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How our Chinamen are employed [unknown] 1869

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AHE Chinese in their own country  the intelligence offices until   there is
are a remarkably industrious peo-   another call for laborers.    Also, where
pie, working from early dawn until dark, men are lying idle, and with the money
and without the rest of the seventh day. received for wages in the'ir pockets, the
The effects of this continuous applica- gamblers and others who live by dis-
tion, however, are plainly visible; they honorable means will be sure to con-
lack the elasticity of motion which those gregate. A large number of the China-
exhibit who, being temperate and regu- men who lounge in the shops and upon
lar in their habits, enjoy also a weekly the streets of San Francisco are men
rest. returned from the mines to rest awhile,
Most of the Chinamen, after landing or to wait for a ship to take them home ;
on our shores, start off immediately in or men who, having finished one con-
search of employment, and they travel tract, are waiting to be hired again,
till they find it, though it be to Kern San Francisco being the only port on
River, Montana, or to | The End of the coast at which they enter the coun-
the Line " of the Pacific Railroad. Nor try, and at which they embark again for
are they fastidious about the kind of their native land, we may always expect
business to which they may be set at to see here many of them who appear
work. What they want is employment to have nothing to do.
and such pay as will support them and But, if we meet with idle Chinamen
leave something over to send back to during the day and evening, there are
the father and mother, or to the wife other hours of the day when the indus-
and children, left at home. So accus- trious portion of them may be seen,
tomed have they always been to give They who have occasion to visit the
a full and honest day's labor to tfiose lower part of the city early in the morn-
who have hired them, that they expect ing will encounter multitudes of these
to give their employer the service of people; some hurrying to the families,
their muscle and their skill during all or offices, where they work; others, with
the hours of the day, only asking a rea- their dinner pails, on their way to the
sonable time for meals, together with various establishments in all parts of
the stipulated wages when their work is the city where they are steadily em-
done, ployed.
The Chinaman's reputation /or indus- That   they   are   people   possessing
try, however, is  liable  to  suffer from ability and inclination   to   labor,  and
what we may see of this people in the that their services may be secured, are
cities.    Whatever idlers there are will facts of great importance to all who
be sure to hang about the towns.   The desire the full and speedy development
sick and the disabled get back to the of such a  country as  this which has
towns, for here they can be better ac- fallen to the inheritance of the dwellers
commodated and provided for than in on the Pacific Coast,
the mines, and where there are but few of There were once men who came to
their countrymen.    When a company of San Francisco with capital, energy and
men has accomplished any job of work, enterprise, and with experience in man-
unless some other employment offers, ufacturing.    They found California pro-
they come back to the city to wait near ducing wool in great abundance, and of HOW OUR CHINAMEN ARE EMPLOYED.        [March,
a quality equal to any in the world; but and   these  have   been   sent   through,
the high price of labor, and the diffi- without detention,  from Hongkong to
culty of obtaining operatives in suffi-  the point on the works the other side
cient   numbers,  even    at    any   price, of the Sierras, where their services are
seemed an impassable barrier in the needed.     These people   resigned the
way of the enterprise which they con- mattock and harrow to other hands on
templated.    But the plan of experiment- their own little farms, in the green valine with Chinese labor suggested itself, leys  of their native provinces, and in
It was tried, and it proved satisfactory, the space  of  thirty-five or forty days
The foremen in those  establishments were   wielding   the   shovel   and   drill
have declared that with no other opera- amongst the  sage-brush,  rapidly dig-
tives   have   they   ever   been   so well ging their way towards the New Jeru-
pleased as with those at present em- salem of the Mormon prophet.    Fore-
ployed.    These are promptly at their men and officers on the road speak in
stations at the proper time; they work the highest terms of their Asiatic la-
without lagging; they have no gossip borers.   They are reported as promptly
so  common with " factory girls," and on the ground, ready to begin work the
which involves the breaking of threads, moment they hear the signal, and labor-
Four or five hundred Chinamen are ing steadily and honestly on till admon-
now employed in the woolen factories of ished that the working hours are ended.
San  Francisco,  and   scarce   anything They have no story-telling; they have
would induce   the   proprietors  to  ex- no sentinel set to watch while his corn-
change them for other labor. The Knit- panions enjoy their pipes, and to pass
ting mills also employ Chinamen. the word when the  "boss" comes in
There was a gigantic scheme for lay- sight.    Not having acquired a taste for
ing the track for the locomotive across whisky,  they have few fights, and no
the continent, and if accomplished, Cal- 1 blue   Mondays."    Overseers  declare
ifornia must undertake its share of the that they can drill more rock and move
work.   California had the gold, together more dirt with Chinamen than with an
with the ambition and the faith for the equal number of the men who claim
undertaking—indeed, so bold a scheme this kind of occupation as their specialty.
as that of throwing a railroad over across With an air of alarm—whether sin-
the Sierras was just the thing for Cali- cere or   assumed.—men   have   asked :
fornia enterprise and daring. But where What is to be done with these  thou-
was she to get the men to do the work ; sands of Chinamen when   this   great
especially, how co"uld she find labor at transcontinental   road   shall   be   com-
rates reasonable enough to enable her pleted ?    It may be replied, that rail-
to  compete with    those who were to road-building on this side of the conti-
build the eastern portion of the road ? nent   is  only just   commenced.     The
They bethought them of the China- southern road is to be made, from here
men, and forthwith Chinamen were put to Los Angeles and from thence to the
to work, digging, drilling, and shovelling, East;  and then all the branch roads
to the number of from eight to ten thou- which the main trunks willl assuredly
sand during the two previous seasons; call into being.    How many Chinese
and during the past season the Com- laborers have already been employed on
pany has  been unable to procure  as railroads not far from San Francisco !
many men as they would have been glad They worked on the road to Haywards,
to have employed.    They have had, as on the Napa Valley road, and on the
we understand, parties in  China em- road which is to be completed between
ployed in securing laborers for them, Sacramento and Stockton.  They graded —mm
the San Jose* and Gilroy road, and on
the Vallejo and Sacramento road the
call for laborers has been far in advance
of the supply. The road in process of
construction from Portland, Oregon,
towards the south, is employing this
kind of labor, and cannot obtain as
much as it needs.
Chinamen have made many of our
wagon-roads across the mountains, and
thrown up some highways across the
low grounds ; and there remains much
more of the same kind of work to be
Chinamen helped to cut away the hill
and fill in the bay where now the Pacific
Mail Steamship Company have their
extensive wharves and commodious
depots. That new reservoir, sixteen
miles southeast of San Francisco, at
the head of Pilarcitos Creek, and covering ninety-two acres of ground, is—
about two-thirds of it—the work of
Our readers have heard of the " Eureka hair;" a California invention, and
the material the fibre of a California
plant. It has already proved a source
of profit; and, in the future, may be
much more so ; but without the patient
Chinamen, willing to work for moderate
wages, who would gather and prepare
the soap roots growing everywhere on
the mountain sides ?
Seventy or eighty of these men are
steadily employed in working the borax
beds at Clear Lake.
Visit the rural districts in harvest
time, and when you perceive how large
a portion of the binders who follow the
reaping machines are Chinamen, instinctively you will exclaim: Well, if
white labor is as difficult to be obtained
as is reported, and as indeed it must be,
since wages are so high, what would
these farmers do but for the Chinamen ?
But for them a large portion of the grain
must be wasted in the field, our farmers
would have to reckon up their losses
rather than their profits, and our State
Vol. II—16.
would be materially deficient in that
which she is beginning to count upon as
a prominent branch of trade and revenue.
On many ranches all the laborers
are people whose muscles were hardened on their little farms in China, and
who there learned those lessons of industry, patience, and economy which
render them of incalculable service to
those who, in this country, see fit to
employ them. With but little instruction they learn to manage the
teams, to run the machinery, and to
perform all the labor needed upon a
If we travel through the grazing
counties we shall find that the dairymen also are largely employing this
class of help. Indeed, let us go where
we will to any part of the country in
this western portion of our Union and we
still find Chinamen in many kitchens—
Chinamen doing the work both of indoor and of out-door servants ; they
cook, wash and iron, prepare wood,
work in the garden, and tend the stock.
With such help, housekeeping in the
country is made easy.
California has its paper mills; but:
were it not for the help which Chinamen
afford at reasonable rates, more of this,
commodity would still have to be-
brought from the East. Powder mills
also employ Chinamen, and so do tanneries and rope-walks.
Visit a hop plantation in the picking
season, and count its fifty, sixty, or
seventy pickers in the garb of the eastern
Asiatics, working steadily and noiselessly on from morning till night, gathering, curing, and sacking the crop ; and
ask yourselves how would the proprietors have succeeded had they depended
upon such help as the hop raisers ire
our Eastern States generally employ?'
Go through the fields of strawberries,
and other small fruit; make occasional
tours to the vineyards and orchards ; and
you will learn that most of these fruits 234                 HOW OUR CHINAMEN ARE EMPLOYED. [March,
are gathered and boxed for market by The planting of mulberry trees, and
this same people of whom we have been the manufacture of silk, have been com-
speaking. menced; and within call are the people,
On a fruit plantation through which who, all their days, have been familiar
we   strolled not  long   ago,  though it with the care of the worms, and have been
was far past the busy season, twenty accustomed to that delicate and patient
Chinamen were still employed.     One labor needed in the reeling and weav-
man was tending the cider mill, one was ing.    Therefore, this branch of indus-
busy with  machinery turning out the try need not be given up from want of
little strawberry baskets, two were as- men,  who may be employed at rates
sorting and  boxing   apples,   six were which may make the business remunera-
picking strawberries to be sold, they tive.
said, for a dollar per pound; some were In various parts of the country we
picking apples, while more were in the meet with Chinamen who have taken
vineyard gathering grapes. jobs at cutting cord-wood; others have
When the dinner bell sounded, as taken jobs in clearing fields and hill-
orderly and cleanly a company of la- sides of the chapparal, and preparing
borers as one generally meets with in them for the plough; and in this pro-
the country sat down to well supplied cess of clearing, all the wood, and the
tables, provided for them in their own roots also, are cut and piled, to be
-quarters; and after dinner each man re- hauled to market, and sold for fuel,
turned again to his work, apparently as Chinamen, also, have engaged in char-
much interested in the business before coal burning. In the season of potato
him as he could have been had the digging, large companies of these peo-
crops he was gathering been all his own. pie   are  attracted  to   all  the  regions
On another plantation, which we vis- around   about   our   city, to   assist in
ited, we found the broad fields appor- gathering this important crop,
"tioned off and rented to separate com- Nobody need be told that salt is a
panies of Chinamen who were working good thing, and that we cannot well do
ifhem upon shares—each little company without it.   The importance of an abun-
having its own cabin.     Teams being dant supply near at hand is what we all
tfurnished them, they do all the work, appreciate.   Though California may not
preparing the ground, seeding, tending as yet have its Salina, or its Cracow, or
*the crop, and gathering the fruit, leav- Turks Island, yetit has its Carmen Island
ing nothing for the proprietor to do but in the  Gulf of California;   but nearer
to attend to the marketing, and to put home it has an inexhaustible supply of
unto his own pocket half of the proceeds, that which saves and seasons. We have
In other cases we learned that China- an ocean of good brine which will not
jmen had leased the ground outright, thus soon go dry; and each spring tide pours
securing to the owner of the land his out abundant supplies of this liquid into
desired rent, in money, and relieving basins prepared to receive it: the sun
him from all anxiety respecting unfruit- benevolently   performs   the   work   of
ful seasons, uncertain crops, and fluctu- evaporation and crystallization free of
Ating prices. charge — while the  Chinaman gathers
All these are easy modes of farming, and cleanses it, so that it can be fur-
tand for which the farmer may thank nished to cure the poor man's fish and
that   Providence  which  has attracted meat, and to season his potatoes, at less
some of the surplus bone and sinew of prices than would. have to be paid were
Asia to the wide and unbroken fields of the laborers, who are employed in the
America's western shores. business, of that class which demands 1869.I
two and three dollars for eight hours'
work. Cheap salt is a question of
graver import than any person is likely
to imagine, who has not lived in a
country where this article is held as a
government monopoly.
Sacks and bags are of essential importance to all who have farmers' products to handle and to ship : yet this is
an article which would be more scarce
and more expensive, but for the nimble
fingers of the hundreds of Chinese engaged in the work of making and repairing them. The paper bags, used
by grocers, fruit-dealers, and others, are
made by Chinamen ; but we cannot say
what proportion of this trade they have.
The liquor dealers of San Francisco
evidently do not all sympathize in the
somewhat popular prejudice against tne
race, for, early every morning, we meet
large numbers of them who are going to
their daily toil in some of those many
cellars over the entrances of which are
written : " Positively No Admittance,"
and from which all kinds of liquors of
the best foreign brands come out; but,
as to what goes in, the public is not so
well informed. Therefore, lovers of
good liquor ought not to be anti-Coolie
Our native pickles and preserves
come to us at prices lower than those
from the East and from foreign countries, not only because of the abundance
of these fruits raised upon our soil, but
especially, because the kind of work required in preparing the fruit for use,
and in putting it up, can be obtained in
abundance, and at a reasonable rate.
Cigar smokers, at every " whiff" from
the delicious weed, ought to bless Tung
Chi for sparing us so many of his subjects—for with two thousand (more or
less) of Chinese cigarmakers in this
city, the chances are rather slender that
the smoker has not between his lips
the leaves which were rolled by some
person with a cue hanging to the back
of his head, in some cellar or loft in
the Chinese quarter. Nor will smokers
evade the difficulty should they take to
cigarettes, for there are Chinamen employed in manufacturing these also;
nor can he even light his pipe without
their aid, for many of our friction
matches are made by Chinamen, who
are in the employment of the match
San Francisco has some scores of
slipper manufacturers, who dispose of
their work to our wholesale and retail
shoe-dealers. Pantaloons, vests, shirts,
drawers, and overalls, are made extensively by Chinamen. In the shoe and
tailoring business, the sewing machine
is used; while in the trimming: and
finishing, occupation is afforded to many
of the Chinese women. Women are
also, to some extent, employed in certain branches of the tobacco business.
We have Chinese tin shops, and Chinese shoe-blacking manufacturers.
A large number of this people are
engaged in fishing. They pursue their
- occupation on the bays and rivers, and
all along the coast; and almost everything is fish which comes to their net.
Great quantities of fish are dried and
sent to the Chinamen in every direction throughout the country. Fish-oil
is also manufactured at the fishing settlements.
Wherever there are Chinese settlements, some of the people will be found
engaged in gardening. These gardeners have introduced many of the vegetables which they cultivate at home.
Peanuts are raised by them in considerable quantities. As regards domestic
animals, they are reported as being
particularly partial to chickens, ducks,
and pigs. The time was, when they
had in the suburbs of San Francisco
extensive arrangements for hatching
eggs by artificial heat. They are large
dealers in pork ; buying from the wholesale butchers, cutting up the hogs, then
selling to the market-men what is required for the supply of their customers. 236 HOW OUR CHINAMEN ARE EMPLOYED.        [March,
We have Chinese vegetable peddlers, painter from Canton; and his skill must
who, braving the vicious boys, wicked be appreciated, for he is kept busily em-
men, and ugly dogs, visit every part of ployed.
the city, and travel far out over the sand- The horse fancier ought not to speak
hills to supply their regular customers, lightly of the merits of the Chinamen,
These men rise long before daylight for the very whip which he flourishes,
and so to the great markets and to the and the collar which his favorite wears,
market-wagons, fill their panniers and may have been made by them.
then return home to breakfast; after Seven hundred and fifty professional
which they sally out, each man on his washermen do their best towards keep-
regular route, to return to their lodging- ing our citizens in a presentable con-
houses about noon with a few more dition, and their houses supplied with
dimes in their pockets than they spent clean linen; and there are others to
at the market in the morning. It would whom, in this dusty city, we ought to be
astonish some persons should they look under many obligations, for keeping the
into a pair of these panniers, to see offices in order, the windows of dwell-
what a variety of articles they may con- ings transparent, and the parlors "tidied
tain—cabbage, beans, peas, and celery; up." They are the house servants every-
potatoes, turnips, carrots, and parsnips ; where, in town and country, and are
apples, pears, and the small fruits ; with coming into favor as stable boys, garfish, and bouquets. deners and men-of-all-work.
We find  Chinamen making settees They have   been  employed as  coal
and spring beds. Some are employed by heavers  at Acapulco ;   as  servants on
the cabinet makers   in carving wood the  Panama steamers, and as  sailors,
work for the extra fine furniture which deck hands, and cabin servants on the
is made in San Francisco.    They work China steamers.
in the tub and pail factories, performing In some places brick makers  have
every branch of the business, and some employed them; and they have taken
of them are pointed out by their employ- contracts to go far away into the desert
ers as the " neatest and quickest work- to cut and pile up sage brush, to supply
men they have   ever   known."    They quartz mills with fuel for their engines,
assist in the making of curled hair, and Many hundreds find employment on the
in the manufacturing of coir (or Kai ah, strawberry farms, and in the  orchards
as the Asiatics call it), which is the fibre and vineyards ; while the proprietors of
of cocoa-nut husks prepared for uphols- these farms and vineyards have fruit to
tery purposes. In the East the same ma- sell and money to invest, which, but for
terial is used by the natives for making these Chinese laborers they would not
ropes. have;   nor  without   them   would   our
As we sit by our warm fires we may markets and tables be supplied with
remember the Chinamen ; for, in many fruits in variety and abundance such as
cases, they are employed to sack the is enjoyed in no other country in the
coal, and they help to saw and split the world.
wood which many use; for they tend Of the sixty thousand Chinamen or
the   machinery and handle the wood more on the Pacific Coast, a very large
where steam power runs the saw and proportion are engaged in mining. They
lifts the knife with which the blocks are work the  surface diggings and aban-
riven.    At  the lead works we   meet doned claims, and buy from other miners
them; also in several photographic gal- ground which they themselves  cannot
leries.     At   the   corner   of  Clay and work with  profit; they wander   away
Kearny Streets, up stairs, is a portrait into distant and secluded places, and ■ _.
1869.]             HOW OUR CHINAMEN ARE EMPLOYED. 237
toil patiently on, though rewarded with ening labor, as well as every fresh hand
no more than a quarter of the amount added to the working force, is so much
of dust that would satisfy any other added to the wealth of nations—so much
miner.    Thus, much gold is added to accomplished towards elevating all class-
the general circulating medium which es of society—so much advance in the
forms the- basis of wealth, which other- great work of carrying the comforts of
wise would have remained mixed with civilization to the ends of the earth,
other dust in its native bed. In this connection the reader will be
That California has been damaged by reminded of the thousands of square
having had so much of its soil dug up, miles of tule lands in Califorina now
washed   into   the  rivers,  and   carried useless, but which are not always to be
down to be thrown out again over cui- so.    The ditches and dykes which at
tivated fields, none will deny; but that present protect only a few little patches
she has been harmed, especially by the here and there of the most fruitful soil
foreign miners, just because they have that the sun shines on, may be made to
extracted   the gold from her   bosom, perform a like service all over the Tulare
political economists will not allow.  The swamps; and the descendants of the peo-
gold  which   Chinamen   dig from   the pie who drained those almost limitless
ground is   not   buried  in  the  ground marshes on either side their own swiftly-
again ; it all goes into circulation, or is flowing Yellow River, and turned them
used in the arts, and helps to swell the into luxuriant fields, are able to do the
amount of capital by means of which same thing along the banks of the Sacra-
the commerce of the world is carried on. mento and the San Joaquin.  Capital in-
Those through whose hands it passes, vested in such enterprises may not bring
and those into whose possession it sue- returns so speedily as will be experienced
cessively falls, all become  larger  con- by a few fortunate speculators in  the
sumers,  and,  of   course,   larger   pur- claims of the White Pine region; but here
chasers  of what   they need,  or what the profits will continue, and with a still
they think they need; and thus, who- increasing flow, long after the fortunes
ever has the needed article to dispose made in mining stocks have been spent
of, may be glad that his new customer and the mines themselves have ceased
has the means to pay, as well as the in- to be productive.    And who dare say
clination to purchase. that the San Joaquin valley is not to have
By their extended travels our Chinese its sugar plantations before many years
immigrants have their ideas greatly en- have passed.
larged as to what may constitute the Whether coffee and cotton, or what-
comforts of  life; while, by increased ever other foreign products are to he
wealth and other facilities, their coun- cultivated in California, we do not, at
trymen at home are both assisted and the present time, undertake to predict;
stimulated   in   increasing  the   variety all that we say was this:
and amount of products for the foreign that whenever our  agriculturists   and
market, and thus  the  traffic  between capitalists choose to experiment in these
neighboring nations is increased, indi- directions, they need not fail on account
viduals are enriched, and there is a mu- of lack of experienced, competent, and
tual interchange of the luxuries of dif- docile laborers,
ferent countries. Chinamen once attempted the raising
Every new dollar put in circulation, of rice in this country, but without suc-
every rood of new land brought under cess, owing to our cool nights.    The
cultivation, every new art, every improve- stalk grew well enough, but the grain
ment in machinery, or device for cheap- did not form and ripen satisfactorily. "■>-2
Possibly they might    succeed   better invention, and the construction of any
"should they experiment in a portion of new machinery, by which results may
the State farther south. be reached which could not otherwise
In the above enumeration of employ- be attained, or by which a given amount
ments, we have said nothing of the large of labor may be accomplished in a
and respectable class of Chinese mer- shorter time, and at less expense, than
chants, and of the numbers every day by former methods, is hailed with glad-
in attendance at the auction stores, and ness, not only by the parties who are im-
of the large class of merchandise brokers mediately concerned, but by every true
who are so favorably known in many of political economist, and by every friend
our wholesale houses. The business of progress. The nearer machinery ap-
done by Chinese importing merchants proximates intelligence, and the nearer it
does not appear in their own stores; comes towards supplying man's place
these are usually only offices and sam- and performing his labor, the more wel-
ple rooms, while the cargoes they im- come is its appearance, and the more tru-
port are stored in the large warehouses ly valuable it is. There are always, how-
near the docks, and removed only when ever, ignorant and prejudiced people who
delivered to retail dealers, or to buyers complain of sueh inventions, charging
from the country. that they are a damage to the poor and
We have not mentioned the trades to the laboring classes, because they
and occupations of those who are en- take away their work and thus rob their
gaged in ministering to the particular wives and children of their bread,
wants of their own countrymen in this All such complaints are groundless,
city and State, but only those in which Every useful invention has benefited
Californians are more or less interested, the laborer and his family as well as the
and which have a near or more remote capitalist and the master workman. By
bearing upon the development of our the introduction of machinery, opera-
country's resources. Neither do we tives are in no less demand, while
profess to have given an exhaustive the kind of labor they are called to per-
list of such occupations. Almost every form is of a higher grade, and corn-
month finds this people engaged in some manding better wages than could be
new employment—the inventive genius given them before; moreover, the in-
of Americans is constantly finding out troduction of machinery has lightened
new ways by which to accumulate wealth the severity of corporeal labor, and
by means of Asiatic skill and muscle ; shortened the time required for the per-
we are also occasionally stumbling upon formance of the work which is required
some of these people who have long to be done in the world. Man is re-
been engaged in certain branches of leased from the drudgery which ma-
business ; which facts were familiar to chinery is made to perform, and is free
many, but had hitherto been unknown to employ his manly powers in a grade
to us. of employment higher than that in which
he was formerly occupied.
As previously intimated, in a country Nevertheless, there are still descrip-
such as this especially, which here on tions  of labor which  cannot be  per-
the Pacific Coast has been entrusted to formed   by any machinery which  has
Americans to develop, it must be a mat- yet   been   invented,  therefore   human
ter of thankfulness that the means for muscle and human intelligence must be
performing the task assigned them have found to do it; and we should be glad
also been placed within their reach. to avail ourselves of such skill and mus-
Even the announcement of any new cle.    Without a sufficiency of laborers 1869.] HOW OUR CHINAMEN ARE EMPLOYED.
we would fail to reap all the benefits of a gang of Chinamen, beat and wounded
our inventions, and people  capable of them and destroyed their lodging-places
serving their race in the higher depart- the only crime of those Chinamen being
ments of the arts and sciences would that they too were using the spade and
not be at liberty to do so were they the pick.
not relieved from care and toil.    The But subsequently, in a country town,
scholar qualified to be a college pro- the writer has seen a man of the same
fessor, and whose services are needed nation as those who mobbed the Chinese
in this capacity, ought not to be kept at laborers, himself overseeing a company
teaching   the   simple  rudiments   in   a of Chinamen, who were  employed in
primary school, if other teachers can be making roads.     This person had ad-
found.    The assistants, however, need vanced many steps beyond the jealous-
not always remain assistants; by dili- ies and prejudices of the people just
gence and study they, too, may attain mentioned.     The   truth   had   dawned
advanced positions.    The master build- upon his mind, and he had been brought
er may be more   profitably employed to understand that where there is more
than digging the trenches for the foun- work to be done than two hands are
dations of his walls, or in mixing mortar able to accomplish, and other hands can
and carrying brick ; while in due time, be found to do it, then, of course, those
some of those who have served under hands should be set to work; and he had
him may be advanced to fill his place. also learned that if by intelligence and
But,   furthermore,   were   there   not other qualifications, he himself might
plenty of laborers, the architect might rise above the position of a mere day
draw his  plans  in vain, and builders laborer, it was wisdom for him to im-
would look with pride upon fewer monu- prove his opportunities,
ments of their skill; indeed, but for the There is   another   consideration   in
wise division of labor and for sufficient connection with the question of plenty
hands to perform it, the people would or scarcity of laborers,
still be living in such habitations as In a country where there are millions
their own hands might construct; while of acres of arable land yet unimproved,
for garments, they would be compelled the desideratum is of hands to till the
to content themselves with such fabrics soil, and thus to put this land under
as their own wives and daughters might contribution to furnish food and cloth-
be able to provide ; whereas, with the ing for those who need it, and as far as
aid of other labor, their own comfort is possible to make every acre do its part
enhanced, while the  condition of  the towards supporting the government, and
laborer is also proportionately improved, building up public institutions.    Where
These   facts   have   their   illustrations there are facilities for erecting mills,
everywhere, and in every department of with material to be manufactured, and
life. capital waiting to be employed, the next
Within the memory of the present necessity is, the operatives ; and just so
generation, a party of laborers, who, it long as the operatives are wanting, so
would seem, were impressed with the long will the manufacturing facilities re-
belief that nature had endowed them main unimproved, the material will be
with. faculties,   mental   and   physical, left to waste, the capital will lie idle, and
barely sufficient to wield the spade and the talent and skill which was waiting
the pick, and that all the spading and the for employment in conducting and over-
picking to be  done on  this continent seeing such enterprises is deprived of
was ordained for them, and must be re- opportunity to exert itself for the bene-
served for them—came furiously upon fit of the world. 540
Where railroads are to be constructed,
roads to be cut over mountains, and
highways to be thrown up through the
marshes in order to give distant portions of the country outlets to market,
and to increase the facilities for travel,
the timely arrival of laborers who can
perform these things for us is undoubtedly to be hailed as a blessing.
There yet remain in the world (outside
of California) immense tracts of uncultivated ground. Many tens of thousands
of miles of railroad remain to be built over
the surface of this globe, and vast improvements of other kinds must be made
in various parts of the earth, ere the people inhabiting them will be brought up to
the level of the inhabitants of this and of
our mother countries. Nor does any
reflecting person suppose that we, and
the, leading nations of Europe, have yet
attained unto perfection. Therefore,
let us avail ourselves of every instrumentality within our reach by which our
fields may be better cultivated, our mines
more thoroughly developed, our roads
built, and every other improvement of a
physical or moral nature pressed forward ; while, at the same time, we are
indirectly preparing the way for sending
these and similar blessings abroad to
other lands.    In particular, let all of
those people who visit our country, or
come to tarry awhile amongst us, be
benefited in every way; let some knowledge be imparted to them in return for
the many and material services which
they render us ; let them be acquiring a
knowledge of our inventions, and familiarity with the working of machinery, so
that when they return to their homes,
every man shall there be the centre of
some reforming influence. Nor need
we grudge them the little money they
may have accumulated by years of honest toil, and of absence from the land
they love, and from friends who are as
dear to them as are ours to us.
If by contact with those who profess
to love the morals which are taught in
the Sermon on the Mount, and to believe the doctrines specified in the
Apostles' Creed, their superstitions
shall be weakened, and their reverence
for idols lessened, in this also will we
have cause for rejoicing. And this
thought in turn reminds us that, after
all, the " chief end of man " is not to
live for merely selfish ends ; but that he
who does most to benefit his race, to
relieve distress, to advance the arts, to
disseminate true doctrine, and to make
his neighbor happy, will most deserve
the thanks of mankind, and will reap a
harvest of very pleasant fruits.
BUT little has been told of those
whose enterprise and daring first
opened Commerce in the Pacific, and
prepared the way for the occupation of
California by a commercial people. The
efforts of the early traders were confined to hide - droghing, whaling, and
biche de mer gathering. Although the
latter occupation became one of the lost
arts with the discovery of gold, and the
consequent opening of larger and more
profitable fields for commercial enterprise, some reminiscences in connection
therewith may not prove uninteresting,
as faintly outlining the nature of the
hazards taken by the pioneers of commerce in the Pacific.
It was several years ago. No matter
how many. I was just entering upon
the world, and revolving in my mind
what should be my future course, and
v.  —  ml
:■ BW!_tt*_SB_IW»6Ia_i)l IfS


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