tired traveller, what could be more refreshing than a
sight of somebody's home? Generally, at what-,
ever place we stopped, we saw only the " men-
folks ;" the family, often half-breed, being hud- MCDONALD'S IN THE   WILDERNESS.
died away in the rear. Here, in the room
in which *the guests were received, lay the smiling baby in its old-fashioned cradle. Two
blithe little girls danced in and out, and the
old grandfather sat holding a white-haired boy.
When dinner was over, the great business of
drying the clothes was resumed by the trav-
'ellers and the family; and we held our' wrappings by the fire, and turned them about, until
we became so drowsy that we lost all sense of
responsibility. We found, the next morning,
that our host sat up and finished all that were
left undone. He had become so accustomed to
this kind of work, that he did not seem to consider it was any thing extra, or that it entitled
him to any further compensation than the
usual one for a meal and a night's lodging.
© ©     o
When we offered something more, he pointed
to a little box nailed up beside the door, over
which was a notice that any one who wished
might contribute something for a school which
the Sisters were attempting to open for the children of that neighborhood. Being Scotch people, I could hardly believe they were Catholics;
- but found upon inquiry that their views were so
liberal as to enable them to appreciate the advantages of education, by whomsoever offered.
I was quite touched by McDonald's little con- Kraeagifl"a j        "iscj****;,-- -    BBsmi
tribution to civilization, in the midst of the wilderness. As I looked back, in leaving, at the
great trees and the exquisitely curved slope of
his little clearing, I felt that in the small log
house was something worthy of the fine surroundings.
Olympia, Dec. 23,1866.
When we reached Cowlitz Landing, we found
the river quite different in character from what
we had known it before. It had risen many
feet above its ordinary level, and was still rising, and had become a wide, fierce, and rushing
stream, bearing on its surface great trees and
fragments of wrecked buildings, swiftly sailing
down to the Columbia. How serenely we
descended the river last year, floating along at
%/ o ©
sunset, admiring the lovely valley and the hills,
reaching over the side of the canoe, and soaking our biscuits in the glacier-water, without
once thinking of the vicissitudes to which we
were liable from its mountain origin!
The little steamer that recently had begun to
compete with the Indian canoes in the traffic of
the river, and the carrying of passengers, did
not dare to attempt to ascend it. Navigation
was not to be thought of by ordinary boats, or
by white men, and was possible only by canoes
in the most trusty hands.   No land-conveyance UP THE RIVER DURING A FLOOD.
could be had at this point. We were told that
we might take the stream, by those familiar
with it, if we could find good Indians willing to
go with us. One called " Shorty " was brought
forward to negotiate with us. He has the same
dwarfed appearance I have noticed in the old
women, and that strange, Egyptian-looking face
and air. It would be impossible for any one to
tell, by his appearance, whether he personally
were old or young; but the ancientness of the
type is deeply impressed upon him. If half-
civilized Indians had been offered, or those that
had had much intercourse with the whites, I
should have hesitated more to trust them; but
he was such a pure Indian, it seemed as if he
were as safe as any wild creature. Whether he
would extend any help, in emergencies, to his
clumsy civilized passengers, was a more doubtful question. However, as the alternative was
to wait indefinitely, and the character of the
stopping-places, as a rule, drives one to desperate measures, we confided ourselves to his hands,
and embarked with him and his assistant, a fine
athletic young-Indian.
We fixed our e3res intently upon him, as if
studying our fates. He was perfectly imperturbable, and steered only, the other poling the
canoe along the edge of the stream, and grasp- 120
ing the overhanging trees to pull it along, using
the paddle only when these means were not
available. His work required unceasing vigilance and activity, and was so hard that it would
have exhausted any ordinary man in a few
hours; but he kept on from early morning till
dark. Always in the most difficult places, or if
his energy seemed to flag in the least, Shorty
would call out to him, in the most animated
manner, mentioning a canoe, a hammock, and a
hyas closhe (very nice) klootchman; at which the
young man would laugh with delight, and start
anew. I considered it was probably his stock
in life, the prospect of an establishment, which
was presented to rouse and cheer him on.
Shorty had been recommended to us as one of
the best hands on the river. I began to see
that it was for his power of inspiring others, as
well as for his extreme vigilance in keeping out
of the eddies, and avoiding the drift in crossing
the river, to be caught in which would have
been destruction. We crossed several times,"
to secure advantages which his quick eye perceived. I noticed that whenever he pointed
out any particular branch on the shore to be
seized, how certain the other was to strike it at
once. With white men, how much blundering
and missing there would have been! INDIAN BOATMEN.
I never felt before, so strongly, how many
vices attend civilization, which it seems as if
men might just as well be free from, as when I
compared these Indians with the common white
people about us, — the stage-drivers, mill-men,
and others, — with no smoking  nor drinking
7 © O
nor tobacco-chewing, and so strong and grace-
O ' o o
ful, and sure in their aim, that no gymnast I
have ever seen could compare with them. The
ingenious ways in which they helped themselves
along in places where any boat of ours would
have been immediately overturned, converting
obstacles often into helps, were fascinating to
study. As night came on, I began to wish that
their consciences were a little more developed,
or, rather, that they had a little more sense of
responsibility with regard to us. The safety of
their passengers is no burden whatever on the
minds of the Indians. Their spirits seem to rise
with danger. They know that they could very
well save themselves in an emergency, and I
believe they prefer that white people should be
drowned. I could only look into the imperturbable faces of our boatmen, and wonder
where we were to spend the night. Finally,
with a terrible whirl, which I felt at the time
must be our last, they entered a white foaming
slough (a branch of the river), and drew up on 122
the bank. They announced to us then that we
were to walk a mile through the woods, to a
house. I think no white man, even the most
surly of our drivers, would have asked us to do
that,—in perfect blackness, the trees wet and
dripping, — but would have managed to bring
us to some inhabited place. They started off at
a rapid gait, and we foUowed. We could not
see their forms; but one carried something
white in his hand, which we faintly discerned
in the darkness, which served as our guide.
They sang and shouted, and sounded their
horn, all the way. I supposed it was to keep
off bad spirits, but the next day we heard that
in those woods bears and panthers were sometimes found. At length a light appeared. We
felt cheered; but when we approached it, two
furious dogs rushed out at us. They were immediately followed by their master, who took
us in. After consultation with him, we concluded to abandon our Indians, as he said he
could take us, on the following day, through
the woods to the next stopping-place, with his
ox-team. The quiet comfort of being transported by oxen was something not to be resisted, after having our nerves so racked. We
felt an immense  satisfaction in coming  again
O ©
upon our own kind, even if it were only in an ^WMKBaBwRssfcaySHS
old log cabin, where the children were taken
out of their bed to put us in. •
We have seen no bark canoes here; they are
all of cedar.    No doubt there  is good canoe-
birch on the river-banks, but something more
durable is needed. The North-west Fur Company, in early days, sent out a cargo of birch
from Montreal to London, to be shipped from
there round Cape Horn to the north-west coast
of America, to be made into canoes for their
men to navigate the Columbia and its branches;
in direst ignorance of the requirements of the
country, as well as of its productions. issi
Voyage to San Francisco. — Fog-bound. — Port Angeles.—
Passing Cape Flattery in a Storm. —Off Shore.—The
"Brontes."—The Captain and his Men.—A Fair Wind.
— San Francisco Bar.—The City at Night.—Voyage to
Astoria. — Crescent City. — Iron-bound Coast. — Mount
St. Helen's.—Mount Hood. — Cowlitz Valley and its
Floods. — Monticello.
San Francisco, Feb. 20,1867.
"YT"E are here at last, contrary to all our
expectations for the last ten days. We
left Puget Sound at short notice, taking passage
on the first lumber-vessel that was available, with
many misgivings, as she was a dilapidated-looking craft. We went on board at Port Madison,
about dusk, — a dreary time to start on a sea-
voyage, but we had to accommodate ourselves
to the tide. The cabin was such a forlorn-looking place, that I was half tempted to give it up
at the last; when I saw, sitting beside the rusty,
empty stove, a small gray-and-white eat, purring, and rubbing her paws in the most cheery
manner.    The contrast between the great, cold,
tossing ocean, and that little comfortable creature, making the best of her circumstances, so
impressed me, that I felt ashamed to shrink
from the voyage, if she was willing to under-
take it. So I unpacked my bundles, and settled
down for a rough time. There were only two
of us as passengers, lumber-vessels not making
it a part of their business to provide specially
for their accommodation.
The sky looked threatening when we started;
and the captain said, if he thought there was a
storm beginning, he would not try to go on.
But as we got out into the Straits of Fuca, the
next day, a little barque, the " Crimea," came
up, and said she had been a week trying to get
out of the straits, and thought the steady southwest wind, which had prevented her, could not
blow much longer. We continued beating
down towards the ocean, and in the afternoon
a dense fog shut us in.    The last thing we saw
© ©
was an ocean-steamer, putting back to Victoria
for shelter. Our captain said his vessel drew
too much water for Victoria Harbor, and the
entrance was too crooked to attempt; but, if he
could find Port Angeles, he would put in there.
A gleam of sunshine shot through the fog, and
showed us the entrance; and we steered triumphantly for that refuge.   Two other vessels 126   PASSING CAPE FLATTERY IN A STORM.
had anchored there. But just as we were about
rounding the point to enter, and were congratulating ourselves on the quiet night we hoped to
spend under the shelter of the mountains, the
captain spied a sail going on towards the ocean.
He put his vessel right about, determined to
face whatever risks any other man would. But
the vessel seemed unwilling to go. All that
night, and the next day, and the next night, we
rode to and fro in the straits, unable to get out.
Passing Cape Flattery is the great event of
the voyage. It is always rough there, from the
peculiar conformation of the land, and the conflict of the waters from the Gulf of Georgia,
and' other inlets, with the ocean-tides. Our
captain had been sailing on this route for fifteen
years, but said he had never seen a worse sea
than we encountered. We asked him if he
did not consider the Pacific a more uncertain
ocean than the Atlantic. At first he said
" Yes; " then, " No, it is pretty certain to be
bad here at all times." What could Magellan's
idea have been in so naming it ? He, however,
sailed in more southern latitudes, where it may
be stiller. We expected to sail on the water;
but our vessel drove through it, just as I have
seen the snow-plough drive through the great
drifts after a storm.    Going to sea on a steamer PASSING CAPE FLATTERY.
gives one no idea of the winds and waves,—the
real life of the ocean, — compared to what we
get on a sailing-vessel. Every time we tried to
round the point, great walls of waves advanced
against us, —so powerful and defiant-looking,
O JL ©7
that I could only shut my eyes when they drew
near. It did not seem as if I made a prayer,
but as if I were myself a prayer, only a winged
cry. I knew then what it must be to die. I
felt that I fled from the angry sea, and reached,
in an instant, serene heights above the storm.
Finally, as the result of all these desperate
efforts, in which we recognized no gain, the
captain announced that we had made the point,
but we could get no farther until the wind
changed; and, while we still felt the fury of
the contrary sea, it was hard to recognize that
we had much to be grateful for. We saw one
beautiful sight, though, — a vessel going home,
helped by the wind that hindered us. It was
at night; and the light struck up on her dark
sails, and made them look like wings, as she
flew over the water. What bliss it seemed, to
be nearing home, and all things in her favor!
I could hear all about us a heavy sound like
surf on the shore, which was quite incomprehensible, as we were so far from land. But the
water drove us  from the deck.     The vessel 128
plunged head foremost, and reeled from side to
side, with terrible groaning and straining. If
we attempted to move, we were violently thrown
in one direction or another; and finally found
that all we could do was to lie still on the
cabin-floor, holding fast to any thing stationary
that we could reach. We could hear the water
sweeping over the deck above us, and several
times it poured down in great sheets upon us.
We ventured to ask the captain what he was
attempting to do. " Get out to sea," he said,
" out of the reach of storms." That is brave
sailing, I thought, though I would not have
gone if I could have helped it. We struggled
on in this way for a day and a night, and then
he said we were beyond the region of storms
from land. I am afraid I shordd, if left to my-
•self, linger always with the faint-hearted mari-
ners who hug the shore, notwithstanding this
o ©
great experience of finding our safety by steering boldly off from every thing wherein we had
before considered our only security lay. After
this, I performed every day the great exploit of
climbing to the deck, and looking out at the
waste of water. I saw only one poor old vessel,
pitching and reeling like a drunken man. I
wondered if we could look so to her. She was
always half-seas-over.   I came to the conclusion THE CAPTAIN AND HIS MEN.
it was best not to watch her, but it was hard
to k§ep my eyes off of her. She was our companion all the way down, always re-appearing
after every gale we weathered, though often
far behind. I remember, just as we were fairly
under way, hearing' a man sing out, "There's
the old ' Brontes' coming out of the straits."
My associations with the name were gloomy
in the extreme.
When the wind and sea were at their worst,
considering the extremity, we felt called upon
to offer some advice to the captain, and suggested that, under such circumstances, it might
be advisable to travel under bare poles; but
that, he assured us, was only resorted to when
a man's voice could not possibly be heard in
giving orders.
The captain was quite a study to us. On
shore he presented the most ordinary appearance. When we had been out two or three
days, I noticed some one I had not seen before
on deck, and thought to myself, "That is an
apparition for a time of danger, — a man as resolute as the sea itself, so stern and gray-looking. " I was quite bewildered, for I thought I
must certainly before that have seen every one
on board. It proved to be the captain in his
storm-clothes.    One of the sailors was a Rus- THE CAPTAIN AND HIS MEN.
sian serf, running away, as he said, from the Czar
of Russia, not wholly believing in the safety of
the serfs. He had shipped as a competent seaman ; but when he was sent up to the top of
the mizzen-mast, to fix the halliards for a signal, he stopped in the most perilous place, and
announced that he could not go any farther.
It seems that every man on board was a stranger to the captain. It filled us with anxiety to
think how much depended on that one man.
One night there was an alarm of " A man over-
board! " If it had been the captain, how aimlessly we should have drifted on! I liked to
listen, when we were below, to hear the men
hoisting the sails, and shouting together. It
sounded as if they were managing horses, now
restraining them, and now cheering them on.
When the captain put his hand on the helm,
we could always tell below. There was as
much difference as in driving. In the midst of
the wildest plunging, he would suddenly quiet
it by putting the vessel in some other position,
just as he would have held in a rearing horse.
Two or three times, when there was a little
lull, I went on deck; and the air was as balmy
as from a garden. What can it mean, this fragrance of fresh flowers in» the midst of the sea?
Some virtues, I  think, are admirably culti- SAN FRANCISCO BAR.
vated at sea.    Night after night, as we lay there,
I said to the captain, " What is the meaning of
those clouds ? " or " that dull red sky
he answered so composedly, " It's going to be
squally," that I admired his patience; but it
wore upon us very much.
At length, one night, as I lay looking up
through our little skylight, at the flapping of
the great white spanker-sheet, — my special
enemy and dread, because the captain would
keep it up when I thought it unsafe, it seemed
such a lawless thing, and so ready to overturn
us every time it shifted, — a great cheerful star
looked in. It meant that all trouble was over.
One after another followed it. I could not
speak, I was so glad. I could only look at
them, and feel that our safety was assured.
The wind had changed. I appreciated the
delight of Ulysses in " the fresh North Spirit"
Calypso gave him " to guide him o'er the sea,"
— the rest of our voyage was so exhilarating.
We had one more special risk only, — crossing the bar of San Francisco Bay. The captain said, if he reached it at night, he expected
to wait until daylight to enter; but I knew
that his ambitious spirit would never let him,
if it were possible to get over. About three
o'clock in the morning, I heard a new sound mi
in the water, like the rippling of billows, as
if it were shallow. I hastened upon deck, and
found that we were apparently on the bar. The
captain and the mate differed about the sounding. Immediately after, I heard the captain
tell a man to run down and see what time it
was; and, upon learning the hour, heard him
exclaim, in the deepest satisfaction, " Flood-
tide, sure! Well, we had a chance!" I felt as
if we had had a series of chances from the time
we left Port Angeles Harbor, to the running
in without a pilot, and drifting, as we did, into
the revenue-cutter, just as we anchored. We
had .a beautiful entrance, though. It is a long
passage, an hour or two after crossing the bar.
San Francisco lay in misty light before us,
like one of the great bright nebulse we used
to look at in Hercules, or the sword-handle of
Perseus. It is splendidly lighted. As we drew
nearer, there seemed to be troops of stars over
all the hills.
Astoria, Ore., Oct. 17,1868.
In making the voyage from San Francisco, I
could hardly go on deck at all, until the last
day; but, lying and looking out at my little
port-hole, I saw the flying-fish, and the whales
spouting, and the stormy-petrels and gulls.
On Sunday the boat was turned about; and
when we inquired why, we were told that the
wind and sea were so much against us, we were
going to put back into Crescent City. It came
at once into our minds, how on Sunday, three
years before, the steamer "Brother Jonathan,"
in attempting to do the same thing, struck a
rock, and foundered, and nearly all on board
were lost.
Crescent City is an isolated little settlement,
a depot for supplies for' miners working on the
rivers in Northern California. It has properly
no harbor, but only a roadstead, filled with the
wildest-looking black rocks, of strange forms,
standing far out from the shore, and affords a
very imperfect shelter for vessels if they are so
fortunate as to get safely in. The Coast Survey Report mentions it as "the most dangerous
of the roadsteads usually resorted to, filled with
sunken rocks and reefs." It further says, that
"no vessel should think of gaining an anchor-
© O
age there, without a pilot, or perfect knowledge
of the hidden dangers. The rocks are of peculiar character, standing isolated like bayonets,
with their points just below the surface, ready
to pierce any unlucky craft that may encounter
them." The " Dragon Rocks " he in the near
vicinity, at the end of a long reef that makes
out from Crescent City.    All the steamers that 134
enter or depart from there must pass near
It is very remarkable, that, while the Atlantic coast abounds in excellent harbors, on the
Pacific side of the continent there is no good
harbor where a vessel can find refuge in any
kind of weather between San Francisco Bay
and San Diego to the south, and Port Angeles,
on the Straits of Fuca, to the north. It is fitly
characterized by Wilkes as an "iron-bound
We reached here Saturday night. Sunday
morning, hearing a silver triangle played in the
streets, we looked out for tambourines and
dancing-girls, but saw none, and were presently
told it was the call to church. We were quite
tempted to go and hear what the service would
be, but the sound of the breakers on the bar
enchained us to stop and listen to them.
Portland, Ore., Oct. 20,1868.
In coming up the river from Astoria, we had
always in view the snow-white cone of St.
Helen's, one of the principal peaks of the Cascade Range. Nothing can be conceived more
virginal than this form of exquisite purity rising from the dark fir forests to the serene sky.
Mount Baker's symmetry is much marred by COWLITZ  VALLEY AND ITS FLOODS.      135
the sunken crater at the summit; Mount Rai-
nier's outline is more complicated: this is a
pure, beautiful cone. It is so perfect a picture
of heavenly calm, that it is as hard to realize its
being volcanic as it would be to imagine an out-
© ©
burst of passion in a seraph. Fremont reports
having seen columns of smoke ascending from
it, and showers of ashes are known to have
fallen over the Dalles.
As we approached Portland, the sharp-pointed
form of Mount Hood came prominently into
view. Portland would be only a commonplace
city, the Willamette River being quite tame
here, and the shores low and unattractive; but
this grand old mountain, and the remnant of
forest about it, give it an ancient, stately, and
dignified look.
Olympia, Oct. 30,1868,
In crossing from the Columbia River to the
Sound, we saw, along the Cowlitz Valley, marks
of the havoc and devastation caused by the
floods of last winter. The wild mountain stream
had swept away many familiar landmarks since
we were last there; in fact, had abandoned its
bed, and taken a new channel. It gave us a
realizing sense of the fact that great changes
are still in process on our globe. Where we
had quietly slumbered, is now the bed of the MONTICELLO.
stream. We mourned over the little place at
MonticeUo, where for eight years a nice garden,
with rows of trim currant-bushes, had gladdened
the eyes of travellers, and the neat inn, kept by
a cheery old Methodist minister, had given
them hospitable welcome, — not a vestige of
the place now remaining. Civilization is so
little advanced in that region, that few men
would have the heart or the means to set out a
garden. IX.
Victoria. — Its Mountain Views, Rocks, and Flowers. —Vancouver's Admiration of the Island. — San Juan Islands. —
Sir James Douglas. — Indian Wives. — Northern Indians.
— Indian Workmanship. — The Thunder-bird. — Indian
Offerings to the Spirit of a Child. — Pioneers. — Crows and
Victoria, B.C., Nov. 15,1868.
E are to stay for several months in this
place. We are delightfully situated.
The house has quite a Christmas look, from the
holly and other bright berries that cluster round
the windows. The hall is picturesquely ornamented with deer's horns an'd weapons and
Indian curiosities. But the view is what we
care most about. On our horizon we have the
exquisite peaks of silver, the summits of the
Olympic Range, at the foot of which we lived
in  Port Angeles.    We  look  across  the  blue
straits to them. Immediately in front is an oak
grove, and on the other side a great extent of
dark, Indian-looking woods. There are nearer
mountains, where we can see all the beautiful
changes of light and shade.   Yesterday they
137 *£m
were wrapped in haze, as in the Indian summer,
and every thing was soft and dreamy about
them; to-day they stand out bold and clear,
with great wastes of snow, ravines, and landslides, and dark prominences, all distinctly defined. When the setting sun lights up the
summits, new fields of crystal and gold, and
other more distant mountains, appear.
It is very refreshing to get here, the island
has such a rich green look after California. It
is quite rocky about us; but the rocks even are
carpeted deep with moss, and the old gnarled
branches of the oaks have a coating of thick,
bright velvet. It is now the middle of Novem-
ber; and the young grass is springing up after
the rain, and even where it does not grow
there is no bare earth, but brown oak-leaves
and brakes, with soft warm colors, particularly
when the sun strikes across them. The skies,
too, are like those at home, with the magnificent
sunrise and sunset that only clouds can give.
The California sky is, much of the time, pure
unchanging blue.
When we first landed here, we were very
much impressed by the appearance of the coast,
it being bold and rocky, like that of New England ; while on the opposite side of the straits,
and   almost   everywhere   on   the Sound,  are VANCOUVER'S ADMIRATION OF THE ISLAND. 139
smooth, sandy shores, or high bluffs covered
with trees. The trees, too, at once attracted
our attention, — large, handsome oaks, instead
of the rough firs, and a totally different undergrowth, with many flowers wholly unknown on
the opposite side, which charmed us with their
brilliancy and variety of color; among them
the delicate cyclamen, and others that we had
known only in greenhouses. They continually
recalled to us the surprise of some of the early
explorers at seeing an uncultivated country
look so much like a garden. We were told
that much less rain falls here than on the
American side; the winds depositing their moisture as snow on the mountains before they
reach Victoria, which gives it a dryer winter
Vancouver, in his narrative, repeatedly speaks
of the serenity of the weather here, and says
that the scenery recalled to him delightful places
in England. He felt as if the smooth, lawn-
like" slopes of the island must have been cleared
by man. Every thing unsightly seemed to have
been removed, and only what was most graceful
and picturesque allowed to remain. He says,
11 could not possibly believe that any uncultivated country had ever been discovered exhibiting so rich" a picture."    When requested by the 140
Spanish Seignor Quadra to select some harbor
or island to which to give their joint names, in
memory of their friendship, and the successful
accomplishment of their business (they having
been commissioned respectively by their governments to tender and receive the possessions
of Nootka, given back by Spain to Great Britain), he selected this island as the fairest and
most attractive that he had seen, and called it
the " Island of Quadra and Vancouver." The
"Quadra," as was usual with the Spanish names,
was soon after dropped.
Between Vancouver's Island and Washington Territory he the long-disputed islands of
the San Juan group; the British claiming that
Rosario Strait is the channel indicated in the
Treaty of 1846, which would give them the
islands; while the United States claim that De
Haro Strait is the true channel, and that the
islands belong to them.
These islands are valuable for their pasturage and their harbors, and most of all for their
situation in a military point of view. While
this question is still in dispute, the British fort
at one end of San Juan, and the American fort
at the other, observe towards each other a respectful silence. SIR JAMES DOUGLAS.
Dec. 1,1868.
Sir James Douglas, the first governor of
British Columbia, selected the site of Victoria.
Owing to his good taste, the natural beauty of
the place has been largely preserved. The oak
groves and delicate undergrowth are a great
contrast to the rude mill-sites of the Sound,
where every thing is sacrificed to sending off so
much lumber. He lives at Victoria in a simple,
unpretending way. It was made a law in British Columbia, that no white man should live
with an Indian woman as wife, without marrying her. He set the example himself, by
marrying one of the half-breed Indian women.
Some of the chief officers of the Hudson Bay
Company did the same. The aristocracy of Victoria has a large admixture of Indian blood.
The company encouraged their employe's, mostly
French Canadians, to take Indian wives also.
They were absolute in prohibiting the sale of-
intoxicating drinks to the Indians, and dismissed from their employ any one who violated
this rule.    They gave the Indians better goods
J    o o
than they got from the United-States agents;
so that they even now distinguish between a
King George (English) blanket, and a Boston
(American) blanket, as between a good one
and a bad one. -..aian
It was, no doubt, owing to the influence of
Sir James Douglas, that Lady Burdett Coutts
sent out and established a high school here for
boys and girls.
Dec. 5,1868.
We saw here some of the Northern Indians
of the Haidah tribe, from Queen Charlotte's
Islands.    They came in large canoes, some of
J O '
which would hold a hundred men, and yet
each was hollowed out of a single log of cedar.
They came down to bring a cargo of dogfish-
«/ © o ©
oil to the light-house at Cape Flattery. They
camped for two weeks on the beach, and we
went often to see them. Having led such an
isolated life on their islands, surrounded by
rough water, and hardly known to white men,
they have preserved many peculiarities of their
tribe, and are quite different in their looks and
habits from the Indians of Puget Sound. Some
of the old women had a little piece of bone or
pearl shell stuck through the lower lip, which
gave them a very barbarous appearance; but
in many ways the men had more knowledge of
arts and manufactures than any other Indians
we have seen. They showed us some ornaments of chased silver, which they offered for
sale; also bottle-shaped baskets, made of roots
and bark, so closely woven together as to hold THE     THUNDER-BIRD:
water. But most curious to us were some little black, polished columns, about a foot high,
that looked like ebony. They were covered
with carvings, very skilfully executed. When
we took them into our hands, we were surprised
at their weight, and found that they were made
of a fine, black coal-slate. A man who stood
by explained to us that this slate is a peculiar
product of their islands. When first quarried,
it is so soft as to be easily cut; and when afterward rubbed with oil, and exposed to the air,
it becomes intensely hard. At the foot of
the column was the bear, who guards the entrance of their lodges; at the top, the crow,
who presides over every thing. On some were
frogs and lizards. One was surmounted by the
" thunder-bird," a mythological combination of
man and bird, who lives among the mountains. When he sails out from them, the sky is
darkened; and the flapping of his wings makes
the thunder, and the winking of his eyes the
lightning. It is very strange that the " thunder-bird " should be one of the deities of the
Indians of the North-west, where thunder is so
rare as to be phenomenal. We heard of him
in other parts of British Columbia, and see him
represented in carvings from Sitka. Tatoosh
Island, off Cape Flattery, where the Makah In- 144
dians live, derives its name from Tootootche,
the Nootka name for the " thunder-bird." The
Makahs originally came from the west coast
of Vancouver's Island. They deem themselves
much superior to the tribes of the interior, because they go out on the ocean. Their home
being on the rocky coast islands, they naturally
look to the water to secure their living. Their
chief business is to hunt the whale, they being
the only Indians who engage in this pursuit.
Sometimes we found the Indians so deeply
interested in a game 'they were playing, that
they took no notice of us. It was played with
slender round sticks, about six inches long,
made of yew wood, so exquisitely polished that
it had a gloss like satin. Some of the sticks
were inlaid with little bits of rainbow pearl,
and I saw one on which the figure of a fish was
very skilfully represented. It is quite incomprehensible, how they can do such delicate
work with the poor tools they have. They use
only something like a cobbler's knife.
They shuffled the sticks under tow of cedar-
bark, droning all the time a low, monotonous
chant. It is curious that any thing so extremely
simple can be so fascinating.    They will sit all
J- © J
day and night, without stopping for food, and
gamble away every thing they possess.    It ap- INDIAN BURIAL-PLACE.
peared to be identical with the old game of
" Odd or Even " played by the ancient Greeks,
as described by Plato.
We saw here the great conical hat worn by
the Cape-Flattery Indians, similar in form to
the Chinese hat; and also some blankets of
their own manufacture, woven of dog's hair.
Port Townsend, Washington Territory,
April 4, 1869.
This afternoon we rode past the grave-yard of
the Indians on the beach. It is a picturesque
spot, as most of their burial-places are. They
like to select them where land and water meet.
A very old woman, wrapped in a green blanket,
was digging clams with her paddle in the sand.
She was one of those stiff old Indians, whom we
occasionally see, who do not speak the Chinook
at all, and take no notice whatever of the whites.
I never feel as if they even see me when I am
with them. They seem always in a deep dream.
Her youth must have been long before any
white people came to the country. When she
dies, her body will be wrapped in the tattered
green blanket, and laid here, with her paddle,
her only possession, stuck up beside her in the
We saw two Indians busy at one of the little 146      OFFERINGS TO THE SPIRIT OF A CHILD.
huts that cover the graves. They were nailing
a new red covering over it. We asked them
if a chief was dead. A klootchman we had not
noticed before looked up, and said mournfully,
" No," it was her " little woman." I saw that
she had before her, on the sand, a number of
little bright toys, — a doll wrapped in calico,
a musical ball, a looking-glass, a package of
candy and one of cakes, a bright tin pail full
of sirup, and two large sacks, one of bread,
and the other of apples.
Another and older woman was picking up
driftwood, and arranging it for a fire.    When
' ©        O
the men had finished their work at the hut,
they came and helped her. They laid it very
carefully, with a great many openings, and
level on the top, and lighted it.
Then the grandmother brought a little purple woollen shawl, and gave it to the old man.
He held it out as far as his arm could reach,
and waved it, and apparently called to the spirit
of the child to come and receive it; and he then
cast it into the fire. He spoke in the old Indian
language, which they do not use in talking with
us.   It sounded very strange and thrilling.   Each
«/ o ©
little toy they handled with great care before
putting it into the flames. After they had
burned up the bread and the apples, they poured OFFERINGS TO THE SPIRIT OF A  CHILD.     147
on some sugar, and smothered the flames,
making a dense column of smoke.
Then they all moved a little farther back, and
motioned us to also. We wondered they had
tolerated us so long, as they dislike being observed ; but they seemed to feel that we sympathized with them. The old man staid nearest.
He lay down on the sand, half hidden, by a
wrecked tree. He stripped his arms and legs
bare, and pulled his hair all up to the top of his
head, and knotted it in a curious wajr, so that
it nodded in a shaggy tuft over his forehead.
Then he lay motionless, looking at the fire,
once in a while turning and saying something
© «/ © O
to the women, apparently about the child, as I
several times distinguished the word tenas-tenas
(the little one). I thought perhaps he might
be describing her coming and taking the things.
At times he became very animated. They did
not stir, only answered with a kind of mournful
" Ah — ah," to every thing he said.
At last their little dog bounded forward, as
if to meet some one. At that, they were very
much excited and pleased, and motioned us to
go farther off still, as if it were too sacrilegious
for us to stay there. They all turned away
but the old man, and he began to move in a
stealthy way towards the fire.    All the clumsi- •t^**"""   n.1 |4
ness and weight of a man seemed to be gone.
He was as light and. wiry as a snake, and glided
round the old drift that strewed the sand, with
his body prostrate, but his head held erect, and
his bright eyes fixed on the fire, like some wild
desert creature, which he appeared to counterfeit. The Indians think, that, by assuming the
shape of any creature, they can acquire something of its power. When he had nearly
reached the fire, he sprang up, and caught
something from it. I could not tell whether it
was real or imaginary. He held it up to his
breast, and appeared to caress it, and try to
twine it -about his neck. I thought at first
it was a coal of fire; perhaps it was smoke.
Three times he leaped nearly into the flames in
this way, and darted at something which he
apparently tried to seize. Then he seemed to
assure the others that he had accomplished his
purpose; and they all went immediately off,
without looking back.
April 20,1869. ■
We are surprised to find so many New-England people about us. Many of those who are
interested in the saw-mills are lumbermen from
Maine. The two men who first established
themselves in the great wilderness, with un- PIONEERS.
broken forest, and only Indians about them,
are still living near us. They are men of resources, as well as endurance. A man who
comes to do  battle  against these  great trees
o ©
must necessarily be of quite a different character from one who expects, as the California
pioneer did, to pick up his fortune in the dust
at his feet. I am often reminded of Thoreau's
experience in the Maine woods. He says, "The
deeper you penetrate into the woods, the more
intelligent, and, in one sense, less countrified,
do you find the inhabitants; for always the
pioneer has been a traveller, and to some extent a man of the world; and, as the distances
with which he is familiar are greater, so is his
information more general and far-reaching."
May 30,1869.
The gulls and crows give parties to each
other on the sand, at low-tide. Farther out
are the ducks, wheeling about, and calling to
each other, with sharp, lively voices. It is curious to watch them, and try to understand their
impulses. Sometimes they are all perfectly
motionless, sitting in companies of hundreds, in
the deepest calm; sometimes all in a flutter,
tripping over the water, with their wings just
striking it, uttering their shrill cry.    They dive, riftp
but never come to shore. What one does, all
the rest immediately do. Sometimes the whole
little fleet is gone in an instant, and the water
unruffled above them.
The prettiest among them is the spirit-duck,
— its motion is so beautiful, as it breasts the
little billows, or glides through the still water.
Their bosoms are so like the white-caps, I have
to look for their little black heads, to see where
they are. Once in a while, a loon comes sailing along, in its slow, stately way, turning its
slender, graceful neck from side to side, as if
enjoying the scenery. We never see more" than
two of them together, and they generally separate soon.
55KS Puget Sound and Adjacent Waters. — Its Early Explorers.—
Towns, Harbors, and Channels.—Vancouver's Nomenclature.— Juan deFuca. —Mount Baker. — Chinese" Wing."
— Ancient Indian Women. — Pink Flowering Currant and
Humming-Birds. — "Ah Sing."
Port Townsend, Sept. 10,1869.
"TTT"E have been spending a vday or two in
* V travelling about the Sound by steamer,
touching at the various mill-towns and other
ports, where the boat calls, to receive and deliver the mails, or for other business. Every
time we pass over these waters, we admire anew
their extent and beauty, and their attractive surroundings, their lovely bays and far-reaching
inlets, their bold promontories and lofty shores,
their setting in the evergreen forest, and the
o o
great mountains in the distance, standing guard
on either side.
The early explorers who visited this part of
the country evidently had a high appreciation
of it, as their accounts of it show. Vancouver,
who came in 1792, expressed so much admira-.
151 \m
tion of these waters and their surroundings,
that his statements were received with hesitation, and it was supposed that his enthusiasm
as an explorer had led him to exaggeration.
But Wilkes, who followed him many years
afterwards, confirmed all that he had said, and,
in his narrative, writes as follows regarding this
great inland sea: —
"Nothing can exceed the beauty of these
waters, and their safety. Not a shoal exists
within the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, or Hood's Canal,
that can in any way interrupt their navigation
by a seventy-four-gun ship. I venture nothing
in saying there is no country in the world that
possesses waters equal to these."
In another account Wilkes writes: " One of
the most noble estuaries in the world; without a
danger of any kind to impede, navigation; with
a surrounding country capable of affording all
kinds of supplies, harbors without obstruction
at any season of the year, and a climate unsurpassed in salubrity."
More recently the United-States Coast Sur-.
vey Report of 1858 declares, that, "For depth
of water, boldness of approaches, freedom from
hidden dangers, and the immeasurable sea of
gigantic   timber   coming   down   to   the   very .^iS^SSSfS^^JljK—
shores,  these   waters   are   unsurpassed,  unapproachable."
We were at first puzzled by the various
names given to the different waters eVer which
we travelled; but soon discovered, that, while
the term " Puget Sound " is popularly applied
to the whole of them, it properly belongs only
to the comparatively small body of water lying
beyond the " Narrows," at the southern end.
and the arms and inlets that branch therefrom.
The great natural divisions of this system
are: the Straits of Juan de Fuca, extending
from the ocean eastward about eighty miles,
and then branching into the vast Gulf of
Georgia to the north, and Admiralty Inlet to
the south; Hood's Canal, branching from the
latter, on the west side, near the entrance, and
running south-west about sixty miles; Possession Sound, branching from the east side, and
extending north between Whidby Island and the
mainland, as far as Rosario Straits; and Puget
Sound, connected with the southerly end of
Admiralty Inlet by the "Narrows."
. We commenced our recent trip at Victoria,
and crossed the Straits of Fuca, — through
which the west wind draws as through a tunnel,— to Port Angeles. This place was named
by Don Francisco Elisa, who was sent out to
this region in 1791 by the Mexican Viceroy.
Of course Don Francisco must compliment the
Viceroy by giving his name to some important
points. This royal personage had a string of
ten proper names, besides his titles. These Don
Francisco distributed according to his judgment.
© o O
Being apparently a religious man, he was mindful also of the claims of saints and angels ; and,
when he reached the first good harbor on the
upper coast, he called it Puerto de los Angeles
(Port of the Angels).
Proceeding eastward, the next point of interest is New Dungeness, so called by Vancouver from its resemblance in situation to
Dungeness on the British Channel.    The har-
bor of this place, like that of Port Angeles, is
formed by a long sand-spit that curves out from
the shore. On account of this resemblance,
Vancouver gave to Port Angeles the name of
False Dungeness, thinking it might be mistaken
© © O
for the other. But this name has been dropped,,
and the more poetical designation of the Spaniard retained. The pious Elisa called the long-
pointed sand-spit at Dungeness " the Point of
the Holy Cross."
The great body of water north of Vancouver's
Island, which had not yet received its name,
he called Canal de Nuestra Sefiora del Rosario PORT TOWNSEND.
(the Channel of Our Lady of the Rosary).
When Vancouver, in the following year, gave
his own name to the island, he called this body
of water the Gulf of Georgia, in honor of George
III., the reigning king of England. The name
given by Elisa is still retained by the strait east
of the De Haro Archipelago.
The next place at which we stopped was Port
Townsend. This was named, by Vancouver,
Marrowstone Point, from the cliff of marrow-
stone at the head of the peninsula; but this
name was afterwards given to the headland on
the opposite side of the entrance to Port Town-
send Bay, to the south-east of the town, and
the name of Townshend, one of the lords of
the Admiralty, was given to the bay. The
town afterwards took the same name, dropping
the h from it. Admiralty Inlet commences
here, and was named by Vancouver in honor
of the Board of Admiralty for whom he sailed.
Hood's Canal was named for another of the
lord-members of the Board.
Opposite, across the inlet, to the north and
east, lies Whidby Islan^, which Vancouver
named for one of his lieutenants. It is a pity
it could not have had some more poetic name,
it is so beautiful a place ; it is familiarly known
here as the " Garden of the Territory."   It was 156
formerly owned and occupied by the Skagit Indians, a large tribe, who had several villages
there, and fine pasture-grounds; their name
being still retained by the prominent headland
at the southern extremity of the island. I heard
one of the passengers remark that there were
formerly white deer there. I strained my eyes
as long as it was in sight, hoping to see one of
these lovely creatures emerge from the dark
woods; but in vain. Wilkes says that the
Skagit Indians had large, well-built lodges of
timber and planks. But, since so many tribes
have been swept away by the small-pox, most
of them have lost their interest in making sub-
stantial houses, -feeling that they have so little
while to live. North of Whidby is Fidalgo
Island, named for a Spanish officer. Between
them is a narrow passage, called Deception
Pass, very intricate and full of rocks, above
and below the water, and most difficult to navigate,—in striking contrast to the waters of the
Sound in general.
We called at Port Ludlow and Port Gamble,
the latter on Hood's Canal, near the entrance,
— Teekalet being its Indian name. Returning
to Admiralty Inlet, we presently passed Skagit
Head, at the entrance of Possession Sound,
so named. by Vancouver to commemorate the VANCOUVER'S NOMENCLATURE.
formal taking possession, by him, of all the territory around the Straits of Fuca and Admiralty
Inlet, on the king's birthday.
We steamed serenely on, over the clear, still
water, to Port Madison, and then crossed the
inlet to Seattle. Thence we proceeded south,
and passed Vashon Island, which has many
attractive features. Quartermaster's Harbor,
at the southern end, is a lovely place; and beautiful shells and fossils are to be found there.
Occasionally we came across a great boom of
logs, travelling down to some saw-mill; or a
crested cormorant, seated 'on a fragment of
drift, sailed for a while in our company. We
passed on through the " Narrows," and entered
Puget Sound proper, named for Peter Puget,
one of Vancouver's lieutenants, who explored
All Vancouver's friends, patrons, and officers
■— lieutenants, pursers, pilots, and pilot's mates
—are abundantly honored in the names scattered about this region. He appears, too, to
have had a good appreciation of nature, and
praised, in his report, the landscape and the
flowers. He regarded somewhat, in his nomenclature, the natural features of the country;
»as in Point Partridge, the eastern headland of
Whidby Island; Hazel Point, on Hood's Canal; E MiBliiilfirfU i     s?«
Cypress Island, one of the San Juan group; and
Birch Bay, south of the delta of Fraser River.
The Spanish explorers in this region do not
seem to hav^ taken much pains to record and
publish the result of their discoveries. Vancouver held on to his with true English grip, and
often supplanted their names by others of his
own choosing.
At night we reached Steilacoom, where there
was formerly a military post. It has an imposing situation, with a fine mountain view; and
there are some excellent military roads leading
from it in various directions.
We spent a pleasant day at Olympia, which
lies at the southern extremitj' of the Sound,
and resembles a New-England village, with its
maples shading the streets, and flower-gardens.
It has an excellent class of people, as have the
towns upon the Sound in general; and the
evidences of taste and culture, which are continually seen, are one of the pleasantest characteristics of this new and thinly settled part of
the country.
There are no saw-mills on the Straits of Fuca,
and the slight settlements along its shores have
scarcely marred their primitive wildness and
beauty. The original forest-line is hardly
broken; the deer still come down to the water's MOUNT BAKER.
edge; and the face of the country has apparently
not changed since Vancouver, nearly a hundred
years ago, stooped to gather the May roses at
Dungeness; or Juan de Fuca, two centuries
earlier, " sailed into that silent sea," and looked
round at the mountains, — not less beautiful,
though more imposing, than those that lay
about his own home on the distant Mediterranean.
Dec. 10,1869.
We have just seen an English gentleman who
came over to this country for the purpose of
ascending Mount Baker, first called by the
Spaniards Montana del CarmMo. He was three
years in trying to get a small company to attempt the expedition with him. Indians do not
at all incline to ascending mountains; they
seem to have some superstitious fear about it.
I believe this mountain has never been explored
to any extent. He describes the colors of the
snow and ice as intensely beautiful. He has
travelled among the Alps, but saw an entirely
new phenomenon on the summit of Mount
Baker, — the snow like little tongues of flame.
In the deep rifts was a most exquisite blue.
On the last day's upward journey, they were
obliged to throw away all their blankets, — as
they were not able to carry any weight, — and m
depend on chance for the night's shelter. How
well Fate rewarded them for trusting her!
They happened at night upon a warm cavern,
where any extra coverings would have been
quite superfluous. It was part of the crater,
but they slept quietly notwithstanding.
Jan. 15,1870.
We have now a little Chinese boy to live
with us; that is, he represents himself as a boy,
but he seems more as if he were a most ancient
man. He might have stepped out of some
Ninevite or Egyptian sculpture. He is like the
little figures in the processions on the tombs,
and his face is perfectly grave and unchanging
all the time. I feel about him, as I do about
some of the Indians,—as if he had not only
his own age, but the age of his race, about him.
There never could be any thing more inappropriate than that he should be named
" Wing," for no creature could be farther
from any thing light or airy. One reason, I
think, why he seems so different from any of
his countrymen that we have seen, is because
he has never lived in a city, but only in a small
village, which he says has no name that we
should understand.
He works in the slowest possible way, but CHINESE  " WING:
most faithfully and incessantly, and never
shows the slightest desire for any recreation
or rest. Even the anticipation of the great national Chinese feast, which is to be celebrated
next month, and which occurs only once in a
thousand years, has failed to arouse a*iiy enthusiasm in him, and he is apparently quite indifferent to it.
Our goat has taken a great dislike to him, —
I think just because he is so different from herself. She is always making thrusts at him with
her horns, and trying to butt him ove*. But
he preserves, even toward her, his uniform
sweet manner; calls her a " sheep," entirely
ignoring her rude, fierce ways; leads her to
pasture every day, under great difficulties; and
attempts to milk her, at the risk of his life.
The serenity of these people is really to be
envied; they go on their way so perfectly undisturbed, whatever happens.
April 30,1870.
The tides are very peculiar here. Every
alternate fortnight they run very low, and then
the beach is uncovered so far out that we can
take long rides on it, as far as the head of the
We are very much entertained with seeing 102
the old Indian crones digging clams. They
appear to be equally amused with us, and
chuckle with delight as we pass. It seems
very strange to see human beings without the
least approach to any thing civilized or artificial, with the single exception of the old blankets knotted about them with pieces of rope;
but when I compare them with civilized women
of the same age, who are generally helpless, I
see that they have a great advantage over them.
They are out everywhere, in all weathers, and
do always the hardest of the work. We meet
them often in the woods, so bowed down under
the loads of bark on their backs, that it looks
as if the bark itself had a stout pah of legs,
and were walking. Our horse is always fright-
ened, and can never get used to them.
We can ride now for hours on the beach,
looking at the water on one side, and on the
other at the densely wooded bluffs, now most
beautifully lighted up by the pink flowering
currant. It is like the rhodora at home, in respect to coming very early, — the flowers before
the leaves. At first it is of a delicate faint pink;
but as the season advances it becomes very deep
and rich in color, and contrasts most beautifully
with the drapery of light-gray moss, and the
dark fir-trees. AH SING.
This flower attracts the humming-bird, and
furnishes its earliest food. This delicate, tropical-looking little creature is the first bird to
arrive; coming often in March from its winter
home in California, where it lives on another
species of flowering currant that blooms through
the winter.
In making some excavations here, there have
been found the bones and teeth of the American elephant, and with them a bone made into
a wedge, such as the Indians here use in splitting wood; which seems to imply great antiquity
for their race.
Aug. 10,1870.
We have a new China boy, Ah Sing, who is
very impulsive and enthusiastic, quite a different character from the unemotional Wing.
He is almost too zealous to learn. R. began to
teach him his letters, to make him contented.
I hear him now repeating them over and over
to himself, with great emphasis, while he is
washing the clothes. He is so big and strong,
that they come out with great force. A few
nights ago, after everybody had gone to bed,
he came down past our room, and went into
the kitchen. R. followed him to see what was
the matter, and, as the boy looked a little wild,
thought perhaps he was going into a fit.    He AH sing:
had seized the primer, and was flourishing it
about and gesticulating with it; and finally R.,
who has a wonderful faculty for comprehending
the Chinese, divined that he had gone to bed
without a lesson, and could not sleep until he
had learned something. Rocky-mountain Region.—Railroad from Columbia River to
Puget Sound. — Mountain Changes. — Mixture of Nationalities. — Journey to Coos Bay, Oregon. —Mountain Caiion.
—A Branch of the Coquille. — Empire City. — Myrtle
Grove. — Yaquina. — Genial Dwellers in the Woods. — Our
Unknown Neighbor. — Whales. —Pet Seal and Eagle.—
A Mourning Mother. — Visit from Yeomans.
Port Townsend, Nov. 18,1872.
"T"TT"E had quite a pleasant journey back from
» »     the East, and saw some things we must
have passed in the night on our trip thither.
About the Rocky-mountain region we saw what
v ©
appeared to be immense ruins; but they were
really natural formations, resembling old castles,
with ramparts and battlements and towers.    I
could not help feeling as if they must belong
to some gigantic extinct race.    On the wide,
O   © '
solitary plains they were most imposing.
At the Laramie Plains, where we stopped a
while, we were so blinded by the glittering
crystals of quartz and specks of mica, we could
well understand why the name of the Glitter- 166
ing Mountains was first given to the Rocky-
mountain Range.
We saw at Cheyenne a most curious cactus.
Outside, it was only a green, prickly ball; inside, was a deep nest, filled with a cluster of
pink blossoms.
We looked into the beautiful Blue Canon —
blue with mist. Hundreds of feet below us
was the gliding silver line of a stream.
O ©
At one of our stopping-places was a team of
buffalo  and oxen working together.    To  see
O ©
this chief Manitou of the Indians so degraded,
was like seeing a captive Jugurtha.
We found great changes had taken place
within a year between Columbia River and
Puget Sound. Where we used to cross alone,
in the deepest solitude of the forest, there were
cars running, gangs of Chinamen everywhere
at work, great burnt tracts, and piles of firewood. Once in a while a stray deer bounded
by, and turned back to look at us, with pretty,
innocent curiosity. And there were still some
of   the   old  trees  left  standing,  gnarled  and
O'      o
twisted, and so thickly coated with moss, that
great ferns grew out of it, and hung down from
the branches. What a pity to destroy the work
of centuries, the like of which we shall never
We saw to-day some of the pretty spotted
sea-doves, that have just arrived to spend the
winter with us. Puget Sound, with its mild
climate, is their Florida or Bermuda. In early
spring they return to the rocky lagoons of the
North, to pair and breed.
Dec. 15,1872.
With our wider range from the hill-top to
which we have removed, we notice more how
the appearance of the mountains changes with
the changes of the sky. This morning they
were all rose-color; and are now so ghostly, the
snow like shrouds about them. Before, we had
only single chains and solitary peaks; here, we
look into the bosom of a mountainous country,
and every change in the light reveals something
«/ © © ©
new. Where we have many times looked without seeing any thing, at length some beautiful
© t/ © • ©
new outline appears in faint silver on the distant horizon. Heaven ought to be more real
to us for living in sight of what is so inaccessible, and so full of beauty and mystery.
March 9,1873.
We are very much struck with the mixture
of nationalities upon this coast. We were so
fortunate as to secure last winter the services A SWEDISH GIRL.
of a splendid great Swedish girl, the heartiest
and healthiest creature I ever saw. .There did
not seem to be a shadow of any kind about
her, nor any thing more amiss with her in any
way than there is with the sunshine or the blue
sky. All kinds of work she took alike, with
equal readiness, and never admitted to her mind
a doubt or anxiety on any subject.
We felt sorry enough, when we had had her
only three weeks, to have the foreman of the
mill come and beg us to release her. It seems
they were engaged to be married when they
left Sweden; but, being of thrifty natures, they
had agreed to work each a year before settling
down in marriage. The constant sight of her
charms proved too much for him, and they
decided that all they needed to begin life together was their wealth of affection and their
exuberant health and spirits.
Her size may be imagined, when I mention
that her lover brought up six rings in succes-
tion, to try to find one big enough to go over
her finger. Finally he squeezed on the largest
one he could obtain, as an absolutely essential
ceremony to bind them together, and smiled
with delight to see that it could never be
taken off.
The only help we could find in. her place, at RUSSIAN  GEORGE.
such short notice, was a Russian boy, lately
arrived from Kodiac. When we first saw him,
we were quite disheartened at his appearance,
his mouth and eyes were so like those of a fish,
and he seemed so terribly uncivilized. I attempted to intimate that I thought we could
not undertake to do any thing with him. He
seemed to suspect what I thought, — although he
could not understand my words, — and took up a
piece of paper, and wrote some Russian words on
it. I asked him what they meant; and he said,
I Jesus Christ, he dead; he get up again; men
and devils he take them all up." I supposed
the most civilized person he had ever seen was
the priest; and, as the priest had taught him
that, he thought it was a kind of introduction
for him, and that I should feel it to be a bond
of union between us. I did not feel quite so
much as if he were a fish or a seal afterward.
All the time, even over the hot cooking-stove,
he kept his rough fur cap on his head. His
great staring eyes rolled round in every direction ; and he looked so utterly uncouth and so
bewildered, that I doubted very much if he
could ever be adapted to our needs.
To my great surprise, however, he learned
very fast, stimulated by his curiosity to know
about every thing.    What made him appear so 170
very stupid at first was, that he felt so strongly
the newness of all his surroundings. After he
learned to talk with us, he interested us very
much with accounts of his own country, and
with the letters he read us from his father, an
old man of ninety, who had spent his life in
charge of convicts in Siberia. He wrote his
father that he was homesick; and the old man
replied : " You homesick — work! work by and
by make you strong!" His letters were directed only : " Son mine — George Olaf." He
seemed to trust to some one on the way, to take
an interest in their reaching him.
The boy generally set up his hymn-book in
some place where he could occasionally glance
at it, and chant his Russian hymns, while he
was about his work. On the other side, the
nurse sang Dutch songs to the baby.
July 1,1873.
We have just returned from a long, rough
journey in southern and western Oregon.. We
crossed the Coast Range of mountains, — not
so high and snow-capped as the Cascades, but
beautiful to watch in their variations of light
and shade, always the shadows of clouds travelling over them, and mists stealing up through the
dark ravines.    A Dutchwoman — our fellow- MOUNTAIN   FLOWERS.
passenger — was in ecstasies, exclaiming continually : " How beautiful is the land here!
How bracht [bright] ! " — noticing all the sun-
lighted places; but I was more attracted by the
shadows. I heard another hard-looking woman
say to a man, that she cried when she saw the
hills, they were so beautiful. There was a deep
welcome in them; something human and responsive seemed to fill the stillness. In these solitary
places, remote from all other associations, it
seems as if Nature could communicate more
directly with us.
I noticed, more than I ever did before, the
difference in the appearance and bearing of
the flowers; how some seemed only to flaunt
themselves, and others had so much more character. As we passed a little opening in the
woods, a great dark purple flower, that was a
stranger to me, fixed its gaze upon me so that
I felt the look, as we sometimes do from human
eyes. Any thing supernatural is so in keeping
with these solitary places, I felt as if some one
had assumed that form to greet me. There
were some beautiful new flowers ; among them
a snow-white iris, which was very lovely. It
seemed like a miracle that this fair little creature should come up so unsoiled out of the
rough, black earth. 172
We crossed the mountain range through a
canon. The road wound round and round the
sides of it, sometimes so narrow that it seemed
hardly more than an Indian trail. We had a
true California driver, who shouted out to us
every few minutes, to hold on tight, or all to
get together on one side, or something equally
suspicious; but dashed on without any regard
to danger. We.were in constant expectation
of being hurled to the bottom; but it quickened our senses to enjoy the beauty about us,
to feel -that any moment might be our last.
We saw below us great trees that filled the
canon. They were so very tall, that it appeared
as if, after having grown into what would be
recognized everj^where as lofty trees, they had
altered their views altogether as to what a tall
tree really should be,*and started anew. We
did not wholly enjoy looking down at their
great mossy arms, stretched out as if to receive us. Everywhere was the most exquisite
fragrance, from the Linnsea and other flowers.
At the bottom was a little thread of a brook.
After we passed through the canon, the brook
came out, and went down the mountain side
with us. It was very lively company. Sometimes it hid from us, but we could tell where
it was, by the rushing of the water.    Then it EMPIRE  CITY.
would appear again, whirling and eddying
about the rocks. In some places, its bed was
of pure, hard stone, with basins full of foam.
Sometimes the rocks were covered with dark,
rich moss. There were retired little falls in it,
that seemed like nuns, so unregarding as they
were of all the commotion about them. Then
the whole body of water would gather itself
up, and shoot down some rock, and cut like a
sword-blade into the still water below. We
shall long remember that little, leaping, dancing branch of the Coquille, that runs from the
Coast Mountains to the sea.
Upon learning that we were approaching
| Empire City," we attempted a hasty toilet, —
as appropriate for entering a metropolis as circumstances would permit,—but we were kindly
informed that we might spare ourselves the
trouble, as the place consisted at present of but
a single house; a carpenter having established
himself there, and, with a far-seeing eye, given
the place its name, and started a settlement by
building his own dwelling, and a play-house in
the woods for his little daughter.
We spent one night in a myrtle-grove. The
trees leaned gracefully together, and the whole
grove for miles was made of beautiful arched
aisles.   Coming from our shaggy firs, and the 174
rough   undergrowth   that   is  always   beneath
© o **
them, to these smooth, glossy leaves, and clear,
open spaces of fine grass, was like entering
fairy-land, or the "good green wood" of the
ballads. I looked for princes and lovers wandering among them, and felt quite transformed
myself. The driver I regarded as a different
man from that moment; to think that he should
show so much good taste as to draw up for the
night in that lovely place.
In coming from the mountain, we had to
ride a good deal of the way without seeing
where we were going; and once we found ourselves with a great roof over our heads, hollowed out of the solid rock, and covered with
dripping maiden's-hair. All the rock about was
like flint, and worn into strange shapes by the
One day we were accompanied quite a distance through the woods by a female chief,
Yaquina. I think that she is a celebrated
woman in Oregon, and that Yaquina Bay was
named for her. She was mounted on a little
pony, and riding along in a free and joyous
way, looking about at the green leaves and the
sunshine. I thought of Victoria with her heavy
crown, that gives her the sick headache, and
wondered how she would like to exchange
with her. GENIAL DWELLERS IN THE  WOODS.      175
We were quite interested in some of the people we saw, one of them especially,—a man
whose house had no windows. We felt at first
as if we could not stop with him; but he came
out to our wagon, looking so bright and clean,
and had such an air of welcome as he said,
" We are not very well provided, but we are
very accommodating," that we at once decided
to stop, particularly as the driver said the
horses coidd not possibly go enough farther to
get to any better place that night. He ushered
us in'very hospitably, and loolSng round the
room — the chairs being rather scarce — said,-
" There are plenty of seats—on the floor." I
saw some books on a shelf, and, going to look at
them, found " Mill's Logic," and " Tyndall on
Sound," and several others, scientific and historical. We found him, as he said we should,
eager to make us comfortable. He noticed that
the baby did not look well, and went out into
the woods, and cut down a little tree that he
said would do her good, and urged us to take it
with us. He said that he was generally called
in by his neighbors, in case of sickness or accident. He had learned to help himself in most
ways, as he came there originally with only fifty
cents in his pocket.
Another old man, at the next stopping-place, GENIAL DWELLERS IN THE   WOODS.
made a beautiful picture, as he sat inside his
open door, in. a great, rough, home-made armchair, with a black bear-skin for a pillow, — a
large, strong man, with long, shining, silver
hair. We were very much pleased to find that
we were to spend the night there, he looked so
interesting.    All his talk was about fights with
o o
wild beasts and Indians, and cutting down the
big trees, and making the terrible roads we had
been over. There was a good deal of refinement
and gentleness, too, about him. He had in his
arms a dear little child. He had adopted her,
he said, because his were all grown up. She
seemed like a soft little bird, so timid and
©       ©
When we came to see our accommodations,
we were delighted to find every thing so clean
and agreeable. We expressed our pleasure to
him, and he said, " Yes; a woman, I think, will
go a mile or two farther for a clean sheet; and
even a man does not altogether like to be tucked
into bed with a stranger;" which suggests what
the customs are there.
Dec. 20, 1873.
We were startled to learn, a few days since,
that one of our neighbors had been found dead,
—a man about whom there had always been a OUR   UNKNOWN NEIGHBOR.
good deal of mystery in the village. He lived
.alone, and never spoke of any relations or
friends. He was a man of very courteous manners, but on this point he would allow no questions. There was no one to notify of his death,
and nobody appeared to claim his property.
The first time we ever saw him, he was riding
in the woods, on a handsome horse, with a
bright scarlet blanket. He looked so picturesque, and there was so much grace and dignity
about him, that I felt as if he did not belong
anywhere about here. It seemed as if he might
have come riding out of some foreign land, or
O © '
some distant age,—like a knight going to a
When we came to know him, we could not
help wondering what could induce him to live
here. He was thought to be Southern, and it
was generally supposed that some difficulties
arising at the time of the war had brought him
O ©
here. He seemed disposed to make the best of
pur dull life, and always had something that
interested him to show us, — a new flower, or
curious shell, or some pretty Indian child.
The last time we saw him was Saturday night.
It must have been only a few hours before his
death, but he appeared in his usual fine health.
The next we knew of him was Monday morning, 178 WHALES.
when some men who lived near us said that
nothing had been seen of him since his light
"disappeared Saturday night. As he did not
open his house, as usual, on Sunday, they said
to themselves, "He does not like to be dis-^
turbed," and waited till Monday, when they
went to the window; and the dog inside, hearing the noise, came and tore down the curtain,
and went back and sat down beside his master,
where he lay on the bed, and licked his face;
and they saw that he was dead. He was tenderly
buried by the people of the village, without
religious ceremonies; but they dropped little
green branches into his grave hi the way of the
Free Masons. I was surprised at the delicacy of
feeling shown in regard to his desire to remain
unknown, rude curiosity concerning any thing
peculiar being everywhere so common.
May 20,1874.
This afternoon we went out a little farther
than usual in our boat, and saw a herd of whales
in the distance, — great free creatures, puffing
and snorting, spouting and frolicking, together.
The boatman said that a flap from one of their
tails would send our boat clean out of the water,
and turned hastily about, hallooing in the wildest way, to keep them off. PET SEAL AND EAGLE.
On our way back we passed some deserted
buildings on a sandy point. We inquired about
them, and were told that they were the commencement of a city, originally called "New
York;" but, having disappointed its founders,
the Indian name of Alki (By and By) was given
to it in derision.
We saw in the woods near here some magnificent rhododendrons, ten or twelve feet tall,
covered with clusters of rose-colored flowers.
One of the boatmen has a pet seal that we
Sometimes take out in the boat with us. We
put him occasionally into the water, feeling that
he must be longing to go; but he always stays
near the boat, and comes back if we whistle to
him, and seems quite companionable. Who
would have believed that one of these cold sea
creatures could ever have been enticed into such
intimacy ? Our only idea of them, before this
experience, had been of a little dark head here
and there in the distance, in the midst of great
wastes of water, where, as Lowell says, they —
" Solemnly lift their faces gray,
Making it yet more lonely."
One of the captains we sailed with told us
that he had at one time a gray eagle he had
tamed when young, that often took coasting- 180 A MOURNING MOTHER.
voyages with Mm, leaving- the vessel occasionally, and returning to it, even when it had sailed
many miles; never, by mistake, alighting on
another craft instead of his. Sometimes, when
out on a voyage to San Francisco, it would
leave the vessel, and return to his house on
Port Discovery Bay.
Oct. 15,1874.
• As we were passing along near the shore today, in our boat, we saw an Indian woman sitting alone on the beach, moaning, and dipping
her hands continually in the water. Her canoe
was drawn up beside her. We stopped, and
asked her if any one was dead. She pointed
to a square box1 in the canoe, and said, " mika
tenas " (my child). She said, afterwards, that
she was as tall as I, and " hyas closhe" (so
As the poor Indian mother looked round at
the waves and the sky to comfort her, I thought,
what is there, after all, that civilization can
offer, beyond what is given by Nature alone, to
every one in deepest need ?
Yeomans, our old Port Angeles friend, called
on us to-day.    Every year since we left there,
1 The crouching position, the favorite one of the Indians
in life, is preserved by them in the disposition of their dead. ■ VISIT FROM  YEOMANS.
he has included us in his annual visit to the
Seattle tribes. Each time we see him I think
must be. the last, he looks so very old; but every
autumn brings him back, apparently unchanged.
He seems to alter as slowly as the old firs about
him. I am surprised always at his light tread ;
he bears so little weight on his feet, but glides
along as if he were still in the woods, and
would not have a leaf rustle. XII.
Puget Sound to San Francisco. —A Model Vessel. — The Captain's Relation to his Men. — Rough Water. —Beauty of
the Sea. — Golden-Gate Entrance. — San Francisco Streets.
— Santa Barbara. — Its Invalids. — Our Spanish Neighbors.
— The Mountains and the Bay. — Kelp. — Old Mission. —
A Simoom. — The Channel Islands. — A New Type of
Chinamen. — An Old Spanish House.
San Francisco, March 20,1875.
"E reached here last night, after a rough
voyage from Puget Sound. We had all
our worst weather first. After three or four
days came a bright, clear morning, and the captain called me on deck' to see the sunrise. It
was all so changed, so beautiful, so joyous,—
all around the exquisite green light flashing
through the waves as they broke ; and as far off'
as we could see, in every direction, the water
leaping and tossing itself into spray. A strong
wind had taken the vessel in charge; and it flew
swiftly over the water, with no changes needed,
no altering of sails, no orders of any kind, and
nobody seemed to be about.    The captain fixed A MODEL  VESSEL.
me a hammock in a sail; and I lay there hour
after hour, with no company but the warm,
bright sunshine straying over the deck. I felt
as if it were an enchanted vessel, on which I
was travelling alone.
Cleopatra's barge could not have been more
carefully kept. When the men came out to
their daily work, all their spare moments were
spent in polishing and cleaning every little tarnished or dingy spot. At first it used to seem
to me like a wanton risk of life, with the vessel
rearing and plunging so that we did not dare
to stir on deck, to see them climb the tall masts,
and cling there, scraping and oiling them, to
bring out the veining of the wood. Perhaps it
was partly as a discipline in steadiness, that
they were directed to do it, — to get used to
working at such a height.    What a contrast to
© o
the tawdriness of the steamers we had been
accustomed to, to see every thing about us
made beautiful by exquisite neatness, done
chiefly, too, for their own eyes! I saw, then,
why the sunshine was so pleasant on the deck;
it was because there was nothing about the
vessel out of keeping with the pure beauty of
nature. I felt safer, too, to think how all
things, small and great, conformed to the laws
One day I asked the captain if he had many
of the same men with him as on the last voj7age
we took with him. I remembered his pointing
out to me then the fair, honest face of a young
Swedish sailor at the wheel. He said most of
his men made many voyages with him. I spoke
of another captain, who told us his men were
almost all new every time. He said that was
generally the master's fault; that a captain
should not speak to his men just the same in
fair weather and in foul. I looked with interest, afterward, to see his management of them,
and found that, while every thing went on
smoothly, he took pains to converse with them,
and to become somewhat acquainted with each
man. Then, in emergencies, his brief, clear directions were immediately comprehended, and
promptly obeyed. I began to understand the
secret of his short voyages (for his vessel had.
the reputation of being the fastest sailer between San Francisco and the Sound) : it was
partly from his management of the ship, and
partly from his management of the men.
We started in a snow-storm, and at first
every thing seemed to be against us. He had
told us that March was not generally a very
quiet month on the water. We took a tug-boat^
to tow us out to the entrance of the Straits; THE CAPTAIN'S   VIGILANCE.
but, as the weather grew continually worse, the
steamer was obliged to leave us, with wind
dead ahead, and against that we had to beat
out. As soon as we had made Cape Flattery,
the wind changed, and became what would
have been a good wind for getting out, but was
just the opposite of what we wanted for going
down the coast. These reverses the captain
received with unruffled serenity; although he
dearly delights in his quick trips, and was
ready to seize with alacrity the least breath in
his favor. After all, he made one of his best
voyages, by the help of the strong, steady wind
that drove him on at the last. It was perhaps
as much, however, from his vigilance in watching when there was so little to take advantage
of, and seizing all the little bits of help it was
possible to get, as it was from the great help
of that powerful wind; for other vessels that
started with us, and even days before us, have
not come in yet, and they all had the great
wind alike.
R ventured to inquire of the captain one
day, when we were beating about the mouth of
the Straits, as to the feasibility of going into
Neeah Bay, while it was yet possible to do so ;
but the captain said he preferred to beat about,
and then he was ready to take advantage of ROUGH   WATER.
the first chance in his favor, which he might
lose if he were in shelter.
One day it was more than I could enjoy.
The wind roared so loud, and the sound of the
waves was so heavy, that I retreated to my
berth, and lay down; but I could not keep my
mind off the thought of how deep the water
was under us. After a while I went on deck
and sat there again, and the vessel began to
plunge so that it seemed as if it were trying
to stand upon one end. I felt so frightened that
I thought I would speak to the captain, and
ask him if he ever knew a lumber-vessel to tip
over; and if I dared I would suggest that he
should carry a little less sail. I knew that he
was once on a vessel that turned bottom upward in the Straits, and he was left on the overturned hull for three days, in a snow-storm, before help came to him. I spoke to him, and he
did not give me much of an answer; but, a little
while after, he came to me, and said, " Are you
able to go to the forward part of the ship with
me ? I should like to have you, if you can."
So he helped me along to the bow, where it
seemed almost too frightful to go, and said,
"Kneel down;" and knelt down by me, and
said, " Look under the ship." It was one of tbe
most   beautiful sights   I ever saw, — such a BEAUTY  OF THE SEA.
height of foam, and rainbows over it. The
dark water beside it seemed to be full of little,
sharp, shining needles. I suppose it was moving so quickly that made the elongated drops
appear so. Then he took me to the other side,
that was in shadow; and there the water was
whirled into the most beautiful shapes, standing out distinct from each other, from the swiftness of the motion, that held them poised, like
exquisite combinations of snowflakes, only more
Presently he said, " Men don't often speak of
these things to each other, but I feel the beauty
of it.    Nights when the vessel is  moving so
© O
fast, I come and watch here for hours and
hours, and dream over it." When I thought
about it afterward, I wondered how he could
know that the way to answer my fear was to
show me what was so beautiful. I was not
afraid any more, whatever the vessel did.
Those three days and nights of lonely watching, Jloating about in the Straits, must have
been a great experience to him, and made him
different from what he would otherwise have
been; certainly different from most men.
Before sunrise, yesterday morning, we passed
the I Seal Rocks;" as the light just began to
reveal a little of the dark, dreamy hills on each 188
side of the long, beautiful entrance to the harbor. A flood of light filled it as we entered,
and it must have looked just as it did when it
was first named the " Golden Gate." All along,
for miles, the water throws itself up into the
air, and falls in fountains on the rocky shore.
I cannot conceive of a more beautiful harbor
in the world; and, as we were two or three
hours in coining from the sea up to the city, we
had time enough to enjoy it.
The southern headland of the entrance is
Point Lobos (Punta de los Lobos, Point of
Wolves); the northern, Point Bonita (Beautiful Point).
March 25,1875.
We could never have stepped out of our
wilderness into a stranger city than this. From
the variety of foreign names and faces that I
see in the streets, I should think I were travelling over the whole world. On one side of us
lives a Danish family, on the other a French.
I walk along and look up at the signs, -—
" Scandinavian Society; " " Yang Tzy Associa*
tion of Shanghae ; " " Nuevo Continente Restaurant Mejicano;" " Angelo Beffa, Helvetia Exchange," with the white cross and plumed hat
of Switzerland. One street is all Chinese, with
shiny-haired women, and little mandarins with SAN FRANCISCO  STREETS.
long cues of braided red silk. The babies seem
to be dressed in imitation of the idol in the
temple; their tight caps have the same tinsel
and trimmings, and the resemblance their little
dry faces bear to it is very curious.
Next to "Tung Wo," "Sun Loy," and
" Kum Lum," come " Witkowski," "Bukofski,"
" Rowminski," — who keep Russian caviar, etc.
Some day, when we feel a little tired of our ordinary food, we think of trying the caviar, or
perhaps a gelatinous bird's nest, for variety.
Besides the ordinary residents, we meet
many sailors from the hundreds of vessels
always in the harbor, — Greeks, Lascars, Malays, and Kanakas. Their picturesque costumes
and Oriental faces add still more to the foreign
look of the place.
In the midst of the greatest rush and confusion of one of the principal business streets,
stands-a man with an electrical machine, bawling in stentorian tones, " Nothing like it to
steady- the nerves, and strengthen the heart,"—
ready, for.a small fee, to administer on the spot
a current of greater or less intensity to whoever
may desire it. The contrast is most ludicrous
between the need that undoubtedly exists for
some such quieting influence, and the utter in-
efficacy of it, if applied, under such circum-
tances. 190
Oct. 20,1875.
We have just returned from Santa Barbara.
How buoyant the ah seems, and how brisk the
people, after our languid, dreamy life there! I,
who went there in robust health, spent six
months in bed, for no other reason, that I could
understand, than the influence of the climate.
Perhaps, on homoeopathic principles, as Santa
Barbara makes sick people well, it makes well
people sick. A physician that I have seen since
coming here tells me that he went there him-
self for his own health, and was so much affected by the general atmosphere of sickness, that
he was obliged to return. It is a depressing
sight, certainly, to see so many feeble, consumptive-looking people about, as we did there.
Where we lived I think it was also malarious,
from the estero that winds like a snake about
the lowlands near the bay. The favorite part
of the city is near the foot-hills. It is probably
more healthful there, but we cannot live without seeing at least one little silver line of the
sea. So we took up our abode in the midst of
the Spanish population, near the water.
We found it very difficult to get any one to
help us in our work, although we had supposed
that in the midst of poor people we should be
favorably situated in that respect.    We  were OUR SPANISH NEIGHBORS.
told, however, that the true Castilian, no matter
how poor, never works ; that we might perhaps
find some one among the Mexicans to assist us.
Our neighbors were quite interesting to
watch, and we were pleased with the simplicity
of their lives. They had no apparent means of
support, unless it might be lassoing and taming
some wild mustangs, which they were sometimes engaged in doing; but this seemed to be
more of a recreation than a business with them.
They were never harassed nor hurried about
any thing. They lived mostly outside their
little dark dwelling, only seeking it at noon for
a siesta. In the morning they placed a mat
under the trees, and put the babies down naked
to play on it, shaking down the leaves for playthings. Sometimes they cut a great piece of
meat into narrow strips, and hung it all over
our fence to dry. This dried meat, and melons,
constituted a large part of their food. The old
mother was called Gracia, but she could never
in her youth have been more graceful than now.
She was as picturesque still as she could ever
have been, and perfectly erect. She wore a
little black cap, like a priest's cap, on the top
of her head, and her long gray hair floated out
from it over her shoulders; and, with her black
mantle thrown as gracefully about her as any
W 192
young person could have worn it, we used to
see her starting out every morning to enjoy
herself abroad. She appeared one morning at
our window, before we were up, with her arms
full of roses covered with dew, eager to give
them to us while they were so fresh.
We noticed her sometimes out in the yard,
preparing some of the family food, by the aid
of a curious flat stone supported on three legs,
and a stone pestle or roller, — a very primitive
arrangement. Kneeling down upon the ground,
she placed her corn, or Chili peppers — or whatever article she wished to grind—upon the stone;
and, taking the hand-stone, she rolled it vigorously back and forth over the flat surface,
crushing up the material, which fell off at the
lower end into a dish below. We saw her
making tomales, composed of bruised green
corn, — crushed by the process just described,
— mixed with chopped meat, and seasoned with
Chili peppers or other pungent flavoring, and
made up into slender rolls, each enveloped in
green-corn leaves, tied at the ends, and baked
in the ashes, — resulting in a very savory article
of food.
Our only New-England acquaintances at
Santa Barbara had evidently modified very
much their ideas of living.    We found them i^^^^^^^^H^^^^9S^^^^^BB^^^B9^^^^^^SE^^^^ffiBE
with bare floors, a great bunch of pampas grass,
and a guitar hanging against tne wall, in true
Spanish fashion; the room being otherwise mostly empty.
We had on one side the dark Santa Ynez
Mountains, and oh the other the sea. The
mountains are not very high but bold in their
outlines; and the number of crags and ravines
gives them a beautiful play of light and shadow.
Very early one morning I saw a great gray
eagle fly overhead, back to bis home in their
dark recesses. Some of the slopes are covered
with grape-vines, and some with olive-trees. Far
up in the hollows can be seen the little white
houses of the people who keep the bee-ranches.
They live up so high because the flowers last
longer there. The mountains form a semicircle
on one side of the town; on the other is the
beach. An immense bed of kelp, extending for
miles and miles along the shore, forms the most
beautiful figures, rising and falling as it floats
on the water,—so gigantic, and at the same
time so graceful. It is of every beautiful shade,
of pale yellow and brown. In winter the gales
sometimes drive it shoreward in such vast quantities that vessels are compelled to anchor outside of it.
There is an old mission there, built in the 194
Moorish style, where all visitors are hospitably
received by the Franciscan friars in charge.
This mission, like all those we have seen, has
a choice situation, sheltered from wind, and
with good soil about it. The old monks knew
how to make themselves comfortable. Their
cattle roamed over boundless pastures, herded
by mounted vaqueros ; their grain-fields ripened
under cloudless skies ; their olive - orchards,
carefully watered and tended by their Indian
subjects, yielded rich returns.
We made the acquaintance of a gentleman
from Morocco, who says that the climate there
is almost the same as that of Santa Barbara. I
suppose the simoom we had there in the summer
was a specimen of it. A fierce, hot wind blew
from the Mojave desert. There was no possibility of comfort in the house, nor out of it.
We could escape the storm of wind and dust
going in,
but there was still the choking
feeling of the air. The residents of the place
could say nothing in defence of it,—only that
did not occur often.
We are told that on the 17th of June, 1859,
there was much more of a genuine simoom. So
hot a blast of air swept over the town as to fill the
people with terror. This burning wind raised
dense clouds of fine dust.    Birds dropped dead THE MESA. — CHANNEL  ISLANDS.
from the trees. The people shut themselves
up in their thick adobe houses. The mercury rapidly rose to 133 degrees, and continued
so for three hours. Trees were blighted, and
gardens ruined.
Sailors approaching the coast in a fog can
recognize the Santa Barbara Channel by the
smell of bitumen which floats on the water.
Some of the old navigators thought their ves-
o ©
seis were on fire when they noticed it. It gives
a luminous appearance to the water at night.
On one side of Santa Barbara is a great
table-land, called the Mesa, where there is always a sea-breeze that blows across fields of
grain and fragrant grass. That would be a
beautiful place to live, but there is no water.
The experiment of artesian wells is about
being tried.
From the Mesa we looked off to the channel
islands, — Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel,
and Anacapa, — bold, rocky, and picturesque.
Anacapa<was formerly a great resort for the
seal and otter; and the natives from Alaska
came down to hunt them, and collected large
quantities of their valuable skins. The island
is of sandstone, all honeycombed with cavities
of different sizes, sometimes making beautiful arches.    There is no water on this island, SANTA BARBARA  CLIMATE.
and only cactus and coarse grass grow there.
Others of the group have wood and water, and
settlements of fishermen. On some of them,
interesting historical relics have been discovered,
— supposed to be the remains of a temple to
the sun,- with idols and images. There are also
beautiful fossils and corals and abalone shells.
It was hard to make up our minds to leave
so lovely a place ; but as I looked back, the last
morning, to fix the picture of it in my mind, I
saw the little white clouds that come before the
hot wind, rising above the mountains, and was
glad that we were going. Two immense columns of smoke rose out of the canons, and
stood over the place, like genii. In the dry
weather it seems that the mountains are almost
always on fire, which modifies what is called
the natural climate of Santa Barbara, so as to
make it very uncomfortable. Its admirers must
come from some worse place, — probably often
from the interior; no one from Puget Sound
ever praises it. We met several families from
that region; and they were ah anxious to get
back to the clear mountain atmosphere of their
northern climate, which is as equable as that of
Santa Barbara, though far different in character.
We saw there some Chinese quite unlike any
that we have met before.   We have heard that A NEW TYPE OF CHINAMEN.
most of those who come to the Pacific Coast
are of an inferior kind, chiefly Tartars. There
we saw some quite handsome ones, who had
more of an Arab look, and had also elegant
manners, — one, especially, who had a little
office near us. On the birthday of the Emperor
of China, his room was ornamented with a
picture of Confucius, before which he burned
scented wood; and hanging over it was an air-
castle, with the motto, " God is Love."
We visited one day an interesting-looking
old house, near our quarter of the town, to see
if we could live in it. It was one of the finest
there before the place became Americanized,
and belonged to an old Spanish don. It stands
in the centre of spacious and beautiful grounds,
and the avenue leading to it is bordered with
olive-trees, which were in bloom. There was
a curious, delicate fragrance in the air, quite
new to me, which I attributed to them. It was
as different from all other odors, as their color
is from that of all other trees. They have a
little greenish blossom, something like a daphne,
and the foliage is of beautiful shades of gray-
green, from an almost black to light silvery
color. They seem like old Spaniards themselves, they have such an ancient, reserved look.
Two magnificent pepper-trees, with their light, 198
graceful foliage trailing from the branches, stand
near the door. The house is shut in with dark
heavp porches on all sides, and covered with
vines. The windows are in such deep recesses,
owing to the great thickness of the walls of the
house, that the rooms were but dimly lighted, although it was early in the afternoon. Some of
the windows are of stained glass, and others
of ground glass, to lessen the light still more.
It is an adobe house; and the walls are so damp
that I gave up all idea of hving in it, as soon
as I laid my hand on them. The Spaniards, I
see, all build their houses on a plan that originated in a hot country, where the idea of comfort was all of coolness and shade. This house,
and the one opposite where we lived, are covered with passion-flowers. Near the latter are
two dark evergreen-trees, — the Santa Cruz
spruce, — trimmed so as to be very stiff and
straight, standing like dark wardens before
the door. There is a hedge of pomegranate,
with its flame-like flowers, which seem to be
filled with light. The pepper-tree abounds in
Santa Barbara, and the eucalyptus is being
planted a good deal. It has a special power to
absorb malaria from the air, and makes unhealthy places wholesome. xm.
Our Aerie. — The Bay and the Hills. —The Little Gnome. —
Earthquake. — Temporary Residents. — The Trade-Wind.
— Seal-Rocks. — Farallon Islands. — Exhilarating Air. —
Approach of Summer. — Centennial Procession. — Suicides.
— Mission Dolores. — Father Pedro Font and his Expedition. — The Mission Indians. — Chinese Feast of the Dead.
— Curious Weather.
San Francisco, Oct. 30,1875.
~YTT~E have found a magnificent situation.
VV Our little house is perched on such a
height, that every one wonders how we ever
discovered it. The site of the city was originally a collection of immense sandhills, on the
sides and tops of which the houses were built,
many of them before the streets were laid out
and graded. When the grades were finally determined, and the hills cut through, — as some
of them were, — houses were often left perched
far above, on the edge of a cliff, and almost as
inaccessible as a feudal castle. I feel as if
ours might be an eagle's nest, and enjoy the
wildness   and   solitude   of   it.    So   does our
199 200
Scotch shepherd dog, who has been used to
lonely places. Sometimes, just as the sun is
rising, we see him sitting out on the sandhills,
looking about with such a contented expression that it seems as if he smiled. He opens
his mouth to drink in the wind, as if it were a
delicious draught to him.
The hills are covered with sage-brush, full of
little twittering birds. My bed is between
two windows, and they fly across from one to
the other, without minding me at all. Opposite is Alcatraz, a fortified island, but very
peaceful-looking, the waves breaking softly all
around it. It has still the Spanish name of the
white pelicans with which it used to be covered. The commander of the fort died since
we came here, and was carried across the water,
with music, to Angel Island, to be buried.
Across the bay is a low line of hills, with
softly rounded outlines. They are of pale russet color, from the red earth, and thin, dried
grass, that covers them. Farther to the north
is Mount Tamalpias, with sharper outlines.
Nov. 8,1875.
The China boys generally refuse to come out
here to live with us, saying it is " too far, too
far."   The unsettled appearance of this part of EARTHQUAKE.
the city does not please them. To-day we succeeded in securing a small one. He is a curious-looking little creature, with a high pointed
head, stiff, black hair, and small, sparkling eyes.
He seems like a little gnome, and might have
been living in the bowels of the earth, in mines
and caverns, with black coal and bright jewels
about him. Before he would agree to come, he
said he must go and consult the idol in the
temple. He burned little fragrant sticks before
him; but how he divined what his pleasure
might be, I could not tell.
We hesitated about taking him, considering
his very stunted appearance; but he said, " Me
heap smart," and that settled it. " Heap " must
be a word the Chinese have picked up at the
mines. It is in constant requisition in any
attempt to converse with them.
Last night we had a heavy shock of earthquake. How different it is from merely reading
that the crust of the earth is thin, and that
there is fire under it, to feel it tremble under
your feet! I was glad to have one thing more
made real to me, that before meant nothing. It
was a strange, deep trembling, as if every thing
were sliding away from us. TEMPORARY RESIDENTS-
Nov. 18,1875.
It gives one a lonesome feeling to see how
many people here lead unsettled lives, looking
upon some other place as their home. Even
the children, hearing so much talk about the
East, seem to have an idea that, they really
belong somewhere else. One of our little neighbors said to me, " I have never been home;"
although she, and all her grown-up brothers and
sisters, were born and brought up here. Many
of the customs of the place are adapted to a
temporary way of living. In most parts of the
city, it would be hard to find a street without
signs of " Furnished rooms to let."   Besides in-
numerable restaurants, a flying kitchen travels
about, with every thing cooking as it goes along,
and clean-looking men, with white aprons, to
serve the food; one ringing a bell, and looking
out in every direction, to see what is wanted.
The numerous windmills, for raising water,
give the city a lively look. The wind keeps
them always in motion. The constant whirring
of the wheels, and the general breezy look of
things, distinguish this place from all others
that I have seen. Sir Francis Drake, entering
the bay nearly three hundred years ago, refers,
with great delight, to "a franke wind," that
took him " into a safe and good baye."   There SEAL-ROCKS.
was, for
a long time, some doubt as to which
of several ports he made. I think that mention
of the wind settles it. The identical wind has
been blowing with undiminished vigor ever
since. In summer (the time he was here),
it will carry a vessel in against the strongest
The city is built mostly of wood. The absence of foliage, and the neutral color of the
houses, give the streets a dull gray look, here
and there redeemed by the scarlet geranium,
which, if not a native, is most thoroughly naturalized, —- it grows so sturdily, even in the
poorest yards.
April 30,1876.
We had a long ride out to the Seal-Rocks,
past great wavy hills, with patches of gold,
brighter than the dandelions and buttercups are
at home. This was the eschcholtzia, or California poppy. Occasionally we passed great
tracts of lupine. The lowland was a sea of blue
Suddenly, as we surmounted a height, the
ocean rolled in before us, line after line of
breakers, on a broad beach. When we reached
Point Ldbos we saw the two great rocks, far
out in the water, covered with brown seals that
lay in the sun like flocks of sheep, and little 204
slippery, shining ones all the time crawling up
out of the water, and dropping back again. As
the vessels pass out of the bay, they go near
enough to hear them bark; but nothing frightens them away, nor discomposes them in the
least, although they are only a few miles from
the city, and have a great many visitors. They
are protected by law from molestation.
We looked off to the Farallon Islands, which
are one of the chief landmarks for vessels approaching the Golden Gate. There was formerly
a settlement of Russians there, who hunted the
seal and the otter. These islands are still a
great resort for seals, also for comorants and
sea-gulls; and the large speckled eggs of the
birds are gathered in quantities, and. brought
to the San Francisco market for sale. They
were called by the Spaniards " Farallons de los
Frayles " (Islands of the Friars), farallon being
a sharp-pointed island.
There is a marvellous exhilaration in the air.
The enthusiastic Bayard Taylor said, that, in
in his first drive round the bay, he felt like
Julius Caesar, Mjlo of Crotana, and Gen. Jackson, rolled into one. It is an acknowledged
fact, that both men and animals can work harder
and longer here, without apparent injury or
fatigue, than anywhere on the Eastern coast. APPROACH OF SUMMER.
• We have heard it suggested that the abundant
actinic rays in the dry, cloudless atmosphere
are the cause of this invigoration, and also of
the unusual brilliancy of the flowers.
June 1,1876.
The only way in which we know that summer is coming is by the more chilling winds,
the increased dust, the tawny color of the hills,
and the general dying look of things. Every
thing is bare, sunny, and sandy.
We are surrounded with great wastes of
sand, which the wind drives against the house,
so that it seems always like a storm. Sometimes, when I sit at work at the window, a
gopher comes out of the sandhill, and sits
down outside it. His company makes me feel
still more remote from all civilized things.
July 4,1876.
We had a splendid Centennial procession.
Things that we imitate at home are all real here.
Instead of having our own people dressed up
in foreign costume, we have Italians, French,
Swiss, Russians, Germans, Chinese, Turks, etc.,
all ready for any occasion. The newspapers
mentioned as a remarkable fact, that there
were no suicides for a week beforehand; every 206
one seemed to have something to look forward
The night before the celebration, the French
residents built up a great arch, as high as the
highest buildings, with fine decorations, for the
procession to pass under. Some doubt was expressed about the Germans liking to pass beneath the French arch ; so three thousand Germans, to show their good-will, went and sung
the Marseillaise under it.
The Jews have the handsomest church in
San Francisco, which they decorated with the
greatest enthusiasm, and had Centennial services, in which they said that they, pf all people
in the world, ought to appreciate America, as,
before they came here, they were outcasts everywhere, while here they were unmolested and
I liked best in the procession the Highlanders, who were real Scotchmen, in plaids, and
bonnets with eagle feathers. Every one had a
claymore by his side, and a thistle on his breast;
and there were pipers playing on bagpipes to
lead them.
There are a great many Germans in San
Francisco, and the brewers had a car dressed
with yellow barley and other ripe grains. The
great fat men looked so full of enjoyment, it SUICIDES.
was really picturesque to see them, under the
nodding grain. For the first time in my life I
appreciated them, as I saw how poorly a thin
man would convey the idea of comfort. There
are a good many Italian fishermen here too.
They are always just fit for processions, without
any alteration whatever; their pretty green
boat " Venezia," and their Captain Caesar Celso
Morena, seem made for it. They had Roman
guards, in golden scale armor. The California
Jaegers with their wild brown faces, that
seemed to transport us to the great hot plains
where they herd and lasso the half-tamed animals, walked too in the procession; and the
baby camel, born lately in San Francisco, a
great pet. They were led by the silver cornet band, whose music was exquisitely clear
and sweet.
Aug. 2,1876.
In this homeless city, built upon sandhills,
and continually desolated by winds, it is no
wonder that the blue bay looks attractive, especially to any one thrust aside in the continual
vicissitudes of this unsettled life. The first
news we heard, on our return from Santa Barbara, was that Ralston, the great banker, and
one of the chief favorites in social life, had
sought the   calm of  its still depths as better 208
than any thing life could offer. How serenely
the water lay in the sunshine, as we looked at
it, hearing this news, which had stirred the city
to its utmost! Here all secrets are guarded, all
perplexities end. The passion for suicide seeks
mostly this pathway, though there is an unprecedented number of intentional deaths of all
This morning's paper records the suicide of
a Frenchman, who half reconciled me to his
view, by the cheerful, intelligent way in which
he spoke. He left a letter stating that he died
with no ill feeling toward any one, and full of
faith in God as a Father; that he did not consider that he was to blame for what he was
about to do, as he had tried in vain to get work,
— probably because he was wholly deaf. He
made so little fuss about what almost every one
would have considered a terrible calamity,—
that his life should end in this way,—that it
seemed a pity it could not otherwise have been
made known what kind of a man he was. He
gave a little account of himself, beginning, " I
was born in the province of Haute Vienne, in
France, and have lived mostly at the mines,"
going on to speak as quietly of what he was
about to do, as he might if he were going to
move from one town to another, not having sue- SUICIDES.
ceeded in the first; ending by saying, " I have
taken the poison,—an acid taste, but not disagreeable." He made only one request, — that
a package of old letters should be laid on his
breast, and buried with him. A valuable member of society might have been saved, if the result in his case could have been the same' as
with a man we knew in Santa Barbara, who, becoming discouraged by continual rheumatism,
combined with poverty, took a large dose of
strychnine, with suicidal intent, but, to his astonishment, was entirely cured of his rheumatism ; and the notoriety he acquired presently
procured him an abundance of work.
In the winter a man who called himself Professor Blake, a " mind-reader," gave some exhibitions of his power, which were considered
wonderful. It might have been better for him,
however, not to know what people thought, as
it proved. A few weeks ago a man was discovered dead, with this letter beside him: " I
die of a weary and a heavy heart, but of a sound
mind. If there should be one or two persons
to whom I should be known, let them, out of
charity to the living, withhold their knowledge.
Should my eyes be open, close them, that I
may not chance, even in death, to see any more
of  this hated world."    Notwithstanding   his 210
wish, of course every effort was made to find
out who he was; and it proved to be this " mind-
These cases are very depressing to think of;
only that it makes one feel more certain of
another life, to see how unfinished and unsatisfactory some things are here.
Sept. 6,1876.
I have found two beautiful places to visit, —
the old Spanish graveyard of the Mission Dolores, and Lone Mountain Cemetery. They have
long, deep grass, and bright, exquisite flowers.
On the waste tracks about the cemetery, I can
still find the fragrant little yerba buena (good
herb), from which the Spanish Fathers named
the spot where San Francisco now stands, in
the primitive times, long before gold was discovered. The cross on the summit of Lone
Mountain, erected by the Franciscan friars, is
quite impressive from its height and size. It is
seen from all parts of the city.
The Mission Dolores (Mission of our Lady
of Sorrow) is south of the city, sheltered from
the wind, with a clear stream flowing near.
The fathers displayed their customary shrewdness in the selection of this situation. The
bleak sandhills to the north they left for the
future city, and settled themselves in this pleas-
ant valley. The pioneer missionary of Northern
California — Father Junipero Serra, that rigorous old Spaniard who used to beat his breast
with stones—established himself here, with his
Franciscan monks, in the fall of 1776. His old
church is still standing, — an adobe building,
with earthen floor, the walls and ceiling covered
with rude paintings of saints and angels.
The Presidio of San Francisco was established in the spring preceding, by a colony sent
out by the Viceroy of Mexico, accompanied by
a military command. Father Pedro Font came
with the expedition. He was a scientific man,
and recorded his observations of the country
and the people. Just before starting, a mass
was sung for their happy journey, to the Most
Blessed Virgin of Guadalupe, whom they chose
for their patroness, together with the Archangel Michael and their Father Saint Francis.
When they reached the vicinity of the Gila
River, the governors of several of the rancherias
came out to meet them, with the alcalde, and a
body of Pimas Indians, mounted on horses,
who presented them with the scalps of several
Apaches they had slain the day before. At the
next stopping-place along the river, they were
met by about a thousand Indians, who were
very hospitable, and  made a great   shed of
ml 212
green boughs for them, in which to pass the
Father Pedro observed that the country must
formerly have been inhabited by a different
race, as the ground was strewn with fragments
of painted earthenware, which the Pimas did
not understand making. He saw also the ruins
of an ancient building, with walls four and six
feet thick. On the east and west sides were
round openings, through which, according to
the Indian traditions, the prince who lived
there used to salute the rising and setting sun.
The company travelled on, singing masses,
and resting by the way, until they reached what
Father Pedro called " a miracle of Nature, the
port of ports" (San Francisco Bay). He ascended a table-land, that ended in a steep white
rock, to admire what he calls the " delicious
view,"—including the bay and its islands, and
the ocean, with the Farallons in the distance,
of which he made a sketch. He mentioned
Angel Island, which still bears that name. The
commandant planted a cross on the steep white
rock, as the symbol of possession, and also at
Point Reyes (Point of Kings), and selected the
table-land for the site of the Presidio. Father
Font explored the country about the bay, and
made some surveys.   He noticed some Indians CHRISTIANIZING THE INDIANS.
with launches made of tules (bulrushes), in
which they navigated the streams.
It would have been fortunate for the Indians
if all the priests sent among them had been of
as gentle a spirit as Father Pedro. He says, in
his account of this expedition, that they received him everywhere with demonstrations of
joy, with dancing and singing. But, some years
after, we hear that the soldiers were sent out
from the Presidio to lasso the Indians. They
were brought in like wild beasts, immediately
baptized, and their Christianization commenced.
Kotzebue, one of the early Russian explorers,
says that in his time (1824) he saw them at
Santa Clara driven into the church like a flock
of sheep, by an old ragged Spaniard, armed
with a stick. Some of the more humane priests
complained bitterly of this violent method of
converting the heathen, and insisted that all
the Indians who had been brought in by force
should be restored " to their gentile condition."
In the old Mission of Santa Barbara, we saw
some of the frightful pictures considered so
very effective in converting them. One special
painting, representing in most vivid colors the
torments of hell, was said of itself alone to have
led to hosts of conversions; but a picture of
paradise, in the same church, which was very M
, ■
subdued in its treatment and coloring, had
failed to produce any effect.
The services of the Indians belonged for life
to the missions to which they were attached.
They were taught many useful things. They
watered and kept the gardens and fields of
gr,ain, and tended the immense herds of cattle
that roamed over the hills. Traders came to the
coast to buy hides and tallow from the ranches
and the missions, and the product of their
fields. For seventy years, these old monks,
supported by Spain, were the rulers of California. Spain's foreign and colonial troubles,
however, led her to appropriate to other purposes the " Pious Fund " by which the missions
were maintained. Jealousy of their growing
power, and revolutions in Mexico, hastened
their downfall. The discovery of gold in 1848
introduced the element which was to prove
their final destruction.
It is a curious fact that the first adventurer
who ever set foot on this soil, Sir Francis Drake,
although he was here for only a month, repairing his ship, became convinced that there was
no earth about here but had some probable
show of gold or silver in it. If news had spread
then as rapidly as now, in these days of newspapers and telegraphs, it would not have lain
two hundred and seventy years untouched, and
then been discovered only by accident.
Nov. 3,1876.
A few days ago, I wandered on to the solitary Chinese quarter of Lone Mountain, and
happened upon the celebration of the Feast of
the Dead. Hundreds and hundreds of Chinamen were bowing over the graves in the sand.
Each grave had on it little bright-colored tapers
burning, sometimes large fires beside, made of
the red and silver paper they use at the New
Year. Each had curious little cups and teapots
and chop-sticks, rice, sugar-cane, and roast chicken. I saw some little white cakes, inscribed with
red letters, similar to children's Christmas cakes
with names on them. Every thing that seems
nice to a Chinaman was there. They were so
engrossed in what they were doing, that they
took no notice whatever of my observation of
them. At each grave they spread a mat, and
arranged the food. Then some one that I took
for the nearest friend clasped his hands, and
bowed in a sober, reverent way over the grave;
then poured one of the little cups of rice wine
out on the sand. It reminded me of the offerings I saw made to the spirit of the dead Indian
child, at Port Townsend.    Then two dead men 216
were brought out to be buried, while we stood
there; and the instant they were covered with
the sand, the Chinamen called to each other,
| fy, fy! " (quick, quick!), — to light the fire,
as if it were to guide them on the way, as the
Indians think. They threw into the air a great
many little papers. I* asked if those were letters to the dead Chinamen, and they said,
" Yes," — but I am not sure if they understood
It produced such a strange effect, in this
wild, desert-looking place, to see all these curious movements, and the fires and the feasts
on the graves, that I felt utterly lost. It was
as if I had stepped, for a few moments, into
another world.
The Chinamen are so very saving, never
wasting any thing, and they have to work so
hard for all their money, and pay such high
duty on the things they import from home, that
they would not incur all this expense unless
they felt sure that it answered some end. It
is a matter for endless pondering what they
really believe about it. They are satisfied with
a very poor, little, frugal meal for themselves;
but on this occasion every thing was done in
the greatest style. At one place was a whole
pig, roasted and varnished; and every grave had CHINESE FEAST OF THE DEAD.
fv     ■
a fat, roasted chicken, with its head
on, and
dressed and ornamented in the most
manner.    The red paper which they
use for
visiting-cards at the New Year, and seem to be
very choice of then, they sacrificed in the most
lavish way at this time. They fired off a great
many crackers to keep off bad spirits.
Most of the graves were only little sand-
mounds for temporary use, until the occupants
should be carried back to China; but one was
a great semi-circular vault, so grand and substantial-looking that it suggested the Egyptian
Catacombs.    Over one division of the grave-
yard, *[ saw a notice which I could partly read,
saying that no woman or child could be buried
The Chinese are so out of favor here now,
that the State Government is trying to limit the
number that shall be allowed to come. About
a thousand arrive on each steamer. How foolish it seems to be afraid of them, especially
for their good qualities! the chief complaint
against them being that they are so industrious,
economical, and persevering, that sooner or later
all the work here will faU into their hands.
Jan. 9, 1877.
We have been having some very strange
weather here, — earthquake weather, it is called 218
by some persons. It seems as if it came from
internal fires. It has been so warm at night
that we could not sleep, even with two open
The chief thought of every one is," When will
it rain ? " Prayers are offered in the churches
for rain. It is also the subject of betting; and
the paper this morning said that several of the
prominent stockbrokers were confined to their
rooms, with low spirits, on account of the condition of stocks, caused by the general depression from the dry season. We watch the sky
a good deal. Strange clouds appear and disappear, but nothing comes of them. To-day, when
I first looked out of my window, there were two
together, before it, most human-like in appearance, that seemed to hold out their arms, as if
in appeal; but, as I watched them, they only
drew their beautiful trailing drapery after them,
and moved slowly away.
There is a curious excitement about this
weather, cnming in the middle of winter. These
extremes of dryness, and this strange heat
at this season, reversing all natural order,
may be one cause of the peculiarities of the
Californians; and they are certainly peculiar
people. I recently took a little excursion to
Oakland, crossing the bay by the ferry, and
riding some distance in the cars. A pleasant
feeling came over me as I saw that it was like
crossing the Merrimac from Newburyport to
Salisbury; the distance was about as far, and
there were the same low trees and green grass
© o
on the opposite side. I felt quite at home,
until, on entering the cars, my eyes lighted on
this notice, posted conspicuously everywhere:
"Passengers will beware of playing three-card
monte, strap, or any other game of chance,
with strangers. If you do, you will surely be
robbed." All visions of respectable New England vanished at that sight. XIV.
Quong.—His Prote'ge'.—His Peace-Offering. — The Chinese
and their Grandmothers.—Ancient Ideas. — Irish, French,
and Spanish Chinamen. — Chinese Ingenuity. — Hostility
against the Chinese. — Their Proclamations. —Discriminations against them. — Their Evasion of the Law. — Their
Perseverance against all Obstacles. — Their Reverence for
their Ancestors, and Fear of the Dead. — Their Medical
Knowledge. — Their Belief in the Future. — Their Curious
Festivals. — Indian Names for the Months. — Resemblance
between the Indians and Chinese.—Their Superstitions.
San Francisco, Feb. 20,1877.
SOME time since, we asked the washman to
send us a new boy. One evening, in the
midst of a great storm of wind and rain,
the most grotesque little creature appeared at
the door, with his bundle under his arm, as if he
were sure of being accepted. We thought we
must keep him for a day or two, on account of
the weather, and just to show him that he could
not do what we wanted; but he proved too
amusing for us to think of letting him go. His
name is Quong.    He is shorter than Margie,
who is only nine, and has much more of a baby
face, but a great deal of dignity; and he assures me, when they go out together, that he
shall take good care of Margie and the baby,
and if there is any trouble he will call the police. We felt a little afraid to trust them with
him at first, because the Chinese are so often
attacked in the streets; but he has unbounded
confidence in the police, and has a little whistle
with which to call them. It reminds me of
Robin Hood; he takes such great pleasure in
making use of it, and comes out so safe from all
dangers by the help of it.
The first Sunday that he was here, we told
him that he could go out for a while, as all the
Chinese do on that day. When he came back,
I asked him where he had been. These little
boy are all petted a good deal at the wash-
houses, and I supposed he had been there enjoying himself. But he said that he went
every Sunday to see a small boy that he had
charge of, who was too young to work; that he
sent him now to school, but next year he should
tell him, " No work, no eat;" and, if he did not
do something to support himself, he should not
give him clothes any more. I remember reading that the Chinese were considered men at
fourteen. It is very comical to see such a little
creature assume these responsibilities, and take HIS BUOYANCY.
such pride in them. He says that he is ten, but
his face is perfectly infantine; and he is a baby
too in his plays. He rolls and tumbles about
like a young dog or kitten. If it rains, he
seems like a wild duck, he is so pleased with
it; and then, when the sun comes out, he hardly
knows how to express his enjoyment of it;
he looks at me with such a radiant face, saying,
| Oh, nice sun, nice ! " I feel ready at that
moment to forgive him for every thing that we
ever have to blame him for, — such a sun seems
to shine out of him; and I feel as if we made a
mistake to be critical about his little faults,
which are mainly attributable to his extreme
He has lately been away to celebrate the new
year. " Going home to China," he calls it,
because at that time the Chinese eat their
national food, and observe their own customs.
We told him, before he left, that he must be
sure  to  come  back in  two  days;  but  three
passed, with no sign of him.    Then R went
down to the wash-house, and left word that he
must come directly back. In the course of the
afternoon, he walked in. The moment he
opened the door, we said to him, very severely,
" What for you stop too long ? " But he walked
up to me, without a word, and put down before I
me a little dirty handkerchief, all tied up in
knots, which I finally made up my mind to
open. It was full of the most curious sweetmeats and candy, — little curls of cocoanut,
frosted with sugar; queer fruits, speckled with
seeds; and some nuts that looked exactly like
carved ram's-heads with horns. We had to
accept this as a peace-offering, and put aside
our anger.
He is much pleased to be where there is a
woman. Although he is so young, he says that
he has lived generally only with men, — Spanish men, he says, where there was " too much
tree. " I suppose it was some rather unsettled
place, — a sheep-ranch, perhaps.
He is so unsophisticated that he will answer
all our questions, as the older ones will not, if
they can. I asked him, one day, about the ceremonies that I saw at Lone Mountain,—what
they burned the red and silver paper on the
graves for; and he said that in the other world
the Chinamen were dressed in paper, and, if they
did not burn some for them on their graves,
they would not have any clothes. I told him I
saw a boy kneel down on a grave, and take a
cup of rice wine, and sip a little, and then pour
it out on the sand. He said, Oh, no, that he
did not drink any, only put it to his lips, and CHINESE GRANDMOTHERS.
said, " Good-by, good-by," because the dead
Chinaman would come no more.
Whenever he speaks of any thing mysterious,
we can see, by the darkening of his face, how
he feels the awe of it. One of his friends, in
hurrying to get his ironing done, to get ready
to celebrate the new year, brought on an attack
of hemorrhage of the lungs. Of course, it was
necessary to keep him entirely still, which his
companions knew; but, at the same time, they
were so afraid that he might' die where he was,
that they insisted on carrying him to another
place, a long way off, which killed him. For,
they said, if he died at the wash-house, he would
come back there; and then all the Chinamen
would leave, or they would have to move the
house. His grandmother, the boy said, came
back in a blue flame, and asked for something to eat, and they had to move the house;
then she came back to where the house stood
before, but could not get any farther.
The Chinese stand in great awe of their
grandmothers. In their estimate of women, as
in many of their other ideas, they are quite different from the rest of the world; with them a
woman increases in value as she grows older.
The young girl who is a slave to her mother
can look forward to the prospect of being a
goddess to her grandchildren. QUONG'S OBSERVATION.
March 20,1877.
Quong observes every thing, and asks endless
questions about what he sees. He says that the
French and Spanish people here like the Chinamen I too much " (a good deal) ; and that the
" Melicans half likee, half no likee;" but the
Irishmen | no likee nothing," — seeing so
plainly who their true enemies are. Many of
the principal  people  here  are Irish.    On St.
Patrick's Day, R told him that he was going
to take Margie to see the procession, and that
he could go too; but he said, with an air of immense superiority, that he did not care to go
and see the " whiskey men;" he would rather
stop at home, and do his work.
I feel now that all my responsibilities are
shared.   A while ago, R was obliged to stay
out one night till twelve o'clock; and, when he
came home, he found the boy, with his little
black head on the kitchen table, fast asleep.
When he waked him, and asked him what he
was there for, he said, that, as every one else
was asleep, he staid there to take care of the
house.    On another occasion, when R was
to be out late again, I took pains to tell him to
go right to bed, as soon as he had washed the
dishes. He looked up at me, as if he were
going to suggest the most insuperable obstacle ANCIENT IDEAS.
to that, and asked, " Who faff the light? " (put
it out.)
One thing that I am always very much impressed with, in regard to the Chinese, is the
feeling of there being something ancient about
them, no matter how young they may be themselves; not only because many of them wear
clothes which appear to have been handed
down from their remotest ancestors, but they
have ancient ideas. This boy, although he is
of such a cheerful temperament, seems always
to keep his own death in view, as much as the
old Egyptian kings ever did. He pays a kind
of burial-fee, amounting to nearly a quarter of
his wages, every month, to some one appointed
by the Chinese company to which he belongs;
and when R  remonstrated with him, and
told him how foolish and unnecessary it was,
and how much better it would be to spend the
money for something else, he seemed to regard
his remarks with great horror, and said he must
pay it; to leave off wasn't to be thought of, for
then, he said, he should have " no hole to get
into " (meaning no grave), and there would be
no apples thrown away at his funeral.
We one day heard him speaking of one of his
countrymen as an Irish Chinaman; and, when
we asked him what he meant, he said there were
Irish Chinamen, French Chinamen, and Spanish Chinamen. Our own observation seems to
confirm this idea. - We see often among them
the light, careless temperament which marks
the French; these are the men who support the
theatres, and patronize the gaming-dens. The
grave, serene Spanish is the common type; and,
since the hoodlum spirit has broken out among
the Californians, it has called out a coarse,
rough class among the Chinese, corresponding
to the lower grades of the Irish. To this class
belong the "Highbinders,"—men bound by
secret oaths to murder, robbery, and outrage.
The actual crimes that can be justly charged
against the Chinese in this country are due,
almost wholly, to the spirit that evoked these
Their ingenuity is equal to their perseverance
in accomplishing an end. The Six Companies
having made a regulation in regard to the wash-
houses, that there should be at least fifteen
houses between every two of them, one of the
washmen was notified that he must give up
his business, there being only fourteen houses
between his and the next establishment. Although the Six Companies' directions are absolute law, he had no idea of doing this. He
carefully examined the fourteen buildings, and HOSTILITY TO THE CHINESE.
found among them a deserted pickle manufactory, which he hired for one day, with the privilege of putting up a partition which would
divide it into two houses, — in that way fulfilling the requirements of the law.
April 30,1877.
There has lately been a great excitement
about the Chinese here, and several meetings
have been held to consider how to get rid of
them; and anti-Chinese processions, carrying
banners with crossed daggers, have paraded the
streets. One night the Chinese armed themselves, and went up on to the tops of their
houses, prepared to fire on a mob. They issued
a proclamation, saying, that they were not much
accustomed to fighting (I remember learning,
in the geography, that they dressed themselves
in quilted petticoats when they went to battle),
but they should sell their lives as dearly as they
Another proclamation which they sent out
was very characteristic of them; it showed so
good an understanding of the subject, suggesting so artfully that, if the Chinamen were not
allowed unlimited freedom to come here, Americans should not be allowed to go to China.
In an "Address to the Public" which they
recently put forth, they explained,- that, instead
of taking the places of better men, as they are
accused of doing, they considered that, in performing the menial work they did, they opened
the way to higher and more lucrative employments for others; saying several times, in their
simple, impressive way, " We lift others up."
In regard to the other chief accusation, — that
they do not profit the country any, do not invest
any thing here, but send every thing home to
China, — they said, " The money that you pay
us for our labor, we send home; but the work
remains for you," — as, for instance, the Pacific
In trying to accumulate arguments against
them, the anti-Chinese party have made a great
deal of the fact that they are bound to companies, who advance money for them to come here,
and say that the cooly trade is like the slave-
trade. One of the anti-Chinese speakers said
he helped make California a free state, and
seemed to think he was employed in the same
meritorious way now. Upon investigation, it
proved that many of them do mortgage themselves— that is, their services —for a number
of years, to get here; and that it is often in order
that they may support poor relatives at home,
who would otherwise starve. This shows some
of their heathen virtues.   A good deal of the 230
objection to them seems to be on the ground of
their being Pagans; some of the speakers saying
that it is " so very demoralizing to our Christian
youth," that they should be here, — quite overlooking a very large class of the population
who are worse than Pagans, and vastly more
The idea now seems to be, to drive them
away by discriminating against them in State
and city regulations; as, for instance, by enforcing the " pure-air ordinance, 1 by which every
Chinaman who sleeps where there is less than
five hundred cubic feet of air for each person,
pays a fine of ten dollars, but white people
sleep as they choose. Then, as they value their
'eues above all things, and are greatly disgraced if they lose them, — having even been
known to commit suicide when deprived of
them, — an old ordinance is restored, by which
every one who is put in jail must have his hair
cropped close. They are often arrested on false
charges. Then a special tax is levied on their
wash-houses, and a new regulation made, by
which no one can carry baskets on poles across
the sidewalks; that being the way they carry
about vegetables to sell. All these little teasing things, and a great many other annoyances
which have not any pretence of legality, they THEIR EVASION OF THE LAW.
bear with patience, and seem in all ways to
show more forbearance even, and give, if possible, less ground for complaint, than before.
The poll-tax, which is levied on all males
over twenty-one years of age, is rigorously collected from the Chinamen, while no special
effort is made to collect it from the whites. In
crossing the ferry to Oakland, they are often
pounced upon by the collector, — in many instances when they are under age; and, unless
they can show a tax receipt, their travelling
bags or bundles are taken from them, and retained until the requirements of the collector
are satisfied. Their wit and shrewdness avail
them, however, to avoid this trouble; and a
Chinaman who has occasion to cross the ferry
can usually borrow the tax receipt of some one
who has already paid. This serves as a passport, as it is not easy for a white man to distinguish them as individuals, on account of their
similarity in dress, manners, and general appearance.
The police, being extremely vigilant in respect
to all violations of law by the Chinese, have
sought out their gambling-dens with great diligence, and made manjr arrests. The Chinese,
not to be baffled, — besides resorting to labyrinthine passages, underground apartments, bar- I
ricades of various kinds, and other modes of
secluding themselves, to indulge in their games
undisturbed, — have adopted one medium after
another in place of cards, substituting something that could be quickly concealed in case
the police should surprise them. At one time
they made use of squash or melon seeds for this
purpose, cutting on them the necessary devices.
These could be much more easily concealed
about the folds of their loose garments than
cards. When this ruse was detected, they made
use of almonds in the same way; and, when surprised, hastily devoured them, leaving not a particle of evidence upon which a policeman could
base an arrest.
May 10,1877.
One of the strongest arguments against the
© © ©
Chinese has been that they could never affiliate
with our people, nor enter into the spirit of our
institutions; that they had no desire to become
citizens, and had no families here. Now that
they have petitioned for common-school privileges for their children, stating how many there
are here, and to what extent they are taxed to
support schools, there is a louder outcry than
ever against them, for such audacity. They
are slowly asserting themselves, in different
ways, and showing that they understand a good ' -^' t1 '^ttii^TTaSf^t^cr*.
deal that we thought they did not. One of
them has now protested against being imprisoned for violating the "pure-air ordinance."
The city has made a good deal of money by
the fines paid on this account, but it has been
thought expedient to stop the arrests while this
case is being tried.
Then they are making an effort against the
injustice of the city in discriminating against
them by charging more for laundry licenses
where the clothes are carried about by hand,
than where horses are used; in this way obliging
any one who does a small business to pay more
in proportion than one who does a large business. There are a great many large French
laundries here, that all send about wagons.
The Chinese carry every thing by hand; they
seem altogether too meek and timid to have
horses; but, as they adapt themselves to every
thing, they have looked about, and met the difficulty, in part, by securing quite a number of
poor, abject animals, with which they are beginning to appear in the streets. There is no
change they are not willing to make; and their
patience and perseverance are unconquerable,
about staying and going on with their work.
As an .Eastern writer said of them : " They bow
to the storm, and rise up, and plod on in the 234
•   ■
intervals." It is very true of them, as we see
them here, — so unresisting, and yet so resistless.
We have lately made the acquaintance of a
man who has lived thirty years in Shanghae,
who explained many of their customs and ideas.
He confirmed some things that our boys had
told us, but we understood them better from
him. He said that the Chinese have such perfect faith in continued life after death, and in a
man's increased power in another life, that it
was not an unusual thing for any one who had
some great injury to avenge, to kill himself, in
order to get into a position to do it more effectually. To them a dead man is more important
than a living one; and the one great feature of
their religion is the worship of their ancestors.
They make a great many offerings to them, —
as we saw them do at Lone Mountain. If any
one dies at sea, or in a foreign country, where
there is no friend or relative to do this for him,
he becomes a beggar spirit. It is the duty of
the Chinese at home to make offerings to beg-
© O
gar spirits as well as to their own relatives. If
any great misfortune happens to a man, he
thinks he must have neglected or offended some
dead relative, or perhaps one of these beggar
spirits; and will impoverish himself for years, to «^ge8Ss§S™S
atone for it by a great feast. They are very
much afraid of the spirits, and build their houses
with intricate passages, and put up screens, to
keep them from seeing what happens; and they
especially avoid openings north and south, as
they think the spirits move only in north and
south lines. What is more important than almost any "thing in a man's life, is to be placed
right after his death, — toward the south, that
he may receive genial and reviving influences
from it; but if he is toward the north, and
gets chilling influences from that direction, he
wreaks his vengeance on his living relatives
who placed him there.
We learn a good deal from the boys we have.
I should like very much to go into their schools,
they are so well taught in many respects. One
of our boys once took some fruit-wax, and modelled a perfect little duck. He said he was
taught at school how to do it. He also drew
several animals. with an exceedingly life-like
appearance. This early instruction is no doubt
the basis of the acknowledged superiority of
the Chinese as carvers in wood and ivory.
I have often wondered that more of them do
not die in coming to a climate so different
from their own, and adopting such new modes
of life as most of them are obliged to do.   But 236
they all seem to have been taught the rudiments of medicine. A young American boy,
if he is sick, has not the remotest idea what "to
do for himself; but the Chinese boys know in
most cases. We have often seen them steeping their little tin cups of seeds, roots, or leaves
on the kitchen stove, which they said was medicine for some ailment or other, but "Melican
man no sabbe Chinaman medicine;" and sometimes, when they did not have their own remedies at. hand,* I have offered them pellets or
tinctures from my homoeopathic supply, which
they could rarely be induced to accept, alleging that " Melican medicine no good for Chinaman." One of our little boys went to a
Chinese doctor for himself one day, and when
he came back, I asked him what the doctor
said. He told me that he pressed with his finger
here and there on his flesh, to see if it rose
readily, and the color came back. I saw that
he meant if any one was not very sick, that the
flesh was elastic; and I thought it was quite a
good test, and one that might perhaps be useful
to our doctors. They have one curious idea in
their treatment, which is, that, if any one is
sick, he is to eat an additional meal instead of
less. Nevertheless, they seem to get well with
this arrangement. ^'.iKo-   <-_ ■-;,i5S-: :n:fe!:.i!K,--'.^?£.:..;,.lTr-'^^|:':>.!';
The belief in a future hfe, and in improved
conditions hereafter, seems to be universal
among them. A poor Chinaman was found
dead near us, with a letter beside him, which
was translated at the inquest held over the
Third Month, 27th day [May 4].
To my Father and Mother, — I came to this country, and spent my money at the gambling-table, and
have not accomplished any thing. Where I am now, I
cannot raise money to return home. I am sick, and have
not long to live. My life has been a useless one. When
you have read this letter, do not cry yourselves sick on.
my account. Let my brothers' wives rear and educate
my two cousins. I wish to be known as godfather to
one of them. I desire Chow He, my wife, to protect and
assist you. When you both are dead, she may marry if
she wishes. In this world I can do no more for you,
father and mother. You must look to the next world
for any future benefit to be received from me.
Sept. 10,1877.
The Chinese generally appear unwilling to
talk with us about their religious customs and
ideas, apparently from superstitious feelings.
Occasionally we meet with an intelligent one,
who readily answers our questions, and tells
us about many of their festivals celebrated at
home, which are  not recognized here.    Not- 238
withstanding their solemn faces and methodical
ways, they are as fond of celebrations as the
San Francisco people themselves. They celebrate the Festival of the Little Cold, and of
the Great Cold; of the Little Snow, -and of the
Great Snow; of the Moderate Heat, and of
the Great Heat. Early in the autumn comes
the Festival of Pak-lo, or the White Dew;
later in the autumn, the Festival of Hon-lo,
or the Cold Dew. About the time of our harvest moon, the fifteenth day of eighth moon,
they celebrate the Festival of the Full Moon,
eating moon-cakes, and sending presents to
their friends, of tea, wine, and fruits; in February, the Festival of Rain and Water; early in
the spring (the sixth day of second moon),
the Festival of Enlivened Insects. On the
third day of third moon they celebrate, for
three days and nights, the birthday of Pak
Tai, god of the extreme north; in spring, the
birthday of the god of health; in spring also,
the great Festival of Tsing Ming (Clear and
Bright). On this occasion, they visit and worship at the tombs. In all great festivals the
ancestors must share.    In early summer occurs
the Festival of the I
Ripened.    The
hour for the offering of each" sacrifice is most
carefully chosen, — that of the spring sacrifice
being at the first glimmering of dawn. INDIAN NAMES FOR THE MONTHS.
This shows as close observation of nature on
their part as the Indians display, and reminds
me of the names the Makahs give to the months:
December, the moon when the gray whale appears ; March, the moon of the fin-back whale;
April, the moon of sprouts and buds; May, the
moon of the salmon-berry; June, the moon of
the red huckleberry; November, the moon
of winds and screaming birds. The Makahs
select the time of the full moon as an especially favorable one to communicate with the
Great Spirit.
I do not know whether it is now considered
that *our Indians are of Oriental origin. It
seems at first as if two races could hardly differ
more than Indians and Chinese ; but, after living long among them, many resemblances attract our attention. We have seen, occasionally, Indians with quite Mongolian features,
and short, square frames. Flattening the head
among the Indians is considered a mark of distinction, as compressing the feet is with the
Chinese; no slave being allowed to practise
either. The reverence of the Indians for the
graves of their fathers approaches the worship
of ancestors among the Chinese. No outrage
is greater to the Indians than to desecrate the
burial-places of their dead.    They often make I
sacrifices to them, and celebrate anniversaries
of the dead with dancing and feasting. The
Chinese feast their dead at regular intervals,
and carry them thousands of miles across the
ocean from foreign countries to rest in their
own land at last. The Manitous (ruling spirits)
of earth, air, and water, with the Indians, are,
in some respects, like the Shin of the Chinese,
— spirits that inhabit all nature; but the Shin
are inferior deities, not having much power,
being employed rather as detectives, — as the
kitchen god, or hearth spirit, who at the end of
the year reports the conduct of the family to
Shang-te, the God of Heaven. Both races are
firm believers in the power and efficacy of
charms-* the Chinaman, in his green-jade bracelet, is demon-proof; the Indian warrior, in a
white wolf-skin, rides to certain victory. Both
are excessively superstitious, considering that
the ruling spirits are sometimes friendly, sometimes hostile; and feel it necessary, in all the
commonest acts of their lives, to be constantly
on the watch to guard against malign influences,
— attributing great power for harm to the spirits of the dead. An Indian, like a Chinaman,
will frequently abandon his lodge, thinking
some dead relative whom he has offended has
discovered him there.    He is afraid to speak the
KSi'. name of any one who is dead, and often cnanges
his own name, that the dead person, not hearing the old name spoken, may not so readily find
him. Indians and Chinese are alike in the
habit of changing their names, having one for
youth, auother for manhood, and a third for
old age ;  taking new names many times in the
©      * © J
course of their lives, — as after any great event
or performance.
They resemble each other in their infatuation
for gambling, — a Chinaman, after all his possessions have been staked and lost, sometimes
selling himself for a term of years, to keep up
the game; or an Indian gambling away a hand,
an arm, a leg, and so on, and at last the head,
until the whole body is lost at the play, and then
he goes into perpetual slavery. The Indians
will sometimes gamble awajr their children,
though they are usually very fond of them,—
the typical " bad Indian " with them being one
who is cowardly, or who neglects his children. XV.
Chun Fa's Funeral. —Alameda. — Gophers and Lizards. —
Poison Oak. — Sturdy Trees. — Baby Lizards. —Old Ala-
* meda. — Emperor Norton. — California Generosity. — The
Dead Newsboy. — Anniversary of the Goddess Kum Fa. —
Chinese Regard for the Moon and Flowers. — A Shin Worshipper.
Alameda, Cab., April 5,1878.
"TTT'E have  left  San   Francisco,  and come
V V   across the bay to live.    The last thing I
did there was to go to a Chinawoman's funeral.
I saw in the papers that Chun Fa, the wife of
Loy Mong, was dead; and he would like to
have all the Christian Chinese and their friends
come to  the funeral.    I thought I would go.
© ©
Especially at this time, when the Chinese meet
with so much bad treatment, we are glad of an
opportunity to show our good-will and sympathy ; but I did not expect to be so much interested as I was. The columns in the chapel
were wreathed with ivy and lilies, and every
thing was very quiet and pleasant in the bright
forenoon.     One side of the church was
with Chinese women and girls. It is very hard
to tell which are women, and which are children, they all have such childlike faces. I
suppose it is because they are so undeveloped.
Their uncovered heads, and smooth, shining
black hair, looked to me at first all exactly
alike; all the company seemed of one pattern.
But, when I had noticed them longer, I saw
some variety in their manners and expressions.
To sit there among them, and feel the differences between them and us, and the .resemblances, — so much stronger than the differences,
— was a curious experience.
It was a school, I found, and Chun Fa seemed
to have been the flower of it. They all mourned
very much at losing her. She was the wife of
one of their principal merchants, — but their
wives are often children. She had a sweet, innocent face; and we heard that she was very
intelligent, and eager to learn. With her fair,
open look, it seemed as if one could have done
a great deal with her in the way of development.
An American man first made a prayer in
Chinese ; then they all sang —
" Shall we gather at the river ? "
in English.    They sang with so much fervor, CHUN FA'S FUNERAL.
that, although it was so unmusical, I felt more
like crying than laughing, to think it was for
one of those Chinese women who have been so
badly spoken of; the papers often saying that
they are all prostitutes, that there are no families among them, and that the California people
must purify their State by getting rid of them.
Then a serene-looking Chinaman chanted something that sounded very soothing and musical,
© *J © *
and another made a prayer. Then we went,
each one, and took leave of poor little Chun Fa.
I thought I should have been willing to have
o o
it my funeral, every thing was so genuine about
it; no cant, and nothing superfluous.
We met with quite a disappointment in leaving San Francisco, to find that our little Quong
could not go with us. We thought we had
obtained leave from the proper patron; but at
the last a brother appeared who claimed to be
superior authority, and forbade his going. As
he seemed a very gruff, disagreeable person,
and, as the boy said, had never treated him
kindly, we advised him to disobey him; but he
said it would never do for a little China boy
to disobey a father or an older brother; but,
when he was old enough, he would take ten
dollars, and buy a pistol, and shoot him.
1 April 30, 1878.
We are only an hour's ride by cars and
steamer from San Francisco. It is hard to
believe it, it is so wholly different a place. Before us is a field of blue nemophilas. To see
them waving in the wind, recalled to me what
Emerson said about its restoring any one to
reason and faith to live in the midst of nature,
— so many trivial cares and anxieties disappeared at the sight of it. On the other side,
the water rolls softly up to our very door. We
bathe in it, floating about at will in warm or
cold currents.
The first morning after we moved here, I
noticed two small hills and holes, newly dug,
beside our door. A curious little head thrust
itself out of one, and two small eyes peered at
me. They belonged to one of the little underground creatures, called gophers, that we have
all about us. They eat roots, and it is almost
impossible to cultivate any thing where *they
are. They appeared to have come just because
they saw that the house was going to be occupied. I think they like human company,' only
they want to keep their own distance. They
and the lizards quite animate the landscape.
The "gopher's wise, old-fashioned looking head
is quite a contrast to that of the lizard, with its
:Sm 246
eager, inquisitive expression. There is always
a little twisted-up head and bright eye, or a
sharp little tail, appearing and disappearing,
wherever we look. They spend their whole
time in coming and going. Their purpose seems
to be accomplished, if they succeed in seeing
us, and getting safely away.
The wagoner who moved us over from San
Francisco made some commiserating remarks
concerning me, as he deposited the last load of
furniture; saying that it was a good place to
raise children, but would be very solitary for
the woman.
It is a lonely place here, but the water is constant company. As I write, the only sound I
can hear is the gentle roll of waves, and now
and then an under sound that seems to come
from far-off caverns, — so soft and so deep. I
never lived so close to the water before, so that
its changes made a part of my every-day life.
Even when I am so busy that I do not look at
it, I feel how the tide is creeping in, filling up
all the little inlets, and making all waste places
bright and full.
May 10,1878.
We made, inquiries of some of the old residents, in reference to the wind, before we decided to come here;  but people who live in
half-settled places, I find, are very'apt to misrepresent, — they are so eager for neighbors. How
much wiser we should have been to have consulted the trees!—they show so plainly that
they have fought all their lives against a strong
sea-wind, bending low, and twisting themselves
about, trying to get away from it.
We n]Qd that where we live is not Alameda
proper, but is called the Encinal District, —
encinal being the Spanish for oak. I do not
know whether they mean by it the old dusky
evergreens, or the poison oak which is every
where their inseparable companion. Soon after
we arrived, we found ourselves severely affected
by it. It was then in flower, and we attributed
its strength to that circumstance; but every
change it passes through re-enforces its life, —
when it ripens its berries, when its leaves turn
bright, or when the autumn rains begin. Every
thing suits it; moisture or dryness, whichever
prevails, appears to be its element. Thoreau,
who liked to see weeds overrun flowers, would
have rejoiced in its vigor. We never touch it;
but any one sensitive to its influence cannot
pass near it, nor breathe the air where it grows,
without being affected by it. Alameda seems
hardly ready for human occupancy yet, unless
something effectual can be done to exterminate 248
it. We often see superficial means taken, like
burning it down to the level of the earth; but
what short-sighted warfare is that which gives
new strength after a brief interval! Onone
account I forgive it many injuries, —that it furnishes our only bright autumn foliage, turning into most vivid and beautiful shades of red.
Except for the poison oak, and a few of the long,
narrow leaves of the Eucalyptus, that hang like
party-colored ribbons on the trees, we have no
change in the foliage between summer and winter; there are always the same old dingy evergreen oaks everywhere about us.
There are some cultivated grounds and gardens in the neighborhood, but everywhere hi-
terspersed among them are wild fields. The
trees have a determined look, as they stand and
hold possession of them. The cultivated ones
that border the streets, in contrast with them,
appear quite tame. I find myself thinking of
the latter sometimes as if they were artificial,
and only these old aborigines were real; they
have so much more character and expression.
I heard a lady criticising Alameda, saying that
there were so many trees, you could not see
the place. We have a general feeling, all the
time, as if we were camping out, and everybody else were camping out too.    The trees are %]
scattered everywhere; and it is quite the fashion,
in this humble part of the town, for people to
live in tents while they build their own houses.
These trees are of a very social kind, bending
low, and spreading their branches wide, so that
any one could almost live in them just as they
are. They are a great contrast to the firs
which we had wholly around us on Puget
Sound. They have strange fancies for twisting
and turning. I have never seen two alike, nor
one that grew up straight. It is not because
they are so yielding, — they are as stiff and rugged as they can be, — it must be their own wild
nature that makes them like to grow in strange,
irregular ways. Sometimes, when I look at
great fields of them, I feel as if I were in the
midst of a storm, every thing has such a windswept look, although it is perfectly still at the
time. One day I came upon a body of them,
that appeared as if they had all been stopped
by some sudden enchantment, in the midst of
running away. Often we see trees that look as
if they had come out of the wars, with great
clefts in their sides, and holes through them.
Their foliage is very slight; there is very little
to conceal their muscular look. It seems as if
we could feel in them the will that tightened
all the fibres. 250
May 15,1878.
The great event to us lately has been the
advent of the baby lizards. The streets are all
laid with planks, clean and sunny. The lizards
delight in them, they are so bright and warm.
I like to see, as I walk along, these curious little
bodies, in old-fashioned scale armor, stopping
and looking about, as if they were drinking in
the comfort of the sunshine, just as I am. Although they stop a great deal, it is very difficult
to catch one, for their movements are like a
flash. I did succeed once in holding one long
enough to examine his beautiful steel-blue
bands. The babies are as delicate as if they
were made of glass, and as light and airy as if
they belonged to fairy-land. They run, all the
time, backward and forward, just for the pleasure of moving, over the sidewalk, and under
When I read in the papers, every week, about
the people who kill themselves in San Francisco, — and they generally say that they do it
because there does not seem to be any thing
worth living for, — I wonder if it would not
make a difference to them if they lived in the
country, and saw how entertaining the world
looks to the lively little creatures about us, who
think it worth while to move so quickly, and
3k dsaaasaoa
look well about on every side, for fear they
may miss seeing something.
July 2,1878.
When we first came here in the spring, and
found the ground all blue and yellow and white
with blossoms, I thought how interested I should
be, to watch the succession of flowers. But that
was all. In these dry places, we have only
spring flowers. I did, though, the other day,
see something red in the distance', and, going to
O '   © o
it, found a clump of thistles, almost as tall as
I am, of a bright crimson color. The fields are
very dry now, and it seems to be the season of
the snakes. Under the serpent-like branches,
we find nothing but the cast-off skins of the
. There are some curious old men here who
tend cattle, sitting under the trees, with their
knitting. I think they are Germans. They do
not appear to understand when I speak to them.
I thought they might be " broke miners," who
are generally the most curious people hereabouts.
One of these" broke miners " is employed to
take care of two little children near us, whose
mother is dead. He dresses them with their
clothes hind-side before, and liable at any moment to drop entirely off; but seems to succeed 252
very well in amusing them, quilting up his dishcloths into dolls for them, and transforming
their garments into kites. His failing seems
to be that a kind of dreamy mood is apt to steal
over him, in which he wanders on the beach, regardless of hours •, and the master of the house,
coming home, has to hunt high and low for him,
to come and prepare the meal. On the last
bright moonlight night, he wholly disappeared.
Oct. 15,1878.
We have finally been driven off by the wind
from our cottage on the bay. Margie has been
so accustomed to moving, that she takes it as
easily as an Indian child would. -A few days
before we left, she gave me an account of the
moving of the man opposite, which was all accomplished before breakfast in the morning.
First, she said, he put all his things on a wagon,
and then took his house to pieces, and put that
on; and then he and the wagoner sat down and
drank a pot of coffee together, and started off,
on their load.
We did not take our house with us, but found
a rather dilapidated one, in what is called Old
Alameda. It is quite attractive, from the trees
and vines about it, and the spacious garden in
which it stands.    It is owned by an old Ger- smm
man woman, who lives next to us. She is rich
now, and owns the whole block, but still holds
to her old peasant customs, and wears wooden
shoes. Opposite is a French family, who go off
every year to a vineyard, to make wine; and,
next to them, a poor Spanish family, who carry
round mussels to sell.
March 3,1879.
We have had a real winter; not that it was
very cold or snowy, — that it never is here, —
but so excessively rainy as to keep us a good
deal in-doors. The grass grew up in the house,
and waved luxuriantly round the edges of the
rooms. The oak-trees surprised us by bursting
out into fresh young green, though we had not
noticed that they had lost any of their hard,
evergreen leaves.
April 10,1879.
While we were crossing the ferry between
San Francisco and Oakland one day, a peculiar-
looking person appeared on the deck of the
boat, who saluted the assembled company in a
most impressive manner. He was a -large man,
serene and self-possessed, with rather a handsome face. On his broad shoulders he wore
massive epaulets, a sword hung by his side, and
his hat was crowned with nodding peacock
feathers.   I  noticed  that he passed the gates
'^PJ?fv I
where the tickets are delivered, unquestioned,
giving only a courteous salute, instead of the
customary passport. Upon inquiry, I learned
that he was the "Emperor Norton, ruler of
California," according to his fancy; and that he
passed free wherever he chose to go, — theatres
opening their, doors to him, railroads and steamers conveying him without charge. He was an
old pioneer, distraught by misfortunes, and humored in this hallucination by the people. He
was in the habit of ordering daily telegraphic
despatches sent to the different crowned heads
of Europe. He had once been known to draw
his sword upon his washer-woman, because she
presumed to demand payment for his washing;
whereupon the Pioneer Society, learning of the
affair, took upon itself the charge of meeting all
little expenses of this nature.
The Californians have a jolly, good-natured
way of regarding idiosyncrasies, and a kind of
lavish generosity in the distribution of their
alms, quite different from the careful and judicious method of the Eastern people. We hear
that some of the early miners, passing along
the streets of San Francisco, just after it had
been devastated by one of the terrible fires that
swept every thing before them, and seeing a lone
woman sitting and weeping among the ruins, |HW3%&«$$mi8l
flung twenty-dollar gold pieces and little packages of gold dust at her, until all her losses were
made good, and she had a handsome overplus to
start anew.
I noticed in Oakland a man who drew the
whole length of his body along the sidewalk,
like an enormous reptile, moving slowly by the
the help of his hands, unable to get along in
any other way, holding up a bright, sunny,
sailor face. On his back was a pack of newspapers, from which men helped themselves, and
flung him generally a half or a quarter of a
dollar, always refusing the change. That such
a man could do business in the streets, was a
credit to the kindliness of the people incommoded by him. I hardly think he would have
been tolerated in New York or Boston; but
his pleasant face and fast-disappearing papers
showed that he was not made uncomfortably
aware of the inconvenience he caused.
One day, while waiting at the ferry, I saw
two men employed in a way that attracted the
attention of every one who passed. One of
them, who had in his hand a pair of crutches,
ascended some steps, and, crossing them, nailed
them to the wall, close to the gateway where
the passengers passed to the boat. The other
arranged some light drapery in the form of 256
wings above them. Below they put,a small
table, with the photograph of a little newsboy
on it. All the business-men, the every-day passengers crossing to their homes on the Oakland
side, appeared to understand it, and quietly laid
some piece of money beside the picture. It
seems that it was the stand of a little crippled
boy who had for a year or two furnished the
daily papers to the passengers passing to the
boat. The money was for his funeral expenses,
and to help his family. It was very characteristic of the Californians to take this dramatic
and effective way of collecting a fund. Men
who would have been very likely to meet a
subscription-paper with indifference, on being
appealed to in this poetic manner, with no word
spoken, only seeing the discarded crutches and
the white wings above, with moist eyes laid
their little tribute below, as if it were a satisfaction to do so. I thought how the little
newsboy's face would have brightened if he
could have seen it, and hoped that he might
not be beyond all knowledge of it now.
We have had an opportunity to .observe some
fine-looking Chinamen who have been at work
on the railroad ah winter opposite our house.
There are a hundred or more of them. We
understand that they are from the rural dis- ANNIVERSARY OF THE GODDESS KUM FA.    257
tricts of China. They are large, strong, and
healthy, quite different from the miserable,
stunted, sallow-faced creatures from the cities,
of whom we see so many, showing that this
inferiority is not inherent in the race, but is
the effect of unfavorable circumstances.
May 15, 1879.
Day before yesterday was the anniversary of
the birthday of the Chinese goddess Kum Fa,
or Golden Flower, guardian of children. She
is worshipped chiefly by women; but some of
the workers on the railroad begged branches
of the feathery yellow acacia, which is now in
bloom, to carry with them to the temple in San
Francisco. They are so unpoetic in many ways,
that we should hardly expect them to be so
fond of flowers; but they mourn very much
if the bulbs which they keep growing in stones
and water in their houses in the winter do not
open for the new year.
The moon and the flowers they enjoy more
than any thing else. In many things they are
children, and like what children like. The
moon holds a very important place to them,
and the dates of the new year and all their
festivals are determined by its changes. We
used to see one of our boys standing, sometimes 258
for hours together, with his arms folded, gazing into the moonlit sky. When questioned
as to what he was doing, he said he was " looking at the garden in the moon," and listening
to " hear the star-men sing."
This boy appeared to be a Shin worshipper.
He made many drawings representing these
spirits, with astonishing facility and artistic
skill, but, when pressed to explain them, said it
was not good to speak much about them. Some
rode upon clouds; some thrust their heads out
of the water, or danced upon the backs of
fishes; some looked out of caves among the
hills. There were serene, peaceful ones, with
flowers or musical instruments in their hands;
others were fierce and hostile, brandishing
weapons, and exploding bombs. Everywhere
was the wildest freedom and grace, and apparently much symbolic meaning which we could
not understand. SBfiigawCfc«frM»9waik*.^04l
OREGON, AND CALIFORNIA.   1865 - 1881.
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illustrations. Royal 8vo, 7 x9J inches, with cover in gold and colors, designed
by the author.   Pr)ae, $1.75.   Cloth, black and gold, $2.50. LEE AND SHEPARD'S NEW BOOKS OF TRAVEL.
Random Sketches of Various Subjects,
FennEd from different standpoints in the Empirai
Late United States Consul at the island of Malta, and at Barcelona, Spain,
Crcw^a. 8vo
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hearty interest in what he saw, which carries him over what might otherwise be dull places. The book tells in a plain, direct fashion many facts
omitted from other books of travel." — Atlantic Monthly.
" In his introduction he lays down the principles that a foreigner visiting
any country has a right to criticise its faults freely, as well as to note its
excellences, —and this Mr. Ruggles has done."—Norwich (Ct.) Bulletin.
" Mr. Ruggles writes briskly; he chats and gossips, slashing right and
left with stout American prejudices, and has made withal a most entertaining book."—If. Y. Tribune.
Travels and Observations in the Orient,
By Hon. Walter Harriman,   Ex-Governor  of  New   Hampshire.
3*Te-w Edition., ISmo, Clotli,   -   $LEO.
"It is an elegant 12mo volume, and is characterized throughout by the
governor's vivid and racy style of description. The reader himself becomes
a traveller in the pages of this book; that is, he passes, by the author's
power of description, through all the scenes in company with the writer.
Tou traverse the vales of Palestine, scent the odorous spice air of Damascus
and see the dark-eyed peasant girls drawing water at eventide, almost in
reality. There are no long, prosy descriptions, no dull monotony under the
disguise of matter of fact; but the pages glow with color and move with
life. It is one of the best books of its class and will command a wide sale."
— Concord Patriot.
Sold by all booksellers, and sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt of price.
LEE   AND   SHEPARD, Publishers,
Or, Humors of the West.
By H. H. Riley. Hlustrated. (A New Edition.)
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The adventures of a gentleman who, on a wager of ten thousand dollars, undertook
to go from New York to New Orleans in three weeks, without money or the
assistance of friends.   A new edition.   Hlustrated.   Cloth, $1.00.
Summer Edition, Paper, 60 Cents.
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to get a meal or a bed, are sometimes amusing, sometimes perilous, always intensely
realistic."—Detroit News.
By Alphonse Daudet, author of " Kings in Exile," " Tartarin of Tarascon," etc.
Translated from the French by Miss Virginia Champlin.    16mo., with all the
original illustrations.   Cloth, $1.00.
" This work has had exceptional popularity In Prance, where Daudet's works
are read with intense avidity. The translation is considered unusually excellent,
preserving the brightness and fascination of the original."—Hartford Post.
16mo.   Cloth, $1.00.   "A thunderbolt of common sense."
*'Alphonse Daudet takes his place perhaps at the head of all living writers of
fiction."—Literary World.
By  Mrs. Maby A. Denibon.       Cloth, $1.00.
" It is*worth reading for its literary merit, as well as for its moral."— Christian
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And Other Stories.    By Max Adei-er.    Illustrated.    $1.00.
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Sold by all Booksellers and Newsdealers, and sent by mail postpaid on receipt
or T)i*ic&
LEE AND SHEPARD, Publishers,
Special attention is invited to the following Handbooks and Manuals
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under treatment more satisfactorily than some larger
Pronouncing Handbook of 3,000 Words often Mispronounced, and of Words
as to which a choice of Pronunciation is allowed. By Richard Squle and
Loomis J. Campbell.   Price 50 cents.
Handbook: of English Synonyms, with an Appendix showing the correct
use of Prepositions, also a collection of Foreign Phrases. By Loomis J.
Campbell.   Cloth, price 50 cents.
Handbook of Conversation. It's Faults and its Graces. Compiled by
Andrew P. Peabody, D.D., LL.D. Comprising: 1. Dr. Peabody's Lecture. 2. Mr. Trench's Lecture. 3. Mr. Perry Gwynn's "A Word to the Wise;
or, Hints on the Current Improprieties of Expression in Writing and Speak-
ing." 4. Mistakes and Improprieties in Speaking and Writing Corrected.
Cloth, price 50 cents.
Taxidermy without a Teacher. Comprising a Complete Manual of Instruction for Preparing and Preserving Birds, Animals, and Fishes; with a
Chapter on Hunting and Hygiene; together with Instructions for Preserving
Eggs and Making Skeletons, and a Number of valuable Recipes. By Walter
P. Manton.   Hlustrated.   50 cents.
Insects: How to Catch and how to Prepare them for the Cabinet. Comprising
a Manual of Instruction for the Field Naturalist. By Walter P. Manton.
Illustrated.   Cloth, price 60 cents.
Field Botany. A Handbook for the Collector. Containing Instructions for
Gathering and Preserving Plants, and the formation of a Herbarium. Also
Complete Instructions in Leaf Photography, Plant Printing, and the Skeletonizing of Leaves.   By Walter P. Manton.   Hlustrated.   Price 50 cents
Hints and Helps for those who Write, Print, or Read. By Benjamin Drew,
Proof-Reader.   Price 50 cents.
Handbook of Light Gymnastics. By Lucy B. Hunt, Instructor in Gymnastics at Smith ( Female) College, Northampton, Mass.   Price 50 cents.
Practical Boat-Sailing. By Douglas Frazar. Classic size, $1.00. With
numerous Diagrams and Illustrations.
Handbook of Punctuation, and other Typographical Matters. For the Hse
of Printers, Authors, Teachers, and Scholars. By Marshall T. Bigelow,
Corrector at the University Press, Cambridge, Mass.   18mo, cloth, 50 cents.
Handbook of Elocution Simplified. By Walter K. Fobes, with an Introduction by George M. Baker.   Cloth, 50 cents.
Short Studies of American Authors. By Thomas Wentworth Higgin-
son.   Price 50 cents.
Handbook of Wood Engraving. With Practical Instructions in the Art for
Persons wishing to learn without an Instructor. By William A. Emerson,
Wood Engraver.   New Edition.   Illustrated.   Price $1.00.
The Stars and the Earth; or, Thoughts upon Space, Time and Eternity.
With an Introduction by Thomas Hill, D. D., LL. D., late President of Harvard University,   Cloth, 50 cents.
Handbook of Water Analysis.   By Dr. Geo. L. Austin.   Cloth, 50 cents.
LEE & SHEPARD, Publishers, 47 Franklin St., Boston.  »sa
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