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General hints to emigrants : containing notices of the various fields for emigration, with practical… [unknown] 1866

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i The University of British Columbia Library
m
THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS:
CONTAINING
ftota of t\t tarartts |ielte M «miptimit
PRACTICAL HINTS ON PREPARATION FOR EMIGRATING—OUTFIT
FOR THE VOYAGE—THE VOYAGE—LANDING-
OBTAINING EMPLOYMENT—PURCHASE
AND CLEARING OF LAND, &c.;
TOGETHER WITH VARIOUS
DIRECTIONS AND RECIPES USEFUL TO THE EMIGRANT.
WITH   A   MAP
OF   THE   WORLD.
LONDON :
VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., 1, AMEN CORNER.
1866.  PREFACE.
The following pages are designed to form the first or
introductory volume of a series of treatises taking up
the practical description of. all the fields fitted for
Emigration; their peculiarities of position, climate,
soil, natural resources, and the advantages they offer to
the intending Emigrant. The present volume, as its
title imports, is concerned with the general subject,
taking up the consideration of various points which
must be attended to by all emigrants—no matter
to what colony they may purpose emigrating—who
are desirous to consult the claims of economy in preparing for the voyage, to secure health and comfort
during it, and so to conduct their affairs that success
in their new mode of life will be ensured, so far as this
can be, by prudent proceedings and careful conduct.
While the volume may be said, in one sense, to be
but a compilation, in another it may be said to be an
original work; inasmuch as the Editor, having had
practical experience of what emigrants have to do, and
the difficulties they have to encounter, has here and IV PREFACE.
there, in the course of its pages, presented the reader
with some hints upon the one, and some cautions
respecting the other, which he trusts will be in some
degree useful. So far as the volume is a compilation,
the Editor has endeavoured to make it a trustworthy
and comprehensive one—no pains having been spared
to gather from a wide variety of sources, both home
and foreign, a large amount of practical information
bearing upon points about which all Emigrants are
naturally solicitous, but concerning which they cannot
easily and readily obtain information.
In addition to this useful information, the Editor
believes that the volume will also here and there present advice which, derived from practical experience,
will, if followed, save the Emigrant much personal
trouble and expense, and tend in some measure to
ensure his success in the proposed land of his adoption. Hi far*
<l
j   N      Yf^ R       T ^Jpj\^
^
33 i""\
GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
CHAPTER   I.
INTRODUCTORY.
Man is essentially migratory—ever restless, ever on
the move—rarely satisfied with the place that knows
him to-day—looking always forward to the new place
of to-morrow—ever hurried on by a desire to discover
new countries, to roam in § fresh fields and pastures
new." And this desire in man has been implanted in
him for the wisest of reasons, and is founded on or
inculcated by one of the earliest of the Divine commands, that he should go forth to people the earth.
The history of man may indeed be said to be the
history of emigration. Trace the page of history as
far back as we please or can, to ages remote, a hoary
gray with eld/' we find evidences of a constant, continual, and immense emigration from one country to
the other. We know little, in truth we know nothing
with certainty, as to the |! first cradle of man M although the conjecture is undoubtedly correct, that it
was somewhere in East Central Asia—that land of mystic wonders. Tradition, with its faint fables, like the
feeble utterances of garrulous old age, points sugges-
B 2 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
tively, as do the most ancient of the myths and songs,
to this part of our globe as that which was first densely
peopled by man. And from this there was a continual
emigration to other parts of the world; vast hordes
left the sunny lands of the East to people less favoured
climes, in pursuance of a plan which has had a remarkable influence upon the destiny of man. Nor is it tKe
least suggestive circumstance connected with " this
vast design of Omnipotence," as the migratory element
in man's character has been well called, that in thus
changing from fine to less favoured localities, they must
of necessity have left behind many of those blessings,
such as abundant food, easily raised in a genial soil and
under a sunny sky, and flocks and herds which were fed
with ease in their rich pastures. And yet, different as
must have been their lot in their new localities, where
food had to be wrested, as it were, from more ungenial
soil, and where everything around them reminded them
of the vast natural difference between their new and
their old homes—it is remarkable how completely the
severance was effected in the case of the last—so far as
we know—great migration from the East of the Indo-
German family of man, for not the faintest tradition
exists amongst them now pointing to their Eastern
origin.
The peopling of the earth depending upon migration,
to this, the greatest, as it is the most energetic of the
families of the earth, has been given the task of carrying it out. Breaking thoroughly with the East, they
have devoted themselves to the great work of the West,
which is destined to raise man in the scale of civilisation. This movement of man from the East to the
West, which has thus been going oh for ages, still
continues; the impulse is as great as ever; and for INTRODUCTORY. 6
wise purposes of Providence, it is destined long to
continue. In ancient and in modern history, we read
of the movement westward of Eastern races, all of
which have been successful, and have had a powerful
influence on the spread of civilisation; while all we
read of attempts to migrate eastward only shows how
futile they were. And as wave after wave rolled in from
the East, covering the lands of the West, till it seemed
as if there were no more lands to occupy, there came
in the good and well appointed time the discovery by
Columbus and his compeers, of lands still farther west,
opening up still vaster and more boundless fields for
the development of human migration. In all this we
see the part in the great design of the world's government—the important part—which emigration has to
play in it, and that upon it depends the peopling of the
solitary places of the globe, and the carrying to them of
that Christian civilisation which in time will make the
solitary place glad, and the desert to blossom like the
rose. '.':
It is indeed curious to note the completeness of this
principle of migration westward. Thus in a very recent
report issued by the New York Chamber of Commerce
on the subject of emigration, they point out a very
suggestive circumstance in connection with what they
call " the emigration within emigration I in their vast
country.
"Obeying," says the Report, "the law of their own
being, the older states, in time, as population multiplied, discharged their surplus numbers upon the new |
and thus a second emigration, from the sea-board,
uniting with the regular emigration from Europe,
spread over the rich prairies of the West, raising up
cities containing hundreds of thousands of inhabitants,
1 2
J I j  GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
with a rapidity unprecedented in the history of the
world. State by state, and from territory to territory,
this population has gone on increasing and extending
till it has spanned the continent; and to-day two tides
meet, one setting toward the East, from the shores of
the Pacific, the other in its ceaseless flow from the
Atlantic to the West, coming together at the bases
and on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This steady
onward flow of emigration from Europe to the United
States, and from the older states to the new, has been
a grand and glorious movement, realising a glowing
picture of De Tocqueville of ' the triumphal procession
of civilisation across the waste/ and the profound truth
of his assertion that 'no power on earth can close
upon the emigrants that fertile wilderness, which offers
resources to all industry, and a refuge from all want/"
It would be easy, if it were necessary, to take up
space by dilating upon the subject of emigration, the
part it has played, and the part it is destined yet to
play, in the world's history; but this, in the present
place, we are not called upon to do ; enough has been
said to show the design of Providence in implanting in
man this migratory element. Nor need it be an
unaspiring thought to the intending emigrant, in leaving
his native land, rich in pleasant memories of youth and
home, that he is forming part of the great army of civilisation—and that he is one of the pioneers of progress.
Going to new lands, and giving them the benefit of his
laborious toil, he is not only working out his own benefit,
but is an agent in realising the plans of the great
Governor of the Universe. Some amongst us deplore the
existence of extensive plans of emigration from this to
other countries, as depriving us of what they term the
very fl bone and sinew" of our population ; but however CANADA. 5
true this result may appear to be at first sight, it is
worth while to consider that the more completely
"this law of Providence " is carried out, the greater
will be the increase of population in the world; and
that not as of old, where independence of peoples and
jealousy between different nations was the rule, we
now know that all are united in bonds of closest
intimacy, and that, in accordance with the grand
principle of Christianity, the welfare of our neighbour is that of our own. With a fine and a daily
improving communication between country and country,
we may say with truth, that with the success of every
emigrant who leaves our shores comes a benefit to us,
forming a link in the great chain of commercial intercourse which is rapidly encircling the world. " He
becomes," to quote the words of a recent writer, | in
due time a customer, because a consumer;" and thus
emigration should be looked upon, as it has indeed
been called,(C a blessing to the country left and the
country adopted."
CHAPTER  II.
GENERAL   VIEW   OF   THE   FIELDS   FOR   EMIGRATION.
Although each colony will form the subject of, and
be most exhaustively described in, a separate volume of
this series, still we deem it necessary here to give, in a
brief sketch, a general view of the field of emigration
as a whole.
Canada.
This, the oldest colony of Great Britain, and the
nearest to her shores, claims precedence of notice.   It 6 l   GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
is the chief of what are designated the British North
American Colonies, in contradistinction to that part of
North America known as the United States. The
colony is most magnificent in extent, embracing an area
of 350,000 square miles, which are surveyed and ready
to be settled upon, of which 40,000 are already settled
upon; and a farther area of 200,000 square miles waiting
to be surveyed. This large territory enjoys already a
population of upwards of three millions, all of whom
live under the protection of English laws, and the great
majority of whom have been originally, or are now,
emigrants from Europe, and chiefly from Great Britain.
Abounding in land rich in fertility, the means of communication from one point to another are provided in
the splendid lakes and rivers, the form of which, for
extent, may be called inland seas; railways, also, are
being rapidly opened, 1,876 miles being already in active
operation. The climate is healthy, and although the
winters are marked for their severe cold, yet they are
accompanied with a dry atmosphere and clear sky, so
that they are far from unhealthy, or the cold difficult to
bear. The mean temperature of summer in the eastern
districts may be set down at 70°; in the western districts, 65° to 70°. The mean winter temperature of
the eastern, 11° ; of the western districts, 22°. The
soil, although, as may be expected, varied in character,
is generally rich and fertile, and is capable of growing
a wide range of crops. It is pre-eminently the soil for
cereal or grain crops. Fruit trees of almost all descriptions, from the common apple to the rarest peach, are
cultivated with the greatest ease.
The colony is divided into two great divisions or
provinces. The eastern provinces are known as
Lower, the western as Upper Canada.    Both provinces CANADA. 7
are divided into counties, and these again, into townships, the dimension of each of which is about ten
miles square. The inhabitants have the privilege of
electing members to sit in the County and Township
Councils; these having the power to survey, lay out,
and make and repair roads, canals, bridges, and the
like; to build schools; and to raise funds for general
improvements. Education is well provided for; schools
are numerous and well organised. The ft common
schools," nearly 4,000 in number, are supported by
funds partly given by government, partly raised by
local taxation. Toleration to all forms of religious
oelief and worship is universal throughout the colony.
The facilities for postal communication are very complete, each village being provided with its post-office.
Telegraphic wires stretch also between the towns, so
that every facility is afforded for carrying on business
and domestic correspondence. The English sovereign
is current everywhere, and is worth in colonial currency
4 dollars, 86 cents.
The Governor-General is appointed by the crown,
and is the royal representative in the colony. He
selects the executive council from the majority side of
the provincial parliament, and they are responsible for
the government.
The Provincial Parliament.—The legislative authority
of the province is exercised by a provincial parliament,
consisting of a Legislative Council and a Legislative
Assembly. The former is composed of councillors,
seventy in number, of whom forty-eight are chosen by
the qualified electors for a term of years, and twenty-
two are at present appointed for life. The Assembly is
composed of 130 members, chosen from districts by
the qualified electors thereof.    Speaker of the Council, 8 '       GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
Hon. Ulric Joseph Tessier; clerk of the Council, &c,
J. F. Taylor, Esq.; speaker of the Assembly, Hon.
Lewis Wallbridge; chief clerk, W. B. Lindsay, jr., Esq.
Citizenship.—All public offices and seats in the legislature are open to the ambition of any candidate being
a British subject and holding a limited amount of property. Three years' residence entitles a foreigner to
all the rights of a native-born citizen, and aliens can
buy, hold, and sell real estate.
Canada is now very easily reached from this country
by sailing vessel' or by steamer—the latter should be
taken if possible, and will not, all things considered,
prove to be dearer in the long run than the former.
The best time of the year to leave is the end of April
or .the beginning of May ; so that arrival will be timed
when work is most abundant. For settling purposes it
is useless to arrive in the colony before May.
For the purchase of land every facility is given to
the emigrant settler; the price of Crown lands varies
from 2s. lOd. English (70 cents Canadian) currency, to
45. ld. (or one dollar) per acre uncleared ; if purchased
from land companies or private individuals it is much
dearer. Free grants of land are given to actual settlers,
under easy conditions. For the fullest description of
all points connected with the purchase and cultivation
of land, the reader is referred to the volume in this
series on the iC British North American Colonies as a
Field for Emigration." We conclude this brief sketch
of Canada by giving the following items of information
in connection with it:—
Productions.— Timber, wheat, iron ore, copper, lead,
zinc, building stones of all kinds, granites, sandstones,
marbles, &c, fisheries, oil, petroleum, asphalte, agricultural and dairy produce, fruits. NOVA  SCOTIA. 9
Land Grants.—Free grants of 100 acres to settlers
18 years of age and upwards. Must take possession in
a month. A log hut to be built and 12 acres under
cultivation within 4 years.
Land may be bought from 20 cents to 1 dollar per
acre, on condition that one-fifth of purchase money is
paid down, and remainder in four equal annual instalments, with interest. To secure the purchase, it must
be taken possession of within 6 months, be resided
upon for 2 years, one-tenth must be under crop within
4 years, as also a house built.
The kind of Labour required.—Farm labourers and
domestic servants are in great demand everywhere.
The average wages may be set down as follows:—Farm
labourers, with board and lodging, 8 to 12 dollars per
month; female servants, 2 to 5 dollars; boys over
13 years of age, 2 to 8; girls, 1 to 3 dollars per month;
in all these cases board and lodging are included.
Mechanics, without board, get from 1 dollar to 2|
dollars per day ; tradesmen found with board and
lodging, get little more than half the above rates of
wages.    (See Chapter III.)
Prices of Provisions.—Meat, 2^d. to od. per lb.;
pork, 4d. to 5^.; mutton, 35. to 65. per quarter; fowls,
I5. 4d. to 25. per couple; geese, 45. to 45. lOd. each;
hares, 6d. to Sd.; fresh butter, Is. per lb.; salt do.,
5^d. to Id.) sugar, 4±d. to 4W.; flour, lis. to 12s. per
cwt.; vegetables, cheap.
Nova Scotia.
This thriving colony, to which the attention of
emigrants has only recently been directed as an excel-
lent field for their exertions, is the nearest to Great
Britain of all her North American colonies; the port
b 3 10 general hints to emigrants.
of Halifax—-the capital of the colony—being that first
touched at by the Cunard or mail line of steamers.
The population of the colony is about 350,000. The
surface of the country is diversified, rich in fertile
soil, well watered and timbered; the inland lakes and
rivers are fine and numerous, and are sources of great
wealth; fish abound in them of almost every kind.
The climate is very healthy; the extreme temperature
of summer is 95° in the shade; the autumn is marked
for its clearness of atmosphere and its extreme healthiness. The winters are doubtless severe—15° Fahr. ;
but the air being dry, and the sky clear and serene, the
weather is healthy and bracing. The colony has long
been, and is still, famous for its ship-building trade
and its shipping commerce. The soil is very rich, and
capable of growing almost every kind of farm produce;
and the land in the interior is well adapted for grazing.
In 1861 the colony possessed 700,000 head of cattle,
horses, and swine. It raised in the same year 334,287
tons of hay, 4,500,000 lbs. of butter, and nearly
1,000,000 lbs. of cheese. The colony is almost entirely
surrounded by the sea, and the surrounding shores
abound so with fish, that they are caught in vast
: quantities, and used to manure the soil.
Nova Scotia is rich in minerals—in coal, iron, and
copper; in building and in precious stones ; and above
all, in man's estimation, gold has been recently discovered, and that in such quantity as to have called
forth a special Act of Parliament to regulate its
search.
"Gold was discovered in several parts of the province
during the summer of 186i : first at Tangier, about
fifty miles east of Halifax, where about a thousand
miners, comprising Australians and Californians, worked NOVA scotia. 11
during the season, and expressed great satisfaction at
the result obtained, although the quartz has hitherto
been crushed without the aid of machinery. Tangier
is situated on a convenient harbour, only six hours'
steam from Halifax. Eastward of Tangier, about
fifteen miles, we come to Sheet Harbour, another
c digging,' which has good prospects. Still farther
eastward, about twenty miles, are the Sharbrooke
mines, which, although only opened in October last,
have already had a considerable run upon their claims.
Four miles farther east is Wine Harbour, another gold
field, where several very rich veins have recently been
discovered. The Lawrence Town mines, a few miles
eastward; the Ovens, about fifty miles westward; and
(Laidlow's Farm/ about ten miles northward of Halifax,
are diggings which are well repaying the investment of
a little time and capital in the search for gold.
"The country within about fifty miles of Halifax
appears to be largely impregnated with gold-bearing
quartz, which, as is well known by diggers, is far more
remunerative in working than the placeres or alluvial
washings, and the diggings are easy of access from
Halifax. According to existing regulations, a mining
lot at either of the above diggings may be obtained of
the following dimensions :—30 feet by 33 feet, or 140
feet by 250, or five acres of the respective length and
breadth of the last lot. The rents pay able for the first year
to government for these lots are respectively 20 dollars,
160 dollars, and 400 dollars per annum. A fourth of
the above rents must be paid on applying for the claim,
and the remainder within ninety days thereafter. The
government reserves to it itself the right of levying a
royalty or a rent during subsequent years."
The following are a few notes of utility and interest
J 12 general hints to emigrants.
connected with this attractive field of enterprise to
emigrants :—
Natural Productions. — Timber, ship timber, fish,
coal, gold, iron ore, copper ore, oats, potatoes, rye,
fruit, and furs.
Kind of Labour required.—Farm labourers, artisans,
domestic servants, miners, boys and girls from 12 to
15, small manufacturers, and capitalists.
Rates of Wages.—Labourers, £25 to £28, with board
and lodging; artisans, 6s. per day; female servants,
£10 to £12, with board and lodging.
Price of Farming Land.—Is. 9d. per acre, upset price.
Prices of Provisions.—Beef, 4^. to 6d. per lb.;
mutton, 2d. to 4>d.; pork, 3d. to 4d.; geese, ls. Sd.
each; poultry, Is. Sd. a couple; flour, 24s. to 30s. per
196 lbs.; butter, 8^. to Is. per lb.; cheese, 6d. to Sd.;
tea, Is. 10d>; sugar, 4\d.; potatoes, Is. 2d. to ls. Sd.
per bushel.
New Brunswick.
This colony formed originally part of, or was incorporated with, Nova Scotia; but in 1784 they were
separated, and have now independent governments, the
constitution of which, in both colonies, is identical
with that of Canada New Brunswick is bounded on
the west by the State of Maine, part of the United
States; on the north by the river St. Lawrence; the
Gulf of St. Lawrence on the east; and by the colony
of Nova Scotia on the south-east. The extent of land
embraced in it is 27,620 square miles, and has a population of about a quarter of a million. The climate is
remarkably healthy, as shown by the low rate of mortality. The winters, doubtless, are severe; but what
we  have  said  of the winters   of  Canada  and  Nova NEW  BRUNSWICK. 13
Scotia applies equally to the winters of this colony.
The soil is 'rich and fertile, and capable of growing,
like that of Nova Scotia, almost all kinds of farm
produce. Like this last named colony, New Brunswick
is highly favoured with fine rivers and inland lakes.
Harbours are numerous and safe, and the fisheries
both of the coast and interior waters highly productive.
Timber of fine quality is everywhere abundant, and
minerals—coal, iron, and building materials—lying
ready for the labours of the miner or the quarryman.
The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by the crown,
and is the representative of royalty in the province.
He selects the executive council from the majority side
of the provincial legislature, and they are responsible
for the government. Of the members of the ministry
above named, all are from the House of Assembly,
excepting Messrs. Steeves and Mitchell, who are from
the Legislative Council.
The Provincial Legislature.—This body consists of a
Legislative Council of twenty-one members, appointed
for life by the crown (with the concurrence of the
executive council), and a House of Assembly, of forty-
one members, chosen by the qualified electors of the
province for a term of four years. The qualification
for membership of the Assembly is the ownership of a
freehold of the clear value of £300, about 1,200 dollars.
All elections are by ballot; and every male British
subject is a voter who is not legally incapacitated, and
who is assessed on the registry for real estate to the
value of £25, or personal estate to the value of £100,
or having an annual income of £100.
Natural Productions.—Timber, fish, ship timber, iron
ore, coal, copper, gypsum, furs, wheat, potatoes.
Price of Land.—Free grants of 100 acres to actual 14 general hints to emigrants.
settlers, subject to a log hut being built, and 5 acres
under cultivation in 3 years. Land may be bought
for 2s. an acre, for cash, being a charge for making
roads; or upon credit for 2s. 5d.3 payable in four
yearly instalments.
Kind of Labour required.—Farm labourers, artisans,
domestic servants, farmers with small capital.
Rates of Wages.—£30, with board and lodging; 5s.
to 10s. per day; £12 to £15, with board and lodging.
Prices of Provisions.—Meat, 3d. to 5c?. per lb.;
poultry, do.; butter, 7d. to 9d.; flour, 22s. 6d. per
196 lbs.; tea, 2s. to 3s. per lb.; sugar, 4>d. to 6d.;
cheese, 5d. to 6d.; potatoes, ls. 6d. to 2s. per bushel.
Newfoundland.
/This, which is one of the British North American
colonies, was settled in 1608. Area, 35,850 square
miles. Population, by census of 1857,122,638. Dimensions of the island : extreme length, about 420 miles :
extreme breadth, about 300 miles. Astronomical position, between latitudes 46° 40' and 51° 39' north, and
between longitudes 52° 44' and 59° 31' west from Green*
wich.    Seat of government, St. John's.
Government and the Legislature.—The Governor is
appointed by the British crown authorities, who prescribe his salary, but the colony pays it. While in
office, the Governor is the representative of the sovereign. The executive council is chosen by the Governor
from the majority side of the legislative assembly, the
views of which majority control the policy of the
government. fc~i
Colonial Legislature.—The legislative power of the
colony is exercised (subject to the revision of the crown)
by a legislature, composed of a Legislative Council and prince edward's island. 15
«t House of Assembly. The former consists of not over
fifteen members, appointed by the crown, to hold office
during her Majesty's pleasure ; and the latter consists
of thirty members, chosen every four years by the
qualified electors of the colony. Householders for one
year are voters. The qualification for a member of the
House is that he shall have been a householder for two
years, and possess property of the clear value of £500,
or have a net annual income of £100.
Prince Edward's Island.
One of the North American colonies. Area, 2,137
square miles. Population, 1861, 80,857. Settled, 1715.
Conquest from the French, 1758. Dimensions of the
island : length about 140 miles; breadth from 15 to
34 miles. Astronomical position, between 45° 34' and
47° 10' north latitude, and between 61° 58' and 64° 38'
west from Greenwich. Seat of government, Charlotte-
town.
The Lieutenant-Governor is appointed by the crown,
and is the royal representative in the colony. The
executive councillors are appointed by the Lieutenant-
Governor from the majority side of the colonial parliament, and they are responsible for the government
while in office.
Colonial Legislature.—The legislative power of the
colony is exercised (subject to the revision of the crown)
by a legislature composed of a Council and a House of
Assembly. Formerly the members of the Legislative
Council were appointed by the crown for life; but they
are now (since February, 1863) elective. They are
thirteen in number, chosen by the property holders of
the colony for a term of eight years, six of those now
:n office to retire at the end of four years, so that one /SS
16 general hints to emigrants.
half the council may be renewed every fourth year.
The members of the House of Assembly are thirty in
number, and are chosen by the qualified electors of the
colony, by districts, to serve for a term of four years.
No property-qualification is required to enable persons
to vote for members of the Assembly.
British Columbia.
This colony, forming the extreme western point of
British North America, has only very recently grown
into importance, and this mainly through the discovery
of rich—reputed rich—gold fields. Being a new colony,
it offers no great field for the labour of poor emigrants
—small capitalists succeeding best. Mining is of
course at present the great work to which emigrants
turn their attention, and agriculture is greatly neglected.
From the high price of provisions at the " diggings,"
farmers who understand their business can make handsome returns by raising produce. The soil, rich and
fertile, is capable of yielding large crops of all kinds
of provisions. The climate is healthy, but the winters
in the elevated portions, especially of the northern
parts, are exceedingly severe.
Natural Productions. — Gold, timber, coal, silver,
copper, lead, fish, furs.
Price of Land.— Surveyed agricultural lands are
offered for sale by auction at an upset price of 4s. 2d.
per acre. Unsurveyed land may be obtained to the
extent of 160 acres upon paying a fee of 8s.; but when
surveyed, it must be paid for at the rate of not less
than 4s. 2d. per acre.
Kind of Labour required.—Rough labourers; farm
ditto, possessed of not less than £30 in cash on
landing; domestic servants greatly required. VANCOUVER'S  ISLAND. 17
Rates of Wages.—8s. to 10s. per day; 20s. to 24s.
per week, with board and lodging; £5 to £6 per
month, with board and lodging.
Vancouver's Island.
This island is separated from British Columbia by
Queen Charlotte's Sound, Johnston Strait, ] and the
Gulf of Georgia. The length of the island is 275
miles; its breadth, 40 to 50 miles. The capital is
Victoria, and forming as it does the port to the gold-
fields of Columbia, it is rapidly rising into importance.
The climate is " said to be very fine, superior to that,
of England, and equal to that of France 1 the temperature ranges about 80° in summer, and in winter
is rarely below 15°" The soil is rich and fertile, a^d
in the valleys every kind of farm produce can be
raised. There are considerable lengths of mountain
ranges, and numerous rivers—none of which, however,
are navigable. There are numerous harbours and
deeply indented bays. Although little has been done
in the way of mining, its mineral resources are known
to be rich, comprising coal, iron, gold, and building
materials.
Natural Productions.—Coal, gold, silver, iron ore,
copper ore, timber, fish, game, oil.
Price of Land. — Land sold at 4s. 2d. per acre.
Great privileges are granted to male British subjects
above 18 years of age, by pre-emption or priority of
claim; payment may be made by instalments extending
to three years.
Kind of Labour required. — Only female domestics;
small farmers, with £300 to £500..
Rate of Wages.—£5 to £6 per month, with board
and lodging. f
18 j GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
Prices of Provisions in the Capital. — Beef, 4c?. to
ls. per lb.; mutton, 4c?. to ls.; pork, 4c?. to 8c?.; veal,
M. to ls. Sd.; flour, 28s. to 40s. per 196 lbs.; 2 lb.
loaf, 6d.; butter, ls. 3c?. to 2s. per lb.; cheese, 9c?. to
ls. 6d.; tea, ls. 8c?. to 3s.; potatoes, Is. to ls. 3c?. per
bushel; loaf sugar, 8c?. per lb.; coarse ditto, 5c?. ;
salmon, 1c?. to 4c?.; venison, 4c?. to 6d.; board and
lodging, £1 12s. 0c?. per week.
The United  States.
Although the unhappy war, which for the last four
years has devastated so large a portion of the territory
of the United States, has introduced elements which
render this field for emigrants somewhat changed as
regards its chances of success, and has influenced the
rate of wages, the ease with which employment is
obtained, nevertheless, the range of territory which has
escaped, and is likely—even in the event of the continuance of the war for several years—to escape the
evils of war, is so enormous; the facilities for obtaining
land so great; the markets for the produce which can
be raised on it so numerous—that the United States
present, even with all the difficulties thrown around
emigration by the peculiar circumstances in which the
country is at present (spring of 1865) placed, a large
and important outlet for the emigrants from this country.
It is at all events a suggestive circumstance, that of the
whole of the emigration from this country during the
last three years, three-fifths of the number have gone
to the United States. True it may be said, that of these
numbers a large proportion has been taken to " feed
the war;" but notwithstanding the truth of this, it is
no less true that immense numbers have gone out as
true emigrants; that is, either to recruit the ranks of
IL the united states. 19
labour in the large cities, as New York, Philadelphia,
Boston, and the like; or to go west to cultivate the
almost boundless extent of land yet lying ready for the
labours of the husbandman. Wages are even higher
than ever, and employment is abundant. But the
question may be asked, Will not the termination of
the war lead to a lowering of the one and the
lessening of the other ? To this question we meet with
a reply in a Report on Emigration recently issued by
the New York Chamber of Commerce, and which we
here give :—
" It may be thought by some that when the rebellion
is conquered, and the war is over, when our soldiers
return to their homes and to their wonted tasks, the
arguments which have been advanced to prove the
need of more labourers from abroad will fail. Such a
conclusion would, in the opinion of your committee,
be wholly unwarranted.
" It is true that the army and navy would simultaneously discharge many soldiers and sailors, and
that many contracts with our foundries, factories, shipyards, and various sources of supply, would be suspended ; but, on the other hand, with the return of peace
and the re-establishment of open communication with
the States of the South, enterprises hitherto abandoned
or newly projected will spring into life and activity
and the restoration of vast tracts of fertile land to the
use of the husbandman will call many labourers into
the field, and it will be the profitable work of years of
peace to restore what has been lost by the ravages of
war."
The following is a brief description, or rather list, of
the Northern, Central, and Western States, to which
emigration  is  principally now,  and  we  may say has 20 ; general hints to emigrants.
always been, directed; for it is needless to say that the
circumstances attendant upon the position which the
Southern States have always occupied, and still occupy,
have precluded, as they still preclude, emigration to
them. The Northern States are as follows:—Maine,
with an area of 30,000 square miles ; Porthill the chief
town, Augusta the capital. New Hampshire : area,
8,030 square miles ; Concord the capital. Vermont :
area, 9,056^ square miles ; Montpelier capital. Massachusetts, 7,500 square miles in area; Boston the
capital. Rhode Island ; area, 1,360 square miles;
Providence and Newport the chief towns. Connecticut, 4,674 square miles in area; Newhaven and
Hartford the chief towns. State of New York—also
known, from its size and commercial importance, as
the Empire State—is the largest of all the Northern
States, having an area of 46,000 square miles; Albany
the capital; New York, it is needless to say, is the
principal city—the metropolis in fact—of the state.
The Central States are—New Jersey, 8,320 square
miles; capital, Trenton. Pennsylvania, 46,000 square
miles; principal town, Philadelphia, and Harrisburg
the capital. Delaware, 2,120 square miles; Dover
' the capital. Maryland, 9,356 square miles; capital,
Annapolis. West Virginia, 23,000 square miles ; capital, Wheeling. Ohio, 40,000 square miles ; Cincinnati
the capital. The capital of the United States
and the seat of, the Federal Government is Washington, which is situated in the district of Columbia,
a small tract of country ceded by the States of
Maryland and Virginia to form the seat of the
Central Government. The Western States:—Kentucky, 40,500 square miles in area; Frankfort the
capital.     Louisville   is   a   large   city   in   this  state.
I >
THE UNITED  STATES. 21
Indiana,  36,000  square miles in area;   Indianopolis
the capital.     Michigan, 66,000 square miles in area ;
Detroit the capital.     Illinois ;   Chicago is the most
important city in this state ; Springfield is the capital.
Missouri, 67,380 square miles; St. Louis, is the principal  city of the  state; Jefferson the capital.    Wisconsin,   53,974  square  miles;   Madison  the  capital.
Iowa, 50,600 square miles; Iowa capital.    Minnesota:
area, 83,531 square miles; capital, St. Paul.    Kansas :
area, 80,000 square miles ; capital, Topeka.    California : area, 188,982 square miles; capital, Sacramento.
Oregon :   area, 95,274 square miles;   capital, Salem.
In addition to the States, there are what are called
" organised territories," containing enormous tracks of
land open to emigrant labour.    These territories are
nine in number—(1) Arizona, with an area of 130,800
square miles ; (2) Colorado: area, 106,475 square miles;
(3) Dakota: area, 152,500; (4) Idaho: area, 333,200;
(5)   Nebraska:  area,   63,300  square  miles;   (6) New
Mexico: area, 124,450 square miles; (7) Utah: area,
109,600 square miles;  (8) Washington, 71,300 square
miles; (9) Nevada : area, 83,500 square miles.   In these
states there is a boundless field for agricultural, if not
for commercial and trade labour.    The immense tracts
of land in one or two only of the Western States—as,
for instance,  in Illinois and Wisconsin—afford working   space for   a  large  population;   and  the  utmost
facilities   are   being    daily   offered   to   hard-working,
enterprising emigrants, to go in to possess the land.
In   the   State  of   Illinois,  the  Illinois  Railway  are
offering at very low rates, along their line, tracts of
land   possessed of  the  utmost  fertility.    For  a full
description of the several states, and information upon
every point  required  to  be in the possession of the 22 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
emigrant, the reader is referred to the volume in this
series, entitled, "The United States as a field for
Emigration : how to get and what to do there."
Meanwhile, as illustrative of the chances of success
which this field yet offers, and is likely long to offer,
to the enterprising emigrant, we quote the following :—
" The call for labour comes on every breeze, from
the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada —
from the mountains and valleys of Pennsylvania and
Michigan—from California, Oregon, Idaho, Colorado,
Iowa, Ohio, Illinois, and other states—where lie buried
the gold and silver, lead, iron, copper, and vast beds of
coal, underlying the rich prairie lands and mountains
of the West."
The following table, for which we are indebted to
the " American Almanac," will be interesting here :—
Rank op Foreign Countries arranged according to the Number of
Immigrants contributed by each to the Population of the United
States in 1860.
Denmark     ...... 9,962
Belgium 9,072
West Indies 7,353
Poland 7,298
Spain 4,244
Portugal 4,116
South America 3,263
Russia 3,160
Great Britain not specified . 1,802
Australia . . . . . < -.-1,419
Europe not specified. . . 1,403
Other Countries   .    .    .    . 1,366
Atlantic Isles 1,361
Asia 1,231
Sardinia 1,159
Africa 526
Sandwich Islands ....    435
Greece 328
Pacific Isles 286
Central America .... 233
Turkey J28
1,611,304
German States, total
1,301,136
Germany not specified.
598,382
England     ....
431,692
British America .    .    .
249,970
Prussia	
227,661
Bavaria	
150,165
Baden	
112,834
France •
109,870
Scotland	
108,518
Hesse	
95,464
Wirtemberg   .    .    .
81,336
Switzerland    .    .    .
53,327
Wales	
45,763
Norway	
43,995
35 565
Holland    ....
28,281
Mexico	
27,446
Austria	
25,061
Sweden	
18,625
Italy	
10,518
Nassau	
10,233 NEW  ZEALAND. 23
New Zealand.
This important and rapidly-rising colony is formed
of three islands in the South Pacific, or rather of two
islands—" North " and " South; " for the smaller one,
Stewart's Island, which lies between them, is not
included in the colony, at least, it has not yet offered
inducements for settlement. The two islands, then,
which constitute New Zealand as a colony, lie between
35° and 47° east latitude, and together possess some
75,000,000 of acres. The climate resembles that of
our own country so much, that New Zealand has been
termed the " Britain of the South;" and, like it, is
variable, one of the most remarkable peculiarities being
the prevalence of high winds. The climate is well
suited to European constitutions, and is said to be
favoured with a low rate of mortality. The average
temperature of North Island in summer is from 64° to
70°, in winter 41° to 51°; in South Island, 61° in
summer, 42° in winter. The lands in both islands are
admirably adapted for agriculture, both in its arable
and pastural departments, and the whole colony is
divided into nine provinces, of which there are four in
North Islancf, namely :—Auckland, the seat of government and the capital of the colony; Wellington, Hawkes
Bay, and Taranaki, or New Plymouth. The remaining
five provinces are in South Island, and are—Otago, in
which province are situated the gold fields; Nelson,
Canterbury, Marlborough, and Southland. Of these
nine provinces Auckland is the largest, being 400 miles
in length and 200 in breadth, and possesses the finest
climate; and the soil is capable of growing a wide
variety of farm and garden produce, and of raising and
rearing large herds of stock.    Wellington is the most 26       )    GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
is healthy; but as the colony extends over many
degrees of latitude, the temperature is not at all uniform though out—great differences existing. The land is
of fine quality, and, in conjunction with the (in some
districts) almost tropical temperature, is capable of
raising, not only the usual varieties of European produce, as wheat, &c, but some of those peculiar to hot
countries, as sugar, tobacco, and the like. The great
feature, however, of the colony for many years has
been the rearing of sheep. The immense tracts of
pasture land greatly favour this branch of industry.
The discovery, in 1851, of the valuable gold fields, has
also given an immense impulse to the progress of the
colony. Coal, also, is found in abundance, and of
good quality. But this department of industry—as,
indeed, all others—wants a great influx of labour to
complete or aid in its development. From this will be
gathered the fact, that for all kinds of labour there is
in this colony a great demand. The following notes
will be useful:—
Natural Productions. — Wool, tallow, hides, sheep,
cattle, horses, gold, copper ore, iron ore, coal, cotton,
fruits, wine, tobacco, sugar.
Price and Grants of Land. — Free land selections
at 20s. per acre, in lots of 40 to 320 acres; 25 per
cent, to be paid down, and balance in 3 years; but
payment may be deferred upon paying interest at 5
per cent., subject to conditions.
Kind of Labour required, and Rates of Wages.—
All kinds of farm labourers, £o0 to £4D, with board
and lodging; rough ditto, 8s. to 10s. per day; artisans,
10s. to 12s. per day; domestic servants, £20 to <£25,
with board and lodging : coal miners, 11*. M. per day."
Prices of Provisions at Sydney. — Meat, 3%d. to Ad. WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 27
per lb.; bread, 10^. per 4 lbs.; sugar, 4d. per lb.; tea,
ls. 6d. to 2s.; butter, ls. 3d.; fowls,'4s. each; geese,
10s. each; bacon, Sd. per lb.; potatoes, \\d.
Western Australia.
This colony—formerly known as New Holland, or
the Swan River Settlement—occupies the whole of the
western, and part of the north and south sides of the
continent of Australia. It has not been so fortunate
as the other colonies in attracting to it a large and
influential emigration. The climate is said, however,
to be one of the finest in the world; and from the
ranges of its temperature, almost every kind of produce—European and tropical—can be cultivated. The
land is of the highest degree of fertility. Timber of
the finest quality is met with in the magnificent forests,
and the sheep pastures are exceedingly valuable and
extensive in range. In the production of wine—and
not less important in that' of cotton—there appears to
lie a future of great prosperity, and sources of wealth,
to this fine colony. The capital is Perth, and it is
situated on the Swan River. The length of territory
comprised in the colony is 1,280 miles from north to
south, and the breadth, from east to west, 800. There
is no winter, the seasons being three in number only.
Minerals abound in the district of Victoria.
Natural Products.—Wool, sheep, timber, copper, lead,
iron ore, wines, cattle, horses, cotton, coal, and fruits.
Price and Grants of Land.—Country lands sold in
lots of 40 acres- for 10s. an acre; town and mineral
lands are sold at 20s. per acre, with credit; tillage
and leases are granted for 8 years of lots not exceeding 320 acres for £5. Land may be purchased of
private persons at 3s. to 4s. per acre.
c2 r
L
28 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
Kind of Labour required, and Rates of Wages.—Farm
labourers, ,£30 per annum, with board and lodging;
shepherds, £35 per annum, with board and lodging;
artisans and miners, 5s. to 6s. per day; female domestics, £12 to £14, with board and lodging.
Price of Provisions.—Meat, 6d. per lb.; flour, 2d.;
vegetables abundant and very cheap.
South Australia.
Of this colony, situated between 27° and 28° south
latitude, Adelaide is the capital. The climate closely
resembles the south of Europe. There is no winter,
the season represented there being two months of rainy
weather. The soil is exceedingly fertile, and capable of
raising almost every variety of produce. The raising of
grapes for the making of wine is rapidly becoming an
important branch of industry, both the climate and the
soil being particularly well adapted to the culture of
the vine. The colony is rich in lead and copper mines;
the latter, indeed, have been and are so valuable as to
minister greatly to the wealth and the prosperity of the
colony, being to it what the gold-fields have been to
other colonies. Agriculture is being more and more
attended to.
Natural Products.—Wool, wheat, wines, sheep,
copper ore, silver, and lead.
Price of Land, fyc.—Land is divided into reserves,
waste lands, pastoral and mineral lands. The first are
reserved; waste lands are sold by auction at an upset
price of 20s. per acre, to be paid for within a month;
the two last the governor has power to grant leases for
fourteen years.
Persons desirous of acquiring lands in South Australia, at the Government Land Sales in Adelaide, may ^
QUEENSLAND. 39
pay the amount of their intended purchases into the
proper office, and receive a certificate of receipt, securing to them the advantage of having their names at
once registered in the document, as entitled to the land
it may represent.
Kind of Labour required, and Rate of Wages.—AW
kinds of farm labourers, £40 to £45, with board and
lodging; rough ditto, 6s. per day; shepherds, £40 per
annum, with board and lodging; artisans, 8s. to 10s.
per day; blacksmiths (being shoeing smiths), shoemakers, and copper miners, 40s. to 50s. per week; male
and female domestics, £45 per annum, or £18 to £26
per annum, with board and lodging.
Price of Provisions at the Capital.—Meat, M. to Id.
per lb.; bread, Sd. per 4 lbs.; milk, 4d. to 6d. per
quart; butter, ] s. Sd. per lb.; cheese, lOd.; potatoes,
Id.; bacon, Is. 2d.; fowls, 5s. to 9s. a couple.
Queensland.
Of all the Australian colonies to which emigration
is flowing, this is perhaps the most popular; at least
it has occupied, and is still occupying, a large space in
popular estimation. The colony formed originally part
of the colony of New South Wales, but in 1859 it was
formed into a separate colony. It covers an area of
about 1,000,000 square miles, .being situated nearly
" equi-distant north and south of the tropic of Capricorn," and at present extends from 11° to 29° south
latitude, and from 129° to 153° east longitude. "A
large part of this immense territory is still unexplored,
and the colony is principally confined to the eastern or
coast boundary." The climate is very fine, resembling
that of Madeira in its equable mildness, and is therefore, like it, admirably suited for consumptive patients. $
30        > GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
The soil also is exceedingly rich; so that from the
peculiarities both of climate and soil, almost every kind
of produce may be, and is, in fact, grown—cotton,
tobacco, sugar, indigo, maize, rice, arrowroot, the
vine, mulberry and olive tree. The produce of hot
countries are grown with as much facility as the produce of our temperate climate—wheat, barley, oats,
and the like. Cotton and sugar bid fair to become
important articles of growth for export. The capital
is Brisbane, situated upon the river of the same name,
which runs into an arm of the sea called Moreton Bay.
Natural Products. — Sheep, cattle, i timber, coal,
cotton, gum, honey, wheat, maize, barley, sugar, fruits,
tobacco, arrowroot, coffee.
Price of Land, tyc. — To persons paying their own
passage and those of servants,' land grants are given
free to select in any part at the rate of 60 acres for
man and wife, subject to conditions, and must be
applied for within 14 days after arrival in colony, and
certificate of birth of each person produced; children
above 4 and under 14 reckoned as half an adult.
Land may be purchased at 20s. per acre. A bounty
is given to growers of cotton.
Persons in this colony may nominate friends in
England for free passages on payment of £2 for each
person between 1 anc^ 12 years, and of £4 for each
person between 12 and 60 years."
Kind of Labour required, and Rate of Wages.—
Farm labourers, £30 to £40 per annum, with board
and lodging; rough ditto, £30 to £35 ditto; shepherds, £30 to £40 ditto; married couples, £45 to £60
ditto ; artisans, 50s. to 60s. per week; female domestics,
£20 to £26 per annum, with board and lodgings;
squatters." VICTORIA. 31
Price of Provisions at the Capital.—Meat, 4d. per
lb.; flour, 3d.; bread, 4 lb. loaf, Is.; tea, 2s. per lb.;
sugar, 4>\d. to 8c?.; potatoes, 2d."
Victoria.
This—the richest, and in this sense the most important, of the Australian colonies—has been, or rather
is, remarkable for the amazing rapidity of its progress,
* mainly dependent upon the discovery of its celebrated
and rich gold fields. In 1836, 177 souls formed its
population; in 1851 this had increased to 77,345 ; now
it is upwards of half a million—Melbourne, the capital,
alone having a population of 123,000. The area in
square miles of the colony is 86,831. The soil is fertile,
and capable of growing all kinds of produce. The
climate is fine, and well adapted to European constitutions. The extent of land under pasture is great, being
no fewer than 32,000,000 of acres. From this, in 1860,
the return of sheep amounted to nearly 6,000,000;
horses, nearly 70,000; cattle, nearly 700,000. The
discovery of the gold fields prevented for long, and is
still to a large extent preventing, that attention to
agricultural pursuits which is so desirable in a new
country; but nfcw the development of this important
branch is gradually being attended to. Not only is
the colony rich in gold, but in other metals, as silver,
copper, tin, and iron; nor are its sources of mineral
wealth to be overlooked, the coal-fields alone promising
a large yield, where labour in due abundance can be
applied in their working.
Natural Products. — Gold, iron ore, tin ore, lead
ore, wool, sheep, cattle, hides, skins, tallow, oil, timber,
fruits, wine, cotton.
Price of Land.—Allotments, 40 to 640 acres, at £1 32 i   GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
per acre; half to be paid down, and balance in four
yearly instalments of 2s. 6c/. each. Pasturage leases
secured for 9 years. One-fourth of the whole revenue
derived from the sale and leasing, &c, of land is applied
in promoting immigration from Great Britain.
Labour required, and Wages. — Farm labourers,
15s. to 20s. per week, with board and lodging; married
couples without family, £60 to £70 per annum, ditto;
artisans, £40 to £50 ditto; gardeners; carpenters,'
bricklayers, and plasterers, 8s. to 13s. per day (eight
hours); masons and smiths, 10s. to 14s. ditto; female
domestics, £30 to £50; shepherds, £33, with board
and lodging.
Price of Provisions.—Beef, 6d. to 9d. per lb.; veal,
9d. to Is.; pork, 10c?. to Is.; bread, 4c?. per 10 lb.;
. milk, ls. per quart; potatoes, 5s. 6d. to 6s. per cwt.;
fowls, 9s. to lis. per couple.
Tasmania.
This island colony was once well known under the
name of Van Dieman's Land, and had an unenviable
notoriety from its being the seat of a principal penal
settlement. The island is situated at a distance of
150 miles from the extreme southern point of the
Australian continent; it possesses an area of about
25,000 square miles, a climate more temperate than
that of the Australian continent, but healthy, and well
suited to European constitutions. The colony is
remarkable among the colonies of Australia for the
fine quality of its timber, which is found in abundance
in the large forests which spread over various districts.
The soil is fertile, and bears a wide variety of produce,
both farm and garden. The grazing lands are extensive, and are famous for the fine breed of horses which CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND NATAL.       33
they feed. Fruit-growing is an important branch of
rural economy, enormous quantities of fruit being
exported. Every kind of fruit-tree flourishes in the
genial soil, and under the influence of the no less
genial climate. The colony is rich in coal; iron also
exists, but has not been much worked. Gold also is
met with, but not in such quantities as to make its
working profitable.    The capital is Hobart Town.
Natural Products. — Wheat, oats, fruit, timber,
stone, gold, coal, iron ore, limestone, wool (sheep),
cattle, horses, oil, tallow, hides, dairy produce.
Price of Land, fyc. — Land grants, from 50 to 640
acres, in proportion to every j£1 sterling a man is
worth in money, stock, and implements; must reside
thereon 5 years, and have cultivated 5 of every 50
acres, or erect buildings to the value of £250 for every
50 acres. Settled land may be had by choice at £l
per acre ; lands not previously occupied can be had at
10s. per acre.
Labour and Wages, fyc. — Farm labourers, £25 to
£30, with board and lodging ; married couples, £40 to
£45 ditto; shepherds, £30 to £40 ditto; artisans, 8s. to
12s. per day; dc)mestic servants, £20 to £25, with board
and lodging; common labourers, 4s. to 6s. per day.
Prices of Provisions in the Capital.—Beef, 5c?. to 8c?.
per lb.; mutton, 4c?. to 6d.; veal, 6c?. to lOd.; butter,
ls. 6c?. to ls. 9c?.; cheese, Is. to ls. 3c?.; tea, 2s.;
sugar, 4c?.; coffee, ls. 2d. to 2s.; bread, l^c?. to 2c?.;
potatoes, 5s. to 8s. per cwt.; bacon, ls. lc?. to ls. 4c?.
per lb.; pork, fresh, 7c?. to 10c?.
Cape of Good Hope and Natal.
These colonies of Great Britain are situated in South
Africa, and embrace an area of 250,000 square miles.
C 3
J if
34 GENERAL  HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
The climate of the colonies is fine and healthy, the soil
fertile and capable of growing almost all kinds of produce. There are two colonies—one called the Cape
Colony, the other Natal.
Cape Colony.
The area of this colony is 104,981 square miles. The
soil is fertile, and produces all kinds of breadstuffs, as
wheat, barley, oats, and maize, or Indian corn. The
great branch of trade, however, is wool, and this gives
a stimulus to sheep farming, which is carried on to a
great extent. Both the soil and climate are peculiarly
favourable to the growth of the vine, and at one period
Cape wines were largely exported for sale in this country ; the introduction, however, of the favourite wines
of the continent of Europe at a low price has, we
believe, greatly injured this trade of the colony. Fruits
of every kind are grown in abundance. Game is plentifully met with. The mineral resources of the colony
are not extensive. The capital of the Western Province is Cape Town; that of the Eastern Province is
Graham's Town. The population is made up of whites,
102,156; natives, 129,167; aliens, 10,534.
Natural Products.—Sheep, cattle, horses, wool, hides,
skins, wine, wheat, barley, maize, oats, fruits, copper,
ivory, and ostrich feathers.
Price of Land. — Waste and crown lands sold by
auction subject to an annual quit rent on each lot, and
at a reserved price sufficient to defray expenses of
survey, title deeds, &c. The quit rent may be redeemed
upon payment of fifteen years' purchase, one-fourth of
purchase money may be paid m three months, and
remainder in eight equal instalments at the expiration
of five, six, or seven years, subject to a mortgage of the
land, and interest at 6 per cent, per annum.
m NATAL. 35
Naval and military settlers may obtain a remission
of purchase money, but must pay cash for expenses of
survey, title-deed, inspection, &c.
Labour (wages fluctuate much and are uncertain).—
Farm servants, viz., shepherds and herdsmen, bricklayers, masons of all kinds, shoemakers, tailors, saddlers,
butchers, bakers, painters and glaziers, and domestic
servants.
Natal
Is an offshoot from the Cape Colony, established in
1836 by a number of emigrants from the above colony
who were dissatisfied with its government. The area
of Natal is 19,000 square miles. The climate is very
fine, the sky clear and brilliant; little rain falls; the
soil varies in quality, but is generally rich and fertile;
it is capable of growing grain of various kinds, and
fruits and flowers of almost every variety flourish everywhere. Sugar and cotton are very largely cultivated,
and promise to become sources of great wealth to the
colony. The breeding of sheep is also progressing. The
capital is Pietermaritzburg, the Port D'Urban. The
population—whites, 11,950; natives, 145,633.
Natural Products.—Cotton, wool, sheep, sugar, coffee>
arrowroot, fruits, cattle, horses, hides, wheat, maize,
and oats.
Price of Land.—Free grants to officers in Queen's
service. Land, upset price, 4s. per acre; 10 per cent.
of purchase money, with expenses of survey, to be paid
down, and the balance within one month.
Kind of Labour required, and Rates of Wages.—Farm
labourers, £40 ;per annum, with board and lodging;
artisans, 7s. 6d. to 10s. per day; labourers, 4s. 6c?. to
6s.; domestic servants, £40 per annum, with board
and lodging. r
36
1 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANT&
The  following,  issued by her Majesty's  Commissioners of Emigration, will be found useful:—
A List of G-entlemen who act as special Emigration Agents in this
country for the several Colonial governments from whom they hold
appointments. The shipping arrangements, however, for the Emigrants, except in the case of New Zealand and partially of Queensland, still remain with the Emigration Commissioners.
( G. S. Walters, Esq., assisted by R. F.
(_    Newland, Esq., 5, Copthal Court, E.C.
(H.   Jordan,   Esq.,   17,
\    Street, E.C.
( John   Morrison,   Esq.,
\    Place, London Bridge.
Ditto.
South Australia ,
Queensland	
New Zealand General Government    .   .
Nelson	
Hawke's Bay      	
Marlborough	
Southland      	
Auckland    .
Canterbury	
Otago	
Gracechurch
3,   Adelaide
( Messrs. Ridgway & Sons, 40, Leicester
\     Square.
| John   Marshman,  Esq.,  16,  Charing
}     Cross.
( Crawford & Auld, St. Andrew's Square,
\     Edinburgh.
Colonial Officers who have undertaken to answer, as far as in their
power, Inquiries addressed to them, post paid, by persons in the
United Kingdom, respecting their Friends or Relatives in the
Colonies.
Colony.
Officer.
Address.
North America.
Canada      ....
The Provincial Secretary.
Canada.
Nova Scotia   .    .    .
The Provincial Secretary .    .
Halifax.
New Brunswick .
The Provincial Secretary.
Frederickton.
Prince Edward's Island
The Colonial Secretary    .    .
CharlotteTown.
Newfoundland   .    .    .
Timothy Mitchell, Esq., In
spector of Police     .   .   .
St. John's.
Australia.
New South Wales   .
The Secretary for Lands .
Sydney.
Victoria	
The Commissioner of Trade
and Customs	
Melbourne.
South Australia .    .    .
The Chief Secretary    .    .    .
Adelaide.
Western Australia .    .
The Immigration Agent .    .
Perth.
New Zealand ....
John Morrison, Esq., 3, Ade
laide Place, King Wm. St
London.
Tasmania .....
The Colonial Secretary    .    .
Hobartown.
Queensland   ....
The Immigration Agent .    .
Brisbane.
Africa.
Cape	
The Colonial Secretary    .    .
Cape Town.
Natal	
The Colonial Secretary   .    .
Natal. EMIGRATION  FROM THE  UNITED  KINGDOM.
37
A Table showing Emigration from the United Kingdom during the
Forty-nine Years, from 1815 to 1863 inclusive.
Years.
North
American
Colonies.
United
States.
Australian
Colonies
and New
Zealand.
All
other
Places.
Total.
1   1815
680
1,209
*
192
2,081
1816
3,3"0
9 022
*
118
12,510    ]
1817
9,797
10,280
*
557
20 634
1818
15,136
12.429
*
222
27787
1819
23,534
10,674
*
579
34.787
1820
17 921
6,745
*
1,063
25.729
1821
12,955
4,958
*
384
18 297
1822
16,013
4 137
*
279
20 429
1823
11,355
5032
*
163
16,550
1824
8,774
5.152
*
99
14,025
1825
8,741
5,551
485
114
14 891
1826
12818
7,063
903
116
20.900
1827
12648
14,526
715
114
28.003
1828
12,084
12 817
1,056
135
26,092
1829
13 307
15 678
2016
197
31,198
1830
30,574
24.887
1,242
204
56 907
1831
58,067
23.418
1,561
114
83.100
1832
66,339
32,872
3 733
196
103,140
1833
28,808
29.109
4,093
517
62.527
1834
40,060
33,074
2 800
288
76 222
1835
15 573
26,720
1 860
325
44,478
1836
34 226
37,774
3,124
293
75,417
1837
29 884
36,770
5,054
326
72 034
1838
4,577
14,332
14 021
292
33,222
1839
12 658
33,536
15,786
227
62.207
1840
32 293
40,642
15.850
1,958
90 743
1841
38,164
45,017
32 625
2,786
118,592
1842
54,123
63 852
8,534
1,835
128,344
1843
23 518
28,335
3,478
1,881
57,212
1844
22,924
43,660
2,229
1,873
70,686
1845
31 803
58,538
830
2 330
93,501
1846
43 439
82 239
2 347
1,826
129,851
1847
109,680
142,154
4,949
1,487
258 270
1848
31,065
J 88 233
23,904
4 887
248.089
1849
41.367
219 450
32 191
6.490
299 498
1850
32,961
223,078
16037
8 773
280 849
1851
42,605
267,357
21.532
4,472
335.966
1852
32,873
244.261
87,881
3 749
368,764
1853
34,522
230 885
61,401
3 129
329.937
1854
43,761
193,065
83,237
3 366
323,429
1855
17966
103 414
52 309
3,118
176,807
1856
16,378
111,837
44,584
3,755
176.554
1857
21.001
126,905
61,248
3,721
212,875
1858
9,704
59.716
39,295
5,257
113 972
1859
6,689
70,303
31,013
12.427
120,432
1860
9 786
87,500
24 302
6,881
128.469
1861
12,707
49 764
23 738
5,561
91,770
1862
15 522
58,706
41,843
5,143
121.214
1863
18,083
146,813
53,054
5,808
223 758
Total.
1.242 833
3 303 489
i      826 860
109,6,47
5,482,809     1
Average
Annual Emij
jration ) Fror
ngdom j For
Q 1815 to 1861
-
-    111,894
from t
he United Ki
the 10 years e
nding 1863
-    168.928
* The Customs Returns do not record any emigration to Australia during these
10 years, but it appears from other sources that there went out in 1821, 320 ? in
1822,875; in 1823, 543; in 1824, 780; and in 1825,458 persons. These numbers
have not been included in the Totals of this Table. 38
GENERAL HINTS .TO EMIGRANTS.
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CHAPTER III.
CONCERNING   THOSE   FITTED   AND   UNFITTED  TO   BE
SUCCESSFUL   EMIGRANTS.
In this department of our social economy, as in that of
others, intending emigrants will be found to range
themselves under one or other of two great classes :
first, those " who have been accustomed to, and who
are willing to the end of their days to carry on, hard
work f and second, those who have not been accustomed to hard work, and who, upon the whole, do not
hold it in high favour. And here let it be noted that
the "hard work" specified is more that of the "hands"
than that of the " head; " not that we mean to suggest
that the labour of the hands is not the better of the
wise dictates of the head, but simply that the labour
is of that kind which gives rough and horny palms
and strong and vigorous muscle. That kind of labour
—and hard labour in the old country it undoubtedly
is—which leaves the muscles weak and the hands
white, is not wanted in a new country. In process of time doubtless, with advancing years and
consequent wealth, luxury and leisure in colonies
will come to demand the labour of the head; but
that time being far off as yet, the labour of the hands
is what they now want, and what alone they will
take. This excludes, therefore, and rigidly excludes,
all those classes of professional men, clerks, bookkeepers, small tradesmen, and the like. Not but what
these men are wanted; but the numbers of them are
small, and their places are much more readily filled
up from the ranks of the old settlers than in this
country is thought of.    It may be taken as an axiom THOSE  FITTED  TO  BE  COLONISTS. 41
that the newer the colony, or field of emigration, the less
is labour of the " white handed " class required. It is
too prevalent a notion amongst us that a man who has
not been successful here, and who, in point of fact,
may have been more given to shirking work than the
doing of it, has only to emigrate, and all will be well.
Alas ! for the ruin and misery that the acting upon this
notion has caused! Go, as the writer of these pages
has gone, amongst the crowds of emigrants landed
upon the shores of their adopted country; trace them
in their searches after settlement, and what is the
almost invariable result? Success to those who with
willing hearts and brawny arms take anything in
hand; who can handle the spade, or wield the hammer
or the mallet!—misery to those who, even if they have
the willing heart, have not the power of hand or of
muscle to work ! It is hard, very hard, for one accustomed in this country to sit at a desk, or watch
behind a counter, to take all at once to work, to which
here he has been accustomed to attach a certain degree
of degradation, and which wrings from his brow the
sweat, and gives to his feeble frame the pains of hard
and constant manual labour. But far from wishing
the reader to believe what we ourselves say on this most
important subject—than which, indeed, to the intending
emigrant nothing can be more important, as it affects
the whole question of his success or non-success—we
take leave to present him with the opinion of other
authorities; and in so doing we do him a great service.
Take, for instance, the following from the written
opinion of one of the best authorities on emigration
to the United States :—
" But America does not require one class of people;
we mean gentlemen with ' white hands/ and a courtly §L
42 j     GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
style; professional men, small tradesmen (without
capital), shopmen, clerks, teachers, commercial agents,
and literary gentlemen—they will here be in competition with an already redundant supply of such
men, % citizens born/ with whom competition is useless,
and with whom the foreigner, as a rule, cannot successfully struggle. Still it may be questioned but what
some few may, in the recesses of the ' Ear West/
find useful and even profitable employment; for instance, a e surgeon/ or, perhaps, a ' schoolmaster;'
but from the difficulty of hitting that particular spot,
and the great obstacles in the way of certain success, it
is at once frankly and honestly stated that the ' white
hands I are not wanted in the United States, under
any circumstances whatever; and to such, being here
(America), is recommended at once return to their native
shores ; or, being in their European homes, not to cross
the Atlantic for the purpose of seeking success here,
for here it will not be found." Again he says—I It
is earnestly hoped that men of this stamp will keep
away, as they only embarrass, without a chance of
success, the efforts of those whom they may interest
in their behalf, or to whom they may get introduced.
If a man is not prepared for hard and laborious duty,
he is not wanted here."
Another authority divides the emigrants into three
classes—those who ought, those who may, and those
who ought not to go :—
" There are certain classes of persons, from their
condition and circumstances in life, who are proper
subjects for emigration. There are those who ought to
emigrate, and there are those who ought not ; and
as great and serious mistakes have been committed
from a want of correct information on the subject, it THOSE  FITTED TO  BE  COLONISTS. 43
is considered of importance to describe briefly each
class of persons.
" Those who ought to go.—America being a growing
country and a land for labour and industry, the poor
industrious labouring man, with a wife, and two, three,
or more sons and daughters, fit for labour, and of
sober habits, would do well to emigrate. Sober habits
are indispensable, for otherwise, spirits and beer are
so cheap in America (good whisky being only one
shilling per gallon), as to induce a gradual but ruinous
tendency. A labouring man and his two sons, for
instance, may earn 18s. per week each, making together
£2 14a\, whilst the common necessaries of life are
generally less than half the price paid for them in this
country. This amount brought to a careful wife would,
at the end of a year or two only, place the poor man
and his family almost above the world's perplexities,
and his table would be plentifully supplied with such
necessaries of life as he probably never before had the
privilege of enjoying. This description of persons, as
well as some others of a similar class, are the objects
of the author's anxious care and regard.
i( The labouring mechanic, too, with a family of the
like description, in consequence of wages being higher
in America than those of a similar class of labourers in
this country, would also be a fit subject for emigration.
But all parties are earnestly cautioned against taking
out families of small children, as, of all things, especially
in travelling, they will be found the most burdensome
and distressing.
" Those who may go.—The active trader or dealer; but
he will probably not find an immediate improvement in
his circumstances, as it will take him some time to
become acquainted with the practices and chicanery of 44 j      GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
traders in America. He most probably must purchase
his knowledge of trading and dealing by a few mistakes
and losses; but after he becomes initiated, he may
succeed as well as his* neighbours, and infinitely better
than in this country, the profits on all trades being
about double, whilst family or housekeeping expenses
will be found to be less by one half than in England.
To the individual who has a small pension, or fixed
income, which will not comfortably provide him with
the necessaries of life, emigration would be highly
desirable; and also to many others under similar
circumstances.
1 Those who ought not to go.—Those who can get anything like a good living at home, the poor gentleman,
the idler, the tippler,—these and similar characters are
very unfit subjects for emigration to America, or, in
fact, to any country where labour and industry are the
only guarantees to success, and where its inhabitants
are a plodding, industrious, and 'go-a-head' description
of individuals."
Erom what has been thus said, the reader will be
able to decide as to the chances of success possessed by
different classes of intending emigrants; and of all
these classes the best chance is given to those who can
farm, or who can labour on a farm, or do what is called
country work. As to "dress and till the land" was
the first work appointed to man, so it seems to be the
first work of the pioneer of emigration in new countries.
But on this point we shall have more to say in a succeeding chapter. Next to farmers and farm labourers
are the mechanics, the carpenters, smiths, joiners, shoemakers, tinsmiths ; and amongst females—servants,
dressmakers, and good white seam sewers. The following extracts  upon the question of labour  will be THOSE  FITTED  TO  BE  COLONISTS. 45
useful here. They have reference specially to two fields
of emigration only—the United States and Canada;
but the remarks which they embody convey information of importance to all emigrants, wherever they
may purpose going :—\
" Mechanics," says a writer on Canadian emigration,
i may remain out of work for months at a time, but
good farm servants can almost anywhere obtain situations. They are treated well by their employers; and
from the excellent system of education, the mere contact with the older settlers highly improves both their
minds and morals, and in a short time may count
on being themselves employers of labour. I never
knew or heard of a sober, industrious couple that came
out, even if they had not a farthing in the world when
they arrived at Toronto, who had not at the end of ten
years a well-stocked farm of their own. 1 do not think
that, in general, single mephanics are better off than
good workmen at home; perhaps the only exceptions
are blacksmiths, tailors, and shoemakers. Their wages
are nominally higher; but owing to the great scarcity
of money, work is generally paid on the truck system,
and an order for a barrel of flour or a ham is of very
little use to a man who is paying two dollars a week
for his board. If a mechanic of any of the common
trades has a few pounds to spare, and cannot get work
in the large towns, let him buy enough of land near
some village, in a good situation, to support his family.
If a skilful workman, he will soon have a connection
in the surrounding country, and when the neighbourhood becomes more populous his established reputation
will prevent all injury from competitors. But to all
intending emigrants I say—marry. It is an axiom
with the domestic economists of North America, that 4b GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
a man and his wife can live for less than a single man,
even in a city. But do not suppose that a wife can be
easily met with in Canada. Women are in as great
demand there as dollars ; and none that are young and
in good health need remain for many months without
being either married or engaged. When families bring
out female servants, it is necessary, in order to prevent
them going off at a time when they are most wanted,
to make them sign a written agreement to serve for a
stipulated period.
" The better class of emigrants may be divided into
those who have a capital and those who have not. The
former will do well if they have but twenty or thirty
pounds a year; they can buy a hundred acres of good
land, for which they can pay in instalments spreading
over twelve years, commencing at £2 for the lot, and
annually increasing until it reaches £16 in the last year ;
and they must be very idle if they cannot make their
farm support them comfortably while the annuity is paying the instalments, and purchasing stock, and agricultural instruments. Those, however, who think of embarking all their property in a scheme by which they
will, for years at least, be deprived of the luxuries and
many of what they had considered the necessaries of life,
would do well to consider before they take this step.
A steady, persevering person, if used to agricultural
pursuits, would get on very well; but a young man
who had perhaps lived in. a city all his life, and who
had not very clear ideas as to which end of the plough
went first, and who wished to become a settler for the
sake of hunting deer and bears, would very soon find
his capital slip though his fingers. A Canadian farmer
must work harder in summer than an English one, on
account of the sudden changes of the seasons and the THOSE  FITTED  TO  BE  COLONISTS. 47
length of the winter; and in winter he will have to
get in firewood to last during the next year. If he
gets over this chopping soon, and has no friends to
visit, he may have a little shooting for a few days; but
in general he will not require any gun but an old
musket to drive away the pigeons in spring, and
pretty sharp practice he will have in banging away all
day at birds that do not come in flocks, but in clouds
some three or four miles long; and, after all, if he
should lie in bed after daybreak, perhaps he may find
that the half of a field of corn has taken to itself the
wings of the morning. Perhaps the best way for a young
man of this kind to learn what he has to expect in the
backwoods, and to gain a knowledge of the world in a
cheap manner, would be to go on the same plan as I
was taught to swim. When bathing on the seaside
1 was enticed into a boat, and when about thirty yards
from the shore I was thown overboard into deep water
by my remorseless father. Before this I had always
considered that there was some bodily defect that prevented me from floating; bnt somehow or other, I very
speedily managed to get on land, and have been able to
swim ever since. Let him leave his capital at home,
and with j610 in his pocket start for Canada in the
cheapest way, for he must begin to rough it at once.
Let him stay there a year. And if at the end of that
time he writes home to his friends that he has chopped
for three months in the bush in the depth of winter,
sleeping at night in a bark shanty ; that he has, by the
blessing of Providence, only cut off two of his toes, had
a touch of the fever and ague, his face skinned by the
March winds, and suffered from the snow-blindness,
and knows the bite of a musquito when he feels it; and
if he adds that he has worked during a whole harvest m
48 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
cradling and binding at just four times the rate they
reap in England, with the sun at 80° in the shade, and
says thajt he is still determined to become a settler,
then—and not till then—that young man may be considered fit for a backwoodsman. He will become rich
in a few years, and may send home for his money and
a wife—the wife, at all events, money or no money."
The following extracts are peculiarly suggestive :—
" I would observe, as a fundamental principle, that
colonies appear to be as much, and of necessity,
governed by the laws of demand and supply in regard
to the amounts of the various descriptions of population required, as are individuals, companies, or communities in their ordinary transactions; and any
departure from those laws inflict injury as much in the
one case as in the other. Grand schemes of emigration, conducted in the present state of our information
with regard to our colonies, it is believed, would most
probably present similar disheartening results, which
grand schemes of other shipments would which had
not been ' ordered/ or had been sent without full
acquaintance with the particular necessities or demands
of the country. The paupers i shovelled' out from
England, and thrown under the rock of Quebec, in
ignorance or disregard of the wants of the colony, or
fitness of the individuals to be proper colonists; the
hand-loom weavers of the West of Scotland, unfitted,
the majority of them, to supply the wants of Canada,
yet flocking out in shiploads to Quebec, and forwarded
to the upper country at government expense, in many
instances only to experience disappointment, and to be
obliged to swell the public factories of the neighbouring
republic,—these are cases illustrative of the evils connected with even a very limited emigration, conducted
^ TTTW THOSE  FITTED TO  BE  COLONISTS. 49
without regard to the principles of demand and supply,
and which, if extended as proposed, so as to allow a
freer communication with our colonies, would only
aggravate evils. The great error lies in supposing that
the classes of persons who are over abundant at home,
and consequently least wanted, are exactly those most
needed by the colony—broken-spirited paupers, hand-
loom weavers, and other persons unaccustomed, and
frequently quite unfit, for the kinds of labour in demand
by the colony; as also a description of Irish labourers
who either cannot or will not work, except upon canals,
and who flock out to the United States and to Canada,
and are the cause of serious disturbances on account of
their large numbers."
" I would, however, wish to disabuse your minds of
an idea too common, that a person not good enough for
his own country is good enough for the colonies. There
never was a greater fallacy. Prudence, temperance, and
sound Christian principles are necessary in one place
as the other. Hard work, and plenty of it, is the rule
of colonial life. The apathetic, idle, and intemperate
had better remain here, for they have even less chance
there than at home. As might be expected, clerical
assistants, governesses, tutors, and, in a word, all that
relates to the intellectual, is not in the same demand
as in an old country; but the sinews and muscles of
the industrious labourer are at a constant premium. I
have never known a time, moreover, when there was
not a great demand for respectable female domestic
servants—a most valuable class of emigrants, if selected
with care; and one which, with ordinary prudence,
cannot fail to accumulate money and better their condition.
" At the same time, the idle, the profligate, and the
D 50 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
destitute are to be found there as well as here. Vice
and folly are not peculiar to old countries. That which
is really peculiar to Australia is the wondrous extent
of its bush and of its natural pastures. In these is a
road to independence and wealth which, of course, does
not exist here; whilst the quantity of land suited to
agricultural purposes as yet unoccupied, is another resource unknown here. Hence a man whose wife and
family are a burthen to him here, finds his labours
lightened and his children wealth, when he sets up his
household gods on a freehold there.
" Now, .1 hold it to be very unwise for a man or
woman to emigrate with a hope of obtaining that
which may be had easier and better here. Generally
speaking, a person in the habit of working for wages
here—that is, when he can get work and wages—will
be sure to find employment, if he does not join unions
and combinations, to keep wages at probably five or six
times the amount which he ever got here. I am sorry
to say my country people are distinguished for a difficulty of suiting themselves and others, when they get
to Australia. At certain times, when there happened
to be a dearth of labour—which never would be the
case if wages were more reasonable—I was sure to
remark that, generally, three-fourths of the knots of
labourers hanging about at the corners of streets,
waiting for something " to turn up," were Irish. Their
ordinary education here makes them so dependent, that
it ill adapts them for colonial life, which especially
requires persons to rely on themselves. They are too
often looking to the government, or to the chapter of
accidents. Yet whilst they take some time to acquire
habits of independent energy and self-reliance,' they
have no difficulty in picking up a good opinion of their
I! THOSE  FITTED  TO  BE COLONISTS. 51
own deserts, and will remain idle sooner than take four
shillings or five shillings per day. No; they must
have six or seven shillings. Yet these are men who,
in all probability, never got more than one shilling in
Ireland.
" Now if there be any one here—man or woman—
intending to go out to Australia, I would beg of him
or her to avoid that self-sufficient pride which, in nine
cases out of ten, is only a cloak for indolence. Be as
careful as you can—especially you of the gentler sex—
into what employment you do enter first: but don't
higgle much about the terms for the first six months.
Keep your eyes and ears open; get as much colonial
experience, and as fast as you can; and when you
have earned a character for industry and temperance,
depend on it you will never want in Australia.
" I was talking the other day to one of the working
class, who mentioned that three * boys'—that is, three
men, each about thirty years old—had gone out to
Queensland; but reported it to be c a terrible place.'
I asked what they were doing—had they got work?
( Oh, that wasn't it : shure they had got illigant
places.' On further inquiry it turned out that these
three men, who literally knew nothing about sheep or
cattle—or, for that matter, about anything else—had,
in the dearth of properly qualified persons, actually got
employment on a station at the rate of j840 per annum
each, with weekly rations of 10 lbs. beef, 2 lbs. sugar,
\ lb. tea, and flour ad libitum !
cc What then, you may ask, was the cause of their
discontent ? I can only give you my informant's reply
to the same question—c Troth, thin, it's myself as
dunna—unless it be the work.'
| That was just it. In that sense, all Australia is
d 2 52        GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
I a terrible place/ These three great hulking fellows,
who had been leading a 1loafing' sort of life between
Kingstown and Dalkey, could not abide forty pounds
per annum and plenty of wholesome food, because they
were expected to c work.' I have met some of that
class in the colonies, but generally found that they
remained ' hewers of wood and drawers of water? to
the end of their days."
The last of these two extracts is from an exceedingly
able lecture by Sir Richard G. MacDonnell, C.B., late
Governor of South Australia, delivered in Dublin, and
although the remarks have special reference to that
colony and to Irish emigrants thereto, still they are
equally applicable to all classes of emigrants, and to
all colonies. Wherever such common sense considerations as are here given are neglected or overlooked,
in like proportion as they are so neglected or overlooked, will disappointment and loss be the lot of the
emigrant.
At a time when so much distress exists amongst the
operatives in our manufacturing districts, and at the
same time no small uncertainty as to how long it will
still exist amongst them, the attention of those interested in their welfare has been and is still being
directed to emigration as a remedy for this distress.
The following will be useful, from a well-known paper
devoted to the consideration of social and commercial
economy, as to the utility of emigration to manufacturing operatives, and contrasting their chances of success in new lands with those of agricultural labourers :—
" Though doubtless a few amongst the cotton
operatives would ultimately make their way in the
colonies in connection with rural employments, the
majority of them would be utterly unequal to the rough 1
EMIGRATION OF  MANUFACTURING  OPERATIVES.       53
bodily toil and out-door exposure a colonist without
capital must go through before he can attain success.
It was justly observed by Mr. Cobden that a population
accustomed to wages for each family ranging from 30s.
to 80s. per week might well consider whether fthey
will improve their condition by emigration. If we were
dealing with an agricultural labourer who has been
brought up to the business, you could not confer a
greater blessing upon that man' than to transfer him
to a wild country where 'he instantly doubles his
wages.' But the result would be very different if a
weaver or cotton spinner was transferred to Australia or
Canada, where there is no demand for the kind of labour
to which he has been accustomed. And he added :
e Depend upon it no [labouring] man benefits himself
by changing his business after he arrives at years of
maturity; but he may benefit himself by transferring
himself to a field of operations where there will be more
demand for the skill which he has acquired/ Now this
bears directly upon all classes of agriculturists. The
agricultural labourer who can get out to Canada or
Australia, and will, when there, avoid drink and go
back into the wilder districts where his labour is most
in demand, is certain to improve his circumstances, and
will probably end by becoming the owner of his farm,
and leave his family in a position of prosperity and
independence. The greatest difficulty with the labourer,
however, is how to get to the colony, where the skill he
possesses, 'the might that slumbers in the peasant's
arm/ can be turned to better account than at home.
Eor this he must mainly rely on assisted emigration,
either through the colonial agents or his own friends.
I But emigration, especially to Australia, offers to
farmers still more inviting and more available prospects. I
54 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
The farmer is seldom without some capital of his own,
ranging frpm £500 to £3,000, and with the command
of either sum, a farmer, with intelligence and sobriety,
may well-nigh be certain to make a good living, perchance a fortune, by the exercise in Australia of the
knowledge he possesses. When we see the restrictions
and burdens under which tenant-farmers are compelled
to carry on their business in this country, it is surprising more of them, especially the younger men, do
not take their skill and capital to the Australian
colonies."
After detailing the experience and the success of a
farmer who emigrated to Australia, the article concludes
suggestively thus:—
" When we consider that success such as indicated by
the above letter is simply the result of steady and persevering attention to the business which, to any intelligent
farmer or country gentleman, constitutes the pleasure
as well as the business of life, and that a moderate
capital places the opportunity of commencing a similar
career within the reach of thousands of competent men,
who are struggling against high rents, cropping covenants, game preserves, and gamekeepers, as tenant-
farmers, and the great competition for farms in this
country, we cannot but feel surprised that more farmers
do not turn their attention to Australia as the field for
their exertions."
And commenting upon the above, another paper has
the following:—
" The account of the success of the Australian
farmer alluded to in the above article should prove one
of the strongest inducements for agriculturists in this
country to emigrate to one or other of the Australian
colonies.     During our inspection of  the Australian PREPARATIONS  FOR  THE  VOYAGE. 55
Courts in the International Exhibition, we learned
something of the history of this enterprising gentleman, who was in the possession of something like
£3,000 to £4,000 when he left England. We understood, when in the Exhibition, that his vineyards near
Adelaide had proved the great source of income, which
was stated to be several thousands annually. It
appears, however, that stock farming has been and is
to him the most reliable means for securing a large
income. It is not to be supposed that the above is an
exceptional case. The extraordinary success of several
others of the colonial stock farmers was detailed to
us. In almost every instance sheep had proved the
lever by which they had been raised from a state of
dependence to one of great affluence. Some of the
stock farmers had arrived in the colony without capital.
While thus referring to the Australian colonies as a
field for the enterprising emigrant, it is not to be
inferred that every one will succeed. What we wish
to convey is that the same amount of self-denial and
unwearied industry exercised by farmers in this country
will generally secure comfort, with more or less of the
means whereby the pecuniary position of the family
may be raised."
CHAPTER IV.
PREPARATIONS   FOR  THE VOYAGE.—CHOICE   OF  VESSEL.	
OUTFITS.
By the time the intending emigrant has fairly made up
his mind to leave his native country, what with .the
details he will meet with in such papers or books as
he may come across, or with the result of such casual 56 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
conversation as he may have with one or another, he
will see that, for a time at least, his lot will be one of
considerable1 hardship, or at least one compassed with
difficulty. He may not, however, be prepared to be told
that the greatest difficulties—certainly not the least—
meet him as he begins his journey to the adopted
land; meet him, at all events, where he would at first
sight believe they would not meet him—in his own
country, and raised, too, by his own countrymen. But
so it is, and pity for him that it is so. These difficulties begin with the preparations for his voyage. The
writer of these pages has had some little experience of
nearly all classes of men, in different countries, both
at home and abroad ; and it has been his lot to know
and hear something of rogues - but he is free to confess
that the rogues connected with shipping ports are, out of
sight, the most perfect^—if, indeed, such a word is not
debased by being used in connection with such ruffians.
Eair to the face, but foul at the heart, they are like the
apples of Sodom, tempting to the eye, but full of
choking dust. It is scarcely possible to give the reader
an idea of the number of the scoundrels who perpetually haunt the paths of the emigrant in our
shipping ports, nor of the villainies which they have
perpetrated, and still daily perpetrate. Take up the
papers of such a port, for instance, as Liverpool; and
you will have no great difficulty in meeting with cases
of the most heartless and debased extortion and robbery committed by those who hang about the paths of
the emigrant. So kind, agreeable, and attentive are
they in their demeanour and ways, so obliging in their
offers of assistance, so fair in their representation of
circumstances which do not exist, so false in those
which do, that one not aware of the existence of such ^
CONDUCT  AT SHIPPING  PORT. 0/
deep-dyed villains can scarcely refrain from lending a
willing ear to them, and being cheated by them in the
long run.
We write warmly Qn the subject because we feel
warmly, knowing through our own experience, and
that of others, how bitterly many emigrants have had
to regret that they ever came within their clutches,
or had been persuaded by them to follow their pernicious counsels. The only true safeguard against the
machinations of these fellows is to have nothing whatever to do with them. Do not suppose, as some have
supposed, that you can use them for your purposes, and
then drop their acquaintance when you like. Believe
us, that they are far too clever to allow of that game
being played; and with their knowledge of human
nature, and the thousand and one little tricks of which
they are thoroughly cognisant, and of many, we may
say the majority, of which you are probably profoundly
ignorant, you will find, in the long run, that they have
used you for their purposes; and assuredly they will
not feel depressed or low-spirited when they drop your
acquaintance, as drop it they will as soon as they have
served their purpose by you. It is a hard thing to
inculcate, harder still to practise, the precept that you
"should believe all men to be rogues till you prove
them to be honest;" but, unchristian as it is in its
principle, we are nevertheless almost inclined to say that
to practise it in a shipping port is the only ground of
safety for the emigrant. The best plan is, as we have
said above, to have nothing to do with any one who
comes up to scrape an acquaintance with you, and professes very shortly after he has done so to take a
great interest in your interests. The ingenuity these
" hangers-on" at  seaports possess is marvellous, and
d 3 58 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
the way in which they contrive to worm themselves
into your secrets is, what the Yankees say, " a
caution." It is right, however, to point out to the
reader one or two of the ways in which these " runners"
or " touters " get hold of unsuspecting emigrants, and
of the representations they make to them. " Touters"
have no small knowledge of human nature, and remarkably developed powers of observation. It is therefore
no very difficult task for them to pick out, from the
always loitering crowd which is to be found in the
docks of a seaport town, those who are about to.
emigrate. Winning indeed are their ways ; profuse in
their proffers of help are they to those of whom they
get the listening ear. Wise in their day and generation, they charm very wisely. Worming out of the
intending emigrant the port he intends to sail to, and
the ship he intends to sail by, the first point which the
" touter " is desirous to impress upon the emigrant's
mind is that he knows the ship well—the agents or
owners better. Indeed, such influence has he with the
latter, that, according to his statement, he can get the
passage tickets negotiated in such a way that no small
saving can be effected; if the emigrant will only leave
it to him, all will be well. " Leave it to me, my good
fellow "—how rapidly the fellow becomes good in view
of the plunder which may be got out of him !—si
"leave it to me, and I'H make it all right." If this
speech is accompanied by the " clink of glasses," we
fear that the emigrant is a " gone coon."
From all this, three rules of conduct may be gathered:
—Eirst, have no speech at all with strangers at a seaport, further than the ordinary civil terms of " good-
day," or " yes " or " no," as the case may be; the more
of the " no" the better.   Secondly, never be persuaded RULES TO  BE  OBSERVED  WHILE  IN   PORT. 59
to accept of any hospitality from a stranger. Little
knowledge, surely, of human nature, is required on the
part of the emigrant, to be aware that strangers " who
give" mean in some way or other "to get." The
more profuse the stranger is in proffers of help, the more
thoroughly be convinced that the greater is the roguery
contemplated. Thirdly, on no account be persuaded to
allow the stranger to purchase your passage ticket, or,
in fact, to have anything whatever to do with your
financial arrangements. Go personally to the office of
the ship; you will have no difficulty in finding it—that
is, if you care to look for it. Not always is this care,
however, exercised. Indeed, if there is one thing more
than another which has astonished and grieved us when
we have been going amongst emigrants, it is their
excessive childishness, if we may so term it, believing
everything said to them, and trusting in everything
offered to them, by perfect strangers, with whom they
never before came in contact. This may be, and is, a
very amiable feature in their character, but it is a sadly
dangerous one. Another "little game" played upon
emigrants by touters is the persuading them to go to
some " emigrants' boarding house," some remarkable
establishment, according to the glowing pictures drawn
of it by the touter, where all sorts of advantages are
to be obtained. Have nothing to do with such places.
Let the emigrant choose a resting-place for himself
and family in one of the many decent coffee-houses
with which nearly all seaports abound ; and the farther
he is from the docks the better—the less chance has he
of coming in contact with the touting fraternity. Of
course, much will be said in favour of being near the
"ship;" but the emigrant will have to move his
luggage in any case;  and the additional cost entailed /fi^=
60 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
upon him by the extra distance he has to remove them
will be more than repaid by the fact that he will be
removed from the scenes of temptation and danger.
Let the emigrant fly, as from the plague, from the
haunts of the touters and hangers-on of the docks and
shipping offices.
Choice of Vessel.—Although the emigrant who resides
in a town far from the seaport from which he intends to
embark may make preliminary inquiries from shipping
agents there as to vessels he may deem suitable, yet we I
would most earnestly advise him to pay no money till
he goes personally to the port, and sees and examines
the ship for himself. We have had numberless instances
presented to us of the inconveniences, nay, losses, which
have occurred by adopting the opposite course. It is
not that shipping agents may not intend to do the best
for those who apply to them; but as it is a matter to
be determined by personal liking, so personal inspection
of the ship alone can give satisfaction. There are some
ships essentially comfortable, others essentially the
reverse; and the position of the berth or the cabin in
a ship may just be that which will make the voyage
comfortable or uncomfortable. No man deems it a wise -
thing to take a house by proxy: why should he take
a berth on board a ship he may have to occupy for
weeks or months ? And the taking of the berth,
and the choice of the ship in which it is, are under the
circumstances much more important than the taking of
a house. Health is not so easily kept good on board a
crowded emigrant ship ; and no matter how unhealthy
the ship may be, or uncomfortable, remember—what
we once heard most amusingly put—" there is no back
door to a ship " by which we can slip out on an emergency.    We do not recollect a case where parties were
^ML CHOICE OF VESSEL.
61
perfectly satisfied with the berths which had been allotted
to them by the shipping agent. Go then, we advise the
emigrant, personally to inspect the ship you purpose
going by. See the position of your berth, and note
whether the vessel is well supplied with sanitary conveniences. The condition of some vessels in this
respect is absolutely disgraceful. It is right, however,
to say that, where this is the case with these conveniences, it is much more frequently the fault of the
passengers than that of the officers of the ship, who
are, as a rule, only too anxious to secure the utmost
order and cleanliness in all departments of the vessel;
but this desire is thwarted, and in many cases rendered
impossible, in consequence of the filthy habits of some
of the passengers, and their obstinacy and indifference. The following is the section of the Passenger
Act which relates to this department of shipboard
economy :—
" There must be two privies in each passenger ship,
with two additional privies on deck for every 100
passengers on board; and where there are 50 female
passengers, with at least two water-closets under the
poop or on the upper deck, for the exclusive use of the
women and children. The whole number of privies
need not exceed 12; and they are to be placed in equal
numbers on each side of the ship, and to be maintained
in a serviceable and cleanly condition throughout the
voyage."—Sec. 25.
But while examining the ship, and being careful
to be critical in everything relating to its passenger
accommodation, it is necessary to remember that the
condition of a ship in dock, and that of a ship at sea
under discipline, are two very different things. Nevertheless  a  close scrutiny of  the vessel will enable a -jsasssE
62 GENERAL  HINTS TO   EMIGRANTS.
" sharp-eyed man " to know pretty well what " kind of
stuff she ^s made of."
The following notes will be valuable to the intending
emigrant; they refer to the long voyages, but they will
be applicable to all :—
" Engaging Passage.—The earlier .cabins and berths
can be secured, of course the greater the choice. A
deposit of one half—forfeited in case of non- embarkation—is paid on engaging the passage; it can be remitted from the country by Post-office orders, or when
large in amount, by banker's draft.
" Seeing the Ship.—We are always pleased that our
vessels should be inspected by intending emigrants or
their friends, for we know that they will bear inspection. But after our ships arrive home on their return
voyages from China, India, Australia, or New Zealand,
with their cargoes of tea, silk, wool, or what not, we
always give them a thorough overhauling; and if any
of our country friends should happen to go down to
look at the finest packets of our line, or the finest ship
afloat, when they are in this f stripped ' state, or even
when they are in dock, taking in cargo, and finishing
fitting up, they would find them in a very disorderly,
slatternly condition, far worse than washing-day at
home. Indeed, the difference between a ship in dock
receiving her stores and freight, with her sails unbent,
her decks lumbered up with cargo, with the same ship
at Gravesend, or in the Channel, all bright, clean,
and orderly, cannot be appreciated by those who have
not had a practical opportunity of judging; and, if
when a passenger is looking over our ships, there
happen to be any first-class vessel for New Zealand
or Australia just about to leave dock, such vessel will
give him a more truthful idea of the real sea-going FITTINGS OF VESSELS. 63
state of one of our New Zealand going packets, than
the particular ship he may think of going by, if such
ship be only preparing for her voyage.
" Fitting up Cabins. — Chief cabin passengers fit
up their own cabins. Second and third cabin and
steerage passengers have berths built for them, but
find their own bedding, and any little extra fittings
they think they may require. They also provide
themselves according to the number of their party,
With knives, forks, spoons, tin dishes, and baking
dish, a saucepan or two, cups, saucers, and mugs,
metal tea and coffee pot (a hook teapot to hang on the
bars of the stove is very handy), water cans with lids
(equal to holding a gallon for each member of the
family), and bags, tins, or canisters, to hold a week's
small stores, and half a week's rations ; together with
wash-bowl, four pounds of marine soap, towels, brush
and comb, and slop pail with lid; a dozen or two hooks
to screw into the ceiling and sides of the berth, some
tacks, a couple of gimlets, a claw hammer, and a ball of
strong string, will also be found useful; and a small
filter, though not necessary, is occasionally taken in
the second cabin, together with a small safety lantern,
and six pounds of composition candles.
" Beds or (better) good new mattrasses, should be
of these dimensions :—Single female, 5| feet by 18
inches; men's, 6 feet by 20 inches; married couple,
6 feet by 36 inches. Bolsters and pillows to match;
and for each mattrass two or three pairs coarse sheets,
two blankets, and one strong coverlid. The third cabin
and steerage clothing outfit is described at page 80.
" Cooking.—This for the second and third cabin and
steerage is done at the public stoves by the cooks of
the  ship,   and   here   passengers   prepare   their   own 64 GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
favourite dishes, make their own arrangements for forming themselves into little parties for messing, and keep
their own compartments clean and comfortable.*
" Issuing Stores and Rations.—The steward and one
of the officers of the ship issue the stores and rations,
to second and third cabin and steerage passengers, at a
fixed hour, generally as follows :—Water, every day;
meat and large stores, every second day : groceries and
small stores, once a week.
"Drinkables.—Ale, porter, wines, and spirits, are
put on board and supplied at the following rates ; but
under the provisions of the Passengers' Act, spirits
cannot be supplied to any other than chief-cabin
passengers, save and except as ' medical comforts/
under the sanction of the surgeon; while for the
strict preservation of order and sobriety in the ship,
and for the good of all,, the quantity of wine and
spirits supplied to any passenger is never allowed to
be excessive.
s.   d.
Ale or Porter  per quart bottle 1    0
Port or Sherry        .... „ 40
Champagne          .    . % .    .    . „ 6    0
Brandy     . „ 5    0
Spirits'  p 3    0
Cigars         per lb. 20    0
Tobacco (Cavendish)     ... „ 30"
The passenger accommodation of emigrant vessels is
generally made up of " cabin," " poop cabin," " deck
or intermediate cabin," and the " between decks " or
" steerage." In the Australian and New Zealand
vessels, the cabin passengers have to fit up their own
cabin with wash-stand, &c. &c, the cost of which
varies,  of   course,   according   to   the  wishes  of   the
* The assistance of one or two of the ship's boys is given in cleaning the
second cabin. NUMBER  OF  PASSENGERS  IN  SHIPS. 65
passenger. The cabins in the Canadian, and New
York, Boston, or Philadelphia ships, are generally fitted
up with all conveniences. The difference between
cabin and poop cabin is, that in the poop cabin the
berths are permanent standing parts of the ship, and
their arrangement is fixed, and varies, of course, with
the " size and build " of the ship ; whereas the cabin
berths are under the poop, and the space may be, and
in many vessels is, differently arranged, so far as the
berths are concerned, for different voyages. The
following extracts from the Passenger Act relative to
"berths" will be necessary to be studied by those
who care to know the " reason why" for everything.
It is a capital rule for every one to follow—to none
more useful than to the emigrant—"Let nothing of
importance in business, or in the concerns of daily life,
be done in a hurry; and be as fully posted up as
possible in every detail connected with it." Hence the
reason why we give so many details on all points connected with the practical carrying out of emigration.
" No ship is to carry passengers on more than two
decks, except in the case of cabin passengers, where
the number does not exceed 1 to every 100 tons
register. No ship is to carry in the poop, round-house,
or deck-house, or on the § upper passengers' deck,'
more passengers than in the proportion of 1 statute
adult to every 15 clear superficial feet, or on the c lower
passenger deck' than in the proportion of 1 to every
18 feet of deck allotted to their use. But if the
height between the lower and upper passenger deck be
less than 7 feet, or if the apertures for light and air
(exclusive of side scuttles) be less in size than in the
proportion of 3 feet to every 100 superficial feet of the
lower passengers' deck, then only 1  statute adult to (If
66 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
every 25 feet can be carried on the lower deck. No
ship is to carry more passengers in the whole than 1 to
every 5 superficial feet clear for exercise, on the upper
deck or poop, or on the round or deck-house, if the
latter be fitted on the top with a proper railing."
" The decks on which passengers are carried are not
to be less than 1J inch in thickness, and to be properly
secured to and supported by beams of adequate strength,
forming part of the permanent structure of the vessel.
The height between decks is not to be less than 6 feet.
There are not to be more than two tiers of berths on
any deck; and the bottom of the lower tier must be at
least 6 inches above the deck; and the interval between
each tier of berths, and between the uppermost tier
and deck above it, at least 2 feet. The berths are to be
securely constructed, at a distance of at least 9 inches
from any water-closet, and not to be of less dimensions
than after the rate of 6 feet in length by 18 inches in
width for each statute adult, and sufficient in number
for the proper accommodation of the passengers contained in the ' passengers' lists.' Single men of the
age of fourteen and upwards are to be berthed in a
separate compartment in the fore part of the ship, or
in separate rooms, if the ship be divided into compartments and fitted with enclosed berths. Not more than
one passenger, unless husband and wife, or females, or
children under twelve, are to occupy the same berth.
No berths are to be taken down for 48 hours after the
arrival of the ship at her destination, unless all the
passengers shall within that time have voluntarily
quitted her,"—Sees. 20, 21, 22, and 23.
" In every c passenger ship' there must be a hospital
or hospitals set apart, under the poop, or in the roundhouse or deck-house, or on the upper passenger deck, 1
CHOICE   OF  BERTH. 67
and not elsewhere, not less in size than 18 clear superficial feet, for every 50 passengers, and properly supplied
with bed-places, beds, bedding, and utensils."—Sec. 24.
The following, from a capital little pamphlet, entitled
"Out at Sea" (3d.), on the choice of berth, and fitting
up of ditto for long Australian or New Zealand voyages,
will be very useful here :—
" Having decided upon the vessel, the next step is
to choose a berth. In doing this, several little advantages and disadvantages have to be kept in view.
These are—situation, light, and ventilation, and fitting
up of the sleeping places. As regards what kind of
passage the emigrant takes, the pocket must of course
be his chief guide. If first class, no extra provisions
and no table or cooking utensils will be required, all
provisions being placed upon the table by the cook and
steward. If the second or third class is decided upon,
the following hints as to choice of berth will be found
useful :—Choose a berth as near as possible to the
hatchway, so as to secure as much light and fresh
air as possible; the immediate neighbourhood of the
water-closets and hospital being avoided. Choose a
berth having a whole or a part of a scuttle (a small
window) opening to the fresh air, thereby securing
ventilation during the hot weather. Those berths which
are lighted from the deck, do not possess this important advantage. The fitting up of the sleeping places,
or bunks, must depend upon the size and nature of the
emigrant's family ; but some consideration should be
given to this point, as much of the comfort of the
voyage depends upon it. Some general observations
may, therefore, assist in guiding any one unaccustomed
to ocean travelling. The bunks should, as far as possible,
be made fore and aft, or lengthways, of the vessel; but, r
68        GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
except in large cabins, for families, it is not often
possible to obtain fore-and-aft bunks. The chief advantage of a fore-and-aft bunk is that the motion of the
ship when rolling is not so annoying, and no change
of position is required when the ship is ' put about.'
Children's bunks should not be placed at too great a
height from the ground, on account of the danger and
inconvenience of their getting in and out. Care must
be taken that no bunk is liable to he wet by the
leakage of the scuttle; a little attention to this may
prevent much annoyance and inconvenience in the rough
weather, when most scuttles leak more or less	
Fore and Second-Cabin Stowage.-^-The water-can should
be secured in one corner by means of a strip of wood
nailed across, of sufficient depth to prevent the chance
of the can being upset, and yet not so high as to pre-*
vent its being lifted easily in and out of its place. Over
the water-can, at a convenient height, should be nailed
another strip of wood, to support a shelf for the washbowl, and a small strip of wood should then be tacked
on for a ledge, to prevent the wash-bowl from sliding
off. These strips of wood should be prepared on shore,
as it is not always easy to get the necessary wood and
tools on board ship. The slop-pail should be secured
by means of a hook screwed into the side of the berth,
at a proper height for the handle of the pail to hook
and unhook easily. The corner of the berth that is
farthest from the door is the most convenient situation
for it. The exact spot where the hook should be placed
is easily ascertained by placing the pail in its desired
position, and then marking the spot where the hook
would allow the pail to be lifted on and off easily, and
at the same time allowing the weight of the pail to rest
on the floor—the hook being merely used to prevent PASSENGERS*  OUTFITS. 69
the pail from being upset by the motion of the vessel.
Plates and Dishes should be hung up against the sides
of the berth. It is advisable to fasten a string across the
place where they are hung, to prevent their making a
disagreeable noise when the ship is in motion. Cups,
Saucers, Knives, Forks, and Spoons.—The cups may
be hung on hooks from the ceiling, and the saucers,
knives, and forks placed in loops formed by strips of
tape, tacked to the sides of the berth, and at the proper
distances, so as to form loops of the proper sizes to
suit the various articles in question. Tins, Bottles, and
Jars, for the rations, should be placed on a shelf, made
with a three or four-inch edging, so as to prevent the
articles placed upon the shelf from being thrown off
by the motion of the vessel. The Clothes Bag may
most conveniently be hung in a corner over the bunk.
Other articles will be most out of the way, and soonest
found, when hung up round the sides of the berth; for
which purpose, plenty of hooks with screws, gimblets,
and tacks, should be provided, and also a small claw
hammer. Too great cleanliness cannot be practised
with regard to the table requisites, nothing being more
disagreeable than finding them dirty when they are
wanted for use. They should, therefore, invariably be
cleaned immediately after being used, and on no account be put away dirty. Attention to these little
matters, trifling as they may appear, makes the voyage
comfortable, and conducive to health—a want of it creates
a series of petty annoyances, often resulting in loss of
both health and comfort."
Outfits for Passengers.—While we were preparing to
leave for our intended adopted country, we were told
by this one and that one what to take and what not
to take, although the advice seemed to have more of
y 70 GENERAL  HINTS TO   EMIGRANTS.
the character of advice " to take;" rather than that of
" not to take." Had we followed the advice as to what
to take, we should have had, in the first place, to
have spent before our departure no trifling sum in purchasing the articles which we were recommended to*
purchase; in the second, to have had an additional sum
to pay by way of freight for the packages containing
these purchases ; and in the third place—but although
the last, not the least in importance—we would on
arrival have found ourselves possessed of a multitude
of things of no manner of use to us personally, and of
no value as an investment to sell again, for they could
have been easily purchased in the new country, and at
a cheaper, at least at as cheap a rate as we could have
purchased them in the old. It may be accepted then
by the emigrant as a maxim worthy of giving all conn-,
dence to, that " the more you take in money, and the
less you take in articles of merchandise, either likely
to be useful to you in the calling you purpose following, or for the purpose of sale in the colony, the better."
Eor it is difficult to say what you will do when you get
there; the " line of life " you may deem here to be the
best to follow there, will, when you get out, probably turn
out to be altogether unfitted for you; so that what
articles you may take out to be suitable for that special
line, will thus be dead weights upon your hands. The
more free you are to move about, the less luggage you
have, the better. Money in hand will always be better
than merchandise. Of course, the skilled mechanic
or carpenter, and the like, will do well to take his own
tools with him. But this will not and does not apply
to the intending farmer, who will find that the tools of
the country will be easier got there, and better adapted
to the work which they have to do, than those of this
country.    This is specially true of the United States PASSENGERS   OUTFITS.
n
and the British North American Colonies. As a rule
also wTith reference to the personal clothing, is is good
to take as abundant a supply as possible—only let them
be in good condition.
As regards the outfit for the voyage, the following is
what Her Majesty's Commissioners of Emigration deem
essential for the long voyages to Australia and New
Zealand. The length of the voyage to the former
colony is averaged at three months and a half, and to
the latter at a little longer than this; and as, at whatever season of the year it may be made, passengers have
to encounter very hot and very cold weather, they
should be prepared for both.
Outfit.—I The following is a list of the principal
articles required; but it cannot be too strongly impressed, as a general rule, that the more abundant the
stock of clothing each person can afford to take, the
better for health and comfort during the passage :—
Single Man's Outfit to Australia.
1 Moleskin Jacket (warm lined)
1 Ditto Waistcoat with sleeves .
1 Ditto Trousers (warm lined)    .
1 Duck ditto	
1 Coloured Drill Jacket . . .
1 Ditto ditto Trowsers . . .
1 Ditto ditto Waistcoat    .    .    .
1 Blue Pilot Overcoat or Jacket
Or 1 Oilskin Coat	
2 Blue Serge Shirts or Jersey Frocks, each
1 Felt Hat ,
I Tweed or Scotch Cap
6 Blue Striped Cotton Shirts, each
] Pair of Strong Boots*   .    .    .
1 Pair of Light Shoes ....
4 Coloured Pocket Handkerchiefs, each
4 Pair Worsted Hose, per pair  .
2 Pair Cotton Half Hose, per pair
1 Pair Braces or Belt
4 Towels, each	
Razor, Shaving-brush, and Glass in
d.
3
9
|
3
9
3
7
0
6
6
0
0
4
6
0
64
0
7
* For use on the voyage, shoes or slippers are much more convenient thau f
72        GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
Single Woman's Outfit to Australia.
s. d.
1 Warm Cloak, with. Hood .60
I Bonnet, trimmed 5 0
1 Sun Hat, not trimmed .    • 2 0
1 Stuff Dress J 2 0
2 Cotton Print Dresses, each 8 6
6 Shifts, each 2 0
2 Coloured Flannel Petticoats, each    ....    2 9
1 Stuff Over ditto 4 6
2 Twill Cotton ditto, each. 2 9
1 Pair of Stays 2 6
4 Pocket Handkerchiefs, each 0 3^
4 Night Caps, each 0 8
4 Sleeping Jackets, each        2 0
2 Pairs Worsted Hose, per pair 12*
4 Cotton ditto, each 0 9|
1 Pair of Leather Shoes 2 9
1 DilttBoots 5 0
6 Towels, each 0 5£
Assortment—Needles, Buttons, Thread, &c.      .10
Each Person would also require—
s. d.
1 Bowl and Bottle 19
Knife, Fork, Deep Tin Plate, 1 Tin Mug, Tablespoon, and Teaspoon 16
2 lbs of Marine Soap, per lb 0 4
1 Hair Brush and Comb ] 0
3 Pairs of Brown Cotton Sheets, each ....    1 9
2 Tins Blacking, each 0 4|
*2 Shoe Brushes, each 0 7*
*1 Pair of Blankets 7 6
*1 Coloured Counterpane 2 9
*1 Strong Chest with Lock 8 9
*1 Soiled-linen Clothes-bag 19
*1 Bed and Pillow 5 0
Cost of Outfit for a Single Man, about    .    . £5 10 0
Ditto Single Woman  „     .    .    5 15 0
Ditto Married Couple „     .    . 10 10 0
boots. The following is a cheap and excellent composition for preserving
leather from the bad effects of sea-water:—Linseed oil, 1 gill; spirits of
turpentine, 1 oz.; bees' wax, 1 oz.; Burgundy pitch, \ oz.; to be well
melted together and kept covered in a gallipot; lay on boots or shoes,
rubbing it in well, and set them in a hot sun, or before the fire.
* A married couple require but one set of these articles, only of a larger
size. PASSENGERS'   OUTFITS. 73
The cost of an outfit for children varies with their
size. Generally speaking, three children under 7,
or two between that age and 14, may be clothed for
about £5; but a well-grown girl or boy of 13 years of
age will cost nearly as much as an adult.
The outfit for the voyage to the United States and
to Canada, so far as regards clothing, will of course be
less in quantity than the above. The "utensils," knives,
plates, &c, will be the same. The following hints on
these points, from a practical work, will be useful here :-—
" If you would be advised by one who knows, take a
private stock of provisions, sufficient to last you six
weeks, and you will not regret it. Be sure to have a
proper provision box. If you get one made on purpose,
let it be of ample dimensions; when standing upright
let it open from the side like a safe, instead Qf the top,
like an ordinary chest. Let a series of drawers be made,
to draw out and in, and so contrived that, when the box
is closed, they cannot fall out; sugar, salt, &c, &c,
could be put in these. Let one or twto largish recesses
be provided for stowing away hams, potatoes, &c, but
it would be better to have a separate box or chest to
hold bulky articles, from which the provision box in
daily use could be replenished from time to time. In
the lid or door of your box have leathern straps nailed
across; in these fit your knives, forks, and spoons. I
discovered on board ship one remarkable propensity in
these articles, namely, a strong pedestrian inclination
to walk away to neighbours' berths or dining halls, which
inclination could not be curbed by any means but by a
strict watch during meals, and a resorting to close confinement as soon as these occasions, were past. Those
of my neighbours who had none, or had lost such appliances of their own, were benevolently pitched upon
E 74.
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
by the erratic concerns, and with whom, on search,
they were generally found; but the ' last ones,' if our
neighbours spoke the truth, had been with them, ' Lord
bless you, I don't know how many years,' though I
certainly was ready to take my veritable oath that I had
bought the f tarnation concerns' not many days before.
But emigrants, honest people, have short memories, and
are sometimes inconsistent. f Lock up your things as
you have done with them,' is the moral of this digression. Make, before you leave home, a number of strong
cotton bags; they will be useful to hold flour, raisins,
&c, &c, but if you value your peace of mind, and wish
to have no connection with a vile concern which will be
continually disturbing your mental equilibrium, avoid,
I beseech you, those ' vile inventions of the enemy,'
yclept ' provision barrels.' These are made out of old
flour barrels, and have a movable lid, fastened by a
padlock. I was silly enough to be deluded into purchasing one. They are excellent things to try a man's
temper. Suppose you had every thing placed in the
best order when you leave it—as sure as fate, when you
return, especially if the ship has rolled much in the
interval, you will have some difficulty in finding what
you require; like Hope in Pandora's box, it will be
sure to be at the bottom; and with tumbling up this
thing and that thing, jumbling one bag with another,
you will at last have the glorious satisfaction of having
the strongest collection, or f olla podrida,' of sugar,
flour, tea, coffee, split peas, red herrings, ham, and
raisins, all in confusion worse confounded, within the
precincts of that confounded Yankee flour barrel.
Unless you like the excitement of being cheated, or
fancy yourself too e considerably tarnation cute,' as the
Yankees say, to be cheated, avoid, I pray, the Emigrant STORING  OF  PROVISIONS. 75
Provision Stores in the neighbourhood of the docks.
The majority of the proprietors keep two kinds of provisions—good, and very bad. They generally show the
good as samples, and put up the bad by some clever
process for the emigrant stores, even though the purchaser should be standing in the shop the while. But
back shops are convenient affairs. The tin articles you
purchase of them are made to sell, no such thing as the
possibility of their being used for a period equal to the
voyage being contemplated by the most sanguine emigrant tin-plate worker that ever put solder to metal.
Your water-can will do well if it does not leak the first
time you use it. When carrying it full, hold on by the
body; the handle is put on for show, not for use, like
the teacups mentioned by Goldsmith. Your stewpan
will soon put you in a stew, when some fine breezy day,
while engaged in cooking, just as your savory mess
seems done to a nicety, you find the bottom falls out,
not only losing your meal and your temper, but finding,
what you would much rather dispense with, the desperate curses of the assembled inmates of the galley at
your having damped the fire thereby, and perhaps a
sudden and by no means agreeable ejection by a well
planted and vigorous kick from some pugilistic Irishman, with whom, by the way, you wall think that the
' better part of valour is discretion.' A writer in Cham-
bers' Journal says :—(While hinting at the evanescent
nature of the tin materials, I cannot urge the same
fault against the provisions. The tea had evidently
been upon more than one voyage, and if I had had the
slightest idea of the dearness of leather in Canada, I
should have carried my cheese thither to serve for boot
soles, for which purpose it was evidently well adapted.
On examining a package marked ' sugar' in my list, I
E 2 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
found it contain a very curious compound of sand and
timber, with a very faint trace of saccharine matter,
but sufficient to give a slightly sweet taste to the
mixture. The result of my experience is an advice to
all emigrants to buy every thing they want from some
respectable tradesman in the town, whose interest it is
to sell good articles in order that he may retain his
business, and not from one who has the idea uppermost
in his mind that he is never to see his customer again.'
With this advice I cordially agree; in fact, I would
positively refuse to buy even a red herring from some
emigrant stores. It might look well, but of this I am
certain, I would after my experience profess no astonishment if it turned out a concern unlike as a herring
could be in its constitution. If you have convenience,
pour boiling water into your tin utensils; many keep
cold, but pass warm; the resin used in soldering when
cooled stops up many a crevice, which, when it is melted
by the hot water, opens the leak. See that the handles
of your pots are riveted and not soldered. If you can
get a large glass bottle to hold your allowance of water
it will be much better. I have experienced the difference ; that kept in the glass is much colder, and does
not get that close tinny taste which it acquires when
kept in tin cases. Get the bottle covered with strong
wicker work, and provided with handles, firmly to lash
it by. This water holder will be more expensive, but
you will not grudge it afterwards. You may find them
at the grocers' cheap enough. Take care to get them
sufficiently large to hold your, or may be your family's,
allowance. Three quarts a day is allowed to each passenger. Gutta-percha carboys are now made for holding water. In supplying yourself Avith tins, go to a
respectable tinman and get them.    I know one family passengers' luggage. 77
who brought their tins a good many hundred miles to
the port they sailed from, as they could depend on their
being good. Out^of the many hundred utensils, I believe
these were the only ones that got to the end of the
voyage as good at the beginning."
As regards " luggage," the following hints, although
specially applicable to the long voyages to New Zealand
and Australia, will, in a way more or less modified, be
useful for shorter voyages :—
" Chief cabin passengers carry 40 cubic feet measurement ; second cabin, 30 feet; and third cabin and steerage, 20 feet of luggage free of charge; the remainder,
if any, is paid for at the rate of ls. 6d. per cubic foot.
Boxes intended for the cabin should not exceed 2 feet
3 inches long, 1 foot 8 inches broad, and 1 foot 3
inches high. Luggage forwarded from the country
for shipment must be carriage paid. The name of the
passenger and the port of his destination should be
painted on each case or package, and then each should
have a card tacked on bearing a direction, as—
"f To be delivered at the London Docks for New
Zealand, ship .'
" All passengers' luggage and goods should be delivered at the docks three days before the sailing of the
ship.
"N.B.—The luggage necessary to have in the cabin
should be marked ' cabin,' and that the most likely to
be ' wanted on the voyage' should bear these words, so
that it may be stowed in the hold where it can be got
at. The linen, &c, required by intermediate and fore-
cabin passengers for the first week or two is best packed
in a handy bag, and all bedding should be clearly
marked f cabin.' Every care will be taken of passengers' luggage, but no responsibility in respect of it (i
78 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
attaches to the ship unless a bill of lading is taken.
This is recommended when there is much extra luggage, an/1 then each package must be marked and
numbered."
CHAPTER V.
COST OF PASSAGE. DIETARY SCALES. ASSISTED PASSAGES.
The rates of passage money charged for the various
colonies, of which in Chapter II. we have given brief
descriptive outlines, are as follows ;—
(1.) Canada.—The superior accommodation of the
steamers, the more rapid passage secured by them, and
the capital bill of fare which their stewards daily offer to
the emigrant, with their low rate of steerage passage,
have greatly helped to throw sailing vessels off this line.
The rate of passage in the steerage is j65, and £5 5s.,
including provisions. The Montreal Ocean Steam
Navigation Company run five steamships weekly during
the season to Portland, State of Maine, U. S., from
which emigrants proceed to Canada. Sailing vessels
direct to Quebec, take passengers at the following
rates:—For steerage, from London, £7 to £8; from
Plymouth, «*£5 10s.; from ports on the Clyde, Glasgow
or Greenock, £7 7s. These prices include full allowance of provisions. Erom Liverpool, with only the legal
allowance' of provisions, j84 10s. Eor intermediate
cabin the prices are—Erom London, £S to ,-£12 ; from
Liverpool, £5 10s.; from Plymouth, £7; from ports
on the Clyde, £7 7s.
(2.) Nova Scotia.—This colony may be reached by
the Cunard Mail Line of Steamers direct, landing at COST   OF PASSAGE. 79
Halifax, or by the line of Canadian steamers landing
at Portland; the journey remaining being taken across
the country by boat or rail, via Quebec.
Emigrants for Nova Scotia and the other British
North American Colonies, as New Brunswick, should
not, however, go by Quebec, as that route is the dearest,
but by direct sailing ships. The following is the cost
of passages by sailing vessels to those colonies:—
Nova Scotia (Halifax).—Steerage—from Liverpool,
£5, with legal allowance of provisions; from London,
with full allowance of provisions, £8; from ports in
the Clyde, with full provisions, £4 10s.
New Brunswick.—Erom Liverpool—Steerage, with
legal allowance of provisions only, £5; intermediate
cabin, with full allowance, £6. Erom London—Steerage, full provisions, £8; intermediate cabin, £9 to £10.
Erom Glasgow—Steerage, full provisions, £4 10s.
Newfoundland.—Steerage, from Galway, with full
provisions, £6 6s.
Vaucouver's Island, British Columbia.—Steerage,
from Liverpool, with full provisions, £2\; intermediate
cabin, with full provisions, £36 15s.
(3.) The United States can be reached either by sailing vessel, of which there are many still on the line,
sailing either from Liverpool or London, or by steamer.
The rate of passage per sailing vessel, including a
certain amount of provisions, is—steerage, upper deck,
£3 5s.; children under eight years of age, 42s.; second
cabin, £3 15s.; children, 47s. 6d.; infants under 1&
months, 10s. The lower deck steerage is generally
about 5s. cheaper than the upper deck, but the latter is
by far the most comfortable, having more light, and
being easier of access than the former. The second
cabin, however, has great advantages over both, the ft
80 general hints to emigrants.
passengers being invariably of a superior class; the
berths are all enclosed, and in the after part of the ship,
where there is less motion of the vessel, and a better
ventilation. The provisions are the same as those issued
to the steerage passengers, the extra charge being for
the comfort secured. Families wishing cabins to themselves can secure them at increased rates. The passage
money includes head money at the port of landing,
medical fee, and medicines. The provisions are served
out weekly, and cooked daily for the passengers. The
ships are all provided with surgeons, stewards, and cooks,
so that passengers will have to pay no fees of any kind.
A sufficiency of pure fresh water is shipped for each
passenger, of which he receives a daily allowance of
three quarts during the voyage. Luggage should be
carried in strong boxes, not weighing more than 1^ cwt.
each. Second cabin and steerage passengers will be
allowed one quarter of a ton of luggage, not consisting of merchandise, any extra will be charged at the
rate of £1 per ton by sailing ships, and £3 by steamers,
measurement of 40 cubic feet."
The rate of passage by steamship, either by the
Cunard Line of Emigrant Ships sailing once a fortnight
in the season, or by the Liverpool, New York, and
Philadelphia Steamship Company, or by the Montreal
Ocean Steam Navigation Company, or by the National
Steam Navigation Company, is from £d to £5 17s.,
including a plentiful supply of provisions cooked and
served up by the ship's company.
(4.) New Zealand.—Whole of chief cabin, £60;
ditto two persons, £45 each; 2nd cabin, enclosed,
£25; steerage, enclosed berths, £18 to £20; ditto,
open berths, £14 to £18; children above one year and
under 12, half-price. COST  OF  PASSAGE. 81
(5.) New South Wales.—-1st cabin, £42 to £80;
2nd cabin, £20 to £25; steerage, £15 to £18.
(6.) Western Australia.—1st cabin, £42 to £80; 2nd
cabin, £20 to £25; steerage, £18 to £20.
(7.) South Australia.—1st cabin, £42 to £80; 2nd
cabin, £20 to £25 j steerage, £15 to £20.
(8.) Queensland.—1st cabin, £40; 2nd cabin, £18
18s. to £20; steerage, £15 to £18.
(9.) Victoria.—1st cabin, £42 to £80; 2nd cabin,
£20 to £25; steerage, £15 to £18.
(10.) Tasmania.—1st cabin, £42; 2nd cabin, £20 to
£25 ; steerage, £15 to £18.
(11.) British Columbia, Port Victoria, Vancouver's
Island.—1st cabin, £42 ; 2nd cabin, 25 guineas.
(12.) Cape of Good Hope.—Chief cabin, 35 guineas;
2nd cabin, 25 guineas; 3rd cabin, 16guineas. Steamship (Mail)—1st class, £57 15s.; 2nd class, £38 10s.
(13.) Natal.—Chief cabin, 35 guineas; 2nd cabin, 20
guineas. Steamship—1st class, 45 guineas; 2nd class,
30 guineas.
The following are the advertised Dietary Scales of
the vessels on the principal of the above passages :—
1. Sailing Vessels of the New York Line from Liverpool or London:—
water
2. Steam Ships of the Neiv York and Canada Line.
—Each passenger will be supplied with three quarts of
water daily, and with as much provisions as they can
eat, which are all of the best quality, and which are
examined and put on board under the inspection of
E 3
3^ lbs
good Navy
2   lbs. potatoes, or | lb.
2  oz. salt.
bread.
of preserved ditto.
|-   „  mustard.
1    „
flour.
11 lbs. beef.
|    „   pepper.
H »
oatmeal.
1    „    pork.
1 gill vinegar.
Eftjj
rice.
1    „    sugar.
21    quarts   of
i*„
peas.
2  oz. tea.
weekly. 82
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
Her Majesty's Emigration Officers, and cooked and
served out by servants of the company.
Breakfast at Eight o'Clock.—Coffee, sugar, and fresh
bread and butter, or biscuit and butter, or oatmeal
porridge and molasses.
Dinner at One o' Clock.—Beef or pork and soup, with
potatoes and bread, or fish and potatoes, according to
the day of the week; and on Sundays, pudding will be
added.
Supper at Six o' Clock.—Tea, sugar, biscuit and
butter.
Ten cubic feet allowed for luggage for each adult; for
all over that quantity a charge of ls. 6c?. for each cubic
foot will be made, and this class of passengers must
have their luggage on board the steamer on the morning preceding the day of sailing. Females will he
placed in rooms by themselves.
3. Australian Ships.
Dietary Scale for each Adult Steerage Passenger per Week.
Children under twelve vears half allowance.
3^ lbs
biscuits.
1
lb.
oatmeal.
n
4 oz. bntter.
ii „
beef.
i
i
)t
preserved
po-
1 gill pickles or vinegar
1   K
pork.
tatoes.
2    oz.   salt.
1    t
preserved meats.
w
,,
raisins.
\    „    mustard.
2   „
flour.
6
oz.
suet.
|    „    pepper.
it*
peas.
2
,,
tea.
21 qts. water.
r»
rice.
1
lb.
sugar.
6   oz.  lime juice.
Substitutions at the following rates may, at the option
of the master of any passenger ship, be made in the
above dietary scale, that is to say—1 lb. of preserved
meat for 1 lb. of salt pork or beef; 1 lb. of flour, or
of bread, or of biscuit, or | lb. of beef, or of pork, for
1Jlb. of oatmeal, or lib. of rice, or lib pease; 1 lb.
rice for 1J lb. of oatmeal, or vice versa; J lb. of
preserved  potatoes  for 1 lb.   of potatoes;   10 oz.   of DIETARY SCALES.
83
currants for 8 oz. of raisins; 3J oz. of cocoa, or of
coffee roasted and ground, for 2 oz. of tea; f lb. of
treacle for ^ lb. of sugar; 1 gill of mixed pickles for
1 gill of vinegar.
Children between one and twelve, one-half of the
above allowances. Infants under one year to have one
quart of water daily, but no rations.
4. New Zealand Ships,
Dietary Scale for each Adult Passenger Weekly.
Articles.
Preserved meats
Soup and bouilli
York ham.    .    .    ,
Fish	
Prime Indian beef .
Irish mess pork .    ,
Biscuit	
Flour	
Rice	
Barley	
Peas	
Oatmeal . . . .
Sugar, raw . . .
Lime juice    .    .    .
Tea	
Coffee	
Butter	
Cheese . . . , ,
Currants, or . . ,
Raisins, Valentia   ,
Suet	
Pickles	
Mustard    .   .   :   ,
Pepper	
Salt	
Potatoes, fresh, or .
Preserved ditto . .
Water	
Second cabin.
Third cabin.
2   lb.
1   lb.
3" ,,     i"*s
—
i
f »
i
___
i   „
l£lb.
H „
1   »
4f „
H a
**«
3   „
1    „
i
i -
3  a
J pint.
I pint.
l"   ,»
1      ,t
1   lb.
1   lb.
6   oz.
6   oz.
1J „
I*,,
3    „
2    „
£lb.
6    ,,
i;
	
i
a ,,
ilb.
6   oz.
6   oz.
i pint.
£ pint.
i oz.
Joz.
4   ii
1 ,,
2    „
2   ,,
3^ lb.
2   lb.
i
i
2   if
2  a
21 quarts.
21 quarts.
The saloon table is liberally supplied with provisions of best quality, including live stock.
Substitutions at the following rates may, at the option
of the master of any passenger ship, be made in the
above dietary scale—that is to say, 1 lb. of preserved I
84
GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
meat for 1 lb. of salt pork or beef; 1 lb. of flour, or of
bread, or friscuit, or J lb. of beef or of pork, for ljlb.
of oatmeal, or 1 lb. of rice, or 1 lb. of peas; 1 lb. of
rice for 1J lb. of oatmeal, or vice versa; J lb. preserved
potatoes for 1 lb. of potatoes; 10 oz. currants for 8 oz.
of raisins; 3\ oz. of cocoa, or of coffee roasted and
ground, for 2 oz. of tea; | lb. of treacle for J lb. of
sugar; 1 gill of mixed pickles for 1 gill of vinegar.
Children between one and twelve, one-half of the
above allowances. Infants under one year, to have one
quart of water daily, but no rations.
A sufficiency of pure fresh water is shipped for each
passenger, of which he receives a daily allowance of
three quarts, so that passengers need not provide anything unless they take a few extras, such as ham,
butter, eggs, &c.
Medical Comforts.—A supply of Medical Comforts
will be put on board in the following proportions to
100 statute adults :—
56 lbs
oatmeal.
20  lbs. preserved
4 galls, of Sir Wm.
20 „
West      India
boiled mutton.
Burnett's chloride
arrowroot.
400 pints lemon juice.
of zinc.
40 „
Scotch barley.
24 bottles port wine.
56 lbs. chloride    of
100  „
sago.
12     „    sherry wine
lime.
20  „
tapioca.
66 galls, stout.
56   „   Collins' patent
300  „
sugar.
5    „    brandy.
disinfecting
30  „
preserved
15    „   vinegar.
powders.
boiled beef.
12 doz. pints  preserved milk.
2 cwt. marine soap.
"Women who may be nursing may have a pint of
stout each day, if required, and also a liberal supply
of the preserved milk, for keeping the younger children
in health.
The following, from the Passengers' Acts, 1855 and DIETARY SCALES. 85
1863, 18 and 19 Yict. c. 119, and 26 and 27 Vict,
c. 51, relative to the provisioning of emigrants on board
ship, will be useful here :—
" The provisions and water* are to be surveyed by or
under the direction of the Emigration Officer, who may
mark and reject such as are not of wholesome quality,
or in a sweet and good condition. The provisions and
stores for the crew are also to be surveyed, and such as
are of the like kind as those intended for the passengers
must be of not inferior quality.
" During the voyage, including the time of detention
at any place, the master must issue daily before two
o'clock in the afternoon, to each passenger, or, where
they are divided into messes, to the head man of each
mess, pure water, and sweet and wholesome provisions,
according to the subjoined scale. All articles which
require cooking must be issued in a cooked state. The
first issue must be before two o'clock on the day of
embarkation. Each mess must consist of not more
than 10 statute adults.
* By an Order in Council, dated 6th May, 1857, steamers (and, by an
Order in Council, dated 7th January, 1864, sailing vessels) which carry
an efficient apparatus (approved by the Emigration Officer) for distilling fresh
from salt water, at the rate of not less thau one gallon per diem for each
person on board, need only carry in tanks or casks, one-half the water
prescribed by this Act.
J GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
Weekly Dietary Scale.    Per Statute Adult.
3 quarts of water daily (exclusive of 10 gallons a day per 100 statute adults for cooking purposes).
Bread or biscuit, not inferior in quality to
Navy biscuit	
Wheaten flour	
Oatmeal     .	
Rice,	
Potatoes	
Beef	
Pork	
Tea	
Sugar	
Salt	
Mustard	
Black or white pepper (ground)
Vinegar 	
Lime juice	
Preserved meat	
Suet	
Raisins	
Butter	
SCAXE A.
For Voyages
not exceeding
84 days for
Sailing Vessels
or 50 days for
Steamers.
lbs.     oz.
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
One
0
4
0
2
0
2
0J
0-i
Gill
Scale B.*
For Voyages
exceeding 84
days for
Sailing Vessels
or 50 days for
Steamers.
lbs.
0
4
0
2
0
2
0i
0i
One Gill
6f
0
6
" The following substitutions for articles in the above
dietary scale may be made at the option of the master
©£ any passenger ship, provided that the substituted
■ytides be set forth in the contract tickets of the passengers ; that is to say—1 lb. of preserved meat for 1 lb.
of salt pork or beef;   1 lb. of flour, or of bread, or
* Instead of Scale B, the Emigration Commissioners have, by a notice
in the London Gazette, dated 29th April, 1856, authorised shipowners to
use another victualling scale.
f In the tropics. Out of the tropics at the discretion of the surgeon.—
Sec. 9 of 1863. DIETARY  SCALE. 87
biscuit, or \ lb. of beef or of pork, for 1J lb. of oatmeal, or 1 lb. of rice, or 1 lb. of peas; 1 lb. of rice for
1J lb. of oatmeal, or vice versa; Jib. of preserved
potatoes for 1 lb. of potatoes; 10 oz. of currants for 8 oz.
raisins; 3^ oz. of cocoa or of coffee, roasted and ground,
for 2 oz. of tea; | lb. of treacle for Mb. of sugar; 1
gill of mixed pickles for 1 gill of vinegar.—Sees. 35 and
36. 1 \ lb. soft bread for 1 lb. of flour or biscuit or
rice or peas, or 1J lb. of oatmeal.—Sec. 10 of the Act
of 1863.
I Vessels carrying as many as 100 passengers must
be provided with a seafaring person to act as passengers' steward, in messing and serving out provisions
to the emigrants, and in assisting to maintain cleanliness, order, and good discipline among them. There
must also be on board a seafaring person to act as passengers' cook. If there are more than 300 statute
adults, there must be two such cooks. A convenient
place must be set apart on deck for cooking. A sufficient cooking apparatus and a proper supply of fuel
must be shipped for the voyage. The whole to be subject to the approval of the Emigration Officer.—Sees.
38 and 39.
If A supply of medicines, medical comforts, disinfecting fluid, instruments, &c, sufficient for the
voyage, in the opinion of the Emigration Officer, with
printed or written directions for use, are to be put on
board at the expense of the owner or charterer of the
ship, and to be placed under the charge of the medical
man, when there is one, to be used at his discretion.—
Sec. 43."
These refer to passenger ships carrying emigrants
generally, and apply to those going to the United States
and   to   the   North American   British Colonies.     A Ii
88 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS. '
special dietary scale is provided for the Government
emigration vessels to New Zealand and Australia,
carrying assisted or free passengers (which see).
By the United States Passenger Act of 1855 every
vessel is bound to carry provisions for each passenger,
after the following scale, for the voyage, viz.:—
20 lbs. good Navy bread. 20 lbs. potatoes.
15 „    rice. 10   „ • salt pork") c       „,
15 „    oatmeal. 10   „     „   beef )
10 „    wheat flour. 1 pint vinegar.
15 „    peas or beans. j     60 gallons water.
One-tenth of the above is to be given to each adult
passenger weekly, and three quarts of water daily. The
provisions to be cooked. If the passengers do not get
their provision cooked, the master of the vessel is liable
to be fined 1,000 dollars, and to suffer one year's imprisonment. And if any passenger is put on short
allowance he is entitled to three dollars a day for each
day he is on such short allowance.
The Cabin Passengers are provided with a most
liberal table in all classes of emigrant ships. The following, given by a passenger in a recent work as to his
experience, will illustrate that of nearly all passengers
in every line :—
cc Breakfast at Nine of Clock.—Tea and coffee, with
rolls or toast, and mutton or pork chops, or cold meat
and potato fritters.
"Lunch at One o'Clock.—Ham, tongue, or sliced
meat, with pickles, sardines, bread, butter, and cheese.
"Dinner at Five o'Clock.—Mock turtle, Bouilli, or pea
soup, with preserved salmon every second or third day.
Mutton or roast pork, fowls or ducks, vegetables, and
now and then pie, stew, or curry, pastry, and dessert.
" Tea-Supper at Eight o'Clock. — Tea and coffee.
Hot cakes or toast, with ham, tongue, or sliced meat." DIETARY  SCALES. 89
A few remarks on the dietary scales may here be
useful; and first as to that of the sailing vessels to New
York, which is also that of sailing vessels to Canada.
This scale, as we have already explained, is regulated
in accordance with an Act of Parliament, specially
passed to prevent the recurrence of the evils which were
found to arise from the old system of emigration by
sailing vessels; cases of starvation, many at all events
of semi-starvation, being too frequent, and disease, as a
necessary result, being very rife on board the ships
while at sea. But although the allowance of provisions
under the Act is ample enough in quantity, and, as a
rule, fair in quality, nevertheless they are not such as
always meet the requirements of an appetite which,
especially in females and children who suffer much from
sickness and confinement, is not so easily met as on
shore. Moreover, to judge from our own experience, the
mode in which the provisions are given out does not consist with propriety. Although the allowance per day is
stated, it does not follow that this is given out day by
day; we have known a week to elapse between the
periods of giving out provisions. This irregularity of
distribution depends, of course, much upon the officers
of the ship, and not seldom upon the state of the
weather; we have known it to be so stormy for days
that the distribution could not be gone through with.
Again, although the passengers are allowed so much
" breadstuff's," so-called, we have known disappointment
to ensue from these appearing in the form of " beans."
The truth is, that however carefully the inspection of
the ship's store may be carried out by the Emigration
Agent at the port from which she deports, carelessness
and indifference on the part of the ship's officers at sea
may bring about, as they too often do bring about, a 90 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
vast deal of discomfort, and indeed privation, which the
passengers may protest against, but have no real power
to alter. They may certainly take proceedings against
the captain or owners of the vessel on arriving at port,
for breach of contract; but then, who is to run the
risk of their being successful, and give the necessary
time to their prosecution ? Emigrants are not blessed,
as a rule, with either much time or money, and they
are too anxious to be up and after their business on
arrival to be at all inclined to put off time, and have all
the annoyances attendant upon the prosecution of a
captain. No matter how deeply grieved the passengers
may feel while on board ship, at any breach of contract
which may affect their interests, no sooner have they
reached the port than all is forgot in their eagerness to
be "up and doing" in the land of their adoption. In
the vessel we sailed by we suffered much on account of
the most flagrant breaches of contract, and loud and long
were the threats of vengeance when shore was reached,
yet nothing came up of it all, as indeed at the time we
knew nothing would come of it. The moral of all this
is, that we would strongly advise all emigrants, especially in sailing vessels going to the United States or to
Canada, not to omit, if means will afford, taking with
them a small stock of extra provisions. The following
is what has been elsewhere recommended:—
" The private stock of provisions should consist of a
good allowance, for six weeks, of tea, coffee, sugar, flour,
raisins, currants, good ham (not too fat or salt), bacon,
and, if possible, a nice round of ' corned beef,' plenty
of potatoes, cabbage, turnips, and carrots; these latter
will keep easily during the voyage; they are excellent
for preventing scorbutic affections, and should be used
as regularly as on  shore.    Bice, sago, and  a small DIETARY SCALES. 91
quantity of oatmeal — a little of the latter mixed
with cold water, for a drink, is sometimes relished
very much at sea. Red herrings, of superior quality,
are good. Well-baked bread will keep for some time;
keep a few loaves in a dry part of the provision chest,
and they will suffice for your wants for the first few
days, till you have recovered from your sea-sickness
or laziness, and are able to cook. A good, nicely-spiced
currant loaf will keep for weeks; I would recommend
you to take a pretty large one. Ginger snaps, or cakes,-
you will find grateful; gingerbread is good to eat
during sea-sickness. Take small quantities of cinnamon and ginger, they are good in a tea-cake. To taste
your mouth during sickness, take a few acidulated
lozenges and common peppermint. Spanish juice, or
liquorice, is useful at sea, for colds; with some it is
a preventive of sea-sickness. Apples and oranges are
very good. Preserves for making puddings, and ' baking
powder,' should not be omitted; without the latter, you
will be in a f fix.3 Take a little raspberry vinegar, to
mix in your water for drinking; it is not only grateful
to the palate, but healthy to the body. Molasses are
good at sea, and are much used with boiled rice, &c.
Your butter and suet, to keep well, should be packed
tightly in jars, the latter cut nicely up, and a little
salt mixed up with it. You need not take spirits,
except a small quantity of port wine and brandy for
medicinal purposes; the less you take the better.
Very properly, the ship does not allow you to take
above a certain quantity. Very few like biscuits at
sea; but of course you will be necessitated to take a
few. There is one way I have seen them made into
a nice dish. Steep a few in cold water for three or
four minutes; take them out,  and fry them with a
J GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
small quantity of lard or butter and salt in a frying-
pan. Some are very fond of them done this way. In
making out your stock of provisions, do not take into
account those allowed by the ship : provide yourself
irrespective of such, and you will not regret it. Instead
of living worse on board ship, rather live better than
you would on shore. Remember that you are placed
in very unfavourable circumstances as regards health,
and that great care and attention are requisite."
Free and Assisted Passages are not granted in this
country to emigrants to any of the British colonies in
North America, as Canada, Nova Scotia, Vancouver's
Island, British Columbia, or to Natal or Cape of Good
Hope.
In Natal, settlers in the colony may nominate
their relatives and friends in the United Kingdom for
free passages by giving a guarantee to the colonial
government for repayment, at the rate of ^10 per
statute adult, within twelve months after they land.
Married persons, with families, would be required to
repay the advance at the rate of £10 per annum.
To settlers in the Cape Colony, passage warrants
are granted, which enables them, by a small payment,
to nominate their friends in England for a free passage
in private ships, subject to their identification and
approval by Her Majesty's Emigration Commissioners.
To Victoria (Australia), free passages to female
domestic servants only, who must pay their own outfit,
and a further sum of 10s. for bedding and utensils.
Assisted passages are only obtainable by parties resident
in the colony, and who are desirous to bring out their
friends or relatives. A certain scale of payments is
drawn up.
To New South Wales.—Free passages, none. 92 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
small quantity of lard or butter and salt in a frying-
pan. Some are very fond of them done this way. In
making out your stock of provisions, do not take into
account those allowed by the ship : provide yourself
irrespective of such, and you will not regret it. Instead
of living worse on board ship, rather live better than
you would on shore. Remember that you are placed
in very unfavourable circumstances as regards health,
and that great care and attention are requisite."
Free and Assisted Passages are not granted in this
country to emigrants to any of the British colonies in
North America, as Canada, Nova Scotia, Vancouver's
Island, British Columbia, or to Natal or Cape of Good
Hope.
In Natal, settlers in the colony may nominate
their relatives and friends in the United Kingdom for
free passages by giving a guarantee to the colonial
government for repayment, at the rate of ^10 per
statute adult, within twelve months after they land.
Married persons, with families, would be required to
repay the advance at the rate of ^10 per annum.
To settlers in the Cape Colony, passage warrants
are granted, which enables them, by a small payment,
to nominate their friends in England for a free passage
in private ships, subject to their identification and
approval by Her Majesty's Emigration Commissioners.
To Victoria (Australia), free passages to female
domestic servants only, who must pay their own outfit,
and a further sum of 10s. for bedding and utensils.
Assisted passages are only obtainable by parties resident
in the colony, and who are desirous to bring out their
friends or relatives. A certain scale of payments is
drawn up.
To New South Wales.,—Free passages, none. ASSISTED   PASSAGES.
93
Assisted Passages.—Passage certificates are issued
in the colony, and are of two classes, and the payments
to be made for which are different, as shown in the
following tables :—
Scale A, where Names, &c, are given in the Colony.
Sex.
Under
12 years.
12 and
under
40 years.
40 and
under
50 years.
All above
50 years.
Male	
Female	
4
3
£7
4
£9
7
£12
12
Scale B, where Names, &c, are not given in the Colony.
Sex.
Under
12 years.
12 and    j   40 and
under         under
40 years. ' 50 years.
All above
50 years.
Male	
Female	
£4       j    £11      j    £13
3      i        4     ;        7
£15
12
The nominees in either case must be mechanics,
domestic servants, or persons of the labouring class,
in good health, and of good moral character.
Queensland.—Free passages to unmarried female
domestic servants only, between the ages of 18 and
35. Assisted passages obtained by payment of sums
varying as shown in the following tables:—
" Scale A.—The classes named in this scale may, if they prefer it, pay the
larger part of the contribution in the colony within twelve months
of their arrival.
Married Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds; Drovers, I   jn this I    In tIie
Gardeners,    Railway   Labourers,   Road   Makers,     Country. Colonies.
Miners, aud Quarrymen, under 40 years of age, and
sons over 12, each             3 £7
Their Wives under 40 years of age         £1 £3
Their Female Children over 12, and their Children of
either sex under 12 years of age, each     .    .    .    . I     10*. £3  10*.
Single Females,  not being Domestic Servants, but I
capable of Domestic or Farm Service, each   ... J     10*. (£3 10s. .
1 94 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
** Scale B.—The classes named in this scale must pay the whole of their
contributions before they leave this country.
Married Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, Drovers, Railway Labourers, and their Wives, between 40 and 50 years of age, Single
Agricultural Labourers, Shepherds, Drovers, Farm Servants,
Gardeners, Railway Labourers, Road Makers, Miners and Quarry-
men, under 35 years of age, each               £8
The payments for Children in this class are the same as in Scale A.
Small Farmers, Carpenters, Bricklayers, Stonemasons, Blacksmiths,
Wheelwrights, Shipbuilders, and other persons of the working
class, under 40 years of age, and sons over 12, each        £8
Wives of persons of this class, and their children under 12 years of
age, each «,        £4
Other persons of the working class whom the Commissioners may
deem suitable and be able to take, each £12
u. The Colonial Agent resident in London also grants
assisted passages to persons of the above callings, who
have been approved by him, on payment of £8 by
persons above 12 years of age, and £4 by persons
above 1 and under 12 years. Females under 35, being
domestic servants, £4.
eJ Land Orders are granted to emigrants who pay their
own passages in full, or that of servants who accompany them, upon the following scale. An order of the
value of ^30 to each adult above 12 years, and one
of £15 value for each child above 1 year and under
12 years. The holder thereof is at liberty to select his
land in any part of the colony. Two years' continuous
residence in the colony entitles the holder to a deed of
grant.
" Persons requiring money on arrival, can claim from
the government £6 on loan for each £30 Land Order,
redeemable in 2 years on payment of £l for interest.
" The Land Order Warrants must be obtained in this
country from the agents before embarkation."
New Zealand.—The following is the information
upon the subject, as given by the Commissioners of
Emigration;—
I ASSISTED  PASSAGES. 95
<(Free Passages.—There are no funds at the disposal
of the Home Government, or of the Emigration Commissioners, for granting either free or assisted passages
to any of the nine provinces into which New Zealand
is now divided. But it is understood that a limited
number of free passages can at present be granted to
Auckland. Information as to the class eligible may
be obtained of Messrs. llidgway & Sons, of No. 40,
Leicester Square.
"In the Province of Auckland there is a system of
assisted passages, by which colonists resident in that
province can get out their nominees. For this purpose
they are required to give to the Colonial Government a
bond, with two sureties, for the repayment of the cdst
of passage, by two instalments, at 12 and 24 months
after the arrival of the nominees.
"Messrs. Itidgway & Sons (40, Leicester Square,
London), who are the agents in this country for the
province, are authorised from time to time to send out
a certain number of female servants, agricultural
. labourers, and miners, taking from them promissory
notes to repay to the Colonial Government the cost of
their passages by two instalments of 12 and 24 months
after arrival.
"Land orders entitling the emigrant to receive land
free of cost are issued by the emigration agents for the
Province in London, Glasgow, Dublin, and Newry, to
such persons as they consider likely to prove good and
successful colonists. These land orders are for 40 acres
to persons above 18 years of age, and for 20 acres to
those between 5 and 18 years. The fee to the agent
who issues them is 10s. for the 40 acre order, and 5s.
for the 20 acre order. No person can receive a land
order in the colon v. v 96 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
"Assisted Passages.—So far as the Commissioners are
aware, Canterbury is the only other New Zealand
Province to which assisted passages are provided."
Tasmania.—There is no free emigration to this
colony. The assisted emigration is carried on by
means of " Bounty Tickets," which are procurable only
in the colony, where also they are made payable. The
holders of these tickets are left to make their own
arrangements for passages with any private shipowner
who will take the tickets in part payment.
South Australia.—Eree passages are for the
present being granted to this colony to the following
classes:—Married agricultural labourers, shepherds,
herdsmen, copper miners, not exceeding forty-five years
of age. Single men, or widowers, not exceeding forty
years of age, without children under sixteen, of any of the
foregoing classes. Single female domestic servants, or
widows, not exceeding thirty-five years of age, without
children under sixteen.
Payments.—The following are the payments required
to be made by the above towards the expense of
bedding and mess utensils, &c :—
Married Couples and their children under 12 JB1
Single Men 10*.
Assisted passages are also granted to persons of the
above callings, who may be approved by the Colonial
Agedt resident in London, upon the following payments being made: married men under 45, and single
men under 40, £4* each. Females: married women
under 45, and single women under 35, £3 each. Children above 1 and under 12 years pay half the above rates.
Persons above these ages can only be taken at the full
passage rate. And passage warrants may be obtained
in the colony upon the aforesaid payments being made
Hi SUBSISTENCE-MONEY. 97
there : these are transferable. Emigrants are taken
out in ships chartered by Her Majesty's Emigration
Commissioners.
As sailing-vessels are not always despatched from
their destination with punctuality, and as detention in
a strange town may be of serious damage to the emigrant of limited means, it will be necessary for him to
know the provisions of the Passengers' Act bearing
upon this point, and one or two others connected with
the voyage and with disembarkation.
| If the ship does not sail before three o'clock p.m.
of the day following the day of embarkation named in
the contract, the passengers who may be entitled to a
passage in the ship can recover from the owner, charterer,
or master, subsistence-money after the rate of ls. 6d.
per day for each statute adult, for the first ten days,
and afterwards of 3s. a day till the final departure of
the ship. If, however, the passengers are maintained
on board, no subsistence-money is payable for the first
two days, nor at all if the ship be unavoidably detained
by wind or weather, or any cause not attributable, in
the opinion of the Emigration Onicer, to the act or
default of the owner, charterer, or master.
" If the passengers be at the appointed place of
embarkation before six o'clock p.m. of the day of embarkation named in their contract, and if from any
cause, other than their own default, or the prohibition
of an Emigration Officer, they shall not be received on
board before that hour, and obtain a passage in the
ship, they must be provided with one to the same port,
by some equally eligible vessel, to sail within ten days
from the day named in the contract, and in the meantime to be paid subsistence money at the rate mentioned
above.    In default of this, the passengers can recover
F 98 • GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
from the contractor, or from the owner, charterer, or
master of the ship, their passage-money and compensation not exceeding Ten Pounds.
" In case of wreck or damage to the ship either in
port or after the commencement of the voyage, the
master must, within 48 hours thereafter, give to the
nearest Emigration Officer a written undertaking to
send on the passengers within six weeks, in the same
ship made seaworthy, or in some other eligible ship.
In the meantime they are either to be maintained on
board, or paid ls. 6d. a day per statute adult. In case
of any default, the passengers can recover from the
contractor, or from the owner, charterer, or master of
the ship, any passage-money which shall have been
paid by or on their account, If directed by an Emigration Officer, passengers must be removed from a
damaged (passenger ship' at the expense of the master,
and any one refusing to quit the ship is liable to fine or
imprisonment.
" Ships detained in port after clearance more than
seven days, or putting into any port in the United
Kingdom, must, under a penalty not exceeding One
Hundred Pounds, effectually repair any damage they
may have sustained, and must replenish their provisions,
water, and medical stores, and obtain from the Emigration Officer a certificate of fitness before they can
be allowed to put to sea again. Masters of passenger
ships putting back, must, under a penalty not exceeding
Twenty Pounds, within 24 hours, report their arrival,
and the cause of putting back, and the condition of the
ship's stores, to the Emigration Officer, and produce
the official list of passengers.
" If passengers shall, from disaster at sea or otherwise, be cast upon or landed at any other place than THE VOYAGE AND ITS DISCIPLINE. 99
that for which the passages* may have been taken, the
Governor of the Colony, or the British Consul, is empowered to forward such passengers to their intended
destination, if the master of the ship shall not do so
within six weeks.
" Passengers are not to be landed against their consent at any place other than the one contracted for,
and they are entitled to sleep and be maintained on
board for 48 hours, after arrival, unless the ship, in the
prosecution of her voyage, quits the port sooner."
1
CHAPTER VI.
THE   VOYAGE   AND   ITS   DISCIPLINE.
While much of the comfort of the emigrant during
the voyage depends upon himself—the care he takes to
procure a proper outfit, of his health, and the cleanliness
of berth and person which he maintains—much, doubtless, depends upon the ship and its officers. What has
been necessary to be said has been already said in a
previous chapter in connection with the ship; a few
words may here be useful in connection with its officers.
It is scarcely necessary to say that, being " a king " on
board his ship, whose word alone is law, the Captain is
the principal, and on whose goodness of character, or
the reverse, depends much of the comfort of the passengers. It is pleasant to have to write that, as a rule,
captains of emigrant ships are kind, considerate, and
judicious men, firm in the maintenance of discipline,
and yet kind in its administration. There are, however,
men precisely the reverse of all this—harsh, unfeeling,
f2 100 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
and despotic, and, worse than these, immoral. We had
the misfortune to sail to the New World in a vessel
commanded by as bad a man'morally as could well be
met with,/and the result of this was a state of matters
which were painful in the extreme. It is not often
that intending passengers are able to gain correct
information as to the character of the captain with
whom they propose to sail; yet if they can get it, and
find that, however clever he may be in his profession,
yet that he is a harsh, unfeeling, or immoral man, we
would strongly counsel the emigrant not to go with
that ship. It is in no contrary spirit that we say that
if he is known to be a " bad living " man, the emigrant
may rest assured that he will not be the kind of captain
calculated to make the passengers comfortable. We
have yet a most painful recollection of the horrors of the
voyage we made, where from the captain to the cook
all lived in utter defiance of those laws of morality
and Christian conduct which alone can secure, as they
do secure, happy lives. But while insisting upon the
importance of securing good officers in the ship in
which the emigrant proposes to sail, we must not the
less forcibly impress upon the emigrant himself the
necessity there is of maintaining on his own part a
good and healthy discipline of moral and religious
conduct, without which the best efforts of the best
officers will be nearly worthless. It is worth while to
remember that while within the confined sphere of
" board ship " there is a greater, much more imperative,
call for the exercise of those social virtues which make
men good and useful neighbours, than there is while
on shore; for there is no running away from such circumstances of board-ship life as may crop up from
time to'time;  which cases  must  be firmly" met, if
■4 r
THE VOYAGE AND ITS DISCIPLINE. 101
unpleasant — as not seldom will they be so — in a
manly, conciliatory way, so as to render them as easy to
all concerned as possible ; if pleasant, so met that one's
neighbours shall rejoice in them also. While there is of
necessity within the confined sphere of a ship much
that tries the temper, to the right-thinking mind there
will be in like proportion opportunities for the exercise
of much that will test the goodness of men. Frequent
exercise will there be for the charity of the mind that
"thinketh no evil," as well as for that charity which
will minister to the material wants of those whose
worldly " lives are not cast in pleasant places," for on
board every emigrant ship which leaves our shores will
be found some, if not many, who are "poor in this
world's goods," and to wlmm it ought to be the duty,
as it is the privilege, for those better off to minister.
In a word, if the golden rule of Christianity is maintained in force on fyoard an emigrant ship, that ship
will be a happy one. " What ye would that men would
do to you, do ye so to them."
In order to ensure the maintenance of proper health,
so far as rules can ensure that while on board ship, it
is essential that order, regularity, and perfect cleanliness
of ship and person be maintained, with a due attention
to diet, and the condition of the body as regards the
performance of its regular functions.
The following is the Order in Council, 7th January,
1864, for promoting order and health in passenger ships
to any of Her Majesty's possessions abroad:—
"1. Every passenger to rise at seven a.m., unless
otherwise permitted by the surgeon ; or, if no surgeon,
by the master.
" 2. Breakfast from eight to nine a.m., dinner at one
p.m., supper at six p.m. 102 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
"3. The passengers to be in their beds at ten p.m.,
except under permission of the surgeon, or, if no surgeon, of the master.
" 4. Fires to be lighted by the passengers' cook at
seven a.m., and kept alight by him till seven p.m. ; then
to be extinguished, unless otherwise directed by the
master, or required for the use of the sick.
" 5. The master to determine the order in which
each passenger or family of passengers shall be entitled
to the use of the fires. The cook to take care that this
order is preserved.
"6. On each passenger deck three safety lamps to
be lit at dusk, and kept burning all night, and such
further number as shall allow one to be placed at each
of the hatchways used by the passengers.
"7. No naked light between deck or in the hold to
be allowed at any time, or on any account.
"8. The passengers, when dressed, to roll up their
beds, to sweep the decks (including the space under the
bottom of the berths), and to throw the dirt overboard.
" 9. Breakfast not to commence till this is done.
" 10. The sweepers for the day to be taken in rotation from the males above 14, in the proportion of five
for every 100 passengers.
"11. Duties of the sweepers to be to clean the ladders, hospitals, round-houses, and water-closets, to pump
water into the cisterns or tanks for the supply of the
water-closets, to sweep the decks after every meal, and
to dry holy-stone and scrape them after breakfast.
" 12. But the occupant of each berth to see that his
or her own berth is well brushed out; and single women
are to keep their own compartment clean in ships where
a separate compartment is allotted to them.
"13. The beds to be well shaken and aired on deck, THE  VOYAGE  AND  ITS  DISCIPLINE. 103
and the bottom boards, if not fixtures, to be removed,
and dry-scrubbed and taken on deck, at least twice a
week.
" 14. Two days in the week to be appointed by the
master as washing days, but no clothes on any account
to be washed or dried between decks.
"15. The coppers and cooking vessels to be cleaned
every day, and the cisterns kept filled with water.
"16. The scuttles and stern-ports, if any, to be kept
open (weather permitting) from seven a.m. to ten p.m.,
and the hatches at all hours.
" 17. On Sunday the passengers to be mustered at
ten a.m., when they will be expected to appear in clean
and decent apparel. The day to be observed as religiously as circumstances will admit.
"18. No spirits or gunpowder to be taken on board
by any passenger. Any that may be discovered to be
taken into the custody of the master till the expiration
of the voyage.
" 19. No loose hay or straw to be allowed below.
" 20. No smoking to be allowed between decks.
"21. All immoral or indecent acts or conduct, improper liberties or familiarities with the female passengers, blasphemous, obscene, or indecent language, or
language tending to a breach of the peace, swearing,
gambling, drunkenness, fighting, disorderly, riotous,
quarrelsome, or insubordinate conduct, and also all deposits of filth or offensive acts of uncleanliness in the
between decks, are strictly prohibited.
" 22. Fire-arms, swords, and other offensive weapons,
as soon as the passengers embark, to be placed in the
custody of the master.
" 23. No sailor to remain on the passenger deck
among the passengers except on duty. 104 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
" 24. No passenger to go to the ship's cook-house
.without special permission from the master, nor to
remain jn the forecastle among the sailors on any
account."
The following are the clauses of the Passengers' Act
referring to the medical department of emigrant
vessels i—
" 27. A duly authorised medical practitioner (or when
the majority, or as many as 300 of the passengers are
foreigners, then any medical man), whose name has
been notified to the emigration officer at the port of
clearance, and not objected to by him, must be carried
in the following cases :—
1. When the prescribed length of voyage for sailing
ships exceeds eighty days, or for steamers forty-
five days, and the number of passengers on board
exceeds fifty.
2. When the number of persons on board (including
cabin passengers, officers, and crew) exceeds
300.
"29. No \ passenger ship' is to proceed until a
medical practitioner, to be appointed by the emigration
officer, shall have inspected the medicine chest, passengers, and crew, and certified that the medicines, &c,
are sufficient, and that the passengers and crew are free
from infectious disease. If no medical man can be
obtained to perform this duty, the vessel may sail on
obtaining from the emigration officer a written permission for the purpose."
We have said that attention to cleanliness of person
is an essential thing to be attended to, although carried
out with more difficulty than while on shore. Regularity
in meals is also another essential.    As a rule, less will
V^L« THE  VOYAGE  AND  ITS DISCIPLINE. 105
be required in the way of food on board ship than while
on land; nevertheless, after the first week or two a
steady-going appetite, not at all to be despised or
neglected, sets in; indeed at sea the main work of a
man is the getting of his meals—they are the centre
round which everything revolves. So* far as his stock
of provisions will enable him to do so, let him secure as
much change in the articles and in the way in which
they are cooked as possible.
As regards the maintenance of good health, it may
be stated that the principal thing to attend to is cleanliness, both of the berth and the person, and further
care of the state of the bodily functions. The first great
trial with which the majority of emigrants have to
contend is sea-sickness. Many things have been recommended for the prevention of this, but none have been
successful. After no little experience of it, both in our
own and in other cases, we have come to the conclusion
that it is one of those maladies which have to be endured
rather than cured—at least, that the cure is natural, and
comes in its own time. Probably this good time may
come all the more rapidly if some palliative measures
are adopted. Of these, we know of none better than
before going on board to have the bowels in good order
by the administration of some opening medicine. If
there is any pre-disposition to bile, this should be got
rid of before going on board; the more bilious one is
on board, the worse will the attack of sea-sickness be,
and the longer its duration. A little bit of camphor
chewed once a day will frequently act as a palliative, if
not as a preventive; in this way also a drop or two of
chloroform, or, better still, chloric ether, or of creosote,
on a lump of sugar, will be useful. When the seasickness   has   fairly  left   the   emigrant,  he   will  find
p 3 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
frequently that he has got a ravenous appetite. He
should be cautious in giving way to this; moderation is
indeed essential; for the condition of his bowels will
be such that little will be needed to put them out of
order. And in no way can health on board ship be better
secured than by attention to the regular performance
of the functions of the bowels. The great disease to
be dreaded on board ship is diarrhoea, or, worse still,
dysentery. If undue looseness of the bowels should
result, let this be attended to at once; on no account
should it be allowed to reach a height. To which end
the surgeon on board should be applied to at once; or
if the emigrant has—as he ought to have—a supply of
" chalk medicine," or laudanum, let him take a dose of
either one or the other. A dose of 20 to 30 drops
of laudanum will be sufficient for a grown-up person.
The bad quality of the water on board ship is most
frequently the existing cause of irregularity of the
bowels. As little of this should be drunk as possible;
but as one is very frequently thirsty on board ship, a
capital plan to secure a healthy drink is to fill the
tea-pot after the evening or morning meal is done—
and in which, of course, the tea-leaves are allowed to
remain—with cold water, which is to be used for drinkt
ing purposes when required. We considered this to be
the happiest discovery we made while at sea; it is surprising how rapidly the tea takes away all bad taste
and smell from the water, and how cool and refreshing
it feels as compared with the same water drunk in the
condition in wrhich it is served out from the ship's
stores. Passed through the coffee-pot in which the
"grounds" are allowed to remain, the same effect is
produced, although not, to our taste, so pleasantly as
in the above case.    A piece of bread or biscuit highly r
THE  VOYAGE AND ITS DISCIPLINE. 107
toasted, or outside scorched, put into the water, will also
take away much of its unpleasant taste, as will also a
sprinkling of oatmeal. The addition of any vegetable
acid to bad-tasted water will also be beneficial, not only
removing the bad taste which ship-board water always
has, but will prevent the attack of scorbutic affection
induced by long living upon salt or dried provisions.
For this purpose a little vinegar may be used, a piece
of citric acid crystal dissolved in it, or the juice of a
lemon squeezed into it. Vinegar is given out as part
of the daily ration, but ship-board vinegar, if of the
quality which we had portioned to us, is little better
than water so far as strength goes. We would strongly
counsel the taking of a bag of " lemons;" they cost
very little, and no one but he who has been at sea long
can have any idea how gratefully refreshing lemon-juice
is. To these a box or two of Seidlitz powders may be
added, an ounce or two of Gregory's powder, a box of
antibilious and rhubarb pills, and the emigrant's medicine or health chest may be considered complete enough.
So far as such simple medicines are concerned, it is
better to be independent of the ship's medicine-chest.
The following may be an interesting conclusion to this
chapter as bearing upon some of the points alluded to
in it, and upon those which will be taken up in the
opening of the next chapter.
" My First Day in America.—We dropped anchor
at two o'clock in the morning, on the first day of June,
18—, off Sandy Hook, Long Island. Wakened up
from a confused sleep (by the noise of a set of noisy
emigrants, who, overjoyed at the near prospect of landing, had kept up, in fine style, from an early hour the
night previous, various entertainments, as singing and
dancing), I heard the quick run out of the chain cable, 108 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
announcing the welcome fact that the anchor of the
good ship Liffey, with 500 emigrants on board, bound
for the land of freedom, had at last found a resting-
place in American soil,
"After a second and more successful attempt at sleep,
the noisy fellows having crawled off to bed thoroughly
exhausted with their efforts; I rose between the hours
of five and six, washed and dressed myself in the easy
style of a true emigrant, who has no great regard to the
conventionalities of shore life. Having speedily concluded my toilet, I went on deck, but instead of the
fair sunny morning I so ardently wished for, I was
disappointed to find a thick white fog closely enveloping us, preventing us from distinguishing anything like
land. A good many were on deck, earnestly gazing
out for a glimpse of it; but the fog was one of your
thick, lazy fellows, that seemed to have no desire to
move speedily off. At last, after a serious discussion,
and grave speculations as to whether we would really
get up to the city that day, we heard a steam-boat
paddling near, which, to our great joy, was soon seen
approaching us. Though presenting a curious sight,
with her galleries, and the little boxes perched at either
end, high above all, for the steersman, we hailed her
approach with unsophisticated joy. Coming alongside,
her skipper appeared on the upper deck, and commenced a parley with our captain and pilot. A bargain to tow us up was evidently the subject of discussion, as we, who were not among the privileged ones
who were allowed to go aft, could gather from a stray
word wafted now and then towards us. I can tell you,
no set of men ever watched the progress of a discussion
with more anxiety than we; for after being tossed on
the   Atlantic for   more   than  six   weeks, now,  while HINTS ON  LANDING. 109
within hail of the desired haven, it would have been
no small disappointment for us, had the captain delayed proceeding to the city even for an hour or two.
At last the conference was ended, the steamer was
ordered a-head, and the word passed forward for the
men to pay out the hawser. On matters being brought
thus far to a satisfactory condition, / had time to be
aware that I was rather hungry. Our sea stores were
well-nigh gone, save a few most unsophisticated hard
biscuits, and the thought crossed me that our arrival
had happened in the very nick of time, to save a very
unpleasant state of matters. I went below, and solaced
myself as best I could with a biscuit and a draught
of water; it was by no means a tempting meal, especially the latter ingredient. I forget how it tasted, but
I remember distinctly that it smelled confoundedly. I
was just in the meditative humour that would have
caused a cup of tea to be relished, but this I could not
obtain, as the fire had not been kindled, the poor
fellows who generally performed that duty being completely absorbed in the contemplation of their speedy
landing, doubtless expecting a civilised meal on shore.
Sitting on my chest, I gave way to a gentle current of
thought. Looking up to my shelf, or berth, on which
I had lain for so many weary hours—now in all the
agonies of sea-sickness—now tossed to and fro in an
Atlantic storm—I felt a kind of undefined regret steal
over me at leaving it. But in very truth, I had no
great reason to do so, having enjoyed so little pleasure
in it. Immured in the close confinement of that
dreary, over-crowded place, plunged in darkness constant— save when the flickering light of the ship's
lamp shed a miserable gleam over the scene—exposed
to the close smell and pestiferous air of that  floating 110 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS
plague-house, witnessing as things of daily occurrence,
scenes of filth, misery, and squalid wretchedness, I
might, w*ith more consistence, have felt overjoyed at
leaving it. And yet, I had seen instances of so much
love and forbearance—gentleness and quiet endurance
—sacrifices of personal ease and comfort, for the sake
of much loved ones—constant, kind, unwavering efforts
to make each other happy, on the part of many whose
conduct shed such a softening influence o'er my heart,
that I felt, at leaving that place, a sorrow, as if I were
about to depart from the presence of a kind teacher,
whose wholesome lessons had implanted in me a higher
opinion of my fellow kind, and of the holy influences
for good possessed by gentle, loving hearts, and which
had made me feel, as Dickens expresses it, c a warmer
love and honour of my kind come glowing o'er my
heart.' After musing thus for some time, I hastened-
on deck, and to my joy saw the tow-boat a-head of
us, gallantly pulling us on. I had not been many
minutes above, when, as if by the power of magic, the
mist was suddenly dispelled—as if by some kind fairy
hand the white curtain enveloping us had been instantaneously removed from above and around us—
revealing as it did then, a scene of fairy loveliness. I
never will forget the exquisite feelings I experienced
when I saw once more the green grass, the waving
trees, the strip of yellow sand marking the boundary
between the waters we had so long been tossed upon,
and the land I so much wished to tread. After
gazing my fill, I turned round and remarked to my
companion, that had the land been as barren as it appeared beautiful, my heart even then would have
warmed towards it. ' Ay,' he answered, ' they may
sing of the pleasures of the sea—but the land, the HINTS ON  LANDING. Ill
land for me.' But looking as I did, upon the scenery
of the celebrated Bay of New York, I had a higher
source of gratification. Some one has said that it 'is
worth all the trouble and risk of an Atlantic voyage
to go and see the far-famed bay.' Now, beautiful as
it certainly is, the reason why every one seeing it
thinks it so surprisingly lovely is, I take leave to hint,
from their long absence from land, which causes them
to be by no means critical. I am sure that I, as well
as the great majority of my fellow-passengers, felt that
if the land had been but a barren heath, and here and
there a stunted bush, we would have pronounced it
most beautiful. For my part, I could not have supposed that I ever would have felt so supremely happy
at the mere sight of a tree, as I did that morning,
when I caught the first glimpse of a stately oak, as by
its spreading limbs and heavy foliage I judged it to
be. But when the gentle heights, clothed here and
there with tasteful clumps of trees—green spots (oh,
how fresh and green to sea-wearied eyes !), with now and
then a neat house, with its white painted walls peeping
ont, and above all the glorious sun himself, from the
blue, almost Italian sky, streaming down his rays on
that smiling land beneath, and sparkling on the waters
of that lovely bay—who could help thinking it, as we
looked upon it with swelling, thankful hearts, and some
of us with streaming eyes, surpassing lovely ?
"As one by one the passengers came on deck, I could
not but take notice of the striking change in their appearance. Scarce twenty-four hours before, while
lounging about the main deck, or leaning over the buU
warks smoking, or being smoked in that awful place,
the cook-house, or galley, the scene of so much fun^
and  too often serious emeutes—the   men with their 112 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
unshaven beards, unwashed faces, and tattered clothes,
and the women, dirty and slovenly, presented a set of
customers, that I believe would have been looked down
upon as an inferior class by the denizens of St.
Giles. But certes 'that morn saw another sight/
as they came up on deck, ' dressed all in their best.'
Many, whose dirty faces € and unkempt hair' had been
as familiar to me as household words, puzzled me somewhat to identify them. Did space allow, I could give
many sketches of strange life on board an emigrant
ship.
" At last, after anxious hours, the houses of New York
hove in sight; towering above all, the splendid spire of
the Trinity Church. In a few minutes after, we were
safely moored, the third from the quay, alongside of a
large ship, and speedily boarded by the Custom House
officers, and the equally enterprising boarding-house
runners, loafers, and showers—these last all with
most f inhospitable thoughts intent' on doing the poor
emigrants if possible.
"While my companions went on shore to look out for
a boarding-house, to which we had been recommended,
I was left with the responsible office of watching the
luggage. Perched on the topmost trunk, I solaced
myself with an apple or two, which I bought from one
of many who were running about, soliciting trade with
an eagerness savouring somewhat of the go-a-head
Yankee : the unconscionable little scoundrel with whom
I (traded' endeavouring to persuade me that there
were only nine cents in the English sixpence; but I
was too c cute ' for him, so sent him about his business
with the legal change. While sitting high on my
throne of state, I had many suitors coming to me;
these  were   boarding-house    runners,   generally   old
uu BOARDING-HOUSE RUNNERS AND LOAFERS. 113
countrymen, but intensely low Yankefied, as far as
tobacco chewing and spitting and voluminous swearing
went, however much they varied in personal appearance—some being very dandified, with a profusion of
gilt affairs dangling about them; some as slovenly and
ill-dressed. They certainly were unanimous, to a
wonderful degree, on a certain point, namely, that the
house they represented was the best, the cheapest, and
the most comfortable, and the r boss,' or landlord, the
most honest fellow in the States; while they condemned, in one % fell swoop,' all rival establishments,
as the most 'tarnation dirty, uncomfortable ' concerns,
and the landlords as the most determined villains unhung : one and all, however, endeavouring to persuade
me that the very best thing I could possibly do was
to give them my - fixins,' and walk i right away' to
their house. But I held bravely out, and would capitulate on no terms; they could not, evidently, make
out what I meant by sitting there alone with so much
luggage. The majority came again and again, determined to bag me if possible. One fellow, the most
sensible of the lot, seeing I would agree with none,
and probably fancying that I was sitting there till the
bustle on deck was over, offered to provide me with a
first-rate meal for 25 cents. How the fellow dwelt so
lovingly on the names of the fresh victuals, knowing
well that my long acquaintance with I salt prog' would
make my very teeth water at the mention of such delicacies ! But even this bait would not take; so,
thinking the force of persuasion could no farther go, he
affectionately shook hands with me, and left to try on
some easier managed customer. One Irishman, however, stuck by me to the last; his f dander was riz,'
and he looked upon it evidently as a point of honour 114 GENERAL  HINTS  TO   EMIGRANTS.
to bag me for his establishment. He was interrupted
in the midst of his persuasive address by the arrival
of my friends, who, informing me that all was right,
commenced to hurry off the luggage, with the assistance of a man whom they had brought for this purpose. The Irishman, smelling a rat, fell foul of this
poor fellow, picked a quarrel with him instanter, telling
him it was all his fault, and abused him with all the
volubility of an angry Irishman. The odd expressions
used by him, the mixture of Yankee phrases and Irish
oaths, the puzzled look of the man and my friends,
who were wondering what it was all about, rendered
the scene so desperately ludicrous, that I burst out into
a fit of hearty laughter."
CHAPTER VII.
LANDING. LOOKING   FOR  WORK. PROCEEDING   TO
DESTINATION.
Maintenance on arrival, tyc.—Passengers are entitled
by the Imperial Passengers' Act to be maintained on
board in the same manner as during the passage, for
forty-eight hours after arrival, unless within that time
the ship should quit*the port in the prosecution of her
voyage. As regards those bound to Quebec, the Canadian Passengers' Act, 15 & 16 Vict. c. 86 [1852], imposes a penalty on the master who compels passengers
to leave before the expiration of forty-eight hours, (except in cases where the vessel has a mail contract) and
provides that they shall be landed free of expense, and
at proper hours; that no person without a licence shall LANDING. 115
influence passengers in favour of any particular steamboat, railroad, or tavern; that tavern-keepers shall
have posted in some conspicuous place a list of prices
to be charged for board, lodging, &c.; and they will
not be allowed to have any lien upon the effects of a
passenger, for board and lodging, beyond 5* dollars,
about £l sterling.
What we have said as to the class of men haunting
the seaport at which the emigrant may embark, and
whose sole business is to swindle him, applies with
equal, and possibly with greater, force to the port at
which he disembarks; and this being so, the same
caution should be attended to. Have nothing whatever
to do with those who come offering services in that
warm, taking, and disinterested way which they know
so well to assume ; give them all the " cold shoulder "
and trust to yourself alone. The sooner this plan is
carried out the better, for the emigrant has now reached
the land where " self-reliance" is alone trustworthy.
And as a first rule to be attended to, make a bargain
beforehand on all occasions when you require the
services of others—a bargain with the man who takes
your luggage from the ship to the boarding-house, and
a bargain with the keeper of the latter. Do not trust
to that always proffered, never-satisfactory-in-the-long-
run saying, " Oh, we shall not quarrel." The truth is,
that if anything is left till the end, when you are going
to part, you are sure to part in quarrel. In almost
every port of disembarkation, especially in the United
States, there is an office established for the protection
of emigrants, or an Emigrants' Home ; if the emigrant
is in any doubt about his mode of procedure, let him
consult at once the officers of these establishments.
When the ship is fairly at anchor, or alongside the quay, 116 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
be in no hurry to get your luggage off; allow the bustle
and hurry to subside as much as possible before you
begin to take your luggage ashore. Many are the losses
occasioned by carelessness in looking after packages.
We have seen hundreds of boxes taken ashore at the
same time and mixed up in such confusion that it took
the sharpest eyes to collect and the closest scrutiny to
retain them. It is a capital plan to have some easily-
distinguished mark—a red cross, or the like—painted
upon some conspicuous part of each box or package;
this will enable the owner to see at a glance whether in
any heap of luggage his is, or is not. Another rule is,
never allow your luggage to remain in any place to
which you have not access at any time ; never lose sight
of it or its wiiereabouts. To save trouble, some leave
their luggage on board ship for a day or two, or, while
on going inland to look for work, leave it in charge of
the boarding-house keeper. This latter may be honest
enough; but apart from this consideration, we would
advise the emigrant never to leave sight of his luggage;
for if he does, he will feel so uneasy about it, and his
mind will be so perpetually on the stretch, that he will
continually regret having left it behind.
Fairly landed, and having devoted a day or two to
rest and looking about him, the great work of the emigrant must be set about—" getting work " or " settling
on land." If a mechanic, or designing to work for
others on farm or at general work of any sort, we
would strongly caution him from the folly of asking
too high a wage at first; he must remember that he is
now in a new country, and has to learn its ways before
he can claim the rate of wage that others may easily
obtain. The following, although taken from an American
paper, gives advice upon this point so applicable to all LOOKING  FOR WORK. 117
places, that we give it here as highly useful to the
emigrant:—
"The first idea of a European landing here and
seeking work is high wages. He does not consider
that he is utterly unacquainted with our implements
and mode of doing things—that he can seldom plant, or
mow, or make fence in our way nearly so fast as a born
Yankee; he sees only that a Yankee gets 12 or 15
dollars a month for farm work, and he insists on having
as much. But he cannot go forward and do as the
Yankee can; he can hardly keep up with him when
placed beside him; and however athletic and faithful,
his services are not worth so much per month as the
Yankee's. Failing to obtain what he demands, he becomes disgusted with rural labour in America, turns
back to some city where he can get perhaps higher
wages, but can save little or nothing, even when employed. Besides, he is learning nothing here of any
use to him; and, if winter do not pinch him, old age
certainly will. He lacks foresight, and calculates badly.
Suppose he can get but seven dollars a month on a
farm, while the Yankee who works beside him is paid
fifteen, let him never mind the disparity, if he has a
good chance to learn our American ways of farming.
That is the great point. Let him learn as we do first,
and improve on our ways as much as possible afterward. A single year will suffice, if he be docile and
observing, to give him dexterity in our ways; after
that he will be equal to any American, and may command as good wages, possibly better, as he will understand many old country ways which, in their place, are
superior to ours. Let him by no means stand idle, or
betake himself, for higher wages, to railroad grading,
if single, but learn how farming is done in this country; 118 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
considering the experience and skill the best part of
his pay for the first year. After that, if a good mau,
he need no more stand idle, nor work for half price.
There never was a time when labour was so generally
needed by our farmers as now. Our remarkably late
spring has given place to a most genial, thrifty summer;
our cold May put our farmers enough back, but the
sun and rain of June are rapidly making amends for it.
Ho ! you who are begging and tramping for work in
the cities, scatter yourselves over the country, and you
can hardly avoid it. All that is wanted is a beginning.
Take what offers itself; look upon it as the beginning
of your good fortune; be steady, industrious, and follow
the rules 1 here insert, and you will do well.
" 1st. Give up the habit of spending your evenings
in the public-house: nothing militates so much against
a man here as the practice of visiting such places.
"2nd. Keep early hours, and live temperately, so
that you may do your duty with ease to yourself, and
as the best security of 'good health' and 'long life.'
" 3rd. DonH talk about politics | they won't ' put
money in thy purse,' but will estrange the esteem of
your own self-respect, and perchance make thee enemies.
" 4th. Don't find fault with the implements of husbandry, or mode or style of doing things, till thou hast
a farm of thine own (and you will then know better).
Depend upon it, the native farmer will not be dictated
to; and, if you are paid by him for doing his business,
what does it signify to you how that business is done r
" 5th. Fall into the way of doing things as they are
most in vogue, and be cautious not to make enemies.
" 6th. ' Fear God, and trust in Providence, wherever
thou mayst be.*" LOOKING  FOR  WORK. 119
Those who are designing to farm will not find, in the
immediate neighbourhood of the ports at which they
disembark, land suitable for their purpose, unless, indeed, they are possessed of a considerable capital, for
the nearer the large towns the higher the price of land.
The search for land in the interior, therefore, will be
the first work of the emigrant farmer; and how to get
to the interior most economically will be his earnest
consideration. In all our colonies this will have to be
gone about very carefully; for here, as elsewhere, will
be met with hosts of designing swindlers, who will do
all they can to entrap the careless or careful emigrant
to purchase forwarding tickets, or the like, which purport to frank them to their proposed destination; or to
make some statement calculated to get the emigrant
persuaded to do a certain thing or go by a certain
route, which will invariably tend to his loss of time if
followed. In the United States and in Canada, where
distances are greater from place to place, and where
the emigration is carried on on a large scale, it may be
readily supposed that a greater outlet is afforded for
the roguery of these scoundrels than in other colonies.
The following extracts—the first from a New York
paper, the second from a report of a committee of Congress appointed to investigate the frauds committed
upon emigrants—will be of service, as tending to open
the eyes of the intending emigrant as to the fate in store
for him should he not make up his mind to trust to
himself, and to place no confidence in strangers.
" In several recent instances it is proved that families have paid, in our city, through to Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago, &c, yet have been stopped half way by
a demand for more money, as the only condition on
which they would be allowed to proceed, or tumbled T
120        GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
off on a dock, and left to shift for themselves as they
might. In other cases they have been charged extra
for luggage, in violation of their agreements; and still
again, they have been swindled by a practice termed
'Halifaxing' their effects—that is, making the weight
twice the real amount, and compelling them to pay
full charges on the unjust computation. These are
but a part of the oppression heaped upon a class whose
poverty and helplessness, it would seem, must preserve
them from the rapacity of any but the most abandoned
villains."
" It is here submitted to emigrants, having brought
considerable sums of money intended for the purchase
of farms, &c, by no means to take it with them into
the country, but to invest it, under the advice of their
respective protective societies, in some respectable banking establishment in the city, till they have agreed for
the purchase of a suitable holding. By not doing so,
they run great risks of being robbed of all they possess. An instance is here appended of a respectable
British farmer adopting this precaution—viz., that of
investing the bulk of his money in the way recommended, and taking, for travelling expenses, &c, some
£4*0 or £50 with him, but of which he was cruelly
robbed, his trunk having been broken open during his
absence, and every article of value abstracted: of course
all would have gone but for the foresight and thought-
fulness exhibited. Again, by depositing the money in
the banks, and taking a proper ' certificate' of the investment, it can readily be turned into cash at any of
the country banking establishments, or large mercantile establishments in any of the states, and which invariably bears, under such circumstances, from one and
a half to two per cent, premium.    Many individuals,
HI "ft
PROCEEDING TO  DESTINATION. 121
known to the writer, have been heartlessly robbed of
their ' all' by a class of miscreants who are constantly
on the ' look-out' for newcomers from the Old Country,
by ingratiating themselves into their confidence, obtaining the secret of their worldly riches, and then devising, with devilish sagacity, the ruin of their temporal
prospects and happiness. Beware, also, of 'advertisements' that pretend the disposal of decent, comfortable
farms, at very low prices: this is another trick to impose upon \ strangers.' In all cases go to the ' land
office3 in the state you intend to settle in, where you
can purchase safely at the government prices, without
the expenses of brokerage, &c, and be certain of a
valid title."
" The committee summoned before them a large
number of witnesses, embracing those engaged in every
branch of business connected with the emigrants, the
testimony of which will be found in the accompanying
documents. From this testimony it will appear that
the reports and rumours which have from time to time
appeared in the public newspapers within the last year,
of the frauds and impositions practised upon these
strangers in our land, have fallen vastly short of the
reality. It will further appear that this is no new invention, but that these frauds have been carried on for
several years, to a more limited extent, without attracting much notice, or seeming to excite much interest,
amongst those who should be first to protect, and the
last to prey upon, this class of their fellow-beings.
But it has been left to the present year, when the increase of emigration, owing to causes well known to
exist in the Old World, has been not only beyond all
former precedent, but beyond all calculation, for those
who make it their business to subsist by defrauding AT
122 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
and plundering those people, to realise a golden
harvest.
"Your committee must confess that they had no
conception of, nor would they have believed, the extent
to which these frauds and outrages have been practised,
until they came to investigate them.
"As soon as a ship loaded with these emigrants
reaches our shores, it is boarded by a class of men
called ' runners,' either in the employment of boarding-house keepers or forwarding establishments, soliciting custom for their employers. In order the more
successfully to enable the latter to gain the confidence
of the emigrant, they usually employ those who can
speak the language wifh the emigrant. If they cannot
succeed in any other way in getting possession and
control over the object of their prey, they proceed to
take charge of their luggage, and take it to some
boarding-house for safe keeping, and generally under
the assurance that they will charge nothing for carriage
hire or storage. In this way they are induced to go to
some emigrant boarding-house, of which there are a
great many in the city, and then too often under a pretence that they will charge but a small sum for meals
or board, the keepers of these houses induce these
people to stay a few days, and, when they come to leave,
usually charge them three or four times as much as
they agreed or expected to pay, and exorbitant prices
for storing their luggage, and, in case of their inability
to pay, their luggage is detained as security. Some of
these ' runners' are employed by the month, and some
work upon commission. When they are in the employment of the forwarding establishments or passenger
offices, and receive a commission for each passenger
they bring in, they are, in many cases, allowed by their PROCEEDING  TO DESTINATION. 123
employers to charge all they can get over a certain sum
for transporting the passenger to a particular place.
This, it will be seen, stimulates the ' runners' to great
exertions, not only to get as many passengers as possible, but to get them at the highest possible prices.
To enable them to carry out their designs all sorts of
falsehoods are resorted to to mislead and deceive the
emigrants to the prices of fare, and the modes of conveyance.
" Your committee have been shocked to find that a
large portion of the frauds committed upon these innocent, and in many cases, ignorant foreigners, are committed by their own countrymen who have come here
before them; for we find the German preying upon the
German—the Irish upon the Irish-—the English upon
the English, &c, &c.; but, at the same time, we cannot
hold our own countrymen entirely guiltless, for many
of them, it is to be regretted, are engaged in this
nefarious business.
"Amongst the numerous frauds practised by these
' runners' of forwarding houses, there is perhaps none
greater than that which exists in the sale of passage
tickets.
" The emigrant is shown a neatly printed ticket, with
a picture of a steam-boat, railroad cars, and canal
packet, with three horses attached to it, and is given to
understand that such a ticket will take him to a given
place beyond Albany, in a specified manner, and for a
price to be agreed upon, and after disposing of the
ticket for an exorbitant price, the emigrant is furnished
with a steam-boat ticket to take him to Albany, where
he is to present his passage ticket to some person or
company upon which it is drawn, where it is often either
protested, or objections taken to the mode of convey-
g2
-| 124 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
ance, and the passenger instead of going upon a railroad or packet boat, as agreed upon, is thrust into the
steerage or hold of a line boat, where he is often known
to complain, when the only evidence he can furnish of
fraud committed upon him is to exhibit his ticket
with the picture of three horses, when the line boats are
only drawn by two.
" A pretence is also often set up for not honouring
these tickets, that the freight is not paid, or at least
that enough has not been paid upon the luggage, and
the emigrant is either detained at Albany, or compelled
to pay additional charges.
" It will be seen from the testimony taken, that
immense sums of money are drawn from these emigrants by overcharging, both for their fare and the
freight of their luggage; and not satisfied with this,
some of the persons engaged in the forwarding business
are in the habit of defrauding them in the weight of
their luggage by using false scales, and giving false
statements of the amounts forwarded. And upon this
subject they would call the attention of the House to
the testimony relating to a certain well-known establishment in the city of Albany." PURCHASE  OF  LAND. 125
CHAPTER VIII.
PURCHASE    OF    LAND. SETTLING    ON    LAND.—CLEARING
OF     LAND. BUILDING     OF     LOG - HOUSE     OR     HUT.—
FENCING,   ETC.,   ETC.
A great notion intending emigrants have, is that as
soon as they arrive they will buy land. The following
advice on this point from an old hand will not be amiss
here. The remark applies to Canada^ but the advice
contained in it may apply to any locality :—
"Cast aside at present all notions of buying an
estate, unless you have too much money; be content
to rent, if you can get it, and not lock up your capital
for the mere trifling return the escape from a low rental
will afford you. An estate is not here the summum
bonum—the source of everything good, and happy, and
independent, that it is in England; often quite the reverse. Your necessary buildings and improvements to
fceep up with the times, perhaps keep you ever in hot
water to find the means to get them. A rich landlord
to do these things is often very convenient; and although
he be sometimes a little arbitrary, he is not so troublesome as a needy dun wanting money of you."
A very erroneous, and, we may say, unfortunate idea
is prevalent that farming, no matter how carried on, is
sure to succeed in the colonies. " Anybody may be a
farmer," is the expression used. This is a most dangerous fallacy; it has ruined many in this country—it has
ruined many in our colonies. In the following remarks on the purchase of land—although designed as
specially applicable to the United States and Canada—
the reader will find some advice as to how best the GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS;
emigrant   can    commence   farming,   which   will   be
useful:—
In purchasing cleared, or uncleared land in the States
adjoining the seaboard, or in those in the interior, or
in the Far West, all due care is requisite. Many
parties professing to be land agents are the most heartless scoundrels in existence. Some of our readers who
are familiar with the writings of Dickens, will doubtless remember the graphic description of the one-eyed
rascal, a vagabond of this class, in the novel of " Martin
Chuzzlewit." The fellow there described, with his " soft
sawder," and stock of lies, may be taken as the type of
a numerous class who flourish in America, fattening
upon the hard-earned cash of poor emigrants in whose
way they have fallen, and are actuated towards them
by the vilest intentions. Judging from experience,
the portrait so ably drawn by Dickens was, doubtless,
from nature; we came once across such a marvellously
villainous fellow. The mode in which these fellows do
business is of a daring and dashing style. They have
emissaries in this country, who make it their business
to inquire into the intentions of parties about to emigrate. Their names and port of disembarkation are
sent over to the head manager in America, who looks
out for their arrival, and generally contrives to inveigle
them into his net. If, however, the game is numerous
—as, for instance, a number of families travelling together with the intention of joining in the purchase of
land, and jointly farming it, a plan adopted very frequently—then it is considered worth while for one of
the missionaries here to take a passage in the same
ship, cross the Atlantic with them, and, making good
use of his time, prevail upon them to purchase land
where he is going to locate.    Another plan adopted by
H^i PURCHASE OF LAND. 127
these miscreants is the following. It is graphically
described by one who knows the working of the system well, and has laboured hard to expose it:—" When
the ship arrives at the quarantine ground, you will,
perhaps, find that some man has succeeded in smuggling himself on board. He has come all that way in
a boat, on purpose to warn his friends of some new
trick of the runners, or to expose the villainy of the
emigrant which has just been brought to light. Perhaps you will find him to be some fond husband, or lover,
and you will witness the rapturous meeting of Mary
(a confederate) and her dear Johnny. By-and-by you
will hear it rumoured through the ship that John has
been telling Mary of his wonderful success in the
western country, where he is settled; how he bought
land for one dollar an acre—how a town is laid off
there, and he is selling his farm for a shilling a foot.
Towns, he says, are springing up there like mushrooms, and any one who will go and buy land there,
can make a fortune." If the bait is taken the purchaser is done. These fellows keep handsome premises, which they call " land offices." In these they
have beautiful maps of the localities where they have
lands to sell. These are embellished with no end of
fine level lots—watered just in the right places with
meandering rivers—rail, or plank roads laid down exactly in the best positions for taking the produce to
market—opulent cities marked out—flourishing villages
—in fact, perfect El Dorados, to which it would be a
passing shame to avoid going. The purchaser fixes on
a beautiful plot of ground, the money is paid, the title
deeds—imposing pieces of parchment—are prepared
and signed in presence of two or three respectable
citizens, and the poor duped emigrant walks out of the 128 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
office the fancied possessor of a tract of land on which
to end his days.
Eager to get to the promised paradise, he, after the
lapse of a few days, arrives at the locality, but if he
really finds the land well situated as he supposed, he
assuredly will soon discover that there is an occupant
thereon, who, pleased in every respect with his " dig-
gins," has not the remotest intention of giving up possession to every fancied proprietor. But, in nine cases
out of ten, if he really owns the land, he will find
himself the owner of a ' splendid swamp, or pine
barren, or huge mountain of rocks, and deep ravines,'
in which it will be a difficult matter to find as much
good level land as—to use the graphic phrase of an
Irishman in a similar position to that we are now describing—will suffice to ' plant a pratie in.' Or perhaps—and this has often been the case—he may have
fine level land allotted him, but unfortunately, not
comfortable, for the waters of a nice^ picturesque lake
quietly reposing above it. In fact, it takes a man of
sharp, business habits to be up to the " thousand and
one" tricks of these heartless scoundrels. A chapter
detailing these would be amusing, as affording instances of the clever deception on one side, and free
open confidence on the other; but at the same time,
melancholy, as exercising a baneful influence on the
fate and prospects of the poor creatures who get entangled in their clutches.
There are many who will read these pages, who
know of parties proposing to emigrate as farmers; it
will be an act of humanity for them to put those on
their guard, by detailing what we have here given.
The surest way to avoid all connection with these fellows, is to go to the mayor's office, or to the Com-
M^ PURCHASE  OF  LAND. 129
missioners of Emigration, if in the large seaport towns,
and a true direction will there be given to the Government Land Offices, of which there is one in every
district. In purchasing land from private individuals,
cleared or uncleared, even where the land is verily
beheld by the eyes of the purchaser, and trodden
thereon by his feet, care is necessary that in this case
even he is not duped. It is no uncommon thing for a
person, after he has paid the purchase-money (for in
such cases no instalments are taken, for obvious reasons), and been fairly settled down, to have a call from
some friend of the late owner, in the character of a
mortgagee, who had in past times advanced money on
the estate, and now comes to claim it. .In such a case,
the unfortunate occupier has had to refund, and. be
consequently ruined- The only wise mode of procedure on purchasing land from private individuals, is
to examine, in the very first instance, the title deeds of
the land, which will be found in the District Government Register Offices. If there is no entry made,
have nothing to do with the purchase, or seller of the
land.
The following extract from a practical work, bearing
pn the same point, will also be useful:—
" It is the practice of the Yankee farmers in the
east to wear out their land without manuring, and
wheu exhausted, to sell it with the j improvements,' as
they are termed. They then go a thousand miles or
more west, on new land, which may be purchased for
about four or five shillings an acre, and which will bear
very heavy crops for many years without manure.
Hundreds of families may be seen journeying west for
this purpose in their waggons, &c, at the end of every
summer. The settler is therefore cautioned against
G 3 w
130 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
purchasing 'improved' lands; but if he has made up
his mind to purchase, after having been long enough in
the country to acquire sufficient knowledge, let him go
west also, and as near to some new thriving town as
possible.
" Persons of property cannot b.e cautioned too
seriously against going out hastily to purchase and
improve land as a speculation, as hundreds of persons
have, to their sorrow, been ruined by unadvised enterprises of this sort. As an instance, and for the sake of
argument, it is only necessary to state that beef, pork,
and mutton may be bought at 1 \d. per pound; indeed,
sometimes for less; and that agricultural produce is
equally cheap, whilst the labour to produce them is
double the price of that in England; so that upon an
honest and fair principle of reasoning, it would appear
that it is better to pay high rents and taxes in this
country than to emigrate. But it may be very truly
remarked that the farmers are fast increasing in numbers in America, whilst farms are not; and hence the
necessity for establishing new farms, or, in other words,
for opening sources of employment for the labouring
population.
" It is very laudable and praiseworthy for young
farmers to be anxious to be employed, and especially
to have farms of their own to manage. In America
there is a large scope for their enterprise; but they
may rest assured that in America they must not expect
to keep riding horses for their pleasure as they do in
England; they must be prepared to toil, labour, and
sweat by the side of their workmen, late and early, or
otherwise they had better remain at home and do the
best they can.
" There is another fraudulent practice to be guarded PURCHASE  OF  LAND. 131
against in the purchase of land from individual proprietors. It is not an unusual circumstance for a purchaser after he has paid his purchase-money and taken
possession of his land, to be called upon by a mortgagee
who has a lien upon the estate—a matter often previously preconcerted between the seller and his friend.
A transaction of this description occurred a short time
ago near Buffalo. The purchaser was an Englishman,
who, after paying his purchase-money in full, had a
second claim made upon him by a mortgagee; being
swindled out of his cash, he was obliged to give up the
estate, and take a passage for himself and family for
England, leaving the country in disgust."
The following will also be useful as showing what the
emigrant farmer has to consider in purchasing land for
farming; it is taken from one of the reports of the
Canadian Board of Agriculture :—
" One of the greatest inconveniences experienced in
a new settlement is the distance from an old settlement, and from a market; this distance being generally over a horrid bad road. After the first year the
settlers can generally obtain from the land the bare
necessaries of life—that is, what will just keep them
from actual starvation,—but their luxuries, and many
of their comforts, must be obtained from a distance:
and, moreover, those luxuries and comforts can only
be procured, in general, by exchanging for them portions of the produce of the land, which must also be
conveyed the same distance, and over the same bad
road. The new settler can produce on his farm sufficient bread and meat, and some other articles, both of
food and clothing; but tea and coffee, and many other
articles which are necessary to the comfort of himself
and his family, he cannot produce, and he can obtain Iff
132 GENERAL HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
them only by selling a portion of what he can produce
for money, or exchanging it for the articles he needs;
and then at becomes of the utmost importance to have
a market within a reasonable distance. A great distance, and a bad road to market, has the direct effect
of lessening the value of every article produced for
sale, and of increasing the cost of those articles required in return. The early settler may, after a few
years' successful labour, have one hundred bushels of
wheat to sell from the produce of one year, over and
above what is required for the use of his family; and
if he would sell that wheat at the market price on the
frontier, it would bring a sum amply sufficient to supply
all his-wants; but it has frequently happened that one-
half the value of his wheat has gone to pay the expense of conveying it to market. Persons unacquainted
with the difficulties of the back settlers, consequent
upon their distance from market, and the wretched
state of their roads, may understand those difficulties
better by reference to the following incident, which
came under the observation of the writer some years
ago, and which is not a solitary case of the kind.
" A person in a new settlement, not near so far from
the market as the most convenient part of the county
of Simcoe, had urgent occasion to raise a few dollars
in ready money. He had in his barn nearly one hundred bushels of surplus wheat, of good quality; but
wheat was not then so much sought after as it Jhas
been of late years, and he could not sell his wheat
without carrying it a distance of nearly thirty miles.
The only mode of conveying his wheat to market was
with a pair of oxen and a wooden shed; but this was a
hopeless undertaking, as it would be rather a serious
affair to drag the empty shed on the bare ground for CLEARING  OF  LAND. 133
that distance. Something, however, must be done;
and he finally went eight miles to a neighbour and
borrowed a heavy and clumsy ox cart—the best vehicle
he could procure,—and with it, drawn by oxen, he proceeded to market with about fifteen bushels of wheat.
He succeeded in reaching the market, disposing of his
wheat for money, and returning home in the space of
one week and one day; and the amount realised from
his fifteen bushels of wheat, and week's labour and
time of himself and team, after paying expenses on
the most economical scale, was within a fraction of five
and a half dollars."
We now come to the emigrant farmer's labour in
clearing his land. What we now give is merely introductory to the general subject of colonial farming, the
details of which, as applicable to different colonies, will
be found fully detailed in the succeeding volumes of the
series. The following is a description of the mode
adopted in clearing wooded land as carried out in the
North American colonies.
Suppose a farmer has purchased 100 acres of land,
he proceeds to the location in which it is situated, with
his family, in waggons, and provided with tents, &c,
to house the family till the cabin or log-house is built.
In the centre of the farm profound stillness reigns.
Surrounded on all sides by heavy trees, the farmer is
at first sight apt to think that his chances of success
are small. Having hired the services of an experienced
woodman,—who will have a sturdy tree cut down, while
another less experienced is looking where to begin the
hewing,—the first operation is cutting timber suitable
for building. Having fixed on a site near a spring for
the house, the operation of building is begun. To
build a log cabin is a very simple matter. Hi«
GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
Set posts in the ground (if yellow pine is selected
it will last for many years), nine feet above the surface
in the front, and seven in the rear. Stout poles or
split logs, flattened at the ends, placed horizontally,
and one upon the other, should be spiked or pinned to
these posts all round; the upper ones in the front and
rear laid on the top of the posts, in which a notch
should be cut to receive them, taking care that they
are sufficiently stout to bear the roof, which is to be
formed of poles, laid one end in the front and the
other in the rear of the building; these poles should
be covered with inverted sod, then earth and sod again, ,
surface uppermost; the openings between the side poles
or logs must be filled up with clay; and a snug, weather-
tight cabin is at once made. A comfortable floor may
be made of lime and clay, or marl, taking care to have
the ground on which the building stands a little rising.
A chimney may be constructed in the usual way—that
is, with logs and clay; or, if a stove is used, which is
better, the pipe may go through the roof, giving the
part which is exposed to the weather a coat of tar and
sand, both inside and out.
The next operation is cutting the timber for fences.
For this purpose oak trees that will split well are
selected, and cut into lengths of eleven feet. When
sufficient space is cleared for cultivation the logs are
piled up in heaps, the limhs and brush on the top.
These piles are set fire to in the spring, and the land
ploughed. This, as may be supposed, is a matter of
some difficulty from the number of the stumps. Ploughs
may be broken and shins too in this work. The smaller
roots are grubbed out, and the larger ones divided; to
stop vegetation the outer bark should be taken off.
Five or six acres may thus be prepared in the course of BUILDING OF LOG-HOUSE, ETC 135
the winter by a man and boy. The first crop is Indian
corn and potatoes; from forty to sixty bushels of corn
may be got. If the ground is in good order the next
crop may be wheat, the produce of which may be some
fifteen or twenty bushels per acre. Care should be taken
to leave sufficient woodland for fuel, and for a shelter for
the cabin. A stock of provisions will have to be laid in
for the first year till the land becomes productive. The
sum necessary to purchase stock and implements for a
farm of fifty acres, may be calculated at from 200 to
300 dollars; say, ploughs, six dollars; harrows, five
dollars ; waggon, fifty dollars; other small implements,
ten dollars; yoke of oxen, seventy dollars ; chains, five
dollars; two cows, thirty dollars; twenty-five sheep,
thirty-seven dollars. The cost of erecting a log cabin
in the State of New York, 16 by 30 feet, board roof,
two floors, windows and doors, and stone chimney, is
called thirty dollars. The reason of this amazing cheapness is, that little, or in fact no money is laid out in
wages, the neighbours invariably lending their assistance. The settlers around are invited on a certain day,
the timber is cut, and the teams they bring with them
are used to haul the logs to the place where the house
is to be built. The building is to be put up the same
day; the logs hewn flat in the inside, the outside being
left round—the chimney built up. All that the neighbours expect is their dinner; the settler finishing the
remaining portion of the work himself, purchasing the
"lumber"—as the planks, &c, are called in America—
the cost of which is shown, as above stated, to be some
thirty dollars.
In cutting down the trees care is taken how they
are going to fall; a neglect of this precaution is often
the cause of loss of life or limb.    It is a strange thing (1
136 GENERAL HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
to see the huge-limbed sturdy sons of the forest yield
to the power of man; to have the deep silence of the
woods broken by the sharp strokes of the well-directed
axe and the sound of crashing timber. "They have
lived and reigned from creation, these lords of the
forest, but they must now bow to lordlier man." In
some cases, in place of chopping them down at once,
"girdling" is resorted to. This consists in cutting
away the bark in a strip some few inches in breadth,
and at a few feet from the ground. This prevents the
upward circulation of the sap, and the trees rot and
fall. In firing timber care is taken to leave a space
around fully cleared, to prevent the adjoining trees
from catching fire. Frequently from carelessness in
this particular acres upon acres of wood are entirely
consumed. At such times, the appearance of the wood
at night is truly sublime. During the day a thick
dense smoke envelopes all the burning mass, which
remains like a pall stretched above, save now and then
the flame bursts upwards—not seen in the glare of the
day, but known from the smoke momentarily clearing
up. But at night it is in all its beauty. Here and
there the blackened stems peer out from amidst the
livid flame—one moment free from all conduct with it,
the next enveloped in a blaze which seems to spring
from every pore. The crackling of the branches—the
whizzing of the flames—the shower of sparks dashed
upwards and around by the force of the falling trees—
the roar, like a multitude of huge furnaces—the wind
rushing strongly from all quarters to feed the flames—
all tend to make the spectacle of the " grand old woods"
on fire one of no ordinary interest. In dry weather
all attempts to extinguish the fire are futile; and
clump  after  clump  of trees  are taken in, herds  of
Hi CLEARING   OF  LAND. 137
animals are consumed, and too often, alas, the homestead of some poor settler swallowed up by the devouring element. In such cases the loss of life and property
is considerable. There is reason to believe that every
year in the woods of the American continent many
unfortunate individuals are lost in fires occasioned in
the manner we have shown, or by the Indians. Such
wide-spread devastation thus occasioned is, unfortunately, not of rare occurrence. On the point of leaving
that land some months ago, the news reached the port
of embarkation of a fearful fire in the Western States,
which had lasted for'days, and ravaged large tracts of
land, consuming everything! before it. Such is one
of the incidental dangers of a backwood settler in
America.
The ashes from the trees consumed are either
spread upon the land, or sold to make potashes of. For
the latter purpose there was formerly a great demand;
now, from improvements in chemistry, it has fallen off
considerably. It, however, may still bring some five or
six cents, per bushel. The ashes from hard timbered
trees make the best potashes. Should the emigrant
require planks, if a saw-mill is near his location, the
proprietor will gladly exchange them for trees. This
custom is a great convenience to original settlers. In
almost every lot of uncleared land, there are numerous
maple trees. These are generally reserved for making
sugar. The process is largely carried on in American
farms. In some seasons, not only is sufficient made
for family purposes, to last throughout the year, but
sundry quantities left for market. The first preliminary operation in the manufacture, is the making
of the troughs for receiving the highly saccharine
sap.    These are scraped out from short rough pieces 138 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
of timber. Often, in walking through the woods, have
we stumbled upon one of these rough, Robinson
Crusoe looking utensils, left there from the previous
winter.
Selecting a morning succeeding a clear, frosty
night, in the month of February or March, the family
sally out to the woods, the little sledges bearing the
kettles and other appliances. A space is cleared from
snow, on which to make the fire for evaporating the
sap. The trees are tapped with an axe, or auger, a few
inches from the ground, and a pipe inserted in the incision to lead the sap to the trough below, placed on
the ground to receive it. The contents of the trough
are poured into a large iron boiler, suspended over a
huge wdod fire. The sap is then boiled till it is considerably reduced in quantity. More is then added,
great care at this stage of the operation being taken
to skim it. The boiling is continued till it forms a
thick, consistent syrup, and latterly sugar. It is then
ladled into small open pans, and on cooling, it has all
the appearance of hard, brown sugar. As there is little
to do on farms in the winter months, sugar making in
the Northern States will pay well, when the members
of the family are employed in the operation, but not
when extra labour is hired. Sugar makings are sometimes the occasion of " grand frolics," the lads and
lasses from the neighbouring hamlets assisting, first in
the process, then, after work is done, having a dance,
and other amusements. Indeed, this habit of gaining
help on extra occasions is largely kept up in America.
Thus, when the Indian corn is to be freed from its
husks, a " husking bee," or frolic, is got up by the
farmer requiring assistance, and much fun and jollity
there is on these occasions—the otherwise hard work SETTLING  ON  LAND. 139
being rendered almost a matter of amusement. In like
manner, where the " gudewife" wishes her " quilts"
for the winter bedding made, the talents of the young
ladies—there are no young women even in a farmhouse in America—are called into requisition, and due
notice of the affair being given in the adjoining
hamlets, the young men drop in, as it were, accidentally, in the latter part of the day, and at the " quilting
frolic" much fun prevails. There is much wisdom
shown in these customs. Labour being very dear, by
this plan the expense of hiring it is saved, and much
work, agreeably interlarded with a little sport, is got
for nothing, save the expense of food—" the chicken
fixins and uncommon doins." Upon the whole, there
is much pleasant life at a Yankee farm, and judging
from personal experience, all seem to have a decided
partiality for it.
After clearing and fencing the land to be cultivated,
the settler gives his next attention to the " fixin" of
his garden. This is of importance, as he can easily
raise vegetables enough for his family use. His pigs
are allow'ed to roam the woods " fancy free," the attractions of a home being retained in their memories
by a judicious outlay in the evenings of a little corn
and the slops of the house. The " crummey" is allowed the same latitude of range; her calf being housed
will bring her home regularly in the evening, till she
becomes accustomed to the practice, when no extra inducement is required. We have before mentioned that
the gates are often rudely constructed, consisting of a
few spars inserted in holes made in the posts at either
side. When cattle are removed from one place to
another, one or two of the top rails are removed, and
to save further trouble in this respect, the cows are (7*
Vi
140 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
made to leap the remaining ones; thus they soon acquire a bad habit of leaping. To prevent their doing
this when pastured in enclosed fields, or when grazing
at the roadside, or in the woods, to prevent their entering other property by leaping the fences, it is no
uncommon thing to see them with wooden hoops fastened round their necks. In cases where cattle are
found straying on other property, they are returned to
their owner on his paying expenses. Far West, the
love of litigation is strongly implanted in the settlers.
Such an occurrence as we have above noticed would
very likely bring on a protracted suit, resulting probably in the ruin of both parties. We need scarcely
say that this feeling, so long kept up for interested
motives by a perfect host of " cute Yankee lawyers "—
with which the Western States were much infested—
is now dying fast away,
The emigrant settler, if possessed of little capital
at first starting on his farm, often hires himself out to
others for day labour in the spring and summer. After
sowing his crops, he returns to his labour. By this
procedure, a man may find himself at the end of the
year a few dollars in pocket from the produce of his
labour, and the crop of the few acres he may have
cultivated in addition. With this money saved, he
can provide himself with many comforts. Thus alternately working on his own little farm and assisting on
others, he finds himself in a much better position than
the man who, with a small capital, say of a hundred
pounds, works continually on his own land. A party
thus working out, may also let his land for other parties to crop, either finding the seed, implements, &c ,
and receiving himself half the products, or merely
giving the use of the land (the cultivator finding his PLAN  OF HIRING  OUT. 141
own seed, &c), and receiving a proportionately less
portion of the products. This practice generally obtains in many parts of the Western States.
This plan of hiring himself out is attended with
many advantages to the settler possessed of little
capital. He acquires a knowledge of the people, their
habits and customs, mode of doing business, and last,
though not least, an acquaintance with their peculiarities of farming. In proof of the wisdom of first
attaining these before working on his own account, we
could cite many instances. One we will give, which
will be interesting. A farmer, occupying a hundred and
seventy-five acres in a beautiful part of an agricultural
state, related his experience to us. He had originally
been a small farmer in Dumfriesshire. On arriving
in America, pushing at once for the interior, he
wisely deemed it the better course to settle in the
neighbourhood of a good market, and consequently
pitched his tent near a manufacturing village. Totally
Unacquainted with the district, its people, and their
manner of doing business, he did not at once purchase
land and commence operations; he quietly waited for
a favourable opportunity. Not disdaining to work, he
hired himself and family to the cotton mill. His
leisure hours he filled up by making acquaintances,
wandering about the land, watching their mode of
operating, and always on the look out for a " bit of
ground." He had not to wait long; he saw, examined,
and pitched upon a piece of land, which he determined
to make, some time or other, his own. Canny Scotchman as he was, he did not eagerly hunt after it, or the
1 cute Yankee " would have soon raised the price ; but
apparently quite indifferent as to the whole affair, he
got  it  at  his   own  price,  and  on  remarkably   easy 142 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
terms. And now the acquaintance he had formed,
and his knowledge of the Yankee tradesmen, served
him in good stead. Judiciously blending the requisite
peculiarities of American farming with the improved
methods existing in this country, he soon changed into
a place of smiling plenty that which, by carelessness
and mismanagement, had almost become a second time
a wilderness. His farm and dairy produce fast took
the market, and he now enjoys, with plenty and comfort surrounding him, the reputation of being the best
practical farmer of his district.
The following is a note or two on the mode adopted
of clearing land in New Zealand :—
" The farmed and grazed lands of New Zealand consist of three chief sorts, namely, fern land, grass land,
and forest land.
"Pure fern land is covered with a dense luxuriant
growth of the Pteris osculenta fern, four and six feet
high, dotted with a bushy shrub called tutu, a small
palm-like tree called ti tree, a handsome, reedy, grasslike shrub called toetoe, and is best cleared in this
way:—Choosing a day (gentle breezy day) in any month,
the fern is fired to windward, when the fire, creeping
slowly through, shrivels up the shrubs, and consumes
the tops and branches of the live fern, together with
all dead bottom stuff. The charred fern stalks are then
swept down with a stub scythe, raked in ridges, and
burnt, and the tutu and other stumps grubbed up,
thrown in heaps, and burnt or carted off. The land is
then broken up six and seven inches deep, with a strong
iron plough (wrought iron share) drawn by two or three
pairs of oxen. After lying a week or two to dry and
pulverise, it is harrowed, and the fern root is then raked
up, heaped, and burnt.    A light cross ploughing is then CLEARING  OF  LAND  IN  NEW  ZEALAND. 143
given, when the soil, after lying in a kind of maiden
fallow for three or four months, will be reduced to a fine
tilth fit for crop. The expense of this process varies
from £2 to £3 and £4< per acre, according to the heaviness of the fern and tutu.
" Grass land, more abundant in the south island than
in the north, consists of coarse grasses, here and there
intermingled with scrubby fern, flat dwarf tutu, toetoe,
and ti tree. Where these intermingled shrubs grow
strong and thick they are swept down with bill-hook or
brushing bill, and burnt off; but the lighter, more open
lands of this description may be broken up and cross
ploughed at once, lie fallow a month or two, and then
receive the crop. The cost of reducing grass land to
seed state may vary from 20«s. to 40s. an acre.
" Bush land is the common forest land. Before the
spring month of September the brushwood should be
slashed down with the bill-hook, and all the trees not
exceeding three feet or so in diameter thrown by the
American axe and cross-cut saw. The fallen stuff lies
withering and drying through the summer, and is burnt
off in autumn. If the first or running fire acts well,
everything will be consumed save trunks and heavy
branches, when the latter are topped off, the trunks
rolled together, and the whole slowly burnt up in heaps.
The cost of clearing and burning off bush land, so that
grass seed or wheat may be sown on the ashes, varies
from £3 to £5 per acre. The ugly stumps remain in
the land about four years, when the smaller ones may
De torn out with a pair of good bullocks and a strong
stump chain, and the lighter lands of this description
made roughly ploughable.
" Bush land is richer soil than either fern or grass
land, and for small dairy or garden farms, where there ■f
111
144 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
is family hand labour at command, or for hop grounds,
orchards, kitchen gardens, or home paddocks, bush land
is best; while, looking at its value for timber fencing
stuff and fuel, at the shade and shelter it affords, at the
increased beauty it gives the scenery, every one in
buying a lot of land likes to have a portion of it—say a
fourth or a fifth, bush land. But the process of first
clearing and cultivating it is, comparatively, so slow
and laborious, that nine-tenths of all our agricultural
operations are as yet carried on on fern and grass
land."
The following information from an official source
will be useful as showing the cost on the average of
clearing land in the various colonies, and the peculiarities of the land therein. Fuller information will, of
course, be met with in the various volumes of the series
on the various points involved in practical farming
in the colonies :—
" Canada, West.—The cost of clearing waste lands is
stated at about 50s. per acre; the expense is, however,
greater in the remote and unsettled districts, in consequence of the difficulty of procuring labourers. The
only charge on land is a tax which seldom exceeds Id.
per acre on cultivated lands, and three-eighths of a
penny currency on wild lands.
" Canada, East.—The expense of clearing amounts to
about 50.*?. sterling, varying with the nature of the soil
and the quality of the wood. The only local charge is
that of making roads and bridges.
" New Brunswick.—The average cost of cutting and
clearing off the trees, leaving the stumps standing, is
from £3 to £4 currency (£2 14s. to £3 12s. sterling)
per acre. There are no charges exoept that for surveying, which is about 3d. per acre. CLEARING OF LAND. 145
Nova Scotia.—Woodland can be chopped, rolled, and
burned for about £3 per acre. As a general rule the
first crop pays for such clearing. There is a moderate
county tax upon all real and personal estate, the proceeds of which are applied to the county expenses.
Prince Edward Island.—The clearing expenses vary
from £2 to £4* per acre, according to the growth of the
wood upon the land. The only charges are those made
from time to time by local assessment. There is a tax
imposed by the local legislature of 9s. 2d. currency on
every 100 acres of wilderness land, 6s. Sd. currency on
every 100 acres of improved land in the possession of
individuals, 11 Vict. cap. 7. and 24 Vict. cap. 35
(29th April, 1861). This tax in 1854 amounted to
£4,921 currency, and is applied to free education.
Newfoundland.—Land may be cleared by the ordinary mode at a cost of about £5 per acre, or if the
stones are thoroughly removed, at from £6 to £6 10s.
per acre.
Cape of Good Hope.—The land generally requires
little or no clearing. Fences are seldom required.
Lands already granted are liable to a road tax, which,
however, is not levied regularly, and cannot exceed one
penny in the pound in any year.
New South Wales and South Australia.—There is
much good land, with little or no timber, and much
more, free from underwood, with timber only in such
quantities as is useful and desirable for fencing, fuel,
and country purposes. The expense of ordinary fencing
is from 3s. to 4s. per rod.
Queensland.—The average cost of cutting down and
burning off the trees, leaving the stumps of those over
two feet in diameter, is £4 per acre in the low lands,
where the timber is thicker than in the upland.    Trees
H 146 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
of smaller growth are usually "grubbed" out by digging around the roots till they can be easily overturned
by the weight of the branches, and then the roots are
drawn out,of the ground. The roots of the larger trees
are left two or three seasons, and then got rid of by an
easy and simple process called " steaming." After the
first expense of clearing this further process may be
well omitted for several years. In many localities,
especially on the lands best suited for wheat, there is
little timber, and the expense of clearing is very much
less. Generally there is enough timber of the best
description for fencing, having the double advantage of
being very durable and being easily split.
Western Australia.—Except in occasional patches of
swamp lands, the average cost of clearing is from 10s.
to £2 per acre.
Tasmania.—To "grub" land, clearing out all the
stumps, would cost from £5 to ,£12 an acre; to "clear"
it, leaving the stumps standing, from £2 to £4< an acre.
It is stated by the Governor that the value of the potash
extracted at a trifling cost from the ashes of the refuse
timber would in most instances more than cover the
cost of "clearing" the land, if not of " grubbing" it.
New Zealand.—Fern-land, 10s. to £1 10s.; woodland, £3 to £\0, according to the size of the timber.
This does not include the breaking-up of the soil.
A certain portion of land being cleared, the emigrant
has next to direct attention to the erection of his
house; this may be constructed in a variety of ways—
of logs, of " frame-work," of " pise," or " adobe." The
"shanty" and the "log-hut" are the most quickly
built of all these modes, and are therefore those usually
erected in the first instance by emigrant farmers. As
the lapse of time brings with it more leisure and greater PLAN  OF  LOG-HOUSE  OR  HUT.
147
means, he erects his dwelling-house in a more ambitious
mode.
The accommodation of the "log-house" may vary
according to the ideas of comfort which its owner may
entertain, or according to the requirements of his
family. In its simplest form it is a square room, some
14 feet or 16 feet on the side, thus—
We would strongly recommend the emigrant to err
in excess rather than in deficiency of size; better to
have too much than too little room. It should be well
lighted; thus in the diagram a second window at a
would greatly improve the hut. However well adapted
for a single unmarried man, or for a married couple
without children, the single-roomed hut may be, we
should by no means recommend its adoption where
there is a family, more especially grown-up children.
It is, we conceive, of essential importance to have
separate sleeping-rooms for the heads of the house and
• for the children, and one for each sex of the latter. In
the following diagram we give the plan of a hut with a
kitchen, which will be the sleeping-room of the parents,
with a bed-room at the back for the children. If re-
h 2
J 148 GENERAL HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
quired, another bed-room may be built, as shown by
Bed-room,
10 ft. x 10 ft.
Window. 18ft  x 14 ft Fire
Door.        ' Window.
the dotted lines at a;  or this may serve as a small
scullery or outhouse.    The following diagram is the
Bed-room,
10 ft. x 10 ft
Kitchen,
lb ft. xl8ft.
Bed-room,
10 ft. X 10 ft.
Living-room,
16 ft. xl8ft.
plan of a hut with larger ace mmodation than the last
given. FELLING  OF TIMBER. 149
For those ambitious to raise a farm-house with all
the apartments necessary for a farm from 20 up to 100
acres, it will be useful here to give a rough plan of one
designed by an American farmer.   (See following page.)
In the chamber plan there are three bed-rooms. The
following is a description of the modes of erecting the
"shanty" and the "log hut," for which we are indebted to an American work. Before giving this it will
be as well to draw the attention of the reader to the
following points. The site of the house should be
somewhat elevated; as far removed as possible from
water, and a few of the trees surrounding the site
should be left standing, but not at a distance too near
the house.
The felling of timber which is to be used for building purposes—lumber, as it is termed—should be carried
out with some care and judgment. It is a disputed point
as to what period of the year is best for cutting it down.
The American woodsmen are no exception to the rule.
The following, however, from an American journal will
be suggestive on this point:—
" Conversing with an intelligent farmer of large experience, upon this subject, we found he fully sustained
the views heretofore expressed in the Agriculturist, viz.:
that the best season for cutting timber is about midsummer. His explanation was, that during the latter
part of June and early in July, when the foliage is in
its fullest vigour, the upward draft upon the sap is so
great that very little moisture is left in the tree, consequently the timber seasons hard and sound: but that
during March and April there is so much water in the
wood, that insects bore into it readily, thus producing
'powder post' through all the sap portion, and even
into the heart wood.    He mentioned the instance of a WoodStofie,
16 ft. x 14ft.
•trr Wash-house*
v 18ft. x 10ft.
! Door;
Pig-house,
16ft,. x 12 ft.
Swill-house,
16 ft x 12 ft.
Water
cloget
Covered shed
for
firewood;
Boiler & Sink.
Wash-house-,
16ft. X lift.
W
W
W   1
1
Sink.
1
Bed-room,
1    9ft x 8ft.
I
Kitchen,
22 ft. x 15 ft
Dairy,
9 ft. X6ft.
W
jjSjg
Poreh.
Halt
!    9ft. x 6ft    3
)
Bed-room,
9,ijt. x 8ft
W
(B
B
1 —
Sitting-
left. X
15 ft.'
Central
Btove.
Parlour,
16 ft. X 15 ft
w
w
clos.
clos.
Hal),
7 ft. x9f.
D
1
Porch.
)
Win.
i BUILDING  OE THE  HOUSE. 151
neighbour who cut his timber for a house in June, but
when he came to work it out in the winter, he lacked
some ribs or slats, upon which to nail the long roof
shingles. He cut enough to supply the deficiency
during the latter part of winter, and completed the
house. After the lapse of a few years, he examined
the roof, and found the slats which were cut in summer
perfectly sound, while those cut in winter were badly
affected by dry rot and ' powder post.' Our informant
had also proved the same thing himself. He also remarked that when the object is to induce a free growth
of new shoots for a future wood or forest, he preferred
to cut in March, as the stumps sucker much more
freely then than when cut away in summer. The
latter, however, is the best season to clear off a growth
of wood; the old stumps decay sooner."
On the important point of hut and house construction, the following from a Colonial authority will be
useful, in addition to what we have said above :—
" Some will advise a house to be first built, others a
'shanty,' but the latter is so expeditiously done, and
is so much cheaper, and a comfortable house till the
emigrant gets ' acclimated,' that we consider it the
best. A shanty is built of logs cut from the felled
trees; the size of the building to be according to the
number of the family. They are to be seen from fourteen feet long and twelve broad, to eighteen feet by
fourteen feet or so; the shape as follows :—
"The roof may be covered with shingles or with
boards. Shingles are made from the pine, by cutting
a pine tree down, and then cutting it with a saw called
a ' cross-cut saw,' into lengths or blocks of eighteen
inches long (they are cut sometimes twenty-four inches
long), and these blocks are split into thin slices of GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
different breadths, but they will be about one length.
These are shoved off with a drawing knife at one end,
when the shingle is done. They are sold from one and
a-half dollars to two and a-half dollars per bunch, containing what is called one thousand shingles, of different
breadths. One thousand shingles will cover about ten
feet square of a roof, (that is equal to 100 square feet.)
They are laid on boards (and the roughest and cheapest
boards, split or sound, will do), like the slates or tiles of
the old country houses. No rain or wet will get through
them, and they answer all the purposes of the slated,
tiled, or thatched roof of a house in the old country.
But the roof of the shanty may be covered with boards.
These are put on the roof breadthways, and are got
of lengths to extend across the breadth of the roof;
and if put on two inches apart from each other, and if
the boards are twelve inches broad, will in a roof of
fourteen feet long, take only about thirteen boards,
allowing them to 'lap' over at the ends. The spaces
between each of the boards are then covered by slabs
or by narrow boards. The roof is then completed.
Slabs are the outside ' slices,' as we may term them,
which are taken off the logs at the saw-mill, in squaring
them to make straight-edged boards. These can be
got at the mill for taking them away, though sometimes
a cent is asked for each slab. The spaces between the
logs are filled in from the inside of the building by
split pieces of bass wood, cedar, or other wood which
splits easy, and this operation is called ' chinking/
On the outside of these spaces the settler then plasters
them over with mortar, being the clay mixed up with
water, and which makes a good substitute for lime.
By mixing a little sand with the mortar, it makes it
harder when dry,  and not so liable to crack.    The
Hi BUILDING  OF THE  nOUSE. 153
chimney is built at one end of the shanty, and may be
built in two ways, by split laths (split pieces of bass
wood), and then plastered over with mortar; or by
making as it were four ladders, spurs of which ten
inches or so apart, and then filling up the spaces with
what are sometimes called 'cats,' being mortar mixed
up with hay (wild meadow hay the best) or straw, and
moulded by the hand into lengths according to the
breadth of the spurs in the ladder, and these are laid
over the spurs and joined together, each succeeding
course being joined to the one below, and thus form,
when dry, a continued and solid chimney, perfectly
free from harm by the fire, which the first-described
chimney (by split pieces of wood) is not. But this,
and the fixing the windows and the door, by cutting
out the logs of the building and fitting in windows and
door casings, &c, will at once be learnt in a few hours
by an inspection by the emigrant on the spot, and by
the hints from his neighbours. If the emigrant will
spare the money, carpenters (wrights and joiners) can
be got to fix the roof, windows, door, and floor.
" If the emigrant resolves on having a house in place
of a shanty, we may state that it costs more money,
time, and labour than a shanty will. The work to be
done to a house is of the same kind as required for a
shanty, which, being described, need not be repeated.
The difference is, that the house is built up of logs to
the height of ten feet, or so, on the four sides, and
there is an upper floor, joists being put in as the building is raised. Houses vary in size from twenty feet by
sixteen or eighteen, to thirty feet long and twenty feet
wide. The roof is not a shed or shanty roof, but the
same as an ordinary house, shaped like this. When
the shanty or house is to be raised or built, the neigh-
h 3 154
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
Hi
hours are invited; and they always come willingly, for
there is not one among them but had the same done to
himself.    This is called a ' bee.'
" It may be well enough to add that elm bark makes
a good covering for the roof instead of shingles. In
the spring of the year, when the leaves are just coming
out, the bark peels off easily, and pieces as large as
two men could lift can be taken off. The bark, after
being stripped off, should be spread out flat to dry a
little. It may then be put on the roof in strips of four
or five feet in length, and as wide as the bark will
allow. It should then be pinned down with hemlock
or maple pieces. An auger will be necessary to make
the pin holes true, so that they shall not leak."
The following shows the difference in the form of
the roofs of a log shanty and a log house.    The roof of
a shanty slopes only one way, the front wall being
lower than the back; while the roof of the house slopes
equally in both directions, the front and back walls
being both of the same height.
Building in pise is worthy the attention of the emigrant, who may settle in localities where timber is
scarce. This mode consists simply in running very
closely together loose earth or soil, which is placed in
a temporary mould or frame, the breadth of which is
equal to the thickness of the walls, and the depth of PISE HOUSES. 155
which may vary from fourteen to thirty inches—the
former being the most convenient. The wall is formed
by successive shiftings of this mould: as soon as, one
filling and ramming of it is completed the mould is
taken to pieces and moved, so as to make a higher part
of the wall; the frame or mould, while being filled and
rammed, rests upon beams, which rest transversely
across the part of the wall already built, and which
are taken out as the height increases, the holes left in
the wall by them being afterwards filled up. Any kind
of soil or earth—save and except pure clay, which
cracks, and pure sand, which will not adhere—may be
used for pise" building. Care should be taken to ram
the soil in the moulds very equably.
Huts may be built of unburnt brick—a modification
of the pise mode—which, somewhat strange as it may
seem, is a material which lasts for a very long period,
all that is necessary being a widely overhanging roof,
so as to prevent the drip of the rain passing down the
walls. The size of the bricks for this kind of building
should be about twice that of ordinary bricks—say
18 inches long by 8 inches broad, and 6 inches thick.
The following note as to the durability of this species
of building will be useful here :—
" For something more than eight years of my life I
lived in an adobe house. It was in a little old-fashioned
town in the farthest out-of-the way corner of the Brazilian empire, where it was just a pleasant walk of an
evening into Paraguay on the one hand, and Aruguay
on the other. The village of Iquarao was built in an
early day, and every building in it was of mud. The
house I inhabited was a large, airy, two-storied structure; and if the inscription in alto relievo over the
principal entrance was to be relied on, that great mud I
156 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
castle had stood there intact more than two hundred
years; the declaration, in very bad Portuguese, reading
thus—'7sso Cassa he fazenda con Joaquim Braga, ha
Anno 1629.' Notwithstanding the house stood on a
foundation of loose sand, where water could always be
obtained in the court-yard at three feet from the surface, yet it stood there without a fracture or crack in
its walls, either externally or internally, and bid fair,
for all I could discover, to stand there eternally.
" Directly opposite, on the other side of the Plaza
Grande, stood the Egrazia de San Jose, one of the
largest churches in the country, built also of mud, even
to the battlements, turrets, and belfries, occupied by
two chimes of Jesuitical bells, bearing the same date as
my house, and in equally as perfect a state of preservation.
" In regard to the manufacture of the adobe brick
there is no rule that can be invariably followed, as the
quality of clay in all countries varies so materially. I
would observe, however, that clear, blue, sticky clay
will not make adobe. The lighter in colour the clay
is, so that it is not loamy, the better the material. The
clay, however, should be as free as possible from pebbles
and bits of stone. In the manufacture, it requires
about one-third the sand usually incorporated with
burnt bricks, and requires to be mixed thoroughly, and
something stiffer. The usual size, in all adobe countries, is superficially about double that of our ordinary
bricks, but nothing -thicker. The adobe, of course, requires more care in handling than the burnt material,
and the walls should be laid double the thickness, using
for mortar the same material of which the bricks are
made, only thinning it to a consistency that can be
easily worked.    A wall properly laid in this manner, UNBURNT BRICK HOUSES. 157
a
and covered with two good coats (equal in thickness to
ordinary inside plastering), composed of equal parts of
lime, clear, sharp sand, and plaster of Paris, will in a
year become perfectly concrete; and, in my opinion,
thus protected, will last five times as long as a wall
built of burned bricks, laid in lime mortar, and is certainly a great deal cheaper in all countries where the
sun shines."
The following from a Colonial Report will show the
mode of erecting unburnt brick houses, as adopted in the
Western States of America :—
" After selecting a suitable spot of ground, as near
the place of building as practicable, let a circle of ten
feet or more be described. Let the loam be removed,
and the clay dug up one foot thick ; or if clay is not to
be found on the spot, let it be carted in to that depth.
Any ordinary clay will answer. Tread this clay over
with cattle, and add some straw cut six or eight inches
long. After the clay is well tempered by working it
with cattle, the material is duly prepared for making
the brick. A mould is then formed of plank of the
size of the brick desired. In England they are usually
made eighteen inches long, one foot wide, and nine
inches thick. The mould should have a bottom. The
clay is then placed in the mould in the same manner
that brick moulds are ordinarily filled. A wire or
piece of iron hoop will answer very well for striking
off the top. One man will mould about as fast as
another can carry away, two moulds being used by
him. The bricks are placed upon the level ground,
where they are suffered to dry two days, turning them
up edgewise the second day; and then packed in a pile,
protected from the rain, and left to dry ten or twelve
days, during which time the foundation of the building 158 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
can be prepared. If a cellar is desired, this must be
formed of stone or brick, one foot above the surface of
the ground. For cheap buildings on the prairie, wood
sills twelve or fourteen inches wide may be laid on
piles or stones. This will form a good superstructure.
Where lime and small stones abound, grout made of
these materials (lime and stones) will answer very
well.
" In all cases, however, before commencing the walls
for the first story it is very desirable, as well in this
case as in walls of brick, to lay a course of slate; this
will intercept the dampness so often rising in the walls
of brick houses. The wall is laid by placing the brick
length-wise, thus making the wall one foot thick.
Ordinary clay, such as is used for clay mortar, will
suffice, though a weak mortar of sand and lime, when
these articles are cheap, is recommended as affording a
more adhesive material for the plaster. The wall may
safely be carried up one story, or two or three stories;
the division walls may be seven inches, just the width
of the brick. The door and window frames being
inserted as the wall proceeds, the building is soon
raised. The roof may be shingles or thatch. In either
case it should project over the sides of the house, and
also over the ends, at least two feet, to guard the walls
from vertical rains. The exterior wall is plastered with
good lime mortar, and then with a second coat—pebble
dashed. The inside is plastered without dashing. The
floors may be laid with oak boards, slit, five or six
inches wide, and laid down without jointing or planing,
if they are rubbed over with a rough stone after the
rooms are finished. Doors of a cheap and neat appearance may be made by taking two single boards of the
length or width of the doors; placing these vertically
Hii UNBURNT BRICK  HOUSES. 159
they will fill the space. Put a wide batten on the
bottom and a narrow one on the top, with strips on the
side and a strip in the middle. This door will be a
batten door, but presenting two long panels on one
side and a smooth surface on the other. If a porch or
verandah is wanted, it may be roofed with boards laid
with light joints, and, covered with a thick paper
dipped in tar, and then adding a good coat, after
sprinkling it with sand from a sand-box or other dish
with small holes.
" Houses built in this way are dry, warm in winter,
and cool in summer, and furnish no retreats for vermin.
Such houses can be made by common labourers—if a
little carpenter's work is excepted—in a very short
time, with a small outlay for materials, exclusive of
floors, windows, doors, and roof.
" The question wall naturally arise—Will the wall
stand against the rain and frost ? I answer, they
have stood well in Europe, and the Hon. Mr. Painsett
remarked to me that he had seen them in South
America after having been erected 300 years. Whoever has noticed the rapid absorption of water by a
brick that has been burned will not wonder why brick
wralls are damp. The burning makes the brick porous,,
while the unburnt brick is less absorbent; but it is not
proposed to present the unburnt brick to the weather.
Whoever has erected a building with merchantable
brick will at once perceive the large number of soft
and yellow brick, partially burned, that it contains—•
brick that would soon yield to the mouldering influence
of frost and storms. Such brick are, however, placed
within, beyond the reach of rain, and always kept dry.
A good cabin is made by a single room, twenty feet
square.   A better one is eighteen feet wide and twenty- m
160 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
four feet long, cutting off eight feet on one end for
two small rooms, eight by eight each.
" How easily could a settler erect such a cabin on
the Western prairie, where clay is usually found about
fifteen inches below the surface, and where stone and
lime are often both very cheap. The article of brick
for chimneys is found to be quite an item of expense
in wood houses. In these mud houses no brick is
needed, except for the top of the chimney, the oven,
and casing of the fire-place—though this last might be
well dispensed with. A cement to put around the
chimneys, or to fill any other crack, is easily made by
a mixture of one part of sand, two of ashes, and three
of clay. This soon hardens, and will resist the weather.
A little lard or oil may be added to make the composition still harder.
" Such a cottage will be as cheap as a log cabin, less
expensive than pise buildings, and durable for centuries.
I have tried the experiment in this city by erecting a
building eighteen by fifty-four feet, two stories high,
adopting the different suggestions now made. Although
many doubted the success of the undertaking, all now
admit it has been very successful, and presents a convenient and comfortable building that appears well to
public view, and offers a residence combining as many
advantages as a stone, brick, or wood house presents."
An ice-house is an important construction of the
farm-house in the United States and the British possessions of North America. The drainage of the house
is of the utmost importance; unless this is attended
to, the ice will be sure to melt. The following remarks
on the subject of ice-houses will be useful here. As
we have said above, the drainage is very important;
and, according to this writer, it must be so arranged 1
ICE HOUSES. 161
"that the water shall immediately pass off as the "ice
melts, and must at the same time prevent the cold air,
which settles downward, from passing off also, else the
warm air will flow in from above, and the current thus
produced will melt the ice rapidly. The size of the
vault must be large enough to hold a good supply, and
to keep a cold mass large enough to prevent access
of warmth to the inner portions. Six or seven feet
square is as small as will answer. The sawdust should
surround the ice a foot in thickness, either in the exterior and permanent walls of the ice-house, or within
the walls, or both. The ice must be sawed in blocks
of uniform size, so as to be packed in a solid mass.
Ventilation of the upper part of the house is essential,
to prevent heating. Sawdust may be applied so thick
or copiously as to heat and do injury. An unmatched
board bottom, with the small cracks between the boards
to allow the escape of water, and then six or eight
inches of sawdust, we have found to make good drainage. The sawdust must be packed even and solid—ice
is often rapidly lost by the sawdust being too loose,
and admitting currents of warm air as the cold air
flows out below. An ice-house above ground is best,
is more accessible in every respect, and may be far
more easily filled. It is usual to make simply double
board walls, with a space of ten inches or a foot, filled
with well-rammed tan or sawdust; in wrhich case a few
inches of sawdust inside the walls, and surrounding
the ice, will be sufficient. But we have seen ice kepfc
in the best manner packed in nothing but a board
shanty, without double walls, care being taken to pack
a wall of sawdust a foot thick on every side. For a
family of about eight persons we have an abundant
supply of ice furnished by means of a house 8 feet by rFF
162 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
10 outside (8 feet high), and 6 by 8 feet inside. It
has two double doors, one for entering above when the
vault is nearly full, and the other lower down, for
passing in when it is nearly empty. Three or four
loads of ice will fill it."
The exterior and interior of the farmer's house should
be whitewashed. The following is a mode of making
a whitewash used in the colonies:—
" Take half a bushel of rock lime; slack it with boiling water; cover it during the process to keep in the
steam. Strain the liquid through a fine sieve, and add
to it a peck of salt, previously well dissolved in warm
water; three pounds of ground rice, boiled to a thin
paste and stirred in boiling hot; half a pound of powdered Spanish whiting and a pound of clean glue, which
has been previously dissolved by soaking it well and
then hanging it over a slow fire, in a small kettle within
a large one filled with water. Add five gallons of hot
water to the mixture, stir it well, and let it stand a few
days, covered from the dirt.
"It should be put on right hot; for this purpose it
can be kept in a kettle on a portable furnace. About
a pint of this mixture will cover a square yard on the
outside of a house, if properly applied. It answers as
well as oil paint for wood, brick, or stone, and is
cheaper. It retains its brilliancy for many years.
There is nothing that will compare with it, either for
inside or outside walls.
" Colouring matter may be put in, and made of any
shade you like. Spanish brown stirred in will make
red pink, more or less deep according to the quantity.
Yellow ochre stirred in makes yellow-wash, but chrome
goes further, and makes a colour generally esteemed
prettier.    In all these cases the darkness of the shades
I CHEAP  PAINTS. 163
of course is determined by the quantity of colouring
used.
" When walls have been badly smoked, and you wish
them to have a clear white, it is well to squeeze indigo
plentifully through a bag into the water you use, before
it is stirred in the whole mixture. If a larger quantity
than five gallons be wanted, the same proportion should
be observed."
The following recipe for a cheap paint, also used in
the colonies, will be useful:—
" In the first place take some fine oil meal, mix it
with cold water; then put it on the stove, and keep
stirring till it boils. Then reduce it to the desired
thickness with wrarm water. If you wish it white, stir
in whiting, or any colour you like. Apply with a
brush, the same as paint. It fills the pores in the
wood, so that after two coats it will cost no more to
paint an old building than it would a new one. It
penetrates the wood, and does not peel off like whitewash. It is never safe *to paint over whitewash. It
will last a number of years, as the oily nature of the
meal keeps it from washing."
Coal tar is also used for painting; it is especially
valuable for old buildings. The following, as to its
utility, is from a correspondent of an American agricultural journal: —
" Having had some experience in such matters, I
would say coal tar is the cheapest, the most durable,
and the best-looking paint for old buildings, in the
market—especially if painted white around the doors
and windows, the barge-boards and corners of the
building with white lead. It gives the building quite
a tasty appearance, and at less than half the cost than
if painted with any kind of oil paint. 1W
164 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
" As to the cost I will give you my experience, as I
have two barns, one 38 by 40 feet, the other 28 by 44
feet, waggon-house 26 by 51 feet, with several other
small buildings, such as hog-house, wood-house, smokehouse, &c. I used two barrels of coal tar in giving
them two coats, which they should always have to give
them a handsome, glossy appearance. The tar needs
no preparation, but use it just as it comes in the barrel,
cold, putting it on with a large round brush. I also
used about fifty pounds of white lead and three gallons
of oil. The white lead should always be painted first, '
before the tar. The labour of putting on was ten days,
at 1 dollar 25 cents per day.
RECAPITULATION.
Dols. Cents.
2 barrels tar, at & dols. 50 cents per barrel .    .      7    00
50 lbs. white lead, as 8 cents per lb 4    00
3 gallons oil, at 70 cents 2    10
10 days labour, at 1 dol. 25 cents  .....    12    50
Total 25    60
Making 25 dollars 60 cents, #which is certainly cheap
enough, and which will last and look good for twenty
years."
The following notes will show the probable expense
of erecting a hut or house in the various colonies :—
"New South Wales.— Agricultural labourers are
generally provided with dwellings, rent free, by their
employers.
" Victoria.—Very few country dwellings are in course
of erection. Country labourers are always provided
with dwellings, rent free, by their employers.
" Western Australia.—About £20.
"South Australia.—From j620 to £60. Country
labourers are provided with dwelling-houses, rent free
by their employers. ENCLOSING   AND  FENCING   OF  LAND. 165
B Tasmania.—A hut fit for a labourer £10 to £15 ;
a slab hut in the bush, for shepherds, for £5; in the
towns, a building of brick or stone for £20 or £25.
"New Zealand.—In the country, cottages built of
'raupo' (the native rush) can be put up for from £5 to
£10, which can be made very comfortable, and quite
impervious to the weather; but, from their inflammable
nature, thy are not allowed in the towns. In the towns,
a weather-boarded cottage of two rooms can be built
for about £40 or £50, or one can be rented for from
- 86*. to 10s. per week.
" Expense of Erecting a Log-hut.—The cost of a log-
hut, such as settlers usually erect, may be stated at
from about £5 to £12; but when the chief part of the
work is performed by the emigrant himself, the cost is
much less. These huts, if properly constructed, are
very warm and comfortable.
"Vancouver's Island.—The expense of erecting a
suitable dwelling for an agricultural labourer may be
estimated at from £25 to £30.
" The rent of a town lodging for mechanics and
labourers is about 14s. per week."
Fencing of Land.—Where timber is abundant, the
long, comparatively thin, branches of trees may be used
for erecting fences, or the larger timber split up into
rails. The length of the branches or the rails should
be from twelve to fourteen feet; they are usually laid
zig-zag fashion, thus—
1
the support required being given by the different lengths
interlocking with one another.  This fence may be built 166 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
up to any height, and the whole may be rendered more
secure by fixing in vertical poles at the points a, b, and
c, &c. A correspondent of an American paper has the
following, describing a cheap fence, which has, he says,
" the advantage of taking up but little room, as the
rails are laid nearly straight. It is made as follows:—
Take your rails and place stones near where the rails
lap—then drive two stakes, five feet long, one on each
side, and lay up your rails until the third one—then
take wire and fasten the stakes together—then lay up
your rails to the desired height, and fasten wire across
the top of the stakes close to the upper rails, and your
fence is complete, making a large saving of land.
" Crotches three feet long, sharpened and driven in
the ground, then staked and ridered, make a quick,
cheap fence, suitable to keep cattle, &c, out of growing
sprouts."
The emigrant intending to carry out farming as a
pursuit should, if possible, provide himself with a
"barometer." The following, as to its utility as
a weather guide, how it acts as such, and the mode
of ascertaining its indications, will be useful.
" The Barometer as a Weather Guide.
" If the air always remained at rest, and equally
dry and warm, the pressure would be uniform, and the
column of mercury would remain at the same height
in all localities at the same elevation above the sea
level. The greatest cause of variation, however, is the
change in pressure produced by winds. If a current
of wind set towards a particular point, of course the air
will be compressed, and even heaped up, at that point,
and as a consequrence it will press the column of
mercury higher at that point, while the mercury would WEATHER  RULES. 167
sink down at those places where the amount and
pressure of the air are lessened by the amount drawn
off by the wind. The reader-will here see one reason
why the barometer invariably falls just before a heavy
wind-storm- the air is drawn away from us by the
storm at a little distance; the pressure is less, and
the barometer falls. This is an important feature of
the barometer; it foretells with no little accuracy what
kind of weather may be looked for.
" The reasons for all the changes in the barometer
are not fully understood; hut long-continued observations have given us several general rules for judging
of the kind of weather that may be expected to follow
certain indications of the barometer. Each country
and district has usually some peculiar atmospherical
conditions of its„own, and every possessor of a barometer
will soon learn to note its variations, and after a time
he will come to look to the indications of his instrument
with considerable confidence.    We give here some
" General Rules for Observing the Barometer.
" 1. After a continuance of dry weather, if the
barometer begins to fall slowly and steadily, rain will
certainly ensue; but if the fine weather has been of
long duration, the mercury may fall for two or three
days before any perceptible change takes place, and the
longer the time that elapses before the rain comes, the
longer the wet weather is likely to last.
" 2. Conversely, if after a great deal of wet weather,
with the barometer below its mean height, the mercury
begins to rise steadily and slowly, fine weather will
come, though two or three wet days may first elapse;
and the fine weather will be more permanent in pro- 168 GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
portion to the length of time that passes before the
perceptible change takes place.
" 3. On either of the two foregoing suppositions, if
the change immediately ensues on the motion of the
mercury, the change will not be permanent.
" 4. If the barometer rise slowly and steadily for
two days together, or more, fine weather will come,
though for those two days it may rain incessantly, and
the reverse; but if the barometer rise for two days or
more during rain, and then on the appearance of fine
weather begins to fall again, that fine weather will be
very transient, and vice versa.
" 5. A sudden fall of the barometer in the spring or
autumn indicates wind; in the summer, during very
hot weather, a thunder-storm may be expected; in
winter, a sudden fall after frost of some continuance
indicates a change of wind, with thaw and rain; but
in a continued frost, a rise of the mercury indicates
approaching snow.
" 6. No rapid fluctuations of the barometer are to be
interpreted as indicating either dry or wet weather of
any continuance; it is only the slow, steady, and continued rise or fall that is to be attended to in this
respect.
"7. A rise in the mercury late in the autumn, after
a long continuance of wet and windy weather, generally
indicates a change of wind to the northern quarters,
and the approach of frost.
" Let it be noted that the above rules do not require
the barometer to stand at any particular point to indicate wind or rain; it is the rising or falling of the
mercury that is to govern the predictions as to the
weather. A rise or fall from 29 inches indicates the same
thing as a similar rise or fall from 30 inches.    Hence
1 RULES FOR OBSERVING  THE  BAROMETER. 169
the fixed marks 'rain/ 'wind,' 'clear weather,' &c,
found upon many of the barometers hitherto made,,
are worse than useless—they are deceptive, and have
done more than anything else to discredit this useful
instrument.
"A Rising Barometer.
"A 'rapid' rise indicates unsettled weather.
" A ' gradual' rise indicates settled weather.
" A ' rise,' with dry air and cold increasing, in
summer, indicates wind from northward; and if rain
has fallen, better weather is to be expected.
" A ' rise/ with a moist air and a low temperature,
indicates wind and rain from northward.
" A ' rise,' with southerly rains, indicates fine
weather.
"A Steady Barometer,
With dry air and a seasonable temperature, indicates a
continuance of very fine weather.
" A Falling Barometer.
" A ' rapid' fall indicates stormy weather.
" A 'rapid' fall, with westerly wind, indicates stormy
weather from northward.
" A ' fall/ with a northerly wind, indicates storm,
with rain and hail in summer, and snow in winter.
"A 'fall/ with increased moisture in the air, and
the heat increasing, indicates wind and rain from
southward.
| A ' fall/ with dry air and cold increasing, in winter,
indicates snow.
"A 'fall/ after very calm and warm weather, indicates rain with squally weather."
I I
170 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
The following curious account is from the London
Farmers3 Magazine for July, 1860 :—
" The Leech as a Weather-Glass. — The following
observatidns on a leech were made by a gentleman
who kept one several years for the above purpose:—
'A phial of water, containing a leech, was kept in the
lower frame of a chamber window sash, so that when
I looked in the morning I could tell what would be
the weather on the following day. If the weather
proves serene and beautiful, the leech lies motionless
at the bottom of the glass, and rolled together in a
spiral form. If it rains before afternoon, it is found to
have crept up to the top of its lodging, and there remains
till the weather has settled. If we are to have wind,
the poor prisoner gallops through its limpid habitation
with amazing swiftness, and seldom rests till it begins
to blow hard. If a remarkable storm of thunder and
rain is to succeed, for some days before it lodges almost
continually out of the water, and discovers uneasiness
in violent throes and convulsive motions. In the frost,
as in clear weather, it lies at the bottom; and in snow,
as in rainy weather, it pitches its dwelling upon the
very mouth of the phial. The leech was kept in an
ounce phial, about three-fourths filled with water. In
the summer the water was changed once a week, and
in the winter once a fortnight.' "
Mil i
HOUSEHOLD  HINTS. 171
CHAPTER IX.
MISCELLANEOUS   REMARKS :    HOUSEHOLD   AND   MEDICAL
RECEIPTS.
In this chapter we give a variety of hints which are
likely to be of practical utility to the emigrant settler
and families. Although not arranged with regard to any
special order, they are all made to bear closely upon
the daily life and labour of the emigrant's farm or
household occupations. While some have been written
or specially prepared for this work, the majority of the
paragraphs have been culled from works, home and
colonial, written in close connection with the subject of
our volume.
Household Hints.
To make Bread with Brewers3 Barm.—Procure the
barm the day before you bake, pour upon it half a
pint of water, stir it well, and set in a cool place;
before using, pour off all the clear liquid, leaving only
the thick of the barm in the vessel; by this means,
any bitterness which it might have will be removed.
An ordinary sized teacupful of this barm will " raise "
or ferment a dozen or fifteen pounds of flour. Put
the flour in a " mug " or a large bowl, and for the
above-named quantity mix in a large handful of salt;
then make a hole in the centre, and pour in a quart
of water as warm as new milk; stir this in the flour
till of the consistency of thick butter; then put the
barm, adding more water, and mixing into a moderately stiff dough, kneading it with both hands till all
the flour is thoroughly worked in; then cover with a
clean cloth, and allow to stand upon the dresser, table, If
172 GENERAL hints to EMIGRANTS.
or chair, out of any draught, till it has risen; then cut
in pieces suitable for the size of the bread tins, which are
to be well greased ; knead up the pieces of dough in a
neat form, and put them in the tins, allowing it to rise
again before putting in the oven. Prick a few times with
a fork before putting in the oven. A two-pound loaf
will take from an hour to an hour and twenty minutes
to bake, according to the heat of the oven. To know
when the bread is sufficiently baked, it should feel light
in the hand, and move quite easily in the tin; then
turn it out and let the loaves stand, with the tops down,
upon the dresser till cooled ; by so doing, it prevents
the top of the loaf from being loose when cut into,
which is sometimes the case, spoiling the look of the
loaf, and involving a waste of bread.
Other Recipes for Bread-making.
" Put half a bushel of flour into a trough and make
a deep hole in the middle, and stir into it half a pint of
yeast mixed with a pint of soft warm water, working
it round the hole so as to bring the flour into it by
degrees to form a thin batter, which must be stirred
about well for a minute or two; then sprinkle a handful of flour over the batter so as to hide it, cover a
cloth over the trough to keep out the air, and set before
the fire to rise. Hot or cold weather must guide the
distance from the fire. When the batter has risen to
cause cracks in the flour that covered it, you begin
to form the whole mass into dough, first sprinkling a
quarter of a pound of salt over; when the whole is
sufficiently moist you kneed it well. This is one of the
principal parts of bread-making; for unless the dough
is well worked, there will be little lumps of flour in the
loaves, and, through not being well mixed, some parts
Hi BREAD-MAKING. 173
will be close and others with large holes; the fists
must go heavily into it. It must be rolled over, pressed
out, and repeated again and again, until it be completely mixed. The dough requires to be stiffer for
cottage bread than for loaves baked in tins. The time
of baking depends on the sizes of loaf and oven."—
Cobbetfs Cottage Economy.
The Noted Willesden Bread.—" To two quarterns of
flour, mix two ounces of German yeast in half a pint
of warm water, to form a batter in the middle of the
flour, covering it over as directed in previous receipt; a
tablespoonful of salt will be sufficient, and about three
pints of water, taking care to work the dough well.
If brewers' yeast is used, a small teacupful will be
sufficient."
An American authoress says:—"As for bread-making,
I don't know what should prevent any woman from
making good bread by attending to the following. Get
a teacupful of yeast to start with. In the evening peel
three or four potatoes, which put in a pot and cover
with water; add a tablespoonful of salt and a heaping
tablespoonful of hops tied in a cloth. When the potatoes
are cooked, pour off the liquid on a little corn meal or
flour; mash up the potatoes fine, and, while warm, stir
yeast, scalded flour, and mashed potatoes together;
add a little warm water and flour, having in all about
three pints; cover up and keep in a warm place till
morning, when you will find a nice light sponge; or if
it has got chilled, set it in a pan of warm water, not
too hot to hold your hand in, which keep warm, and
it will soon come; then mix up, adding warm water
and flour, according to the number of loaves you want.
Knead it well (this is a very important part, and the
non-observance of it is the reason of so much poor 174 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
bread in the West). Set it in your bake-pan or though,
cover up warm, and when light enough work over
slightly and put into your pans. Last, and not least,
have dry wood to bake with."
Unfermented Bread.—" To two pounds of good strong
flour mix eighty grains (or a teaspoonful) of pure carbonate of soda (a tablespoonful of potato flour will
much improve this bread); the quantity of water must
be a full pint, in which must be mixed eighty drops (or a
teaspoonful) of muriatic acid. It must then be regularly
worked in the flour as quickly as possible; a wooden
spoon is most suitable for mixing this dough. It should
not be longer than two or three minutes mixing. Divide
it into two, and put instantly into the oven. Tin hoops
or cake-moulds are most suitable for this bread."—By
an Old Maker.    Family Herald, No. 81.
Bread.—" Seven pounds of the meal of Iceland moss,
boiled in fourteen times its weight of water, and made
into dough by mixing it with sixty pounds of wheaten
flour, will, when baked, produce one hundred and twelve
pounds of household bread."
" Bread from Unbolted Flour.—Take a pint of sour
milk with a spoonful or two of cream or buttermilk if you
have it. Add salt and a tablespoonful of sugar (if you
like it sweetened;) then stir in the flour, without sifting, of course, until it forms a very stiff batter. Add a
small teaspoonful of soda. Bake it in shallow pans with
a quick fire, and you will have as light and wholesome a
breakfast cake as you can desire.
" And here let me add that I think this flour makes
better griddle cakes than buckwheat.
" For bread I think it is best made on a fine flour
foundation, that is, when your white bread is ready to
mould, but before any flour is added, take out enough BREAD-MAKING. 175
for one loaf, and add to it one or two spoonfuls of molasses and as much cold water ; work these thoroughly,
or the bread will be striped; then stir in as much
unbolted flour as you can ; but do not mould it. Let
it stand to rise with the white loaves; it will not appear
to rise as they do, but will be ready for the oven at the
same time."—American Paper.
"Potato Rolls.—Take fine large potatoes. Boil,
peel, and mash them. Then rub the mashed potato
through a sieve. To each potato allow a pint of sifted
flour, a tablespoonful of strong fresh yeast, a gill of
milk-warm water, salt-spoon of salt, the yolk of an egg,
and a bit of fresh butter about the size of a large hickory
nut. Mix together in a large broad pan the flour, the
mashed potato, and the salt. Make a hole in the
centre of the mixture, and pour into it the yeast mixed
with the warm water. Sprinkle a little flour over the
top, and mix in a little from round the sides of the
hole. Cover it with a clean towel, and over that a
flannel, and set it near to the fire to rise. When the
dough is quite light, and cracked all over the surface,
knead in the butter and also the yolks of eggs, having
beaten them well, and add a small teaspoonful of soda
dissolved in a little warm water. Then divide the
dough into equal parts, make it into long-shaped rolls,
and lay them in a tin or iron pan sprinkled with flour.
Cover them, and again set them to rise in a warm place.
When perfectly light (which should be in about an
hour), set the pan into the oven, and bake the rolls
brown. They are best when quite fresh. Pull them
open with your fingers, and eat them with butter."
"Indian Bread.—One quart of buttermilk or sour
milk, two quarts sweet milk, one cup of molasses, tablespoonful saleratus, a little salt, one pint of rye or wheat
ii GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
flour—stir in Indian meal until thick as for Johnny Cake,
This is sufficient for a five-quart pan. The best way to
cook it is to set the pan of bread in a dinner-pot two-
thirds full of boiling water, cover with a large pan, and
let your bread steam three hours, then place in a moderate oven for two hours."
" Bread, and what to do with it.—In some families
there is always an accumulation of pieces of bread, and
a good deal of ingenuity is necessary to prevent waste.
If bread is good, and proper care is taken, such a thing
as a plate of dry pieces is needless. Some families
never have them. But for the benefit of those who,
from any cause, cannot always prevent it, the following
modes for making good use of pieces are suggested. A
bread pudding is easily made, by boiling the pieces in
milk. You can make as rich a pudding as you choose, by
adding sugar, eggs,, suet, spice, and raisins; or as plain a
one, putting no sugar, two eggs, and a few sliced apples
to a quart of milk, and boil or bake it. Make crumb
cakes of some of the pieces. Boil a dish of others in
milk for breakfast. If you are cooking meat that
requires or admits of a stuffing, soften crusts with a
very little boiling water, add butter, herbs, and a beaten
egg. In summer, when bread becomes mouldy from
long keeping, lay the pieces which cannot be used
immediately upon a tin and dry them in the oven; they
are as good pounded for pudding and crumb cakes as
before drying, and as nice to dress a ham as cracker
crumbs. Nice pieces of bread are good in pan pie, and
also in stewed tomato.
" It is a good way to have a small hoard upon which
to slice bread, and brush the crumbs from it into a box
or dish kept for the purpose. Such things may seem
of little consequence, but the beneficial influence  of
Mjy^ YEAST-MAKING.
economical habits is not limited to the actual value of
the amount saved."
Receipts for Making Yeast.
(1.) " Boil two handfuls of hops (1 oz.) in a gallon of
water until it is reduced to half a gallon ; then strain it
off through a hair sieve, and pour it boiling hot on half
a quartern of flour, stirring well all the time, mix in two
tablespoonfuls of moist sugar; when luke-warm add half
a pint of old yeast to quicken, keeping it in a warm
place while making.
" If no old yeast is at hand, half a pint of old ale will
answer to quicken, or an ounce of German yeast.
" When made, reserve half a pint by bottling, and
keep it in a cool place for your next making."
(2.) " For the following recipe, which introduces
potatoes as an excellent leaven for making wheaten
bread, a patent was obtained by the inventor (Mr.
Richard Tillyer Blunt), which is now expired. The following is copied from the original specification in the
Patent Office, London:—'To make a yeast-gallon of
this composition, such yeast-gallon containing eight
beer quarts, boil, in common water, eight pounds of
potatoes, as for eating; bruise them perfectly smooth,
and mix with them, while warm, two ounces of fine
honey, and one beer-quart of common yeast. For
making bread, mix three beer-pints of the above composition with a bushel of flour, using warm water in
making the bread; the water to be warmer in winter
than in summer, and the composition to be used in a
few hours after it is made; and so soon as the sponge,
or the mixture of the composition with the flour begins
to fall the first time, the bread should be made and put
into the oven.'
I 3
177 I
178
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
"From the above date was introduced the system
still in use amongst bakers, of making a ferment with
potatoes for raising dough, instead of what was termed
quarter-sponges."
(3.) "The following is a good substitute for brewers3
yeast, and will be found practically useful:—Boil one
ounce of hops in four quarts of water, until the hops
fall to the bottom of the pan ; strain it, and when milk-
warm add six ounces of flour and five of sugar; set the
mixture by the fire, stirring it frequently; in forty-
eight hours add four pounds of potatoes, boiled and
bruised fine ; next day bottle the yeast—it will keep a
month. One-fourth of yeast and three of warm water
is the proportion for baking."
(4.) " Persons who are in the habit of making their
own bread can easily manufacture their own yeast by
attending to the following directions:—Boil one pound
of good flour, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, and
a little salt, in two gallons of water for an hour : when
milk-warm, bottle and cork it close, and it will be fit
for use in twenty-four hours. One pound of this yeast
will make eighteen pounds of bread."—J. Mc I., Hillsborough, in Gardeners3 Chronicle.
(5.) " To remove the bitterness from yeast produced
from highly hopped beer, put a glowing (red hot) lump
of charcoal, about the size of a large hen's egg, in say a
pint of bitter yeast, and after giving the yeast a good
stir, strain it through a fine horse-hair sieve, when it
will become perfectly palatable."—Gardeners3 Chronicle.
Potato Pie.—When what may be called the available meat is taken from ribs or sirloins of beef at the
table, there remains much on the bones that will make
a good dinner by using it as follows:—Pare the meat
off the bones, break the latter and put them in a pan,
mil COOKING OF VARIOUS DISHES. 179
cover with water and boil for several hours, replacing
the water as it wastes, taking care not to have much
•more than half a pint of gravy in the pan when required. Pare and well wash nearly as many potatoes
as the family will require. Make a paste of flour and
dripping, a little salt, sufficient to cover the dish to be
used; roll out a part of the paste and cut into narrow
strips, wet the edge of the dish and put on the strips of
paste; cut the potatoes in bits and put in the dish,
which should be a deep one; season to taste, with
pepper and salt; cut the meat in small pieces, and put
it on the top of the potatoes; put in a teacupful of
the gravy from the bones; roll out the remainder of the
paste the size of the dish; wet the strips round the edge,
and put on the cover, pressing down with the thumb
to make the two adhere together; pare the paste
neatly off round the edge of the dish. Make a ball
the size of half an egg with what is pared off, cut half
way through to form a cross, fix on the top in the
centre, bake in a brisk oven an hour or longer according
to size, taking care the paste does not get burnt. When
baked cut the cross neatly out, and pour in the gravy
by means of a sauce-boat; replace the cross and send to
table. If the flavour of an onion is liked, one can be
peeled and shred fine, and added at the time the pie is
being made.
" Sheep3s Head and Barley Broth.—Take a sheep's
head, wash it well, cut out the tongue, take the
brains and put them in salt and water for an hour;
put the head and tongue in a pan with five quarts
of water; add half a pound of Scotch barley well
washed (to take off the musty taste), three carrots,
three turnips, three onions (all cut in small pieces), and
i f a bunch of sweet herbs; let it boil two hours; half an GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
hour before the time be expired add a good spoonful of
oatmeal mixed with a pint of water to thicken it. There
ought to be a gallon of good broth. Boil and chop the
brains, add to them a little of the broth, dried sage,
pepper, and salt, which with the tongue will be an addition to the head, and dine four persons."
" Take two pounds of Loin of Mutton, cut off the fat,
and dissolve it in the oven to make paste for pies; take
the lean mutton, and put it in a pan with three half-
pints of water; add pepper and salt, three large carrots,
three turnips, three onions (all cut in pieces), and a
bunch of sweet herbs tied together; cover well up, and
stew for one hour and a half; take out the herbs."
" Suet Dumpling.—One pound of flour, six ounces of
suet chopped fine, mixed with cold water to a very light
paste ; put in a floured cloth, tie up, and boil one hour
and a half."
" F'esh Herrings Pickled.—Take six herrings, clean
and wash them; season with pepper and salt; put them
in a steam pot, and pour over them six tablespoonfuls
of vinegar, fill up with water; cover them, and bake
them in the oven till the herring will leave tho bone.
They will keep several days, and are good eaten cold
with bread and potatoes."
" To Cook Sheep3s Pluck.—Take a sheep's pluck, wash
it, put it in a deep dish; shred two fine onions, and
chop them with a handful of sweet herbs; add a grated
crust of bread, a handful of chopped suqt, and as much
milk as will make the ingredients into balls, which put
into the dish with a pint of water, dust flour over the
whole, and bake one hour and a half."
Another way, which is much more thrifty and
palatable. Separate the heart, liver, and lights from
the windpipe, &c, wash them, put the lights in a good r~
1
COOEiING  OF VARIOUS DISHES. 181
seized pan with water and a little salt; let them boil two
hours, taking off the scum as it rises; when boiled take
them out of the pan, cut one-half in slices, and the
other half chop very fine ; dust a little flour in and
pepper, a handful of chopped parsley, a large onion
shied fine, and a little bunch of thyme; put the minced
and sliced lights with the herbs in a deep dish, with a
quarter of a pound of bacon cut in slices, cover well
with the liquor the lights were boiled in ; bake in a hot
oven for an hour; twenty minutes before serving cut
half the liver in slices and put in the dish, with a little
more of the liquor if there be not sufficient gravy. The
above is a very nice dish, and with potatoes makes a
good dinner for a family. The day following stuff the
heart with a little chopped suet, a few crumbs of bread
and sweet herbs, put in a dish, strew a little suet over,
and roast in the oven, or in a dutch oven before
the fire. Cut the remaining half of the liver in slices
and fry with a few slices of bacon; when the liver and
bacon are fried lay them round a flat dish, dust a little
flour in the pan, and as much water as will make the
gravy %the consistency of good cream, adding pepper
and salt to taste; pour this into the dish, and place
the roasted heart in the centre.
A profitable and tasty way to prepare a shin of beef
is to cut off the best part of the meat in thick slices,
place them in a stew-pot with six or eight cloves, three
or four cayenne pods, three or four onions, dust in a
little flour, add a little salt, and cover with hot water,
put on the cover, and bake in a moderate oven from
three to four hours.
Then put the bones with what meat remains on
them in a large stew-pot or mug, cover well with water
and put in a little salt, stew in a cool oven till the 182 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
meat will leave the bones quite clean, skim off the fat
and set aside for pastry or other uses; pick all the
meat from the bones and out of the stock, place upon
a dish and mince very small, seasoning well with pepper.
Economical Way of using the coarse parts of a Pig.—
" Split a hog's or pig's head in two, and remove the
brains. Cut off the ears, scald them and the head, and
scrape them clean, removing the discoloured parts.
After washing well with cold water, put into a covered
kettle with nearly boiling water enough to cover it.
Boil gently, removing the scum from time to time as it
rises, and cook until the bones can be easily separated
from the meat. Take out all the bones, chop fine and
season with salt, pepper, adding sage or thyme, if liked.
Enclose it in a bag or cloth, place it in a colander
set in a dish to receive the drippings, and lay a plate
over it with sufficient weight to press as dry as wanted.
The heavier the weight the more lean the cheese will
be, as the fat is readily pressed out. Keep it in the
cloth in a cool place. It should be sliced thin for
table use."
Curing Meats.—The following modes, the writer
avers, " an experience of 26 years as a housekeeper has
convinced me are unequalled ":—
For Hams.—" For every 100 lbs. weight of hams take
5 oz. of brown sugar, 4 oz. of saltpetre, and 5 gills of
salt; mix them thoroughly; rub it on the hams, and
let them lay twenty-four hours. Then rub them (each
100 lbs. weight), with 5 pints of fine salt. Lay them
on a shelf for fifteen days, and hang them up to smoke.
The rubbing should be well done.
"Note.—The brown sugar should be West India if it
can be procured. The mode I have adopted in apportioning the preparation has been to weigh all the hams PRESERVING  MEAT. 183
and mix for the whole, then divide it according to the
number of hams, by weight or small measure, as a teacup or gill measure.
" I have known.hams cured by this recipe kept four
years. The flavour increases with age up to six years.
Hams cured in this way excel the celebrated Westphalia
in flavour and quality."
lor Beef.—" Take 12 gallons of water, 27 lbs. of fine
salt, 10 oz. of saltpetre, 8 lbs. of brown sugar, 1 quart
of molasses, 1 quart of lye or 1 oz. of potash; mix them
together. The saltpetre should be rolled fine and all
the salt dissolved.
"After thoroughly prepared, the pickle should float
an egg or a potato. If it does not, add salt until it
does. The meat should lay four weeks in pickle before
use.
" After once using, if the pickle turns red, boil it
and add a little salt, and it may be used a second time.
" This preparation will cure as much beef as it will
cover in a barrel or other vessel."—American Journal.
Preserving Hams.—" Take slacked lime, say a peck
Or half bushel (according to the number of hams), mix
the lime with water and boil in an iron vessel, the
same as you would for whitewashing ; let it boil as
thick as for whitewashing, and when cold, have your
hams laid with the skin down upon planks; then take
a brush (the same as for whitewashing), and lay a good
coat on the part unprotected by the skin; let this dry,
-hang up your meat, and you have sweet hams, free from
bugs and skippers, if done in time."
Westphalian Hams.—"Boil together over a gentle
fire 6 lbs. of good common salt, 2 lbs. of powdered loaf
sugar, 3 oz. of saltpetre, and 3 gallons of spring water.
Skim it while boiling, and when quite cold pour it over 184 GENERAL HINTS  TO EMIGRANTS.
the hams, every part of which must be covered with the
brine. Hams intended for smoking will be sufficiently
salted in this brine in two weeks, though, if very large,
more time may be allowed. This pickle may be used
repeatedly if boiled and fresh ingredients added. Hams,
before they are put in the pickle, should be soaked in
water, all the blood pressed out, and wiped dry. Much
of the excellence of the ham is dependent on the smoking. This should be done in such a manner that the
ham shall be cool and perfectly dry through the whole
operation. If too near the fire they will be heated and
their flavour injured; if the building be too close the
hams will be wet, and taste as if dipped in pyroligneous
acid. At Hamburg, where large quantities are prepared,
the hams are smoked in the upper story of high buildings, while the fires, which are made of oak or maple
chips, are made in the cellars. In passing through
such a length of pipe to the chambers, the smoke
becomes cool and dry, and the flavour of the hams is
excellent. Hams intended for summer use may be
kept in any way where they will be dry and cool, and
secure from fly or bug. Washing with lime or putting
in bags of coarse cloth, one ham in each, is practised by
many. Some keep their hams through the season in
the smoke-house, making a smoke under them once or
twice a week."
Salting Beef for Summer Use.—From the New England Farmer, whose editor has, in answer to inquiries,
gathered them from various sources, we copy the following modes for the benefit of our readers :—
"16 quarts of salt, and 4 oz. of saltpetre, for each
100 lbs. beef.
" Rub the pieces all over with salt, and pack it in
edgewise, and after a layer is completed, take an axe or 1*1
PRESERVING MEAT. 185
maul and pound down solid. Then sprinkle on a little
saltpetre and fill up all interstices with salt, and so on
until the cask is full. Those who do not like saltpetre
may omit it without injury to the meat.
" Mr. A. Wanzer, who communicated this recipe to
the Albany Cultivator, says he has salted his beef in
this way for fifteen years, that it needs no soaking
before boiling, and will be tender and sweet the year
round. By this way of salting it makes its own brine,
and never wants repacking nor the brine scalding. If
the brine should not cover it in the spring, sufficient
may be added for that purpose.
" Take a barrel and turn it up over an old pan or
kettle, and burn cobs or hard wood for seven or eight
days, keeping water on the head of the barrel to prevent its drying.
" Make a pickle as follows :—
" 6 oz. of saltpetre, 2 quarts of molasses, 3 gallons
of water, for each 100 lbs. of ham.
" Boil and skim the pickle thus prepared. Pack the
ham in the barrels, and when the pickle is cold pour it
on to the meat, and in four weeks it will be excellent,
very tender and well smoked."
Another.—" Make a pickle as follows :—
" 5 pints of molasses, 5 oz. of saltpetre, and 3 gallons
of water for each 100 lbs. of beef or ham.
" Boil these over a gentle fire, and skim off the scum
as it rises. Pack hams with the shank end downward,
and when the pickle is cool pour it over them or the
beef. They will require to lay in the pickle from two
to six weeks, according to the size of the pieces and the
state of the weather, as they require to lay in the pickle
longer if the weather is cold."
New Orleans Recipe for Corning Beef.—"To 100 lbs.
I sr
186
GENERAL  HINTS  TO  EMIGRANTS.
of beef take 9 lbs. coarse salt, 4 oz. saltpetre, and 5 lbs.
sugar. Pulverise the saltpetre and mix the ingredients
thoroughly. Pack the beef with the mixture, pound it
down, ancjl put a weight upon it."
Curing Bacon.—" 1 slaughter my pigs," says a
writer in an agricultural journal, "in the morning,
cut them up and salt them same night, taking out the
two shoulder veins, which is very important. I get
the best saltpetre I can; I use about 1 lb. to a 3 cwt.
pig, more or less according to size. I just rub a little
on the skin side, and sprinkle it on the other side, carefully putting it on the ends of joints or bones; then lay
it in a tub—the hams first—covering them thoroughly
with fine salt, then the sides, and so on until all is done,
finally covering all over with fine salt. I let it lie three
weeks, then hang it up to dry. I never have any more
trouble, and never bad bacon by any chance. I always
pound and dry, by fire, salt and saltpetre before using."
Preserving Butter.—" Take 2 quarts of the best common salt, 1 oz. of sugar, and 1 oz. of common saltpetre ;
take 1 oz. of this composition for 1 lb. of butter, work it
well into the mass, and close it up for use. The butter
cured with this mixture appears of a rich marrowy consistency and fine colour, and never acquires a brittle
hardness nor tastes salty. Dr. Anderson says :—' I
have eaten butter cured with the above composition
that had been kept for three years, and it was as sweet
as at first.' It must be noted, however, that butter
thus cured is to stand three or four weeks before it is
used. If it is sooner opened the salts are not sufficiently
blended with it, and sometimes the coolness of the nitre
will be perceived, which totally disappears afterwards."
Hovj to Preserve Eggs.—" Lime-water is often highly
recommended; but our own experience is, it is of little MAKING   OF  CIDEB,  ETC. 187
or no value. We [Albany Country Gentleman) have
known most of the eggs to spoil in it, even if quite
strong. The great essential requisite is to place the
eggs on end. If this is observed, and they are placed in a
cool room or cellar, they will keep well, whether in
lime-water, salt, sawdust, or ashes, or greased; if laid
on their sides the yolk will come in contact with the
shell, and they will spoil in any case. It makes no
difference which end is upwards. We knew two housekeepers dispute this point—one insisting that the small
end should be up, and the other the large end ; both
Were right, and both were very successful. A good
contrivance is a cupboard with shelves a few inches
apart, bored full of #holes, whose diameter is a fourth
of an inch less than the egg; they will set end up in
these holes, and be very easily placed in and removed.
Salt is often recommended for packing them in ; but it
is liable to harden, so that the eggs cannot be removed
without breaking."
The making of cider and currant and blackberry
wines is one of the most important operations of the
Colonial farmhouse, fruits of all kinds being abundant
to a degree almost unknown in this country. North
America is famous for its apples, and we give here an
explanation of the mode of making Cider there adopted :
" Cider, when carefully made, with a due knowledge
of its properties, becomes a pleasant and healthful
drink, far better in its native purity than when manufactured and sold as champagne wine ; for be it known,
very many thousand bottles of so-called champagne are
nothing more than cider re-manufactured. All varieties
of apples can be manufactured into cider; yet the properties of a cider and table apple are very different,
although   sometimes   combined  in   the   same   fruit, —fc
188
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
Toughness, dryness, and a fibrous flesh, and astrin-
gency, are all good properties in a cider apple. Yellow
flesh indicates richness and strength, and the heavier
the mast the stronger the cider. Late ripening apples,
or those which require to be housed, are not profitable
for cider, because of the extra expense of housing; all
apples requiring to be fully ripe and mellow before
making up. Apples which fall from the tree fully ripe
make better cider than those which are shaken off the
tree. Keeping the fruit under cover from one to three
weeks before making up increases the strength and
flavour of the cider. Care must be taken that the fruit
is spread thin, and freely exposed to the currents of
the air, otherwise it will often contract an unpleasant
smell, which will affect the taste of the cider. As the
fruit becomes ripened and mellow, the juice is reduced
in quantity but increased in weight and heightened in
flavour. If, however, they are left too long, and decay
commences, the quality is injured by a peculiar musty
tone or flavour imparted to the liquor; all decayed or
decaying fruits should, therefore, be carefully picked
out before grinding. Unripe apples should never be
mixed with those fully ripened and mellow, much of
the merit of cider depending upon the proper separation of the fruit, as we have just stated, and also in
selecting colours ; those of a rich yellow tinge in skin
being superior to those of a greenish cast; they should
never be mixed. Mixing varieties, while it often adds
to the value and quality of the cider, must not be done
if any certain quality is sought to be obtained, and a
uniform character established by the manufacturer,
unless it may be that two distinct varieties are mixed
in certain proportions, as two to one, etc., and a quality
of cider made which it is desired to have again and 1
MAKING OF CIDER. 159
again. In such a case the same mixture must be made,
and in the like proportions. An astringent, harsh
fruit, and a rich, sweet apple will often be found to
combine the qualities requisite for the very highest
flavour and heaviest body.
" Grinding the fruit is a very important item in the
manufacture of good cider. The whole fruit, pulp,
seed, rind, and all, should be completely mashed. If
the juice of an apple be extracted without bruising the
fruit, it will be found thin and defective in richness
compared to the juice of the same apple after being
perfectly mascerated and left exposed to the influence
of the air and light for twenty-four to thirty-six hours.
Grinding should, therefore, be very perfect, and the
pomace remain for one or two days before making up.
" The making up of the cheese for pressing should be
performed only upon a clean, sweet platform, and rye
straw, free from rust or weeds, used to confine it in
place. A gentle pressure should be first given, and^the
cider from such first running should be barrelled by
itself: the cheese allowed to stand, say twelve hours,
then additional pressure given, from which will be
obtained the best quality of liquor. The last running
will, perhaps, be the most clear, but its richness will be
found diminished ; in other words, the saccharine
matter or sugar will be less, and of course the quality
inferior. After the last running, or when no more,
juice of the apple in its pure state can be obtained, the
top of the cheese is sometimes taken off and a few pail-
fuls of water applied, when pressure is again applied,
and a very inferior quality of liquor obtained, almost
entirely destitute of sugar, but often making a tolerable
vinegar.
" The fermentation may be said to be the completion
J 190
GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
of the work of making and managing cider, although
racking off and bottling are afterwards necessary to
bring it to perfection. The time which may elapse
after making the cider before fermentation commences
depends both upon the quality and condition of the
fruit from which it is made, and the temperature of
the weather. If the fruit is only partially ripe and the
weather warm, fermentation often commences within
a few hours after expressing the juice ; while if the
weather is cold and the fruit well ripened, days, or
possibly weeks, may elapse before fermentation commences. In either case it is better to place the casks
under a shed protected from the sun but open to a
free circulation of air. Leave out the bungs. Have
ready a cask with the bung kept in, and as the fermentation goes on, and the froth issues from the bung-
holes, fill up from day to day from the cask in which
the bung has been kept. As soon as the froth ceases
to issue from the bung-holes, see that the cask is full,
then drive in the bungs tightly, leaving open a small
vent or spigot for a few days, or until the froth becomes
like pure light cream, free from dirty particles; then
close all up tight. The less fermentation takes place
the sweeter will be the liquor. Clean, sweet casks
must always be supplied, and if any tinge of mustiness
slake some fresh lime in each cask, leaving it from one
to four hours. If one operation does not leave the
cask sweet and clean, repeat the process, and it is rare
that a cask will be found with any tinge of a musty
character after a second application of the lime."
The following are from an American country paper:—
To make Pure Wine of Apples.—" Take pure cider,
made from sound ripe apples, as it runs from the press;
put 60 lbs. of common brown sugar into 15 gallons of r
CIDER AND  BLACKBERRY  WINE. 191
the cider, and let it dissolve; then put the mixture into
a clean barrel, and fill the barrel up to within 2 gallons
of being full with clean cider; put the cask in a cool
place, leaving the bung out three or four weeks."
Blackberry Wine.—" While at Bloomington," says
the editor of an American paper, " our self, in common
with other gentlemen attending the meeting of the
State Society, were hospitably entertained by President
Hovey and his lady. While there, we tasted a sample
of blackberry wine, manufactured by Mrs. Hovey, which
better judges than ourself pronounced the best they had
ever tasted. Mrs. Hovey kindly furnished us a copy
of the recipe by which it was made. We should add,
perhaps, that the superiority of this sample over others
we have tasted may be attributed in a measure to the
kind and purity of the sugar employed—crushed loaf
sugar was used. Dr. Warder said there was too much
sugar in it, and gave as a rule by which the amount
of sugar necessary could be determined the following : add sugar to the juice until it will possess
'body' enough to support a fresh egg, leaving a portion of the egg the size of a quarter of a dollar exposed
above the surface. Another gentleman who had some
experience in wine manufacture from small fruits
advised Mrs. Hovey never to add water to the juice of
the fruit—use only sugar and the clear juice. Here
follows the recipe by which the wine was made which
we have referred to—so far as sweetness was concerned
it suited our palate: To every quart of fruit allow a
quart of clear water. Boil the water by itself. Mash
the berries in a clean tub with a wooden mallet, or
beetle. When the water has boiled pour it on the
berries, and let it stand until morning in a cool place,
stirring occasionally; then press out all the juice and
J 192
GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
measure it, and to every quart of liquid allow half a
pound of sugar; put the sugar into a cask and strain
the liquid upon it through linen; stir it frequently
until the sugar is thoroughly dissolved. Let the cask
remain unstopped till the liquor has done working;
then add the beaten whites of four eggs. Keep it open
until the next day, then bung it. It may be bottled in
two months.
" Raspberry and black currant wine may be made
as above."
Maple Sugar.—The making of this species of sugar
is also an important part of colonial work, especially
in the United States and some of the British colonies.
The following are practical descriptions of two modes
(a) (b) adopted in making this sugar :—
(a) "About the latter end of February or the beginning
of March, selecting the weather, especially after a frosty
night, an incision is made in a tree with an auger or
axe, at a convenient distance from the ground, into
which is fixed a pipe or conduit for running off the sap
into troughs scooped out from short logs of wood. The
sap is poured into an iron boiler and placed on a fire
which is made near to the trees, and as it diminishes by
boiling more sap is added, until it becomes a kind of
molasses: more care and attention in skimming is then
required, until it becomes sugar. It is then poured into
small pans, or moulds, to cool and harden, when it has
the appearance of hard brown sugar. The scum and
dregs may be converted into vinegar.
" This process, however, frequently gives the sugar a
coarse brown appearance and an unpleasant flavour,
which with better management might be obviated.
Now the sap in its natural state is clear, transparent,
and free from any unpleasant flavour, which might be
JL. MAPLE SUGAR-MAKING. 193
preserved in the sugar by simply boiling the sap in an
inner vessel made to fit within the boiler, taking care
to keep the outer vessel, or boiler, properly supplied
with water.
" As there is not much farming work to be done at
that period of the year, sugar-making will pay very
well, providing the settler can do the work with his
own family, but not by employing labourers. Some
persons prefer it to common West India brown sugar,
on account of its flavour; and its price varies from 3d.
to 5d. per lb., according to the season and situation."
(b) " In the first place, I make my buckets, tubs, and
kettles all clean. I boil the sap in a potash kettle, set
in an arch in such a manner that the edge of the kettle
is defended all round from the fire. I boil through the
day, taking care not to have anything in the kettle that
will give colour to the sap, and to keep it well skimmed.
At night I leave fire enough under the kettle to boil
the sap nearly or quite to syrup by the next morning •
I then take it out of the kettle and strain it through a
flannel cloth into a tub, if it is sweet enough; if not, I
put it into a caldron kettle (which I have hung on a
pole in such a manner that I can swing it on and off
the fire at pleasure), and boil it till it is sweet enough,
and then strain it into the tub and let it stand till the
next morning. I then take it and the syrup in the
kettle, and put all together into the caldron and sugar
it off. I use to clarify, say 100 lbs. of sugar, the whites
of four or five eggs, well beaten, about one quart of
new milk, and a spoonful of saleratus, all well mixed
with the syrup before it is scalding hot. I then make
a moderate fire directly under the caldron, until the
scum is all raised; then skim it off clean, taking care
not to let it boil, so as to rise in the kettle before I
K 194 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
have done skimming it; I then sugar it off, leaving it
so damp that it will drain a little, until it is well granulated. I then put it into boxes made smallest at the
bottom, th^t will hold from 60 to 70 lbs., having a thin
piece of board fitted in 2 or 3 inches above the bottom,
which is bored full of small holes to let the molasses
drain through, which I keep drawn off by a tap through
the bottom. I put on the top of the sugar in the box
a clean damp cloth, and over that a board well fitted in,
so as to exclude the air from the sugar. After it has
done, or nearly done draining, I dissolve it and sugar
it off again, going through with the same process in
clarifying and draining as before."
Brief Remarks on Health, with Simple Medical
Advice and Recipes.
It is impossible to exaggerate to the emigrant colonist
the importance of attending to his health: he should
remember that the well-being of his family and all their
future prospects depend upon his remaining capable of
performing his work; and further, that in the m aj ority of
localities, as he will be far from immediate medical aid,
he should pay attention to the first symptoms of coming
complaints—in nothing is the adage a "stitch in time
saves nine'* so valuable and worthy to be remembered
and acted upon as in the matter of "health." The
following hints are culled from various sources—chiefly
from colonial. We do not know that we can introduce
them better than by the following, from a very able
work on Domestic Medicine by the eminent French
physician Raspail, a translation of which is published
by Yirtue Brothers & Co.:—
" Never use other water for your kitchen, or to
drink, than spring water and well-filtered river water PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. 195
Turbid water is always either brackish or putrid, or
peopled with worms. There are some epidemic diseases
that arise entirely from the use of unwholesome water.
Many, many diseases, indeed, might be traced to the
abominable compound of dirt and putridity which our
water companies are permitted to palm upon us.
Surely this immense metropolis is wealthy enough to
have the purest and best water brought from a distance
of a hundred miles, if it cannot be procured anywhere
nearer, to its very centre, and distributed thence in
unstinted quantities even to the most humble habitation. Why is it not done? Why must the public
welfare always give way to the paltry claims of private
interests ?
" Never drink water out of a ditch, or out of a pool,
if you can possibly help it; you may swallow in it^
unknowingly, small leeches even. Try rather to conquer your thirst until you can satisfy it with a more
wholesome beverage.
" If you are obliged to be out in the cold or damp,
morning or evening air, have a cowl or hood to your
cloak; you will find it an excellent preventive against
colds.
" Wear strong and solid boots or shoes in winter.
Many cases of illness arise entirely from the imprudence
of walking about in rain and snow in patent dress boots,
pumps, or elegant light shoes.
" Replace the umbrella, which affords no real protection against the rain, by a hooded cloak made of light
impermeable gauze, and which folded up might actually
fit in your waistcoat-pocket. Instead of encumbering
yourself with a parasol, wear a broad-brimmed straw-hat.
" Wear flannel next the skin, both winter and summer.
Frictions of the chest with camphor pomatum (for a
k 2 196 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
recipe for preparing this see further on) morning
and evening are an excellent preservative against the
effects of sudden variations of the temperature. A
wadded morning gown is the best and most comfortable
dress for the library or study.
" Avoid draughts; do not expose yourself lightly clad
to the chillings of the night. Cold and damp dwellings
are one of the most prolific sources of disease. Damp
cellars and kitchens, or ground floors, may be made dry
and comfortable by the following process j—Take up
the flags or bricks of the floor (presuming always, of
course, that the apartment is not boarded), cover the
earth with a layer of iron filings and coal-dust 6 inches
deep, coat this over with a layer of asphaltum 1 inch
deep, and on this replace the flags, or bricks. Dissolve
4 oz. of yellow wax in 10 lbs. of spirits of turpentine,
and keep the solution on hot ashes. Dry 2 square feet
of the wall (presuming this to be coated with plaster or
mortar) by means of red-hot coals in a chafing-dish;
when you consider this part sufficiently dry, spread a
thick layer of the wax and turpentine composition over
it with a painter's brush. The composition will penetrate into the wall to the depth of a third of an inch.
Dry in the same manner as before the two square feet
of wall adjoining the first, and cover them equally with
a layer of the wax and turpentine composition. Proceed
in this way until all the damp parts of the wall are
properly coated; but take care always that the wax does
not stop at the surface. When the whole operation is
completed, you may paint or paper the room : you will
find it ever after perfectly dry.
" If you happen to live in a country where goitre
prevails endemically (which is caused by the use of
water that has filtered through mercurial veins), put
Mi PRESERVATION  OF HEALTH. 197
into your cisterns, and also into your drinking vessels,
granulated tins, and change this every eight days—the
old grains that are taken out may be made to answer
the purpose again by melting down and recasting. Or
you may also use cisterns of copper tinned inside: the
tinning must, however, be frequently renewed.
" The best bread for the hard-working field-labourer
is that made of a mixture of rye, barley, and wheat;
fine wheaten bread is more adapted for men of sedentary occupations, and in general for town people.
" Economy in food is foolish economy. Want and
laziness go hand in hand. The amount of labour performed by an individual is generally in proportion to
the amount of wholesome food consumed by him. A
well-fed workman is worth four starvelings at any time.
Let masters and employers bear this in mind: considerations of self-interest may, perhaps, prevail where
all the representations of humanity have failed."
Care of Female Health.—" Have the feet (says a
writer in an American country paper) well protected,
then pay the next attention to the chest. The chest
is the repository of the vital organs. There abide
the heart and lungs. It is from the impressions made
upon these organs, through the skin, that the shiver
comes; it is nature's quake—the alarm bell at the onset
of danger. A woman may never shiver from the effect
of cold upon her limbs, or hands, or head; but let the
cold strike through her clothing on her chest, and off
go her teeth into a chatter, and the whole organism is
in a commotion* One sudden and severe impression of
cold upon the chest has slain its tens of thousands,
Therefore, while the feet are well looked after, never
forget the chest. These points attended to, the natural
connections of the dress will supply the rest, and the
J 198 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
woman is now ready for the air. Now let her visit her
neighbours, go shopping, call upon the poor, and walk
for the good of it, for the fun of it.
" Keep away from the stove, or register. Air that is
dry or burnt, more or less charged with gases evolved
by the fuel, is poison. Go up stairs and make the beds
with mittens on. Fly around the house like mad and
ventilate the rooms. Don't sit pent up in a single room
with double windows. Fruit will not retain its form or
flavour in air-tight cans, neither will women. They
need air. If the shiver comes on during these operations, go directly and put something more about the
breast.
" Again, do not live in dark rooms. Light fades the
carpet, but it feeds the flowers. No living animal or
vegetable can enjoy health in darkness. Light is as
necessary as air; and a brown tan is preferable, even as
a matter of beauty, to a sickly paleness of complexion."
Common Diseases.—1. Mild Fever. The following,
from a recently published work, will be useful:—•
" The symptoms of mild fever are generally thirst,
a white tongue, and a quickened pulse.; the skin dry,
with alternate hot and cold shiverings, the face rather
flushed, and the eyes heavy. Sometimes the head
aches, and the sufferer becomes very nervous. The
most simple means which should be taken for relief in
such cases are the following:—The patient should be
put to bed and protected from cold, especially draughts,
at the same time the air of the room should not be
allowed to get close, and too many clothes should not be
placed on the bed. Cooling drinks may be given in moderate quantities, and some cooling medicine. A powder
of rhubarb and magnesia at night would be a proper
medicine to give a child, and a calomel pill at night to a PRESERVATION  OF HEALTH. 199
grown-up person, with a dose of medicine in the morning
—salts would be very suitable if it were not cold weather.
The diet should be very light; and, above all, the patient
should be kept very quiet. If the fever does not then
abate, stronger measures should be quickly adopted,
and a medical man sent for. If the person is suffering
from a cold which is accompanied with fever, the best
treatment to adopt is that taken to cure a cold; but .
mild fever is a different complaint—it lasts longer, and
requires more time to recover from its effects, and more
care during its progress, than a common feverish cold."
The following paragraphs on what may be called the
common diseases of children are also from the same
work :—
" Scarlatina, measles, and hooping - cough, are.
peculiar disorders of early childhood.
" In simple scarlet fever (commonly called scarlatina)
the early symptoms are those of mild fever,—a languor,
shivering, succeeded by heat, a quick pulse, headache,
with the additional symptom of sore throat. About
the second day a bright scarlet rash usually appears—
first upon the neck, breast, and face, and afterwards on
the lower parts of the body; the tongue is coated with
a yellowish fur, through which small red points are discernible, giving to it very much the appearance of a
strawberry. In about three days the rash begins to
fade and disappear, accompanied by a peeling of the
skin.
" Keep the child in bed in a warm room well ventilated but free from draughts, giving it cooling, acidulated drinks, light diet. Avoid animal food, and
everything that is stimulating. If required, administer
a little aperient medicine, which should be of a very
gentle nature, especially at the onset and during the ff
200 GENERAL HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
eruptive stage of the disease. Castor oil is a safe and
speedily acting purgative. The dose is a teaspoonful
for a child one year old, and a large tablespoonful for a
grown-up person. If there be slight sore throat and
the child is old enough let it use a mild gargle, and
wash the mouth out several times a day with tepid
water; but if the infection of the throat increases, with
difficulty of swallowing, and a swelling of the glands in
the neck, then lose no time in sending for the doctor.
While the skin is pealing put the child into a warm
bath at night; and now pay very particular attention
to the state of its bowels. At this period of the disease,
—called the period of desquamation, or peeling of the
skin,—which is always the time when there is most
danger of infection in similar diseases, the clothes and
bed-clothes, when taken off, should be put into some
tubs of water before they are taken out of the room.
It is advisable to destroy all clothes, and clean the furniture of the room, in all cases after scarlet fever.
" Measles.—The symptoms which precede measles
are thirst, restlessness, alternations of heat and chills,
a quick pulse, a hot and dry skin, a running from the
eyes and nose, frequent sneezing, a dry hoarse cough,
and swelling of the face. Generally about the fourth
day a rash makes its appearance, first upon the forehead and face, and then successively upon the lower
parts of the body. In the early stage the rash consists
of very small, red, slightly elevated pimples (like flea-
bites), the portions of skin intervening being of a
natural colour. These pimples subsequently run into
patches, having a crescentic or half-circular form.
" Keep the child in bed in a warm, airy room; but
don't expose it to currents of cold air. Let the diet be
spare, and administer mild, soothing drinks—as barley- PRESERVATION  OF "HEALTH. 201
water, thin arrowroot, milk and water. Avoid everything that is heating. Should the cough be troublesome
or hard, apply a mustard plaster to the upper part of the
chest until a redness of the skin is produced; and give
to a child three years old four drops of ipecacuanha
wine in a little syrup every four hours. If the medicine
produce repeated sickness, the quantity must be diminished, or administered at longer intervals. The child's
eyes must not be exposed to the light, as they have a
great tendency to become inflamed. Regulate the
bowels by gentle aperient medicine. Should pain of
the chest arise, with a hot and parched skin, the breathing become difficult and hurried, and the cough very
troublesome, with tenacious expectoration, send immediately for the doctor, as the great danger from measles
depends upon inflammation of the lungs supervening.
" The absence from cough and running from the eyes
and nose, the more general character of the eruption,
and its not being elevated above the'skin, with the
presence of decided sore, throat, distinguish scarlet fever
from measles.
"Hooping Cough.—This is a very common disorder
of childhood. It is usually preceded for some days by
all the symptoms of a common cold—as feverishness,
thirst, hoarseness, and a frequent dry cough; the latter,
when fully developed, is of a spasmodic character, loud,
suffocative, and generally aggravated towards night.
After several short coughs, the child draws a deep
breath, producing the peculiar sound called a whoop.
Between the fits the child usually appears perfectly
we'll, and eats its food heartily.
" Keep the child in an equable temperature ; attend
carefully to its diet, avoiding all indigestible and stimulating food; and let the bowels be kept gently open. 202 GENERAL HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
Relieve the hardness of the cough by small doses of
ipecacuanha wine given at regular intervals, say four
drops in a little syrup every four hours to a child three
years old ; diminish the dose, or give it at longer
intervals, if too much nausea is produced. Rub the
upper half of the spine night and morning with hartshorn and sweet oil.
" Should the cough, under this simple treatment,
increase in severity, and be attended by difficulty of
breathing, or should headache with a tendency to
drowsiness come on, other remedies of a more decisive
character must be administered under medical superintendence, as inflammation of the lungs or cerebral
convulsions may supervene."
(4.) Ague is a common complaint in new settlements, especially where there is much damp, un-
drained land, and low-lying swampy fields. The
following is extracted from Dr. Buchan's work on this
complaint i—
"Regimen.—While the fit continues the patient
ought to drink freely of water gruel, orange whey, weak
camomile tea, or, if his spirits be low, small wine
whey, sharpened with the juice of a lemon. All his
drink should be warm, as that will assist in bringing on
the sweat, and consequently shorten the paroxysm.
" Between the paroxysms the patient must be
supported with food that is nourishing, but light and
easy of digestion—as veal or chicken broths, sage gruel,
with a little wine, light puddings, and such like. His
drink may be small negus acidulated with the juice of
lemons or oranges, and sometimes a little weak punch.
He may likewise drink infusions of bitter herbs—as
camomile, wormwood, or water trefoil; and may now and
then take a glass of small wine, in which gentian-root,
centuary, or some other bitter has been infused. PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. 203
" As the chief intentions of cure in an ague are to
brace the solids and to promote perspiration, the patient
ought to take as much exercise between the fits as he
can bear. If he be able to go abroad, riding on horseback or in a carriage will be of service. But if he cannot bear that kind of exercise he ought to take such as
his strength will permit.
" An ounce of gentian-root, calamus aromaticus, and
orange peel, of each half an ounce, with three or four
handfuls of camomile flowers, and a handful of coriander
seed, all bruised together in a mortar, may be used in
form of infusion or tea. About half a handful of these
ingredients may be used into a teapot, and an English
pint of boiling water poured upon them. A cup of this
infusion drank three or four times will greatly promote
the cure. Such patients as cannot drink the watery
infusion may put two handsful of the same ingredients
into a bottle of white wine, and take a glass of it twice
or thrice a day. If patients drink freely of the above
or any other infusion of bitters a smaller quantity of
quinine than is generally used will be sufficient to cure
an ague.
" Those who cannot swallow the bark in substance
may take it in decoction or infusion. An ounce of
bark in powder may be infused in a bottle of white
wine for four or five days, frequently shaking the
bottle ; afterwards let the powder subside, and pour off
the clear liquor. A wine glass, may be, three or four
times a day, or oftener, as there is occasion. If a
decoctive be more agreeable, an ounce of bark and two
drachms of snake-root bruised, with an equal quantity
of salt of wormwood, may be boiled in a quart of wine
into an English pint. To the strained liquor may be
added an equal quantity of red wine, and a glass of it
taken frequently. (WT*
204 GENERAL  HINTS TO  EMIGRANTS.
" In obstinate ague the bark will be found more
efficacious when assisted by brandy or other warm
cordials than taken alone. This I have had frequently
occasion to observe in a country where intermittent
fevers were endemical. The bark seldom succeeded
unless assisted by snake-root, ginger, canilla alba, or some
other warm aromatic. When the fits are very frequent
and violent, in which case the fever often approaches
towards an inflammatory nature, it will be safer to keep
out the aromatic, and to add salt of tartar in their
stead. But in an obstinate tertian or quarten, in
the end of autumn or beginning of winter, warm and
cordial medicines are absolutely necessary. In obstinate
agues, when the patient is old, the habit phlegmatic,
the season rainy, the situation damp, or the like, it will
be necessary to mix, with two ounces of the bark, half
an ounce of Yirginian snake-root, and a quarter of an
ounce of ginger or some other warm aromatic ; but
when the symptoms are of an inflammatory nature,
half an ounce of the salt of wormwood or salt of
tartar may be added to the above quantity of bark."
The sulphate of quinine is now largely used in cases of
ague.
A Cure for the Ague.—A correspondent of the
Philadelphia Press says :—
" Now that the season for the fever and ague is again
approaching we deem it an act of humanity to publish
the following recipe for its cure, which has been repeatedly resorted to within the circle of our acquaintance
with invariable success. It is simply to pound up, for
a grown person, say four ounces of frankincense, and sew
it up in a silk bag, which is to be worn by the patient
next the skin on the pit of the stomach. We counsel
the afflicted to try this simple remedy." r^
PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. 205
Miscellaneous Medical Remarks and Recipes.
Summer Sours.—" Physiological research has fully
established the fact that acids promote the separation of
the bile from the blood, which is then passed from the
system, thus preventing fevers, the prevailing disease of
summer. All fevers are ' bilious; i that is, the bile is in
the blood. Whatever is antagonistic of fever is cooling.
It is a common saying that fruits are ' cooling/ and also
berries of every description; it is because the acidity
which they contain aids in separating the bile from the
blood,—that is, aids in purifying the blood. Hence
the great yearning for greens and lettuce and salads in
the early spring, these being eaten with vinegar; hence
also the taste for something sour, for lemonades, on an
attack of fever.
" But this being the case, it is easy to see that we
nullify the good effects of fruits and berries in proportion as we eat them with sugar, or even sweet milk or
cream. If we eat them in their natural state—fresh,
ripe, perfect—it is almost impossible to eat too many,
to eat enough to hurt us, especially if we eat them
alone, not taking any liquid with them whatever.
Hence also is butter-milk, or even common sour milk,
promotive of health in summer time. Sweet milk
tends to biliousness in sedentary people; sour milk is
antagonistic. The Greeks and Turks are passionately
fond of sour milk. The shepherds use rennet, and the
milk-dealers alum to make it sour the sooner. Buttermilk acts like water-melons on the system."—HalVs
Journal of Health.
Cure for a Whitlow.—" Having nearly lost a finger
by one of these excruciating ills to which our flesh is
heir, I feel impelled by a sense of duty to proclaim the 206 GENERAL  HINTS TO EMIGRANTS.
following remedy. After suffering so much with the
one aforesaid, I knew the symptoms too well to be mistaken in regard to them, and after a day and night of
torture rose at two o'clock and administered the following :—Take a half gill of strong vinegar, dissolve it in a
tablespoonful or more of saleratus ; heat as hot as the
flesh can bear; soak the felon as long as desirable; repeat
the application as often as the pain returns, and a cure
is certain. The writer prevented two in this way. To
all afflicted we say try it. This remedy must be applied
in the first stages, as it is of no avail after it is greatly
swollen." felflf
Obstinate Constipation.—M. Homolle^has found the
following powder efficacious in two cases where obstinate constipation had raised the question of operation
for artificial anus: powdered strychnine, one-fiftieth of
a grain; powdered nux vomica, one-fifth of a grain;
calcined magnesia, six grains; mix. One powder a day
at first, then two, and finally three, per diem. In both
cases the bowels were moved, and the symptoms of
suspected internal strangulation disappeared.
Camphorated Pomatum.—" Take of fresh hogs' lard
3\ oz.; grated camphor, 1 oz. Put the hogs' lard in a
large cup, and place this in a saucepan lined with
porcelain, and containing water to the depth of about
2 inches. Heat over the fire until the hogs' lard is
thoroughly melted, and presents the appearance of oil.
Add now, gradually, the camphor powder, and stir with
a small stick, or glass rod, until the camphor is thoroughly incorporated with the lard, and the mass looks
perfectly limpid, which will require about two or three
minutes. Remove the saucepan from the fire, let the
mixture stand a few minutes, and then pour it gently
into another cup, taking care to leave the sediment PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. 207
behind. Put the cup with the pomatum in the cellar,
or in some other cool place. The pomatum prepared
in this manner is white as snow and perfectly smooth."
Sedative Water.—" Take of liquor of ammonia,
3J oz.; camphorated alcohol, 3 drachms; bay salt,
1^ oz.; water, 1 quart. Mix the camphorated spirits
of wine and the liquor of ammonia together in a flask
with ground stopper; close the flask, and shake it; let
it stand at rest a short time. On the other hand, melt
the salt in the water, and add a few drops of liquor
ammonia to the solution; let it stand until the impurities have subsided, decant the clear liquor off, or strain
it through tissue paper, and add the mixture of ammonia
and camphorated alcohol quickly to it. Close the bottle
and shake it. Take care to keep the bottle well closed
and in a cool place. Do not inhale the odour of the
sedative water, except in cases where it is expressly
prescribed."
These two last recipes are given by M. Raspail in
his work already alluded to, and we extract them here,
as we deem them specially useful for emigrants. For
all kinds of bruises, and inflammatory complaints they
are exceedingly valuable. The value of sedative water
in the treatment of lumbago, pains in the loins, &c, is
very marked; and we speak from experience when we
say, that by the timely application of this remedy on the
first approach of rheumatic pains, many attacks which
might otherwise be severe will be got rid of. I
INDEX
Advice to purchasers of land, 126.
Agricultural labourers as emigrants,
52.
Ague, treatment of, 202.
Apple wine, making of, 190.
Assisted and free passages to colonies, 92.
Barometer as a weather guide, 166.
Beef, salting, 184.
Berths, fittings for, 68.
Berth, choice of," 67.
Bread making, various recipes for,
171.
British Columbia, brief notice of, 16.
Butter, preserving of, 186.
Cabins, fitting up of, 63.
Canada, brief notice of, 5.
Cape of Good Hope, brief notice of,
33.
Cape Colony, brief notice of, 34.
Caution to be observed by emigrants
in proceeding to destination in
colony, 119.
Cautions to be followed in port, 56.
Choice of berth, 67.
Choice of the vessel, 60.
Cider, making, 187.
Classes of emigrants fitted to be successful, 40.
Clearing of land, 133.
Clearing of land, cost of, in various
colonies, 144.
Colonial postal guide, 39.
Colonial statistics, 38.
Colonial officers, list of, 36.
Commissioners of emigration, list of,
36.
Common diseases, hints on, 198.
Cooking of various dishes, 178.
Cost of clearing land in various colonies, 144.
Cost of erecting log huts, 165.
Cost of passage to various places, 78,
81.
Curing of meat, 182.
Destination in the colony, proceeding to, 119.
Dietary scales on board ships, 81,88.
Discipline on board ship, 99.
Dishes, cooking various, 178.
Diseases, common, hints on, 198.
Eggs, preserving of, 186.
Emigrant, household hints useful to
the, 171.
Emigration,  general view   of   the
fields for, 5.
Emigration, table showing   extent
of, from 1815 to 1863, 37.
Emigrants, agricultural labourers as,
52.
Emigrants, hints to, on health, 195.
Emigrants, classes fitted and unfitted
for emigration, 40.
Erection of the house, 146.
Farmers, hints to emigrant, 140.
Farm-house, plan of, 150.
Female health, 197.
Fencing of land, 139, 165.
Fitting up of cabins, 63.
Fittings for berths, 68.
Free and assisted passages to colonies, 92.
Hams, preserving of, 183.
Health, remarks on, 195.
Health, attention to, on board ship,
90, 105. INDEX.
209
Hints to emigrants on health, 195.
Hints to emigrant farmers, 140.
House of the emigrant farmer, erection of, 146.
Hooping cough, treatment of, 201.
Houses, materials for erection of,
155.
Household hints useful to the emigrant, 171.
Ice house, erection of, 160.
Introductory remarks, 1.
Landing, 115.
Land, purchase of, 125.
Land, purchasers of, advice to, 126.
Land, clearing of, 133.
Land, fencing of, 139, 165.
Land,  cost of clearing, in various
colonies, 144.
Living on board ship, 89.
Looking for work, 116.
Log-house, erection of, 147.
Log huts, cost of erecting, 165.
Luggage,* passengers', 77.
Maple sugar, making of, 192.
Materials for erection of houses, 155.
Meat, curing of, 182.
Measles, treatment of, 200.
Medical recipes, miscellaneous, 207.
Medicines for the voyage, 106.
Mild fever, treatment of, 198.
Natal, brief notice of, 35.
New Brunswick, brief notice of, 12.
Newfoundland, brief notice of, 14.
New Zealand, brief notice of, 23.
New South Wales, brief notice of,
25.
Nova Scotia, brief notice of, 9.
Outfits for passengers, 69, 76.
Paint, cheap recipe for, 162.
Passage tickets, purchase of, 59.
Passengers' outfits, 69, 76.
Passengers' luggage, 77.
Passage to various places, cost of,
78, 81.
Passages, free and assisted, to colonies, 92.
Preservation of health, 195.
Preparation for the voyage, 55.
Prince Edward's Island, brief notice
of, 15.
Purchase of passage tickets, 59.
Purchase of land, 125.
Queensland, brief notice of, 29.
Recipes, miscellaneous medical, 207.
Remarks on living on board ship,
89.
Rules on board ship, 103.
Salting of beef, 184.
Scales, dietary, on board ship, 81,
88.
Scarlatina, treatment of, 199.
Ship, examination of, 62.
Ship-board, .dietary scales, 81, 88.
Ship, attention   to health on,  90,
105.
Ship, rules on board, 103.
South Australia, brief notice of, 28.
Sugar, maple, making of, 192.
Tasmania, brief notice of, 32.
Timber, felling of, 143.
United States, brief notice of, 18.
Vancouver's Island, brief notice of,
17.
Vessel, choice of, 60.
Victoria, brief notice of, 31.
Voyage, preparation for, 55.
Voyage and its discipline, 99.
Voyage, medicines for the, 106.
Weather guide, the barometer for a,
166.
Western Australia, brief notice of,
27.
Whitewashing, recipe for, 162.
Wine, apple, making of, 190.
Work, looking for, 116.
Yeast, recipes for making, 177.
i
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