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The Chung Collection

The archaeological collection from the southern interior of British Columbia Smith, Harlan Ingersoll, 1872-1940 1913

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Hon. Louis Codeere, Minister; A. P. -Low, Deputy Minister;
R. W. Brock, Director.
Southern Interior of British Columbia
Harlan I. Smith
Government Printing Bureau
No.  T2QO The University of British Columbia Library
Harlan I. Smith
Introduction  1
The exhibit.
(1) The Thompson River region  7
(2) Resources  9
(3) The securing of food  12
(4) The preparation of food *  Id
(5) Habitations  18
(6) Tools used by men  19
(7) Tools used by women  23
(8) The manufacture of special objects  25
(9) Weapons used in war  28
(10) Dress and ornament  29
(11) Games, amusements, and smoking  32
(12) Art .  34
(13) Method of burial  36
Conclusion  38
Publications on the archaeology of the southern interior of British Columbia.. 40
Plate        I.   The Thompson River region Frontispiece.
II.   The securing of food End.
III. The securing of food  **
IV. The preparation of food  "
V.   The preparation of food  "
VI.    Habitations  "
VII.   Tools used by men  "
VIII.   Tools used by women  "
IX.   The manufacture of special objects  "
X.   The manufacture of pestles or hammers  u
XI.    Weapons used in war  **
XII.    Dress and ornament  u
XIII. Games, amusements, and smoking  "
XIV. Art  |
XV.   Art  "
XVI.   Method of burial  -
Figure      1.    Index map of Canada showing location of the Thompson River
region  7
2. Index map of the Thompson River region and vicinity  8
3. Diagram showing how decay and wind may reduce a semi-
subterranean winter house to a hole surrounded by an embankment        19
In the archaeological section of the Victoria Memorial
Museum, Ottawa—the national museum of Canada—
there is an interesting collection of specimens from
the Thompson River region of the southern interior of
British Columbia. This exhibit is typical and comprehensive enough to give a good general idea of the
handiwork, or material culture of the older people who
dwelt in that area, and who, it is evident, were the
ancestors of the Indians now living there.
An important feature of the collection is that it is
representative of the general material culture of a very
much larger area than the Thompson River region:
probably including the whole plateau region. The
term "plateau" being used to include the interior of
the State of Washington; a narrow strip to the southward of that State; the Thompson River region, and
the remainder of the interior of British Columbia; and
probably, the interiors of Yukon, Mackenzie, and
Alaska. The archaeology of this culture area is very
imperfectly known, for the collections from the
respective plateaus in Canada—with the exception
of those from the Thompson River region — are
exceedingly small. When an archaeological survey of the entire plateau
region in Canada is completed, slight variations in the
material culture will, no doubt, be disclosed; but not
until this general investigation has been made will it
be possible to differentiate the handiwork of one part
of the plateau region from that of another. A comparative study of the plateau culture of the Washington
State interior, on the one hand, and the Thompson
River region, on the other, shows a somewhat different
culture in the respective areas; but it is evident that
both belong to the same general plateau culture; a
material culture in marked contrast to that found on
the Pacific coast to the west, and entirely different
from that of the Great Plains to the east.
Archaeological remains are useful data from which to
reconstruct the life of a prehistoric people, as far as
it is possible to do so from the imperfect materials which
have withstood the ravages of time. They are collected sometimes from the earth's surface—where they
have been either lost or discarded — sometimes by
excavating in the sites of old camps and villages,
and are sometimes dug from ancient graves.
Our Previous Knowledge.—The life of the prehistoric
people of the main Thompson valley was practically
unknown to the world until about 1897. There were,
perhaps, a dozen pages published which gave some
little information on the life of these people, but
ignorance prevailed as to the character of their handicrafts or material culture; the things which they made
and used. It was not generally known, for instance,
whether they knew how to make pottery; whether
they used straight or crooked pipes; or whether they
were good carvers and etchers. But stored away in the old Museum of the Geological
Survey, Ottawa, were splendid specimens collected in
the Thompson Valley region by various persons, among
whom were members of the staff of the Survey; notably
the late Dr. George M. Dawson, for many years
director. Since then other specimens have been added
— hence there is now a representative series in the
national collections at Ottawa.
The Opportunity to Increase Knowledge.—In the
spring of 1897 it became possible for the writer, as
American Archaeologist on the Jesup North Pacific
Expedition, to go to the Thompson River valley to
find out about these early people. This was necessary
because, as before suggested, it was impossible to
learn about them by reading, since the literature on
the subject was very meagre. Funds for the purpose
were provided by Mr. Morris K. Jesup, President of
the American Museum of Natural History, New York
City, who had become deeply interested in the aborigines—both past and present—of the North Pacific
coasts of America and Asia, and who had set aside a
large sum of his own money for the purpose of carrying
on investigations in the whole region bordering the
North Pacific ocean, so that the results might go to
the museum of which he was president.
The archaeological work in the Thompson River
valley was carried on as part of the expedition which
was organized by Professor Franz Boas, of Columbia
University. The largest number of men employed in
the archaeological excavations at any time was four,
while most of the time only two men were engaged.
It is interesting to know that so few men, in such a
short time, could secure the large number of specimens found; specimens which were needed in order to
reconstruct an idea of the prehistoric culture of the
From the material collected there were selected
representative specimens, which were illustrated in the
scientific volumes that gave an account of the work of
the expedition and were used in museum exhibitions
to teach the general facts deduced from the research
work. A large number of duplicate specimens remained, but these were not useless, for some were
exchanged with other museums, and the Victoria
Memorial Museum obtained casts of some of the more
unique specimens. A large quantity of material is
needed in order to determine which articles were in
common use, which were special objects, and which
were brought in from other peoples and other regions.
When only one specimen is found no one knows but
what it may be an exception; when, however, many
are found, it is inferred that they were articles in common use. The scientific reports of this work were
printed in order that the facts might hot be lost, as
might be the case if only one manuscript or one printed
book existed. Over one hundred copies were given to
leading libraries and learned societies in all the great
countries of the world.
In the same way that we desire to cling to the property of our ancestors, so the Indians reverence and
guard the land of their forefathers. It was sometimes
difficult to persuade the Indians who owned the land
where most of the explorations were conducted to allow
the work to be carried on. But when the purpose of
the investigation was explained to them, some of the
Indians highly appreciated the work; in fact they
favoured it more than many of our own people do. Hk
The photographs reproduced in this pamphlet were
made by the author. The specimens are shown about
one-half of their natural size, except in Plate XI,
where they are reduced to one-fourth their actual
How We Learn of the Prehistoric Inhabitants.—In
order to learn about the prehistoric inhabitants, and
to determine whether the Indians living in this region
to-day are at all like them, it was necessary to dig
into old graves and hearths and under the places where
their houses and villages were. The things found in
this way tell us practically all that it is possible for us
to learn of their former owners.
The Similarity of the Prehistoric and Present
Cultures.—Alter studying all the collections it was
found that the culture of the prehistoric people was
similar to that of the present native inhabitants, the
Thompson River Indians of to-day. Collections from
the latter are also shown in this Museum, and it
will be noted by those who look at them that many of
the objects are made of wood, horn, skin, and
other materials subject to decay; consequently we
cannot expect to find such objects among the
prehistoric remains. All that we can hope to find
are things of an enduring nature; among them
those made of stone, bone, antler, and shell, and the
larger objects made of metal.
An examination of the bones found in the graves
has shown that the prehistoric people were physically
much like the Indians living in the same region today.
Intercourse with Coast and Other Tribes.—Although
an inland people, thay had secured sea shells, which
suggests that they had traded with the people of the
3 f
coast—one hundred and fifty miles to the west. Some
of the carvings (See Plate XI, and Plate XV, a, b) so
much resemble those made by the coast people, and are
so different from the carvings usually found inland,
that it seems that the people must either have obtained
them from the coast people or else, after having seen
the work of the coast Indians, must have endeavoured
to imitate that work.
The general character of most of the remains found
on the coast is totally different from that of the inland
remains. Moreover, the resources of the coast country
—sea and cedar products—are different from the
scattered though varied resources inland. The coast
country is very wet, while the interior is dry.
The character of the objects in general suggests that
the prehistoric Indians of the Thompson River valley
were more comparable to the people of the western
plateaus, and even the plains, than to the coast people.
When the People Lived.—We cannot tell definitely the
age of the specimens, that is, when they were made and
used, because they were found in sandy valleys and
hillsides, where the wind is continually shifting the
soil; but judging from the complete absence of objects
made by the whites in many of the places explored, we
may conclude that the specimens found there must
have been made and used before the coming of white
traders—probably several hundred years ago. THE EXHIBIT.
of the
The region of the main Thompson
river—a part of the great interior plateau
of the southern interior of British Columbia, immediately north of the State of
Washington—is indicated upon the accompanying index map (Fig. 1) by a square spot. The
Fig. 1.   Index map of Canada showing location of the Thompson River region.
other map  (Fig. 2)  shows in more detail  the geo
graphical features of this area.
J 8
The photograph accompanying the
The Charac- exhibit (Plate I) shows one of the largest
ter of the village sites and burial places in the area:
Region. the place where many of these specimens
were collected. The locations of all the
sites examined are indicated on the detail map.   A
Fig. 2.   Index map of the Thompson River region and vicinity.
glance at Plate I, which was taken from Lytton, looking northward up Fraser river, shows that the country
has a dry or arid climate. Consequently the vegetation is very scanty, and, except on the highlands, trees
are scarce. The range of temperature is extreme: the
summers are hot, the winters cold. (2) RESOURCES.
The prehistoric inhabitants, like the
Materials Thompson Indians living there to-day,
Used by the relied upon the many, though limited
People. natural resources of their country. Some
of these are shown in Section 2 of the
exhibit. The fact that these materials were found in
the form of implements and other objects, undoubtedly
made by the aborigines, proves their economical value
to those people. They may be classified as mineral,
animal, and plant.
Many domestic articles were made of
Minerals, stone. Glassy basalt was the material
most frequently chipped into points for
arrows or for knives and drills. Yellow, red, and green
jasper, chalcedony, and obsidian were also used for
this purpose. We find skin-scrapers made of quartzite
and fish knives of slate and argillite. Mica schist was
used for whetstones. Sandstones were made into pipes,
a coarse variety of the same rock into arrow shaft
smoothers, and into grinders that were used to cut
pieces of hard green stones, which materials were
extensively used for chisels and adzes. Many pipes
were made of soapstone. Yellow, red, green, and white
earths must have been collected, for we find them in
the graves as if they had been in paint bags. Moreover,
we find red earth, known as red ochre, daubed on some
of the objects. We know that copper was used
because we find copper pendants, bracelets, and beads,
and the stains of copper on human bones. Even if no
necklaces of copper beads had been found, the fact
that one of the neck bones is stained by copper would 10
suggest that copper had been worn as a necklace. The
copper found in modern graves probably came from
white men, while that from the ancient graves may
have come from the mountains north of Lytton, where
native copper occurs. In one modern grave was
found a piece of iron. This, the Indians probably
secured from the whites, and its occurrence, alone, is
sufficient to suggest that the grave was not an old one.
Besides these, galena—a form of lead ore—and mica,
used for pendants, were found, also crystals of quartz
and calcite; and there are many other mineral products
represented in the collection.
We know that materials from the fol-
Animal lowing animals were available: the bear,
Materials, puma, wolf, beaver, woodchuck, weasel,
deer, and elk; because we find in the old
hearths the bones of these animals. We shall see that
bones and antlers were made into implements; bone
into points, adzes or chisels, knife handles, scrapers,
awls, needles, pendants, and beads; antler into handles,
harpoon points, wedges, daggers, war-clubs, and carvings ; and if they had the bones as an economic
resource, they had also the flesh, furs, and skins of
these animals. Fragments of deer skin—so useful for
clothing— were actually found. The dryness of the
climate no doubt had much to do with their preservation. We found the teeth of the beaver; and we know
that they were utilized by these people, because dice
made from such beaver teeth were found. Bear and
elk teeth drilled for pendants were also found. Besides
these, there are the bones of many other animals—
including the salmon—which to this day supply the 11
Indians with much of their winter food. Bone of
whales, used for clubs, must have come from the coast.
We may draw the conclusion, when we find the
bones of a certain animal, that they had this animal
to use; otherwise we should not find its remains
buried in grave or hearth. For instance, when we
find the bone of a dog we do not know positively that
they ate the dog, or utilized his skin, or had him for a
companion, but we are at least sure that they had the
dog to use according to their best knowledge.
Among the shells we find some from the fresh waters
of the vicinity. The number of these shells found
was, however, so small as to show that fresh water
shell fish were not used as a common article of food.
Shells of varieties that live in the sea, and must have
been brought from the Pacific ocean, were seen.
Among these are the iridescent haliotis, or abalone
shell and the large scollop (Pecten caurinus). Olivella
shells were found at Lytton. Whether the sea shells
were collected by these people, or secured by them
from other people, is not known.
On the coast, cedar, and sea products such as whales,
seals, salmon, and shell-fish, were the great staple resources; but of these the salmon is the only resource
which was at all conspicuous in this interior country.
This marked difference in the nature of the natural
resources partly explains why the material culture of
the two regions differed.
Among plant materials we find bits of
Plant charcoal in the hearths; and the expert
Materials,    can tell us by examination of the charcoal
what sort of wood the old Thompson
Valley people burned.   Bits of birch bark were found; 12
for, owing to the dry climate, it had not decayed. The
gum of some kind of pine tree, and charred berries
which had not decayed, were also found. The fire
when it charred the berries consumed everything that
would easily decay, leaving charcoal which does not
decompose under the conditions where these charred
berries were found. Seeds of Lythospermum were
found at Lytton. The climate is so dry that fragments
of cords, and even of woven mats made of cat tail
stalks; of sacking of sage brush bark; and of fibre of
cedar, have been preserved; hence we know that not
only did they use these materials, but also the way in
which they employed them, and their style of weaving.
Perforated pieces of antler, found in the graves, are
exactly like the handles of the digging-stick of to-day.
This suggests that edible roots were among their
„     t. Next, let us glance at the methods by
I which they secured their food.   These
p. - . methods, as suggested by the specimens
t\'**' I" themselves, and by the mode of life of
H other primitive  people, were, undoubt
edly, hunting and fishing, and the collecting of wild plant products—as by picking berries
and digging roots. They, evidently, had no domestic
animal except the dog, and did not make a practice of
cultivating the land. 13
Many points for arrows, spears, and
^tone knives, chipped and flaked out of stones
Points for
that chip well, especially glassy basalt,
c A were ^ouno^-    Examples  are  shown  in
Spears, and p][ate |g    pointg ground out of mica
* schist, or argillite—one of which is shown
in Plate III—were rarely found; but if we were to go
to the coast, we should find that the ancient coast
people ground many more points in proportion to
those they chipped. The large points may have been
used for knives, with or without short handles. The
points could have been set in the split end of a handle,
and held there by winding with wet thongs, which, on
drying, would shrink and hold the knives securely.
Some of the large points, as, for instance, those shown
in Plate II, figs, n-p, may have been used also as spear
heads. The small points, such as those shown in
Plate II, figs, g-j, were probably made for arrows
used with bows, such as those the modern Indians
still remember making and using.
The small fantastic points with peculiar serrated
edges, such as those shown in Plate II, figs, k-1, may
have been used in a sort of primitive surgery or quackery, or for some other purpose.
An interesting thought arises in con-
Prehistoric nexion with the unnotched, leaf-shaped
Arsenals. points, shown in Plate II, fig. c, of which,
sometimes, as many as forty were found
deposited together in the ground. A few of them only,
were finished with notches at the base to facilitate
fastening to arrows or spears, but by merely making
two notches in these leaf-shaped forms, finished points
41383—2 14
could be made. The style of these points was governed
entirely by the position of the two little notches. It
would seem that these deposits were small arsenals,
for the man, family, or village owning them; but in
some cases several such deposits were found within a
distance of one hundred feet of each other, suggesting
that they were under individual houses. Possibly they
were the stocks of arrow makers, for we do not know
whether each man made his own arrows, or whether
one or more men made the arrows for each community.
It is considered that a higher plane of human development has been reached when there is a division of
labour; one man, for instance, could make the arrows
for a number, while, perhaps, another man hunted not
only for himself, but for many, among whom, of
course, would be the man who supplied his arrow
Besides the chipped stone points there
Bone Points were also found a few points and barbs
for Arrows rubbed out of bone. One is reproduced
and Spears,   in Plate III, fig. b.    In the old sites on
the coast there are found more bone
points than points made of stone, but in the interior,
bone points are rather scarce. Some of those found
are large, made of antler, and are barbed. One is
shown in Plate III, fig. c. The Indians say that the
last named points were used for beaver spears.
The preservation of a wooden fore-
Fore-Shafts shaft of an arrow or spear, and another
for Arrows   larger one made of bone is manifestly
or Spears,    due   to   the   dryness   of   the   climate.
Several fragments of bows were also found. 15
Certain grooved stones were probably
Net Sinkers, used as net sinkers. One is illustrated
in Plate III, fig. d; while another may be
seen in the part of the collection described as "Tools
Used by Men." They suggest to us a means of securing salmon by the use of nets. Possibly, however,
they may have been either club heads or hammer-
Scrapers were found made of bone;
they were used for securing vegetable or
plant food (See Plates III, fig. f, and
XIV, fig. i). Not knowing the purpose
of these implements an old Thompson
Indian was interrogated who stated that
when a child he had seen his parents
after removing the outer bark of certain
trees, use such tools to scrape or cut off the soft inner
bark which they used for food. Besides tools like the
above, there are bone implements resembling paper
knives, which it is supposed were used for the purpose
of peeling or cutting bark while securing bark for food.
Implements for
Sap and
Bark for
The next exhibit is the handle of a root
digger. The whole of the root digger
used by the modern Indian is usually
made of wood, hence would more easily
decay than the old handles of antler found
by archaeological research. It is likely
that the root diggers of the ancient Indians were often
made of wood, which may be the reason why only the
handles, such as the one shown in Plate III, fig. e, have
been found. These are perforated in the middle, for
receiving the butt of a digging stick.
41383—21 16
Among the articles used in the prepar-
Pestles and ation of food, are stone pestles of various
Hammers forms, usually made of fine grained,
for Crush- tough river pebbles—two of which are
ing Food, shown in Plate V, figs, b and c. They
may have been used also as hammers,
and are referred to again under "Tools Used by Men."
The pestles conform to two general types: one (fig. c)
the type of pestle or hammer made by the people near
the mouth of the Thompson river; the other (fig. b)
the type made by the people of the Kamloops region.
In addition to these, a few pestles were found which
are of types common to other regions. One variety
rarely found in the Thompson River region, is the common type on the coast. It has a short striking head,
and a top of similar shape, but smaller. Certain specimens are probably mere cylindrical stones, selected for
pounding or rubbing; while others have been artificially formed with care; some have the tops carved to
represent the heads of animals (See Plate XV, fig. d).
These pestles served for crushing dried meat, berries,
and other food.
On all the old village sites there were
Stones many   flat   oval   boulders,   some   with
upon which shallow, saucer-shaped depressions in one
Food was or both sides. Occasionally, large slabs
Crushed. of sandstone were found, the sides of
which are ground smooth. It would
seem that these stones were employed as anvils or hand
mills, upon which to crush berries and other food. Mortars
for Grinding Food.
Stone mortars are scarce; but some
were found, and they were probably used
for grinding food, preparing medicine,
red ochre, and other paints. One is
shown in Plate IV.
No fragment of ancient pottery has been
Pottery.        found in this region, nor on the adjacent
coast, or anywhere in British Columbia,
therefore, it is natural to conclude that the aborigines
were not acquainted with the potter's art.
Slate knives, resembling in shape the
Knives for blade of our common chopping knives,
Cutting were found, chiefly in the western part of
Food. the area.    One is reproduced in Plate V,
fig. a. The Indians in the region at the
present time use similar knives, but they are made of
iron procured from the whites.
The modern Indians, after placing
The Boiling their uncooked food in closely woven
of Food. baskets, and covering it with water,
dropped in hot stones and thus boiled the
food. It is interesting to note that, on these ancient
village sites we find stones cracked and blackened by
fire, as though they had been used for cooking food after
the same fashion as that until recently followed by the
modern Indians. On the village sites in the Mississippi
valley, and other regions where pottery was used, such
stones are not so common. 18
All through this region are evidences of prehistoric
habitations located at varying distances from the larger
village sites. This suggests that the mode of life of the
prehistoric people was similar to that of the present
Indians, of whom, one or two families often live at some
distance from the main villages.
On the sites of the old villages there
Summer are shallow saucer-shaped depressions,
Houses. like those formed by continual sweeping
in the conical lodge or summer house
of the modern Indians. The shape of the lodge is
one of the points of resemblance of the culture here
with that of the plains to the east.
Until recently the Thompson Indian
Winter built his house partly underground.    He
Houses of dug a hole from ten to thirty feet in
Modern diameter, upon the edge of which he
Indians. rested a roof that covered the entire
excavation. An opening was left in the
top which served as doorway, window, and chimney.
The Indians entered and left the house by means of a
curious ladder made of a notched log. Two of these
still existed in 1897, though they were fast going to
ruin.    One is shown in Plate VI, fig. b.
On all the old village sites are found
Winter numbers of circular depressions, ten to
Houses of thirty feet in diameter, and two to five
Prehistoric feet deep (See Figure 3). Each is sur-
Indians. rounded by a ridge of earth. One is
shown in Plate VI, fig. a. Excavations
in these show that the fireplace was near the centre of 19
the house.    It would seem that these depressions are
the remains of winter houses similar to those of the
Fig. 3. Diagram showing how decay and wind may reduce a semi-subterranean
winter house so a hole surrounded by an embankment. Horizontal shading
represents the earth on the roof of the house. Vertical shading represents
the same earth after the house has gone to ruin.
modern Indians. We consequently conclude that the
summer and winter habitations of both the prehistoric,
and the present day Indians, were practically the
Small pits of similar appearance, but deeper in
proportion to their diameter, are found near the
house-sites, and are supposed to be remains of caches
or cellars. Near Kamloops a considerable number of
caches of another sort were found. These contained
pieces of glassy basalt and hammer-stones; while in
others were awls, needles, and sap-scrapers, all made
of bone.
Wedges made of the antler of the elk
Wedges.        were not uncommon, and among other
uses may have been utilized for splitting
out the timbers for the roof of the house.    One is 20
shown in Plate VII, fig. e. Some of these wedges are
curved, a shape that indicates that they may have
been used in hollowing out canoes. Some are battered
on the upper end from having been struck with a
hammer, and one has a groove on each side, showing
that it was partly cut, and then broken from the antler
of which it was made.
It will be remembered that certain of
Hammers, the stone pestles considered under "The
Preparation of Food," particularly those
with concave bases, may have been used as hammers.
The articles thought to be net sinkers, or club heads —
one of which is shown in Plate VII, fig. g — were
perhaps employed as hammers, although the modern
Indians doubt it. Tough pebbles were used for
pounding; but the deeply bipitted hammer-stone of
the east is not often found here.
There   have  been found many celts
Adzes. here, no doubt used  chiefly as  chisels
or adzes. These were made of green
stones, ranging from serpentine to a hard semiprecious translucent rock called nephrite. Examples
of these are shown in Plate VII, figs, a, b,
and f. The last one (fig. f), a chisel or adze,
was made by sharpening a flake from a nephrite
boulder. It will be seen that many of these implements have grooves along the edges (figs, a and b)
showing that they were partly detached and then
broken from larger pieces of the same material; and a
few boulders (Plate IX, fig. a) show the process of
manufacture.   Some of the celts are double bitted 21
(Plate VII, fig. b) and many are so sharp that they
must have made effective instruments for cutting
wood. One (Plate VII, fig. a) shows the stain left
by the haft in which it was used; others show wear
on the cutting edge. Chisels made of bone were also
Some specimens shown in Plate VII
Scrapers, are apparently points for scrapers (figs.
Knives, h and i), knives (fig. 1), and drills (figs.
Drills. j and k).    These tools were made from
such materials as glassy basalt, jasper,
opal, chalcedony, and chert. These may have been
held in the hand; but one piece of bone has every
appearance of having been used as a handle. Perhaps
a chipped knife point was fastened into it at one end
by means of gum. The front tooth of the beaver was
also formed into what is, no doubt, a blade for a carving-
knife. Instruments of this nature are extensively used
by various living tribes. Some of the chipped implements, supposed to have been drills, were possibly
used for boring holes in blocks of steatite, to make
pipes like those shown in Plate XIII.
Half cylinders of sandstone, with a
Arrow groove lengthwise in the flat side, were
Shaft common   (Plate  VII,   fig.    d).     Some
Smoothers, are decorated with geometric designs
made up of incised lines filled with red
paint. They were probably used for straightening
and smoothing the shafts of arrows, in the same way
as we would use sandpaper. It is interesting to
notice that some of the grooves trend towards the
right;   while the right lower, and left upper corners 22
of the flat side are the most worn. This would be
caused by grasping the two objects in the right hand
and sliding them up and down on a shaft, for the
thumb and fingers would tend to push the upper one
to the left at the top, and to the right at the bottom.
It would seem, therefore, that the right hand was the
one usually used when working with this tool. These
are similar to the modern arrow-shaft smoothers,
which have not yet been discovered among archaeological finds on the coast, or among the present Indians
there; their presence here strengthens the belief in
the affiliation of the culture in this area with that of
the plateaus, and the east.
Whetstones of gritty mica schist were
Whetstones.often found.    One is shown in Plate VII,
fig. c.   Such whetstones may have been
used for sharpening the bone and stone chisels.
Spatulate objects of bone were also found. They
may have been used for flaking the fine edges of arrow
There is one very interesting carved
Toggle for specimen made of antler, which the
Dog Halter, modern Indians believe to have been used
as a toggle for a dog halter, to keep the
rope from slipping up and choking the dog. It is again
mentioned on page 35, and is also shown in Plate XV,
fig. a. There are many other articles which we may
consider as tools, the exact use of which is at present
unknown. 23
Tools used by women may be considered as distinct
from those used by men. Among these are scrapers
for preparing skins, awls for piercing them, and needles.
These tools were used in making clothing of skin and
other material.
Some of the scrapers are chipped from
Scrapers for stone. Two are shown in Plate VIII,
Preparing figs, a and b. In 1898 I photographed
Skins. a Shuswap woman near Kamloops who
was scraping and preparing a skin with
such a stone scraper hafted in the split end of a wooden
handle; although she was within two miles of a railway roundhouse where iron could have been picked
up. . She had learned to wear calico clothing, but in
her work she still clung to the implement of her ancestors. We might say she was a Stone Age woman in
1898. The Thompson Indians also use such a scraper.
The little chipped scrapers (Plate VII, figs, h, i) considered as tools used by men, may have been used as
skin scrapers, and some of the large chipped forms
(Plate VIII, fig. c) may have been used by the women
for knives.
There were also found scrapers made of bone and of
antler. One shows that something had been wound
around the ends. The modern Indians wind horse ribs
in a similar way, and use them like a drawshave for
scraping skins which they lay over a pole or beam.
There has been seen even part of a scythe blade so
wound and used. In the case of skin scrapers made
of a leg bone of the deer, needles and awls were sometimes placed in the natural groove of the bone and were
bound in, for safe keeping when not in use. 24
After  the   skin   has  been   prepared,
Awls. stone, bone (Plate VIII, figs, d, f), and
antler perforators were no doubt used in
making them into garments, pouches, and the like. All
these things have been found in this area. It might
not be out of place to class as awls some of the artifacts
seen among the chipped points under the section of
"The Securing of Food," and the section of "Tools
Used by Men." Some natural pieces of chalcedony
were also found, which may have been used as awls.
Some of the bone awls are decorated with incised
designs and notches, or both (Plate XIV, g, h). Others
had been daubed with red ochre. A few of these
implements may have been used for plaiting baskets.
The awls made of the ulnae and metapodial bones of
the deer are of forms and materials common to many
parts of America.
The iron found in a grave—previously
An Iron mentioned as being a more modern speci-
Awl. men than the others, perhaps obtained
by barter from the whites—was in the
form of an awl. It was set in a bone handle, stained
green by copper salts.
No spindle whorls, known to be such,
Spindle were found in this region; but there is a
Whorls. perforated stone which was possibly so
used for spinning. It is similar in shape
to the spindle whorls used to-day among the coast
people, a halfday's ride by rail to the west. The
perforated stone mentioned above is in the Provincial
Museum at Victoria, and is illustrated in the national
collection by a drawing. 25
Needles made of bone were found.
Needles. The eye is usually elliptical and at some
distance from the end. Some have two
-eyes, and a few are decorated with incised lines.
Needles were probably used not only for sewing skin
garments, but for fastening together cat tails and
rushes, to make mats similar to those seen among the
present day Indians, for use as house covers. Similarly
shaped needles are made of iron by the Thompson
Indians, and are used for this purpose.
Many fragments of bags or mats, made
Fabrics by weaving strips of the bark of the sage
and Skins, brush, and also some fragments of skins
bearing fur, have been preserved, owing,
in some cases, to the dryness of the climate, in others
to the preserving action of copper salts. One piece of
birch bark is of interest as showing where the stitches
had been put through.
Some specimens suggest the mode of
The Making manufacture of certain objects. For ex-
of Chipped ample, we found pebbles of agate,
Stone Points jasper, and the like, as well as rough
for Arrows, pieces of glassy basalt — the raw
Spears, etc.     material   out   of which   points   were
chipped—also the pebbles which could
have been used as mauls for breaking up such material;
fragments of basalt, broken up by means of a maul;
small pebbles possibly used as hammers for chipping
pieces of glassy basalt into the rough form of an imple- 26
ment; chips, and flakes, probably the refuse from these
chipping processes; and pieces of basalt in the forms of
points for spears, arrows, and other artifacts probably
made by means of such small hammer pebbles. Pieces
of antler and bone probably were used for pressing off
the fine flakes in making points for arrows and other
things. Experiment has shown them to be most
suitable for the purpose. These pieces have been
mentioned under the section | Tools Used by Men."
Some of the fine flakes were found. There are
also many blades and points finished by specializing
such blanks into various shapes, some with and
some without the notches which were used to
facilitate fastening the points in the split end
of a shaft or handle. It is interesting to fill the notches
in one of these specimens with plaster-of-paris, so that
one may see the small amount of chipping necessary to
change the cache or leaf-shaped forms into the finished
implement. Quantities of cache forms were found
deposited in the ground, and such deposits are called
caches. The Indians now living in the Thompson
River region still possess the art of making small
chipped arrow-points. They make journeys up the
mountains, where they break glassy basalt fresh from
the quarry, in which state they claim it can be
worked more easily than if weathered.
One stage in the manufacture of a pestle or hammer
is shown in Plate X. It is a boulder which has been
bruised or pecked with a stone until the ends have been
flattened, and the part around the middle hollowed out
in the process of reducing it to proper form, 27
Natural boulders, and fragments of
The Ma- green stone, some of which is nephrite—
king of about as hard as steel, and usually of a
Celts beautiful, translucent, greenish colour—
(Chisels were numerous along the banks of the
and Adzes) streams, and in the gravel. Small sand-
from Green stone slabs, worn sharp at the edge,
Stone. which exactly fit the artificial grooves
ground in some of the boulders and fragments, were found. These grinders show striations
which indicate that in use they were shoved back and
forth somewhat as planes are used. Evidently pieces
were cut from the boulders with them. That these
sandstone plough grinders were most numerous where
the grooved boulders were found, strengthens this idea.
A Lillooet chief informed me that his old people said
that beaver teeth were used to cut these green stones,
while deer ribs were used in like manner to cut antler,
and that by experiment he had found the latter method
remarkably successful. Dr. G. M. Dawson believed
that quartz crystals (Plate IX, fig. b) were used for
cutting grooves in nephrite. From some of the boulders
a piece or pieces have been first partly cut out by grooving, evidently by means of these slabs, or with crystals
of quartz, slabs of wood used with sand, or, perhaps,
sometimes even with a string used with sand and water.
Some grooves like the one shown in Plate IX, fig. a,
being deeper in the middle than at the ends, could not
have been cut with a string, but only with something like
the slab of sandstone which might be made to plough
deeper in the middle of the cut than at the ends. After
grooving on both sides, these pieces have been broken
free.   The broken surface clearly shows in many speci- 28
mens. Pieces of nephrite, broken from boulders, and
still showing the groove or grooves which were made to
partly detach them, are also found. These were
finally made into adzes or chisels. Some of these adzes
(Plate IX, fig. c) or celts, as they are called by archaeologists, show traces of the grooves which were cut in
order to break the piece from which each of them was
made from the rough boulder, or from a slab cut in like
manner from the boulder. A few (Plate IX, fig. d)
even show a broken surface not yet effaced by grinding
and polishing. At last we find the finished celt which
has been rubbed and polished until no trace of these
grooves remains.
Skin scrapers were made from quartzite
The Ma- pebbles, which are numerous all over the
king of country.    Some of the flakes broken off
Skin from such pebbles have been used until
Scrapers. the edges are polished smooth. Others
were finished by chipping before they
were used, and some of these were used until the sharpened edges were rounded. Natural bones of the deer and
finished scrapers made from the same bone were found.
Pipes were made from rough pieces of
The Making soapstone. A fragment of soapstone
of Pipes. which has been partly cut into the form
of a pipe, may serve to illustrate one stage
in the process, while pipes made of soapstone, and here
classified under the section of | Games, Amusements,
and Smoking," may complete the series showing the
history of the manufacture of pipes. 1
It is probable that the chipped stone points and
rubbed stone and bone points for arrows, spears, and
knives, mentioned on pages 13 and 14 (Plate II and
Plate III, figs, a-c), were also used in war. Club heads
made of stone, like the object shown in Plate VII,
fig. g, were also used as weapons employed in war. All
these have been mentioned under the sections entitled
"The Securing of Food," and "Tools Used by Men."
There were certain implements, however, which were
probably used exclusively in warfare, such as daggers
or lance heads made of bone and antler. One of these
is ornamented by pits and incised lines. War clubs
were also found. One is made of copper, and another
by sharpening a short prong of an antler and using the
long one for a handle. Others were made of whale-
ribs, and are represented by the specimens shown in
Plate XL These two, each have a knob, at the end of
the handle, carved to represent a human head, in a
style resembling that of the coast.
Among the specimens which may be
Paint. termed articles of luxury are a certain
white earth, red ochre (Plate XII, fig. a),
yellow ochre (fig. b), and green copper material (fig. c).
These were, probably, used for painting the face and
A fragment of a comb made of antler
Combs.        was found.   Sharp bones ornamented by
incised lines and called head-scratchers
by the Indians of to-day, were also found. Two of
the articles shown in Plate XIV, figs, g, h, and
considered as awls, may be such.
29 r
Skins  of deer and birds  and woven
Dress fabrics made of the bark of the sage
Materials, brush and other fibres, were used for
dress. Some fragments of these had not
decayed because of the dryness of the climate.
Others were preserved by the salts of copper, near
pieces of which they were buried.
Copper was made into pendants for
Copper the ear or necklace.   At least one speci-
Ornaments. men has been found suspended by a
thong which was preserved by the action
of the salts of the copper. It hung from the middle
of a necklace made of copper and shell beads strung
upon twisted vegetable fibre. Such copper ornaments
are reproduced in Plate XII, figs, j, 1. There are some
other copper articles which the modern Indians think
were used by their ancestors for hair ornaments. The
Indians of southern Alaska use hair ornaments of a
similar shape made of iron. While the copper bracelet
shown in Plate XII, fig. m, may be modern, yet copper
stains on human wrist and ankle bones suggest the
ancient use of bracelets and anklets.
p    j    t A pear-shaped stone, perforated at the
f fn-fi small end, was found by Mrs. Bailey.
T^r t 4 l It is in the Provincial Museum at Victoria. Pieces of galena (Plate XII, fig.k),
mica, calcite crystals, and sea shells, some of them of
the large scollop (Pecten caurinus), others of Pectun-
culus (Plate XII, fig. f), and the iridescent haliotis or
abalone, bone daubed with red ochre, pieces of bone,
incisor teeth of the deer, the canine and incisor teeth 31
of the elk, canine teeth of the bear (Plate XII, fig. d)
and wolf, and the claw bones and nails of the bear,
were all made into pendants. Perhaps some of these
were used as ear-rings.
Many of the beads found were made
Shell Beads, from several kinds of shells, at least three
varieties of which must have come from
the sea. One of these is the dentalium shell (Plate XII,
fig. g). which is only found in deep water. Little
olivella shells were also used. Necklaces were made by
stringing shell disks, dentalium shells, sections of such
shells, and copper beads upon twisted vegetable fibre.
In one case the fibre was identified as cedar bark.
Sometimes the dentalium shells were engraved with
geometric designs.
Some of the beads are of bone, such as
Beads of      are shown in Plate XII, fig. e;   while
Other others, shown in fig. i, were made in
Materials,   recent times, of copper obtained from
white men.
Some of the articles found were prob-
Nose ably used as nose ornaments, and inserted
Ornaments, horizontally through the septum of the
nose. A bar of wood covered with copper
and preserved by the action of the copper salts, a bar
of white stone, and certain articles made by inserting a
brush or tassel of hair in the large ends of dentalium
shells, were probably used in this way. Indians still
living remember to have seen such articles worn in the
nose. 32
Woodchuck and beaver teeth were
Dice. ornamented, some with straight lines,
others with pits. The Indians of to-day
use similar objects in gambling; it is probable, therefore, that the ancient Indians used these teeth as dice.
An astragalus bone of the deer, which was found, may
have been used in gambling, or as a buzz. The bars
of bone found decorated by incised lines, and the tubes
cut from bird bone—all of which resemble present-day
Indian gambling implements in that country—may
have been used in games.
Large perforated pecten shells were
Rattles. found. One is shown in Plate XIII,
fig. f. These must have come from the
coast, where the natives, to-day, tie together large
pecten shells, and employ them as rattles when dancing. The dances are more often a religious observance rather than a mere amusement, as among us.
There are other articles which were
Miscellan- probably connected with amusement, or
eous religion.   The young people when they
Objects. were being trained for adult life, probably
drank through a perforated bone tube,
similar to the one we found in excavating; at least,
this is the explanation which the modern Indians give
of the utility of the tubes found. The tubes were
probably suspended by a cord tied through the
hole. These specimens, however, may have been
used as whistles or calls rather than in initiations. 33
The story of the modern Indian youth's initiation
into tribal manhood is a long one, full of interest.
Animal, and fantastic forms chipped from glassy basalt
are said by the modern Indians to have been made as
tests of skill, or for play. Crystals of calcite (Plate
XIII, fig. d), quartzite, and pretty or grotesque pebbles
of agate and other stones are sometimes found in the
graves. They may have been charms, or symbols of
Old pipes are usually tubular in shape,
Pipes. and made of soapstone, shaped somewhat
like a slender wine glass. Some are ornamented with incised lines. Specimens of old pipes are
shown in Plates XIII, figs, a, e; XIV, figs, a-d; XV, figs.
b,c. A fragment of one carved in the style of the art of
the coast was found (Plate XV, fig. b). It is mentioned
again under the section on "Art." On one tubular
pipe (Plate XV, fig. c), is a little animal form carved in
the round. The Indian of the present time uses a pipe
with a crook or elbow (Plate XIII, fig. c); but none of
these are found in old graves, although simple pipe
bowls are (Plate XIII, fig. b). As late as 1891, however, there were Indians who still used the straight
tubular pipe.
The Indians tell us, that before the
Tobacco. advent of the white man in this region,
they used a native wild tobacco; it is
probable that the earlier people used the same. In
recent times the Indians have substituted commercial
tobacco for the wild tobacco. They reduce its strength
with leaves of the bearberry. 34
(12) ART.
The art of this ancient people is one of the most interesting of their achievements.
Many of the specimens, such as the
Engraved antler handle for a digging-stick, the war
Designs. club made of copper, the awls, pipes,
gambling bones, and dentalium shells,
are ornamented with incised or engraved notches and
lines, forming geometric designs or pictographs, both of
which are interpreted by modern Indians. The purpose of such specimens has been considered under the
respective sections to which they belong, but the
designs are of interest to us here. An interesting
geometric design is found on one of the pipes in the
national collection. It is shown in Plate XIV, fig.
c; and another, which represents animal forms in a
schematic or conventional way, is shown in Plate
XIV, fig. d. Judging by what we know of the
modern Thompson Indians, the owners of these
pipes may each have had a dream in which he
thought he received his Manitou, or Guardian
Spirit. The drawing on his pipe probably represents
the being that appeared to him in that dream.
A dagger made of antler is ornamented
Engraved by little pits. The circle-and-dot design
and Drilled is frequently found on old articles as well
Designs. as on those of modern origin, not only
in this region but also on the plateau to
the south and the coast to the west. 35
The incised geometric and pictographic
The Typical decorations described, as made by
Art of this engraving and drilling, were most
Region. common   and   consequently we think
of them as the type of art characteristic of the ancient people of Thompson River
valley, in fact of the whole of the southern interior
of British Columbia. This is partly illustrated in
Plate XIV. H     |:,
Carvings were sometimes made in
Carvings, bone and stone. The toggle of the dog
halter, previously mentioned, and shown
on Plate XV, fig. a; as well as the handles of the war
clubs made of whale rib, and represented on Plate
XI, are illustrations of carving in bone; while work in
stone is shown by the fragment of a pipe bowl illustrated
on Plate XV, fig. b. All these represent animal forms,
and are admirably done. The art resembles somewhat
that of the coast people, and may be the work of the
coast artist or one familiar with coast art. There seems
to be a slight difference between these carvings and
those of the coast; which suggests that they were made
by the people of the Thompson River valley, though,
doubtless, in imitation of the art of the coast people.
The sculptured animal form on the pipe shown in Plate
XV, fig. c, and those on the tops of pestles (Plate XV,
fig. d), however, seem to be distinctively representative of the art of the Thompson River valley.
Red paint was used for marking upon
Paintings,   great boulders.   It was probably mixed
with grease, which would prevent its
being washed off by the slight rains of the region.   A 36
sample of rock painted in this way shows the indefinite
outline of these drawings, why copies sometimes differ,
and why a photograph can bring out only a little more
than is apparent to the eye. It is said that these
markings are records of the various experiences of
youths while undergoing the purifications, fastings,
and training necessary to prepare them for admission
to adult society. These may have been made recently,
as the modern Indians paint geometric and figure
patterns in red ochre on the boulders. Their skill in
this line, as well as in carving, and in ordinary handiwork, is manifestly inferior to that on articles found
on the old sites.
Having considered the life of these
people, it remains to notice some of the
articles founds in their graves. Among
these are roll& of birch bark. The bark
may have been used to line the graves, and in
course of time became rolled up. With the skeleton —
as is the case in many parts of the world — are usually
found the various belongings of the individual; some
are often in a pouch placed near the middle of the
body, if of a man, tools and implements for hunting;
if of a woman, needles, awls, and the like. Red paint
is frequently found in the grave, and the body was
probably often painted with it for burial. Near some
of the bodies were found skeletons of dogs. It is
interesting to note that, in the graves of the coast
people, whether in stone cairns or in shell-heaps, we
seldom find any articles that, apparently, were purposely
buried with the body, such as those above mentioned. 37
The dead were buried a short distance
The Graves, from the villages, none were found in
the house sites. Many of the graves
are in the sandy tops of the foot hills, terraces, and
bottom lands along the streams; they are solitary or
in groups. Some were covered or marked with a few
boulders, but these are supposed to be of recent origin.
Sometimes the body is found covered with fragments
of a canoe, or a little tipi made of sticks, which have
been preserved below the surface of the sand. Some
of the bones are partly cremated, especially those of
children, as found near Kamloops.
We photographed a grave after the
Opened sand  around  and within  it had been
Graves. removed   from   the   skeleton   and   the
accompanying objects (Plate XVI, fig.
a). In all graves the bodies were found to have been
originally buried about two feet deep, flexed on the
side. Some were wrapped in cloths, and covered with
mats of rushes.
P    -   ... In the Thompson River region there
R    . | was  still  another  mode  of  burial,   as
illustrated in Plate XVI, fig. b. The
body and the articles to be buried with it, were placed
at the base of a rock slide, and then the rocks were
loosened so as to cause them to slide down and cover
all. Such graves were found marked by large rocks,
or by twigs in the last stages of decay. One skeleton
resting upon the rockslide was in a little tent of poles
covered with mats made from the stalks of the common
cat tail. The rockslide had been worked down around
the tent to the height of about two feet over the
J /*
skeleton. The burial customs as revealed by our
explorations, agree closely with those recorded of the
Thompson Indians, as given by Mr. Teit.
From the various specimens which have withstood
the ravages of time and the weather, we learn certain
facts in regard to the early inhabitants of the Thompson River region.   Perceiving that the non-perishable
articles found resemble in general character those made
of similar materials and used similarly by the modern
Indians of this area, we may conclude that many of the
perishable articles and even some of the customs of the
prehistoric people were similar to those of the Indians
inhabiting the region to-day.    In fact, it would seem
that   the   earliest   people living   in   the   Thompson
River valley, of whom we have any knowledge, had
the same material culture and led practically the same
fife as that led by the Indians found there by the
first white explorers.    In other words, there is evidence
of only one physical type and material culture in this
region.    The modern Indians make their graves like
the prehistoric Indians; they know the use of the rockslide burial, and they interpret the conventional marks
found  on  the  prehistoric  remains.    Yet  differences
exist between the old and the new.   The modern pipe
is a bowl or has an elbow-crook like a type found on the
Plains.    The absence of native pottery is characteristic
of all British Columbia, in both prehistoric and historic
Ethnological investigations^have shown a connexion
of the recent culture of this area with that of the Rocky 39
Mountain region. Correspondingly the old pipes and
mortars are somewhat like those found as far south as
California. Points rubbed out of slate-like rocks,
harpoon points made of bone and antler, fish knives
made of slate, the sea shells, bone of the whale, and the
resemblance of certain carvings to those of the coast,
point to contact with the coast. On the other hand,
the celts or adzes of the coast are on the average shorter
than those of this area. No specimens made of abalone
shell have been found by us farther to the east than
Spence Bridge. Both the physical type and the culture suggest that the people of the coast and those of
the interior developed on distinct lines, and that points
of resemblance are due to intercourse.
Such contact, at least with the culture on the coast
and that of the plateau to the south, was greater in the
past than at present. In recent years the region seems
to have taken elements of material culture from the
east. The remains in the Lillooet valley show influences of the coast as well as of the interior. Here,
it is obvious that the interior culture and the coast
culture merge.
The culture of the interior of southern British Columbia seems to have been a unit; that of the coast
constituted another unit. In central Washington was
a culture differing a little in some respects from that of
the interior of southern British Columbia, but greatly
from that of the coast.
UM 40
■ |llli§ COLUMBIA. ;||M-
The foregoing account is intended to be a popular
guide for the general public, and for teachers accompanied by classes. The scientist will find more elaborate discussions of the questions in the original sources;
among which the following may be consulted.
Smith, Harlan, I... .Archaeology   of    Lytton,   British
Columbia. (Publications of the
Jesup North Pacific Expedition,
Vol. I, Part 3). Memoirs of the
American Museum of Natural His-
§    tory, Vol. II, Part 3,1899.
Smith, Harlan, I Archaeology   of   the   Thompson
River Region, British Columbia.
(Publications of the Jesup North
Pacific Expedition, Vol. I, Part 6).
Memoirs of the American Museum
of Natural History, Vol. II, Part
6, 1900. w$m ||      I
Teit, James The Thompson Indians of British
Columbia. (Publications of the
Jesup North Pacific Expedition,
Vol. I, Part 4), Memoirs of the
American Museum of Natural History, Vol. II, Part 4, 1900. Ik
Plate II.
The Securing of Food.
Chipped stone points for arrows, spears, and knives.
Chipped from greenish quartzite, Kamloops.   Collector, C. F. Newcon|be,
1905.   Cat. No. XI-A-653.
Chipped from white chalcedony.   Burial ground near Lytton.   Collector, C.
Hill-Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. XL&-153.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Grave opposite Kamloops.   Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1888.   Cat. No. XI-A-21.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Grave at Lillooet.   Collector, G. M. Dawson,
1889.    Cat. No. XI-A-316. ]
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Burial ground near Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-
•Tout, 1899.   Cat. $0. XI-A-128.
Chipped from chert.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.    Cat. No.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Main burial place, Lytton.   Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XtA-422.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Grjtore", Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895,
Cat. No. XI-A-106.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat.
No. XI-A-546.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Burial ground near Lytton.    Collector, C. Hill-
Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. XI-A-0|p
Chipped from glassy basalt. I Graves! Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.
Cat. No. XI-A-552.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.
Cat. No. XI-A-551.
Chipped from glassy basalt.   Grave opposite Kamloops.   Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1888.   Cat. N|p. XI-A-22.
Point chipped from brown chalcedony.   From surface of 6th site, Lytton.
Collector, Harlan I. Smith, 1897. I Original ^fg- in American Museum of
Natural History.   See Fig. 5.   Smith.   "Arch. Lytton." From cast. Cat.
No. XI-A-556.
Chipped from obsidian.   Fraser river,  interior of B.C.    Collector, C. F.
Newcombe, 1905.   Cat. No. XI-A^557M
Chipped from mottled yellowish chalcedony.   From 2§ miles below Lytton.
Collector, J. W. McKay, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-513.
The securing of food.
|§     SOUTHER1
.bool to soiiuo93. adT
mU   V\
a popular
The foregoing a<
guide for the genet; teachers   ccom-
noniorl Kv /»!a oafS?1^ ^ae i3iJJ9qe .bwoitb to! etaioq.9no;te beqqrdO ,
bte (idjtnoowsVl ,'1,..©. .loJosIIoO   .eqooimaSJ^isdaeup xfeiusais moilbaqqidO    •«
m .tib-A.-ixi:.ow:i&o .eoei
:0 ,TCOd5siloO    .jio;Wy,J i«3n hnuoia lehnS   .Ynobealjsdo e.iidw moil hsqqidO    .d
.S5i-A-IX'.oH 3atT !00&\JiioT-fiiH
• -^ -O^.iodosnoO    .aqooImfiX ectigoqqo evaiO   Jleaed ^Bealg moil beqqidO    .0
.IS-A-IXf.oM lisO . .8881 .noswaa
.noewfid .M .O ,ioto9llo0   .teooiliJ is 9vbiO-  .dlsasd vassls moi$ JtaqqiHO    .b
-IiiH .0 ,iodo9llo0   .nottv,J ieaa bnuoig Ifiinia-^.difiafid Y.aaaia moAfegaqidO    .8
.8Si-A-i£4bW .tad   .0681 ,lM)a,
.oVL .teO   .TT81 .noawfiO .M .O .lodosiloO '.nottY/I   .diario moil baqqidO    .1
.M .O ,ioi09lloO    .ooiJ^J ,90Jsiq Isimd ninM > •fiipasd yaasls moil? b9'qqidO    .3
-SS^-A-IX .oT/i MO ' -TOI ,noawB(I
,8081,90inuM .9 .H ,ioio9llo0   .noMv.J ,9vbiO   idieend veanl^moilbeqqidO    .d
.60I-A-IX .oH .teO
Sllli ifeO 1-.SG81 -,90innM .3 .H ,iodo9lioO   .aoi^J   .dlfiand ^aaais moil b9qqid0    .i
w .8£S-A3X .cM.
-iiiH .O ,iodo9iIoO     .uoW^J ifisn bm/oia IsiiuS   .iieaed Tjaafila moil bgqqidO    .[
.8M-A-IX .oWMO   .0080uoT
.5081 .soinuM .8. .H ,ioto9flo0   .noW^J ,9vniO   .difiand Yeaais jrioil bgqiqidO    .i
.-S88-A-IX .pM .JaO
.8081 ,90inuM .9 .H ,io*09iT60   .noWy,*! ,9veiO    .*Iaead Y.8aals?mo#b9'q4id9    .1
., .188-A-IX-..OV1, JgQ
•M .O ,io*09iio0   .aqoofmeSC eiiaoqqo 9vaiD    .dlsaBd Y,aaala moiiDgqqinO    .m
•SS-A-IX .qPyteC*, ^SIJ^iav^Q&j-
.no^^J ,9iia dib to 9onliua, moil    .v,nob9olado nwoid moil boqqi do iaio'i    .a
to  mueeuM naoii9mA n! ^k-ianijhO    .T081 ,dJimS .1 nariaH ,-iotoaIIoO
J&D .*eao moT^L ".iioWyJ .doiA"   .ddimg   .8 .gil aa&   .v^oteiH fenrtaH
Teit. 3 The Thomnson ntf'&H^rtfffijk.
'.1 .0 ,iodo9ll00    .0.3 to "TOh9'*nf ,iavri raaait 'JnAibiatfoVjinoil TJsqqidO    .0
>lumHM"A"I^-P^'1)H:?   ,800L,9dmosw9pl
.noWv;J woi9d 89ixm fS moiu   .^oopabiBifo' flarwoflfv'bsliiom moii'boqqidO    .q
.848-A-IX .oM .JsO-ft08ps^geo^I W]^p^|f^R
rol. I, Part   jpj Memoirs of the
ican Museum of Natural His-
%tr\ Vol. II, Part 4,1900.
8881* Plate II.
The securing of food.
J  Plate III.
Plate III
The Securing of Food.
Point rubbed out o| mica schist.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.
Cat. No. XI-A-719.
Point rubbed out of bone.   Grave at Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.
Cat. No. XI-A-721.
Fragment of a barbed point made of antler.   Grave at Lillooet.   Collector, G.
M. Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-722.
Net sinker made of mica schist.   Kootenay.   Collector, C. F. Newcombe,
1905}   Cat. No. XI-A-730.
Digging^tick handle made of antler.    Near Lytton.     Collector, C. Hill-
TofT.   Cat. No. XI-A-731.
Sap scri&er made of bone.   Grave, Lillooet.    Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1889.
Cat. No. XI-A-724. [19
.boo'i to suiwo93 adT
•TY8X ,noawaG .M .Q ,io;toaIIoO   .uoWyJ   -teidoa aoim Jo Juo beddm tfaiol   .a
.On-A-IX .6VL JsD
.8081 ,90iflirM .0. .H ,ioio9flo0   .noii^J is avaiD   .snod to iuo baddm iniol   ,d
.1SY-A-IX .oVL JaO
.O tioio9iIoO   .daoolli J is 9vaxQ   .leiina to 9bam taioq b9diad a to tagmaail    .o
.SSV-A-IX .oft J&O   .0881 .noewaO: .M
,9dmoow9M .1 .0 .loioeiioO   .v.afl9too2[   .daidoa aoim to 9bam teiam teVL   .b
.OST-A-IX .6VL .iaO   .8001
-IiiH .0 ,iodo9lIoO     ,aoWy;J la^M    .i9ltea to 9bam alba&d sfoiie amsaiG    .9
.ISY-A-IX .o"H JbO   JuoT
.0881 .noawaG! .M .O .lofoatloO    .teooIfiJ ,9vaiO   .gnod to abam i9qaioa qa8    .1
.±SV-A-IX .oM .tsD
8881* Plate III.
The securing of food.
41383  Plate IV,
Plate IV.
The Preparation of Food.
Mortar or anvil made of a bouttfer.   Boothroyd's flat, 11 miles above Boston Bar.
Gift of H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-733.
The preparation of food.
41383 .VI htaj*!
•bool to noi*BiBq9i1 9dT
.ia9 aodeoS evoda aalim 11 ,1ah a'bvoid.fooa   .i9bluod a to 9bam livns to laJioM
' '" .8ST-A-IX .ofo. .taO 1.8081 ,acni&M. .8. .H to JffiD
8881* Plate IV.
The preparation of food.
41383  Plats V.
Plate V.
The Preparation of Food.
Fish-knife made of slate.    Grave, Lytton.    Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.
Cat. No. XI-A-758.
Pestle or hammer of type common near Kamloops, made of stone.    Kamloops.
Collector, J. McEvoy, 1894.   Cat. No. XI-A-736.
Pestle or hammer of type common near the mouth of Thompson river, made
of stone.   Lytton«3Gift of H. B. Munroe, 189JL   Cat. No. XI-A-738.
41383 .V aTAjT
.bool to noidaiaq9i^[ adT
.8081 ,90imxM .3 .H tiodo9lIoO    .hoMyJ .avaiO    .9*ala to gbam atioal-dail    .a
|f| .      .88T-A-IX .oft .teO
.aqooImaS    .enoJa to gbem .aqooImaH ia9ii nommoo eqv^ to lemmad 10 91*89*1    .d
.OST-A-IX .oft .i&D    .*081 .yovHoM .1 tiodosfloO
gbam ,i9vh noaqmodT to dduom 9d* xsan nommoo aqyi to i9mmad 10 91*89*1    .o
,  .88V-A-IX .oft .d-aO   .8081 .goini/M .3 .H to iKQ   .aoii^d   .aaoia to
8881* Plate V.
The preparation of food.
41383 « Plate VI.
a. View across the Fraser river from the main site at Lytton, showing in the
foregrountrnrhbieiiurrounded by an embankment—the remains of an ancient
semi-subterranean house.
b. Recent semi-subterranean winter house of the Thompson Indians, NicOla
41383 .IV staj*!
&di ni aniwode .noid^J is 9*ia aiata edi moil i9vii igaail ad* aaoioa waiV    .a
Jnsidna aa to aniemai edi—Jn9m>Inadm9 na vd bebnnoraia alod a bniroiagiol
.9BUod naenaTi9*dna-im:93
alODift ,anaibnL noaqmodT 9dd to 9anod i9*niw na9naii9*dna-im9a dn99dH    .d
8881* Plate VI.
f $*.>*■»>***'•***%,
Habitations.  Plate VII.
Tools Used by Men.
a. Celt make of green stone showing groove by means of which it was cut out, and
stain of haft.    Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No.
b. Double bitted celt made of green stone, showing grooving.    Grave, Lyttpn.
Collector, H. BF. Munroe, 1895.   €fat. No. XI-A-763.
c. Whetstone-made of mica schist.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe,
1895.   Cat, No. XI-A-813.
d. Arrow shaft smoother made of sandstone.   Grave, Lytton.    Collector* H. B.
Munroe, 1895.  'Cat. No. XI-A-797.
e. Wedge made of antler.   Lytton.   Collector. G. M. Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No.
f. Very thin celt made of green stone.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe,
1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-764.
g. Grooved pebble.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-
h.    Scraper chipped from red jasper.    Lytton^-   Collector, C. Hill-Tout, 1809.
Cat. No. XI-A-631.
i.    Scraper chipped from yellowish chalcedonv.    Lvtton.    Collector, C. HS11-
@jut, 1899.    Cat. No. XI-A-632.
j.    Point chipped from glassy basalt, for a drill.    Grave, Lytton.    Gift of H.IB.
Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No.^I-A-630.
k.    Point chipped from glassy basalt,"for a drill.   Main burial place, Lytton.
Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-441.
1.    Point chipped from glassy basalt, for knife.    Grave, Lytton.    Collector,
H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. Xl-A-56. .IIV 5ETAJ<I
.naM Yd baaU alooT
baa ,tuo duo aaw ti doidw to anaam v.d evooia aniwoda onoda n9aia to aiam iiaO    .a
.oft .taO   .8081 ,90innM .9 .H .TOdoailoO   .noddY>I ,avaiD    .died to urate
.aoddTfil ,9vaiO    .gnivooia aniwoda ,900da 03913 to 9bam dlao baddid elduoG    .d
•S9T-A-IX .oft .*aO   .8081 .aoinnM .3 .H ,to*oalioO
,90innM .3 .H .TOdoailoO   .noddv,J ,avaiD   .daidoa aoim to abam anocratedW    .0
.S18-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081
.9 .H .lodoailoO    .noddy. J ,9vaiD    .90odabnaa to abam igddooma dlada wonA    .b
.YQY-A-IX .oft .daO   .5081 .aoinuM
.oft .iaO   -TT8I .ooawaG .M .O .lodoailoO   .not&yrj.   .iqUbb to obam aabaW    .a
,90inuM .3 .H ,iodoaiioO    .noddv>I ,9vaiO    .aooda 09913 to gbam dlgo nidi yraV    .1
.*6T-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081
-A-IX .oft .daO   .YT8I ,0oawaG .M .O tiodo9fib0   .noddv.J   .9ldd9q b9vooiO    .3
.0081 ,duoT-fIiH .0 ,TOdo9iIoO   .noddv^I    .laqsai b9i moil b9qqido laqeioS    .d
.188-A-IX .oft .daO
-iiiH .0 .ibdoaiioO    .noddvvl   .voobeolado daiwoiiav, moil bgqqido i9qaio8    .i
.S88-A-IX -oft .daO   .0081 tdnoT
.3 .H to dliD    .noddvj ,9vaiO    .lihb a iol .diaaad Y.aaala moil b9qqido iaiol.   .[
.088-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aoirniM
.noddv,J ,9oalq iaiiud niaM   .lihb a iol .diaaad y,aaais moil baqqida dniol    . A
.1**-A-IX .oft JaD   .f?81 .ooawaO .M .O ,iodoaiioO
(loJoalloO    .nodd^J .avaiO    .91102! iol .diaaad yaaeia moil heqqido iaiol    . I
.88-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aoinuM .3 .H Plate VII.
Tools used by^men.  4[^"&^&&
Plate VIII.
ToolapTTsed by Women.
Skin scraper chipped from quarizite.    Spence Bridge.    Collector, G. M.
Dawsorip890.   Cat. No. XI-A-824.
Skin scraper chipped from quartzite.   Lytton.    Collector, C. Hill-Tout, 1899.
Cat. No. XI-A-825.
Blade chipped from glassy basalt, possibly a knife.   Spence Bridge.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson through J. Murray, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-356.
Awl made of bone.   Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-Tout, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-
Awl made of bone,   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat.
No. XI-A-837.
Awl made of bone.   Lillooet.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No.
.namoW v,d b9aU alooT
.M  .O .TOdoaiioO    .9abii3 9Dn9q8    .sdisdianp moil baqqido i9qaioa nh!8    .a
.*S8-A-lX: .oft .daO   .0081 .noawaa
.GG81 ,JuoT-IIiH .0 ,TOdoaIioO   .nodd^J   .edisdiaup moTl b9qqido i9qaiaa ohf8    .d
.8S8-A-IX .oft .daO
,iodo9iioO   .93bha eoneqS   .aYinA a yidiaaoq .diaaad v.aaai3 moil baqqido gbaia    .9
.88S-A-IX .oft .deD   .0881 .^awuM X dsuoidd noawaO .M .O
-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .duoT-lUH .0 .lodoailoO   .noddv,J   .aood to gbam iwA   .b
.daO   .8081 ,90inuM .a .H .iojdoIIoO   .noddv,J .avaiO   ,anod to abam IwA    .9
.T88-A-IX .oft
.oft .daO   .0881 .noawaG .M .O .lodoailoO   .d900liiJ   .9nod to abam iwA    .1
.T*8-A-IX Plate VIII.
Tools used by women.  Plate IX.
The Manufacture of Special Objects.
Boulder of green stone showing grooving and break by means of which a piece
was detached. Near Lytton. Collectca&jp. Hill-Tout, 1899. Cat. No.
Quartz crystal. Possibly used to cut grooves in green stones. Grave, Lytton.
Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-860.
Celt made of green stone showing grooving by means of which it was cut out.
Main burial place, Lytton. Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877. Cat. No.
Celt made of green stone showing grooving and break by means of which it
was cut out. Grave.tSLytton. Collector, Hi B. Munroe, 1895. Cat. No.
XI-A-765. .XI htaj*!
.adaaidO iaioeqB to 9iudoalnnaM adT
.  -ail
eogiq a doidw to ena9m yd iaaid baa anivooia sniwoda anoda .09913 to i9biuoa   .a
.oft .iaO   .0081 ,duoT-!iiH .0 .lodoailoO   .uoddyj xagft   .b9doad9b 8aw
. ooddyJ! .avaiD    .a9ooda 09913 ni eavooia duo od beau yidiaaol   .ladavio sdianQ    .d
.088-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aoionM .3 .H .lodoeiloO
.duo duo aaw di doidw to 30a9m yd snivoois 30iwoda 9noda 09913 to 9bam di90    .0
.oft .daO   .TOJl .noawaG .M .0 .lodoailoO   .noddyJ ,9oaiq iaiiud niaM
di doidw to ana9m yd jlaaid bna anivoois soiwoda aooda 09913 to abam dleO    .b
.oft .deO   .8081 ,90inuM .3 .H ,iodo9iio0   .ooddyj ,9vaiO   .duo tn$ aaw
.88T-A-IX Plate IX.
The manufacture of special objects. r Pi.
Plate X.
The Manufacture of Special Objects.
Boulder showing pecking around the middle and at the ends by means of which
it was being reduced to the form of a pestle or hammer. Lytton. Collector, C. Hill-Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. XI-A-745.
if special objec
41383 .X htaj*!
.ado9[dO iaiogqS to aiudoalunaM adT
doidw to aoaara yd abna sdi ia boa 9ibbim 9dd bnuoia anhfoaq aniwoda i9bluo3
-loO   .uoddyJL    .i9mmad to 9ida9q a to miol add od b90ub9i snigd aaw di
.8*T-A-IX .oft .daO   .0081 .duoT-IliH .0 .TOdoal Plate  X.
The manufacture of special objects.
41383  Plate XI,
Weapons Used in War.
Clubs made of whale's bone.   Kamloops.    Collector, Harlan I. Smith, on
Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897.
a. Original 5^f 6 in American Museum of Natural History.    From cast.   Cat,
No. XI-A-862.
b. Original 2£fj in American Museum of Natural History.   From   cast. Cat.
No. XI-A-863.
_l ,IX htajlT
.iaW ni bsalJ anoqa9W
no ,ddim8 .1 naiiaH  .lodoailoO    .aqoolxnaS    .9nod a'aiadw to 9bam aduiO
.T08I ,noidxb9qzK oftioa3 ddioft quasi
»daO   .daao xnoi'4    .yiodaiH faindaft to mu9euM naoiiamA ni  af|«r ianisiiO   .a
.288-A-IX .oft
•daO .daao   moi'?   .yiodaiH laiudaft to mueaxiM naoiiamA ni 5ffc. iaoiahO   .d
.888-A-IX .oft
8881 * Plate XI.
Weapons used in war.
41383  Plate XII;,
Dress and Ornament.
a. Red ochre.   Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-865.
b. Yellow ochre.   Vermilion cliff, Tulameen river.   Collector, L. M. Lambe,
1906.   Cat. No. XI-A-866a.
c. Green paint.    Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-867.
d. Pendant made by perforating the canine tooth of a bear.   Lytton.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson, WW Cat. No. XI-A-868.
e. Beads made of bone.   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector, G.M. Dawson, 1889. ■; Cat.
No. XI-A-874a,b, c, d,e.
f. Perforated Pacific Ocean  shell (Pectunculus).    Lytton.    Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-876.
g. Pacific Ocean tooth shells (dentalium).   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-S79 a, b, c, d.
h.    Pendant made  of shell.    Summit of Murray mountain.    Collector, G. M.
Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-881.
i.    Modern copper beads on braided string.   Kamloops.   Collector, W. F. Tolmie,
1884.   Cat. No. XI-A-884.
j.    Copper pendant.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No.
k.    Pendant made of galena.   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1889.
Cat, No. XI-A-882.
1.    Copper pendant.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No.
m.   Bracelet made of copper, perhaps modern.    Grave, Lytton.   Gift of H. B
Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-887.
jr "*«»
41383 .IIX aTAJ*!   "
.dnexnaniO baa aagiG
.888-A-IX .oft .daO    .8081 .goinuM .3 .H .lodoailoO    .ooddyJ   .gidoo baS    .a
,9dmaJ .M .J .lodoailoO   .iavii 099maIuT ,Bflo noifimieV   .aidoo woIIaY   .d
|      .ad»8-A-IX .oft .taO   .8001    ,
.T88-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aoinnM .3 .H .lodoailoO   .0oddyJ • .dniaqaaaiO    .o
,iodo9iio0    .ooddyJ   .iaod a to ddood anioaa adi aoidaiohaq yd abam dnabnal    .b
.888-A-IX .oft .daO   .YT81 .noawaG .M .O .   ■•
.taO   .0881,noawaG .M.O .TOdoaiioO   .dgooiii3,9vaiO   .good to abam abaaS    .9
.9 ,b ,0 ,d . a *T8-A-IX .oft
•M .O .TOdoaiioO    .noddyJ    .(a«iuonudo93) ItodB  na9oO ofiioa3 badaioria3    .1
.0V8-A-IX .oft .daO   .TT81 .noawaO
.M .O .TOdoaiioO   .daooiiiJ ,9vaiO   .(muiiadoab) alteda ddood naaoO odioal    .3
.b ,0 ,d ,a 078-A-IX .oft .daD   .TT8I .ooawaG
.M .O ,iod09iioO    .niadnuom yaimM to dixrtmnS    .Hade to  ebaxn dnabnaa    .d
.188-A-IX .oft .daO   .0881 .noawaa   . ■ •
,9xxnioT ."5 . W .lodoglioO   .aqoofmaX   -aniida bohiaid no ahead i9qqoo niaboM    .i
Mm .*88-A-IX .oft .daO   .*881
.oft .daO   -8081 ,90inuM .3 .H .lodooiioO    .xioddyJ ,9vaiO    .dnabngq laqqoO    .[
.6881 .noawaG .M .O .TOdoaiioO   .daooiiiJ .evaiO   .analaa to 9bam dnabn93   .at
.S88-A-IX .oft ,daO.
.oft .daO   .8081 .ooinuM .3 .H .lodoailoO   .noddyj .avaxD   .dnabn9q taqqoO    .1
,-     - f0-      ■ ■  .888-A-IX
3 .H to dliO    .noddyj ,9vaiQ    .ni9bom aqadi9q .Taqqoo to obsm d9i9oai3   ,m
.T88-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aoimiM
8881* Plate XII.
Dress and ornament.
41383  Fig.
Plate XIII.
Games, Amusements, and Smoking.
Tubular pipe made of soapstone. Grave, Lytton. Collector, G. M. Dawson,
1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-896.
Pipe made of soapstone. Grave, Lytton. Gift of Jf W. McKay, 189w Cat.
No. XI-A-902.
Elbow pipe made of soapstone.   Probably modern.   Nicola.   Cat. No. XI-
Crystal of calcite.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector, H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No.
Fragment of pipe made of sandstone, daubed with red paint.    Grave, Lytton.
Gift of H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-907.
Perforated Pacific Ocean shell (Pecten cavrinus, Gould). Probably one of number for a rattle. Found under three feet of gravel opposite Day bar. Gift
of F. Soues.   Cat. No. XI-A 909.
.:        .".
Games, amusements, and smoking. .IIIXaTAJ1!
•anHomB bna .adnameanxnA .asmaO
, ooawaG .M .O ,iodo9llo0    .noddyj ,9vaiO    .aoodaqaoa to 9bam aqiq laluduT    .a
.808-A-IX .oft .daO    .TY8I    •
.daO    .0081 ,ya2toM .W .L to dl'tD    .ooddyJ ,avaiO    .anodaqaoa to 9bam aqil   .d
.S00-A-IX .oft
-IX .oft .daO   .alooift   .nrabom y!dadoi3   .anodaqaoa to abam 9qiq wodiH    .0
.oft .daO   .8081 .aoinirM .3 .H .lodoailoO   .noddyj .avaiO   .adioiaotoladeyiO    .b
.ooddyJ ,9vaiO    .dniaq bet ddiw b9duab ,9oodabnaa to 9bam 9qiq to do9rnaai1    .9
.T00-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .eoiouM .3 .H to dliO
-muo to 9flo y!dadoi3  .(bluoO .aunimoo naSaa4!) Ilgda oa9o0 ofiioa3 b9daioli93    .1
dliO    .iad ynG ediaoqqo tovaia to d99l 99idd labon bnnol    .alddai a iol iod
.000 A-IX .oft .daO   .aauo8 ."5 to
8881* Plate XIII.
Games, amusements, and smoking.
41383  Plate XIV.
Incised, Geometric, and Pictographic Characteristic of the Southern Interior
of British Columbia.
a. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapstone.   Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-
Tout.   Cat. No. XI-A-926.
b. Incised pictograph on fragment of pipe made of soapstone.   Lytton.   Gift of
H. B. Munroe, 1895.   Cat. No. XI-A-927.
c. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapstone.   Grave, Lytton.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-JM928.
d. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapstone.   Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-
Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. XSk^^
e. Iifeised piptograph on antler handle of digging stick.   From surface, Lytton.
Collector, Harlan I. Smith on Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897. Original 3i|5 in the AmericanuMafeeum of Natural History. From cast.
Cat. No. XI-A-930.
f. Iribised design on tip of antler.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.
Cat. No. XI-A-931.
g. Incised notches and design on awl made of bone.   Grave, Lfifooet.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson, 1889.   C£fc No. XI-lb&32.
h.   Incised design on awl made of bone.   Lyttoto;   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877,
Cat. No. XTtA-933.
i.    Incised design on sap scraper made of antler.   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector, G.
M. Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-934.
41383 .VIX 3TAJ<I
TOhadoI maddno8 edt to oidahadoaiadO oidqaiaodaH baa ,ohd9moaO .baaionl
.axdmuloO daidiiS to
-IiiH .0 ,TOd09lioO   .noddyj   .anodaqaoa to abam 9qiq no dqaigodoiq baaionl    .a
.8S0-A-IX .oft .iaO   .duoT
lo dliO    .noddyj   .anodaqaoa to abam sqiq to dnemaaii no dqaiaodoiq baaionl    .d
.^G-A-IX .oft .daO   .8081 .aotnuM .3 .H
.lodoailoO   .noddy. J ,9vaiO   .anodaqaoa to 9barn 9qiq no dqaisodoiq b9aionI   .0
.8S0-A-IX .oft .daO   .TT81 .noewaa M .O
-IiiH .0 .lodoailoO    .noddyj   .9nodaqaoa to 9 bam sqiq no dqaiaodoiq b9aionI    .b
.OSe-A-IX .oft .daO   .GG81 ,duoT
.noddyj ,9oaiiua mOTTI    .iloids aniaaib to albnad i9ldoa no dqaiaodoiq baaionl    .9
-tO   .T08I .ooidiboqxJ oflioa3 ddioft quaal. no ddimS .1 naliaH .TOdoaiioO
.daao moil    .y/rodaiH latuiaVL to mu9auM oaohamA adi ni j££5 laniai
.080-A-IX .oft .daO
.^T8I .noawaG .M .O .TOdoaiioO   .noddyJ   .i9ldna to qrd no oaiaab baaionl    .1
.I80-A-IX .oft .daO
,iodo9llo0   .dgooIIiJ ,9vaiO   .9nod to abam Iwa no oaiaob bna aadodon b9eionI    .a
.S8G-A-IX .oft .daO   .8881 .noawaa .M .O
,7781,noawaG .M .O .lodooIIoO   .noddyj   .anod to gbaxn Iwa no naie9b baaionl   .d
.880-A-IX .Oft .daO
.D .lodoailoO   .d9ooIIiJ ,9vaiO   .i9ldna to gbam i9qaioa qaa 00 oaiaab baaionl    .i
,*80-A-IX .oft .iaO   .8881 .ooaweG .M
8881* Plate XlV.
Incised, Geometric, and Pictographic Characteristic of the Southern Interior
of British Columbia.
a. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapstone.   Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-
Tout.   Cat. §o. XI-A-926.
b. Incised pictograph on fragment of pipe made of soapstone.   Lytton.   Gift of
H. B. Munroe, 189jT Cat. No. XI-A-927.
c. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapstone.   Grave, Lytton'.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson, 1877.   Cat. No. XI-A-928.
d. Incised pictograph on pipe made of soapston^.   Lytton.   Collector, C. Hill-
Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. XI-A-929.
ej    Incised pictograph on antler handle of digging stick.   From surface, Lytton.
Collector, Harlan I. Smith on Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897.   Original sMt? in the American Museum of "Natural History.    From cast.
Cat. No. XI-A-930.
f. Incised design on tip of antler.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877.
Cat. No. XI-A-931.
g. Incised notches and design on awl made of bone.   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector,
G. M. Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-9$2£
h.   Incised design on awl made of bone.   Lytton.   Collector, G. M. Dawson, 1877,
Cat. No. XPA-933.
i.    Incised design on sap scraper made of antler.   Grave, Lillooet.   Collector, G.
M. Dawson, 1889.   Cat. No. XI-A-934.
Art. .VIX^TAJ4!
TOhadnl oiarftei <£} mA  . ,     .   _
loiiadnl niaddno8 add to oidaiiadoaiadO oidqaisodoiaboa Yohdamda©' [fbaaionI
.aidmuioO 'daidiiS to
tH I \ .gil
-IiiH .0 .lodoailoO    .noddyj   .9nodaqaoa to abaxrf aqiq no dqeiabdpiq baaionl    .a
ia'SO-A^IX toft -MD   .duoT
**» iii.        .nojjyj       nodBqaoe to nb&t -~ An  t ' a
lo dliO    .noddyj    .bnodaqaoa to 9bam gqiq to dhamaail no dqaiaodoiq bgaibnl    .d
.7S0-AJX .oft .daO •l .BOSiSaoinuM .3 .H
lodoailoO    .noddyj ,9vaiO   .gnodaqaoa to sham 9qiq no dqaisoddiq b9eionI   .0
.8£0-AJXftdft;?daO '!l;T?8f .noawaG .M .O
-IiiH TO .lodooIIoO    .ooddyJ '.9oodaqaoa to abam 9qiq no dqaisoddiq b9aionI    .b
.GSO-A-IX .oft '.isO   ;0G8I ,duoT
■noddy J; ,r9oaiina moil    .ildids soiasib to 9lbnad tawna no dqa-rapdbiq' boeiool    .9
<jfi[ .76.81 .-ndidihgqxSI ofiioa3 ddioft qua9L 00  ddixriS'.':! nahaH?iodoaIibO
.daao moi'5    .yiodaiH lamdaft to xnuoauM naoiiamA 9rid ni -g^i?. lanbji
.OSG-A-IX .oft .daO
.7781  .noawaG .'M .O tiodo9iIbO   .ooddyJ    .i9ldna to q'rd ho 03x89b baaionl    .1
.18G-&-IX .Oft .daO
,iodo9llo0   .daooTfiJ ,9vaiO   .good to 9bam Iwa no 03x89b bna aadoddfl b9eionI    .3
" '.S86-A-IX .oft .daO    .0881 ^oawaG ,M .O
,7781,ooawaG .ibdoglloO   .noddyj   .good to abam Iwa 00 ngieah boaiool   .d
^SSO-A-IX'-.qft -,daO
.O .lodoafloO   .deoolfi J .eyaiD   .igldoa to obaxn igqaioa qaa no oaiaab b9aionI    .i
"lMQ-A-IX .oft .daO   .0881 .noawaQ .M
-1O   :
•daao 1
83SI* Art.
Plate XIV.
Hoi r Plate XV.
Plate XV.
Carved Animal Forms.   The first [two "show influence of the art of the coast.
Animal form carved on a dog halter toggle made of antler. Grave, Lytton.
Collector, Harlan I. Smith, on the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897.
The original is ^Jfj in the American MuseUm of Natural History. From
cast. Cat. No. XI-A-935.
Fragment of an animal form carved in soapstone, being part of a pipe bowl.
Collector, Harlan 1. Smith, on the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897.
Original ^Jfy in American Museum of Natural History. <uFrom cast. Cat.
No. XI-A-936.
Animal figure carved onsa pipe made of soapstone. From Thompson Indian
area.   Collector, C. Hill-Tout, 1899.   Cat. No. 3fJ-A-937.
Animal head carved on a pestle made of stone. South Thompson valley.
Collector, A. B. Clarke, 1893.   Cat. No. XI-A-757.
Human forms carved in stone. Kamloops. Original in Provincial Museum,
Victoria. Formerly owned by C. Hill-To«|ipFrom cast. Cat. No. XI-
A-938a. f
.VX aTAJ4!
•daaoo add to dia edi to gongnxini woda" owd] daifl 9dT   .emrol laminA baviaO
.noddyj .avarD     .igidna to 9bam 9la30d igdlad 30b a no boviao mTOl laminA   '.a
.7081 .noidibaqxQI odio'a^E ddioft qnagl gdd no .ddiirxS .1 naliaH .lodoglloO
moil     .yiodaiH laiudaft to muoanM naohdmA 9dd at ^§fe ei ianiaiio adT
.360-A-IX .oft .daO .daao
.Iwod.'aqiq a to diaq a'niad .goodaqaoa ni boviao miol lamina aa to dn9maai*I    .d
.7081 .noidibgqxSE o,ftioa3 ddioft qxraoL add 00 ,ddim8 .1 naliaH .lodSoIIoO
.daO .daao moil   .yiodaiH laiudaft to muga'uM naohamA ni ^ffjr laniaiiO
.880-A-IX .oft
naibnl nOaqmbdT moi'tE   .anodaqaoa to .abam aqiq a oo bgvxso giusflt laminA    .0
.780-A-IX .oft .daO    GG8I .duoT-IIiH .O .lodoailoO   .aaia
. y'aliav ooaqmodT dduoS    .anode to obam gldagq a 00 boviao baed laxnioA   .b
.787-A-IX .oft .daO   .8681 .g&ralO.S .A.iodoglloO
,mu98uM Iaiooivoi3 01 lanisiiO   .aqooIxna3[   .anod8 ni bavxeo axniol naxnuH    .a
-IX .oft .daO    .daao moil   .duoT-IIiH .0 ^d bonwo yligmio'"!   .aiiodoiV
.a880-A Plate XV.
Art. r n
Plate XVI.
■fc^ft    ...vftft^
'-'."-.r.'-nCv  "3
^ft*^ ^V-V;^-"
Plate XVI.
Method of Burial.
Fig. iStsL
a. Skeleton uncovered by exploration in main burial place, Lytton.
b. Rock slide with graves, Nicola valley. r~
.laiiua to boddaM
.noddyj .eoalq laiiud niam ni noidaiolqxg yd baiavoonu nodglgiS    .a
.ygllav alooift ,89vaia ddiw obila dooH    .d Plate XVI.
Method of burial. Hhsc     £?8    'Bg   SCsL    ,313 J


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