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Along the imperial highway [unknown] 1914

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The University of British Columbia Library
iDominton of Canaba
m ©omtnton of Cattaba WHS
ESPONDING to a world-wide demand for a descriptive and statistical Encyclopedia on Canada, the Wonderland of the Western Hemisphere, this work has
been carefully compiled, and it is herewith presented to the seeder for information, to the booklover, to the press, and to the public.
The gathering of the information and the assembling of the illustrations
have been, owing to the vast territory the Dominion embraces, slow and laborious, and in many
instances and localities we have had to overcome an apparent reluctance on the part of the people to
lighten our tasl? by their co-operation.
As a pleasing contrast, however, we have met with much kindness and willingness to assist us
in every way, from Government officials, City Councils, Boards of Trade, Publicity Bureaux and
from private individuals, for whose invaluable services, so cheerfully rendered, we feel deeply grate-
It being the first time in the history of Canada that a publication of so wide and comprehensive
a scope has been attempted, we have had no precedential combination of facts which we could
utilize advantageously; also, in some parts of the Dominion, we have found it extremely difficult,
if not entirely impossible, to obtain accurate data. If, therefore, carping critics are inclined to find
fault and to consider our work n0' as exhaustive as they, in their wisdom, judge it should be, we
say to them that we have done all that was possible to human endeavour, and that il is the best
that could be accomplished under the circumstances as they exist.
The Publishers. ssHgssaasassgBSggg
©omtnton of Canaba
2. Grimsby Vineyard.
3. Trinity, Ontario.
4. Group of Government Buildiri
llpf                    lillfesi'-''        P'^i 3
V Canaba
OTfjat Canaba 3fe
/CANADA is the greatest of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas.   Occupying the whole of the continent of America north of the 49th
parallel and the Great Lakes, except the peninsula of Alaska and the coast strip of Labrador, she has
square miles, being the largest country under one government in the world, excepting China and Ru
Her climate is more varied than that of any other country, ranging from the mild regions where 1}
tobacco plant flourish, to those latitudes where winter cold discourages even the hardy cedar and poplar.
Her proved area of cultivable land aggregates more than 358,000,000 acres within the boundaries
every year being enlarged as the adventurous settler pushes the arable boundaries farther northward and fin
grasses flourish in the great central plains and valleys.
Her forests of limber cover probably 400,000,000 acres, and their splendid growth includes every sort of tree from the towe
is that gran
s, and tin.
egeiables t
id Douglas fir to
the ubiquitous spruce and poplar.
Canada has the largest area of inland waters, lakes and rivers of any country in the world, and a coa\
miles on the Pacific. For navigation and for sanitary and climatic purposes these play a most important pan
annual yield of 35 million dollars' worth of fish, and as yet only a fraction of their immense possibilities fa
the rich feeding grounds of the South-eastern Coast; the mackerel, cod, halibut and herring frequent the bay
»/ 3,600 m
internal ecc
been exploited.
nd gulfs of the
i her
seal, whale and walrus inhabit the icy Northern waters.   On the Pacific Coast are found the fur seal, the halibut and salm
everywhere teem with salmon, trout and other food fishes.
Her mines include every variety of useful and precious metals and minerals, and now yield $133,000,000 a year, thoi
bearing area has been prospected and there are known deposits of mineral fuel and oil which miner s pick or drill nas never
HOW CANADA HAS GROWN:   Canada, the Dominion, is but a child among the nations.   Only forty-six ya
The oyi
whilst th
Ulan tic and of 3,000
idy her waters give an
and lobster fatten on
ovinces; and the hair
tland lakes and rivers
gh only
irs have
small portion of her
elapsed j
divided provinces—viz., Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia—combined their fortunes to build a new British nation in America. Through stress
of racial, religious, financial and commercial strife the Federal Union has passed unshaken. The vast regions of the North and West have been acquired, opened
to settlement by thousands of miles of railway, and peopled with a million and a half of souls. The two sister-colonies on the seaboards, Prince Edward Island
and British Columbia, have been won to the cause of Union, and three great daughters of the plains, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, have sprung up to
complete the group of nine great Provinces which lead the way in the world-conquest of peace and plenty. Canada has demonstrated her possibilities, and now
offers welcoming arms, free lands, just laws, broad education and religious freedom to the world-wide recruits who yearly flock to her standard and share in the
bloodless conquest of an empire the vastness of whose riches can only be surmised.
WHA T CANADA HAS ACHIEVED: Although Canada's greatest wealth is to be found in her boundless opportunity and her undeveloped resources,
yet in other things which older nations treasure she is already rich. Eight million people, drawn from that element in all races which combines the courage, hardihood
and enterprise of the pioneer and conqueror; 33,000,000 acres of growing crops; 30,000 miles of railway; canals which carry 44,000,000 tons of traffic per year;
20,000 factories, representing an investment of $1,250,000,000, employing more than 500,000 workers and turning out a yearly product almost equal in value
to their total capital; 14,000 post offices, handling 600,000,000 communications per year; 35,000 miles of telegraph lines; 400.000 telephones; churches and
schools wherever they are needed; colleges and universities in every province, and an external trade now far surpassing a billion dollars per year—these are some of
the indicia of Canada's achievements in self-development.
WHAT CANADA PRODUCES: Canada is becoming widely known as a great world-source of raw and partly manufactured products. Her grain,
lumber, minerals, fish and furs each year contribute increasing supplies for the homes and workshops of Europe. To-day her production of these materials exceeds
all past records, while her quick development as a manufacturing country claims for her the attention of the world's buyers of finished products. Her farm produce
reaches more than $600,000,000 per year, her forests veld $182,000,000, her mines $133,000,000, her fisheries $35,000,000. while of manufactured goods, her
pulp, paper, vehicles, machinery, agricultural implements and leather hold honourable place in the marts of foreign lands. With her forest and mineral resources as
yet but partly developed, her great water-powers only beginning to be harnessed, her splendid transportation systems and her unrivalled situation between the
markets of Europe and the Orient, Canada's productions are sure to increase beyond any present means of estimation.
WHAT CANADA OFFERS: To men with enterprise and ambition, with mental, moral and physical strength, who Want homes of their own, and who
Would rear families amid peaceful, healthful and prosperous surroundings: to men with moneM to develop her resources and utilize her unexcelled financial,
commercial and industrial opportunities, Canada offers special attractions. For the agricultural labourer without capital there is remunerative employment; for the
agriculturist with sufficient money to start a farm in even a small wav there is a quarter-section (160 acres) of wheat land to be won by only three years of partial
occupation and cultivation; for the man with means to enter the industrial field there are mines to be opened, forests to be cut, railways to be constructed, towns Nonunion of Canaba
1. Logging Scene.
2. Harvesting in the North-west.
3. Opening of the House of Comir Canaba
OTjat Canaba 31s
to be built, and thousands of openings to manufacture such lines of goods as Canada now obtains from other lands. To the man with capital who cannot become
a Canadian, the Dominion holds out many attractions. Her government, municipal, railway and industrial bonds offer, to the discriminating investor, unequalled
opportunities, combining safe investment, sure profits, and the prospect of constantly increasing values.
TRANSPORTATION:   Canada's 30,000 miles of railways are practically organized into five great systems, one of which is owned and operated by
the Government.
The Grand Trunk, in the beginning a main line from Montreal to Toronto, built more than half-a-century ago, gradually grew, by construction of new
branches and by the acquisition of many smaller roads, to be the principal system of the country. Its divisions and connections tapped all parts of older Ontario,
and it was the great collector and distributor of traffic to and from the ocean port of Montreal, the numerous Great Lake porb and points of communication with
the United Slates.   Il now has a length of 3,117 miles.
Following the acquisition of the Great West and the accession of British Columbia to the Dominion, the Canadian Pacific came into being, and its main
line was completed from ocean to ocean in 1886. It also entered the general transportation field in both old and new Canada, and, by purchase and construction,
soon rivalled its older competitor in local services.   It is the largest railway system in the world operated by one company, having a total mileage of 11,601 miles.
About fifteen years ago the acceleration of development in the West gave rise to the demand for another link Tvilh Eastern Canada, and the Government
contracted with a new company, organized by the Grand Trunk and known as the Grand Trunk Pacific, for the purpose of building a new route from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, running mostly to the north of the existing line of the Canadian Pacific and opening to settlement a vast region capable of great development. This
route will be completed and in operation in 1914 and will reach from Moncion, N. B„ to Prince Rupert, B. C, and have a main trunk length of 3,546 miles:
From small and unobtrusive beginnings another great company has entered into strong competition with these older rivals for the growing carrying business
of Canada—viz., the Canadian Northern. It has built and purchased lines in eight provinces, and within a year will possess a road from Quebec to Vancouver,
with a large mileage in Nova Scotia, and will comprise in main lines and branches a rail length of over 5,600 miles.
The Government of Canada, in pursuance of the terms of Confederation, has built and now operates the Intercolonial Railway, extending from Sydney,
Pictou, Halifax and St. John in the Maritime Provinces, to Montreal, and a line of railway in Prince Edward Island. The total mileage is 1,500. Besides the
lines above named, there are in Canada numerous short railways serving local needs, several of which are electrically operated.
Taken together, the railways of Canada form an overland transportation system of which any country might be justly proud. The three transcontinental
lines, with their termini at the principal ports on both oceans, afford direct routes for the export of the products of the most inland provinces, and likewise afford easy
access to every part of the country for both freight and passenger traffic from abroad, no matter at what port it may enter.
All these railways have numerous branches and cross lines, acting as feeders and distributors for the main lines and bringing transportation facilities to the
small towns and farming communities.
The latest Canadian railway under Government construction is designed to open up the shortest possible route to Europe via Hudson Bay on the North
Atlantic Ocean. It joins the Canadian system at Le Pas with Port Nelson, 418 miles distant, whence it is hoped that for at least four months in midsummer
commerce will flow between Canada and Europe. From Winnipeg by this route the distance would be 886 miles by land and 2,960 miles by sea, as compared
with the shortest present route via Montreal of 1,421 miles by land and 2,734 miles by sea.
The railways in Canada are under the supervision of the Board of Railway Commissioners in all matters relating to rates, services, and the safety and
convenience of the general public.
Railways, great and important as they are, are not Canada's sole resource for inland transportation. The St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes form a
Waterway of enormous utility. The route from the Atlantic to "the head of the Lakes" is approximately two thousand miles in length and reaches almost to the
centre of the continent. By this channel millions of bushels of grain and great volumes of general produce annually find their way to the seaboard, while the
return traffic is composed of heavy import freight and goods manufactured in the East for consumption in the West. The coal, lumber and ore traffic on the Lakes
rivals the traffic in grain. Natural obstacles to free navigation have been overcome by the building of canals aggregating eighty miles in all, apart from improved
channels and other canalized waters. In 1912 the vessel tonnage through the Sault Ste. Marie canal amounted to 25,832,244 tons, while through the Suez it was
20,275,120 tons. The enlarged Welland Canal will equal, in some details, the great Panama channel. Numerous smaller canals conned lakes and rivers in
Eastern Canada, while the principal rivers of the prairie region are, or are being made, navigable for many stretches of hundreds of miles each. The inland
navigation system is the great relieving factor in the transportation problem of Canada.
In the matter of external communication the Dominion is fortunate. Halifax, St. John and many smaller Atlantic ports are open all the year round, as are
also the Great Pacific gateways of Vancouver, Victoria and Prince Rupert. In summer ocean craft of 15,000 tons penetrate by the St Lawrence to Montreal,
a thousand miles from the open sea.   Lines of splendid steamships, aided often by Government subsidies, give frequent service to all parts of the world. fe
dominion of Canaba
1. Cathedral in Quebec City.
2. Lake Louise, B. C.
3. Parliament Building, Ottawa Canaba
OTfcat Canaba 3te
is of nc
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eauty, centres
i settler
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SCENIC AND SPORTING ATTRACTIONS: Canada is the land of contrasts. From ocean to ocean,
commercial industry, and spots hallowed by the deeds and sacrifices of her pioneers are found side-by-side. The railwa]
seen everywhere in the newly settled districts, and all three realize the beauty and value of mountain, river, lake and fo
needless defacement and pollution. This appreciation of natural attractions has been emphasized by the Federal and Pu
aside large forest and game reserves and enacted rigid game-protective laws, assuring to posterity the preservation of (host
been the wonder and delight of explorers and travellers for almost four centuries.
Few peoples are so fortunate as Canadians in having their workshops and their market-places side-by-side with their playgrounds, while to the tourist the
Dominion offers unsurpassed combinations of luxurious transportation, good accommodation and unrivalled scenic attractions.
Seldom, even in the largest cities, is one more than a few miles distance from the scene of primeval Nature, worth long journeys to behold. Halifax
combines the activity of a great port, the charms of a famous watering-place, and the halo of antiquity which ever hangs about an ancient fortress; while busy
St. John stands sentinel over the Ocean Portal of New Brunswick at the mouth of the mighty St. John River, which, with its numerous affluents, constitutes one
of the most beautiful and attractive inland water stretches of the world. Louisburg's ruins lie amid the beauties of Cape Breton close by the great ironworks of
From Quebec's ancient citadel the spectator gazes down upon the busy wharves and shipping, fronting the striking pictures of the Lower St. Lawrence;
while Montreal, Canada's largest city and greatest port, opens one gate upon her magnificent river and another upon the most unique feature of the famed Laurenlian
bell, Mount Royal.
Ottawa, dignified as the Dominion's Capital, now a City of over 100,000 people, is the portal of the Gatineau and Algonquin Park regions; and Toronto,
the distributing and manufacturing metropolis of Ontario, lies between the garden peninsula of Niagara and the pleasure-land of Muskoka.
From Winnipeg, built on the site of historic Fort Garry, the ways East, North and West lead to the scene of charming variety. Calgary and Edmonton
are the gateways to the Rockies, from whose heights a land of wondrous beauty stretches down to the long coast-line from Prince Rupert to Vancouver, where
the shipping of the Far East finds its Western goal.
So, everywhere, the dweller in even the largest cities has his playground at hand, and the tourist finds that he may revel in the scenes of unsurpassed beauty
while he still enjoys all the comfort and luxuries that a modern city affords.
The railways of Canada, realizing the great value to the country of her scenic attraction, have, while penetrating to the loveliest regions, taken care not to
destroy their natural charm, and, to make them popular with the traveller, have erected attractive modern hotels in close proximity to the chief points of interest.
Thus, in the fascinating wilderness region of the Lake St. John country, in the maze of lakes and hills called "the Highlands of Ontario," and amid the
awe-inspiring wonders of the Rockies, such facilities and comforts are provided that the invalid as well as the most hardy traveller may undertake a pleasure lour
without fear or misgiving.
To the sportsman or seeker for athletic amusement Canada offers unusual attractions. Golf, tennis, bowling, football, cricket, baseball, the national game
of lacrosse, and the unique winter sports of hockey, ski-running, toboganning, ice-boating and snow-shoeing may be widely enjoyed. Canoeing, rowing, yachting
and motor-boat racing have become great popular aquatic attractions, and teams and crews of picked athletes from the United Stales and the United Kingdom and
other parts of the world visit the Dominion to contest with Canadian organizations for the honours of the athletic field.
To the angler every part of the country sends some special call. The bays, lakes and streams of the Maritime Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and
British Columbia, are all famed for their salmon, trout and bass, while each has such special and characteristic species of other game-fish that the angler who passes
from ocean to ocean, casting his line in each enticing spot en route, finds a new delight in every fresh experience. On his behalf Governments have intervened.
Restrictions necessary to the preservation of the supply of game-fish have been imposed, and millions of fry are planted every year to provide against depletion.
For the small game hunter in every Province, woodland, plains and lakes abound with game birds of many species. Twice per year innumerable flocks
of plover, duck and geese pass over Canada on their way to the summer breeding grounds of the North, and back again to their Southern winter homes, affording
at their feeding and resting places abundant game for sportsmen. The woodcock, partridge; snipe, quail, wild turkey and prairie chicken are also found, and
pheasants are rapidlv being acclimatized on the Pacific slope. Fur-bearing animals are also found within easy distance of many towns and railway lines. The
red deer, the fox, the raccoon and common bear may be hunted in districts little more remote, and afford sport each season for the city men who need only light
equipment and very few holidays to indulge their favourite pastime.
But it is for the big game hunter that Canada holds the strongest lure. The home of the moose, the elk, the caribou, the big-hom and the grizzly has
attractions which no other land can rival. These kin?s of the wilderness are to be hunted with almost the ease which attends the pursuit of their lesser kin. Railwavs
penetrate their stamping-grounds, guides and equipment are easily procurable, and the quarry may be pursued amid scenery and climatic conditions unrivalled by
any hunting-ground in the world. ME
Dominion of Canada
Mount Whitehorn. *
In the Selklrks.
On the Summit of Whiteh
Valley of Thousand Falls.
5. Mt. Robson Glacier.
6. Transcontinental Glacier.
7. Tumbling Glacier.
8. A Crevasse on Mt. Robson. Canaba
OTnat Canaba 3s
/n exploration and mountain-climbing outdoor sport has a strenuous climax, and for both of these Canada offers unusual opportunities. There are thousands
of square miles of the public domain where the foot of while man has never trod, hundreds of lakes and rivers unmapped and unnamed and geographical problems
of every sort awaiting their solution. To the hardy adventurer opportunity beckons. Here is a land of peace and health and sunshine where he may become a
pathfinder and pioneer, winning a place in the nation's history, and yet not incur the grave perils of disease and native savagery which haunt the wilderness of
other lands.
To the mountain-climber there is equal promise. Alpine clubs attempt, each season, the conquest of some virgin peak of the Rockies or the Selkirk*, and
the ranges of the Western region are so vast that there will be heights unsealed, glaciers uncrossed and stream sources shrouded in mystery when the twentieth
century is closing.
To all who seek restoration of health, relaxation from business, or opportunity for amusement and sport, Canada offers the most varied and attractive field
in the World.
TRADE AND COMMERCE: The broad basis and great development of Canada's productive power are strikingly shown by the remarkable progress
of her trade and commerce during the last two decades. The first twenty years of Confederation constituted a period of preparation. A vast area had to be
consolidated, explored, surveyed and opened up to settlement. Communications by water and land had to be established and an extended mechanism of
production and transport called into being.    Population increased at first slowly and immigration came gradually.
In due time her hour struck, and during the past two decades Canada's commercial development has been a world-wonder. From 1893 to 1903 her trade
expansion was 88 per cent., while from 1903 to 1913 it touched 132 per cent., an increase in 20 years from $247,638,620 in 1893 to $1,085,264,449 in 1913.
Successive increases during the last four years have been: $121,942,454; $76,232,684; $105,193,889; and $210,626,655.
There is no system of accurate statistics from which to calculate the volume of interprovincial trade, but it undoubtedly far exceeds the figures of external
Three great factors of Canada's commercial progress are: The diversity of her products, the complemental character of the different parts of her vast
domains, and the globe-encircling range of her overseas trade channels. Were Canada to be entirely isolated from the rest of the world, Canadians could feed,
clothe, house and maintain themselves unassisted. Except cotton and tropical products, the country grows practically everything necessary for modem life. Each
principal product has its special area. Thus, lumber, pulp, paper and furniture are manufactured where the finest forest growth is found; grain and cattle practically
monopolise the Prairie Provinces and Ontario; fish abound on the seaboards and inland waters; fruit and every sort of vegetable have their appropriate regions;
and manufacturing establishments have sprung up where power, transportation and the supply of raw materials combine to make industry most profitable.
The interchange of these diversified products gives rise to an immense interprovincial trade carried on between areas widely separated and stimulated by
varying supply and demand.
British Columbia is a mining, lumbering, fishing and fruit-growing province, with comparatively small areas as yet devoted to the production of food products.
The Prairie Provinces are prolific in food products, but raise little or no fruit and comparatively little lumber. The northern portions of Ontario and Quebec are
the home of the lumbering and mining industries chiefly, and food products are supplied by the rich producing areas of the southern portions of these Provinces.
The West has comparatively few manufactures; the East is the home of industrial production and withal prolific in ocean food-fish. The exchange of these diverse
products over long distances provides material for extensive transportation systems and totals up in aggregate exchange to vast proportions.
The development of Canada's overseas trade has been the pride of succeeding Governments. By means of generous subsidies trans-oceanic services have
been established, both on the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. On the Pacific there is a service every two weeks, both summer and winter, by fast, commodious
steamships, from Vancouver, calling at Victoria, to Yokohama, thence to Kobe, Nagasaki, Shanghai and Hong Kong, being a total steaming distance from
Vancouver of 6,271 miles. From Vancouver also there is a sailing every four weeks to New Z.ealand and Australia, calling at Honolulu in the Sandwich Islands
and Suva in the Fijis, to Auckland, thence to Melbourne and Sydney.
It is, however, only natural that greater strides should have been made in the size and speed of the steamships employed in the Atlantic services. Subsidized
lines have been established from Canadian Atlantic ports to the British West Indies and South America, South Africa, France and Belgium, and to the principal
ports of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Palatial steamers of 15,000 tons and over and capable of steaming 20 knots an hour now ply regularly between British ports and Montreal in the summer,
and St. John and Halifax in the winter. The famous scenic Si. Lawrence River route attracts tourists from all parts of the world, as it permits a voyage crossing
the Atlantic from England of only four days from land to land, thence up the majestic river to Quebec and Montreal, where the landscape on either side is dotted
as far as the eye can see with the picturesque farms and cottages of the habitants. Beyond Montreal, steamers providing every modern comfort for passengers pass
daily through the far-famed Thousand Islands in the St. Lawrence River, which great lvalerway has its source in the magnificent chain of lakes extending inland
for 1,000 miles, through which millions of dollars' worth of commerce pass every year from the central portions of Canada and the United Slates to the markets
of Europe. Prtttet) Columbia
British Columbia House of Parliament. KSSgMi
JSrttislj Columbia
RITISH COLUMBIA, Canada's Maritime Province on the Pacific Ocean, is the largest in the Dominion, its area, according to the Census of
1911, being 355,855 square miles. Il is a great irregular quadrangle about 700 miles from north to south, with an average width of about
400 miles, lying between latitudes 49 and 60 degrees north. Il is bounded on the south by the Straits of Juan de Fuca and the States of
Washington, Idaho and Montana; on the west by the Pacific Ocean and Southern Alaska; on the north by Yukon and Mackenzie Territories, and on the east by the Province of Alberta. From the 29th degree north to the 54lh degree the eastern boundary follows the
axis of the Rocky Mountains, and thence north to the 120th meridian.
The last Census (191 f)pla<
; the population at 392,480.   In 1901 the population was 175,657.
known as New Caledonia—formed a portion of the Hudst
Previous to 1858 British Columbia—ih
sion, but in that year it was constituted a Crown Colony owing to the large immigration consequent on the discovery of gold. Vane
Hudson's Bay Company in 1843, and Was made a Crown Colony in 1849. In 1866 the colonies of British Columbia and Vane
on July 20, 1871, British Columbia entered the Canadian Confederation, and is represented by three members in the Senate and sevt
is Bay Company's conces-
sr Island was leased to the
er Island were united, and
i the Ho
of Co
i of
The vast tract comprised within the limits of the Province
aturally affords a great diversity of climate.
xlending as it does through nearly 12 degrees of latitude,
ng breadth and elevatic
The Coast region has been described as "having a climate wonderfully like thai of England, only the summers are much drier." The warm, tropical waters
of the Pacific Gulf Stream (Japan Current) striking the Coast gives to Vancouver Island and the Coast generally a mild and agreeable climate; there is Utile frost
or snow, and there is a difference of at least ten degrees of latitude in favour of places on the Coast as compared with corresponding positions on the Atlantic Coast.
The interior is subject to greater extremes, both of heat and cold, but nowhere are the extremes so great as on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains; the climate
is for the most part drier and the snowfall consequently less.
administered by a Lieutenant-Governor and Legislative Assembly of 42 member,
The Assembly is elected for four years, every male adult (British subject) havir
present Legislature consists of 40 Conservatives and two Socialists, the Liberals ha
)f exe
entire adr
six mc
n the Pro
nnce, i
g failt
d lore
a member
at the
The Provincial Government is
known as a "responsible government."
registered, being entitled to vote. The
general election (1912).
A complete system of free education was established by Act in 1872. The central control is vested in the Council of Public Instruction, composed of the
members of the Executive Council. The Minister of Education directs the general management of the schools through the Superintendent of Education. In each
rural school district trustees are elected to attend to the local affairs of the school, and in the city school districts seven, five, or three (according to grade, whether
first, second, or third class) trustees are elected for this purpose.
There are at present 30 High Schools in the Province. The number of schools in operation in 1912-13 was 646, under 1,597 teachers, with an enrolment
of 46,755 pupils. The schools are free and non-sectarian. The highest morality must be inculcated, but no religious dogma nor creed is permitted to be taught.
School districts are formed wherever there are 20 children between the ages of 6 and 16 years available for school purposes.
The Legislature has set aside two million acres of land as an endowment for a Provincial University, a site for which has been chosen at the City of
The trade of the Province is developing rapidly. In 1912-13 the imports amounted to $66,596,479, and the exports to $27,087,369, or a total of
$93,683,848, being an increase of $24,065,847 over the previous fiscal year. Exports consist of minerals (chiefly gold, silver, copper and coal), sea products
(chiefly salmon, halibut, herrings, whale products and oil), lumber, furs, skins, etc. A large portion of the salmon (canned and pickled) goes to Great Britain,
Germany, Eastern Canada, the United States, the Hawaiian Islands, Australia and Japan. The United States consumes a large share of the exported coal, and
great quantities of lumber are shipped to Great Britain, South Africa, Japan, China, India, Australia, Mexico aand South America. The valuable furs—seal, sea otter
and other peltries—are sent to Great Britain and the United Slates. China also buys a considerable amount of lumber, timber and furs. Valuable shipments of oil,
principally obtained from whales and dog-fish, are consigned to Great Britain, the United States and Hawaii. A large inter-provincial trade with Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and the Eastern Provinces is rapidly developing, the fruit grown in British Columbia being largely shipped to the Prairie Provinces, where it
finds a good market.    Whaling, a new industry, makes an important item in the export trade. 1
Prtttef) Columbia
■L     .;^i      	
wwjii^ " prtttrib Columbia
The number and tonnage of vessels entered and cleared at British Columbia ports for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1913, were as follows:
From the sea     5,729 vessels      4,672,058 tons
Coasting trade   29,243     "        12,025,510   "
Total     34,972vessels 16,697,568tons
For the sea     5,629 vessels     4,564,137 tons
Coasting trade 29,698     " 11,852,814   "
35,327 vessels   16,416,951 tons
Minerals (estimated) .
Agriculture  -...£.
..$ 30,158,793
. 28,000,000
. 14,455,488
,. 22,269,768
..   45,000,000
(the Capital)—population,  1911, 31,660;  Van
123,902; New  Westminster,  13,199;
Some of the principal cities and towns are:—Victoru
Nanaimo, 8,168; Nelson, 4,476; Prince Rupert, 4,184.
The mineral production of the Province to the end of 1912 amounted in value to $430,137,522, towards which sum coal contributed $132,871,155. A
great advance has been made in metalliferous mining; the oldest districts hove increased their production, while new fields have been opened up. This advance is
clearly shown by the increase in production since 1900, which was $16,344,751; 1905, $22,461,325; 1912, $32,440,800.
British Columbia's coal measures are estimated to contain 40 billion tons of bituminous coal and 61 billion tons of anthracite coal. Il possesses the greatest
compact area of merchantable timber in North America. The importance of the fisheries, apart from salmon fishing, is only beginning to be realized. There are
immense deposits of magnetite and hematite iron of the finest quality which still remain undeveloped. The area of agricultural and fruit lands is estimated at
60,000,000 acres, and less than one-tenth of the available land is settled upon, much less cultivated. The Province has millions of acres of pulpwood as yet unex-
ploiied. Petroleum deposits, but recently discovered, are among the most extensive in the world, and most of the territory is unexplored and its potential value unknown.
The Canadian Pacific is at present the principal railway in the Province. It has two main lines—the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Crows Nest Pass
Railway—and several branches connecting with United Slates railway systems; also steamboat connections on the land Lakes, besides its large fleet of ocean-going
and coasting steamers.    The railway mileage of the Province is about 5,000 miles, either built or in course of construction.
The Grand Trunk Pacific Railway is progressing rapidly with the building of its main line eastward from Prince Rupert, near the mouth of the Skeena River,
and it has Irains operating as far as Rose Lake, a distance of 300 miles. The steel is laid as far as Fort George from the Yellowhead Pass due west; and the
Canadian Northern Pacific is under contract to build six hundred miles of railway from Tete Jaune Cache to Barkley Sound on the west coast of Vancouver Island
within four years from June, 1910. The building of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway line between Newport, Howe Sound, and Fort George is being carried
on with all possible speed.
Debt (Net)
...$ 1.736.445
$ 3.395.182
...   2,331,164
...   2.613.385
...   2.737.366
...   4.137.519
...   5.456.978
...    4.664.500 (9 mos.)
...   8.874.741
... 10.492,892
... 10.745.708
... 12,510,215
1909 .
1910 .
1911 .
1912 .
This Province still finds favor with emigrants, as during the
fiscal year ending March 31, 1913, there were over 6,000 arrivals
more than the previous year:—
1909-10  30,721
1910-11  54J0I
1911-12      ...„-  51,843
1912-13  57,960 a
Victoria, p. C. —■——
Victoria, p. C.
ICTORIA, British Columbia, as a Pacific Canadian seaport, ranks first, and as a commercial centre and distributing point it measures high,
in proportion to population, with any Pacific Coast metropolis. Climatically and scenic ally il is admittedly pre-eminent among North
American cities. Residentially it has very great advantages indeed. From a manufacturing standpoint it is becoming more and more
important every year, although il may be rightly said to be in its infancy so far as manufacturing is concerned. As the capital of the vast
Province of British Columbia it is the seat of Government.   So much, in a nutshell, for Victoria's values.
It is Canada's first and last port of call on the Pacific to the United States and to the Panama Canal, when that is completed.   It
is 80 miles nearer the sea-roads than Vancouver, its neighbour on the Mainland.   It has less than half the fog or rainfall of any British
Columbia port.    Its access to the deep sea water is straight, close, and free from obstruction.   And finally, the Dominion Government is
expending almost five million dollars in preparing a great Outer Harbour to meet Panama Canal and steadily growing Oriental trade necessities, including in this
sum Inner Harbour improvements and one of the largest dry docks ever built.   This last will be placed at Esquimali Harbour—a harbour practically in the limits
of the City of Victoria.
The following table of tonnage for ten years shows an increase of 168.29 per cent, in that period, and the steady advance during 1909, 1910,   1911   and
1912 indicates pointedly the marked growth in tonnage figures.   In 1909 Victoria exceeded any other port in Canada by 50,000 tons, Montreal ranking second:
1903 .
1904 .
1905 .
1906 .
1907 .
mage of Vessels
Tonnage of Vessels
3,371,759 ions
.... 4,852,481 tons
3,252,862   "
1909 ...
 4,826,769  "
3,158,330   "
1910 :	
...5,673,697   "
2,915,036   "
 iy 7,307,274   "
4,138,934   "
.... 9,046,113   "
Increase 168.29 per cent.
As a commercial centre and distributing point Victoria has always been in the first class among Coast cities. Trade with the Orient has been one of the
great departments of the City's business, as well as the coastal trade south with the United Slates. With the advent of the Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk
Pacific Car Ferries transportation facilities with the Mainland of Canada and the United Stales will be greatly widened, and the building of the Seymour Narrows
bridge will make Victoria an Island-Inland metropolis which will touch hands, by rail and sail, with all countries.
Building Permits and Bank Clearings for 1909, 1910, 1911 and 1912 were as follows:
Building Permits Bank Clearings
1909   $1,773,420 1909   $ 70,695,882
1910   2,373,045 1910  101,567,074
1911    4,260,315 1911    134,929,816
1912   8,182,155 1912   183,544,238
The year of 1912 Was a phenomenal—a banner year. What does 1913 show—the year of the financial stringency—the year of an all-world tightening
of the money-strings? The bank clearings at Victoria were $176,977,074, a drop of only a little over six millions and a half from the great year of 1912, and
a little over forty-two million dollars in excess of 1911. Mg^e^
Victoria, P. C.
m§mgmmmQ£mm*" Victoria, p. C.
That Victoria justly claims climatic advantages is convincingly shown by the following figures, which give the annual temperature for ten years, running
from 1903 to 1912 inclusive:
Annual Temperature
Annual Temperalun
Average Temperature 49.83°
As to scenery, the Naples of the North (as Victoria has been named by its admirers) has no equal, let alone superior, an
... 50.0°
... 48.5°
... 49.6°
... 48.8°
... 50.3°
f the cities of North America.
Residenlially, Victoria has very remarkable advantages. Its death-rale for ten years has averaged 10.9. In 1911 the rate was 8 1-6; in 1912 it was 6.41;
in 1913 it was 7.23. Its churches, libraries, theatres, parks, places of amusement, all-year opportunities for outdoor exercise and sport, its clubs, societies, museums,
and climate make it one city in ten thousand for enjoying life; while its superb attraction in the way of situations for the building of beautiful homes completes its charm
as the Queen City of the Sundown Seas.
Flowers are found blooming nearly every month of the year in Victoria gardens. Most years there is not a month in which flowers of some variety are not
obtainable. The annual snowfall ranges from half-an-inch to possibly five to seven inches, and this rarely stays for more than a day on the ground. Magnificent motor
roads lead from the city to the mountains, the forests and the seashore, and trips by boat and railway are to be had all the year round.
As regards manufacturing—coal, iron, timber, copper—all the essentials to a great manufacturing city are at the very threshold of Victoria. Water connection with all ports and ferry-railway connection with the Mainland of Canada and the United States, furnish the present means of transportation. Steel mills and
paper and pulp mills offer the best openings for large manufactories. Of the smaller manufactures, there are openings for mining, lumbering and wood-working
machinery, woollen mills, piano and automobile manufactories, agricultural implement manufactories, nail, glass, match, brush and broom factories, fruit canneries,
jam factories, and various other manufactures.
Already there are something over one hundred and thirty factories, large and small, in Victoria, and manufacturing has of late taken active steps to enlarge
its scope in the business world of the Capital City and make known the importance of its undertakings.
Therefore from the point of a great shipping port, as a commercial centre and distributing base, as to climate and scenery, residential advantages and manufacturing status and possibilities, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, sets down the above facts and figures, and invites the closest comparison and the most rigid
investigation concerning her claims to be reckoned with among the West Pacific cities, either in the United States or Canada. '^m^m^^^
*¥Jancouber 3telanb,
m ss
ANAIMO, BRITISH COLUMBIA, the pivotal point of Vancouver Island, is delightfully situated, with Mount Benson lowering some
3,341 feet high in the background, and in the front the superb Gulf of Georgia, from the full force of whose waters it is protected by the
Islands of Newcastle and Protection, which in turn constitute the outer limits of two of the most splendid, easily accessible and, at the
same time, land-locked harbours along the Pacific Coast.
It is some thirty-three miles from the opposite Mainland, whose towering snow-clad mountains glint forever in the sun; only thirty-
six miles by the navigators route to the City of Vancouver itself; while the distance to Victoria, the capital of the Island and of the
Province, is only, in a direct line, some sixty miles, by rail seventy and by sea seventy-two miles.
The beauty of the situation alone might well account for the City that is now extending and asserting itself as il never hitherto has done, and for that
dominant note of optimism which has never failed to resound from the voice of every Nanaimoite within the past thirty years.
Nanaimo has an artery of commercial and industrial life attributable to no other Vancouver Island city. Great as is the area of British Columbia, and
rich as it is in timber and lands, as well as in minerals and mines, one-third of its magnificent revenue is, and for years has been, derived from the Island of Vancouver; and now that railway development has begun and the competitive construction of them in all directions the City looks forward with confidence to the
unfolding of its marvellous riches and resources.
The magnificent Coal Mines lying underneath her streets and all around her Harbours; her superb Harbour and facilities for shipping; her Manufactures
of various descriptions, and her adaptability to many more; her Fisheries and their accessory business of canning, etc., are assets of great value.
The supply of Coal is practically inexhaustible. The demand for it comes not only from all British Columbia, but from as far South as San Francisco.
The Steamships are among its greatest patrons. Every appliance is provided for promptly supplying the demand and economising time, and the ships claim to
economise one hundred and twenty miles by coaling at Nanaimo rather than ports farther North.
For the encouragement and development of future industries this splendid and cheap Coal supply will be an item of indubitable value and importance.
The Fisheries of Nanaimo are the most extensive and valuable on the Pacific Coast; and though herring, salmon and cod form their essential basis, they
do not by any means include the whole, for the waters yield a large supply every season of halibut, flounders, oysters and mixed fish, and it is estimated that the
catch each year exceeds in value half-a-million dollars and affords employment to about 1,000 men.
The Timber on the Island, standing in vast array in the territory contiguous to Nanaimo, has called into existence many industries where wood is used as
raw material.   There are Lumber Mills, Sash and Door Factories, and a Box Factory—all in full operation.
The Nanaimo Foundry is not only a highly successful establishment in itself, but it gives indication of being the prelude of a great shipbuilding industry.
The Timber used in the production of furniture of the highest class is well known, and the demand will ere long call into existence a staple industry in Nanaimo.
The Clay which is found in Nanaimo and in the contiguous lands has already called into existence three brick and tile industries, and other concerns are
being organized. is!
j^anatmo, p. C
4. Hauling Seine-net
5. Bird's-eye View of the City
6. An Artistic Home BgaraniggaB-BS&BSii
JJanaimo, 7&. C.
These are indicative of the potentials of Nanaimo, but they do not exhaust her active industries. There are canning factories, breweries, powder works,
cigar factories, a creamery, bottling works, laundry {established entirely by local money and whose plant is said to be the best in the Province), and several olhei
concerns, all flourishing and progressing.
Immediately surrounding Nanaimo and stretching far into the interior are splendid Agricultural Lands.    These are rich
from drought, and medium moisture render them particularly favorable to the production of fruit and vegetables.
oil, and the climate, freedoi
Poultry-raising is an industry which in and around Nanaimo has received considerable attention in recent years, and Nanaimo District Exhibitors have
carried off prize after prize in every important show on the Mainland, as well as in Seattle, Tacoma and Portland.
The City has been active, especially in laying out, paving and concreting sidewalks, and there are twenty miles of concreted footpaths today, or there will
be before the end of the present season. Then there is a capacious and thoroughly modern system of water supply, and an efficient fire-fighting system, which is
being regularly augmented, and includes the most modern motor-driven apparatus, while electric alarms are being added to il.
There is also a complete system of Gas and Electric Lighting, with which the houses.and streets are supplied and illumined, and in view of present
expansions and improvements it is not hard to perceive the installation at an early date of an electric car system covering both City and Suburbs.
The Banks, loo, have evinced their interest and participation in the City's growth and belief in its future, and already there are branches of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, the Union Bank, the Royal Bank, and the Merchants Bank.
The City boasts of two daily papers, an Opera House and three Theatres, with a Dominion Biological Station on Departure Bay.
As a residential City Nanaimo has no compeer even among the Island and Mainland's proud vaunters of splendor.
The beautiful lawns and gardens with which her citizens delight to surround their homes testify to their devotion to her progress and success, and there is
little doubt that the tremendous era of development and expansion which must ensue as a corollary of the opening of the Panama Canal, and the landing of
thousands on our shores instead of in the East, will bring to the streets of Nanaimo vast numbers who, perceiving her many attractions, will proceed to avail themselves of her matchless opportunities, and by becoming Citizens themselves will establish new industries along some of the lines indicated, and thus contribute their
part in consummating the City's great destiny as a leading centre of Commercial, Industrial and Shipping activity, and the inevitable gateway of Vancouver Island
and of the routes to this unequalled wealth of Timber, Minerals and Land.
Nanaimo and each one of her Citizens are prepared to play their part in this glorious unfolding and achievement. $ort
hue $orr Slberni, p.C.
unded by a wealth of raw mate
n the development of the Wester
\, and railroads connecting the p
i the City's future as a shipping, i
March, 1912, <
ial, such as coal, Ih
Coast. A fine harl
rt with the vast res
\anufacturing and cc
dv.   It has
i the i
)ORT ALBERNI, British Columbia, is one of the newer cities of the Province, having been incorporated sir
now a population of about 1,500 (within the City limits), which is rapidly growing.
Situated as it is geographically, on Vancouver Island, and being si
minerals. Port Alberni gives every promise of becoming a prominent fact*
from rocks, with an average depth of from 60 to 300 feet and easy of ac
the interior, are valuable assets which cannot fail to be of great advantag
place of no mean importance.
There is considerable building activity in Port Alberni, and many handsome business blocks have been erected during the past year, among the latter being
two fine hotels, a commodious office building, and a large hospital. The Dominion Government is about to erect a buildtng which, when completed, will represent
an expenditure of $25,000, and will contain the Post Office, Telegraph, Fisheries and Customs Offices.
Two Banks are now located in Port Alberni, and two others have secured sites for buildings, with ih
The total building assessment of the City during 1913 was over half-a-million dollars.
In the residential district of Port Alberni many beautiful homes are situated, surrounded by shady grounds and flow
pretentious cottages shelter the working people, of whom quite a number own their homes.
The payroll in Port Alberni amounts to $57,000 a month, and forms a large part of the retail merchants' revenue.   F
this is no small showing.
The present and future commercial development of the City is carefully nursed by the Port Alberni Board of Trade,
wide-awake business men who are ever active in the promotion of their City's expansion.
Port Alberni stands at the head of the Alberni Canal, a waterway which divides Vancouver Island in the centre and is twenty-four miles in length. The
C. P. R. has its extreme western terminal station here, and the C. N. R. is now constructing a line connecting Port Albemi with Victoria. Passenger and freight
service by steamboats to and from Vancouver—to which City it is only a five-hour run—is frequent, and a regular schedule is in operation.
In the consideration of Port Alberni s future the enormous value of its timber resources occupies a most important place. At a very conservative estimate
there is enough standing limber of first-class quality to provide for a cut of 1,500,000 feel per day for forty years. Every thousand feet of rough lumber cut
provides for the payment of seven dollars in wages and ensures the employment of 2,500 men, drawing an annual payroll of two million dollars. From these figures
it can readily be seen of what importance this industry alone is, and will be, to Port Alberni.
Fishing and its allied industries form another great support for Port Albemi s claim for commercial recognition. The waters adjacent cannot be surpassed1
for wealth of fish, from the famous British Columbia salmon and halibut to the herring and other varieties of smaller fish. Sportsmen, as well as the men who fish
for the markets, find an inexhaustible supply during all seasons in the waters of the West Coast. In the many streams around Port Alberni those who prefer fly
fishing can satisfy their desires in that respect to their fullest satisfaction.
From a mineral point of view. Port Alberni lies not only in a region where large coal mines have for a great many years been in active operation, but strata
of a good quality of bitumen underlie the City itself and its immediate surrounding territory.    Copper ore in promising quantities has also been found on both sides
of locating branches ,
-dotted lawns
nd ar
still I
■ future.
r of less
gold has be
of the Alberni Canal.  The country has only partly been prospected, but gold and magnetic iron ore have been discovered in the vicinity, a\
from many of the creek beds.   Shale and clay for vitrified and common brick, also fireclay, sandstone and block marble, are found.
Back from the Alberni Canal, in those valleys drained by the Somass River with its tributaries, are approximately 30,000 acres of fertile lands,
only await cultivation to be made productive and profitable.     Alberni valley is very adaptable for mixed farming, poultry-raising and dairying.     Fruits
vegetables find a ready market at good prices.   Peaches, plums, pears, apples, cherries and grapes grown in this vicinity have received much praise whenever they h
been placed on exhibition, on account of their fine appearance and superior flavor.
The social life in Port Alberni is pleasant, and every facility in that direction has been provided.   Places of amusement,
houses, tennis and ball grounds, swimming and bathing beaches, etc., afford ample opportunity for enjoyment.
Educational facilities are not neglected.   Besides the Public Schools, the Provincial Government is this year erecting
when completed, will cost $10,000.
Presbyterian, Methodist and Anglican Churches are established in the City, and the Roman Catholics have secured a site up(
Church in the near future.
Taking all probabilities into consideration, Port Alberni will steadily advance, and within a comparatively short lime will become one of the leading cities
on the Western Coast of the Dominion of Canada..
ich   as   theatres,   halls,   club-
High School building which,
which they will build a Vancouver, p. C.
mM Wmmmmmmm
^Tancouber, Jl. C
~Y TANCOUVER, British Columbia: There are few places in the world where the pride of city is so quickly contracted and so permanently
maintained as in Vancouver, the Western Mainland terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the commercial capital of British
Columbia. Built on a peninsula, with tidal water almost completely surrounding it, at any moment it is possible to escape from the pressure of business life into the peace and beauty of Nature's resting-place. Like the far-famed Killarney, beauty wanders everywhere about
Vancouver: there are winding bays and sinuous inlets along the shore-line, and easily accessible headlands commanding glorious views of
ocean scenery; and to the North and East there are the mountains with
"Their mighty grandeur jewelled oft
With valley, lake and stream." -• .?Z 4'
The mountains broken after a fashion that might be the very consummation of artistic design, carrying for the greater part of the year lines and curves and
caps of snow to relieve the sombre browns and purples of their breasts, and, on certain days after rain, hiding in their hollows masses of white moving clouds.
"O those mountains, their infinite movement
Still moving with you; tut'**.
For ever some new head or breast of them
Thrusts into view!"
Out to the west is the Gulf of Georgia, framed by the headland of Stanley Park and West Vancouver, and there, night after night, are sunsets of indescribable beauty diffusing and reflecting their colours on the bosom of the ocean; and out there, too, within an hour's cruise are sheltered nooks for the Week-ender
and the tourist, "Emerald isles and winding bays" such as few busy cities can offer to the pleasure seeker or to the tired business man.
In Burrard Inlet, Vancouver possesses one of the finest natural deep-water harbours in the whole world, and in consequence Vancouver is becoming the
principal shipping port on the Pacific. The products of the Orient and of Australia reach this port in ever-increasing quantities, and with the opening of the Panama
Canal will begin the western flow of the grain from the Prairies for shipment to Europe and other markets of the world.
In Stanley Park, Vancouver possesses a magnificent playground of nearly 1,000 acres, almost completely surrounded by water: It is characterized by wild
beauty and wondrous charm and commands endless vistas of mountain and ocean view. Giant trees, luxuriant verdure and foliage of every kind, together with a
rocky shore-line of several miles bordering Burrard Inlet and English Bay, combine to make Stanley Park a sPoi whose manifold enchantments transcend the power
of words to describe.
Besides this great pleasance there are bathing beaches at English Bay and Kitsilano, within a few minutes from the centre of the City. English Bay for
several years has been fully equipped as a pleasure resort, and at Kitsilano elaborate and far-sighted plans are in operation for the building of a promenade and
extending the scheme of ornamental gardens. Hastings Park, eastward of the City, is the home of the Exhibition Buildings, and in the years to come will be
another important pleasure ground for the Citizens of Vancouver. Across the Inlet are the beautiful canyons of the Capilano and Lynn Creeks, and North Arm,
Indian River and Bowen Island are other beautiful spots near this highly favoured City.
Within the City magnificent business blocks are rising with amazing rapidity, giving abundance of room and light for those who work in them and testifying
to the almost incredible progress of the City within the last decade. In 1886 the population of Vancouver was 1,000; in 1900, 24,750; in 1910, 93,700; and
today, including its suburbs, the population of Greater Vancouver reaches 202,076. Captain Vancouver discovered Burrard Inlet in 1793. Vancouver City has
been discovered by the world. Its immigration at the present time exceeds its capacity for assimilation, and for the early part of 1914 the door has had to be
closed against the man who can bring nothing but the potential wealth of his arm and brain.
The year 1913 has been an abnormal year owing to the financial stringency that has more or less affected the whole civilized world. The policy of the
City Council has been one of the severest economy; but for the year 1912, when conditions were more normal, the building permits exceeded nineteen million dollars,
The Customs receipts in the fiscal year ending March 31, 1913, amounted to nine million two hundred and seventy-eight thousand eight hundred and twenty-six
dollars; the exports exceeded eleven million dollars and the imports forty-four million dollars; the total assessment two hundred million dollars. The bank clearings,
which for 1902 amounted to fifty-four million dollars, in 1912 reached the figure of six hundred and forty-five million.
In harbour development Vancouver is responding to the challenge of the Panama Canal by the proposed expenditure of sixty million dollars, and on all
sides it is reaching out to the industrial enterprises that will make it less dependent for its supplies upon foreign manufacture. ^ancouber, J?. C.
Panorama of Office Buildings.
Hastings and Main Streets.
Post Office Building.
^*^3rmS^M^vJ& '^H
4. A Part of Hastings Street.
5. English Bay Bathing Beach.
mmm ^Tancouber, p. C.
The Harbour Improvements now in course of construction or to be started within a few months are as follows:
South Shore
Reinforced concrete dock, 800 feet long and 300 feet wide, contract let by Dominion Government.   Estimated cost, $1,250,000.
Piers and warehouses now building for Canadian Pacific Railway Company.    Estimated cost, $750,000.
Reinforced concrete dock just completed for Great Northern Railway Company.    Estimated cost, $600,000.
North Shore
Dominion Government docks projected upon acquisition of title to Indian reserve waterfroutage.    Estimated cost, $1,000,000.
Floating dry dock, depth 30 feet, lifting 20,000 tons, and four shipbuilding berths, two 750 feel long and two 350 feet long. Yards and dock iw'H
employ 2,000 men.   Estimated cost, $4,000,000.
Widening First Narrows channel, entrance to harbour, from 400 feet to 2,200 feet.   Estimated cost, $600,000.
Dredging channel to a width of 300 feet from mouth to Canadian Northern terminals.    Estimated cost, $ 1,000,000.
Canadian Northern Railway terminals and docks, including causeway and reclaiming of about 160 acres of tide lands.   Estimated cost, $10,000,000.
Sea-wall and dredging main channel of Fraser River and at mouth of Pitt River, at Port Coquitlam.   Estimated cost, $1,000,000.
Lulu Island harbour project, along lines of Bush terminals of New York.   Estimated cost, $30,000,000.
New Westminster fresh-water harbour under civic control.    Estimated cost, $10,000,000.
Vessels Inward Bound  ...10,657 Total Tonnage -- 5,237,010
Vessels Outward Bound .....10,928 Total Tonnage  ....- -  5,475,335
Total Tonnage for 12 months ending December 31 st    t   10,712,345
Vancouver has been described as "the centre of the fastest growing section of the world," and the opinion can scarcely be considered a serious exaggeration.
To provide for the comfort and welfare of the vastly increasing tourist traffic the Canadian Pacific Railway is now engaged in rebuilding ^ the Hotel
Vancouver, making of it the largest and best equipped hotel on the Pacific Coast. When finished it will be sixteen storeys high, with 750 rooms and suites, as compared with 300 rooms before the construction was started.
Being the latest of the Canadian Pacific hotel system the Vancouver will typify the most advanced ideals in hotel building, containing every modern
convenience and representing an investment for building and equipment in the neighbourhood of two million dollars.
The climate of Vancouver is mild and equable the entire year round. The average highest point reached in temperature during the past three years was
85, while the average lowest point reached was nine above zero. The summers are delightfully cool and balmy, while the winters are mild but moist, with comparatively little snowfall. The average rainfall for the last three years was about 51 inches. Absence of disagreeable winds is another feature that forms a surprising element to the visitor. The result of this combination is seen in the extraordinarily low death-rate of the City, which is considerably less than ten per
thousand, compared with fifteen to seventeen for England and Scotland. Vancouver during the course of its history has never had an epidemic of contagious
The "Terminal City," as Vancouver is frequently called, has one of the most efficient school systems on the continent of America, and is shortly to be
the seat of the new University of British Columbia. Its water supply is secured from the mountains to the north of the City, and is practically inexhaustible and of
the finest quality.
In 1886, when the Canadian Pacific Railway came, through the site of Vancouver Was a stretch of unbroken forest with a small and shabby village as its
only sign of life. Today it is a great and beautiful City with endless promises and potencies of commercial and industrial life. It is the ocean gateway of the Province, rich beyond measure in natural resources and transportation facilities. MMMMaWliitttfttiymr
Btetrict of
JJortf) Uancouter,:;
Stores in Lynn Valley.
Lonsdale Ave., North Lonsdale.
Second Canyon, Capilan
Municipal Hall.
One of the School Houses.
.   6.
Residential Row, N. Lonsdale.
IIP! IL ". 'Bisftrict of
Movfy ^Jancouber, p. C.
THE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER, B. C, surrounds the City of North Vancouver, stretching from the
Capilano River to the North Arm and running from the water-front on Burrard Inlet to the mountains behind.
It has approximately fifteen miles of water-front on the Harbour, of which six miles are ideal for shipping and manufacturing purposes, and the balance for summer homes.
This district offers the finest selection of homesites, and is equal to any place on the Pacific Coast.  The principal centres of population at present are Lynn Valley, North Lonsdale, Capilano, and Queensbury Heights.
LYNN VALLEY nestles in the mountains to the north-east of the City at an elevation of from 500 to 700 feet, and has unsurpassed views of mountain and stream.   It is situated about three miles from the Ferry Wharf, and is fifteen minutes' journey on the car
from the water.   It has a population of upwards of 2,000, has excellent store accommodation, three Churches, a magnificent school, good
car service, telephone facilities, electric-lighting for homes and streets, sidewalks, and an up-to-date water system.
NORTH LONSDALE lies directly behind the City and is the favourite residential section. Indeed, it does not aspire to become anything else. It lies at
an altitude of from 600 to 900 feet, with a magnificent view of the Harbour and the Gulf. Access is obtained by the main street from the Ferry Wharf—Lonsdale
Avenue, a fine highway. There is a population of about 1,000, stores, Churches, a modern school, car, telephone, electric-lighting and Water services, macadamized roads, and sidewalks. W^l%
CAPILANO is just coming into favour as a residential section, and lies in the west end of the district adjoining the Capilano River. The fame of Capilano
as a tourist resort is sufficient testimony of its charms. It has a population of between 400 and 500, which is accommodated with stores, school, car service, telephones, electric-lighting and water services, and good roads.
QUEENSBURY HEIGHTS lies between the easterly boundary of the City and Lynn Creek. Like North Lonsdale, it has magnificent harbour views
and is rapidly becoming a high-class residential community. The population is< about 250, and it has a fine school and is served by car, telephone, electric-lighting and
water services.
SUMMER HOMES: The North Arm of Burrard Inlet contains some of the most beautiful scenery, and is specially adapted for the making of summer
homes. In fact, a large number of people live there the year round, and go into the City of Vancouver daily, either on their own gasoline launch or one of the steamers
which give a regular service to this part of the district.
There are beautiful lakes lying hidden in some of the plateaus, where skating on clear ice can be enjoyed as late as April, and with the advent of a tunnel
under the First Narrows these would be brought within half-an-hour's journey of the City of Vancouver.
The sportsman will find plenty of bear, deer, mountain goats and winged game in the inland part of the district, while on the harbour yachting, rowing,
swimming and all aquatic sports can be indulged in.   A trip up the North Arm of the Inlet will reveal the beauties of the noted Kyles of Bute.
Little need be said to prove the advantages offered by the North Vancouver District to Investors. It is sufficient to point out that eleven years ago the
assessment of the District of North Vancouver amounted to $800,000. The total assessment of the three Municipalities covering the same area as the old district, for
the year 1913, was about $33,000,000, the increase being forty-fold.    What will it be when the railways commence operations?
There are six miles of water-front suitable for industrial sites. We have 1,000 acres of tide flats, constituting an unrivalled location for wharves, dockage
and railway terminals, and a never-failing supply of the purest water of inestimable value for industrial purposes. Over 1,000,000,000 feet of the finest lumber
stand in the valleys, and a rich mining district is near by.
No place within the Dominion contains within itself such a variety of beauty spots, combined with opportunities for hunting, fishing, boating, mountain climbing, and all that appeals to the tourist and sportsman.
Within easy reach lie Grouse Mountain (4,250 feet), Crown Mountain (5,200 feet), Goat Mountain (4,500 feet), the Lions (6,500 feet), and several
Out of these mountain fastnesses spring many rivers and streams, the chief among which are the Seymour, Lynn and Capilano Rivers, and the McCartney
Sisters and Cypress Creeks.    Good fishing may be had on the three first named, trout and salmon being plentiful in season.
Of the beauties of these rivers no tongue can tell. One moment a rushing mountain torrent, the next a placid stream. Then, again, plunging into a gorge
with a roar of thunder, to emerge into a bubbling, seething cauldron, and so on to the sea.
The railways are coming to develop these vast resources. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway is nearing completion, and steel is being laid in the district.
This will connect the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway with Burrard Inlet and will open up the rich country between Fort George and Vancouver. This railway has
purchased over fifty acres for terminal facilities in the District of North Vancouver.
The Canadian Pacific Railway has just obtained approval of its plans for an extension of its line throughout the whole length of the district.
Vancouver's water-front is crowded. The shipping on Burrard Inlet is rapidly increasing, and will make vast strides with the opening of the Panama Canal.
The development of the North Shore must follow. p
Cttj> of
Jgortf) Uancouber,:;
1. Lonsdale Avenue.
2. ReceptipiJ-to H. R. H. the Duke of
3. Perry Landing.
«^-->. .^—^«-«.
Cttj> of
rHE CITY OF NORTH VANCOUVER is situated on the north shore of Burrard Inlet. It contains an area of 3.76 square miles and a
population in the neighbourhood of 8,000 people. From its admirable situation the City is rapidly taking a foremost place as a leading
residential City of the Canadian Pacific Coast. It lies on a southern slope, which rises gradually from the water's edge northward to the
foot of the mountains, a distance of approximately five miles.
From any part of the City there is a good view of the Gulf of Georgia, Burrard Inlet, English Bay, Point Grey and Vancouver
City, and on any clear day Mount Baker, situated in the State of Washington, one hundred miles to the south, can be seen.
The natural advantages of the City from a spectacular point of view are unique. There are three rivers within easy walking distance—
viz., the Capilano, the Lynn and the Seymour, each of which rushes through an enormously deep canyon, the beauty of which attracts annually thousands of
North Vancouver possesses an equable climate, never being loo warm in summer, while in winter the temperature is seldom below freezing point. The
water supply (one of the finest in the world) is obtained from Lynn Creek at a point about five miles.from tide-water. The Lynn drains an entirely uninhabited
watershed and can deliver an average daily supply of about 25,000,000 gallons. The water flows into the City by gravity, and very high pressure is obtained, so
great indeed that relief valves are required to reduce the pressure for domestic use. The City has a high-pressure fire main entirely independent of the service mains,
which carries a pressure of from 150 to 250 lbs.
Great developments are expected in the near future, as final arrangements have been completed for the erection of a steel bridge across the Second Narrows
of Burrard Inlet, which will give direct railway and vehicular communication with Vancouver. The right-of-way of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, which
will run from Fort George through North Vancouver to Vancouver, has been approved, and the construction work on the grade is now in progress.
The Ferry system (consisting in the meantime of three well-appointed vessels) maintains a twenty-minute service between the City and Vancouver, the
approximate time of crossing being from twelve to fourteen minutes.
This City is well supplied with breathing spaces. One noteworthy feature of the park system is the Grand Boulevard, several miles in length, running
through the principal residential sections and occupying a commanding position on the benchlands overlooking the City, Burrard Inlet, and Vancouver on the
opposite shore. For the greater part of its length, this magnificent residential thoroughfare is 346 feet wide, and is said to be the longest and widest boulevard in the
At the City's side doors stand the entrances to the wonderful canyons of Capilano, Lynn and Seymour Creeks, the Mecca of thousands of tourists from
all parts of the world who visit the North Pacific Coast every year.
The school system of North Vancouver has kept pace with advancement along other lines, and the educational advantages now available are most complete
and are in advance of many older and larger cities. There are three modern Public Schools in the City, with an attendance of seven hundred pupils and a staff of
twenty teachers.   In addition to the Public Schools, there have been established a High School and a manual training department connected with the Public Schools.
North Vancouver is well supplied with Churches, all the leading religious denominations being represented, and the various congregations are housed in handsome edifices.
The City of North Vancouver at the present h eminently an ideal residential City. In the near future it will be a great seaport town, as in addition to its
natural facilities of deep water and good anchorage the Dominion Government are making arrangements to construct a large public dock, and other extensive harbour
improvements are in contemplation.
The natural resources of the City of North Vancouver, together with the public spirit of its Citizens and the beauty of its surroundings, will without doubt in
the near future combine to realize the hopes and aspirations of the inhabitants of what is known throughout the Pacific Coast as "THE AMBITIOUS CITY." ———
I Mkm-"
lb   \r        Mi
J"* a Jfeg££fMt
ftoutb Uancouber, p. C.
■■     ■:'• .',  A:\A'    AA;
3. Main Street.
4. Creosoting Plant.
s«yk mmms^mmm
^outfj ^ancouber, p. C.
rj^HE MUNICIPALITY OF SOUTH VANCOUVER, B. C, embraces a territory of 9,200 acres, extending from the southern boundary of the City of Vancouver to the Fraser River, and has at this time a scattered population of about 40,000.   It is a thriving and rapidly
growing community, connected with all the railroads running into Vancouver; and being located at the junction of the North Arm of the
Fraser River with the Gulf of Georgia, it has a fine fresh-water harbour, governed by a Commission, which is actively promoting the shipping and fishing industries.
These excellent transportation facilities will doubtless establish South Vancouver as the principal distributing centre for the productive valleys of the Fraser for all time to come.
At the present time the chief industry of the City is Lumber, there being ten lumber and shingle mills in operation; but many other industrial enterprises are
contemplated and will materialize in the near future.
An idea of the City's growth can be formed from the fact that the assessed value of property in 1912 was $34,091,927; the total value of improvements,
$8,239,372; and building permits to the value of $2,600,000 were issued.    There are 150 miles of sidewalks, 35 miles being macadamized.
South Vancouver has sixteen School-houses (eleven brick and five frame), eight Banks, three Hospitals, sixteen Churches, a Municipal Hall and a Public
Library.    The City has complete modern Sewer, Electric-light and Water Systems, the latter being owned by the Municipality.
The single-tax system has been in operation from the time of the City's incorporation to the present day, and it has given general satisfaction. The tax rate
is twenty-two and one-half mills on wild land and twelve and one-half mills on improved lands.
As a residence and home town South Vancouver offers great advantages, especially to people of moderate means and to the working classes, although
some fine large residences are to be found in various sections of the City. Property values are by no means so inflated as yet as to make it hard for the middle-
class or working man to have a home of his own.
From a climatic and scenic point of view South a most attractive place to live in. Rising on a slight elevation from the banks of the North
Arm of the Fraser River, from its southern slope a magnificent view of the Gulf of Georgia presents itself, with the hamlets of Lulu Island nestling at its feet, and
with the mountains of Vancouver Island rising in all their grandeur in the distance.
To the south-east snow-capped Mount Baker, in the State of Washington, is plainly seen towering to the skyline.
As far as municipal institutions are concerned, South Vancouver is a strictly modern city. The Police, Fire and Water Departments compare favourably with
those of larger and much older civic centres in their personnel as well as in equipment.
The School and Health Departments are in competent hands, and their officers are ever alert in keeping the City's educational and sanitary conditions
up to the highest standard.
A Board of Trade, composed of a number of wideawake and progressive citizens, is doing excellent service for the good of the community by active promotion of every enterprise or improvement contemplated and by propagating the superiority of South Vancouver near and far.
For some time past there has been a movement afoot to amalgamate South Vancouver with its northern neighbour Vancouver, and there seems to be but
little doubt that ultimately such a merger will be accomplished. Many, however, doubt the wisdom of any action in that direction at this period or in the
immediate future. This question will sooner or later come before the people for decision, but no matter what may happen in the years to come, favoured by natural
advantages, surrounded by fertile valleys, possessing miles of fine water-frontage, and being in direct connection with the commercial centres of the world, South
Vancouver can confidently look to the future and fee I sure of an ever-increasing prosperity. I
i»es$t Vancouver, P.C.
. ■ ^
Wlt&t Vancouver, P.C.
EST VANCOUVER was incorporated as a separate Municipality on April 6, 1912. Prior to this date it was only a part of North Vancouver, and a favourite pleasure-ground for lovers of scenic beauty and the joys of outdoor life. Since then it has developed rapidly into
a well-settled residence and business community.
This new City comprises the territory lying between Capilano River on the east and Howe Sound on the west, extending north from
the north shore of English Bay to the line of the north boundary of the district of North Vancouver. Its area is approximately twenty-five
square miles.
The shore-line of West Vancouver extends from the mouth of the Capilano River at the First Narrows, around Point Atkinson
at Horseshoe Bay and Howe Sound, and all along the coast line are points which have become familiar names as settlement has proceeded, such as Caulfields,
Dundarave, Hollyburn, Eagle Harbor, White Cliff and Horseshoe Bay.
This area consists largely of gentle slopes and level bench lands, rising step by step from the shore in easy gradients back to the foothills and the mountains which frame it in. The locality is well protected by its natural surroundings against severe winds and heavy fogs, and as a consequence the climate is milder
than that of its near-by southern neighbours.
West Vancouver is essentially a place of magnificent vistas. From any point in the district splendid scenic views of marine and mountain can be had, and
the drives and walks leading to the surrounding territory offer a great many attractions to the seeker of Nature's bountiful and varied resources.
Hollyburn is the principal city in the West Vancouver district, and a fine Municipal Hall is located here, where the Council and the officials conduct the business of the new Municipality. Improvements and additions to the existing civic facilities, such as sewers, paving, water and electric service, streets and sidewalks,
fire protection, etc., are constantly being made, and as fast as the finances of the district permit. Private enterprise is also doing much to rapidly advance the growth
of West Vancouver.
The report of the Municipal Engineer states that 137 structures were erected in West Vancouver in 1913, while in the year previous 135 were built,
which makes a total of 272 buildings in two years—an excellent record indeed for a new community.
The district is connected by ferry service with Vancouver, and at the beginning of this year an electric railroad commenced operation, connecting all the
towns in the district with each other and with North Vancouver. An 80-foot marine drive, to cost $250,000 when completed, is now being constructed from Capilano to Horseshoe Bay, which will be the finest in Greater Vancouver. The Pacific Great Eastern Railway, which will make North Vancouver its terminal
point, and which is rapidly nearing completion, will traverse the West Vancouver district, and this will make the latter place a link in the chain that will connect
the North Shore with the vastly fertile lands lying between Burrard Inlet and the waters of the Nechako and Upper Fraser Rivers.
West Vancouver, now only in its infancy, will in a short time become a place of no mean importance. Such is the inevitable conclusion of all who have
expert knowledge of its possibilities. M^^M J^eto Westminster, p.CL
4. Bank of Commerce
5. Provincial Orphanage
6. Panoramic View
IglW ^»^^^
JJeto Westminster, p. C.
7\ TEW WESTMINSTER, founded in 1859, was for the first ten years the capital of British Columbia,  although at  that  time  only
village. In those early, struggling days the population of the country was a very limited one, and there was no chance of expansion. But
even at that time New Westminster was the market-place for the small farmers, truck gardeners, and little sawmills in the valleys and
along the shores of the mighty Fraser River.
When in 1868 the capital was removed to Victoria, conditions changed much in New Westminster, and after minor fluctuations the
City in 1897 had a population of only 5,000.   A great fire in 1899 wiped out nearly the whole City and caused a loss of $2,500,000.
But what was then considered a great calamity proved to be really the dawn of a future prosperity, for with the rebuilding of the stricken
City a rapid forward movement of New Westminster's affairs had its beginning.
At this present time New Westminster's population numbers 17,000, and over sixty thriving industries are located within its boundaries, with a payroll annually
amounting to about $2,500,000. Large business blocks line the busy down-town streets; fine residences adorn the avenues; and a forest of smokestacks indicates the
manufacturing districts. The whistle of the locomotive and the hum of the trolley proclaim a lively travel to and from the city, and the water-front is ever crowded
with husky stevedores handling freight for and from the numerous craft that line the. docks.
Situated about 17 miles from the sea on the banks of the Fraser River, New Westminster lies at the western end of great transcontinental railways, offering an ideal site for manufactories on the one hand, and an accessible market for farmers on the other. A gently rising slope forms a beautiful townsite, while the
level lands lying along the deep water of the Fraser lend themselves to easy development by transportation companies, sawmills, elevators and other businesses that
demand similar facilities.
Three great trunk railroad systems serve New Westminster—the Canadian Pacific, the Canadian Northern, and the Great Northern Railways, all of which
parallel the water-front and radiate out into the farming country in such a way as to make the City a railroad centre. The B. C. Electric Company has several
trolley lines running out of New Westminster. Three of these connect the City with Vancouver; one with Steveston, the great canning town; another with Mill-
side, where one of the largest sawmills in the world is located; and still another, seventy miles in length, running through the Fraser Valley, which constitutes the
most fertile agricultural district in British Columbia.
The City owns all of its most important public facilities, including the waterworks and electric-lighting system, and it derives a handsome annual revenue
from them.    The water-frontage of 1.7 miles, belonging likewise to the City, is an asset of incalculable value.
In the Fraser Valley—which is so largely contributory to the general prosperity of New Westminster—lives a rural population of about 70,000 people,
engaged in raising farm products, favoured by an excellent climate and an exceptionally rich soil. There are about 2,000,000 acres in this district, and a small
portion of some 30,000 acres raised produce valued at $1,350,000 in one year, while another section of about 55,000 acres has standing timber estimated at
500,000,000 feet, consisting of fir and cedar.
The fishing interests of New Westminster are of great magnitude. The pack of the river averages about 250,000 cases per annum of Sockeye salmon, and
there are also 60 carloads of halibut frozen in the Cit y every year. j J^eto Westminster, p. C.
il .    ..      . 5
Columbia Street.
A Business Block.
Sill frtfj
On O   O    o o   A0'■
4. Fifth Street.
5. Second Street.
6. Fraser River Bridge.
IL_ jgeto Westminster, p. C.
Metal industries account for a production of nearly $1,000,000; packed meat, $1,400,000; dairies, $100,000; and cigar factories, $100,000. Besides
these different industries the B. C. Electric Railway carshops employ over 100 men, and the Western Paper Mills is another important business, producing fifteen
tons of coarse paper a day.
Recognizing that a great fresh-water harbour on Canada's Pacific Coast will be necessary to handle the immense development of trade that will follow the
opening of the Panama Canal and the export of the prairie grain via the Pacific, the City has prepared a harbour plan for the development of the Fraser River
which will make New Westminster one of the most important ports on the Pacific Coast. Work is to begin immediately, $500,000 having already been voted by
the Citizens for this purpose.
The future before the port of New Westminster is difficult to foretell; but the difficulty does not lie in determining whether it will be a success or a failure,
but rather in estimating to what heights the success will soar. Its advantages are manifold. It will be the only great fresh-water port on the Pacific Coast, with the
exception of Portland, which has far greater difficulties to contend with in the shape of sandbars than exist on the Fraser River.
The Civic administration of New Westminster is all that can be desired. All the various departments are well taken care of. The Police, Fire and Street
Departments are well officered, manned and equipped. The City is well paved, sewered and lighted. Educational facilities are abundant, and many fine Churches
of every denomination have been erected.
Socially, as in business, New Westminster is the centre of a large district, and every convenience for the pursuit of pleasure can be found. Clubs, theatres
and halls are numerous, making it a most desirable residential City in every way.
Few cities in the West to-day enjoy such solid prosperity as New Westminster.   Few have such bright prospects for the future. Bgimaai
$ort jftloobp, p.C.
Lumber Mill.
Government Wharf.
A View of the Harbor.
McNair Wharf.
W*w mem
,..^,,^-., >,,:
$ort Jftoobp, p. C.
ORT MOODY is the youngest incorporated City in British Columbia, although it is one of its earliest settlements. In April, 1913, a special
Act was passed making Port Moody a City, and since then much work has been done in developing the town and in making civic
Situated on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the head of Burrard Inlet, Port Moody has unsurpassed harbour
facilities, having six miles of deep water-front and seven miles of main line trackage, where rail and water first meet. For industrial purposes these advantages are of the greatest value, and fine sites for factories are offered at most reasonable terms.
Up to the present time there are three lumber mills and the plant of the British Columbia Oil Refineries located there, and several manufacturing
enterprises are contemplated for the near future. The C. P. R. is preparing a pipeline from Port Coquitlam to Port Moody, and at the latter place will construct
a large storage tank f°r °H> and will also erect a-pumping station. It is expected that a wharf to accommodate the oil ships will follow. Around the head of the
Inlet and on the north shore, within the City limits, trackage facilities for connection with North Vancouver's industries have been established.
A new road connecting Port Moody with Vancouver is now being constructed, and the streets in the heart of the City have been much improved; sidewalks have been laid, and an electric-lighting system has recently been added to the City's improvements. A large public hall has been built, suitable for public
meetings and entertainments, and plans for a City Hall are under way.
The present population of Port Moody is about 1,500, and nearly every family owns its home. There are three Churches, of different denominations, a good school, two hotels, three general stores and quite a number of smaller places of business.
The men in charge of the Municipal affairs of Port Moody have in the short time the City has been incorporated made much progress, especially since
they have laboured with a necessarily limited financial budget. But, taking their accomplishments in the brief past as a criterion, the coming years will elevate the
new City to the front row of industrial communities in Western British Columbia.
Members of the Governmental Grain Commission, who recently inspected the various sites offered for the erection of grain elevators, favoured Port Moody
as a most suitable location, and there is every possibility that, acting upon their recommendation, the Government will build its elevators there, and the C. P. R. is
contemplating to do likewise, which will mean that in the near future many millions of bushels of grain from the Middle West will be shipped to Port Moody
for grading and transfer from rail to water transportation.
Like all other Pacific Coast ports, Port Moody will be largely benefited by the Panama Canal, which, when open, will greatly shorten and facilitate water
transportation. There is very little doubt that the grain shipments from the Prairies will in the future travel westward, instead of going towards the eastern waterways, for the distances are much shorter to the Pacific ports and the expense of the haul is far less. There will then be no more complaints of frozen rivers and
lakes causing grain blockades, and the traffic will proceed uninterrupted.
Port Moody's prospects for the near future are very bright, as its superior claims for recognition cannot be denied.
J $ort jWoobp, P.C.
OR a period extending over about eight years the most prominent of Port Moody's industrial establishments has been the Lumber and Shingle
Mill previously owned and operated by various other men, but of late under the personal management of the present owners, Messrs. Thurston and Flavelle.
This establishment (which is among the largest in that line in British Columbia) is now known as the Thurston-Flavelle Lumber
Company, and the new firm, being composed of decidedly enterprising material, has, although only a short time has passed since they took
the management into their hands, already made many improvements.
The plant is so complete in all its details that to the visitor it presents a most interesting illustration of marvellous ingenuity in the
operation of its various departments. Gigantic logs are manipulated by clever mechanical devices as easily as if they were of toothpick dimensions, and in a wonderfully short time they are transformed into smooth lumber, shingles, laths or other wood products. To the man not familiar with modern mill machinery, this process
of transformation is extremely fascinating and instructive.
The log booms, with a capacity of from three to five million feet of logs, are situated on the tide-flats at the head of the harbour near the mill, and precautionary measures to protect them from the onslaught of the teredoes, the much-dreaded pests and enemies of the timber industry, have been effectively taken. These
booms form the basis of supply for the mills. The two proprietors, being experienced in the timber business and having large personal holdings in that line, are
always sure that only the best quality of logs come to their establishment.
The daily output of the Thurston-Flavelle Lumber Company's plant is at this time 50,000 board-feet of lumber, 100,000 shingles, and 20,000 laths. One
hundred and twenty-five men, preferably white, are employed nearly all the year round, and the weekly payroll of this establishment contributes largely to the business interests in Port Moody.
Contributory to the mills in the way of storing and transporting their products, are large warehouses and sheds, side tracks connecting with the C. P. R.
main line, and wharfage for vessels loading lumber cargoes for the markets of the world. All these accessory facilities present scenes of activity at any period of
the year, which in itself is a most convincing testimonial to the popularity and prosperity of the Thurston-Flavelle Lumber Company.
Both Mr. Thurston and Mr. Flavelle are from Lindsay, Ontario, where the former's father owns large lumber mills, and both had considerable experience
in the lumber business before they entered into the present partnership. They are energetic, aggressive and enterprising men of the stamp which marks the successful
manufacturer and merchant of to-day.
mss^ Pritisf) Columbia
yEW of Canada's institutions, public or private, have so prominently come under public notice as that of the New Mental Hospital and Colony
Farm, situated at Essondale, in the Province of British Columbia.
The new Hospital was opened on the 1st day of April, 1913, but the Colony Farm has been in operation since 1908. The Hospital
building (which is considered to be one of the finest on the Continent) has proved itself in every way perfectly adapted for the proper treatment and economical handling of insane cases. The congregate dormitory system has worked most admirably, patients behaving much better
under constant supervision. In this new Hospital almost every old asylum feature has been abolished, and to the layman passing through,
a mixed impression of the Club and Hospital is gained. On the one hand he sees patients engaged reading good books, playing cards or
billiards; while on the other, he notices patients in beds in dormitories as spotlessly clean as those of any of a large general hospital.
Outside in the grounds patients are engaged—some in various amusements, others at gardening, etc. But it is when one passes along to the wonderful farm
and stables that the greatest surprise is felt. And what a farm it is! Visitors are unanimous in their opinion that for the size of the farm, its equipment is unquestionably
the finest in Canada, and probably it has no peer on the Continent, while on every side are seen patients engaged at pleasant farm work-
As to the great benefit obtained from this method of handling patients, the Hon. Dr. H. E. Young, Provincial Secretary, states:
"After several years' experience with the Colony Farm, we are now more than ever convinced of the value of occupation as a remedial agent in the treatment of mental disease. That suitable employment is the best remedy for many ills of mind and body has long been recognized. Of late years, however, its value
has begun to be more generally appreciated; also the important fact that its benefits can be extended to a much larger number than was formerly believed.
"Among no class of patients are the beneficial effects of employment more marked than among the insane, and it cannot be otherwise than interesting and
instructive to similar institutions, in other Provinces, to consider and study the remarkable results obtained in British Columbia's new Mental Hospital, which is
conceded to be one of the most modern to-day on the American Continent."
Dr. C. E. Doherty, the Medical Superintendent of the British Columbia Hospital for the Insane, and Colony Farm, says:
"Work, and especially work in the open air amid healthy surroundings, is of the utmost value for mental patients. It renders them more composed and
patient, and better satisfied with themselves. Being a factor in the production of health and happiness, it also becomes a means of cure. In those asylums in which
work for patients is carefully organized, the mortality rate is decreased, mechanical restraint is reduced to a minimum, and recoveries are more frequent: the spirits
of the patients are brightened, the labor of those who attend them is ameliorated, and the mission of the Province or State, which thus provide not only for the
custody, but also for the recovery of their patients, is,.ennobled.   Hence every good hospital for the insane should possess an Agricultural Colony."
Dr. Bayard Holmes, the Chicago alienist and author of numerous monographs on insanity, the best known of which is "Friends of the Insane," says:
"I have conferred with Dr. Doherty on his visit to this City, and consider that the ideas advocated by him and carried out in the Coquitlam Mental Hospital
are undoubtedly correct, and far in advance of the time-dishonoured methods of caring for the insane.
"A nucleus of chronic quiet patients, accustomed to useful and regular occupation and enjoying a certain degree of liberty, in additipn to carrying on outdoor
work, constitutes an excellent and salutary source of companionship for convalescent patients. While the male workers live together in a large home, with open
doors and no single rooms, the female may be housed in a similar dwelling of homely character, where they can employ themselves in suitable work. Each house
requires a very small staff of attendants, who share in the work of the patients. It also serves as a place of probation, and perhaps also of discharge for those
patients who, whether workers or not, have not yet entirely recovered their tranquillity. In these agricultural colonies the policy of the open door may be freely
and unreservedly adopted. If under such a regime there does occur an occasional escape that might not otherwise have taken place, it does not constitute a danger
or a fault, but will serve to impress upon the patients and the public the liberal spirit of the institution."
The best advertisement the Colony Farm has is their "30-povnd" Holstein cows. Such a handsome string of show animals and milk producers can scarcely
be duplicated. The Holstein was chosen as the breed that best suited conditions at this farm, and the best the breed can produce is found there. The herd was
started in 1910. and at that time numbered 22 head. So rapidh has this department developed that to-day there are 119 head to gladden the eye of the visitor.
While the herd has carried off highest honours from coast to coast in Canada, their dory does not end in the show ring. All energy is being directed toward the production of records, and in this connection the efort has been admirably repaid. In all, over 20 head are recorded in the R. O. M. test, and every cow is making
Holstein history that is a great credit to British Columbia and to all Canada.    The beautiful string of voung black-and-whites are as fine as can be found anywhere.
The Colonv Farm has procured the best in Chdesdales that Scotland could provide. At the head of the stud is Bowhill Baron, by Baron's Pride, who
was champion at the Dominion Exhibition, Regina, in 1911. He is all that is to be desired in Chdesdale perfection, unless it were rather more scale. The real
prizes of the horse department are the Clvdesdale mares. To mention the famous mares Nerissa. PeSgy Pride, Opal, Colony Lady Begg and Boquhan Oueen
is sufficient to indicate that Canada has no better. At the recent Chicago Show, in competition which has never before been seen at the International, the Colony
Form was the most noted winner in the yeld mare class, and looked well there. Peggy Pride, by Barons Pride, got no more than her due at second place to
Harviestoun Baroness, the champion mare of the show, in as strong a brood mare class as the International has ever seen. Colony Lady Begg, by Roval Favorite,
stood first in the 3-year-old mare class, and a yearling by Boron's Pride as fourth in a very strong class. The six-horse team of Clydesdale geldings was the
admiration of all who saw them at Chicago. Much more might be said of the animals on this farm, but space prevents. The purchase of such high-class stock
to found a stud indicates the most brilliant future for Colony Farm Clydesdales.
IU 1111II Ml 111U11JJ111111U111111
W mm
Copitlam, p. C.
1. A Cozy Home.
2. Bridal Veil Falls.
3. Bridge Building.
4. Coquitlam River Brldgi
5. -Shoe Factory.
Maple Ridge.
A Private Residence.
Hospital. -
Home Builders. • .^^MM
Coquitlam, Mm
| 71 /fARVELLOUS as the rapid progress of the entire Western part of Canada has been during the comparatively short period since the white
man first discovered its possibilities, there is no more striking example of how quickly an unknown locality can from its obscurity step into
the limelight of considerable prominence than that offered by the City of Port Coquitlam, a thriving Municipality seventeen miles southeast from  Vancouver, B. C.
Port Coquitlam owes its importance to various circumstances which in their combination are so strong that, once started on a progressive march, there is no possible chance of it ever slackening in its speed.
First of all, Port Coquitlam's geographical situation is an ideal one for manufacturing, shipping, industrial, or agricultural enterprises.   It is bounded on the south by the mighty Fraser River and on the east by the Pitt River, which latter is bordered with fertile farms
and productive timber lands.   On the north lie the mountains of the Coast Range, and westward are large lumber mills and factories, interspersed with bustling towns, covering all the distance to the ocean's shore.    The Fraser is navigable, and deep-sea vessels discharge and load their cargoes right here,
establishing thereby a direct link between Port Coquitlam and the other ports of the Commercial world.
Every transcontinental or coastwise railroad must necessarily run through Port Coquitlam, or very near by, on its way from ocean to ocean or from the
north to the south, and it is indeed as a railroad terminal that the City is destined to become most important. The C. P. R. has now plans for large shops, roundhouses and freight depots, which will be located here, work on these improvements having already been started. It will take considerable time, the expenditure of
large sums, and the employment of many men to complete the work this Company alone will carry on here in the near future.
Other transportation companies likewise realize the importance of Port Coquitlam as a strategic poin for the traffic from rail to ship and vice versa, and with
the opening of the Panama Canal the superior advantages offered here for time-saving handling of freights will become a highly valued asset. Concessions for the
erection of elevators for the vast tonnage of grain from the Eastern Prairies which will soon flow in this direction have been applied for, and several companies
will have men on the spot in time to be ready for what will be the beginning of a new era in the history of water transportation.
From an industrial point of view Port Coquitlam is equally fortunate, as it possesses unlimited water power, and within sixteen square miles which comprise
its area there are many sites not yet utilized, but which offer exceptional opportunities for factory purposes. The added advantage of a water-frontage of five miles in
length cannot fail to attract the host of manufacturers who are seeking locations on the Western shores. Several flourishing factories are already located here, principally among them being several large Sawmills, a Shipbuilding Yard and Marine Railway, Railway Switch Factory, Shoe Factory, Stone and Staff Works,
Glove Factory, and a number of smaller concerns.
Great Carbuilding Shops are one of the industries which are certain to be established here, and both the Government and the C.P.R. are now engaged in
building fine steel bridges across the Pitt River which jointly call for an expenditure of nearly two-and-a-half million dollars and give employment to a large force
of men.
The proximity to a large Farming and Dairying district makes Port Coquitlam a distributing point for the marketing of the fruits and vegetables of the farm
gardens in the rich valleys of the Fraser and Pitt River country, as well as for the large amount of dairy products this section supplies annually. As a matter of
fact, the agricultural advantages the immediate surrounding territories offer are at this time not nearly enough exploited, and there is opportunity in plenty still awaiting the coming of small farmers who, if they establish themselves now, will in a brief period be the possessors of fine paying truck gardens or poultry ranches, with a
market close at hand for all they can raise; and the same conditions prevail in connection with the dairy industry.
It is to the credit of the land owners of this section that they do everything possible to make it easy for the industriously inclined to acquire a piece of land
large enough for any of the purposes mentioned above, at low prices and on very easy terms.
From a municipal and residential standpoint Port Coquitlam is also to be considered as a fortunate community, for it has a wise and progressive administration, which has the welfare and improvement of the City always in consideration. The City has a first-class water system of its own, and the streets are well lighted.
There are 15 miles of sidewalks and 12 miles of macadam roads, and 50 acres of City property are reserved for park purposes. The public buildings include five
Schools, a City Hall (now small, but soon to be replaced by a fine structure), an Agricultural Hall for exhibition purposes, a Post Office and a Fire Hall.
The B. C. Telephone and two electric companies have establishments of their respective lines in suitable buildings, and several substantial business blocks
line the down-town streets, while the residential portion has fine and in most instances new, handsome homes scattered picturesquely on the higher levels.
An idea of the present size of the City of Port Coquitlam can be had from the fact that the value of assessed property is $6,400,000,  the  estimated population numbers 2500, and the Building Permits issued for five months in 1913 were eighty.
Another important factor in the upward and forward motion of Port Coquitlam is that the City has an excellent Weekly newspaper, which owns and operates
a very much up-to-date printing plant, and which is ever on the job when it comes to letting the people at large know what a fine place Port Coquitlam is, and how
much more attractive it is becoming every day.
There are undoubtedly many things about Port Coquitlam's immediate and future prospects not mentioned in this short sketch, but enough has been said to
make it clear that in a short time it has accomplished much, and that there can be no doubt as to its brilliant and prosperous future.
1^: Pritisb Columbia
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Agricultural Hall, Coquitlam, B. C
British Columbia Scenery
Wm $ort jMooop, P. C.
ORT MOODY, like many another growing city in Western Canada, owes a considerable amount of its prosperity to the fact that some of
those who have taken up a stake in the City have done all in their power, spending many thousands of dollars, in order to advertise the City's
resources and prepare it for the destiny which lies immediately ahead.
In this respect no history of Port Moody would be complete without a recital of the work done by the prominent real estate brokers
of Vancouver, Messrs. Leitch & Taylor, who have expended not only large sums of money in clearing the land in Port Moody, but who
have also expended lavishly in advertising the City far and wide as a town with a great future ahead of it.
A little more than a year ago Leitch & Taylor, who owned a considerable amount of property on the north shore of Port Moody,
decided that the time was now ripe to bring home to the people a few of the outstanding facts regarding the City. They went over the ground thoroughly and
investigated with an open mind the possibilities for the future of the City, and, with a faith born of a definite knowledge of conditions prevailing there, decided to carry
on a gigantic campaign in the interests of the then thriving town.    That great campaign has been accomplished through the strenuous activities of this firm of brokers.
Much has happened during the past twelve monhs. A year ago Port Moody was practically an unknown town. To-day it is a thriving City. It is safe to
say that had it not been for the forethought and courage of this firm taking up the cudgels on behalf of a town which everyone considered "a dead one," Port
Moody would still be reclining in a stage of semi-somnolence.
Recently the members of the Grain Commission decided that Port Moody was the finest out of twelve sites that had been presented for the location of the
Government elevator. Port Moody, as has been stated on another page, won out of twelve competitors, and this signal victory is largely attributable to the fact
that Messrs. Leitch & Taylor had for long hammered into the people a fact which at the time they did not recognize, that Port Moody and no othe'r site was the
most logical and rational for the location of so mammoth an industry.
"A town to-day: a city to-morrow," was the slogan which Leitch & Taylor adopted in their effort'to obtain recognition for Port Moody. This firm went
down to Port Moody and told the people there what they wanted. Leitch & Taylor proclaimed almost over the whole of Canada that Port Moody would
rapidly rise to greatness. They did more. They convinced the people that Port Moody was something more than a wild-cat realty freak- Attacks by the
prejudiced, the ignorant and the misinformed flowed fast and furious, and the idea of Port Moody ever becoming a city was flouted with scorn.
Not long after, the news was given out that Port Moody was asking the Government for incorporation. A few months later the City received its Charter
and took a great step in the direction of prosperity.
It is to the efforts of Leitch & Taylor, who were courageous enough to stand by Port Moody in its dull days, that that City owes much of its prosperity.
Thousands of dollars were spent by them in clearing the ground, opening up the north shore, advertising the City's resources, and bringing home to the people the fact
of the City's existence.
Many gigantic enterprises are about to be started in Port Moody, and according to the highest authorities the City will soon be in the heigh-day of its career.
Many developments have taken place since Leitch & Taylor first put their shoulders to the wheel in the effort to advance Port Moody's prosperity.
The days of the near future will see a wonderful awakening in Port Moody, and coming generations will not fail to recognize the great part which Leitch &
Taylor took in the initial steps of building up a great city, and the debt they owe to these pioneer advertisers for placing Port Moody in a position of permanent
At their offices, 307-309 Cambie Street, Vancouver, they daily receive numerous callers interested in the City which they have done so much to make prosperous and famous. fniiiiiiimiTriiTnriWriii
CfjiUitoacfe, p. c.
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1.   Wellington Street.
Vedder River Road.
2.    Post Office.
Typical Homes.
3.    Presbyterian Church.
High  School.
4.    Hop Field.
City Hall.
5.    Electric|S|jamway.
Garden Exhibit. CinUtoacfe, p. C.
/CHILLIWACK, B. C, is a thriving Utile City sixty-three miles east of New Westminster, in the centre of a beautiful and fertile valley, for
the produce of which it is the distributing point.
The Chilliwack Valley is dotted with numerous small farms, orchards and dairies, which form the principal sources of supply for
the larger cities on the Coast and along the Fraser River, transportation to which is made easy and rapid by their being traversed by an
electric tramline that operates between Chilliwack and Vancouver.
The City of Chilliwack has at this time a population of about 2,000, and its principal support comes from the surrounding agricultural district.   It is a pretty rural town, well governed and prosperous in a business way.    The residential part of the City is composed of
many cozy homes, with flower gardens and shade trees in abundance.
Much attention is being given to road building and improving by the Municipal and Provincial Governments, and a great deal has already been done in
this direction, with the result that Chilliwack and the adjacent valley have become an attraction for the automobilist and the tourist, who delight in visiting the
"Garden spot of the Fraser Valley," as the.district is appropriately named.
The area of the Valley is about 60,000 acres, stretching from the foothills on the east to Sumas Lake on the west. It is all splendid farming land, of rich silt
formation, mixed with the volcanic washings from the Coast range. It is of considerable depth and in many places shows deposits formed by decayed vegetable
matter. The whole is underlaid with sand and gravel, thus forming an excellent medium of sub-irrigation, which is one of the chief reasons why crop failure is
practically unknown in this community.
The soil is productive even away up into the foothills, and the slopes are valuable orchard lands. Oats yield an average of 100 bushels to the acre; wheat,
barley and rye 40 bushels to the acre; and potatoes 20 to 22 tons per acre. The fields are pastured up till June, and still yield from two to four and a half tons of
hay per acre. Sheep and swine are successfully raised, and a good milch cow brings a profit of from $6 to $10 a month, many farmers with a small herd earning
in this way $500 a year, while his chickens, berries and garden produce bring him easily as much more. Apples, pears, peaches, and all kinds of small fruit are
much in cultivation and bring handsome profits.
Cleared land can still be bought at prices from $150 to $500 per acre according to location and improvements, while uncleared land on the lower levels
sells from $25 to $200 per acre.
The dairies and creameries in the Valley form another large industry, most of their output being shipped by electric trains to the cities of the Lower Mainland. It is estimated that these shipments amount to about 800,000 gallons of fresh milk and 10,000 gallons of fresh cream. A local milk condensing company
also consumes about 2,500 gallons daily.    The total value of the dairying industry's products annually is about $1,000,000.
Today there is a wholesome demand for Chilliwack Valley hops in all the markets of the world. Their reputation for quality is envied by many other hop-
producing districts. The hop yield of this vicinity has proved a publicity source worthy of honorable mention, for the quality causes the words "Chilliwack Hops" to
be uttered times without number by buyers in every market.
Taking into consideration that the development of the vast resources of the Chilliwack Valley have only in recent years become known to the world at large,
and that their exploitation is yet in the beginning, much has been accomplished and many happy settlers have reason to be grateful for the luck that prompted them
to build their homes in that favoured section. With the inevitable advent of more railroads the fame of Chilliwack's fertility will keep on spreading, until before
many years have passed there will not be any vacant spaces left, and the resources of the Valley, great as they are, will be taxed to the utmost to supply an
ever-growing population's demand.
The City itself, aside from its picturesque and idyllic appearance, is fast becoming a very lively little business town, and its importance in this respect is
growing at the pace set by the contributing territory that surrounds it. The well-illuminated and paved business district of Chilliwack has quite a metropolitan
appearance, with fine massive buildings and handsome stores lining the streets. There are imposing public buildings, among them being a fine new City Hall and a
new Post Office, and schools as well as Churches are plentiful and well housed.
The following lines, in which a writer of a recent magazine articles gives expression to his prophetic opinion of Chilliwack's future, doubtless are well
founded, and in quoting them here we share the optimistic views they voice:
"The rapidity with which the Province of British Columbia is being populated means as much to the farmers of the Chilliwack country as any other part
of the Province. The more the harbor facilities come to participate in the development, the more will be demanded from the Chilliwack Valley in the way of
agricultural products.
"As this demand upon the Valley increases, so will the importance of the City of Chilliwack grow. As the acreage set to trees, planted to hops and numerous other field crops, and tilled in gardens becomes greater, so will the City become greater. For it is the one spot in this grand community that must always reflect
the activities of the Valley as a whole. Its powers of distribution must be increased; its transportation facilities must be extended; its importance as a shipping centre
will grow and its prestige as a market will become far known, for it is the very heart of the greatest agricultural district in the most capable province in the Dominion
of Canada."
I Hamloops, p. C.
1. Bank of Commerce.
2. One of the Public Schools.
3. Bank of Hamilton.
4. Court House.
5. Cattle on the Range.
6. In the Springtime.
An Industrial Establishment.
A Private Residence.
Imperial Bank.
Fragrant Blossoms.
Royal Bank of Canada. Hamloops, P. C.
r AMLOOPS is a thriving City in British Columbia, situated on the Thompson River, which latter is named after David Thompson, one of
the north-west's famous pioneers, who established a trading post here in 1812. The river's two branches meet here, and the name of the
post and its subsequent Indian village is derived from that fact, for Kamloops means in the language of the natives, "Meeting of the
During the century that has passed since the adventurous explorer, hunter and trapper made his headquarters on this spot in the
wilderness, his rude camp has been transformed into a fine City of some 6,000 inhabitants, and covering an area of about 922 acres, with
ample surrounding territory for expansion.
Kamloops owes its first claim for recognition—like all cities of the West—to the advent of the railroad, for it became in 1880 a construction camp, which
later, when the C. P. R. was completed, was transformed into the Divisional point which it has been ever since.
At first the growth of the new City was slow, and it was not until 1907 that the merits of the locality gained recognition. But since that year great strides
have been made in the Way of expansion, and with the influx of many enterprising new-comers, added to the indomitable spirit of the old-timers, Kamloops has
made rapid progress.
The Building Permits of 1912 amounted to $590,000, and the assessment for 1913 to $5,269,040, the tax rate being 21 mills.
Kamloops owns its Water System and Electric-lighting Plant. The Hydro-electric Plant at Barriere River, about 40 miles up the North Thompson River,
will furnish ample power and light for years to come.
The Fire Department is regarded as one of the best in the whole West. It has one 80 horse-power auto chemical engine and one 80 horse-power hose
wagon.    These modern appliances, coupled with the Gamewell alarm system, furnish great protection.
The Police Department, under an excellent Chief, has the reputation of being one of the best in the Province.
The Provincial Government Offices in Kamloops are comfortably housed in a fine Court House, where one will find the Provincial Land Office, Gold
Commissioner, Registers of Supreme and County Courts, Provincial Police, Mining, Sheriff, etc., etc.
The Dominion Government has appropriated $85,000 towards a new building to be used as Post Office and to have quarters for the Dominion Land Office,
Customs, Inland Revenue and Indian Agency. The Dominion has also set aside an appropriation of $25,000 towards a Drill Hall, which will cost some
$50,000 to $75,000.
The Provincial Home of Pioneers (which has about one hundred inmates) is located in spacious, well-kept grounds. This property is now undergoing
large improvements, new buildings being in process of erection of reinforced concrete and stone.    The total cost will reach $225,000.
Educational facilities are ample and in the hands of a very competent School Department. The buildings are handsome modern structures. The Convent
School, which has the reputation of being the finest of its class in the Province, is a solid brick building, admirably located on high elevation, with beautiful view
and ample recreation grounds. Besides a good number of resident pupils there are also many day scholars. If one may judge from the bright, contented faces
of all, Sisters included, as they march to matins or vespers, the relations between teachers and pupils must be very happy.
The Hospital, which was completed last fall and opened by His Highness the Duke of Connaught, is a handsome red-brick building on elevated and
spacious grounds, which are now being laid out at a cost of $3,000. The operating rooms are equipped with all modern appliances, and about 100 patients can
be cared for.
In regard to financial institutions, Kamloops is especially fortunate, for besides branch offices of the Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank °f Commerce,
Bank of Hamilton, Imperial Bank and Royal Bank of Canada, there are also three Trust Companies.
The Canadian Northern Railway brought its steel down the North Thompson to Kamloops, making this City the only one in Central British Columbia
where it meets the Canadian Pacific Railway, and, like that railway, established a Divisional point. Not content with that, it is building a line to the Okanagan
District.   Along with this excellent railway service is the certainty of the establishment of a line of river vessels, which is now being proposed, to cover both rivers.
Taking all things into consideration, the optimistic Citizens of Kamloops have every reason to have great faith in the future of their City. Vernon, p. C.
1. Typical Home.
2. Meet of Auto Club.
3. Kalamalka Lake.
4. Post Office.
5. Public School.
6. Bank of Montreal.
7. A Lumber Mill.
■e;::] Vernon, P. C.
Y/^ERNON, B. C, was incorporated twenty years ago, has 4000 population, and, as principal City of the Okanagan Valley, is the seat of
Provincial Government Offices and Court House.
The new Court House, now being erected, is the finest structure planned for interior British Columbia. A remarkably fine quality
of granite, quarried a few miles from Vernon, is being used, such as will be marketable throughout the Province. Limestone (analyzing
97.3% carbonate of lime) is also available in the vicinity. A new Post Office and Customs House has been built, at a cost of $50,000; also
a new Hospital costing $75,000. More than eleven miles of sewer are laid, with 360 connections. The total cost of Vernon's water system,
owned by the Municipality, has been $210,000. There are 28% miles of water mains and 600 connections. Ten miles of cement sidewalk
have been laid, costing $51,290, and there are 25 miles of board sidewalks. Customs Revenue collected at the Port of Vernon in 1913
amounted to $54,8/6.00.
The property assessments in Vernon amount to $4,484,352, and those of the school district to $903,372. The amount of Building Permits in 1912 was
Among the industries established in the City are two sawmills, a sash and door factory, a newspaper, electric-light and power plant, brick yards, meatpacking plant, steam laundry, jam and fruit-canning plant, and limestone and granite quarries. A good telephone system connects the entire Valley. There are
one High and two Public Schools, four Banks, seven Churches and two Hospitals.
The City has fifty miles of macadam roads, twenty miles of which skirt the lake shore, also a Park area of twenty-three acres.
Vernon is the supply centre for seven rapidly growing towns, 23 distributing points, and a large agricultural district within a radius of 132 miles. Seven
hotels are taxed to their capacity during the summer months. There is an opening for a first-class tourist hotel and apartment-house. Ice and cold storage, can, box,
jam, pickle, evaporator, pulp, brick and tile factories are needed.
Electrical industrial power at an extremely low cost has been generated, and manufacturers appreciate a practically uninterrupted service. The City of
Vernon grants generous concessions to bona-fide manufacturers, and an excellent water-power, capable of producing 20,000 horse-power, is being developed by
the Canadian Northern Railway, twenty-eight miles from the City, which will facilitate further industrial activity.
Vernon has daily train connections with the Canadian Pacific Railway main line, and the British Columbia Government has guaranteed the bonds for a
branch line to be built by the C.N.R. from Kamloops to Vernon, Lumby, and Kelowna, which is to be completed by July 1, 1914. The C.N.R. has also acquired
the charter for an electrical system radiating from Vernon, and has already spent large sums in preliminary work-
Provincial fruit has won the Gold Medal at the Royal Horticultural Show in London, open to the British Empire. Okanagan Valley fruit won prizes
aggregating $4,423 at the Spokane National Apple Show, for 43 exhibits. Vernon and district is also being benefited by a growing interest in poultry, hogs and
sheep, and mixed farming.
A value of more than $1,340,000 to the growers was represented by the full carload shipments of fruit and produce alone from the Okanagan Valley for
the first eleven months in 1913.   A total shipment of 1,791 carloads have been sent out, with an average valuation of $650 per car.
Spitzenberg, Newton, Winesap, Greening, St. Lawrence, Baldwin, Golden Russet, Ribston Pippin, Wagner, Rome Beauty, Macintosh, Canada Red,
Gravenstein, Wealthy, Jonathan and Northern Spy are a few of the varieties of apples which are grown in the Vernon district of the Okanagan. Full-bearing
apple orchards are paying 30% and over on the investment.
Earl Grey owns 1,000 acres of these fertile orchard lands at Vernon, Lord Aberdeen 10,000 acres, and Sir Eric Swayne, ex-Governor of British Honduras, owns 2,500 acres and will come to reside here next year.
The natural beauties and recreative advantages of the locality have attracted a very desirable class of immigrants to settle in and around Vernon, who in
their turn have added to and developed the social life of the district. The population of the locality has been recruited largely from the great centres and from
the Old Country.
Business men who have succeeded in the commercial struggle of the City and who desire to enjoy and bring up their families among the advantages of the
uncongested areas of British Columbia, retired Army officers, colonials from less-favored climes, successful farmers from the plains—all join together here to reap the
benefits of their strenuous endeavours by engaging in a pleasant and profitable industry in a mild and salubrious climate and among beautiful surroundings.
Fish and game are abundant, and the climate is pleasant all the year round. There are magnificent lakes and mountain views, and many camps by the
lakes. Summer days are warm and sunny, with cool nights. The winter is short, and a blizzard is unknown. The average temperature for four months in winter
was 10 degrees of frost, with from one to one and one-half feet of snow.    The elevation of Vernon is 1200 feet, and sheltering hills protect the City from winds.
Up to December 15, 1913, there was no snow, nor was there any zero weather, and at Christmas roses, mignonette, petunias, honeysuckles, sweet peas,
carnations, violets and pansies were blooming. Helotona, %€. Uelotona, P. €.
ELOWNA is situated on Okanagan Lake, in British Columbia, and by reason of its prominence in fruit-raising it is familiarly known as "The
Orchard City of the Okanagan."
It has a population of over three thousand in the City and about an equal number in the immediate district; a total assessment of
property of close upon five millions, and the City owns its Municipal facilities, such as electric-light, sewer and water plants.
The geographical location of Kelowna is amidst beautiful surroundings, and the City is the possessor of a splendid public park, which
has a fine lake frontage and promenade.
The City's growth during recent years has been phenomenal, and according to official figures, its Building Permits from January 1
to June 30, 1913, have increased 147 per cent., compared with the corresponding period of 1912.
Kelowna has been raising fruit commercially for over twenty years. The name is known in the markets of the world, even in the interior points of China,
and her apples take first prize wherever shown.
The climate and soil conditions of Kelowna cannot be surpassed. This is no mere haphazard statement: it is supported by the unparalleled series of
sweeping triumphs at the leading fruit shows of Great Britain and America. Speaking some little time ago of a carload of prize Jonathans at the Vancouver
National Apple Show, Professor Van Demon, of Washington, D.C., the highest authority in America on pomological matters, pronounced the fruit to be the finest
ever placed on exhibition and the best he had ever seen.
The maximum amount of fruit per acre can be grown, and the elaborate irrigation systems of the district, which were installed at a cost of five million
dollars, enable the grower to carry on his work with scientific precision and definiteness.
"Everything grows in Kelowna" is a slogan that might most fittingly be applied, and by no means the least important product of her fertile land is
tobacco. This industry will most assuredly play no mean part in the development of the district, and in the near future will become one of the most important
industries in the Province.
Several other important industries have also located in Kelowna, chief among which are a large Canning establishment, two Saw Mills, a Brick and Tile
plant, and several flourishing Packing Houses. In this connection the recently established Kelowna Growers' Exchange, which works in conjunction with the newly
formed Central Selling Agency, ensures for growers the best possible market facilities and prices.
The City is quite up to date, and owns and operates an electric-light plant and water plant. The tested fire pressure of the waterworks is 120-lb., and
ensures efficient protection in case of fire, supplemented by an excellent fire brigade. An efficient sewage system is in operation, thus affording perfect sanitation.
Three of the chartered banks have branches established in the City, one of which%has just erected a fine new building.
The rarefied, bracing atmosphere of Kelowna gives an impetus to sport, and the excellent fishing and shooting that the district affords are attracting an
ever-increasing volume of tourists.   Kelowna's annual regatta is perhaps the chief celebration event of the Valley. Polo, tennis, lacrosse and baseball are very popular.
The educational advantages are second to none in the Province, and the schools are well equipped and staffed. Pupils are prepared for matriculation into
any of the Canadian Universities.   A new Public School has been built, at a cost of $85,000.
Great improvements are being effected in transportation. The C. N. R. have acquired a right-of-way and have purchased a station site at Kelowna.
This line will connect with their main line at Kamloops. The C. P. R. are making their present steamship service on the lake more effective, while the Kettle
Valley Railway, when they have completed their line, will run a special boat service between Penticton and Kelowna which will enable passengers and freight
leaving the Orchard City late in the afternoon to be in Vancouver early the following morning. AlUthese transportation improvements—which will be in actual
operation at an early date—will place Kelowna in an enviable position for coping with the ever-increasing volume of passenger and freight traffic.
Kelowna has an energetic Board of Trade whose officers are members ever active in promoting the welfare of their City in every way, and who gladly make
visitors welcome. The Publicity Commissioner of this body busily dispenses information and advice to all inquiring strangers, besides spreading the fame of
Kelowna broadcast over the land. Eebelstofee, P.C.
5. Picnicking on Mt. Revelstoke
6. New Wharf.
7. Power Dam.
8. Columbia Canyon. EVELSTOKE, B. C, is beautifully situated on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway where it crosses the Columbia River Valley,
between the Selkirks and Gold Ranges of mountains. This splendid mountain environment and valley and river contrast, together with its
accessibility from all points, make it the natural centre of tourist travel, from which all surrounding scenic attractions, north, south, east
and west, can be quickly and comfortably reached.
Incorporated in 1899, the City has now a population of 5,000, and has acquired and now owns all public utilities, such as water,
light and power. It has a plentiful supply (gravitation) of the purest water in the country direct from the mountain tops, and controls
sufficient watershed to supply a city twenty times its size. It has built a concrete dam and installed a hydro-electric power and lighting
plant capable of considerable expansion when required. About J,200 horse-power is now generated. A complete sewerage system has
been installed. It has two large Public Schools and a High School valued at $100,000. It has a large and well-equipped Y. M. C. A., costing about $35,000.
It has one of the finest Court Houses in the interior of British Columbia, costing $160,000. Its Public Hospital is one of the very best in the Province, and has the
most modern equipment and efficient staff; cost $150,000. The Provincial Government spends large amounts annually constructing roads, trails and bridges in the
district tributary to Revelstoke. For the past three years this has averaged $100,000 per year, not including the highway bridge across the Columbia River. This
splendid structure cost $100,000. Their appropriation for roads, trails and bridges in the district for 1913 was $124,000. The Dominion Government have just
completed a $12,000 wharf on the Columbia River, and they have acquired a site for a new Post Office, Public Works Office and Customs Offices, and provided
$50,000 in last year's appropriations to commence the erection of this building.
Revelstoke is headquarters of "District One, B. C. Division" of the Canadian Pacific Railway, consequently all the officials and a large number of the
employees of this company's large mountain district make their homes there. In addition to district offices, the Company maintains a large tourist hotel, extensive machine and repair shops, gas-producing plant, roundhouse, yards, and other facilities necessary to its ever-increasing traffic. The company's average monthly
payroll at Revelstoke is from $85,000 to $90,000, but to this should be added the large amount paid out at tributary way-points. The Forest Mills of British
Columbia Limited, which are operating four large sawmills (three of the largest of these being directly tributary to Revelstoke), have their headquarters and offices
here. Their average monthly payroll is $60,000. The Provincial Government spends over $100,000 annually for public improvements in the district tributary to
Revelstoke, and the Dominion Government proposes to expend in the neighbourhood of $170,000 in the immediate future on improvements of various kinds on the
Columbia River adjacent to this City.   It also has a planing-mill and sash and door factory.
Tributary to Revelstoke lies a very large area of timbered country covered with fir, spruce, cedar, pine and hemlock-
A great variety of minerals are known to exist, distributed over the district. A large quantity of placer gold has been taken out of the Columbia River and
its tributaries north of Revelstoke, and some of these properties are being further developed; and of lode-mineral, gold, silver, lead, zinc, mica, etc., occur in deposits,
but as yet little more than prospecting has been done.   All these indications point to a yield of wealth with capital and transportation assistance.
An automobile road is now being constructed, on easy gradients, from the City to the top of Mount Revelstoke (6,150 ft.), a ride of a mile in height and fifteen
in length, with a new and ever-lovelier view with each ascending turn. On the top of Mount Revelstoke is a large park-like plateau (7,000 acres), much of it of
prairie-like level and openness, but dotted with clumps of balsam trees, knee-high with grass and flowers in season, and studded with gem-like lakes and tarns.
Without doubt it is the most wonderful and lovely natural park contiguous to any city in Canada, and its opportunities for sport (as golfing, ski-ing, etc.) and study
(as botany, entomology, geology, etc.) and mere out-of-doors pleasuring will be gratefully welcomed by thousands glad to leave the summer heat of plains and
valleys for the cooling and invigorating airs of its high altitude.
Other local points of interest are the Columbia River Canyon, Jordan River Falls, Canyon Creek Falls, Silver Tip Falls, Illecillewaet River Canyon, City
Power-plant and Dam on the Illecillewaet River, etc., etc., all of which can be easily reached over good roads and trails by auto or carriage.
Big game hunting, fishing and shooting can be had close by.   Guides, ponies and outfits can be locally secured. .. ■ .\ ssm
iSelson, % C.
■■wimp! kelson, P. C.
T1HE DISTRICT OF KOOTENAY, of which the City of Nelson is the commercial, judicial and political capital and centre, comprises that
portion of South-eastern British Columbia mainly watered by the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
It is a country of some 27,000 square miles in extent, containing in the Rocky and Selkirk Mountain Ranges some of the loftiest peaks
and most beautiful scenery on the Continent.
The glaciers of the Selkirks, the beautiful chains of lakes (the Kootenay, the Slocan, and the Arrow Lakes) lying between these
mountains, afford an attraction to the tourist which, while comparatively unknown at present, will before long be one of its most valuable
But it is not in the scenery alone that the wealth of this portion of the Province lies.    The Mining, Lumbering, and Fruit-growing
interests are of great and increasing importance.
The population of this district is comparatively sparse, but it shows a steady and healthy increase.   According to the Census, the population which in 1901
was 31,962 had increased to 50,772 in 1911.
A satisfactory feature of this increase is that it is principally in the rural or producing population, which shows 132% of increase, while the urban population has increased only 4%.
The chief industry of the district is Mining, and the following figures show its importance in the relation to the figures of the whole Province:
Total mineral output for the Province, 1912  ...$32,440,800 PRODUCTION OF METALS, ETC., IN EAST AND
Total mineral output for East and West Kootenay and WEST KOOTENA Y AND BOUNDARY, 1912
Boundary, 1912     20,604,665 GoW> °z  230,168      Lead, lb  35,084,886
Total 1911     ..  .   -  12,440,077 WgEBt 35J86M
Zinc, lb     7,694,760
Coal, tons     1,474,816
In addition to the above are several smaller mines whose figures of profit cannot be obtained, or which have used their profits in paying for the purchase of
the properties.
The Lumber Industry of the Kootenays is also an important one, not only to the district, but to the Dominion at large, as furnishing to the adjacent Prairie
Provinces the lumber which cannot be produced there.
There are in the district some 100 mills with an annual capacity of 300,000,000 feet, and in value these mills produced in 1912 nearly $6,000,000, or
about one-third of the total output of the Province, which for last year was approximately $17,000,000.
The action of the Provincial Government in extending the operations of the Forestry Service and in increasing fire protection throughout the timber districts is
already having good results.
The demand for lumber for the Prairie Provinces is rapidly increasing, while the mines, through their development, are taking much larger supplies for their
purposes, and the value of the great heritage the district enjoys in its vast wealth of virgin forest of Fir, Cedar, Hemlock, Tamarac, Pine, and Spruce is yearly
becoming more and more recognized.
Fruit-growing is in its infancy, but during the last few years the land that has been cleared and brought under cultivation numbers many tens of thousands of
acres, while some millions of trees have been planted.
The Valleys of the Kootenay and Slocan Rivers, and the shores of the Kootenay, Arrow, and Slocan Lakes, are now dotted with the homes of a prosperous
and contented community.
The high keeping qualities and splendid appearance of Kootenay apples have now thoroughly established this product in the markets, especially among
the consumers on the neighboring Prairies, where fruit cannot be grown. A large part of the orchards, however, are not yet bearing, and in the meantime the raising
of small fruits for export and for jam-making is proving of valuable assistance to the rancher.
Climate and soil render fruit cultivation easy and profitable, and as irrigation is not needed, the keeping qualities of the fruit are much enhanced.
The comparatively small City of Nelson reflects the general prosperity of the district. With a population of about only 7,000 people, the City owns its
own hydro-electric plant, its waterworks, its gas plant, its sewer system, and this year purchased the electric railway system—something no City on the Continent
nearly so small possesses.
The bonded indebtedness of the City is $699,759. The City has in cash and in its own re-purchased debentures $211,519, and the valuation of the profit-
earning investments is $488,072. Building Permits for eleven months in 1913 amounted to $128,100. These public utilities or profit-earning investments earned
for the City last year, after being charged with interest and proportion of the Sinking Fund for the debentures issued, $29,542, or about 6%.
As the debentures mature in a period of from four to fifteen years, the City will have paid for these public utilities, and the income from them upon the existing basis will equal the present taxation of the City.
Jr fflMi^a
Cranbroofe, p. C.
Orchard Scene.
Canadian Bank of Commerci
Automobiles in Wheat Field.
Imperial Bank of Canada.
City Hall.
6. Y.M.C.A. Building.
7. Central Public School.
8. Timber Scene.
9. Provincial Government Building.
A^ Kill
Cranbroofc, p. C.
f^RANBROOK, B. C, is the industrial centre of East Kootenay, and has a population of 3,600. It is second to no city of its size in Canada
in material prosperity and per capita wealth, and is remarkable as the city which never had a boom, and never had a set-back to its steady
progress.   It may also be said to possess the best climate in British Columbia.
The assessed value of land and buildings within the City limits is $1,978,205; the assessed value of land and buildings in the School
district, immediately adjoining the City limits, is $1,261,566,
Cranbrook is a Divisional point on the Canadian Pacific Railway, where the repair and bridge and building departmental shops
are situated." The City has five Churches, three Banks, large Post Office and Customs Building, two Public Schools {one on the south and
the other on the northern limits of the City), Manual Training School, three Theatres, Y.M.C.A., two Social Clubs, eight Hotels, and
no saloons.    The City is the owner of its own high-pressure supply, which represents an expenditure of over $66,000.    Last year, after
paying all expenditure—wages, up-keep and all outgoings—the net revenue from the water system was $14,651, or over 23 per cent, on the investment.   A complete sewerage and septic treatment system has been installed by the City authorities at a cost of $120,000.   Cement sidewalks are now rapidly replacing the old-
fashioned timber arrangement, the improvement being paid for by the Citizens by the usual frontage tax.
FRUIT-GROWING AND MIXED FARMING: Some years ago the then editor of the "Cranbrook Herald" (the City has two live newspapers)
began to preach the doctrine that there Was only one Banana Belt on earth, and that Cranbrook was its logical and actual centre. That gospel was written in
and out of season, and his abiding faith, backed by the logic of facts, worked wonders. There are now on every side thriving fruit farms, such as the Sunnyside
Ranch, the McClure Ranches, and the big Staples farm on St. Mary's prairie, near Wycliffe. Fruit and mixed farming represents the profitable investment of hundreds and thousands of dollars within the past three years around Cranbrook, and it is only the beginning of the enterprise.
Referring to the Cranbrook district, Mr. H. B. Hicks, engineer of the Water Rights Branch of the Provincial Land Department, says at page D. 197 of the
Report of the Minister of Lands, 1912:
"There is not, in my opinion, any country which has the combined natural advantages and resources confined in so small an area as this portion of British
Columbia, with its hundreds of thousands of acres of tillable soil, its millions of feet of standing merchantable timber, its rich deposits of precious metals, and its
immense coalfields, with natural power lying dormant in the mountain streams."
On page D. 199 of the same Report Mr. W. J. E. Biker, M.Inst.C.E. says:
"The seasons are fairly well defined, and conditions are about ideal for horticultural products."
LUMBER INDUSTRY: More capital is invested in the lumber business in the Cranbrook locality than in any other industry, railroading excepted.
The Cranbrook Forestry District embraces 4,780,000 acres. Allowing a strictly conservative cut of 3,000 feet of lumber to each acre of forest or timber land,
there are fourteen billion three hundred and forty million feet of lumber, easily worth on the stump $2.00 per thousand feet, or a local asset of $28,680,000. It is
not surprising, therefore, that the Forestry Service is now establishing observatories on summits such as that of Baker Mountain, connected with the central office by
telephone, so that when the first smoke of a forest fire is noticed the fighting forces are sent out, not to fight the fire, but to prevent it.
Travellers over the Canadian Pacific Railway note the manner in which all brush, etc., is kept cut back for about fifty yards on either side of the right-of-
way. This is to prevent the spread of fires which may be started by chance sparks from the engines toiling up the heavy mountain grades. On the main line through
the Rockies oil-burning engines are being extensively used in order still further to minimize the risk °f forest fires. In addition, the C. P. R. keeps a fire patrol along
all its lines in the summer time.
The various lumber companies operating in the Cranbrook district employ in the aggregate some thousands of hands in their mills and camps, which constitutes a most important factor in the prosperity of the locality.
MINES AND MINERALS: Cranbrook is the centre of an area of exceptional mineral resources. At the little town of Moyie, twenty miles south,
is the famous St. Eugene Mine, for years the largest lead and silver producer in Canada. According to the "Canadian Mining Journal," vol. 32, 1911, page
707, this mine has produced over a million tons of ore, of a gross value of $10,394,520. Latterly the Canadian Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company,
the owners of the St. Eugene, have been engaged in extensively developing the Sullivan Mine, about eighteen miles north-west of Cranbrook, and situated near
Kimberley.    This fine property has already added to the wealth of the country to the extent of $2,566,449 in lead and silver.
To the north-east, some sixteen miles or so, is the historic Wild Horse Gulch, near Fort Steele, out of which during the years 1864 and 1865 over
$22,000,000 in placer gold was taken. Those were the true pioneer days, when the men of the old '49 gold excitement in California came across country from
Walla-Walla, Washington, to exploit the shallow gold-bearing gravels of Findley Creek, and blundered on Wild Horse Gulch by the mere chance of their pack
animals running out of feed and finding some at the point where Fort Steele now stands.
To the west is the country bordering on the valley of St. Mary's Lake and River, and lying in the depths of the Selkirks. This is a region of great and
entirely undeveloped copper and lead resources. With transportation along the water grade of the St. Mary's River will come the knowledge of the enormous
mineral wealth of that most richly endowed but almost wholly unknown region. To the east liesihe great copper wealth of the main barrier of the Rocky Mountains around Elko, and north to the iron beds above Bull River, while around Fernie are the almost inexhaustible measures of the Crows Nest Pass coalfields.
lg^ maammam
jfernie, %€.
1. Railroad Depot.
2. Coke Oven.
3. A School House.
4. Coal Creek Mine.
5. Trinity Mountain.
6. Victoria Avenue.
7. City Hall and Court House.
8. Fernie-Fort Steele Brewery.
9. Cutting Ice. Jfernie, p. C.
ERNIE, B. C, is located in the Crows Nest Pass, British Columbia, 3400 feet above sea-level. It is an incorporated City, with a population of 6000 people. Its principal industry is Coal-mining, having an annual output of 1,500,000 tons of fine bituminous steam and coking
coal, and shipping 100 cars daily to the markets of Western Canada and the United States.
The Coke manufacture amounts to 300,000 tons annually, and employs 1,200 beehive ovens, with 1,000 more in project.
The Lumber industry is next in importance, there being 15 saw mills in Fernie, furnishing 180 million feet annually. The available
standing timber is eight billion feet, and the yearly shipments are 1,000 cars of lumber, 500 cars of railway ties, 500 cars of fence posts,
and 100 cars of telephone poles and piling.
Other industries flourishing in Fernie are a Carbuilding plant, a Foundry, and a large Brewery, the total monthly wage disbursements being $290,000.
The Fernie-Fort Steele Brewing Company is one of the most prominent industrial enterprises in the City. It covers extensive grounds and gives employment to forty people all the year round.
This brewery has a capacity of 450 barrels per day, and produces, besides its famous "Unity's Extra" beer, large quantities of ale, porter and aerated
The City of Fernie owns all the public utilities and gives the citizens a twenty-four hour electric-light and power service, supplies water for domestic, manufacturing and fire services, besides owning 10 miles of sewers, treating the sewage by the septic process.
The water pressure is 100 lbs., and the City has a modern fire department, with the best apparatus and three teams of horses. The firemen are paid and
uniformed, and so are the police force, the latter numbering eight men.
There are 20 miles of streets and 20 miles of sidewalks. The public and semi-public buildings are: City Hall, Fire Hall, High and Public Schools,
Power Station, Hospital, a large Court House, Post Office, Customs House and Inland Revenue Building, five Denominational Churches, and eleven modern, fireproof Hotels.    The City also owns a perfect natural park °f two hundred acres immediately adjoining the residential section.
Four banks are established in Fernie, and the assessed value of property is $2,677,479.00. The unharnessed water-power of the Elk River Falls is capable of developing 15,000 horse-power.
Ten first-class passenger trains make daily stops, and five new railways are now in process of construction. Telegraph and postal services are excellent, and
the volume of business transacted by the Customs Office is large, Fernie being a Port of Entry and the third largest in this connection in British Columbia.
The social life in Fernie is pleasant. A fine Opera House is well patronized, and a huge corrugated iron rink, costing $25,000, is used for skating, curling,
hockey and other sports, serving also as an assembly hall when required. There are a number of clubs and societies, and a City band consisting of thirty first-class
musicians under the leadership of a professional paid bandmaster.
Fernie is the judicial centre of East Kootenay and the Provincial Police headquarters for the district. The Government Agency for the Land Division and
Mining section of South-east Kootenay is also located here.
The scenery around Fernie is grand beyond description, its mountainous location offering many attractions for the lover of Nature. It is the gateway to
Goat Mountain Park, a new game reserve, comprising 450 square miles and forming a veritable paradise for the sportsman. Bear—grizzly, silver tip, black and
cinnamon; mountain sheep and goats, deer of various kinds and small game, abound in the mountains, and in Elk River and its tributary streams some of the finest
trout fishing in America is offered.
An alluvial soil and a splendid climate make the immediate environment of Fernie a most desirable location for market gardening, and all the produce finds
ready buyers and consumers right in the City, thereby not being burdened with freight charges for outside shipping.
With an industrious population, rich in minerals and other natural products, a well-regulated and wide-awake municipal government, and in the enjoyment of
a healthy climatic location, Fernie occupies a most enviable place among the Cities of Western Canada, and it forms an important link in the chain of developments
which are constantly going on in every direction, and which for ever add to the growth of the country's fame. ^^
$robince of Alberta
^J     GfO>feBJ<M^T<ffotfS£'
OR;---     "
Horse Ranch.
Travelling Agricultural Exhibits
Alberta Nurseries.
Dairy Herd, Government Demons
tion Farm.
Capitol of Alberta.
High Level Bridge.
An Alberta Home.
Government House.
University and High School. iProbince of Alberta
LBERTA, with an area of 253,540 square miles, is the largest of the three prairie provinces, and is the third largest province of the Dominion.
It is over twice as large as Great Britain and Ireland together. It is 750 miles in width, the middle of the Province being 67 miles north
of the City of Edmonton.   Approximately three-fifths of the area of the Province is north of Edmonton.
While Alberta is essentially prairie, it shows much greater diversity in surface features than the other two prairie provinces. It has
an average elevation of about 3,000 feet. It is sometimes called the Foothills Province. The southern half of the western edge of the
Province runs along the summit of the Rocky Mountains. This part of the Province is diversified by mountains, foothills, passes, canyons
and coulees for a distance of about sixty miles from the crest of the mountains. Outside of this mountain area there are no outstanding
elevations beyond the groups of hills in the central and northern parts of the Province.
The variety and grandeur of the physical features, the diversity and extent of the natural resources of Alberta, represent in an outward form the infinite
Variety and opportunity of life within its borders. Its development bears an important economic relation to the growth of the Dominion of Canada, and, one might
say, the Empire. Its importance lies in the fact that it contains one of the largest and richest soil areas of agricultural land in Canada or any other British Colony,
and can sustain a dense and permanent population.
The official history of Alberta began in 1882, when Rupert's Land was organized into four provisional districts—viz., Alberta, Saskatchewan, Assinaboia
and Athabasca. From 1870 up till 1905 it formed part of Rupert's Land and the North-western Territory surrendered by the Hudson's Bay Company to the
Dominion of Canada. At the time the districts passed under the control of the Canadian Government, the white population consisted of a few Missionaries and
Hudson's Bay traders. From that time there has been great material advancement, especially since 1905. In 1901 the population was 65,000; in 1906 it was
185,000. The Census of 1911 gave a population of 385,000. To-day the population is at least 500,000. If the same rate of increase continues for the next five
years, the population of the Province will be nearly a million.
Settlement progresses so rapidly here that pioneering is shorn of its desolation. It is no uncommon event to find a whole township or an entire district taken
up in a single summer. A pioneer will always have neighbours in his new Alberta home. Roads and schools follow in due course. The extension of Municipal
Government to small Municipalities by recent legislation affords the machinery for local administration in an equal manner to that which exists in the older communities of the East. Commercial life develops more rapidly here. The settlement of a district is invariably followed by the extension of the railway and the
telephone. Land is cleared and prepared for cultivation at comparatively small cost. Towns spring up along the railways as by magic, and the erstwhile wilderness
is transformed into a prosperous community.
The farmers of Alberta are rapidly adapting themselves to their new conditions and problems. Probably there is no province in Canada where there is a
stronger class spirit among the farmers, and where they are better organized to bring their ideas to bear upon public life and promote the institutions and improvements that will raise the standard of comfort in rural communities.
The records of the last three years show that a new school was built for every working day of the year. During the last six years the grain production has
increased from 20,000 to 65.000.000 bushels. The number of live stock from 1,000,000 to 2.500.000. The amount of capital invested by joint stock companies
from $18,000,000 to $267,000,000; and expenditure on account of revenue and capital from $3,000,000 to $11,000,000.
Three transcontinental railroads are already built across the Province and are racing to. the Pacific Coast. The Hudson's Bay Railway connects with the
Alberta systems and gives the Province a new and shorter outlet to the East. In fact, Alberta comprises a centre of production and distribution from the great
railway systems of Canada which radiate to Vancouver, Prince Rupert, and Port Mann on the west, Fort Churchill on the Hudson's Bay, and to Port Arthur and
Duluth on the Great Lakes, on the east. In addition to the transcontinental lines, branch railroads extend throughout the Province in every direction. The total
railroad mileage since 1905 has more than trebled.
Local transportation and communication are being developed as rapidly as the credit and resources of the Province will warrant. Last year, as a beginning,
the Government appropriated $1,000,000 for building trunk roads. Over J ,800 miles of new railways have been guaranteed and will be completed within the
next three years.    Over 16,000 miles of Government owned and controlled telephone lines are in operation, serving about 25,000 subscribers.
Intellectual and social advancement has kept pace with material growth. In legislation and education the Province has followed the best models of the older
provinces of Canada and other British communities. Education is under the complete control of the State. Law and order is administered with a jealous regard for
justice according to British traditions. The Statute Book respects all classes and affords equality to all. Civil institutions are developing here much after the same
forms that distinguish those of the East, but more rapidly.
Albertans have a healthy pride in their Province. Its resources and the development thereof they regard as a task commensurate with the courage and ideals
of a great people, and at the same time one which public duty and patriotism shall enable them to fulfil. It is their ambition to create a provincial spirit that shall
enrich our national life with elements as pure as the vitalising air of her hills and forests.
.^ Xetbbribge, Slta.
Coal Mine in Operation.
Factory District.
Part of 5th Street, looking south.
Canadian Bank of Commerce.
Steam Ploughing.
A Flock of Sheep.
Gait Park. ^
The street railway system stretches
ETHBRIDGE, Alberta, is a City of 11,000 inhabitants, situated forty-five miles north of the International boundary line, 133 miles
south-east of Calgary, and 764 miles west of Winnipeg. It is a Prairie City on the banks of the Belly River, just east of the
Canadian Rockies on the Crows Nest division of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and is the commerqgBcentre and supply point of Southern
Alberta and the Crows Nest Pass coalfields. It is the centre of large coal-mining operations. The development of coal-mining in this
vicinity is the largest in Canada west of Nova Scotia.
Lethbridge is spoken of by the travelling public as being the most beautiful of all the Prairie Cities.   It is clean and sanitary.   Its
Well-kept parks and boulevards merit the admiration of all.   As the traveller steps off the train the first thing that greets his view is a park
(or garden) covering ten acres, or four blocks, in the centre of the City. % By getting on the street cars and travelling eastward he passes
through wide streets bordered by rows of trees, and boulevarded on each side when he reaches Henderson Park, which covers 200 acres and
contains an artificial lake fed by irrigation ditches.
At present the City is served by one railway company—viz., the Canadian Pacific; but it is certain that with railway development in the Province the time
is not far distant when the Canadian Northern, Grand Trunk Pacific, and Great Northern Railways will be operating in and out of Lethbridge. It is a fact that
the plans of the first two companies mentioned embrace the construction of lines to this place. The present service of the C. P. R. consists of eight lines entering
the City.
The assessed value of property is $19,000,000, and the Building Permits for one year amounted to $1,358,250.
over eleven miles, and there are two miles of paved roads.
The lighting system is by electricity supplied by a Municipally owned power plant, which is one of the most up to dmLand economical in Western
Canada, the fuel used being supplied by a Municipally owned mine within a stone's throw of the plant. This enables the City to sell electric current for lighting
purposes at 8c per K W. H., and for power purposes at from $12.00 to $16.00 per H. P. per annum.
The telephone system embraces the latest models of automatic phones, and is owned and operated by the Provincial Government. The water is supplied
from the Belly River, which has its head-waters in the Canadian Rockies and affords a never-failing supply of water. The water is forced up the banks of the
river into large mains and distributed throughout the City.
The City government of Lethbridge has been progressive. Lethbridge is the first City in Western Canada to adopt the Commission form of government.
Three Commissioners, with defined responsibilities and giving their whole lime to their official duties, administer all the Municipal affairs. A special department
is maintained by the Municipality for the promotion of Commerce and Manufacture.
This City has a fine class of School buildings for the 2,100 pupils. The Schools are all constructed of brick, rvith stone or cement foundations. They are
equipped with all modern conveniences and consist of four Public Schools, one Roman Catholic Separate School, one Manual Training School, one Kindergarten
School, and one High School.
The discovery of natural gas has lately provided another valuable attraction for Lethbridge. The City is well piped, the pressure is strong, the supply
unfailing, the quality good, and the cost to consumers very low.
This City is situated in the centre of a vast Agricultural and Coal-mining area and affords ample opportunities for the investor in various lines, such as
mining; agriculture, dairying, milling, malting, clay products manufacture, manufacture of flax products, glass and soap manufacturing, and various other lines.
The average annual rainfall is between 15 and 16 inches.
Lethbridge commands the eastern entrance to the Crows Nest Pass through the Rocky Mountains. Between the City and the mountains, for some seventy-
five miles, stretches a fertile plain—the western border of the great prairies. Across this plain the mountains are easily visible from Lethbridge. Eastward the
same wonderful prairie stretches to Winnipeg and southward to the International boundary. To the north the same plain reaches an unmeasured distance. The
agricultural products of this vast and fertile prairie require an outlet to the Western United States, British Columbia, and, through the Pacific Coast ports, to the
world's markets.    The most important channel for this commerce is through Lethbridge and the Crows Nest Pass.
At Lethbridge, mills, elevators, factories and stores required for the storage, manipulation, manufacturing, marketing and shipping of this growing business
ore being provided as the traffic develops. The Canadian Pacific Railway will complete its line thmajgh the Crows Nest Pass to Vancouver in 1915. When this
line is completed the route from Winnipeg to Vancouver through Lethbridge and the Crows Nest will be shorter than the line through Calgary and the Kicking
Horse Pass. The line through the Crows Nest to the Kootenay country of British Columbia, and via Kingsgate to the States of Washington, Oregon and California, now serves a large and growing traffic.
Fruit, produce, forest and mineral products from these localities, and imported merchandise intended for consumption by the rapidly increasing population
of the great prairies, are finding Lethbridge the logical gateway and the most convenient point for storage, assembling, assorting, marketing and reshipping. Lethbridge is likewise in command of a most important railrvay line to and from the United States via Coutts. The freer trade relations between Canada and the United
States constantly promote the importance of this traffic. Lethbridge also commands the short line via Weyburn and Portal to and from Northwestern Canada and
the Dakotas, Minnesota, and the Central United States. Cbmonton, Slta.
6. Jasper Avenue.
7. Motor Cars, Edmonton Exhibition.
8. Railway Yards.
9. Sheep Raising.
10. Packing Plant. Cbmonton, Slta.
DMONTON, ALBERTA, the city present and the city prospective, is a highly interesting proposition. A few years ago a small trading
post, an outfitting point for trappers and prospectors of a wild and unknown Northwest, Edmonton is today a city well equipped with
modern appliances for trade, commerce and industries, and well found in those things that go to make a city of home comforts. So lately
as 1901, Edmonton had only 3167 people; the card census of May, 1913, showed a population of 67,243. Edmonton has grown
faster than any city in North America in the same period of time.
At the same time, Edmonton's growth has been solid, substantial in every respect; its buildings are of sound construction; its streets
are well laid out and paved; its civic government is based upon proper principles and is administered with a high degree of efficiency.
Edmonton is strong in municipal ownership. The city owns and operates its street railway, power plant, and water works system; has a public parks system
that embraces an area of 801 acres, and more than two hundred acres to be devoted to industrial sites, leased on long terms and at low rental cost, to new industries.   Edmonton also employs single tax and a modified form of civic government by commissioners.
The following comparative figures show something of how Edmonton has made headway under its plan of conducting civic business:
Building permits  1905, $702,724; for 1912 $14,446,819.
Property assessment land only, 1905, $6,620,985; for 1912, $187,941,920.
1484,496; for 1912,
There are twenty-six chartered banks and branches in Edmonton,  and bank clearing figures show these increases:     1908,
$220,727,624.    For the seven months ending July 31st, 1912,$! 17,533,015. Corresponding period of 1913, $124,211,339.
Passengers carried on street cars:   1911,6,296,824; 1912,  11,250,404.    For seven months of 1913,8,556,479.   .
Edmonton has excellent public schools. These are housed in twenty modern and well-equipped buildings and follow approved educational lines from primary to collegiate grades. There are four good schools for higher education—the University of Alberta, Robertson Presbyterian, the Oblate Fathers' College
and Alberta College, with an excellent preparatory school in the Westward Ho! School for boys. The Alberta College and McTavish Business College give
complete business courses of instruction.  The City has as recently opened a school for technical courses.
There are twenty-nine churches in Edmonton, including all regular denominations. Amusement features are presented by three theatres and a number of
moving-picture houses.    Edmonton is on the Orpheum vaudeville circuit, and a new theatre for legitimate drama was opened recently, costing $250,000.
Edmonton has coal beds containing 60,000 million tons of coal directly under the City. Thirty mines are operated and coal is sold as low as 75 cents a ton
for steam purposes, and for $4.50 a ton for domestic use.
Three great railway systems centre on Edmonton—the Grand Trunk Pacific, the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian Northern. The Canadian Pacific has
built a high-level bridge and is completing terminals at a cost of $2,500,000. The Grand Trunk Pacific is building a hotel to cost $2,000,000. This hotel will
be opened in July, 1914. *x*s*&&mm
Cbmonton, Slta.
Canadian Mountain Scenery Cbmonton, &lta.
Edmonton is the chief central point of the Edmonton, Yukon and Pacific Railway, the Dunvegan, Peace River and British Columbia Railway, and the
Alberta and Northwestern Railway.    These roads are under construction, or soon to be.
Twenty-eight passenger ■ trains run to and from Edmonton daily.
Edmonton is the capital of Alberta, a Province with an area of 253,540 square miles. New Parliament buildings were completed recently at a cost of
The country about Edmonton is very rich in agricultural and other resources, only partly developed. Ready market and good prices for farm products are
had at Edmonton the year round.
At present, four railways are building into the Peace River Valley and country north and west of Edmonton. This district contains 40,000,000 acres of
land and boundless resources of minerals, timber, natural gas, Water and cattle ranges.
No other city in the prairie provinces has the scenic advantages that Edmonton has. At the place selected by the Hudson's Bay pioneers for the site of their
Edmonton post, the North Saskatchewan River has cut a deep gash in the high plateau. Like other Western rivers, the North Saskatchewan is a rushing, wind-
ing stream. The land bordering on the river at Edmonton is both low and high-level, but the city proper is on the heights. All manner of vegetation grows
luxuriantly on the rich soil and the country around about Edmonton is not the treeless plain that is found in so many parts of Western North America. There is
plenty of clean land, but hill and plain may be covered with dense growth of poplar, spruce, tamarac, birch, and other varieties of trees and bush. Wild flowers
grow abundantly throughout the summer, and the country is truly beautiful to see.
Climatic conditions are good; Edmonton is well within the influence of the Chinook wind and winter's rigors are softened by this warm wind that carries
across the mountains from the Pacific Coast. It is quite usual to see Edmonton streets free from snow in midwinter and to feel the warm Chinook that takes away
snow in a few hours. At the worst, there is no great depth of snow, the annual precipitation of about 20 inches not allowing this to take place, particularly since
fully three-quarters of the annual precipitation falls in the form of rain in July and August, at a time highly favorable for crop growth.
Edmonton is a well-developed City socially.    The fact that Edmonton is the capital of the Province adds much to the social life of the City, and this is further
aided by the presence of the University of Alberta and Alberta College as important educational units.
All of this goes to make Edmonton a highly desirable place in which to live and a vantage point for carrying on business. Edmonton has made much progress as
a railway, business and trade centre, and is doing excellently as an industrial point in what is, as yet, a comparatively small way. But the advantage of being from
two thousand to five thousand miles nearer the great market of Western Canada than any industrial city of commanding consequence, will tell heavily in the scale
of desirability as a manufacturing point for Edmonton. The course of the empire of industrial growth is taking its way westward at a rapid rate, and there is no
city better fitted for its seat of government in the West than Edmonton, nor any more pleasant and profitable as a place of residence. _^?;je
Calgary, aita.
1. Centre Street South.
2. St. George Island Park.
3. In the Residential District.
4. Street Cleaning Brigade.
5. A Wheat Field.
6. Eighth Avenue.
7. Workingmen's Homes.
	 Calgary, &lta.
If ALGARY, Alberta (the City Phenomenal and Progressive):      The growth and commercial development of Calgary in the past few
years have never been exceeded by any City in Canada or the United States—in fact, it may be well said that no other City in the world
has progressed in such a remarkable manner as has Calgary.    In the year 1883 just a few tents and two or three log cabins Wfre all that
could be placed on the map to represent Calgary.   In that year the Canadian Pacific Railway reached Calgary with its steel rails, and from
that time on the real growth of Calgary began.   Nestled as it is in the foothills of the mighty Rocky Mountains, and surrounded by the
Bow and Elbow Rivers, its ideal location soon attracted the eyes of the commercial and industrial world.    At first the present western
metropolis was only a mere trading post and a Royal Northwest Mounted Police post; then a village sprang into existence; the town soon
followed, and later on a city. Today Calgary is the commercial, industrial, financial and educational.centre of avast area consisting of some 50,000,000 acres of the
most fertile virgin soil in all America. It is the chief commercial point between Winnipeg, 860 miles to the East,and Vancouver, 640 miles to the West, and from the
American boundary line on the south to the Arctic Circle on the north.
The most striking feature responsible for the marvellous growth of Calgary can be attributed to the natural resources surrounding and adjacent to it. Everywhere at hand can be found natural gas in abundance; anthracite, bituminous and lignite coal sufficient to supply the needs of the West for ages to come; the
forests of the north and the Rocky Mountains to the west can meet the demands of an Empire.
Railway facilities are unequalled anywhere in Canada. Three transcontinental railways supply sufficient ways and means to meet all the requirements of
the Provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta and Eastern British Columbia, including the Crows Nest and Boundary district of Southern British Columbia. Preferential freight rates granted Calgary by the various railways make it possible for the wholesale and manufacturing firms located in Calgary to successfully compete
with other such firms in Eastern Canada and the United States.
The climate is ideal; the winter season is comparatively short and mild, enabling horses, cattle, and other stock to range on the open prairie without any other
protection except that which Nature offers. The spring season commences in March; then seeding operations are in full swing. The melting of the winter snow in
the mountains—which begins during this period—places the ground in excellent condition for ploughing and cultivating purposes. During the growing seasons of the
months of May, June, and July copious rainfalls visit the Province and district, thus ensuring an early harvest before the fall frosts arrive.
Just a decade ago Calgary could not boast of one wholesale house with the head office located in Calgary. At the present time over 200 wholesale and
jobbing firms have their offices and warehouses in Calgary. Two thousand commercial travellers, representing these various wholesale firms, call Calgary their home.
At least 75 per cent, of these have their homes and families in the City, and the balance of them make Calgary their week-end headquarters.
Practically every line of goods manufactured in the universe can be purchased at a moment's notice in the various wholesale houses in Calgary. An evidence
of the prosperity of the Canadian West can be seen from a look at the large, commodious, costly and handsome buildings required for the wholesale and manufacturing trade. Calgary, aita.
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Banking facilities are quite equal to the demands required. There are in Calgary twenty-three branches of Canadian chartered banks, each and every one
of which is in direct connection with all parts of the business world. In 1908 the Customs receipts for the year were $426,425.00; in 1910 they were $1,010,000;
in 1911, $1,738,473.23, and in 1912 they reached a total of $2,801,116.97. Since 1885 the assessment of the City has increased from $386,863, to $132,000,000.
This assessed value is made on a two-thirds valuation of the selling price of land and a twenty-five per cent, valuation of all buildings.
Calgary is municipally owned, controlled and operated. All public utilities, such as street railway, electric light and power, waterworks, and paving plant
are operated on a most satisfactory paying basis, all of which speaks well for the commercial prosperity of the City.
Calgary has many delightful outings to attract the tourist. The rivers running through and adjacent to the City abound with fish; the lakes and sloughs on
the prairie afford good shooting and fishing, and the Rocky Mountains, which can be seen in the distance, afford the hunter after big game every opportunity he may
One of Calgary's leading industrial establishments is the Calgary Brewing and Malting Co., whose plant covers nine and one-half acres of ground and who
employ one hundred and fifty people.
The malting of this brewery amounts to 100,000 bushels, and it has a capacity of 100,000 barrels per annum. Its yearly output, 75,000 barrels of beer
alone, to which are to be added the considerable quantities of ale, porter and aerated waters they also produce.  Jllebicine ©at, Slta.
EDICINE HAT, ALBERTA: What is considered one of the greatest of the many natural resources of the Province of Alberta is the
natural gas, which is found in some localities in almost inexhaustible supply—at least, according to the opinions of world-travelled experts
in such matters. Some idea of the vast volume of this most economical heat, light and power agent yet discovered by man can be secured
when it is known that engineers with a lifetime of experience in older natural gas fields assert that the Medicine Hat district cannot be filled
with people and factories fast enough to use up, in this century, the supply that has already been discovered there. And, of course, the
confines of these fields are constantly being enlarged by the use of the drill bit, and some other places are gradually learning the manifest
blessings of plenty of cheap natural gas.   But that is another story.
Medicine Hat is the acknowledged centre of the Alberta natural gas fields, and it is the only city in Western Canada owning and
administering its natural gas supply. Other cities have it, and those same cities, for the most part, pay a private corporation whatever the charge may happen to be
for the same, being from 100 to 300 per cent, more than in Medicine Hat. Within the City limits of Medicine Hat there are now twenty natural gas wells, having
an open flow daily of about 50,000,000 cubic feet, which is equal, under gas engine, on a ten-hour-day basis, to about 200,000 h.p.—which is some power to have
on tap at almost no cost to the user. For domestic use natural gas costs the householder in Medicine Hat the large sum of 13Yi cents per thousand cubic feet,
while for manufacturing it can be obtained for from one to five cents per thousand.
Right there one can see the reason for Medicine Hat's substantial growth and prosperity—the cause of the favorable remarks made constantly by shrewd
travellers after going through Medicine Hat's industries for the first time. Natural gas is used in every one of the 35 factories that are either in operation, building,
or have signed contracts to build there, half of which are now turning out manufactured goods, the products being distributed all over the Prairie Provinces of Canada
and even to the Pacific Coast.
With its population estimated at about 17,000, Medicine Hat is a live, bustling divisional point on the Canadian Pacific, about midway between Winnipeg
and Vancouver, and at the terminus of the Crows Nest Pass Railway. The Canadian Northern is under contract to commence construction to Medicine Hat in 1914,
and it is an open secret that the Grand Trunk Pacific will also reach that point, to share in some of the heavy freight traffic originating there.
More than 60 different kinds of articles are now being manufactured in Medicine Hat, and the list is being lengthened each year. While the industries all
use natural gas, yet there is a coal mine within a mile of the City limits, having some 77,000,000 tons of good lignite, which local people call insurance on natural
gas. Then the South Saskatchewan River flows through the City and affords a never-failing supply of the best water. The City owns some 1700 acres of land
suitable for industrial or park purposes, has six miles of industrial railway spurs and other advantages that the far-seeing industrial captains look for when seeking
new locations.
In many respects Medicine Hat is unique among cities in Western Canada. It has single tax—taxes on land only—and the rate in 1913 was but 15 mills on
the dollar, which is likely to be even lower for 1914. It is not over-paved or over-built, there being practically no vacant business houses or residences in the City.
It owns all its public utilities, and has gas, coal, water, land and other advantages that many cities lack—advantages that are conditions precedent to the growth of
a manufacturing centre.
One feature of Medicine Hat worthy of special note is the apparent permanence of the gas supply. The first well was drilled nearly ten years ago, and
since that time, notwithstanding the constant increase in the number of wells and the steady increase in the amount of natural gas used for industrial and domestic
purposes, with the growth of the place, there is no diminution in either the rock pressure or the open flow of the gas. It should be remembered that the American gas
fields that have been exhausted had a population drawing on them that is equal to the entire population of the Dominion of Canada—and the Medicine Hat field is
of greater extent. Then, again, the Medicine Hat gas is the purest ever discovered and has the most heat units, containing 1140 British thermal units to the cubic
foot—about 100 per cent, more than most manufactured gas.    It is also absolutely dry, never freezing in the coldest weather. Jflebicine ?|at, Slta.
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In still another respect Medicine Hat, during the last year of more or less financial stringency, has been clearly shown to be in a class entirely by itself.
The Building Permits for 1913, for instance, were $3,851,572, being an increase of 40 per cent, over the totals for 1912—a record for any city in Western Canada.
Customs receipts showed an increase of 70 per cent., and postage stamp sales an increase of 50 per cent, over the previous year. While most places were pausing
or marking time during 1913, Medicine Hat was steadily forging ahead. During that year no less than ten industries completed their construction programme and
were placed upon a producing basis. If these things were done during a year of comparative quietude, what may be expected of such a place when the financial
clouds have rolled away, as they are now doing?
It may also be stated in this connection that the prospects for 1914 are decidedly encouraging, not to put it more strongly. It is evident that an important
building programme will be on the boards, running up to several millions of dollars, and including a $300,000 Technical and High School, Immigration Building,
addition to Federal Building, Telephone Building, $70,000 in Fire Halls, several Apartment-houses, Factories, Business Blocks and Residences. Last year some
700 homes and residences were constructed, and as many or more are expected to be built this year. The factory construction itself will be no small item in the
totals, from present indications, including a number of industrial plants that were projected in 1913 but which had to be deferred on account of the money stringency.
This "Pittsburg of the Plains" has eight chartered banks, ten Churches, some with $100,000 homes, and ten substantial schools, mostly of brick- The
School Board has been put to it to provide sufficient accommodation for the scholars that desire to attend, there being a waiting list at the several schools most of the
time. The Superintendent has recommended that the School Board arrange at once for increased accommodation to the extent of at least a score of additional rooms,
stating that never in recent years has the City been so far behind its school building programme.
On January 30 last the first issue of Medicine Hat debentures was placed on the London market, and local financial men were confident of the result. Its
reception was cordial and pronounced, the entire issue being subscribed within the limit set, and at a satisfactory price. This will clear up all the outstanding
debt and provide the cash required for the most necessary improvements for this year. The incident shows that Old Country investors appreciate the fact that
Medicine Hat has a foundation of the most solid nature—industrial.
During 1913 one of the most modern pumping, filtrating and electric generating plants in the West was completed by the municipality about two miles up
the river, at a cost of over $400,000. Here a water supply is now available for an estimated population of 40,000 people, and is so constructed that additional units
can be provided as the City grows—in fact, another unit is now being arranged for. The electric-generating plant has a capacity of some 1500 h.p., and another and
larger unit will be added this year, to care for the increased industrial demands made thereon. Electric power is sold as low as one cent per k-W.h., in quantity, in
constant or intermittent supply.
When one figures the host of advantages that are available in Medicine Hat, one is not surprised at the remark of Rudyard Kipling that this is a "town that
was born lucky." While the place is more than thirty years of age, it is only within the last three or four years that it has had an appreciable growth, and particularly within the last two years. Formerly it was merely a good ranching and railway town. To-day it is recognized as one of the substantial young cities of the
West—one thai cannot fail to wax fat and grow and be known far and wide for its industrial interests, whose wares are being sold and shipped all over Western
Canada. ^^HBHi
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SASKATCHEWAN is passing through an evolutionary stage.    The change is taking place quietly, and it is to the lasting credit of the Govern-
ij       ment of the Province that it was the first to recognize the advent of this change and to meet the problems arising therefrom.    While it can be
truthfully said that Saskatchewan, since its formation as a Province, has enjoyed unprecedented prosperity, during the last two years of
discontent among the farmers, not with the country itself or its fertile soil, but with conditions by which they are handicapped in the marketing of the products of that soil and of their labour, it has made itself manifest.
In the years of exceptional prosperity land values increased rapidly, and farmers were content to overlook the small returns from
their crops so long as they were convinced their property was worth holding for the sake of its increased valuation on the real estate market.
Thus the tendency to direct their vision from the earned increment to the unearned had its detrimental influence.
It Was not the financial stringency of 1912 alone that changed the outlook. For the past two years wheat prices have been steadily
dropping, until in 1913 the farmers received from twelve to fifteen cents per bushel less for their wheat than in 1911. This, combined with the increasing high cost
of machinery, labour, transportation charges and the ordinary necessaries of life which the farmers cannot produce themselves, all tended to make the continuance
of present methods impossible. After careful investigation by Government Commissions of both local and European conditions a remedy has been applied. This
remedy takes a co-operative form, and there has been placed on the statute books an Act for the establishment of co-operative agricultural associations that has met
with the unanimous approval of the grain-growers of the Province. Facilities have been provided for the establishment on a sound basis of a system of local and
central rural co-operative associations for purchasing and selling farm products and supplies. Already a large number of these co-operative associations have been
formed, and others are in the process of formation in all parts of the Province, while the Executive of the Grain-growers' Association have formed themselves into
a central purchasing agency.    Their operations will cover the purchase and sale of live stock, °f building and fencing materials and other farm necessities and supplies.
Half-a-million dollars have been set aside for the purpose of increasing and improving the live stock of the Province. Under the Act devised for this purpose
live stock 's being purchased by the Department of Agriculture and sold either for cash or part cash and part credit to bona-fide farmers. These purchasers must
be patrons, or must agree to become patrons of the co-operative creameries, or must be members of an association organized for live stock improvement. Farmers are
of necessity finding that they must depart from their present mode of farming, and many of them have become convinced that the raising of live stock forms the
chief outlet. The action of the Department has hastened very considerably this tendency towards mixed farming, and there is now hardly a farmer in Saskatchewan
who has not already made some preparation for this change. The greatest difficulty in their way is the lack of funds and breeding stock. Everything possible,
however, is being done to meet the situation, and the prospects are that, except in a few districts where water is scarce, Saskatchewan will become a mixed farming
country within the next few years, and as a result the agricultural industry will have been placed on a more permanent foundation.
No one questions the lack of a beef market for many years to come. Recent statistics show that there it a world-wide shortage of beef. Between 1907
and 1913 the number of beef cattle in the United States decreased by sixteen million, or about 32 per cent, while the population of the States during the same period
increased by about ten million people. Since 1900 Canada's population has increased 35 per cent., whereas the increase in cattle is only 20 per cent. Europe and
South America show that the ratio of increase in the number of cattle is away below that of the population; that at the present time the world is suffering from a general shortage of meat supply and is likely to do so for the next five or six years at least, even though every other country attempted to solve the problem in as practical
a manner as Saskatchewan has taken hold of it.
The increase in live stock in Saskatchewan in 1906 over 1901 was 113 per cent.; in grain acreage in the same period it was 259 per cent. In 1911 over 1901
the increases were 315 per cent, and 1,284 per cent, respectively, and in 1913 over 1901 the increases were 401 per cent, for live stock as against 1,457 per cent,
for grain acreage. This shows conclusively that the number of live stock 1 not nearly maintaining its ratio to the grain acreage, but, on the contrary, with each
succeeding year live stock is falling more and more behind. Including the ranch stock, there are only about six milch cows and beef cattle per farm. In the older
districts of the Province there is an average of twelve to fifteen head per farm. If the people of the rest of the Province were to pull up the average number of cattle
on their farms to that on the farms in the older settled districts, it would mean an increase of slightly over half-a-million head of milch cows and beef cattle. This is
not an impossible task, and with care and the proper preservation of female stock it can be accomplished within the next two or three years. With the impetus given
mixed farming it is hoped this desirable result will be attained.
Up to the passage of the present co-operative Act, the principles of co-operation had been applied to three of the many problems of the agriculturist in Saskatchewan—namely, to the dairy industry, the marketing of grain, and hail insurance. A system of co-operative creameries has now been in operation for seven years.
New creameries are being added each year. The patrons and shareholders are well satisfied, and the daily output has been improved in quality and greatly increased
in quantity, so that the co-operative creameries may be justly considered a complete success. The beginning of the application of the co-operative principle to grain
marketing started as early as 1901, and culminated in the formation of a co-operative elevator company in 1910. At the present time this company owns and
operates 192 elevators with a total capacity of 5,840,000 bushels. It has some thirteen thousand farmer shareholders, and during the past season it handled over
fourteen million bushels of grain.   Since its establishment many of the disabilities from which the farmers suffered at the hands of the line elevators have disappeared. iProbmce of H>asfeatcf)etoan $roirince of ^agkatrijetoan
The next step co-operatively was the passage of the Hail Insurance Act in 1912. As in the case of the elevator company, it is administered by a special
Commission, which sets the rate of the special tax. In 1913 one hundred and fifteen rural municipalities came under the operation of the Act, and the revenue
derived from the rate of four cents per acre was approximately $800,000. The claims for loss or damage by hail numbered 5,300, representing 1,920,000 acres
of cultivated land, or 3,000 sections, or 83 townships, or nine complete municipalities.' Claims to the amount of $752,000 were allowed, leaving a profit of over
$10,000. Despite the fact that 1913 was the most disastrous (from the standpoint of damage by hail) the Province has experienced in many years, the scheme has
proved a success.
Another branch in which Saskatchewan shows material progress has been along the lines of municipal government. From a few small and scattered Local
Improvement Districts at the time of the formation of the Province there are now 295 thoroughly organized rural municipalities, with almost full powers of self-government. The evolution of the municipal institutions of Saskatchewan forms a fascinating page in the history of the Province. The Union of the Saskatchewan
municipalities, that deals with cities, towns and villages, has also contributed its share towards the safe administration and development of Saskatchewan's urban
areas. It is interesting to note that the Prairie Provinces were the first to recognize the importance of municipal life and activities by the establishment of a portion of
the Government service to be devoted to municipal welfare generally. British Columbia recently followed suit, and now the municipal unions and associations of
the five Eastern Provinces are asking their governments to establish similar departments.
The system of assessment in rural municipalities has been changed from a flat rate per acre to a valuation basis. No taxes will be paid on buildings, improvements, or live stock- School taxes are to be collected by the municipality, which may borrow on the credit of the school district up to eighty per cent, of the total
taxes to be collected for the school district during the current year.
Saskatchewan has received many encomiums from the financial press of both Canada and Great Britain for their action in appointing a Local Government
Board, through the exercise of whose powers Saskatchewan's municipal securities will be made more attractive to the investing public and a more ready flow of
capital for legitimate municipal developments in Saskatchewan secured. In many respects Saskatchewan occupies a very enviable position. The public debt is
now, in round figures, $18,000,000, or slightly over $27 per capita. The revenue has increased by large amounts since the inauguration of the Province. In
1913 it amounted to $20,400,000. Not quite one-third of this Provincial revenue is derived from the people of Saskatchewan. Half of it is made up of Dominion
subsidies, and of the remainder a large proportion is derived from taxes and fees paid by corporations and persons outside the Province. The power of the Province
to raise money by taxes has been used very sparingly up to the present time, and this fact should have great weight with intending investors. Another factor which
should be borne in mind, considering the Provincial indebtedness, is that out of the $18,000,000 nearly seven and a quarter million dollars are invested in revenue-
producing undertakings, and of the remaining sum which does not produce revenue the amount sunk in land and building sites has appreciated enormously.
Before concluding this general outline of the progress during 1913 some reference should be made to the resources of the Province and the extent to which
they have been developed. The total area under cultivation in 1913 was 13,520,493 acres, or 15.57 per cent, of the area of the southern half and surveyed portion
of the Province. On this acreage $110,000,000 worth of grain was grown last year, of which $70,000,000 were for wheat. Saskatchewan holds the premier
place among all the Provinces of the Dominion and the States of the Union as a wheat and small grain producer. In the production of wheat, oats, barley and flax
it exceeds the largest producer of these cereals in the States by twenty-five million bushels.
The value of live stock on the farms is placed at $150,000,000, and the value of crops other than the four principal grains, including potatoes, roots and
hay, at twelve and a half millions of dollars. It is not anticipated that there will be any decrease in the area under crops this year as a result of the tendency
towards mixed farming. Both, being interdependent, will advance together along more healthy lines, and instead of interested parties taking fright at the changing
conditions, they should be imbued with greater confidence in the continued prosperity of the country by the businesslike Way in which Saskatchewan has faced this
and the many other problems incident to the development of a new country.
A steady industrial development is also taking place. The Province has now 240 factories employing over four thousand workers, an increase of fifty
per cent, in two years.
While the total value of buildings recorded in 1913 was less than in 1912, the figures exceeded those of 1911 by nearly three million dollars, a healthy growth
which shows that Saskatchewan is going ahead at a fair pace. mmmt
Eegina, i§>asfc
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Eleventh Avenue. &egina, ^asfe.
EGINA is the Capital of the Province of Saskatchewan. It was but a few years ago an insignificant town, but it has grown into a City of
50,000 population that is attracting attention. Regina's history is modern, extending back only to 1882, like that of practically all
Western cities. Each city has its own attractions, and in that regard the Capital City of Saskatchewan is no exception, claiming to be the
greatest point of distribution in Saskatchewan, and the greatest point of implement distribution in the world at this time.
Regina is, comparatively speaking, a well-developed young City. The first settlers of the district arrived in May, 1882—so far
as the records show. A canvas town sprang up near where the Royal North-west Mounted headquarters barracks are now situated. Early
in 1883 an officer of the Royal North-west Mounted Police was sent to select suitable headquarters for that body, and chose the present site.
Regina was incorporated a City on June 19, 1903, and it was after reaching this stage of Cityhood that Regina's development really started. In 1903 the
population was but 3,000, whereas at the present time it is conservatively estimated at 50,000. The past three years have been remarkable from the point of
development. "A photograph taken yesterday becomes as obsolete as the examples shown between the years 1892 and 1912," one writer states in describing
Regina's march of progress.
With the rapid increase in population came a general broadening out of business in general, until at the present time Regina is a veritable hive of industry.
Thirteen banking institutions have commodious quarters in Regina and do a good business. Over 30 implement companies have warehouses in the City, and each
shares very liberally in the $25,000,000 of business handled by the City in the implement trade yearly.    The City also has about 30 factories.
This progress has also resulted in an increased
t, higher values for realty, and larger postal business and Customs collections.
To show the rapid growth in building operations and several other lines of business, comparative figures may be given. The building figures for 1908 were
$516,656, whereas for 1912 they were $8,047,000. The amount of building in 1913 exceeded $6,300,000, despite the financial stringency. In 1908 the
postal revenue was $60,000.04, whereas for nine months of 1912 it was $129,767.39. In 1908 the Customs figures were $312,712.22 as against $1,051,000 in
1912. The Clearing House was not established in 1908, but the figures as to the banking business in 1911 and 1912 will show the extent of the growth during that
time.   The figures for 1911 were $73,032,088 as against $115,727,648 in 1912 and $132,000,000 in 1913.
All these figures go to show in a measure the development of the City. The Regina City Councillors have always been broadminded, hence the low tax
and low power rates. Municipal ownership has been a Regina hobby, and it is one of the means which the City has employed to good advantage in the matter of
keeping the tax rate down to what it is. Considering the immense programmes of civic improvements, the fact that the City has kept the tax rate down to 15 mills
on the dollar is considered remarkable, and is much lower than the tax rate in the majority of Western cities. The City at the present time owns a power plant, a waterworks system, and a street railway system. It is now proposed to instal a municipal gas plant, and preliminary steps have already been taken with that end in view.
The extent to which municipal ownership has paid Regina may be gathered from the fact that it is estimated that one-third of the total amount of money required to
run the general affairs of the City during the present year will be provided by the surplus of receipts from the utilities, and what this means to the taxpayer can be
readily recognized.
However, although municipal ownership has its advantages, it also has its disadvantages unless carried out within reason. In constructing municipal utilities,
the Civic Fathers bore in mind one all-important fact—the civic borrowing power. All moneys raised for utilities are chargeable against the general credit of the
City, and with a city growing at the rate Regina has, practically all of the borrowing power was required to provide pavements, sidewalks, and extensions of waterworks and sewers. Accordingly to finance the municipal utilities, considerable property held by the City, which was not producing revenue, was sold. Now Regina
has a small debenture debt and a low tax rate. The power plant has been one of the big revenue producers, the surplus yearly from this source having been: 1907,
$20,833.75; 1908, $16,062.40; 1909, $27,844.03; 1910, $38,436.69; 1911, $56,297.34; 1912, $71,200.00; 1913, $70,000.00. g>toift Current, g>asfe.
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Presbyterian Church.
Threshing Scene.
mmmmmmm !§>toift Current, is>asfe*
TO place in the West probably has a record of more marvellous progress than Swift Current, Saskatchewan. It has risen in the space of a little
more than five years from a sleepy little village to a thriving commercial centre, and so rapid has been the progress that it was entitled at
the close of the year 1913 to incorporation as a City. Nestling in the bluffs of an ancient waterway, it lay hidden, with its two hundred
villagers, seemingly out of the path of the marvellous development that had created, as if by magic, a line of rigorous, healthy towns and
cities across the vast prairie lands of the West.
The south-western section of Saskatchewan is the richest farming country on the North American continent, and the Swift Current
district is the most fertile of those famous lands. The discovery that these lands were suitable for grain-growing was made but six short
years ago, when homeseekers began to pour into the district, and its fame spread abroad. An era of progress began which has been increasing to this present day.
The Swift Current district is estimated to contain about 16,000 square miles, or nearly 10,000,000 acres of the richest grain-growing land to be
found throughout the length and breadth of the Dominion. Nearly every kind of soil can be found in this district, and its importance as a grain-growing area is
evidenced by the enormous grain shipments from Swift Current, which last year (1912) amounted to 6,000,000 bushels.
Over 5,000 homesteads were taken up during 1912 through the Swift Current Land Office, not to mention lands bought, and it is particularly to be
noticed that this district offers far better opportunities than other districts in Canada, as no large tracts are owned by railroads or large land companies. Thousands
of acres of the greatest grain-growing land in the world can be purchased at reasonable prices. There are free lands of 160 acres yet to be secured, and an additional quarter can be pre-empted at $3.00 per acre. Plenty of unimproved>.land may be secured for $10.00 per acre, while improved farms may be obtained at prices
ranging from $25.00 to $40.00 per acre. The climatic conditions are the best, from finest summer weather to moderate cold in the winters, while the rainfall is
ample and irrigation nowhere necessary.
Many farmers are going into mixed farming, which they find very profitable. Dairy produce—cream, butter, eggs, poultry, etc.—finds a ready market, and
the demand is ever increasing. The soil in this district is admirably adapted to the growing of root crops, and all kinds of vegetables grow to an enormous size,
which must be seen to be believed.
Situated in the centre of this great agricultural territory is the town of Swift Current. It is on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, for which it
is a divisional point, one hundred and ten miles from Moose Jaw and one hundred and twenty-five from Medicine Hat, its nearest competitors on the east and
west respectively. With Saskatoon some two hundred miles north, and no other large town between it and the International Boundary, some ninety-five miles distant to the south, Swift Current stands without a rival in some 16,000 square miles of territory.
The growth of the town has been on a par with the development of the surrounding country. In the year 1906 the population did not exceed 200 persons,
while at the close of 1913 it was considerably over 5,000.
Today Swift Current has its stock-yards, telephone, flour mill, fine stores and office buildings lining its principal thoroughfares, eight banking institutions,
five fully modern hotels, High and Public Schools, Churches of nearly every denomination, great granaries, cement products factory, etc.
The electric-light and power plant, sewerage and Water system and hospital are all municipally owned and are so constructed as to be extended and made available for a city of 25,000 people. The water supply is obtained from the rapidly flowing Swift Current River, from which the City takes its name, and which rises
in the Cypress Hills, some 90 miles south of the town. According to the Dominion Government reports, this river has a flow of 7,000,000 gallons per day. The
water is excellent both for drinking and manufacturing purposes. Across this river the town has caused to be constructed a large storage reservoir and dam of the
Ambursen type, which will conserve 100,000,000 gallons of water, thus ensuring sufficient water to supply a city of 50,000 people with all the industries incidental
The sewerage system is constructed on the European plan, which is acknowledged to be the best in the world. No matter is discharged into the river, but
is chemically treated and rendered perfectly innocuous at the modern sewage disposal plant, which has been erected well outside the residential area.
The electric-light and power are furnished by two high-speed compound vertical enclosed engines, direct connected to two generators of 200-k-W. and 400-
k-W. capacity.
Fire pressure is developed by two turbine pumps capable of delivering 1,040 gallons per minute of 125 lbs. pressure at the power-house. This gives a pressure
in the business section sufficient to allow six streams to play on top of a five-storey building.. Swift Current has now installed 34,000 feet of water mains, giving fire
protection to the business section and the major portion of the residential section. The street-lighting system consists of 100-watt Tungsten lamps distributed so
as to give a good even light all over the town.
With the advent of two more transcontinental railways—the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Northern Railway, both of which are expected
to enter the town during 1914—Swift Current will enter upon an era of progress which will be almost without parallel in the history of Western Canada. Meanwhile Swift Current is laying the firm and sure foundation of a future great City—a city of far-reaching commercial importance and of advanced progressive and
aggressive ideas.  Jfloose fato, g>asfe.
OOSE JAW, SASKATCHEWAN, situated on the banks of the winding Moose Jaw River, is undoubtedly the most beautiful City of the
Prairies. The banks of the river are overgrown with trees and bush, and Nature has in the course of time laid out a beautiful natural park,
with the quiet waters of the Moose Jaw running through it. Like a great many other cities of the Canadian Prairie, Moose Jaw received
its name from the Indians.
Moose Jaw began to take on the appearance of a thriving town in 1901, the population then being 1,500, which has increased
more and more rapidly each year, until now (1913) the population reaches 30,000.    The Canadian Pacific Railway have their grand
divisional point for Saskatchewan established there, and their investment at this point represents over $5,000,000.    This Company employs
2500 men in and around Moose Jaw, and the payroll amounts to over $250,000 per month.    They have 52 miles of trackage in the Moose
Jaw yards these being the third largest individually owned yards in the world.
As a grain and milling centre, Moose Jaw holds a unique position, being in the very heart of the greatest wheat belt of North America. During the year
of 1912 there was a total of 9,184,814 acres of crop in Saskatchewan, and of this 237,278,446 bushels were harvested. In 1913 the Provincial Government
estimated the total crop to be 20% in excess of that of the previous year. To meet the demands of the rapid increase in the grain produced each year, the Dominion
Government are now erecting Interior Storage Grain Elevators in Moose Jaw at a cost of $1,000,000, and which will have a capacity of 3Yi million bushels of
Being surrounded by such a vast and fertile grain-growing country, Moose Jaw is the natural flour-milling centre of Central Western Canada.
One plant in Moose Jaw is turning out 2300 barrels of flour per day, and 500 barrels of oatmeal. Besides this they have a porridge oats plant, cornflakes
plant, grain drying plant, and their own cooperage for making barrels in which the flour is shipped. Another company are now erecting a plant to have a daily
capacity of 1500 barrels of flour.    This plant will be in operation early this year.
A Linseed Company are erecting a flax mill, and have taken out a building permit to the amount of $750,000. Their plant is being erected on the ground
immediately adjoining the Government Elevators. This mill, when completed, will have a daily capacity of 8,000 bushels of flax. Electric power is supplied to
these industries by the City at from 1% to 1Yic per k-W. hour.
The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Grand Trunk Pacific during 1912 entered the City, and are now giving a limited service to the citizens. Moose
Jaw was the first City in Saskatchewan to have an electric street-car system. The Street Railway Company are now operating on twelve miles of trackage, giving
a service to all the central parts of the City. The building permits for one month of 1913 (September) amounted to $2,000,000, this being the highest figure
ever reached for any one month.
The visitor to any City is first of all impressed by the number and appearance of the large city blocks which confront him immediately on his entering the
City. Moose Jaw, in this respect, presents a splendid appearance to the stranger. During the past year or so private buildings to the aggregate amount of
$1,355,000, ranging in individual cost from $275,000 to $25,000, have been erected, and the public buildings during the same period which have been completely
built or are still in course of construction amount to a total investment in their construction alone of $1,225,000.
The beautifying of the City has by no means been neglected. $140,000 has been voted this year to be spent in beautifying the City's parks and playgrounds.
The City now has 180 acres of land laid out in beautiful parks.
The Police Force and Fire Department are equal to the finest in Western Canada. The force averages 6 feet 1 inch in height and 182 lbs. in weight. The
merchants in Moose Jaw obtain burglar insurance at a reduced rate on account of the efficiency of its police force.
The Educational facilities of the City are second to none in the Prairie Provinces. There are seven schools, Collegiate Institute and the Moose Jaw College,
where the youth of the City receive their education up to the preparatory course for the University. There are about one hundred teachers in these schools, each of
whom specializes in one line of education, thus giving the students the benefit of the best possible teaching in every line of education.
One important branch of farming which has been much neglected in the Province is now being taken up, and with great success. That is mixed farming.
Vegetables, which the farmer up to a few years ago thought could not be raised profitably in this country, are now grown and large profits are accruing to the farmer
who goes in for this kind of farming.
To the careful investor Moose Jaw presents a splendid field for profitable investing. Its realty values are conceded by realty experts to be 30% below those
of other Western Cities of the same size. Unlike many other Cities of Western Canada, Moose Jaw's real estate has never been boomed, the values steadily
increasing without leaps and bounds, and the "wild cat" subdivision man has never played an important part in the City.
With the strategic position as a shipping centre, the boundless acres of fertile wheat lands surrounding the City, and the unlimited resources of the Province
of Saskatchewan, the future of Moose Jaw as a great metropolis is assured to even the most casual observer.  iProbince of Jflanitoba
E have not far to go back to recount the early pages of Manitoban history—the days of the Indian and the fur trader. It is only a few short
years since the buffalo trod these same acres which produce now the finest of wheat, the world-famous "Manitoba No. J hard." It is only
a short time since that land was worthless as a money proposition, and it is quite within the memory of many when the Red River cart was the
favorite, if not the only, means of transportation. But as the great countries of the Overseas sent their surplus people to spy out the new
Canada, so did those acres fill, and gradually Quebec and then Ontario were passed by and the filling process made itself felt in
Year by year added mile to mile of that narrow span which was to link Manitoba to Ontario and  Vancouver to Montreal, and
Manitoba dates her beginning from that time.   Although she was the smallest in area of the Provinces of the Dominion, she fast became
of great agricultural importance.
Her valiant statesmen have seen to it that her boundaries were extended as her growth necessitated, and today she boasts of a seaport. What wealth lies
undiscovered within those Northern boundaries who can tell. The seal, the walrus, the bear, the cariboo, the wolf and the fox, to say nothing of the mineral and
timber wealth, offer industries as yet unthought of. Of her future who will prophesy! Only those of far vision can attempt to imagine what fifty years of progress
will see.
Manitoba comprises 255,732 square miles. Her land area totals 147,152,880 acres. Only 25 per cent, of the total land surveyed is under crop. Her agricultural wealth has been only scratched, and she has for her capital the greatest wheat market in the world. Manitoba is the oldest of the three Prairie Provinces.
She is the parent Province of the West. Manitoba is the "First Great West," and to those who became her pioneers she has returned just reward. Manitoba is
connected directly with the United States: the newcomers who cross to her domain become her first choice.
Manitoba's close proximity to the head of the Great Lakes has meant, and does mean, much to her. Her land is of more value because of this, as it
requires less money to transport her products to the great shipping points.
Manitoba's industrial growth has been remarkable, and because Nature has provided her with a generous supply of resources there is every reason to believe
that in the future she will equal, if not outrival, any other Province in the Dominion. Her rivers represent thousands of electrical horse-power awaiting development, and on the Winnipeg River there have already been established two large power plants which supply the City of Winnipeg with commercial and domestic
electricity. It is stated on good authority that these are to be enlarged to nearly double their present harnessing capacity. Wheels of commerce and transportation
are turned at a distance of eighty miles away by the power this river affords.
The climate of Manitoba is dry and invigorating. A "dry" climate is the opposite of heavy, damp, penetrating airs that produce chills; in Manitoba the air
is clear, light, buoyant, and full of ozone. It is not befouled with the smoke and grime of crowded cities, but blows fresh and pure across the great prairies.
Manitoba skies are not gloomy, but blue and bright with plenty of golden sunshine. The "dry" quality of the air eliminates the suffocating humidity from hot
weather and the penetrating dampness from the cold.    The hottest day of summer ends in a long, cool evening, conducive to unbroken rest.
The winter is not the continuously severe season which many people think- In Eastern Canada, where the climate is damp, 20 degrees below zero is keenly
felt, while 40 below zero under similar climatic conditions would be unbearable. The mistake is sometimes made of judging Western Canada's winter by Eastern
standards, and nothing could be more misleading. Severe weather in the West seldom totals more than two or three weeks during the whole season, the greater
part of which is enjoyable.   Except on a windy day, the cold is not felt unduly, and the only effect is a sense of exhilaration.
Only recently Public Utilities Commissioner Judge Robson invited the farmers of the Province to confer with him on the feasibility of securing hydro-electric power for their convenience, and that action will be taken along this line of endeavor within the near future seems probable. The advantage of such a utility
can only be imagined, but that the power is on hand only awaiting development is further proof of the immense resources the Province contains. A few years will
undoubtedly see farming revolutionized, and the recent meeting of the Grain Growers' Association at Brandon revealed the fact that the tillers of the soil are
awake to the possibilities within their grasp.    Considerably more space might be occupied in reviewing this particular asset.
Before going further, however, it might be well to mention the Manitoba Public Utilities Commission and its functions, having previously referred to it.
This Commission was established a little more than two years ago, the second annual report having been placed before the Manitoba Legislature only recently. The
business of this Commission is to regulate the workings of all public utilities in the Province, and during the past year a large volume of applications were received
and considered. In each case a minute investigation was held, the Commissioner hearing the arguments of all parties concerned. Transportation problems were
among the most important subjects disposed of, the questions of electric power as well as telephone communication receiving considerable attention. Besides recognizing all these, there were a large number of changes made throughout the Province having their origin from this Commission. The service rendered then has
been a double one.    In a few cases expert advice along certain lines was necessary, but in the majority the Commission was able to arrive at satisfactory decisions. fjrobince of jWanitoba
1.    Spring Hill District Ranch.
• 2.   A Manitoba Farm.
3.    Horse Breeding, Brandon District.
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HSS2 Jlrobince of Jllanitoba
That this institution is a success and is filling a much-felt requirement is more than evident, and that its usefulness to the Province will be of even greater
value none will gainsay.
Let us now consider briefly some of the other aspects which place Manitoba in the front rank °f progress. Her greatest industry, of course, is that of farming, and this may now be divided into two classes—grain and mixed. Government statistics show that in June of last year there were under cultivation 3,141,218
acres of wheat, 1,939,723 acres of oats, 1,153,834 acres of barley, 115,054 acres of flax, and 10,936 acres of rye. The total area under grain crop was
6,364,880, and under all crops 6,632,079, making a total increase of 146,477 acres.
That mixed farming is established and is being more fully gone into each year is borne out by the fact that last year there were over 37,000 head of beef
cattle in the Province, more than 157,000 milch cows, 135,000 calves, 94,000 steers, 10,000 bulls, and a total all told of over 466,000 cattle of all kinds. Pig-
raising and sheep also occupy an important branch of the farming industry of today in Manitoba. Dairying is experiencing considerable expansion, and there is
an increased interest in this branch. A large number of new creameries have been established during the past year, and cow-testing work is being gone into more
extensively than ever before.    There are now no fewer than 29 creameries and 17 cheese factories.
Although Manitoba has not been looked upon as a forest country, she has nevertheless a considerable area of forest, and since the boundaries have been
extended a large territory has been added which is almost entirely forest land. There are 19 different species of wood, all of which might receive attention here
if space permitted.   These include such woods as white spruce, black spruce, jack pine, white pine, tamarac, balsam fir, white cedar, basswood, Manitoba maple, etc.
Agriculture being of paramount importance, it is no wonder that thus far little attention has been paid to Manitoba's mineral wealth. Dr. R. C. Wallace,
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Manitoba, says: "If we associate with the name minerals such ores as are mined for gold, silver, or copper,
then it is indeed the case thai minerals and good agricultural soil are not as a rule found together. But under mineral resources must also be included materials
such as clays, shales, sands and gravels, limestones, marls and coals, all of which are frequently found in districts which support a thriving agricultural population,
and all of which call for development in the agricultural areas of Manitoba."
Gold has been found in some of the belts, and the mining of it in this Province is happily an assured fact. In the Lake of the Woods area, and in the
Hole River and Rice Lake area, there has been considerable a£"0ity during the past year, and besides gold, iron has been found in the areas referred to. Specimens of copper ore are not uncommon, and discoveries such as have been made at Sudbury and Cobalt are by no means beyond the range of possibility. On account
of the great clay resources the brick and tile industry will undoubtedly occupy a very prominent position for many years to come.
With regard to fuel, Manitoba has her share of this commodity. Of lignites, Turtle Mountain contains on a rough estimate 160 million tons, and the formations in which lie the Lethbridge lignites extend into Western Manitoba. The buried treasure will assist in the development of commercial Manitoba, and only
awaits the development which will ultimately come.
The fall of the year affords an ideal stretch of weather for the huntsman. As a game province Manitoba also provides great variety. The famous prairie
chicken flourishes here, while ducks and wild geese are plentiful. The man who prefers going after big game, such as moose and elk, can find many excellent
hunting grounds within comparatively easy reach, if not actually in his immediate district.    Deer are plentiful.
In some parts of the Province splendid sport is available for the fisherman. Whitefish, trout, salmon, pickerel, jackfish and sturgeon abound. There are
nearly three thousand lakes, it is computed, in what is known as New Manitoba, the northern portion of the Province, and these are swarming with fish of fine size
and quality.
Life in Manitoba is not all work and no play. People enjoy themselves in a great variety of ways. There are few Manitoba towns, even the smaller
ones, which have not got a baseball team or a football team, a lacrosse team or a hockey team pitted in friendly rivalry against those of neighboring towns. Tennis
is also a very popular game in Manitoba, while good boating, swimming, etc., are not overlooked. There are a great number of automobiles in the Province and
many a wealthy farmer derives much pleasure in spinning over the prairie with his family to some neighbor's house for a social evening.
Then how can anything but progress be hers? What power can determine the great possibilities within her grasp? She is possessed of a wonderful heritage and destined to become a great, if not the greatest, Province in the fair Dominion of Canada.
I »innipeg, jWan.
mmm Winnipeg, Jfflan.
r I ^HE CITY OF WINNIPEG is the Capital of the Province of Manitoba, and is situated at the junction of the Red and A
ssinwoine Kivers.
It is almost midway between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, forty miles south of Lake Winnipeg, and sixty miles north of the boundary
line between Canada and the United Slates of America.
In the development of the Dominion of Canada, the central and western parts of the country (which were only a few years ago, as
time is reckoned, one vast wilderness) present a most convincing criterion of what wonderful accomplishments are made possible when
courageous and intelligent men start with a will to exploit the resources a bounteous Nature has provided for the benefit of all who care to
make use of them.
Winnipeg offers a striking example   of rapid expansion.       Thirty years ago it was only an obscure   little trading post  "Out West,'
nder 2000, and to-day it is a magnificent city of commercial, industrial and social importance, with a population of over 275,000.
with a population of
Over three hundred factories, representing a total investment of forty-three million dollars, employ eighteen thousand hands; the Bank Clearings are
annually over a billion and a half; and the Building Permits for 1912 amounted to nearly twenty-one millions. Truly these figures, taken from the official reports
of the Winnipeg Industrial Bureau (from which all the statistics contained in this article are compiled), furnish incontrovertible proof that the City is fully justified
in its claim to the title of "The Metropolis of Central Canada." Winnipeg is now the railway and business centre of the West. Twenty-seven railway tracks
radiate from it, and the C. P. R. yard here, with its 135 miles of sidings, is the largest in the world controlled by one corporation. Winnipeg is the chief central
point of the Canadian Northern and Grand Trunk Pacific Railway systems, and these companies have erected a union depot costing $1,500,000. Five thousand
railway employees reside in the City.
Everything that can be done to build up a great city has been considered by the people of Winnipeg, and much has been accomplished in that direction.
The general plan of the^Mty is laid out wisely and with a proper regard for the inevitable expansion a continued growth will necessitate. The business part of
the City contains many imposing buildings, and they are lined with truly metropolitan stores of every description. All the streets are well paved and lighted, and
the municipal utilities, such as police, fire, sewer and water departments are of the best and most modern organization in the way of equipment and personnel.
The streets of Winnipeg are generally wide, the principal avenues being 132 feet One hundred and sixty-five miles of her streets are paved. The area
of 15,138 acres has been supplied with 246 miles of sewers, 417 miles of paved and graded streets, and 477 miles of sidewalks. Approximately there are 426 miles
of water mains. To-day the City contains 192 Churches, 40 Public Schools with an enrolment of 21,000 pupils, also six Parochial Schools with 1,200 pupils, six
Colleges of Manitoba University, Provincial Agricultural College, Academies, Ladies' Schools, the Provincial Government Buildings, Court House, Gaols, chief
offices of the Dominion Government in the West, fine City Hall, a Free Library (costing $140,000), two Railway Depots and up-to-date Fire and Police
The City owns and operates a hydro-electric plant costing over six million dollars and developing 100,000 horse-power of hydro-electric energy, which enables
it to sell light to the citizens at three cents per kilowatt hour, and when the power is furnished in large quantities, continually, it is furnished at less than half-a-cent
per kilowatt hour.
A By-law, ratified at a recent election, authorizes the City to raise thirteen and a half millions of dollars for the purpose of bringing a supply of pure soft
water from a mountain lake about ninety-five miles distant, sufficient for a city of one million inhabitants, such as Winnipeg confidently hopes to become within the
next twenty years.
, Winnipeg, Jfflan.
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1. Grain Elevators.
2. Flock of Manitoba Sheep. Winnipeg, Jfflan.
Twenty chartered banks have offices in Winnipeg, and the total assessment in 1912 was $247,601,580, the tax rate in that year being 12 mills. Th
Customs Returns amounted to $10,484,092, and the Inland Revenue to $1,349,216.    Last year's Bank Clearings were $1,634,977,237.
While in 1908 Building Permits aggregated $5,513,700, in 1912 they reached the splendid total of $20,563,750. In view of the fact that 1913 was a
"settlement year" throughout the entire world, the permits did not show up quite so well as in the previous year. However, there was good, solid building activity
during the last twelve months, and the total for the year amounted to $18,621,650, representing the erection of 4,125 buildings.
Churches of every denomination, housed mostly in imposing edifices, are located in every part of the City. Many Fraternal Orders have established branch
lodges, and a large number of societies, benevolent, religious, musical, athletic, or simply social, have an active part in the moral development of Winnipeg and
in the catering to the pleasure-loving public. Theatres, halls, clubs and a variety of other places of amusement offer every possible opportunity for relaxation and
Considering all these facts, it can readily be seen that Winnipeg's aim is to make the City, not only a commercial and industrial centre, but to establish
a reputation as a desirable residential and home city as well. That efforts in the latter direction have in the past not been in vain is evidenced by the many fine
and pretentious residences which can be seen in a day's wandering around the sections of the City which contain the homes of its citizens.
Agriculture in the prairies and foothills of Central and Western Canada, in the midst of which Winnipeg is situated, is as yet only in its beginning. Only
eight per cent, of the rich and fertile soil of the so-called Prairie Provinces is under cultivation at this time, but the marvellous results obtained in that limited area
have attracted widespread attention among the farmers in every land, and a steady influx of settlers is the result. Year by year more of these long-neglected and
idle lands will cease to be non-productive, and industrious husbandmen will extract large crops from the soil that heretofore has yielded no returns for lack °f
The total arable area of the three Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, exclusive of the territory recently added to the latter Province, is
some 200,000,000 acres. In 1912 the small part of this acreage under cultivation—wheat, barley and oats—was 17,329,000. In addition to this, 1,110,000
acres of flax were.sown in 1912.    The money value of that year's grain crop alone was conservatively estimated at $250,000,000.
The greater part of the annual crop from these Provinces is handled at Winnipeg, which City owes its prosperity in a large measure to the ever-increasing
productiveness of the agricultural districts with which it is surrounded. In proportion to the growth of the volume of the crops of the Prairie Provinces the
expansion of Winnipeg will be, and both are assured beyond any doubt.
Keen interest is taken in the Industrial Bureau. This institution was incorporated only a short while ago, but now occupies a large building. It is located
on one of Winnipeg's most busy thoroughfares and is the largest and most unique structure of its kind on the continent. It is impossible to over-estimate its
importance, with its series of public service offices. Here the visitor may learn at once the sort of city Winnipeg is, and may glean a fair knowledge of the country
between Winnipeg and the Rockies. "Made-in-Winnipeg" goods are on exhibition at all times, as well as samples of the natural resources, not only of the
immediate vicinity of the City, but also of the Province. A museum displaying mounted specimens of all Canadian wild animals and birds, curios and relics of
historical interest, is to be seen, and art is fostered and encouraged.
Commercially, industrially and financially, Winnipeg has established a record. Built on a solid base, there is nothing but prosperity, advancement and
greater achievement awaiting her.  Pranbon, jfWan.
rHEN it is said of Brandon, Manitoba, that she is a progressive City, that phrase must be considered as merely a repetition of what has been
said of many Western Canada centres of population. But when it is said that she has 33 producing factories and 23 wholesale houses, it
must be granted at once that she is of no mean importance as a commercial and industrial point.
The fact that men of finance, men of industry, men of keen business foresight have investigated Brandon's assets and have located
their banks, their factories and their wholesale houses there, is sufficient proof of their confidence in this City's commercial and financial value.
"Where the big fellows go, that's a good place for me to go," someone has said. And because the railways, with their millions of capital,
have centred at Brandon, is it any wonder that the man of smaller means should find it profitable to locate there too?
The usual story might again be told, of how only a few years ago she struggled for an existence, as many another Western city has struggled, and of how the
faithful ones, who stood by through strain and stress, have realized the fruilfulness of their faith. But in dealing with her as she is to-day, one must speak in terms
of success and achievement.
The directors of ten great Canadian Banks have seen fit to establish branch offices in Brandon; a large Fire Insurance company has directed its business
from this point, growing in receipts since 1904 from something over $54,000 to $704,000; and it is also the headquarters for no fewer than three other financial corporations.    Besides these, four institutions of prominence in the financial world boast of large branches there.
Implements and machinery, fire engines and pumps, windmills and engines, bricks and monuments, washing machines and mattresses, cigars and beer—these
and other goods, including dairy products, confectionery, sashes and doors, etc., are manufactured in this thriving Western City.
As a railway centre, much might be said of Brandon. The activities of the Canadian Pacific alone would require pages to relate; suffice it to say that
while for many years only one track was used from this point to Lake Superior, last summer saw the completion of another, and recently it has been announced by
this Company that a four-track system is to be constructed. This means that the many lines of the Canadian Pacific which stretch out to the West, Southwest and
Northwest, through the great prairie country, will connect at Brandon with the four-track system, and that thus the immense traffic of the greatest wheat-growing
country in the world will converge toward Brandon.
Brandon's distributing area covers 32,500 miles and embraces the most productive farming country of the Province of Manitoba and a considerable portion
of the Province of Saskatchewan. Within this area there are 298 small towns, villages and hamlets, with 3,500 retail merchants, 141 banks, and about one-third
the farming population of Western Canada. The total value of the crops produced in this area in 1911 was estimated to be $63,478,834.48 in grain, hay and
roots alone, while the grass seed was valued at $20,675.00, dairy products at $1,541,525.30, eggs at $371,790.00, and poultry $423,882.99.
Brandon's western connections all contribute to her prosperity. When the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Northern Railways are completed to
the Pacific Coast, Brandon will have four great railway systems connecting it with Pacific ports—the three Canadian transcontinental railways and the Hill system,
which already connects Brandon with Vancouver and Seattle, Tacoma, Portland and Everett, on the Pacific Coast of the United States. And, besides, her distributing area is covered by a network of branch lines.
In point of civic utilities Brandon is not lacking, for she has 28 miles of water mains, 23 miles of sewers, 49 miles of granolithic sidewalks, 15 miles of boulevards, 2.3 miles of asphalt pavement, and 18 miles of graded and gravelled streets. The waterworks system is owned by the City, and there are 130 hydrants.
Her transportation system is municipally owned.
Her attractiveness does not cease at this point, however, for added to her wealth as a financial centre, as an industrial and commercial centre, as a distributing
and productive centre, she has the qualification of being a home centre. Brandon has been chosen as a Convention City; she boasts of "the finest rink in Canada";
she is beautiful with many trees, and her boulevards present a restful appearance. Educationally she stands high, being the home of the Brandon College. There
are six Public Schools, a Collegiate Institute, a Normal School, and Business College, besides other educational institutions of smaller size. Churches of all denominations there are, and music in abundance.
That Brandon will occupy an enviable position in the world of commerce and will be regarded a city of delight none will doubt. That she does occupy a
first place in the onward march of progress none will dispute.    Her destiny is what she makes it—hers is but to will. EfS^Sa
portage la prairie, JJlan.y
reje^e"- -J ' J
I' AA/aA. :--.vi_
..... v;.
1. Collegiate Institute.
2. Scene at Island Park.
3. Post Office.
4. Threshing Scene.
5. Beautiful Home.
6. Industrial Training Sc portage la prairie, Jfflan.
\ORTAGE LA PRAIRIE, Manitoba, the Railroad Centre of Western Canada, and called the "City of Unlimited Possibilities," is situated in the heart of Canada, in the centre of the far-famed Portage Plains, the finest wheat-producing country in the world, where crop
failures are unknown. Portage la Prairie is the third largest City in the Province of Manitoba, having a population of 7000, which is
steadily increasing. (Tributary population, 20,000). The climate is an ideal one, the average winter weather is clear, calm and cold,
with intense, bright sunshine, while the summers are the most delightful seasons to be found anywhere.
Portage la Prairie is well represented in all lines of business, having six banks, three department stores, six clothing stores, five dry
goods stores, four hardware stores, three furniture stores, three harness and saddlery stores, four drug stores, four bakeries, three tailors, three
millinery stores, two stationers, five confectioners, five boot and shoe dealers, three meat markets, two flour and feed stores, six groceries, two
photograph studios, three wholesale liquor stores, four restaurants, five barber shops, three law firms, ten real estate dealers, four pool rooms, three liveries, four
garages, machine companies, head offices of Farmers' Mutual and Urban Mutual Insurance Companies, and many other lines of business.
Industries in operation consist of flour mills, oatmeal manufacturers, foundry, gasoline engine and threshing machine plant, machine and gas tractor plant,
corrugated pipe works, creamery, soda-water works, laundries, wholesale fruit company, three brick yards, cigar factory, marble works, sash and door factory, carriage works, four lumber yards, and elevators with a capacity of 313,000 bushels.
Portage la Prairie has a goodly number of Government buildings—namely: Manitoba Government Telephones, Land Titles Building, Post Office with
Customs and Inland Revenue Offices, Provincial Gaol and Court House, Home for Incurables, Old Folks' Home, Industrial Training School for Boys, and
Dominion Government Armouries.
Churches and Schools are in evidence, the following religious denominations being represented: English, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Church of Christ,
Catholic and Ruthenian Churches, while splendid advantages for education are available, there being four Public Schools and Collegiate Institute.
All the principal societies and clubs are in the City, and social advantages are here that are often not found in many of the larger centres.
This City can properly be called the Railroad Centre of the West, being on the main lines of the Canadian Pacific, Canadian Northern, and Grand Trunk
Pacific Railways; the terminus of the Great Northern Railway, reaching St. Paul and Duluth, with their connections; an existing tariff for all commodities insures
to shippers through rates to and from points in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces. Portage la Prairie in addition has numerous branches of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian Northern Railways, which places the City in a very strong position as a distributing centre. All railroads here have their depots located
within a hundred yards of each other, and freight offices and yards located in the district from which a switching service is afforded to industries. Excellent factory
sites are available close to trackage, and accessible by all lines of railway represented. These sites can be purchased at a very nominal figure, and to industries large
enough to warrant it a free site will be given. In addition the City of Portage la Prairie is prepared to give a fixed assessment to industries employing fifteen hands
or over at a very nominal amount, which is practically the value of the land.
Negotiations are now under way whereby Portage la Prairie will be able to sell power at a very low rate inside of the next twelve months. The City own
their own electri(MMht and power plant and are now supplying power to industries already located there. With the advent of power from Winnipeg this City will
no doubt go ahead by leaps and bounds, as manufacturing concerns have had their eyes on Portage la Prairie for some time, ready to step in with the advent of
power at a low rate. This, along with the other advantages the City has in railroad facilities, cheap factory sites, unlimited supply of pure water, absence of labor
troubles and low cost of living, will undoubtedly make Portage la Prairie the Industrial Centre of Western Canada.
Excellent opportunities are afforded here for market gardens, as the soil is the best and all kinds of vegetables can be grown to good advantage. Poultry-
raising is rapidly becoming a very profitable investment, and farmers in the vicinity of Portage la Prairie are going in more and more every year for all kinds of livestock-
As a wheat-producing district the Portage Plains produce the record crops of any part of Canada, numerous farmers in 1913 having all the way from 50
to 63 bushels of wheat to the acre, while a large percentage of the yields run 33, 35, 36, 37 and 40 bushels to the acre. Barley, oats, and flax are good, and the
yields are as high as found anywhere.
As a residential place Portage la Prairie, with her wide, shaded streets, well-kept boulevards, beautiful parks and residences, and beautiful Crescent Lake,
is an ideal place for anyone to make their home. Island Park, situated only two blocks from the centre of the City, and ten minutes' walk from any of the railway
depots, is what can be termed the "Beauty Spot of the West," with its flower gardens and splendid driveways. First-class race track and athletic grounds are also
on the island, where an exhibition and athletic sports are held every season.
The Portage Development Company, Limited, and Board of Trade are always glad to answer enquiries of all kinds, and are pleased to hear from intending
locators at any time.
Jr W
•Probince of Ontario
/ /
1. Cutting Marble.
2. Lake Ontario Freighters.
3. A Section of Sudbury.
4. Power-house in Trenton. I
5. Carso Nickel Mine.
Hi i s
^%4 MfflMMIIlt
probince of (Ontario
^NTARIO ranks as the foremost Province of the Dominion, and its commanding position in an industrial and business sense is on every hand
admitted. Possessed of rich and varied resources, an invigorating climate, a magnificent system of waterways thai gives it many of the
advantages of a maritime country, development is but to be measured by the character and judgment of the men directing its energies.
By means of the great inland seas—Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario—this Province finds an outlet to the ocean through the
river St. Lawrence.    With a little deepening and widening of channels and canals that already exist ocean vessels of deep draught may be
brought to Toronto.    Already vessels drawing 14 ft. have sailed from Lake Superior to Europe, and vessels drawing 20 ft. sail from Lake
Huron to Lake Superior ports.    There now passes through the Sault Ste. Marie canals, at the juncture of Lakes Superior and Huron, in
the seven months of navigation, a greater tonnage of shipping, American and Canadian, than passes through the Suez Canal in a whole year.
Ontario has a population of more than 2,500,000.   Its primary sources of wealth are four in number: its farms, forests, mines, and its fisheries.    To these
are added manufactures as a fifth.   Agriculture is still by far the most important industry in Ontario, representing $1,000,000,000 of invested capital and an
annual production of more than $200,000,000.
The Province has an estimated area of 200,000 square miles—not including that portion of the Great Lakes that lies within the International boundary,—
with an extreme length from north to south of 750 miles and a breadth of 1,000 miles. It is larger by one-third than the nine North Atlantic Stales of the American Republic; larger than Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio combined; larger than Great Britain and Ireland by 78,000
square miles. It is only 4,000 square miles smaller than the French Republic, and only 8,000 smaller than the German Empire. Less than 30 per cent, of the
Province has yet been settled, more than 70 per cent, still being in the hands of the Crown.
In addition to having the largest per capita wealth of any Province in the Dominion, Ontario contains within its boundaries fully 46 per cent, of the total
industries of Canada, and has invested more than 47 per cent, of the total capital employed in manufacturing. Of the money paid to wage-earners in Canada, more
than 48 per cent, is distributed in Ontario, while the value of its farm products per improved acre is higher than that of any other Province.
Inseparably connected with the industrial development of any country is the question of transportation, and in this particular Ontario leads all the other
Provinces with a mileage of 8,546. Ontario is rap'Mly becoming grid-ironed with a network of electric lines, and this, in conjunction with the attention being paid
to improved highways both by the Provincial Government and the Municipal Councils, augurs well for the future. One of the potent factors in Ontario's growth
as a manufacturing province has been the utilization by the Government of the water powers for the generation and transmission of electric energy for manufacturing
and lighting purposes. Under the Ontario Hydro-electric Commission power for commercial purposes is now being distributed to all the chief centres, Niagara
power being now transmitted under the scheme as far west as Windsor. The Minister of Power has now under advisement a plan for the Unking-up of radial lines
with his power development scheme, to be financed through the Government and maintained by the districts benefited.
The manufactured products of Ontario include almost every article and class of goods placed on the Canadian market. The Census returns for 1911 give
the number of establishments in Ontario as 8,000; capital invested, $595,394,608; number of employees, 238,817; salaries and wages paid, $117,645,784; raw
and partly manufactured materials, $297,580,125; and value of products, $579,810,225. These figures have been greatly added to in the past two years, the
increase in the automobile industry in Ontario alone being almost phenomenal. There are some very outstanding manufacturing concerns in this Province, apart
altogether from the Algoma Steel Corporation plant at Sault Ste. Marie, on which upwards of $15,000,000 has been spent in improvements and additions. The
steelworks are equipped with every modern appliance, and the capacity of the rolling mills is 300,000 tons of rails per annum.
Despite the recent financial stringency there has been little curtailment in the output of Ontario factories, and advices show that the manufacturers are
making preparations for the busiest season in the history of the Province. The outstanding manufacturing centres in Ontario are: Toronto, Hamilton, Ottawa,
London, Brantford, Fort William, Windsor, Peterborough, Guelph, Kingston, Port Arthur, St. Thomas, Sault Ste. Marie, Sarnia, Woodstock, Belleville, Brock-
ville, Niagara Falls, Collingwood, North Bay, Oshawa, Orillia, Berlin, Stratford, Owen Sound, St. Catharines, Chatham, Gait, Porcupine, Lindsay, Barrie,
Cornwall, Welland, Smith's Falls, Kenora, Cobalt, Pembroke, Port Hope, Cobourg, Sudbury, Goderich, Ingersoll, Midland, Arnprior, Hawkesbury, Waterloo,
Preston, Dundas, Petrolea, Paris, Simcoe, Bowmanville, Brampton, Carleton Place, Trenton, as well as about forty other towns ranging in population from 4,000
to 1,500.  ^^ftf
$robmce of ©ntario
The forest wealth of Ontario is estimated at 102,118 square miles in extent, of which 18,669 square miles are under licence. The annual revenue derived
by the Province amounts to more than $2,000,000, and the approximate estimate of the production of the lumber industry last year is: Pine (board measure),
682,000,000 square feet; lumber other than pine (board measure), 46,220,000 square feet; pulpwood, 75,000 cords; cordwood, 120,000 cords; railway ties,
Four forest reserves have been set aside in New Ontario, their area aggregating many millions of acres. They are known as Temagami Reserve, containing 5,900 square miles; the Sibley Reserve on Thunder Bay, and the district surrounding Lake Nipigon, the reserve comprising the magnificent area of 7,300
square miles. In addition the Government set apart a reserve in Frontenac County, as well as establishing the Algonquin National Park, the Nipissing district containing 1,930 square miles; and the Rondeau Game Park, °n Lake Erie.
The district known as Northern Ontario is a vast region rich in promise. Apart from its timber resources the district is regarded as one of the richest mineral
countries in the world, comprising as it does the spectacular Cobalt camp, the recently discovered gold mines of Porcupine, and the almost inexhaustible nickel
deposits of the Sudbury district, supplemented by the iron ranges of Missabie, Atkioken and Michipocoten. A factor which is having an immense influence in the
development of Northern Ontario is the Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, constructed and owned by the Province of Ontario and operated, under the
direction of the Minister of Public Works, by a Commission. The Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway not only touches Lake Timiskaming, permitting
the development of the rich agricultural and mineral region adjacent to that lake and its tributary waters, but has been carried north to intersect the transcontinental
line of the Grand Trunk Pacific, and will ultimately be extended to James Bay, thus opening a direct route from the Capital of the Province to the northern seaboard, a project equally advantageous to new and to older Ontario.
Great as is the mineral wealth of Northern Ontario, its development as an agricultural district is bright with promise. Twenty million acres of the finest
agricultural land in the world (certain sections of which are already producing wheat equal to the best in Manitoba) await the settler. The clay belt, with its good,
friable land, is destined to furnish homes to the teeming millions of the Old World, the timber and pulp wood affording a ready revenue during the pioneer period
of settling the farms.
The mineral production of Ontario is, roughly speaking, $50,000,000, the silver output of Cobalt alone being more than $31,000,000, yielding upwards of
$7,000,000 in dividends; while Porcupine camp yielded about $2,000,000 in gold last year. Ontario supplies about half the world's supply of nickel, it being
estimated that in the Sudbury district there are 650,000,000 tons in sight, the production in 1912 amounting to 22,421 tons.
Ontario's fruit districts are unrivalled in Canada, and the farms in the Niagara, St. Catharines and Erie districts give employment to many thousands and
return vast dividends to the owners. The fruit belt of the Province extends from east to west for a distance of more than 400 miles and from north to south for
50 to 150 miles.
Ontario has a very fine system of education, and at the present time particular attention is being paid to technical and commercial training to supply the
demand made by industrial concerns, banks, trust companies and business houses generally for trained and skilled help. With the unexampled and uninterrupted
prosperity of the past few years, real estate and other values have permanently increased, and capital seeking investment has poured in from abroad. In the
opinion of experts the outlook for Ontario's future expansion is bright, and there is no cloud on the horizon to check its growth. fmmmimiw^kwm
©ttatoa, ©nt.
1. Victoria Museum.
2. Grand Trunk Station.
,: ;Tve&'
3. Driveway.
4. Chateau Laurier. ©ttatoa, ©nt.
I TTAWA, ONTARIO, being the Capital of the Dominion of Canada, is, as a matter of course, best known in that connection, although of
late years the City has gradually assumed considerable importance as a manufacturing and industrial community. This is especially the
case with reference to the lumber trade, an industry in which it has always been prominent, and in which it has latterly risen above all competition in that line in the Dominion.
Ottawa claims to be the largest individual manufacturer of lumber on the continent, the output of last year having been 550,000,000
feet, board measure, with a monetary valuation of about $16,800,000.    The great lumber mills clustered around the City's immediate
vicinity on the Chaudiere and Rideau are great hives of industry, and the boom of the falls which erstwhile served only to resound melodiously in the halls of Parliament is now utilized to create power for the mill machinery.    Most of the big fortunes of Ottawa's many
millionaires have been founded on lumber.
The population of Ottawa, including its suburbs, totals over 135,000. The area of the City is 5,205 acres, with 153 miles of streets, 154 miles of water
mains and 115 miles of sewers. There are printed in Ottawa five daily and nine weekly papers. Eight water transportation lines and eleven railways give it connection with the outside. The City contains twelve public parks, embracing 237 acres. Its street railway system covers forty-eight miles. There are thirty-eight
banks, sixty-two hotels, sixty-seven churches and seventy-seven educational institutions, of which fifty-three are Free Schools.
The magnificent water-power at hand has been utilized judiciously and will permit of important extensions. The City is one of the best lighted on the continent. The same power has been harnessed to provide energy for its industries, and in addition to the cheap power thus made available an excellent labor market is
supplied from the agricultural country on both sides of the Ottawa Valley.
Freight rates from Ottawa—an important consideration with the manufacturer—are identical with the class rates from other Ontario industrial centres, with
the advantage on the side of Ottawa in that, being on the main line of haul of the three big Canadian railway systems (the Canadian Pacific, the Grand Trunk
and the Canadian Northern), goods loaded on the cars at Ottawa go straight through without the delay caused by the transfer from branch to trunk lines. This
applies to both Eastbound and Westbound freight.
Ottawa prides itself on the fact that the City has no slums. The beautifying has been progressing on a scale which takes in the entire City, and the laborer
can have his cottage surrounded with its garden equally with the millionaire. The street railway system has assisted largely in keeping the City a metropolis of
open lawns, providing easy and rapid access everywhere. In 1905 the street railway carried some ten million passengers. Last year the number carried was about
twenty-three million.
As the seat of Government, Ottawa is unquestionably the foremost political and social centre of the Dominion. It is the Mecca to which all pilgrims who
desire to seek political salvation or governmental aid must travel. It is the great legislative factory of Canada and the meeting-place of all the lawmakers and law
practitioners in the country. Some five thousand Government employees, of high or minor importance, reside in Ottawa, whose combined salaries amount annually
to approximately $5,135,000. The varied industrial establishments located in the City—the number is estimated to be 192—give employment to about 18,500
people, whose salaries or wages amount to about $8,500,000. The above goes to show that the combined payrolls of the Government and of private enterprises
are a large factor in the City's apparent prosperity.
That the continuous stream of transient visitors to the Capital of the country means much additional wealth brought to Ottawa's merchants and tradespeople
is likewise apparent.
With the flower of official life in constant bloom, Ottawa socially is, of course, by far the most brilliant centre in all the Dominion, and it has long been
famous for the many magnificent gatherings and entertainments which have taken place there. In the height of the social season and when Parliament is assembled,
Ottawa is no mean rival of the Capitals of the older countries in the splendor and lavishness it displays at receptions, balls, banquets, musicals and the like, and
when all these gaieties are in full swing the business men of the City have likewise reason to feel joyful, for they mean much expenditure of money and benefit to
the trade of the City. Jfort William, ^nt.
i ae yVKi
-   t»SF—
1. School Gardening.
2. On Lake Superior.
3. Elevator and Flour Mill.
4. Y.M.C.A. Building and Resident
5. Lake Freighters.
•V*"-^    ,'Ap Jfort WUiam, <0nt.
'HE CITY OF FORT WILLIAM, 826 miles from Toronto, is situated on the Kaministiquia River, flowing into Thunder Bay, on the western
shore of Lake Superior. Dividing into three channels at its mouth the river has about 26 miles of water within the area of the City limits and,
with improvements, constitutes one of the finest harbours in the Dominion. It is the terminal port of the Canadian Pacific Railway steamship
service from Port McNicoll and the western terminal of the Inland Steamship Lines, Limited, and there are a dozen boat companies, all
regular package freighters, besides numerous other craft trading on the lakes. The tonnage represented by 3,824 vessels registered here in
1912 was 6,733,386 tons, anincrease of 1,258,576 tons over 1911. Enormous quantities of grain from Manitoba and the Northwest are
transhipped here to the Lake vessels. During the period of navigation in 1912, including the balance of the 1911 crop, the total grain receipts amounted to
115,000,000 bushels; there were unloaded at the docks in 1912, 237,360 tons of steel rails; and the C. P. R. handled 610,918 tons of general merchandise, an
increase over 1911 of 2,873 tons. Railway facilities include the Canadian Pacific, the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian Northern, the terminals of the two
former making a total yard capacity of 175 miles of track. The actual figures connected with the freight receipts by the railway companies are not available, but
tonnage over docks, and cars over railways, are estimated to be greatly in excess of any previous record.
The manufactories include an iron and foundry plant, stove, flour, broom, brewing, brick and tile, sash and door and lumber plants, brass foundry, shipbuilding and various other industries. New industries which have arranged to establish here and have commenced operations represent an expenditure of almost
$4,000,000, and involve the employment of nearly 3,000 hands. These industries are railway rolling stock (locomotives excepted), starch, bedding, wire fence,
tubes, nails, steel railway equipment, brick and tile, and pressed brick- The terminal elevator capacity in 1912 was 20,414,000 bushels; now under construction,
7,750,000; total 28,164,000. The value of improvements carried out in 1912 along the water-front of the City, including dredging, docks, elevators and warehouses, reached a total of $14,000,000.
The water, light, telephone and sewerage systems of the City are municipally owned and controlled, as is also the electric railway. Hydro-electric power
is generated from Kakabeka Falls; 45,000 horse-power has been already developed, and can be increased to 100,000. The City streets are clean, paved and
boulevarded; there are many handsome business blocks, apartment houses and residences; and eight public parks and playgrounds. The City has a Y.M.C.A.
building which cost $120,000, a Collegiate Institute and eight public schools. The population in 1907 was 13,882; in 1912, about 25,000. The assessment for
1912 was $24,362,267; for 1913, $38,895,251.
The City is in a mineral district of hematite and magnetite ore, and adjacent is a fertile agricultural country where many settlers have located. In the
districts west of Fort William there are 480 men working in connection with the Ontario Government new roads construction, which will prove a boon to the farming community. Big game (moose, deer, bear, etc.) are found in close proximity to the City, while small game abound in the neighborhood. Hundreds of tourists
visit Fort William and vicinity.  $ort Srtfmr, #nt
ORT ARTHUR, Ontario, is situated on the north shore of Lake Superior, where the blue waters of Thunder Bay ever lap its shores, and
it is the pivotal point in the Dominion of Canada, the logical place for the transcontinental traveller to halt for a few days to study the
many beauties the place has to offer.
To the investor the opportunities offered by Port Arthur are manifold. Real estate is here not held at prohibitory prices. During
the past year, while no "boom" has been experienced, prices have always been steady. Considerable real estate has changed hands,
always at fair valuation, and to the satisfaction alike of both purchaser and seller. No subdivisions reaching far out into the unknown
mar this prosperous condition of affairs, and the many handsome buildings, banks, private residences and industries tell their own story of
As a tourist and sportsman's resort Port Arthur is unexcelled. Here boating, fishing, hunting, motoring, golfing and all the joys and amenities of Country
Club life can be enjoyed. Lake Nipigon, near by, offers some of the finest trout fishing in the world. In every direction in the vicinity of Port Arthur, almost
within the City limits, can be found game in abundance. Within easy reach of Port Arthur is Silver Islet, a famous holiday place. Amethyst Harbour, too, is
only a few miles away, and within a radius of twenty miles can be found many beauty spots and holiday haunts.    The Port Arthur golf links are unexcelled.
As a grain centre Port Arthur, at the head of Canadian Lake navigation, stands unrivalled. She has elevator capacity of 16,100,000 bushels,
employing 535 men. During the 1913 season of navigation there were shipped from the head of the Lakes 127,000,000 bushels of wheat, more than 52,000,000
bushels in excess of the preceding year. Port Arthur boasts of the largest elevator in the world in the plant of the Port Arthur Elevator Company, shortly to be
increased by another annex of 2,500,000 bushels, making the total capacity 12,000,000 bushels, its present capacity being 9,500,000. In addition the Government
has just recently built the first terminal elevator in Port Arthur, the most modern grain-handling plant in the world, with a capacity of 3,250,000 bushels. There are
several other plants for the handling, storage and treating of grain at Port Arthur.
As a City Port Arthur stands supreme in taking the lead in municipal ownership. She owns her electric street railway, electric light, telephones,
waterworks and, in part, power plants, and she has the reputation of being the best lighted city in the Dominion of Canada. The population in 1910 was 12,862,
and today it is 18,025, with ever-increasing numbers being added daily.
During 1913 the Provincial Government expended $53,000 in good roads, and 65 miles were either entirely built or renewed. The Building Permits
for 1913 exceeded $2,000,000. The net assets of the electrical department in 1913 were $97,000, or in other words 5 per cent, on $1,950,000, which should be
considered Port Arthur's power asset.
Port Arthur is well equipped with schools and colleges, her attendance at school in 1913 being 2,455 children. Industrially the City does not lag behind
in the race. At Port Arthur, in the Western Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company, is the largest industry at the head of the Lakes, employing 1,000 men all the
year round, building great freighters and passenger boats, and taking into her dry dock (the largest in Canada) every vessel plying the Lakes that needs repairs.
Just now there is building at this plant the largest bulk freighter in the world, 625 feet long, and on November 27 last there sailed for winter quarters at Sarnia the
steamer'"Noronic," flagship of the Northern Navigation Company's fleet, the largest passenger and package freight boat on fresh water in the world, built and
launched at Port Arthur, at a cost of $750,000. Other industries such as lumber mills, wagon works, boiler shops, foundries, railroad yards, freight sheds, fish
hatcheries, laundries, stone quarries and many others find employment at Port Arthur for over 5,500 men.
Workmen's cottages are to be one of the features of 1914's building campaign, as they have been of the previous year. Better-class houses have gone
up by the score of late, and many more are in prospect for 1914, one firm alone contemplating spending $600,000 on a first-class residence.
The Dominion Government, at a cost of $200,000, is erecting a handsome new Armoury, and the Presbyterians will soon be able to worship in their
fine new Church, which they are building at a cost of $100,000. Many fine business blocks have been completed during the recent years, and some are now in
course of construction, among the latter being a half-million dollar skyscraper. The year 1914 promises to be one of much activity in the building line, several large
business buildings being already planned, work on which will be started early in the spring.
To sum all up, Port Arthur is one of the finest cities in the Dominion in which to cast one's lot and dwell. Situated as it is in the very heart of Canada,
in very truth "Along the Imperial Highway," as a halting place it is hard to beat. The summers are always enjoyable, the autumns are unsurpassed, and the
winters are never so cold that outdoor exercise is not always full of vigour and a crisp "snap" that makes one feel younger and better for living in Port Arthur.
The winter of 1913 will ever live in the minds of the oldest inhabitant as the mildest on record. To the vistwrkfrom the Orient or from the Far East, from Europe,
Asia or Africa, and to our American cousins across the border, the City would say, and say it heartily, "Port Arthur is yours; Glad to see you!" Canabian Hotels
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WMS^m-, Port Arthur and Fort William stand unrivalled in natural resources, and the facilities for manufacturing and industrial enterprise which they possess
are without a parallel and will be the envy of half the Cities on the Continent. They are in the centre of enormous deposits of iron ore, which, coupled with
the abundance of water power available, points to possibilities of profit and expansion impossible to estimate.
Port Arthur and Fort William are your real
opportunity—the opportunity so many men are
looking for to purchase Real Estate in cities of
assured future and magnitude, but also live,
progressive Cities of today.
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A. C. R. Station.
Agwa Canyon.
Queen Street.
Montreal Falls
Lake Superior Paper Comp;
Montreal River.
High  School.
Lake Superior Steel Plant. &ault^te.iWarie,<©nt.
Hake Superior Corporation
AULT STE. MARIE, ONTARIO, lies on the River St. Mary, the great water highway between Lakes Superior and Huron, and at the
great falls of that river, where are situated the ship canals. It is a busy, thriving, industrial centre with steel industries and paper and pulp
In 1890 the population of Sault Ste. Marie was 1,621, and today it is 18,500, while in the same period the total assessment has
increased from $1,145,000 to $13,500,000, which is a striking illustration of the rapid growth of the City.
While legend has it that the white people were known there in 1544, the first real facts are the presence of the fur traders in 1603
and the establishment of a Mission by Pere Marquette, for the white settlement then there, in 1668. Called by the Indians "Bawating,"
in 1632 named Sault du Gaston, it became in 1668 Sault Ste. Marie, and so has remained to this day. In the earlier days both the Northwest Company and the
Hudson's Bay Company occupied territory there. In 1783 the Hudson's Bay Company built their post, and also constructed a lock f°r small boats; and in 1823
the two great Fur Companies joined forces. Of the intervening period between 1823 and 1843 Utile is known, but in the latter year the village appears to have had
a certain status and grew in importance, till in 1858, on the formation of the district of Algoma—a district stretching from French River to James Bay and to the
far-off limits of the Northwest—it became the seat of government for the district.
Sault Ste. Marie is midway across Canada. From Sarnia on the east to Fort Frances on the west, continuously for twelve weeks in each year, no direct
connection of the two great nations of this continent can be had except at Sault Ste. Marie. To shippers north, south, east or west its location is ideal. Besides
having adequate railway facilities, it possesses for nine months in the year unrivalled lake facilities. Five packet freight lines operate practically a continuous service east and west from Sault Ste. Marie, employing over forty steamers.    The freight rate on coal from Lake Erie ports is 27% cents per ton.
Four banks operate seven branches, and over sixty millions of capital is invested in industrial enterprises in Sault Ste. Marie. It is one of the large centres
for commercial fisheries, and as the doorway to the hunting grounds of this part of Ontario offers great attraction to the sportsman.
During spring and summer steamers visit all the points on the north shore of Lake Superior, where the many rivers and bays are the delight of the fishermen.
The Algoma Central Railway now has 232 miles in operation from Sault Ste. Marie to the Canadian Pacific Railway and Michipicoten Harbour, and 50
miles of track laid north of the Canadian Pacific, connecting with the Canadian Northern Railway. In addition to this, 333 miles of grade connect with the National
Transcontinental Railway at Hearst. These railways traverse a very broken and mountainous country north of Sault Ste. Marie, well wooded and rich in mineral
deposits. This virgin territory, with its innumerable mountain lakes and streams, has now been thrown open to the tourist. Speckled and brook trout in unlimited
quantities await the fisherman; moose, deer, caribou, and small game are in abundance for the huntsman. The grandeur of the scenery is unsurpassed. The railway
passes through "The Canyon of the Agawa," about thirteen miles in length, between mileage 103 and 116 north of Sault. Ste. Marie. (A view of the Northern
Gateway is shown in these pages, as well as views of the railway steel viaduct at Montreal River Falls and river north of bridge along the line of railway). A
number of commodious log cabins have been erected adjacent to the Lakes, which appeal wonderfully to the tourist seeking a free and quiet spot for genuine recreation.
It is a new railway in a new country which offers many inducements. Daily passenger train service operates between Sault Ste. Marie and Franz, connecting with the Canadian Pacific Railway trains to and from Western Canada and shortening the rail distance by 240 miles. This line is well named "The Scenic
The plants of the Lake Superior Paper Company, Limited, consist of a mechanical ground-wood mill, with a capacity of 160 tons per day; sulphite pulp
mill with a capacity of 70 tons per day; and a newsprint paper mill with a capacity of 200 tons per day.    The whole plant occupies about 40 acres.    The mill
Wzmwmgs are substantially built of red sandstone and present a very solid and pleasing appearance.    The machinery throughout these mills is of the most modern
type, there being four Fourdrinier paper machines, the largest of which is 198 in. wide, which is one of the largest of its kind in existence.
The Algoma Steel Corporation, Limited, operates the following plants: Coal dock and unloading plant; ore and rail docks; total docks—length 3192 feet,
estimated tonnage handled during season of navigation 1,650,000 tons; by-product coke ovens, capacity 36,000 tons per month; sulphur-acid plant, capacity 600
tons per month; by-product plant—tar 1800 tons per month, sulphate of ammonia 450 tons per month; blast furnace, capacity 28,500 tons per month; open-
hearth furnace, capacity 15,000 tons per month; gas-engine plant, comprising nine 2200-h.p. 4-cylinder tandem gas engines; pumping plant, capacity 45,000,000
gallons per 24 hours; blowing mill, capacity 1800 tons per 24 hours; rail mill, capacity 1200 tons per 24 hours; finishing mill, capacity 1200 tons per 24 hours;
merchant mills, capacity 350 tons per 24 hours; machine, shops, etc., comprising machine shop, pattern shop, foundry, blacksmith shop, boiler shop, and frog and
switch shop.
Railroad department includes roundhouse and equipment, also ten standard-gauge and five narrow-gauge locomotives, fifty cars, nine locomotive cranes,
and thirty-two miles of track-  Toronto, <©nt.
TORONTO, the Capital City of the Province of Ontario, with a population now of 450,000 people, is situated on the north shore of Lake
Ontario, 41 miles directly north of the mouth of the Niagara River. It is located on a plateau gradually ascending from the lakeshore to an
altitude of 220 feet, and occupies an area of over thirty-three square miles. Situated in longitude 79, latitude 43, its climate is moderate and
agreeable; in fact, it would be difficult to imagine a better "throughout-the-year" climate than that which Toronto and its vicinity enjoys.
Here is to be found the bracing weather of a Canadian winter without extremes of cold or moisture, while the weather in the summer, though
warm, is not excessively hot for any considerable period of time.    The mean annual temperature of the past ten years is 53.02.
From the time it was first established as a French trading post in 1749 to the year 1834, when it was incorporated as a City,
Toronto's history is full of exciting events. Since that date the progress of the City has not witnessed a single check and has achieved the remarkable record of
doubling its population every fifteen years.    More recently this rate of increase has been greater.
A good illustration of the progress of the City is shown by the increase in the total assessment at stated intervals. In 1885 the total assessment was
$69,000,000, with a population of 110,000; in 1895 the assessment had increased to $146,000,000, with a population of 175,000; in 1906 the assessment stood
at $167,000,000, with a population of 253,000; while in 1913 the assessment had risen to $436,000,000, with a population of 450,000.
In presenting these figures as to the assessments, it may be stated that as near as can be estimated the taxation valuation represents about seventy-five per
cent, of the actual value of the property assessed. With its present population, Toronto ranks fifty-sixth in the list of the cities of the world, twelfth in the Empire,
and eleventh in the Continent of America.
To understand clearly what the City is and what it will be in years to come, it should be necessary only to point out that Toronto is the second largest distributing and manufacturing centre in Canada and is rapidly approaching first place. It is the capital of the Province of Ontario, and as such has the Province
behind it.
The diversity and fertility of the soil, combined with excellent climatic conditions and first-class transportation facilities that bring the market right to the
door of the producer, are rapidly developing this Province.
Toronto is rich in residential advantages, there being few cities of equal size in America containing so many substantial and artistic homes, and so delightful
a series of residential districts. It is essentially a City of Homes, and a striking feature is found in the fact that fully one-half of the residential property of the City
is owned by the occupants.
The public buildings of the City are noted for their architecture. Situated almost in the centre of one of the principal parks are the Provincial Legislative
Buildings, and to the west of these buildings and in the same park are the buildings of the University of Toronto and affiliated colleges. Osgoode Hall, the seat of
the Provincial Law Courts and probably the best law school in the Dominion, is admirably situated in one of the leading streets, while at the junction of two of the
leading thoroughfares is the City Hall, a building containing the offices of the municipality and the Court House.
It is impossible to here mention the many other fine buildings throughout the City devoted to public and business purposes, but special reference should be
made to the magnificent new General Hospital which has just been opened, and which has been erected through the generosity of the citizens of Toronto, without
regard to creed or class.   It covers an area of ten acres and is said to be unexcelled as to equipment and design.
As an educational centre, Toronto possesses advantages which are unsurpassed by any city of equal size in America. It contains two large Universities,
Toronto and McMaster (Baptist). In federation with the University of Toronto are several strong colleges with courses in theology and arts—viz., Trinity
(Anglican), Knox (Presbyterian), Victoria (Methodist), St. Michael's (Roman Catholic), and Wycliffe (Anglican).
The Public School system of Ontario has long been noted for its excellence, and the schools of Toronto are fully up to standard. Under the Board of
Education are maintained eight High or Preparatory Schools, 74 Public Schools, 20 Roman Catholic separate schools, while a Technical School is in process
of establishment which will be the largest and most efficient in Canada. In addition to this, there are a Model School and a Normal School under Provincial
Government control, three industrial schools where incorrigible boys and girls are maintained, educated and disciplined, and a number of private schools for boys and
girls, many of which have a continental reputation, also several excellent commercial and stenographic colleges. Toronto, ©nt.
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The vast regions of new Ontario contain thousands of miles of lakes and streams, through virgin forests, the resources of which for sport and pleasure have
hardly yet been touched. To the tourists from other cities, Toronto itself is a delightful visiting place, replete with opportunities for enjoyment. The dominant
position which the City occupies as a wholesale point is primarily due to its unequalled advantages for cheap freightage, both by lake and rail, and is assisted by
its undisputed possession of the most lucrative purchasing market of Canada—viz., the surrounding Province of Ontario. An index to the traffic, of which it is
the pivotal point, is found in the fact that there are more than 200 freight trains entering and leaving the City daily.
Roughly speaking, Toronto's investment in manufacturing industries is a little more than one-ninth of the whole of Canada, while her wage bill and her output are each over one-eighth. The volume of business transacted has been increasing by leaps and bounds, as the following figures show: Bank Clearings for 1912
amounted to $2,160,229,476, being an increase of upwards of $300,000,000 over the preceding year. Building permits for 1912 amounted to upwards of
$27,000,000, an increase of $3,000,000 over the preceding year. The buildings erected comprise 86 factories, 66 warehouses, 383 stores and shops, and 5,675
As a financial centre Toronto occupies a most prominent position. Nine out of twenty-five Chartered Banks of the Dominion have their head offices in
the City, with an authorized paid-up capital of $72,000,000. In addition there are five Trust Companies, with a paid-up capital of about $5,000,000, three of
which practically conduct a banking business. There are seventy-six Insurance Companies conducting business in Toronto, and of that number approximately twenty-
five have their head offices there. Besides these organizations there is a Stock Exchange, which does a general business in all classes of Canadian stocks, and two
Mining Exchanges, which deal exclusively in Canadian Mining Stocks.
A description of Toronto would indeed be incomplete without a special reference to the Canadian National Exhibition, which exercises a world-wide influence in the interest of agricultural education and reform. It was founded in the year 1879 with an honorary directorate, consisting of representative stock breeders,
farmers, manufacturers, business men, etc., and members of the City Council. Its growth has been steady and continuous, and various buildings have been erected
year by year to meet the growing demands for space, until now the Exhibition has a splendid collection of permanent structures, which, however, have to be added
to yearly in order to keep pace with the growth of the institution.
Toronto possesses one of the finest natural land-locked harbors in the world, the inner harbor being about one and one-half mile long by the same width, and
absolutely protected from the storms of the lake by a natural island, which completely surrounds it, excepting at two points where it is pierced by artificial channel
entrances. Up to the present time very little has been done to develop the splendid natural resources of this harbor, but the carrying out of the work planned by
the new Board of Harbor Commissioners will rectify this and will place Toronto in a position to reap her share of the benefits of the tremendous growth of navigation transportation in Canada. The Dominion Government have decided on the expenditure of fifty million dollars for the purpose of constructing a new Welland
Canal to connect Lakes Erie and Ontario, and this new canal will have a depth of 24 feet, so that the large steamers which now ply from Lake Erie through the
Great Lakes to the head of inland navigation will be able to reach Lake Ontario points. This development, it is confidently expected, will be followed very shortly
by the canalization of the St. Lawrence River, and when this is done ocean freighters will be able to carry their cargoes direct from England and European ports to
the harbors on the interior of the Great Lakes.
Toronto Harbor development is planned to keep pace with these national works, and Toronto, by her foresight in planning ahead and preparing for the
future, will be in a splendid position to secure the immense business which will result from the co-ordination of lake and ocean navigation.
The entire cost of the work planned by the Commissioners is estimated at $19,142,088, of which sum the Commissioners themselves will spend $11,215,920,
while the City has undertaken to spend $1,802,883 in constructing pavements, sidewalks, and park treatment on the boulevard location. The ship channel in the
industrial district and the necessary breakwater for the protection of the shore and of the harbor extension work has been undertaken by the Dominion Government
at an estimated cost of $6,123,284, and the entire work is expected to be brought to completion within eight years. *tf*jfi&«!
Hamilton, ©nt
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T. H. & B. Railway Station.
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THE CITY OF HAMILTON, ONTARIO, with a population in 1913 of 100,808, is situated on the shore of Hamilton Bay, a beautiful
land-locked harbor at the head of Lake Ontario. Behind the City is the mountain or escarpment which extends from Niagara Falls, 42
miles to the east. From this range there is a magnificent view of the City below, with its wide, well-paved streets, fine residences and public
buildings and wealth of beautiful shade trees; of the clear waters of the bay beyond; and of the "Fruit Garden of Canada" on the southeast—a picture of beauty rarely equalled on the continent. Out of this "Garden" about a million dollars' worth of fruit is shipped annually,
the greater portion of it passing through Hamilton. Situated in the centre of the City is the best farmers' market in Canada, which is
crowded to capacity every day during the summer, the consumers here dealing directly with the farmer.
The City has excellent shipping facilities by both water and rail. It is the regular port of call for all steamship lines operating from Montreal to the head of
Lake Superior; Richelieu & Ontario and Merchants Mutual Lines have tri-weekly service to Montreal and intermediate ports. Operating through it are the Grand
Trunk Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian Northern Railway.   It is also the centre of a complete electric railway system for City and suburban travel.
Hamilton is essentially a manufacturing city, possessing all the economic conditions required by large industrial concerns for favorable operation. It has
more United States capital invested in industrial pursuits than any other Canadian City. It has a practically unlimited supply of electric energy from large companies economically generating power from Decew Falls, 35 miles, and Niagara Falls, 42 miles distant. The Hamilton hydro-electric department is municipally owned
and sells power at cost, while the Dominion Power and  Transmission Company serves manufacturing satisfactorily.
From the importance of its manufacturing operations Hamilton has been called the Birmingham of Canada. Manufacturing establishments number 400,
capital invested $65,000,000, employees 27,000; yearly value of products (1912), $65,125,000. The industries include blast furnaces and steel plants, iron
foundries, woodworking machinery, agricultural implement, electrical apparatus and machinery, tools, wire goods and wire fence, washing machines and clothes
wringers, hardware, silverware, clothing, hosiery, boots, furniture and many other articles.
The population increased from 54,035 in 1903 to 100,808 in 1913, or at a rate of 86Yi per cent. Capital invested in new factories and in additions to factories already established grew during this period from about $14,000,000 to over $65,000,000, an increase of 364 per cent. Wage bill increased to $14,000,000,
being $6,000,000 more than in 1903, or 75 per cent.    The Bank Clearings (1912), $167,742,727; Customs collected, $3,510,846; Building Permits, $5,491,800.
The facilities for acquiring an education are good, there being thirty Public Schools, four Private Schools, a Normal School, Technical School, Collegiate
Institute, and several Business Colleges.
Hamilton is steadily progressive and possesses many advantages as a residential^tidfbj^i.ess City. iMBMiiffliiiTiii ~~r
Niagara Jf aES, ©nt. Niagara Jf alls, <©nt.
HE CITY OF NIAGARA FALLS, Ontario, Canada, and the adjacent Township of Stamford occupy a unique position in regard to
low-cost electric power and transportation by rail and lake. There is no other city of Canada which combines these important functions
in a manner so advantageous to the manufacturer, because it is at the fountain of power at the Falls of Niagara. Three great companies
are now generating or have in process of development about one-half million of electrical horse-power. Two great International railroads,
the Grand Trunk and the New York Central Lines, have here divisional point yards. Two more, the Canadian Pacific and the Canadian
Northern, will be here in the near future.
A Harbour is in process of development from the Welland Ship Canal to the boundaries, thus making the City a Lake Port, and
giving the lowest lake and rail freight rates. Combine the above advantages with the fact that Niagara Falls enjoys the mildest climate in Canada east of the
Rocky Mountains, with fruit and farm conditions without peers elsewhere, and it will not be denied that at this point is destined to grow up the Industrial Manchester
of Canada, the ideal City of Labour.
The advertising value of location at Niagara Falls is world-wide. It is the manufacturing point of products whose quality is accepted as perfect. The market
for labour is of the best: it draws from the centre of an immense population to the south and east, and it is increasing under the normal demand about 20 per cent,
in population each year. With the immediate suburbs, the City now stands at 15,000, spread over about four square miles. Of this population it can safely be
considered that no fewer than 5,000 are industrial workers, railroad and manufacturing. This frontier is the gateway of Central Canada, and this City is the key
to low-cost power and quick transportation.
Advertisement of Niagara Falls as a tourist resort is well covered by the various transportation companies. It is therefore not necessary to touch on the
world-famous Cataracts. The City, however, desires to impress upon the manufacturers of Great Britain, of Continental Europe and of the United States of
America that it has low-cost electrical power and all the other advantages which combine to give it precedence in the industrial world. The deepening of the
Welland Canal and the opening of the Great Lakes to the sea by a twenty-five to thirty feet deep waterway around the St. Lawrence Rapids will cause the
transportation of an Empire, of the world's granary, to pass by the mouth of the proposed harbour.
Here is the site for the Industrial City of Canada, bounded on the south by the harbour, seven miles in length; on the west by the Welland Ship Canal; on
the north by the mighty escarpment of limestone looking out over Lake Ontario; and on the east by the great river of Niagara. This is a territory of about 50
square miles intersected by transportation systems and good roads, mostly level land of choice farming quality. The opportunity is before the manufacturers of the
world desirous of reaching the Canadian market; now as never before will they reach out to seize its rewards; here they are invited to stop and investigate.
The City extends to all a hearty welcome, requesting that communication be made direct to the Industrial Department of the City Council, and presents
the following facts:—
Assessment, 1913 $8,000,000
Tax Rate, about 25 mills
Population, City and Suburbs 15,000
Number of Power Companies  Four
Number of Factories, about Fifty
Floor space occupied, about 20 acres
Amount of Power developed 450,000 E.h.p.
Railroads and Electric Lines Ten
"Welcome to Niagara Falls" is the City's motto. Ba^^jJAmsSBSMMEBgB
Honbon, <0nt.
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ONDON, ONTARIO, has the ambitious title of "An Ideal Canadian City," and it is conceded that the name is well applied. It is the
Metropolis of Western Ontario, and has earned that distinction as a city where industrial and commercial progress has been accompanied
by educational development; where in the building-up of an immense jobbing and manufacturing trade the citizens have taken time to
cultivate the best that life offers twentieth-century civilization.
From Riverside hamlet to Metropolis in some eighty years, with each succeeding year eclipsing the records of progress of the past,
London has laid a solid foundation for future advancement which is equalled by few cities of the Dominion. In population, in new
buildings, in financial transactions, in assessment, in wholesale and retail turnover, and in manufacturing output, no retrograde movement is
recorded, and a casual investigation will show that the percentage of increase in these factors of material advancement shows greatly accelerated growth during the past
few years. Economic reason for this is found in London's position as a distributing centre for the population of the Dominion as a whole, and especially of the
Canadian West, which has of late created a hitherto unprecedented demand for manufactured goods of almost every description.
London's residential districts and beautiful homes afford convincing proof of an unusual combination of advantages enjoyed. The picturesque homes of
artisans and wage-earners, and the palatial residences of the wealthy, reflect the contentment which is the prevailing feature of life in London. A large majority,
estimated at 80 per cent., of London's industrial workers own their own homes, a fact which affords convincing illustration of ideal living conditions. With its
wealth of magnificent trees and expanse of parks and boulevards there is no more beautiful city than London in the Dominion. Climatic conditions vary from
balmy summer and autumn days (when plant life indigenous to southern climes, such as the magnolia and tomato vine, flourish) to invigorating winters, during
which healthy outdoor sports are practised and enjoyed, making an ideal succession of the seasons.
London claims to be an educational centre of more than usual importance, because it has a most complete selection of institutions covering all branches, from
some eighteen Public Schools, with thirty kindergarten classes, situated in all parts of the City, to the Western University, with complete curriculum of higher
education, including arts, medicine and divinity. There are, too, a Normal School for the training of teachers, and the Provincial Hygienic Institute dealing with
epidemiology, pathology, bacteriology, parasitology, chemistry and sanitary engineering. TJteZQollegiate Institute is one of the best in the Province, and the Catholic
Board of Education control nine separate schools, with an enrolment of over a thousand pupils. There are many other private educational institutions and schools
of music and business education. A movement is now afoot to greatly improve and enlarge the activities of the Western University, degrees from which rank with
the best universities of the Dominion.   A Civic Industrial and Art School is doing fine work in increasing efficiency by industrial and vocational training.   .
London is a City of numerous and beautiful Churches. All denominations are represented, and being the seat of the Bishops of Huron (Anglican) and
London (Roman Catholic), the City has two magnificent cathedrals—St. Paul's and St. Peter's.
Situated in a rich agricultural district, the cost of living in London is materially reduced. A tri-weekly market—one of the largest of the kind in Canada—
brings the produce of the farm, market gardener and dealer directly to the consumer. Splendidly equipped and thoroughly modern institutions are provided for the
care of the sick, aged, and orphaned.    The City Hospital, the "Victoria," is one of the finest in the Dominion.
London, however, enjoys the proud distinction of being one of the healthiest cities in Canada, and has no slums, typhoid fever being unknown. The latter
fact is largely due to the purity of the water supply and perfect sewerage system. London's parks, another aid to healthy living conditions, delight the visitor and
afford splendid opportunities for outdoor recreation for young and old. The Parks Board appointed in 19/2 controls and maintains over 300 acres of public
parks, which are the pride of Londoners.   For natural beauty Riverside Park is famous.
The Province of Ontario leads the continent in the operation of public utilities by the people, and London affords a striking example even to Ontario
municipalities in this respect. The electrical department of the Board of Water Commissioners distribute electric energy, received from the'Ontario Hydro-electric
Commission, at actual cost to consumers. London is one of the best and cheapest lighted cities in the Dominion, and it supplies power to manufacturers at remarkably
low rates. At the end of the third year of operation this department shows a handsome surplus, which insures a corresponding reduction in the cost of light and
power to consumers.
The Waterworks system, owned and operated by the City, is regarded by experts to be complete, well-equipped and efficient. The water needs no filtration
and is exceptionally pure. 1
Honbon,^©nt. Honbon, ©nt.
Situated a little over twenty miles from Lake Erie, London is practically "on the lake," so far as shipping is concerned. Port Stanley, London's harbour,
is easily accessible by the City-owned railroad, which will during the year 1914 be electrically operated by the City, through a Board of Railway Commissioners
appointed by the Council. This municipally-owned railroad provides a competitive water route for the four trunk lines which enter London, and many Londoners
own summer homes at the Port. This unique municipal enterprise is said to have direct connection with more lines than any other railway on the continent, and will,
when electrified, provide access to the heart of the City for numerous other radial lines for which plans are now being prepared.
In addition to the Grand Trunk Railway, Canadian Pacific, Pere Marquette and Michigan Central Railway—all of which pass through London,—there
are seven branch lines radiating throughout London's extensive business field, and an inter switching system connecting all railways adds greatly to the convenience
of shippers.
London is the financial centre of Western Ontario, having branches of eleven chartered banks with numerous urban and suburban offices, six savings and
loan companies, and the head offices of several insurance companies.
The Bank Clearings in 1908 amounted to $56,785,041; in 1909, $62,093,337; in 1912, $84,526,961, or an increase in five years of $27,741,920, or
about 50%. The increase over 1911 was nearly $14,000,000, or 15%. For eleven months of 1913 the clearings were $83,678,383, as against $67,088,330 in
the previous year, or 14% increase.
The Customs returns show an increase from $783,312 in 1908 to $1,232,440 in 1912, an increase of 57%. Inland revenue receipts jumped from $337,000
in 1908 to $529,356 in 1912, or an increase of more than 60%. London's assessment for the same period (1908 to 1912) shows an increase from $24,663,715
to $31,694,805, or 30%.
Building Permits increased from $801,170 in 1908 to $1,136,108, or 40%, in 1912. The figures for 1913 were expected to reach $1,800,000, despite the
financial stringency—a remarkable showing when compared with other cities of the Dominion. The amount expended in 1913 in eleven months was $1,742,885,
or more than double the permits of five years ago. An extensive building program is projected for 1914, including: Catholic Seminary, $380,000; Catholic
School for boys, $30,000; Church School of the Redemptorist Fathers, $50,000; addition to St. Joseph's Hospital, $75,000; addition to McClary plant, $75,000;
new City Hall, $300,000; addition to Armory, $50,000; and other buildings and houses together costing over $500,000, giving a grand total of $1,960,000.
Real estate transfers have increased in the same period (1908 to 1912) from $1,294,659 to $1,923,335, or 50 per cent. The population, too, shows
a remarkable increase of the steady and permanent type.   In ten years it has advanced from (1903) 39,265 to over 55,000 (1913), or 40%.
In manufacturing, London has steadily forged ahead and now has upwards of 240 factories, representing an expenditure of over $15,000,000, employing
1200 hands and having an annual pay-roll of over $4,500,000. They include the largest stove works in the British Empire, the two largest biscuit and confectionery concerns in Canada, two large breweries, the second largest cigar output of any city in Canada, in addition to the extensive manufacture of agricultural implements, machinery, boots and shoes, pianos and many other articles of trade. The last Dominion Census shows that London is the seventh city in the Dominion as a
manufacturing centre, and that the increase in ten years in the value of manufacturing output is over 100%.
London is the second wholesale distributing centre in Ontario, and London travellers cover Canada from Halifax to Vancouver. The London Industrial
Bureau, an affiliation of all administrative and business bodies of the City, promotes industrial expansion and supplies free of charge to all inquirers information
regarding the City's opportunities and advantages. Wnbsor, ©nt.
V      ^ .11
1. Public School House.
2. Row of Dwellings.
3. Flowers in Bloom.
4. Floral Display on Public St
5. St. Edmunds School.
6. Business Corner.
7. Walkerville Boat Club. Minbsor, <&nU
INDSOR and its environments constitute the most prominent industrial field of operation in Southern Ontario. It is located on the Detroit
River, which latter is a part of the International boundary line between Canada and the United States, and Windsor is the counterpart of
the American city of Detroit.
Situated at the apex of a triangular location embracing the south-western peninsula of the province of Ontario,  Windsor is the
most southern city in Canada, and may properly be styled as the inland gateway to both the eastern and western portions of Canada,
which has an area one-third the size of Europe.    Windsor, therefore, possesses a strategic location, with equalized freight rates for east
and west bound shipping, unsurpassed transportation facilities by rail and by water, and unique advantages with respect to the exchange
. of products between Canada and the United States.
Windsor has two City-owned factory districts, both tapped by the Essex Terminal Railway, connecting with five trunk lines.    The first industrial area,
comprising forty acres, was purchased three years ago and has been completely filled up.    Part of the second factory district of twenty-three   acres   has   been
disposed of.    The City sells the land at cost, and grants liberal concessions in the way of tax exemptions, free water and free light.    There is one general policy
for all new factories.
The population of Windsor is 22,000. In 1912 the Building Permits amounted to $1,098,093; assessments in 1913, $20,000,000; Post Office receipts
in 1913, $60,246; Customs receipts, 1913, $3,970,000.
Windsor has five of the most important railroads in Canada running through it, and each is connected with the others by the Essex Terminal Railway.
Windsor has the advantage of water shipment by the Great Lakes. Windsor is situated at a central Canadian point. Ontario will always be the workshop of
the Dominion. Windsor is the most southern city in Canada, and is in close proximity to great manufacturing centres of the Middle States, such as Detroit,
Cleveland, Chicago and Cincinnati. Windsor's geographical location, its liberal industrial policy, unsurpassed transportation facilities and equalized freight rates
for the east and west bound shipping, as well as the plentiful supply of skilled and unskilled labor, enjoying the attractive residential advantages of the City and
popular resorts along the river, are the potent factors in the argument that this is the logical location for American branch industries that desire an extension of their
Windsor is the centre of a thickly populated district extending for nine or ten miles along the Detroit River, "the other half of the saucer," as it has been
appropriately termed. There are really five separate municipalities—Ford and Walkerville on the east, and Sandwich and Ojibway on the west; but the stranger
would not know where one place begins and the other leaves off. Sandwich is the county town and the oldest of the five municipalities. Walkerville was founded
by the late Hiram Walker, who established the Walker distillery in that town. Since then it has become an important centre for other manufactures. Ford, to
the east of Walkerville, is the baby village, having been incorporated in January, 1913. Ojibway was incorporated as a town on July 1, 1913. It is to be the site
of the plant to be built by the Canadian Steel Corporation, a subsidiary company of the United States Steel Corporation. The population of the allied
municipalities exceeds 30,000. The value of imports from the United States through the port of Windsor for 1912 was $14,581,838. The total exports in 1912
were valued at $5,438,379. Windsor, Walkerville, and Ford have become established as the auto centre for Canada. There are over a dozen firms in this district
for the manufacture of autos and auto parts. Likewise Windsor and vicinity will be admitted to be the steel centre for the Dominion, as it is also the drug and
pharmaceutical centre.
The automobile industry in Canada has scarcely emerged from the infancy stage. Until a year ago, the trade had been largely supplied by firms in the
neighboring Republic. Eighty per cent, of imported automobiles came from the United States, only three per cent, from Britain, and less than two per cent, from
France and other European countries. The remaining percentage were of Canadian manufacture. It is not anticipated, however, that the imports will continue in
these proportions. The Trade and Commerce Department at Ottawa reports that there were 3,488 automobiles imported in 1911 and 6,020 in 1912, showing thai
the trade almost doubled in one year. The value of autos and motor vehicles imported in 1911 was $4,235,196, while the duty paid on same amounted to
$1,443,898. The value of automobile parts imported in 1911 was $522,223, and the duty paid was $179,889. For 1912 the value of imported automobiles
was practically double that of the preceding year, and for this year it is estimated that Canadians paid out about three millions of dollars in duties on imported
automobiles, nearly all of which were purchased in the United States. By reason of their location, opposite the city of Detroit, which is the automobile centre for
the United States, Windsor, Walkerville and Ford have become the manufacturing centre for the automobile trade in Canada. A dozen or more auto firms are
already established in this district.
■ —;—
$robince of ©uebec
St. Anne Agricultural School.
A Farm Scene.
Stables, Agricultural School.
Tobacco Exhibit.
Threshing Clover Seed.
6. Housekeeping School.
7. A Typical Farm.
8. Institute, Experimental Farm.
9. Pekin Ducks.
. u-.u*      MmmuuMmmui ^robince of Quebec
HE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC is really the gateway of Canada, forming the eastern portion of the Dominion and stretching along both
sides of the mighty St. Lawrence River for nearly a thousand miles, from Blanc Sablon at the entry of the Straits of Belle Isle on the
east to Lake Temiscamingue on the west, while north and south it extends from Hudson's Straits to the American boundary line. It takes
precedence of all the other Canadian provinces in respect to dates of discovery and settlement, and ranks first in size among them and second
in population.    Ontario alone, of all the provinces, has more inhabitants.
Quebec Province contains a superficies of 706,834 square miles, being almost six times as large as the entire British Isles or more
than double as large as France and the British Isles together.
Geographically the Province extends over 22 degrees of longitude, namely, from 57 to ?9 west, and over 17 degrees of latitude, from
45 to 62 1-2 north.
Its present population as shown by the census of 1911 is well over two million souls, which means an increase of over 25 per cent, in the last decade, the
population shown by the census of 1901 having been but 1,648,898.
The seat of Government is in Quebec, where the handsome block of buildings, including the Parliament House and Departmental offices, is one of the
principal architectural attractions of the Provincial Capital.
Bathed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and traversed throughout its entire length by the river St. Lawrence, the Province of Quebec possesses all the
advantages both of a maritime and an inland country. It not only contains the largest city and the commercial capital of Canada, but its great rivers and its
ports are the portals to all that immense portion of the Dominion that lies beyond the provinces by the sea and extends westward to the Rocky Mountains and the
Pacific Ocean. It consequently does the greatest amount of Canada's internal and external trade, while the multitude and variety of its resources place it in the
front rank of the Canadian Confederation.
In its soil, which is for the most part exceedingly fertile and well adapted to all kinds of farming, fruit-growing and dairying; its comparatively boundless
forests of commercial timber and pulpwood; its still largely undeveloped mineral wealth; its abounding rivers, lakes and water-powers; its fisheries, both maritime
and inland, which are among the finest and most extensive in the world; its unrivalled sporting attractions, the healthfulness of its climate, the diversity and
picturesqueness of its scenery, and the vast extent of its unoccupied public lands, which offer comfortable homes to millions of industrious settlers, it possesses
inexhaustible mines of natural riches that assure its growth and future greatness.
The climate is the healthiest known, and physicians from many parts of America send tubercular patients both to the sanitarium at St. Agathe, in the
mountains to the north of Montreal, and to that at Lake Edward, a hundred miles north of Quebec. In the large agricultural areas of the Province, not alone in the
Eastern Townships which adjoin the United Slates, south of the St. Lawrence, and have long been known as the garden of the Province, but also in the newer
areas in the north, which have been more recently wrested from the forest, the soil is of extraordinary richness.
Within the last few years Quebec has made rapid advancement in her agricultural, mining, dairying and manufacturing development. The total yield of
the dairy industry of Quebec is known to be fully thirty millions of dollars. Its butter has taken first prizes in International competitions, and its cheese commands
the highest price paid on the Montreal market by exporters to Europe. Melons raised in the open air in the district of Montreal sell from two to five dollars each
in the New York restaurants, and the apples of the Province of Quebec find a ready market at the highest price, whether shipped to England or to the United
The raising of beef cattle is a business of considerable importance in the Eastern Townships. Mixed farming is pretty generally practised here, as well as
in many other portions of the Province, and in these townships, where improved or partly cleared farms may be acquired at very low price, often with farm buildings and stock, English farmers will find conditions prevailing more closely resembling those left behind in the Old Land than in other parts of Quebec, or even the
Market gardening flourishes near the cities, especially in the vicinity of Montreal. Dairying has become the chief feature of farming in the Province of
Quebec, and has been found to be the most remunerative, because many farmers'grow cereals only for their own use, and their fields are mostly in meadow or
pasture. Owing to the scarcity of labor in the Province, as elsewhere in America, thev hove taken up the mating of butter and cheese as being more profitable. This
industry requires but little labour and, through the co-operative syndicates of butter and cheese factories, all that the farmers have to do is to convey their milk morning and evening to the factory, where they are paid good prices and whence they bring back the skim milk and whey to fatten their calves and bacon hogs. The
saving of labor to the members of the farmer's household is thus enormous. 1. Winter Street Scene, Montreal.
2. Medical Building, McGill University.
3. Iron and Steel Foundry. mi
$robince of ©uebet
Its mineral wealth, and especially its asbestos mines and chrome iron have contributed not a little to attract public attention to this region. Quite a large
number of workmen are employed in these mines, and the latter have in the past fifteen years been developed to a very great degree.
The asbestos mines of Thetford, Black Lake and Broughton deserve particular mention. To-day Thetford village alone has a population of nearly 4,000
souls, and Black Lake 1,578.    Three or four syndicates are working the asbestos mines in the township of Thetford.
In 1900 the value of the mineral products of Quebec Province was $2,546,076. In 1905 it was $3,750,300; in 1909, $5,552,062; and in 1912,
$11,187,110. - ■
Last year cement headed the list of the most valuable mining products of the Province, with a total value of $3,098,350. Asbestos came next with an
output of 111,175 tons, valued at $3,059,084.
The asbestos mines of the Province of Quebec furnish about 85 per cent, of the world's production of this substance. The deposits of this mineral at Thetford and Black Lake, 75 miles south of Quebec, were discovered in 1878 during the construction of the Quebec Central Railway, the roadbed of which runs
over some of the richest veins. The mining is practically all open cast and the quarries are close to the railway, the ore being extracted from large excavations or
pits, some of which are 500 feet in diameter and 200 feet in depth. Even at the greatest depth yet reached no diminution in either the quantity or quality of the
mineral is observed.
The timber resources of the Province of Quebec are enormous. Portions of the timber forest are private property; other portions have been leased by
the Government to lumbermen, with the right to cut timber thereon, subject to certain restrictions; but by far the larger part of the forests is still the properly of
the Province.
In absolute possession of the Government are 80,000,000 acres of forest lands in this Province, upon which no timber whatever has been cut, though
some sections have been swept by forest fires, as in the case of many private lands and timber limits. No other country possesses such a large and valuable reserve
of forest area. Its growth is chiefly of resinous trees, spruce and jack pine being the most abundant. This region alone is able to furnish at least a hundred million
cords of pulpwood. Many of the best of these lands, which have hitherto been practically inaccessible, are now being opened up and made immensely valuable
by the construction through their midst of the Transcontinental railway. For the protection and perpetuation of its forests, which have been valued at no less than
$450,000,000, the Government has recently established an efficient forestry service, headed by forestry engineers of the highest standing, whose staff is to be
hereafter recruited from the students of a forestry school recently endowed by the Province.
Next to its lands and forests, the fish and game of the Province of Quebec are among the most valuable of its known assets. The value of the total yield
of the commercial fisheries of Quebec for the year 1911-12 was $1,868,136, or nearly two millions of dollars. The largest separate items were codfish $788,640,
lobsters $363,832, salmon $91,924, mackerel $81,374, and herring $303,029. The total number of people employed in these commercial fisheries and in canneries during the same year was 12,582, and the value of their fishing craft, fishing gear and fixtures utilized in these fisheries is estimated at $1,215,532.
The forests of Quebec are richly stocked with game. Red deer may almost always be found in the Province where moose are plentiful, and many now
exist in the neighborhood of Lake St. John. Many of the finest furs in the world come from the Province of Quebec. Those taken in Labrador and on the north
shore of the St. Lawrence surpass in beauty, fineness and lustre those of all other countries. An Indian hunter on the North Shore sold a silver fox skin some time
ago for $1,500, which was subsequently resold in Paris for $3,000. Bears, wolves, beavers, marten, muskrat, mink and different kinds of foxes are abundant.
The value of the furs taken in this Province has been estimated at over a million dollars annually. Within the last few years several fur farms have been established, where rare fur-bearing animals are successfully raised in captivity. Some of the black foxes so raised in this Province have been sold for breeding purposes
as high as $15,000 a pair.
Enormous progress in public instruction has been made by the Province of Quebec in recent years. There are no fewer than 6,856 schools of various kinds
in the Province, attended by 422,615 pupils.
In industrial development Quebec is making more rapid progress than any other Province of the Dominion. The census of 1901 gave the value of
Quebec's industries at $158,287,994, and during the last decade their growth has been quite phenomenal. Among the most important of those are lumber, pulp,
paper, butter and cheese, boots and shoes, flour, foundries, cotton, printing and publishing, leather, fur garments, clothing, tobacco, cigars, etc. The census of 1911
showed that the industrial establishments of this Province numbered 6,584, with a total output valued at $350,901,656.
I W h^imififfi
City of (Quebec
iiv'»%&^|f'-'h". AV;:..".,£#
<8»T **••»{.. a*1 .^*-fe«. ,t,
IWWUIIMUJllUlUIUHi Citj> of ©uebec
rHE CITY OF QUEBEC, the venerable and picturesque, has taken on a new lease of life. It has been aroused from its three centuries of
sleep and today it is as ambitious as any of its sister-cities in the East. Virility and ambition have supplanted poetic dreams. It is no longer
content to be merely a show place for tourists and a delving ground for historians and archivists. Up to a few years ago all the visitor to
the ancient capital heard about were the Plains of Abraham, the Golden Dog, the Montmorenci Falls, the Duke of Kent's house, the famous
shrine of St. Anne de Beaupre, the Citadel, and such like, but nothing about the business development of the City, or its present or potential
Now all that is changed,   Quebec is alive to its opportunities.   It is seeking industries as well as travelling parties, and it is selling
real estate together with picture post cards and curios.   Its population is increasing rapidly, new industries are being added, its shipping is
enlarged and its harbour facilities will soon be among the finest in Canada.
Even without this quickened public spirit on the part of its citizens, the City of Quebec would have to be reckoned with as a trade centre because of its
admirable location at the head of tide water on the mighty St. Lawrence. Long before Jacques Cartier saw and recognized its military and commercial possi-
\ bilities, the Indians had established their chief trading post north of Lake Champlain within the shadow of the Plains of Abraham, where they could command the
great water passage both east and west. Up to the present Quebec has been in the same position as Montreal in being classified as a summer port, but with the
improvement of ice breakers it is only a question of a short time before the ancient capital is an open port the year through. Another factor in favor of Quebec as a
port was the decision of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company a few years ago not to send the Empresses of Ireland and Britain up to Montreal, but to turn
them around at Quebec. That was an official declaration in favor of Quebec as a St. Lawrence port, which has weight to this day, and it was one of the chief
factors in arousing the people of Quebec to a realization of the importance of their port.
Quebec is the seventh City in Canada in regard to population. Today it numbers slightly over 90,000 people, while in 1911 its population was 78,810.
During the past few years its ratio of growth has been exceeded by not more than a dozen cities in Canada,
It has had an increase in real estate values of no mean proportions and many of the buildings in picturesque streets have been torn down and replaced with
up-to-date structures.
One of the chief drawbacks in the past was the lack °f railway connection. The City had no railways nearer than Levis across the river. Access to both
the C.P.R. and the Intercolonial was by ferry across the river to Levis. This held the development of the City back. The completion of the National Transcontinental Railway gives Quebec connection with the rich hinterland of the Province, and when the Quebec bridge is completed there will be direct access to the south
shore and the railways there will have connection with the ancient capital. Other railways besides the Grand Trunk Pacific will have running rights over the
bridge and for the first time in its long history the City of Quebec will be put on the front street in the transportation world.
The early completion of the National Transcontinental and the enlargement of the dock facilities are two of the chief factors in the rejuvenation of this old
City. Not long ago Premier Borden, in speaking at a banquet, announced that the Dominion Government had decided to expend the huge sum of $10,000,000 in
developing the port. The dry dock will be enlarged, new docks built, and terminal facilities will be established to make it an up-to-date port in every particular.
The harbour is under the control of a Harbour Commission.
Quebec ranks fairly high among Canadian cities as an industrial centre. One of its chief attractions for new industries is its excellent labour market. No
class of artisans is more satisfactory from the standpoint of the employer of large numbers of people than the French Canadians, who are steady workers and disinclined to participate in labor agitations, Quebec is one of the chief centres of the boot and shoe industries, while shipbuilding is another important industry. The
value of manufacturing products increased 158 per cent, between the years 1890 and 1910. One of the latest American industries to establish its Canadian branch
there is a large Iron Company. Of the new incorporations of manufacturing concerns in the year 1913, no fewer than 58 located in Quebec. The Ancient
Capital is one of the chief pulp and paper centres in the Province as well as of lumbering, an industry which employs over 40,000 men. It is also the outfitting
point for a huge territory which stretches through to the Hudson Bay and Ungave.
Quebec is the home of the Quebec Bank, one of the leading banking institutions of the Dominion. The bank clearings of the City last year amounted to
$165,654,745, while in 1912 the total was $158,759,585.   This indicates the volume of business transacted in the Ancient Capital. ^^23
Jflontreal, (Sue.
%   ""-   *   * V &*
1. Shipbuilding Plant.
2. Montreal Harbor.
3. Dominion Square.
4. Boot and^Shoe Factory
e-e—'^e-eee^ji'^V'-'-e! -■?? a- e*,feejfesE*j jUontreal, ©tie.
\ ]\ /[ ONT'REAL, QUEBEC, the grey old City on the banks of the St. Lawrence, of whom all Canadians are proud, is the chief financial centre
of the Dominion; it is the chief shipping port; its industrial output leads that of any other Canadian city; it leads as wholesale centre, and it
is the chief railway converging point in the Dominion. It has more than kept pace with the development of Canada, and today it is one of
the fifteen largest cities on the continent. It ranks even higher, in the general volume of business, for its bank clearings place it among the
first twelve.   It is the richest City in Canada, a centre of palatial homes and the home of many millionaires.
The population extends all over Montreal Island, from Longue Pointe to St. Anne de Bellevue. The City itself and immediately
adjoining suburbs contain a population of 650,000. A few years ago St. Henri (one of the chief manufacturing sections of the City),
Ste. Cunegende and Maisonneuve were annexed. Westmounl, the chief English-speaking suburb, which has a population of 20,000, is still
independent. Other populous suburbs still outside the City are Longue Pointe, Cartierville, Lachine, Sault au Recollet, and Montreal
West. Montrealers firmly believe that the City will attain the million people mark during the present decade. So rapid has been the increase of population that
the street railway system is totally inadequate to supply transportation facilities demanded. An autobus service has been inaugurated, and there is serious consideration being given to a plan to construct three main tubes to relieve the congestion.
Simultaneously with the growth of the City on the island there has been a rapid development on the south shore across the river. If Montreal is to be the
New York °f Canada—and it is the nearest approach to it now—the south shore will be the Brooklyn. There are three prosperous towns on the south shore,
Laprairie, St. Lambert and Longueuil. The population of these three places is about 15,000, and is increasing rapidly. On the south shore are large areas suitable
for manufacturing enterprises.
A company has purchased several hundred acres on the water-front at Longueuil and will erect a huge steel and iron works. At least 2,000 men will be
employed. There is connection with the south shore by means of the Victoria bridge by train and trolley, and by ferry in summer and across the ice in winter. There
is talk °f a tunnel under the river, and it is a question of only a short time before it is constructed.
Montreal is the leading shipping port in Canada, in spite of the fact that Nature ties up the river for five months of the year. The shipping season extends
from the end of April to the end of November, but there is a possibility that ice-breakers may be made that will keep the St. Lawrence channel open for at least two
months longer each year. Among the lines which run from Montreal are: the Allan, the White Star, Donaldson, Manchester, and several others. The port last year
achieved a record in the shipment of grain of all kinds, there being handled 54,205,172 bushels, as compared with 38,918,264 for 1912. Montreal's elevators and
grain handling facilities have been enlarged and brought up to modern requirements. This helped to swell the total number of bushels going to the port from the
West, and the cheaper all-water rates for grain from the head of the Great Lakes, and the improved service obtainable from the lake line of steamers, induced
exporters to ship their grain that way. Another factor in the export grain trade last year was that Montreal was favored with the largest number of tramp vessels
ever known, owing to the good grain rates prevailing. During 1913 the totals of the different grains received in that port were as follows: Wheat, 33,252,893
bushels; corn, 50,821; oats, 7,255,622; barley, 5,181,484; rye, 210,808; flaxseed, 8,253,544. Total, 54,205,172 bushels. Of this amount the largest percentage
went to Bristol, the amount being 10,726,371, with London second and Glasgow third.
The Harbor Commissioners are in full charge of the harbor affairs and have full control of the moneys spent on the harbor. The 35-foot channel from
Montreal to the sea has been completed at a cost of over $50,000,000. Several 14,000-ion boats are now running up to Montreal, and this season the new Allan
liners, the Calgarian and the Alsatian, 16,000 tons burden, will navigate the St. Lawrence. The harbor is equipped with grain elevators, steel freight sheds and
other equipment, and the sum of $16,000,000 will be spent in further developing the harbor facilities. A company has established a drydock at Hochelaga which is
capable of handling the largest ships that enter the port.   In a few years the port of Montreal will be one of the best equipped in the world.
Montreal is the wholesale centre of the Dominion. Her travellers cover the country from coast to coast, although many of the leading houses have established
branches in Winnipeg and Vancouver to take care of the expanding trade in the West. The wholesale grocery trade is largely in the hands of French-Canadians,
while all other lines are controlled by English-speaking citizens of the metropolis. Many big fortunes have been made in the Montreal wholesale trade. Montreal
is also the chief industrial centre of the Dominion. It is the chief centre of boot and shoe manufactories, sugar refineries, flour mills, jewellery manufacturers and
clothing makers. St. Henri and Maisonneuve are the chief industrial sections. During the past decade many skilled American mechanics have been brought over,
and French-Canadians make admirable workmen, industrious and disinclined to strike. Many American firms have established branches in Montreal during the
past few years.    Of the new companies incorporated last year no fewer than 398 established their head offices in Montreal.
Montreal is also the great financial centre of the Dominion. It contains the head offices of the following banks: Bank °f Montreal, Molsons Bank,
Merchants Bank, Royal Bank °f Canada, Banque Nationale, Banque Provinciale du Canada, and Banque d'Hochelaga. Bank clearings are an eloquent indication of the volume of business transacted, and in this particular Montreal triumphantly stands the test as the leading Canadian city. The bank clearings for the
year 1913 totalled the huge sum of $2,880,029,101, as compared with $1,555,737,270 in 1912. In 1913 Montreal led Toronto, its nearest Canadian competitor,
by over $700,000,000 in clearings. I
g>bet:broofee, ©ue.
Machine Shop.
Scale Factory.
Map of Quebec Province.
Cotton Goods Factory.
A Large Factory. g>b*trbroofee, (Sue.
C^l HERBROOKE, QUEBEC, is fast becoming one of the greatest industrial centres in the Dominion.   None of the smaller cities in Canada has
^3        made more rapid progress during the past decade.   Its growth during the past ten years has been within a fraction of fifty per cent.
Among the reasons for this are the rapid development of the whole Dominion in the period mentioned, its central position in the
Province of Quebec, its cheap power and industrial sites, and the fact that it is the distributing centre of the far-famed Eastern Townships,
the finest farming section in the Province.
The "Eastern Townships" is a name which for years has been applied to that part of the Province of Quebec lying south of the
River St. Lawrence and having for its southern boundary the United States. It comprises the counties of Brome, Compton, Drummond and Athabasca, Megantic,
Missisquoi, Richmond and Wolfe, Shefford, Sherbrooke and Stanstead, and covers an area of about 4,500,000 acres.
The present population of Sherbrooke is slightly in excess of 20,000, exclusive of the suburban university village of Lennoxville of 1,500 residents. The
City is 100 miles east of Montreal, 150 miles south of Quebec City, and only 35 miles from the American border. It is 273 miles from Boston, and 382 miles from
New York.
The City is well supplied with transportation facilities. The Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk main lines pass through Sherbrooke. The Quebec Central
Railway has its head office there, and the Boston Maine's northern terminus is in Sherbrooke. Thirty-three passenger trains enter the City every day, and there is
excellent connection with all the leading cities in Eastern Canada and the New England States. The street railway system—which was taken over recently by
Montreal capitalists—has been extended and improved during the past two years, over a million dollars having been expended in extensions and power development.
One of the greatest drawing cards, as far as industrial enterprises are concerned, is the cheap water-power, municipally owned. Power in almost unlimited
quantities is available for industries and at very low rates. The Sherbrooke Railway and Power Company and the City of Sherbrooke both have surplus power at
minimum rates for industrial purposes. Power is furnished from the Magog River, which is the outlet of Lake Memphremagog, and runs from Magog to
Sherbrooke, where it joins the St. Francis River after falling some 120 feet within the City limits. The total horse-power of the St. Francis River available for utilization is estimated at 75,000.
Sherbrooke's industries include pig iron, scales, boilers, woollen mills, jewellery, tobacco, clothing, medicine manufacturers, etc. The annual output is very
large and is shipped to all parts of Canada. Several of Sherbrooke's industries have grown up with the City from small beginnings. There are over fifty factories
and several thousand men are employed. The City has shared prominently in the movement to establish branch factories of big American industrial enterprises on
the Canadian side of the border in order to compete for Canadian trade. The cheap prices for power and for sites and the excellent labor conditions make it a
no mean rival of Montreal in securing such enterprises.
Sherbrooke has available raw materials in abundance: timber of all kinds, agricultural products, brick, sand and other building materials, iron and copper
deposits, limestone, granite, marble, etc.   Eighty per cent, of the world's supply of asbestos is mined within 75 miles of Sherbrooke.
Taxation is reasonable.    The City tax on all real estate for municipal purposes is 12 mills, and for school purposes 5 mills, with t
till, making a total of 17Vi mills.   The cost of living is low owing to the City being surrounded by a large producing population.
special sewer tax of |/2
The City is well provided with banks. Among them are the Bank of Montreal, Quebec Bank, La Banque Nationale, Merchants, La Banque d'Hochelaga
and the Bank of Commerce. For many years the City was the head office of the Eastern Townships Bank, which was merged with the Canadian Bank of Commerce a few years ago. The City has two daily newspapers, one published in French and one in English, and one of the most aggressive Boards of Trade in the
mm SfflMWfflMi
$robince of JSoba Scotia
1. Main Street in Kentville.
2. Bear River.
3. Scene in Orchard County.
4. Picking Cranberries.
, .cx^  ^*L***e ?MHB"
5. Blast Furnace, Sydney.
6. Drying Fish.
7. Lumber Industry. ^robince of iSoba Scotia
OVA SCOTIA, which is the nearest Canadian Province to Great Britain, is an agricultural as well as a manufacturing Province, and is one
of the most progressive in the Dominion. Both general and dairy farming are very successfully carried on owing to the temperate climate,
the splendid crops of hay, roots and green feeds of all kinds, well-watered pastures and the comparative freedom from troublesome flies.
The demand for dairy products is far greater than the supply, especially in the towns, which, in consequence of industrial development, are
rapidly increasing in population.
CLIMATE:    Situated in the temperate zone, from 3 to 6 degrees nearer the Equator than  the most southerly point in Great
Britain, and almost entirely surrounded by the sea, Nova Scotia possesses a temperate, humid climate, well suited to the highest types of
agriculture.    The warm waters of the Gulf Stream approach very nearly to the south-western end of the Province, and the average temperature in summer is 62 degrees F., and in winter 29 degrees F.   As the rainfall (taking the whole Province into consideration) averages about 42 inches per annum, ample moisture for the growth of good crops and for the maintenance of excellent pastures is provided.
Nova Scotia has 328 days out of 365 in which the thermometer goes above 32 degrees. This is 28 days more than for any other part of Canada (the Pacific
Slope excepted). Nova Scotia has 276 days in which the thermometer rises above 40 degrees. This is more by 26 days than any part of Canada save the Pacific
Farmers in Nova Scotia have an advantage over those in many parts of Canada owing to the splendid local markets in the big industrial centres of Halifax,
Amherst, Sydney, New Glasgow, etc., the excellent railway, telephonic and water communication (no part of Nova Scotia is more than 30 miles from the sea), and
her near proximity to Great Britain and the continental markets, with whom she does a large trade.
The Provincial Government, too, has done a great deal to encourage agriculture in the Province, providing a farm inspector free of cost, who inspects and
gives disinterested reports respecting farms for sale in the Province, and instituting a farm settlement plan under the guidance of the Government by which approved
farmers may obtain a loan, if necessary, of eighty per cent, of the appraised value of the property selected. The rate of interest charged is six per cent., and repayment can be made to suit borrower as far as possible. Then at Truro is the Government Agricultural College and Farm, which is very excellent in every way and
well worthy of a visit. Tuition is provided free to Canadians, and a small charge of ten dollars per term is made to pupils from other countries. The total Government aid to Agriculture in 1912 was about $110,000.
FRUIT-GROWING: Fruit-growing is a very important factor in the industries of Nova Scotia, and admits of large profits, well-managed orchards
returning a net profit of twenty per cent, and upwards. Most of the fruit is taken by the English markets—though business is now being opened up with several
other countries. The apple product in 1911-12 aggregated 2,000,000 barrels. Twenty-five years ago the total yield amounted to only 50,000 barrels, and still not
ten per cent, of the land suitable for apple culture has yet been cultivated.
Small fruits, too, such as raspberries, plums, cherries, currants, gooseberries and strawberries are grown and pay very well. A farmer in Piciou County
picked 4,000 boxes of strawberries last year from half-an-acre, and made a profit of $500; whilst recently at Parrsboro' a strawberry, measuring six and a half
inches in circumference and weighing one and one-eighth ounces, was picked, and there were nine others on the same plant nearly as large.
Poultry and bee keeping are often combined with fruit-growing. There are some very fine nurseries in Nova Scotia, and few prettier sights can be seen than
the interior of the new mammoth greenhouses at the Berwick Nurseries, filled with row upon row of flourishing green things: tomatoes, beans, cucumbers, lettuce, etc.
SHEEP RAISING: Few parts of America offer better inducements to anyone interested in sheep than Nova Scotia, and no region in Canada is more
adapted to sheep-raising than is this Province. Nova Scotia has more than a million acres of rolling, well-watered and well-shaded pasture, which is more suitable
for sheep than for any other class of stock- A large percentage of it is clothed with short, nutritious grass and white clover, on which sheep of the highest type can
be raised most satisfactorily. The ground adjacent to these rolling uplands is usually excellent for the production of roots, rape, and mixed hay for fall and winter
feeding. Owing to the cool, moist climate sheep are generally healthy and free from contagious disease. In contrast with most other portions of the Dominion, the
Nova Scotia hills remain green throughout the entire pasture season.    This is the happy result of heavy dews and frequent showers.
The rolling hills of Antigonish, Guysboro', Cape Breton and Richmond Counties are covered with sweet grasses eminently adapted for grazing. Lamb
buyers state thatihe lamb of best quality and flavour in Eastern Canada is produced in certain sections of these regions. In some portions of the Annapolis Valley
almost every farm reaches to and extends up the mountain on either side, and the hill portion of these lands is not utilized as it might be in carrying many sheep. In
the neighborhood of Yarmouth, where the atmosphere is humid and grazing conditions above the average, sheep-raising could be developed with much profit. On
some of the numerous small islands along the south shore sheep are kept in a semi-wild state, and feed principally on fresh kelp and other kinds of seaweed. With
some judgment and care a profitable industry could be developed in these districts with very little expense.
NATURAL RESOURCES: The natural resources of Nova Scotia are of infinite importance and promise to make it one of the most prominent countries
in the world. No country of its size has been endowed with a greater variety and extent of underground resources. The coal area embraces 4,000 square miles,
and the total available deposits are estimated at forty billion tons.   The gold area consists of 3,000 square miles, principally on the southern shores.    The Hon. C. IJrobince of Jtoba Scotia
...:     .    .
Moose Hunting
Horse Racing.
■I      . iProbince of Jtoba Scotia
Vey Homan, formerly Stale Geologist of Maine, and a prominent mining financier, declared recently that his geological knowledge proved to him that the goldfields
of Nova Scotia, if properly developed, would make her the greatest gold-bearing country in the world. Several rich deposits of iron await development. Copper,
silver ores and antimony are found, whilst the gypsum deposits are among the largest in the world.
Nova Scotia possesses 12,000 square miles of lumber tracts, and the annual cut is about 400,000,000 square feet, of which 300,000,000 feet are exported.
The fisheries of Nova Scotia are among the largest in Canada, nearly $6,000,000 being invested in this industry. The total marketed value of fish caught
in 19/2 was $9,367,500.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENT: "Nova Scotia possesses more compressed opportunities for investment than any other portion of Canada.
I have been astonished at the variety and profusion of natural resources within so small a country.   Millions are going in other directions that would yield a quicker
and larger return if invested in Nova Scotia."   Such is the opinion of the financial editor of a great metropolitan journal who lately visited this Province in order to
ascertain its industrial possibilities.
If British capitalists knew the chances for investment that exist in Nova Scotia they would inquire diligently into the conditions that obtain there. It is of
supreme importance in determining cost of transportation that factories can be erected at tide-water and so be in close touch with all foreign markets. Foundations
upon which profitable industries can be established have already been broadly laid; the conditions of life are similar to those in Britain—an important consideration
in assembling large bodies of operatives,—and the incoming capitalists will meet the cordial co-operation of the people.
The clay and gypsum deposits are numerous and capable of great development. The clay beds could be the basis of a number of important industries. It
is claimed that Halifax would be a good location for a large tannery, as there is but one tannery in the Province—at Pictou. The hides could be brought from South
America by water carriage as well as from the other Canadian Provinces.
The home market in Nova Scotia is now assuming important dimensions, and the inpouring of settlers to Western Canada is broadening the scope of the
Eastern markets. The slight disadvantage that Nova Scotia suffers as to freight rates to the West in comparison with the Upper Provinces is overbalanced by its
climate, the quality of its workmanship, and the more healthful conditions under which the workmen labour. More and better work can be done in a cooler climate.
And, after all, the difference in freight rates to the West from the Upper and Lower Provinces is only 8 cents per hundredweight. The very best evidence of
what can be achieved in other industries can be gathered from the fact that industries in several parts of the Province are shipping their manufactured products,
with profit, to the farthermost parts of Canada, and carry on, in some cases, a large export trade with foreign countries. Moreover, opportunities for lucrative trade
lie in other directions also. The long coast of Nova Scotia, indented by many fine harbours, facilitates the assembling of raw material more cheaply than elsewhere,
and affords producers ready access to the markets of the world.
British manufacturers should erect branch factories here and share in the commercial progress of Nova Scotia. Sons of the heads of successful concerns
in Great Britain, who have been highly trained in their particular lines, would find here abundant scope for their best energies. They would have the advantage of
the incidental protection by our tariffs. In their native country they are in keen competition with numbers of others in the same line; here they would have a comparatively free field.
Among articles largely imported into Nova Scotia, but not yet manufactured therein, might be mentioned agricultural implements, silk fabrics, hardware,
carpets, whitewear, such as shirts, collars, and cuffs; ribbons, iron and steel tubing, many varieties of machinery, fishing nets and gear, cutlery, brass valves, and
general brass goods and chains. There are openings also for more boot and shoe factories, flour and feed mills, tanneries, furniture, wood-working and clothing factories, fertilizer works, soap and fish glue factories, fruit canneries, evaporating plants, cider and vinegar works, manufactories for fencing, bedsteads, nails, screws
and bolts. There are no windlasses, pumps or capstans made here, all such goods being imported from the United States. Among the most prominent industrial
opportunities at the present time are the establishment of rolling mills and a steel shipbuilding yard, for which the Province and various localities have offered large
bonuses. The Legislature has exempted from taxation all ships or shares in ships of iron and steel built and registered in the Province, and the machinery used in
building them.
SPORT: Sport is in nowise neglected in Nova Scotia. Moose and bear hunting, all kinds of fishing, canoeing, sleighing, skating and all other forms of
sport are indulged in. The climate is delightful and salubrious. Statistics show that the average length of human life is greater than in most countries in the temperate zone. Ocean air is cleaner and purer than land air, and is generally in more active motion. This may account for the healthy and invigorating qualities of
the Nova Scotian climate.    There are no extremes of heat and cold, as in other parts of Canada.
There could be no more ideal place to spend a holiday than in Nova Scotia, where natural beauty abounds. Indeed, the charming scenery of Nova Scotia
that makes the Province one of the principal summer resorts of America has often been described in song and story, but no word-painting adequately portrays the
exquisite beauty spots that are the delight of every Nature lover.
The entire country is studded with lovely lakes interwoven among winding rivers that teem with salmon and trout. Rossignol in the west and Ainslie in
the east are queens among lakes.    The numberless bays and harbours that fringe the shores possess some of the finest water-scapes in America. Halifax, iS. &
 1 a&tts
ALIFAX  the Capital of the Province of Nova Scotia, is the oldest British city in Canada, having been founded in 1749, although not incorporated until nearly a century later—in 1842.   It is the wealthiest (per capita) City in the Dominion, the   clearing   house  for  Eastern
at this time an estimated population of 53,850.
nd ha:
Four great railways furnish ample land transportation to Halifax—the Intercolonial, owned by the Government; the Dominion
Atlantic, owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway; the Halifax and South Western, owned by the Canadian Northern; and the Halifax
and hastern, owned by the Government.
Asa great seaport of the northwestern shores of the Atlantic Ocean Halifax has unsurpassed facilities for shipping, passenger and
Wm.      p     . i freLl?ht. semce conneclmg it with all the ports of the globe, being the principal commercial asset it possesses.   It is the main port of entry of the
Maritime Provinces, the shipping tonnage for 1912 amounting to 3,111,535 tons.
That the Canadian Government fully appreciates the value of its principal Atlantic seaport is evidenced by the vast amount of money that has been
appropriated for new docks and other harbour improvements, which are now being constructed. Thirty millions of dollars will be expended in carrying out the
work Planned in that direction, and when it is all completed Halifax will have the best terminal facilities to be found in any harbour on the western coast of the
These terminals will be approached by a double tracked railroad, and ample tracks will be provided for the economical handling of the business for the
wharves and Union station; also proper facilities for the housing of engines and the care of passenger cars.
To prevent any possible damage by storms the present breakwaters will be extended to a sufficient distance to secure quiet water from the lighthouse at the
entrance of the harbour to the landing places.
From these official statements it becomes clear that the Dominion Government has great faith in the future of Halifax, which is largely shared by the
citizens of that bustling City by the Sea.
Municipal affairs in Halifax are well conducted and the City is prosperous in every way. Figures for 1913 are as yet not available, but some conclusions
WMMMWi*M th°S(; m I' " m W/BS&fiB&l? indm\ries had a WPbMU output valued at $21,730,000; the clearing house returns amounted to
$/UU,400,6/2; the assessed value of property was $31,604,750; and there were building permits issued totalling $564,720.
i      Tcesali]}had fiVe and a half mile$ °f paVed Sireets in /9/2' and I23 miles of side^alks, 21 miles of which were paved.    Over 21,047 miles of street car
trackage 5,688,414 passengers were carried.
Fifteen banks and their branches are doing business in Halifax. There are 32 Churches, comprising 11 denominations; five hospitals and 31 schools,
among the latter being the Dalhousie University, medical, technical, theological and business colleges, and two High School Academies.
The Government Buildings in Halifax consist of a Dominion Building (Post Office), Customs House, City Hall, Court House, Lieutenant-Governor's
residence, and a number of other residential buildings for the use of Government employees.
Halifax has an abundant water supply brought by gravity from a lake five miles distant from the City. Electric light and power, gas, sewer, and telephone
systems are all that can be desired.
The Police and Fire departments are well organized and equipped, and the whole municipal administration ,
principles, with due regard to the best interests of the community.
conducted   conservatively   on   modern
The greater part of all the natural products of the Province of Nova Scotia is marketed through Halifax, and the outputs of the Mines, the Farms, and the
torests bring a considerable volume of business to that City.
In 1912 the farms of Nova Scotia produced crops valued at $29,000,000, minerals and mineral products amounting to
that year yielded $6,500,000.
\8I5,000, and the timber of
Social life in Halifax is very pleasant, and a number of fine parks offer the lover of outdoor pleasures plenty of opportunities for enjoyment. The Public
Gardens, the largest of the City's parks, cover 17 acres of land and are of rare beauty, and the occasional free public concerts provided by the City are largely
attended both by the citizens and by the transient visitors. Theatres, concert halls and social clubs provide amusement for all who care to patronize them, and
the various fraternal societies are well represented, while the adjacent waters lend themselves opportunely to all kinds of aquatic sports.
Taking all things into consideration, Halifax is not only a fine place for business or investment, but it is also a most desirable residential city and one no
tourist visiting Canada can afford to omit from his itinerary.  ^pbnep, J?. ££>.
YDNEY, NOVA SCOTIA, is a seaport and bunker station on Cape Breton Island, on the Canadian Atlantic Coast, with regular steamers
to Halifax, Montreal, Charlottetown and St. John's, Newfoundland. The peculiar coastline of America brings Sydney nearer to ports in
South America (south of Cape Roque or Pernambuco) than any other point on the North American Atlantic seaboard. At the same
time Sydney is the nearest port in Canada to Europe and Africa.
Sydney is the eastern terminus of the Intercolonial Railway and northern terminus of the Sydney & Louisburg Railway,
tramlines and ferries connect the City with surrounding towns.
In 1899 Sydney was a town of 3,000 people, while today the population exceeds 22,000.   Situated as it is on one of the five best
harbours in the world, in the centre of Canada's greatest coalfield, Sydney is an important shipping port and bunker station.    The area of
the harbour is 25 square miles, with 15 square miles of good anchorage; harbour frontage of the City, 4Ya miles.    The area of the City is six square miles, and
the total length of streets 75 miles.   Sydney's sewer and water systems have cost to date about $700,000.
The Public Schools are large and modern. Two of these were constructed in 1912 at a cost of $75,000. The Academy, built in 1910, cost $60,000.
Twenty-five Churches in the City are sustained by the following denominations: Anglican, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist and Hebrew.
Good fire and police protection are provided. Three tramlines operate throughout the City. Electric-light and power are provided locally and in surrounding towns. Six branch banks are located in Sydney, and fourteen altogether in the County of Cape Breton. In short, the City is equipped with all modern improvements and has a naturally advantageous situation.
The Dominion Iron & Steel Company, Limited, operate in Sydney the largest individual steel plant in Canada, valued at $35,000,000, which gives employment to four thousand men. The principal products are pig iron, steel blooms, rails, rods, wire, nails, coke and by-products. The Dominion Coal Company, Limited,
have a huge coal washer and three piers adjoining the steel plant. Here the product of twenty collieries is shipped to the various markets, and hundreds of
steamers, even large warships, bunker, moored to the pier, without the least risk.
The other Sydney industries are as follows: Tar and chemical works, fertilizer plant, cement and pressed-brick plant, foundries, wood-working factories and
corn mill. Excellent openings also exist here for new industries in the iron and steel trade, refined chemical works, boot and shoe factory, high-grade glassworks, etc.,
and every inducement to new industries is offered by the City.
Eighteen wholesale grocery, meat and produce houses in Sydney have a combined yearly turnover exceeding $6,000,000. One hundred thousand people
in the County of Cape Breton supply the immediate market for their goods, and they are within easy reach of Newfoundland, with its ever-increasing demand for
As a Canadian City, Sydney stands fourth in regard to the amount of capital invested, and seventh as to total wages paid in connection with its industries.
There are 5,000 industrial employees in the City, receiving $4,100,000 annually in wages.    The capital invested in Sydney industries is approximately $40,000,000.
Around the City are 25 collieries, with other industries in Cape Breton County, employing 15,000 more men, who receive about $14,000,000 wages yearly.
Eighty-five per cent, of Cape Breton County's population of 100,000 dwell within a fifteen-mile radius of Sydney. As there are billions of tons of coal still
untouched in this district, the future for the mining and manufacturing industries in and near Sydney is exceedingly bright.
The following statistics speak for themselves: Cape Breton County produced more than five-sixths of Nova Scotia's 1913 coal output of 7,000,000 tons.
Value of Sydney's manufactured products in 1913, $15,000,000. Civic assessment, 1913, $8,000,000. Amount loaned on real estate, same year, $700,000. Value
of building lots on principal street in 1899, $1,500; present value same lots, $18,000. Yearly revenue of the Sydney Post Office approximately $30,000. Customs
receipts for 1913, $280,000.
Cape Breton Island is rich in minerals, the chief of which are Bituminous Coal, Iron, Gypsum, Limestone, Dolomite, Silica, Fireclay, and Barytes. While
considerable development work has been done on the various minerals, the field is practically unlimited.
It is said by experts that nowhere in Canada can be found a better market for farm products than exists in the mining and industrial centres of Cape Breton
County. There is no better soil for general crops, cattle and sheep-raising, etc., and while there are numbers of large, up-to-date farms, the demand for produce is
far greater than the supply, and immense quantities are brought in from other places. Smberst, M. &
 T = ^7ST
 ^ 9
Victoria Street.
Boot and Shoe Factory.
Church and Victoria Streets.
One of the Foundries.
5. Spring  Street Academy.
6. Carbuilding Shops.
7. Piano Factory.
8. Factory District. Smberst, Jg. m
/fl MHERST is the principal City of Cumberland County, in the Province of Nova Scotia, and is situated on the main line of the Intercolonial
Railway, halfway between Halifax, N. S„ and St. John, N. B. It is essentially a manufacturing town, and as such has justly gained the
name of "Busy Amherst," by which it is generally designated.
The present population of the City is 12,000.   It has well-paved streets, excellent Water and sewerage systems, a modern fire-alarm
system, and an electric-power plant supplying power from the coalpit's mouth.    The City has many Churches, almost every denomination
being represented; theatres, good schools, and it is only a few miles from the Mount Allison University and Ladies' College, with about
800 students.
There are parks, fine mercantile establishments and public buildings, while near by is the Dominion Government Experimental Farm, the once famous Ship
Railway Dock, and Old Fort Beausejour, rich in historic memories.   A thoroughly modern hospital, recently built and equipped, is another valuable asset the City
Solid and substantial business blocks and many fine residences line the streets and give evidence of prosperity, and house rents for workmen are very
reasonable. The tax rate in Amherst is 19 mills on the dollar. The Citizens' Library, subsidized by the Town Council, is another of Amherst's popular institutions,
and its large patronage by the working classes speaks Well for the intelligence prevailing among the latter.
But attractive as "Busy Amherst" is from a civic and residential point of view, its principal claim for recognition is based on its enormous productiveness.
As a city of factories, as an industrial beehive, or as a producer of varied articles of commerce, it has no equal in any city of its size. Amherst exports seven millions'
worth of manufactured goods annually, the estimate for 1914 being nine millions, and the lumber cut operated from there amounts to 75,000,000 feet.
Some of the many products of Amherst's factories are: Railway passenger and special cars, freight cars, vans, snow ploughs, carriages, sleighs, trucks,
harness, harness oil, boots and shoes, shoe polish, writing inks, hammocks, carriage robes, auto lap robes, motor scarfs, ladies' worsted shawls, linen and mohair
dress goods, towels and towelling, underwear, sweaters, tweeds, trunks, bags and suit cases, caskets and undertakers' fittings, furnaces, ranges, enamelware and
The district surrounding Amherst is rich in natural resources. Immense quantities of lumber from the near-by mills supply, not only the City for
building purposes, but, as has been stated, furnish a considerable item in its exports. Within a radius of from six to twenty miles from the town are situated some
very rich coalfields, whose output is annually not far from a million tons. Excellent transportation facilities by rail and water connect the collieries with the
markets for their products. Gypsum works are located within three miles of Amherst, which give steady employment to 100 men. This company has its own
railway and wharves, and shipment of plaster is made direct to New York by steamer. Red sandstone is also plentiful in the vicinity, and large quantities of the
stone are exported annually.
Farming, truck gardening, dairying, chicken-raising, fruit-growing, live stock, berries, etc., etc., are agricultural resources which are advantageously
exploited in Cumberland County and which find a ready market right at home. Small farmers are doing well, and there is room for more; good locations can still
be purchased at exceedingly reasonable prices. The Maritime Winter Fair, or Fat Stock and Poultry Show, which is held every year, and the annual Horse
Show are very popular and attract exhibitors and visitors in great numbers. As an incentive to farmers and as a means of their education they both are of immense
value.    The Dominion Government Experimental Farm, situated six miles from Amherst, is also a potent factor in the education of the farmers in modern methods.
By far the best asset Amherst has, however, is the prevailing optimistic spirit among its citizens.    They are one and all overflowing with confidence in the
future of their City and of the brightness of their prospects.    "Twenty thousand inhabitants for 'Busy Amherst' by 1920" is their cry, and it looks very much as if
. they will make good. —
$roumce of J^eto Prunsforick
2. Small Fruit and Vegetables.
3. Strawberry Field, Sackville.
4. Head of Moose (67-inch spread), ,rwimMMimii
$rot)ince ot Jlefcu Prunfitnitfe
T£PF BRUNSWICK, the largest of the three Maritime Provinces of Canada, lies mainly between the 45th and 48th degrees of north latitude,
and the 64th and 68th degrees of west longitude. Its boundaries are: On the south the Bay of Fundy, on the east the Strait of
Northumberland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the north the Bay of Chaleur and the Province of Quebec, and on the west the Stale
of Maine. The greatest length of the province from north to south is 230 miles, and its greatest breadth 190 miles. It has an area of
27,985 square miles and about 600 miles of sea-coast. The country is rolling, of no great elevations, with the more hilly sections formed by
an extension of the Appalachian Mountains in the northern and north-western parts of the province. Few countries are so well watered as
New Brunswick. Lakes and small streams are numerous all over the country. The St. John River, which flows into the Bay of Fundy,
is 450 miles long. The Miramichi and Restigouche Rivers, both of which are over 200 miles long, drain into the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
The Petitcodiac and St. Croix are important rivers situated respectively in the eastern and western ends of the province and flowing into
the Bay of Fundy.
A careful study of the geographical situation of New Brunswick clearly shows its dominating and masterful position on the Atlantic Seaboard of Canada,
the Province being but five days' journey from the United Kingdom. St. John, the largest city, with a population of 65,000, is the geographical centre of the
Maritime Provinces and one of the great winter ports of Canada. Its export trade has increased from $3,744,907 in the winter of 1895-1896 to $40,000,000 in
the winter of 1912-1913. Fredencton, the capital of the province (population 10,000) is beautifully situated on the St. John River, 80 miles from its mouth.
It is the centre of a rich farming country, has five lines of railway running into il, with the probability of being placed in the near future on the main lines of the
Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railways. It also has splendid river transportation to St. John seven months in the year. Moncton, Woodstock,
Sussex, St. Stephen, Chatham, Newcastle, Sackyille and Campbellton are some of the other larger and more important towns.
The Province of New Brunswick has already entered on an era of great progress. Millions and millions of dollars are being spent in the construction of
great harbour works and provision of terminal facilities at the port of St. John; in the building of the St. John Valley Railway, from St. John to Grand Falls
(nearly completed), and the Gibson and Minto Railway, Fredericton to Minto (now completed), and many miles of new lines soon to be constructed; in the
erection of manufacturing plants and the development of the mineral wealth and water-powers of the Province. The great coalfields at Grand Lake, estimated as
containing 150,000,000 tons, are now being extensively developed, as are also the oil and natural gas resources near Moncton, Albert County, where 60,000,000
cubic feet of gas is available daily. It is used almost exclusively in Moncton for heating, lighting and manufacturing purposes, and may be extended to Sussex and
nearby towns. Extensive iron deposits near Bathurst, Gloucester County, are being worked, and there are as yet many unexploited stores of Coal, Bituminous
Shale, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Limestone, Gypsum, Building Stone, Peat and Clay.
The Province has ample and productive forest areas and extensive fisheries, all under careful Government protection. The Province contains 17,393,000
acres, of which 7,750,000 are Crown land, 5,000,000 acres are settlement land, and 4,643,000 acres are private limber land. According to the Report of the
Agricultural Commission, made in 1908, there were at that time 32,480 farms, and 1,474,076 acres of cleared land.
The yearly record for continuous sunshine is excelled by only one other Province in the Dominion. The summer climate, while affording abundance of
sunshine and heat for the proper growth and maturity of all the ordinary crops common to the temperate zone, and also of the apple and other fruits, is remarkably
free from the prolonged dusty, dry spells and hot, murky nights too often experienced farther west, and the rainfall is ample for full crop growth. The winters are
bracing and fairly steady, and the springs are short and not very early, the operations on the land not beginning until the middle of April.
In 1912 the Provincial Government enacted legislation embodying its policy of creating "Ready-made Farms" for settlement and acquisition by the young
people of this Province and by the best class of immigrants. Many of these farms are now awaiting settlers. Already nearly 200 of these farms have been
purchased by the Government and resold to settlers. They vary in size from seventy-five to two hundred acres, with from twenty to one hundred acres cleared and
ready for the plough. These farms have adequate buildings, in some cases requiring repairs, but in most cases ready for occupancy, and the buildings alone worth
more than the entire cost of property. The purchaser is only required to pay 25 per cent, of the purchase price, or 35 per cent, if it exceeds $1,000 (which is not
very often the case), the balance to be paid in annual payments, the final payment to be made at a date not later than ten years from the agreement to purchase,
such annual payments to be with interest at 5 per cent, on the unpaid balance.
A soil and climate which produce all kinds of fodder crops in abundance and of high quality provide cheap, raw material for the stock-raiser and dairyman.
Good crops of hay, grain and roots are cheaply produced, and the abundance of rich, well-watered grass lands and natural springs of pure cold water are especially
favourable for dairying. The home market now consumes many times the quantity of beef, dairy products, pork and pork products, mutton, poultry and eggs now
produced in the Province, and with the new era of industrial development and growing export trade increasing this already unfilled market, the opportunities for
mixed farming in New Brunswick are excellent. $roirince of Jleto, Pmngftrick
K^'v A"
LL.   ...	
^e e:^^£Sfe.^^^^—    fflfeAiSfc
L tJ^BsF*
ft % V   -«>  "-*
9.   Hay Lands, Sheffield.
10.    Farm Home, John Rive
r Valley.
11.    Oat Field at Chatham. <Protunce of J^teto Pruntftoricfc
The foremost sheep-raising experts of Canada and the Old Country, after investigating the conditions, have declared that the climate of New Brunswick
is remarkably suitable for the growth of mutton of the best flavour and the production of the highest grade of wool. Several hundred thousand acres of land,
splendidly adapted to the raising of sheep and in close proximity to railway and water transportation, may be purchased for from five to ten dollars per acre, and
offer a splendid opportunity for individual and co-operative investment in an enterprise which will pay 15 per cent, profits.
Potato-growing is a leading branch of farming. The entire acreage of potatoes under cultivation in 1912 was 43,977, and the yield 8,034,604 bushels,
or 182.70 bushels per acre. In 1909 the total acreage was 47,855, and the yield was almost 9,000,000 bushels, or 188 bushels per acre. The comparatively cool,
moist climate keeps the potatoes growing longer, and they are green and vigorous until the frost comes, hence their firmness, full starch content, good keeping quality
and pleasant flavor. Their superior quality both for edible and seed purposes has resulted in a steady increase in the trade with Ontario and Quebec, and large
quantities are now being shipped annually to those Provinces and to the West Indies and Cuba. In addition to a most favourable climate and soil, an additional
advantage lies in the fact that the St. John River and its contributing waters drain some 2.000 square miles in which there is much excellent potato land, and from
this territory potatoes can be delivered in St. John by scows for five cents per barrel, and by the regular steamers for ten cents per barrel, which prices are far cheaper
than the railroad rates which many potato sections in other Provinces have to pay in order to get their potatoes to distributing points.
It is perhaps in fruit-growing that the Province has come more prominently before the public of late years. New Brunswick apples combine remarkably
high colour with perfection of flavour, and can be placed on the European market almost ere the Pacific Coast product can reach the Atlantic seaports. Suitable
lands for fruit-growing may be procured for $20 to $50 per acre, in a certain and favourable climate, and with excellent transportation facilities. No fabulous
prices—no killing frost—and no need of irrigation. New Brunswick orchards are 800 to 3,000 miles closer to the European markets than the large producing
sections to the West, so that not only is the cost of transportation greatly decreased, but the apples are placed in the consumers' hands in better condition. Such
excellent varieties of apples as the Mcintosh Red, Fameuse, King of Tompkins, Golden Russet, Bishop Pippin and Wealthy are grown to perfection, while strawberries, raspberries and currants grow exceedingly well. New Brunswick fruit lands possess the unique and distinct advantage of being so situated thai the
transportation of their produce to the consumer is almost entirely independent of railways, although excellent railway transportation facilities are available in the
best fruit sections. In the St. John River, St. Croix River and Petitcodiac River valleryX water transportation from orchard to consumer is available, thereby
providing the fruit-growers, not only with much cheaper transportation, but also placing their produce on the markets in much better condition.
The Province has a Department of Agriculture, presided over by a member of the Cabinet, and an increasing amount of attention is annually given to
the encouragement of the various branches of agricultural industry. A large and increasing staff of experts are kept busy going through the Province giving lectures,
instruction and demonstrations in fruit-growing, dairying, beekeeping, poultry-raising and other subjects, and the services and knowledge of these men may be obtained
by new settlers free of charge. Nearly thirty experimental and demonstration orchards are conducted by the Department, and courses in the science and practice
of butter and cheese making are given in a dairy school maintained at Sussex for this purpose. A large agricultural school has been established at Woodstock, and
two others will shortly be built at other points in the Province. Grants are given annually to the agricultural societies, of which there are now about 115, for the
purpose of enabling them to hold local exhibitions, purchase seed supplies and fertilizers, and to import impioved slock.
To men of moderate capital with a preference for fruit-growing or either of its kindred businesses, market gardening and poultry-raising, New Brunswick
offers special advantages. Such men feel that the price of land in the sections of Canada where fruit-growing is of older establishment is altogether prohibitive, and
they wish to locate more economically. These men—the tenant farmer who finds himself ■ unable to make cny headway owing to changed conditions in the United
Kingdom, and the farm labourer who works year in and year out at low wages—would find splendid opportunities for making homes for themselves in New
Brunswick, where improved farms with houses and barns may be bought for such low prices and on such easy terms.
New Brunswick is noted as one of the finest biq-game countries of the continent. Moose, deer and caribou are plentiful. The lakes, rivers and streams
abound in fish, and no better salmon fishing is to be found in the world. Capable guides are available for visiting sportsmen. Full information re hunting and
fishing may be obtained from the Department of Lands and Mines, Fredericton, N. B.
Longing eyes are turned to the Province of New Brunswick, with its moderate and pleasing climate, its abundance of cheap, fertile agricultural lands, its
unexploited mineral wealth, its many railways, streams, beautiful valleys and upland slopes, and its dominating and masterful position on the Atlantic Seaboard of
Canada. Already people are coming back from the West to make their homes in New Brunswick, and capital is being applied to its agricultural and industrial
development. We are on the eve of an era of prosperity as great as that which Western Canada has enjoyed. In the fact that New Brunswick is the last
undeveloped Province on the Atlantic Ocean lies a world of opportunity. In half-a-dozen different branches of agriculture a healthy, independent and profitable
livelihood may be found there.
For further information write to A. Bowder, New Brunswick Agent, 37 Southampton Street, Strand, London, W.C., England; or to the Department of
Agriculture, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.  Mi
Jf rebericton, M. p.
FREDERICTON, the Capital of New Brunswick, stands on the west bank of the St. John River, eighty-four miles from its mouth.   It is a
busy, beautiful and enterprising city, with magnificent shade trees lining its well-paved streets.
Fredericton can be easily reached from any portion of the continent, and is admirably situated as the distributing centre of New
Brunswick- Fifteen trains leave Fredericton daily for the larger centres in the Maritime Provinces as well as Montreal, Boston and other
cities, while in the course of a year or two the number of trains will be more than doubled. The City is served by the Canadian Pacific
and Intercolonial Railway systems, and affords a heavy traffic for both of these railways.
From a civic standpoint the town enjoys progressive government. Its system of waterworks, the water being pumped direct from
the River St. John and distributed to every part of the City, is the best in the Maritime Provinces. The City has lately increased the efficiency of its water supply by the addition of an automatic filter plant and the construction of a complete system of sewerage.
The population of Fredericton is estimated to be about eight thousand, and the suburban district in the immediate vicinity has approximately five thousand
more people in scattered villages and on farms, etc.
The Provincial Parliament Building is a handsome freestone structure with granite base, costing $200,000, and standing in a spacious park, it is one of the
attractions of the iSjty^iy'-
The streets of Fredericton are lighted throughout by electricity. Its fire department is fully up to modern requirements. The sidewalks are of asphalt.
The City is able to boast of public parks unexcelled by any in the Eastern provinces.
Fredericton bids fair to become the railway hub of New Brunswick- The past few months have been characterized by phenomenal development. On every
side of the busy City active construction is being carried on, and millions of dollars are being expended in the building of new railways that will serve to open up
a vast stretch of country and bring to Fredericton extensive industrial expansion.
The St. John Valley Railway—the largest of those under construction—will have the greatest significance on the advancement of Fredericton. This
line of railway is now being constructed from Grand Falls to St. John City, and involves an expenditure of ten millions of dollars. Careful surveys have shown that
the route to St. John via the Valley is the shortest by several miles, and when the Valley Railway is connected with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway at or
near Grand Falls the haul from Montreal and Western points will be the shortest obtainable. The Valley route must soon become the New Brunswick portion
of another Transcontinental Railway looking for the shortest haul to the Atlantic seaboard.
Thirty miles from Fredericton by railway are located the famous Grand Lake Coal Mines, which are being extensively developed. There is now under active
construction the Fredericton and Grand Lake Railway through a magnificent agricultural district to Minto, a distance of thirty miles. As a result of the building
of this line, coal of superior quality will be afforded Fredericton for manufacturing and household purposes at minimum cost. Investigation has shown that there
are extensive deposits of a very good quality of fireclay in the neighbourhood of Minto, and the new railway will systematically develop these deposits. Iron
deposits of great value have also been discovered in this district.
Approximate estimates place the quantity of coal in the mines owned by the Fredericton and Grand Lake Coal and Railway Company at 100,000,000
tons, but the general impression is that the actual coal deposits are considerably in excess of that amount. The coal is declared by experts to be of the highest quality,
and the very fact that the C. P. R. have contracted to use 50,000 tons of screen coal per annum from these mines for ten years, and also to undertake such
extensive development, is proof positive of the superiority of the coal.
There has only lately been completed by the Intercolonial Railway Managing Board a new railway station at Fredericton that would be a credit to many
of the larser cities of the Dominion.    The building was erected at a cosifof $20,000.00.
The cheapest form of power available in Fredericton at the present time is electricity, but the splendid opportunities for water-power development, which
in the past have been allowed to remain dormant, will now be extensively developed. Several companies of recognized stability have been formed and the
preliminary work in many instances has been completed.
At Grand Falls, the mightiest cataract east of Niagara, there is a possible development of 80,000 potential horse-power, while below the Falls some of
the largest tributaries of the St. John have their confluence with that river. These include the Salmon, Aroostook, Tobique, Meduxnekeag and Shogomoc, and
although there are no great falls on the river below Grand Falls, the descent of the river would admit of fully three dams being constructed, with a height varying
from 15 to 20 feet, and each of which would have a potential horse-power of from 20,000 to 25,000. In all there would be about 150,000 horse-power capable
of being developed at and below the Grand Falls.    This power would be continuous.
The Board of Trade is at all times awake and on the jump, and is doing a big quota of the work that is making Fredericton a delightful City to live and
grow in. Renowned for its beauty, the Capital City of the Province as a residential centre is in a class by herself. Socially, Fredericton is active, and a pleasing
feature is the abundance of summer camps on the river near Fredericton, where many spend their summer. With boating, canoeing, tennis, cricket and numerous
other sporting events, one can pleasantly pass his leisure moments.
There is no more convenient place of departure for the fisherman or big-game hunter than Fredericton. The City lies almost equi-distant from the great
hunting region of the Canaan and Salmon Rivers, and also of the Tobique and Miramichi. Between the two and almost at its threshold is the Cains River country,
renowned for moose and caribou. The sportsman may leave Fredericton in the morning with his guide and pitch his tent at sunset on the hunting-grounds of East
Brook Plains.    To reach the upper waters of the Tobique or of the Nor'-west Miramichi will require about two days.  mmmi
m Jofm, M. p.
T. JOHN, NEW BRUNSWICK, is one of the most important seaports of Canada on the Atlantic coast, and it is the largest City in the
Province, having a population of about 60,000. As a City-by-the-Sea and as a prominent factor in the import and export trade of the
Dominion it has long been known in the shipping and commercial centres of the world.
Approximately twenty steamship lines connect St. John with Liverpool, Glasgow,   Havre,   Belfast,   Hamburg,   South   Africa,
Australia, Trieste, Havana, Boston and all other seaports of importance.    The Canadian Pacific and the Intercolonial Railways both have
their Atlantic Terminus at St. John; the Grand Trunk Pacific and the St. John Valley Railways will soon establish their terminus there,
where traffic can be handled uninterruptedly the year round.    The C. P. R. are just completing their second large grain elevator, and the
Federal Government is spending millions of dollars in creating a second great harbour for the accommodation of the Grand Trunk Pacific and St. John Valley
From a civic point of view St. John compares well with other Canadian cities. It is well and wisely governed, and its Board of Trade is composed of
progressive men, ever active in promoting the industrial and commercial interests of the community. The City's streets are well paved and lighted; the business part,
or down-town section, has many pretentious buildings and fine stores; fire and police protection is ample, and educational facilities are abundant.
St. John is very much of what generally is known as "a home town," and the residential section contains numerous evidences of this in the shape of cozy
homes surrounded by pretty gardens, which are in most instances owned by the people who live in them.
St. John is experiencing an era of prosperity and progress, and the evidence of the optimism of the citizens and the Government is displayed in the
expenditure of approximately $50,000,000 in new development and improvements, including Post Office, Banks, Theatre, Armoury, Sugar Refinery, Grain
Elevator, Industrial Plants, Warehouses, Dry Dock, Breakwater, Wharves, etc.
Within the City limits are great deposits of limestone and brick clay. Large granite quarries are near at hand. A rich agricultural and fruit-growing
province is growing up at the back °f the City, and opportunities to secure farming land near a good market are excellent.
As to natural resources, coal and iron are found within forty miles of St. John. Oil and gas are produced within eighty miles. Hydro-electric power is
being developed within forty miles, and the great lumber resources of New Brunswick are available.
The climatic conditions of St. John are extremely healthful and the death-rate is correspondingly small. The pure ocean breezes, which at all times
sweep the City, have a salubrious and sanitary effect which is greatly appreciated by the inhabitants.
Social life is pleasant. Places of amusement and sport are well patronized, and clubs, societies, athletic organizations, fraternal orders and the like, are
offering every opportunity for the pleasure-loving public. Taking all things into consicbetiition, St. John is a good place to live in, and it is sure to hold its own
among the cities of Canada for all time to come. ^
Cbarlottetoton, $.C3.
e-^res^e <* ••0#Vs$£     x   ^T   '     .-A># * { *.*'i'.;
Victoria Row.
Public Buildings.
Summer Resorts.
Queen Street.
Prince of Wales College.
6. Holland Cove.
7. Experimental Farm.
8. Ferry Service.
9. Public Schools. Cbarlottetobm,$.C3L
/CHARLOTTETOWN, the Capital of Prince Edward Island, and the third in size of the cities of the Lower Provinces, was founded by
Morris and Deschamp in 1768, and was incorporated in 1855. It is situated on gently rising ground at the confluence of the York,
Elliott and Hillsborough Rivers, and possesses one of the finest harbors in the world. It is the principal shipping port of the "Garden
Province" and has a thriving trade. rWjiis City is the eastern terminus of the Plant Steamship Line; is a port of call for the boats of the
Quebec Steamship Company plying between Montreal and the Gulf of St. Lawrence ports, and several other lines; and is the headquarters
of the Charlottetown Steam Navigation Company, whose boats have ploughed the waters of the Straits for over forty years.
One of the healthiest towns in Canada, it is yearly becoming more desirable as a place of residence. It rejoices in excellent water,
pumped from an artesian well to a reservoir and brought thence by gravitation into the City; has a modern system of sewerage, telephone and
electric lights, and needs but an electric railway to be up to date.
Charlottetown is very regularly laid out: its streets are wide, with concrete sidewalks, many of them shaded, and its four public squares are well kept.
Queen Square, in the centre of the town, is one of the prettiest open spaces in the Dominion. In summer it is a very attractive spot, with beautifully arranged flower
beds, fountain, monument, historic guns and a band-stand. Many improvements have been made in Charlottetown in recent years, and it is rapidly assuming the
appearance of a modern city. The wooden buildings that served as business establishments a generation ago have given place to brick and stone structures, and
similar progress is to be seen in the residential districts. The City's surroundings are beautiful, and the suburbs are charming, with gardens, groves and hedges of
evergreen, with shaded roads and fertile fields.
Charlottetown s principal buildings—brick and stone structures—are on or in the vicinity of Queen Square. The Post Office contains also the Customs
House, the Savings Bank, and other Federal Government offices. The Provincial Building—a fine old structure, rich with the political memories of sixty years—
contains the Legislative Assembly chambers, the Legislative Library (with which is incorporated the Dodd Library) open to the public, and Local Government
Offices. This edifice is of Nova Scotia freestone, and the corner-stone was laid May 16, 1843. West of the Post Office is the beautiful Market, of Island stone,
and adjoining the Provincial Building on the east is the Law Courts structure.
Charlottetown is well supplied with places of worship, including one Roman Catholic, two Anglican, two Methodist, two Presbyterian and three Baptist
Churches. The new St. Dunstan's Roman Catholic Cathedral, which was one of the finest Churches in the Lower Provinces, was last year destroyed by fire, but is
rapidly being restored to its former beauty. St. Paul's Church (Anglican) and St. James' (Presbyterian) are also beautiful buildings. The Chapel of St. Peter's
Cathedral is a little gem. Other prominent structures are Prince of Wales College, Bishop's Palace, City Hall, Masonic Temple, and Prince Edward Island and
Charlottetown Hospitals and the Public Schools. At the Charlottetown market—which is the admiration of strangers—twice a week are offered for sale the beautiful rich cream, golden butter, still bedewed vegetables and other luscious farm and market-garden products for which the Island is so famous.
Among the institutions of the City are two well-conducted hospitals (Protestant and Roman Catholic), an insane asylum, situated at Falconwood, Prince
of Wales College and Normal School, St. Dunstan's (Roman Catholic) College, two Convent Schools, St. Peter's School, a Kindergarten, schools of music, and two
business colleges and shorthand schools. A quarantine station or hospital for infectious diseases is under the control of the Dominion authorities. There is a well-
appointed Young Men's Christian Association building. A modern opera house furnishes amusement for the theatre-going population. Victoria Park, connected
with the City by the park boulevard, has an area of about seventy-five acres. Within its limits are tennis courts and cricket and football fields—the scenes of animated
gatherings through the summer and autumn days. From Fort Edward, with its six grim dogs of war—now happily silent,—may be obtained fine harbor and river
views. The park is fall °f charming vistas through which the soft roads wind, and beautiful trees, in the shade of which the tourist revels in the enchanting sylvan
scenes. Nearer the City is Government House. The Exhibition grounds and Driving Park, and the Charlottetown Athletic Association property contain good
racing tracks, that of the former being pronounced one of the finest in the Maritime Provinces. Out in the East Royalty are the Belvidere Golf Links, unsurpassed for beauty of situation by any links in Canada.
There are three daily and several weekly and bi-weekly newspapers. Religious, national and fraternal societies are well represented. The leading hotels
are the Victoria, Queen, Revere, Plaza and the Davies.
The manufacturing establishments comprise a light and power company—furnishing electricity and gas,—machine shops, tobacco factories, a pork factory,
flour mill, boot and shoe factory, condensed milk factory, and minor industries.
The City's affairs are managed by a Mayor and eight Councillors, and its population is about 12,000.
The year 1914 finds Charlottetown more prosperous than ever before, with every house occupied and the demand for housing much exceeding the supply.
The City is surrounded by fur farms, which are a great attraction to tourists who desire to learn about the most lucrative live-stock industry in the world. The
basis of fur farming has been much widened during the past year, and now includes silver fox ranches and other ranches in which are bred beaver, mink, muskrat,
raccoon, fisher, skunk, marten and Russian sable, also the famous Karakule sheep, from the young of which is produced the celebrated Persian lamb fur. Persian lamb
depends for its value upon color, texture and lustre of the fur, together with the closeness of the curl. All doubt as to the capability to produce the Persian lamb at its
best has just been set at rest by the birth of the first Persian lamb native to Canada, which proves to be of the very highest grade. Dr. C, C. Young, of Texas,
who has been instrumental in introducing the industry here, is now en route from New York to St. Petersburg, thence to Bokhara, for the purpose of securing additional breeding stock of these valuable animals. Cbarlottetobm, $.€.3.
1. Farm Enclosure.
2. Reynard at Home.
3. Dinnis' Famous Fox Fa:
 la* mm
Cbarlottetobm, $.€.S.
| REEDING FUR-BEARING ANIMALS on a large scale is comparatively a new stock-raising industry in Canada, and it is owing to the
climatic conditions, which are necessary to make it possible, confined to a limited area. Prince Edward Island is the only Province in which
this kind of farming is practised on an extensive scale at this time.
Various species of the furry animals are being raised on ranches in the Province, but the main industry in that line is the breeding of
foxes, which latter has made most remarkably rapid and exceedingly profitable progress. All classes of foxes are successfully bred and
raised on these ranches, and their pelts, especially those of the Silver Foxes, command high prices in the markets.
The effect of such rapid money-making in a small community composed mostly of farmers can more easily be imagined than
described. The success attending these ventures when they were first started, and when the fortunate ones were doing so well, made others desirous of sharing in
the profits. Scores of partnerships were formed, each of which bought a pair or two pairs of foxes and built a ranch in which to keep them. Want of knowledge and
lack of experience, of course, often caused losses at the start, but in the main there were very handsome profits.
The latest figures obtainable show that there are now 277 fox ranches on Prince Edward Island.   On these ranches 2857 foxes of all grades are i
tivity, of which 1602 are classed as silver-black-    The sworn valuation of all the young foxes reared during the year 1913 was over four million dollars.
And yet the result was in several respects an unfavorable one, owing to the number of pairs which failed to produce young and the number of litters lost at
or shortly after birth. This resulted in large part from the great number of new ranches for which skilled and experienced caretakers could not be obtained. The
average production throughout the Island during the year was a fraction under two young for the pair; but litters of seven and eight were produced in some isolated
cases, and they found ready sale at current prices of $6,000 each, or $12,000 per pair, or better.    The young of a single vixen were sold for $48,000.
From this it can readily be seen, generally speaking, that while the profits of fox-ranching are very good, they are unequally distributed. A small ranch
may have excellent luck f°r one year, and indifferent success the next, and for that reason many farmers have investments in a number of ranches, which increases
the certainty of success. Actual losses to investors in fox ranches have been few, the worst to be anticipated being a small dividend, or none at all, with the hope
and prospect of better luck in the year to come.
Elaborate reports have been made by experts concerning the fox industry on Prince Edward Island, which have created a wide interest throughout the world,
and which are unanimous in declaring that the constantly increasing demand and the decreasing supply from the wilds can only be met by breeding fur-bearing
animals in captivity, and that the conditions of soil and climate of Prince Edward Island are unequalled elsewhere for such a purpose.
Among the pioneers in the fox-farming industry on Prince Edward Island is Mr. John R. Dinnis, whose extensive breeding farm is located at Charlottetown, and which is a model institution of its kind. The illustrations which appear on the opposite page are reproduced from photographs taken at this ranch, which
is located in a grove affording natural conditions for the animals.
The total area of a fox ranch is surrounded by a meshed wire fence, supported by posts twelve feet high. The wire overhangs inwards to prevent the
foxes from climbing over, and is also turned in at the bottom to prevent them burrowing out and so escaping. Within the ranch are the pens, each fox having a
separate pen, enclosed with meshed wire, and within is a kennel, or enclosed sleeping place.
The pairs are mated usually in January, and later are separated for the rest of the year. The period of gestation is 51 days. The larger ranches, like the
one of Mr. Dinnis, are furnished with electric appliances for lighting and for giving alarms in case of attempted burglary. Mr. Dinnis also employs a veterinary
and night and day watchmen to look after his foxes. The animals are fed chiefly on meat, other food consisting of biscuit, milk, etc. The actual cost of food for
a fox does not exceed $10 per year. The principal fox breeders have much confidence in the permanency of their industry, and the future looks roseate to them
for an indefinite number of years.
Much of the foregoing review of the fox industry on Prince Edward Island is taken from an article written by Mr. J. E. B. McCready, of Charlottetown,
the Government Publicity Agent of the Province, to whom, or to Mr. John R. Dinnis, also of Charlottetown, all applications for more detailed information on the
subject should be directed.
L_ ©sbatoa, #nt Collaborators! anfcr $atron£
HON. GEORGE EULAS FOSTER, B.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Minister of Trade and Commerce,
F. C. T. O'HARA, Deputy Minister of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa.
HON. H. E. YOUNG, Provincial Secretary and Minister of Education, Province of British Columbia.
G. E. DOHERTY, M.D., Superintendent of Provincial Farm and Medical Director of the Hospital
for the Insane, Province of British Columbia.
HON. DUNCAN MARSHALL, Minister of Agriculture, Province of Alberta.
CHARLES S. HOTCHKISS, Chief Publicity Commissioner, Province of Alberta.
HON. W. R. MOTHERWELL, Minister of Agriculture, Province of Saskatchewan.
T. CROMIE, Secretary, Bureau of Statistics, Department of Agriculture, Province of Saskatchewan.
HON. G. LAWRENCE, Minister of Agriculture and Immigration, Province of Manitoba.
H. J. MOORHOUSE, Asst. Deputy Minister, Department of Agriculture, Province of Manitoba.
HON. J. S. DUFF, Minister of Agriculture, Province of Ontario.
H. A. MACDONELL, Director of Colonization, Province of Ontario.
HON. JOSEPH ED. CARON, Minister of Agriculture, Province of Quebec.
J. A. GRENIER, Assistant Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Province of Quebec.
HON. G. H. MURRAY, Premier and Provincial Secretary, Province of Nova Scotia.
ARTHUR S. BARNSTEAD, Secretary of Industries and Immigration, Province of Nova Scotia.
HON. J. K. FLEMMING, Premier and Minister of Lands and Mines, Province of New Brunswick.
HON. D.  V. LANDRY, M.D., Secretary and Treasurer, Province of New Brunswick.
A. G. TURNEY, Provincial Horticulturist, Province of New Brunswick.
M. McKINNON, Provincial Secretary-Treasurer and Commissioner of Agriculture, Province of
Prince Edward Island.
J. E. B. M'CREADY, Government Publicity Agent, Province of Prince Edward Island. ^m
Collaborator* anfcr $atron£
City of Victoria, B. C:
City of North Vancouver, B. C.:
E. O. S. Scholefield
Victoria, B. C.
G. S. Hanes                                             North Vancouver, B. C.
Ernest McGaffey
Merchants Trading & Trust Co.
Cameron Valley Land Co.
W. J. Irwin
J. F. Collins
Monk, Monteith & Co.
Island Investment Company
Shortt, Hill & Duncan
District of North Vancouver, B. C:
Wm. H. May                        District of.North Vancouver, B. C.
Uplands Limited
John G. Farmer
L. Noyer
City of Nanaimo, B. C.:
Nanaimo Industrial Development League
H. S. Coleman
Board of Trade                                             P
Donald McN. Lowe
Nanaimo, B. C.
ort Alberni, B. C.
City of South Vancouver, B. C:
F. E. Elliott                                             South Vancouver, B. C.
Kenneth Lomond
City of West Vancouver, B. C:
City of Vancouver, B. C.:
John Lawson                                              West Vancouver, B. C.
I. D. Carson
Yorkshire Guarantee & Insurance Co.
Sharpies & Sharpies
Vancouver, B. C.
City of New Westminster, B. C. :
A.W. Gray                                            New Westminster, B. C.
Canada Autophone Company
Inkster, Ward & Co.
W. L. Darling
J. Leckie & Co.
Leitch & Taylor
W. J. McMillan, Limited
North American Securities Company
City of Port Coquitlam, B. C. :
A.Mars                                                       Port Coquitlam, B. C.
J. R. McKenzie
Hotel Connaught
John Smith
Hotel Regent
Hotel Canada
City of Port Moody, B. C.:
Canadian General Electric Company
W. J. Tullk
Stanley J. Wilson
S. C. Sykes
P. D. Roe                                                       Port Moody, B. C.
A. B. White
Thurston-Flavelle Lumber Co. Collaborators; anb patrons;
City of Chilliwack, B. C.
City of Vernon, B. C:
H. H. Gervan                                                 Chilliwack, B. C.
Richard Obee                                                           Vernon, B. C.
A. A. J. Cantle
Okanagan Steam Laundry
S. W. Keith
H. G. Nangle
G. Fairfax
R. Swift
Royal Bank of Canada
G. Gordon Watkins
New Royal Hotel
W. S. Hawkshaw
M. J. O'Brien
Jos. Thompson
S. A. Shatford
Allan Evans                                                                      |
S. C. Smith Lumber Co., Limited
F. J. Hart & Co.
The Hudson's Bay Company
S. S. fCarleton
Bank of Montreal
Okanagan Telephone Co., Ltd.
City of Kamloops, B. C.:
City of Kelowna, B. C. :
The Hudson's Bay Company                             Kamloops, B. C.
Board of Trade                                                   Kelowna, B. C.
N. S. Dalgleish
R. W. Irwing
J. T. Robinson
W. D. Jones
A. W. Bowser
Central Okanagan Lands, Limited
Joseph Casorso
R. A. Bethune
F. R. E. DeHart
Royal Bank of Canada
H. Peabody
John Milton
Kelowna Land & Orchard Co.
Bank of Montreal
Belgo-Canadian Fruit Lands Co.
A. H. Skey
Ernest W. Wilkinson
F. Temple Cornwall
Elliott & Copeland
Dalgleish Brothers
F. S. Coates
Fred J. Fulton
Wm. Haug
Kamloops Trust Company
City of Revelstoke, B. C:
J. C. Dobson
Johnston & Co., Limited
Thos. Kilpatrick                                                 Revelstoke, B. C.
Revelstoke General Agencies
Arrow Lakes Lumber Co., Limited
Forest Mills of British Columbia, Ltd.
J. Roper Hull
McKinnon & Sutherland
Alec D. Macintyre
Wm. Sutherland, M.D.
J. S. Burris
Lawrence Hardware Company Collaborators; anfcr patrons
City of Nelsffn, B. C:
A. D. Higinbotham & Co., Limited                  Lethbridg
e, Alia.
Board of Trade
W. N. Scott
F. B. Whiting
Strathcona Hotel
Nelson, B. C.
Fred. W. Downey
J. B. Reuter
H. E. Miebach
Hotel Lethbridge
Bank of Montreal
City of Cranbrook, B. C. |
Thos. M. Roberts
Hunt & Darling
Hotel Cranbrook
Cranbrook,.B- C.
F. H. Harmon
S. J. Shepard
Royal Bank °f Canada
J. M. Aitken
Canadian Bank °f Commerce
City of Fernie, B. C:
C. K Nourse
R. V. Gibbons
A. Macneil
Fernie, B. C.
The Merchants Bank
P. H. Dusbar
C. R. Young
Fernie-Fort Steele Brewing Co.
Lethbridge Brewing & Malting Co.
J. L. Gates
Ellison Milling &• Elevator Co., Ltd.
Board of Trade
C. B. Bowman
N. E.Luddaby
The Pollock Wine Company, Limited
Hotel Fernie
Crows Nest Coal Company
R. M. Young
City of Edmonton, Alberta:
Geo. M. Hall                                                          Edmonton, Alia.
Royal George Hotel
Trites Wood Company
Fernie Lumber Company
City of Calgary, Alberta:
Bruce Cameron                                                      Calgary, Alia.
City of Lethbridge, Alberta
Calgary Brewing & Malting Co.
Board of Trade
H. C. Ives
Lethbridge, Alia.
A. E. Cross
D. E. Black & Co.
J. D. Hay
McCutcheon Bros., Limited
W. D. L. Hardie
P. Burns & Co.
Joseph P. Tracy
Hotel Alberta Collaborators anb patrons;
City of Medicine Hat, Alberta:
W. B. Wilcox Medicine Hat, A Ita.
City of Winnipeg, Manitoba:
Industrial Bureau Winnipeg, Man.
Chas. F. Roland
Wm. MacKenzie
City of Portage la Prairie, Man.:
Board of Trade Portage la Prairie
Wm. Richardson "
L. S. Dunford "
City of Brandon, Man.:
Harry Brown Brandon, Man.
Commercial Bureau "
Mary M. McQuarrie
City of Regina, Saskatchewan :
Board of Trade Regina, Sask-
L. T. McDonald
City of Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan:
C. E. Brown Moose Jaw, Sask-
Royal George Hotel
R. Patton
H. Davison Pickett
Royal George Hotel
Saskatoon, Sask-
City of Swift Current, Sask-:
Board of Trade Swift Current, Sask-
J. E. Argue
J. C. Ballinger
D. J. Leslie
Hotel Carlton
Empress Hotel
George Webster
City of Port Arthur, Ontario:
Board of Trade Port Arthur, Ont.
S. H. Goodier
General Realty Corporation, Ltd.
R. B. Rankin
J. F. Hewitson
George Hodder
Louis Walsh
Canadian Resources Development Co., Ltd.
J. J. Carick
Rothschild & Son
Pigeon River Lumber Co., Ltd.
Alberta Land Company
H.D.A. Hutton
City of Fort William, Ont.:
Young & Lallis Fort William, Ont.
City of Hamilton, Ontario:
H. M. Marsh Hamilton, Ont.
J. Walter Gage
Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo Railway
Alex. S. Dixon
Bank of Hamilton
Alexander Metherill
City of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario:
Lake Superior Corporation Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.
J. A. Shannon
A. H. Chitty
J. L. O'Flynn
Geo. W. Goodwin
H. F. Goodfellow, M.D. ZZZM
Collaborators; anb patrons;
City of London, Ontario:
Wm. Spittal
Gordon Philip
London Rolling Mills
Tecumseh Hotel
London Life Insurance Co.
J. G. Richter
Empire Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
T. A. Stevens
«. London, Ont.
City of Kenora, Ontario:
George Drewry
W. G. Cameron
Tourist Hotel
H. Rideout
City of Ottawa, Ontario:
New Russel Hotel
Kenora, Ont.
Ottawa, Ont.
City of Toronto, Ontario:
Woodbine Hotel Toronto, Ont.
Geo. A. Spear
Russel Perkins
W. A. Liner John
City of Niagara Falls, Ontario:
Chas. S. Cole Niagara Falls, Ont.
E. D. Pitt
McLaughlin Carriage Co. Oshawa, Ont.
Chas. L. Barker Windsor, Ont.
City of Halifax, Nova Scotia:
Board of Trade Halifax, N. S.
E. A. Saunders
J. C. Macintosh & Co.
F. B. McCurdy & Co.
Wm. Stairs, Son & Morrow, Ltd.
S. M. Brockfield
Kelley & Glassey, Ltd.
Furness, Withy & Co., Ltd.
J. & M. Murphy & Co., Ltd.
Halifax Hotel
National Drug & Chemical Co., Ltd.
North Atlantic Fisheries
Pickford & Black
Farquhar Company, Ltd.
A.M. Bell & Co.
C. L. Martin Amherst, N. S.
Ross O. Evans Sydney, N. S.
City of Fredericton, New Brunswick:
Walter Clarke Fredericton, N. B.
St. John, N. B.
Henry T. Hoag
Royal Hotel
Vassey & Co.
Waterbury & Rising
Manchester, Robertson, Alliston, Ltd.
City of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island:
John R. Dinnis Charlottetown, P. E.
Hotel Victoria
J Printed and Bound by
Vancouver, Canada       


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