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The Chung Collection

Ocean jottings from England to British Columbia : being a record of a voyage from Liverpool to Vancouver's… Forester, Harry 1891

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Array •■^
P R
■ate.
a.
0(!:mNj#T|lGS
FROM
TO
».
gRmSH   (^OL.\J7VTCBIA
Via   TH"=    STRAITS    OF    MAGELtL-HJ-*!
<l
IN THE  S. S.
'WEST INDIAN"
HKRRY    FORI2STER
'. i 'Si
VANCOUVER, B.C.
■jStlNTEO BY THE TELEGRAM PBISTEjr^ANliPCBLISHIXG CO.
1891.^
I 3w*
The University of British Columbia Library
i
THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION -w. - h. - socle-    A. 1 niPLOCK
THE
Pioneer Stevedore
340   POWELL ST-
NOTARY PUBLIC
REAL ESTATE
BROKER
VANCOUVER
p. o. box 68
ROUXSEFELL&CO.
Real Estate, Insurance and
General Agents
CONVEYANCERS, NOTARIES
PUBLIC, ETC.
413 HASTINGS ST. WEST
Vancouver, B. C.
MoKtey Loaned on Best Terms
Estates Managed and Rents
Collected
b.g.    5U/"-5u9 Hastings St. West
VANCOUVER
. British: - Columbia
- ESTATES
CAREFULLY MANAGED
FOR
NON-RESIDENTS
P. O.   BOX   194.
TELEPHONE   No.   203 Mainland Market
38 and 40 Cordova St.
VANCOUVER
\
The BRITISH COLUMBIA
STEAMSHIP CO., Ltd.
hayes & Mcintosh
wholesale and retail
dealers in
Every Description of Fresh and Salt
MEATS
Telephone No. 56.
Gf.oroe Hayes
Wh. A. McIntosh
fel: '- ,     *
—THE VANCOUVER	
SHIP : BUILDING, : SEALING : AND
TRADING COMPANY, Limited
The Pine Steamship
"WEST IXMAX"
(Commander S. F. Scott)
Will, until further notice, make regular
passages between
.Nanaimo 1 San Francisco
CALLING AT
Victoria and Vancouver
and, if sufficient enduceinent offers,
at New Westminster.
Excellent Accommodation • for
Saloon Passengers
Capital Stock
1200,000
Offices : 413 HASTINGS ST. W.
Vancouver, B. C.
Ask tour Bookseller for
"OCEAN  : JOTTINGS"
»        It may be obtained in
Victoria at Jamieson's Bookstore
Government Street
Vancouver at Diplock's, Hastings Street
New Westm'r at Morey's, Columbia St.
For Freight, Passage and other parti-'
culars, address
Capt. Scott, care Baker Bros.
Water Street
.VANCOUVER,   -   B.C.
The Alhambra
Corner
WATER <fe CARRALL STS.
Vancouver, B.C.
WILSON McKINNON,
Proprietor. Specialty—FARM LANDS and
TIMBER LIMITS
WM. shannon      CHAS, MCLACHLAN
SHAiNNOX^FLACHLAN
REAL ESTATE
and FINANCIAL AGENTS
GENERAL AGENTS TO  THE
Union - Assurance - Society
Instituted A.D. 1714
*27   Years' Experience  in   British
Columbia.
HastixoS St., opp. Leland Hotel
VANCOUVER, B.C.
p.o. box 293
p.o. box 246
T. Thrale Sic'h
WHOLESALE  | RETAIL
TOBACCONIST
IMPORTER  OF
Wills'! Lambert & Butler's
English Tobaccos
Corner Cordova and Cambie Sts.
VANCOUVER, B.C.
'NTIRELY NEW -STOCK
II. Morev 1 Co.
Printers, Booksellers
Stationers
fDEALERS  IX-
Musical Instniments===
="^=Toys, : Notions
FANCY -:- GOODS
780   Columbia   Street
XKW WESTMINSTER.
P. 0. Box 261
P. O. BOX 51 TELEPHONE 110
II. | Read j Co
IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IX
general hardware
House, Carriage— —*
# & Artists' Paints
■ OILS  A XI)   BNCSHES
Window : Glass, : &c, : iXre.
Columbia Street
NEW WESTMINSTER, b.c «mv>:-A'»-:»;»;»,-a;-A'»»cA"«i
tilic UdilD  telegram |
is the newsiest paper
in vancouver'
and has a larger. circulation than any  other
daily paper on the
mainland of
B. C.
JOB PRINTING IN ALL ITS -
BRANCHES
«5 ^1
OCEAN-JOTTINGS
FROM  —
ENGLAND TO BRITISH COLUMBIA
BEING A RECORD OF A VOYAGE
FBOM
Liverpool to Vancouver's Island
VTA THE STRAITS  OF MAGELLAN
IN THE STEAMSHIP "WEST INDIAN"
AND EMBRACING SCENES AND
INCIDENTS  OF
THE   CHILIAN   REVOLUTION   (1891)
BY
FT A.ZRTR'g'   FOEESTBE
VANCOUVER,  B: C.
-RINTED   BY THE TELEGRAM  PRINTING AND  PUBLISHING CO-
1891. Ii PREFACE.
®
I
N
submitting
this, my  first  attempt  at-
literature to the ordeal of public criticism,,
and especially in a new country, I feel a
certain amount of misffivinff as to the manner in
O O
which my humble efforts will be received. The
incidents occurring were originally intended for
my private Note Book only, and were carelessly
jotted down from day to day to fill up the spare
-moments which are inevitable in a long sea voyage. At the solicitation, however, of my fellow-
passengers, coupled with, perhaps, the pardonable
ambition of being considered an " author," I have
decided to place on record the scenes'which took
place, and the impressions formed during our
eleven weeks' voyage.
Doubtless it will be found deficient in that
perspicuous arrangement with which the taste
and judgment of a practised literary hand would
have embellished it, the absence of which will,
however, I trust be overlooked. .
For the geographical and historical descriptions of some of the places referred to, I am, to a W-
—   4  —
•certain extent, indebted to Mr. A. G. Findlay and
Admiral Fitzroy, and comprised in their admirable works on navigation of the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans, brought up to date by information I have personally gathered.
The scenes and incidents occurring during the
recent deplorable revolution in Chili, including
the bombardment of Coronel and an exciting adventure .with one of her men of war, are, I am
afraid, very inefficiently portrayed. At the same
time however, they have. at least fhe merit of
actual facts, and are not in any way fictitious,
and I have thus ventured to include them, in the
hope that they may prove interesting.
In conclusion, I beg to dedicate this little
work to Captain S. and Mrs. Scott, in recognition
of many little kindnesses shewn during an extremely pleasant voyage.
H.  F.
Vancouver, B.C., March, 1891. CONTENTS.
CHAPTER   I.
PAGE
Concerning the Author—London—Motives for the
Voyage—The Railway Journey to Liverpool
—An Amusing Old Lady—Directions to a
Bachelor on packing up       9 — 12
CHAPTER II.
Liverpool and its Docks-—Exciting Search for a
" West Indian " —j The British Columbia
Steamship Company—The Manchester Ship
Canal     13 — 17
CHAPTER III.
I again alter my plans—A Precocious Boy—South-
port and Old Recollections — Impressions
formed from Advertisements—An Incident at
the Barber's—The Recent Dock Labourers'
Strikes     18 — 23
CHAPTER   TV.
Embarkation—Our Passengers and Crew—We
make some Progress, but not much—-Our
Captain's Daughter—Fairly under Weigh, and
Good-bye to dear old England     24 — 26
CHAPTER V.
Ma', de nier — A Reminiscence of Boulogne—
Madeira—The Canaries—Our Amusements—
St. Paul's'Rocks     27
31 —  6  —
CHAPTER   VI.
PAGE
The Equator — A Wonderful Phenomenon—A
J5a»*?*erous Custom—Fernando Noronha Island
—The Rocas—A Tropical Twilight.     32 — 35
CHAPTER VII.
Christmas Eve—Fishing—A Dolphin and its Pecu-
li.irities—A few remarks on Natural History  •
—A Thick Fog and a   Heavy   Gale—Cape
Virgens     36 — 40
CHAPTER VIII.
Straits of Magellan — The Natives — Romantic
Marriage of an English Lady with a Patagonian -
" Apollo "—We Drop Anchor     41 - - 44
CHAPTER   IX.
Magellan Straits (continued)—Sandy Point—More
' about the Natives—Probable Origin of the
Legal Custom* of Sealing Deeds—Kin 1 of the
Straits     45 — 52
CHAPTER X
The South Pacific—A "Swell" Acquaintance—
A Spell of Bad Weather—Mocha Island—The
King of Fishes—Santa Maria Island and
Arauco Bay—A New Dinner Dish     53 —• 57
CHAPTER   XI.
Coronel and Lota—The Richest Woman in the
World — Chili, its Resources, Riven and
Mountains—Santiago and its Beauties—A
Recipe for getting through Time     58 — 63 CHAPTER   XII.
The Chilian Revolution—The "Esmeralda" (not
Victor Hugo's) but nevertheless "victorious"
—Bombardment of Coronel—Exciting Scenes.    64
PAGE
69
CHAPTER   XIII.
Coaling under difficulties—An invitation to Breakfast—"Chili" weather—A chapter of Paradoxes—Views on Electric Light—A curious
coincidence     70 — 73
chapter xrv.
Our troubles not yet over—Exciting chase by a
Man of War—A narrow squeak—Further
particulars of the Revolution—Full speed
ahead once more     74 — 79
chapter  xv.
Juan Fernandez Island—Scene of Robinson Crusoe's Adventures—Islands of St. Ambrose and
St. Felix—On Salt Water Baths—An Octopus
—A Summer's Day—The Booby Bird—The
Galapagos Islands—On Laughter     30 — 86
CHAPTER  XVI.
The  Doldrums—Turtle—The   Boatswain   Bird— |*Js£*-!
Rolls   for  Breakfast—A  White  Squall—On
Calming the Waves, also a Wife—Clipper ton
Island     87 — 90
CHAPTER   XVn.
A strong current impedes our progress—The
Revilla Gigedo Islands—Again in sight of
land—An attack of Indigestion—Guadaloupe
•—The Californian Islands—Off San Francisco   91 — 98 —  8  —
CHAPTER   XVIII.
PAGE
And Last—Destruction Island—Cape Flattery—
On the benefit and healthfulness of the voyage
—A few remarks on British Columbia     99
Itinerary of the Voyage.
109
-108
-111
^A* CHAPTER   I.
Will  probably be  considered  egotistical,
" AS   IT   CHIEFLY ' CONCERNS   THE AUTHOR—
London—Motives for the Voyage—The
Railway Journey to Liverpool — An
Amusing Old Lady — Directions to a
Bachelor on "Packing up."
IT is November, and London at this particular period of the year wears its dullest aspect. I hod often made up my
mind, when an opportunity offered, to take a
lengthened sea voyage, for the benefit of my
health, and having recently wound up some
business matters, I began making enquiries as to
the most suitable trip. I was seated in my
chambers one bitterly cold evening—a dense foer,
which had assumed various degrees of density
during the day, was gradually settling over the
Metropolis in the form of a thick haze, of a thick
yellow pea-soupy colour, which I think cannot
be found out of London, and fortunate indeed
'are those lucky individuals Who possess sufficient 10
means to be able to travel elsewhere—a copy of
the Times was in my hand, and scanning over
the advertisements I saw an announcement of a
ship that would shortly be saifmg for British
Columbia via the Straits of Magellan. On
enquiry I ascertained this would take from
ten to twelve weeks, and that, perhaps, with the
exception of a few days at starting, there Would
be the prospect of fine warm Weather all the
way. This was a great inducement, and I eventually decided to select this voyage. The date
on which I saw the advertisement was the I2th
of November, and the ship was advertised to sail
"on or about" the 17th, so that the time in
which my preparations must be completed was
very limited.. I hastily bid adieu to my friends,
and now commenced that pet aversion of a
bachelor, " packing up." There are some people
who aver you can never overfill a Gladstone
Bag, however much you try. I am almost
inclined to agree. The process is very simple—
Take the bag and see that there are no biscuit
crumbs, or a bit of slate pencil at the bottom,
then fill it as full as ever it will hold, then swear
at it (N.B.—Much depends on the particular expletives which you use, which should be carefully
selected, and warranted waterproof), then get a
few more articles and ram them in tighter: then 11
think if there is anything else you would like to
take, if you had room; then poke an extra pair
of boots somewhere or other in the corners ■
then say your prayers; then lightly spread over
the top some bottles of ink, scent, and castor oil;
a few jumps on the top; the bag strapped down,
and the thing is done.
At last my preparations were completed, and
on the 15th, accompanied by an old chum, who
was to see me off, I left Euston Station by the
4 o'clock train for Liverpool. Euston, as usual,
was crowded with passengers bound for all parts
of the country. We had taken our tickets,
secured our seats, and the train was about starting, when an old lady was violently thrust into
our compartment by the angry Guard. She was
evidently much annoyed at the "hill treatment,""
as she called it, of the railway officials, and for
some time we were much amused by the old
lady's mumblings against people in general, and
particularly railway "proprietors." From time
to time she would soothe her injured feelings by
recourse to a fairly sized flask, containing, as we
judged from the aroma, brandy and water, and
she was not at all ashamed of being seen imbibing
it. When she wanted to drink, she did so, with-
out waiting for a tunnel. She unscrewed the
stopper with a squeak—tilted up. the flask and — 12 —
gurgled, and then stowed it away in a very substantial pocket; indeed, it must have been a very
capacious pocket, judging from the number of
articles she occasionally produced from it. There
were articles of clothing rolled up loosely; keys,
with bits of string entangled; pins, pennies,
lozenges, lumps of sugar, and no end of biscuit
crumbs, whilst underneath everything was her
railway ticket. It was a sight to see all this
rubbish turned out on the seat at Edge Hill
Station, whilst the impatient ticket collector
waited for the ticket. She was rather a facetious
old lady too, for at Rugby Junction, where we
were delayed for ten minutes, she beckoned the
Guard and asked him if he called it a "fast"
train. "Yes, ma'am," the Guard replied. "Humph,
stuck fast I should think," responded the old
lady—a joke she chuckled over for the next
half hour.
We arrived at Lime Street Station, Liverpool,
at 8.30, after a capital run of four hours and a.
half, a distance of over 200 miles. f^TT^;
CHAPTER   II.
Liverpool and its Docks—Exciting Search
for a " West Indian " — The British
Columbia Steamship Co.—The Manchester Ship Canal.
THE next day (Sunday) we took the boat to
New Brighton, which afforded a splendid
view of the Docks and Shipping, the extent of which (as most of my readers are no
doubt aware) cannot be equalled by any other
city in the world. The Docks from end to end
extend for nearly seven miles. The great blot,
however, that struck me was the very poor
vehicular accommodation for reaching them.
.This consists of old and disgracefully dirty omni-
busses, each drawn by two horses. I am glad to
say, though that an overhead railway is in course
of construction, to supersede this tedious and
disagreeable~inode of travelling.
In the afternoon we set out to inspect the
"West Indian," the ship I was to go by. We
were told she was in the Bramley Moore Dock, — 14 —
I-
but on arriving there she was not to be found.
The officials informed us she would probably be
in the Sandon Dock, some distance further on,
but on arriving there we were met with the
same response, "Not here." We were referred
to another dock still further on, and there we
traced our weary steps, but with the same result,
and we were about to abandon the chase in despair, when a dock keeper, more intelligent than
the rest, referred to a register, and informed us
she was lying in the Wapping Dock, some five
miles off, almost at the other extremity of the
city. This was very annoying—it was getting
dark, and the rain came down in. torrents, but
we had to grin and bear it, and we were anxious
to see the vessel to-day, as my frjend's business
necessitated his return to London on the morrow.
We accordingly made the best of our way to the
Wapping Dock, and about 6 p.m., on a miserable
dark night, found the object of our search.
I must here state that a new line has just
been formed under the title of the 1 British"
Columbia Steamship Company," with a view to
trading between Vancouver, B.C., and the Australian ports, and the " West Indian" is the
pioneer ship of the Company. She is a fine
vessel of 1,805 tons, 200 H. P., and is a capital
seaboat. The next day, upon enquiry at the agents',
we ascertained that the steamer, in consequence
of the happening of unforeseen circumstances,
was not expected to sail for another fortnight.
This was very annoying, and hearing, through a
friend in Liverpool, that a barque called the
" Archer" would be sailing in a few days for
British Columbia, and not wjshing to wait about
in Liverpool, I made up my mind to go with her,
much against the advice of my friend, who considered the length of the voyage, (probally six
months) would get monotonous, and that the
rough fare-and accommodation usually to be
found in a cargo ship unaccustomed to carrying
passengers, would probably counteract any good
effects to be obtained from the voyage.
My friend Montgomery had now to return to
London, and having seen him off, I went to the
docks to inspect the "Archer," and eventually
made arrangements for "my passage. The cabin
allotted to me was certainly very small, but I
decided to put up with the inconveniences, and
set out on my voyage as soon as possible.
Whilst in Liverpool, I took the opportunity
of running down to Eastham, to inspect that vast
undertaking, the "Manchester Ship Canal," now
in course of construction. Should the work be
successfully completed, the trade of Liverpool
■~,A — 16 —
will undoubtedly suffer, but having regard to the
enormous amount of capital already sunk in the
concern, and the additional capital now asked
for, I have my doubts as to the scheme succeeding. The difficulties and obstacles which the
Company have had to contend with are very
•great, and the recent heavy storms have done
much damage to the works, in addition to which
they will have to encounter the powerful opposition of the London &. North Western Railway
Company, who will always be in a position to
reduce their tariff to meet the circumstances.
During the progress of these works, an interesting archaeological discovery was made. About a
mile from the entrance to the Canal was found
an ancient Roman road, with proper pavestones,
milestones, etc., fourteen feet below the surface,
and stranger still, the roots of several oak trees
that had evidently grown on the road, were also
dug out. Again underneath this road was a
subteri-anean passage leading to the sea, and
probably built to carry the water off, thus showing that at one time the land must have been at
this level. Close to this spot is a large dwelling
house, which, according to history, was at one
R t O 9/7
time Oliver Cromwell's head-quarters. The
depth of the Canal is 30 feet, which will enable
the largest ships to enter, and is broad enough to enable them to pass each other, thus doing
away with the necessity of hauling into sidings,
as in the case of the Suez Canal.
The next day, whilst idly sauntering along
Lord Street (the Regent Street* of Liverpool) I
came across an old school friend, whom I had not
seen for years, and after inviting him to dine
with me on the following day, I returned to my
hotel/ CHAPTER   III.
A Precocious Boy—I again alter my Plans
—Southport and Old Recollections—
Impressions formed from Advertising!—j
* An Incident at the Barber's—The recent
Dock Labourers' Strikes.
THE hotel I was staying at was very comfortable. Amongst other visitors there
was an eccentric old gentleman, whose
head was almost bald, and a widow lady**with a
very precocious son, a boy of some nine or ten
years, who caused a good deal of amusement to
some, though I* am afraid, annoyance to others.
One morning at breakfast his mother was com-
plaining that she was afraid her watch required
cleaning, as ijr would not go. " Oh no, ma," the
young hopeful replied, "it cannot require cleaning, as I have been washing it in the basin for
ever so long before you got up!"
On another occasion, this young Turk, pointing to the old gentleman, said, "Oh, look, ma,
that funny old maspr has got another forehead on — 19 —
the back of his head!" much to the discomfiture
of the old gentleman, who, muttering something
O f o o
like "insolent young puppy," etc., got up and
left the table. This youngster reminded me of
a little boy belonging to a feiend of mine, who,
after being treated to several fine plums by an
over indulgent grandmother, threatened to swallow the stones unless she gave him sixpence!
My friend came to dinner in the evening, and
after talking over old times, I explained to him
tiny proposed voyage. He had experienced a
good deal of sea travelling, both by * sail and
steam, and he strongly argued the desirability,
from numerous points of view, of going by a
"steamer in 'preference to a sailing vessel, with
the result that I again altered my plans, and
decided to follow out my original scheme. I
had paid a deposit for my. passage by the
"Archer," but the owners kjndfe^met me very
favorably on my gxplaning to them my altered
arrangements.,
jTo fill up the time before the steamer sailed
was my next consideration, and having some
friends in Southport, a very pleasant watering
place some twenty miles distant, I decided to
spend a few days there. During the journey I
was much amused by the numerous, and some of
them curiously expressed advertisements, which — 20 —
at every station covering the hoardings. Here
are a few:—"Pear's Soap," "Beecham's Pills,"
"Reckitt's Blue," "ask for it and see you get it."
Payment is never hinted at in the request.
"Why pay rent?" was another enquiry that met
my modest gaze, and I inwardly commented that
it was a very sensible question; so much so that
I have made a note of the name and address of
the Company in my pocket book, in the fond
hope that it may be useful to me in the future,
when being pestered by my landlady. Truly,
advertising has become almost one of the fine
arts, to such an extent and extravagance has it
arrived at.
On arrival at Southport I was doomed to
meet with another disappointment, as my friends
were absent on a visit. I accordingly decided
to stay at one of the Hydropathic Establishments
in the town.. I selected the "Limes," and spent
a very pleasant visit there, meeting some very
"nice people. The weather, though cold and
frosty, was very bright and fine, and an agreeable contrast to dirty Liverpool.
Southport is noted for its number of Churches,
and Schools, and also for its pretty girls. Neptune always seems to have a welcome for pretty
girls. He offers them his "(s)and," and what do
'Tread on it."   Just like girls.
they do in return' — 21 —
The last time I was there was in the summer of
1880, being then a youth in my " teens." I was
staying with a schoolfellow, and we spent many
a pleasant hour on the sands picking up the
common objects to be found there. By the bye,
I think at the period I speak of, the most common objects to be found there were the daily
excursionists; but I am not alluding to these.
One day my friend and I amused ourselves on the
sands in the child-like occupation- of throwing
pebbles. My friend hit a young lady in the eye.
He apologised of course. The next year they
were married !    What a curious thing is fate!
A rather curious* incident occurred here during my stay. I was in the hairdresser's, waiting
my turn to be attended to. A very pompous
and talkative young man was operating upon a
somewhat nervous old gentleman, and the following dialogue took place:—
Barber—" They say the ' Russian Hinflu-
enza's' in the ' (h)air' again, sir."
Old Gentleman—" Indeed ! then I hope you
are very particular about the Brushes you use."
.Barber—"Oh, I see*you don't hunderstand
me, sir; I don't mean the 'air of the 'ed, but the
Hair of tne Hatmosphere f Your 'air's very
thin on the top, sir."
Old Gentleman—" My hair thin on the top, sir ? And what if it is ? Confound you, you
puppy, do you think I came here to be insulted
and told of my personal defects ? I'll thin your
top!" And the old gentleman struck such a
Warlike attitude, and the barber looked so: surprised and crestfallen that all the customers
roared with laughter.
During my sojourn in Southport, I communicated with the Agents of the " West Indian,"
and made definite arrangements for my passage,
and on the 2nd of December I returned to Liverpool, as the ship was to sail on the following day."
To return to the subject of the Docks here, I
cannot help alluding to the recent deplorable,
strikes which have recently taken place amongst
the Dock labourers, not only in Liverpool, but in
other large shipping towns in England. My
view is that every man has a right to sell his
own labour at whatever price he feels entitled to
demand, but that no pne has a right to prevent
others from selling their labour at any price they
may choose to put upon it. Indeed, I go so iar
as to fcfeink that strikes, temperately conducted,
cannot, upon principle, be condemned, being
often a protection for the working classes; but
where combinations of workmen, headed, as they
frequently are, by the more skilled and best
paid among-them, endeavour to carry out their — 23 —
particular views by threats, or molestation of
their less skilled and less paid companions, then
I consider 'such combinations to be unjust. I
would appeal to the good sense, justice, and
liberality of employers to make the hire worthy
of the labourer, and to the justice and intelligence
of the labourer, not. to demand a higher rate of
wages than the investment of capital, and the
risk attending it, would justify the employer in
giving. My view is that the working classes,
although impulsive, when they come to consider
matters calmly, judge wisely, and that c.oy
are as open to conviction as any other class, and
as quickly arrive at a sound decision. CHAPTER   IV.
Embarkation—Our Passengers and Crew—
We make some Progress, but not much
— Our Captain's Daughter — Fairly
under Weigh, and Good-bye to dear
Old England.
THE next day (December 3rd), I embarked
on board the " West Indian." She was
under the command of Captain S. F.
Scott (a Very able and remarkably nice man),
assisted by three officers, who, with the crew,
numbered thirty hands', all told. The ship
was well laden with a general cargo, and I
understand is the first steam vessel that has been
despatched with goods from Liverpool to British
Columbia   We carried "but five saloon passengers,
viz., Captain W (an officer in Her Majesty's
Militia), Mrs. W (his wife), Mrs. Scott, a
boy of sixteen (who was the source of much
amusement on the voyage, and Who is hereafter
referred to as " Tommy") and your humble
servant. _ 2S
The weather was very cold, wet, and misty,
and at midday wemadepreparations for departure.
The Directors and friends, who were lunching
on board, drank to the success and prosperity of
the new venture, and shortly afterwards returned
to the shore in the tugboat. At 1 p.m., the Pilot
being on board, the anchor was raised, and we
were fairly started on our long journey. We
proceeded at. a slow pace down the Mersey, which
was crowded with shipping of all sorts, and
belonging to all nations. Off New Brighton we
espied a little maiden standing in the garden of
one of the houses, and endeavoring to attract our
attention by means of a roughly constructed flag,
apparently consisting of her handkerchief stuck
on the end of a,long stick. This turned out to
be the little daughter of our Captain, who was
at school there, and who was being separated
from her parents for the first time. She was
evidently a favorite, for both Captain and Mrs.
Scott appeared to feel the separation keenly.
We had now left the Mersey, and got well
out into the Irish Channel, when the bell rang
for dinner, and as everyone had now become
acquainted, we spent a very pleasant evening.
The sea was very choppy, and being misty, we
proceeded at a moderate pace. About 8 p.m. we
were off Point Linos, and signalling by rocket for I r •*
p|| '    _ 26 -*-
the Pilot Boat, we dispensed with our Pilot's
services. A little further on we passed that
dangerous group of rocks known as " The Skerries**1" but On which there is a splendid light-house,
and as the evening was verv cold and miserable,
your humble servant now turned in. The wind
being favorable we set our sails, and were now
steaming merrily along. The Skerries was the
last glimj)se we had of dear old England, and
recalled many pleasant recollections of happy
times and dear friends left behind.
Adieu, my native land, adieu,
The vessel spreads her swelling sails-;
Perhaps I never more may view
Your fertile fields, your flowery-dales.
-i
"*»*-:
£&-■' CHAPTER V.
have an Attack of Mal de Mer, and
"seas" THE OPPORTUNITY-TO express my
feelings in rhyme—a reminiscence of
Boulogne — Madeira — The Canaries —
Our Amusements—St. Paul's Rocks.
THE weather continued very cold for the
next few days, and there was a rough
sea, but we had favorable winds and
going well to the west of the Bay of Biscay,
avoided the bad weather usually met with in
that locality. I am told we sighted several
vessels about this time, but as I was suffering
from a rather bad attack of mal de mer, which
confined me to my bunk, I did not see them
personally. I was not so bad, however, as I
have seen some people suffering from the same
malady. It recalled to my mind one day last
summer when I was crossing from Folkestone to
Boulogne. The Channel was rather choppy, but
for a wonder I was very well. There were two
friends, however, on board who suffered acutely. One of them retired at a very early stage of the
journey, but the other remained mournfully
gazing over the side for the greater part of the
way. By and bye his friend, trying to look as*
if nothing had been the matter, came on deck
again to sympathise with him. " Halloa, old
man," he cried, " been .queer ?" " Yes," replied
the other, | rather; but that's not the worst,
I've lost my teeth !" The following lines, penned
a few days afterwards when I had recovered,
will, I think, express my feelings:
ON SEA-SICKNESS BY A SUFFERER.
Our good ship " West Indian," rides over the sea,
The engines work bravely, the hawser springs free,
Tis sweet without sickness the ocean to ride,
And gaily " Oh, Steward !"—your arm to the side.
Oh think not good Captain, from foul mal de mer
I suffer—'twas nothings—I love the brisk air,
The sun shining brightly, the green heaving tide,
And the gulls—" Oh, Steward !"—your arm to the side.
Yes, how fresh smells the briny, how soft curls the wave,
What painful sensations long usage will save.
I pace the deck bravely with heart full of pride,
Remarking " Oh, Steward !"—your arm to the side.
Thanks, Steward—What, really !   You thought I was ill ?
Absurd !    (If those engines would only keep still)
I could eat chops or kidneys, or pork boiled or fried,
'' So please get me, Steward—Oh !"—your arm to the side. — 29 —
The weather was now perceptibly warmer, and .
we were able to leave off our overcoats and
warm clothing, which had been necessary in
England for two months past. We sighted
"Madeira on the 10th of December, distant from
Liverpool about 1,300 miles, the run thus occupying about seven days.
Madeira,  a pleasant  island in  the Atlantic,
formerly belonging to England, but now to the
97 © © ©
Portuguese, is a health resort too well known to
need mueh comment here. Consumptive and
delicate persons here find a chmate Which is
almost perfect and uniform. The Hotels arejaf
good and the fruit and vegetation luxuriant.
There are no wheeled carriages, you have to
travel in rough vehicles fixed on runners, some-
©
thing like a sledge, and drawn by oxen—-or the
alternative is to be carried in hammocks or
kpaj&Btpiins. The streets are paved with Well-
polished stones, on which it is difficult and well
nigh impossible i^p walk in ordinary boots.
Another day's sail brought us abreast the
group of Islands/known as " The Canaries," the
principal tow^rbeing Las Palmas. These islands
belong to Spain, and, like Madeira are much
resorted to by invalids on account of their
balmy and salubrious climate. The highest
point  is  the  Peak of Teneriffe, which can be I
II.    1
— 30
discerned at ar considerable distance,' and forms
an excellent landmark for navigators. When a
strong easterly wind prevails, however, it brings
with it large quantities of sand from the Sahara
Desert on the African continent, some 150 miles
distant, in fact to such an -extent, that it has
formed—through a course of years—a ridge
connecting Grand Canary with what was at one
time an adjoining island. All these islands are
of volcanic origin. On the 15th we passed the
Cape Verde Islands. These belong to Portugal, are
ten in number and also of volcanic origin. Fogo
is an active volcano, and rises to the height of
9,150 feet. The last eruption took place in 1847,
and vapour may be even now seen rising from
its summit. San Thiago is the largest, as well
as the most unhealthy of these islands. It is
thirty-seven miles long, and has a population of
32,000. None of these islands are very fertile,
though there are tropical plants in some parts.
Sugar, coffee, cocoanuts, corns, beans, cotton, &c.,
are all seen in cultivation. Criminals are transported to these islands from Portugal, and this
punishment is much' dreaded. All the towns
are wretchedly dirty places, and there are few
good houses. Cape Verde itself is the extreme
west point" of the African mainland. •
The weather was now charming—clear blue — 31 —
sky and bright sunshine, and continued so for
the following ten days, when half a day's, rain
broke the monotony, and was very-refreshing.
We/sighted several vessels, and about this time
one of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company's
Mail Steamers, homeward bound, passed us, and
we signalled her " All well."
Although the number of passengers were
limited, we managed to pass "the time very
pleasantly. Our mornings were generally spent
in reading, and the afternoons in playing ship
billiards, quoits, etc. The evenings we filled up
with singing i arid music (we had piano, banjo,
violin and flute on board) and in a new game called
" Ludo," a kind of draughts, which, although
comparatively a simple game, is very exciting
and amusing. I beHeve it is a new game, and
thinking it may not be known in British
Columbia, I think it wOrth while to mention it.
On the 19th we were abreast of St. Paul's
Rocks. These remarkable rocks, which He more
than 500 miles distant from any continent,
appear to have been raised by volcanic agency,
and-present the form of an oblong crater. The
four largest form a kind of bay on the northwest side, in which there is a considerable swell.
The highest rock is on the north-east side, rising
some seventy feet aboye the sea. CHAPTER VI.
The Equator—Master Tommy Discovers a
Wonderful Phenomenon—The Welcoming of Neptune—A -: Barber-ova" Custom
Fernando Noronha Island—The Rocos
—Tommy has a Sweet Tooth—A Tropical
Twilight.
0
N the 20th December we crossed • the
Equator, and by way of a joke on
Master Tommy we inserted a small hair
in the field glasses,, telHng him that on looking
through, he would see the "Hne." The joke,
succeeded, and he was wonder struck, and no
doubt his friends at home would be equally
astonished, when they -heard from him of the
wonderful phenomenon he had witnessed.
Another ceremony now took place on board,
which has been customary amongst sailors for
many years. It is called the welcoming of
Neptune. For the benefit of those readers who
may not be aware of this ancient nautical custom,
I add a short description.    The Steward, and — 33 —
another. person in female garb, dress up in
character as Neptune and Mrs. Neptune, and
any person on board, whether passenger or crew,
who has not previously crossed the Equator, has
either to be " shaved " or else pay forfeit in the
shape of drinks for the crew. Two of the
passengers and myself had not previously crossed,
but preferred to pay forfeit. Three of the
sailors, however, had to undergo the ordeal,
which consists of the face being daubed over
with all the dirty grease and slush obtainable,
and then rubbed down with a "rough wooden
knife, a substitute for the razor. The unfortunate individual is then plied with a number of
questions, and when he opens his mouth to reply,
the grease brush is popped into his mouth and
nearly chokes him, He is then immersed, clothes
and all, in a pail of water close by, and allowed
to escape. When one is finished, he is permitted
to join in the operation of shaving the others, and
all appeared to enjoy the joke immensely—our
worthy Captain soothing the feelings of the
sufferers by an extra allowance of grog all round.
Barberous treatment though, I fancy I hear some
© * 9/
of my readers exclaim.
On the 21st we passed the island of Fernando
Noronha. It is about four and a half miles long
and. one and a half miles broad, with about 2000 * _ 34 —
inhabitants. * The peak is a rugged, barren
pinnacle, 1,000 feet high, which in some directions looks like a steeple. The island is used by
the Brazilian Government as a place of transportation for criminals, as well as for the exile of
political deHnquents. The scenery is very en-
•chanting. The shore is scooped out by inlets,
and embossed-with green promontories, connected
by circling beeches, where rippling waves chase
esach other over silvery sands, and bathe the
flowerets of the skirting woods.     A fresh lux-
©
urious verdure crowns the summit of the hUls,
blending its soft hue with the general contour of
the island. A richness and variety of vegetation
is seen everywhere. There are no romantic hills
and dales, as is to be found in English scenery,
but everything is on a moderate scale, and pleasing to the eye. The island is garrisoned by a
small party of Brazilian soldiers, under the command of an officer, who fills the office of Governor.
He is assisted by a few staff-officers, and about
100 men. As regards the produce, there are
•extensive fields of Indian corn and cotton, besides
a -plantation of cocoa-nuts. A brick and tile
manufactory is also carried on. but there are no
lime, kilns.
A little farther on we passed "the Rocas," a
long, low, coral reef—perhaps the most formida- — 35 —
ble danger in the Atlantic—the currents being
very powerful. These rocks have been the
scene of many sad wrecks.
Poor Tommy, who was now suffering from
toothache, was very indignant at the dinner
table this-- evening, because some one suggested
he was cutting a wisdom tooth. No one could
be surprised at his indisposition, for the quantities of cakes, sweets, etc., he consumed were
enormous. Eating such nunibbrs of sweet cakes
easily produce stomach, (c)aches. However, poor
boy, it was the first time he had left home, and
allowance must be made ,for youth.
The days at this period were very hot, but a
•delightful breeze prevailed, and the evenings
,were cool and pleasant. Lovely is a tropical
twiHght in these balmy months,—then is, the
hour for contemplation,—it is then the mind
rangesover its best affections, and hearts,although
oceans separate them, hold a mysterious com-
muning with each other. It is the poet alone
that can describe its influence, for the art of the
painter is baffled; he^cannot produce the deepening tints, as the web of darkness appears to be
progressively weaving over the face of the
heavens.
"Deeper, oh twilight, let thy shades increase;
Till every feeling, every pulse, is peace." "1
CHAPTER VII.
m
Christmas Eve—Fishing—We Catch a Dolphin—Its Peculiarities—Another Hoax
on Tommy—Porpoise—A few Remarks
on Natural History—A Thick Fog, and
a Heavy Gale—We Sight Cape Virgins.
ON the 24th December,we celebrated Christmas, Eve with turkey and plum-pudding,
and about noon we signalled a barque,-
bound from Antwerp to Valparaiso. We passed
her close to, and exchanged the compliments of
the season, and, in reply to her request, we also
signalled her the longitu'de. It was very fortunate we-did so, as she was two degrees wrong.
In the evening our worthy Captain invited alP
the crew to the quarter deck and, regaled them
with grog and baccy, and a .pleasant evening was
spent in singing ,and dancing. The day had
been perfect—the sea smooth as glass, and the
horizon unshadowed by a single cloud. The
thermometer had registered 88 h) 90 in the
shade.    To add to the beauty of the scene, there was a full moon; which followed one of the most
beautiful sunsets it has been my lot to witness.
What a contrast to dear old England, with probably frost and snow! '
We wound up the evening with the usual
loyal toasts, and good wishes for the absent ones
at home.
On the 27th, we sighted the coast of South
America, but at some distance off, and passing
close to some banks, we put out the fishing-lines,
and caught a splendid specimen of a dolphin.
We had it cooked for dinner, and a very tasty
dish it made, somewhat resembling a mackerel.
This was the opportunity for another practical
joke on poor Tommy. He happened to be below,
and in his absence, we fastened a sheet of tin,
rolled to resemble a fish, on the end of a line.
We then loudly cried "fish, another bite."
Tommy flew up stairs, and rushed to haul in
the line, which was of some length, and it was
not until the piece of tin was close to, that he
found out he had again been hoaxed. Poor
.Tommy! another startHng incident for his diary.
Fish don't take their hook the same way as
Tommy did. Much, however, depends on the
kind of bait you use. There are several kinds
of bait. White bait for instance. Then again,
there was a girl who once waited for her lover 1
ill
— 38 —
with bated breath. Hooks -have been baited
with live men before now, but an Irishman is
never bate. If you doubt the veracity of this
statement, ask Mr. Parnell!
On the 31st December, the day broke as calm
and peaceful as the preceding ones; it was, however, intensely hot, and we were glad to avail
ourselves of the shelter afforded by the awning
on the saloon deck. We were followed by shoals
of porpoise, and fired one or two shots from a.
revolver at them, but they dive about so quickly
and skilfully, that our efforts were unavailing.
This fish, if. I remember rightly, is sometimes,
called a sea hog, probably on account of its
aptitude for saving its bacon. Its flesh is said
to be rank and offensive, if not absolutely (por)
powagiouus. It is also averred that porpoise oil,
well rubbed into the skin, will make the body
impervious to cold. I should, howeyer, consider
this oily improbable. They feed on other fish,,
and travel from place to place, that is to say, as
soon as they have eaten one plaice, they immediately start off in search of another. (See
1 Forester's Natural History ").
The evening was deliciously cool and moonlight, and the appearance of the water in our
stern, for the distance of over half a mile, caused
by the phosphorous, was a sight to be remembered.. 39 —
The next day tile Captain took the opportunity of checking the compasses, and the
observations taken proved them to be in splendid order.
On the 2nd of January, we stopped about an
hour for* the purpose of recharging the cylinders,
a very necessary precaution, seeing that we had
now been thirty days under steam at full speed,
without a break, and the distance covered being
nearly 6,400 miles. I think I am right in saying
that few (if any) steamers, go this distance, without calling at a port, either for coal or otherwise.
In the evening a thick fog sprung up, and lasted
for several hours, which necessitated- our proceeding very slowly, and to continually blow the
foghorn. This delayed us a few hours, but fortunately the weather was calm, and about 3 the
following morning, the fog cleared off, and
another fine day ensued.
On the 4th January, We encountered a heavy
sea, and a strong gale (.the first since leaving
England). The sea ran mountains high, and
continued for about eight hours. Our good ship,
however, behaved splendidly, and although well
laden, came out of the ordeal with great credit.
The storm lulled towards the evening, and was
followed by a lovely sunset, and a beautiful calm
night.     We were now within three days of the M3'm
— 40 —
Straits of Magellan, and on the 7th inst., we
sighted the eastern entrance " Cape Virgins," so
called through having been discovered on St.
Ursula's day (October 21st). It is 135 feet high,
and forms the seaward termination of a range of
hills of  moderate  height extending   into . the
O ©
interior.
& i CHAPTER   VIII
The Straits of- Magellan—Concerning the
fuegans and patagonians — romantic
Marriage of an English: Lady with a
Patagonian Apolla—We Drop Anchor.
THE weather by this time was much colder,
and necessitated a return to warmer
clothing. We entered the Straits of
Magellan about 2 p.m. on the 7th of January,
but had not proceeded far when a heavy storm
arose, with hurricane gusts, accompanied by a
thick mist, which compelled us to slow down,
and eventually to turn back for a few miles.
These Straits are 320 miles long, and were
discovered in 1519 by Fernando de Magalhaens,
a Portuguese- by birth,  and a commander of
©- i7
repute, who, for some fancied slight, offered his
services to Charles the 5th, then King of Spain,
to whom he proposed an expedition to sail round
the Southern extremity of America, if possible,
with a view to find a new route to the Molucca
Islands. — 42 —
The land on the other side of the Straits,
opposite to Cape Virgins, is caUed Terra del
Fuego, or "the land of fire," as it was named by
Magalhaens, from his seeing so many fires on the
shore the first night he approached it.
At first the Straits are very wide, and covered
in- many places with -floating sea-weed, but in a
little while an extended coast line becomes visible, and we are enabled to see the utter desolation and solitude of the scenery all around.
High projecting rocks ahead, when first seen,
look like islands, but on approaching nearer, they
are found to be connected with the mainland by
>are and rugged isthmuses.
A few miles up the Straits is a solitary farmhouse, occupied by an Englishman of the
name of Wood, who settled here some years ago,
and follows the pursuit of sheep-farming. The
grazing, I believe, is very good, but the place is
© ©' 1/      © X
so desolate, and so far removed from civilization,
that I should think he is not to be envied.
The inhabitants of Terra del Fuego are called
Fuegans—those on the opposite side, Patagonians.
They are very dissimilar in many respects. The
Fuegans are low of stature, of the color of dirty
copper or dark mahogany—their only clothing
seal or deer skin, worn with the hair outside.
They have few articles of traffic beyond their 43
weapons and implements as curiosities. The seal
and otter skins" they vend must be quite insignificant for commercial purposes. They are thievish
and greedy, and - the utmost caution is therefore
requisite in dealing with or encountering them.
The Patagonians,, on the other hand, are very
tall, some of them being over 7 feet, and they are
more civilized (though not much) than their
neighbours, the Fuegans. Some too, are very
handsome, and a story is told of a lady passenger
on board one of the Pacific mail boats, who took
ah .extraordinary fancy to one of these barbarians.
Whilst at anchor in the Straits some of the natives
came out in boats for the purpose of bartering,
and amongst them was a youth, said to be the
son of one of the Chiefs, who particularly
engaged the lady's'attention.    So much so that
©     © *7
a short time afterwards she made another voyage
from England to the Straits, and married the
young" Apollo, as according to aH accounts I may
term the youth, that is to say, supposing Apollo-
. had taken a bath of coffee, (for that matter, why
should not Apollo bathe in his own grounds?}
There is' another striking difference between
these people and the Fuegans. The latter cannot be induced to drink either spirits, wine, or
beer, but the Patagonians will drink as much of
them as they can get. — 44 —
In consequence of the intricate navigation,
we proceeded at a slow pace, and as we worked
our way through the Narrows, the scenery gradually changed. Still, however, the ropks are
rugged,—still the everlasting snow hangs over
©O * © O
the landscape,-—but a stunted green shrubbery
varies the scene. \ *
A little farther onj. we reached Elizabeth
Island—a desolate looking spot—but on which
numerous swans and geese are to be seen. A
few miles more, and we reach the Island - of
Santa Magdalena, whieh is about, a mile long,
with four or five small hills, and here were
numerous cormorants, penguins, sea-lions and
seals. There would have been plenty of work
for our guns here, but- unfortunately we could
not spare the time.
It was now bright and fine again, although
very cold. At 8 o'clock the next morning We
-reached Sandy Point, about 80 miles from Cape
Virgins, and at this spot we dropped our anchor,
with a view to give our engineers the opportunity
of cleaning out the tubes, furnaces, etc. The
Pacific Mail Steamers call here for letters, and 1
therefore wrote one or two, and arranged, after
breakfast, to go on snore and post them. CHAPTER   IX.
Magellan Straits (continued)—Sandy Point
—Some Further . Remarks on Fish and
their Peculiarities—More. About the
Natives—Probable Origin of the Legal
Custom of Sealing Deeds—Tommy Experiences another Disappointment—End
of the Straits.
W1
lowered the boat about  10  o'clock,
and, accompanied by the Captain, went
on shore, the Master of the port having
previously boarded us to examine our papers and
give us the necessary permission.
Sandy Point is a Chilian Settlement, founded
in 1843, and contains about 2-000 inhabitants,
of various nationalities. It was, up to a short
"time ago, used as a penal settlement for ChiHan
convicts, but this no longer exists. -Although
mid-summer here, it was bitterly cold and stormy.
We experienced a good deal of difficulty in landing, as the surf was very strong and washed
violently against the rude and badly constructed v
■    1
fe •!
— 46 —
wooden pier, which was in a very dilapidated
and indeed dangerous condition. Gold and silver
is occasionally found in the neighbourhood, but
coal is the chief article, although, compared with
other places on the Chilian coast, rather expensive.
Sport is good. In December many parrots may
be shot in the surrounding woods, and in the
months of March and April, snipe may be found.
Banduria (a species of Ibis) are also seen and
heard in the settlement, but they are very wary,
and it is difficult, to get near them. -   Ducks and
©
geese are also to be obtained in the salt ponds
north of the settlement. The very high mountains surrounding Sandy Point form a magnificent background, and, covered with snow, present
a very picturesque appearance. A prosperous
trade appears to be carried on and it is evidently"
a growing place. The greater, portion of the
land belongs to the Chilian Government, who
let it on 20-year leases at the ridiculously low-
rental of 5 cents per 100 square yards, but they
Will not sell the freehold. It is a free port. Meat
is cheap and plentiful. Beef is 5 cents per pound.
and we purchased a very fine sheep for sixteen
shillings. I also bought some very fine Guanaco
skins there. They somewhat resemble ah Opossum skin, and are very warm'and comfortable!
Our Captain "improved the shining hour"   by 47 —
selling one of his own boats to a Swedish builder,
who was located here. He had married an English girl, and very kindly invited us all to his
house to tea, treating us very hospitably.
We returned to our boat in the evening, and
as we had ascertained goal fishing was occasion-
© ©
ally to be had in the bay, we threw out our lines.
Horse mackerel and conger are often caught, but
we were not very successful. The habits of the
former I am not aware* of, but as. regards the
conger, I have ascertained that he lives on "the
bottom of the sea." It strikes me, however, that
he must find it particularly hard to digest!
According to natural h story the conger is found
everywhere. In China he is called the Hony-
kcrnger, in Australia he is known as the JXMi&pjfc
oo, and in America as the Con;/' r->-*K. (\ide
Forester's Natural History.)
Anchored off Sandy Point were two men oi
war, belonging to the Chilian Government, one
which was quite new, and had only a day or two
previously arrived from England, where she was
built. She is a very fine vessel, named the
"Almirante Lynch," after one of the Chilian
admirals, and can attain a speed of 21 knots.
It was at Sandy Point that the dreadful
calamity happened to the%"Doterel," one of our
British  Gun  Boats,  in   1881.      She  had  only I ■
— 48 —
anchored there about half an hour, when she
blew up; and' 8 of her officers and 135 men were
killed. The 'precise -cause of the accident has
really never been-ascertained, but the presumption, is that it. was caused by the accidental
ignition of the gunpowder on boai'-d. The spot
where she sank is marked by a green buoy.
We proceeded on- our journey at daybreak (2
am.) on the 9th, and the scenery now began to
show a marked contrast to that we had previously seen." On either side towered mountains,
gradually increasing in height, the base covered
with a kind of dead brushwood, and the tops
with snow and glaciei's. W.e now came in view 8
of Cape Fro ward (the- southernmost point of
South America), a hugh granite headland rising-
abruptly 1,200 feet above the sea. On the opposite side is Mount Sarmiento, 6,800 feet high.
Some of the natives- (Fuegans) here came out to
meet us in their canoes, but we did not stop.
Many vessels, however, are in the habit of bartering with them. They exchange seal and other
skins in return for a few biscuits and tobacco—
being very partial to the latter, and using it as a
food! We had a good view of these poor creatures as we passed by. How they manage to
exist is a matter of no small surprise. They
must literally live fro"m "hand to mouth,"—but — 49
-there, this is often found in civilized countries,—
for instance, a dentist*: lives in the same way
You only see a few of these-natives at one time,
but it is astonishing how rapidly a hundred or
more will assemble if they. see^an-bpportunity of
attacking a Very small vessel, or a' wi'ecked
party. Their- boats, too, are very* crude5 and"
roughly made. There is none of the graceful
gliding of the North American canoe about them.
Instead of being propelled by paddles, they are
rowed by oars, rudely made of pieces of board
tied on the end of a pole. The canoes also, instead of being hollowed out of the trunk of a
large tree into a pretty shape, like those in ' an-
ada, are simply planks, held together by fibres,
without the slightest regard to form. In the
bottom, in the middle, is a fire, and on each side
are generally found 6 or 8 men, women and
children, according to the size of the boat. As
a rule they are almost naked, the women appearing to care less about clothing than the men, and
they will even deprive their babies of any ^ skin
they may have on in exchange for a cake of
tobacco. Admiral Fitzroy, on his first voyage, in
1830, took 2 boys and a girl with him to England, where -they were most kindly treated and
educated for 3 years, showing much aptness, and
leading to great hopes that they might be the — 50 —
means of ameliorating the condition of their
countrymen, but shortly after being restored to
their native haunts,.he found, on his second voyage, that they had relapsed into their primitive
barbarism. The noble kindness and sympathy
shewn by Admiral Fitzroy to these outcasts has
«/ 9/
unfortunately proved of Httle avail, and the subsequent well intended, but misguided efforts of
the Patagonian Mission, have also failed/in lessening the savageness of these wretched people.
Even within the last few years the ship "Ann
and Eliza," bound from Boston, was attacked in
the Straits by 20 canoes filled with armed savages, who boarded her, and in a fearful hand to
hand encounter, 8 of the crew were killed.
Eventually, however, the natives- were beaten off
with great slaughter, but the ship was left so
short-handed that she was with difficulty brought
to Valparaiso.
Before concluding my somewhat lengthened,
and I am afraid tedious, remarks anent these
natives, I should like to say a few words about
an old fashioned custom thev have on concluding
a bxrgain with any of the'civilized settlers. It
appears that when the deal is settled, they perform a kind of -war-dance around'the settler and
in ike-him a present of a seal skin, thereby prob- '
ably, originating the legal expression, "as witness
my hand and »e<d." a*** 51 —
We saw numbers of these seals during our
©
_. passage through the Straits, and as I like to air
my knowledge of natural history, whenever opportunity offers, I may here state that the seal
lives principally on fish. The one I saw, however, in the Aquarium at Brighton seemed to
exist chiefly on thimbles, tin-tacks, French halfpennies, cotton reels, slate pencils and bits of
SeaZing wax, which were freely bestowed upon
him by udmiring visitors.
Near Cape Froward (before referred to) lies
the wreck of the " Cordillera," a vessel belonging
to the Pacific Steamship Company. She went
aground about eighteen months ago, in a dense
fog.
A-little farther on is Cape Quod, and, as we
proceed,  the   scenerv   becomes   magnificent   in
rugged   grandeur.      Then  we  come  to  Astree
Rock, on  which  the  French  frigate  " Astree
struck in 1868, on-her voyage to Valparaiso.
Sholl Bay is the next place we pass, and the
Kelp Goose abounds here; but it is said to be
never eatable/ Point Mercy next comes in sight,
a dangerous rock on which several vessels have
been lost.
Some more native- here came out to meet us,
but, as before, we kfept on our course, which
caused poor Tommy much  disappointment, for F5*2    -
at Sandy Point he had laid in a stock of tobacco
for the express purpose of bartering it for skins.
I think, however, he meditates starting • a \ pipe
himself. We are all anxious to see the probable
consequences. "    '•'•■'■' : -.
The names of several places about: here
aroused recollections of home, t One was'1 called
" EngHsh Reach," another " Dungeness," whilst a
batch of snow-topped pinnacles was distinguished
as "Westminster HaU," and, indeed, bore no slight
resemblance to that celebrated edifice.
At 10 the same evening, we sighted Cape
Pillar, the western entrance to the Straits, and
1,400 feet high. The weather was now very
wet and cold, and we were glad to exchange our
© O
I Pea " jackets for Hari-coats.
I should think our Captain was very glad to
reach the end of this very intricate and danger-
9/ ©
ous piece of navigation, for night and day since
entering the Straits he had been incessantly on
the bridge. CHAPTER  X.
We enter the South Pacific, and meet a
" Swell " Acquaintance—A Spell of Bad
Weather—Mocha Island—The King of.
Fishes—Shooting an Albatross—Santa
Maria Island and Arun@o Bay—A New
Dinner Dish. -•**.
IN   the   early  morning  of   the  1(
entered that largest of  all ocea
LOth, we
oceans—the
Pacific. There was a very heavy swell,
and a strong breeze, which was very unpleasant
to those persons who were bad sailors. I began
to feel the symptoms returning, but fortunately
they soon passed off. We were now evidently in
for a spell of bad weather, and during the next
five days a thick rainy haze, and -strong westerly
winds prevailed. Although supposed to be summer time, the sun showed himself but Httle, and
the sky was overcast and cloudy. I believe
however, that in these latitudes, a clear warm
day is a very rare occurrence.
A sad accident occurred near here in March ■ jF.j
— 54 —
last, when the fine new steamer, the "Gulf of
Aden," belonging to the Gulf Line, was lost
whilst on her voyage from Liverpool to Valparaiso. Including passengers, there were
eighty souls all told on board, and of these
seventy perished.
Keeping, well clear of. the coast, with a view
to break the force of the tremendous swell, our
good ship made steady, but slow progress, and on
the 14th inst., we passed the Island of Mocha,
seven miles long, and three broad, the summit of
which is 1,300 feet above the sea. Dangerous
rocks He off it for some distance, but with our
Caj)tain on the bridge we felt quite at ease.
This island, previous to the 18th century, was
inhabited by Araucanian Indians, but they were
driven away by the Spaniards, and since that
time, k few stray animals have been the only
permanent tenants.
A little farther on is Molgulla Point, on which
H.M.S. "Challenger" was wrecked in 1835.
About this  time  we  saw a huge  whale,
©
I whale, but by reason of a squirting apparatus
fixed on the animal's snout, with which it ejects
copious showers of salt water, and is thus enabled
to rain over his companions. It is also said that
these animals are year by year becoming more
shy and wary, which, of course, accounts for the
great difficulty in whale-layinq and capturing
© .1/ »/ u x ©
them.    So much for the whale.
Numbers of Albatrosses, some of them very;
large, now. followed us, and one  day  Captain
W  shot a very fine specimen, measuring
10 feet from tip to tip.
Soon afterwards we sighted Santa Maria Island, a "point we were steering for, as marking
the entrance to Coronel, where we had arranged
to take in coal. It lies comparatively low, and
is dangerous on account of numerous outlying
rocks and shoals.
Arauco Bay lies inside Santa Maria Island.
It is about 15 miles broad, and is open to the
north. " A small river runs into this bay, up.
which, at one time, vessels of 200 tons could pass
for nearly a mile, but the terrible earthquake of
1835 raised its bar so much as now to prevent
access to more than small boats. The town of
■ Arauco—famous in Spanish song and history—
is simply a small collection of huts, standing upon
a low piece of ground at the foot of the Colocao 56 —
heio-hts, a ran^e of steep, though low hills, rising
about 600 feet above the level of the sea In
the 16th century Arauco was surrounded by a
fosse, a strong palisade, and a substantial wall,
the work of the Spaniards. This was the first
place assaulted by the Indians, after their grand
union against the Spaniards, at the.end of the
16th century. It was surrounded by the hostile
Indians, who at first unsuccessfully attacked the
fortress, but the Spaniards, seeing that they
must be eventually overpowered, escaped in the
dead of the night. Thus began the famous insurrection which caused the destruction of 7'
towns, and drove every Spaniard out of Arau-
cania.
At dinner this evening, the steward raised
our hopes—and appetites—by the promise of a
new dish, the name of which, appearing on the
Bill of Fare, sounded very tempting. He called
ijtf" Woodcock a la Broadway," and we naturally
concluded it was gameof some sort. I think we
all ate sparingly of the opening dishes, intending
to reserve a capacious corner for the tasty morsel,
but alas, we were doomed to disappointment, for
when the cover was raised it was nothing more
than a piece of roast pork and beans. The
steward must look out, or there will be squalls
presently. • Poor Tommy was again disappointed but this time he had the satisfaction of knowing
©
he was not alone in this respect. This little
incident, though trifling, provoked a good deal of
laughter, and,caused Tommy, who was making
up for lost time with some plum pie, to "swaUow
the stones. Perhaps, however, he did this with
a view to pave the way for the cheese and dessert.
Rounding the northern point of Santa Maria
Island about 6 o'clock on the morning of the 15th,
we dropped anchor at Coronel at 8 bells, and
about two hours afterwards the Captain of the
Port boarded us, and examined our papers. He
promised to return during the morning with the
necessary permission to land, but failed to keep
his word, much to our astonishment and discomfiture. Several ships were lying at* anchor,
but none of them were coaling, and it was evident there was something wrong. There was
nothing, however, to do, but to grin and bear it,
as the ChiHan harbour officials are very insolent
and overbearing, and any attempt at interference
with their absurd and ridiculous regulations,
would be unwise in the extreme—a fact our Captain was fully aware of from previous experience.
A few words regarding Coronel, and the neighbouring town of Lota, may not be here out of
p'laee, and they will be fpund in the following
chapter. CHAPTER  XI,
Coronel and Lota—The Richest Woman in
the World—Chili and its Resources—
Its Rivers and Mountains—Santiago and "
its Beauties — A  Recipe  for   Getting
Through Time.
e
ORONEL is situated at the north-eastern
end of Arauco Bay, and, like Lota, is
- mainly dependent upon its coal supply.
The mines here principallv belong to the Pach-
uco Company, and, if necessary, as much as 800
tons can be furnished alongside any ship in the
bay in the space of 12 hours.
At Lota the mines chiefly belong to a Madame
Cousino—who is stated to be the richest woman
in the world. . She has a magnificent chateau,
standing in the midst of lovely grounHs overlooking Lota Harbour, but she seldom resides
there, and for the last four years has lived in
Paris. The house stands on the summit of a
bluff entirely covered with trees and flowers right
down to the water's edge, and is laid out with miles of paths winding capriciously up and down,
over bridges, and along terraces overlooking the
sea, and through grottoes and passages radiant
with splendid specimens of Lapageria Roses, with
which the Chilian, ladies decorate themselves-
with much taste. When Sir Thomas and Lady
Brassey touched here, some few years since, during their voyage in the "Sunbeam," Madame
Cousino entertained them on a very lavish
scale.
Five pits are now being worked by the
Cousino Company, with j& d&ily output of from
800 to 1,000 tons, and an annual production of
over 200,000 tons. Nearly 2,000 miners^are employed, who work 12 hours a day, and earn from
80 cents to .SI.75, Chilian paper currency .''''''The
workmen are supplied with free lodging and
water on the estate. It is a curious sight to see
the miners walking home in the evening, after
nightfall, in Indian file, with lamps in their caps
burning brightly, and somewhat resembling fireflies. This is a very valuable property, and I
believe the clear profits for the year 1889 were
.$1,200,000! There are also smelting works,
, brick works, and glass works in connection with
the establishment, and altogether employment is
given to some 3,000 people.
About 15 miles inland is the City of Concep- 60 —
tion, a thriving and prosperous town Some of
the valleys at the back of the town are very fertile, producing grain of all kinds in abundance
Earthquakes are) however, very common in this
region, and must naturally affect the general
prosperity of the country. I have before alluded
to the terrible earthquake which took place in
1835. Its effects were particularly ruinous in
Conception. About half an hour after the shock
—the sea having retired so much that vessels
which had been lying in 7 fathoms of water
were aground, and every rock and shoal in the
bay were visible—an enormous wave was seen
forcing its way through £he western passao-e
which separates the adjacent island of Quiriquina
from the mainland. This terrific swell swept the
steep shores of everything moveable within 30
feet (vertically) from high water mark, and then
rushed back again in a torrent which carried
everything within its reach out to sea, leaving
the vessels again aground.' A second wave, and
then a third, apparently larger than either
of the two former, completed the ruin. Earth
and water trembled, and then exhaustion appeared to follow these mighty efforts. This
earthquake was fell in all places between Chiloe
Island and Copiapo, an area of 700 by 400 miles.
-One of the permanent effects of the, earthquake — 61 —
has been to raise the level of the land. The
island of Santa Maria was raised fuUy 9 feet.
For a great distance' along the Chilian Coast
there are numerous small islands, and behind
rise that lofty range of mountains called the
Andes. ' Their general elevation is from 12,000
to 14,000 feet, but many have an altitude of over
22,000 feet. The highest point, Aconcagua, is
22,426 feet—equal to 4J miles—and its height is-
only exceeded by Mount Everest, in the Himalayas, which is 5f miles high.
The capital of Chili is Santiago, a very
beautiful towrn, but Valparaiso is the largest
place, and the principal port. I am told that at
Santiago may be seen some of the-most perfect
specimens of beauty for which Spanish women
are so famous. These ladies take more pains, if
possible, with their hands than with their faces.
There is no end of the tricks to. which they re-
.sort to render this organ delicate and beautiful.
Some of these devices must not only be painful,
but are exceedingly ridiculous. For instance, I
have heard of some of them sleeping every night
with gloved hands, lined with a kind of salve or
pomade, tied up to the bedposts by puHeys,
hoping by that means to render them pale and
delicate.
The rivers of ChiH are very unimportant. — 62 —
In the middle and southern provinces they are
small, though numerous, but the northern part of
the country is scarcely watered by any, and from
the Mapu to Atacama, a distance of about-1,000
miles, all the streams and rivers together would
not make so considerable a body of water as that
with which the Rhone enteres the Lake of
Geneva, or as that of the Thames at Staines.
They are quite useless for navigation, but are
serviceable for the purpose of irrigation. From
this cause the southern provinces are those devoted to agricultural industry—cattle breeding
and the raising of grain being the chief employment. In the northern parts mining is the most
important commercial pursuit, and for which
Chili is best known.
Speaking generally, I consider Chili, with its
vast mineral wealth, and exceedingly healthy
climate, one of the finest countries in the world,
and with a proper administration (which alas is
sadly defective) would be a very desirable place
to settle in. The country, however, is always,
more or less, in a revolutionary state, and, as will
be gathered later on, we had happened to arrive
just as another of these outbreaks was commencing.
Chili, like most Spanish countries, is also remarkable for the number of lotteries which are — 63 —
continually taking place, and many instances are
cited of poor and obscure individuals being suddenly raised to wealth by these channels. For
my part, however, I consider them as incentive
to the pernicious spirit of gambfing. In England,
as.my readers are no doubt* aware, all lotteries
are abolished—with perhaps the exception of
matrimony!
From the general appearance of affairs it was
evident we should be delayed here some days,
and how to get through the time was now a matter for consideration. A certain philosopher, on
being asked the best wTay of doing so, replied,
"Eat every day"—an answer which showed him
to be of a very gluttonous disposition. CHAPTER   XII.
i"\'\
The Chilian Rewxlution—Its Origin—"The
Esmeralda" (not Victor Hugo's) but
nevertheless " Victorious " — Bombardment of Coronel and Exciting Scenes.
THE next morning (Friday) the Captain of a
neighbouring ship called upon us, and
from him we ascertained the- cause of
the delay.
It appears that a revolution had broken out
in consequence of President Balmaeeda's threat
to abolish the navy, a course the latter strongly
objected to. He however persisted, and as they
declined to yield to his demands, he had declared
them as rebels. The army had taken the President's side, and consequently a civil war was
imminent. The navy had despatched one of
their men of war, the " Esmeralda," to cruise
round Coronel and Lota, with a view of preventing any communication or business transactions taking place between those on shore and
the ships at anchor, and thus coaling was practically impossible. The Government's action instead of bringing
the navy to submission, incited them to take
active steps in the direction of a civil war.
-Loans were floated, and $12,000,000 of gold
taken aboard the warships. Any Chifiail vessel,
large or small, which ventured from shore was
seized, and relieved of her cargo, and then
detained in an adioining bay held by one of the
• ' © 9/ «/
warships.
On the afternoon of the same day, the
" Esmeralda" dropped anchor close by us, and
we had a good view of her. One or two lighters
were in the act of discharging coal, and it was
very amusing to see the excitement amongst the
labourers when the " Esineralda" was seen
approaching, for if they happened to be caught
they would be pressed into the naval service,
and the coal would also be confiscated.
On the 17th (Saturday), having seen the man-
of-war depart, we ventured on shore for a few.
hours, and arranged with the coaling agents to
commence loading our ship the following day, if
possible, as the delay was becoming serious.
There were several English residents in the town,
and making the acquaintance of some, we were
Very hospitably received. Everyone seemed in
-a state of great excitement, though almost afraid
to open their mouths to express any opinion on I
— 66
the crisis, as it appeared the soldiers and other
officials had been arresting numbers of persons
•on the slightest pretext.
Before we could arrange for our coaling to
•commence, our Captain was required by the
authorities to give bonds to the extent of $14,000
that he would neither sell nor give up any part
of her cargo or provisions to the rebels.
The streets are not paved, and.are very dusty,
■and with the exception of a clock tower in the
•centre of a small public garden, the only building
worth mentioning in the town is the railway
station.- The line is only a short one connecting
■Conception on the one side with Lota on the
other. It is worked by an English Company.
Having called on the British Consul, and made a
lew purchases, We returned to the vessel.
We took advantage of the delay by re-painting the ship, and in one or two respects changed
the colour, a circumstance which it seems caused j
some anxiety to the •" Esmeralda," and occasioned
"us a certain amount of annoyance, as will be
gathered as my narrative proceeds.
By this time several ships had arrived in the
"bay, all for the purpose of coaling, including the
Pacific Mail Boat "Galicia," bound for Valparaiso.
We now heard that yesterday the " Esmeralda |
.had captured two ChiHan vessels just outside the — 67 —
bay,  which were   laden .with   coal,   and   had
promptly dismantled them..
The next day (the 18th, Sunday,) our coaling
commenced. We had arranged for 400 tons to
be delivered,-- but had only succeeded in getting
about 70 tons on board, when the demon "Esmeralda" was again seen steaming at full speed into
the harbour. This was exceedingly provoking,
but it was useless to endeavour to get the labourers to proceed. The same excitement and confusion again prevailed; off they rushed pell mell
into the lighters, rowing for dear life to the shore,
and fortunately reaching it in time. An unlucky
fisherman, however, pursuing his calling, wTas not
so fortunate, for he was. captured. We afterwards ascertained, however, that he was a naval
spy, who Had been on shore, and who had assumed a fisherman's disguise. He had evidently
brought news of- some importance, for after he
had been on board the "Esmeralda" for a short
time, their band struck up the National anthem,
the tars manned the rigging, and loud cheering
ensued. This was immediately responded to by
the soldiers on shore firing several shots at the
man-of-war's boat while she was on her way to
the Pacific Mail boat. The next moment we
heard the thunder of a long gun, and the whizzing of projectiles unpleasantly near us, and we — 68 —
accordingly raised our anchor 3§|pr sought a more
sheltered position. An excited enthusiast in the
railway station also added to the noise and' confusion by firing several shots in the direction of
the man-of-war, needless to say, however, doing
no damage to her, but on the contrary jeopardising the lives of those people who happened to be
near him. The utmost disorder now prevailed—
the handful of soldiers on the pier hoisted the
signals of war, and began firing at the "Esmer-
alda." She was, however, out of range. This was
followed by a volley from the sharp shooters on
the "Esmeralda," and two soldiers were killed on
the pier, The remainder beat a hasty retreat
into the town, and left the pier to take care of
itself. I suppose however it is natural for soldiers of the line to show a disposition to hook it
The windows of the railway station were broken
and soon afterwards a shell struck it, and exploded in the chief cashier's room, but fortunately it was deserted at the time.
The people on shore could now be seen running away from the town in all directions, and
soon the neighbouring hills were covered with
them.    A little knot of EngHsh residents had
©
congregated at the back of the British Consul's
office,-and it was evident that everyone was seriously alarmed at the aspect matters had assumed. — 69 —
It was fortunate the soldiers on the shore had no
very big guns, for had it been so, we were still
much too near to be pleasant. The "Esmeralda"
was now seen charging her big guns, and steaming away in the direction of a railwaybridge,
about half a mile out of the town, evidently with
the intention of destroying it, and cutting off
railway communication between Coronel and
Lota.    She fired several shells at the bridge, but
©    |
her gunners were evidently inexperienced, for
she did not do any damage, and apparently she
was somewhat disgusted herself, for she shortly
afterwards steamed away in the direction of
Lota. We heard her discharge several shots
there,* and afterwards, ascertained she had fired
at a passing train from Lota to Coronel, but with-
-out managing to hit it. The damage to the
inhabitants of Coronel turned out to be very
trifling—3 persons killed, and one old  woman
© X '
dropping down dead in the street through fright.
About 5 o'clock the same evening, the " Esmeralda" was seen steaming out to sea—the people
returned to their homes, and peace seemed restored for the time being. Thus ended a most
exciting day.    It was my first experience of a
© «/ 9/ J-
bombardment, if such a small affair can be. so
termed, but it had the effect of relieving the
monotony which every one was beginning to feel
after such a long time at sea. CHAPTER   XIII.
Coaling under Difficulties—An Invitation
to Breakfast — " Chili " Weather — A
Chapter on Paradoxes—Views on Electric Light—A Curious Coincidence. .
O'N Monday, the 19th, the lighters" came
alongside early, and coaling proceeded
. all day without interruption. This was
continued on the 20th, when about 10 o'clock the
1 Esmeralda" again appeared in sight, but she
steamed into Lota, and our coaling proceeded.
We went out to breakfast this morning on
board the " Gulf of Guinea," where we were very
kindly received by the commander Captain
Livingstone. We afterwards all went on shore
again for a few* hours, and inspected the' damage
done to the houses, etc., by the "Esmeralda's"
guns, but there was very little harm done.
The weather was very fine and warm, but
chilly. Yes, reader, however paradoxical this
may seem, it is nevertheless correct. I see,
however, the printer has made a mistake in the
spelling.    It should have been " Chili.'' Talking of paradoxes,—these formed the
subject of after dinner conversation one evening,
and as I heard one or two which seemed to be
original, I have ventured to jot them down for
the benefit of my readers.
The following is an apparently simple one,,
but it is astonishing what a very simple query
will sometimes catch a wise man napping:—
"A snail, climbing a post 20 feet high, ascends
five feet every day, and-sHps down four feet every
night. How long will the snail take to reach
the top ?"
Or another:—
"A wise man, having a window one yard
high and one yard wide, and requiring more
light, enlarged the window to twice its former
size: yet the window was still only one yard
high and one yard high."-    How was this done?
The latter is a catch question in geometry.
The window, being diamond shaped in the first
I instance, ancLjafterwards made square, whilst as
as regards the former, perhaps it is scarcely necessary seriously to point out that the answer is
not 20 days, but 16, since the snail, who gains-
one foot each day for 15 days, climl^on the 16th
day to the top of the pole^-nd there remains.
The following was once aslfed at a university
wine party by a well-known, senior-wrangler: j II1
"Suppose three snakes, each of which is
swallowng each other by the tail-, so that the
three form a circle. Then, as the swallowing
process continues, the circle .evidently grows
smaller. Now, if tfyey thus continue to swaUow
each other, what will eventually become of the
snakes?" Of course it is clear that-either the
swallowing process must stop somewhere, or that
the snakes will vanish down each others throats.
At what point then will the-swallowing cease?
As far as I know this puzzle has never been
solved, and any ingenious reader who can form a
solution of it is invited to communicate with the
author.
One more, and I have done:
"A train starts daily from San Francisco to
New York, and one daily from New York to
San Francisco, the journey taking (say) 7 days.
How many trains will a traveHer meet in journeying from San Francisco to New York?" It
appears obvious at the first glance that the traveller must meet seven trains, and this is the
answer which wiU be given by most people to
whom the question is new. The fact is overlooked that every day throughout the journey a
fresh train is starting from the other end, while
there are seven on the way to begin with. The
traveller will therefore not meet seven trains,,
but fourteen.
I The "Esmeralda" could now be dimly seen
steaming out to sea, but she was using her electric • search lights very vigorously. What a
splendid light these throw. I see it is becoming
used more and more every day in ordinary passenger ships, although I have heard objections
raised to it by several ship captains and others
as causing too much glare and dazzling the vision.
I don't know what particular system is used for
ships, but should fancy Siemens as being the
most appropriate.
I had almost forgotten to mention a curious
©
coincidence, i. e., that Captain W and his
wife (my fellow passengers) had actually booked
their passage in the sailing ship "Archer," but
altered their minds for the same reason as myself, and now we had each selected this particular ship in substitution, although there were the
choice of several other routes to travel by.
After a game of Ludo, (now re-named Lota,
as a memento of our eventful visit), I turned in
early with a view of getting a quiet night's rest,
as we expected to be on the move again to-morrow, if possible. CHAPTER   XIV.
Our Troubles not yet Oyer—We are Chased
by a Man-of-War—A Narrow Squeak—
Further Particulars of the Revolution—Full Speed Ahead Once More.
ON Wednesday morning, the 21st, after a
week's delay, we finished our coaling,
and at 2 p.m. resumed our journey. We
had made an addition to our crew, as at Coronel
our Captain engaged two extra sailors and a car-,
penter, all very glad to leave such a hot-bed of
strife, and who were to work out their passage.
We proceeded at a .careful pace out of the harbour, and were soon going at full speed ahead.
Our troubles, however, were not yet over, for
shortly afterwards a Chilian steamer, in the service of the rebels, passed close by us, and enquired our destination. We replied, and dipped
our flag in courtesy, but apparently she was not
satisfied, as she continued following us for some
distance, and was eventually seen making for
another and larger vessel some 8 miles off    This,
■/&S. on closer observance, proved to be our old enemy,
the " Esmeralda" We, however, nothing daunted,
continued on our course at full speed, and had
emerged into the Pacific when the man-of-war
was seen steaming towards us at a terrific pace.
There was a very heavy sea running at the time,
and every now and then we lost sight of her in
the tremendous waves, but steaming about 17 or
18 knots to our 10, she was rapidly everhauling
us. She how ran up a signal having reference
to bad weather, (which afterwards turned out to
be an error on' her part, as she meant to have
said, "heave to immediately.") We, however,
proceeded on our way, when approaching nearer
she discharged one of her guns. Sjhe was now
within a mile off, and there could be no doubt of
her intention to waylay us, and she was evidently getting impatient, for while we were
hoisting the Union Jack she discharged a second
gun. The utmost confusion now prevailed on
our little ship. What could they want with us?
Visions of robbery and confinement in a Chilian
prison rose in our minds. Poor Tommy was non
est, thinking, no doubt, he was going to be pressed
into the Chilian navy. Our engines were now
stopped, and the "Esmeralda" steamed round
under our lee, and launched her boat containing
a Heutenant  and  four marines, armed to the — 76 —
teeth. He boarded us and we produced our
papers for his inspection, when he explained that
the reason of our detention was that a captain
of one of their ships had deserted and joined the
opposition party on shore, and accompanied by another deserter was supposed to be escaping in
our vessel! He also stated they had reason to
beHeve we had on board a quantity of dynamite
cartridges for the Chilian Government, and that
we had repainted our ship with a view to avoid
recognition. Our Captain produced his manifest
and jjther papers, assuring him that his suspicions were groundless, and that he was at
perfect liberty to search the ship for the deserters, if he thought fit, whilst as regards the dyna-
*   © ** ■ © 9/
mite cartridges, they were for the use of the
British navy at Esquimalt.
"We must have them," the officer exclaimed,
and pointing out how useful it would be to them.
JL ©
Captain Scott, however, firmly but quietly
explained how impossible'this was. The rebel
officer then insisted, but our Captain still remained firm.    Four times the value of the cargo
©
was offered in gold and refused, and the Captain
pointed out the nature of the bond he had given
at Coronel. ■ The officer then suggested he could
• O©
take the money and say that the goods had been
forcibly taken away from him.    To this Captain -— /-/ —
Scott, of course, refused to listen, and the. rebel
officer then stated his intention of taking the
o
:cargo without our permission.
. "Not while we have Englishmen on board,'
was the reply, "there are 40 of us, well armed,
and we shall make a mighty j lively fight of it."
This the Chilian officer treated as a joke, and
asked- what 40 men could do against a warship ?
" We can kill you just as fast as you come on
board," was the determined reply.
"But we have big guns, we blow you out of
the water," said the officer.
"Well," replied our Captain determinedly, and
trying to scare the officer, "if you fire on us I'll
get up full steam and charge into you. I've got
a good strong ship-and she's heavily laden, and if
we don't sink you I'm a Dutchman."
This bravado seemed to fairly upset the
ChiHan; he looked at the Captain to see if he
was joking, but a firm and resolute demeanor
met his enquiring gaze. Presently he remarked:
I But you'll all be killed then."
"All right," returned Captain Scott, "we'll all
go to the* bottom together."
At this he appeared fairly non-plussed, but
eventually he appeared satisfied with the explanation given, although he again pointed out the
terrible punishment that would await us if it — 78 —
afterwards turned out we had deceived him.
The amusing part of the story is that their spies
at Coronel had ascertained we had an army captain on board, and our unassuming and innocent
passenger, Captain W , was supposed to be
one of the deserters they were in search of!
The lieutenant now returned to his boat, having previously made an ample apology for the
delay and inconvenience they had occasioned.
Whilst the lieutenant was closeted with our
Captain, the ."Esmeralda" drew closer to us, and
several officers on the bridge scanned us very
narrowly,"evidently being sanguine they were on
%J    ' 9/ © © 9/
the right track. She drew perilously near,
although there was a heavy sea running, and the
remarks made in a previous chapter with reference to their inefficient gun fire, applies with
equal force to their bad navigation, for she
.steamed right across our bows and narrowly escaped boring us, indeed, had we not set our ship
in, motion, half speed astern, a collision would
have been inevitable. Apart from this it was a
most stupid piece of business on their own behalf, for assuming we had - been hostile* and had
been fitted with an iron ram under our bows
when she crossed us there would have been nothing to prevent our going full .speed ahead into,
and sinking her.     However, "alls well that ends — 79 —
well." The " Esmeralda " took up her boat,
and steamed away — Master Tommy emerged
from his hiding place, and we proceeded on our
journey.
From the Chilian officer I gathered a little
further information concerning the state of
affairs. He explained that at Valparaiso the
soldiers had fired on the British man-of-war
" Warspite's " boat in the harbour, but had since
made a sufficient apology, and that further,
British sympathy was entirely on their side,
and that they were ultimately sanguine of success. He further stated that the President had
imprisoned 3,000 people, and had them flogged
in the square every morning, holding leasts and
other entertainments in the afternoon. Truly
a barbaric state of affairs.*
At 6 p.m. we were again under full steam
and our new paint being a fast colour, we expected to make up for lost time. We now lost
sight of land, and did not expect to see it again
(with the exception of one or two small islands)
until we reached the coast of California, some
4,000 miles distant.
* Since the above was written I hear that Coronel,
Iquique and Santiago have been under a state of siege by the
rebels, and destroyed, and we must be considered fortunate
;;to have got away at the time we did.—H. F. CHAPTER   XV.
Juan Fernandez Island—Scene of Robinson
Crusoe's Adventures — Islands of St.
Ambrose and St. Felix—On Salt Water
Bathing — Concerning an Octopus —A.
Summer's Day — The Booby Bird—The
Galapagos Islands—On Laughter.
ON Friday, the 23rd, we sighted the Islands
of Juan Fernandez, sometimes called
"Robinson Crusoe" Islands. This group
(if it can be so called) consists of two chief
islands, at a considerable distance apart, with
some smaller ones attached to each. Their name
is derived from Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard, who
discovered them in 1563. He designed to settle
here, and requested a patent for them, but did
not obtain it. It was much visited by the Buccaneers in their marauding expeditions against
the Spaniards. In 1681 a Mosquito Indian was
left on it by a passing ship, and was taken off
again in 1684, he having lived three years there
soHtarily upon the goats introduced  there by — 81 —
Fernandez. In 1709 Captain Rogers touched
here, and found the wen-known hero, Alexander
Selkirk, who had been left on it by the. ship
I Cinque Povts " over four years previously. Selkirk
gave an account of his sojourn to Daniel Defoe, in
order to prepare it for the press, and from the
ideas there given the exceUent romance of Robin-
. son Crusoe was founded.
In 1819 the Chilian Government formed it
into a penal colony, but it was not kept up on
account of the expense.
An Austrian officer, Baron Von Rodth, has
been a resident of the island for the past 15
years, with a small colony of natives, and European deserters from civilization. They only
communicate with the world once a year, when
they dispatch a fine yacht to Valparaiso for
supplies. m%$
The next evening, about 8 o'clock, we passed
between the islands of St. Ambrose and St.
Felix, situated about 500 miles west of Copiapo
in Chili, and are only visited for the purpose of
fishing and procuring water. They are 11 miles
apart. A remarkable rock, very much resembling the Bass Rock at the entrance of the Firth
of Forth, lies off the east end of St. Ambrose,
and a small rugged conical shaped rock to the
westward. — 82 —
Through the west part of the Bass is a remarkable fissure, leaving a cavity through at the
water Hne, and about 20 feet high, shaped Hke a I
* O     ' X
triangle.
St. Felix consists of two islands, connected by
a reef, and about \\ miles to the north is a remarkable islet, which, from its similarity in
shape, has been named Peterborough Cathedral, I
and which, from most points of view, resembles
a ship under sail. These islands all appear to be
volcanic, and are without an appearance of
verdure.
The next day we again entered the tropics.
It was one of those days when existence seems
most full of delight, and when the human frame
is most susceptible of the beauty and grandeur of
nature. Not the least charm about, our long
voyage was the pure and refreshing daily sea
water bath; although, strange to say, sea-faring
men, as a rule, prefer a bath of fresh water.
There was somebody once who, having a little
spare time on his hands, calculated the exact
amount of common salt there was in all the
oceans, and who proved it satisfactorily to be
3,051,342 cubic geographical miles, or abou t five
times more than the mass of the Alps, and only
one third less than that of the Himalayas! Just.
fancy that now, and at Brighton   they   only 83
charge two shillings per head for a hot sea bath
—of course you can wash lower down than your
head without extra charge, if you think it necessary !
This mOrning, whilst pumping the water into
the bath, I pumped up a young octopus, but did
not keep him long as he soon showed signs of
exhaustion. The octopus, I believe, feeds upon
other small shell fish, and its greatest enemies are
the dog fish and the ray. This probably accounts
-for its legs raydiating from a common centre.
A hot % day was followed by a lovely ocean
sunset, even more splendid, if possible, than the
one I witnessed in the Atlantic, and which I have
1 before referred to. The sun was yet an hour
above the horizon, and the sea' like a lake of
molten gold. The colour of the sky nearest the
sun. of a pale green, with two or three burnished
streaks of vapour, so thin, you could almost catch
the sky through them, and fixed, as" it were, in
Bus gorgeous frame. The sun now hovered over
the horizon, quivered for an instant, and then
sank—gradually the surrounding clouds seemed
suffused with a rosy light, turning afterwards to
a bright violet, and then fading into purple—but
the glory of the sunset long lingered in the west,
whilst in tbe east the moon, at full, rose to complete the beauty of the.picture.. — 84 —
On the 27th, a bird called the " Booby" flew,
on the top of our awning on the saloon deck, but
in trying to catch him. he just eluded us. These
birds somewhat resemble an Albatross, and are
so stupid that they frequently alight on the deck
of a ship, and fall asleep, thus allowing themselves
to be caught.
I have nothing else worth chronicling until
February the 2nd, on which date we again
crossed the Equator, and at some distance off
passed the Galapagos Islands. They extend on
each side of the line, and are about 600 miles
distant from the west coast of the Republic of
Ecuador, to which they belong. They were discovered by the Spaniards.
Land turtle, or tortoise, and guanoes abound
here, and the latter are so tame that a man may
knock down twenty in an hour's time with a
club. The land turtle are so numerous that
500 or 600'men might subsist on them alone for
several months, without any other kind of provisions. They are so extraordinarily large and
fat, and so sweet, that no puUet eats more
pleasantly.
There are six principal islands, nine smaller)
and • many islets, scarcely deserving to be distinguished from mere rocks. The largest is
Albemarle, sixty miles   in   length, and fifteen — 85
proad, the highest point being 4,700 feet' above
the level of the sea.    The constitution of the
KP-hole is volcanic, and there are supposed to be
in all the islands at least 2,000 craters. These
are of two kinds, one consisting of scoriae and
l|>va, and the other of finely stratified volcanic
sandstone.    Considering these islands are placed
Rfirectly under the equator, the climate is far
from   being   excesssively  hot,   a   circumstance
Kjhiefly owing to the singularly low temperature
of the surrounding sea.
Charles Island, though one of the smallest of
the group, is one of the most important, as upon
Kb is the only permanent settlement. The beach
here has been called " Pat's Landing," from an
Efishman who lived alone on the island for
18 or 20 years, with occasionally a sailor or two,
Resellers from the ships touching. He was killed
in attempting to bring off" a wife from Guayaquil.
Innumerable crabs and hideous iguanas abound
round these islands—the latter are extremely
ugly, being lizard-shaped, about three feet in
length, of a dirty black colour, with a great
mouth, and a pouch hanging under it, a kind of
horny mane upon the neck and back, and long
claws  and  tail.       They  swim  with  ease   and
rep/iftness, but use their tails only at that time.
Taken altogether, these islands form one of — 86 —
the most interesting features of the Pacific Ocean.
Whether they are considered in the physical
formation so distinct to the low coral groups
which dot this vast expanse of waters; the strong
and devious currents which surround them, vary-y
ing so much from other portions, of the great
ocean—the active volcanic agency everywhere
visible—their position on the equator, or their
importance to shipping for the suppHes they
afford—these islands (sometimes called the
| Tortoise Archipelago ") must be evident as onel
of the most interesting features of the globe.
A burst of hearty laughter now greets my ears,!
which I find is caused by some one recalling the
fun we had the last time we crossed the equator
A good hearty laugh does one good. To laugh
heartily and musically is, I think, one of the
most enchanting of God's blessings. Laughter i
and tears are, however, so closely alfied, that one
often is puzzled to know where sorrow ends and ■
aughter begins.    Once at a funeral I observed a
gentleman who was weeping copiously, pull off
lis wig with his hat, and a deep mourner giggling
at it! The   Doldrums — Turtle — The   Boatswain
Bird—Rolls for Breakfast—A  White
Squall—Experiments  on   Calming the
i Waves—Also   a   Wife—Clipperton   Island.
THE next day, the 3rd, we got into the
Doldrums, and there was absolutely not a
ripple on the ocean. Numbers of turtle,
fast asleep,, floated close by us, and in the absence
of a proper net, we endeavoured to catch some
with the hammock, but unfortunately without
success. If we had been able to stop and lower
a boat, we could have caught plenty.
A bird, called the "Boatswain Bird," now fell
stunned  on the  deck.     It flew into the thick
heavy smoke from our funnel, and was blinded
:by it.    We did not keep him however, for he
seemed so miserable, and after 'a short time we
MJirew him overboard, and he went away at a
f tremendous pace, followed by several others who
had been hovering around  the  ship, and who — 88 — •
were probably anxious to overtake him to near
the result of his adventures.     This bird has a
long white beak, something Hke the albatross,
but the curious feature of it is a long red qui
protruding for some distance at the end of its tail.
This was another beautiful evening, and I re-
mained on deck '''until a late hour meditating on
the beautiful works of nature. The stars studded
the heavens, so I thought I might appropriately
study the stars.
The foUowing day we emerged from the doldrums, and had the benefit of the north-east trade
winds, but they set in very strong, and made our
boat very lively. To keep in unison with the
ship, our cook sent us some new "rolls" for
breakfast. In the afternoon we experienced one
of those squalls'so often found in the region of
the equator. A white mist began to curl
above the horizon — the barometer fell so
low, I thought it Would break—the blueness of
the sky seemed suddenly to fade and become a
dingy grey color, and the swell on the ocean
covered the waves with a scurfy foam. The rain
now came down in torrents but the squall soon
died away, the heavens again became bright, and
though the waves were still tumultuous, no
evidence of the storm was visible with the exception of the agitated state of the ocean.     In — 89 —
these times of science and invention, I shall not
be surprised, one of these days, to hear of a wonderful discovery for breaking the force of the
ocean waves. I recollect once hearing that a
Commissioner of a certain royal institute had experimented, on a portion of the North Sea by
pouring several gaUons of oil upon the restless
waves, without, however, having the effect of
diminishing their motion. On the contrary these
experimentalists, beginning to feel very ill, put
back, and reported that the conclusion they had
arrived at was that when anyone talked of calming the waves with oil, it was merely meant as a
"poetical embellishment!" It reminds me of a
story I once heard of an' American gentleman,
with a wife whose temper was Hke unto the fury
of a tenapest. One day, having taken home a
tin of petroleum, he set it down on the hob in her
presence, and went for a stroll. When his friends
saw him a few days afterwards, he wore mourning! He must have possessed a good deal of
courage, but there are some people who have
more than others—men who marry twice, for
instance!
On the 5th inst. we passed by Clipperton
Island/which is.nothing more than a very dangerous rock in the middle of the Pacific, and,
with the shoals, is about three miles in length. ._ go —
No living trees can be seen, but the whole island
is covered with gannet, boobies and pelicans. Its
colour is very dark, and nearly black," and in its
vicinity sharks, turtles, and porpoise are often
seen in great numbers. I remarked td one of
our officers, on seeing a large shark go by, "How
would you feel if one of those brutes got hold of
you?" "Rather-down in--the mouth," he replied,
which struck me as being very 'much to the
point. CHAPTER XVII.
A Strong Current Impedes Our Progress—
The Revilla Gigedo Islands—Again in
Sight of Land — An Attack of Indigestion Ind its Consequences—Guada-
loupe — The Californian Islands — Off
San Francisco.
ON   the 6th we encountered a very strong
current from the north-west, which impeded our progress as much as twenty-
four miles a day, and we continued to feel the
force of it, more or less, for the remainder of our
journey.
On the 9th we passed the Revilla Gigedo
Islands, the largest of which, Socorro, is stated
to be thirty miles in extent. The name was-
given by Colnett in 1793, out-of compliment to
the Viceroy of Mexico, from whom he- had
received much kindness and civility. Socorro*
is lofty, the highest peak being about 2,000 feet-
above the sea level, and it can be discerned
sixty miles distant. It is in a great measure
covered with brushwood, intermixed with low 92 —
prickly pear trees. Although they have not
recently given evidence of volcanic origin, there
is little doubt that the whole of this group of
islets originated from* that source. Off the north
and north-west coast of Socorro there are some
detached rocks, and some also, extend off the
south shore, which is'a high bold coast. A few
miles north-west of Socorro is San Benedicto
Island. Our ship passed between the two. This
island is about six miles long, and has a barren
appearance, with little Or no vegetation. Its
surface is uneven, and is sometimes described as
romantic, having.the appearance of two distinct
islets when seen at a distance of nine to ten
miles.
On the 10th we were again within sight of
land (the first time since leaving Coronel), this
being Cape St. Lucas, the southernmost point of
Lower California. An attack of " bad colds"
seemed now to pervade the ship. No one seemed
to escape, in fact, we all appeared to be (ca)
tarred with the same brush. About this time
too 1 had a very severe attack o f i ndigestion,
causing horrible " nightmares " which seemed to
thrill one with their reality. By-the-bye what"
absurd and idiotic phantasies these dreams seem
to develop; mine was something Hke the
following:— First I dream't the ''King" of Chili
Captured me in Piccadilly,
And for payment "of a Bill, he
Threatened he would take my life;
Then I thought his only daughter
Saved me from a dreadful slaughter,
Treated me to gin and water,
And eventually 'came my wife.
Then I dream't that Mr. Goschen,'
In the House caused great commotion,
For like inmates of the ocean
He appeared with tail and fins;
Then he turned into a sailor,
Like you see on hoard a whaler,
Whilst Parnell, dressed like a gaoler,
Locked himself up for his sins.
Then I.dream't that Julius Caesar,
Called out "Back her, stop her, ease her!' -
Then there rose a sudden breezer,
And the ship was nearly wrecked;
Then a blow,' a push, a shaking,
All my drowsy senses waking,
Proved that last night I'd been taking
Too much lobster, I expect!
Moral—Beware of lobster suppers.
On the 10th we passed (though at some distance) the Alijos Rocks, a dangerous group, lying
off the coast of California, the southernmost and
largest rock being about 110 feet high.
We were favoured with beautiful warm days,
and yet bracing, but the evenings were cold, and
our great coats proved of service.
On the 12th we passed close to the Island of — 94 —
Guadaloupe. This island is 15 miles long by 5
broad, and a chain of hills extend throughout the
interior,'the highest being nearly 3,500 feet high.
Off the south end are two rocky islets, at some
distance from the shore. The island is quite
rocky and barren, and affords very little sustenance for anything except goats. There were two
schooners on the south side, bound northwards,
and these were the first vessels we had seen since
t
leaving Coronel, 22 days ago.
On the 13th the weather became much colder,
and with a strong head wind and current, we did
not make much progress. We saw shoals of
grampus, or small whales, in the afternoon. At
midnight we passed well to the west of a rather,
dangerous shoal, called Cortez Bank, which is
about 15 mles in extent. We were now abreast
of San Diego, which, with perhaps the exception
of San Francisco, is said to possess the finest harbour on the Pacific Coast, as it is subject to less
sweUs, rain, fog and haze, and the entrance is less
difficult to make and enter on that account.
At 10 am. the next day, we passed the island
of San Nicolas, 8 miles long and 4 broad. Its
sides are bold and precipitous, and composed of
coarse sandstone. At midday we passed the
islands of Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San
Miguel.     The former is the largest of the ()a 1 i- — 95 —
fornian Islands, and lies about 20 miles from the
coast.    It is about 25 miles long, and its greatest
o-* o
elevation is 2,400 feet above the sea. On the
lower parts of the surface grass is abundant, and
for some years has sustained a flock of sheep so
considerable that 15,000 to 20,000 head have been
taken from it annually.
Santa Rosa is eighteen miles in length, with a
bold outline, but it is not so high as Santa Cruz.
The hills are undulating, and covered with coarse
grass and bushes.
San Miguel, the westernmost of the Californian Islands, is six miles long, and numerous
small rocks are in its vicinity, although there is
plenty of deep water.
At 4 o'clock we were abreast Point Conception,
and here the wind suddenly veered round to the
south-west, and a strong gale soon afterwards
sprung up, which lasted several hours.
At mid-day on the 15th we were abreast
San Francisco, which I suppose can safely be
described as the I Western Metropolis" of the
United States: Its geographical position and
size, its depth of water, noble entrance, and bold
shores, the Sacramento and tributaries draining
the rich agricultural valleys and auriferous
slopes of the Sierra Nevada, together with the
prosperous city on its shores, and the salubrity — 96 —
of   its  climate,  have  combined to   make   San
Francisco emphatically the port of the Pacific.
A small brigantine bound to that city, here
passed us close to, and the heavy cross sea caused
her to pitch about tremendously.
At midnight we made the Hght on Point
Arena, and the coast line for several miles^
beyond this presents a low shore, with sand
beach, changing suddenly to a straight high bluff
shore, with a few trees, and backed by hills 2,000
feet high, covered to their summits with wood.
' The morning of the 16th broke fine and
bright, and by 11 a.m. we were abreast of Cape
Mendocino. Here the range of hills from the
southward appear to meet a range coming from
the eastward, the junction resulting in a mountainous headland about 3,000 feet in height, the
tops of which were covered with snow,- and reminded me somewhat of the scenery in the
Straits of Magellan, though here the verdure
was much softer and brighter. It was now much
colder, and we had a fire lighted in the saloon
for the first time since leaving. England, nearly
three months ago.
At midday we entered Humboldt Bay, nine
miles across. Close by are the towns of Humboldt (with its port and miHtary station) and
Eureka, a thriving town. — 97
In the afternoon we passed Trinidad Bay and
Head, the latter 380 feet high, and covered with
a thick, low undergrowth of scrub brushes. The
town lies round the roadstead, to the west, and
the land is very rich "and well adapted for agri-
culture.
At midnight we were abreast of Crescent
Bay, which is said to be a very dangerous roadstead, on account of the numerous shoals and
rocks in its vicinity. The mountains in the
background present a magnificent sight. The
largest, Mount Shaste, over 14,000 feet high, is
always covered with snow, and its conical shape
indicates its volcanic character, although no
crater is visible.
At 6 am. on the 17th we passed Port Orford,
and in this neighbourhood are found immense
quantities of the largest and finest white cedar
on the coast. Northward of Cape Orford (sometimes called- Cape Blanco) the nature and appearance of the coast assumes a marked changeJ
Long reaches of low white sand beach occur,
broken by bold, rocky headlands, and present a
light green appearance, being covered with fern,
grass and bushes.
At 10 p.m. we passed Cape Foulweather,
about 800 feet high, so named by Cook from the
exceedingly bad weather he met with soon after- — 98 —
wards. It seems to have kept up its reputation
too, for we here experienced heavy and frequent
southwest squalls. A little farther on is Cape
Lookout, very high and bluff, and terminating
abruptly in the sea. About two miles distant
from it rise three large rocks, which are very remarkable from the great resemblance they bear
to each other. The middle one has an archway
perforated in its centre, through which the sea
can be plainly discerned. These rocks sometimes go by the name of the Three Brothers. CHAPTER   XVIII.
Destruction Island — Cape Flattery—We
Arrive at Our Destination—On the
Benefits and Healthfulness of the
Voyage—A Few Remarks on British
Columbia.
ON the 18th, at 7 a.m., we passed Cape
Tillamook, the face of which is much
broken, and formed principally of yellow
clay, presenting a bright appearance in the sunlight. It is said that at 1,200 feet above the sea
level occurs a stratum of white earth, used by
the Indians as paint; and that the hill sides slip
away in masses of 50 to 100 acres at a time.
At 9 a.m. we passed Cape Disappointment
which presents a geological formation not before
met with on the seaboard, being composed of
horizontal columnar basalt, rising to an elevation of nearly 300 feet. A little further on
the Columbia River enters the ocean. The snow
covered peak of Mount St. Helens is seen in the
distance, although 75 miles inland, and is esti- — 100
mated to be. 13,500 feet high.    It is volcanic,and
occasionally discharges volumes of smoke.
At 2 p.m. the wind veered round to the north
west, and we were deluged with heavy rain and
sleet. A steamer passed close to us, pitching
violently, which we made out to be the steamer
from Victoria to San Francisco.
At 5 p.m. we passed well to the westward of
Destruction Island, situated about four miles
from the coast. It is about 75 feet high, flat on
the top, and covered with grass, but destitute of
trees. It received its name from Captain
Berkeley, who in 1787 sent a long boat'from
King George's Sound, to explore as far south as
latitude 47°. The crew of their smaller boat
entered a shaHow river, and rowed up some
distance, when they were attacked and - all.
murdered by the Indians.
At 10.30 p.m. we sighted Cape Flattery, and
soon afterwards passed the Tatoosh Islands.
These small islands, connected ~ by reefs, are
quite flat-topped, and without trees. From the
top of one of them appears a leaning rocky
column, about 140 feet high, and goes by the
name of " Fuca's PiUar."
At midnight we rounded Cape Flattery in a
blinding snowstorm.    It did not last long, how- \
ever,  and
soon
afterwards the   moon   shining — 101 —
brightly, we entered the Straits of Juan de Fuca,
and the last stage of our long journey. Cape
Flattery presents a bold rugged surface, and the
highest part is about 2,000 feet high. It appears
to be cut up by gorges, and covered with a dense
growth of fir.
Passing the Race Islands at 7 a.m. on the
19th February, we soon afterwards slowly
steamed into Esquimalt Harbour, and dropped
anchor there soon after 9 am. The weather was
very cold, and it was not the choicest season of
the year to enter a new country, but the first
impressions of Victoria, and its surroundings, as
seen from the deck of our steamer, were certainly
favourable.
I should here like to make a few remarks as
regards the good effects to be obtained from a
sea voyage similar to the one I have just completed.
To those who are content with the gentle excitement to be, got in the course of an ocean
voyage, and who wish for the bracing effects of
the sea, without the disturbing elements of frequently going into port and taking in relays of
new passengers, the route I came by could not
weU be improved upon. Over and above the
pleasure that usually arises from" contemplating
the ever varying moods of the surface of the — 102 —
ocean, of the enjoyment of a bright atmosphere
and the purest air, there are certain persons for
whom a holiday at sea is peculiarly suited. To
anyone who is what is-termed "run down," either
by muscular fatigue, long office hours, or prolonged study, the sea-holiday affords the surest
and quickest means of restoring .their vital powers. The fresh sea breeze has all the invigorating qualities of mountain air, whilst the. deck
promenade is better calculated to bring back the
flush of health than the exertion of fatiguing
ascents.
The next day, the 20th, we landed at Esquimalt, which is a charmingly situated and picturesque suburb of Victoria. This is the North
Pacific Naval Station of Her Majesty's Fleet, andv
in the summer, there are generally several vessels
of the squadron lying here. There is an excellent
dry dock and government works, and the harbor
is a perfectly land-locked refuge, and easy of
access for vessels of the deepest draught. From
Esquimalt we took the electric tramcar to Victoria, four miles distant, the journey occupying
only twenty minutes. .
Victoria, .the Capital of British Columbia, is
located on the southern extremity of Vancouver
Island, and has" a population of about 15,000,
principally Europeans.   It is a wealthy and pros- —103 —
perous city, and the least practical observer
cannot fail to note its essentially English character. It very much resembles a town in the
south of England, not only on account of its
balmy and salubrious climate, but by its handsome private residences, and well kept grounds
and gardens. It is a favorite winter resort, ancT
in the summer is fffled with tourists.
From the Beacon Hill Public Park a charming view across the Straits of Fuca is obtained;
the snow-capped Olympic Mountains on the
American side rising to a great height, and the
white cone of Mount Baker standing out conspicuously. The winters are short and not severe,.
and there is usually a long dry summer.
Victoria is the headquarters of  the salmon
. and fur trades, and with all these advantages it
is rapidly increasing" in size.     The streets are
X 9/ o
well^laid out, and the numerous buildings, blocks
and warehouses, and those in course of erection,,
testify to the increasing prosperity' of the town.
Electric tramcars traverse the principal,
streets, and a complete system of sewerage is in
course of construction, which will embrace the-
whole of the city area.
The houses of the Provincial Parliament are^
nicely situated overlooking the harbour, and by
the courtesy of the Mayor, Mr.  Grant,  I was. — 104 —
shown over the new Municipal Buildings, and
the Jubilee Hospital, which are a credit to the
city.
About seventy miles north of Victoria, and
connected by rail, is the rapidly increasing town
of Nanaimo, where coal has been discovered in
large quantities, and the mines give employment
to a large number of men. The coal is said to be
of superior quality, and most of the principal
towns, on the Pacific Coast are supplied from
these mines.
The country between Nanaimo and Victoria
is very picturesque, valley, river, lake, and
mountain producing an attractive variety of
scene. There are numerous thriving settlements
along the line, and there is enough fishing and
shooting to satisfy the keenest of sportsmen.
O v X
After a few days in Victoria, I took the
Canadian Pacific Navigation Company's boat to
Vancouver, some ninety miles in a north-easterly
direction, and the western terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Vancouver is situated on a peninsula, rising
to an .altitude of about 200 feet, with a gradual
descent to the water's edge on either side, thus
affording a most complete system- of natural
drainage.
The harbour is one of the finest in the world. and is always navigable for vessels of the deepest
draught. The capacity of the city for marine
•commerce can never be outgrown, no matter to
what extent it reaches. The growth of the place
is -simply wonderful, and almost unparalleled.
But five years back its site was covered with a
dense forest, whilst now it possesses many miles
-of well laid out streets, with fine brick and
granite buildings, and has a population of about
17,000. It is weU-Hghted by electricity, and a
Well organised system of electric tramcars is in
•operation along the principal streets. A new
tram Hne is in course of formation between this
place and the neighbouring City of New Westminster, some 12 miles distant, and when this is
opened about June next, as expected, the value
of land on and near the route must necessarily
be of great value. There are fine hotels, with aH
modern conveniences, and an opera house which
would do credit to many large cities in England
of far longer standing. Three tine new steamers
are now being built in England, for the Canadian
Pacific Railway, to trade between this port and
China and Japan—in fact one is now on the way,
and is expected to arrive here about the end of
April A line direct to Australia and New Zealand is also under consideration. There is no
doubt in my mind that in the near future this — 106 —
place wiU be the natural outlet, not only for the
undeveloped resources of the country, but for the
products and manufactures of the eastern provinces.
Whilst in Vancouver I made a flying visit to
the adjoining City of New Westminster, and here
again was much struck with the air of prosperity
all arOund. This is the great river port of British Columbia It is situated on the Fraser
River, which is the highway of water communication for hundreds of miles in the interior.
Here are situated several of the Government
buildings, both of the Province of British Columbia and also of the Dominion of Canada.
Although its population is not half that of either
Victoria or Vancouver, it is rapidly increasing,
and in the near future will prove no mean rival
to both. Its chief wealth is .derived from its
lumber and salmon industries. The farmers of
the Fraser vaUey here dispose of the bulk of their
produce, and purchase implements and other necessaries for their farms.
Speaking generally, I feel sure that British.
Columbia has only to be known to attract
attention. Its rich agricultural and grazing
lands, its mineral wealth, lumber industries and
fisheries, are capable of maintaining a very large
population.     Labour is in great demand, and — 107 —
well-paid for, and there is an utter' absence of
the poverty so often met with in the old
country.
Although there is a certain amount of rivalry
between some of the cities, I fail to see any cause
for it, seeing that the future prosperity of each
town arises from a different source.
Vancouver, being the terminus of the greatest
railway in the world, only requires time to stamp
it as the port of Western Canada, and to rival
the size and prosperity of San Francisco.
Victoria, the Capital, is fast increasing, and
must continue to do .so along with the other
cities of the coast. Its old established financial
and wholesale houses, added to its beautiful
situation and salubrious climate, will keep it to
the fore in the struggle for Wealth and
population.
New Westminster has its fisheries, lumber
mills, and the Fraser River trade, whilst in close
proximity are the finest agricultural lands in the
whole Dominion.
^Nanaimo also, with its fine seams of coal, and;
the rich farming   lands  surrounding   it, must
necessarily go ahead.
In conclusion, I would strongly advise any of
my readers in England, or elsewhere, who contemplate  settling   in  a. new  country, to  visit
«: —108 —
British Columbia. To the man of means it offers,
a safe and well-paying investment for capital;
to the manufacturer a splendid field is open, and
trades of every description are bound to flourish,
whilst innunierable channels are open to the
artizan and workingman, and labour- is weU
remunerated. Here also the gentleman of
leisure will find a genial climate and magnificent
o o
scenery, and the sportsman unlimited scope for
his amusement. ITINERARY  OF THE  VOYAGE,
' . Dat«
Lat.
Long.
Position.
Days
■Run.
Total
Miles
1890.
West.
Dec.    3
ij?'    1
3-30
Liverpool sailed 12 no
on.
"     4
52-     1
5-30
Tuscar Light-Ship ...
190
"     5
49-     n
12-40
227
417
"     6
46-50 n
14-22
W. Bay of Biscay....
200
617
i t
43-32 n
15-34
Do.
204
821
"      !
39-56 K
16- 7
Off Coast of Portugal.
221
1042
"     9
36-23 n
16-46
Off Gibraltar	
210
1252
§   10
33-15 n
17-30
Abreast Madeira	
198
1450
"   11
29-56 N
18-37
Do.     Morocco	
207
1657
"   12
26-29 N
19-42
Off Canary Islands.. .
216
1873
" -13
22-59 n
20-49
Off SaharaDst. (Afca.)
218
2091
"   14
19-30 n
21-46
Do.
216
2307
g   15
15- 5 N
22-14
Off Cape Verde Islands
216
2523
"   16
12-33 n
23- 1
Mid Atlantic	
209
2732
1   17
9-   1 N
24-12
Do.
221
2953
1   18
5-56 N
25-39
Do.
204
3157
«   19
3-10 n
27-40
Off St. Paul's Rocks
205
3362
"   20
0-12 s
28-49
Eauator	
216
3578
:: *
3-31 s
30-30
Off Coast of Brazils   .
223
3801
6-51 s
32-16
Off Parahaiba, S. Am.
226
4027
"   23
10-14 s
33-51
' *   Beneibo
224
4251
1   24
13-22 s
35- 1
•'   San Salvador "
220
4471
|   25
16-40 s
37-24
"   Porto Seguro "
221
4692
I   26
19-57 s
38-53
''   Spirito Santo ''
210
4902
"   27
22-57 s
41-42
"   Rio Janeiro   "
240
5142
"   28
25-26 s
43-49
"   Paranacua     "
180
5322
|   29
27-50 s
45-34
"   Santa Catarina
179
5501
"   30
30-39 s
48- 1
|   PortAlegro   '/
208
5709
"   31
33-33 s
50-48
"   Uruguay        "
226
5935
1891.
Jan.    1
36-36 s
53-29
1   Rvr. Plate (abreast
Cape of Good Hope)
226
61£1
••     2
39-**0 s
55-40
Off Bns." Ayres, S. Am.
211
6372
|     3
42- 0 s
58-19
|   Glf.StMatias "
188
6560 110 —
Itinerary of the Voyage (continued).
Date.
Lat.
1891.
Jan.
4
44- 0 s
it
5
46-11 s
a
6
49-28 s
a
7
52-18 s
a
8
52-30 s
a
9
-53-53 s
i i
10
51-44 s
4 i
11
48-25 s
•CC
12
45- 1 s
CC
13
42- 0 s
cc
14
38-20 s
C t
15
37-14 s
(C
cc
16
17
c c
CC
18
cc
■cc
19
cc
cc
a
20
2,1
cc
<i
22
34-10 S
t i
23
30-57 S
cc
24
27-46 S
cc
25
24-35 s
cc
26
21-26 s
n
27
18-15 s
cc
28
15-33 s
cc
29
12-40 s
• -c
30
9-48 s
cc
31
7-00 s
Teb.
1
4- 0 s
11
2
1- 0 s
g
3
1-58 :-?
tc
4
5- On
1I
5
8- Ox
c t
6
10-53 n
PC
7
13-37 n
cc
8
16-51 1
Long.
West.
61-44
64-12
65-43
68-18
70-40
71-11
76-16
76-31
76-40
76-18
74- 5
73-28
74-41
76-58
79- 0
81- 1
83-26
85-37
87-58
92- 1
92-39
95- 0
97-21
99-30
101-24
102-58
04-35
06-48
108-40
109-48
Position.
Days
Run.
''   Cape Raso, S. Am.
"   Glf. St George"'
"   Pt. St Julian    "
Straits of Magellan ..
Do.
Sts. of Magellan (left
Sandy Point 2.30 a.m)
Abst. C. Pillar 1.30 "
Off Coast of Chili....
Do.
Do.
Off Mocha Island ....
Coronel, Chili	
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Left Coronel 2
Off Valparaiso
Off Juan Fernandez Id
Sts. Ambrose & Felix Is
Mid Pacific	
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Mid Pacific.'.	
Off Galapagos Islands.
Mid Pacific	
Off Gulf of Panama ..
Clipperton Island....
Mid Pacific	
Off Coast of Mexico ..
Do.
196\
163
206
199
anchi
100
180
204
200
177
193
anehr
p.m...
S. Am;
186
225
221
222
226
228
211
227
211
219
231
218
224
206
208
212
197
205
Total
Miles
6756
6919
7125
7324
7424
7604
7808
8008
8185
8378
8564
8789
9010
9232
9458
9686
9897
10124
10335
10554
10785
11003
11227
11433
11641
11853
12050
12255 Ill
Itinerary
of the Voyage (continued
)•
Date.
Lat.
Long.
Position.
Days
Run.
Total
Miles
1891.
West.
Feb.    9
19-46 N
111-38
Off Reveillo Gigedo Is.
204
12459
"10
22-35 N
113-10
Off Lower California,
(Cape St. Lucas)....
195
12654
• n
25-25 N
115-30
Do.
207   12861
'. 12
28-31 N
117-20
Guadaloupe Island...
217   13078
'   13
31-21 n
119- 6
Off San Diego, Cal. ..
194
13272
'   14
34- Ok
121-28
Off Pt. Conception Cal.
206
13478
j   15
37-30 n
122-58
Off San Francisco, Cal.
215
13693
'   16
40-28 n
124-30
Off Eureka, Cal	
196
13889
'   17
43-12 n
124-53
Off Cape Blanco, Ore.
180
14069
'   18
46-40 N
124-32
Off Point Toke, Ore..
185
14254
'   19
48-26 1
123-27
Esquimalt, B. C. 8 a. m.
146   14400-  ■
Best Views of City and Country on sale
'CENTRAL
Book! Stationer? Go.
45 GOVERNMENT ST.
VICTORIA, B.C.
A. B. Ehskinb
p.o. box'290
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COR.   JOHNSTON ST.
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[[Special Arrangements with Publishers to
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Office and School Supplies.
Wi box 737. J. R. KERR
ROBERTS* & NICKELLS
Real Estate and Financial
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— 13 - Oriental - Avenue —-
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Newspapers & Periodicals
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No. 92 GOVERNMENT ST.
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