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Railway service : trains and stations Kirkman, Marshall M. (Marshall Monroe), 1842-1921 1878

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Array   A BABY LOGO MOTIVE.
The smallest locomotive engine ever built in
the United States for regular work was turned
out by M. M. Buck & Co., of St. L<ouis, recently,
and shipped to the Edmee plantation, St. Charles'
parish, La. This little engine was designed by
and built under the supervision of Jay Noble, and
is as perfect a piece of mechanism as one would
wish to see. Its diminutiveness may be understood from the following facts respecting it:—
Twenty-one and one-half inches gauge; diameter
of cylinder, 6J inches; stroke, 10 inches; four
wheels, diameter of driving wheels, 24 inches;
height of engine to top of boiler, 4 feet 7 inches ;
weight, without water, 5,250 pounds. The engine
has link motion, and is made of the best material
throughout. The boiler is made of one-quarter
inch iron, and is thirty inches in diameter in the
barrel. It is provided with an Orm patent pop-
valve, has a steel tire-box, and is fed.by two inspirators. The tank is made of No. 10 iron, has
four wheels of a diameter of 16 inches, a capacity
of 38© gallons, and weighs, without water, 1,400
pounds. In experimenting with the engine before it was shipped, it was found to act very
obediently under the hand of the engineer,—
Railway World.
*8fF The University of British Columbia Library
:•; . THE I •;;
I CHUNG |
COLLECTION
1
nasamaswnB   RAILWAY
SERVICE:
Trains and Stations
DESCRIBING THE MANNER OF OPERATING TRAINS, AND THE DUTIES
OF TRAIN AND STATION OFFICIALS.
BY
MARSHALL M. KIRKMAN.
.    PUBLISHED  BY
THE RAILROAD GAZETTE, NO. 73 BROADWAY, NEW YORK.
1878. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by
The Railroad Gazette,
in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
Printed by
Donnelley, Loyd & Co
CHICAGO. PREFACE.
The physical life of a railroad, is known in its
entirety by comparatively few, but it is nevertheless
true that a comprehensive knowledge of the laws
that regulate and direct that life is essential to
every railway man of any prominence, or that
hopes one day to become prominent. Many men
connected with our railroads do not, however,
possess the facilities necessary for acquiring this
knowledge. This book, it is hoped, will be of
assistance to all such. It treats of the composition
and movement of Railway Trains and the Laws
governing the same, including an exposition of
the duties of Train and  Stationmen.
In pursuing my inquiries in reference to the
subject, I have had occasion to examine into the
regulations of all the great companies of the
United States and England, so far as they affect
train and station service. The results of these
investigations are embodied herein.
Chicago, May, 1878.  TABLE   OF  CONTENTS.
Preface
Page.
• • •
CHAPTER I.
The mysteries that underlie the organization and movement of trains — The block system — Manipulation of
trains upon English roads—The force employed — The
collection of fares — The schedule by which regular
trains are moved — Movement of trains by telegraphic
orders — The protection of trains.        ....
CHAPTER II.
Individuality of railroad companies — Dissimilarity of
the signals in use upon different roads—The danger
such dissimilarity renders possible— Want of uniformity in the rules and regulations governing different
roads — Intelligent discrimination exercised by trainmen— The conservatism of trainmen — The regulations
partake of the character of the men introducing them
— Some of the differences observable in the rules and
regulations of different railroads — No uniformity in
the telegraph department—Lack of completeness and
thoroughness in framing the rules and regulations—The
wonderful phraseology of trainmen — Phraseology peculiar to  English   roads. . .....
27
CHAPTER III.
Explanation of some of the technical terms in use in
connection with the train and station service of a railway
company.        . .......
51 VI
Table of Contents.
CHAPTER IV.
Page.
Plan pursued in arranging and compiling the rules and
regulations.       ........    65
CHAPTER V.
Signals required by railway companies — Train signals—
Enginemen's   signals — Conductors'   signals   by   bell
cord — Signals by hand — Regulations  governing the
use of signals.        . . . . . . .69
§ ! CHAPTER VI.
Classes and grades of trains — Rights of trains — How
to protect trains when standing upon the main track,
or when the track is obstructed — When trains
break in two — Trains running with care — Trains
must   stop — Trains   meeting . or passing  each other
— Trains approaching stations — Trains following
other trains — Keeping off the time of other trains —
Delayed trains — Extra trains — Construction and wood
trains — Wild trains — The speed of trains — Directions
applicable only to double track lines— Third track or
middle sidings —Coupling cars-y Miscellaneous orders
relative to trains — The track —Movement of trains by
telegraph.       .        .        1   1        .        .        .        .        .81
CHAPTER VII.
General instructions to conductors — Passenger conductors — Freight conductors — General instructions to
brakemen — Passenger brakemen — Freight brakemen
— Train and station baggagemen — Enginemen —
Firemen — Inspectors of engines — Yard masters,        . 147
CHAPTER VIII.
Telegraph  Operators — Telegraph  Repairers.
. 188 Table of Contents.
CHAPTER IX.
Page.
Agents — Rules referring to the passenger traffic —
Freight regulations—Directions to agents— Receiving
freight for shipment — Receipting for freight — Releases
— Loading and unloading freight — Care must be exercised in loading freight—Delivery of freight—- Freight
from and to stations at which there are no agents —
Waybilling freight — Directions to agents in reference
to sealing cars containing freight — Miscellaneous rules
for freight agents — Directions to agents in reference to
fuel — To    switches—To   trains   and  cars—General
directions to agents.
CHAPTER X
General  Instructions.
CHAPTER XI.
Regulations  of   the   Austrian   railways governing   the
passenger service       .        , . .        ... 228
CHAPTER XII. m
A chapter devoted to the rules and regulations of the
great English roads—General Regulations—Conditions under which persons are admitted to the service —
Security — Privileges — Compensation, etc. — The Uniforms required and the regulations incident thereto
— General regulations for working the absolute block
system on  a double track  road. ....  Railway. Service:
TRAINS AND  STATIONS.
CHAPTER  I.
THE  MYSTERIES  THAT  UNDERLIE THE ORGANIZATION A^D  MOVEMENT  OF  TRAINS.
3^he manipulation of trains never ceases to
be a subject of wonder and speculation to railway men.      .f| m:"     ' "■■'■'.
To the great bulk of them the secrets that
envelope the construction of the schedule by
which trains are moved are profound and
impenetrable. ppf
How the officials are able to control the labyrinth of moving trains, how watch them as
they wind in and out like the figures upon a
chessboard, how adjust so nicely the time of
their arrival at meeting and passing. points,
how keep them all in motion, regulate their
speed and give to each the exact consideration
its importance merits, are questions that but
few    railway   men   can   understand.       They 2        J' Railway Service: J|
know that there is hidden away somewhere in
the dark unoccupied recesses of the Superintendent's apartments a mysterious chart, whereon at intervals he works. It is upon this that
he fixes the character, speed, and stopping
places of trains, here he notes where they shall
meet or pass each other, not forgetting the time
#iey shall start, nor the hour they shall reach
their destination. They have had surreptitious
glimpses of this wonderful chart through partly
closed doors, but their view has been obstructed
and their mental processes deadened by the form
and austere presence of the Superintendent as
he paced the room with measured stride, or
bent over his work, pencil in hand, with absent
air and corrugated brow, like one who sought
in vain the solution of some difficult problem.
They have noted with awe the hieroglyphics
pregnant with meaning that cover the broad
white surface of the mysterious chart, the stations printed in big black letters of varying
size and type, and seeming to derive a fictitious
importance from that fact; the broad lines of
different color that traverse its face laterally
and at right angles. Nor have they failed to
note and comment upon the faint irregular
lines drawn- with tremulous hand, here and
there, without method or object, apparently,
lines seemingly taking their rise in space and
ending in space, feeble, inconsequential, indefi-
saga Trains and Stations.
nite, like disconnected dreams or half completed thoughts. v .**"
But while they know or surmise that these
faint, irregular, half-obliterated lines forecast
moving trains, that they represent organized
harmonious action, that each line is a fully
developed, completed idea, they do not know
how these ideas, clothed in the symbolical language in which they see them spread upon the
chart, are to be subsequently arranged and
grouped, how condensed into the simple form
they present in the printed time table or schedule, which they have carried in their pockets
for years. -S
While any of us may without much labor
bfecome acquainted with the charts that the
Superintendent uses in constructing his table
of trains, still we can not without study, and
long association with his duties and responsibilities, understand all the nice distinctions that
govern him in his work. Nevertheless, each
schedule presents many features that seldom,
if ever, change; certain trains become in time
like the staple articles that a grocer is compelled
to keep, whether he derives profit therefrom or
not; their abandonment can not be contemplated, and the most trivial changes in their
organization or time may precipitate upon the
hapless Superintendent the indignation of an
outraged community; this indignation at once 1 .   Railway  Service :
finds utterance and relief in long petitions, sarcastic newspaper articles, crowded mass meetings, and waiting committees. J|
Aside from the staple features noticeable in
the list of trains, the probable amount of business that will offer, its source, and the direction it will take, have to be carefully considered in constructing the schedule. But
these calculations, made from time to time as
new schedules are constructed, may be said to
have reference only to the freight traffic, and
the number of trains required to do the business with reasonable expedition and economy.
The number of passenger trains employed
upon our roads are seldom, if ever, reduced.
On the contrary, new trains are added at long
intervals as the country developes and the
business of the line increases. The various
passenger trains move back and forth on a
fixed course, year after year, with the dull
monotony of an ever swinging pendulum ; each
train has a name and character along the route
it follows, and people speak of it as they do of
their recurring crops.   § ff
More or less of the freight trains that are
operated may also be classed with the staple
articles; a certain number, varying with the
size and character of the road, are necessary to
do its business; like the passenger trains they
will present at certain seasons of the year an Trains arid Stations.
exceedingly meagre, if not beggarly, appearance, but they are necessary to the convenience of the community and an expeditious
conduct of the vaiying business that is offering, and so they escape the inevitable reduction that overtakes unproductiveness or extravagance in other branches of the business.
Many other things have to be considered and
provided for in arranging the schedule. It is
desirable there should be close connections at
various junctions with other roads. It is this
phase of the subject that tries the patience and
ingenuity of the official. While no one of us,
perhaps, but has felt gratified at being able to
make easy and swift connection at some junction on our route, not all of us have stopped to
realize that the (to us) propitious conjunction of
circumstances was not the result of chance, but
of much contention, of many long and angry
communications, much bitterness of feeling,
succeeded, by many agreements and counter
agreements, these in turn finding, eventually,
definite and final solution in some happily devised compromise that represented approximately the rights of each company interested.
It is sometimes the case that connection with
other lines has only to be made at one end of
the road. It is thus of the greatest consequence
to the management that trains going in a certain direction should reach their destination at 6
Railway  Service:
a particular hour, but when these trains shall
start upon their return journey is purely a local
question, to be considered only in the relation
it bears to the other local questions of the company. 'Hi
The experience and skill required to move
trains with economy and safety upon a single
track is infinitely greater than that required
where two or more tracks are available. Indeed, the ability required to manipulate trains
successfully may be said to be in the inverse
ratio to the number of tracks upon which they
are moved. Upon a double track road there
is no necessity of providing meeting places for
trains. Where there is but one track, this is
of the greatest consequence, as trains can only
pass each other at those points where adequate
sidings have been provided. The sidings at a
particular station may be of sufficient length to
enable passenger trains to meet and pass, but
not adequate to the passage of freight trains.
The nicest calculations have, therefore, to be
made to so arrange the movement of trains that
the meeting or passing places may occur at
points where the accommodations are adequate.
When three tracks are available for the movement of trains, the special provision required
upon a double track line to enable trains moving in the same direction to pass each other
without   delay or   inconvenience,   is   greatly Trains and Stations.
lessened, if not entirely obviated. When it is
necessary for a train to pass another, where
three tracks are employed, the forward train
pursues its way at reduced speed, upon the third
or intermediate track, while waiting for the fast
train in its rear to overtake and pass it, before
it can re-occupy the main track. It will of
course sometimes happen that a particular section of the third track will be required for use
simultaneously by slow trains moving in opposite directions. When this is the case, the
opposing trains will be compelled to wait until
one of them can with safety re-occupy the main
track.
When four tracks are employed, the manipulation of trains becomes still more simple. It
is no longer intricate or elaborate. It is simply
a matter of calculation, affording abundant
scope, doubtless, for the exercise of good judgment and tact, but not requiring the elaborate
experience and skill necessary where the facilities are more restricted. Trains of the same
class, of equal or approximate grade, follow each
other in endless succession, and only the local
or accommodation trains are required, at long
and comparatively infrequent intervals, to give
wav to faster trains of a higher order, but of
the same grade.
Upon a four track railway the danger to life
and property may be said to have reached the 8
Railway  Service:
minimum, while the facility of business and
the economy of operation have reached the
maximum.
When separate tracks have been provided
for moving trains in opposite directions, it
would seem as if life and property were surrounded with - every reasonable safeguard
against the danger to be apprehended from colliding trains, but it is undoubtedly true that
disaster perpetually menaces trains following
each other in quick succession at a high rate of
speed. . ;i:': ;, _ ._
While the results to be apprehended from a
train being run into from the rear do not at
first sight seem likely to be as disastrous as
they would be from trains colliding while moving in opposite directions, yet a moment's reflection makes it apparent that the danger to
life is, under certain circumstances, really
much greater in the former, than in the latter
case.
THE  BLOCK  SYSTEM.
This may be described as a system devised to
secure the expeditious movement of trains upon
a road possessing two or more tracks, without
jeopardizing life or property.
I. *| Any one who has examined our reports of train accidents, will have observed that about one-fifth of all those
reported are rear collisions whicn would be impossible when
working with the block system."—Railroad Gazette. Trains and Stations.
9
Under its workings the track of a road is cut
up into short sections of a few miles in length,
called blocks.
Under what is termed the | absolute " system, not more than one train is allowed upon a
block at the same time, consequently a collision
is impossible so long as trains remain upon the
track. ■ ■ ■ ■ - §,
The "permissive" system allows more trains
than one to move upon a block at the same
time, under certain circumstances, but it provides specifically for notifying each train that
enters a block, whether such block is unoccupied or not.
When a train passes off from a block, it is
noted by the operator, and the fact instantly
telegraphed to the signalman at the opposite
end of the section that is vacated; the track thus
becomes free for the use of any following train.
Until the receipt of this notice no train is
permitted to enter the block, under the | absolute |  system. -   "'.%'"
Under the " permissive" system, certain
trains would be allowed to enter after having
been notified that the block was already occupied. • ' ■■■■%"
The block system makes provision for keeping the officials of a train advised when the
ti#ck is obstructed by preceding trains ; the
danger of trains being run down is thus rendered practically impossible. 10
Railway  Service:
The system is highly esteemed abroad, and is
in limited use in this country.
|§ The enormous cost of the appliances necessary to the operation of the block system, and
the great expense attendant upon its workings,
may be said to practically prohibit its general introduction in the United States for the present.
The wealthier companies will in time adopt it,
and it will be introduced upon isolated sections
of road where the business is so great as to
endanger the safety of trains operated under
the ordinary rules.
The system may be said to be indispensable
where the business of a company is such as to
require that trains should succeed each other at
intervals of only a few minutes.
It is relatively of much greater importance
to. a company with two tracks -than one with
double that number. '
The danger of trains running into each
other can not be so great with four tracks as
with two, for the reason that while the number moving in the same direction upon any one
track may be as great upon one road as the
other, still the trains that succeed each other
upon one line will all be moving at a comparatively uniform rate of speed, while upon the
other they will vary from fifteen to sixty miles
per hour. *,
Besides this, while it is not improbable that Trains and Stations,
11
the freight traffic of a road may increase proportionately with the number of its tracks,
still the number of passenger trains required
is not likely to be similarly affected and thus
the tracks allotted to such trains are comparatively idle.
There is no doubt but what the uniform rate
of speed pursued by trains following each
other upon a four track road affords a protection impossible upon roads where a less number
are available, but in the event a train is delayed
or one or more of its cars become detached, the
danger is just as great upon a four track road as
upon one in which only two are employed, supposing the business to be proportionately the
same. It is absolutely essential under such
circumstances that a following train should be
warned that a train or portion of a train is in
its immediate front.
The block system takes cognizance of every
attending circumstance, and if, under its workings, a train were to break in two, and the
forward part continue on its course ignorant of
the fact, the loss would instantly be observed
by the operator and the block would not be
freely opened to succeeding trains until the
facts were fully investigated. § 12
Railway  Service:
MANIPULATION OF TRAINS UPON ENGLISH ROADS
— THE FORCE EMPLOYED—THE COLLECTION
OF  FARES. p '. , '
Hf The great English roads are all operated
under the block system, or what may be termed
a modification of such system. Each line is
thickly dotted with signal houses and their
attendant appliances. The great bulk of the
rules and regulations under which our trains
are operated have, therefore, no relevance with
them.
While they provide schedules as we do, yet
the trains are constantly guarded and protected
by the multitude of signalmen scattered along
the line. f
These men are ubiquitous; trains move or
remain stationary as they direct; thgy approach
or remain away from stations at their beck or
nod, and when a train has reached a station it
departs or not as the signals indicate. So that
while trains may be behind time, or may not be
recognized by the schedule, they still pursue
their way with undiminished speed so long as
the signals in their front indicate the track to
be clear.1
I. A very full description of the workings of the block system is embraced in a succeeding chapter. This description is
taken from the rules and regulations of the English roads
operated in accordance with the Clearing House Standard.
i Trains and Stations.
13
The trains manipulated under the eye of the
signalmen, of course require double tracks
upon which to move.
Upon single track roads in Great Britain the
great utility of the telegraph in connection
with the movement of trains is practically
unknown, and in that respect our system of
management is immeasurably superior to theirs.
The duties of the conductor abtoad are
exceedingly diverse. He may be said to be
the creature of innumerable circumstances.
Frequently without an assistant on board the
train, he is expected to assist in its protection;
perform the duties of a brakeman; act as
express-messenger, baggage-master and attendant. Nominally in control of the train when
upon the line, his authority vanishes upon its
arrival at a station. He assists passengers in
entering and leaving the cars, but their fares are
collected by another.1
The elaborate force which mans our passenger trains is unknown in England. There the
force consists of a guard (conductor), as intimated above. f
He does not always have an assistant.
I. " Should a guard have reason to suppose any person is
without a ticket, or not in the right carriage, he is to request
the party to show him his ticket, not with a view to receive it
from him, but to satisfy himself that every passenger has a
proper one. He is under no circumstances to receive money
on account of the company."—Regulations English Roads. 14
Railway  Service:
The head guard has charge of the train, and
its passengers, baggage and express matter.
|j§ The assistant guard has a box in one of the
cars or vans; he signals the train in case of
danger, attends to the brake, and performs
such other duties as he may be able.
In lieu of these men we usually have a conductor, express-messenger, baggage-man and
two brakemen. Our station service is, however, conducted with a much less force than
theirs. j; M ■ l--
Their apparent extravagance in this respect
is explained in part by the fact that the rules
requiring passengers to purchase tickets before
entering the cars are rigidly enforced by them.
The outlay is, therefore, not an extravagance.
In connection with this subject of passenger
fares and their payment, the regulation of the
Austrian roads, contained elsewhere herein,
that permits and directs the officials of a company to impose a fine upon passengers who
neglect to purchase tickets, or claim that they
did not have time to purchase them, is interesting and instructive. The laws of England
governing the time and manner of paying
passenger fares are also exceedingly strict.1    f§
I. " Under the provisions of the acts relating to this railway,
any person who shall travel or attempt to travel in any carriage used! on the railway, without having previously paid his
fare, and with intent to avoid payment thereof, or who, having
paid his fare for a certain distance, shall knowingly and wil- Trains and Stations.
15
THE SCHEDULE BY WHICH REGULAR TRAINS
ARE OPERATED.
An economical management of railway property requires that the printed schedule, in
accordance with which trains are operated,
should provide only for the minimum number
required to do the business of the road. The
schedule specifies the precise minute each train
shall start upon its journey, the time of its
arrival at the various stations and sidings, and,
finally, the hour it shall reach its destination.
A glance at the table tells us where trains
meet or pass each other, such places being
indicated with startling distinctness by great-
fat dropsical looking figures that instantly
engage the eye, and arrest the attention of the
most superficial observer; this is doubtless why
they are used, and it is very likely for the same
fully proceed in any such carriage beyond such distance without
previously paying the additional fare for the additional dis-
tance^ and with intent to avoid payment thereof, or who shall
knowingly and wilfully refuse or neglect, on arriving at the
point to which he has paid his fare, to quit such carriage, is
for every such offense liable to a penalty of forty shillings; and
any person committing such offense may be lawfully apprehended and detained by the company's officers and servants
until he can be conveniently taken before some justice."—
G. W.R.ofEng.     ' :ft|      1 I
The laws of England protecting other companies are substantially the same as the above. 16
Railway Service:
reason that the dropsical or apoplectic style of
type is so much affected in railway literature.
. The trains provided for in the schedule are
called regular trains.       ft
Each train has its number.
Trains going in one direction bear odd numbers, while those moving in a contrary direction
monopolize the even numbers. Thus to hear
the number of a train is to know its direction.
The relative importance of trains is indicated
by the grade given them, as of the first, second
or third order.
The number of grades may be restricted or
indefinitely expanded. W    *
The schedule fixes the grade of each train.
The life of a schedule varies from a day to
six months. ■ ' •   • i§|
It is the creature of circumstances.
The rules and regulations forming a part of
the schedule accurately define the right possessed! by each grade; sometimes of specific
trains. .    #
Thus the passenger trains northward bound
are only required to wait five minutes at meeting points in the event trains of the same grade
moving in an opposite direction are delayed,
after that they proceed on their way, keeping
five minutes behind their schedule time, until
the belated trains are met.
But in the event a north bound passenger Trains and Stations,
17
train is delayed, the train going south is compelled to wait thirty minutes at the meeting
point before proceeding; after that it resumes
its journey, keeping, however, thirty minutes
behind its time until it meets the delayed train.
Trains of an inferior grade are required to
keep out of the way of those of a superior
grade.
Thus if, at a meeting point of two trains of
dissimilar grade the train of superior rank is
late, the train of inferior grade must await its
arrival indefinitely.1
If the case were the reverse of this, the train
of inferior grade being behind time, the superior
train would go forward without awaiting the
arrival of the delayed train.
The regular trains provided for by the
schedule are supplemented by others as business, or the exigencies of the service require.
These supplementary trains are known technically as extra or wild trains.
When one or more trains follow a regular
train and are protected2 by it then they possess
1. The number of hours a train must be behind time before
it loses its rights as a regular train, varies with different roads
from eight to twenty-four hours. After a certain time it is not
recognized, and can only proceed under special orders, or in
company with some other train.
2. Signaled. Two green flags by day, or two green lamps
by night, carried on the front of an engine, indicate that an
extra is following, possessing all the rights of the train carry-
2 18
Railway Service:
all the rights of such regular train ; in such
cases they are termed extra trains.
If, however, a train is operated under special
instructions, pursuing its way from point to
point as ordered, without reference to the
time indicated in the schedule for the movement of trains, then it is called a wild train.
The wild, trains in motion upon a line are
sometimes greatly in excess of the number of
regular trains provided for by the schedule.
When the business of a road necessitates a
temporary increase in the number of its trains,
or when delay or accident overtakes those
in motion, it is then that the telegraph is
brought into use for the purpose of accelerating their movements. f|
MOVEMENT OF TRAINS BY TELEGRAPHIC ORDER.
It is exceedingly difficult, if not impossible,
for a great number of trains of varying weight,
advancing in opposite directions upon a single
track road, to move with the regularity and
precision necessary to enable them to meet and
pass each other daily at the places designated
in the schedule.
Many things conspire to accelerate or retard
the progress of a train, such as the number and
ing the signals; upon some roads red is used instead of green,
upon others white, upon others blue. In England the signal
is carried on the rear of the train.
»\L Trains and Stations.
19
weight of its cars, the quality of its engine and
the skill of its driver, the state of the track,
the character of the grades, the direction of the
wind, the density of the atmosphere, the
activity of the station force, and the efficiency
and industry of the conductor and his assistants. All these affect its movement. The
train that moves forward without difficulty at
the rate of fifteen miles an hour to-day, will
barely be able to make ten to-morrow.
In moving trains by telegraph, all irregularities and inequalities are recognized and specifically provided for.
The trains are advanced from point to point
without reference to the schedule.   .■
The train that is running at the average rate
of speed is moved ahead until the slower train
is met, their meeting place depending altogether
upon the exigencies of the hour, or their location as they approach each other.1
I. | The Superintendent arranges the schedule by which
trains are moved, and when accidents occur, or business can
be expedited thereby, the time table is superseded by the telegraph. To the discharge of this delicate duty he brings a clear
head, attentive memory, and a perfect knowledge of the
geography of his road, including the extent of its grades, the
location of its telegraph offices, and the capacity of its sidings ;
the character, number and exact position of the trains in
motion have accurately to be kept in mind, the quality of the
engines hauling them, the state of the weather, the direction
of the wind, and the peculiar capacity of the enginemen and
conductors engaged."—Raihvay Revenue, pp. 34, 35. 20
Railway Service:
When regular trains are moved by telegraph,
they do not thereby lose the rights awarded
them by the schedule, except so far as they may
be specially affected by the orders they receive.
The moment a special order is fulfilled, or
ceases to operate, the train it affects resumes the
fixed rights it possesses as specified in the schedule; if a regular train, it conforms to that instrument ; if a wild train, it awaits further
instructions before proceeding, or seeks the
protection of a regular train.
Special orders are rarely if ever issued that
affect passenger trains, except when they are
behind time, in which case the telegraph is
brought into requisition for the purpose of expediting their movements, and at the same time
keeping other trains in motion. With this
exception, the orders issued majj be said to relate
exclusively to trains of inferior grade.
When there are a great number of freight
trains in motion, in excess of those provided for
by the schedule, or when they are for any reason
delayed, they are moved by special order, without much, if any, reference to the time table.
In a central office the dispatcher watches the
movements of trains and notes their wants.
His i§ the master-spirit, and the various officials
employed upon the road come and go as he
directs without question or remonstrance.
Like the pieces on a gigantic chessboard, the Trains and Stations.
21
trains move in harmony with his will and are
ultimately brought safely to their several destinations by him.
He constructs in his mind's eye a schedule
adapted to the exigencies of the occasion. The
requirements of this creation of his mind are
known only to him.
He executes it with clearness, expedition and
safety.1
Of course there are degrees of excellence in
this field as in every other. The mind of one
dispatcher will be clear, quick to apprehend
and execute, the mind of another will be slow,
heavy-witted, fatty. The movement of trains
by telegraphic orders on a single track road
requires an excellent memory and the exercise
I. "In the movement of trains much depends on the train-
dispatcher, who fills a most responsible and laborious position.
The latter-day train-dispatcher sits at headquarters, and, with
the aid of a curious chart, is enabled to see at a glance the
exact whereabouts of every train on the road at any minute of
the day. He has the entire line before him in miniature.
Dots and peg's of different size and shape indicate the different
trains in motion at the same time, and from the chart and an
elaborate time-card the train-dispatcher is enabled to direct
operations by telegraph with as much intelligence and absolute
knowledge as he cou'd possibly have were he ubiquitous, and
able to give oral commands in a hundred different places at the
same time. The train-dispatcher is supposed to know, and
does know, the size of each train, freight and passenger, on
his division, the speed and power of each engine, the grade of
every mile of the road, and where time can be made up to the
best advantage when trains are delayed."—Newspaper account. 22
Railway Service :
of the nicest judgment at all times; where
more than one track is employed the problems
are greatly simplified, just as we have shown it
to be less difficult to frame a schedule for roads
possessing more than one track than it is where
only one track is available.
The capacity of a single track road may be
increased fully one hundred per centum, perhaps more, by a skillful use of the telegraph in
connection with the movement of trains.     1
The statement appended hereto1 of the performance of trains for fourteen consecutive
days upon a single track road, 108 miles in
length, with the usual station facilities and
sidings, represents the perfection that has been
attained in this important branch of railway
service. The bulk of these trains were moved
by the dispatcher through  the medium of the
I. Total number passenger  trains west bound,    56
t<
a
li
<(
it
it
u
freight
.<
(<
<t
it
east
west
east
n
a
Freight cars in west bound trains,
Freight cars in east bound trains,
56
308
301
7,701
7,272
721
(<
<i
      14,973
Average number of cars per train,       - 24.59
trains per day of twenty-four hours, 51.50
minutes between trains at any point,  28
distance run by trains,      - 94.70
number of miles per hour,    - 17*50
A still greater traffic could have been acccmmodated had
the business of the line necessitated it.
ti
a
it
ii
!»'    ' !
mm Trains and Stations.
23
telegraph; no accident or mishap of any kind
attended their manipulation. The results indicate, of course, an alert and able dispatcher, and
an efficient organization subordinate to him, but
above all, they demonstrate the possibilities of
a single track line when operated under favorable auspices.
*     |    THE  PROTECTION OF  TRAINS.
A glance at the rules and regulations, including the signals, governing the movements of
trains will convince the most skeptical of the
careful forethought, the boundless provision
made to ensure safety of life and property.    |K
Wherever danger is to be apprehended, there
signals are placed to convey to the far-off train
assurance of safety, or warn it of impending
disaster.
At night the lights' of different colors that
flash forth from the darkness as the train advances, guide the faithful engineman, just as
the light-house on a dangerous coast serves as
a guide and protection to the passing vessel.
The daylight, however, affords the greatest
latitude for arranging and displaying signals,
and thus flags of varying color, strange symbols and quaint devices meet the gaze on every
hand; these serve to stay the progress of the
advancing train, or cheer it on its course.
The irregular, or  working trains of a com- 24
Railway Service :
pany, such as gravel, dirt, stone, and wood
trains, constitute one of the greatest elements
of danger.
This is especially so upon comparatively new
lines.
The duties performed by these trains compel
them to visit every part of the line at infrequent and indefinite periods, not hastening,
like other trains, from station to station, but
proceeding leisurely, stopping here and there
upon the main track, as occasion requires, to
load or unload. While those in charge of such
trains are able, if discreet and watchful, to
keep out of the way of trains operated in accordance with the schedule, they are unavoidably kept in ignorance many times of the number and location.of wild trains in their vicinity,
and thus those in charge of the latter are compelled to exercise the utmost vigilance to protect
themselves from possible disaster. In cases of
this kind they are required to advance slowly,
sending, a signalman ahead as they approach
curves and obscure places in the track.
Those in charge of working trains are, as a
rule, required to keep signalmen at least half a
mile in each direction when the train is employed upon the main track, and when in
motion they are, or ought to be, for obvious
reasons, required to move at an exceedingly
slow rate of speed, except when the view of Trains and Stations.
25
the track is unobstructed for a long distance in
advance. ff
Where trains move uniformly in one direction
upon a track, the precautions necessary to protect them, in the event the road is obstructed
from any cause, are very materially simplified,
it being only necessary to guard the approaches
from one direction. This is a matter of much
greater importance than is apparent at first
sight.
The obstructions to the track from delayed
trains, from the replacing of rails, the repairs
of bridges and culverts, and other changes and
improvements, are of constant recurrence upon
every line. These obstructions, that invite the
destruction of advancing trains, must be carefully guarded by sentries placed far away in
each direction, where only a single track is employed ; but where two tracks are in use, signalmen are only necessary in one direction, and
thus not only the expense is lessened, but a
great, ever-present, possible danger is averted.
For it must not be forgotten that while it is.
possible to surround every contingency or incident of railway experience that may be said to
be subject to the government of man with such
carefully devised directions for the guidance of
employes as to definitely insure the safety of
trains, in the event the directions are faithfully
observed, still no provision, no forethought upon 26
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the part of railwav managers can avert the
consequences of the indifference, the gross stupidity, or utter recklessness that we must sometimes expect where so niquy men are employed.
It is of the utmost importance, therefore, that
the possible contingencies that may arise requiring the exercise of the judgment of employes
in cases of danger should be restricted as much
as possible.
!■ Trains and Stations.
27
CHAPTER II.
INDIVIDUALITY OF RAILROAD COMPANIES.
DISSIMILARITY OF THE SIGNALS IN USE
UPON DIFFERENT ROADS. THE DANGER
THAT SUCH DISSIMILARITY RENDERS POSSIBLE.
The individuality that characterizes the
organization of railroads finds many curious
illustrations, but none more curious perhaps
than the diversity that exists in the signals
employed by them in connection with the
movements of trains.  |t
Now under all ordinary circumstances nothing is more to be commended in a railway
company, perhaps, than strong, well-defined
individuality. Individuality means advancement, better facilities, a higher ideal, and the
company that does not possess it soon loses its
progressive characteristics, becoming instead
an absorbent, simply, a drone. But when this
individuality is carried to the extent of enforcing
a different set of train rules upon every line that
may have a distinct management, then the
skeptical and uninformed traveler begins to
doubt its expediency or wisdom.
It is undoubtedly true that the safety of the
m 28 Railway Service :
lives of passengers and others depends at times
upon the intelligence with which signals are
manipulated. Emergencies are not of rare
occurrence where the employment of the right
signal at the right moment, and the instan-
taneous interpretation of its true significance
by the approaching train, has saved the lives of
many people, and prevented the destruction of
valuable property. . Hence, it is apparent that
the signals in use should be stripped of all
unnecessary ambiguity, and reduced as much
as is possibly consistent with a clear understanding of what is required under every
possible emergency.
A correct understanding of the subject requires that we should remember that the men
employed about our trains are not wedded to
the services or customs of a particular line.
They are cosmopolitan. The force employed
upon a railroad is constantly changing; these
changes are accelerated or retarded by various
causes. A great increase in the business of a
company, a strike among its employes, political disturbances along its line, sometimes render
it necessary for a company to put untried men
upon its engines and entrust its trains to strange
conductors. These new men may understand
generally the practical duties of their several
places, but they are unacquainted with the
peculiar  signals and   rules of their new em-
la Trains and Stations.
29
ployer. It is not unlikely that they have at
various periods of their lives served upon many
different lines. This varied service has familiarized them with the use of many different
systems of signals, and herein lies the danger.
This confusion of knowledge may portend
many things. To the reflective mind it never
ceases to be a subject of prolific interest and
speculation. This diversity of knowledge upon
a subject requiring nothing but definiteness,
singleness of purpose, arbitrary precision, possesses a sinister meaning—seems to be pregnant
with disaster as certain as the coming day.
A mere looker-on perhaps over-estimates the
importance of the signals that meet his eye in
every direction as he is whirled through town
and village at dead of night. He has, perhaps,
in his time, passed through some great accident,
and its horrors have made him timid. Such
people are very observing. *   f-
He has remarked that upon the Great Blank
Road a green light is a signal of caution, a signal to trains to moderate their speed; it does
not tell them to halt. Upon the Great Trans-
Continental Line green is a signal of danger;
its warning is imperative, absolute; it says,
Stop that train! not at some indefinite point
beyond, but there; there where the lamp
burns; not a foot further—death lies beyond.
But suppose the engine-driver has but recent- 30
Railway   Service:
ly come into the employ of the Great Trans-Continental Company after many years of faithful
service with the Great Blank Line; enginemen
are always making changes of this description.
A skillful mechanic and noted for his watchfulness and fidelity to duty, he is a valuable acquisition to the road and, after a month or so, he is
put upon the night express. This train is
always heavily loaded; it makes no stops, and
keeps pace with the flying clouds. As it plunges
forward through the darkness the engineer
observes everything, and as he rounds a sharp
curve a green light, shining upon the track
before him, meets his gaze ; he has seen it
under similar circumstances many times before ;
its reflection gladdens his heart like the face
of an old friend; it relieves the monotony of
the dark night; he approaches it cautiously;
such has been his custom. The green lamp is
to him like the warning of a comrade when
one glass more might take him off his feet; it
is a good-natured nod to go slow; it is not
imperative. As the train rolls by he leans
lazily out of his window, but the signalman,
wild with rage and fright, hurls the lamp full
at the cab, and it is smashed into a thousand
pieces. In an instant the truth flashes upon
the driver; upon this line green is a signal of
danger a chill of horror seizes him; he is
running at the rate of fifteen miles an hour ; he Trains and Stations.
31
reverses his engine, the whistle sounds, the
brakes are screwed down, the^ drivers whirl in
reverse circles with the velocity of light, the
engine sways and trembles with the tremendous strain put upon it, but it is too late, and
there far away in the country, in the peaceful
stillness of night, the great black engine, its
brave driver and long line of cars filled with
sleeping passengers, glide quietly, imperceptibly, into the yawning gulf that envelopes them
all in a common ruin "
This is what a diversity of signals means to
the tired and nervous traveler.
How far are his fears justifiable ?
Could the case we have supposed actually
occur?     . .     -jf^ .    If
Probably not. Ill
Yet it is true that the signal that correctly
interpreted says to the engine-driver, | all right;
go ahead; the track is clear;" may, and undoubtedly does, mean something entirely
different upon a neighboring line.
Accidents occur upon our railways that are
inexplicable.     * - % 1§
The occasion of them is enveloped in mystery.
The religious attribute them to God.
Are any of these disasters brought about by
an improper understanding of the meaning of
particular signals, or by employes getting the
rules and regulations of different companies
confounded ?    Who can tell ?
JMj 32
Railway Service:
ii
II
An investigation of the subject of train regulations elicits many curious things. Upon one
great line the carrying of two green lights in
front of an engine is a notice to the trains it
meets lhat the track is clear ; no trains are
following; go ahead. Upon another great line
two green lights carried upon an engine indicates that a train is following and that all other
trains must keep out of the way. These signals
mean two directly opposite things, and a conductor and engineer, acting upon the signals
of the first mentioned company while in the
employ of the second, would inevitably bring
his train into collision with another, if no fortuitous circumstances intervened to prevent it.
The lamp raised and lowered upon one road
says back up; upon a parallel line, not ten feet
away, it may, and very likely does, mean, go
ahead. ^
Differences like these are pregnant with ideas
of danger.
WANT   OF    UNIFORMITY    IN    THE   RULES    AND
REGULATIONS GOVERNING DIFFERENT ROADS.
It would naturally be supposed that where a
track was used in common by two companies,
that their system of signals, and their rules and
regulations, would be identical, not only upon
the track that was jointly occupied, but over
all of their  lines  as well.     To a  superficial Trains and Stations.
33
observer the danger of getting the two confounded would seem to be so great that their
unification would follow as a matter of course.
But it does not. It is impossible to tell why.
It may not be necessary. We will believe that
it is not. j
But a single section of track can not safely
be operated under conflicting rules, and when
it is used by two companies one of them must
necessarily give way. Obviously the company
to give way will not be the proprietors of the
track. Accordingly the other company will
direct its employes to observe the rules of the
proprietors of the joint track when passing over
any portion of such track, jj These employes
must, therefore, at a particular place, be it day
or night, lay aside the rules and regulations
that they are familiar with by study and practical use, and adopt in their stead other rules
dissimilar in form and application.
It would seem as if it could not be otherwise than hazardous to make this abrupt substitution of rules under which trains are
operated day after day, and year after year.
But we must believe that it is not, for there
are instances where a joint track has been
operated for a series of years under the very
circumstances we have mentioned. 34
Railway Service:
INTELLIGENT   DISCRIMINATION   EXERCISED   BY
TRAINMEN.
It is observable in the practical application
of the system under which trains are operated,
that the employes connected with the train
service do not always attach the significance
to specific signals or rules that would naturally
be supposed. Especially is this so in reference
to use of signals. Their acquaintance with the
every-day working of trains teaches them that
allowance must always be made for the ignorance, stupidity or thoughtlessness of employes,
and they strive constantly to protect themselves and the passengers and property entrusted to their care from the fatal effects that
would oftentimes follow a blind obedience to
the orders given them by the class of men we
have enumerated. jf       -|
And so it is in reference to special orders.
The engineer of an irregular train that is running under special telegraphic instructions at
the rate of sixty miles an hour, can not depend
implicitly upon the accuracy of the reports he
receives in reference to the location and intention of other trains. Doubtless the information imparted to him is perfectly accurate and
trustworthy. He ventures no comments. - His
orders are to proceed.    He has been trained to
III Trams and Stations.
35
obey. Outwardly, he is unconcerned, but inwardly he is filled with apprehension, and as
he proceeds on his course, he scrutinizes the
track with an intensity anfl. a sagacity that
never wearies.
The anxiety upon the part of the engineer is
not occasioned by fear for his personal safety,
though that doubtless has its influence, but it
is the knowledge, born of observation and experience, that blind adherence to orders, no
matter what the circumstances or from whom
emanating, may not only cost him his life, but
may involve the lives of many others ; the lives
of people believing in him, and trusting him,
and as unconscious of danger as they are helpless to avoid it.
Under many circumstances the watchfulness
of the engineer is of no practical avail; a sharp
curve may bring him face to face with an advancing train, an open switch or a track torn
up for repairs.
Some rule upon which his safety depends is
disregarded. The train that should wait proceeds on its way confident of making the succeeding station*; the night is foggy, a high wind
blows, the track is slippery, the engine will not
make steam, its time is up. Still it advances;
when from out the gloom there emerges in its
immediate front the light of an approaching
locomotive ; the whistles simultaneously shriek 36
Railway Service:
the alarm ; there is a moment's suspense; when
high above the roar of the winds, and the noise
of rushing steam, is heard the crash of the opposing trains. - f,   0
THE  CONSERVATISM OF  TRAINMEN.
v
That disasters of this character are of rare
occurrence is attributable to the intelligence
and watchfulness of the men in charge of our
trains.
A disregard of the established rules under
which trains are manipulated, not only costs
the offender his place, but it may involve many
innocent lives. g     |'
This tremendous responsibility can not be
evaded, and so there grows up in the mind of
the engineer and conductor an intense conservatism.
Subordinate ■ employes participate in this
feeling, and so we find everywhere we go a disposition, upon the part of trainmen, to comply
with the literal requirements of each and every
order or rule, and in cases of doubt nothing is
risked, everything is sacrificed that absolute
safety may be ensured; and it is to this
conservatism, this loyal adherence to established
rules, that the railway traveler is indebted for his
safety. Trains and Stations.
37
THE REGULATIONS PARTAKE OF THE CHARACTER OF THE MEN INTRODUCING THEM.
\
As we advance in our inquiries into the
rules governing the machinery of the department of transportation upon different roads, we
are more and more surprised at the differences
that exist. |
Many of the differences are material.
Others, again, are differences of form, only.
In many cases Ave can trace in the regulations of a road the peculiar traits of character
possessed by those instrumental in perfecting
them.
The rules of one company will be extremely
S exacting; another company will trust more to
the discretion of its operatives. jj
Much can be said in favor of each system.
Under one system employes act automatically ;
under the other they act more zealously, perhaps, but with less effectiveness. The first
named system is without doubt best for the
company, the last named is more advantageous
to the men. Generally speaking, one system
breeds dependents, the other engenders men. Railway Service:
SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES OBSERVABLE IN THE
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF DIFFERENT
ROADS.
||| But let us notice further some of the differences that exist in the regulations of different
railroads.
And first we remark that upon one line the
trains going south possess certain privileges
over trains going north; that is to say, they are
entitled to the road for a certain specified number of minutes over and above the time allotted
them in the time-table, and connecting trains
are required to keep out of their way. Upon
a neighboring road the trains going north will
be the ones that aye favored.
It does not require a vivid imagination to
picture the consequences of any mistake as to
the rights possessed by a particular train, but
as a mistake in this respect must involve a misapprehension of the facts upon the part of both
the engineer and conductor, it may be said to be
improbable if not impossible.
The direction in which the greatest average
number of people travel varies in different sections. In one section it will run to the north,
elsewhere the stream will be southward.
The discrimination we have mentioned is usually in favor of that current of travel that it is Trains and Stations.
most important the railway company should
favor. 1|
The granting of certain privileges to a train
moving in one direction, not granted to trains
moving in an opposite direction, is, therefore,
not the result of chance or caprice, but the exercise of a shrewd discretion.
In pursuing our investigations, we find constant evidence of the exercise of this discretion.
One company will insist upon its gravel and
other working trains keeping ten minutes or more
out of the way of all goods trains, that is to say,
they must be clear of the main track at least ten
minutes before a freight train is due. These
working trains employ hundreds of men, and in
the event the freight train is delayed, or whether it is or not, the loss of money to the company
through the enforced idleness of its men must,
in the course of a year, amount to a large sum.
A neighboring company, keeping this fact in
mind, will give its gravel trains permission to
continue at work (keeping out the required signals) until the approaching freight train is in
sight, when the working train must hasten to get
out of its way. Under this rule no time is lost
unnecessarily by the employes of the company,
and under its practical working it may be entirely safe, though examined theoretically it
would seem as if the order requiring working
trains to keep at least ten minutes out of the
Ml 40
Railway Service:
way can not but be safer than the rule permitting them to continue at work, no matter what
careful provision may be made for watching the
approaches to such train. ft    Jjj
The margin of time allowed traips of a superior class, which time must never, under any
circumstances, be used by those of an inferior
order, is not the same upon different roads.
One company will require its freight trains to
be upon a siding twenty minutes in advance of
the time a train of superior grade is due. Upon another line fifteen minutes will be allowed.
Upon still another road ten minutes is considered sufficient. The object of each management is, of course, to strike a happy mean.
The safety of trains, and especially those of a
high grade, is always of paramount consideration, but a due regard for their safety is not
necessarily inconsistent with an active, expeditious discharge of business, and if a margin of
ten minutes is considered sufficient by the management, and has been proven to be so by years
of experience, then to allow a longer time
would be an unnecessary delay of the traffic of
the line, and a gross extravagance upon the part
of the company's representatives.    ||
An effort upon the part of railway managers
to make the most of every circumstance is apparent in many ways. That these efforts at
economy are often times illy directed and un- Trains and Stations.
fortunate in their results is made apparent from
time to time, and these failures teach us to remain silent when we would otherwise be disposed to criticise what seems like a want of
thrift, an improvident use of the resources of a
road. %.      ft       -ij-
One company will require its detached engines, when passing over the line, to precede, in
all cases, the regular trains. Another company,
with a careful eye to the saving of a few pence,
will require that when such engines accompany freight trains they must follow rather
than precede. The object of the latter case
being, doubtless, to make the detached locomotive assist the engine attached to the train
in the event assistance is required. The danger
to the train and its operatives is apparently
much greater from an engine following, than
from an engine preceding it, but the opportunity
of using the detached locomotive, as occasion
requires, is thought to more than compensate
for the slight risk that is run. Whether it does
or not no one can definitely determine.
Of the many differences that attract our attention, not the least surprising is that which
exists in reference to the manner of conducting
business upon double track roads. While it
seems perfectly apparent to us that vehicles
should, to prevent collision, turn to the left
in passing each other upon the public highway, 42
Railway Service:
it also seems equally clear that upon a railway
line where the danger of collision does not and
can not exist, that trains should in all cases take
the right hand track. As the regulations of
the English companies and many of our own
lines require that trains shall run upon the
left hand track, we must accept such regulations as conclusive evidence, that in the
estimation of the managers of such lines at
least, there are many weighty reasons why
trains should run upon the left hand track in
preference to the right.
NO  UNIFORMITY  IN  THE  TELEGRAPH  DEPARTMENT.
The diversity that exists in the rules of different companies governing the movement of
train operatives also exists in the telegraph
department of railroads. *<
Upon the lines of one company, the signal
" 27 I flying along the wire closes every key
and silences every operator; it is a magic number ; it hushes all disputes ; it means life and
death; it is a warning to clear the line ; it is a
signal that the waiting message must take precedence of every thing else, no matter how
important.        %
Upon another circuit " 27 " possesses no significance  whatever, and its repetition  would Trains and Stations.
43
never still the struggle that is forever going on
amongst operatives for the use of the line.
Upon one line the cabalistic sign f 19 " serves
instantly to hush all rivalry and contention, it
is the signal of the general manager, and woe
to the unfortunate novice who incautiously ventures to break in upon the business that follows. Upon another line number " 19 " has no
special meaning, and its repetition would only
serve to excite idle curiosity or profanity.
Upon some of the telegraph lines the most
extended and ingenious ways are sought to abbreviate and save time. Each number will be
made to convey some special information, an
elaborate question perhaps, while still other
numbers furnish an answer for every emergency. When this field has been exhausted,
the alphabet will be resorted to and isolated
letters or simple combinations of letters will be
made to stand for words, the words selected
being those most in use in the business vocabulary of a railroad. |
LACK   OF   COMPLETENESS  AND  THOROUGHNESS
IN FRAMING THE RULES AND REGULATIONS.
While we find that the rules of no two companies are exactly alike, so we find on a careful
examination of the regulations of many different lines that no one of them contain all the
rules that possess a positive practical value ; no 44
Railway Service:
one of them that is not deficient in some important respect.
Investigation elicits the fact that the rules of
each company contain many valuable hints and
suggestions not embraced in the directions of
any other company.
It has been the aim to embrace in the rules
appended hereto the salient features of each, so
far as the same was practicable. The magnitude
of the work has for the present rendered the
effort only measurably successful.
The bits of information gleaned in pursuing
the wise provision made by different managers
are interesting as well as instructive. § One manager who has, doubtless, in his time given special attention to the subject of claims, directs
his subordinates in all cases of accident to report with other facts the names of witnesses.
He has undoubtedly been sorely pressed by
some unfriendly claimant in consequence of
lack of information upon this very point.
Other companies note the provision made and
insert similar instructions.
The same manager we have mentioned also
warns his employes in his printed rules that his
company will not under any circumstances be
responsible for accidents to employes while
coupling cars, etc. Evidently he does not intend his company shall suffer from negligence
in this particular field, if warnings will suffice. Trains and Stations.
45
Another manager will take a rule common to
all roads and,by adding a clause, perhaps a word,
give it a finish and completeness that it did not
before possess.
Another manager explains to the operatives
of his trains that they must not exceed fifteen
miles an hour, and that, when running at that
rate, they will pass seven telegraph poles a
minute. Probably this would be only approximately true upon many lines. It is however a
fine illustration of the acute observation and
good practical sense of railway managers.
Another manager provides a system whereby
trainmen may signal each other in the event
a train should break in two, special provision
being made in case the train should break into
more than two parts. We should probably find
upon inquiry that the company represented
by the official promulgating these signals, has at
some period of its existence suffered disastrously
from the inability of trainmeji to convey quick
intelligence to their companions of the breaking
in two of trains.
Still another manager is at considerable pains
to define the rights possessed by an extra train,
in the absence of special orders, in the event it
can not reach the meeting point without trespassing upon the time of trains going in the opposite direction.
And  so   we might go on at much  greater 46
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length, but enough has been written to illustrate the differences that exist in the laws governing the movement of trains, and here for
the present we drop the subject. ||
THE WONDERFUL PHRASEOLOGY OF TRAINMEN.
Of the many remarkable things noticeable in
the experience of railroads, not the least curious are the technical phrases in common use,
in connection with the train service. Many of
the phrases are, without doubt, re-adaptations
of old expressions common to the early experiences of the pioneer managers of railways.
The necessities of the service have given rise
to many other expressions peculiar to it. and
not to be found elsewhere.
While the words and set phrases employed
are perhaps not as copious or extended as those
in use among sailors, still, many of them are
quite as enigmatical, and to any one ignorant
of their application they possess a significance
that is startling in the extreme.
Thus, when the ukase of the manager goes
forth that " flying switches " will not be tolerated upon the line under any conceivable circumstances, the verdant observer is quite justified in picturing in his mind's eye an ingenious
contrivance whereby certain vicious and unruly
employes are accustomed to amuse themselves, Trains and Stations.
surreptitiously perhaps, from time to time, to
the great distress and alarm of the management.
Our verdant friend finds that " running
switches," " shooting stations," and " wild
trains " are everywhere spoken of as the most
natural and proper objects in the world — things
too well known and understood to require elaboration or explanation.
And in this way his mind becomes expanded,
so that when he reads that " enginemen must
not fail to note all \ whistling-posts' they may
pass upon the line," he is neither daunted nor
discouraged, but at once acknowledges and accepts the presence of " whistling-posts " as he
would any other phenomena in nature.
However, when he reads that conductors will
"side-track," under certain stated circumstances, he is at a loss to know whether their
doing so will be voluntary or involuntary. Are
they to side-track of their own accord, or will
they side-track in spite of themselves ?
These and similar questions constantly recur
to disturb him as he progresses ; they can not be
absorbed, and are too enigmatical to be solved
unaided. ij|'      |j,:'
When he reads the terse command that conductors must "take a side-track," he wonders,
inwardly, if they take it as they do medicine or
food, or, as an outlying fortress is taken by
storm with attendant sappers and miners. 48
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And so he wonders how it is possible to turn
trains upon the letter "Y," and why so foolish
a thing should be done.
He can not understand why it should be necessary to tell a man of sufficient intelligence to
act as conductor, that he must "keep off" the
time of other conductors, and speculates what
connection, if any, this has with the "lost
time " of trains. i|
1|§ What process is necessary to enable one train
to " clear " another ?
Why should not an engine be allowed to slip
her "drivers" if she or they can get along
easier thereby ?
How are switches " set," and in what manner
can a train be operated upon a I block ? "
JlQuestions like these occur to him at every
step. ' ' m
In another chapter we have endeavored to
explain the meaning of some of the more obtuse
phrases common amongst trainmen. Some of
these phrases are well understood, others again
are unintelligible, except to those versed in
what we may call the phraseology of trains.
The list is susceptible of infinite expansion,
but it is sufficient in its restricted form for the
purposes of the present work.
Ii! Trains and Stations.
49
PHRASEOLOGY   PECULIAR   TO   ENGLISH  ROADS.
' While the phraseology employed upon English
roads is radically different from that in use
in this country, it is in no respect less peculiar.
Yet it is probably true that any Englishman
who should attempt to explain the phrases in
common use upon the roads in Great Britain
would be generally laughed at by railway men
in that country ; to them such phrases are a
part of their mother tongue : by many they are
supposed to be in universal use ; by others they
are thought to have always formed a part of
the English language. Yet, while the English
language is still tolerably well understood in
the United States, it is nevertheless true that
there are probably not one hundred Americans
connected with the various railway companies
in this country who understand the significance
of the great bulk of expressions in common use
upon the railways of England,
ill How many Americans are there who know
what a Scotch block1 or a sprag is ; or a trolley,2 lay bye,3 lorry,4 ganger,5 or train staff6 ?
This list could be extended indefinitely.
1. A block laid across the track to prevent the movement of
cars.
2. Car used by trackmen.
3. A side track.
4. A flat car.
5. The foreman in charge of sectionmen.
6. A staff used upon a single track road and placed in a
4 50
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In England, as in the United States, the
names of many things connected with the railway lines had a significance half a century
ago that they do not possess under the new
order of things.7 ■ h   .
tffc
socket upon the engine to indicate that such engine has been
granted the right to run over a particular section of line.
7. I At the j booking-office \ no booking is done. You merely
say, to an unseen if not invisible person, through a small hole,
4 First (or second) class, single (or return)' put down your
money, receive your ticket, and depart. But as there were
booking-offices for the stage-coaches which used to run between
all the towns and through nearly all of the villages of England,
the term had become fixed in the minds and upon the lips of
this nation of travelers. So it was with the guard and his
name; and when the railway-carriage supplanted, or rather
drove out, the stage-coach, the old names were given to the
new things, and the continuity of life was not completely
broken."—Richard Grant White in the Atlantic. Trains and Stations.
51
CHAPTER   III.
EXPLANATION OF SOME OF THE TECHNICAL
TERMS IN USE IN CONNECTION WITH THE
TRAIN AND STATION SERVICE OF A RAILWAY
COMPANY. W
Ahead of Time. — When a train reaches a
place before it is due at such place, according
to the schedule or special order under which it
is running, it is said to be ahead of time; in
advance of its time. ?L
Behind Time.—When a train fails to reach a
point at the time specified in the schedule or
special order under which it is operated, it is
said to be behind time; when a train is late.
Block System.— A system devised for the
expeditious movement of trains without jeopardizing life or property. Under the block
system the track of a road is cut up into short
sections of a few miles in length called blocks.
Not more than one train is allowed on a block
at a time, except as noted below. When a train
passes off from a block the fact is at once telegraphed to the operator at the opposite end of
such block; the track thus becomes free for the
use of any following train.    Until receipt of 52
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\\f
this notice no train is permitted to enter the
block without specific notice in each instance
that the block is already occupied and that its
speed must be governed accordingly. Under
the block system the officials of a train are
warned and the train is itself protected when
the road is obstructed by preceding trains.
Brake.—In railway parlance an apparatus
attached to engines and cars for the purpose of
bringing them under more complete control, to
be used when occasion requires in lessening
their speed or stopping them when in motion.
" A piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction, as of a carriage or
railway car, by the pressure of rubbers against
the   wheels."—Webster.
The application of this power or friction to
the wheels is called " setting the brakes," "set
the brakes," " the brakes are set." |
Oars.—The cars employed by a railroad in
the conduct of its business may be enumerated
as follows, viz: In passenger trains, baggage,
business, directors, drawing - room, express,
hotel,  mail, milk,   officers, palace, passenger1
I. Passenger cars are called coaches or carriages in England.
In Europe the passenger cars are divided into compartments,
with separate entrances on each side of the car. The compartments of first-class carriages usually contain seats for eight,
four on each side. In the lower classes there is no partition
between the seats, and a greater number of passengers can
consequently  be    accommodated.     Passengers   in    different Trains and Stations.
53
first-class, passenger second-class, parlor, pay,
saloon, sleeping, and smoking. In freight
trains, boarding, box, caboose, ditching, dump,
flat, freight,1 horse-boxes, mineral, oil, ore,
paint, pile-driver, platform, refrigerator, stock,
way, and wrecking.
Glasses of Trains.—§ Regular," "Extra,"
and | Wild." I
Clearing a Train.—Keeping out of the way
of a train. Arriving at a meeting, or passing
point, before the train to be cleared is due.
As " dealing a train ten minutes."
Closed Switch.—When a switch is 1 closed "
the principal, or main track, is uninterrupted,
continuous, not diverted.
Construction Train.—A train employed exclusively in the transportation of material belonging to, and used by, a railroad company in
connection with the improvement of its property, or the building of new lines. It usually
embraces trains engaged in hauling ballast, dirt,
O      O O 7 7
gravel, stone and timber, or employed in removing earth from ditches and cuts. Trains occupied in the work last described are frequently
called ditching trains.
compartments of first and second-class cars can not communicate with each other (the partitions extending to the ceiling)
and are isolated from the officials in charge of the train. The
water-closet to be found in all of our passenger cars is
unknown abroad,
I. Called wagons in Great Britain. 54
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Extra Train.—A train not expressly contemplated or provided for in the schedule. It is
run for the purpose of expediting the business
of the road; to accommodate the traffic that
can not be hauled in the regular trains without
delay. It follows a regular train usually of its
own grade and possesses the same schedule
rights as the train it is following.
Flying Switch.—The disconnecting of a portion of a train while in motion and just before
reaching a switch, the forward part of such
disconnected train accelerating its speed to such
a degree as to enable it to reach and pass the
switch in time for the person in charge thereof
to divert the detached cars that ar,e following,
to some other track.
Grrade of Trains.—The grade of trains varies
upon different roads, but it may be stated, approximately, in order as follows : The first grade
embraces the four classes of passenger trains,
viz: express and through mail, local mail,
suburban, and accommodation. The second
grade embraces the three classes of freight
trains, viz : live-stock, through, and way. The
third grade embraces the wild trains, viz: the
trains operated under special or telegraphic
orders, including construction and wood trains.
Holding a Train.—Delaying a train for any
reason. A train may be held for orders; until
some other train arrives; until a brake can be
repaired. Trains and Stations.
55
Irregular Train.—See "wild trains.'
Keep off the Time of a Train.— A direction not
to obstruct the main track or attempt to occupy
it when, according to the schedule, it rightfully
belongs to another train.
Lost its Rights.—See " when a train has lost
its rights."
Lost Time.—The time that a train has lost,
taking the schedule as a basis. If a train is
behind time it may be said to have " lost time.'
Main Track.—The main track or tracks of a
road upon which its trains are run.
Making Time.—Signifies that a train is running in accordance with the time allotted it in
the schedule ; is not losing time.
Meeting Point. — A point at which trains
moving in opposite directions meet.
Movement of Trains by Telegraph. — Telegraphic orders directing the movement of trains.
The manipulation of trains from a central office
through the medium of orders sent by telegraph.
The substitution of special orders for the fixed
time and rights allotted trains in the schedule,
and in the rules and regulations appertaining
thereto. Directing what trains shall have the
right to the road, and where and when they
shall run without reference to the rights allotted
them in the schedule.
On Time.—Means that a train is conforming
exactly to the time specified in the schedule;
in accord with it. 56
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m
Open Switch. — When a switch is "open"
the main track from one direction is connected
with a subsidiary or collateral track, while
the main track from the opposite direction is
not connected with anything. " Open a switch "
is to disconnect the principal track and connect
one part of it with some other track.
Overshooting. — Running past a point as
"overshooting " a station.
Passing Point.—A place-where a train is
overtaken and passed by another train going in
the same direction.
*   Regular Train.—A train specifically named
and graded in the schedule, as " Passenger train
No. 3." i mi
Right to the Road.—The right of a train to
proceed on its course. The right to occupy the
main track at a particular time and place, to
the exclusion of all other trains of the same or
inferior grade. In the absence of special orders
to the contrary, trains of an inferior grade are
required to keep out of the way of trains of a
superior grade, i. e. when a train of a superior
grade is due according to the schedule, trains
of an inferior grade must not occupy the main
track until the superior train has passed.
/ Rights of a Train. — Certain rights that a
train possesses as defined by the schedule and
the rules and regulations governing the movement of trains.    The right a train has to pro- Trains and Stations.
57
ceed according to the time allotted it in the
schedule, when it can do so without impeding
the course of a train of a superior grade, or
when not otherwise ordered. The rights a
train of a superior grade possesses over trains
of an inferior grade. The rights under certain
circumstances which a train going in one direction possesses over trains going in the opposite
direction, etc.
Running Against a Train.—When two trains
are to meet at a certain point they are said
to be running ag'ainst each other.
Running Time of Trains.— See "Time."
Run Regardless. — A special or telegraphic
order to run a train regardless of another specified train or trains. An order giving a train
the right to the road against another train as
"You will run from Eort Edward to Glens
Falls regardless of train No. 9, but keeping out
of the way of all other regular trains."
Schedule or Time Table.—The schedule accurately fixes the grade of each and every regular
train; it provides where trains shall meet or
pass each other; it fixes the maximum speed
of trains, and gives each regular train a definite
number, and specifies the time of its arrival at
and departure from stations.1 The rules and
regulations governing the movement of trains
|| The schedules published in the various railway guides
are in form substantially the same as those used by trainmen. 58
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properly form a part of the schedule, and with
these it is the chart that in the absence of special
or telegraphic orders to the contrary governs
the movements of trains.
Semaphore.—" An apparatus or piece of mechanism for exhibiting signals to convey information from a distance."—Webster.
Setting a Switch.—Arranging a switch so as
to connect certain specified tracks. When a
switch is adjusted so as not to disconnect the
main stem, it is said to be " set for the main
track." The directions to trainmen and others,
so often to be met with, to see that " switches
are set right," means that they are to see that
switches are so adjusted as not to disconnect
the main track.
Shunting.—The English term for switching.
Side Track.—A track varying in length and
running parallel with the main track, and connected with it at each end by a switch. With
unimportant exceptions, the freight cars required to transport the traffic of railroads are
loaded and unloaded while standing upon these
tracks; the tracks at the different stations vary
in number and length with the business that re-
quires accommodation. For the purpose of
'enabling trains to meet and pass each other
upon the road, side tracks of varying length are
required to be located at convenient points
along the line.     The terms familiar to railway
-, ■" Trains and Stations.
59
men, " will take a side track," " will side
track," means, when robbed of the peculiar
phraseology in which they have been clothed,
that the train referred to must run upon and
occupy a side track. .   'A
Sidings.—See " Side Track."
Signals.—Train signals. The medium by
which under certain circumstances intelligence
is conveyed quickly, and at a distance between
employes at night and by day, through the medium of the human senses. The signals con-
sist of motions of the arms and body; of explosives or torpedoes placed upon the track; of
flags and other devices of different colors for
use during the day ; of lamps of varying color
and significance for use at night, and, finally,
of information conveyed through the medium
of the semaphore. Certain letters, figures, and
combinations are in common use as signals upon
telegraph lines for the purpose of expediting
business.
Slipping the Wheels.1—When the wheels do
not revolve (the engine or train being in
motion) they are said to slip.
% Special Train.—A train provided for a special
purpose. It is not named in the schedule, and
is moved under the special orders of the Superintendent.    A wild train.
Trains of a certain character or grade, like
I.    It is termed "Skidding the Wheels" in Great Britain. 60
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suburban or way-passenger trains, are designated as special trains upon some lines. Upon
still other roads, what we have already classified as an extta train, is called a special train.
A special train is an extra train in this, that
it is operated for the purpose of meeting a want
that the regular trains do not adequately provide for.
Spur Track.—A track connected at one end
with the main track; it sometimes runs parallel
with the latter, the same as a side track. These
tracks are constructed for the purpose of giving
a company access to gravel pits, stone quarries,
and outlying manufactories and business enterprises, etc. ||||
Station.—A place where the passenger traffic
of a railroad, and much of its freight traffic as
well, is received and discharged; the depot
and its immediate vicinity. In the movement
of trains a side track located at an isolated
point on the line, possesses, in many important
respects, the same significance as a station ;
a place where trains meet or pass each other.
Switch.—A mechanical apparatus constructed
at the junction of two or more tracks, or at
points where one or more lines diverge from the
principal track. It is operated by a lever and
cross bar, and by its aid lines diverging from
the principal track are connected or disconnected at pleasure with the latter. Trains and Statio?is.
61
" To turn from one railway track to
another."—Webster.  |
Switching—Sometimes called "Shunting."—
The transfer of a car from one track to another. The manipulation of cars in yards and
elsewhere. The arranging and rearranging
of cars in making up trains so as to get them
in the order desired. The arranging of cars
upon the arrival of trains at their destination
or while en route.
Third Track.—A third track or siding placed
between the main tracks of a double track road
for the purpose of enabling trains to pass each
other with facility and dispatch. A track
occupied by trains of an inferior grade for the
purpose of allowing trains of a superior grade
to pass. I
Through Train.—A train designed to accommodate the through traffic or (in the case of
a passenger train) the traffic between the large
cities at which it stops.
Time.—The time allotted to trains by the
schedule and. by which their movements are
governed. In some cases, though rarely, special orders are given to trains to run to a
specified point in the event they can reach
such point by or before a certain time named
in the order.
Time Table.—See "Schedule."
Train   Dispatcher. — An   assistant   of   the 62
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Superintendent. The official who directs the
movement of trains by telegraph;  an expert.
Trains.—The trains operated upon our various railroads may be specified as follows, viz:
ballast, coal, dirt, excursion, freight, gravel,
mineral, oil, ore, passenger, pay, stock, stone,
timber, wood, and wrecking.1 What are called
"freight trains" may be said to embrace practically all the trains engaged exclusively in
transporting merchandise and other property
for which a railway company receives pay.
Turn a Switch.—To "turn a switch" is to
disconnect one track from the main stem, substituting another track in its place.
Turn Out.—See " Side Track."
Way Bill.—An itemized account of property
transported; a statement of the articles, the
amount of the charges, the point from and to,
date, number, etc.
Way Train.—A train that stops at the various stations and is occupied in doing the petty
or local business of a company. An accommodation train. A way passenger train or way
freight train stops at all regular stations. The
duties of employes on way freight trains are
multifarious as well as arduous. In addition to
the ordinary duties of trainmen they are compelled to handle much of the freight hauled in
I. In England a wrecking train  is called  a  break down
van train. Trains and Stations.
63
their trains. For instance, a freight car sometimes contains freight in small quantities for
several different points. It is the duty of trainmen to unload this freight. When the freight
to be shipped from a station is not sufficient to
warrant the exclusive use of a car, it is piled
upon the depot platform to be loaded by the
trainmen into some empty or partially loaded
car. The engines of way freight trains do the
switching required at the small stations.
When a Train has Lost its Rights.—A
regular train, when twelve hours behind time,
loses its right to the road against all regular
trains. It is no longer recognized or provided
for by the schedule. It ceases to be a regular
train, and it is classed thereafter as an extra or
wild train.
A train may lose its* right as against a
particular train or trains, and still possess
rights that are paramount over those of
other trains. Upon a single track road a
train of the highest grade going in a certain
direction is not allowed to leave a station where
it should meet another train of its own grade,
until thirty minutes after its leaving time.
Thereafter it proceeds on its course, keeping
thirty minutes behind its time, and the opposing train must keep out of its way.
Trains of an inferior grade cannot proceed until trains of a superior grade that are 64
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due, or past due, have arrived, unless the latter
are twelve or more hours behind time.
Whistling Post.—A post or board erected in
the vicinity of stations and crossings. A signal
to the engineman to sound the whistle of his
engine.
Wild Train.—An irregular train for which
no provision is made in the schedule. It is
operated under orders from the Superintendent,
and is required to keep out of the way of
regular and extra trains.
Wood Train.—A train engaged in hauling
the wood required by a railway company for
its own use.
Y.—A track of the general shape of the letter Y. A track connecting two tracks running
at right angles with each other. This track,
or combination, of tracks, affords a convenient
means of turninp; trains or cars. Trains and Stations.
65
CHAPTER  IV.
PLAN   PURSUED   IN   ARRANGING   AND  COMPILING  THE  RULES  AND  REGULATIONS.
The accompanying directions in reference to
train and station service have been compiled
without prejudice from the rules and regulations in force to-day upon some twenty of the
•greatest, most thoroughly organized, and best
managed roads upon this continent. The
workings of all the principal roads of Great
Britain have also been studied, and such of
their rules and regulations as were thought
applicable to our system of management have
been embodied herein. In many cases where
their regulations were not directly or wholly
applicable, they have nevertheless been inserted
as foot-notes for the purpose of illustrating
their theory and its peculiarities, and for the
valuable information and instruction they afford.
In compiling these instructions, it has been
necessary in many instances to decide between
conflicting rules. In such cases preference has
been'given to those that seemed under all the
circumstances of the case to be the most feasible, or  that  possessed  the  greatest practical
5 66
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value in the economy of railway management. I
The object of the compiler has been to form
from the regulations now in force upon various
lines a more perfect code of rules. It is doubtless true that this object has only been partially
attained. * |
The compilation has not been made with the
view or expectation of its adoption by any
particular company. However, wherever the
rules are applicable or valuable to railway managers, either wholly or in part, they will in
time undoubtedly be accepted; where they are
not applicable, or best, thej^ ought not to be
adopted, and will not be.    • |f *
While it has been the ainj of the writer to
make the regulations embodied herein practicable upon any of our lines, it is nevertheless
true that many rules that are imperative upon
one line possess no relevancy elsewhere, or,
more properly speaking, they are, under ordinary circumstances, unnecessary. The double
track road, for instance, does not require rules
so elaborate as "those governing the use of a
single track, still it is necessary to provide rules
sufficiently comprehensive so that in the event
any accident restricts a company to the use of
one track the safety of trains will not be endangered nor the business of the road impeded.
The company that can, without inconvenienc-
itsiSi Trains and Stations.
67
ing the public, allow twenty minutes between
its trains, will possess rules that, while they are
wise in their application by that particular company, would be cumbersome and impracticable
upon a line where the business required that
trains should arrive and depart every five minutes, as is the case upon certain English roads
during particular portions of the day.
The main purpose of the compiler in preparing these instructions has been to place within
the reach of railway men, of every grade and
occupation, facilities for acquiring accurate
knowledge of the extent and scope of the
duties and responsibilities of train and station
men under the system of manipulating trains
generally prevalent in the United States.
An examination of the rules and regulations
of the best managed companies makes it apparent that many seemingly trivial but really
important things that employes should possess
accurate knowledge of are no where mentioned;
it being accepted as a matter of course that the
employes possess the desired knowledge. And
it is doubtless true that those familiar by long
experience with the practical working of trains
do possess this knowledge, but the novice or
student finds the omissions of a character not
to be overcome except by long experience or
diligent and protracted inquiry, which but few
of them are able to prosecute successfully.   The 68
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writer has therefore introduced new rules and
explanations wherever he believed they would
tend to a clearer understanding of the subject.
And in reference to the construction of the old
rules adopted by him, he has not hesitated to
alter or amend their purport or phraseology
wherever he believed greater efficiency or clearness could be secured by such alteration or
amendment; the object being so far as possible
to frame a code of rules sufficiently comprehensive to cover great enterprises as well as comparatively unimportant or partially completed
ones.1
i. The more minute rules and regulations of the block system having no general significance in the United States, and
not being likely to have for many years to come, have not
been embodied herein.
w Trains and Stations.
69
CHAPTER V.
SIGNALS   REQUIRED  BY   RAILWAY  COMPANIES.
Flags of the proper color must be used as
signals by day, and lamps of the proper color
must be used at night or in foggy weather.
" Signal lamps must be lighted as soon as it
commences to be dusk, and, during the interval
between daylight and dark, both day and night
signals must be used."1 E
Hand-lamps and hand-flags, when used as
signals, must always be held in the hand, and
not placed upon, or stuck into, the ground.
Red signifies danger, and is a signal to stop.
It must never be used   as a   caution signal.
Green signifies caution* and is a signal to go
slowly.2 J|
In the absence of a green light, a white light
waved slowly, from side to side, must be used;
it denotes danger,—Stop.
1. English Clearing House Standard.
2. Out of fifteen American roads examined, eight of them do
not use green as a signal. Upon one road it indicates, when
carried upon engines, that another engine is following, and
that such engine possesses all the rights of the engine carrying
the signal. Upon another line it indicates that an engine
or train is following, but that it possesses no rights, and
will keep out of the way. Upon another road it indicates,
when carried upon an engine, that such engine or train is wild 70
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White signifies safety, and is a signal to go
on.1
Green and white is a signal to be used to stop
trains at signal stations.2
Blue is a signal to be used by car inspectors.
A lantern swung.across the track, a flag, hat
or other object of any kind, waved violently
on the track, signifies danger, and is a signal to
stop.
An exploding cap or torpedo clamped to the
top of the rail, is an extra danger signal, to be
used in addition to the regular signals at night,
in foggy weather, and in cases of accident or
emergency, when other signals cannot be distinctly seen or relied upon.3 fe
or irregular. Upon another line it indicates that the telegraph
line is out of order. Upon another line it indicates, when
carried upon the rear car, that the train is a regular train.
Upon another line it is used at telegraph stations to stop trains
for orders. Upon another line when displayed at a switch it
indicates that such switch is set for the main track.
i. "At some large stations, where there are lamps showing
white lights for other purposes than signaling, which come in
the line of the signals, a green light is substituted for a white
light on the signal post; but in all such cases trains are to
approach and pass through such stations with caution."—G.
W. Ry., England.
2. When a train does not stop at a station, unless signaled,
such station becomes a signal station, so far as that  particular train is concerned, but generally  speaking, we understand
a signal station to mean a small and unimportant place where
^trains do not stop unless signaled.
3 "Every guard, signalman, engine-driver, gateman, foreman of work, and ganger of platelayers, will be provided with
packets of detonators, which they are always to have ready
for use while on duty, and every person in charge of a station
must keep a supply of these signals in a suitable place, known Trains and Stations.
The explosion of one of these signals is a
warning to stop the train immediately. If the
first explosion is followed immediately by a
second, the speed of the train need only be
slackened, but a sharp look-out must be kept for
the regular danger signals. Should a third
torpedo be exploded at the regulation distance
(600 yards) from the first two, the train must
be stopped at once.1
A fusee must be used as an extra caution
signal. It must be lighted and thrown on the
track at frequent intervals, by the flagman of
passenger trains at night, or in foggy weather,
by, and easy of access at all times to, every person connected
with the station. All the persons above named will be held
responsible for keeping up the proper supply of detonators.
These signals must be placed on the rail (label upwards) by
bending the clasp round the upper flange of the rail to prevent their falling off. When an engine passes over a detonator it explodes with a loud report, and the engine-driver must
instantly shut off steam, and bring his engine to a stand, and
then proceed cautiously to the place of obstruction, or until
he receives an "all right" signal. Detonators must be
carefully handled, as they are liable to explode if roughly
treated. It is necessary to keep them well protected from
damp. At intervals of not more than two months, one from
each person's stock must be tested, to insure that they are in
good condition."—Eng. Standard.
i. Exposure to rain or wet for thirty minutes destroys or impairs the explosive qualities of torpedoes, and, in such cases,
too much reliance should not be placed upon them.
" When in snowy weather there is any probability of the
detonators being swept from the rails by the brooms attached
to the guxrd-irons of the engines, these signals must not be
depended on alone. The guard must not rejoin his train, even
though it may be able to proceed, unless some qualified servant of the company can be found."—Gt. Nor. Ry. Eng.
The regulations of the Great Northern Ry. of Eng. referred
to in this book, were issued.in 1856. 79
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whenever the train is not making schedule
speed. ;p
A train finding a fusee burning upon the
track, must stop, and not proceed until it is
burned out.
A semaphore arm extended in horizontal position by day, or a red light by night, signifies
danger,1 and trains must come to a full stop,
and not proceed until the signal has been
changed by the man in charge, so as to indicate
thac all is right. When the line is clear and
free for the passage of trains, the arm will not
be seen by day,2 and by night a white light
will indicate that all is right for trains to proceed. During storms, or in foggy weather,
great caution must be observed. If semaphore
arm or signal lights can not be plainly seen,
trains must be brought to a full stop, and not
be allowed to proceed until all is known to be
right.
Red signals must be used by telegraph operators and others where the order to stop a train
is imperative.
TRAIN  SIGNALS.
Each train, or engine without a train, while
running  after  sunset,   or during  the  day in
1. " The danger signal is shown by the arm on the left hand
side of the semaphore post standing out from the post."—Great
Western Railway', England.
2. " The * all right' signal is shown by the arm hanging
down to the side of the post."—Great  Western Railway, Eng. Trains and Stations.
foggy weather, must display the white headlight in front of the engine.1
Head-lights upon engines must be kept in
good order, and always lighted when running
after dark, but they must be covered when
waiting on turnouts clear of the main track.
Each passenger train, and each through
freight train, while running, must have a bell-
cord attached to the signal bell of the engine,
passing through or over the entire length of the
train, and secured to its rear end.
Each train while running must display two
red flags at the rear by day. Passenger trains
running at night, or in foggy weather, must
have two large red lights on the rear platform.
Freight and working trains running at night, or
in foggy weather, must have three red lights at
rear of the train, one being placed on each side
of the rear car, near the top, and the other on
the rear platform of rear car, or in the cupola,
if the car is built with one.2
Engines, if alone, running at night or in foggy weather, must carry one red light on rear of
tender.
1. I The engines carry a white light in front of the passenger
trains, and a green light in front of the goods, cattle, mineral,
and ballast trains, but north of Doncaster they carry two
white or two green lights, to distinguish between goods and
passenger trains."—Great Western Railway, England.
2. I Every train traveling on the line must have a signal
lamp attached to the last vehicle, by day as well as by night,
except when assisted by an engine in the rear, when such engine must carry the signal/'—Foreign Road. 74
Railway Service :
A red lantern must be kept lighted and ready
for use at night or in foggy weather in the rear
car of trains,   also upon engines.
All side lights must be covered and the cylinder cocks of engines must be closed when
trains are waiting on turnouts, clear of the main
track.   . jf       .
Should an engineman observe a train or engine
at a stand, on the opposite line to that on which
he is traveling, obscured by steam or smoke, he
must sound his whistle and approach it very
cautiously, so as to be able to stop if necessary.
_ Two green flags by day, and two green lights
at night, carried in front of an engine, denote
that the engine or train is followed by another
engine or train, running on the same schedule
time.1    §
The engine or train thus signaled is entitled
to the same schedule rights and privileges as the
engine or train carrying the signals.2
Two white flags by day, and two white lights
at night; when carried in frojat of an engine,
indicate that the   engine or train is wild, but
1. A wild train or a train operated under telegraphic orders,
is not allowed under any circumstances to carry signals for a
following train.
2. " A special train to follow is indicated by the preceding
train carrying on the last vehicle a red board or a red flag by
day, and an additional red tail lamp by night, but as special
trains or engines have frequently to be run without previous
notice of any kind, it is necessary for the staff along the line to
be at all times prepared for such extra trains or engines."—
Eng. Standard. Trains and Stations.
75
the order for wild trains to carry such signals
is not imperative.
A yellow flag or lantern carried in front of an
engine denotes that the telegraph line is out of
order, and the track men of the various sections of road over which this signal is carried
must at once examine the telegraph lines, for
the whole length of their several sections, carefully and promptly repairing any defects they
may discover. 1
A blue flag by day, and a blue light at night,
placed in the drawhead, or on the platform or
step of a car, or upon the track, at the end of
a train or car, denotes that car-repairmen are at
work underneath the said car or cars. . The car
or train thus protected must not be disturbed
until the blue signal is removed by the car-repairmen, c M' .||1
enginemen's signals.
One short blast of the whistle is a signal to
apply the brakes:—stop !
A blast of the whistle, of five seconds' duration, is a signal for approaching stations, crossings and drawbridges.
Two long blasts of the whistle is a signal to
loosen the brakes.
Two short blasts of the whistle when running, is an answer to the signal of conductor
to stop at the next station. Railway Service:
I
Three short blasts of the whistle when standing, is a signal that the engine or train will back.
Three short blasts of the whistle when running, is a signal to be given by trains, when
carrying signals for a following train, to call the
attention of trains they meet or pass, to the
signals. j
Four long blasts of the whistle is a signal to
the signalman to return to the train. ||
Four short blasts of the whistle is the engine-
man's call for signals at signal boxes, switches,
drawbridges and elsewhere. |
Five short blasts of the whistle is a call for
signals to be sent out to protect the train.
Six distinct blasts of the whistle is a signal
to switchman to open the switch so that the
engine or train may occupy the side track.
A succession of short blasts of the whistle is
an alarm for live stock, or for persons walking
or standing upon the track; it is a signal to
trainmen of danger ahead.
conductors' signals by bell cord.    18
One stroke of the signal bell when the engine is standing, is a notice to start.
One stroke of the signal bell when the engine is running, is a notice to stop at once.l If,
I. " Every guard, when traveling, must keep a good look-out,
and should he see any reason to apprehend danger, he must
use his best endeavors to give notice thereof to the engine-
driver. Should a guard wish to attract the attention of the
engine-driver, he must, in addition to using the communication, where such exists, apply his brake sharply and release it Trains and Stations.
77
after the stroke has been given, and before the
train stops, it is found to be unnecessary to
stop the train, two strokes will be a signal to
the engineman that he may go on.
Two strokes of the signal bell when the engine is standing, is a notice to call in the signalman.
Three strokes of the signal bell when the engine is standing, is a notice to back the train.
Three strokes of the signal bell when the
engine is running, is a notice to stop at the
next station.
SIGNALS  BY  HAND. jf
The hand moved above the head is a signal
to go ahead.
If waved across the body below the head, it
is a danger signal or a signal to stop.1
suddenly. This operation repeated several times is almost
certain, from the check it occasions, to attract the notice of
the engine-driver, to whom the necessary "caution" or "danger" signal, as the case may require, must be exhibited."—
Eng. Standard.
i. | The danger signal \ to stop' is
shown by a red flag, or, in the absence
of the flag, by both arms held up,
thus dSp"
"'Caution,' 'to slacken'is shown * * *
by one arm being held up."
'"All Right' is shown * * * by holding the right arm in a horizontal position
pointing across the line of rails."—Gt.
Nor. Ry. Eng.
1
m
V*w 78
Railway Service:
The two arms extended widely and horizontally, is a signal to back the train.
If both arms are thrown up above the head
(touching the hands together), then thrown
do *vn by the side, it is a signal that the train is
broken apart.
A light swung through a vertical arc (over
the head) is a signal to go ahead.
When swung horizontally across the track it
is a signal to stop. |
When raised and lowered vertically it is a
signal to back the train.
When whirled round and round, vertically
across the train, it is a signal that the train is
broken apart. f|
REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE USE OF SIGNALS.
When upon duty each trainman must carry
three torpedoes in his pocket. Passenger trains
must also be provided with fusees for use as
directed.   * ft
Unnecessary sounding the whistle is prohibited, as its excessive use impairs its value
as a signal of danger. .|-
The whistle must not be used as a signal for
the stopping of a train, except in case of danger, if it can be avoided. It must never be
used as the signal for starting a passenger train.
When shifting or moving in yards and at stations, the engine bell should be rung, but the Trains and Stations.
79
whistle must only be used in cases of absolute
necessity. It     . +
The whistle ipaust not be sounded while passing a passenger train, except in cases of emergency or danger.
The engine bell must always be rung before
starting an engine or train.
When passing or meeting trains on main
track or sidings, and when passing through tunnels, or through the streets of cities, towns and
villages, the engine bell must be rung.      ft
The engine bell must be rung from a point
one-eighth of a mile from every road-crossing,
until the road-crossing is passed, and the whistle
must be sounded at all road-crossings at grade,
where whistling posts are placed.
One stroke of the signal bell while the train
is running will be regarded as a warning that
the train may have parted, and enginemen will
immediately look back and ascertain if such is
the case. - \
When two or more engines are coupled in a
train carrying signals for a following train,
each engine must carry signals.
When one flag or light (signal) is carried in
front of an engine, it must be regarded the
same as if two were displayed, but enginemen
will be held responsible for the proper display
of all the signals required by the rules.
The combined green and white signal is to 80
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be used only to stop trains at the signal stations
designated on the schedule. When it is necessary to stop a train at a point that is not a
signal station for that train, a red signal must
be used.
Switch signals will be arranged so as to show
white when the switch is set for the main track,
and red when set for the siding, crossing, or
junction.
All trainmen, stationmen, switchmen, watchmen, signalmen, operators, track foremen and
others whose duties at any time require them
to use signals must provide themselves with
such signals, and keep them on hand, in good
order, ready for immediate use. Trains and Stations.
81
CHAPTER VI.
CLASSES AND  GRADES  OF TRAINS.
There are three classes of trains—regular,
extra, and wild. |-  |
Regular trains are those that are specifically
enumerated on the time table,   'mm■'■■'• A
Extra trains are those that are following
regular trains under signals ; they possess all the
rights of regular trains. Jjp
Wild trains embrace all other classes, including those running under special orders or otherwise. They are sometimes called irregular
or special trains.
While the grade of trains will vary upon
different roads,1 their importance may be stated
generally in the following order :
Passenger: — Express, mail, accommodation,
and way.
Freight: — Stock, through, and way. ljj
Construction and wood trains.
All trains will be graded on the schedule in
the order of their preference. A train of an
inferior grade must, in all cases, keep out of the
way of a train of a superior grade.
I. There are usually only two grades, viz.: Passenger
and freight.
6 Railway Service:
RIGHTS  OF  TRAINS.
m Trains going west have the right of track
over trains of the same or inferior grade going
east for thirty minutes beyond their schedule
time, after which they lose their rights against
eastward bound trains of the same or superior
grade, and must thereafter keep out of the way.
Trains going west will at a meeting station wait
five minutes for the expected train, and will
then proceed, keeping five minutes behind
schedule time until the train is met, except
that trains of a superior grade vfill not wait for
trains of an inferior grade. The five minutes
is allowed for possible variation in watches, and
must not be used by either train.1 §
I. This rule is, of course, intended for a single track road,
and is based on the supposition that the trains going west have,
the right of road. It may be made to read in any other direction desired. According to this rule, if the train going west was
delayed thirty minutes, the train going east would wait that
length of time at the meeting point, after which it would proceed on its way, keeping, however, thirty minutes behind its
• schedule time, until the delayed train was met. The time
which trains must wait varies upon different roads, and sometimes upon different divisions of the same road; thus upon
one division they will wait thirty minutes, while upon a neighboring division they will be required to wait an hour.
In the event a company owning a double track road,
should, for any reason, be compelled to restrict itself to the
use of one track, trains in one direction should have the right
of track over trains in an opposite direction, the same as provided for single track roads. In other words, all the peculiarities of operating trains upon a single track road would be enforced. In England, special provision is made for operating a
single track in case of a tyreak, the trains are conducted over
the line under the immediate direction of a pilot guard, and «t
Trains and Stations.
Should a train having the right to the road
be directed not to leave a station until a specified time, unless another train has arrived, the
train so held will wait the usual five minutes
for possible variation of- watches before proceeding, if the train does not arrive by the time
specified. "/. ,        M •. ■    -;|..        %
When a train has orders to run regardless of
no train is allowed to pass over the track unless the pilot is
personally present on such train ; or if there are two or more
trains following, he accompanies the last, the forward trains
carrying his order to proceed. This order they deliver to the
agent at the end of the single line.
Upon many roads trains are ordered to leave the starting
point on time, whether trains of the same or inferior grade that
are due or past due have arrived or not. In such cases delayed
trains are instructed to keep out of the way without reference
to the 30-minute rule.
I Trains of a class will start on their time from each end of
the road, although a train may be due from the opposite direction. All westward bound trains (trains from Blank) have the
right to the road against all eastward bound trains, for one
hour after their own time, at any station, per table. After that
hour the right to the road belongs to the eastward trains ; but
no eastward train must leave any station (until the westward
train, which was the cause of the delay, has been passed) for
not less than one hour after its own time, per table. After
passing the delayed train, it can make up what time it can
safely. It must be clearly understood that this eastward
train which, after an hour's delay, is entitled to the road, has
not acquired this right against any other train than the one
which was the cause of the delay. This rule is not intended to
give any rights to a train of an inferior class against a train
of a superior class ; but it is only to affect the trains of the
same class in regard to each other."
" Westward bound trains of' the same class are entitled to
the main track at the turnouts, but will take the side-track
when arriving in time to do so, if it is known that a train has
to be passed at such station, except at side-tracks having but
one opening, when the train will enter which can do so head
first."—Regulations Illinois Road, 1853. /
84
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a specified train, it gives the train under such
orders no rights over any other train.
Special orders for moving trains are for the
persons to whom they are directed, and other
persons must not use such orders as authority
for moving their trains.
Upon a single track road, when a train is
twelve hours or more behind its time, as per
schedule, it- thereby loses all its rights to the
road against all kinds of trains, and can afterwards only proceed as an extra or wild train by
special orders.1
In case of accident to the engine of a train
of superior grade, the conductor of such train
may take the engine from the train of an inferior grade, and proceed to destination, reporting
the fact from the next telegraph station.
i Until, therefore, a regular train is twelve hours or more late
it is only necessary for it, as it proceeds, to keep off the time
of regular trains, of the same or superior grade ; until the expiration of the time stated, wild trains must keep out of its
way. Upon many lines a train does not lose its rights under
the regulations of the schedule until it is 24 hours or more behind time. Trains and Stations.
85
HOW TO PROTECT TRAINS WHEN STANDING
UPON THE MAIN TRACK, OR WHEN THE TRACK
IS OBSTRUCTED.     RULE L1
a. When an accident occurs to a train, and
the road is thereby obstructed, danger signals
must be sent in both directions from the obstruction to stop any trains or engines which
may be approaching.2 At a point six hundred
yards (paces) from the train, one torpedo must
be placed on the rail. At a point twelve hundred yards (paces) from the train, two torpedoes must be placed on the rail, three yards
(paces) apart. The signalmen will then return
to a point nine hundred yards (paces) from the
train, and must remain there until recalled by
the whistle of the engine, but if a passenger
train is due, the signalmen in the direction of
such passenger train must remain until it
arrives.    When recalled, signalmen will remove
1 Frequent reference is made to rule " L" as we proceed
in connection with the duty conductors and others are under
of protecting trains against the possibility of accident whenever, from any cause, trains are compelled to occupy the
main track beyond the time allotted them, or when, from any
other cause, the track is obstructed.
Many of the rules and regulations necessary to the protection of trains on an ordinary double track road are embodied farther on under the head of "Directions applicable
only to double track lines."
2 Upon a single track road, in the event there is no train
due coming from the opposite direction, it seems unnecessary
that the signals should be sent in advance of a regular train
unless it is over twelve hours late. j Railway Service:
the torpedoes nearest the train, but the torpedoes located three yards apart must be left
on the rail as a signal of caution to approaching
trains. As the delayed train moves on, the
torpedoes in advance of such moving train
should be removed from the rail. Upon double
track roads it will not be necessary to send the
signals in advance unless the opposite track is
also obstructed. When it is necessary to send
the signals in advance, the fireman must
perform such duty, and if, from any cause, he is
unable to go- forward promptly, the front
brakeman must be sent in his place.1 When it
is necessary for the rear brakeman to go back
to protect a train, the next brakeman must
immediately take his place on the train and
remain there until relieved by the rear brake-
man. On passenger trains, the baggageman
shall take the place of the forward brakeman
whenever necessary.3
1. Upon passenger trains this duty can very well be performed by the forward brakeman, there being still one man
left upon the train to act as brakeman, viz : the baggageman,
but upon freight trains the absence of two brakemen would
perhaps leave the train without adequate force.
2. " In case of any detention, a man must be sent at least
one hundred rods backwards and forwards, to warn any approaching train, until the danger is over. In the night this
must be done by swinging a lantern across the track/j- 1853.
" In case of a collision, it will be assumed, as a rule, until
very clearly proved to the contrary, that the conductors and
enginemen of both trains have neglected some of the many
precautions, whether written or not, which are necessary to the
safety of the road."—Regulations N. Y. Road, 1863.
,: -ii: Trains and Stations,
87
b. § Should the distance of twelve hundred
yards fall within a tunnel, or close to the mouth
of a tunnel nearest to the obstruction, or in any
other position where, owing to the formation of
the line, or some other circumstance, the engine-
driver of an approaching train or engine would
be unable to obtain a distinct and distant view of
the signal, then the signal must be exhibited at
the end of the tunnel farthest from the obstruction, or at such a distance over and above the
prescribed distance of twelve hundred yards as
may be necessary to insure the engine-driver
obtaining a good and distant view of such
signal.  |
c. Where a mixed gauge is used, torpedoes
must be placed on each rail, both for broad and
narrow gauge trains, i |1
d. Whenr from any cause, a train is unable to
proceed at a greater speed than four miles an
hour, the signalman must go back twelve hundred yards, and must follow the train at that
distance, using the proper danger signals, so as
to stop any following train, until assistance
arrives or the train is switched. fj-
e. When a train is stopped upon the main track
in consequence of the signals referred to in this
rule, the conductor thereof must in turn protect
his train with signals, in the manner described,
from  any train that  may  be  following him,
I. English Standard. Railway Service:
thus relieving the  signalman previously upon
duty.1
f. Should anything occur to detain an engine,
not attached to a train, upon the main track, it
must also be protected by signals in the manner
described.2 j§
g. In the event of any obstruction or accident
to the line, not expressly provided for in the
foregoing, from the destruction of bridges or
culverts, broken rails, washing away of the
track, or from any other cause, signals must be
placed in both directions, so as to warn approaching trains. These signals must be placed
in the manner and form described.
h. In the event of any obstruction or accident
to the track, as contemplated by this rule, notice
of the same must at once be sent to the Superintendent from the next telegraph station; also
to the nearest agents or flagmen in each direc-
1. " He (the signalman that is relieved) must tell the guard
of such train as he stops what has happened, and ride on the
engine, so as to point out to the driver where he left his own
train, and tell him the particulars under which he had been
obliged to stop the following train."—Great Northern Railway,
England.
2. While the instructions contained herein provide specifically
for trains, they are also, in many cases, intended to cover engines
running without trains; in many instances the rules are so
worded as to cover both trains and engines ; but whether both
are mentioned or not, those cases where both are intended will
be obvious \p the reader. When it is desired to apply a rule to
engines that refers, herein, only to trains, but properly applies
to both trains and engines, the word conductor, wherever used,
"should give place to engineman (unless there is a conductor in
charge), and engine should be substituted for train. Trains and Stations.
89
tion from the accident; but the .first duty of
employes is to protect approaching trains from
any possibility of disaster in consequence of the
obstruction.1 |j
i. In the event anjr accident occasion the obstruction of, or be dangerously near to, any
track used by trains moving in the opposite
direction, signals must be placed upon such
line, and it must otherwise be protected in the
manner contemplated by this rule.
j. When a passenger train is delayed at any of
its regular stopping places more than five minutes, it must be protected with signals in the
manner described.
k. Should a train or engine stop at any unusual point on the road (i. e. at any point that is
I. " When an accident or obstruction of any kind occurs
on any part of the line, it must be immediately reported by
telegraph, or by the most expeditious means, to the next station or signal box on each side of the place where the accident
has occur: ed, so that notice maybe given to the engine-drivers
and guards of approaching trains ; also to the heads of departments, to the locomotive station where the breakdown vans for
the district are kept; to the district superintendent and the
traffic inspector for the district, and to the inspector of permanent way. It must also be reported by telegraph to those stations where the starting of other trains is liable to be affected
by the delay caused by the obstruction."
"In conveying intelligence of, or in summoning assistance
to, any accident or failure, a platelayer (section-man) must be
sent as quickly as possible to the next gang in each direction,
from which a platelayer must in like manner be sent to the
next more distant gang, until information of the accident has
by this means reached the nearest station in each direction,
and the necessary assistance has been obtained, the platelayers of each gang proceeding without loss of time to the
place at which their services are required."—English Standard. 90
Railway Service:
not a regular stopping place for such train or
engine), it must be protected as directed.
I. When a freight train stops at its regular
stopping places where it can be plainly seen at
a distance of at least one-half mile, danger signals must be placed not less than one hundred
yards in each direction, and as much farther as
may be necessary to insure stopping any train
that may be approaching, but if the train can
not be plainly seen at a distance of at least one-
half mile, signals must be sent out not less than
six hundred yards, always bearing in mind, that
if from any cause the train should be detained,
so as to come within twenty minutes of the
time of a passenger train, it must be governed
strictly as provided by the requirements of this
rule, as already recited.1 |
I. This section, in force upon one of our great railroads,
seems unnecessary except upon a double track road where
freight trains move without much, if any, reference to the rights
of other trains under the schedule.
It is impossible that signals should in all cases be sent out as
directed at the various regular stopping places of freight trains.
To do so would require an enormous train or station force, and
besides, if the freight train is not trespassing upon the rights of
other trains, such precautions are unnecessary. If it is in the
way of trains having the right to the track, then the precaution
provided by this rule is necessary, otherwise it is not. The
regulations of trains require that officials in charge of extra or
wild trains, or delayed trains of inferior grade, must approach
stations carefully, expecting to find other trains at such stations. If trains of an inferior grade trespass upon the rights
. of trains of a superior grade, then they should be protected in
the manner provided. Upon a double track road it would
not of course be necessary to send the signals in advance, as
provided in the rule, unless the opposite track was obstructed.
We find the following rule, in the regulations of a prominent
road, worthy of incorporation here :
■■■      m Trains and Stations.
91
m. When it is necessary to cross over to the
opposite track upon a double track road, or to
protect the front of the train from any cause, a
signal must be sent ahead as directed. ^ ^
n. If freight trains are, at any time, obliged
to keep the main track in passing passenger
trains, signals must be sent twelve hundred
yards, in the direction of the expected train,
to give suitable warning for it to approach carefully ; the conductor of the freight train must
see that the switches are right for the passage
of the approaching train. U
o. Those in charge of switching engines are
required to exercise great care to prevent accident occurring from the obstruction of the main
track.1 Engines or cars must not be permitted
to stand upon the main track, except when
switching  within  the   limits  of   the   various
" Should it be necessary for a first-class train to occupy the
main track at a station or turnout, in the time of any train of
the same class, which by the time-table should either stop or
pass any first-class train at such station or turnout, no signal
shall be given to such approaching train, but it must be distinctly understood that when any train occupies the main track
at any station or turnout, in the time of any other train of the
same class, which by the time-table does not stop at such
station or turnout, the proper signal must be sent out to
prevent accidents."
I. " When any train or engine is shunting from one line to
another after sunset and in foggy weather, the head and side
lights of the engine must be reversed so as to show red against
any other train or engine traveling on the line of rails obstructed by the train or engine so shunting. Shunting engines
employed exclusively in station yards and sidings must, after
sunset and in foggy weather, carry both head and tail lamps
showing a red light."—Eng: Standard. 92
Railway Service :
yards. When it is necessary to use the main
track at any other point, signals must be placed
for the protection of approaching trains as
required by this rule.1 v
p. Should any vehicle in a train be on fire, the
train must be stopped, and the conductor must
protect it in the manner required. The brake-
man or fireman must detach the cars in -the
rear of those on fire, and the burning cars must
be drawn forward to a distance of fifty yards
at least, and then be uncoupled, and left until
the fire can be extinguished, to effect which
every effort must be made.
q. Immediately upon the discovery of a signal
of danger, enginemen must sound the whistle for
brakes as an evidence that the signal has been
observed.
r. In the event of accident to trains, the persons in charge thereof have the right to call
upon sectionmen and others for such assistance
as they may require.2 ||
1. I No train may shunt on the main line unless absolutely
necessary; and a train must be detained at a station where
there is a long siding, so as to allow the following train to pass,
rather than send it on with a chance of having to shunt on the
main line."—Gt. Nor. Ry. Eng.
" Guards performing shunting operations at sidings must,
in all cases, take care that the vehicles are left clear of the
main line, and within the safety points and scotchblocks, and
that the points fall properly, and the scotchblocks are replaced
across the rails after the operation is completed."—Eng.
Standard.
2. "In cases of accidents or emergencies requiring such exercise of authority, the conductor or engineer is  empowered Trains and Stations.
93
s. When it is necessary, while switching, or at
any other time, to leave a car or portion of
a train on a grade upon the main track or elsewhere, the brakes must be set and the wheels
securely blocked.1   -       jl
t. When it is necessary to back a train (i. e.
when it is necessary to move it in a contrary
direction upon the line) danger signals must be
sent not less than one mile in advance of the
moving train. A train must only be backed to
the first siding; while it is in motion the whistle must be sounded at short intervals. The
speed of the train must not exceed four miles
per hour, so that the signalman may be able to
keep the required distance in advance.
u. When a train is run backward, the conductor must station himself on the rear car, in a
position so conspicuous as to perceive the first
to summon any person or persons in the employ of t^e company, by night or day, to render assistance to a disabled train
or engine, and any person neglecting or refusing to obey such
summons will be discharged."—Regulations N. Y. Road, 1854.
1. '* When, from any cause, a goods train has been brought
to a stand on the main line, where the line is not level, and it
is necessary for the engine to be detached from the train for
the purpose of attaching or detaching wagons, the guard must,
before the engine is uncoupled, satisfy himself that the van
brakes have been put on securely, and, as an additional precaution, must pin down a sufficient number of wagon brakes,
and place one or more sprags in the wheels of the wagons
next to the rear brake in the case of an ascending gradient,
and of the foremost wagons in the case of a descending gradient, so as to prevent the possibility of the wagons moving
away. The number of sprag- must be regulated by tiie steepness of the gradient, the number of wagons, their loads, and
the state of the weather and rails."—Eng. Standard. 94
Railway Service:
sign of danger, so that he may give immediate
signal thereof to the engineman. The trainmen should be placed so as to facilitate this.1
WHEN TRAINS BREAK IN TWO.
When a train breaks in two, the person who
discovers it must signal to the other men on the
train, as directed in the code of signals, repeating the signal several times, or until sure they
have been observed. *
The forward part of the train that is broken
in two must not stop until the engineman is
sure that the rear part of the train has stopped.
When entirely certain that the rear part has
stopped, .the forward part may stop ; and, after
sending back a signal, it will move slowly back
to the rear part of the train ; but not until
a signal to back up has been received from the
conductor of the train, who must be very careful not to give such signal unless the rear part
is standing still. #
If the engineman of the train can not make
sure that the rear portion of the train has
stopped, he will proceed .to the first siding
where he will leave his train, and after waiting
twenty minutes,, he will signal his engine back
to the rear portion of his train, presuming that
I. I Whenever it becomes necessary to back a train to a station, it must be done with great care; and, upon obscure parts
of the road, a man must be kept constantly in advance of
the rear end of the train." 1863. Trains and Stations.
95
it is still in motion, and taking great care not to
collide with it.
As soon as the men upon the rear portion of
the train discover that it has broken apart, they
will stop it, and protect the rear by the usual
danger signals, as provided by rule 1 L."
If a following train reaches the detached part
before its engine has returned from the siding,
the following train will push the detached portion very slowly toward the siding, sending forward a signal twelve hundred yards in advance,
and proceeding with great care, expecting to
meet the returning engine.
If any train breaks into more than two parts,
the rear part must be stopped first, then the
part next forward of it, and so on, using great
care not to stop any part so as to permit a
following portion to collide with it. When
stopped, each portion must, if possible, be protected by signals, but the rear of the last section
must be protected in any event.1
i. I Should any part of the train become detached when in
motion, care must be taken not to stop the front part of the
train before the rear portion has either been stopped or is running slowly, and the rear guard must promptly apply his brake
to prevent a collision with the front portion. There may be
cases requiring the train to be stopped, owing to the failure of,
or accident to, some part of it, when the prompt exercise of
judgment and skill is necessary to decide whether to stop
quickly, or otherwise. If the engine be defective, the sooner
the train can be stopped the better. If any of the vehicles be
off the rails, the brakes in the rear must be instantly applied,
in order that by keeping the couplings tight, the disabled vehicle may be kept up and out of the way of the vehicles behind, 96
Railway Service:
TRAINS  RUNNING  WITH CARE.
Conductors and enginemen are held equally
responsible for the violation of any of the rules
governing the safety or speed of trains. They
are expected to take every precaution necessary
to the protection of their trains, whether pro-
yided for by the rules or not.
Trainmen must take into consideration the
state of the weather, the condition of the track,
and the weight of the train.
Trains will run with great care during" and
after severe rains, and must reduce their speed
when the track is in bad order, or when crossing
long bridges or trestle-works.
Trains of every description must approach
with care places or yards where engines use the
main track in switching.
Stations and switches must also be approached
with care.
Upon a single track road when an order is
given a train to proceed with caution, keeping
a careful look-out for a particular train, it is
the duty of the conductor in such cases to send
until the force of the latter is exhausted, it being desirable in
such cases that the front portion of the train should be brought
slowly to a stand. The application of the front brakes might,
in such cases, result in further damage, and they should only
be applied when the disabled vehicles are in the rear of the
train. In all cases the application of brakes behind a disa*
bled vehicle will be attended with ad vantage,"—Eng. Standard^ Trains and Stations.
97
signals in advance as the train approaches curves
and obscure places in the track.
In all cases of doubt or uncertainty, trainmen
and others should take the safe course and run
no risks. If
m    §.     TRAINS  MUST  STOP. ?§■■
Whenever  one  passenger  train is to meet
X. CD
another passenger train at a station, whether at
a regular meeting point or at a point designated
by a special order, both trains must come to a
full stop between the switches at the place of
meeting.
Engines with or without trains must come to
a full stop within four hundred feet of railroad
crossings at grade.
Unless otherwise ordered, trains must be
brought to a full stop before crossing drawbridges, and must not thereafter proceed until
the signal to go ahead is exhibited.
Trains must approach the end of double
track and junction switches at reduced speed,
and come to a full stop unless the switches are
plainly seen to be right. | f
TRAINS  MEETING  OR  PASSING EACH  OTHER.1
Where trains are to meet each other, the
train  having the right to the road shall occupy
I. I Long sidings are provided at the principal stations on
the up and down lines, to enable the goods and coal trains, etc.,
to be passed by the passenger trains ; the sidings must always
be kept clear for this purpose; they must not be used as 'lay
byes/ for the ordinary work of the stations."—Gt. Northern
Railway, England.
7 Railway Service:
the main track, excepting when there are special orders to the contrary, or it shall be impracticable thus to pass, in which case sufficient
precaution shall be used to prevent accident or
unnecessary delay.
The train going on the side track, must take
the switch at the nearest end, instead of running by and backing on, except when this is
impracticable, in which case the train must be
sufficiently protected by signals before running
by the station to back on to the siding.1!
Upon arriving at a place where a particular
train is to be met, care must be taken by trainmen to identify such train; in other words, they
must  not  proceed  until  the  right  train has
arrived. _ -       lf; if
When a train is not required to stop at a
meeting or passing point with another train, it
must, at night, or in foggy weather, approach
such point with caution, and at reduced speed,
being £ept under control until satisfied that
the opposing train is clear of the main track,
and that the switches are properly set.
The conductor of a slow train must report to
the Superintendent immediately on arrival at a
station, where, by the schedule, he should be
overtaken by a faster train of the same class,
I. It should be understood that wherever reference is made
to the meeting of trains at stations or sidings, such reference
implies a single track road, unless otherwise specially mentioned. Trains and Stations.
99
in the event the latter does not arrive on time.
The conductor of the slow train must not
proceed until the faster train passes, without
special orders from the Superintendent.
When a freight train is overtaken and passed
by one section of a train carrying green signals
for other trains, it must wait until all the sections of such train have passed, unless otherwise directed by special order.1
Freight trains will be governed by this rule in
starting from terminal stations, and in the application of this rule, terminal stations will be
considered the same as other stations on the
road. .    ;J| ||- .
If a way freight train falls behind its time, as
«/ CD '
fixed in the schedule, it will not yield the road
to a following freight train, with which it has no
designated passing point, until overtaken by it;
but the way freight must be protected by signals from all chance of a rear collision, and
will yield the road at the first station after the
following train has overtaken it.
TRAINS APPROACHING   STATIONS.
Trains must approach stations and yards
where switching engines are located, with extreme caution.
When approaching stations and sidings, en-
I. Or, in other words, it must not proceed until all the extra
trains have passed. 100
Railway Service:
ginemen must observe whether the switches
are set right, and must always be on the lookout for signals.
Enginemen of delayed trains, or trains
moved by special order, and of all extra or wild
trains, will approach stations with extreme
caution, upon the supposition that another train
will be overtaken or met; or that the main
track will be obstructed or occupied.
Enginemen will carefully approach stations
at which they ought to meet or pass trains.
Trains approaching stations where a passeri-.
ger train is receiving or discharging passengers
must be stopped before reaching such passenger train, and will not go forward until it
moves ahead or signal is given to the first mentioned train to move on.1
I. Permanent danger signals are erected in both directions
from stations, by many roads in this country. They are in common use in Europe. These signals are displayed when a train
is at a station receiving or discharging passengers, or whenever-
the track is for any reason obstructed, or the switches are
turned. When these signals are displayed, enginemen of approaching trains are required to advance cautiously until otherwise ordered. For the purpose of protecting a train from
trains that may be following it, these station signals (or semaphore arms or lights) are not lowered until a specified time
after the departure of the train.
The wisdom of protecting trains with permanent or stationary signals, where the business of a line warrants it or
its receipts will permit of it, can not be too highly commended.
" Should a train be approaching, stopping at, or leaving a station, on the opposite line, or should shunting operations be
going on, he must, on approaching and whilst passing, sound
the engine whistle. The whistle must also be sounded on entering a tunnel."—English Standard. Trains and Stations.
101
TRAINS  FOLLOWING OTHER  TRAINS.
' When two or more passenger trains are running in the same direction, they must keep not
less than fifteen minutes apart. And trains
tha*t are found violating this rule must be
signaled and held until the fifteen minutes has
expired. With this exception: a way passenger train making all the stops may follow
an express or mail passenger train making no
stops, within five minutes, but it must proceed
with great caution until the express or mail
train is fifteen minutes ahead.1
A freight train or engine must not leave a
station to follow a passenger train until ten
minutes after the departure of the passenger
train.2 j
Freight trains following each other must be
1. I Where the block system is not in operation, no train or
engine must be allowed to follow any other train or engine on
the same line, within five minutes.
I Where the line is «iot worked under the block system, no
passenger train must, during foggy weather or snow storms,
follow a goods train, nor must a fast goods train follow a
stopping passenger train from a station, nor pass a signal box
where trains are ordinarily signaled, within fifteen minutes,
nor even then, until the engine-driver has been properly
warned of the time of the departure of the preceding train, and
where it will next stop."—English Standard.
2. " No detached engine shall be run behind a passenger
train, within three miles, and any train following another shall
always keep two miles in the rear, and proceed with great
caution."—1854. 102
Railway Service:
kept not less than five minutes apart, except in
closing up at stations or passing places.1
Any train following another train or engine
must proceed with caution, keeping at least
one mile in rear of it, and must approach all
stations and fuel places with care, expecting to find the preceding train taking fuel or
water at such station, whether it may be a stopping place, as per schedule, for that train, or
not.2
When one or more trains are followed, such
train, or trains, must never be stopped between
stations where the view from the rear of the
train is not clear for a distance sufficiently
great to stop a train after it has come in sight.
: When following other trains, the engineman
and others must keep a sharp lookout for the
train immediately preceding them, especially
when running around curves and approaching
stations.
In the event that one or more trains are
united, and run as one train, tiotice of the fact
must be given agents, also the conductors and
enginemen of trains that are met or passed.
1. " Freight ^ains will be run in convoys of two or more
trains on the same time. Conductors and enginemen will be
held responsible to see that the necessary signals are carried."
—Southern Line.
2, This is in a certain sense supplementary to the rules
directing how many minutes shall elapse between trains of
various grades moving in the same direction. Trains and Stations.
103
The Superintendent should be advised at the
first telegraph station of the consolidation of
the trains.
KEEPING  OFF  THE TIME  OF  OTHER  TRAINS.
A train of an inferior grade, running ahead
of a train of a superior grade, must keep twenty
minutes off the time of such superior train.1
Except when otherwise specifically provided,
wild trains must keep twenty minutes off the
time of passenger trains, and ten minutes off
the time of freight trains. {§
A passenger train must not leave a station,
expecting to meet, or be passed at the next
station by a train having the right of track,
unless it has full schedule time to make the
meeting or passing point.
A freight train must not leave a station,
expecting to meet, or to be passed at the next
station, by a train having the right of track,
unless it can make the meeting or passing point
without exceeding its maximum speed, and occupy the siding, if necessary, before the time
required by rule to clear the opposing or following train. |: |
A freight train, which, according to the sched-
I. I Trains of an inferior class, moving in the same direction
with trains of a superior class, must get out of their way, by
going into the nearest siding."—1863. 101
Railway Service:
ule, should be overtaken and passed at a station by another freight train, must keep off the
time of the train which should pass it.
It must be understood that § train not having
the right to the track must be entirely clear of
the main track before the time it is required by
rule to clear an opposing train, or a train running in the same direction; if from any. cause
it should fail to do so, signals must be sent immediately, as provided by rule "L,"" already
given, for the protection of trains standing
upon the main track.
When a freight train meets a passenger train
on a single track road, the freight train must
occupy the siding, and clear the passenger train
ten minutes. ft
DELAYED  TRAINS.
Upon a single track road, in the event a train ot
engine.is delayed between stations and loses its
right to the road, the conductor of such train (or
in his absence the engineman) must, when the
train or engine is ready to move, send danger
signals not less than one mile in advance in the
direction in which the train or engine is to be
moved. The delayed train or engine must
only run to the next siding, and while in motion
the engineman will frequently sound the
whistle,  and will not exceed a speed of four Trains and Stations.
105
miles per hour, to enable the signalman to keep
the required distance in advance.1
When, from any cause, a train is unable to
proceed at a greater speed than four miles an
hour, the rear brakeman must go back twelve
hundred yards, and must follow the train at
that distance, and use the proper danger signals
to stop any following train.      I
In the event a train is delayed by accident
or otherwise between stations, and another train
having the right to the road approaches (no
matter which way it may be going), and the
train having the right to the road can not pass
the delayed train, then the latter will proceed
to the first siding in advance, carrying signals
for the following train. At the first siding it
will allow the train having the right to the
road to go ahead, after which time both the
trains will be governed in all respects as in other
cases where one train is met or passed by
another.
In extreme cases, in which enginemen find it
impossible to make their time in running to stations at which they should by schedule meet
another train, they may disconnect their engine,
I. In the event a delayed regular train has time to reach the
first telegraph station ahead without trespassing upon the
time of another regular train, then, in that case, it has not lost
its right (unless it is twelve hours late), and it may proceed directly to such telegraph station without being signaled as
directed above. 106
Railway Service:
leaving the train under proper danger signals,
as required by rule " L," and run to the next station and notify the approaching train, and then
return after their own train.1 But before proceeding to carry out this rule the engineman
must have the written authority of the conductor to detach the engine and proceed as
directed.
When a train is delayed it is the duty of
agents and switchmen to report the fact to
trains that may be following when the latter
stop at their stations.
When a train is more than fifteen minutes
late, the conductor will report the cause of the
detention to the Superintendent at the first
telegraph station. m
EXTRA   TRAINS.
An extra train, following a regular train and
properly signaled by it, must always be taken
and considered to be a part of and to have all
the rights of the regular train, and no more,
and the conductors and enginemen of othe.r
trains must so regard it.
An engine of a regular train must not carry a
signal for any train, excepting of its own
grade, unless in such cases as are herein
specifically provided for. ||
I. This rule is provided for those extreme cases where, from
some sudden and wholly unexpected cause, a train becomes
stalled, or is unable to make the meeting point, or back up to
the station that it has left. Trains and Stations.
107
When it shall become necessary for a train of
an inferior grade to follow a train of a superior
grade (as an extra), then such following train
shall for that time be taken to be of the same
grade with the preceding train.
In case a following train is delayed and can
not keep up with the signals, it must not consider it has the right to follow the signals
against trains having the right of the road,
though the train carrying signals for it may
have orders to run to a certain point against a
train having the right of track ; but the following train, when unable to keep up, must keep
back and off the time of all trains having right
of track, without special and separate orders.1
When a ttain is ordered to carry signals for
J CD
an extra or following train, the conductor and
enginemen of each of the trains affected by the
order must be severally notified. It is the
duty of conductors of trains carrying signals to
notify conductors whom they meet or pass of
the fact. They must also notify agents and
switchmen at places where they stop.
It is the duty of trainmen and others to care-
I. In other words, the order to run to a certain point does
not cover the extra or following train unless the latter is specifically mentioned.
'' If the following train should fall so far behind as not to be
distinctly seen by the forward train at the time of its leaving
any station short of the one named in the notice, it must be
distinctly understood by all that the flag or lantern will not be
carried farther for them."—Regulations 1853. 108
Railway Service:
fully observe whether signals are carried by
passing engines.
It is the duty of conductors to assure themselves that signals for extra trains are properly
placed and secured. J§
When an engine is carrying signals for another train, the attention of trains that are
met or passed (including construction and
wood trains) must be called to such signals by
three short blasts of the whistle, as provided by
the signal code. '        ;
vWhen an extra train is following another
train, it must be kept near the train ahead
on approaching a station where a train is to
be met, in order that the opposite train may
have as little detention as is consistent with
perfect safety, but in all other cases the distance between the two trains must never be
less than one mile.    j§ p
Conductors of trains carrying signals for
extra trains must, on arriving at the station
beyond which the signals are not.to be carried,
notify the agent of the fact, and such agent
must give notice thereof to such conductors
and enginemen as may reach his station subsequent to the arrival of the train carrying the
signals, and previous to the arrival of the trains
signaled by it.1 '$.'
I. " The guard of the train preceding the special train is
required to see that the tailboard flag, or extra lamp, is
removed when no longer wanted, and he must inform the per-
ih Trains and Stations.
109
When an engine or train leaves a point to
which it has carried signals for a following
train, before the following train has arrived at
such point, the conductor must notify all trains
that he meets until he reaches the next telegraph Gffice, when he will report to the Superintendent that he has withdrawn the signals.
A telegraphic or special order directing the
movement of a train, includes only the train
specifically mentioned in such order, and must
not be considered to cover a train that is or
may have been keeping it company, unless such
train is particularly mentioned.
When two or more trains are running in company, upon the time of one train and the forward train cannot, from disability of engine or
other cause, make time, it will run upon a side
track, and let the following train go ahead.1 The
conductors and enginemen must, in such cases,
see that the train which takes precedence carries the proper signals, and all special orders
affecting the movement or safety of either train
must be exchanged. Conductors must report
the occurrence to the Superintendent at the
first telegraph station ; they must also notify all
trainmen they may meet and the agents at
stations as well.     v
son in charge of each station at which he stops of the* description and destination of the train that is following."—Eng.
Standard.
I. The inference is that these trains are of the same grade.
It would be impracticable otherwise. ;"
110
Railway Service:
No engine or train shall carry signals for an
extra engine or train without orders from the
Superintendent, except as provided in the following rule : Should a train be held by another
between telegraph stations, the conductor of
the train thus detained may require the first
regular train passing him, bound in the same
direction, to carry signals for him to the next
telegraph station, on his arrival at which he
must report to the Superintendent for orders;
but the conductor of a freight train shall not
have the right to have signals carried by a passenger train, in case, at the next telegraph station, or at some intervening place, said passenger train .should pass a train of its own class,
nor in any case, unless the freight train is in
readiness to follow immediately.
A train signaled by another, in accordance
with the foregoing rule, would possess exactly
the same rights as an extra train, already described.
"When a train is held between telegraph
stations and can not proceed, except under the
protection of some other train, and there is no
train passing (without great delay) by which
it may be signaled, except a wild train, the
train held may proceed immediately in advance
of such wild train to the first telegraph station,
at which place it must get out of the way.
But those in charge of the delayed train must Trains and Stations.
Ill
notify agents and signalmen, also the trainmen
they meet, that they are running irregularly in
advance of a wild train."1
Whenever it shall be necessary to send an
extra engine over the road, it must in all cases
precede and run on the time of some regular
train; it will be entitled to all the rights
thereof, and shall carry proper signals therefor.
In such cases the regular train shall run five
minutes behind its schedule time.2
CONSTRUCTION  AND  WOOD  TRAINS.
When a construction train is going to or coming from work it must proceed with the utmost
caution3; never risking the safety of trains, and
it must never be on the road within ten minutes
of the running time of passenger trains. Neither
shall it be on the road within ten minutes of the
running time of freight trains, except when the
points between which it is working are not more
than three miles apart. If
When at work on a section not extending
over three miles from siding to siding, or when
special permission is given by the Superintend-'
ent, the conductor may keep at work in respect
to freight trains only, until the arrival of such
1. Old Rule.      ' , - |
2. When it is desired that the engine running over the road
should assist the accompanying train (assuming it to be a
freight train) at the various grades, it can be instructed to follow rather than precede. But an engine should never be
allowed to follow a passenger train.
3. They must know before starting that all trains that are
due have arrived. 112
Railway Service :
trains, but he must in all cases station the proper
signals, twelve hundred yards in each direction, when upon a single track, or in the rear
only when upon a double track, unless the
same is obstructed. The signalman of the con-
struction train must continue on the watch,
under all circumstances, until the freight train
arrives. On the arrival of the expected train,
the construction train must immediately proceed
to the siding in advance of such train.
Conductors and enginemen of wood trains
will be governed by the same rules as above
given for construction trains.
When freight trains are thirty minutes late,
construction and wood trains may occupy the
main track, but must keep signals not less than
twelve hundred yards in the direction of the
expected train. Upon the arrival of the expected train, the construction or wood train
must at once proceed to the siding.
No construction train will be allowed to run
beyond its given limits without orders, except
in cases of great emergency, such as accidents
to trains, track, or bridges, or when telegraphic
communication is broken and orders cannot be
received. Under such circumstances, a construction train or engine may run beyond its
limits; but such train or engine must not only
keep off the time of regular trains, but conductors and enginemen must signal all curves care- Trains and Stations.
113
fully, and look out for wild trains. They will
also report the fact of being off their limits, and
the reason therefor at the first telegraph station, or if there is no telegraph station, a report
must be sent to a telegraph office by the first
train, or by special messenger if there is no
train.
Two construction trains will not be allowed
to run or work within the same limits except
in cases of great emergency; in such cases
special orders will be given by the Superintendent, n
A special order allowing two construction
trains to occupy the same limits does not relieve the conductor and engineman of either
train from the responsibility of signaling all
curves carefully while running, and otherwise
protecting their trains properly while at work
on the main track, as already directed.
Before leaving stations for the day's work,
conductors of wood and construction trains
must report to the Superintendent the exact
location where they intend to work, and they
must not leave the station until they have received a special order or permit from him.
Conductors of construction and wood trains
must leave with the station agent at the starting point a memorandum stating where their
trains will be operating for the day; this memorandum must be entered in a book to be kept 114
Railway Service:
W
i 'It
for that and similar purposes. This book shall
at all times be open to the convenient inspection of trainmen.
Conductors and enginemen of construction
trains are required to stop at all telegraph stations and register time of arrival and departure
of their trains, and direction in which moving,
and ascertain if any wild engines or trains are
on the road; also the limits of any other construction trains that may be at work on the
same division of the road.
Conductors of construction trains must keep
themselves informed as to the location where
wood trains are at work. In the same way the
conductors of wood trains must keep themselves
advised as to the location of construction trains.
When a limit is given a construction train, it
will only embrace the hours from 4:80 A. M. to
8:30 P. M., and the train must not occupy the
main track within its limits before or after the
hours specified without special orders.1
Upon a single track road, signals, as provided
by rule | L1 for the protection of trains, must
always be placed at a distance of not less than
twelve hundred yards on either side of the place
where construction or wood trains are at work,
and a man must remain with such signals.
Upon double track roads, signals need only be
I. " Ballast trains must not work on the main line in a fog, except when authorized under special circumstances."—English
Standard. Trains and Stations.
115
placed in the direction from which trains naturally arrive.
In the case of a double track road, if the
opposite track is obstructed, then signals must
be placed in both directions. |r   ||   .
Conductors and enginemen of construction
and wood trains will be held responsible for the
strict observance of the rules governing the
use of signals, and they will be expected to use
every additional precaution which particular
circumstances may render necessary.
Wood or construction trains must not have
signals carried for them by regular trains, nor
must they carry signals for other trains, but
circumstances may arise* compelling them to
follow a regular train carrying signals for
another train; in such a case the wood or construction train must carry signals for the train
that is following. v
WILD  TRAINS,    i
When regular trains are ordered to leave
stations ahead of time, they will be considered
as wild trains while running ahead of time.
A wild train or engine must not pass over
any portion of the road without special orders
from the Superintendent, provided this rule
does not apply to engines switching within the
limits of the various yards. 116
Railway Service:
Conductors of wild trains must report by
telegraph to the Superintendent upon arrival
at their destination, and must await his reply
before leaving the office.
THE   SPEED  OF TRAINS.
The maximum speed given on the schedule
for each grade of trains must not be exceeded.1
§ff Trains must not arrive at a station ahead of
time, nor leave a station before the time specified in the schedule, nor shall they run faster
between stations than is required to enable
them to reach a station in season to start from
it on the specified time, without orders from the
Superintendent.2 .
When trains are delayed, the lost time must,
so far as possible, be made up by shortening
1. " Special trains, whether passenger, fi&h, horse, cattle,
goods, coal, or otherwise, must be run as nearly as practicable
at the same rate of speed as corresponding trains, shown in
the working time-table, and of which they may'form a part,
and the speed of special trains must, in no case, exceed that
of such corresponding trains, unless under specific instructions
from the Superintendent of the line."—English Standard.
2. " Freight trains may arrive at the stations for meeting,
and for wood and water, and to take on freight, ten minutes
before the time stated in the time-table."—Regulations, 1854.
" It is better for a train to have two minutes too little to
spend at a station than one more than is necessary, as stops are
tedious to passengers, and slow running is better for the road
and machinery; and when tardiness is noticed in the wooding
and watering, it should be reported to the Superintendent."
—1853. Trains and Stations.
117
the stops at stations.1 No risk must be incurred
for the purpose of making up lost time.
Mail trains must not be run at such speed as
to prevent the mails being exchanged at all
places where there are post offices.
A speed of fifteen miles per hour will pass,
approximately, seven telegraph poles per minute.2 .-■        ' |§- •
DIRECTIONS     APPLICABLE     ONLY     TO    DOUBLE
TRACK  LINES.
All trains in either direction, when running
on a double track, will invariably take the right-
hand track.3     ^   'Jfc
On a double track road, when a freight train
passes over to the opposite track to allow a
passenger train running in the same direction to
pass it, if, while waiting, a passenger train in
the opposite direction arrives, the freight trkin
may cross back, and allow it to pass; provided,
1. | When passenger trains are behind time, the engineer is
at liberty to make it up, in whole or in part, with the consent
of the conductor, when he can do so with safety."—1863.
I Their trains should be so run as. to leave at stations only
the necessary time for doing the business of the train, that as
much time may be used in running and as little in stops as
possible. They will, after attending to their passengers, see
that what remains to be done to enable them to leave the station is done in the shortest possible time."—1853.
2. U. S. Road.
3. I The engine-driver must start and stop his train carefully,
and without a jerk, and pass along the proper line, which, in
the case of an ordinary double line, is the left-hand side of the
permanent way, in the direction of which the engine is traveling."—Eng. Standard. 118
Railway Service :
the other passenger train is not in sight; and
also provided, that danger signals have been
sent not less than twelve hundred yards in the
direction of the expected train, as provided by
rule IL " for the protection of trains.
On a double track road, when it is necessary
for a freight train to cross over to the opposite
track to allow a passenger train running in the
same direction to pass it, and a passenger train
running in the opposite direction is due, danger
signals must be sent back twelve hundred yards,
as already described in rule " L," and the
freight train will not cross over until one
of the passenger trains arrives. Should the
following passenger train arrive first, danger
signals must be sent forward (as per rule referred to above), not less than twelve hundred
yards in the direction of the over-due passenger train upon the opposite track before crossing over. Great caution must be used, and
good judgment is required to prevent detention
to either passenger train; preference should
always be given to the passenger train of superior grade.
If an obstruction or accident make it necessary to move an engine or train in the wrong
direction on a double track road, or to cross over
to the opposite track to pass around such obstruction, obstructed trains or engines may do
so, but the utmost caution must be used.    The Trains and Stations.
119
conductor of the obstructed train (or in his
absence, the engineman), before the engine is
moved, will send danger signals not less than
one mile in advauce, in the direction in which
the train is to be moved. The train or engine
thus pioved must only be backed or run to the
next crossing, and, while moving, the engine-
man will frequently sound the whistle, and not
exceed a speed of four miles per hour, to enable
the signalman to keep the required  distance in
advance. H
Freight trains, in cases described in the foregoing rule, must clear the time of passenger
trains twenty minutes.
Upon a double track road a train that is delayed and falls back on the time of another
train of the same grade, does not lose its rights,
and will not take the time or assume the rights
of another train, except as provided for herein,
without orders from the Superintendent.
Upon a double track road, no conductor shall
assume the rights or take the time of any other
train without special orders from the Superintendent, except as provided in the following
rule.
A train overtaking another train of the same
or superior grade will not run around it, except
the train ahead is disabled by accident, but
in such case, the train passing the disabled train
will assume its rights and report the fact to the 120
Railway Service:
Superintendent from the next telegraph office.
The disabled train will assume the rights of the
last train passing it, and report to the Superintendent from the next telegraph office. When
the rights of one train are assumed by another
train, notice of the fact should be given agents
and others at places where the train stops.1
It must be kept constantly in mind by trainmen, when occupying the left-hand track of a
double track road (i. e., when occupying the
wrong track), that they are responsible for
keeping out of the way of trains that rightfully
belong on such track, and they must in all such
cases protect trains with adequate signals as
described.
Should a train, which has been telegraphed
as having entered a tunnel, not emerge there-
from within a reasonable interval of time, the
I. A prominent company having a double track road provides as follows where a delayed train impedes other trains :
" Extra freight trains running «,head of regular freight trains
can take the time of such regular train when the regular is behind its table time, or can do so when necessary to get over
portions of single track. Conductor of such extra must leave
written notice for conductor and engineer of regular train in-
forming them that he has then and there taken their time, and
availed himself of their rights, in which case he is authorized
to make the time of the train under whose rights he is running.
It must be distinctly understood that subordinate trains or engines are still subordinate, though an extra freight is running
on the rights of a train having priority."
It will be noticed that no provision is made for notifying the
Superintendent of the transfer of rights at the first telegraph
station, from which it may, perhaps, be inferred that the train
that assumes the rights of another continues to exercise those
rights until it arrives at its destination. Trains and Stations.
121
signalman toward whom the train is approaching must prevent any train in the opposite
direction entering the tunnel, through which
there is a double line of rails, until he has ascertained that the line on which it has to run
through the tunnel is clear. |
Should an engineman observe any thing wrong
on the line of rails opposite to that on which his
train is running, he must sound the whistle and
exhibit a danger signal to any train or engine
he may meet, and stop at the first station and
report to the person in charge what he has
observed. Should he meet an engine or train
too closely following any preceding engine or
train, he must sound the whistle and exhibit a
caution or danger signal, as occasion may
require, to the enginemen of such following
engine or train. -       |
Upon a double track road, when a portion of
a train is left upon the main line, from accident
or inability of the engine to take the whole forward, the engineman must not return for it on
the same line except by written instructions
from the conductor, but must go on the proper
line and cross at the nearest point behind
the part left (unless there is a crossing in its
immediate front), which he must push before
liim till convenient to go in front again with
the engine. If the engineman finds it necessary
to return to the rear portion of his train on the 122
Railway Service :
same line, he must, before starting with the
front portion, send his fireman back to the conductor to obtain the necessary written instructions authorizing him to do so, and if he give
such instructions, the conductor must continue
to protect his train in the rear and prevent a
following train pushing it ahead, except upon
inclines worked under special rules.1
I. § In the event of an accident occurring, whereby one of the
main lines is obstructed, the traffic in both directions must be
carried on by the other line ; but this must not be done until
the following rule is rigidly put in force:
| A pilot engine must at once be procured, and in the event
of there not being a pilot at hand, the engine of a goods or
coal train must be taken temporarily for the purpose, and
written orders having been given, at both end's of the single
line, by the chief officer on the spot, that no engine or train be
allowed to go on to it without the pilot engine is at the end
from which the train is about to start, the district agent, clerk
in charge of the principal station near which the obstruction
has taken place, or other officer, will proceed to pass the traffic
on one line, accompanying the pilot engine backwards and forwards, and directing the arrangements at both ends of the
single line. If no pilot engine can be procured, one man,
whose name must be given to the person in charge of such
contiguous stations or crossings, must be appointed, in writing,
to act as pilotman, and he must ride on every train or engine
in both directions, and no train or engine must move from the
said stations or crossings unless this man is riding with it: and
this one man must continue riding to and fro between the aforesaid places until relieved, and a successor named in writing, at
the two ends oFthe single line then being worked."—Gt. Nor.
Ry. Eng.
"In case of accident blocking or breaking one track and
requiring a train to pass along the wrong track, the utmost
caution must be exercised, and no train or engine must be permitted to proceed on the wrong line without a memorandum in
writing from the person in authority at the spot where the
accident had happened, and station agents must be satisfied
that such orders have been given and received, that all trains
have been stopped until the arrival of the one they dispatched
on the wrong track."—N. Y. Road, 1854. Trains and Stations.
THIRD TRACK,   OR  MIDDLE SIDINGS.1
The middle sidings, or third track, must be
used by trains (in either direction) whenever it
is necessary to turn out to allow trains of a superior class running in the same direction to
pass them.
A half-way post will be placed in the center
of each middle siding ; trains in either direction
may run to the half-way post at a speed not
exceeding six miles per hour, but must not run
beyond it, except under the protection of danger signals. |gr
When trains pass the half-way post, they
must run at a speed not exceeding four miles
per hour, to enable the signalman to keep not
less than six hundred yards in advance of the
train. - Jj,- \||: _
When two trains meet on a middle siding, the
train nearest the switch shall be backed, keeping
a flagman not less than six hundred yards in
advance; but when there are crossing-switches
in the center of a middle siding, they must be
used in all cases when the backing of either
train from the siding on to the main track can
be avoided.
All trains are required to use middle sidings
I. No changes whatever have been made by me in the regulations governing the use of the third track. I have accepted
them just as I find them in operation on one of our greatest as
well as one of our most carefully managed roads.—M. M. K. 124
Railway Service:
with great care; they must invariably run
expecting to meet an opposing train, whether
opposing trains are due or not. §
COUPLING CARS. p
Care must be exercised- by persons when
coupling cars. f|
The coupling apparatus of cars or engines is
not always uniform in-style, size or strength,
and is liable to be broken.   . §    '
It is, therefore, dangerous to expose the hands,
arms or persons of those engaged in coupling
cars.
Employes are, therefore, directed to examine,
so as to know beforehand, the kind and condition of the drawhead, drawbar, link and coupling apparatus, and are prohibited from placing
in the trains any car with a defective coupling.
Sufficient time is allowed and may be taken by
employes to make the examination required.
Coupling by hand is prohibited in all cases
where a stick can be used to guide the link or
shackle; and each switchman, brakeman or
other employ^ who may be expected to couple
cars, is required to provide himself with a stick
for that purpose. ||
J|f Uncoupling cars while in motion should also
be avoided.
,!-'•■!!. Trains and Stations.
125
MISCELLANEOUS ORDERS RELATIVE TO TRAINS.
Regular trains will be run in accordance with
the schedule, except when otherwise ordered
by the Superintendent. ft
No passenger train must be stopped at a station where it is not timed to call, for the purpose of taking up or setting down passengers,
without special authority.11*
The time indicated in the schedule is the
arriving time of trains, except when the time
of departure is expressly stated.
Large full-faced figures upon the schedule,
opposite a station, indicate that other trains are
met or passed at that station.
Trains shall be run uniformly and steadily
between stations, and delayed as little as possible for fuel and water, and for the transaction
of station business. |
Passenger trains shall'be drawn, not pushed,
except in case of accident or other emergency.2
When express or freight cars are hauled in a
1. "All passenger trains are to stop at the stations mentioned on the time bills, whether there be passengers to alight
from the carriages or not."—Gt. Northern Ry. Eng.
2. % No engine must be allowed to push a train of carriages
or wagons on the main line, unless within station limits, but
must in all cases draw it, except under special regulations when
assisting up inclines, or when required to start a train from a
station. In case of an engine being disabled on the road, the
succeeding engine may push the train slowly to the next siding,
or cross-over road, at which place the pushing engine must take
the lead."—English Standard. 126
Railway Service:
passenger train, they must be placed next to the
engine. |f
No train shall start without a signal from its
conductor, and conductors must not give the
signal until they know that the cars, including
the air brake hose, are properly coupled. -
At points where registers are kept, or where
train boards or indicators are located, it is the
duty of those in charge to see that the arrival
and departure of trains are accurately and
promptly noted thereon, the grade of the train
being given in each instance.
When the track is clear, a white signal
must be displayed from stations where trains
pass without stopping.
Pieces of wood or coal must not be thrown
from an engine or train when in motion, lest sec-
tionmen or others be injured thereby.
Flying switches must not be made, except
at places or by persons authorized by the
Superintendent. In the absence of such
authority a switch rope must be used.1
No person will be permitted to ride on the
engine or tender without an order from the
Superintendent, except the engineman, fireman,
inspector of engines, and road masters in the
i. " Double shunting is strictly prohibited, except when
done by engines specially used for the purpose of shunting,
and attended by experienced shunters. Fly shunting of empty
vehicles against loaded passenger trains, and of vehicles containing passengers or live stock is strictly prohibited."—English Standard. Trains and Stations.
127
discharge of their duties on their respective
divisions, and trainmen, in cases of accident,
or whenever necessary.
Employes, when on duty in connection with
the train service, will be under the authority,
and conform to the orders, of the Superintendent of the division upon which they may
happen to be at work. | |§
Mail agents, messengers of express companies, sleeping car conductors and porters, news
agents, and individuals in charge of private
cars, must consider themselves as employes in
all matters connected with the movement and
government of trains, and must conform to the
directions of the conductors of the trains upon
which they may be employed. ,f|
Conductors and enginemen are required to
compare time daily with the standard time of
the company. §§;
In order to insure uniform time being kept
at all the stations on the line, to which time
is not telegraphed, the following regulations
should be strictly observed:
Each conductor must, before starting on his
journey, satisfy himself that his watch is correct with the standard clock, and must again
compare it, and regulate it, if necessary, at
the end of his journey, before commencing his
return trip. ^
The conductor in charge of the first passen- 128
Railway Service :
ger train (starting after 8 A. M.), stopping at
all stations on the portion of the main line, or
branch over which it runs, must, on his arrival
at each station at which there is no telegraph
office, give the agent or other person in charge
the precise time, in order that the station clock
may be regulated accordingly; and, in the event
of the time given by the conductor differing
from that of the station clock, the latter must
be altered to agree.
The agents will be held responsible for keeping their clocks properly regulated in accordance
with this order, and must at once report to the
Superintendent any serious defects that may
occur in their working, in order that the necessary steps may be taken for their immediate
repair.
Conductors of trains running at night, upon
a single track road, are required to report in
person to the operator at every night telegraph
office at which they stop.        <§
At night the conductors of freight trains will
make and sign duplicate statements (memorandum cards) of the time of leaving each
station, and give such statements to the telegraph operator, or, in case there is no operator,
to the watchman. When the next train going
in the same direction arrives, the operator or
watchman will hand the copy to the engineman
of such train.    Enginemen will be on the look-
■fri Trains and Stations.
129
out to receive such notices as they pass stations.
At stations where train registers are kept for
the information of trainmen, this rule need not
be observed.
All accidents, detention of trains, failure in
any way of engines, or defects in the road or
bridges, must be reported to the Superintendent
by telegraph from the next station.1
THE  TRACK.3!
| The laborers must be in squads of such number and force as the roadmaster may direct,
and to each squad there must be a foreman,
who must work constantly with his squad, and
be held responsible for the faithful and efficient
execution of the work under his care."3
The safety of life and property requires that
sectionmen should be especially vigilant in foggy
weather and during and after storms.4
1. "Conductors and engineers are required to report
promptly any defect they may discover in the track, to the
Superintendent of repairs of track."—1853.
2. Generally speaking, only those rules that immediately
affect the movement and safety of trains are embraced herein.
"The Road-Master's Assistant," by Huntington, revised by
Latimer, C. E. A. A. G. W. R. W., and published under the
auspices of the Railroad Gazette, contains a very clear and
exhaustive statement of the duties and responsibilities of trackmen. It is worthy of the perusal of managers and trackmen.
—Regulations, 1854.
3. I In each gang of platelayers or men repairing the permanent way, there shall be a foreman or ganger"—Eng.
Standard.
4. I They must see that after all heavy winds, rains, and
other storms, and during the same, the men are out on the road
9
-#* 130
Railway Service :
In no case, except in the most absolute
necessity, is a rail to be displaced or any other
work to be performed, by which an obstruction
may be made to the passage of the trains during
a fog or snow storm, and the times for effecting
repairs which involve the stopping of trains
must, as far as practicable, be so selected as to
interfere as little as possible with the passage
of the traffic.1
■ " In case  of accident to trains the nearest
section foreman will at once take his  whole
ready to render such assistance as may be required, and to
give proper warning to the trains, and to repair such damages
and remove such obstructions a£ are necessary.
I In foggy weather, when a train can not be seen at three
hundred yards, all the foremen and laborers must leave their
ordinary work, and the foreman must range them along his
portion of the line, over which they must walk up and down,
driving such spikes and keys, or doing such other work as needs
attention, and be ready to give notice of danger to the signalmen or the trains.
" They must see that such buckets, axes, and other tools
are kept at the bridges and other structures, as to protect them
from fire and other damage ; and thai each squad of laborers
is supplied with, and keeps ready for use when at work on the
road, white and red flags, lanterns, and torpedoes.
" They must see that all rocks, stones, earth, trees, stumps,
and-other things that are likely and liable to fall on the track
or endanger the trains, be thrown down or removed, and such
other measures taken as to insure the safety of the road." 1854.
" Trackmen should appreciate the fact, that the safety of
the lives of passengers, and of the property transported over
the road, is largely dependent upon their watchfulness and
discretion, and that any failure to discharge their duties
promptly and thoroughly may result in the destruction of both."
1863. I ■' S^|
1. " In all cases, before taking out a rail, the platelayer must
have at the spot a perfect rail in readiness to replace it."—Eng.
Standard. Trains and Stations.
131
force to the assistance of the train, even if it is
not on his own section.
"In case of a wreck, foremen must at once
appoint the necessary watchmen to prevent
freight or company's property from being stolen.
Said watchmen are to remain on duty until the
goods are removed. 1 / |j|
§ On receiving notice of a wreck or accident
they (roadmasters) must at once proceed to
the place and take full charge and control of all
track forces and construction trains ; put the
track in condition for the safe passage of trains ;
and remove the wreck with the quickest possible dispatch."1
The gravel or ballast unloaded along the line
must be promptly spread upon the track, so as
not to endanger the safety of trains.2      If
Fuel, ties, or material of any kind must not be
piled within six feet of the main track.
| In lifting the permanent way, no lift must
be greater than three inches at once, and then
it must be effected in a length of at least
twenty yards, in such a manner as not to occasion any sudden change of gradient. Both
rails must be raised equally and at the same
1. Southern Line.
2. | No ballast must be thrown up to a higher level between
the rails than three inches, and it must be thrown as much as
possible on the outside of each line and between the two lines,
and be replaced as soon as possible/ The rails must be kept
clear of gravel, ballast, or any other material."—Eng. Standard.
'   If 132
Railway Service :
•. 'Ii
time, and the ascent must be made in the
direction in which the trains run."1
if| When making repairs that obstruct the track,
or jeopardize the safety of passing trains, sec-
tionmen must place danger signals upon the
track, as required by rule I L," for the protection of trains.2
If the track is in bad order, or if, for any
other reason, it is desired that trains should run
slowly, green signals must be used.3
Sectionmen must keep the fences in good
order at crossings and at each side of the track ;
they must  see that  all   breaks are  repaired
1. English Standard.
2. | When repairing, lifting the line, or performing any operation so as to make it necessary for a train to proceed cautiously, the foreman or ganger, must send a man back at least
half a mile, and as much farther as the circumstances of the
case render necessary, who must exhibit the | caution" signal
so as to be plainly visible to the engine driver of the approaching train.
1 Each gang of platelayers or laborers must be supplied
by the inspector of permanent way for the district with two sets
of day signals, two hand signal lamps, if working after dark,
and a proper number of detonators. Each ganger will be held
responsible for having his signals constantly in proper order
and ready for use."—Eng. Standard.
3. H A green flag, or a green light, exhibited by platelayers,
indicates that trains and engines must reduce speed to fifteen
miles an hour over the portion of line protected by such green
signal. The " caution " signal must always be exhibited at a
distance of at least half a mile from the point where it is
required that the speed.of trains and engines should be reduced
and as much further as the circumstances of the case render
necessary."—English *Stdhdard. Trains and Stations.
133
without delay i1 that cattle guards are kept in
repair; that all gates that are found open are
closed, and that all bars found down are put in
proper condition.2 ft,
When watchmen are employed, they must
walk over the track and carefully inspect the
same, at intervals between the passage of
trains.3 It is the duty of watchmen (and
switchmen and agents as well) to signal trains
that disregard the regulations prescribing the
i, " Surely, it is far better to stop a hand car and repair a
fence than to subject a company to damages for killing stock,
with the additional expense occasionally, of a wrecked train.
In a word, men, when passing over a road with a hand car,
should be prompt to remedy every defect they discover. It
should be a rule never to postpone any work of repairs that
can be done on the instant."—The Roadmasters' Assistant,
p. 118.
2. "Gangers must close and fasten all gates they find open,
and report the circumstances, in order that the persons who
are required to keep such gates closed and fastened may be
charged with the penalties."
"The gangers must take care to maintain proper scotches
on all sidings requiring them."—English Standard.
3. " Whenever any person has occasion to walk on the railway he must not walk on either line of rails, but on the rig^t
hand side of the line, off the ballast, clear of passing engines
or trains/'—Great Northern Railway of England.
| Gangers must order off the railway all persons trespassing within the fences, and must do their best to obtain the
trespasser's name and address. If any trespasser persists in
remaining, they must take him to the nearest station and give
him in charge of the station master or police there ; or (if any
police constable be nearer than the nearest station) gangers
must give the trespasser in charge of such constable, and at
once report having done so to the nearest station,"—Great
Western Railway of- England.^^ 134
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time and distance that must elapse between
trains that are following each other.1
Trackmen must observe the condition of the
telegraph lines as they pass over their sections,
and in the event the line is broken or obstructed,
they will make such temporary repairs as may
be required, reporting the circumstances of the
case to the operator at the next telegraph station.
" Each ganger is required, in the event of
storms or floods, to examine carefully the
action of the water through the culverts and
bridges on his length of line ; and should he
see any cause to apprehend danger to the
works, he must immediately exhibit the proper
signals for the trains to proceed cautiously, or
to stop, as necessity may require, and inform
the inspector thereof; and until the inspector
arrives, he must take all the precautionary
measures necessary for securing the stability of
the line."2 f |    '
i. u The foreman and other men of the squads must look at
every passing train, and if they see a train running on the
same track, within ten minutes of another train, or anything
wrong, they must signal to the engineman with a red signal,
and they must report to the trackmaster when an engineman
does not obey the signals."—1854.
" Where the line is not worked under the block telegraph regulations, if a passenger train approach within ten
minutes of a goods, cattle, mineral, or ballast train, or light
engine, the men repairing the line must give the engine-driver
of such passenger train a signal to go slowly."—Eng. Standard.
2. G. W. Ry., England. Trains and Stations.
135
They must see that the ditches are kept
open, and that the water courses under the
bridges and culverts are not allowed to become
clogged or obstructed.1 ft
In wet weather, and during and after snow
storms, they must use every effort to prevent
delay or accident to trains/4
Track foremen must carefully inspect every
portion of the section under their charge at
least once each day.3
"Each ganger must, when going over his
length of line to examine the keys and fastenings of the rails, have with him a keying hammer and spanners or nut keys, and be prepared
promptly to supply keys, nuts, packings, fast-
i. " They will be particular not to allow standing water
upon any part of their line, but keep the ditches open and
free at all times, and keep flood-wood away .from the culverts,
bridges, and water-courses."—1853.
2. " Their whole time will be devoted to their duties in the
service of the company, and generally their services are more
urgently required in bad, inclement weather than at any other
time."
| In winter, it is as much their duty to keep the track
clear from snow and ice, as far as it is possible, as to keep it
in repair. At this season every possible effort should be made
to keep the road Open, and insure the regularity of trains."—
1853. Ill f P-      H
3. 1 Each ganger must walk over his length of line every
morning and evening on week days (except where the engineers consider once each day sufficient, and have laid down
such instructions in writing) and where passenger trains are
run, once on Sundays, and tighten up all keys and other fastenings that may be loose; and he must examine the line, level,
and gauge of the road, and the state of the joints, marking,
and if necessary, repairing such as are defective."—G. W.
Ry., Eng. 136
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enings, or other parts of the permanent way
that may be required."1
" No wagon or other vehicle employed in
the permanent way department must be left
in any siding without the wheels nearest to the
entrance into the main line being properly
scotched and secured."2
No notice will be given trackmen of the passage of trains, and they must therefore govern
themselves accordingly.3
Section foremen must report to the Superintendent any neglect upon the part of trainmen
to properly regard danger or caution signals.
Old or unused material of every kind upon
the line of the road, or at stations or shops,
must be carefully collected and preserved.4
1. G. W. Ry., England.
2. English Standard.
3. " On no occasion, except in cases of emergency or of
accident, and never at night, or in a fog, or when a train is
due, must a trolley be run in the wrong direction, and in such
cases the trolley must be preceded at a distance of not less
than a mile by a man with a red flag and detonators. In
tunnels a red light must always be used."—Great Wes.Ry. Eng.
" In the case of a single line, the trolley must be so protected
in both directions. No trolley must, in any case, be placed
on the line, except by the platelayers and with the knowledge
of the ganger, who is responsible for seeing it properly protected and used. No trolley must,under any circumstances, be
attached to a train, and all trolleys when not in use must be
taken off the rails, placed well clear of the line, and the wheels
secured with chain and padlock."—Eng. Standard^
4. " They will protect the materials or property of the com*
pany (whether new or old) upon their line from depredation,
loss or injury, and keep it properly and neatly piled up, ready
for use or removal."—1853. Trains and Stations.
137
"All luggage, goods, or articles found on the
line must immediately be taken to the nearest
station, and a report made containing the best
information that can be obtained respecting the
train from which they may have fallen.1
" Trackmen working in a tunnel, when trains
are approaching in both directions, must, if
unable to reach any recess in the walls, lie
down either in the space between the two lines
of rails, or between the line and the side of the
tunnel, until the trains have passed. The width
of the space depends on the construction of the
tunnel, with which every man must make himself acquainted in order that he may select the *
place which affords the greatest safety." 2
Trackmen must desist from work upon a
train approaching, and must not cross over to
the other lines, but move to the side of the
road, clear of all the lines, to secure themselves
from the risk of accident by trains running in
opposite directions.
In the event of any fire taking place upon or
near the line, employes must take immediate
measures for putting it out.3
1. Eng. Standard.
"Anything which may have been lost from a passing train,
such as a casting, nut, screw, or bolt, or any piece of machinery, piece of freight, baggage, or other matter, they will pick
up and carry to a regular station, and deliver to the station-
agent."—Old Rule.
2. Eng. Road.
3. I Careless firemen frequently throw overboard handfuls of
dirty waste, which  at any time may be ignited by a spark 138
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Bridges and culverts should be carefully
inspected after the passage of each train ; but
where this is impossible they must.be examined
daily, or oftener if sectionmen have occasion
to pass over them. *A11 defects should be
promptly remedied, and in the event sparks,
burning waste, fuel or fire of any kind is
observed, it should be put out.1
"Before removing any traveling crane, the
person in charge of it must see that the jib is
properly lowered and secured, and so fixed that
it will pass under the gauge, and, when it has
to be removed by train, it must, when practicable, be so placed that the jib will point towards
the rear of the train.        v    If If
"Whenever a crane is in use whereby the
jib, or any other portion of it, obstructs or fouls
any line of rails in use for traffic purposes, or
whenever, by any possibility, during the loading of round timber, long timber, angle iron, or
from a passing locomotive. Fire may be carried thence into
the dry grass by the roadside, afterwards into the fence, and
soon to the hay stacks, buildings, wood piles, etc."—The
Roadmasters' Assistant, p. 116.
i. "Whena gang of trackmen engaged at work discover a
smoke on a line, they should at once attend to it. It should
be a rule at all times never to neglect the least indication that
a fire has caught on the line. On more than one occasion
expensive bridges have been destroyed owing to a neglect to
stop the hand car and remove a live coal of fire dropped by a
locomotive, or to put out a fire caused by a spark from a smoke
stack lodging in a decayed spot of timber. Some of the worst
wrecks on record have been taken out of culverts where a
stringer has been nearly burned through."— The Roadmasters*
Assistant, pp. 116-117. Trains and Stations.
139
other articles of great length, the main line may
be obstructed, it is incumbent on the person in
charge of the loading to place danger signals "2
as required by rule " L."
MOVEMENT  OF  TRAINS  BY  TELEGRAPH.    JH
Superintendents and train dispatchers are
the only persons authorized to move fxains by
special orders, and but one person on the same
subdivision of a road should be permitted to
move trains by special orders at the same time.
Before an order is given by telegraph for two
or more trains to meet at a given station, the
red signal to stop the trains must first be displayed at such meeting point, and until this is
done no order must be sent to either train.
When a meeting or passing point is to be
made by two or more trains, the order must be
definite and conclusive; it should first be sent to
the conductor having the right to the road.
If it is desired to give a train the right to
run against a passenger train, the order must
first be sent to the conductor of the latter, and
no order must be given the opposing train until
the receipt of a satisfactory reply from the conductor of the passenger train. And in the
same way, before giving a passenger train the
right to the road, over a train possessing such
right, the order should first be sent to the train
I. English Road. 140
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having the right to the road; when a satisfactory reply has been received from the conductor of such train, then the order may be transmitted to the other train.
A train of an inferior grade must not be
directed to move ahead of a regular train of a
superior grade, unless it shall have full schedule
time (according to the regulation for trains of
that grade) to reach the point to which it is
ordered, in advance of the time at which the
train of a higher grade is due at such point.
And in the event of a train of an inferior
grade running ahead of a regular train of
superior grade, as directed in this rule* can not
make schedule time, its conductor, as soon as
he discovers such to be the case, must leave
a signalman to warn the approaching train,
ahead of which he has been ordered to run,
and must report to the Superintendent for
orders at the next telegraph station. The conductor and engineman of the train of superior
grade that is following must be notified in
writing of the order directing the train of an
inferior grade to proceed, but it must be distinctly understood that such conductor and
engineman will not be held responsible for any
accident "that may occur in consequence of the
slow train getting in its way, unless such accident shall have been caused by a disregard of
signals or the rules and regulations. Trains and Stations.
141
All special orders for the movement of trains,
whether sent by telegraph or otherwise, must
be communicated in writing.
When a train is abandoned, the order of the
Superintendent directing its abandonment must
be sent by telegraph to all agents, conductors,
and enginemen upon the division.
No train must leave a station to run upon the
time of an abandoned train, which, by the regulation, would have the right of road, unless
the conductor and engineman of such train have
in their possession a copy of the order of abandonment, properly signed and certified to by
the operator.
Should a train be held at night at a telegraph
station, where there is no night operator, the
conductor will call the day operator into the
office for the purpose of receiving the orders
necessary before proceeding.
To enable trains to move with promptness
and regularity, such expedition as is consistent
with safety is enjoined upon trainmen and telegraph operators in the transmission and response to telegraph orders.
Conductors and enginemen must not ask for
running orders *until they are ready to leave
the station, and when an order has been received it must be executed without delay, unless otherwise directed.
Safety demands that all persons  connected ^K
142
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with  the movement of   trains by    telegraph
should use the utmost care and watchfulness.
The rules regarding or affecting the movement of trains must be strictly observed.
Orders must be made plain and explicit, and
if not fully understood by those to whom they
are addressed, an explanation must be asked
for by such persons before taking any action.
\ After the reception of an order it must be
strictly obeyed.
lln the transmission of orders by telegraph, no
abbreviations will be used, figures being written
in full.
At stations where telegraphic orders are
awaiting an expected train, operators will display a red flag by day or a red light by night.
Each station must adhere strictly to the locality
fixed upon as the best for the purpose of displaying the signals, and such place, once selected, must not be changed except for good
and sufficient reasons.1
Signals must be promptly removed by operators when the object for which they were displayed has been accomplished.
When the signal is shown as provided above,
the approaching train will, in all cases, be
brought to a full stop (and in such cases it is
I. " No new signal must be brought into use, nor any alteration made in the position or use of any existing signal, without
the authority of the Superintendent of the line."—Eng. Standard. Trains and Stations.
143
the duty of operators to see that trains are so
stopped), and the conductor must go immediately to the telegraph office to receive and answer such orders as may be awaiting the train.
Should the signal have been displayed for some
other train, the conductor must, before proceeding, receive from the operator a written release,
stating for what train the signal was displayed.
Agents and operators will, upon receiving telegraphic orders for expected trains, immediately
exhibit the proper signals, as required by the
foregoing rules. The signal must not be relied upon exclusively to hold trains. Operators
must watch closely for the expected train, using
all necessary means to stop it. In case the
train, or any part of it, has already passed the
telegraph office, although still at the station,
the operator's understanding of the telegraphic
order to hold the train must not be transmitted
to the Superintendent until the engineman and
conductor have been shown such order and understand that they are held for orders.
- Conductors and enginemen must, in all cases,
read the order so as to avoid any danger of
misunderstanding it.
All' orders by telegraph for the movement of
trains must be taken in triplicate by operators.
Manifold paper should be used for this purpose,
so that correct copies may be secured. Orders
will be addressed to the conductor and engine- 144
Railway Service :
man, to whom they will be read aloud by the
operator, before their delivery by him. The
conductor must, upon receipt of an order, write
out in full his understanding of such order.
This understanding must be read by the engine-
man, and must be signed by both the conductor
and engineman. It will then be transmitted to
the person giving the order, who will, if the
same is correctly understood, reply w O.K.,"
giving the time. This reply will be endorsed
on the order by the operator receiving the
same, over his signature. After being endorsed,
one copy of the order will be given to the
conductor, and one copy to the engineman, the
remaining copy being placed on file. Each
official must receive the order in person from
the operator. No order will be acted upon
until the reply " O.K." has been received and
endorsed upon the order as described above;
or, in other words, conductors and enginemen
must not leave a station when directed to run
by special orders, without each having the same
in writing in their possession, properly endorsed.
After the receipt of an order, should the line
cease to work before the reply " O.K." is received, as per the preceding rule, the operator
will not deliver such order, but will inform both
the conductor and engineman of the occurrence.
It is their duty to adopt such precautions as
will prevent accident.    Trains will not proceed Trains and Stations.
145
in such cases, except under protection of signals, until all doubt has been removed.
When an order is sent to a train which may
be carrying a signal for a train, such order will
not cover the train that may be following, and
in no case will the train for which the signal is
carried avail itself of any special orders which
the train bearing such signals may receive,
without a special order to that- effect. When
orders are duplicated to following trains, the
understanding of each conductor and engine-
man must be separately written, and must be
responded to by the person giving the order, as
provided in the second preceding rule.1
In no case must the red signals be removed
by operators until all trains have passed for
which the order is intended.
Conductors and enginemen must look out for
signals at telegraph stations. §
Absence of proper signals at stations or on
the road must be reported to the Superintendent.2    . feo - :. '
Under the system of moving trains by tele-
i. "A misunderstanding between trainmen and others
interested in the running of trains is the most common cause
of collision."—Huntington.
2. " Should a guard find any signal exhibited which ought not
to be, or observe any other irregularity in the working of signals, or should he see any cattle or other obstruction on the
line, or any defect in the signals, works, permanent way, or
telegraph, he must report the same at the first station at which
the train stops, and also on his journal."—Eng. Standard.
10 146
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graphic orders, trains may be expected upon
any part of the road at any time ; this fact
must be kept constantly in mind by employes.
In the event it is impossible or undesirable
at any time to move trains by telegraphic
orders, then and in that case trainmen will
conform to the schedule and the rules and
regulations governing the movement of trains
incident thereto.
Trains must not pass a junction of two lines
nor pass from a double track line to a single
track line until the officials in charge have
examined the register, kept by the agent or
person in charge at such place, for the purpose
of ascertaining whether trains due or past due
have arrived, except in those cases where they
have a special order from the Superintendent
to proceed without stopping. *
Trains and Stations,
147
CHAPTER VII.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS  TO   CONDUCTORS.
The general direction and government of a
train from the time it receives its passengers or
freight until its arrival at its destination is
vested in the conductor, and he will be held
responsible for its safety and proper care ; it is
his duty to see that all rules and regulations
and orders affecting his train are carried out.1
Conductors are responsible for the conduct
of men employed upon the trains;3 for the
heating and ventilation of the cars, and for the
signals, lamps, tools, etc., entrusted to their
care. They must report defects in the air
brakes (when such brakes are used) specifying
the number of the car or engine on which it
1. | The duty of passenger, goods, cattle, mineral, and other
guards consists in the general charge and management of
the trains when they are moving on he line. They have general control over the enginemen, ordering them when to stop or
to proceed at a different speed as they may deem right, or to
shunt or move wagons or other vehicles."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
2. "When there are two guards with a train, the under
guard must obey the orders of the head guard.
" Each train is under the control of the head guard, who
must instruct the engine-driver as-to the stopping, starting, and
general working of the train. Whilst trains are within station
limits, the guards are under the orders of the station master or
person in charge."—Eng. Standard. 148
Railway Service :
occurs. They will invariably require the air
brakes to be tested, cylinders and connections
examined, and also engine signal bell to be
rune from the rear car of their train before
CD
leaving a terminal station.
They must report for duty, and in readiness
to take charge of- their trains, at least thirty
minutes previous to the schedule time for starting, and as much earlier as they may be required, to assist in switching and making up of
their trains.      p *;
They must be provided with a good reliable
watch, which they must keep regulated by the
standard clock of the company.
They must compare time with the engineman
of the train before starting,1 and know that he
is provided with a schedule and a complete set
of signals and tools.
They are also required to see that their trains
are supplied with a full set of signals, and, when
upon the road, they must see that such signals
are used in accordance with the rules of the
company. ;„~
Should a vehicle be attached to, or detached
from, the rear of a train at an intermediate station, the conductor must see that the signals are
removed to their proper places on the train.
I. " The guards are provided with timepieces. It is their
duty to inform the engineman of the hour at every chief station
or junction."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations.
149
Each train (not including the engine) should
be supplied with not less than twenty-four
torpedoes,1 five red lanterns, five red flags, five
white lanterns, and five white flags, also with
switch-rope, axes, saws, crowbars, chains, spare
links and pins, buckets, oil, and such other tools
and supplies as may be necessary for daily use,
or in the event of accident or delay to the train.
If compelled by accident or other cause to
move at an unusually slow rate of speed, or stop
their train on the main track, they must take
immediate action to signal any trains that may
be approaching in either direction, as required
by rule " L." They must keep in mind that
nothing will justify a collision between trains,
and that the prompt use of signals in the
manner directed will, under all ordinary circumstances, prevent it.   |§
Conductors and brakemen when meeting or
passing other trains, or when approaching or
passing a station, must be on tlje lookout for
signals, and be prepared to do any thing which
the expedition of business, or the safety of their
train requires. >^-\
Conductors of trains must attend personally
to all switches used by their engines or trains,
and they will be held responsible for the proper
adjustment of the switches used by them, ex-
I. " The earlier regulations governing the protection of trains
have no reference to the use of torpedoes." 150
Railway Service :
cept where regular switchmen are stationed.
When there is more than one train to use a
switch, conductors must not leave the switch
open for the following train unless the conductor of such train is at the switch to take charge
of it. |
Conductors must see that street or public
road-crossings are not obstructed by their trains
while waiting. They will be particular when
at junction stations, to see that no part of their
train is allowed to stand on the crossings of
other railways. This is especially important
in regard to trains carrying passengers.
Conductors must enter the particulars of
their trains in the register or arrival book at
the ends of divisions. These books must be
personally examined by conductors before leaving such stations, for the purpose of satisfying
themselves as to the arrival of trains.
Upon double track roads, conductors must,
before leaving the starting point, examine the
register for the purpose of noting the departure of trains, their number and time of leaving.
They must visit the telegraph office before
leaving terminal stations1 to see if orders of
any kind await them.2    Conductors of freight
1. A terminal station is a station where a train is made up;
upon a long line there will be several terminal stations ; they
are usually at the end of divisions or subdivisions.
2. "Everyguard, before starting with his train,must examine the notices to see whether there is any thing requiring his Trains and Stations.
151
trains must at the same time report to the Superintendent the name of the engine and the
number of empty and loaded cars in their
trains. A similar report must be made by them
upon their arrival at the end of their route.
§|§ Conductors must call the attention of the
repairer of cars, or of the agent, in his absence, to any damage which may have been
done to cars, or to any defects which may come
to their knowledge, that the same may be repaired.1 M-
Should complaint be made of the running of
any car, the conductor must report it to the
first car repairer, and enter the particulars on
his report, giving the number and class of car ;
but if the conductor have reason to apprehend
danger from such car before it can be inspected,
he must have it detached from the train. g|
Conductors will report to the Superintendent
any neglect on the part of car repairers to inspect each and every car that may pass such car
repairers' stations; any neglect to carefully examine the running gear and brake fixtures of
cars, and make such repairs as may be required ;
special attention on those parts of the line over which he has
to work, and he must, before going off duty, ascertain from
the notices posted for his guidance, the time at which he is
required to be on duty the following day."—Eng. Standard.
I. | It is an established rule, that if an accident happens to
any foreign vehicle, the company on whose line it is running,
is liable for the loss or damage, and also for all contingent loss
or damage/'—Gr. Nor. Ry., Eng. 152
Railway Service :
any neglect to give special attention to passenger, baggage, mail and express cars. Repairers
should not permit cars to leave their stations
that are not in good running order. It is also
the duty of car repairers to see that cars employed in the passenger service are properly
washed, and that all the interior fixtures are
kept clean and in good repair.1
When the wheel of a car or engine breaks, the
conductor in charge must ascertain, by personal
examination, the name of the manufacturer, and
the date and number of the wheel. This information must be transmitted by letter to the
Superintendent, and must also be noted in the
train report. •
In the event trainmen discover any defect or
break in the telegraph, they must report the fact
to the operator at the next station.
Conductors will advise the Superintendent
of any dilatoriness or lack of attention upon
the part of agents or others whose duties
require their co-operation in the movement of
trains,   w- ^ ^
Conductors, or their subordinates, must not,
under any circumstances, undertake to carry or
,take charge of valuable packages, or make col-
I. " All plated reflectors in lamps are to be wiped with clean-
washed leathers, kept solely for that purpose, and not rubbed
with powder; when, however, they are much tarnished, they
are to be cleaned with a little whitening."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations.
153
lections for individuals, unless authorized to do
so by the proper officer^ of the company.1
Conductors will make a detailed report, in
writing, to the Superintendent, of all accidents
or injuries to persons or property, that may occur
upon or in connection with their train, also the
names of witnesses, if any.
They must report at the end of each trip the
number of each and every car hauled in their
train; the initials upon each car; the point
from which taken; the place where left;
whether loaded or empty; also, the class of
car.
It is important that letters, way bills and
dispatches should be delivered promptly.
When a trainman or other employ^ is returning to the station at which he resides, by a
train other than that he is appointed to work,
he must render all assistance in his power in
the working of the train by which he travels,
and obey any instructions received from the
conductor in charge of such train.2 v
1. "Conductors will not be concerned in any freight or
express matter over the road by the passenger train, and will
permit none to be taken by any person, except the agent of
the express having contracts with the road, and will see that
the express agents confine themselves strictly within the limits
of their contract." —1854.
" Guards are forbidden to carry any description of package
either for themselves, their friends, or the public, without proper
authority in writing for the free transit thereof, or unless such
package be properly entered on the way-bill."—Eng. Standard.
2. " The guard must see that platelayers and other workmen
of the company holding third-class passes, are kept as separate
ifk 154
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PASSENGER   CONDUCTORS.
Passenger conductors must make themselves
generally acquainted with the duties of engine-
men, baggagemen, brakemen, express messengers, mail agents, sleeping-car conductors,
porters and news agents, and rigidly enforce
the rules and regulations applicable to them
upon their trains, reporting to the Superintendent  any insubordination, neglect of duty,  or
J 'CD «/   '
misconduct upon the part of such men.
" When a deficiency of room occurs in a train
while on the journey, guards must telegraph to
the next station where carriages are kept, to
as possible from the passengers. When a large number of
workmen travel by the same train, carriages must be specially
provided for their use, and they must ride in these carriages
only."—Eng. Standard.
"All guards are to enter their time in the time-book every
Friday or Saturday night at King's Cross ; if this be not done,
they will be liable each to a fine of 25 cents, and no money
will be paid till the following week."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
1. '* When there are more conductors than the number of
trains running, those in waiting at either end of the road will
be at the depots on the arrival and departure of all trains, as
far as practicable, to aid in making up the departing trains, or
discharging those arriving.
" They will see that extra cars are kept at the proper places
upon the line for use in case of accident or other necessity.
u They will consider themselves to be, and act as, brakemen,
when necessary."—1853.
" When on duty, conductors must be respectably dressed.
14 Every man on passenger trains and at stations must appear
on duty clean and neat."—1854.
" Every passenger guard must have with him his watch,
whistle, and carriage key, and take in his van a red, a green,
and a white flag, a box of detonators (not less than twelve),
and a hand signal-lamp."—G. W. Ry., Engr Trains and Stations.
155
have one or more in readiness to attach, on the
arrival of the train."1 ♦
. They must see that passengers are properly
seated, and will not allow them to stand on the
platforms of cars, while in motion, nor ride in the
baggage, express, or mail cars, nor in any way
to violate the rules and regulations of the company.2    /■■
They must be respectful and considerate in
their intercourse with passengers, conveying politely any information desired, and in every way
consistent with the rules of the company and the
rights of others they will endeavor to contribute to the pleasure and comfort of passengers.3
They must collect a ticket or fare from each
1. Eng. Standard.
2. " They will attend to the wants of the passengers before
the departure of their trains ; to obtaining proper seats for
ladies, and to a proper disposition of their baggage, and see
that everything is done in a quiet but efficient manner, to ensure the departure of their trains at the appointed time.
| They will endeavor, with proper and gentlemanly discretion, to seat their passengers in such a manner as will best conduce to the comfort and safety of the whole."—1853.
3. " It is one of the special duties of the conductor to do any
thing (not inconsistent with other duties or the regulations of
the road) to accommodate passengers; to answer in a proper
and civil manner all questions, and endeavor to leave a good-
impression on every one.
I They will make themselves acquainted with routes of
travel in general, and especially those in the vicinity of the
road, and on the great main lines in connection with the road.
" From their position they are able to exercise a material influence in turning the patronage of passengers to certain hotels along the line, as well as at the end of the road. The
impropriety of this they will readily see."—1853, 156
Railway Service:
passenger, and make reports of the same in the
manner and form prescribed. Any passenger
refusing to pay fare must be put off the train at
the next station, but unnecessary violence must
not be used in doing so.1
They must not permit drunken or disorderly
persons to get upon their trains. It is their
duty to maintain proper order, and they must
not allow the vicious and unruly to indulge in
rudeness or profanity.3
They must see that the doors of the carriages are properly closed, and in case of any
unusual stoppage on the road, must request the
passengers to keep their seats, except when
necessary to alight.3
1. " Guards, on arrival at a ticket-collecting station, must
request the passengers to have their tickets ready, and must
assist the ticket-collectors by opening and closing the carriage
doors; they must not, however, collect or examine tickets,
except under special instructions.
41 The guard must take care that passengers enter the proper
carriages for the places to which they are booked, and that no
passenger is allowed to leave the train for the purpose of rebooking by the same train, with a view to evade payment of
the proper fare.":—Eng. Standard.
2. " Carefulness is always earnestly enjoined, and the men on
the train must always act in concert."—1854.
3. "In all cases of detention or stoppage, it is the duty of the
guards to explain to passengers the cause thereof, and if there
is no danger to them, to satisfy them of that fact, and endeavor
to pacify those that may be annoyed.
" When a train overshoots a station, the guard is to order
the engineman to put back to the platform, and not to allow the
passengers to get out until the train has been stopped at the
platform."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
44 The guard must not allow any person to ride outside the
carriages, nor must he permit any unauthorized person to ride
* Trains and Stations.
157
Smoking in the carriages, except in the cars
specially set apart for that purpose, is strictly
forbidden.
They will not permit beggars, peddlers, or
gamblers to practice their vocations upon the
trains.      % ■
They must notice the temperature of the
coaches, and instruct brakemen about attending to the heating apparatus, and to the ventilators.   — n
Shortly before reaching a station at which
the train stops, they must pass through each
ear, except the sleeping car, and announce
distinctly the name of the station they are approaching. They will require brakemen to repeat this announcement in each car, with the
doors closed, twice in succession, as distinctly
as possible, just before the train arrives at the
station.1.   They will require brakemen to assist
in his van, or in any compartment or vehicle in which parcels
or luggage may be placed.
44 No carriage door must be opened to allow a passenger to
alight from, or enter, a train before it has come to a stand, or
after it has started."—Eng. Standard.
I. 44 The policeman, porter, or other person on duty at a
station must, on the arrival of a train, walk the length of the
train, and call out in a clear and audible voice the name of
that station when opposite the window of each carriage, so as to
make every passenger in the train aware of the name of the
station; and particular care must be taken by the clerk in
charge, policemen, and porters, to observe the indication of any
passenger, that they desire to alight, by their knocking at the
windows, or otherwise."—Gt. Nor^Ry., Eng. 158
Railway Service:
ladies,1 children, and infirm persons to get on
and off the trains, and insist upon their being
courteous to all persons. At teiminal stations
conductors will not leave their trains until passengers have alighted, and they must render
them all needful assistance.2
They must not signal their trains to start
while passengers are getting on or off the train.3
When the signal is made, the conductor
should stand near the front end of the forward
passenger car.4
They must report every instance of agents
failing to give passengers an opportunity to
procure tickets, reporting any neglect of an
agent to open the ticket office of his station
I. " When ladies are traveling alone, the guards are to pay
every attention to their comfort; and in placing them in the
train, they must, if requested, endeavor to select a carriage for
them (according to the class of their tickets) in which other
ladies are traveling ; and if they wish to change carriages during the journey, the guards must enable them to do so."
Standard.
Eng.
2. 44 When they arrive at the end of their trip, they will not
leave their passengers until the whole of the baggage is distributed, aiding in its distribution and generally attending to the
wants of their passengers, especially ladies and infirm persons."—1853.
3. 44 They will always bring their train to a dead stop to
take up or leave passengers."—1853.
4. "The signal for starting the train must be given by the
'guard blowing his whistle and showing a hand-signal."—Eng.
Standard.
" The guards and other servants of the company must take
their seats in the trains before they are in motion, so as to
avoid the dangerous practice of jumping on the steps, or getting into the carriages after the trains leave the platform."—
Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations.
159
before the arrival of trains, when the rules
require it.
. They must know that the cars in their trains
have been inspected at terminal and other stations, as required.1 i
They are required to wear the prescribed
uniform, and must never appear on duty without it.        '. ■ '   If  • ' :11
Upon the arrival of a train at its destination,
the cars in which passengers may have ridden
must be searched by the conductor ;2 any articles found must be delivered to the agent at the
terminal station. The articles must be sent by
such agent to the general baggage agent, if not
called for within forty-eight hours.
V FREIGHT  CONDUCTORS.8
44 The guard in charge of the train must satisfy
himself before starting, and during the journey,
1. 44 They will also report all the interior defects of their
cars, like*the rattling of doors, windows, etc."—1864.
2. 44 Evejry first-class carriage is to be searched at the end of
each journey by the head guard, and every second and third-
class carriage by the second guard."—Gt. Nor.Ry., Eng.
44 They will at all times render all the service in their power
to forward the private business of the company (as well as its
business for the public) in the hauling of wood and materials
for use upon the road, and in bringing to the repair-shops cars
and parts thereof which maybe out of order and left upon any
part of the line."—1853.
3. " Every head goods guard must have with him his watch,
and whistle, a red, a green, and a white flag, a box of detonators (not less than twelve), a hand signal-lamp, a full set of tail
and side-lamps, two or more spare coupling-chains, a brake-
stick, two sprags, and two hand scotches."—G.  W. Ry., Eng. 160
Railway Service :
that the train is properly loaded, marshaled,
coupled, lamped, greased, and sheeted; that
the brakes are in good working order ; and that
the train is in a state of efficiency for traveling,
J CD'
and has the proper signals attached to it. He
must also carefully examine the loading of any
vehicles he may attach on the way, and if any
vehicle becomes unsafe from the shifting or
derangement of the load, must at once have the
load readjusted, or the vehicle removed from
the train.
" The guard must see that the chains on timber-trucks and on boiler-wagons are secured in
order to prevent their getting loose whilst traveling. Foremen, guards, and shunters must
take care that no timber-truck or boiler-wagon
is allowed to leave a station or siding without
the chains being first carefully examined and
made perfectly secure and,safe, and guards will
be held responsible for seeing that they remain
so during the journey.
" Before starting from a station, tHe guard
must see that the wagons are properly greased,
the coupling-chains and doors securely fastened,
and carefully examine the loading and sheeting
of the wagons, seeing that the goods are protected from rain and sparks from the engine;
also, that no load is too high or wide, or in any
way unsafe to travel. It is not sufficient for
the guard, on commencing his journey, to see Trains and Stations.
161
that all the wagons and their loads in his train
are in a secure state for transit, but he must see
that all these conditions are continued throughout the journey, especially with wagons that
are taken on at intermediate stations, and those
loaded with timber, cotton, wool, castings, machinery, and articles of great length and bulky
construction."1 j|   ";^^^^-' Jf -
Freight conductors must make themselves
generally acquainted with the duties of engine-
men, firemen and brakemen, and enforce the
rules and regulations applicable to them upon
their trains, and report to the Superintendent
any insubordination, neglect of duty, or misconduct.   -   . - ' SJ ■ Jt       '" "||j
They must see that the couplings, wheels,
journals and brakes of the cars in their train
are in good order before starting, and will inspect them, when their duties will permit, or
as often as the train stops to take water or
arrives at a meeting or passing point.2 ||
They must station  the  brakemen  at  their
1. Clearing House Standard, England.
In England the great bulk of the freight traffic is transported
upon open or flat cars, the property being protected by sheeting
or tarpaulin. The water-tight box car so universally used in
this country is practically unknown there.
2. "They will frequently examine the cars of their trains
to see that all nuts and screws are up to their bearings, and
the cars in order;  that  they are properly oiled—not oiling
ii 162
Railway Service :
respective posts1 on the train and see that they
keep their position and use the brakes with
discretion and good judgment — particularly
when descending heavy grades.2
They are positively forbidden to take any
loaded cars into their trains without a way-bill.
them at random, but when needed ; and for this purpose will
see that their trains are supplied with such tools as may be
wanted, as well as oil for the bearings.
44 They will not allow repairers to attach their repair cars
to their trains, unless it shall be necessary in order to forward
some very urgent piece of work."—1853.
44 They must examine carefully and minutely every wagon,
whether loaded or not, and its covering, the axle-boxes, the
fastenings of its doors and side-flaps, etc., etc., and the way in
which the goods are placed in the trucks, so that large loads
may not overhang, or be too high ; they must compare the road-
bills with the wagons ; see that they are placed in the proper
position in the train ; that they are entered correctly and
properly labelled."—Gr. Nor. Ry., Eng.
1. 44 No goods, cattle or coal train, may start without one
brake-van at the least, which must be placed behind the train;
and, in case of two brake-vans in one train, one of the guards
must ride in each, so as to work both the brakes."—Gr. Nor.
Ry., Eng.
In England the style- of the car used prevents brakemen
from traveling backwards and forwards upon the top of the
train, as in this country.
u The freight conductors must ride on the tender facing
train, or else on the rear car."—1854.
44 The guard must ride in his brake-van, and not upon the
engine or in any part of the train; he is forbidden to pass
over the tops of the carriages" (passenger cars) u when in
motion."—Eng. Standard.
44 They will consider themselves to be, and act as, brakemen
when their train is in motion."—1853.
2. 4< A rear brakeman, by leaving his post for a shdrt time
to have a friendly chat with his next brakeman, has been the
immediate cause of such mischief" (i. e., the cause of a collision).— The Trainmasters' Assistant, p. 124. Trains and Stations.
163
If way-bills are not ready, tfyey will not take
the goods, but report the fact at once to the
Superintendent, giving the name of the agent.
They will also refuse to take cars that, in their
judgment, are unsafely loaded, reporting the
reason therefor to the Superintendent.       |j||
They must not move cars from an intermediate siding or private switch without way-bills
have been furnished them by the agent at the
last station they pass before reaching such
siding or switch ; or in the event they do take
freight from such places without bills, they must
report the same at the first station where there
is an agent, when a way-bill must be made, at
the prices named in the tariff, from the place
where the freight was taken.
Passengers should only be allowed upon
such freight trains as the General Manager
may elect, and not upon such trains unless
they are provided with tickets.1
They must know that the cars contained in
their train anct reported as being empty are so
in fact.
They must see that the cars are always locked,
except when loading or unloading freight.
I. 44 They are prohibited from allowing persons to ride upon
the freight cars in the train ; nor will they allow them to ride
in any passenger car that may be attached to their train without
paying for it, even though they are in the employment of the
company, unless they have a written free pass from a proper
person ; except in cases of accident to the road or trains, when
they will act as the interest of the company may, in their
judgment, require."—1853.
ftW
liiil 164
Railway Service
They must also see that the windows of cars
are fastened. J|
They must take loaded cars from all stations
when they can haul them, although their train
may be behind time.1
They must carefully note (check) upon the
way-bill each article left at a point where the
company has no agent, attaching their signature
to the bill. If any goods are damaged or missing, they must make a note of the same upon
the face of the way-bill.
When loaded cars, destined for any station,
are left at another station, the way-bills must be
left with them.
They are required to treat those in charge
of stock politely, and render them every assistance possible in taking proper care of their
stock.2
1.44 The object of running freight trains being to do the business of the road, and not altogether to make time."— Western
Road.
44 In passing over the road, they will attach to their trains all
the loaded cars which may be ready for them, in the order in
which they come, whether at regular stations or side-tracks,
till they have a full train; but a loaded car is not deemed ready
for the train until the agent has the doors locked and fastened,
and a way-bill ready ; and the conductor will call for a waybill in all cases, that he may be sure of the proper distribution
of all the cars or freight in his train. They will take all empty
cars from side tracks where they are not wanted, and draw
them where they are required, if in the direction in which they
are running.
■1853.
2. 44 They will see that all live stock upon their trains are
fed and well taken care of, and put the cost of feeding them
upon the proper way-bill, for collection by the station agent."
— 1853. Trains and Stations.
165
They must not permit persons in charge of
live stock to ride free upon their trains without
a written permit from the proper official.
Freight conductors will be held responsible
for freight while in their charge.1
In leaving loaded cars at a station, they will
leave them at the most convenient place for
unloading, and in cases of this kind they must
act in harmony with the agent.     jf
They must personally check from the car the
way-freight unloaded and delivered from their
trains; the property must be checked in the
presence of the agent, and in the event there is
any freight over, or short, or damaged, the facts
must be noted on the way-bill.
In loading and unloading way-freight, they
must be particular to see that the property
contained in the car is in a safe position, so as
not to be afterwards affected or damaged by the
oscillation or jar of the train. §
\ They must see that care is exercised in loading and unloading way-freight, using every possible effort to prevent loss or damage.       ;§
They are required to deliver way-freight on
the platform at the freight house, or at such
other proper and reasonable place as the agent
may designate. - If
i. 44 They will be held accountable for any loss or damage to
freight caused by rough handling, by carrying it past its destination, by wrong delivery, or by neglecting to take it at way-
stations, when requested to do so by station agents."—1854. 166
Railway Service :
In delivering way-freight the train must not
be delaved longer than necessarv.1  •
Freight trains must stop at the places specified in the schedule, unless, on approaching a
station or siding, a signal is given by the agent
or signalman that it is not necessary for the
train to stop. When this is done, the train may
run past the station or siding without stopping,
unless there are cars or goods to leave, when
the engineman will have instructions from the
conductor to stop. In the case of a train timed
to stop at a station or siding " when required,"
the engineman of such train must stop at the station, or siding, unless he receives a signal to
proceed without stopping.2
They must not permit persons not duly authorized to enter cars or handle freight on
their train.
They will report any confusion or want of
method upon the part of agents in loading
freight.
1. 44 They, with the brakemen, will render all aid in their
power, on the arrival of their train at a station, to enable them
to leave in the shortest space of time ; that as much time may
be used in running, and as little in stops as possible,"—1853.
2. 44 In order to prevent the unnecessary stoppage of the
train, if the engine has a full load, and can not take more
wagons on, and has nothing to leave at the station, the guard
must give a green signal, to indicate to the clerk in charge that
he has his full load, and can not take more. And it will be the
duty of the clerk in charge to count the wagons in the train
signaled as fully loaded, in order that inquiry may be made,
in case of any improper refusal to stop on the part of the engineman."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Sng. Trains and Stations.
167
They must use great care in the handling
and loading of coal oil, and under no circumstances will it be loaded with other freight
that can be damaged by it. So far as practicable, it should be loaded in stock cars.
When waiting upon sidings, and at other
times, they must exercise great watchfulness to
prevent cars from being broken open, and the
contents thereof stolen or damaged.
Should a loaded car become disabled, or from
any cause be left on a side track, where there is
no agent, the conductor will deliver the way-bill
to the agent at the next regular station, and endorse on the way-bill when, where, and why
left, and report the facts to the Superintendent.1
When it is necessary for trainmen to transfer freight from one car to another, the reason^
for such transfer must be noted on the face of
I. " When it becomes necessary to switch off cars on account
of accidents, storms, or from lack of power, freight conductors
must examine the contents of such cars, and if they contain
perishable property, it must be re-loaded by them and forwarded
immediately.
44 When, from a train being overloaded, or for other cause,
it becomes necessary to leave where they do not belong, any
loaded cars at any other side track than at a regular station,
they shall leave a man from their train with them, till a train
passes which can take them to their destination. They will
also note upon the proper way-bill what cars they have left, and
where they leave them ; and when it becomes necessary to leave
any disabled loaded cars at any other than a regular station, if
they have not empty or partly loaded cars in their trains to
transfer the loading into, they will leave a man with them until empty cars arrive, and the loading is transferred and started
for its destination."—1853. 168
Railway Service :
the way-bill, and the number of the car into
which the freight was transferred must be
inserted, and the number originally entered
crossed out.
Conductors, when at stations doing business,
will attend personally to the switching.       ff
They must not absent themselves from duty
without permission from the Superintendent.1
While waiting at stations, conductors of
freight trains will do such switching as may be
reasonably required by the agent.2
They must be sure that no cars have become
detached from their train and left on the main
track, and when cars are left on a siding, they
must see that the brakes upon such cars are securely applied, and the wheels carefully blocked,
to prevent such cars from being moved, or interfering in any way with trains or cars upon
other tracks.
They must indorse their names, in the place
provided, on the back of each way-bill carried
by them. .•§; |
They must make immediate and complete
reports to the Superintendent of all unusual detentions to their trains, and in case of accident
1. 44 Goods guards must not leave their trains until they have
been delivered over to the foreman, yardman or shunter."—
Eng. Standard.
2. 44 They, with the brakemen, when not otherwise employed,
will render what aid they can in wooding and watering, to
shorten their stops."—1853.
m Trains and Stations.
169
to cars, resulting in damage or loss of property,
will at once telegraph or write all the facts to
the Superintendent.
They must carefully enter upon their reports
the number of cars taken from and left at each
station, as already described, and make such
other regular returns as may be required of
them.
GENERAL   INSTRUCTIONS TO BRAKEMEN.
While on duty, brakemen are under the direction of the conductor.1    I %.
They are charged with the immediate management of the brakes, the proper display and
use of signals, and the lights, stoves, water and
gas-fixtures of trains.
They will be furnished, upon the requisition
of the conductor, with a full set of train signals,
which they must keep in good order, and at
hand, ready for immediate use.
The rear car of every train must be a brake-
car. A man must always be on the rear car of
trains; provided, however, that when stopping a
train he may set the brakes upon forward cars
after having set the brake on rear car.
In the absence of automatic brakes, they are
required to stop their  trains at  stations, and
I. 44 At stations, it is their duty to assist in taking on wood
and water, and, when not on running duty, must assist at the
station in whatever work may be required of them."—1853.
'i 170
Railway Service :
control them when descending heavy grades
without the whistle signal of the engineman.1
In damp or frosty weather, the brakes must be
applied sooner than usual to prevent running
past the station.
Brakemen must obey the order to apply
brakes instantly without waiting to ascertain
the occasion of the signal. |§
The post of the rear brakeman (or flagman)
is on the last car in the train ; he must not leave
his post while the train is in motion except to
protect it; he must be provided with the necessary signals, and must see that they are displayed at the rear of the train, in accordance
with the rules ; and in case of detention or accident to the train, he must immediately go
back, as directed in such rules, for the protection
of trains; he must do this promptly and without waiting for a signal from the engineman or
instructions from the conductor.
I, 4i They are not allowed to slip the wheels only in cases
of danger, and never upon the ordinary occasion of stopping
at a station ; observing strictly when the engineman shuts off
steam on approaching a station that it is a signal, without
waiting for the sound of the whistle to apply the brakes, using
judgment in order to stop at the proper place at the station
without allowing the train to press hard upon the tender or
engine, allowing the engineman to stop the engine and tender
without causing them to draw or press upon the train."—1853.
44 In traveling down steep inclines, guards must, in order to
steady the trains and assist the engine-drivers, apply the rear
brake, care being taken not to skid the wheels except when a
train is approaching at too great a speed a station at which it
is timed to stop, or when the brakes are specially whistled
for by the engine-drivers."—Eng. Standard. W»  0
Trains and Stations.
171
The front brakeman is charged with the duty
of protecting the train with signals, when, from
any cause, the fireman is unable to perform this
duty.
In case the train parts on the road, the rear
brakeman must immediately apply the brakes
and stop the cars, and then send forward the
most reliable person he can command to make
danger signals, while he protects the detached
portion until the engine or front part of the
train returns.
When an assistant engine is attached to the
rear of a train, it must be considered as a part of
the train, and in case of accident or detention,
the brakeman must go back as in other cases.
They must examine the running gear of the
cars at the various stopping-places, reporting
to the conductor any defects they may observe.
Brakemen will be held responsible for the
brakes and the condition of the coupling apparatus. ^It is their duty to see that these are in
good order before trains start.    '
It is the duty of an employ^ who opens a
switch upon the main track to see personally
that it is afterwards closed and locked.
ii
PASSENGER  BRAKEMEN.1
Passenger brakemen will report for duty at
the time appointed, open the doors of the cars,
1.4< Brakemen on passenger trains will be required to wear
coats or overalls when on duty."—1854. 172
Railway Service :
and assist conductors in the proper disposition
of passengers, and will aid them in all things
requisite to the prompt and safe movement of
the trains, and the comfort and convenience of
passengers.
They must give special attention to the
proper heating and ventilating of the cars,
keeping a moderate, uniform temperature, and
see that the air does not become impure.1
At all stopping places they will twice distinctly announce the name of the station, and
the length of the time the train will stop, when
such stoppage exceeds two minutes.
They must assist the conductor in preserving
order, and will not permit passengers to stand
upon the platforms while the train is in motion,
nor in any way to violate the rules of the company.
They must be respectful to passengers, and
give polite attention to their wishes, avoiding,
however, any unnecessary conversation.
When it is necessary to pass through sleeping
cars, they will do so quietly so as to avoid disturbing passengers.
When not otherwise engaged, they will stand
at the door of the car, ready to respond to the
I. " The brakemen must light the car lamps, and make and
keep up the fires in the cars, fill the water-casks or jars, and do
such other work on the train as the conductors require.
44 He will see that the water-casks are filled with clean water
and in warm weather that they are well iced."—1854. Trains and Stations.
173
signal of the engineman, and they must occupy
this position whether the train is equipped with
automatic brakes or not. jf •
They are required to see that the water
closets of cars are kept in a cleanly condition.1
FREIGHT BRAKEMEN.     I j|
Freight brakeman will report for duty at the
time appointed by the dispatcher, and will
assist the conductor in the switching and making up of trains.     |jf|
They must not leave their posts while the
train is in motion, nor take any other position
on the train than that assigned to them by the
conductor. ' f,
They must assist in loading and unloading
freight.
They are required to stop their trains at
stations, and  control  them when  descending
I. 44 There is no water closet in the train, no passage through
the cars, and no means of communicating with the conductors.
Robberies have often been committed in the carriages. Each
compartment is lighted at night by a lamp in the roof and
warmed in winter by flat tubes of metal filled with hot water
and placed under the feet of the passengers on the floor."—
Private letter from Rome describing passenger cars in Italy.
44 The guards must immediately open the door of any carriage from which passengers may require to alight for the purposes of nature, etc., particularly at those stations where the
engines take in water. The guards must, on all occasions, rep-,
resent to passengers the necessity for their resuming their seats
quickly for the prevention of delay, and they must avoid all
loss of time on the journey."—Regulations English Road.
44 Guards, porters, policemen, etc., etc., are forbidden to use
the water closets provided for the public, and will be fined for
so doing."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng. 174
Railway Service :
heavy grades, without the whistle signal of the
engineman. The brakes must not be applied
so as to slip the wheels, and on heavy grades
the brakes should be changed frequently from
car to car so as to avoid heating the wheels.
TRAIN AND  STATION  BAGGAGEMEN.
The duties and responsibilities of these officials are explained in a separate volume in
connection with the business of the baggage
department and the traffic incident to it.1
#     ENGINEMEN.
When passing over the road without a conductor, they will be held responsible for the
faithful and intelligent use of all the precautions required by the rules and regulations governing the movement of trains. They must,
therefore, familiarize themselves with such rules
and regulations, including those for the government of trainmen. j|
They are intrusted with the lives of passengers and the property of the company, including
that which is intrusted to it for transportation.
It is important, therefore, that they should not
only attend promptly to the signals given them,
but they should be vigilant and cautious, not
trusting blindly to the signals they may receive,
nor the rules and regulations provided for their
safety.
i. 44 Baggage Car Traffic," by Marshall M. Kirkman. Trains and Stations.
175
The engineman, before commencing his day's
work, must examine the notices posted for his
guidance, in order to ascertain if there is any
thing requiring his special attention on those
parts of the line over which he has to work.
Ill " The engineman must stand up and keep a
good look-out all the time the engine is in motion,, and the fireman must also do so, when he
is not necessarily otherwise engaged."1
It is the duty of enginemen and firemen
at all times to keep a sharp look-out to see that
no portion of the train becomes detached without their instantly observing it.2
Enginemen are under the direction of conductors when upon the road, in all things not
in conflict with established rules and regulations.
Enginemen will observe the orders of the
inspectors and master-mechanics in regard to
the working of their engines and the proper
use of fuel and stores.
They must obey the orders of the yard-master or person in charge in regard to switching
and making up trains.3
1. Eng. Standard.
2. <4 With the firemen, they will often alternately look around
to see that all is right with the train while passing over the
road, or standing with their train at stations, and to attend
to signals from the conductor, for starting forward or backward."—1853.
3. i4 The engine-driver must afford such assistance with his
engine as may be required for the formation, arrangement, and
dispatch of his train."—Eng. Standard. 176
Railway Service :
They must not start their trains till directed
by the conductor, nor till the bell of the engine
has been rung. They must start with care, and
it is their duty to see before they get beyond
the limits of the station that no « portion of
their train is detached.1
They are required to start and stop the train
slowly, otherwise the couplings and chains are
liable to be broken.
In stopping their trains, they must pay particular attention to the state of the weather
and the condition of the rails, as well as to the
length of the train. These circumstances
must have due weight in determining when to
shut off the steam. Terminal stations must be
entered with special care.
They must be careful not to shut off steam
suddenly (except in case of danger), so as to
cause a concussion of the cars, by which trainmen and others may be injured. Enginemen
of stock trains are required to be particularly
careful in starting and stoppirfg their trains.
I. 44 When a passenger train is about to start from the station or ticket-platform, the signal to start given by the guard
merely indicates that the station duty or the collection of tickets is completed ; and previous to starting the train, the engine-
driver must satisfy himself that the line before him is clear,
either by observation, or by obtaining, by means of his whistle,
the exhibition of the necessary signal, as the circumstances of
the case may require, and, when starting, the fireman must look
back on the platform side until the last vehicle has drawn
clear of the platform, to see that the whole of the train is following in a safe and proper manner, and to receive any signal
from the station-master or guard that may be necessary."
•—En%. Standard. Trains and Stations.
177
They must know exactly what time is allotted
them in the schedule, and they must not start
from a station, even though they receive a
signal from the conductor, unless they can
reach the next station without encroaching
upon the rights of other trains, fj
They must have their engines in good working order, supplied with the necessary signals,
stores, tools,1 fuel and water, and the steam up
ready to attach to the train at least thirty minutes before the schedule time for starting, and
as much earlier as directed by the proper
official. -.
They must see before leaving the engine
house that the spark-arrester and wire netting
over the smoke-pipe and the ash-pan of the
engine as well, §tre all in good condition.3
In running passenger trains,'enginemen must
observe \great care in the manner of working
the automatic brake. It must be applied when
the engine is first attached to the train, before
1. Each engine must be supplied with twelve torpedoes, two
white lamps, two white flags, four red lamps, four red flags,
two green flags, two green lanterns, one yellow flag, one
yellow lantern; also with a pair of screw-jacks, extra spring-
hangers, and such other tools as may be necessary to operate
the engine or provide for accidents or delays.
2. 44 They will be particular to see that the chimney is kept
in order, so as not to throw fire. They will not empty their
sparks between the extreme switches at any station, unless a
proper place be provided for them. Where no place is provided, select the most suitable beyond the switches, putting
them down an embankment, if possible, so as not to disfigure
the line."—1853.
> vi-r':
12 178
Railway Service :
starting from the station, to make sure that it
is in working order; in making regular stops, it
must be applied in such manner as to avoid injury to the brakes, or discomfort to the passengers. Especial care should be taken with short
trains to apply the brake sufficiently early to.
obviate this difficulty.1
The brakes must not be relied upon when
approaching railroad crossings or other hazardous points, but steam must be shut off, and the
train, whether passenger or freight, held under
such control as to prevent running past the objective point before stopping.       ■ %
Enginemen are required to see that the bell-
cord is not obstructed by fuel or otherwise. It
must not be unfastened until the end of the
trip, and when more than one engine is attached
to the train, the bell-cord must be attached
to the leading engine.2
I, 44 Should a passenger train, in stopping at a station, overrun, or stop short of the platform, the engine-driver must not
move the train back or draw it forward until he receives instructions from the guard in charge to do so. Station-masters,
guards, and others, must at once take steps to prevent passengers leaving the carriages that are not at the platform ; and as
soon as the guard in charge has satisfied himself that all
carriage doors are closed, and that no passengers are entering
or leaving the train, he must instruct the engine-driver to put
back or draw up to the platform, as may be required. The
'engine-driver must sound his whistle before moving his train."
—English Standard.
2. 44 When two engines are employed in drawing the same
train, the engine-driver and fireman of the leading engine are
responsible for the observance of signals ; the engine-driver of
the  second engine must watch for, and take his signals from Trains and Stations.
179
44 Wagons must not be shunted into sidings, nor
to other wagons upon the main lines, without
remaining attached to the engine, except the
wagons are attended by a brakeman or other
person prepared to put down the wagon-brakes
or apply sprags, as the case may be, so as to prevent their coming into violent contact with
other wagons or vehicles, or fouling other lines.
When wagons require to be shunted into incline
sidings, the trucks to be moved at one shunt
must be limited to such a number as the engine can push up without going at a violent
or excessive speed."1
They must promptly obey all signals given,
even though they may think such signals unnecessary. When in doubt as to the meaning
of a signal, they must stop and ascertain the
cause, and, if a wrong signal is shown, it is
their duty to report the fact to the Superintendent.2       ^
They must  notice whether  watchmen and
the engine-driver of the leading engine, but the engine-driver
of the second engine is not relieved from the due observance of
all signals regulating the safe working of the line. Great
caution must be used in starting such a train to prevent the
breaking of couplings."—Eng. Standard.
1. Eng. Standard.
2. 44 The engine-driver and fireman must pay immediate attention to and obey all signals, whether the cause of the signal
being shown is known to them or not. The engine-driver
must not, however, trust entirely to signals, but on all occasions be vigilant and cautious. He must also obey the instructions of the officers in charge of stations."— Eng. Standard.
j<
fill V 180
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flagmen are at their posts, and report to the
Superintendent any neglect of duty that they
may observe.
They must also report the absence of lights at
switches, where such lights should be shown.1
They must approach and pass stations where
their trains do not stop with great caution.
When trains are running over the road in
heavy storms, or immediately after such storms,
enginemen will run very cautiously, and without
regard to making schedule time. They should
run slowly and cautiously in approaching curves
and places where the track is likely to be washed
away. 'If
Great care should be taken to prevent the
killing of live stock, and engines must come to
a full stop, if necessary, to avoid killing or injuring stock.2 Conductors and enginemen must
report to the Superintendent, in writing, giving
full particulars whenever stock is killed or injured by their engines or trains.
44 Engine-drivers, after taking water from
tanks or water-columns, must be careful to leave
the hose or water-crane clear of the main line
and properly secured."3
1. 44 The absence of a signal at a place where a signal is ordinarily shown, or a signal imperfectly exhibited, must be
considered a danger signal, and treated accordingly, and the
fact  reported to  the  signalman or   station-master." — Great
Western Ry., England.
2. 44 Pass all roads cautiously; be careful not to frighten
horses, and at Blank take extra care."—1853.
3. English Standard.
■Is Trains and Stations.
181
They must not permit burning cotton, waste
or hot cinders to be thrown from the engine or
tender while in motion, and must use every precaution when passing bridges, culverts, buildings, and wood-piles to prevent the same from
taking fire from their engines. The dampers of
ash-pans must be closed when passing over
wooden bridges or culverts.1
They will not be permitted to clean or empty
their ash-pans on the main track, except at points
designated by the Superintendent.
Enginemen must so arrange their fires as to
avoid any unnecessary emission of smoke from
their engines while standing at or passing
stations.
They must not leave their engine during the
trip, except in cases of necessity, and, when
absent from it, they must leave the fireman
or some other competent person in charge.
The store-keepers will provide them with
tickets for wood and coal, and they will not be
furnished such supplies except upon the delivery of a ticket to the person in charge, for the
correct amount supplied them. It is important,
therefore, that they, at all times, keep a sufficient supply of tickets on hand.
When a conductor is disabled, the engine-
man will have full charge of, and be held
responsible for  the  safety of the train  until
I. " Pass all important bridges carefully and at a reduced
speed, with the ash-pan closed."—1853. 182
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an authorized person assumes charge of it.
Enginemen must never leave their engine
when steam is up without shutting the regulator, throwing the engine out of gear, and
applying the tender-brakes.
They must report the condition of their
engines to the inspector or master-mechanic at
the end of each trip.
They will, at all times, assist, when called
upon, in making any repairs to their engine
that may be necessary. When required to
work in the .shops, they will be subject to shop
rules and regulations.1
When enginemen or firemen become morose
and sour from long service, they should be
retired* I ,
FIREMEN.
Firemen, when on duty upon the road, are
under the direction of the enginemen.2
They will obey the orders of the master mechanic or inspectors of engines in regard to the
use of fuel and the proper manner of firing.
They must be on their engines at least thirty
minutes before time of starting, and conform
to any directions they may receive from the
enginemen.3
1. "When not on running duty, they will assist in the
machine shop, and conform to its rules."—1853.
2. " They will act under the direction of the engineman,
and will aid in the small daily repairs and cleaning of the
machine."—1853.
3. " They must see that the boilers are properly rilled before firing up ; that the fires are kindled in proper time, and Trains and Stations.
183
They must supply the engine regularly with
fuel and water, at the discretion of the engine-
man. They must ring the bell when required,
and must assist in oiling, and apply the tender-
brake, in accordance with the orders and signals
of the engineman.1
They will assist in keeping a constant lookout upon the track, and must give the engine-
man prompt notice of any obstruction they
may perceive.
They must make themselves familiar with
train rules, including those that apply to the
protection of trains, and must understand the
use of signals, and be prepared to use them or
respond to them promptly and discreetly.
They must take charge of the engine, should
the engineman at any time be absent, and will
not leave it until his return, nor suffer any
unauthorized person to be upon it.
They will not attempt to run an engine in
the absence of the engineman without permission from the master mechanic, unless they are
directed to do so  by the conductor or other
that all the working-joints of the engine are kept well oiled,
together with such other duty as the enginemen may require
of them."—1854.
44 They are strictly forbidden to throw fire or sticks of
wood upon the road, as also to interfere in any manner with
the running of the machine."—1853.
I. Before arriving at the station where they are to take
wood, they will pile up their remaining wood in the front part
of the tender, that the wood from the station may be taken in
with the greatest dispatch.
■■■ 184
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authorized officer in consequence of some special emergency.
They must keep their engines clean,1 and
must assist when not otherwise engaged in
making such repairs as may be required.
When at work in shops, they will be subject
to the rules and regulations governing shop
labor.
INSPECTORS OF ENGINES'.
Inspectors of engines will obey all orders of
the master mechanic, and must report to him.
They are required to ride upon the engines
and instruct enginemen and firemen in regard
to the proper working and firing of engines, so
as to obtain the best results in the consumption
of fuel and stores. If '
They must study the capacity of the various
engines.
It is their duty to see that the regulation
pressure of steam is not exceeded, and that
the boilers are washed as often as necessary.
They must see that engines are equipped with
signals, tools, and articles necessary to their
efficient working, and that injectors, pumps,
brakes, and other fixtures are in good working
order.     ■ ~ -     J|j|
, They will advise the Superintendent of the
number of cars to be allotted to each class of
i. 44 During the passage, whenever they have an opportunity,
they wTill wipe the connecting-rods and most exposed parts of
their machine, keeping it as clean and neat as possible/*—1853.
m. Trains and Stations.
18
o
engines, and report to him when engines of
through freight trains are not given cars to
their full capacity, or when an engine is overloaded.
They will consult with the shop foremen in
regard to the daily condition and requirements
of the engines running upon their divisions.
They will report to the master mechanic and
Superintendent the qualifications of engine-
men and firemen, and any violation of rules
or neglect of duty which may come to their
knowledge, and keep them advised of all matters relating to the economical and efficient
working of the engines and their crews.
YARD  MASTERS.
They will have charge of the yard and sidings at stations where trains are formed, the
movement of trains in connection therewith,
and of the yard force employed thereat.
When the business is not sufficient to require
a yard master, the duties of the office, generally, will be performed by the agent.
^ They are responsible for the dispatch of
trains, the prompt movement of cars within
the limits of the yard, and the proper position
of switches.
They must carry out the orders of the Superintendent in regard to the distribution of cars, 186
Railway Service :
the making up of trains, and assigning motive
power therefor.1 IfL . -   —   ■
They must give directions for switching and
placing cars in proper position in trains, and see
that such trains leave on time.2
They must see that the train force is ready for
duty at the time required, and that both enginemen and conductors are supplied with
schedules, signals, lamps, tools, and such fixtures as are required for the safety and good
management of trains.
They must not permit a train to start with
an engineman, conductor, or brakeman who is
unfit for duty, nor fail to report such an occurrence to the Superintendent.
They must see that the yard is kept in good
order, and that cars requiring serious repairs are
sent to the shop. §
It is their duty to see that car repairmen perform their duties of oiling, cleaning, inspecting,
and repairing cars in a thorough and efficient
i. 44At any terminus, or large station where carriages are
kept, the station-inspectors are to see that they are always in
good order, and, before being formed into a train, that every
carriage or other vehicle has its proper supply of roof-lamps
trimmed; that it is cleaned inside and out, and the glasses and
handles made bright. They are also to see to the screwing
up of the connections, and that the buffers of the several carriages forming the train press against each other, and recede
about an inch when screwed up, and also to take care the doors
on the off-side of all carriages are locked."—Gt. Nor. Ry.,
England.
2. The duties of yard masters referred to herein, refer more
directly to freight trains.
:»• Trains and Stations.
187
manner.    Any neglect they may observe must
be reported to the Superintendent.1
They must  see that a record is kept of the
number of each car, the date it arrived and de- *
parted, and that  daily telegraphic  returns of
the same are made.
<t
I. *4At stations where carriage-examiners are kept, the station
master, or person in charge, must, before starting the train,
satisfy himself that the examination of it has been completed,
and that, so far as the carriage-examiner is concerned, the train
is all right and fit to proceed. At stations where examiners
are not kept, steps must be taken to remedy any defect that
may be observed in the running of the vehicles, by supplying
oil or grease to the axle-boxes of any that may require it, or
removing the defective vehicles from the train, as may be found
necessary."—Eng. Standard.
fill 1
188
Railway Service
CHAPTER YIII.
TELEGRAPH  OPERATORS
Telegraph operators at stations will observe
the -wishes of agents, when such observance
does not interfere with their duties as operators.
They are required to be on duty without intermission during business hours, and must not
leave their offices without permission from the
Telegraph Superintendent.
They must not leave their post until relieved.
The operator going off duty must advise the
operator coming on in regard to unfinished business and the position and character of trains
upon the line. I
Offices will be in charge of the day operator.
Where two or more day or night operators
are employed, they must not all be absent at
their meals at the same time.
Operators at way-stations must be in their
offices on Sundays twenty minutes before each
train is due, and remain in the office until the
train is reported as having passed the next telegraph station. Jf
Operators must not leave their offices while
a train is at the station unless the business of
such train requires it. Trains and Stations.
189
They must be courteous in their intercourse
with each other and with all persons transacting
business at their offices.
Night operators must report to the home
office every half hour from 9 p. M. till 7:30 A. M.
At one minute before eight o'clock A.M. each
day, excepting Sundays,- all business must
be suspended, for the purpose of enabling the
home office to report the exact time, and operators and others on the line must forthwith regulate their timepieces to correspond with such
report.  ;     -%
At nine o'clock in the morning of each dav
except Sunday, all business will be suspended,
for the purpose of sending car reports to the
home office. In sending these reports, care
must be taken to punctuate them properly.
All orders and instructions must be carefully
preserved and filed for purposes of reference.
When there is a delay of more than fifteen
minutes in sending a message, the particulars of
the delay must be noted on the back of such
message.
When practicable, messages received for
transmission should be read aloud before being
sent, either by or in the presence of the sender.
They will be held responsible for the prompt
delivery of messages at their stations.
They must exert themselves to obtain answers to message promptly when answers are
required. 190
Railway Service :
In case parties to whom messages are addressed can not be found, the office at which
the  message   originated   should   at   once   be
notified.     ■.$$&" .-  -   If;. '-ft ■        #    -
When answers are required to messages and
are not forthcoming, the reason should be explained as soon as practicable.
HThey must retain copies of all messages sent
and received, also copies of reports of trains.
They must consider telegraphic messages as
confidential in their nature, and they must not
permit them to be read, except by those to
whom they are addressed, nor will they make
them the subject of conversation or remark.
Passes received by telegraph must be written
with ink, and must contain the name of the
office where received, the date and time of receipt, including the signature of the operator.
In transmitting messages, the circuit must
be firmly connected, the writing must be plain
and legible, and care must be exercised to punctuate in accordance with the communication
itself.        . J|.
In case of interruption or trouble to the line,
operators must make diligent inquiry as to its
location. The facts must at once be communicated by signal or otherwise to repairers or to
trackmen, diligent efforts being made by the
operators themselves to remedy the break.
Care  must be exercised to protect instru- Trains and Stations.
191
ments from being injured by atmospheric electricity.
Instruments must not be taken apart, but
must be carefully preserved in good order, and
none must be kept on hand that are not in use.
Instruments or fixtures not in use or in a damaged condition must be returned to the home
office.
The telegraph must not be used for the transmission of communications which may be sent
by train without detriment to the interests of
the company.
They must promptly report the departure of
each train to the Superintendent; the arrival
of trains must also be reported at terminal
stations.   ^~^~^-
Conductors are instructed to report to the
Superintendent when they are over fifteen
minutes late; in the event they neglect to do
this, operators must inquire as to the cause of
the delay, and forthwith transmit to the Superintendent the result of these inquiries, also the
name of the conductor and the number of his
tram. If the delay was caused by a hot journal, the number of the car or engine upon
which it was located must also be reported.
They must see that they are supplied with
proper signals for stopping trains, and will have
them convenient and in order for immediate use
when occasion requires.    They must see that PR
192
Railway Service :
their signal lamps are properly trimmed and
filled before dark each day.
They will observe the rear of all trains passing their stations, and if red signals are not
displa3red, they will at once report the omission
to the Superintendent.
Particular attention must be given to the
adjustment of relays when trains are behind
time, or when the current is weak.
They will not be allowed to undertake to
teach students how to telegraph without permission from the Telegraph Superintendent.
Conversation of a personal nature between
operators must not be allowed to interrupt
business.
Improper language or profanity should not be
indulged in on the line.
Quarreling and contention amongst operators
for the use of the circuit is reprehensible in the
extreme. Should the current be interrupted
while an operator is using the circuit, he should
stop and ascertain the cause; should the inter*
ruption be occasioned by another operator having business entitled to preference, in accordance
with the rules, he win give way to such operator ; but in the event this is not the case, will
signal such operator, " Close your key; you are
breaking," closing his own key immediately
thereafter. If the signal is not at once complied
with, the operator will permit his key to remain
J Trains and Stations.
193
closed until he can proceed without interruption, when he will at once report the case to the
Telegraph Superintendent. ft
They must disconnect their instruments from
the circuit when they leave their offices.
Offices at which there are night operators
must be kept open continuously. Other offices
must be kept open from 7:30 a.m. to 8 p.m.
TELEGRAPH   REPAIRERS. |||
Telegraph repairers must pass over ttue road
frequently. ~1| Jij
They must closely observe the condition of
the line, making a careful examination of the
connections at the various offices. j|
They will report to the Telegraph Superintendent each morning the part of the road they
propose visiting during the day.
When traveling upon the road, they must ride
in the rear end of the last car, so that their view
of the line may be unobstructed.
They must keep the telegraph poles in proper
position, the wires connected, insulated and
clear of all obstructions, and must make necessary repairs, calling upon the foremen of sections when assistance is required, f
As they proceed, they must ascertain at the
various telegraph stations how the line is working.
When upon duty, they must carry with them
811
ilif 194
Railway Service :
the tools required in their business, such as
pulleys, vises, plyers and file, hooks or cleats,
insulators, etc.
They must see that operators and section
foremen are supplied with wire, insulators, and
other fixtures "required in making repairs.
It is their duty to instruct operators and
foremen of sections in reference to splicing
wire and making other repairs necessary from
time to time.
In case of a break or obstruction to the line,
they must make diligent search for its whereabouts, and, having ascertained its location,
proceed at once to make the necessary repairs.
Having done this, they will report to the
Telegraph Superintendent the location of the
difficulty and its cause. Trains and Stations.
195
CHAPTER   IX.
AGENTS.1
The duties of agents in connection with the
baggage department and its affairs are treated
of separately in connection with the baggage
department and its traffic, as already explained
herein. .
RULES    REFERRING   TO   THE   PASSENGER
m- " .  TRAFFIC.
Agents must be careful to keep on hand, at
all times, a supply of tickets sufficient to answer
the wants of the business of their stations.
Agents must use every exertion to supply
passengers with tickets before such passengers
enter the cars, but they must not sell tickets to
stations at which the train does not stop.
^Agents must not sell tickets to persons who
are unfit to take care of themselves, or who
might endanger the lives of passengers, or prove
an annoyance to them.   J»- 1:
I. The rules and regulations governing the collections and
accounts for freight and passenger traffic (Revenue) and the
Disbursements of railways, have already been discussed by the
writer in volumes referring specifically to such matters. The
volumes in question embrace, incidentally, many of the regulations governing the business of railways, and as much of the
information they contain might properly find lodgment in this
book, it is not improper to explain here the reason of its omission.
11111 196
Railway Service:
Agents must attend to the comfort and convenience of travelers, and must give information when requested by them in a courteous
and satisfactory^ manner.1
Agents will observe the deportment of trainmen toward passengers, and will report to the
Superintendent any rudeness or incivility that
may come under their observation.
FREIGHT   REGULATIONS.
The rules and regulations accompanying the
freight tariffs of the various companies are
more or less particular to recapitulate the circumstances under which freight will be received by them, and the extent of their responsibility for the property which they transport.
Many of the regulations and exceptions are
exceedingly pertinent, and in accordance with
I. 44 They must be courteous and respectful in their deportment to passengers, and if any agent is known to be otherwise,
he will be reported to the Superintendent for misdemeanor,
and, if the offense be repeated, be liable to suspension or dismissal. As much fault has been found with some of the sellers
of the road for their want of courtesy, a strict observance of
this rule is requested/'—1854.
44 He must take care that ail the servants at his station behave respectfully and civilly to passengers of every class. He
must take care that all the-servants come on duty clean in their
persons and clothes, and in the uniform supplied to them.
Every exertion must be made for the expeditious dispatch of
the station duties, and for insuring the safety of the public, and
punctuality of the trains. The station master must report,
without delay, to his superior officer, neglect of duty on the
part of any of the company's servants under his charge, and
forward to him particulars of any complaint made by the pub-'
lie."—English Standard.
I Trains and Stations.
197
good business usage and the laws governing
common carriers. Many of them, however,
possess no value whatever. Grlendower could
call spirits from the vasty deep, and so could
Percy, but neither of them ever elicited any
intelligent response. And so any body can
frame rules and exceptions governing the carriage of goods and passengers, but only those
in harmony with the responsibilities of common
carriers possess any virtue further than that
they may, perhaps, sometimes induce the
patrons of a company to exercise greater care
in particular cases, than they otherwise would.
But this good is perhaps more than counter-balanced by their pernicious effect upon
employes. In many cases the regulations that
hold good in one section or state, have no
binding force elsewhere. It is impossible,
therefore, in a work of this description to
classify or arrange them. Hence the writer
has, as a rule, designed to omit all reference
to them herein.
ii
DIRECTIONS   TO   AGENTS   RECEIVING   FREIGHT
FOR   SHIPMENT.
They must not take a verbal order for the
forwarding of freight, but must in each instance
require shippers to furnish a shipping ticket.
It must contain a description of the marks
upon the freight, the consignments, name of
(i 198
Railway Service :
route, also name of nearest railroad station
(if destination is not located upon a railway
line), etc. The ticket must be filed and preserved for future reference.
The shipping ticket for articles, which the
tariff directs must be transported at owner's
risk, must read " owner's risk." The receipt
given for the property must also read uat owner's risk." Agents must see that shippers understand the conditions on which such property is
received by the company.
Agents will not receive freight unless it is
marked with the address of the consignee in
full.    Initials are not sufficient.
They will not receive shipments of flour,
wool, rags, hides, iron, and other articles wiiich
can not be fully marked with the place of destination and name of consignee, and which are, in
consequence, liable to be mixed with other consignments of a similar description consigned to
other parties, unless such shipments are branded,
numbered, or marked, so that each package or
consignment may be easily distinguished and
accurately described in the way-bill. To insure
correct delivery at destination, the brands, numbers, or marks on each package must be entered in detail on the way-bill; such freight
as is liable to pilferage, especially from connecting lines, must be carefully handled, and
agents must satisfy themselves that such prop- Trains and Stations.
199
erty has not been re-coopered or pilfered, or damaged by wet at the time of its receipt by them;
and, further, that it is in all respects in good
order.
Freight should be forwarded as soon as possible after its receipt.     ||
When buggies and carriages not boxed are
shipped, agents must see that they do not contain any loose articles, such as cushions, harness, whips, robes, etc.; all such articles should
be boxed and shipped separately.
They will decline to receive freight for
re-shipment the charges upon which have been
prepaid from point of shipment to destination, unless the money to prepay to destination
is tendered with the property. This rule does
not, of course, apply in those cases where
freight is billed through.
Charges on perishable property must be prepaid or guaranteed by responsible parties.
Articles that are not considered worth the
charge at forced sale will not be taken, unless
such charges are prepaid.   | If ||
When cooperage is required, packages are
subject to a charge therefor.       || i
DIRECTIONS      TO     AGENTS — RECEIPTING    FOR
' % FREIGHT.
Whenever freight is received at a station for
shipment, they must invariably issue a receipt
therefor, correctly filled up and in conformity
1111
fill
if
ji j
111
llfll
Kflfi J; 200
Railway Service :
with the printed form of receipt provided. They
must, moreover, in each instance say to shippers:
" Your attention is directed to the conditions
printed in this receipt, which are the conditions
upon which your freight is received by the
Company."
They must know from personal examination
that they receive the property they receipt for,
and that the marks upon such property correspond with the marks as described in the receipt;
also that property is well packed and clearly
marked.       M ^ ^f§
They must be sure when receipting for freight
that the receipt contains an accurate statement
of all marks upon the packages, also that i^
states the destination of the property, gives
the brand of flour, the marks upon bales of wool,
cotton or rags, upon barrels of oil, hogsheads of
tobacco, bars or bundles of iron, the mark or
description of tag on each package of hides,
etc., etc. As property is frequently packed for
shipment in second-hand barrels or boxes, without the original marks being obliterated or
erased, agents must be careful to see that all
such marks are obliterated before receipting
for the property. ^ ||
' In receipting for cars loaded by shippers,
the receipt must read " shipper's count," " more
or less," except when the right number of
packages, measurement, weight, quantity, etc.,
etc., are known by the agent to be in the car. Trains and Stations.
201
■p When a receipt is given covering a variety of
articles, such as a lot of household furniture,
each separate piece must be \ properly marked,
and a bill of particulars furnished by the con
signor.
If a package is broken, the agent must ascertain if any loss or damage to the contents has
accrued, noting the particulars upon the receipt
and way-bill. It If
When freight that is liable to be damaged by
the weather is shipped in open cars, it must not
be received except at the owner's risk, and the
receipt which is given must so state.
If no rate is inserted in the receipt issued by
the agent, he must draw his j pen through the
blank space provided for inserting the rate.
All freight, except that loaded by shippers,
must be checked before it is receipted for, the
quantity or full number of packages being
stated in each instance. The receipt or waybill must not read |shipper's tally," or "more
or less."
- When freight is received in bad order from
transportation companies or from any person
whatever, agents must be careful to note on
the receipt and the way-bill as well, the exact
condition of the property. The term "bad
order" or "b. o." must never be used. Packages received in bad order must be carefully
weighed and the weight entered upon the receipt and way-bill.
II
I
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Railway Service :
They must not sign receipts agreeing to
deliver property at any point beyond the terminus of the road, but may agree upon and
insert the through rate when specially authorized.
When freight is contracted through to any
point upon another line, agents must enter the
through rate on the bill of lading or receipt,
also each road's proportion of the through rate
on the face of the way-bill, unless otherwise
directed. When charges are advanced they
must enter the amount advanced upon the receipt or bill of lading. Charges advanced on
shipments of live stock must be entered upon
the contract.        ,
RELEASES.
Releases for household goods and for other
freight of a similar character must be taken in
duplicate ; they must be signed by the shipper
and witnessed by the agent or his assistant.
The original release must be retained by the
agent and preserved for future reference, but
the duplicates must be attached to the way-bill
and sent forward with the property. Agents
must examine new furniture offered for shipment, and if they consider it is not packed in a
manner to sustain the necessary handling while
in transit, they must not receive it, unless a
release is signed by the shipper in the same
manner as for household eroods. Trains and Stations.
203
DIRECTIONS    TO   AGENTS — LOADING   AND  UNLOADING  FREIGHT.
Property belonging to different individuals
must not be mixed in loading. Each lot must
be kept separate. If goods are loaded in a car
for more than one station, the goods to be unloaded first must be put into the car last. They
must keep the freight for each station together,
eaah lot of goods being kept by itself. They
must see that goods in their charge are carefully handled, and loaded in such manner that
no damage may occur in transit by leakage of
liquids, chafing of bales, etc.; casks containing
oils (other than coal), turpentine, tar, molasses,
or liquors must be loaded on the bilge, and carefully blocked, bung up; they must be placed
as far as possible from freight likely to sustain
damage  by  any  leakage  that  may  occur  in
transit.   - ' ||''
Freight must be checked as it is loaded and
unloaded. It
They must use great care in loading and
handling coal oil; it must not be loaded
with other freight that can be damaged by it.
So far as practicable, it should be loaded in
stock cars, the casks being placed on the head
and well secured.
Freight for way points must not be loaded
into cars containing through freight; freight
j .-
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Railway Service :
must not be loaded into cars containing grain
in bulk, nor must two kinds of grain be loaded
in the same car, unless in sacks or barrels; nor
must grain in sacks or barrels be loaded in cars
with bulk grain.
When cars are chartered by shippers care
should be taken to see that they are not overloaded.
They must not, under any circumstances,
load merchandise, coffee, sugars, etc., into cars
unfit for such property — notably in cars formerly used in transporting kerosene oil, lime, or
other penetrating odors.      .
To save unnecessary hauling of cars and otherwise economize in their use, agents must
never send a car with a small lot of freight
when the same can be readily and quickly
loaded after the arrival of the way freight train,
provided there are cars in such trains into
which the property in question may be loaded.
Kerosene, coal oil, naphtha, benzole or substances of a like combustible nature, must not
be loaded nor unloaded through freight houses,
except in the day time; nor must lights be
allowed near such packages.
They must see that cars are loaded and
unloaded promptly; that the rules for the collection of demurrage for the detention of cars
are rigidly enforced; that chartered cars, or cars
loaded with grain or other property, are not Trains and Stations.
205
dangerously loaded, permitting none to leave
their station in such condition, and finally that
shippers are charged for the delay of cars held
in consequence of being overloaded by them.
Agents are required to exercise especial care
in securing the doors and windows of cars
loaded with live stock'.1
CARE MUST BE EXERCISED IN LOADING FREIGHT.
" The proper loading of goods being a matter
of so much importance, not only as regards the
goods, but also as to the safety of the line,
clerks in charge must give it their particular
attention; for when it is remembered that, by
the slightest neglect in loading and securely
I f. Living quadrupeds are only forwarded from and to certain stations. The receiver or sender has to watch the unloading or loading and make the necessary arrangements for
tying.    |r |
u Sick quadrupeds are excluded from forwarding, also such
as may contribute to spread any contagious disease, according
to the regulations of the board of health.
" A railroad company is not obliged to forward wild beasts.
" All shipments of other living quadrupeds have to be
accompanied by some reliable persons, who must take their
stand in the cattle cars. This is not necessary with smaller
animals or fowls, if shipped in well ventilated cages or coops."
—Regulations Austrian Roads, 1877*
" On the arrival of horse-boxes or catt}e-wagons" at any
station, they must be immediately cleaned out, so as to prevent
damage to floors by wet straw, dung, etc., remaining on the
wood ; and every horse-box, wagon, and other vehicle must be
thoroughly examined inside and out, so as to ascertain whether
they are in a fit state to travel without liability of injury to
the horses, cattle, etc. Should the horse-boxes be short of head-
collars, the circumstance is to be reported immediately to the
Superintendent."—Gt. Nor. Ry., England. 206
Railway Service :
fastening the load of any one wagon in the
goods trains, which are continually running on
the line, a fearful accident may occur, it is
impossible to overrate the necessity of the most
pointed and constant attention being given by
clerks in charge, loaders, and others, to satisfy
themselves, before any train is permitted to
start, that the load of every wagon is secured
in a manner sufficient to sustain the oscillation
of the train, and the necessary shunting to
which it will be exposed. ,       '
"The clerk in charge, or some other person
properly appointed by him, should carefully
examine the loads of the wagons of the goods
trains stopping at his station.
" After every care and vigilance has been
exercised in loading, it will be impossible always
to prevent the load being disturbed in a long
transit; and it is, therefore, essentially incumbent upon the servants of all companies to
examine with particular care all trains arriving
from foreign lines immediately on their entering
upon their respective railways. Should the load
appear to be disturbed, the wagon must not be
allowed to proceed until it has been carefully
readjusted; and this is more especially necessary in the case of timber, cotton, wool, machinery, or other articles of a lengthy or bulky
construction."1
j... Reg. Clearing House, Eng, Trains and Stations.
207
DIRECTIONS    TO    AGENTS—DELIVERY    OF
FREIGHT.
After the delivery of goods to a company to
be forwarded, they become the property of the
consignee, and neither the name of the consignee nor the destination of the property must
afterwards be changed, except under his instructions, or by due process of law.
When property is consigned and shipped to the
care of a second party, the agent must deliver the
same to the party in whose care it is shipped, unless the party to whose care it is consigned countermands the order in writing. When property
is consigned and shipped to the "order" of a
certain party, with instructions to "notify" a
second party, agents must notify such second
party of the arrival of property, but will only
deliver on the written order of the party to
whose " order " it is consigned, and on surrender of the bill of lading, which latter must be
carefully filed for reference.
Care must be exercised to see that freight is
properly delivered; except as provided in the
above rule the consignee is the owner of the
property so far as the common carrier is concerned, and is the only person to whom the carrier can safely deliver it. j|
When parties to whom freight is consigned
are unknown or can not be found, the forward- 208
Railway Service ;
y
ing agent must be requested to advise consignors, and ascertain their wishes regarding its
disposal. • 1 §
FREIGHT FROM AND  TO  STATIONS   AT   WHICH
THERE ARE NO   AGENTS.
" Freight consigned to stations where there
are no agents ; also to stations where there are
ticket, but not freight agents, must be prepaid.
The forwarding agent will way-bill the freight
to the first station beyond its destination
where there is an agent, but at the rattfs current to actual point of destination, noting, in
ink, on the back of way-bill, underneath the
filing, instructions to the conductor to put off
the freight at its proper destination, and to
deliver the way-bill to the agent of the station
to which it is directed. This agent, at the end
of each month, will make an abstract of such
way-bills and forward the same, together with
the original way-bills, to the freight auditor.
"At stations where there are no agents, or
where there are ticket but not freight agents,
conductors will receive freight, requiring from
shippers memoranda containing full shipping
directions, which they will hand to freight
agent of first station beyond the point where
the freight was received. Upon receipt of
such memoranda, agent will make way-bill
from his station, but at the rates current from Trains and Stations.
209
actual point of shipment to destination on this
line, noting on the face of the way-bill the
point at which the freight was loaded. Agents
will take such way-bills into their accounts
same as if the freight was shipped from their
station.1
DIRECTIONS   TO  AGENTS — WAY-BILLING
FREIGHT.
Freight must never be shipped without a
way-bill, duly numbered and dated, and entered upon the station books.
The way-bill must be a correct copy, in every
particular, as to consignment, route, destination, and number of articles, of the receipt held
by shipper.
Agents must never bill freight as a "lot,"
but must enumerate each article.
When shipping perishable property, agents
must note "perishable freight" in red ink on
the outside of the way-bill.
If agents receive an order to add advanced
charges after property has been delivered to the
owner, and are unable to collect such charges,
they will report immediately to the office giving the order, but will not alter the way-bill.
When property is loaded into cars of a passing train at way stations, agents must enter
the initial and car number on the way-bill, and
i.   Henry C. Wicker, 1878.
14
ill • I
X 210
Railway Service:
must be careful to make a like notation on the
freight-forwarded book, immediately upon the
departure of train. v#
DIRECTIONS    TO    AGENTS    IN    REFERENCE    TO
SEALING  CARS  CONTAINING   FREIGHT.
When necessary to open a car in a through
train for the purpose of receiving or discharging freight, both seals must be cut by the agent,
but the car must afterwards be resealed by him.
* When opening a car, the seals on each side
should be examined to see if they are alike;
any discrepancies that may be discovered must
be noted on the way-bill.      §
When it is necessary to open a car containing
way-freight, the seals of such car must be
cut by the agent opening it, but it must be re-
sealed by the agent at the last station where
freight is delivered from it preceding that
where the transfer of conductors takes place.
They must remove the seals from both sides
of cars when unloaded; at the end of each
month the old seals must be transmitted to the
company's storekeeper.
They must specify, in their daily reports, the
number of each car received without a seal or
having the seal broken, giving place of shipment, destination of contents, and any apparent
derangement thereof; if the car is not for their
station they must reseal it. | Trains and Stations.
211
Box freight cars containing merchandise,
must be locked and sealed when loaded, and
agents must take a receipt for such cars from
conductors.
They must examine the doors of loaded cars
left at their stations, and see that they are
sealed, whether the cars are intended for their
station or not.
They must receipt to the conductor for cars
left at their stations, noting on the receipt the
numbers of those cars, if any, having imperfect
or broken seals.1
FREIGHT  AGENTS — MISCELLANEOUS   RULES.
The classification of freight provides for the
great bulk of the articles offered for transportation. Articles not enumerated must be
charged in accordance with the class to which
they are clearly analogous.
Very heavy articles, also articles light in
weight but bulky in character, when not otherwise provided for, will be charged at such rates
as the general freight agent may decide, when
no agreement to the contrary is made.
It is expected that agents will give information as to different routes with which the road
connects, when inquiries are made by patrons
of the line, but will not endeavor to influence
I. The practice of sealing cars, as described in the foregoing
rules, is not in general use upon railways.
'
20 7     JL 212
Railway Service :
shippers in favor of any particular route. It is
their duty to maintain a strictly neutral position,
unless otherwise expressly ordered.
Agents must not allow persons wishing information as to shipments from or consignments to their station, to have access to their
books. Any information referring personally
to an applicant should at all times be promptly
and cheerfully given.1
If'All correspondence  must be   carefully preserved. . n
Letters and statements relative to the company's affairs must not be shown to shippers or
others, or made known to any one, except so
far as may be necessary for the guidance and
instruction of the company's servants.
They must not advance charges upon property, unless such charges are incidental to its
transportation.
They must take receipts for charges advanced,
and must carefully, file and preserve the same
for reference when required. •
Cars containing gunpowder, or freight of a
like combustible character, should be conspicuously labeled with the name of the article with
which they are loaded.
I. " Persons not regularly in the service, or not about to
travel by the trains, have not the right of access to the stations. The booking offices must be kept perfectly private, and
the public and others must not have access behind the screen
or counter, at any station Persons are not to be admitted to
the station or offices, to learn the business, without the sanction of the General Manager."—Gi. Nor. Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations.
213
They must see that the doors and windows
of loaded cars are kept locked; the end doors
of cars must be fastened on the inside. Grain
doors must be carefully secured, in the place
provided, except when they are required for use
for grain in bulk. jf       'Jjr
When a car is left irregularly from a train at
any station, prior to its reaching its destination,
the agent at such station must advise the agent
at the station to which the car is-billed, as well
as the Superintendent of the division, giving
the number of the car, the number of the train
leaving it, also the reason why it was left.
They must see that conductors certify to the
correct delivery of property described on waybills for freight delivered at points where there
are no agents. jf  '
jl When cars containing merchandise or other
property, except lumber, become disabled, the
contents must be transferred, unless the car
can be repaired so as to go forward within
twelve hours ; cars containing lumber may be
detained for repairs a reasonable time, jj Perishable property must go forward without delay.1
TR.
lliil BR '•!
I. I When cars are left at any way station in consequence of
being out of repair, it shall be the duty of the agent where
such car is left to send word immediately, either by telegraph'
or letter, to the Superintendent of car shop, or to the nearest
local car repairer, stating what is necessary to repair it. If the
car can not be repaired promptly, and it is found to contain
perishable property, the agent will have the freight transferred
immediately and sent forward to its destination."— 1863.
ill 214
Railway Service :
When a conductor fails to take all the cars
that may be ready to go, he must give his
reasons therefor to the ap;ent. In the event
such reasons are not considered satisfactory by
the agent, he will forthwith report the facts to
the Superintendent, giving the name of the
conductor, the number of the engine and the
number of cars in the train.1
A detailed report must be made, on the last
day of each month, of all freight remaining
uncalled for; it must describe the property,
where from, name of consignee, condition of the
freight, its value, and the amount of charges.2
DIRECTIONS TO AGENTS IN REFERENCE TO FUEL.
They must not allow the stock of wood and
coal to run short, and will promptly report any
failure in the supply.
The wood intended for use by engines must
be arranged upon the platform in such quantities (ranks) as may be required for use by
engines. ^ ;/
They must keep  the  receptacles for  coal
1. u Whenever he has loaded cars to send which any freight
train declines to take, if in his opinion such train be not fully
loaded, he will report the case to the Master of Transportation,
giving the name of the conductor, engineman, and the number
of cars in the train."—1853.
2. " A monthly return of all unclaimed property in the goods
or parcels department is to be sent to the Superintendent or
Goods Manager at King's Cross/'—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations. 215
filled, ready to be dumped into the tenders of
engines without delay. I
They must require a ticket for the amount
of wood or coal delivered to each engine; they
must examine each ticket to see that it bears
the number of the engine, and corresponds
with the amount furnished. The tickets collected must be sent to the home office at the
close of each month.
T^tey must keep a record book of wood and
coal consumed by engines; this book must be
transmitted to the home office with the furl
tickets, at the close of the month; when examined and compared with the tickets it will
be returned to the agent.
CD
DIRECTIONS    TO    AGENTS *IN    REFERENCE    TO
SWITCHES.
They will have charge of switchmen at
stations, and will be held responsible for the
position of switches ; they must keep it in mind
that a train may arrive at any moment, and
must be prepared accordingly.1 Jf
They must see that switchmen properly
signal all approaching trains. .
The greatest care must be exercised in thp
I. | They (flagmen and switchmen) must be provided with
a crowbar, shovel, sledge, spiking mauls, spikes, red and
white lanterns, and with a flag-staff eight feet long, and have
a white flag three feet square at one end and a red flag of the
same size at the other end."—1854.
y 216
Railway Service :
cleaning, trimming, and lighting of signal
lamps, and agents will be held responsible for
this work being efficiently performed.
When day and night switchmen are employed, they must not be allowed to leave their
posts until relieved by each other, and the one
going off duty must inform the one coming on
of trains that are due but that have not arrived.1
Lamps of switches must be kept trimmed and
in order, and must never be allowed to go out
at night.2
Agents must see that switches are kept free
from snow and other obstructions.
Switches must be set for the main track,
and must be kept locked, except while being
used.
DIRECTIONS    TO    AGENTS    IN    REFERENCE    TO
*        TRAINS AND  CARS.
All vehicles switched off at stations, as empties, must be carefully searched.    The windows
i. I When any one beat or post is covered for twenty-four
hours by a day and night man, who relieve each other, the day
will usually comprise thirteen hours, and the night eleven
hours."—Gt. Wes. Ry., Eng.
2. " He must satisfy himself that the signalmen at or attached to his station perform their duties in a proper manner
by night as well as by day, and in order to maintain a proper
supervision over the men in this respect, it will be necessary
for him frequently to visit the signal boxes."—Eng. Standard. Trains and Stations.
217
of all empty passenger cars must be closed
when they are standing on sidings at the
stations.1 |;
They are responsible for cars remaining at
their stations; they must see that the brakes
upon such cars are applied, and the wheels securely blocked so that they can not be moved
by unauthorized persons, or blown by the wind,
so as in any way to interfere with the safetv of
trains.2 f|. -
Agents must see that tracks are kept clear
and unobstructed, and they will not allow any
train or engine to approach their station unless
they can do  so  without  danger.    They must
1. " The windows of all empty compartments must be closed,
not only while the carriages are standing at the stations, but
also when the trains are running, immediately upon the compartment becoming vacant. The ventilators must be kept
open." — Eng. Standard.
2. " The station-master must see that all fixed scotch-blocks
at his station are kept across the rail; that all safety-points are
closed against the main line, when it is not necessary that they
should be open for the purpose of shunting, and that all vehicles are placed within such scotch-blocks or safety-points.
Facing-points not worked from a locking-frame must, in all
cases, be securely fastened or held for the passage of trains.
1 The station master, or person in charge, must take care
that, while shunting wagons or other vehicles at stations or
other places situate on inclines, in addition to screwing the
van brakes tightly down, a sufficient number of wagon brakes
are pinned down, and sprags or hand scotches used when necessary, to prevent the possibility of the train or any of the vehicles
running down the incline. At such stations and other places
a supply of sprags and hand scotches must be kept for the purpose. When wagons require to be shunted into incline sidings
the trucks to be moved at one shunt must be limited to such a
number as the engine can push up without going at a violent
or excessive speed."—Eng Standard.
A 218
Railway Service:
promptly report defective frogs or switches to
the roadmaster.1
They are required to report accidents occurring to trains at or near their stations; all damaged cars or goods brought to or left at their
stations, destined elsewhere, also, the amount of
the damage, and how caused.
" When a horse is used on the railway, a man
must, in all cases, have hold of its head, whether
the horse is drawing vehicles or otherwise."2
GENERAL DIRECTIONS  TO AGENTS.
In the absence of a yard master the duties of
that official are performed by the agent.
They have charge of the accounts, books,
papers, buildings, sidings, grounds and property
of the company, and of the property intrusted
to it in the transaction of business at their respective stations, and will be held responsible
for the safe keeping and proper care of the
same, also for the efficiency of employes subordinate to them.3
1. u They will know personally, at least ten minutes before
any regular train is due, and before leaving their stations at
night, that the switches upon the main track are properly secured and locked, and that the cars upon their side-tracks,
nearest the switches, have their brakes set, or their wheels well
blocked/'— 1863.
2. English road.
3. " Every station master or person in charge of a station is
answerable for the security and protection of the office and
buildings, and of the company's property there. He is also
responsible for the faithful and efficient discharge of the duties Trains and Stations.
219
They must keep the buildings and grounds
connected with their stations clean and in proper
condition for the accommodation of passengers
and the reception of freight, and must preserve
order and system in and about their stations.1
They must keep their accounts and make
their returns in such manner and form, and at
such times as the accounting officer may direct.
They must keep the general rules and regulations of the company intended for the information of the public, governing the transportation of passengers and freight, posted in a
conspicuous place in their depots.2
Agents are not allowed to be absent without
leave from the Superintendent, except from
illness, in which case they must immediately
inform him of the fact.     When absent, they
devolving upon all the company's servants, either permanently
or temporarily employed at the station, or within its limits, and
such servants are subject to his authority and directions in the
working of the line. He is also responsible for the general
working of the station being carried out in strict accordance
with the company's regulations, and must, as far as practicable,
give personal attention to the shunting of trains, and all other
operations which in any way affect the safety of the line. He
must always appear in uniform when on duty, if uniform be
supplied to him."— Eng. Standard.
1. " When an engine or train of cars is left at the station
over night, he will take general supervision and care of the
same."—1853.
2. | The notices connected with the company must not be
stuck on the walls of the stations or offices, but are to be put
on boards provided for that purpose*; and all notices, last
month's bills, etc., must be carefully removed when they cease
to be needed," — Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
'■■#£S
III! 220
Railway Service :
must leave their stations in charge of trustworthy and competent persons.
They must be careful that the company's
stores are prudently and economically used,
and that there is no waste of oil, fuel, or
stationery, etc.1
HI, They must use all proper means to secure
traffic for the road, avoid giving offense, and
act with a view of accommodating the public.
They must see that all orders of which they
are cognizant are promptly executed.
They must promptly report to the Superintendent all deviations from the rules and regulations of the company, or anything that comes
under their observation that is prejudicial to its
interests, or that may interfere with the safe and
economical working of the property.2
1. * The purchase of miscellaneous articles, or making ot
small bills, is strictly prohibited, except in cases of absolute
necessity. Their necessary wants will be supplied by application to the Secretary of the Operating Department or Superintendent."—1853.
2. "They must report, without delay, neglect of duty on
the part of any one at, or passing, their stations which may
come under their observation."— 1854. Trains and Stations.
221
CHAPTER X.
GENERAL  INSTRUCTIONS.
R An employ^ can not become entirely familiar
with the rules and regulations governing his
duties except by acquiring knowledge of the
duties of others.1 This knowledge can not be
acquired without an attentive perusal of the
various rules and regulations; he will find
something that interests him under all the
various headings and sub - headings; it is
impossible to accurately classify under different
headings the duties of the various employes
without endless reiteration. All the rules and
regulations should therefore be studied.      >J|
One of the tests of an employe's fitness is the
extent and accuracy of the information he
possesses in reference to train and station
service; this is especially the case with train
and station officials. Each train official should
be especially familiar with the duties of the
various servants of the company connected
with the train service, so that in the event of
accident he may, if necessary, be prepared to
I. "All clerks in charge, inspectors, and foremen porters,
are required to learn hovv to work the electric telegraph, and
to keep themselves in constant practice, so as to be able to
send messages in case of need." — Gt. N. Ry., Eng. 222
Railway Service:
perform their functions. The same rule holds
good in its application to employes at stations.
No man is worthy of retention in the service,
much less of promotion, who does not strive
actively to acquire knowledge of his profession.
"All officers, clerks, and persons holding
situations of trust will be required to find
security for their faithful service, the amount
and conditions of which security will be stated
upon appointment."1 1
Employes must be sober, temperate men ;2
they must not accept gratuities, fees or perquisites ;3 they must devote themselves exclusively
to the service of the company, attending diligently to their duties during the prescribed
hours of the day or night, and they must reside
wherever the interests of the company require.4
1. English Standard.
2. " Smoking while on duty is forbidden, and the use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage will be considered just cause of
dismissal from the service of the company."—A Western Road.
** The proprietors of refreshment rooms are forbidden to supply spirits to any engineman, fireman, guard, or other servant
of the company while on duty."—Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
" No instance of intoxication on duty will ever be overlooked."—1854.
3. " No person is allowed to receive any gratuity from the public, on pain of dismissal, and the compensation paid will cover
all risks incurred, or liability to accident from any cause on the
road."—1854.
4. " Each officer and man shall devote himself to the company's service, and he must serve when and wherever he is required, including Sunday if necessary, he being allowed for
any extra work at his usual daily rate of compensation.
"If a guard or other servant should have two residences,
he must make them both known at each station from whence
he works."—English Road.
o
I Trains and Stations.
fnS
All property which they may find or which may
come into their possession must be turned over
to the authorized officer of the company to
await the disposition of the owner.1   ^::-
Employes must obey promptly instructions
received from persons placed in authority over
them, in conformity with the rules and regulations of the company.     . jv
Disobedience to orders, negligence, incompetency, or immorality renders a person unfit for
retention in the service.2
Employes will not be permitted to absent
themselves from their duty without the consent
of the head of the department. Permission to
be absent must be asked by employes through
intermediate heads, when such  employes  are
1. " All property which may be found on the line or premises of the company, by any man.in their employ, shall be
immediately handed to his superior officer, and by him to the
agent at Blank street station, and entered by him in a book
kept for that purpose. But should it be known that the property found had fallen from any particular train, it should be
forwarded by the next train, or as soon thereafter as possible,
to the station to which the train was proceeding, and notice
thereof sent to the office at Blank street. Any man known
to keep any property so found will be severely punished/' 1854
I All property found by any servant of the company on any
part of the premises must be immediately taken to the clerk in
charge, in order that a proper entry may be made of the article
in case of inquiry."— Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
2. I Persons who disapprove of the regulations adopted, or
are not disposed to aid in their enforcement, are requested not
to remain in the employment of the company."—1854.
I And they will inquire into and punish instances of immoral
or loose conduct on the part of any of their servants."—English
Road.
ill
1
N 224
Railway Service :
not directly responsible to the chief officer
of the department, or the next official in
rank.1
All orders and instructions must be carefully
preserved and filed for future reference.
Employes are required to exercise a wise discretion and economy in the use of the company's
material intrusted to their care.
Any neglect of the storekeepers to furnish
employes with materials, blanks, books, and
other supplies, in such quantity and of such
quality as may be required to do the business
of the company in an expeditious and economical manner, must forthwith be reported to the
Superintendent, or the department officer interested, jt '«  ;"
Articles required for use by employes such
as lamps, keys, flags, axes, saws and other
classes of material, will not be allowed without
I. "Men absenting themselves without leave, and prevailing
on others to supply their places, will subject themselves and
all parties concerned to a heavy fine. Any man absenting
himself without having a proper " leave of absence ticket,"
will be fined $1.25, as though he were absent without leave.
"In case of extra business, of sickness, or unavoidable
cause of absence of any servants (excepting clerks) the clerk
in charge is immediately to provide for the proper performance of the duty by appointing some temporary substitutes,
but he is responsible for selecting men of good character,
sober, honest, and intelligent, and capable of undertaking the
office. With a view to such temporary appointments, it is
desirable that the character and eligibility of some proper
persons from time to time be previously ascertained."—Gt. Nor.
Ry., Eng. Trains and Stations.
225
the  return of the corresponding article previously in use.1
Employes intrusted with keys to switches or
cars are required to receipt for them, and must
not let them go out of their possession.
Persons leaving the company's service must
deliver up any property belonging to it intrusted to their care. If the property shall
have been improperly used or damaged, a sufficient amount must be withheld from the pay of
the person to make good the loss suffered.2
- Employes will be held responsible for injury
occasioned to persons or property by their negligence or misconduct, also for all moneys that
may come into their possession, and the company
reserves the right to reimburse itself for any
expense it may be put to in consequence of any
negligence, misconduct or improper action upon
the part of an employe, by withholding the pay
of the person or persons in fault.3
1. | Broken lamps must be sent to the lamp room, King's
Cross, for repairs, accompanied by the proper way-bill, a duplicate at the same time being sent to the Superintendent of
the line."—-Gt. Nor. Ry., Eng.
2. I And if he occupies one of the company's houses, he
shall immediately remove his furniture from it, and put the
house into as good cond tion as when he received possession
of it."—1854.
3. "In the event of any misconduct or suspicion of irregularity of the servants, it is competent to the district agents or
clerks in charge to suspend them, reporting the circumstances,
immediately. The pay of all clerks, guards, policemen, porters, and others, will be stopped from the moment of their
being suspended ; and the pay will not be allowed except in
15 226L Railway Service :
Persons in the employ of the company are
forbidden, while upon duty, from entering into
altercation with other persons, no matter what
provocation may have been given.
Employes in places of trust must report any
misconduct or negligence affecting the interests
or safety of the property which may come to
their knowledge.
Employes are not allowed to use the credit of
the company without the written authority of
the Treasurer of the company.
jf The pay of employes absent from duty will
be stopped, unless otherwise directed by the
head of the department.1
the event of entire acquittal of the charge for which the man
was suspended. The company reserve the right to deduct
from pay any fine imposed for neglect of duty, or otherwise,
which (in the event of pecuniary loss to the company not being
entailed thereby) will be appropriated to a benevolent fund."
—Gt. Nor. Ry. Eng.
i. *' A clerk, in case of continued absence on account of
illness, is not entitled to pay for more than a fortnight during
such absence, except under the special sanction of the board, to
whom application must be made through the Superintendent of
the line, who will decide whether the case be one he can properly recommend for consideration; but as a sick fund is
now established to which all persons in the service are eligible,
and which, for a small weekly payment, provides medical
attendance for the contributors, their wives and families, a
weekly allowance in sickness, and funeral allowance in case of
death, clerks are recommended to subscribe to it, and thus
render themselves, in a much greater degree, independent in
case of sickness or other unavoidable calamity befalling themselves, or their wives or families.
" Every guard, policeman, and porter, is required to become
a member of the sick fund established by the company, and to
pay his subscriptions regularly out of the wages he receives by
deduction from the pay-bill, or otherwise."—Gt. Nor. Ry.y Eng. Phi
Trains and Stations.
227
When instructions are not understood, or
when the course to be pursued admits of doubt,
employes must so act as not to compromise the
safety of the property or endanger the lives of
passengers or others, seeking of the proper
officer, on the first opportunity, the explanations they require.
Employes connected with the train or station
service must have in their possession a copy
of the schedule and the rules and regulations
forming a part of it.
a 228
Railway Service :
CHAPTER XI.
REGULATIONS   OF   THE   AUSTRIAN    RAILWAYS
GOVERNING   THE  PASSENGER   SERVICE.
1
Railroad employes must treat the public in a
polite, modest, and business-like manner, and
must be obliging, as far as the, service will
allow. They must render fill th&jjservices
required of them gratuitously; it is prohibited
them to accept any compensation from the
public; employes are not allowed to smoke
when they are on duty.
The public must conform to the wishes of
employes, who are to be recognized by a uni-
form. • .  '   Jf     ..  ■ %.   .§
Differences between the public and employes
are to be decided by the station-manager, or, on
the road, by the conductor. >>
Complaints must be made to the officers,
either verbally or in writing, or must be entered in a book which can be found for this
purpose at each station.    The managers must
I. Laws regulating the management of railroads in the
Kingdom and provinces represented in the Council of the
Empire and by-laws given the 25th of July, 1877. Translated
by M. Blanque.
The regulations of the German roads are, in many respects,
the same as those of Austria. "B.
Trains and Stations.
229
give an answer, at an early date, to all complaints, to which must be added the names and
residence of complainants. Complaints in reference to an employe must specify the name,
number, or uniform of the latter. |jj
The public are to have admittance only to
such parts of the depot and railway grounds as
are always kept open, or are open temporarily
for the convenience of the public. Walking
on the tracks or roadway is not allowed, except
to those who possess the right in accordance
with the regulations of the railway police.
- Forwarding of passengers, quadrupeds, etc.,
can be refused if uncontrollable, or circumstances should arise, or superior power interfere,
or if the regular means for forwarding should
be insufficient. ■ :||.
Payments must be made in current gold and
silver coin, excepting fractional currency, in
accordance with the rates published by the
railroad management. j
The forwarding of passengers is regulated by
the time-tables hanging on the wall at all stations. The time-table \ also states what classes
of cars the respective trains haul. The running of special trains is left to the consideration of the management. The station clock
regulates the time for starting trains.
The prices of tickets are given in a tariff
posted up in a conspicuous place at each station.
i 230
Railway Service :
Tickets secure seats in the respective classes
as far as there are such seats. If a passenger
can not obtain such a seat as the ticket issued
to him entitles him to occupy, and if there is
no vacant room in a higher class, he is at liberty to exchange his ticket for one in a car of a
lower class, the difference in price being refunded to him, or he has the right to ask for
the return of his money, thus renouncing the
obligation of being forwarded. Those passengers who are in possession of through tickets
must be disposed ftf first.
Up Each ticket sold must show the names of the
stations between which it is good, also the price
of the class which the passenger intends to
travel in ;2 finally, the time or the train for
which the ticket is good. ||
The time or train for which a ticket has been
issued must be stamped upon it, so that the
purchaser can see at a glance whether it answers the purpose or not. The passenger has
the right to stop at an intermediate station and
take another train of corresponding grade on
I. " Private servants (male and female) accompanying gentlemen's carriages by ordinary trains, are allowed to travel in or
upon such carriages with second-class tickets; if by the third-
class train, with third-class tickets ; but this privilege does not
extend to any other than servants. Servants when accompanying their masters traveling by express trains, are charged
second-class express fares ; but this can only be the case if such
servants are properly identified by their masters or mistresses
who may be traveling with them."—Great Northern Railway
of England. Trains and Stations.
the same or following day; but in such case,
after alighting from the train, he must present
the ticket to the station-manager to have its-
validity extended. The time granted on trip,
or return tickets, can not be extended.1
Prices are reduced and tickets issued for children under ten years, and should there be any
doubt about their age, the decision hi the revising officer is final. No fare will be paid for
small children carried in arms, or who occupy
no extra room.
The exchanging of tickets of a lower for a
higher class will not be allowed within ten
minutes of the starting time of trains, and will
not be allowed in any event unless there are
unoccupied seats in the class desired. When
tickets are exchanged the difference in price
must be paid. At intermediate stations such
exchange will not be allowed except when an
additional ticket is purchased to the place of
destination, the value of which added to the
i. "A return ticket is granted solely for the purpose of enabling the person for whom the same is issued to travel therewith
to and from the stations marked thereon, and is not transferable. Any person who sells, or attempts to sell, or parts, or
attempts to part, with the possession of the return half of any
return ticket in order to enable any other person to travel
therewith, is hereby subjected to a penalty not exceeding forty
shillings, and any person purchasing such half of a return ticket,
or traveling or attempting to travel therewith, shall be liable
to pay the fare which he would have been liable to pay for the
single journey, and shall, in addition thereto, be subjected to
a penalty not exceeding forty shillings."—Eng. Standard. 232
Railway Service :
value of the ticket first purchased equals the
price of the higher classed seat desired.
■' Particular seats can not be sold or reserved
in advance. Employes have the right, and on
demand of passengers are obliged to point out
seats to the latter. Ladies traveling alone must
be seated in separate ladies' coupe when they
desire it.
; A separate ladies' coup£ must be provided in
all trains for passengers of the second and third
class. This distinction will be modified as necessity requires when cars are constructed after
the American system.
At all stations the waiting-rooms must be
opened at least one hour before the train leaves.
On entering the waiting-room the passenger,
if desired, must exhibit his ticket, also, on entering the car. r~||;
During the journey passengers must retain
their tickets until the same are collected.       |||
Any passenger who shall not be in possession
of a valid ticket must pay a fine double the
amount of the fare for the distance traveled, and
any passenger who, when going on board of a
train, tells the conductor thereof that he (the
passenger) was too late to buy a ticket, and is
allowed to stay on board of such train, must
pay, in addition to the fare, 50 kreutzer.1
I. " The guard must not allow any passenger or parcel to
be conveyed by the train unless, properly booked ; and if he
has reason to suppose that any passenger is without a ticket, Trains and Stations.
233
If the passenger refuses to pay such fine he
-can be put dff the train. I
The sign to enter the cars is given by two
strokes of the bell. j|||
No one is allowed to get on board the train
after the sign to start has been given by the
whistle of the locomotive, and any effort to do
so is punishable.
A passenger who misses the train in the manner described has no claim for the refunding of
his fare or for indemnification of any kind. But
he has the right to use the ticket in his possession on the next day upon a train of the same
class, but the ticket must be extended by the
station-keeper. This extension can not be applied on return or round-trip tickets.
On arrival at a station, the name of same and
length of sojourn, and any changing of cars
must be called. After the train has stopped,
the doors of the cars which have this station as
the point of destination will be opened. The
doors of other cars will only be opened if desired.
Any one leaving his seat without first securing its retention must take another one in the
event it is occupied during his absence.
If a train is stopped outside of a station on
or is not in the proper carriage, he must request the passenger
to show his ticket, reporting to the station-master or person
in charge, any irregularity he may detect. When a passenger
is desirous of changing from an inferior to a superior class of
carriage, the guard must have this arranged by the station-
master or person in charge."—Eng. Standard. 234
Railway Service :
.'
account of some obstacle, no one will be allowed
to leave the cars without the conductor's consent. Passengers must not stand upon the
track, and must resume their seats upon the
first signal of the whistle. The signal to start
is three blasts of the whistle; any one not on
board when the signal to start is given will be
excluded.
While the train is moving, no one is allowed
to look out of the cars, lean against the doors,
or step on the seats. ^
If objection is made by one passenger only,
the windows on the windward side can be closed.
Only employes have the right to open the*
doors for entering and leaving the cars; no
stepping off the cars is permitted until the train
has come to a full stop. /H|
Every passenger must keep at a distance from
the rails and machines and must leave the depot
in the direction prescribed.
Any damage done to the cars, by passengers,
must be paid for according to the indemnification tariff, and employes are empowered to
make collections at the time in accordance with
such tariff.1
I. "Any person who willfully cuts or tears any lining
or window strap, or curtain, removes or defaces any number places, or breaks or scratches any window of a carriage
used on the railway, or who otherwise, except by unavoidable
accident, damages, defaces, or injures any such carriage, or any
station, or other property of the company, is hereby subjected Trains and Stations.
235
Claims can not be made on account of delayed
trains. , -Si;
The abandonment or interruption of a train
during a voyage, only justifies a claim for the
amount of the fare for the distance not traveled
by the passenger.
If connection with another train should have
been missed and superior power has not been
the cause, the passenger, if he takes the next
return train to his starting point, is entitled to
have the amount of both fares refunded to him
on proof of his claim. Such passenger, however, to secure his claim, is obliged, on arrival
of the belated train, to report to the station-
keeper and present his ticket. The latter must
confirm the delay and the station-keeper of the
starting point has also to certify to the time of
the passenger's return. In case interruption
to a voyage is occasioned by the elements, or
obstacles have damaged the railway, arrangements must be made to forward passengers in
the best manner possible. Irregularities must
be made known to the public by visits e placards
posted at the different stations. §
Dogs and other quadrupeds are not allowed
in the cars; lap-dogs are excepted from this rule
in those cases where no objections are made
by passengers.
to a penalty not exceeding five pounds, in addition to the
amount of any damage for which he may be liable."—G. W.
Ry., Eng. 236
Railway Service :
Smoking is allowed in all classes of cars, but
in the event there is no smoking coupe of the
first class in the train, smoking will not be
allowed in coupes of the first class when passengers object. Every passenger train must
contain second-class, and, if possible, third-
class coupes in which smoking is prohibited.
Tobacco pipes must be sufficiently covered.
Baggage containing combustible articles,
liquids or other articles which might do injpxy,
especially charged guns, gunpowder, easily
inflammable preparations and things of such
nature, are not allowed in the passenger cars.
Employes are empowered to examine such
articles closely. Any one disregarding this
rule is responsible for any injury caused, and is
also subject to a fine according to the regulations of the railway police. Huntsmen must
have a special permit. f l^
Transgressions of the rules prescribed, acting
in opposition to employes' wishes, indecent
behavior or drunkenness, will lead to the
exclusion of the person or persons in fault from
the cars, and in such cases fare will not be
refunded.
/ Drunken persons will not be allowed admittance to the waiting rooms or cars, and must
be ejected when they gain access thereto.1   If
i. " Any person found in a carriage, or elsewhere upon the
company's premises, in a state of intoxication, or using obscene Trains and Stations.
237
ejected during the voyage, as provided by this
rule, or after having surrendered baggage to
the company for for warding,. the person or persons ejected are only entitled to have their
baggage delivered at the station to which it was
originally directed.   " '   -
or abusive language, or writing obscene or offensive words on
any part of the company's stations or carriages, or committing
any nuisance, or otherwise willfully interfering with the comfort
of other passengers is hereby subjected to a penalty not exceeding forty shillings, and shall immediately, or, if a passenger, at
the first opportunity, be removed from the company's premises."—G. W. Ry., Eng. 238
Railway Service :
I   CHAPTER XII.
A CHAPTER DEVOTED TO THE RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE GREAT ENGLISH ROADS.1
Greneral Regulations.
Every person employed by the company must
devote himself exclusively to their service, residing at whatever place may be appointed,
attending at such hours as may be required,
paying prompt obedience to all persons placed
in authority over him, and conforming to all the
rules and regulations of the company.
Although the rules and regulations given
under different heads are made specially for the
observance of the servants employed in doing
the work required by such rules and regulations, yet every such person must make himself
thoroughly acquainted with them, and will be
held responsible for a knowledge of, and compliance with, the whole of them.
Every servant is required to assist in carrying out the rules and regulations, and must immediately report to his superior officer any infringement thereof, or any occurrence affecting
the safe and proper working of the traffic which
may come under his notice.
I. Clearing-house Standard, 1877.
• Trains and Stations.
239
ThQ address of each person employed in the
working of the railway must be registered at
the station to whicl^ he is attached, or at which
he is paid, and must be posted in the station-
master's office, so that, if required in cases of
e mergency, the men may be readily found. Any
change of address must be notified to the station-
master, in order that the record may be kept
perfect.      . «    .    ■ |f
No servant is allowed, under any circumstances, to absent himself from duty, or alter
his appointed hours of attendance, or exchange
duty with any other servant, without the
special permission of his superior officer. In
case of illness, he must immediately report the
circumstance to his superior officer.   "
Every person receiving uniform is to appear
in it, when on duty, clean and neat, with the
number and badge perfect, and if any article
provided by the company shall be damaged by
improper use, he will be required to make it
good. No servant is allowed to convert to his
own use any article, the property of the company, and, if guilty of such misconduct, he will
be severely punished. The conduct of all servants must be prompt, civil and obliging. They
must at all times afford every proper facility
for the business to be performed, be careful to
give correct information, and, when asked, give
their names without hesitation. 240
Railway Service :
All officers, clerks* and persons holding situations of trust, will be required to find security
for their faithful services, the amount and conditions of which securit} will be stated upon
appointment.
No officer or servant of the company is allowed
to travel on the railway, unless provided with a
proper ticket, or free pass; nor is he allowed to
ride on the engine, or in the brake van, or in
any vehicle in which luggage or parcels are conveyed, unless in the execution of his duty,
without written permission from the properly
authorized officer of the company.
llNo guard, engine-driver, fireman, signalman,
policeman, porter, or other servant of the company, while on duty, is allowed to enter a station refreshment-room, except by permission of
the station-master, or person in charge of the
station.       \ §
No money or gratuity in the shape of fee,
reward, or remuneration, is allowed to be taken
from passengers, or other persons, by any servant of the company, under any pretense whatever, even although the regular hours of duty
shall have expired.       |§ <SL
/. No servant of the company is allowed to
trade, either directly or indirectly, for himself
or others. The company reserve the right to
punish any servant, by immediate dismissal,
fine, or suspension from duty, for intoxication, Trains and Stations.
241
disobedience of orders, negligence, misconduct,
or absence from duty without leave, and to
deduct from the pay of their servants and retain
the sums which may be imposed as fines, and
also their wages during the time of their suspension, or absence from duty from any cause.
No servant is allowed to quit the company's
service without "giving the month's notice required by the terms of his engagement.
When a man leaves the service, he must immediately deliver up his uniform and all other
articles belonging to the company, and no
money due for wages to any man leaving the
service will be paid until his clothing, book of
rules, lamps, flags, tools, detonators, and all
other articles, the property of the company,
which may have been supplied to him, shall
have been delivered up in accordance with the
company's regulations. If not delivered up, or
if any article be missing, or be damaged by improper use, the cost of such articles, or of the
repair of such damage, shall be a debt due from
the man to the company, and may be deducted
from any pay then due, or, if such pay be found
insufficient to meet the claim, will become a
debt recoverable at law. I
All testimonials and letters of recommendation will, if required, be returned by the company at the tijne the person whom they concern
leaves the service; except such as are addressed to the company 01 their officers.
16
V. 242
Railway
Service :
plJAll servants must exercise proper care in,
getting between vehicles for the purpose of
coupling or uncoupling them.
N No trespassing upon the railway must be
allowed, and no person must be permitted to
walk on the line, unless provided with written
or printed permission to do so, signed by a
properly authorized officer of the. company. In
the event of any person trespassing, and refusing to quit when requested to do so, the name
and address of such person must be obtained,
and the circumstances reported to the nearest
station-master.
Special trains or engines have frequently to
be run without previous notice of any kind, it
is therefore necessary for the staf^along the
line to be at all times prepared for extra trains
or engines. ;|;  ""\    "■ '|fe
The safety of the public must, under all circumstances, be the chief care of the servants
of the company.
Wherever the term " Main Line " is used, it
means the running line of any railway, or
branch. -Whenever the word ITrain" is used,
Jt must be understood to include I Light Engine," i.e., engine without a train.   f§
Wherever the words "Goods Train" are
used, th^y must be understood to include
" Goods, Mineral, Cattle, and Ballast Trains."
■BHBHM Trains and Stations.
243
CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PERSONS ARE ADMITTED TO THE SERVICE — SECURITY —
PRIVILEGES—COMPENSATION — ETC.1
A candidate as an experienced clerk must
possess railway experience, or experience in
other traffic  equivalent  thereto.
The salary, not exceeding $4002 per annum,
is fixed on appointment. ff
A candidate as a junior clerk must have
attained eighteen and must not exceed twenty-
* three years of age.
The salary on appointment and
$5 25 per week.
-       - 5 75      "
-     6 00
For the
1st year, is
u
2d     I   |
(<
3d
it
4th
(«
5th        1 and until promoted,   6 25
<i
<(
If employed in London, but during such employment only, fl.OO a week is allowed in
addition to the salary.
A junior clerk is eligible for promotion only
on a vacancy occurring, and upon the head of
the department in which he has been employed,
and the General Manager, recommending him
as qualified to fill the same.       'ff
A candidate as a lad  clerk  must have at-
1. Gt. Nor. Ry., England.
2. I have taken the liberty here, as I have elsewhere herein,
when I thought proper, of reducing the foreign currency to
the American standard.—M. M. K. 244
Railway Servic,
?   •
tained fifteen and must not exceed eighteen
years of age. f
The salary on appointment and
For the 1st year is      -       -        -        $2 50 per week.
2d " -        - 2 75
3d I - 3 25
4th        "  and until promoted,   4 00
i(
ii
It
a
it
A lad clerk is ineligible for promotion to be j
a junior clerk until he is eighteen years of age,
and then only upon a vacancy occurring, and
upon the head of the department in which he .
has been employed, and the General Manager,
recommending him as qualified to fill the same.
All clerks, without reference to their standing
in the service, are allowed $ 1.00 a week in addition to their pay, when employed wholly on
night duty. { ~^/
Written application at the end of each year
of service must be made to the directors
through the medium of the Superintendent of
the line, or chief of the department in which
the clerk is engaged, for the authorized increase
of salary, and failing such application at the
proper time, increased pay will be allowed only
from the date at which it is eventually made.
This rule applies also to the police and porters.
A candidate as a clerk will undergo a strict
examination as to his qualifications, in proportion to his age; he will be required to show a
good handwriting, suited for accounts and cor- Trains and Stations.
245
respondence, and that he has a competent
knowledge of mercantile arithmetic; and he
must be in a good state of health. ^
The candidate must, on attending at the
Secretary's office to be examined, produce testimonials of character. J|
In the case of an experienced clerk, and of
a junior clerk who has been before employed,
first, from his last employer; second, one from
each of two housekeepers of undoubted respectability. 11
| In the case of a lad clerk, and of a junior
clerk who has not been before employed, first,
from the head master of the school in which he
has been educated ; second, one from each of
two housekeepers of undoubted respectability.
j|| The nomination, with the particulars of the
examination and the testimonials, will be submitted to the directors on the candidate appearing before tnem, and who will decide
whether he be qualified and a proper person to
be appointed.                §| H
The name of a clerk, on appointment, will
be added to a list, from which he will be summoned in turn for duty as a vacancy occurs,
provided he has in the meantime given security;
but should he, on being summoned, refuse or
neglect to join, his name will be struck out of
the list, and he can not afterwards be re-admitted to the service.
] j
i
IN 246
Railway Service :
A clerk must, immediately on appointment,
give security to the amount of two years'
salary, or in not less than $500, through the
medium of one of the undermentioned guarantee societies, and he can not subsequently,
under any pretense whatever, be allowed to
change from the society first selected. if
j^| (Here follows the list of guarantee companies.)
The railway company pays the prefiaium in
the case of a clerk whose salary does not exceed $5.25 per week or $6.25 per week without
allowances. **;
A candidate as a porter must be five feet
seven inches in height, without his shoes. He
must not be less than twenty-one, and must not
exceed thirty-five years of age. He must be
able to read and write, and be generally intelligent ; free from any bodily complaint, and of
a strong constitution, according to the judgment of the surgeon by whom he will be examined, who will report whether he is "fit"
or " unfit." The police are selected from this
class. - |r -}l
The candidate must produce testimonials of
character from his last employer, and one from
each of two housekeepers of undoubted respectability, and if he has been in any public service
also a certificate of good conduct during such
employment; these, with the nomination, will
■Kl
M| Trains and Stations.
247
be submitted to the directors on the candidate
appearing  before them, and who will decide
whether he be a proper person to be appointed.
*» The pay of a porter is, on entering, and
In London.        In Country.
For 1st year,      -      -       -     $4 25 per week. $4 00 per week,
|    2d    u -      -      -       4 50   "      "       4 25
u    3d    " and until promoted, 4 75   |      "       4 50      "
provided a fine be not incurred in the interim, in which case increased pay is allowed
only after twelve months' service from the date
of such fine.        ' .
A candidate as a lad porter must not be less
tfian fourteen, nor exceed seventeen years of
age. He must be able to read and write, and
be generally intelligent, free from any bodily
complaint, and of strong constitution, according to the judgment of the surgeon by whom
he will be examined, who will report whether
he is "fit" or "unfit."
The candidate must produce testimonials of
character from the school at which he has
been educated, and one from each of two housekeepers of undoubted respectability. These,
with the nomination, will be submitted to the
directors on the candidate appearing before
them, and who will decide whether he be a
proper person to be appointed.
The pay of a lad porter is, on entering, and 248
Railway Service :
For the
1st year
n
2d    |
u
3d| 1
u
4th    *
u
5 th    I
u
6th    i
u
7th   " and until promoted,
$i 75 per week
2  00
u
2   25
u
2 50
a
2 75
a
3 oo
a
3 50
t i
A lad porter on attaining twenty-one years
of age, and not before, is eligible for promotion
to be a porter, but he can then become a porter
only after being passed by the surgeon and the
directors, as in the case of a new appointment,
want of height (under five feet seven inches)
not being, however, a disqualification.
||§'All appointments are made on the distinct
understanding that the parties hold themselves
in readiness to proceed to duty immediately on
being summoned, their pay being allowed from
the date of employment, that they reside where-
ever required, and that they will join and become members, on being so required, of any
provident or benevolent society established
or to be established in connection with the
company, and abide by all the rules and regulations | * * for otherwise given them for
their guidance. ^~
||| The rules of the Sick and Funeral Allowance Fund are furnished to every porter on
appointment. ||
Station-inspectors, $6.25 and $7.50 per week,
mmm~—
OT Trains and Stations.
249
according to the class of station, with house,
or an allowance of $1.25 per week in lieu.
Pass. Guards (con.)  1st class, Chief Guard $7 50 per week.
a
a
a
u
a
it
1st
2d
2d
a
a
u
Goods and cattle Guards,
u
Mineral Guards,
u
Under Guard 6 87
Chief Guard |f 6 75
Under Guard 6 25
Chief Guard 7 50
Under Guard 6 87
5 75
a
a
a
u
a
a
All guards when required to sleep away from
home, receive twenty-five cents per night ad-
ditional.
Police—Ordinary,      -
Signalmen at Junctions and   )
Pointsmen in London, )
In the Country, -        -        -        4 75
Gatemen at level street crossings,      4 75
Gatemen at level r'd station crossings 4 25
a
a
a
a
$4 25 per week.
5 00
a
ii
u
it
Gatemen provided with a house by the company, are to have coals free, and to pay sixty-
two cents a week rent, but if they open the
gates by night in addition to the day work they
are to,have the house rent free, as an equivalent for the night work.
Porters in London,
I      in the Country,        -
Foremen Porters in London,
I " the Country,   -
Mineral Foremen Porters in the Country,
Shunters in London,      -
u the Country,    -
Luggage Stowers and Loaders,
$4 25 pei
: week.
4 00
a
5 25
a
5 00
a
5 25
(i
4 75
ii
4 50
a
4 75
a 250
Railway Service :
Police and porters are to receive an advance
of twenty-five cents per week each year for two
years, beginning on the day when they shall
have completed a year's service, if not punished in the interval.
Foremen porters, signalmen or pointsmen,
gatemen at level street crossings, shunters and
loaders are to be advanced under the same
rule, twenty-five cents pef week each year for
two years, from which their only increase will
be by promotion to a superior foremanship at
$6.25, which is a fixed rate of wages, or to the
situation of guard or inspector. .    ■#
In case of promotion, men who have been
advanced under above rule are to carry with
them and continue to enjoy their advance, unless the promotion is to a grade paid at a fixed
rate of wages, when it will cease. m
Signalmen, at the expiration of every half-
year of good service, without punishment, will
receive a premium, of $12.50.
As soon as any fine or punishment for misconduct shall be registered against any servant
of the company, the previous period of the
ourrent year's service for increase of pay or
premium becomes forfeited, and the year can
only be reckoned from the date on which he
was punished. Trains and Stations.
251
THE   UNIFORMS  REQUIRED  AND  THE   REGULATIONS  INCIDENT  THERETO.1
All servants of the company to whom uniform is allowed are required to wear it while
on duty. The uniform of servants clothed by
the company is as follows, for twelve months:
For station-inspectors and guards, a great
coat, a frock coat, waistcoat, two pairs of trousers, two red neckerchiefs, and hat or cap ; for
policemen, a great coat, a dress coat, two pairs
of trousers, cape and hat; for porters, a jacket,
waistcoat, two pairs of trousers, two red neckerchiefs, and cap.
Foremen porters and shunters have a cape
in addition. Authorized laborers receive two
blue 1 slops," and red neckerchiefs.
Uniforms will be issued as follows : To the
inspectors and guards, a top coat once a year,
and a frock coat once a year. When a second of either garment is issued the first may
be retained, but when a third is served out the
first issued is to be given back; when the
fourth is issued the second to be given back,
and thus two of each garment will remain in
their possession. The trousers and hats or
caps remain in the possession of the men, except that, when they leave  the service, two
I. Gt. Nor. Ry., England.
N 252
Railway Service :
pairs of trousers must be given up, with all
other clothing and appointments.
To the police, a great coat and cape every
two years; on receipt of new ones the old
ones must be given up. The dress coats in use
when the second coats are supplied are allowed
to remain in possession of the policemen until
a third is issued; they are then required to give
up No. 1, keeping Nos. 2 and 3; when No. 4
is issued No. 2 is to be given up, and so on,
two dress coats remaining in the possession of
the men. Hats and trousers remain in possession
of the men, except that when they leave the service, they are required to give up two pairs of
trousers, with all the other clothing and appointments, f (~^^x
Porters are subject to the police regulations
as to their jackets and waistcoats. When the
second jackets and waistcoats are issued, the
first are retained by the men ; when the third
are issued the first are given back, and so on.
The trousers remain in possession of the men,
except that, when leaving the service, they are
required to give up two pairs of trousers, and
all the other appointments of clothing. Jf The
capes are issued once in two years, the caps and
neckkerchiefs yearly; on receipt of a second cap
or cape the first is to be given up.
El
BBS Trains and Stations.
253
GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR WORKING THE
ABSOLUTE BLOCK SYSTEM ON A f DOUBLE
TRACK  ROAD.1
The signaling of trains on the block telegraph system does not in any way dispense with
the use of home, distant, starting, hand, or fog
signals, whenever and wherever such signals
may be requisite to protect obstructions on the
railway. The object of the system of electric
train signaling is to prevent more than one
train or engine being between any two signal
stations on the same line at the same time.
This is accomplished by not allowing any train
or engine to leave a signal station till the previous train or engine has been signaled as having arrived at or left the signal station next in
advance.
The block signal instruments and bells are
exclusively for the signaling of trains, and
must not, under any circumstances, be used for
conversing, nor for any other purpose than
block-working, in strict accordance with the
company's regulations, and they must only be
used by the signalman, or other person specially
appointed for the duty.
The signal boxes at which the block telegraph working is in operation, are furnished
with instruments to signal for each line of rails,
I. English Clearing House Standard.
m 254
Railway Service :
and the system under which these instruments
are to be worked, and the mode of indicating:
the description of approaching trains, will be
laid down in the code of regulations supplied
to signalmen or exhibited in the signal boxes
for the guidance of the persons in charge.
On those portions of the line worked on the
absolute block system, a second train or engine
must not be allowed to enter a section until the
preceding train or engine has been signaled as
having passed out of the section, except under
the circumstances specified in rules " A " and
" B," further on, to meet cases of train or telegraph failure.    The danger signal must be exhibited at both the home and distant signals1 to
protect trains or engines standing at stations or
intermediate signal boxes, and when any train
or engine has gone forward into the onward
section,  the  starting  and   advanced   starting
signals (where such are provided), which control the entrance  of trains  and  engines into
such sections, must also be put to, and kept
at, " danger," until telegraphic information has
been received from the signal box in advance that
the preceding train or engine has passed out oi
the section.   So long as the starting signals stand
I. The " home " signal or semaphore is located in the immediate vicinity of the station ; the " distant" signal is, however,
located further away. It is usually worked (by means of a
chain running along the ground) by the person who operates
the " home " signal.—M. M. K. Trains and Stations.
255
at | danger," the home and distant signals must
also be kept at" danger," except on the near approach of a train which has to stop at the station, when, after the speed of the train has been
reduced so as to admit of its stoppage at the
platform, the home signal may be taken off to
admit the train, but the starting signal must be
kept at " danger " until the line is clear to the
next signal station ahead.
N Unless special instructions are given to the
contrary the line must be considered clear, and
the signal "line clear" be given immediately
the last vehicle (with tail-lamp attached) has
passed the home signal post, except during
foggy weather or snow-storms, when the signal
" line clear " must not be sent to the station in
the rear until the train or engine that has
stopped at the station has passed the home
signal, and is proceeding on its journey, or has
been shunted into a siding clear of the main
• line. #; ,;| ; "••
Should it become necessary to block a section,
in consequence of a breakdown obstructing the
line, or other circumstances taking place rendering it imperative that any approaching train
should be stopped, the signalman at the station
where the obstruction takes place must use the
means authorized by his regulations for preventing any train leaving the post in the rear.
Should there be reason to suppose that both 256
Railway Service :
vJ
lines are fouled, the signalman must, without
any delay, block the lines in both directions.
No obstruction must be allowed outside the
home signal until the signalman on duty has
carried out the prescribed regulations to prevent any train leaving the signal> station in the
rear.
If a signalman observe anything unusual in a
train during its passage, such as signals of alarm
by a passenger, tail-lamp missing or out, goods
falling off, a vehicle on fire, a hot axle-box, or
other mishap, he must give the station in advance the signal to 1 stop and examine train,"
and the signalman at the station in advance
must acknowledge such signal, and instantly
put on the danger signals to stop the approaching train. Where practicable, the signalman
must also telegraph the station in advance the
cause of sending the " stop and examine train"
signal.    . ||:
Should the signalman receiving the signal
have reason to suppose that there is any danger
to a train traveling in the opposite direction, he
must also stop that train, and inform the engine-driver of the circumstances, instructing him
to proceed cautiously. Should a train pass a
signal station without a tail-lamp on the last
vehicle, the signalman must not telegraph " line
clear" to the station in the rear, but must call
the attention of such station in the authorized If II
Jrains and Stations.
257
manner, and on gaining attention, must give the
I train passed without tail-lamp " signal. This
signal having been acknowledged, the signalman
at the rear station will, thereupon, stop any train
following, and verbally instruct the engine-driver
to proceed cautiously toward the station in advance, informing him why it is necessary that he
should do so. As soon as the train, the engine-
driver of which has been cautioned, has passed
the signal station from whence the "train
passed without tail-lamp" signal was received,
the signalman there will recommence signaling
in the ordinary manner.
Should any vehicle or portion of a train be
running back in the wrong direction, the signalman must call the attention of the signalman at
the next signal box toward AvTiich the vehicle or
portion of the train maybe running, by giving
the prescribed signal indicating that vehicles
are running back on wrong line.
The signalman who has received this signal
must stop any train about to proceed on the
same line, and take such protective measures as
may be necessary, such as turning the runaway
train across to the other line or into a siding,
as may be most expedient under the circumstances.
If any vehicle or portion of a train has escaped,
and is running away in the proper direction on
17
K 258
Railway Service
■
the right line,1 the station in advance must be
advised of the fact by giving on the bell or gong
the signal " vehicles running away on proper
line." The signalman receiving this signal
must, if necessary, send the signal forward, and
take such other measures as he may consider
most expedient under the circumstances.
When a train has become divided and is running on a falling gradient, the front portion
must not, when the line is clear for it to proceed
-beyond the signals, be stopped so as to risk its
being overtaken by the second portion, but
when such train is running on a rising gradient,
or where the line is level, the first portion must
be stopped and shunted into a siding as expeditiously as circumstances will permit.
"A." In the eVent of any failure of the
instruments or bells, so that the necessary
signals can not be forwarded and received, no
train must, under any circumstances, be allowed
to pass a signal station into that section of the
line where the failure exists, without having
been previously brought to a stand, and the
engine-driver andvguard advised of the circumstances. When this has been done, the engine-
driver must be instructed to proceed cautiously
to the post in advance, so as to be able to stop
short of any obstruction there may be on the
line.     No   train   must  be allowed to  follow
I. Not the right hand track.    M. M. K. Trains and Stations.
259
another within five minutes; nor, when a tunnel intervenes in a block section, within ten
-minutes, unless the signalman on duty can
satisfy himself that the tunnel is clear.1
Steps must be immediately taken to have the
telegraphic apparatus put into working order
again.
" B." To prevent delays to breakdown van
trains2 when proceeding to clear the line, they
must, in all cases, be signaled as "passenger
trains," the signal "shunt for fast train" being
given whenever the sections in advance are
occupied by trains which the breakdown gang
must pass to reach the scene of accident.
The same course is to be adopted in the case of
an engine proceeding to take the place of one
that has failed, or of an engine with or without
a train, when sent forward to render assistance
in cases of failure or accident to preceding
trains.   '/ ^ .J|   J-
Should any obstructions occur necessitating
the working of single line, the person in charge,
who gives the necessary instructions for so
doing, must, at the same time, give written
instructions for suspending the working of the
1. I The engine-driver must protect his engine, in accordance
with the regulations, without reference to any telegraphic
communications that may exist between stations or signal
boxes, and he is not in any way relieved from this duty by the
existence of block or other telegraphic working."—Eng.
Standard.
2. Wrecking trains.—M. M. K. 260
Railway Service :
*o
line by block telegraph, " except on inclines or
through tunnels, where the block telegraph
working may not be suspended on special
instructions being given."1
On the working of the double line being
resumed, the order suspending the working of
the line by block telegraph is to be canceled
by a written notice in the same manner, and at
the same time, as the order for working the
single line is canceled. §
Where the block system is intk)peration,
goods, mineral, cattle, and ballast trains must
be shunted out of the way of passenger trains,
and mineral, slow goods, and ballast trains must
also be shunted out of the way of fast goods
and fish trains at stations or sidings where there
are fixed signals,2 in sufficient time to prevent
the passenger train, fast goods or fish trains,
respectively, being delayed by the signals either
at the station where the train is being shunted
or at the block station in the rear. d
Where the block system is in operation, and
it is necessary to foul3 or occupy any portion
of the line outside the home signal, the line
must first be blocked back by telegraph to the
signal box in rear before such obstruction is*
permitted, and during a fog or snow-storm, or
1. Great Wes. Ry., Eng.
2. i. e., Semaphore signals, etc.—M. M. K.
3. Obstruct—M. M. K. Trains and Stations.
261
where, in consequence of the station being
approached upon a falling gradient, special
instructions for working are issued, no obstruction must be allowed at the station inside the
home signal, until the line is so blocked back
to the signal box in rear.  INDEX.
l
<<
(<
<<
<<
n
a
a
a
<<
u
it
i i
Absolute Block System,  Rules for Working
Agents, Delivery of Freight ....
Directions in reference to Fuel    .
j f|     |        " " Switches      I  .
1 I        | " Trains and Cars
Freight, Miscellaneous Rules   .
Freight Releases  .....
Freight Traffic Rules        .        1   I
General Directions      ....
Loading and  Unloading Freight
Passenger Traffic Rules
Receipting for Freight     ....
Receiving Freight for Shipment
Sealing Freight Cars        ....
Way-billing Freight    ....
Ahead of Time       .        .        .        .        1   1
Approaching Stations, Trains   ....
Arranging Rules and Regulations,  Plan Pursued in
Austrian Railway Regulations Governing the Passenger
Baggagemen, Train and Station    .....
Behind Time     .........
Bell-cord Signals   .....        ...
Bell must be Rung   .        .        ;       .
Block System        .        .        .        .        .        1   |
|        " Absolute, Rules for Working.   .
Blue Signals .......
Brake .        .        .
Brakemen, Freight, Rules for        ....
| General Instructions to   .
| Passenger, Rules for    ....
'
i i 264
Ind
ts *€/ •
a
ii
it
Breaking in Two of Trains        ....
Care Must be Exercised in Loading Freight
Cars   .........
Coupling      .... .        .
Directions to Agents in  reference to
Sealing of   .        .        ,        ...
Classes of Trains        ......
Clearing a Train    ......
Closed Switch  ..... .        .
Collection of Fares on English Roads  .
Compensation paid "        | "
Compiling Rules and Regulations, Plan pursued
Conditions of Service on English Roads   .
Conductor, Diversity of Duties Abroad
Conductors, Freight, Rules for
| General Instructions to
" Passenger, Rules for
I Signals by Bell-cord   .
Conservatism of Trainmen
Construction and Wood Trains    .
Construction Train   ....
Coupling Cars        ....
Danger of Dissimilarity of Signals   .
Delayed Trains      ....
Delivery of Freight   ....
Differences Observable in Rules   .
Discrimination Exercised by Trainmen
Dispatcher, Train ....
Dissimilarity of Signals in use   .
Double Track Lines, Rules for
Engine Bell must be Rung
Engine Inspectors, Rules for
Enginemen, Rules for
Enginemen's Signals
Engine Supplies        ....
English Roads, Absolute Block System
Compensation
Conditions of Service
in
a Index.
265
u
a
a
it
tt
(<
English Roads, Manipulation of Trains upon
Regulations of
Security Required   .
Uniforms Required
Explanation of Terms      ....
Extra Trains .        .        .        .        .
Fares, Collection of, on English Roads    .
Firemen, Rules for        ....
Flags to be used as Signals
Flying Switch        .....
Following other Trains     ....
Force Employed upon English Roads  .
Four Tracks, Use and Value of
Freight Agents, Miscellaneous Rules for
Brakemen, Rules for .        .    .
Care must be exercised in Loading
Cars, Sealing of .
Conductors, Rules for
Delivery of .
From and To Stations  at which there
Agents  ......
Loading and Unloading        .        .        .
Receipting for .....
Receiving for Shipment
Traffic Regulations
Trains, Kinds of .
Way-Billing       .        .        .
Fuel, Directions to Agents in Reference to
Fusee Signals.        ......
Ganger       .... ...
General Instructions      .....
General Instructions to Agents
3 " 1 Brakemen .
I " | Conductors
General Regulations for Working Block System
Grade of Trains ......
Green and White Signals      .
Green Signals    ...... }%§ .
tt
a
a
a
a
a
a
tt
(t
a
it
tt
54. 81,
are no
. 147 266
Index.
Page.
77
.    54
.27
. 184
221
Hand Signals        ......'.
Holding a Train        .......
Individuality of Railroad Companies     ....
Inspectors of Engines, Rules for        ...        .
Instructions, General     .......
Instructions to Agents in reference to Delivery of Freight 207
Agents in reference to Freight Releases 202
Agents in reference to Freight Traffic 196
Agents in reference to Fuel      ,        .        .214
Agents in reference to Loading and Unloading Freight     . . 203
Agents in reference to Passenger Traffic    195
Agents    in reference  to   Receipting for
Freight         . 199
Agents in reference to Receiving Freight 197
Agents in reference to Sealing Freight Cars 210
Agents in reference to Switches . . 215
Agents in reference to Trains and Cars 216
Agents in reference to Waybilling Freight 209'
a
a
it
a
a
a
a
<t
n
ti
a
(t
Brakemen, General
. 169
((
Conductors, General
.      147
ti
Engine Inspectors    ....
. 184
a
Enginemen           ....
.      174
a
Firemen
. 182
a
Freight Brakemen
•      173
a
Freight Conductors
^ i 159
a
Passenger Brakemen
.   171
a
Passenger Conductors
. 154
a
Telegraph Operators    .
.   188
a
Telegraph Repairers
. 193
a
Trackmen     .....
129
Intelligent
Discrimination Exercised by Trainmen
34
Irregular T
ram      .......
55
Keep off T
ime of a Train          .
55,103
L, Rule, for Protection^of Trains   .        .        .
.    85
Lack of Completeness in Framing Rules
. 43
Lamp Sign
ctlo                 •                9                •                •                 •                •
. 69,78
Lay Bye    .
•                •                t                 •••••
• 49 Index.
267
Loading and Unloading Freight
Loading Freight, Care must be exercised in
Lorry	
Lost its Rights .....
Lost Time      ......
Main Track
Making Time .....
Manipulation of Trains upon English Roads
Meeting or Passing Trains
Meeting Point .        . .
Middle Sidings       .....
Miscellaneous Rules for Freight Agents   .
Miscellaneous Train Orders .
Movement of Trains by Telegraphic Orders
Must Stop, Trains ....
Mysteries that underlie the Organization and Movement
of Trains    .        .        .
On Time  ... .        .
Open Switch .        *
Operators, Telegraph, Rules for
Organization of Trains
Overshooting     .....
Passenger Brakemen, Rules for
Conductors, Rules for
Service, Austrian Regulations
Traffic, Rules for A.gents
Trains, Kinds of   .
Passing Other Trains
Passing Point .....
Phraseology of Trainmen
"       peculiar to English Roads
Plan Pursued in Arranging and Compiling
and Regulations     ....
Protection of Trains       ....
Protection of Trains, Rule L
Railroad Companies, Individuality of   .
Receipting for Freight
Receiving Freight for Shipment
(<
a
a
a
97
these Rules
65
i Index.
Page.
69. 72, 73» 80
.  56, 81
.    78
<<
<(
a
(1
Red Signals        ......
Regular Trains      ......
Regulations Governing Use of Signals      .
Lack of Completeness in Framing
of Austrian   Railways Governing Passenger
Service  .......
of English Roads .....
Partake of the Character of the men Introducing them      .....
jt\.eieases .....••..
Repairers, Telegraph, Rules for        .
Rights of a Train
Right to the Road    .....
Rule L. for Protection of Trains   .
Rules, Lack of Completeness in Framing
Rules of the Great English Roads
Running Against a Train
Running Time of Trains       ....
Running with Care    .
Run Regardless     .        .        .        .        .
Salaries Paid in England"'
Schedule by which Trains are Operated
Scotch Block     ......
Sealing Freight Cars      .....
Sectionmen, Rules for       ....
Security RequirfSG? from Employes in England
Semaphore        .        .        .        .
Setting a Switch    ......
Shunting    . •      .
Side Track    .......
Sidings (see Side Track).
Signals   .        . i    .
Signals, Blue      .
"        Conductor's Bell Cord
Danger of Dissimilarity in
Enginemen's    .....
Fusees as     ....
Green       .       .       .    & .
43
a
n
a Index.
269
Signals, Green and White
Hand        .        .
in Use, Dissimilarity of
Red ......
Regulations Governing Use
Required by Railway Companies
Semaphore ....
Switch      ......
Torpedoes    . .
Train        .        .        ...
Whistle	
White
Yellow .        .        .        .        .
Single Track, Skill Required to Move Trains upon
Slipping the Wheels        ......
Some of the Differences in Rules      ....
Special Train .......
Speed of Trains .......
Spur Track    ......        .
Station       .        .        .        .        .        .        .
Station Baggagemen      ......
Supplies, Engine        .
Supplies, Train      .......
Switch       .        ,        .        .        .        .        1   I
Switch Signals        .......
Switches, Directions to Agents in Reference to
Switching      ........
Technical Terms, Explanation of .        .
Telegraph Department, Want of Uniformity in    .
Telegraphic Orders, Movement of Trains by    .
Telegraph Operators, Rules for     ....
ff        Repairers, Rules for        ....
Terms in Use, Explanation of .        .
Third Track       .        . .....
Three Tracks, Use and Value of ...
Through Trains .        .        .        .        .        .        .
i. lme      ..... ....
Time-Table        .        .        .        .        . Index.
a
tt
a
Torpedoes, Signals,        .....
Track, the ... ...
Trackmen Rules for      .....
Traffic, Freight, Rules for Agents    .
1        Passenger, Rules for Agents    .
Train and Station Baggagemen
Train Dispatcher   ......
Train Signals     .......
Train Staff
Train Supplies ......
Trainmen, Conservatism of   .
I        Intelligent Discrimination Exercised
Trains    ......        .
|     Approaching Stations    ....
Breaking in Two        .        .        .        .
Construction and WTood
Delayed      ......
Directions to Agents in Reference to    .
iitfXtra ......
Following Other Trains
Keeping off Time of Other Trains
Meeting or Passing ....
Miscellaneous Orders Relative to
Moved by Telegraph      ,
Movement of by Telegraphic Orders
Must Stop	
Protection of .....
Rights of	
Running with Care        .        .        .
Speed of     .....        .
Upon English Roads, Manipulation of
Wild .       .       .   | .
Trolley     ^	
Turn a Switch        ......
Turn-Out or Side-Track ....
Two Track Line, Rules for    ....
Uniformity in Rules, Want of ...
Uniforms Worn on English Roads
by
a
ii
a
n
it
n
ti
tt
ii
it
n
a Index.
271
n
ii
Unloading Freight     ......
Use of Signals, Regulations Governing
Value of Four Tracks       .....
1       Three     j        .  T  . |    .
"1    Two      " I        .
Wages Paid in England ....
Want of Completeness in Framing Rules
Uniformity in Rules
1 "in Telegraph Department
Way Bill    .        .        .       .;.'■-;        .        .1
Way-billing Freight .....
Way Train .        .        .
When a Train has Lost its Rights    ,
When Trains Break in Two    ....
Whistle Signals .        .        .        .        .
Whistling-Post       .
White Signals    ...... 69,
Wild Train    .......
Wonderful Phraseology of Trainmen
Wood Trains
Y
Yardmaster, Rules for    .....
Yellow Signals .        .        ....
w  Marshall M. Kirkman's
BOOKS  ON
Railways  and  their Affairs,
FOR  SALE  BY
CAMERON, AMBERG & CO.
General Agents, 71 and 73 Lake Street, Chicago.
NOTICES OF THE PRESS.
u
Railway  Revenue"  and     Railway Disburse
ments."
I The name shows sufficiently that the book is devoted to a
subject of the utmost practical importance, and we doubt not
that it is calculated to.be of great service to the officers of
railroad companies — and particularly to thlse who have not
had life-long experience in a railroad office. *****
Another companion volume by the same author and publishers,
is " Railway Disbursements," a work containing direct and
comprehensive rules for keeping the disbursement accounts of
a railroad. Mr. Kirkman's books are we'come as one more
valuable contribution to the stock of information on practical
methods of keeping corporation accounts. * * *"
Commercial and Financial Chronicle, New York.
44 The author of this work is an acknowledged authority on
the subject upon which he writes. He has brought to the
study of the science of railroad accounting a mind well fitted
by nature to grapple with such labor, and which has been
further adapted by habit and education."—The Railroader,
March, 1878.
" It seems to us as if the author, with his experiences and
successful system, has been enabled to write considerately and
exhaustively upon the topics which he has chosen."—The Chicago Evening journal, Nov. 24, I877.
f These books of Mr. Kirkman's are the only books on the
subject of railway finances and accounts that have ever been
published.    They are written by a railway officer of over twenty
18 (273) years' experience upon one of the greatest railways in the world,
and ought, therefore, to be especially reliable and trustworthy."
St. Louis Globe-Democrat.
% Each railroad has a method peculiar to itself of keeping its
accounts ; but these works are, without doubt, of great value
as books of reference. However different the system of accounts may be on different roads, we apprehend the principles
that govern the collection of revenue and its disbursements
must remain practically the same. Hence the undoubted usefulness of such works as aids in the solution of new and vexed
questions. They also enable the student or casual reader to
take up the subject of railway finances and accounts, and study
the same intelligently and connectedly as a whole."—National
Union, Washington, Dec. 4, 1877.
I* Railway Accounts,' \ Revenue and Disbursements' are
two books from the pen of Marshall M. Kirkman. Mr. Kirk-
man appears as the first author upon the methods of railroad
finance, a subject which has, within the past few years, risen
to the dignity of a science. The author has improved his great
opportunities by careful study of the theory and practice of
railway revenues and disbursements, and the results of over
"twenty years' practical experience are given to the public in
the books mentioned, with remarkable conciseness and lucidity.
Moreover, they are written with a grace and facility of diction
which fairly entitle them* to be received as literature of the first
class. To those interested in the construction, maintenance, and
revenue of railways, these books are invaluable, while those
who may desire to be initiated into the science of railroad
finance, either for information or practice, will find in them all
that can be desired. We, therefore, receive with pleasure this
valuable addition to American class literature, at the same time
commending Mr. Kirkman for the energy and spirit displayed
by him in thus sharing with the public the benefits of his long
experience."—y. y. Noah, in his paper, Nov. 25, 1877.
" Railway Revenue and its Collection/'
530 Pages Octavo.   Price, $3.50.
" Every page of this book proves its author to be possessed
of two qualifications which very seldom go together. Mr.
Kirkman is a practical railroad man, and he has collected in
nine years, by methods which he details at length, $150,000,-
000 of railway receipts without the loss of a single dollar,
although he employed in the work some four hundred changing collectors, agents and clerks. Secondly, our author has the
ability to tell, in a clear, interesting style, what he wishes his
readers to know, so that throughout the book the attention is
kept active and is rewarded."—Bankers' Magazine. November,
1877.    ■- '$    m *
(274) 44 The author, Mr. Marshall M. Kirkman, in his book treats
in a comprehensive and exhaustive manner the very important
subject with which he deals. The body of the work contains
much information and instruction valuable to American railway officials. The.appendix also contains a variety of forms
for railway revenue which must be found peculiarly useful."—
Hereapath's (London) Ry. and Commercial yournal, September
20, 1877.
I The author of this volume here describes the results of
many years' experience in the business organization of American railroads, the collection of their revenues, and the elaborate
system of book-keeping essential to the accuracy of accounts.
His work presents a series of minute, and almost exhaustive
details on the subject, and may be read with interest by all
concerned in the successful operation of railroads, whether
officers, employes, stockholders, or creditors."—New York
Tribune.
44 The suggestions of unquestionable sagacity which the
present author has advanced will be serviceable to many, and
acknowledged as of value by all who are connected with the
railway enterprises of our country."— The Chicago Tribune.
8 This * * volume sets forth in a very exhaustive form
the object and extent of railroad accounts and the necessity of
their being organized on scientific principles. * H §3—The
New York Bulletin.
I A large portion of the book is devoted to a careful description of the characteristics and duties of the operating officers
of our railways, the relations those officers bear to the accounts,
and the abuses that are sometimes noticeable in consequence of
an illy-arranged and practically, irresponsible working organization.' '— The Chicago Tim es.
"It contains with much other interesting matter an elaborate
treatise on the revenue department of our railways. * * *
Under a system similar in many respects to that shadowed,
forth in this book, $150,000,000 of railway receipts
have been collected upon a single railway in the United States
without the loss of a dollar. * * * This fact is at
once an evidence and guarantee to railway men that the book
is not unworthy of their respectful consideration. This work
with the one already published by the same author on
4 Railway Disbursements' form the most complete and
exhaustive exposition of railroad finances and accounts."—
The Chicago Railway Review.
44 The body of the book contains a very large amount of
useful information drawn from the author's extended experience, in regard to the manner of accounting for and collecting
the revenue of a railway through all the different channels,
and the propositions are illustrated by over seventy forms of
blanks."— The Railway Age.
(275) " Railroad men speak well of it and say it gives some sensible ideas as to how accounts should be made up, how the different officers should act. He goes from the dignified President to
the rollicking General Passenger Agent."—Detroit Free Press.
" Railway Disbursements and the Accounts into
Which they are Naturally Divided."
360 Pages Octavo.   Price $3.00.
" The minuteness and extent of the details given render any
attempt at a summarized account of the suggestions and forms
of accounts utterly impossible ; but they appear to be the result of considerable practical knowledge, ancl an immense
amount of careful thought and consideration. A glance through
these pages, whatever other informatio 1 they may convey to the
uninitiated, at least affords a startling proof of the vast and
complex scale on which the various items of a railway account
must be kept."—London Railway News, April 14, 1877.
This volume embraces carefully worded instructions in the
form of concise rules for the government of the various officials
and agents in reporting to the accounting officer, the Material
disbursed in operations, the Labor performed by operatives, and
the Moneys expended on account of the company, and including
copies of all the important blank forms required by employes
in making the returns required of them.
The rules have the great merit of simplicity, of directness,
and of comprehensiveness ; they have the especially important
merit of perfect practicability upon a road only a few miles in
length, or one extending uninterruptedly across the continent.
It contains an easy and natural subdivision of the current
expenses of a railway, based on principles readily understood.
It defines in the clearest possible manner the difference between expenditures which add nothing to the original value of
the property and those which are classed as Improvements or
Additions, making plain to the least expert the difference between Expense and Capital account.
The book is invaluable to railway officers and accountants
as a book of reference.
(276) ii
Railway Service —Trains and Stations."
Price $3.00.
An elaborate treatise upon the Organization and Movement
of Trains in this country and in England, comparing the two
systems and giving the salient features of each. It explains
the principle that underlies the organization of trains, and
the science of moving them. It gives with great circumstantiality the signals as well as the Rules and Regulations that
should govern employes in the manipulation of trains and in
the performance of the duties incident thereto.
:| Baggage Car Traffic."
Price $3.00.
This volume (now in press, May, 1878) illustrates the peculiarities of the Baggage Department, and describes the duties,
responsibilities, and practices of those connected with it. It
explains the nature and peculiarities of Baggage Car Traffic and
the Rules and Regulations applicable thereto. The book also
contains a description of the Baggage Car, and the idiosyncrasies of some of those who occupy it.
Address Orders for the foregoing books to
CAMERON,  AMBERC  &  CO.,
71 and 13 Lake St., CHICAGO.
RAILWAY BOOKS.
For Sale by J The Railroad Gazette," 73 Broadway, New York.
Catechism of the Locomotive.   By M. N. Forney, 625 pages,
250 engravings ; price, $2.50,
Economic Theory of the Location of Railways.   By A. M.
Wellington ; price. $2.00.
Roadmaster's Assistant and Section-Master's Guide.    By
Wm. S. Huntington and Charles Latimer ; price, $1.50.
PAMPHLETS.
Investigation into the Cost of Passenger Traffic on American
Railroads.    By Albert Fink ; price, 75 cents.
Cost of Railroad Transportation.   By Albert Fink ; price,
75 cents.
Railroad Employes in France.   By F. Jacqmin; price, 25
cents.
The Verrugas Viaduct.    By  Ernest Pontzen; price, 40
cents.
English vs. American Bridges.   Price, 25 cents.
(277) AMBERG' s
YSTEMS   OF
ETTER
ILING
FOR
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44 Amberg's Systems of Letter Filing," which is sent free on
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CAMERON, AMBERG   &  CO.
71 & 73 Lake Street, CHICAGO. 59 Murray Street, NEW YORK.
70 Queen Street, LONDON, ENG.        

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