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All about Victoria, British Columbia Emberson, Alfred 1917

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Array t——^——— ~
British Columbia
PRICE 25 CENTS The University of British Columbia Library
D. L,. Land ^Investment
Agency, Ltd.
Real Estate, Financial and
Insurance Agents
922 Government Street, Victoria, B. C.
Agents for Phoenix of London \ ro
\ CO
■ a
• (/>
f- 'All About Victoria* is an admirable little
book by Mr. Alfred Emberson, at present a
resident of this city. It is illustrated by some
charming    pen    and    ink    sketches    by    Mrs.
Emberson There   are   things   in   the
book that a good many Victorians do not
know. It is by all odds the best general description of Victoria that has ever been given. . .
.    .   It ought to have a very wide circulation."
Victoria Daily Colonist.
co "A Summary of first impressions and sufn-
*-* cient historical foundation to be absorbed in a
£j flying "Seeing Victoria" Car, this little history
-*- is just the thing for the tourist to have in his
g pocket It is a delightfully condensed history of the city which Mr. Emberson
ro       crowds into a brief chapter Mr.
>       Emberson's   booklet   is   attractively   illustrated
with pen and ink sketches by Mrs. Emberson."
5 Victoria Daily  Times.
fo "The writer is a new comer, but he already
=*. sees a vision of a fair city, and with the aid
of our splendid Provincial Library has been
able to furnish a bird's eye view of the city and
a  synopsis  of  its  history  which   is   easily  the
^      neatest and most complete guide yet published.
5 There are few questions which a stranger
could ask about Victoria, its original development and prospects which this little book does
not answer.
^ The Week—Victoria. "Within the compass of a little well-bound
red book, that can be carried in the pocket,
Mr. Emberson prints all that the ordinary visitor needs to know.    There   is   not a line  of
advertising "
Vancouver News and Advertiser.
"Without being either historical or of the
guide-book family, the publication seems to
embody some of the characteristics of both.
It deals briefly with most of the principal features of the capital, and will doubtless prove of
considerable value to the intending resident or
visitor to Victoria. Indeed, it is probable that
even those who have lived there for a long while
will discover much about their city by reading
'All About Victoria,' "      m,     _r 0
The Vancouver Sun.
"The author has charmingly presented those
facts and impressions that give the reader
quite a vivid idea of what interest Victoria
holds for the visitor  and what it offers as  a
home   city   for   the   newcomer	
There is an intimate personal note running
through the twelve chapters that is wholly
attractive and will surely cause the chance
reader to read on when he would throw down a
more  elaborately  illustrated   'publicity*   booklet
as   a  weariness   to   the  mind Read
by those in other lands who seek a change, the
booklet should cause not a few to seek at some
time to know at closer acquaintance this city
of the sunset region of Canada."
British Columbian, New Westminster.
"A kind of chatty guide, by means of which
the newcomer may speedily learn his way
about the city, or a non-resident gain some
idea of how Victoria differs from other cities.
. . . . It is very handily bound, in pocket
size, and illustrated with some pleasing pen and
ink sketches "
Vancouver Daily Province. All About Victoria, B. C.
Price 25 Cents
In acceding to a request that I should
publish a cheap tourist edition of my little
book I have included a few advertisements
which will be found at the end. These I
have selected and classified in order that
they may be of service to visitors.
I wish to take this opportunity of tendering my best thanks to the local Press and
many residents in Victoria who have shown
their appreciation of my efforts as a newcomer to give some useful and comprehensive, although brief notes about their
beautiful City.
1007 Collinson Street,
April, 1917.  All About Victoria
British Columbia
By Alfred Emberson
Author of "All About Vernet-les-Bains,"
and " Fadts and Fancies from
the Pyrenees'1
Pen and Ink Sketches
By M. Emberson
1916 4n
All Rights Reserved NOTES
1. Introductory       7
2. First Impressions of Victoria      9
3. Early History of Victoria    27
4. Parliament Buildings,  the   Library
and Museum     37
5. Public Parks      49
6. Churches, Schools, Hospitals, Clubs
and Societies, The Carnegie Public Library, Theatres and Music
Halls    57
7. Street Nomenclature     65
8. Living in Victoria     75
9. The Industries of Victoria     83
10. Esquimalt    91
11. The City Hall, Public Market, Fire
Brigade, Cemeteries, Some General Information    97
12. Books About Victoria  103 ILLUSTRATIONS
1. Geo. Vancouver's Sloop "Discovery"
.    on the Rocks    6
2. Fort Victoria   25
3. Parliament Buildings   35
4. Totem Pole—Oak Bay  47
5. Craisrflower School-house  55
6. The Old Bastion  63
7. Steam Ship Beaver...  89  ^^1
O NOTE   1.
When I wrote in 1913 my little
I "Guide Book/' as I must with due
humility call it, "All about Vernet-les-
Bains," I was installed as Honorary
Librarian in the Library of the Etab-
lissement in that charming Pyrenean
health resort, and here I am now in
1916, some thousands of miles away,
temporarily located in a little study in
the magnificent Provincial Library of
Victoria, British Columbia, thanks to
the courtesy of the Librarian, Mr. E.
O. S. Scholefield, to whom I am also
indebted for many of the interesting
facts about the City, which I embody
in these pages. My fellow visitors at
Vernet were kind enough to say that
my notes acceptably supplied their
needs for information and guidance,
and I am hopeful that those who visit
Victoria, or intend making it their
home, may find that this little book
meets their requirements, and that it will prove of interest to "friends overseas."
I fear it may be considered presumption on my part to attempt to write
about this important City upon such a
short acquaintance as I can at present
claim, but I am a believer in "First
impressions" and think that it is better
to take advantage of the enthusiasm
and energy of a new-comer rather than
await the familiarity which might
make one deem as unworthy of comment what are really most interesting
places and subjects.
I venture to think that the attractions of their Capital City may be as
imperfectly realised by many residents
in this Province as they were by me
before I made its acquaintance, despite
the eulogistic pamphlets and advertisements I had read, and I can truly
say that Victoria's charms have considerably exceeded my* anticipations,
and that the researches I have had to
make in compiling these Notes have
afforded me the greatest interest and
First Impressions of Victoria.
My wife and I were living in France
for five years before our arrival here in
August, 1916, and our first impressions
of this City are probably more vivid
and exhaustive than they would have
been had we come direct from England.
There is a tone of sadness—but of
grim determination—in the condition
of French cities during this terrible
war. France having been sadly
invaded and ravaged, the people
silently nurse their wounded pride and
hold in check their righteous wrath at
the indignities and desecration that the
nation has been forced to temporarily
endure, whilst they bravely sustain the
losses of husbands, sons and brothers,
but they shrink from and condemn any
frivolous amusements, and even music
grates upon their ears. Theatres
and Cinema shows are tolerated,   but mostly for the sake of the young folk
and the convalescent soldiers.
Apropos of Cinema shows, Will
Irwin, the American correspondent of
the Saturday Evening Post, says in an
article on "How life goes on in
devastated districts of Northern
France," "Heaven bless the man who
invented the Moving Pictures! He
can never know how much good he has
done to relieve the strain of this War."
One might summarize the change in
the national character as being the
absence, temporary let us hope, of the
gaiety and la joie de vivre formerly so
typical of the inhabitants of La belle
Now, here in Victoria, there is an
altogether different "atmosphere,"
although the brave Canadians have
suffered terribly in the fighting, and
there are many sorrowful and anxious
hearts in this City. But the exhilarating climate and the sunshine, combined
with a firm conviction that Victory is
almost in sight and better times ahead,
seem to create a spirit of hopefulness
10 and cheerfulness that tends to banish
the nightmare of the European Armageddon.
Victoria, "The City that is different"
as the advertisements somewhat enigmatically call it, forms the extreme
south-east point of Vancouver Island
and commands a fine view across the
Juan de Fuca strait, of the Olympic
Mountains in the State of Washington,
U.S.A., and, to the east, the majestic
snow-capped Mt. Baker, best seen
from Oak Bay.
The approach to the City by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company's
splendid steamers from Vancouver is
delightful in every way—provided the
sea is calm—and various picturesque
islands are passed en route.
The beauty of the view of the distant mountains on the mainland and
Island is much enhanced by the lovely
tints that the clear atmospheric conditions so often create, and which were
particularly noticeable in the bright
sunshine with which, true to her character, Victoria welcomed me.
As the steamers glide through the
11 outer into the inner harbour numerous
seagulls circle around them, having
patiently awaited their arrival on the
long roof of the Grand Trunk Pacific
shed, making an otherwise unattractive building a pretty picture.
I should say there are few harbours
in the world, where, immediately on
disembarking, one is greeted by a more
beautiful and impressive spectacle than
is afforded by the palatial Parliament
Buildings, with their garden of emerald-green lawns, tastefully placed
shrubberies and flower-beds—usually a
blaze of colour—sloping down to Belleville Street and the southern wall of
the harbour. And facing the eastern
wall is the Empress Hotel with its
equally well kept lawn, by which passes
Government Street. This reception
prepares you for seeing "A Beautiful
City," and I do not think you will be
In the holiday seasons quite a number of "Seeing Victoria" motorcars and
coaches await the arrival of the C.P.R.
boat   from   Vancouver   at   2.30   p.m.
12 Seeing Victoria in these comfortable cars is a very pleasant and instructive tour—of about two hours—as the
driver or conductor gives details of the
points and places of interest that
are passed. You are taken through
China Tfown, and then to the best
residential quarters, which comprise
Linden and Rockland Avenues, Joan
Crescent, and Pemberton Road, which
is described as |I|little bit of old England." The houses here are on high
ground and all of a picturesque style,
with beautiful well-kept gardens,
stocked with climbing and other roses
and bright hued flowers. Government
House is a very fine residence with
beautiful gardens, in a commanding position in Rockland Avenue. Then out
to Oak Bay, and across its 18-hole golf-
course back through Beacon Hill Park,
passing Gonzales Heights and the "old"
Observatory, the Rifle Range, Shoal
Bay, Foul Bay and Ross Bay and its
cemetery. (See Page 99). Foul Bay is
the principal bathing place, but unfortunately this Coast is not very suitable
13 for sea bathing; however, the sheltered
Gorge affords ample compensation.
The Union Club is a massive square
brick building near the Empress Hotel,
and close by is Belmont Building, on
the roof of which is the "Time Ball"
regulated from Observatory, Gonzales
Heights. The ball is raised halfway at
12.45 p.m., to the top at 12.55, and
dropped at 1 p.m. daily. Following
Belleville Street past the pretty C.P.R.
Ticket Office, you often see behind the
store sheds camps of Indians who are
waiting for boats to take them up the
Island on their return home after harvesting, etc. A little further, on the left,
is the W. J. Pendray residence, with
its front garden filled with clipped trees
in various quaint designs. Turning to
the right down Montreal Street you
unexpectedly come on some quite countrified roads, leading into the commencement of Dallas Road which, with
its detached picturesque houses, can
boast of being as fine and pretty a sea-
front as can be desired, the well laid
road being ideal for motorists.
14 At "The Willows," at the top of Fort
Street, there is a large "Arena," now
used as a skating rink, and behind it
are the Exhibition and Sports grounds,
now the "Willows Camp." At Mt.
Tolmie, off Fort Street, are the University and Normal Schools. (See
Note 6).
"Uplands," four miles from Victoria,
affords a striking proof of what is
expected of the future, for on these
beautiful woodlands good asphalted
roads, concrete sidewalks bordered
with turf, electric lighting, watermains,
etc., are already provided and street
cars from "Fort" take you there, to
within three minutes walk of the Royal
Victoria  Yacht   Club,   which    is   on
the shore of Cadboro Bay. The
man in charge told me he has 40
"chickens" (yachts) to look after,
which need a lot of attention on a
windy day or night. There is a lovely
view from the club verandah over the
bay, with the islands "Discovery" and
"Chatham" close by, and   the moun-
15 tains in the distance.  An ideal spot, I
thought, for a residence.
It is fortunate for me that I am not
compelled to find many new descriptions or adjectives for my remarks
about this City, as the pamphlets and
advertisements I have come across
seem to have exhausted the laudatory
vocabulary. For instance what appellations could a new-comer like myself
find to excel or even equal these? The
Empress City of the Golden West—
The Floral City—A City of Homes—
The Evergreen City of Canada—A Bit
of England on the Shores of the Pacific
—The Mecca of all Pacific Coast Tourists—A City of Sunshine. Still, when
one has a delightful impression it is
nice to be able to talk about it, so I
take this opportunity of gratefully
stating that ever since our arrival in
Victoria my wife and I have met with
nothing but the most helpful kindness,
in tramway, street, or shop, it has
always been the same—"A city that is
different" I suppose!
Before the war Victoria was always
described as a wealthy city and despite
16 losses and reduction of incomes the old
fashioned phrase, "well-to-do," may
still be said to characterise the residents, and the result of their unstinted
energy and patriotic unselfishness as
well as their liberality has been shown
in the numerous well-attended entertainments etc. organized for Red Cross
and other deserving War charities.
Esquimalt residents have, I notice,
been prominently helpful and a Red
Cross "Superfluities" shop has done
Visitors may reasonably ask in
what ways Victoria is "different" to
other cities, and without being in the
confidence of the originator of the
expression, I can only give in reply the
principal points of difference, as also of
resemblance, that I have noticed or
been able to discover.
First of all, the great difference in
the air which, on arriving from "overseas," one finds so exhilarating and invigorating, and from all accounts a
temperate and generally favorable
climate is to be relied upon.   And the
17 I
Island's claims to exceptional advantages are justified by the erection on
Saanich Mountain, 7 miles from Victoria, of the largest observatory in the
world (which is now nearly completed), as this site was selected because of the favorable climatic conditions. It is the "white patch" you can
s£e on the mountain side from the
Parliament Buildings gardens.
Another feature is the number of
charming Bungalows of different
designs and sizes, each with a large
verandah and usually a garden ablaze
with creepers and flowers of brilliant
hues which help to make this a veritable "garden city."
The fresh green of the grass in all
parts of the City, despite even the long
dry spfell we have experienced here
lately, is quite remarkable and is
due no doubt to the frequent watering
for • which the authorities provide
ample facilities.
Then the quietude of the City and
the orderly behaviour of its inhabitants
are noticeable, and after the frequent
18 annoyance experienced in Paris from
English-speaking touts and self-styled
"Guides," and from beggars and organ-
grinders in London, it is refreshing to
find a City where such petty troubles
are practically unknown.
The entrances to the Parks are "different"—to a Londoner at any rate.
There are no obnoxious iron railings
surrounding them, to be pulled down,
as I once saw Hyde Park railings
handled, in a riot. No, you just stroll
into Beacon Hill Park, for instance, by
a little footpath "off Douglas," or
straight off the road as at Vancouver
or Dallas, and the care of the flowers,
etc., and respect fpr the regulations are
left to the good-sense and good-feeling
of Victorians, old and young, and few
keepers or guardians are found necessary.
The numbering of the houses is certainly "different" to any system I have
come across. In my own street I am
1007, and there are only 53 houses in
it. But better still at Oak Bay there
is an Avenue with, according to the
19 1915 Directory, two houses numbered
2565. and 2671. Without enquiry as
to the reason for this eccentric procedure a stranger might accuse the Municipal authorities of trying to magnify
Victoria at the cost of veracity, but I
find it is the "Philadelphia or Decimal
System" that Victoria has adopted,
whereby "an even 100 numbers are
allotted to each block, so that the number indicates how ma,tiy blocks distant
it is from any given point on the street
or avenue. A number is allotted to
every 20 feet." There are further explanations given in the Directory, but
I am still busy trying to master this
one and apply it on my peregrinations.
The Victoria and Island Development Association does excellent work
in a thoroughly up to date manner, in
helping visitors in every way possible
and in advertising the attractions of
the Island and its Capital City; but
owing perhaps to its broad streets,
"with verdure clad," and the absence
of crowded vehicular or pedestrian
traffic, Victoria appears to me to be
quietly assertive, as if to say, "I am a
20 healthy and beautiful city, and I know
it—and you will know it soon, if you
do not already. So I have no need for
"pars" and "puffs," "thank you."
The points of resemblance to "the
old Country" are even more noticeable
than the differences, and amongst them
here as in England,
"The Rule of the Road is a paradox
If you go to the right you go wrong,
If you go to the left you go right."
And this rule applies to some other
parts of Canada, but of course it is
very confusing to visitors from the
States or from France.
Only a slight difference—if any—in
"accent" is noticed by English visitors,
and Victoria seems to pride itself on
being British. It is also pleasing to
know that by Law the "Union Jack"
flies over all Government schools.
The Police bear a striking resemblance to the London "bobbies," and
are equally civil and obliging. They
affect, however, the white baton of their
21      / Parisian confreres, and one misses that
silent, order-inspiring, raising of the
hand that so impresses Foreign visitors
to London.
I have felt that a separate note about
its flora would be only appropriate to
this City of beautiful trees and flowers,
but I find this fascinating subject
would require much investigation and
study, so I will only say that any
flowers or shrubs that grow in Devonshire or the Isle of Wight would, and
mostly do, grow here. I must however mention some of the importations
from England, as Ivy, Heather, Lilac,
Laburnum, Roses, the Tulip and Magnolia trees, Laurels, Lauristinus,
Privet, Broom and Holly. The presence of Hedges is also noted with pleasure by English visitors.
.The fine knarled and rugged Oaks
one so often sees here are indigenous,
and there is a profusion of native
Spring flowers. The bulb-growing
industry is quite of importance.
It would need a Wells or Tennyson—
to "dip into the future, far as human
eye can see"—to prophecy what Van-
22 couver Island and its Capital will be
in say fifty years time. I can remember walking through cornfields to Ken-
sal Green Cemetery, and a friend from
the country — good-natured, patient
man that he was—taking me to Wormwood Scrubs common to put salt on
the birds' tails. And these are now as
densely populated districts as any in
London. And Oh! Ye Heaths and
Commons around that City, how
changed you are!
The population of Victoria in 1911
was approximately 50,000, or about the
same as that of the whole province in
1881; and in 1853, besides about 17,000
natives, there were only 450 men,
women and children, white and mixed.
Such object lessons are not being lost
sight of by Victoria, and one wonders
what its suburbs—Oak Bay and Uplands for example—will be like in even
a few years time. But we are engaged
with the Victoria of today, when it is
large enough and to spare; yet if it can
prove itself as attractive as it evidently
is, in such times as these, what will it
be in the happier days to come.
23  J  NOTE 3.
Early History of Victoria.
It is difficult to condense the early
history of Victoria into the space
allowed by these brief Notes, but those
who wish for fuller details will find
them admirably set forth in "British
Columbia, from the earliest times to
the present," by E. O. S. Scholefield,
the Provincial librarian and archivist,
and in other books mentioned in Note
The discovery of British Columbia
was made in 1774, by the Spaniard,
Perez. The exploration of the coast
began with James Cook's visit in 1778,
and the Spaniards had explored the
southern end of Vancouver Island as
early as 1790-2, but it was reserved to
George Vancouver, who had accompanied Cook on his second and third
voyages of discovery, to thoroughly
explore (1792) the Gulf of Georgia and
the Juan de Fuca Strait and to give his
name to the Island of which Victoria
27 is the capital city. He left Falmouth,
England, with Lieutenant Broughton
on April 1st, 1791, in the Discovery, a
ship which had an eventful career, and
during this voyage of exploration ran
on to a rock in Queen Charlotte Sound
(see sketch), but escaped without damage. He landed, 1792, at Clover Point,
just below Beacon Hill Park.
Vancouver was buried in the cemetery adjoining Petersham Church, Surrey, England, and a simple headstone
bears the inscription:
Captain George Vancouver
Died in the Year 1798
Aged 40
but in the Church is a memorial tablet
erected by the Hudson's Bay Company.
Sir George Simpson, Governor of the
Hudson's Bay Company, having decided to establish a new post on Vancouver Island, James Douglas, in 1842,
embarked in the schooner Cadboro,
and after a survey   of   the   harbours,
28 chose the port of Camosack (Cam-
osun), and in 1843 landed from the
steamer "Beaver" (see sketch), and selected the site for the Fort, "Camosun,"
which name was afterwards changed,
first to Albert and then to Victoria in
honour of Queen Victoria. This post
forms the basis of the present capital of
the Province.
Thus Victoria, the Queen City of
British Columbia, was originally nothing but a Fort, with two bastions (see
sketch), one at the North and one at
the South corner, on an acre of cleared
ground enclosed by a palisade (see
sketch). It was 150 yards on each
side, and the dwelling and store houses
were within a stockade formed of
cedar pickets 18 feet above the ground.
Not a single iron nail or spike was employed, only wooden pegs. The occupants had some lively times occasionally with the Indian tribes, the Cow-
ichins and Songhees, which are represented on the Island to this day. One
often sees Indian men and women,
carrying big bundles in the streets of
29 p"
Victoria, especially at harvesting time,
and, though by no means beautiful,
they are sometimes picturesque.
During the treaty difficulties, 1846-
47, with the United States, Great Britain sent several vessels to Fort Victoria to guard her interests, amongst
them being the Cormorant, Fisgard
and Pandora, now remembered in
street names.    (See Note 7, Page 68).
The Hudson's Bay Company's
paddle steamer Beaver (see sketch),
which I mentioned above was the first
steam vessel on the coast. It was 101 ft.
in length and 109 tons register, built
on the banks of the Thames and
launched May 2nd, 1835, but an oft-
repeated yarn that King William IV.
and sixteen thousand of his subjects
witnessed the launching, is asserted to
be without foundation. \ Anyway the
little vessel earned for itself a lasting
notoriety. At the opening of the new
Parliament Buildings (Ferbruary 10th,
1898), a massive and ornate gavel was
presented to the Legislative Assembly
by Mr. C. W. McCain.    It was made
30 of wood taken from the Beaver when
she was wrecked and broken to pieces
at the entrance to Vancouver.
Vancouver Island was proclaimed a
British Colony in 1849, and granted to
the Hudson's Bay Company for colonization purposes, Richard Blanshard being sent out from England as Governor, and he remained for two years,
when he was succeeded by Sir James
Douglas, who, in 1856, called together
the first Provincial Parliament, which
met in a room of the Fort.
In 1866 the Island was united to the
Province of British Columbia, which
in 1871 became part of the Dominion
of Canada.
James Bay was so named in 1846
after, then chief-factor, James Douglas, who afterwards resided on its
south shore. In 1904 a large portion of
this bay was filled in, and on this the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
to whom it had been granted, built the
Empress Hotel. Douglas was the most
prominent man of this Colony, and the
history of his life is well said to be
31 very.largely the history of British Columbia until 1865.
But the celebrated "Douglas Fir"
was named after David Douglas, a
great botanist," 1825, born in Perthshire,
Scotland. The Craigflower school-
house (see sketch), built almost entirely of Douglas fir, which was erected
in 1851 by the Hudson's Bay Company,
is still in an excellent state of preservation and there are many similar
cases in and around Victoria that show
the remarkable durability of this timber.
It was in 1858 that Victoria, whose
population might only be counted by
hundreds, suddenly received an influx
of miners, merchants and adventurers
estimated to number over twenty
thousand. This was due to the discoveries of gold in British Columbia, and
thereon I should like to quote an expressive paragraph in Mr. Scholefield's
book: "Victoria, the sleepy little backwoods trading post, was suddenly
changed into a populous rendezvous.
By the wood-fringed shores of the harbour and of the little arm of the sea
32 called James Bay—since filled in—a
city of canvas sprang up, and on either
side of the Johnson Street ravine the
miners pitched their tents."
Land Booms and their consequent
reactions were not unknown to these
early days, and the account of the
Fraser River rush to Victoria is quite
a romance. You read of land lots that
had gone begging at $1, selling for
$100 per acre, and one case is recorded
of a half-lot bought for £5, selling
within a month for £600. When the
inevitable reaction came Victoria had
already benefited, and completed
many improvements. For instance,
"Sidewalks were built, and streets, in
which the pedestrian used to sink
knee-deep in mire, were macadamized."
So, doubtless, it has benefited by each
successive landboom—possibly a sorry
consolation to those of its citizens who
have been nearly ruined.
33    NOTE 4.
Parliament Buildings—The Library
and Museum.
I have already alluded to the imposing appearance that the Parliament
Buildings present to visitors arriving
at the Canadian Pacific Railway Company's landing place, and I regret that
its noble facade cannot be worthily depicted in a sketch of the small size
that this book will allow, but my wife
has done her best.    (See Page       ).
The main outline of the building is
classic; the entrance, with its broad
flight of stone steps, and the Central
dome, surmounted by the gilded figure
of Captain Vancouver, being the chief
In two niches above the entrance are
statues of Sir James Douglas (east
side), and Chief Justice Sir Matthew
Baillie Begbie (west side), and there is
other fine statuary on the south front
of the new Library building.
37 The east wing of two stories
and basement is the Museum, of which
more anon, and the west wing is devoted to the Government printing department. The front of the buildings,
including the wings, is 500 feet. Mr.
F. M. Rattenbury, a resident of British
Columbia, was the Architect, his designs being chosen from those sent in
by 66 Architects from the United
States and Canada. This made his
reputation, as he was previously quite
unknown to fame, and he subsequently
designed the Empress Hotel and some
important Bank buildings in Victoria.
The interior decoration is in exquisite taste and the marble halls, the Octagonal dome, the wrought-iron aa4
lacquered copper gates, and the oak
and stained glass doors are as imposing and effective as the exteridr.
The legislative hall is panelled in
Italian marble, and the columns are of
green cipolin, but Island timber is well
in evidence, as there are Cedar and
Maple Rooms, and splendid carved oak
columns,  canopies,   doors  and  chairs,
38 whilst the Members' desks are of particularly handsome design, in black
Adjoining the Legislative Chamber
is a large hall, prettily tiled in Mosaic,
containing portraits of eminent Victorians. On a floor above there are
very interesting exhibits of fruit, fish,
grain, woods and minerals; also some
very fine game heads—moose, carriboo,
mountain goat and others—well worth
the trouble of going upstairs to see
them. There is also a collection of
medals won at various exhibitions and
a silver trophy which was selected in
preference to a thousand dollars cash,
as a prize at a Potato Exhibition.
Achitecturally inclined visitors will
find a full description of the Buildings
in the Daily Colonist of February 10th,
1898, which is filed in the Library. It
was on that date that the buildings
were formally opened—with a golden
key — by Lieutenant-Governor Mc-
It was 38 years previously that the
old Buildings were opened and   Vic-
39 toria's     population     then     numbered
scarcely three thousand.
Within the Main Building, besides
the offices of officials, there are the following departments: Agriculture,
Education, Fisheries, Forestry, Horticulture, Health, Information, Lands,
Mines, Public Works and Water.
In front of the Buildings is the garden to which I have given such deserved praise in Note 2, and which besides its magnificent lawns, shrubberies and flowers, contains an obelisk,
"erected by the people of British Columbia to the memory of Sir James Douglas, K.C.B., Governor Commander-in-
Chief, 1857-1864;" also a handsome
bronze fountain, a lofty flagstaff, and
some very fine maple trees. Beside the
front steps are two cannons, without a
history and not looking like ever having one, but behind the Buildings, in
front of the Drill Hall, there are two
much more business-like cannons,
which, I hear, were brought from emplacements made on the coast when
the   British   Admiralty   fortified   Vic-
40 toria at the time of the scare of war
with Russia, and the remains of these
emplacements for big guns, between
Duntze Head and Beacon Hill Park,
are still visible. After this present
War we shall probably hear a great
deal more about the protection of Victoria and the other British Columbian
ports and harbours.
But now to return to the Parliament
Buildings, I should mention that
above the main entrance, in stony
glory, is the Coat of Arms of British
'Columbia, comparing very favorably
in its majestic size with the small figure of George Vancouver surmounting
the central dome; but not being an
expert in heraldry, I will give the interesting description I find in Mr. R.
E. Gosnell's "Year Book of British
Columbia," for the Arms and more
especially the motto, frequently need
some explanation to visitors from
Overseas, but at the same time I must
state that one or two alterations are
under discussion with the College of
Heralds,  the  final  authority  in  such
41 matters, which objects principally, I
believe, to the Imperial crown."
"The features to which it is intended
to draw attention are: First, unity
with the British nation, both by descent and government; second, its extreme western geographical position;
third, its maritime strength; fourth, its
assured permanence and glory; fifth,
its local fauna.
"These objects are attained in the
following manner, respectively: First,
the field is covered by the Union Jack,
the grand standard and national emblem ; second, upon a chief is defined
the setting sun; third, this charge is
placed upon a field, barry undy, which
heraldically symbolizes the sea; fourth,
the motto, "Splendor sine occasu,"
which has been adopted by no other
state or individual, refers to the sun,
which, though apparently setting,
never decreases, and to the Empire
which has a glory or radiance encircling the world; fifth, the supporters, a
wapiti stag and big horn, are the most
noble creatures of the Province, and
typify dignity and strength.
42 "These two animals have a peculiar
significance, inasmuch as they represent the union of the mainland and
island, the wapiti being confined in its
habitat to Vancouver Island, and the
big horn found only in the mountain
ranges of the mainland."
The Library deserves more than
ordinary notice and praise, as its grandeur is in consonance with its literary
treasures. Entering by its carved oak
doors you traverse a tiled approach to
the Rotunda which, with its massive
scagiola columns, panelled walls and
floor of Carara marble, and lofty dome,
makes you realise what a generous
appreciation this Province has rendered to Literature and the Fine Arts.
In this central hall are cases for special
exhibits, now devoted to a most interesting Shakesperiana collection, and
there are some fine old engravings admirably arranged for inspection. These
so rivet the attention that it needs
many visits to do full justice to the
other contents of this really splendid
library. There are many rare old
manuscripts and books which can be
43 seen on application to the Librarian,
Mr. E. O. S. Scholefield, who has an
apparently limitless fund of knowledge
of the history of this Island and the
Province, which he is always ready to
impart to enquiring visitors.
The Rotunda has four very effective
little balconies, opening on to a suite
of three rooms reserved for Pacific
North-west history, a Map collection
and Provincial Archives, and on one
side is the Reading room, which is
well supplied with periodicals and files
of newspapers. Over the fireplace
should be noticed the very fine carvings in limewood, executed in the Grin-
ling Gibbons style. On the other side
of the hall is the Reference library.
Facing you as you enter is the Information Desk, where every possible
attention is given to enquirers, even to
the extent of preparing lists or suggesting books on any subject, and for
the convenience and comfort of those
engaged in research, studies are provided, a boon of which I have gratefully availed myself.
There are about 100,000 volumes, but
44 by an excellent system of numbering
and cataloguing, any book required is
easily and speedily provided.
The original Library having been
found to be too small a rearrangement
and an extension were carried out and
the present one—opened to the public
September 15, 1915—is as commodious and well-appointed as the growing importance of the City requires. It
is already famous for its great collection of books, pamphlets, maps, charts,
engravings and manuscripts relating to
the discovery, exploration and progressive development of Northwest
The Museum has some very fine collections of Island and Provincial specimens; in fact, almost as many apparently, as its present accommodation
will allow. All the appropriate
"ologies" seem to be well represented,
notably perhaps ornithology, but I
was personally most pleased with the
good specimens of such mammals as
the Elk, Caribou, Cougar or Panther,
Bear, etc. Some special features are
the new species of white bear, discov-
45 L
ered in 1904 by Mr. Francis Kertoode,
the Museum's Director, and named
after him, Ursus Kermodei, and a collection of Seafowl from Bare Island,
in the Straits of Georgia. It appears
that there are plenty of blue jays, but
no magpies on this Island, and House
sparrows frequent the suburbs, but
find Victoria's streets too clean for
them! There are good specimens of
Pikated Woodpeckers and Western
humming birds, and amongst flowers
I noticed the lovely blue Camass
which grows so profusely on the
Island, mostly in? amongst rocks, and
the Indians feed on its roots.
In tfee entrance hall are some Totem
poles, the best specimen showing the
Raven crest of the owner, and mythical beings belonging to his ancestral
traditions* The arch at the bottom
was the doorway of the house before
which the Totem stood.
I must not go into further descriptions here, but can only say that this
interesting Museum made the first wet
afternoon since our arrival two months
ago, most enjoyable and instructive.
46 Totem   Pole—Oak   Bay  p NOTE  5. I
The Public Parks.
Victoria has four Public Parks,
Beacon Hill, Stadacona, Central or
City, and the Gorge. I have already
mentioned (Note 2), the easy access to
them in the absence of obnoxious iron
railings and such-like obstructions,
and, fortunately, the palisades and
stockades of the early "Fort" days are
no longer needful. Beacon Hill, the
principal one, of about 300 acres, lies
between Douglas and Cook streets,
and has many features of interest and
amusement. On a broom-covered
knoll is a Flagstaff with seats around
K from which you get a magnificent
view over Victoria, the Sea, the
islands, and, last, but not least, the
snowcapped mountains across the
wtraits. I am told that the quantity of
broom in this park affords a wealth of
golden splendour in the Spring, and I
can quite believe it. Its introduction
has been ascribed to Sir James Doug-
49 las, and certainly he resided   at   one
time close to or within the Park.
In a group, between the flagstaff and
the Deer park, there are two old cannons, a large Chinese bell with an almost illegible inscription, and date
1642, and a Totem pole in a rather
bad state of preservation, so my wife
is giving a sketch of the one at Oak
Bay which is a much better specimen.
There are others to be seen in the Provincial Museum. (See Page 46).
Totemism is a very interesting subject, which I thank Victoria for introducing so prominently to my notice.
Nearby is a massive stone pedestal surmounted by absurdly small bronze
figures of Burns and his Highland
Mary. Carved on the pedestal are the
"The  golden  hours,   on   angel  wings
Flew o'er me and my dearie;
For dear to me as light and Jife
Was  my  sweet  Highland  Mary."
But what connection Burns and his
Highland Mary have with Beacon Hill
50 Park or Victoria, I have so far failed
to discover.
Away near the Band Stand there
are swings, chutes and other recreations for the youngsters, and a very
picturesque little lake, with, of course,
its appropriate swans and ducks. There
are plenty of gold fish, but may I say
"Why not some seals?" which, in the
London Zoo, within a very small space,
afford such amusement as they go
through their clever performances
when their keeper feeds them. Seals
are plentiful on these coasts and
might be trained.    Why not?
Then there are the minature Deer
Park, and the deer to be petted and
fed through the wire-netting of their
"Internment Camp," and the Aviaries
and Hutches with owls, golden pheasants, pigeons, rabbits, guinea pigs, etc.
At the boundary by Vancouver street
are the Albion Cricket Club and Victoria Lawn Bowling Club grounds,
and adjoining these are the large nurseries for the Park's plants and trees.
As a proof of what these nurseries can
do for the park, there is one rose tree
51 in them, on which two hundred dozen
blooms were counted this year, so I
am informed—I hope correctly. Good
roads run through the park and plenty
of seats are provided.
Central Park is only a large open
grassy space, between Quadra and
Vancouver, and a public playground,
with swings, etc., but Stadacona Park
is a little "gem." The gardens are
very pretty and the shade of the fine
old trees makes it an ideal resting
place on a hot summer's day. It was
a private property owned by a Major
Dupont, who recently sold it to the
City, and the picturesque old house is
now a temporary Hospital. A feature
of this Park is a pretty little open-air
stage with covered proscenium, wings
and dressing-rooms, which I hope to
find utilised next summer for performances in aid of Red Cross, or other
war charities.
The Gorge is to Victoria what
Hampstead Heath is to London. It is
a narrow arm of the harbour and can
be reached by a nice little motor boat
52 from opposite the Empress Hotel, or
by the B.C. Electric cars—Observation cars recommended. From j the
Gorge bridge a natural reversible
waterfall can be seen when the tide is
suitable. Close by are the bathing
clubs, for both sexes, and it is very
amusing to watch the bathers. Some
of the Victoria boys and girls seem almost to live in the water in the summer, and these Clubs can boast of
many expert divers and swimmers.
The B.C. Electric Railway Company
owns the Park on the southern bank
of the Victoria Arm, and provides
bathing places and pleasure grounds
with plenty of amusements. There is
also a Japanese Tea Garden. The
Park is maintained by the Company,
but is open to the public and every
now and then picnics are organized
which afford City employees a good
outing at a minimum of expense, as
they Cftn take their own provisions and
enjoy them in the pleasure grounds
and woodland walks beside the water.
On the other side of the bridge is a
small park owned by the City.
53    NOTE 6.
Churches, Schools, Hospitals, Clubs
and Societies. The Carnegie Public
Library.   Theatres and Music Halls.
There is quite a number of Churches
in Victoria, of all classes and denominations.
On the occupation of Vancouver Island by the Hudson's Bay
Company the Rev. R. J. Staines
was made their Episcopal Church
chaplain, and in 1855 they built Christ
Church for the Rev. E. Cridge, and in
1865 it was constituted the Cathedral
of the diocese. It was afterwards destroyed by fire, and the present Anglican Cathedral was consecrated December 5th, 1872. It stands on high
ground and is, noticeably, built entirely of wood. From the southern side
there is a ffne view of the domes of
Parliament Buildings.
With a Hudson's Bay "caravan"
Father J. B. Bolduc came to this
island in 1843, and celebrated the first
57 mass in Victoria. The first "Cathedral," which measured only 30 by 75,
was opened on November 1st, 1858,
and fulfilled its mission until 1886,
when it became the chapel of the sisters of St. Ann. St. Andrew's, the
present Roman Catholic Cathedral,
erected by Bishop J. N. Lemmens in
1890, is a solidly built red-brick edifice.
There are four large churches near
together in Quadra, the 'Metropolitan
Methodist,' built in 1890 of grey stone,
the 'First Congregational,' the 'First
Presbyterian,' with an imposing square
tower, arid 'St. John's', Anglican. A
little further east are 'St. Barnabas'
and the 'Emmanuel Baptist Church,'
built of wood, and there are many
others scattered about the City.
There is about the same number of
schools in Victoria now as there were
scholars when Craigflower School was
started. It was in 1853 that the Council resolved that two schools should be
opened, one at Maple Point, Puget
Sound, and another at Victoria, there
being about 30 children at each of
those places.   Craigflower Schoolhouse
58 (see Note 3), of which I give a sketch,
was the first to be built. It is only a
few minutes walk from the Gorge
bridge. An "old-timer" here tells me
he was one of the Craigflower schoolboys, and that there was a mill opposite the school in those days which
supplied the warships in Esquimalt
harbour with "hard tack" and bread.
Educational facilities are amply provided here, as elsewhere throughout
Canada, and in the Victoria High, Public and Private Schools, there are now
about 6,700 pupils.
The present High School is a large
square building, facing down Camosun
Street, the former school, off Fort
Street, being now the Girls' Central.
At Mt. Tolmie are the Normal School,
for training teachers; and the University School, a private school run on
lines similar to English Public schools.
At the present time it has about 100
pupils, but before the war it had 270.
Many of the boys over 17 have entered
the army and there are about 170 old
boys and seven former masters now
serving under the British flag.
59 There are two large and important
hospitals. The Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital and St. Joseph's. The
corner-stone of the former was laid on
April 23, 1889. A pretty little Memorial Chapel was donated to it by the
late Mrs. Pemberton.
St. Joseph's was opened in 1876, and
in connection with it there is a school
for training young women who desire
to devote their lives to the care of the
sick. Opposite this hospital is the "St.
Ann's Academy for Girls," a large
building standing in a beautiful old-
fashioned garden. St. Joseph's has
about 140 beds and the Jubilee 100.
There are Clubs, Institutes, Friendly
Societies, Associations and Masonic
Lodges galore. (See Henderson's
Directory). The Y.M.C.A. has important brick-built quarters, and the
Y.W.C.A. occupies the building which
was formerly the Union Club.
Amongst the fairly numerous
clubs, the "Union," "Pacific" and
"Camosun" are social clubs, and
the Rotary has  a membership which
60 is confined to one representative of
each profession and business. I hear
it is doing good and useful work for
the advancement of the interests of
The fair sex is well catered for by
the "Alexandra" and the "Victoria"
Ladies' Clubs.
The Victoria Public Library, the gift
of Andrew Carnegie, was erected in
1904. It has at present about 25,600
volumes. The "old-time" Mechanics
Institute donated a number of books,
amongst which are some interesting
old editions. There are reference and
reading rooms, and a supply of newspapers and periodicals; and a staff of
ladies to manage it naturally means
courteous and helpful attention to
one's requirements.
The hours are from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.,
and from 2 to 9 p.m. on Sundays, and
this Library is, quite exceptionally I
think, open on Christmas and New
Year's days, a boon which has been
greatly appreciated.
On complying with a few simple
formallities   and   regulations   you   can
61 take out two books at a time and a
magazine, and special arrangements
are made for students. The number
of residents who avail themselves of
the gratuitous advantages of this
library shows how greatly the gift is
I may mention that Miss H. G.
Stewart, the Librarian, is now, with a
year's leave of absence, serving under
the French Red Cross in France.
The "Royal Victoria," "Pantages,"
"Dominion" and "Columbia" are the
principal theatres and, with the exception of Pantages and the Princess, are
devoted now to moving picture and
photo-play shows.
Pantages seats about 1,100, and the
Royal Victoria over 1,700 people, and
there I have seen every seat occupied,
which I believe is not an unusual occurence. The old Victoria theatre is
closed, or only used for special performances, such as the capital entertainment recently given in aid of the
Red Cross funds by the Officers and
crew of H.M.S. Lancaster, when it was
at Esquimalt.
62 (8
O ■ NOTE   7.
Street Nomenclature.
"What's in a name?" Shakespeare
said, but he would not have said it in
Victoria, as even the names of the
streets bear a historical or romantic
association, for the Municipality has,
very wisely, I think, perpetuated in the
naming of many of the streets and avenues the memory of notable men and
incidents intimately connected with
the foundation of the Colony, and the
early history of Vancouver Island.
I confess, that on my arrival, I was
obliged to plead forgetfulness, which
may have seemed a cloak for ignorance,
when a friend enquired if I knew why
this is called Vancouver Island; but I
might be pardoned for not knowing the
association of such names as Quadra,
Pandora, Gonzales, Tolmie, etc., with
its history.
Such associations, however, give
rise to interesting thoughts and topics
65 of conversation, and recall forgotten
incidents as we walk down the long
streets that thread the City; so, in the
prosperous times that we all hope will
come to Vancouver Island as well as
to other parts of the British Empire
after the war, I would suggest that
tablets, similar to the one at the corner
of Bastion and Government Streets,
should amplify the existing excellent
system of street nomenclature. They
would, I am sure, be appreciated by
visitors and prove an incentive to an
extended investigation of the interesting early history of Victoria. The tablet I mention is on the wall of a shop,
an<i is seldom, I hear, noticed by visitors possibly, might I suggest, because
it sadly needs polishing up. This is
the inscription—
66 The Fort
The Honorable Hudson's Bay Company
occupied this site
From A.D. 1843 to A.D. 1860
This tablet is placed on the N.E. corner
to preserve
an ancient landmark
by the
Historical Society of Victoria
For  the   ready  information   of   my
Kaders  I  will   give   these   "associations" in brief tabular form.
H.M.S., struck a rock en
route to Victoria with the
Governor-General on board.
after the Hudson's Bay Company's settlement, 1843.
67 Beacon Hill,
named by Hudson's * Bay
Company officers from two
beacons placed on the hill to
mark a ledge known as the
Buoy rock.
Lieutenant William Robert,
commanded the armed tender Chatham, which attended
the Discovery.
Cadboro,       Discovery,
Chatham,      Fisgard,
Cormorant,   Pandora,
after ships connected with
the discovery and the early
trading of the Island. The
"Discovery" was George
Vancouver's ship.
The Hudson's Bay Company's first fort built in 1843.
Afterwards named Fort Albert, and then Victoria in
1846, in honour of Queen
68 Cameron,
Hon. David, First judge,
William Tomkins, J.P., 1858.
Captain James, R.N., discovered Nootka Sound, 1778.
The Cowichins were a tribe
of fierce Indians and were
divided into small bands
such as,
Chemainus,  Nanaimo   (She-
ny-mo), and
after a farm settlement
created by Kenneth Mackenzie, 1853, on "Victoria Arm."
The Craigflower School
Building (see sketch), is
still "going strong," being
built mostly of Douglas fir.
69 Dallas, Alexander Grant, 1857-61.
Ellice, Rt. Hon. Edward, 1858-63.
Finlayson, Roderick, 1843.
Ross, Charles, 1843.
William Fraser, Medical Officer and Chief Factor, 1856.
Work, John.
Officials of Hudson's Bay
Douglas,   Sir   James,   K. C. B.,
(not Blanchard as on parts
of Street).   Richard, 1849.
Moss, Morris, 1862.
Trutch, Sir Joseph, 1871.
an adaptation of its Indian
name, "Is-whoy-malth," and
meaning "a place gradually
70 Gonzales Point,
named 1790, by Sub-Lieutenant Quimper, commanding
the Spanish exploring sloop
Princess Royal, after his
first mate, Gonzales Lopez
de Hara.
Helmcken,   Dr.   John   Sebastian.
Pemberton, Joseph Despard.
Yates, James.
Members of the First Legislative Council of Vancouver
Island, 1856.
or  Tsaxawasip,   an   Indian
Archibald, the naturalist of
the Vancouver expedition.
Juan Francisco de la Bodega
y Cuadra, Spanish Naval
Officer, Governor of Nootka,
1792. Friend of Captain
George Vancouver.
71 Richardson,
James, of the Geological Survey of Canada, 1872.
H.M.S. Flagship on this Station, 1863-6. Arrived at Es-
quimalt, June 12, 1863.
(Tilikum), the Indian word
for friend, also relations,
people, tribe.
Captain George, 1792-94,
after whom "Vancouver's
Island" was named. Born
1758.   Died 1798.
a Hudson's Bay Company's
Fort or Post on the Fraser
There is an excellent system of indicating the names of the streets. At
every corner you find on the pavement
or cemented sidewalk in bold white
letters on a blue ground the names of
72 . the street you are in and the one intersecting it, and they are easily seen.
With up-to-date brevity the words
"Street," "Avenue," etc., are usually
omitted and they are called "Fort,!*
"View," etc. only, though Government
Street generally gets its full title, except upon its pavements.
Vancouver is one of the largest and
most effective thoroughfares. It commences at the Lawn Bowling and Albion Cricket Club's grounds in Beacon
Hill Park, and ends—well, the less said
about its ending the better, but it is a
worthy rival of Cook in its eccentricities.
There are still a few wooden plank
sidewalks here and there in the City
which serve as a reminder of old times,
but probably their days are numbered.
73  NOTE 8.
Living in Victoria.
"Is Life worth living?" may I think
be answered in the affirmative in Victoria regardless of the oft-quoted reply,
"That depends upon the liver/' It
must be considered as pf imarily a residential City and though great strides
are being made, even in War-time,
towards a big Industrial expansion,
every effort is. also made to preserve
and increase its attractions and make
it as "home-like" as possible to English visitors. It prides itself on being
English in its character, as evidenced
by the frequently used description "A
bit of old England." At any rate it is
obvious to the most casual observer
that the Municipality lays itself out to
make the City as clean and healthy—
and, last but not least, as beautiful as
is humanly possible, and generally
speaking the houses have been and are
being built in good taste and are none
the worse for the prevailing bungalow
75 style of architecture. Residents seem
to vie with each other in friendly rivalry in the care and effective cultivation of their gardens, and they evidence a desire to help in every way
possible to beautify their City, of
which they are so justly proud. Some
few of the main thoroughfares to its
suburbs are unfinished and somewhat
difficult to keep track with, for as a
resident described them to me, they
"commence in the sea, develop into a
farm-waggon road and end in a
squirrel-run." I fancy he must have
been alluding to Cook Street.
But as regards the completed portions no fault—indeed only praise—
can be found for them. One finds
broad streets and avenues in French
and other cities, but somehow they are
"different" in Victoria, and to its advantage I think. As a general rule the
roadways are wide and the cemented
side-walks about six feet wide, with
broad, well trimmed grass borders on
which in many cases, as Vancouver
Street, avenues of trees are already
showing  well.     The   width    of    such
76 thoroughfares as Cook, Pandora, Fort
and Vancouver, allows the sunshine
full play and combined with the always
bright appearance of the well-kept gardens adds greatly to the City's attractions. I feared to find here the dreadful many storied buildings that so disfigure Vancouver, New York and other
American cities, but am relieved to
hear that a wise law ordains that no
building may be of more than ten
stories and that is more than enough
to my way of thinking.
Nowhere have I seen such a quaint
admixture of houses. In some of even
the most fashionable and prettiest
streets and avenues large and handsome residences are found adjoining
queer little wooden structures—almost
reminiscent of the Hudson's Bay early
The streets are well lighted by Electric Light Standards of five lamps
each, and, so far, there has been no
war-need to darken them!
Oak Bay, which very agreeably
shows how it got its   name,   is   the
ei largest residential suburb and may still
be said—without offence I hope—to be
very much "in the making," but the
Canadian Bank of Commerce and the
Merchants Bank have branches there,
which signifiy what it is expected to
be in "the coming by and bye." The
houses are mostly of the artistic bungalow type, and there is a pretty and
deservedly popular hotel.
There is house and hotel accommodation in the Victoria City area to suit
all tastes and pockets, and in the outlying districts also there are excellent
small hotels and plenty of "Apartment
Houses" or flats. The Empress,
owned and managed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company, is of course
the premier hotel and as luxurious and
up-to-date as can be desired, and of
the others, the Strathcona and Dominion seem to take next rank in public favour.
The afternoon teas in the Palm room
of the Empress Hotel are a very pleasant feature of social life in Victoria, and
afford an excellent way of entertaining
78 one's friends, as any visitors or residents are welcomed, and even in Wartime there is a small but excellent
orchestra to add greatly to their enjoy-
jhent. There is also a fine ballroom in
which both small dances and balls are
frequently given.
Small furnished houses ar§ letting
well even now, and the system of
"Housekeeping Rooms" is admirably
exploited here and they are very popular. Of course with owners and tenants away at the War fronts there are
many houses to be let or sold, but I
have found the majority and the most
attractive are at corners, where double
frontage means double taxes for
"Local Improvements," drainage, etc.
a drawback which chills the ardour of
many a would-be purchaser. However such drawbacks^ are only temporary and those who have the courage
to purchase now will probably be
handsomely rewarded hereafter.
The re-occupation, sale and renting
of houses after the war will certainly
not be hampered by lack of enterprising
79 "Real Estate Agents," as their name is
Legion, the result no doubt of the
Building boom of 1913-14. There is no
doubt that the reaction after this
boom which was so closely followed by
the war, hit land and house owners
very hard indeed, but it is to be hoped
that more favorable and prosperous
conditions may soon prevail and that
many more English families will be
attracted to Victoria by the peaceful
life amidst beautiful surroundings
that is to be found here, and meantime
"Courage, Perseverance and Hopefulness" may well be a motto for this
City as for the rest of the civilised
I was struck by a remark a lady made
in speaking of life in Victoria, that
"people like you here for what you
are and not for what you have," and
I can confidently state from even my
short acquaintance with the City that
kindness and courtesy, without effusive geniality, are the prevailing characteristics of its citizens.
80 The cost of living may be said to be
reasonably low and for Bohemian and
simple tastes exceedingly so. There
are numerous restaurants, cafes and
shops where a "Merchants' Lunch"
can be got—a substantial meal, for 25
cents, of good quality and nicely
Salmon is 10 to 15 cents a pound,
and most fish cheap and good. Under
existing war conditions prices of most
household commodities are somewhat
erratic and exceptional, so it would
obviously be of little use to quote
them here, but chemicals certainly are
dear, being subject to a heavy duty.
Here is a list given me of sports and
pastimes that can be enjoyed in or
Kound Victoria, and it seems a very
comprehensive one : "Cricket, tennis,
football, rifle range shooting, hockey,
lacrosse, baseball, bowls, motor-boating, yachting, canoeing, bicycling, riding, sea-bathing and sailing." Golf is
probably omitted because the Links
are at Oak Bay, outside the City area,
but there are also golf links at Col-
t wood and Macaulay Plains. Shooting is not mentioned, possibly
because they "go hunting" out here not
shooting—you have to "hunt your
birds !"—but I may add fishing and ice-
rinking and then probably not complete the list.
82 NOTE   9.
The Industries of Victoria.
There is "a feeling of expansion" in
the air here just now which makes one
think that the present industries are
nothing now to what they will be if
all the plans and suggestions that have
been, and are being made, are carried
out. And as evidence that even in
this war-time the Industrial expansion
of the City is being energetically fostered I should mention the "Home
Products Exhibition" which, inaugurated by the Victoria and Island Development Association, was recently
held in the Hudson's Bay building with
deserved success, and showed that
there is a growing determination that
this Island shall manufacture and supply most of its own needs, and those
for a large export trade as well. As
to present Industries I cannot do better than quote a list given in one of
the numerous pamphlets: "Flour and
rice mills, fruit preserving, iron foun-
83 dries and machine shops, ship building
and lumber mills, furniture, shoe and
trunk factories. There is a big outfitting business done with miners."
As regards shipbuilding, from the garden in front of the Parliament Buildings can now be seen the framework
of a schooner, one of three which are
being built by the "Cameron-Genoa
Mills Shipbuilders, Limited," and I see
in the Daily Colonist a picture of a five-
masted schooner, the Inca, which is
shipping 1,400,000 feet of B.C. lumber
from the Cameron Lumber Mills, but
at the present time there would seem
to be need for the construction of
many such wooden ships for the
Island's trade.
Victoria is a port of call for the
steamers of the Empress and other
lines trading to Asia, Australia, the
Straits Settlements, China, Japan and
New Zealand, and the new Breakwater and Piers now in course of construction at Ogden Point, and not very
far from completion, should undoubtedly prove a great addition to the im-
84 portance and prosperity of Victoria.
The Break-water and parapets are
being built by Sir John Jackson,
Limited, and the piers by Grant Smith
and McDonald, and it is interesting to
know that the materials used have
been obtained within easy reach of
Victoria and that the granite blocks
were quarried on Vancouver Island.
Fuller statistics as to existing and
needed industries can be obtained
from The Victoria and Island Development Association, but I am told that
Tailor-made suits of clothes come now
almost entirely from America and it
seems a pity that they should not beN
made here.
By the way, I would suggest that
this energetic Association should endeavour to make the advantages and
charms of Victoria, and the Island
generally, more widely known in England than they are—or were when I
was there and was making enquiries
about the colony—as it seems highly
probable that there will be a consider-
}} able emigration from the old Country
after the war.
Some important railway systems
serve Victoria, the Canadian Pacific by
its magnificent steamers and the
Grand Trunk Pacific by a good Ferryboat service, both having their
wharves in the inner harbour. The
Great Northern has a line from Victoria to Sidney and the Canadian
Northern has already many miles
graded. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway was bought by the C.P.R. and
is worked by that company. It runs
to Port Alberni and has a branch to
Victoria has undoubtedly some hard
times to go through in the near future
and it is none too soon to gather up
the energy on which Colonials pride
themselves and to concentrate it on the
development of new industries, to be
rieady for the reconstructions and new
organizations that must follow this
destructive war.
I do not think that I can make a better ending to this Note than by quot-
86 ing a remark recently made at Montreal by the Venerable Archdeacon
Cody, of Toronto, to Anglican Delegates : "The man who cannot believe
in the future development of this country has no vision."
t  1  NOTE   10.
Esquimalt deserves a separate note as
it is, and will be, a very important factor in the prosperity of the Capital City,
which by the way it should itself have
been in the opinion of some of the old-
time explorers, "as affording anchorage
and protection for ships of any tonnage." In a report by James Douglas,
1842, the naftie is spelt, Is-whoy-malth,
the Indian meaning being "a place
gradually shoaling." It is about four
miles from Victoria, but is connected
by a bridge over the Victoria Arm of
the inner harbour, and there is a good
street-car service as well as the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway. It has a
pretty residential section, but its chief
attractions are the Naval Dockyard and
the very fine harbour. The road
bounding the Woods, which I shall
mention later, is called "The Admiral's
Road," and many naval men have resi-
it dences near the Docks. British warships anchor in or near the Harbour,
and more are likely to come in the
future I expect. Buildings for naval
hospital purposes after the Russian
war were erected here in 1855, and the
naval yard was established in 1864.
The graving dock was opened July 20,
1887, H.M.S. Cormorant being the first
ship to enter.
Yarrows Ltd., associated with the
well-known firm, Yarrows & Co., of
Glasgow, Engineers and Shipbuilders,
have their repair slips and shops
in the Harbour, and at the present
time much repair work is in progress,
but a river boat is tinder construction,
another being just completed for shipment to the Far East. Adjoining is
the site of the proposed new Government Dry Dock which would be
capable of handling the largest ships.
Some day, the sooner the better,
shipbuilding on a much larger scale is
expected to be carried on in Esquimalt"
92 The principal industry apart from
Naval work is the Empire Canneries,
where the salmon are prepared for market. Great "Scowloads" of the silvery
fish come down from the traps and are
fed into the jaws of the "Iron Chink,"
and by various processes at last reach
the stage of "Canned Salmon" as commonly known in the markets of the
world. Salmon canning commenced
in 1874.
At the upper end of Esquimalt Harbour, near Parson's Bridge, are large
oyster beds where the delicious bi-
, valves, after their long journey frdm
the Atlantic Ocean, are placed to fatten
till ready for the market. Probably
owing to the temperature of the water
being too low the oyster spat does not
mature in these waters, hence the necessity of importing the young oysters.
Several of the old Sealing schooners
may be seen at anchor in a quiet bay
near the Indian Reserve, their days of
usefulness having, alas! departed.
There is a story to be told some day of
treaties and other causes of their inac-
l__ :	
if tivity. But these boats afford mute evidence of a vanished industry.
A friend took me for a delightful
walk through the woods, radiant with
autumn tints, between the Esquimalt
Road and Craigflower Roads, and told
me many interesting stories about the
place. He showed me some cairns and
potholes, evidencing the action of glaciers over the very rocky ground that
we traversed on our way to the Indian
Reserve. The Indians with their murders and intertribal massacres provided
plenty of excitements in the early days.
They are now peaceful inhabitants of
the reserves set apart for them, which
they obtained in addition to—to them
—large grants of money when their
lands by the water were required by
the Government. With the cash they
erected quite modern bungalows with
gardens—in the Victoria style-—in
which as we passed them we heard the
strains of a gramaphone and saw a
sewing machine in use. In one verandah we noticed a fine baby boy being
dandled by his mother, and he actively
94 responded to our hand-waving as long
as we were in sight. Altogether our
visit to the Reserve impressed us very
much as we thought of the reception we
might and most probably should have
had in the "Fort" days, and realised
that our scalps were now quite safe.
In these woods is the old Naval
cemetery and the headstones bear tributes from comrades to Officers and
men of the British fleet who, from accident or other causes found a in this
peaceful and secluded spot a last resting-place after their voyages had
ceased. The dates and names of the
various ships form an interesting, even
if only partial, record of the ships that
had used this station since it was established by the Admiralty.
Nearly every year, in July, the Island
Indians have canoe races at the Gorge.
Their canoes are very long, hollowed
out of a single tree. Some are
"manned" by women, and my friend
told me he had seen one good lady who
was so big and heavy that the tjnited
if efforts of the rest of the crew failed to
get her back into the canoe when it upset, so she was towed ignominiously to
96 NOTE  11.
The City Hall, Public Market, Fire
Brigade, Cemeteries.    Some
General Information.
The City Hall, in Douglas Street, is
a large red-brick building for the
offices of the Mayor, the City Clerk
and the Municipality. Adjoining it is
the Chief Police Station, and opposite
are the large white premises of the
Hudson's Bay Company, not yet
I have not seen English Markets
lately, but I should imagine that Victoria wijl compare favorably with any
one of them. There is not perhaps the
same entertaining charm of a French
market, with the vivacious chatter and
good humoured bargaining, so the
quiet and steady buying and selling
here make a strong contrast. It is a
substantial building and the stalls are
conveniently arranged and make a
good show.
97 Adjoining the Public Market is the
principal Fire Station. There are eight
stations and seventy-three firemen,
whose uniforms differ from the English
in the helmets being made of black
lacquered leather, which of course have
not the effective appearance of the
English bright metal ones, but are said
to be more serviceable and less affected
by heat. Though mostly motors there
are a few three-horse fire escapes.
Some of the ladders are raised by steam
compressors, which by turning a wheel
a child could work, others by hydraulic
and electrical appliances. The ladders
are 65 and 75 feet, and with hook ladder connections suffice for the highest
buildings here which are fortunately
limited to ten stories, or a height of
about 120 feet, but are seldom more
than seven to nine stories and are fitted
with outside iron escape staircases.
The white fire engines are very large
and imposing.
Between Mears and Courtney streets,
facing Quadra, is the old-time   Burial
ground which   has   been transformed
98 into a veritable little oasis in the heart
of the City, for with its (of course)
trim and verdant grass intersected by
paths with seats, it forms a peaceful
and shady resting-place in the summer after a "Sun-bath" in Quadra.
The headstones have been relegated
to the back part of the ground, but a
few of the monuments and tombstones
are allowed to remain, notably one
"Erected by the Admiral, Captain,
Officers and Ship's Company of H.M.S.
Sutlej, to the memory of their deceased
shipmates," and tombs of Chief Factors of the Hudson's Bay Company,
John Work and Charles Dodd, and of
David Cameron, Chief Justice, and
J. S. Helmcken.
There is a very large and well-kept
Cemetery at Ross Bay, sloping down
to Dallas Road and the sea.
Victoria has two good daily papers,
The Daily Colonist (morning except
Monday), and The Victoria Daily
Times (afternoon except Sunday), 5
cents each. War telegrams and any
special news are posted up in the win-
a dows of both offices. The Colonist was
started as early as 1858, has preserved
a good reputation and is deservedly
popular. The Times started in 1884.
Both have forcibly shown their political bias in the recent elections but are
equally loyal to the interests of Victoria, and no fault can be found with
their supply of general and local news.
It is only natural that the C.P.R.,
with its large interests in Victoria and
the Island, should exercise great influence in the City, which is undoubtedly indebted to it for many of its attractions apart from Nature's. The
Empress Hotel which it built at a cost
of over a million dollars is a magnificent building replete with every up-to-
date comfort and convenience. As the
Company is, or was said to own V/2
million acres of land on the Island, it
seems certain that future developments
and improvements will have this
powerful corporation's unstinted support.
The B. C. Electric Railway Company provides an excellent service of
100 street cars which, starting mostly from
Yates Street, bring outlying parts of
the city into easy reach of the business
and shopping centres. The cars are
commodious and well-lighted and run
at short intervals to Burnside, Clover-
dale, Esquimalt, Foul Bay, the Gorge,
Hillside, Mt. Tolmie, Oak Bay, Fern-
wood, Uplands and Willows. And the
Interurban Railway to Deep Bay (23
miles) brings the important and beautiful Saanich district into touch with
the Capital City.
There is an excellent system of
"Jitneys'* (motor cars), which for five
cents, the same price as the street cars,
will take you quickly and comfortably
to various quarters of the town as indicated by their placards.
Victoria makes ideal headquarters
for motorists, who must almost think
that the city has been paved for their
individual comfort as they glide along
their way to the great Island Highway,
and the famous Malahat Drive. Robinson Crusoe had not a monopoly of the
delights  of  exploring an  Island,  and
101 many visitors bring their cars, or hire
them here, and enjoy an almost unique
experience. Motorists should on no
account omit to take the wonderful and
delightful drive up the Island to Alberni, and they should avail themselves
of the freely given advice and assistance of the Victoria and Island Development Association in order that
they may not miss any special points
of interest on their journey. The welcome they will get everywhere en route
will, I expect, resemble that extended
by the hosts of the good old English
Inns, which made each guest feel he
was the one person to be welcomed,
cared for and considered.
102 NOTE  12.
Books About Victoria.
It may be of use to some of my
readers who are of an enquiring turn
of mind to know of the books that I
have found helpful in compiling these
notes, as most of them, if not all, can
be found in the Provincial Library
here, so I will give their titles and
British Columbia, by E. O. S.
History of British Columbia, by H.
H. Bancroft.
Vancouver's Discovery of Puget
Sound, by Edmond S. Meany.—Illustrated.
History of British Columbia, by
Alex. Begg.—Illustrated.
Reminiscences of Old Victoria, by
Edgar Fawcett.
British Columbia Place Names, by
John T. Walbran.
~^- The Year Book of British Columbia,
by R. E. Gosnell.
British Columbia and Vancouver
Island, by R. C. Mayne, R.N., F.R.G.S.
For those who like Folklore and
Legends there is a fascinating little
illustrated book, "History and Folklore of the Cowichan Indians."
104 Where to Go
What You Want
H Through
Train Service
Victoria, Shawnigan
Lake, Cowichan Lake,
Nanaimo, Courtenay,
Cameron Lake and
Port Alberni.
Splendid   fishing  and
For information apply
Dist.   Pass.   Agent
Victoria, B.C.
The Finest Residential City
in Canada
Unequalled temperate climate; magnificent scenery; excellent educational facilities; plentiful supply of pure soft water;
lowest death rate on the American continent; outdoor sports every month in the
For full information about Victoria, and
also as to the natural resources of Vancouver Island and opportunities for settlers
and new residents, write
Victoria, B. C. The B. C. E. Saanieh Interurban     :'M
When you are in Victoria take a trip over
the Saanieh Interurban Railway. It is a
delightful run through 23 miles of some of
the most picturesque scenery on the Island.
Brentwood Bay, the Dominion Government
Observatory, on Little Saanieh Mountain,
the Experimental Farm at Bazan Bay, and
that delightful little seaside resort—Deep
Bay, are all well worth a visit.
Station and Waiting Room, Douglas Street
(Opposite City Hall).    Tel. 1969
Full information from the Publicity Dept.,
Telephone 2626.
T. N. HIBBEN & CO.     if
(Established  1858)
Booksellers and Stationers
Victoria, B. C.
Maps,   Guide  and  View Books,   Charts  and
many  useful  publications  for  tourists
Best Place in B. C. for New Books.
Photo   Supplies, -Developing   and
1002 Government St.     Victoria, B. C. If
30 -Volt
Lamps and
Josts little with a
Fairbanks - Morse outfit
Gives you the brightest,
healthiest, most convenient
light known. Our low-voltage outfit is absolutely safe, easy to
install and care (or. Engine can
be used (or other farm machinery
or water supply. # Battery supplies cur*
rent when engine is not running.
Wri-fce Today
j*br Cartel Q&
The    Canadian    Fairbanks-Morse   Co.,
I   Ltd., 510 Johnson   St.,  Victoria,   B. C.
202 Central Building View Street
"Seeing Victoria" in the
G & C, Green Tally^Hos
Operate the Largest and Best Appointed
Sight-Seeing   Tours   by   Motors
Taking in the ,
Business   Section,   China  Town,   Residential
District,     Oak    Bay,     Marine    Drive    and
Beacon Hill j Park.
Our  Sight-Seeing   Cars   Ride   Like   Touring
Cars and Are Deeply Upholstered
They meet ,all Boats and get you back in
time for Outgoing Boat
Our  motto:    "Safety   and   Service"
CAMERON   &   CALDWELL,   Proprietors
824 Johnson Street Phone 693 and 185
Begg Motor Co., Ltd.
Automobile Service and Storage
Phone 2058
Entrances to Garage 937 View Street and
936 Fort Street DRUGGIST
Pioneer Drug Store
(Established 1862)
Kodaks, Films and Photo Supplies,
Developing and Printing
589 Johnston Street       Phone 56 and 32460
i (One Store Below Government)
Your  Optical  Wants  Can  Be  Filled  Here
as Quickly and Accurately as in
New York City
Makers of Crookes,  Kryptok,  and All
Compound Lenses
About Your Eyes
622 View Street, Victoria Phone 2259» For new and exclusive designs in
Women's Day and Evening Apparel,
Dress Goods, Silks and Various Dress
A showing of unusual interest to all
who value distinction in dress, combined with reasonable prices.
Sayward Building
Douglas Street
\F\(*jr(XY*\f\   As you know is famous
V 11 timet  for .ts CHocOLATES
We heartily recommend
Chocolates to you, because they are different from any you have ever tried before.
Prices, per lb 75c, $1.00 and $1.25
ind* (Indies j
Branch:    1119  Douglas
Phones  2401   and  3691 Telephone 21 Civil and  Military
Fine Tailoring
Importer of High  Grade Woollens
1120 Broad Street Victoria, B. C.
Photographic Supplies
Professional & Amateur
Albert H. Magnard   1
(Established 1862)
Phone 5235
715 Pandora Street Victoria, B.C.
Trout Fishing
For Information and Tackle for all kinds
of fishing, go to—
We are Direct Importers and carry at
all seasons complete stocks of Outer and
Burberry Coats (for which we are sole
agents), Sport Suits, Flannels, Tweed
Hats and Caps, Neglige Shirts, everything
for Golfers and Sportsmen.
Dents' Gloves, the largest stock in B. C.
Jaeger and Other British Makes of Underwear, Hosiery, Travelling Rugs, Dressing
Gowns, etc.
Trunks and Bags, in Imported and Domestic makes.
Umbrellas and Canes, in great variety.
(Established 1862)
1217-1221 Government Street
and Trounce Ave.,.
Souvenirs of Victoria
Water Color Paintings
of Local Scenery
401 Union Bank Building,   View Street
Telephone 229IL
Complete  Installations Phones 916 and
for the city 5323L.
for the country home
T. L. BOYDEN, m.i.e.e.
Supplies The Oentre Electric
Broad   and  View  Streets
Boys'   Clothing  Exclusively
Highland Costumes, Sailor Suits,
Glengarry  Caps,  Man-o-War  Caps
Gilbert D, Christie
High Grade Footwear for Men,
Women & Children
P.O. Box 353 Phone I3l Do You Keep Poultry?
// So, READ
\TJk "P.P.P." Journal of the West
Write for Sample Copy
Edited by W. Miller Higgs    521 Yates St. Phone 6
Pichon <S Lenfesty
Guns, Ammunition, Fishing Tackle, Cutlery and
All Kinds of Sporting Goods.    Gun Repairing in
All Its,Branches
Family Wine and Spirit
Merchants  ~
Canadian Bed Cross Society
Temple   Building,   Fort, Street
Visitors Qordially Welcomed and Donations Gratefully
ft D
o rn
CO   >
-• in
3 m
o —
fl>-    ^
3      W
a —3
C0fl> ^
g 0<*
o jj» 3
CD 3°
— fl)
3 O
a> a TC%H^ W /(?'7
The Pleasure of Travel
is  fully  realized   by   travelling   on
the lines of the
Canadian Pacific
The World's Greatest Highway
Twenty-four Hours in the
Canadian   Pacific    Rockies
Through  Transcontinental Trains  Daily
Electric Lighted.
Sleepers and
Observation Cars
Various Routes
Liberal Stopovers
For full
particulars and
reservations apply
to any C.P.R. Agent
H. W. Brodie
Gen. Pass Agent
W ■iHLW^je


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