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Appendix to the counter-case of His Majesty's government before the Alaska boundary tribunal Great Britain 1903

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• The University of British Columbia Library
THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION   APPENDIX
TO   THE   COUNTER-CASE   OF
HIS  MAJESTY'S GOYEKMENT
BEFORE
THE ALASKA BOUNDARY TRIBUNAL.
VOL.    I.
McCORQUODALE & CO., LIMITED, CARDINGTON STREET, N.W.
190a  Ill
APPENDIX TO THE CASE OF HIS MAJESTY'S  GOVERNMENT
BEFORE   THE
ALASKA BOUNDARY TRIBUNAL.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAPEES RELATING TO RUSSIAN OCCUPATION	
Documents printed in " Correspondence and Convention with Russia relative to
Navigation and Trade on the Northwest Coast of America "	
Observations on the Claim of Russia to Territorial Possessions on the Continent
of North America, Communicated with Mr. Adams' Letter to Mr. Middleton
of July 22^ 1823      	
Extracts from the Memorial of the Court of Spain, delivered June 13, 1790, to
Mr. Fitzherbert, British Ambassador at Madrid 	
Extract from Count Florida Blanca's reply to Mr. Fitzherbert, June 18, 1790 ...
Extract from the Letter of Count Fernan Nunez to Mr. Montmorin, Secretary
of the Foreign Department of France, June 16,1790	
Dispute between the Courts of Madrid and London	
The Russian American Company
Extract from M. de Humboldt's Essay on New Spain        	
A view of the discoveries of the Russians on the Coast of America
Attitude of United States, March 30,1822	
The Secretary of State to M. de Poletica, Department of State, Washington,
March 30,1822       	
From Correspondence relating to British and Russian claims to Territory on the
Coast of the Pacific Ocean, etc.    ...        ...        ...        ...        ...        ... 15
From   Message on the Acquisition of Russian-America, including Sumner's
Speech (1868) 	
Translation of the Russian Memorandum      ...        ...        ...        ...        ... 17.
Extract from Report of the Governor of Alaska (1902)       	
PAGE
1
3
4
4
7
10
11
12
15
15
16
IT
18
18
PAPERS RELATING TO AMERICAN OCCUPATION             19-
Extracts from Annual Beports of Governors of Alaska since the inception of Civil
Government in 1884  19-
From Report of Governor Swineford (1885) 19, (1886) 20, (1887) 21, (1888) 21,
22, 23, 24
From Report of Governor Knapp (1889)         24,25,26
From Report of Governor J. G. Brady (1890) ...        — '           26
From Report of Governor Knapp (1891)        27
. From Report of Governor Knapp (1892)        28
From Report of Governor James Sheakley (1895) 29
From Report of Governor J. G. Brady (1891) 29, (1898) 30, (1899) 30, (1900) 31,
(1902) 31 32, 33, 34, 35, 36
Contemporary opinions expressed by distinguished United States officials and
citizens in magazines and periodicals ...        ...    36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 IV
MEMORANDUM   FROM THE ADMIRALTY RESPECTING THE HISTORY
OF CERTAIN CHARTS 45
MAPS OF ALASKA	
From Message on Acquisition of Russian America ...
Extracts from Articles in Magazines and Periodicals
Extracts from Official Publications of the United States.
50
50
51
52
RELATING TO POSITION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY BETWEEN
CANADA AND ALASKA          ...    54
THE MOUNTAINS AND TOPOGRAPHY OF THE LISIERE
Extracts from Articles in Magazines and Periodicals
From Report of Eleventh Census
57
57
62
THE   TOPOGRAPHY  OF  THE   COAST   STRIP   ALONG   THE  BOUNDARY
BETWEEN CANADA AND ALASKA  63
Declaration of James Joseph McArthur
Description of Photographic Views
Second Declaration of James Joseph McArthur
DECAY OF DYEA AND SKAGWAY  	
Declaration of S. Morley Wickett
Petition by Merchants and Citizens of Skagway
Letter of the Skagway Chamber of Commerce to the Canadian Manufacturers
Association   ...
Declaration of Thomas B. Wallace relating to Petition of Citizens of Dyea
63
64
73
74
74
80
82
83
CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO THE INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY
LINE NEAR PEMBINA, MINN., U.S.A k' ...   85 PAPERS RELATING TO RUSSIAN OCCUPATION.
DOCUMENTS PRINTED IN " CORRESPONDENCE AND CONVENTION
WITH RUSSIA RELATIVE TO NAVIGATION AND TRADE ON
THE NORTH WEST COAST OF AMERICA."—United States Papers,
Foreign Relations, Vol. iv., 1824, No. 384, p. 443, et seg.
United     States
Relations, Vol.
p. 443.
Papers,    Foreign
v., 1824,  No. 384,
No. 3, (k).
Observations on the claim of Russia to territorial
possessions on the continent of North America,
communicated   with   Mr.   Adams'  letter   to
Mr. Middleton of July 22, 1823.
It is assumed as an indisputable fact, that,
before the third and last voyage of Captain
Cook, no European settlement had been formed
on the Northwest Coast of the American continent north of Cape Mendocino, or of the
fortieth degree of north latitude.
The account of that voyage was published
under the direction of the British Government
in 1784. In the introduction to it, written by
Dr. Douglass, Bishop of Salisbury, among the
advantages enumerated as derivable to all mankind from the discoveries which had been made
in the progress of that undertaking, was the
opening of a valuable trade in furs from the
Northwest Coast of America, and particularly
from King George's or Nootka Sound to China.
This advantage was also pointed out in
various passages of the work itself, both by
Captain Cook, in the two volumes written by
him, and by Captain King, the author of the
third and concluding volume.
The only place on the Northwestern American
Coast where Captain Cook found a Russian
settlement was at Onalashka, one of the Aleutian
islands; the principal person of which settlement, Ismaelojf, and the other Russians whom
he met there, " affirmed that they knew nothing
of the continent of America to the northward."
The first Russian settlement, at Kodiack,
was made by Shelekoff, in the winter of 1748.—
(Goxe's Russian Discoveries, p. 215.) In 1786,
the first English trading voyage between the
Northwest Coast of America and China was
undertaken, and was prosecuted under the
command and direction of Lieutenant Meares.
A similar expedition was undertaken in 1787, United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384, p. 443
—continued.
at Boston, in the United States, whence two
vessels, the Washington and Columbia, were
despatched. It was by the commander of one
of these vessels that the great river of the west
was discovered, and from her received its name.
Until that time the only European nation which
pretended to an exclusive right on the Western
Coast of the American continent was Spain.
These commercial expeditions, as well as the
Russian attempts to make settlements at the
northern extremity of the American continent,
excited the jealousy of the Spanish Government,
and produced the seizure, in May, 1789, of two
English vessels at Nootka Sound, by Don
Estevan Joseph Martinez, commander of two
Spanish vessels-of-war despatched by the
Viceroy of Mexico from the port of San Bias,
to which place they were taken, but where they
were released by order of the Viceroy.
At the time of this seizure the American
vessels, the Washington and Columbia, were
likewise in the harbor of Nootka Sound,
but were not molested by the Spanish commander, Martinez. This difference of treatment between the British and American
vessels was alleged to be because the former
appeared to be there for the purposes of trade
and settlement, while if appeared from the
papers of the latter that they were driven there
by distress, and only came in to refit.
This transaction gave rise to the remarkable
Nootka Sound dispute between Spain and
Great Britain, which for some time threatened
an immediate war between those two nations.
Martinez had taken possession of the lands
at Nootka Sound, upon which Lieutenant
Meares had built a temporary habitation, " pulled
down the British flag and hoisted the standard
of Spain thereon, with such ceremonies as are
usual upon such occasions; " declaring at the
same time " that all the lands comprised
between Cape Horn and the sixtieth degree of
north latitude did belong to his Catholic
Majesty." This claim was asserted by Spain
in all the diplomatic papers of that controversy,
the following passages from which prove how
erroneous the assertions of Mr. Poletica, in his
letter of February 28, 1822, were, that the
Spanish Government at that time acknowledged that its possessions ought not to extend
beyond the latitude of 42° 50' north. They
will also give a very sufficient reason why
Martinez gave no disturbance to the Russian
Colonies and navigators, none of which had
then reached within ten degrees of latitude
from Nootka Sound. United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 3*4. p. 443
—continued.
Extracts from the memorial of the Court of
Spain,   delwered  June   13,   1790,   to   Mr.
Fitzherbert,    the    British   Ambassador   at
Madrid.—(Annual   Register,   1790, p.  294,
State Papers.)
■' The vast extent of the Spanish territories,
navigation, and dominion, on the continent of
America, isles and seas, contiguous to the
South Sea, are clearly laid down and authenticated by a variety of documents, laws, and
formal acts of possession, in the reign of King
Charles II. It is also clearly ascertained that,
notwithstanding the repeated attempts made by
adventurers and pirates on the Spanish coasts
of the South Sea and adjacent islands, Spain
has still preserved her possessions entire,
and opposed with success those usurpations by
constantly sending her ships and vessels to
take possession of such settlements. By these
measures and reiterated acts of possession
Spain has preserved her dominion, which she
has extended to the borders of the Russian
establishments in that part of the world.
" The Viceroys of Peru and New Spain
having been informed that these seas had been
for some years past more frequented than
formerly; that smuggling had increased; that
several usurpations prejudicial to Spain and the
general tranquillity had been suffered to be
made, they gave orders that the Western
Coasts of Spanish America and islands and
seas adjacent should be more frequently navigated and explored.
" They were also informed* that several
Russian vessels were upon the point of making
commercial establishments upon that coast. At
the time that Spain demonstrated to Russia the
inconveniences attendant upon such encroachments, she entered upon the negotiation with
Russia, upon the supposition that the Russian
navigators of the Pacific Ocean had no orders
to make establishments within the limits of
Spanish America, of which the Spaniards were
the first possessors, (limits situated within Prince
William's Strait,) purposely to avoid all dissensions, and in order to maintain the harmony
and amity which Spain wished to preserve.
" The court of Russia replied, it had already
given orders that its subjects should make no
settlements in places belonging to other powers,
and that if those orders had been violated, and
any had been made in Spanish America, they
desired the King would put a stop to them in
a friendly manner. To this pacific language
on the part of Russia, Spain observed that
she  could  not be answerable for  what her United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol v., 1824, No. 384, p. 443
—continued.
officers might do at that distance, whose general
orders and instructions were not to permit any
settlements to be made by other nations on the
continent of Spanish America."
Extract from Count Florida Blanca's reply to
Mr. Fitzherbert, June 18, 1790.—(Annual
Register, p. 299, State Papers.)
" You will pardon me, sir, that I cannot give
my assent to the principles laid down in your
last letter, as Spain maintains, on the most solid
grounds, that the detention of the vessels was
made in a port, upon a coast, or in a bay of
Spanish America, the commerce and navigation
of which belonged, exclusively, to Spain, by
treaties with all nations, even England herself.
The principles laid down cannot be adapted
to the case. The vessels detained attempted to
make an establishment at a port where they
found a nation actually settled, the Spanish
commander at Nootka having, previous to their
detention, made the most amicable representations to the aggressors to desist from their
purpose."
Extract from the letter of Count Feman Nunez
to Mr. Montmorin, Secretary of the Foreign
Department of France, Paris, June 16, 1790.
—(Annual Register, p. 301, State Papers.)
" I have the honor to address you with this
a faithful extract of all the transactions which
have hitherto passed between my court and that
of London, on the subject of the detention of
two English vessels which were seized in the
Bay of St. Lawrence or Nootka, situated in the
fiftieth degree to the north of California, and
which were afterwards taken to the port of
San Bias.
" You will observe by this relation—
". 1. That, by the treaties, demarkations, takings of possession, and the most decided acts of
sovereignty, exercised by the Spaniards in these
stations from the reign of Charles n, and authorized by that monarch in 1692, the original
vouchers for which shall be brought forward in
the course of the negotiation, all the coast to the
north of the western America, on the side of the
South Sea, as far as beyond what is called Prince
William's Sound, which is in the sixty-first
degree, is acknowledged to belong exclusively to
Spain.
"2. That the court of Russia, having been
informed of this extent of our boundary, assured
the King, my master, without the least delay, of
the purity of its intentions in this respect, and
added, ' That it was extremely sorry that the United States  Papers, Foreign   Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No.   384, p.
—continued.
443
repeated orders issued to prevent the subjects of
Russia from violating, in the smallest degree,
the territory belonging to another power, should
have been disobeyed.'",
By these papers it is demonstrated—
That, at that time, the claim of Spain to
exclusive possession of the Northwest Coast
extended beyond Prince William's Sound in
latitude 61.
That the court of Russia had been informed
of this extent of the Spanish boundary; had
disclaimed any intention of interfering with it,
and added expressions of its sorrow that its repeated orders to prevent the subjects of Russia
from violating the territory belonging to another
power had been disobeyed.
I So far was Russia, in 1790, from asserting
any claim whatsoever to territory on the continent of North America.
The ground assumed by Great Britain in the
Nootka Sound controversy was, that British
subjects "had been forcibly interrupted in a
trade which they had carried on for years, without molestation, in parts of America where they
had an incontrovertible right of trading, and in
places to which no country could claim an exclusive right of commerce and navigation;"
that " the court of Madrid had advanced a claim
to the exclusive right of navigation in those seas
that was unfounded and exorbitant, indefinite
in its consequences, aiming destruction to the
valuable fisheries (of the British subjects) in the
southern ocean, and tending to the annihilation
of a commerce in its infancy, just beginning to
be carried on to the profit of Britain, in hitherto
unfrequented parts of the globe."—(Annual
Register for 1790, p. 96.)
The result of the contest was that Spain receded from her claim of exclusive right to navigation, commerce, or territory north of those
parts already occupied by Spain, but that where-
ever settlements, either British or Spanish, had
been made since April, 1789, or wherever they
should thereafter be made, the subjects of the
other party should have free access and should
carry on their trade without any disturbance or
molestation.
By the Convention of October 28, 1790, it
was agreed that the buildings and tracts of
lands situated on the Northwest Coast of the
continent of North America, or on the islands
adjacent to that continent, of which the subjects
of his Britannic Majesty were dispossessed
about the month of April, 1789, by a Spanish
officer, shall be restored to the said British
subjects. United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384, p. 443
-—continued.
In June, 1794, this restitution was partially
effected, but not .completely, in consequence of
a disagreement between the Spanish officer,
Quadra, and Captain Vancouver, as to the
extent of the order of restitution in the letter
from Count Florida Blanca.
At that time it was ascertained by Captain
Vancouver that the extremest eastern Russian
settlement on the Northwest Coast was at Port
Etches, on Hinchinbrook Island, latitude 60,
in Prince William's Sound.
In 1799 the settlement at New Archangel
was first made.
The Spanish settlement at Nootka Sound
was undoubtedly made with a view to maintain the claim of that nation to the exclusive
possession of the whole Northwest Coast. Its
abandonment in 1794 was reluctant, and with
pretensions, still retained, that the exclusive
right of Spain recognized in the 5th article
of the Convention of the 28th of October, 1790,
extended to the immediate vicinity of that spot.
Vancouver refused to receive the restoration
upon the terms on which it was offered. He
received it as a Spanish settlement, and it was
abandoned by both nations.
The first purchases of lands from the native
inhabitants of the Northwest Coast were made
by the adventurers in the Washington and
Columbia. They were made at Nootka, and
from the chief, Maquinna.
The principle upon which the Convention
between Great Britain and Spain of October 28,
1790, was concluded was, that the Northwest
Coast of America, north of the Spanish settlements actually made, could not be considered
as the exclusive property of any European
nation. It has been seen that Russia, so far
from claiming any such exclusive property at
that time, had just before, in substance,
admitted that of Spain to beyond Prince
William's Sound, in latitude sixty-one.
The only object of present interest, for
which all these settlements on the Northwest
Coast have been made, whether by Russians,
English, or Americans, has been the traffic
with the native inhabitants in furs, for the
Chinese market. This trade has, in point of
fact, not only been enjoyed by the citizens of
the United States, but has been prosecuted by
them to a greater extent than by all the others
together. It has been combined with a trade
in f-andal wood from the Sandwich Islands to
China; and during the long wars in which
Europe was involved from 1790 to 1815, it was
left almost entirely to them. United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384. p. 443
—continued.
lb., p. 453.
In 1816 a Russian settlement was made at
Atooi, one of the Sandwich Islands, and another
near the coast  of  California, within   a  few
leagues of San Francisco, the most northern
Spanish settlement.   If the motive   of these
establishments was to lay the foundation for an
exclusive territorial   claim of Russia to   the
Northwest Coast, down to the very borders of
California, and,  founded   thereon,   to   assert
exclusive rights of trading with the natives of
the Northwest Coast, and to navigation and
fishery in the Pacific Ocean, it is time for the
nations whose rights and interests are affected
by this project effectually to interpose.
There can, perhaps, be no better time for
saying, frankly and explicitly, to the Russian
Government, that the future peace of the world,
and the interest of Russia herself, cannot be
promoted by Russian settlements upon any part
of the American Continent. With the exception
of the British establishments north of the
United States, the remainder of both the
. American continents must henceforth be left to
the management of American hands. It cannot
possibly be the purpose of Russia to form
extensive colonial establishm ents in America.
The new American Republics will be as
impatient of a Russian neighbor as the United
States; and the claim of Russia to territorial
possession, extending to the 51st degree of north
latitude, is equally incompatible with the
British pretensions.
These observations, thus supported by
reference to indisputable documents, are made
with a view to the following conclusion :
That the United States can in nowise admit
the right of Russia to exclusive territorial possession on any part of the continent of North
America south of the 60th degree of north
latitude.
That they will maintain the right of their
citizens, enjoyed without interruption since the
establishment of their independence, of free
trade with the original natives of the Northwest Coast throughout its whole extent.
That the right of navigation and of fishing in
the Pacific Ocean, even upon the Asiatic coast,
north of latitude forty-five, can as little be interdicted to them as that of traffic with the natives
of North America.
Note (a.)
Dispute between the Courts of Madrid and of
London.
The court of Madrid hastened to give to that
of London the news of what had passed at 8
United States
tions, Vol. v..
—continued.
Papers,  Foreign  Rela-
1824, No. 384, p. 453
Nootka, by demanding that the Government of
Great Britain should give orders that the coasts
occupied by subjects of Spain should be no more
visited by the English ; and it announces that,
in consideration of the ignorance in which the
captains of English ships had been of the rights
of Spain, and out of regard to the nation to
which they belonged, the Viceroy of Mexico
had released the vessels.
The memorial of June 4, signed by the Count
of Florida Blanca, declares that " the vast
extent of the Spanish territories, navigation,
and dominion, on the continent of America,
isles and seas contiguous to the South Sea, are
clearly laid down, and authenticated by a
variety of documents, laws, and formal acts of
possession in the reign of King Charles II. It
is also clearly ascertained that, notwithstanding
the repeated attempts made .by adventurers and
pirates on the Spanish coasts of the South Sea
and adjacent islands, Spain has still preserved
her possessions entire, and opposed with success
those usurpations, by constantly sending her
ships and vessels to take possession of such
settlements. By these measures and reiterated
acts of possession Spain has preserved her
dominion, which she has extended to the borders
of the Russian establishments in that part of
the world.
"The Viceroys of Peru and Mexico having
been informed that these seas had been for some
years past more frequented than formerly; that
smuggling had increased ; that several usurpations prejudicial to Spain and the general
tranquillity had been suffered to be made,
they gave orders that the western coasts of
Spanish America, and islands and seas adjacent,
should be more frequently navigated, and
explored.
" They were also informed that several
Russian vessels were upon the point of making
commercial establishments upon that coast.
At the time that Spain demonstrated to Russia
the inconveniences attendant upon such encroachments, she entered upon the negotiation
with Russia, upon the supposition that the
Russian navigators of the Pacific Ocean had no
orders to make establishments within the Umits
of Spanish America, of which the Spaniards
were the first possessors, (Umits situated within
Prince William'8 Straits,) purposely to avoid all
dissensions, and in order to maintain the
harmony and amity which Spain wished to
preserve.
" The court of Russia replied, it had already
given orders that its subjects should make no United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol v., 1824, No. 384, p. 453
—continued.
settlements in places belonging to other powers,
and that if those orders bad been violated, and
any had been made in Spanish America, they
desired the King would put a stop to them in a
friendly manner. To this pacific language on
the part of Russia, Spain observed that she
could not be answerable for what her officers
might do at that distance, whose general orders
and instructions were, not to permit any settlements to be made by other nations on the
continent of Spanish America."
Mr. Pitt, then Prime Minister in England,
in his speech to Parliament on this subject,
declared, " That the subjects of his Britannic
Majesty had been forcibly interrupted in a trade
which they had carried on for years without
molestation, in parts of America where they had
an incontrovertible right of trading, and in
places to which no country could claim an
exclusive right of commerce and navigation;
that the court of Madrid had advanced a claim
to the exclusive right of navigation in those seas
that was unfounded and exorbitant, indefinite
in its consequences, aiming destruction to the
valuable fisheries established by the English in
the South Seas; in fine, that it was necessary to
adopt such measures as might in future prevent
any such disputes."—(See Annual Register,
1790, p. 96.)
Suffice it to say, that they could not agree
upon the question of right, and that after a
negotiation, supported by immense preparations
for war on both sides, the court of Madrid
determined to accept the ultimatum which
arrived with an order to the English ambassador
to leave Madrid if it was not agreed to.
The first and second articles of the convention signed at the Escurial, October 28,1790,
stipulate the damages to be paid by Spain for
the ships seized and restored. The third and
fourth articles determine that the respective
subjects may freely navigate and fish in the
Pacific Ocean or South Sea, landing on the
coasts in the places unoccupied, and the fifth
article bears that all the parts of the Northwest
Coast of North America (situated to the north
of the parts of this coast already occupied by
Spain previous to the month of April, 1789) the
respective subjects shall have free access everywhere where the subjects of either power shall
have formed, after the same date, or may by
consequence form, establishments. In fine,
that the respective subjects shall not form any
establishment upon the parts of these coasts
situated to the south of the parts already
occupied by Spain. 10
e
United States  Papers, Foreign   Rela-
tions, Vol. v.,
—continued.
1824, No.
384,
Note (b.)
p. 453 The Russian American Company.
Chilikoff may be considered as the founder of
the American Company.    After the discoveries
of Behring and Tchirikoff, of the islands between
Asia and America, the Russian merchants made
voyages thither to procure peltries, which they
traded with great profit upon the frontiers of
China; for all furs, and especially the beautiful
skins of the sea otter, are an indispensable
article for the effeminate Chinese.   They change
their dress upon the least variation of air, and
in winter wear pelisses even at Canton, which
is  situated under  the tropics.    As  many  as
twenty ships depart annually from the ports of
Okhotsk and Avatchka; each ship equipped for
the chase of animals for furs had its different
proprietors, who, without pity either for the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands, whom they
treated barbarously, or for the animals which
they hunted beyond measure, without any providence for the future, only thought of promptly
completing their cargo and returning as soon as
possible to Okhotsk.   From hence, so great a
destruction of these precious animals took place,
that there was soon room to believe that this
trade would.cease entirely.
Convinced of the necessity of putting a stop
to these devastations, Chilikoff made the greatest
efforts to unite in one company all those interested in this trade, that it might in future be
conducted with prudence, according to a plan
which he had laid down.   The brothers Golikoff
joined the association in 1785.    Their united
capitals enabled them even to fit out several
ships, which  the enterprising  Chilikoff commanded himself.    They formed  an  establishment upon the island of Kodiac, which still
serves as a depot for the trade of America.
Placed at an equal distance from the Aleutian
Isles, and from Kamtschatka on the west, and
from the coast of America on the east, no
situation is, in fact, more convenient.    This
trade, thus conducted, produced great riches.
The good success of this association induced
several merchants to join it.   From this came
the present company of America.
On almost all the Aleutian Isles factories were
formed, protected by small forts. The principal
seat of the company was fixed at Irkutsk. Yet
the company appeared rather simply tolerated
than formally authorized by the Government;
so that its existence was always precarious
enough. The irregular manner in which this
sort of trade had been carried on, the unjust
and cruel conduct of the Russian  merchants
*
^4 11
United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384, p. 453
—continued.
towards the unhappy inhabitants of the isles of
America, complaints of which had even come to
the capital, had raised up so great and so
powerful enemies that Paul the First resolved
to abolish the company, in order to put an end
to a traffic so revolting. This resolution would
certainly have been carried into effect but for
the interposition of M. de Resanoff, who was
afterwards sent to Japan as ambassador. He
had married the daughter of Chilikoff, who had
brought him in dowry a very great number of
bills of the company, the value of which depended
upon gains or losses of the trade. By his knowledge and authority he happened to render the
Emperor so favorable to the company that he
rejected all the representations which were
addressed to him against it, confirmed it formally
in 1799, and granted to it great privileges.
Then the principal residence of the company
was transferred from Irkutsk to St. Petersburg,
and its trade began to acquire great importance.
As soon as the Emperor Alexander mounted
the throne he took a lively interest in the
company; he himself took shares in it, and
thus induced many of the nobility of the empire
to imitate him. Assured by that of a lasting
protection, the company labored with zeal,
under the direction of the Count Romanzoff, to
give to its trade, so long neglected, a form
entirely new. —(Voyage of M. de Krusenstern,
vol. l,p. 14, and the following pages.)
lb., p. 454.
Note (c.)
Extract from M. de Humboldt's Essay on New
Spain, Book III, chapter 8, page 344.
" If the puerile ceremonies which the
Europeans name acts of possession, if the
astronomical observations made upon a coast
recently discovered, could give rights of property,
this portion of the new continent would be
singularly parcelled out and subdivided among
the Spaniards, the English, the Russians, the
French, and the Americans of the United
States. Even a small island would sometimes
have to be divided among two or three nations
at once, because each one could prove its having
discovered a different cape of it. The great
sinuosity of the coast between the parallels of
55 and 60 degrees embraces the discoveries made
successively by Gali, Behring, and Tchirikoff,
Quadra, Cook, La Perouse, Malaspina, and
Vancouver.
"As far as this no European nation has
formed a lasting establishment upon the immense
extent   of   coasts   which   reach    from   Cape 12
United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384, p. 454
—continued.
Mendocino to the 59th degree of latitude.
Beyond this limit the Russian factories commence, the greatest part of which are scattered
and distant from one another as the factories
which the Europeans have established for the
last three centuries on the coasts of Africa.
The greater part of these small Russian colonies
only communicate with each other by sea,
and the new denominations of Russian America
or the Russian possessions in the new continent
ought not to induce us to believe that the coast
of Behring's Basin, the peninsula Alashka, or
the countries of Tschugatschi, are become
Russian provinces in the sense given to this
word, when speaking of the Spanish provinces
of Sonora, or New Biscay."
lb., p. 454.
1
Note (d.)
A view of the discoveries of the Russians on the
coast of America.
It was only towards the year 1710, when a
Japanese ship was wrecked on the coasts of
Kamtschatka, that it began to be supposed that
Japan was not far distant from that peninsula.
Some Cossack adventurers consequently made
the discovery of several of the Kurile islands,
and Peter the First, in the latter part of his
Ufe, thought of  the   project   of ordering an
expedition   for   resolving   the   doubts   which
existed respecting the separation or contiguity
of Asia and America.    He died without having
had time to put his design into execution ; but
his successors, the   Empresses,  Catherine I,
Anne,   and   EUzabeth,   successively  resumed
it, and in 1728 Behring made his first expedition, penetrated  the  strait  which  bears his
name by coasting along Asia, but returned to
Kamtschatka without having seen the coasts of
America.    On his return he was assured that,
from the high coasts of Kamtschatka, one might
see, in a clear day, the neighboring land, which
encouraged him to undertake, in the following
year, a new voyage, which had no better success,
for, having sailed fifty leagues,from the coast
without seeing anything, he changed his course,
landed at Okhotsk, and returned afterwards to
St. Petersburg.
The attention of the Russian Government
having been attracted anew to the eastern coasts
of their empire by another shipwreck of a
Japanese vessel in 1732, Behring proposed to
attempt new discoveries in a sea still so Uttle
known. In fine, on the 4th of June, 1741, two
vessels, built at Okhotsk, set sail from the port
of Avatcha, (which was on that occasion named 13
United States  Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, No. 384, p. 454
. —continued.
PetroParloskoi,) the onecommanded by Behring,
the other by his Lieutenant, Tchirikoff.
The vessels having been separated by a severe
storm and thick fogs, the commodore saw the
continent of America on the 18th of July, and
three days before Tchirikoff had gained the same
coast. In rectifying their estimate for the
longitude, the learned MuUer thinks that the
first had seen the land at 58° 28' of latitude, and
at 236° of longitude, and the second at 56° of
latitude and 241° of longitude. Tchirikoff having
had the misfortune of sending to the land his
long-boat and his canoe, from whence they did
not return, lost them with several of his companions and took the route for Kamtschatka.
Behring, on his part, trying to obtain a knowledge of the coast which he had seen,
anchored, on the 20th of July, a short
distance from the continent. He named a
cape, which advanced into the sea, St. Elias,
and another cape, west of the former, St.
Hermogenes, between which there is a gulf
known afterwards by the name of Behring's
bay. He remained a long time in sight of that
coast, entangled among the rocks which line it.
At length he bent his course south, and soon
found himself in a safe sea. On the 30th of
July they discovered an island which was
named Toumanoi, or Foggy island.
It would be useless to recount the misfortunes
which pursued the commodore during the rest
of this voyage. Attacked by the scurvy, which
broke out among the crew, he soon became
incapable of fulfilling the duties of his station.
The advanced season made him resolve, in the
month of September, to endeavor to return to
Kamtschatka. A group of islands was discovered, which received the names of St.
Macaire, St. Theodore, and St. Abraham. In
fine, on the 30th of October, they saw two
other islands which they had the misfortune to
take for the most northerly of the Kuriles; this
fatal error made them call those islands by the
name of Seduction. They are nearly at the
same elevation of the pole, but they are distant
from them nearly eight degrees of longitude
east. They thought they were not more than
two days' sale from Avatcha; they steered west,
but they saw no point of coast, and the season
being too much advanced left no more hope of
gaining the port. They then went back, and
after several days of a horrible navigation their
vessel run upon an island, where the commodore
and a great part of the crew perished of disease
and fatigue, and which afterwards received his
name. In the spring his companions constructed United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol. v., 1824, Xo. 384, p. 454
—continued.
lb., p. 456.
14
a small vessel with one mast, in which they
returned to the port of Avatcha in the month
of August, 1742.
This voyage, by informing the Russians of
the relative situation of Asia and America,
opened to them the path for the successive
discovery of this long archipelago of islands
known under the coUective names of Aleutian
Islands, Fox Islands, Adreuanorski Islands, and
of that part of the coast of America which is spread
under the parallel of sixty degrees, with a great
number of islands situated to the south of the
main land; in short, of the peninsula of Alashka
and of the lands situated to the north of this
peninsula as far as the 70th degree. Such
were the discoveries made successively, either
by adventurers at the expense of owners of
Kamtschatka, or by the officers of the imperial
marine at the expense of the Russian .Government. The voyage of Miche, Navodtsikoff, in
1745, that of Emelien Yagoff, of 1750, Cholo-
diloff, Serebranikoff, and Krassilnickoff, of 1756,
Demetrius Paikoff, Pushkareff, Pierre Wasin-
tinskoi, and Maxime Lazaroff, of 1758 to 1760,
Drusinin, Medredeff, Korovin, and Etienne
Glotoff, of 1762, Solovioff and Lieutenant Synd,
of 1764; Aphanassei Otcheredin, of 1766 ; and
that of Captain Krenitzen 'and Lieutenant
Levasheff, in 1768 to 1769.—(See Russian
Discoveries by Coxe.)
The voyages of Billings, of 1789 to 1793, of
Krusenstern, of 1803 to 1806, and of Kotzbue,
who all sailed upon the tracks of Cook, De la
Perouse, and of so many other modern navigators, do not enter into the consideration of
the present question.
Note (/.)
Vattel's Law of Nations, book 1, chapter 18,.
section 207. "All mankind have an equal right
to the things that have not yet fallen into the
possession of any one; and these things belong
to the first possessor. When, therefore, a
nation finds a country uninhabited, and without
a master, it may lawfuUy take possession of it;
and after it has sufficiently made known its will
in this respect, it cannot be deprived of it by
another. Thus navigators going on the discovery, furnished with a commission from their
* sovereign, and meeting with islands or other
desert countries, have taken possession of them
in the name of their nation ; and this title has
been commonly respected, provided it was soon
after followed by a real possession."
Sec. 208.   " But it is questioned whether a
nation may thus appropriate to itself, by merely United States Papers, Foreign Relations, Vol v., 1824, No. 384, p. 456
—continued.
V,
taking possession of a country which it does
not really occupy, and in this manner reserve
to itself much more than it is able to people or
cultivate. It is not difficult to determine that
such a pretension would be absolutely contrary
to the law, and opposite to the views of nature,
who, appointing all the earth to supply the
wants of man in general, gave to no nation the
right of appropriating to itself a country but
for the use it makes of it, and not to hinder
others from improving it. The law of nations
then only acknowledges the property and
sovereignty of a nation over uninhabited
countries, of which they shall really, and in
fact, take possession, in which they shall form
settlements, or of which they shall make
actual use."
ii
ATTITUDE   OF   UNITED   STATES,  MARCH   30,   1822.
From Correspondence relating to
British and Russian Claims to
Territory on the Coast of the
Pacific Ocean, north of the 42nd
degree of latitude, communicated to
United States House of Representatives, April 17,1822. United States
Papers, Vol. iv., No. 328,1822, p. 863.
The Secretary op State to M. De Poletica,
Department of State, Washington,
March 30, 1822.
Sib:
I have had the honor of receiving your letter
of the 28th ultimo, which has been submitted
to the consideration of the President of the
United States.
From the deduction which it contains of the
grounds upon which articles of regulation of
the Russian American Company have now, for
the first time, extended the claim of Russia on
the northwest coast of America, to the fifty-
first degree of north latitude, its only foundation
appears to be the existence of the small settlement of Novo Archangelsk, situated, not on the
American continent, but upon a small island in
latitude 57° ; and the principle upon which you
state that this claim is now advanced is, that
the fifty-first degree is equidistant from that
settlement of Novo Archangelsk and the establishment of the United States at the mouth of
Columbia river. But, from the same statement,
it appears that, in the year 1799, the limits
prescribed by the Emperor Paul to the Russian
American Company were fixed at the fifty-fifth
degree of latitude, and that, in assuming now
the latitude 51°, a new pretension is asserted, to
which no settlement made since the year 1799
has given the color of a sanction.
" This pretension is to be considered not only
with reference to the question of territorial
right, but also to that prohibition to the vessels
of other nations, including those of the United
States, to approach within one hundred Italian 16
ii''
m
From Correspondence relating to British
and Russian Claims to Territory on
the Coast of the Pacific Ocean, &c—
continued.
miles of the coasts. From the period of the
existence of the United States as an independent nation, their vessels have freely navigated
those seas, and the right to navigate them is a
part of that independence.
" With regard to the suggestion that tbe
Russian Government might have justified the
exercise of sovereignty over the Pacific
ocean as a close sea, because it claims territory
both on its American and Asiatic shores, it may
suffice to say that the distance from shore to
shore on this sea, in latitude 51° north, is not
less than ninety degrees of longitude, or four
thousand miles.
1 As little can the United States accede to
the justice of the reason assigned for the prohibition above mentioned. The right of the
citizens of the United States to hold commerce
with the aboriginal natives of the northwest
coast of America, without the territorial jurisdiction of other nations, even in arms and
munitions of war, is as clear and indisputable
as that of navigating the seas. That right
has never been exercised in a spirit unfriendly
to Russia; and although general complaints
have occasionally been made on the subject
of this commerce by some of your predecessors, no specific ground of charge has
ever been alleged by them of any transaction in
it which the United States, were by the ordinary
laws and usages of nations, bound either to restrain or to punish. Had any such charge been
made it would have received the most pointed
attention of this Government, with the sincerest
and firmest disposition to perform every act and
obligation of justice to yours which could have
been required. I am commanded by the President of the United States to assure you that
this disposition will continue to be entertained,
together with the earnest desire that the most
harmonious relations between the two countries
may be preserved.
" Relying upon the assurance in your note of
similar dispositions reciprocaUy entertained by
His Imperial Majesty towards the United States,
the President is persuaded that the citizens of
this Union wiU remain unmolested in the prosecution of their lawful commerce, and that no
effect wiU be given to an interdiction manifestly
incompatible with their rights.
" I am happy to renew the assurances of my
distinguished consideration.
" John Quincy Adams.
" The Chevalier de Poletica, Envoy Extraordinary, &c, from Russia." 17
FROM MESSAGE ON THE ACQUISITION OF RUSSIAN-AMERICA,
INCLUDING SUMNER'S SPEECH, 1868.
Translation of the Russian Memorandum, marked (AA), by S. N.
Buynitzky.
40th Congress, 2nd Session. Ex. Doc.,
No. 177, p. 24.
. . . " The Russian-American Company
hardly ever penetrated into the interior of the
continent, and, owing to the wild character of
its inhabitants, never established there any
Settlements; only for trading purposes, smaU
factories, called redoubts and ' odinotshkas,'
were established along the coast, preferably
near the bays and the mouths of large rivers.
These factories generally consist of a roofed
yard of moderate size, in which live the clerk of
the Company, with a few workmen out of the
pacified natives, and where is stored a small
supply of dried fish and some manufactured
goods, wanted for the use of savages. Such
is, in general features, the character of the
Russian-American Continent."    .    .    .
lb., pp. Ill  112.
" In 1819 the Company possessed already
Settlements on the islands Commodore, Atkha,
Unalaska, St. Paul's, St. George's, Kadyak,
Baranoft's, or Sitkha, on the American coast
near Kenayan Bay; forts (redoubts) and posts
(' odinotshka,' single isolated fort), Pavlovski,
Georgevski, Alexandrovski, and Voskressenski;
on Tshugatshian Bay, Forts Constantine and
Helen ; on Yakootat Bay, part of Behring's
Gulf, Fort Nicholas ; near the Cape St. Elias,
St. Simeon's Fort. On Yakootat Bay formerly
existed a Settlement called Glory of Russia
('Slava Rossu'), but in 1803 it was destroyed
by Koloshes, and since had never been rebuilt.
On Urup, eighteenth island of the Kurile group,
a Settlement gradually decayed under the
mismanagement of the overseer appointed by
the Company."
lb., p. 131.
. . . . " These general considerations are
re-enforced when we caU to mind the Uttle
influence which Russia has thus far been able
to exercise in this region. Though possessing
dominion over it for more than a century, this
gigantic Power has not been more genial or
productive there than the soil itself. Her
government there is Uttle more than a name or
a shadow. It is not even a skeleton. It is
hardly visible. Its only representative is a Fur
Company, to which has been added latterly an
Ice Company. The immense country is without
form and without Ught; without activity and
without progress. Distant from the Imperial
capital, and separated from the huge bulk of the 18
1lt;:
Translation of   the Russian   Memorandum, &c, p. 131—continued.
Russian Empire, it does not share the vitality of a
common country. Its Ufe is soUtary and feeble,
its Settlements are only encampments or lodges,
its fisheries are only a petty perquisite, belonging to local or personal adventurers rather than
to the commerce of nations.
In these statements I foUow the record. So
Uttle were these possessions regarded during the
last century, that they were scarcely recognised
as a component part of the Empire. I have now
before me an authentic map, published by the
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh in 1776,
and repubUshed at London in 1787, entitled,
" General Map of the Russian Empire," where
you wiU look in vain for Russian America,
unless we except that Unk of the Aleutian chain
nearest to Asia, which appears to have been
incorporated under the Empress Anne at the
same time with Siberia. (See " Coxe's Russian
Discoveries.")    ....
EXTRACT FROM REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR OF ALASKA, 1902.
1 IP
Report of Governor of Alaska to
the Secretary of the Interior:—
(Condition of Natives), p. 19.
Russian Occupation.
The ThUmgits have a habitat from Fort Tongass to Prince WilUam Sound; the early discoverers found them fierce and warlike. In 1731
Tchirikof lost two boats and sixteen men in the
neighbourhood of Sitka. These same people in
May, 1802, kiUed all the officers and thirty-two
men at the Russian fort, six miles north of the
present location of Sitka. In this same year
they made a fearful slaughter of Russians and
Aleuts in Kake Strait, in Yakutat Bay they
kiUed very many in several bloody contests.
They always defied the Russians, and were
really never subdued by them. In 1851 the
Chilcats made a daring expedition overland for
hundreds of miles, and plundered and burned
the Hudson Bay post at Fort Selkirk.
The Russians avoided them as much as possible. They leased the right to trade with them
to the Hudson Bay Company. They are of
nature keen traders, and keep well posted in the
prices of things in which they deal. pf
19
PAPERS  RELATING TO AMERICAN OCCUPATION.
EXTRACTS FROM ANNUAL REPORTS OF GOVERNORS OF ALASKA
SINCE THE INCEPTION OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN 1884.
1885.
FROM REPORT  OF  GOVERNOR A. P. SWINEFORD,
October 1st, 1885.
Report   to
Interior,
the   Secretary
pp. 13-14.
OF
THE
*Lack of transportation facilities renders
it impossible to govern the territory
satisfactorily.
Here is a territory embracing nearly 600,000
square miles, with a coast Une greater than
that of aU the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf States
combined, sparsely populated in widely scattered
settlements, and it is not to be expected that it
can be satisfactorily governed, if the officials to
whom that task is committed are to be cooped
up in one corner and debarred from aU intercourse with a considerable portion of its people,
powerless to enforce the law against evil-doers
on the one hand, or afford its protection to the
law-abiding on the other. To hold a term of
court at Wrangell which may not in itself
consume more than a single day's time, a fuU
month is required, with corresponding expense
to the Government. It is contemplated by
Section 5 of the Organic Act, that the Governor
shall visit the seal islands—distant from Sitka
not less than 1,500 miles—once in each year.
How he can possibly do so, unless some kind of
transportation is placed within his reach or
command, is a question puzzUng even to the
imagination.
No serious effort to enforce the liquor
laws.
lb., p. 18.
Alaska seventeen  years  without civil
government.
Apathy of Congress.
If any serious effort has been made to enforce
the provisions of Section 14 of the Organic Act,
which prohibits the importation, manufacture,
and sale of intoxicating Uquors, the result of
such effort is not discernible in the total or even
partial absence of places where such liquors are
openly sold.
. The fact that for seventeen years
Alaska was without any civil government or
authority of law whatever, and that in that
time twenty-five or more measures of rehef
were presented in Congress, not one of which
ever reached a vote in either House, is convincing
proof of the necessity asserted for having
accorded to her the usual Territorial representation in the law-making branch of the General
Government.
*■ The side notes are added for convenience of reference. 20
Report to the Secretary of the Interior,
p. 983—continued.
. . . Besides this there are many settlements where important business enterprises are
located, needing protection, which we are notable to visit at aU.
The Governor powerless   to   enforce
laws against crime.
At   one   of  these,   Newchuk,   some   three
hundred or four hundred miles up the coast to
the west, a trader was brutally murdered by
Indians   last   December.     Valuable   mineral
discoveries have just been made in that section
which it is proposed very soon to develop, and
there are large fishing establishments near and
trading posts fr©m which appeals have been
sent to such officials as could be reached, to
have the case inquired into and the offenders
punished.   The facts in this case are undoubted
and action by the "authorities most essential to
the interests and protection of aU residents.
There is also a report of a murder at the island
of Unga, but not yet fully confirmed.    There
is certainly need of enquiry into certain larcenies-
and other lawless acts at Kadiak.
I am utterly powerless to institute the
necessary examinations into these cases, in
order to bring the parties to justice, and my
inabiUty and that of the Court to punish them
must continue until we have the means of
reaching those localities furnished us.
1886.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR SWINEFORD, October 1st, 1886.
49th Congress (H. of R.), 2nd Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 940.
Neglect of the educational welfare of
the Creoles.
. . . The people called Creoles are descendants, three or four generations remote, of
a mixed parentage (Russian fathers and native
mothers), it is true, but it wiU puzzle even the
most learned ethnologist to find anything in
their features or complexions by which to
distinguish them from the race to which their
fathers belonged. They are, to aU intents and
purposes, white people, fuUy as intelUgent and
weU informed as would almost any other class
of people have been, if subjected to the same
wrongs and disadvantages—I do not mean the
disadvantages of humble or may be ^legitimate
birth, but of petty tyranny and practical slavery
under the old regime, followed by long continued neglect to provide for their educational
welfare under the new and professedly more-
liberal one.    .   .    . 21
1887.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR SWINEFORD, October 1st, 1887.
50th Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 720.
The blighting monopoly of the Alaska
Commercial Company.
If it cannot legally be rescinded, the lease to,
and contract with, this Company ought not to
be renewed. It is not, in my opinion, necessary
to the preservation of seal Ufe or the seal fur
industry that the islands on which the rookeries
are located should be leased to any corporation
or individual, but if it be held that I am wrong
in that regard, then I do not hesitate to aver
that it would be better for Alaska, better for
the Government, and above all, far better for
the enslaved Aleuts that every fur seal in
Alaskan waters should be exterminated at one
fell swoop than that such a blighting monopoly
should be perpetuated. It is manifestly the
duty of Government to protect the weak against
the strong, to shield the poor and helpless from
wrong and oppression, yet we have thousands
of the latter class who by solemn treaty stipulation, were guaranteed enjoyment of " aU the
rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens
of the United States " practically enslaved, and
a professedly free and liberal Government not
only creating, but actuaUy protecting, their
oppressors, and that, too, against a restless
spirit of enterprise which, unhindered, would
people the best portions of Alaska with a thrifty
population and add untold milUons to the
wealth of the nation.
lb.
736.
Crimes, including murder, committed
with impunity.
In all the more remote sections of the
Territory, the law prohibiting the importation
and sale of intoxicating Uquors and breech-loading fire-arms is openly violated; crimes, including murder, are committed with impunity, and
there is no punishment for the offenders, for
the simple reason that the officials are not
provided with the means necessary to put the
law in force. Either the civil authorities should
be furnished with transportation or else be held
blameless for the non-enforcement of law and
order in localities they are unable to reach for
the want of it.
1888.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR SWINEFORD, October 1st, 1888.
50th Congress (H. of R.) 2nd Session,
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior.
With the exception of the twenty-one fee-
simple titles referred to, which were originaUy
given to its employees by the Russian-American
Company, and afterward confirmed by the
protocol executed by the Commissioners of the
two countries at the time of the transfer, and 99
50th Congress (H. of R.) 2nd Session,
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
Respecting Settlement of Public Lands,
p. 963-5.
claims taken up and recorded under the
provisions of the general mining laws, all
settlers on public lands in Alaska are mere
squatters awaiting impatiently such legislation
by Congress as wfll enable them to secure
titles . . . Thus, in the absence of any
law by and through which legal titles can be
obtained, valuable franchises are practically
being usurped and utiUsed to the enrichment
of individuals and corporations, without a
resultant penny in the tway of revenue .to the
Government.
Abuses by The   Alaska   Commercial
Company.
IK, p. 989.
Creoles and
serfdom.
natives in a condition of
I most devoutly wish  that  a strict regard
for the truth would permit me to make a like
report concerning the condition of the native
people in the other parts of the Territory coming
under my personal observation.    The only real
independent natives I saw in the whole of mj7
summer's cruise, after leaving Yakutat, which
is only about 200 miles north-west of Sitka, were
those who Uve beyond St. Michael's and outside
the wide limit to which the Alaska Commercial
Company has extended its operations.    Within
this wide limit the Creoles and natives are little
if any better than mere serfs of that powerful
corporation.    In most places they are subjected
to the double robbery of being compelled to
part with their furs at less than half their value,
and, in return, are charged two or three prices
for the goods they can only buy at the Company's
stores, for the simple reason that there are no
others.    I do not know that the lash is apphed,
as it is claimed was the custom under the old
Russian regime (though I have heard even that
charge against the  Company traders  on the
Yukon), but I do know that at one place I was
appealed to by the Aleut people for protection
against the Company's agent, who, they claimed,
made a practice, of clubbing them in their own
houses whenever they did anything that gave
him offence.     This statement of thehfe was
corroborated by several intelhgent and   well
educated Creoles with whom I conversed, and I
have very little doubt of its truth.    I am not,
however, prepared to say but that this is an
exceptional case.    I do not believe that violence
is generally resorted to as a means of keeping the
Creoles and native people in a condition of complete subjection to the will of the company and
its   agents.    There are other means just as
efficacious and more lawful.    If they become
contumacious or stubborn, refuse to sell their
furs at the prices the Company offers, or dare
to seek purchasers elsewhere, they are starved
into submission.    There are no other trading 50th Congress (H. of R.) 2nd Session,
Ex.   Doc.   I.,  Part   5.     Report
Secretary of Interior—continued.
of
stations, and these people, having acquired
artificial tastes and wants in the way of food
and clothing, are loath to go back to an
exclusive diet of seal blubber and dried fish,
and to the bird and sealskin parjries of their
ancestors.
This particular monopoly is worse than a
trust; it is not a combination of individuals or
corporations, organized for the purpose of regulating production and keeping up prices ; it is
a great corporate monopoly, created by Congress
itself, and armed with a monopolistic club, in
the shape of sole and exclusive possession of a
most valuable industry, which it does not
scruple to use to beat out, so to speak, the
brains of any and aU competition for that part
of the fur trade not embraced in its lease and
contract with the Government.
There is but one so-called tribe in the southeastern section with whom there is any trouble
to be apprehended, and though they are not in
sufficient numbers to wage what might properly
be termed war, they are certainly in a position
to make themselves very troublesome and
annoying if they chose to do so. I refer to the
Ghilkats, who are located on the Chilkat River,
and at and around the head of Chilkoot Inlet.
They claim the exclusive ownership of the
trail over which the miners are wont to pass
from tide-water to the head waters of the
Yukon River, and it is an open question if
their claim be not a just one. However this
may be, they also claim the exclusive right to
do all the packing over the trail, in some
instances going so far as to resist the white
miner's right to carry a pack of his own. They
are a fierce and war-Uke people, more so than
any other of the native clans of Alaska, and
frighten away all other Indians who apply for
or undertake to do any of the packing for. the
White men, for doing which they themselves
demand and extort exorbitant prices.
Administration of the Civil Government.
Ih., p. 1001,
Aside from the partial administration of
justice by the United States District Court
and the four United States Commissioners
acting principally as Justices of the Peace, the
civil government of Alaska is little, if any,
better than a burlesque, both in form and
substance. There is no legislature, and practically no local laws applicable to the wants and
urgent necessities of a Territory so isolated, and
aside from the preparation of an annual report
" of his official acts and doings and of the
condition of said district, with reference to its 24
50th Congress (H. of R.) 2nd Session,
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
Two-thirds   of
Government.
lb., p. 1003.
the   territory   without
Importation and Sale of Intoxicating
Liquors.
lb., p. 1005.
resources, industries, population, and the
administration of the civil government thereof," there is really no duty enjoined upon the
Governor the performance of which is possible,
no power he can exercise, no authority he can
assert.
As a matter of course, when the Act creating
a civil government for Alaska went into operation the civil superseded the naval or military
authority, and in consequence the people of
more than two-thirds of the Territory, because
of the reasons already suggested, have ever
since been practically without any government,
and beyond the reach of any authority
whatever.
Section 14 of the Act of May 17th, 1884,
prohibits the importation, manufacture, and
sale of intoxicating Uquors in Alaska, except for
medicinal, mechanical, and scientific purposes.
I regret being compelled to say that this law is
practicaUy a dead letter. The pubUc sentiment
of the Territory is averse to it, and unless the
right of trial by jury is taken away it cannot be
enforced, for the simple reason that it is impossible to impanel a grand jury which wiU
indict, or a petit jury which will convict persons
charged with its violation. But were this not
true, the officials charged with the duty of
preventing the importation and landing of
intoxicating Uquors are practically powerless in
the premises, for the reason that they have never
been provided with any means whatever which
will enable them to watch and guard any part
of the extensive coast line, save immediately
at the few ports where they are stationed.
There is no water patrol, no revenue cutter, no
transportation, not even a row-boat, under their
control, and, as a consequence, the smuggler
pursues his nefarious calling with very Uttle
molestation from any quarter.
i'l*.
Il
■    Ut
1889. .
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR KNAPP, October 1st, 1889.
51st Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 237.
During the long period of the Russian
occupation of this territory very Uttle effort
was made to elevate and change the savage
character of the natives. The association,
compelUng submission to authority and the
influence of the priests, necessarily wrought
Military Government " brought nothing some change in their life and habits. But the
but rum and ruin." chief idea seems to have been to secure as
much advantage as possible, regardless of the 25
51st Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
lb., p. 240.
Impossibility of executing the laws.
lb., p. 241.
Uncertainty of Jurisdiction.
consequences to the natives themselves. Then
foUowed ten or twelve years of " no government,
and miUtary occupation," under the American
flag, which " brought nothing but rum and
ruin." I would not assert the absence of good
influences during this time, but there were also
by far too many bad influences.
The judge and district attorney, whose
experience and observation during their term
of office render their opinions of especial value,
are emphatic in their declarations that the
greatest hindrance to the rapid dispatch of the
business of the court and the administration of
justice is the inadequacy of the means of trans-?
portation, and the great expense and difficulty
of obtaining competent jurors. There ought to
be provision for transporting the court officials,
prisoners, witnesses, and jurors to and from the
place of holding court. This is essential to the
administration of the laws in Alaska. There
are a great number of native viUages situated at
a distance from the mail steamer routes with no
access to them except by canoe. In many
instances it has been impossible to serve processes for the want of a Ught-draught vessel
within the absolute and immediate control of
the civil Government, without the embarrassment and uncertainty of depending upon the
courtesy and convenience of those acting under
the orders of another department of the
Government than the one upon which the
responsibility rests.
A warrant was issued early in the summer
for the arrest of persons charged with assault
with attempt to kill. That warrant is still in
the hands of the marshal, unserved, after the
lapse of about three months, because Hoonah,
the viUage where the offence was committed,
and where the respondents reside, is off the Une
of the mail steamer's route, and the marshal has
no means of transportation to the plaice. It is
scarcely just that the marshal, or the Governor
who is charged with the duty of seeing that the
laws are enforced, shall be held responsible for
the failure to execute the laws under these
circumstances.
There is another difficulty in the way of an
efficient administration of justice to which I
desire to call your attention here, and that is,
the uncertainty which embarrasses us as to the
appUcabiUty of the laws of Oregon to this
district, a difficulty which might and should be
remedied at the same time that modifications
of the laws recognized as essential in particular
cases are made. 26
51st Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex.   Doc.   I.,   Part 5.     Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
Settlement of the Public Lands.
lb., p. 223.
Settlers are trespassers.
Lack of facilities for serving process.
Every mail brings to the officers of the civil
Government letters of inquiry from residents of
the States and older Territories, asking about
the pubUc lands and by what method of procedure bond fide settlers can obtain titles from
the United States to lands in the district.
As a matter of course, these inquirers were
informed that, under existing laws, no legal
titles to land, except mineral lands for mining
purposes, can be secured by any process whatever ; that every resident who erects a shanty
to protect himself and his family from the
storms of winter in this northern latitude is a
trespasser and Uable to be ejected by legal
process; that the cutting of a walking stick, or
the gathering of wood sufficient to boil bis
coffee, is a breach of the law which must be
ignored by officers sworn to faithfuUy execute
it; that one who comes into the Territory to
live must take his chances with every other
resident, recognising the fact that in places
remote from the centres, though in the midst
of savage tribes, communication with the
authorities is impossible, except at rare intervals, and when informed of trouble needing
immediate attention, the civil Government lacks
facihties for serving processes or affording
protection, so that long delays in execution
constitute the rule rather than the exception.
1890.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR  JOHN G. BRADY, October 1st, 1890.
51st Congress (H. of R.), 2nd Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 436.
Inadequacy of the laws.
The law prohibiting the sale and manufacture
of intoxicating Uquors in the Territory is a dead
letter, except on its application to the Indians.
Liquors of the vilest quaUty, it is asserted, are
sold openly and in violation of the law, even
to those whose famiUes are suffering for the
necessities of life. The reason assigned for the
inefficiency of the law is that prosecutions
would be of no avail. Grand juries refuse to
indict and petit juries refuse to convict. I
presume this statement is made inteUigently
and is in accordance with the facts, though I am
not aware of any attempt to secure convictions.
I feel constrained to caU attention again to
the inadequacy of the provisions of the laws
for the administration of justice, preserving the
pubUc peace, holding criminals for trial, and
affording convenient faciUties for taking oaths
required by law and in the transaction of the
pubUc business in places remote from the four
localities where the United States Commissioners reside.   There are about three hundred 27
51st Congress (H. of R.), 2nd Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
Remoteness of Authorities.
lb., p. 447.
Impossibility
lands.
of
acquiring
titles   to
Impos
sible to secure legislation.
towns and viUages in the Territory, some of
which are at least 3,000 miles from the nearest
Commissioner, or other person authorized by
law to administer oaths, and without roads or
regular communication of any kind.
It has been repeatedly asserted, officially and
otherwise, and scarcely needs reiteration, that
under existing laws it is impossible to acquire
titles to land other than mineral lands for
mining purposes in this Territory. That this
state of things should most seriously retard the
progress of development of the resources of
the country is not strange.
Why is not this Territory accorded the
privileges never before withheld, without
reason, from any land claiming protection
under the American flag ? Who is responsible
for this delay of nearly a quarter of a century
in giving to American citizens the privileges of
acquiring, by purchase or otherwise, titles to
the land they have occupied and improved?
Is it possible that the selfishness and greed of
parties whose interests are better served by
keeping the country a howling wilderness as a
preserve for fish and game are secretly exerting
an influence with members of the national Congress to prevent legislation which would promote
the development and settlement of this country?
Is there any other way of accounting for the
fact that somehow all Bills for the rehef of this
Territory are lost before reaching final action ?
I prefer to shut my eyes to the possibility
of such baseness. But the fact remains and we
must contemplate it with such equanimity as
we can command, that it seems impossible
to secure legislation for this Territory which is
essential to its prosperity and progress while
measures of less importance are allowed to
become laws.
1891.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR KNAPP, October 1st, 1891.
52nd Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 479.
The law not executed.
The importance of better transportation
facilities for the administration of the Government and the enforcement of the laws has been
freshly illustrated by the experiences of the
past year. In a number of instances persons
charged with crime have not been arrested for
want of facuities for travel and transportation
for officers, defendants, and witnesses.
The want of flexibility in the Naval Service
does not in any way miUtate against its usefulness for its legitimate work, but it does m
52nd Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior—continued.
A single row-boat to patrol 3,000 miles
of coast.
28
operate to prevent the best results when other
work than that in its line is required. The
Revenue Marine is in the Civil Service. It is
organised for the purpose of assisting the civil
Government, and the need of additional faculties
for enforcing the revenue laws in Alaska is most
pressing. The temptation for unprincipled men
to engage in smuggUng intoxicating Uquor and
opium into this Territory is very great; and
yet the Collector of Customs, upon whom is laid
the duty of preventing it, has been furnished
with only a single row-boat with which to
patrol and guard 3,000 miles of coast line.
The Organic Act of May 17, 1884, provided
for only four Commissioners to perform the
judicial functions of petty courts and courts of
Probate for the whole of this vast Territory, with
its 33,000 people, located in more than 200
towns and viUages, scattered aU over this vast
domain. They are by law so strictly located
that even a temporary removal from their fixed
habitation, without a special authorisation from
Washington, is Uable to be construed into a
breach of duty. During the seven years since the
passage of this Act, the utter inadequacy of this
provision for the protection of the people and
their interests has been repeatedly reported, and
urgent appeals have been made for rehef.
lb., p. 487.
No roads are built, no telegraph Unes
established, no permanent bundings erected,
no money spent in the Territory except to
carry on business with a view to the greatest
immediate profit. Nothing is left in the
country which can be carried away. The
wealth acquired by the foreign owners of
business here is only accessible where they
reside. Titles to land have been withheld from
actual settlers until the law of March 3, 1891,
and under that law no lands have yet been
taken.
1892.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR LYMAN E. KNAPP, October 1st, 1892.
52nd Congress (H. of R.), 2nd Session.
Ex. Doc. I., Part 5. Report of
Secretary of Interior, p. 488.
The Government has seen fit to withhold
from us the privileges of land titles. We have
no legislature; no delegate or other representative in Congress to speak for us ; we are not
allowed to raise money by taxing ourselves";
and we have no wealthy resident class to supply
it by individual contribution. Our position is
anomalous. No other Territory is thus" limited.
We are alone and isolated. We are separate
from the States by vast intervening oceans and
hundreds of miles of foreign territory. 29
52nd Congress (H. of   li.), 2nd Session.        It will be seen from the instances referred to
Ex.   Doc.   I.,   Part   .">.      Report   of   above that the lack of proper transportation
Secretary of Interior—continued.
Limitations, p. 501.
Impossible to punish crime.
facilities is a serious hindrance to the prompt
and efficient administration of the laws of Alaska.
The number of cases illustrative of this need
which might be recited is illimitable. Those
given are only samples. It is impossible to
arrest criminals and punish crime without
facuities for access to them. Appeals for help
and protection against the most terrible outrages
must fail of response without some method of
conveyance by which we can reach the scenes
of trouble.
1895.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR JAMES SHEAKLEY, October 1st, 1895.
The American Yukon.
lb., p. 322.
Except one inspector of customs, the Government of the United States has no official in that
region.
The gold mines are 1000 miles distant from
Sitka, the capital of the Territory, with no way
to reach there but by going over the mountain
pass on foot and float down the river in a canoe,
and that only during one-half of the year.
This condition renders it entirely impracticable
for the civil government of the Territory to
exercise any authority or administer the law
either in the judicial or other departments in
that part of the Territory.
1897.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR J. G. BRADY, October 1st, 1897.
55th Congress (H. of R.), 2nd Session.
Document No. 5. Annual Reports of
the Department of Interior for Fiscal
year ending June 30th, 1897, and
Miscellaneous Reports, p. 174.
A   British   man-of-war   sent   for   to
protect United States Citizens.
Alaska without any civil government.
The natives became impressed with the idea
that the whites who remained after the departure of the soldiers were not esteemed very
highly, and consequently matters were brought
to a climax in the spring of 1879, when a considerable portion of the natives at Sitka armed
and organised themselves and attempted to
march upon the white settlement with the
avowed intent of massacre and plunder. They
were prevented by the timely interference of
Annahootz and his Kokwanton supporters.
The inhabitants were thoroughly alarmed,
and sent a petition to the authorities of British
Columbia to send a man-of-war at once to
protect their lives until they could obtain protection from their own Government. The
" Osprey " was sent off at once and afforded
the people protection until relieved by the
U.S. s. " Alaska."
But every effort emphasized the fact that
Alaska was without any civil government. 30
1898.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR J. G. BRADY, October 1st, 1898.
55th Congress (H. of R.), 3rd Session.
Document No. 5. Annual Report of
the Department of Interior for Fiscal
year ending June 30th, 1898, and
Miscellaneous Reports, p. 198.
Land titles unobtainable.
But nothing contained in this Act shall be
construed to put in force in said district the
General Land Laws of the United States.
Why such a distinction was made is past
comprehension. Men may have the right to
dig out ore upon lands and may obtain patents
for the same, but if they dig out a cellar and
build a house and improve lands for a home
they cannot obtain a title.
This state of affairs has been brought to the
attention of Congress in almost every report
which has been written by a Government
officer. This has been the status now for thirty-
two years.
Uncertainty
Courts.
lb., p. 201.
of   jurisdiction    of   the
It should be understood that any law passed
in Oregon since 1884 is not applicable, also that
eight different men have sat upon the bench as
district judges, and hardly any two of them
have held the same opinion as to the applies^
bility of the law which may be invoked by
litigants. Men have been tried for murder and
other felonies and sentenced to the penitentiary
for Ufe and for terms of years, and yet it is the
opinion of able lawyers, some of them in
Congress too, that there never has been a
lawful jury in Alaska.
1899.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR J. G. BRADY, October 1st, 1899.
56th Congress (H. of R.), 1st Session.
Document No. 5. Annual Reports of
the Department of Interior for Fiscal
year ending June 30th, 1899, and
Miscellaneous Reports, Part II., p. 9.
Again, as set forth in last year's report, the
canneries have had very little legal protection,
for the reason that they are at great distances
from settled communities, and the civil officers
have had no independent means of transportation, and have been nearly powerless to give
them any speedy and adequate protection.
lb., p. 38.
The Land Act of 1898 inoperative.
Attention has been called in previous reports
to the fact that the advantages of the general
land laws have been denied to the citizens of
Alaska. The mining laws are all right; we
have no complaint in regard to them, but it still
remains a fact, that a poor man can not take up
a piece of land for his home and go to the land
office and obtain title to the same. An Act was
approved May 14th, 1898, extending the homestead Land Laws, limiting the holding to 80
acres. This is inoperative, from the fact that
homesteads can be located only upon surveyed
land. 31
1900.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR J. G. BRADY, October 1st, 1900.
56th Congress (H. of R.) 2nd Session.
Document No. 5. Annual Report of
the Department of Interior for Fiscal
year ending June 30th, 1900, and
Miscellaneous Reports. Part II.
Governors of Territories, &c, p. 47.
No territorial organisation.
Twelve years ago A. P. Swineford, at that
time Governor of the District, championed the
cause of Territorial organization, and appeared
before the Committee on Territories and argued
the question ably. AU these years have passed
and still we have no such organization. There
must be some valid reason for it : in brief,
Congress must take the blame.
lb., p. 48.
Withholding of the Land Laws.
The withholding of the land laws is the real
difficulty to-day. A Territorial Government
means taxation, and Alaska to-day is not in a
condition to stand it.
1902.
FROM REPORT OF GOVERNOR J. G. BRADY, October 1st, 1902.
Report of the Governor to the
Secretary of the Interior, Oct. 1st,
1902, p. 3.
Congressional Duty.
American Occupation.—Some things have
been done under great pressure, but we feel
that Congress has pursued a general policy of
neglect since we have owned Alaska. Congress
rules Alaska absolutely, and it is only at the
hands of Congress that our institutions can be
extended and built up. The first step which
should have been taken, and which has been
taken in every other instance since the ordinance
of 1787, is to encourage the people to move
forward and possess the land.
Land Laws, p. 4.
Land Laws.
This subject has been brought to the attention
of Congress by every Governor in almost every
annual report since 1884. The present incumbent has brought this matter up each year, and
has tried to show how aU progress is hampered,
and in many places effectually blocked by the
withholding of these laws. It is not possible
for the ordinary man and family to come here
and estabUsh a home, for he cannot obtain
security of title. For this reason the great
industry of agriculture in its various departments is held in check. Those who are ready
to make the first venture in building railroads
hesitate because they know that the people
have no encouragement to settle on the land.
Those who are ready to introduce colonies of
desirable people weU fitted to prosper in this
latitude, from Finland and other parts of
Northern Europe, cannot because they can
give these people no certainty that they can
obtain title to land.
ililS T
32
Report of the Governor to the Secretary
of the Interior, Oct. 1st., 1902, p. 4.
Immediately after the transfer from Russia
to the United States, many people desired to
move into the Territory and settle. This was
not looked upon with favour, but, on the
contrary, seemed to alarm the authorities, as
may be inferred from the foUowing:—
lb., p.
i).
" Department of the Interior,
" Washington, D.C.,
i October 26th, 1867,
" Sir,
" In reply to your communication of the
24th inst., in relation to attempts of American
citizens to acquire pre-emption rights to lands
at Sitka, in the newly acquired territory of
Alaska, I have the honour to inclose for your
information a copy of a report this day made to
me by the Commissioner of the General Land
Office upon the subject of your inquiries. Such
claims and settlements are not only without the
sanction of the law, but are in direct violation
of the provisions of the laws of Congress
applicable to pubUc domain secured to the
United States by any treaty made with a foreign
nation, and, if deemed necessary and advisable,
miUtary force may be used to remove the.
intruders.
" This Department has no officers at Sitkar
nor in any other part of the ' Russian Purchase'
and must rely on the  State Department to
cause the necessary orders In the premises to be
communicated to our authorities there.
" I have the honour to be,
" Very respectfuUy, your obedient servant,
" O. H. Browning,
" Secretary,
" Hon. William H. Seward,
" Secretary of State."
" Department of Interios,
" General Land Office, Oct. 26.
" Sir,
" I have the honour to acknowledge the
receipt of the Department letter of yesterday,
inclosing a communication of the 24th from the
Honourable Secretary of State, by which the
Department is advised that citizens of the
United States are attempting to make claims
and settlements at Sitka, within the ' Russian
Purchase' under the townsite and pre-emption
laws, and I have the honour to state that such
settlements are iUegal and contrary. to law.
(See Act of March 3, 1807, vol. ii., p. 445,
United States Statutes.)
"In  the absence of specific legislation by
Congress, providing for the organization of land 33
Report of the Governor to the Secretary
of the Interior, October 1st, 1902,
p. 5—continued.
districts within the ' Russian Purchase,' and the
extension of our system of surveys over the
same, settlements and claims under the town-
site and pre-emption laws are unlawful and
cannot be recognised under the existing laws.
" I am, Sir, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
" Joseph S. Wilson,
" Commissioner.
" Hon. O. H. Browning,
" Secretary of the Interior."
lb., p. 5.
" Ma. Seward to General Grant.
" Department of State,
" Washington,
" October 26th, 1867.
" General,
" In the absence of specific legislation by
Congress for the organisation of land districts
in Alaska, claims of pre-emption and settlements
are not only without the sanction of the law,
but are in direct violation of laws apphcable to
pubUc domain. Military force may be used to
remove intruders if necessary. WiU you have
the goodness to instruct Major-General HaUeck
to this effect by telegraph, and request him to
communicate the instruction to Major-General
Rosseau at Sitka?
" I have the honour to be, General,
" Your obedient servant,
I William H. Seward.
I General U. S. Grant,
" Secretary of War ad interim."
lb., p. 5.
" Mr. Seward to Mr. de Stoeckl.
" Department of State,
" Washington,
" October 29, 1867.
"Sir,
" I have the honour to inclose for your
information a copy of a letter of yesterday to
General Grant, the Secretary of War ad
interim, embodying an instruction which the
President has directed to be sent by telegraph
to Major-General Halleck, by him to be
promptly communicated to Major-General
Rosseau at Sitka, with a view to preventing
premature and Ulegal attempts to occupy land
in Alaska.
" Accept, Sir, a renewed assurance of my
very high consideration.
"William H. Seward.
" Mr. Edward de Stoeckl." I
i
Mdi
Report of the Governor to the Secretary
of the Interior, October 1st, 1902,
p. 6—continued.
No encouragement to agriculture, &c.
34
The country was under the rule or^'the War
Department until June, 1877, when'the troops
were withdrawn and the Country practically
abandoned. The Treasury Department, for
the most part by a Deputy Collector, ruled for
two years, until a massacre was threatened by
Katleean and his tribe at Sita, when the Naval
Department assumed charge and held it, until
the arrival of the Civil Officers appointed
by President Arthur under the Organic Act of
May 7th, 1884. Section 8 of this remarkable
piece of legislation created a land district of the
whole cession, and the United States Land Office
with ex-officio surveyor-general, registrar and
receiver. Since that day mining has prospered,
for it has had as much encouragement by the
extension of the mining laws of the United
States and the rights incident thereto as this
industry has had in any State or Territory, and
many mineral patents have been issued. The
terms under which title might be acquired by
persons who have squatted and waited for
years, were reserved for future legislation by.
Congress; that is agriculture, stock raising,
lumbering, and coal mining received no encouragement. Those who believe that they
could undertake such enterprises with success,
simply had to wait and hope.
M
lb., p. 7.
Very few patents granted.
lb., p.
There has been a long and costly struggle for
the appUcants, who have obtained very few
patents. The sums which they have put up for
field and office work, and for which they have
never received an acre in return, will aggregate
a large amount. It has been a veritable wrestling match, with the General Land Office
standing victor in almost every contest. It is
astonishing to see "what grips and underholds
can be taken in one of these onsets.
The next specific legislation was approved
May 14th, 1898, entitled " An Act extending
the homestead laws and providing for right of
way for railroads in the district of Alaska and
for other purposes." The thirteen sections of
this Act maybe found in Appendix C. Section 1
relates to homestead right in Alaska, and
provides:—
" Sec. 1. - That the Homestead Land Laws
of the United States and the rights incident
thereto, including the right to enter surveyed
or unsurveyed lands, under provisions of law
relating to the acquisition of title through
soldiers' additional homestead rights, are hereby
extended to the district of Alaska, subject to
such regulations as may be made by the
Secretary   of   Interior;    and   no   indemnity, ,,,.35
Report of the Governor to the Secretary
• of "the Interior, October-1st. 1902,'
p. o^-continued.
Not a single homestead entry allowed.
No surveys made
fb.y p. 8.
deficiency, or new lands pertaining to any
land grant whatsoever, originating outside of
said district of Alaska shall be located within
or taken from lands in said district: Provided
that no entry shall be allowed extending more
than eighty rods along the shore of any
navigable water, and along such shore a space
of at least eighty, rods shall be reserved from
entry between all such claims, and that nothing
herein contained shall be so construed as to
authorise entries to be made or title to be
acquired to the shore of any navigable waters
within said district: And be it further provided
that no homestead shall exceed eighty acres in
extent."
A stranger reading over this law might, get
the impression that it is on the whole a pretty
fair law for Alaska, but when he begins to
inquire how it has worked for the four years in
which it has been in force, he wiU begin to
understand why we groan. In the first place,
not a single homestead entry has been allowed,
for the reason that the homestead land laws of
the United States apply only upon lands which
have been surveyed, and not an acre has been
marked out for settlement. Nowhere has there
been estabhshed a meridian or a base Une.
Why ? The answer is the same as was given
by Secretary Seward, in October, 1867 : " The
absence of specific legislation by Congress."
At the instance of Commissioner Hermann,
of the General Land Office, the sundry Civil
Bill which was approved March 3rd, 1899,
^extended the t system, of public; surveys r in ,the
. district.Qf Alaska, and. .included Alaska among
the States and Territories which were to share
in the sum of three hundred and twenty-five
thousand doUars, voted for public surveys. The
Same amount was voted in 1900, and Alaska was
included, but no land was surveyed for homestead* purposes. A; similar amount was voted
for the year ending June 30th, :1901, and five
thousand dollars was the part apportioned to
Alaska, and yet not a Une has been run.
Last year the Surveyor-General requested
$108,872 for the survey of Mission stations and
Jhe Government reservations, and the Governor
;asked that $2.00,000 be..,given to. start the
surveys, and, that the Commissioner of the
General Land Office be authorised to make
terms with the Surveyors, so as.to start
the work. These recommendations were not
favourably considered. " We've carved not a
line; we've raised not a stone."
Soldiers' additional homestead rights are used
i
I
if
is "
il
H 36
Report of the Governor to the Secretary   by nearly all who wish to acquire immediate
of the  Interior, October 1st,  1902,    title for cannery or saw mill sites, or for other
jy g continued trade or manufacturing purposes of speculation.
An applicant may consider himself fortunate if
♦ he goes through aU this and obtains his patent
at a total expense of $30 per acre.
lb., p. 8. The Coal Land Laws were extended June 6th,
1900, but, like homesteads, coal must be located
upon surveyed lands. In some places, Uke the
Cook Inlet coalfields at Homer, the enterprises
started in the neighbourhood of ComptroUer's
Bay and elsewhere, large amounts have been
invested in development of mines, building
wharfs, railway tracts, &c, but these people
have no assurance of title, nor security of
tenure if they begin the shipment of coal. In
fact, an ice company would not know that it
was secure if it began the export of ice from
Muir Glacier.
lb., p. 8. Two land offices which had been established
were discontinued upon a claim of reasoning
which appears vaUd, but if pursued in another
Department would disband almost every post
office in the district. It is the same kind of
reasoning which in 1877 made out a clear case
against the country as a customs district and
recommended its aboUtion. Last of all comes
a forest reserve, covering the largest part of
the islands in South-East Alaska. This wiU be
considered more in detail elsewhere.
No assurance of title.
Mi ';;!-.
;r ;*
CONTEMPORARY    OPINIONS    EXPRESSED    BY    DISTINGUISHED
UNITED   STATES OFFICIALS   AND   CITIZENS IN  MAGAZINES
AND PERIODICALS.
" The Alaskans at Home," by W. N.
Slocum, in " The Lakeside Monthly,"
Vol. vi., pp. 16-19, July, 1871.
(Chicago).
"Kodiak and Southern Alaska," by
W. T. Whythe, in "The Overland
Monthly," Vol. viii, pp. 505-511, June,
1872.   (San Francisco.)
1871.
" Most of the Russians of Sitka are very
poor, and since the dissolution of the Russian
Fur Company few of them have had employment    The men are willing to
work for low wages, but cannot obtain employment at any price; while the women, whatever
they may have been previous to the American
occupation, are now lost to shame."
1872.
Speaking of the natives of Kodiak and the
Aleutian Islands:—(pp. 510-511.)
" It is to be greatly regretted that the moral
condition of this people has not been improved
by the transfer of their country to the United
States. The Russian Company, during their
administration, had despotic powers, and, although their main object undoubtedly was to 37
" Kodiak and Southern Alaska," by
W. T. Why the, in " The Overland
Monthly," Vol. viii., pp. 505-511,
June, 1872.—(San Francisco)—continued.
" Alaska as it is," by Ivan PetrofF, in
" The International Review," Vol. xii.,
February, 1882, pp. 111-124. (New
York). (Sometime U.S. Special
Agent in Alaska.)
make money, they provided both for the
physical and moral wants of the community.
The Russian Government maintained a church
estabhshment at aU the trading posts. Many
of the log church edifices were in the form of a
cross, and were provided with chimes of beUs.
The result has been that the Indians are extremely reUgious "
" The Russian Government also estabUshed
schools where the chUdren were taught; but
these have been totally neglected since the
country became American. The Fur Company
was formerly careful of the health of the natives,
and erected pubUc bath-houses obliging every
native, under severe penalties, to cleanse himself
once a week. Being now under free institutions,
no one has power to compel the natives to wash
themselves. . . . The Russians and better
class of natives have left the country, the Fur
Company furnishing them with passage to
Europe, and very few descendants of the old
colonists remain.
" The natives are now free from the restraints
of a despotic government, and are learning to
rule themselves, but their condition has not
improved by the change. As they had no
voice in the matter, and as neither despotic
Russia, nor free America thought their interests
of any importance in the transfer, it seems to
matter little to anyone, that, from partial
civiUzation, they are now slowly, but surely,
sinkinor back to barbarism."
1882.
" The anomalous condition of affairs thus far
existing throughout Alaska—a total absence of
legal facilities of a.ny kind—can no longer be
continued with safety here."
" The working of the mines impUes the
transfer of property, claims to land and water
rights, and numerous business transactions made
impossible by such a state of affairs. In the
language of a recent appeal from that section
to Congress : ' There are no courts of record,
by which title may be estabUshed, or conflicting
claims adjudicated, or estates administered, or
naturaUzation and other privileges acquired, or
debts collected, or the commercial advantages
of the law secured.' The people also complain
that persons accused of crimes and misdemeanours are subject to the arbitrary wiU of
a naval commander, imprisoned and kept for
months without trial, or punished by imprisonment upon simple accusation."
m 38
HP
v Journeys in Alaska," by E. Ruhamah
Scidmore, dated Washington D.C,
March loth, 1885. (Published at
Boston). (Writer of description of
first district of Alaska in Eleventh
Census Report, 1890.)
1885.
"'Alaska," by W. G. Williams, D.D.,
in the 1 Chautauquan," Vol. vii., July,
1887, pp. 602-604.    (Meadville, Pa.).
"After innumerable petitions and the presentation in Congress of some thirty BiUs to
grantia civil government to Alaska, the inhabitants were on the point of having the Russian
residents of the territory unite in a petition to
the Czar asking him to secure for them the protection and the rights guaranteed in the treaty
of 1869. The Russian Government would doubtless have enjoyed memorializing the United
States in such a cause, after the way the Re-
public has taken foreign Governments to task
for the persecution of Jews, peasants, and subjects within European borders.
" Senator Harrison's Bill to provide a civil
government for Alaska was introduced on the
4th of December, 1883, and, with amendments,
passed the Senate on the 24th of January, 1884.
It was approved by the House of Representatives on the 13th of May, and, receiving President Arthur's signature, Alaska at last became
a Territory, but not a land district of the United
States, anomalous as that may seem."—p. 226.
1887.
" The seal-fisheries were again threatened
with extermination. The Government's expedient to prevent this was the leasing of the
Prybilof or Seal Islands to the Alaskan Commercial Company In addition
to the financial side of the contract there
are numerous humane conditions inserted.
Provision is made for the remuneration and
treatment   of   the   natives	
Requirements like these reflect credit on the
Government that imposed them. But it must
be borne in mind that they apply only to a
small fraction of the whole population, being
those alone on the islands where the Company's
trade is carried on. Outside of this small
number, with slight exception, scarcely anything has been done during the whole twenty
years of American possession for the moral and
intellectual improvement of the people. The
record is not creditable to a great Christian
nation.
I The population of this vast region, by the
census of 1880, is only thirty-three thousand.
Of these not more than ten per cent, can be
called civilized. There is reason to believe that
in the earlier part of the Russian occupation it
was twice the present number. Many theories
are offered to account for the decrease: the rigour 39
" Alaska," by W. G. Williams, D.D.,
in the " Chantauquan," Vol. vii., July,
1887, pp. 602-604. (Meadville, Pa.)
—continued.
of the climate; the fact that where it is milder,
as at the capital, Sitka, it is so wet and malarious, there being a rainfall of eighty-three inches
in the year. But the truer explanation is found
in the extremely degraded condition and habits
of the people."—p. 603.
" Such, practically, is the condition of a people
who since 1867 have been wards of the nation.
During the Russian period, at the expense of
the Russian American Company, the Greek
Church made an attempt, with some success, at
churches and schools and even hospitals. When
the territory changed hands, the Greek Church
relaxed its effort, and most of its work was
abandoned. To our shame it is confessed that
no hands have taken up the work they forsook
and carried it on in any adequate degree. Congress, it is true, made an appropriation for educational purposes, but there has lacked the
interest to apply the money to the intended
purpose.
" One exception, at least, to the above is the
work under direction of the Reverend Sheldon
Jackson, Superintendent of Presbyterian missions in the Territories. He has succeeded in
establishing a few schools, and has appUed some
of the Government money which was waiting
for some one to devote to the avowed object of
the appropriation. To quote Mr. Jackson's
words, ' Russia gave them Government, schools,
and the Greek reUgion, but when the country
passed from their possession they withdrew
their rulers, priests, teachers, while the United
States did not send any others to take their
places. Alaska to-day has neither courts,
rulers, teachers, nor ministers. The only thing
the United States has done for them has been
to introduce whiskey.' This was written m
1877, ten years after the country came into our
hands. The second decade has brought some
changes, but so sUght as by no means to quit us
of serious responsibnity and reproach.
'' But notwithstanding their debased condition,
and the fact that the moral idea seems almost
utterly dormant, they are quick to learn and
eager to be taught. They can appreciate the
sharpening of their faculties for the practical
benefit it brings. Fittingly has Mr. Bancroft
asked, ' What shall we do with the people of
Alaska ? Let them sit and gaze seaward with
a steadfast stare, awaiting the arrival of the
steamer which, bearing the United States flag,
brings them month by month their supply of
hootchenoo (molasses rum) ?' "—p. 603.
i 40
riiii
Our Ignorance of Alaska," by Kate
Field, in the "North American
Review," Vol. cxlix., July, 1889,
pp. 78-90.    (New York.)
1889.
" Alaska Was not given away.    It has only
been thrown away—so far as development is
concerned.    First came a military occupation,
a few troops being sent to Sitka, the capital,
on Baronoff Island; to Wrangel, Tongas, and
St. Paul.    With the purchase of Alaska, Sitka
became transformed.   The town that once held
a thousand Russians, a governor and his staff,
a bishop with his train of priests, was deserted
save by Indians and a few hundred Creoles and
half-breeds, who from that  day to this have
remained in complete ignorance of the Government to which they   owe   allegiance.     San
Francisco is the only town in the United States
of which the majority ever heard.
I In 1869 the Aleuts sent the following
petition to Washington :—' We beg respectf uUy
of the United States Government, and of our
fellow-citizens all over the Republic, to regard
us not as Indians—we are not such—but as-
fellow-citizens, struggUng to advance in
civilization, and to become worthy to be
esteemed as fellow-citizens of the Republic'
" The simple people of the Aleutian Islands
appealed in vain.
" Not very long after (August 20, 1870)
General Jeff. C. Davis, commanding the
Department of Alaska, reported to the Secretary
of War that' the natives of Alaska are peaceful,
honest, and capable of transacting ordinary
business quite well, and would doubtless improve
themselves if they had a fair chance, but their
present complete enslavement and robbery by
an unscrupulous ring of speculators will ever ).
prevent such progress.
" Ten years of no government and mihtary
occupation brought to Sitka and the Alexander
Archipelago rum and ruin—nothing more.
" The year 1794 saw the first vessel built
and launched in Alaskan waters. It left the
primitive stocks inspired by Governor Baranof,
and was christened 'The Phoenix.' In 1878-
Sitka could no more have built a ship than it
could have built the Pyramids. Everything
had gone to decay. Both mind and matter were
mildewed, and Sitka's only wharf was so out of
repair, owing to being eaten by that mischievous
marine, the teredo navalis, that it would have
tumbled into the water had $39*40, coUected by
the army as a wharf fund, being expended in
repairs. To-day that same wharf is so dilapidated as to be almost useless. Passengers from
the steamers are generally landed from a tug.
The primitive ploughshares formerly sold to
the indolent rancheros of California and Mexico 41
Out Ignorance of Alaska," by Kate
Field, in the " North American
Review," Vol. cxlix., July, 1889,
pp. 78-90.    (New York)— continued.
were manufactured at Sitka's ship yard, as were
axes, spades, hatchets, and hoes. The bells of
the Pacific Coast Missions, many stiU in
existence, were cast at the Sitka foundry. The
kneU of that Russian foundry was toUed long
ago.
" After the withdrawal of the miUtary, Alaska
was left without any Government whatever,
save the occasional presence of a revenue cutter,
whereupon Governeur Morris, special agent,
made such representations as should have
received attention, but did not.
"' The policy of the Government towards
Alaska,' wrote Mr. Morris, ' has been a disgrace.
Instead of encouraging emigration and a
development of the resources of the country,
enterprise has been discouraged.' ' There is no
law,' he continued, ' for the recordation of conveyances. A man cannot sell a piece of
property and give a deed for it which wiU be
legal notice to third parties.' Under such conditions, of course, no land could be mortgaged.
' A man may be murdered in Alaska, his will
forged, and his estate scattered to the four
corners of the earth, and there is no power in a
court of chancery to redress it.'
" Thoroughly desperate at the lack of
government in the territory, Deputy-CoUector
J. C. Dennis, stationed at Fort WrangeU, wrote,
June 15th, 1878, to Collector Morris, asking to
be reUeved:
" ' I take this step on account of the manner
in which the Department is running this
Territory.
" ' I have acted in the capacity of arbitrator,
adjudicator, and peacemaker until forbearance
has ceased to be a virtue. Within the past
month one thousand complaints by Indians
have been laid before me for settlement, and as
I am neither Indian Agent nor Justice of the
Peace, I decUne the honour of patching up
Indian troubles for anytime longer than can be
obviated.
" ' Again, the prospect for Congress to extend
law and order over this country looks gloomy,
and in the absence of law at this port, no
compensation that the Government could offer
me would be -any inducement for me to act in
the capacity of deputy coUector another year.'
" The only recommendation the Secretary of
the Treasury made to the Forty-fifth Congress
in behalf of neglected Alaska was that the port
of Sitka should be aboUshed! This document
is weU worth reading. ? Since the withdrawal of
the troops from Alaska last spring, the management of the Territory has practicaUy devolved ■m
ill!
m I
** Our Ignorance of Alaska," by Kate
Field, in the " North American
Review," Vol. cxlix., July, 1889,
pp. 78-90.    (New York)—continued.
42
upon the Treasury department. The only officers who could exercise any authority were the
coUector of customs at Sitka and his deputies
stationed at other points within the Territory,
the duties of the Seal officers at the Seal Islands
being confined exclusively to the protection of
the seal interests. It was feared that the sudden
withdrawal of the troops might result in a conflict between the whites and the Indians; but
thus far Uttle disturbance has occurred. The
white population at Sitka is very limited, and
the expense of maintaining customs officers there
and at other points within the Territory, has
aggregated within the past two years, $17,418*32,
while the receipts from customs have during the
same period been very much less. It is, therefore, recommended that the port of Sitka be
abohshed.'
" ' Here's wisdom for you—chunks of it,' as
Jack Bunsby would remark. Goverheur Morris
truly rejoined that the Alaskan district was not
one of revenue, but of protection. If trade had
fallen off since the days of the tyrant Czar,
whose fault was it? With such reasoning as
the honorable Secretary's, would not many a
postal route be abandoned ? And the Secretary,
after stating that the only officers in Alaska who
could exercise authority were the coUector of
customs and his deputies, virtually recommended
their dismissal!
" Such was the criminal inaction of the
Government, which contented itself with
drawing $317,000 annually from two small
seal islands, leaving the rest of the country to
fate. Nor were the people much enUghtened
by theUterary pabulum prepared by experts."—
pp. 80-82.
" The ' government' of Alaska, though better
than ever before, is ridiculous, anomalous, unjust,
and fraudulent. The territory has been acquired
under false pretences, as can be shown by the
third article of the treaty with Russia.
" The inhabitants of the ceded territory,
according to their choice, reserving their natural
allegiance, may return to Russia within three
years; but if they should prefer to remain in
the ceded territory, they, with the exception of
uncivilized native tribes, shaU be admitted to
the enjoyment of all the rights, advantages and
immunities of citizens of the United States,
and shall be maintained and protected in the
free enjoyment of their liberty, property, and
religion. What are the ' rights, advantages and
immunities, of American citizens? This question
is best answered by quoting Sumner for the
last time.   Addressing Congress, he   says:— 43
Om
Field,    in
Review,"
pp. 78-90.
Ignorance of Alaska
," by Kate
the    " North  American
Vol.    cxlix.,   July,   1889,
(New York)—continued.
' Your best work and most important endowment wiU be the repubUcan government which,
looking to a long future, you wiU organize with
schools free to all, and with equal laws, before
which every citizen will stand erect in the
consciousness of manhood.    .    .    .'
" Congress has bestowed nothing of this sort.
Two generations have grown op in crass ignorance. Schools have been conspicuous by their
absence, and no man can stand erect upon the
bit of land that should be his, because there are
no land-laws."—p. 89.
1890.
"The   Gold   Fields  of  Alaska,"  by        " No civil government was formed in Alaska
John H. Keatley, late U.S. Judge of   until more than three years afterwards, but in
Alaska, in the "Arena," Vol. i.. May
1890, pp. 730-741.    (Boston.)
the spring of 1881, the two hundred and fifty
hardy miners who had explored nearly every
region where gold had hitherto been found, met
and adopted a code of mining laws which
became obligatory upon every miner in the
district."
"A Summer Tour in Alaska." By
Lucy M. Washburn, in the " Cosmopolitan." Vol. xvii., August, 1894,
pp. 411-21      (New York.)
1894.
" But the dirt, the disorder, and the smell of
fish, hung over the fire for curing, offend the
senses. It is more pathetic, because this
disease and degradation are not mere primitive
savagery, but its reaction under contact with
more developed races. The wrongs of Alaskan
natives burn upon the pages of all impartial
historians of the century and a half of exploration, trading and monopoly. ' Heaven is high,'
ran the proverb, ' and the Czar distant.' The
worst injury was not the sweeping depopulation
—85 per cent. " among the Aleuts—but the
immorality inherited by the survivors. And
of this last, America cannot wash its hands."
—p. 414.
"The Alaska Boundary Question,"
by Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, in "The
Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine," May, 1896, p. 143.
1896.
Speaking of United States control, says :—
" The United states does not recognise,
protect, or control those mining communities
in any way. No geological explorations or
surveys have been undertaken, and there are
no official reports upon the location, formation,
development, or yield of this rich placer region.
There are no military posts and not a territorial
or Federal officer in Yukon Alaska save one
customs inspector and postmaster. There is
no law, save as the miners maintain their
own unwritten code. Church missionary
societies have provided for the few peaceable
Indian tribes, but even spiritual comfort is
withheld from the miners   ....    Since 44
a Hi
" The Alaska Boundary Question," by
F3iza Ruhamah Scidmore, in I The
Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine," May, 1896, p. 143~continued.
| Colonial Lessons of Alaska," by
David Starr Jordan, in " The Atlantic
Monthly," Vol. lxxxii., Nov., 1898,
pp. 577-591.    (Boston.)
the mihtary occupation of Alaska ceased in
1877,  frequent appeals  have   been  made   for
the establishment of a garrison at Chilkat, and
tbe construction of a military road over the Pass
traversed by Yukon miners for the last sixteen
years.     General   Miles   once   considered   the
matter to the extent of detafling an officer to
make a reconnaissance.    Mr. E. J. Glave explored the Chilkat country in 1891, and proved
the feasibility of  taking packhorses over the
divide  and   grazing them   in  the rich   bush
country around   the   Yukon's headwaters, so
that the slow and expensive packing by Indian
carriers or hand-sleds might easily be abandoned.
" The governor of Alaska has vainly recommended that Government engineers should survey and build a wagon road to the boundary line
by Mr. Glave's Chilkat route; and he urges, in
his last annual report (1895), the establishment
bf a one-company miUtary post in the Yukon
valley, and a regular mail service between Circle
City and Chilkat."—pp. 143-4.
1898.
" The control of the childlike native tribes of
Alaska offers many anomalies. As citizens of
the United States, living in American territory,
they are entitled to the protection of its laws;
yet in most parts of Alaska the natives rarely,,
see an officer of the United States, and know
nothing of our courts or procedures. In most
villages the people choose their own chief, who
has vaguely defined but not extensive authority.
A Greek priest is furnished to them by the
Established Church of Russia. He is-possessed
of power in spiritual matters, and such temporal
authority as his own character and the turn
of events may give him. The post trader,
representing the Alaska Commercial Company,
often a squawman of some superior intelligence,
has also large powers of personal influence,
which are in general wisely used. The fact
that the natives are nearly always in debt to
the Company tends to accentuate the Company's
authority. The control of the Greek priest
varies with the man. Some of the priests are
devoted Christians, whose sole purpose is the
good of their flock. To others, the flock exists
merely to be shorn for the benefit of the Church
or the priest. But there are a few whom to
call brutes, if we may believe common report,
would be a needless slur on the bear and the
sea lion."—p. 588. 45
MEMORANDUM  FROM  THE  ADMIRALTY   RESPECTING  THE
HISTORY  OF  CERTAIN  CHARTS.
Admiralty,
25th April, 1903.
[Immediate.]
M/5421.
Sir,
With reference to your letter of the 16th instant, addressed to the Hydrographer,
asking to be supphed with information respecting the history of certain charts for the purposes
of the preparation of the British case before the Alaska Boundary Tribunal, I am commanded
by my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to transmit herewith a statement showing the
information desired.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient Servant,
C. I. Thomas.
CUfford Sifton, Esq.,
Hotel Cecil, Strand.
REPLIES TO QUERIES CONTAINED IN ENCLOSURE TO LETTER OF
THE BRITISH AGENT BEFORE THE ALASKA BOUNDARY TRIBUNAL
OF THE 16th APRIL,  1903.
HISTORY OF CHART No. 2431, "PORT SIMPSON TO CROSS SOUND,"
FROM ITS ORIGINAL PRODUCTION IN 1865 to 1893.
This chart was originaUy drawn and engraved in 1865, principally from Russian charts
of 1853, viz., Koloshenskago Archipelago No. 10 A.C. and No. 10 A.D., and Vostochnago
Okeana No. 10.
The foUowing tables show how and when the first edition of this chart has been
corrected:—
Edition
No.
Date of Correction.
1868, Sept.  5th
1868, Oct.    3rd
1869, Oct. 11th
1880, April 29th
3       1882, April  3rd
Nature of Correction.
Insert note that coal exists on
Admiralty and Kou Islands, and
insert name Harta Bay
Alter title to "Port Simpson to
Cross Sound "
Expunge Portland Inlet and re-
engrave from Pender's Survey,
1868
Corrections from sketch of ReviUa
Gigedo Channel, and plans of
Ward Cove and P. Protection
Corrections from U.S.C.S. plans
Corrections from   U.S.H.O.  chart
Do. do. plan
Do. U.S.C.S.   plans
Do. U.S.H.O. plans
Authority.
Foreign Office letter, including Report of
U.S.N, in Alaskan
waters
MSS. original surveys of
Portland Canal and
Observatory Inlet
MSS. by Navigating
Lieutenant Moulton,
H.M.S. " Osprey,"
1879
Harbours in Alaska, 1869
No. 225
No. 883
Nos. 706 and 707
No. 882 4ft
Replies to Queries contained in Enclosure to Letter of the British Agent
before the Alaska Boundary Tribunal of the 16th! April, 1903—-continued.
History of Chart No. 2431, " Port Simpson to Cross Sound," from its original
production in 1865 to 1893—continued.
Edition     _.  .     l.M
jq-Q Date of Correction.
3       1884, Jan.   9th
1884, Sept. 26th
4   1886, Feb. 23rd
1887, Deo. 9th
1889, Sept. 10th
1889, Sept. 21st
1889, Oct. 26th
1890, Jan. 7th
1890, May 24th
1890, June 3rd
1890, July 5th
1890, July 22nd
1890, Sept. 4th
6 1890, Sept. 20th
1890, Dec. 17th
1891, July 13th
j|£/e 1891, July 25th
1891, Aug. 19th
1891, Sept. 17th
1892, Mar.. 1st
7 - 1892, Mar. 14th
8  J.892, Aug. 29»d
1892, Dec. 21st
1893, Jan. 25th
1893. Mar. 2odi
Nature of Correction.
Corrections   from  U.S.C.S.   plans
Rocks between ReviUa Gigedo and
Annette Islands
Corrections   generally  from latest
U.S. charts
Correct Clarence Strait, etc., from
U.S.C.S. plans
Corrections from U.S.C.S. chart
Correct Glacier Bay from
Correct largely from U.S.C.S. plans
and from U.S.C.S. chart
3-fathom   shoal   south   of   Sunset
Island, Stephens Passage
Erase buoy from Vanderbilt Reef
Correct Duncan Canal from U.S.C.S.
chart
Between   Wolf   Rock   and   Dall
Island
Correct    Frederick    Sound   from
U.S.C.S. chart
Buoy placed on VanderbUt   Reef
Rock   in    Saginaw    Chanriel   (17
feet)
Move Midway Island further north,
and insert south of Ship Island
Amend about Baranov Island
In Lavinia Point Channel
Correct Point Uighfield Anchorage
from U.S.C.S. plan
R. and B. buoy on Sparrowhawk
Shoal
Several Beacons
Rock in Point Highfield Anchorage
Engrave    plan    of   P.   Tongass,
U.S.C.S. plan
Corrections to   Frederick   Sound,
JSeymour   Channel, and  Stikine
Rives5,"from U.S.C.S. charts
Corrections to buoys and beacons
Corrections   to Lynn  Canal,  and
add   compartment   of   Head  of
Canal, from U.S.C.S; chart
Buoys, etc., near Kenasnow Island
Alter  "corrected" to  "with corrections " in title
Authority.
Nos. 723, 726, 712, 713,
734, 741
MS. by W. E. George
Nos. 712, 710
No. 701
M. S. Lt. PoweU H.M.S.
" Caroline,"" 1887
No. 706
U.S.C.S., No. 119, 1889
U.S.C.S. No. 120, 1889
No. 800
U.S.C.S., No. 127,1889
No. 733
U.S.B.N., 24, 1890
U.S.C.S. No. 129, 189.0
Remark Book of H.M.S.
"Amphion," 1889
U.S.B.N. 34, 1890
U.S.B.N. 47, 1890 •
No. 729
Ottawa N.M. 24, 1891
U.S.B.N. 31, 1891
U.S.B.N. 36, 1891
No. 8072
Nos. 8200, 8100
U.S.C.S. No. 156,1892
No. 8300
U.S.B.N. 16, 1892
Hydrographer's order CAPE CORRIENTES  TO  KADIAK  ISLAND.
HISTORY OF CHART No. 787 FROM ITS DATE OF PUBLICATION IN
1877 to 189a
This   chart   was   compiled   from   larger   scale   charts   and   other   materials   in the
Hydrographic Department.
The boundary between Alaska and   Canada   was   taken from   an   early   Edition   of
an Admiralty Chart, No. 2461, which chart has been since canceUed.
The boundary was originally put on 2461 about 1856^ when the late Admiral Washington
was Hydrographer.
Ii
There have been no new editions, but the foUowing small corrections have been made to
the plate since its first publication :—
Date.
1878, July 15
1879, Nov. 20
1880, Jan. 8
1880, May 21
1880, Dec. 2
1881, Jan. 18
1882,
1882,
1885,
1885,
1886,
1887,
1888,
1889,
Jan. 2
Mar. 17
May 27
Oct. 12
Dec. 18
Apr. 15
May 21
Feb. 9
1889, May 28
1889, July 8
1889, Nov. 16
1889, Dec. 23
1890, Jan. 10
1890, June 25
1890, Sept. 4
1890, Nov. 29
1891, Mar. 5
1891, Apr. 13
1891, Sept. 8
1891, Sept. 24
1891, Oct.   3
Nature of Correction.
Deep soundings by U.S.S. " Tusearora "
Do. do.
Light at Mazatlan
Insert CUpperton Is.
Alter Sta. Cruz Lt. from Wh. to Red
New Light at TiUamookRk., alter Columbia
Lt. from Wh. Fl. to F. Red and erase
Fogwhistle
Deep Soundings west of CaUfornia
Do. do. from
Do. from Italian
Canadian Railways
Light completed at C. Haro
Correct Kachekmak B. Cook Inlet
Corrections to Alaska from U.S.C.S. Charts
Deep Soundings from
1889, Mar.   7       Alter character  of   Pts.  Loma, Fermin
Hueneme Lights
*>■
from
Soundings
Light on Pt. Sur.
Soundings off West Coast of U.S.  and
CaUfornia
Light at C. Mears
Soundings off the Oregon Coast
Light on S. Luis Pt.
Rocks along East Coast of Cook R.
Additions and corrections from new H.O.
Chart
Alter Light at Pt. Loma to Fl. ev. 20 sec.
Soundings by U.S.S. " Albatross "
Light and foghorn at Carmanah
Insert 63 fms. in lat.  8° 24' N., long.
115° 2T W.
Corrections to Coast of CaUfornia
Authority.
U.S.N. 28, 1878
U.S.H.N. 42, 1879
Ger. N. 51, 1879
M. 126,1880
U.S.N: 43,1880
U.S.N. 48, 1880
U.S.H.O. Chart No. 527
U.S.H.N. 73 & 76, 1882
Genoa N. 87, 1885
Berlin N.. 50, 1886
U.S.C.S. plan No. 766
Nos. 727, 728 & 701
U.S.B.N. Nos. 3, 8, 14, 15,
24, 27, 40, & 47, of 1888
W.L.B.N. 6, 1889
U.S.B.N. 12,13, 14,1889
W.L.B.N. 31,1889
U.S.B.N. 41,1889 .
W.L.B.N. 71, 1889
U.S.B.N. 50, 51,1889
W.L.B.N 38,1890
U.S.B.N. 33, 1890
1499 Cross Sound to Kadiak L
Based on  Brit.,   Russian,
and U.S. Surveys
W.L.B.N. 14, 1891
U.S.B.N. 10, 1891
Ottawa N. 47, 1891
U.S.B.N. 32, 1891
U.S.H.O., Chart No. 1149
iiSfi
1
III
:1
3 J 48
Cape Corrientes to Kadiak Island—continued.
History of Chart No. 787 from its date of Publication in 1877 to 1893—continued.
m
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Date.
1891, Nov. 5
1891, Nov. 9
1892, Jan. 8
1892, Feb. 25
1892, Mar. 25
1892, Sept. 27
1892, Sept. 27
1893, Feb. 4
1893
, Feb.
8
1893
May
2
1893,
June 30
1893,
July 24
1893,
July
26
1893,
Aug.
22
1893,
Dec.
1
1893,
Dec.
12
1894,
Jan.
13
1894,
Mar.
1
1894,
Apr.
19
1894,
Apr.
20
1894,
July
7
1894,
July
20
1894,
Oct.
26
1894,
Dec.
20
1895,
Mar. 30
1895,
Apr.
6
1895,
Oct.
9
1896,
Mar.
6
1896,
June 25
1897,
May
15
1897,
June
2
1897,
June 21
1897,
Sept
10
1897,
Sept
30
1897,
Dec.
16
1898,
Jan.
7
1898,
Feb.
25
1898,
Mar.
25
1898,
Apr.
28
1898,
May
27
Nature of Correction.
Light building at Destruction I.
Lt. completed at do.
Deep Soundings from
Do. do.
Alter light to Occ. at Pt. Hueneme
Light on N.W. Seal Rk.
Amend Sea Otter Rf. and Rock off Middle-
ton I.
Danger line round Sea Otter I. and Sth. of
Marmot I.
Amendments to tides
Magnetic curves to 1895
Re-engrave Guadalupe I.
Soundings between California and Sandwich P.
Rock 3^ miles West of Kyak I.
Soundings East of Shumagin P.
West of Sea Otter Reef
1854 fms.  in  lat. 26° 21' N., long. 114°
36'W.
Hutchins   Bank and  Shoal East of San
Juanica Pt.
Light Fl. on Heceta Hd.
Soundings south of Cortez Bank
Do. between Kadiak I. and Silka
H. W. F. and C. at C. St. Lucas
C. St. EUas reported 10 miles further E.
Discoloured water in lat. 43° 45' N., long.
127° 32- W.
Light Fl. at Umpquah R.
Volcanic   disturbance  in   1895   40°   N.,
125° 18'W.#
19 fms. West of Golden City Rock
South-west of Ft. Nicholas
General Amendments from
Amendments to soundings
Insert name " Erben Bank "
Amend Goschen I. from Canadian" Govt.
Railway each side of Admiralty Inlet
Insert " Dyea " and railways
Height of CUpperton I.
A few names and Stikine R.
Alter C. Disappointment Light to Fl.
Amend Guadalupe I.
Light Vessel at San Francisco
Light F. at C. Disappointment
Light at Grays Harbour
Authority.
W.L.B.N. 102, 1891
W.L.B.N. Ill, 1891
U.S.B.N. 29, 1891
U.S.B.N. 4, 1892
W.L.B.N. 16, 1892
W.L.B.N. 83, 1892
U.S.B.N. 38, 1892
P.C. 1, 1893
Navg. Officer's Remark Book
H.M.S. " Daphne "
Larger scale charts
New Magnetic charts
Larger scale plan, No. 1936
U.S.B.N. 31,1893
U.S.B.N. 31,1893
U.S.B.N. 46,1893
U.S.B.N. 43, 1893
U.S.B.N. 51, 1893
W.L.B.N. 12,1894
U.S,B.N. 13, 1894
U.S.B.N. 11,1894
Tide Tables
U.S.B.N. 27, 1894
U.S.B.N. 41, 1894
W.L.B.N. 155,1894
H. 115,1895
U.S.B.N. 10,1895
U.S.B.N. 38,1895
Chart  1499   (See  preceding
page U.S.C.S. Chart T.)
Sounding books
W.L.B.N. 17, 1897
M.S. Capt. J.T.Wnbran,1897
Report   on    Railways    and
Canals
U.S.B.N. 34,1897
Larger scale plan 1936
British Columbia Report
W.L.B.N. 174,1897
Large scale plan 1936
W.L.B.N. 18,1898
W.L.B.N. 35,1898
W.L.B.N. 56, 1898 49
HISTORY   OF   NAMING   OF   WALES   POINT,   PORTLAND   INLET  AND
PEARSE   ISLAND   ON   CHARTS   2430  and   2431.
The name of " Portland Inlet," as appUed to the southernmost part of what Vancouver
caUed " Observatory Inlet," first appears on an Admiralty chart of 1853. By whose authority
this name was appUed in drawing that chart is not known. The name has since been copied
in subsequent charts, and was used during the survey in 1868.
The lower portion of Portland Canal, west of the island unnamed by Vancouver, but
called " Pearse Island " by Staff Commander Pender in 1868, which channel has since been
caUed " Pearse Channel " by United States surveyors, was not examined by Staff Commander
Pender in 1868, and was hence shown on this chart in dotted Unes, as is usual in such cases.
The name " Wales" applied to the island at the entrance of Observatory Inlet (or
Portland Inlet now so caUed) the south point of which Vancouver named " Point Wales,"
probably after a friend,* first appears in an Admiralty chart pubUshed in 1853. No authority
is known for this, and the name was probably given, as is the ordinary practice in the
Hydrographic Office, for the sake of convenience.
INLAND   GEOGRAPHICAL   INFORMATION   ON   CHARTS.
With respect to the manner in which the inland detafls are obtained for the Admiralty
charts, the custom is as follows :—
In charts surveyed by Admiralty Surveyors all the conspicuous objects, visible from seaward, are properly fixed by the Surveyors, and they form part of the general scheme of
fcriangulation, but the details are, as a rule, merely sketched in from appearance. If, however,
the area embraced by a chart has been mapped, either by land surveyors, or sketched in by
traveUers, their results are used to make the land part of the chart more detailed than is
necessary for navigable purposes only. As a rule no time is spent by Admiralty Surveyors
in depicting features on shore that are not directly useful for navigation, either as marks or as
means of recognising the position of marks.
In Admiralty charts therefore the inland geographical information is of very various
characters. Where proper surveys have been made it can be trusted. Where no such surveys
have been carried out the best information procurable is utiUsed. The work is not separately
tested, nor could it be.
Each chart stands on the merits of its particular materials.
Charts, are constructed solely for navigation and for the information of sailors, and
especiaUy H.M. Navy, and the latter requires that as much information as is procurable on
the land features in the vicinity of the coast shaUbe placed on the charts, as it is impossible to
say in what places Naval officers may not have either to land parties, or to send into the
interior to communicate for some purpose.
As an example, in the present operations on the Italian SomaU Coast, the last place in the
world in which combined British Naval and MiUtary operations might be expected, some
knowledge of where the various places inland, which were the objects of the Expedition were
placed, was of service to the Naval officers seeking for landing places.
* Mr. Wales, astronomer with Captain Cook in " Resolution " hi 1772, was an old shipmate of Vancouver's. 50
HISTORY OF BOUNDARY  BETWEEN  BRITISH  AND  AMERICAN
TERRITORY ON CHART No. 787.
The trace of the boundary between British Columbia and United States territory first
appears on Admiralty charts in 1856, eleven years before the United States acquired Alaska,
and has been there ever since. In that year it is found in Chart No. 2461, then newly
pubUshed. In 1877 No. 2461 was cancelled by the present No. 787, in which the trace
is the same.
It is impossible now to find on what grounds it was traced, or on whose authority it was
placed on the chart. The Hydrographer at that time, the late Admiral Washington, has now
been dead for many years.
Such lines on charts are, however, of no value whatever as evidence. They are placed for
the general information of navigators, and can have no authority, especially in such cases as
this, where the wording of the Treaty left the real course of the boundary notoriously indefinite.
W. J. Wharton,
24th April, 1903. Hydrographer.
MAPS OF ALASKA.
i
:;;>
FROM   MESSAGE   ON  ACQUISITION   OF   RUSSIAN
INCLUDING SUMNER'S SPEECH, 1868.
AMERICA,
40th Congress, 2nd Session.
No. 177, p. 138.
Ex. Doc. " If we look to maps for information, here
again we find ourselves disappointed. Latterly
the coast is outlined and described with reasonable completeness; so also are the islands. This
is the contribution of navigators and of recent
Russian charts. But the interior is Uttle more
than a blank, calling to mind 'the pathless
downs,' where, according to Prior, the old
geographers ' place elephants instead of towns.'
I have already referred to what purports to be
a • General Map of the Russian Empire,' pubUshed by the Academy of Sciences at St.
Petersburgh, in 1776, and republished at London,
in 1787, where Russian America does not
appear. I might mention, also, that Captain
Cook complained in his day of the Russian
maps as ' wonderfully erroneous.' On his
return, EngUsh maps recorded his explorations
and the names he assigned to different parts of
the coast. These were reproduced in St.
Petersburgh, and the Russian copy was then
reproduced in London, so that geographical
knowledge was very Uttle advanced. Some of
the best maps of this region are by Germans,
who always excel in maps. Here, for instance,
is an excellent map of Aleutian Islands and the
neighbouring coasts, especially to Ulustrate their
orography and geography, which wiU be found
at the end of the volume of ' Transactions of
the Imperial Mineralogical Society,' at St. Petersburgh, to which I have already referred." . . . 51
EXTRACTS FROM ARTICLES IN MAGAZINES  AND PERIODICALS.
" Alaska and its Resources," by
William H. Dall, Director of the
Scientific Corps of the late Western
Union Telegraph Expedition • also
had charge of the compilation of the
second edition (1883) of the U.S.
I Pacific Coast Pilot," Alaska. The
book is dated November, 1869.
(Published 1870.)
" Maps of Alaska.—It is hardly necessary to
state that the older maps of the territory are
full of errors, especially in the interior. There
is probably no part of America, of equal extent,
of which less information is obtainable. A
habit has obtained among map-makers of fining
in unexplored territory with a network of
lakes and rivers which are solely due to their
ardent imaginations. This is especially notable
in Arrowsmith's earlier maps of North-west
America, in the Russian maps which accompanied Tikhmenief's History of the Russian
American Company, and in a more recent map
of Alaska, published in San Francisco.
" The older maps, except in most of the
coast-line, are so uniformly erroneous that they
need not be mentioned.
" The only recent maps worthy of notice are
the map published by the Coast Survey in 1866,
and a second edition of the same pubhshed in
May, 1867 ; Arrowsmith's map accompanying
Whymper's ' Travels in Alaska'; a map
entitled ' Map of Russian America, or Alaska
Territory, compued from Russian Charts and
Surveys of the Western Union Telegraph
Company, San Francisco, 1867, pubhshed by
Britton and Rey'; and one from information
principally furnished by the writer, essentially
agreeing with that which accompanies this
volume, pubhshed by Dr. A. Petermann in the
I Geographische Mittheilungen' for October,
1869.
" The first was a computation from the best
obtainable information, with corrections of
many old errors, and was stiU further improved
in the second edition; but, at the time of its
pubUeation, data in relation to the interior were
inaccessible, and consequently that part of the
map is unreUable.
" The second map, by Arrowsmith, contains
several inexcusable errors, such as the position
of Besborough Island, the Mission, and
Andreafsky Fort. He has also been guilty of
the stupidity of restoring, on the general map,
which accompanies his Yukon map, the old
error in regard to the delta, which Captain
Smith disproved. Correct data, in regard to
the coast-line and the positions of the forts on
the Lower Yukon, have long been obtainable ;
the carelessness shown in the construction of
the map is a warning to future explorers to be
careful into whose hands they put their information.
m
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11
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52
" Alaska and Its Resources," by
William H. Dall, Director of the
Scientific Corps of the late Western
Union Telegraph Expedition, &c.—
continued.
" The nomenclature of the map is also much
confused, Indians and Innuit being confounded.
" The San Francisco map is here noticed
only because it pretends to be the result of the
Western Union Telegraph explorations. The
only points in which it differs from maps
pubhshed long before the Telegraph enterprise
was organised, are: the addition of a small
accessory chart of Coal Harbour, Unga (from a
survey made by Captain C. M. Scammon,
Lieutenant J. Davison, the writer, and other
members of the expedition); the gratuitous introduction of a large number of lakes, generally
situated where mountains should be; the
remarkably erroneous course laid down for the
Yukon; and the general contradiction in all
important points of the Western Union Telegraph surveys."—(pp. 290-1.)
EXTRACTS FROM U.S. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS.
Pacific Coast Pilot of Alaska, 1869,
Part I., p. 83. Published by U.S.
C & G. Survey.
Pacific Coast Pilot, Alaska,  1883,
Part I., p. 109.  U.S. C. & G. Survey.
lb., footnote, p. 109.
" It" (the Stikine River) " rises by two branches,
one to the north-east and one to the south-east,
and from their junction near the latitude of
57° 30' it flows almost south 30', then west and
south-west with a general antagonism to the
coast ranges near the archipelago Alexander.
" The interior of the country appears to be
broken into a succession of sharply defined
mountain ranges separated by narrow and deep
valleys, similar to those between the islands of
the coast. In fact, the topography of the
Alexander Archipelago is a type of that in the
interior. A submergence of the mountain
region of the mainland would give a similar '
succession of islands separated by deep and
narrow fiords."
" The topography in the vicinity of the river
is mostly mountainous, with some broad
valleys, but more numerous narrow ones.
Most of these have a certain paraUeUsm with
the coast, while some of those through which
the Stikine, Naas and Taku rivers reach the
sea cut across the ranges nearly at right angles."
" In fact, the same type of topography
prevails upon the continental border as that
exhibited in a half-submerged condition in the
Columbian and Alexander Archipelago.- If the
latter were entirely elevated above the sea
level, they would in essential features resemble
the present continental border, and were the
valleys of the last depressed below the sea
level, a similar extension of the archipelago, 53
Pacific Coast Pilot, Alaska, 1883,
Part I., p. 109. U.S. C. & G. Survey
—continued.
without changes of character, would be the
result. Summer Strait appears to be merely
the prolongation seaward of the vaUey of the
lower Stikine."
lb., p. 111.
" About five miles above the delta islands the
vaUey narrows and the river appeal's only two
or three hundred feet in width. The depth in
the channel to this point is nowhere less than
seven, and wiU average over twelve feet. The
appearance of the high land on either side is as
if ranges trending N.W. and S.E. were abutting
obliquely upon the river."
Pacific  Coast Pilot, Alaska, 1891,
Part I., p. 204.   U.S. C. & G. Survey
" Immediately behind the shore line up to
this point" (Ley Cape, to the north-west of Cross
Sound) " is the eastern portion of the St. EUas
Range of mountains, and which extend nearly
to the Copper River, and include the highest
mountain peaks yet known on the North
American continent. This eastern portion of
the range is sometimes known as the Fair-
weather Range."
Geographical Dictionary of Alaska.
By Marcus Baker. Pub. by U.S.
Geological Survey, 1902, p. 170.
" Fairweather; mountain (15,292 feet high),
in the St. Elias region . . . This mountain
with its neighbouring peaks and crest constitute the Fairweather Range."
lb., p. 349.
" Saint EUas Alps; great mountain range, extending from Cross Sound north-westerly to
Mount St. EUas and beyond. This name
appears to have been first apphed by Dall in
1874."
Pacific Coast Pilot,  Alaska, '1891,
Part I., p. 115.
" On the west side of the river " (Stikine)
" mouth is Wilkes Range *, consisting of a
series of sharp mountain peaks from 2,845 to
3,586 feet in height."
* See also U.S. C and G. S. Chart, No. 8200 (1897). 54
mm
RELATING TO  POSITION  OF  INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY  BETWEEN
CANADA AND ALASKA.
EXTRACTS FROM ARTICLES IN MAGAZINES AND PERIODICALS.
1855. States :—" Russia according to these treaties
u Sitka and the Russian Territories occupies aU  American isles  and coast-Unes
in America,"  by E. Ravenstein, in of   tluj   Pacific   north   of   54°   10'   north
" Bentley's Miscellanv " Vol xxxviii latitude, and that part of the continent which
pp.     584-594,
(London.)
December,      1855.
** Boundaries Historically Considered," by Frank D. Y. Carpenter,
in 1 The International Review,"
Vol. xii., pp. 94-108, January, 1882.
(New York.)
;1' \k
iP
is situated towards the west of the meridian of
144° west of Greenwich. More exactly, the
eastern boundary, of these Russian possessions begins at the south point of Prince of
Wales Island (54° 40' north), runs to the
north along Portland Sound, touching the
mainland under 56°; after this it runs
parallel with the sea coast, foUowing the
mountain ranges, supposing them not to be
above ten mUes distant from the former.
From Mount EUas the 144th degree west of
Greenwich forms the boundary. The area of
these possessions is equal to 435,840 geographical square mUes."
" Some boundary lines seem ingeniously
contrived to afford grounds for future exceptions
and misunderstandings, and to exempUfy the
old-fashioned diplomatic doctrine that words
are principally useful for the concealment of
ideas. Such is the eastern boundary of Alaska,
estabUshed by the Convention between Russia
and Great Britain in 1825, and adopted by our
Government on its purchase of that territory in
1867. ' The Une of demarcation,' according to
the treaties, ' shaU follow the summit of the
mountains situated parallel to the coast.'
What mountains ? There are range after range
of mountains in that country, and it is but
natural that their general trend should be
parallel to the coast. If our maps of this
region are at all reliable, the accepted summits
are scarcely worthy of the name, since they are
a succession of spurs from the great divide
separating the Pacific and Arctic drainage.
"Wherever the summit of the mountains
aforesaid shall prove to be more than ten
marine leagues from the ocean, the treaty says
that the boundary shall be a Une parallel to the
winding of the coast, and shall never exceed
the distance of ten leagues from the same. But
who shall define the meaningless expression,
' the winding of the coast,' where the edge of
the land is broken with such a wilderness of " Boundaries Historically Considered,"
by Frank D. Y. Carpenter, in " The
International Review," Vol. xii.,
pp. 94-108, January, 1882. (New
York)—continued.
oo
indentations from the sea as are found here;
and, this line having b^en described, by what
laborious process shaU the settler on the
frontier determine his distance from this curve
of reference, and in this manner learn the
nationahty of the soil which he possesses and
the flag and jurisdiction which are over him? "
-pp. 96-97.
1892.
" The Alaskan Boundary Survey. (1)
Introduction by Dr. T. C. Mendenhall
(presented before the Society, March4,
1892)," in the "National Geographic
Magazine," Vol. iv., February, 1893,
pp. 177-180.    (Washington.)
Describes the line as beginning at the
" southernmost extremity of Prince of Wales
Island, which point was supposed to lie on the
parallel 54° 40' north latitude; thence ' it shall
ascend along the Portland Canal until the 50th
paraUel of north latitude is reached.' From
this point, in accordance with the treaty, it shah
foUow the Une marked by the summits of the
range of mountains parallel to the coast . . .
and also that whenever the summit of the
range of mountains referred to before shall be
at a greater distance from the coast than ten
marine leagues, the Umit of the possessions of
Russia shall be formed by a line parallel to the
windings of the coast and never more than ten
marine leagues from the shore."—pp. 177-8.
" It wiU thus be seen that the boundary Une
is divided into two parts which differ materially
from each other. . . . That part of the Une,
however, which separates what is known as
south-eastern Alaska from the British possessions, is by no means simple and easily
determined. At the time the treaty was made
between Russia and Great Britain, the best
information available was that contained in Vancouver's map. ... It seems tolerably certain,
however, at the present time that the range of
mountains which was assumed to run parallel
to the coast has no real existence, and that it is
therefore necessary to fall back upon the second
definition of the boundary Une—that is, the line
which is to run parallel to the windings of the
shore, and be nowhere more than ten marine
leagues from the same."—p. 178.
I
1896.
"The Alaska  Boundary  Line," by
T.  C.  Mendenhall,  "The  Atlantic
Monthly," April, 1896, p. 517.
Says: "It is a Uttle difficult to understand
that so able a diplomat as Sumner could have
studied the definition of the boundaries of the
new territory as found in the treaty of cession,
without seeing therein the seed of future com-
pUcations with the EngUsh nation."—p. 518.
States that in the first paragraph of the
treaty there is the error of " double definition "
in attempting to fix an astronomical position
by international treaty, as it was not known in
1825, nor is it now known, that the southernmost point of Prince of Wales Island is on the 56
The Alaska Boundary Line," by
T. C. Mendenhall, "The Atlantic
Monthly," April, 1896, p. 517—
continued.
parallel of 54° 40', for it is almost absolutely
certain not to be on this parallel."—p. 519.
Says that'' the second paragraph of Article TV.
was inserted defining the distance of the line
from the winding of the coast, in case the
assumed mountain range might be found to
run further from the shore than was then
supposed."—p. 522.
Says also:—" It is important to note that
this article may be regarded as containing something stronger than a quasi-admission on the
part of Great Britain that the strip of territory
conceded to belong to Russia should be in width
ten marine leagues from the coast line; it also
implies that this is the maximum width to
which she wiU consent, and that there is nothing
in the treaty to prevent her making it one league
or half a league, if in the future she .is able to
do so, and the mountains parallel to the coast do
not stand in the way."—p. 522.
With regard to Vancouver's mountain ranges,
he says:—" It is now known, however, and has
been known for several years, that the very
regular and neatly drawn mountain ranges which
Vancouver's map exhibits owe their origin to the
imagination of his draughtsman more than to
anything else; .that is, as far as their form goes.
Indeed, it is probably just to say that they were
intended only as conventional -representations
of the fact that mountains were-seen in almost
every direction, and especially in looking from
the coast toward the interior."—p. 522.
1900.
The Alaska   Boundary  Line," by
T. C. Mendenhall, in " Bulletin of the
American     Geographical    Society,"
Vol. xxxii., No. 1, 1900.
First paragraph informs American readers
that " it must not be assumed that the question
of the Alaska boundary is entirely one-sided.
There are serious difficulties in the interpretation of the language of the treaty."—p. 67.
Remarks that:— " The superiority of English
diplomacy is shown in the wording of the treaty,
so that, while the swinging of the mountain
range inland beyond the ten marine leagues shall
not carry the boundary Une with it, if it should
be found to be really less than that distance
from the shore, the Russian holdings must be
reduced accordingly."—p. 69. 57
THE MOUNTAINS AND TOPOGRAPHY OF THE LISIERE.
EXTRACTS FROM ARTICLES BY DISTINGUISHED UNITED STATES
OFFICIALS AND OTHER WRITERS IN MAGAZINES AND
PERIODICALS.
1855.
" Sitka, and the Russian Territories
in America," by E. Ravenstein, in
" Bentley's Miscellany," Vol. xxxviii.,
pp. 584-94.    Dec, 1855.     (London.)
Describing topography says : —
" From Cook's Inlet towards the east, and
foUowing the coast-line, the Yakutat Chain
reaches a considerable elevation. Mount EUas,
the culminating point of North America, rises
here to the height of 17,850 feet, while Mount
Fairweather, towards the south-east of the
former, has an elevation of not less than 14,536
feet. The continuation of this chain, running
at a distance of about ten miles from the coast,
forms now the boundary between the Russian
and British territories."
1870.
" Alaska and its Resources," by
William H. Dall, Director of the
Scientific Corps of the late Western
Union Telegraph Expedition; also
had charge of the compilation of the
second edition (1883) of the U. S.
"Pacific Coast Pilot," Alaska. The
book is dated November, 1869, published 1870.
" The Sitkan District.—This district extends
from the southern boundary, including the
mainland and islands, to the peninsula of
Alaska, and also Kadiak and the adjacent
islands.
" The surface of this part of the territory is
rugged and mountainous in the extreme.    The
Do
northern part alone furnishes any appreciable
amount of arable land, level and suitable
for cultivation. Small patches occur in the
southern part here and there, where small
farms might be located; but as a rule the
mountains descend precipitously into the sea,
with their flanks covered with dense and almost
impenetrable forests. These rise to an altitude
of about fifteen .hundred feet above the sea.
Here and there a white streak shows where an
avalanche has cut its way from the mountain-
top, through the forest, t© the water-side; and
occasionally the shining front of a glacier occupies some deep ravine, contrasting curiously
with the dense foliage on either side."—p. 450.
1885.
"Journeys in Alaska," by E. Ruhamah
Scidmore, dated, Washington, D.C.,
March 15th, 1885 (published in
Boston). (Writer of description of
first district of Alaska in Eleventh
Census Report, 1890.)
" Vancouver named this arm of the sea from
the town of Lynn, in Norfolk, England, the
place of his nativity, and his explorers began
the song of praise that is chanted by every
summer traveUer who foUows their course up
the high-waUed, glacier-bound fiord. The
white mountains present bold barriers on the
west, and along the eastern shores the great
continental range fronts abruptly on the water.
Each point or peak passed brought another
glacier into view, nineteen glaciers in all being
visible on the way up the canal."—p. 100. 58
11
1888.
" Our Outlying Province " by Thomas
B. Reed, in the " North American
Review," Vol. cxlvi., January, 1888,
pp. 86-95.    (New York.)
" You seem to be passing, and, indeed, you
are passing, through mountain valleys, with the
mountain peaks almost within touch on either
hand. Where there are low hiUs wooded to
the summits and sloping to the water's edge,
the taU peaks behind show their snow-capped
heads shrouded in endless variety of shifting
cloud and moving mist. Where the mountain
hangs almost precipitous over the channel
streams of water fed by the exhaustless snows
pour down, visible here and there, through the
breaks in the forests, sometimes in great
torrents with broad avalanches of foam and the
roar of angry waters, and sometimes in slender
threads so steady and fine that it needs the
tremor of a gusty .wind to assure you that they
are not motionless streaks of color on the
rocks."—p. 90.
1890.
The Gold Fields of Alaska," by
John H. Keatley, late U.S. Judge,
of Alaska, in the "Arena," Vol. i.,
May, 1890, pp. 730-741.    (Boston.)
" The permanent development of gold mining
in Alaska has been made in the south-eastern
part of the territory, which embraces all that
strip of mainland, thirty miles wide, from Portland Channel at the southern boundary to the
vicinity of Mount St. EUas, and including the
islands of the Alexandrian Archipelago, which
hug the mainland closely from south to north
and west.    The topography of this section is
characteristic and remarkable.   The thirty-mile
strip of   mainland belonging   to   the  United
States is no more than an unbroken range of
very steep and lofty mountains, the summits of
many of which are never free from snow.    No
valleys separate or break the continuity of these
ranges.    At intervals, short, swift streams, fed
by the interior glaciers, have worn down waterways to the bays and inlets, but these streams,
in  most  instances,  are   only wild   cascades.
Rarely one finds the gorge, the stream-bed,
wider than a space sufficient for the passage of
water; and in attempting to ascend to their
sources, one is confronted by fierce torrents
impossible to stem, and with no margin by their
sides, along which to pass around the cataracts.
This is their character in thousands of instances.
Frequently the last leap is made only a few rods
from- the point where the river enters the sea,
and this is even the rule. AU the islands off the
coast of the  South-eastern Alaska, Baronoff,
Admiralty, Douglass, and Prince of Wales, are
simply mountains rising out of  the Pacific,
whose   interiors are vast   glacial formations,
while their fronts to the sea are clothed with
timber.   No white man has ever been heard of
having crossed either of these islands, and the 59
The Gold Fields of Alaska," by
Jo*hn H. Keatley, late U.S. Judge,
of Alaska, in the "Arena," Vol. i.,
May, 1890, pp. 730-741. (Boston)
—continued.
Indians disclaim ever having attempted it, preferring the easier mode of passing round them
in their canoes. The faces of the mountains
toward the water, on the mainland and on the
islands of South-eastern Alaska, are very steep,
almost perpendicular, and covered with a deep,
spongy bog or tundra, which is always wet and
moist. They are also covered with forests of
fir, spruce, hemlock, yellow cedar, and a scrub
birch and alder, up to the snow-Une, and this
undergrowth of birch, salmon, berry, alder, and
devil's club makes everywhere almost impassable thickets and jungles. These topographical
conditions must be borne in mind constantly, in
considering the mining development and
possibilities of Alaska, for they figure largely in
estimating the present progress of the industry."
—pp. 733-734.
1894.
"A   Summer  Tour  in. Alaska,"   by
Lucy M. Washburn, in the " Cosmopolitan,"   Vol.   xvii.,  August,   1894,
p. 411.    (New York.)
" . . . . the lace-like edge bordering
the American continent on the north-west for a
thousand miles, an interwoven network of
mountain and sea, affords a marvellous island-
sheltered passage free from rocking ocean
swells."—p. 411.
" The mountains rise sheer from the water's
edge, their bold curves, glacier-carved, now
arrayed in living green of spruce and fir, above
which untamed peaks of bare rock Uft aloft
those eternal snows that at one touch change a
landscape from the beautiful to the sublime."—
p. 411.
If
1896.
"The Alaskan Boundary Line," by
T. C. Mendenhall, "The Atlantic
Monthly," April 1896, p. 517 (sometime Superintendent U.S. Coast and
Geodetic Survey, &c, &c.)
" These show a vast ' sea of mountains' in
every direction, generally increasing in elevation
as the distance from the coast increases. Seen
from a distance, or from the deck of a ship'at
sea, they might easfly create the impression of
a range or ranges ' parallel to the winding of
the coast.'
-p. 522.
" As the mountains which actually exist
eover the territory down to the water's edge,
the logical appUcation of the mountain-summit
definition, if it is to be applied at all, is to draw
the line from peak to peak along the sea-coast,
and this our friends on the other side have not
hesitated to do."—pp. 522-3. 60
Over the Chilkoot Pass to the
Yukon," by Frederick Funston, in
" Scribner's Magazine," Vol. xx.,
November, 1896, pp. 572-585. (New
York and London.)
" The tourists who every summer crowd the
excursion steamers that sail up the long
stretches of the inland passage to Alaska, find
their view to the north and east everywhere
Umited by a range of snowy peaks silhouetted
like card-board against a sky as clear and blue
as that of California. On the one side is a
narrow strip of mainland and on the other a
thousand islands, large and small, that constitute
South-eastern Alaska, where are the busy mining
town of Juneau, and Sitka, the sleepy old
capital. This is the Alaska of the tourist,
famous for its great glaciers, its beautiful fiords,
and its Thlinket Indians and their totem
poles."—p. 572..
I
n '
|f.;
"Alaska and  the New Goldfield,"
by William Healey Dall, in  "The
Forum," Vol. xxiv., September, 1897,
pp. 16-26.    (New York.)
(Before referred to.)
" North of Puget Sound, the mountain
ranges—differentiated as the Coast range, the
Olympics, the Cascades, &c.—are succeeded
by a wide belt of mountainous country not
differentiated into extensive or continuous
ranges. The western margin of this belt is
partly submerged: the narrow valleys becoming
intricate arms of the sea, protected for hundreds
of miles from the ocean surges by an almost
continuous barrier of densely wooded, rocky
islands. The steep sides of these islands rise
to irregularly broken peaks^ whose higher
summits reach a fairly uniform height of two
thousand five hundred to three thousand feet
above the sea level. The archipelago has an
average width of some fifty miles; the narrow
deep, navigable channels extending from Puget
Sound to the head of Lynn Canal.
1 Eastward, the more elevated continental
region preserves the same characteristics. In
British Columbia, where the width of the belt
is greatest, it has been aptly termed a ' sea of
mountains.' This extends, parallel with the
general trend of the coast, northward and
westward; forming a confused mass of short
ranges, drained by narrow vaUeys, the waters
of which, gathered into a few torrential rivers,
are carried through rocky canons to the sea.
" Advancing northward, the valleys gradually
widen, at the expense of the mountainous area;
the latter assuming a greater regularity of trend,
and forming more continuous ranges. The axis
of elevation comes nearer to the coast; and the
height of the mass, as measured by its higher
peaks, is greatly increased. It reaches a
maximum of over 19,000 feet in the vicinity of
the one hundred and forty-first meridian west
of Greenwich, where it is known as the St. Elias
Alps."—p. 16. 61
From the Coast to the Golden
Klondike : The Record of an Official
Journey," by Edward Spun* (U.S.
Geol. Survey), in " Outing," September, 1897, Vol. xxx., pp. 521-38.
(New York, London.)
" Our proposed route lay across the coast
mountains to the headwaters of the Yukon, and
thence down that river as a highway, making
such excursions from it as became necessary.
"Alaska is a most difficult country for
travelling .... The surface is rough,
being traversed by many ranges of mountains.
" The head-waters of the network of streams
that ultimately drain into the Yukon River
fortunately lie within about thirty miles of the
sea, just on the northern or inland side of a range
of mountains which runs along the southern
coast of Alaska."—p. 523.
" The Lynn Canal, up which we were
steaming, is a long, deep, narrow fjord, from
which the cold, snowy mountains to the north
rise steeply to lonely heights."—p. 524.
The General Geography of Alaska,"
by Henry Gannett, Chief Geographer,
U.S. Geological Survey. Illustrated.
"TheNationalGeographic Magazine,"
Mav, 1901.
This article is chiefly valuable as giving a
close geographical and topographical analysis of
the disputed coast strip.
The writer points out that " although the
coast of the mainland and of the islands is
altogether several thousand miles in length, yet
for the entire distance there are very few
square miles of level ground. The land rises
from the water almost everywhere at steep
angles, without a sign of beach, to altitudes of
thousands of feet. It is a fiord coast. The
islands are separated from one another, and
from the mainland by fiords, deep gorges, whose
bottoms are in some cases thousands of feet
below the surface of the water. These fiords
extend far up into the mainland and into the
islands in deep, narrow U-shaped inlets.
" The relief features of this region, its
mountains and its gorges, partly filled by the
sea, are all of glacial origin, presenting everywhere the familiar handwriting of ice. Every
canon, every water passage, whether called
strait, canal or bay, is a U-shaped gorge, and
its branches are similar gorges commonly at
higher levels—' hanging valleys' they have
been called. Above the cUffs of the gorges the
mountains rise by gentle slopes to the base of
the peaks. The cross profile of each gorge and
its surroundings is that of ice, not .of water
carving. It is the work of channel erosion, not
of valley erosion, and the channels were fiUed
with ice. It is a colossal exhibition of the
eroding power of water in sohd from."—pp.
180-81.
He then describes Lynn Canal and its formation by glaciers. After referring to Uve and
dead glaciers, he proceeds to describe the
mountains, which he says:—   .    .    " increase lH
62
| The General Geography of Alaska,"
by Henry Gannett, Chief Geographer,
U.S. Geological Survey, Illustrated.
"TheNational Geographic Magazine,"
Mav, 1901—continued.
in height towards the north-west, but not
at a uniform rate. They culminate near the
coast in the Fairweather Range, south of
Yakutat Bay, at about 16,000 feet, and in the
St. EUas Range, west of Yakutat Bay, at
18,000 feet or more. These ranges are not
regular or continuous. While they follow
the general direction of the coast towards the
north-west, they are extremely broken, being
cut through on the mainland by many fiords
and by streams flowing into the heads of the
fiords."
He then describes the coast line from Cross
Soundnorth-westward to Prince William Sound,
stating that:— . . . "as far as Yakutat
Bay it is closely bordered by the Fairweather
Range, which rises abruptly from 10,000 to
16,000 feet, almost from the water's edge,
bearing on the summit a succession of peaks
and covered with glaciers along both slopes."
—p. 181.
Describing the coast north-west of Yakutat
Bay, he says :—" Farther to the north-west
stretches a low coast rising into mountains a
score or two of miles inland. Through these
mountains flows Copper River, &c."—p. 182.
IN
ii
FROM REPORT ON POPULATION AND RESOURCES OF ALASKA
AT THE ELEVENTH CENSUS, 1890.
" The interior of the country adjoining this
river is broken into a succession of sharply
defined mountain ranges, separated by narrow,
deep valleys similar to those between the
islands of the coast."—p. 12. 63
THE  TOPOGRAPHY  OF THE  COAST  STRIP  ALONG  THE   BOUNDARY
BETWEEN CANADA AND ALASKA.
Declaration of James Joseph
McArthur.
City of London.—To Wit:
I, James Joseph McArthur, of the City of
Ottawa, in the Province of Ontario and
Dominion of Canada, Dominion Land Surveyor,
do solemnly and sincerely declare :—
1. From the Spring of the year 1893. to the
end of the work of the Commission under
the Convention of July 22nd, 1892, I was a
member of the Staff of the British Commissioner.
2. During that period, besides performing
certain surveys during the summers of 1893
and 1894, as more particularly detailed in
the report of the Commissioners, dated 31st
December, 1895, I was engaged in the work of
plotting the results of the surveys made by the
British Commission by the photo-topographic
method. In so doing, I not only developed on
paper the results of my own photographs and
other observations, but also directed and
assisted the other Canadian Surveyors in the
like development of their work, a duty for
which I was quafified through some six years
experience in this method of surveying.
3. In the performance of these duties, I have
become familiar with the details of the maps of
the British Commission, which exhibit the
topographic results of these surveys, and with
the appearance of the topography as seen from
various points of view, and shown in the
photographs.
4. From the information I have so gained, I
have identified certain of the photographs taken
by the officers of the British Commission,
which show the mountains immediately bordering the Coast, and which have been re-produced, enlarged, in the Album Appendix H to
the British Counter Case, and have drawn up
descriptions of them in the annexed document
marked "A."
5. The said descriptions are, to the best of
my knowledge and beUef, correct and true.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously beUeving it to be true, and by virtue
of the Provisions of " The Statutory Declarations Act, 1835."
Declared at 9, Fleet Street,"
ii» the City of London,
this 23rd day of   June,
a.d. 1903
Before me,
Chas. Upton,
A Commissioner for Oaths.
J. J. McArthur.
£
; -«:
I
if
I m
64
This is the Exhibit marked "A" referred to in the Statutory Declaration of
James Joseph McArthur, made before me this 23rd day of June, 1903,
CHAS. UPTON,
A Commissioner for Oaths.
" A."
DESCRIPTION  OF  PHOTOGRAPHIC  VIEWS  DEPICTING  THE
MOUNTAIN   BOUNDARY   OF   THE   LISIERE.
•m
No. of
View.
Station
from which
taken.
Page of
Album.
Bearing of
Centre.
200
35
1
S. 39° 15' "W
K. 94
198
K. 94
197
K. 94
42
K. 93
78
K.
93
79
K.
93
dO
35
196
35
K. 94
57
36
K. 93
58
36
K. 93
54
36
K. 93
.57
26 k
K. 94
41
34
K. 93
34
24 k.
24*.
1       S. 87° 31' m
1       N. 45° 31' W
N. 0° 46' W
2       N. 36° 15' W
;N. 1° 35' E.
2        N. 32° 50' E.
2        S. 73° 12' E.
3        S. 64° 35' W.
3       N. 62° 53' W.
Description.
The highest point to the right in this view is
Station 36 of the triangulation, and is the
first point (Elevation 4070) given in the table
of mountain  summits,  which the line  of
demarcation follows as given in Appendix I,
of   the   British  Case.     The  56th  ParaUel
intersects this range a short distance to the
south of this point.
Shows the ridge leading north from Summit
4070.    Summit 3800 is close to the right of
centre.
Shows the range extending northerly which
the line of demarcation follows,  and shows
the depression which  exists between  this
range and of mountains on which Station
No. 35 is located, and which extends from
Behm Canal to the Bradfield Canal.
Shows the valley which lies between Stations
35 and 40, and which extends between Behm
Canal and the Bradfield Canal.
In the foreground is the summit of the range
extending northerly.
Shows    range    continuing    in    a   northerly
direction.
Looking over intervening   spurs  and across-
valley at the ridge running northerly from
Station 35.
Shows the range which the Une follows, intersecting Bradfield Canal.
The high summit of range right of centre is
Station 36 of triangulation, and is the first
point (Elevation 4070) given in the table of
mountain summits which the line of demarcation follows.   Appendix I.
To the left appears the range which the Une
of demarcation follows.   Towards the centre
is the valley lying to the east thereof, and
which extends from the Behm Canal to the
Bradfield Canal.
Shows   the   abutting   range   north   of • the
Bradfield Inlet.     Station 44 is to left of
centre.
In the middle distance is the range by which
the line reaches Bradfield Inlet from the
south. Description of  Photographic Views Depicting the Mountain  Boundary of
the Lisiere—continued.
Station
No. of     from which     Page of Bearing of
View. taken. Album. Centre.
68
39 k.
4
S. 49° 35' E
K.94
69
39
4
N. 89° 34' E
K.94
70
39
4
N. 48° 45' E
K.94
101
23*.
4
N. 86° 32' E
K. 93
103
23*.
5
N. 29° 27' E
K. 93
97
39*.
5
—
K. 93
9-8
39*.
5
—
K.93
100
39*.
5
N. 82° 30' W
K.93
12
41
6
S. 71° 13' W
K.94
3
41
6
N. 68° 54' W
K.94
105
44
K.94
106
44
K.94
- 129
33*
K.94
128
33*
K.94
127
33*
K.94
82
45
K.94
81
45
K. 94
80
45
K 94
S. 45° E.
S. 5° E.
7       S. 31° 19' W.
7       S. 81° 40' W.
N. 54° W
7
8
N. 58° 24' W.
8       N. 5° 59' W.
Shows the mountain range leading northerly
from Station 36, continued, and the low
country intervening.
Shows the summits of the range which Une
follows to Bradfield Canal.
To the right is the range intersecting Bradfield
Canal, and the abutting range opposite, to
left of centre.
Shows the   abutting   spurs   where   the   line
crosses Bradfield Canal.
Shows end of range which line attains to the
north of Bradfield Canal.
Station 35 on peak to extreme right, looking
across the intervening valley.
Looking across valley at mountains northerly
from Station 35, which Station is at extreme
left of view.
Looking across valley at mountains northerly
from Station 35.   Beyond is the range which
Une follows to Bradfield Canal.
The range which the Une foUows to Bradfield
Canal is beyond the middle distance.    The
end of the abutting range across the Canal
is shown.
Looking across the  Bradfield Canal at the
range  leading northerly from  Station 42.
Beyond the middle distance is the end of the
abutting   range,   which   the   Une   foUows
northerly from the Bradfield Canal.
To the right of centre is, first the range leading
northerly from  Station  35, then  across  a-
valley to the right is the range which the
line foUows to the Bradfield Canal.
In the left part of this view is the range which
the Une foUows northerly from Station 36.
In the middle distance is the range which the
Une foUows north to Bradfield Canal.
Shows the  abutting   range   which   the   line
foUows north of Bradfield Canal, and on the
high peak to the extreme right is Station 45
(4334) of the Table.
Over the  intervening summits is shown the
range     continuing     north-westerly     from
Station 45.
Station 44 to right of centre.
Shows continuation of range which Une follows
north-westerly, and to right of centre is the
abutting range across the wide valley.
Shows valley to the east.
ii i :i'r;"
I. Ill
l^i!'
i -i^j"/
• ill £ If* !i
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K -•/.""-
Mm
ifli*
IMi
ill
66
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the Mountain Boundary  of
the Lisiere—continued.
Description.
To the right is the saddle at head of valley near
Station 45.
Shows the range extending south from the
saddle.
In the centre of this view is the range which
the line foUows northerly from Bradfield
Canal.
Triangulation Station 48 is to the left of the
centre across the valley.
Shows the range leading north, which this Une
foUows.
Shows the valley to the east of range.
Station 46 is to the left of centre.
To left of centre is summit, lat. 56° 26' long.
132° 05', given in table in Appendix, Vol. L,
British Case.
To the left of centre is summit, lat. 56° 26'
long. 132° 05', given in table in Appendix I.,
British Case.
Showing range connecting summit, lat. 56°26'
long.    132°   05',    with   summit   3780   of
table.
To the left of centre is summit 3780 of table in
Appendix.
The summit to the left is 3830 of table.
The high point to the left is Station 50 of
triangulation.
Close to the left of centre is summit 3780 of
table, and on the left in middle distance is the .
ridge leading to summit 3830.
The high summit to the left of centre is 3830
of table.
On the extreme right beyond the middle distance is the range leading northerly from
summit 3830. On the extreme left is the end
of the range, abutting on the Stikine
river.
Shows the Stikine valley on the left and across
is the range which the Une attains after crossing the river. Close to the left of centre is
the end of the abutting range, along which
this Une foUows from the south.
S. 23° 59' W. Short of the middle distance is the range which
the Une foUows.
To the left of the centre is the end of the range
from the south. To the right across the river
is the Wilkes Range.
No. of
View.
Station
from which '
taken.
Page of
Album.
Bearing of
Centre.
74
45
8
N. 64° 19' E.
K. 94
75
45
8
S. 77° 06' E.
K. 94
8-3
46
9
S. 47° 58' E.
T. 93
8-4
46
9
N. 75° 32' W.
T. 93
8-5
46
9
N. 18°13'W.
T. 93
8-6
46
9
N. 25° 04' E.
T. 93
6-12
48
10
S. 68° 57' E.
T. 93
7-3
48
10
N. 68° 43' E.
T. 93
6-9
49
10
S. 39° 40' E.
T. 93
6-10
49
10
S. 86° 53' E.
T. 93
6-8
49
11
N. 58° 03' E.
T. 93
6-7
49
11
N. 11° 39' E.
T. 93
6-6
49
11
N. 41° 24' W.
T. 93
1-3
4.t.
11
S. 64° 38' E.
T. 93
1-6
4.t.
12
N. 87° 08' E.
T. 93
1-4
4.t.
12
N. 53° 45' E.
T. 93
1-5
T. 93
4.t.
12
N. 31° 42' E.
2-11
59
12
S. 23° 59' W
T. 93
2-12
59
13
S. 82° 33' W
T. 93 67
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the  Mountain Boundary of
the Lisiere—continued.
Station
No. of     from which     Page of Bearing of
View. taken. Album. Centre.
3-1
59
13
N.
54°
46'W.
T.
93
1-12
52
13
N.
0 80 25'
E.
T.
93
1-11
52
13
S.
49°
07
E.
T.
93
1-10
52
14
s.:
iri
5<rw.
T.
93
5-6
52
14
N. 71
3°W.
T.
93
5-7
52
14
N.
22°
40'
W
T.
93
54
65
14
S.
46°
53'
E.
G.
93
53
65
15
N
.76'
5 29
E.
G.
93
52
65
15
N,
.14'
'13'
E.
G.
93
51
65
15
N.
45°
17'
W
G.
93
63
57
15
N.
.60'
'53'
E.
G.
93
62
57
16
N.
21c
15'
E.
G.
93
G. 93
41
64
G. 93
42
64
G. 93
43
64
G. 93
73
67
G. 93
77
67
G. 93
78
67
G. 93
16      N. 29°00'W.
16       S. 21° 45' W.
16      S. 75° 26' W.
17       N. 48°46'W.
17        N. 5° 12' E.
17       N. 50° 03' E.
17       S. 85° 16' E.
Description.
In the centre across the river is the range which
the Une attains after crossing the Stikine.
The sharp black peak to the right of centre
is 5700 of table.
Shows the vaUey to the east of range which
Une foUows.
Shows summit of range running southerly.
To' the extreme left is valley to west of range.
To the right is the Wilkes Range.
In the centre is the range which the line
attains after crossing the Stikine.
In the centre of the view across the Stikine
valley is the range along which the line
reaches the Stikine.
Shows the range which the Une attains after
crossing the Stikine.
The range north from the Stikine and leading
to the head of Leconte Bay. The highest
peak to the right of centre is summit 5700
of table in Appendix I. of British Case.
To the right is the high range nearest the
coast.
The Stikine valley to the right. Across the
channel to the left is the WUkes Range, and
beyond, is the high range which the Une
foUows north from the Stikine.
Across the channel and beyond the Wilkes
Range is the high range which the line
follows to near the head of Leconte Bay.
To the left beyond Leconte Bay are the
summits of the range nearest the coast.
To the left of centre are the Horn Cliffs.
To the right are the summits of the range
nearest the coast.
Looking out over the Stikine Delta.
Looking across valley at summits of Wilkes
Range.
Looking   north  along summit of  range the
black peak to the right is summit 5,700 of
the table in Appendix I. British Case.
The Horn Cliffs to the left.    To the right
the summits of*the range nearest the coast.
Entrance   to   Leconte   Bay, close to   right
of centre.
On left is the WUkes Range and the higher
range beyond which Une foUows. 68
H 1,*P
II
',. 5
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the Mountain Boundary  of
the Lisiere—continued.
Description.
No. of
View.
Station
from which
taken.
Page of
Album.
Bearing of
Centre.
85
66
18
N. 33° 13' W
G. 93
86
66
18
N. 16° 44' E.
G. 93
93
66
18
East.
G. 93
94
66
18
S.E.
G. 93
113
68
19
N. 25° 05' W.
G. 94
114
68
19
N. 22° 50' W.
G.94
115
68
19
N. 73° 15' E.
G. 94
116
68
19
S. 57° 30' E.
G. 94
147
71
20
N. 40° 53' W.
G.94
162
G.94
161
G.94
157
G.94
158
G.94
139
G.94
72
72
72
72
20
20
S. 2° 20' E.
S. 52° 45' E.
20
21
N. 78° 45' W.
N. 24° 30' W.
73
21       N. 75° 28' W.
To the right are the summits of range
nearest the coast, north of Leconte Bay.
Shows the abutting ranges near the head of
Leconte Bay..
Looking east at the range along which line
runs.
To the left is the range, which Une attains
north of Stikine. To the right of centre
is the summit of Wilkes Range.
Shows the summit of the range nearest the
coast.   Thomas Bay to left of centre.
Shows the summit of mountains nearest the
coast north-westerly from Leconte Bay.
Shows summits of range nearest the coast
north of Leconte Bay.
To the left of centre is the high range which
the Une foUows from the Stikine to Leconte
Bay.   To the right is the WUkes Range.
To right of centre are first, summit at 24g. and
next, summit 4881 of table, almost in Une.
To the left of centre in middle distance is the
range which the Une attains after crossing
Thomas Bay. At the centre in the distance
is the abutting range south of the valley at
the head of Earragut Bay.
The first peak on ridge to left of centre is
triangulation Station 71, summit 4812 of
table.
About half way to the right from centre is
Station 70, summit 5268 of table; almost in
Une, but to the left, the black peak is
Summit 5860, and in the distance and a
Uttle to the right is Summit 5355 of table in
Appendix I.
To the right, in the middle distance, is the
range which the Une attains after crossing
Thomas Bay.
To the left, in foreground, is triangulation Station 73, Summit 4881 of table. To the left
thereof is seen the range which the Une attains
after crossing Thomas Bay; and a little to
the right thereof in the distance is the range
beyond the valley at the head of Farragut
Bay.
Looking across Thomas Bay at the range,
which the Une attains and foUows to
the valley at the head of Earragut Bay.
About half way to the right of centre is triangulation Station 78, Summit 4050 of table 69
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the   Mountain Boundary of
the Lisiere—continued.
Station
No. of     from which     Page of Bearing of
View. taken. Album. Centre.
21   N. 22° 05' W
140
73
G. 94
206
75
G. 94
207
75
G. 94
208
75
G. 94
220
Pk. Alt.
G. 94
4316
near 40 g.
221
Pk. Alt.
G.94
4316 near
40 g.
222
Pk. Alt.
G. 94
4316 near
40 g.
236
G. 94
256
G. 94
257
G.94
282
G.94
283
G.94
21 S. 10° 20' E.
22 S. 34° 15' W.
22 S. 87° 55' W.
22 S. 5° 20' E.
22 S. 49° 55' W.
23 N. 80° 30' W.
223
Pk. Alt.
23
N.30°40'W
G. 94
4316 near
40 g.
240
26 g.
23
S. 27° 55' E.
G.94
238
26 g.
23
N. 37° 25' E
G.94
237
26 g.
24
N. 13° 20' W
G. 94
26 G.   24  N. 66° 25' W
79
24  N. 53° 15' W
24   N. 2° 55' Yi
38 g.   25   S. 50° 50' E
38 g.   25   S. 3° 40' W
Description.
In the distance to the left is seen the range
which the line foUows north from the valley
at the head of Earragut Bay.
On the right in the view is shown the crest of
the range to the south, along which the Une
foUows.
The first peak to left of centre is Station 73,
Summit 4881 of table.
In the middle distance is the range which the
Une foUows between Thomas Bay and the
valley at the head of Earragut Bay.
To the left is the end of the range, Summit
4881, which the line foUows to Thomas Bay
•   from the south.
The   highest   peak   to   right   of   centre   is
triangulation   Station  78,  Summit 4050 of
the table in Appendix I.
The black peak to left of centre is triangulation
Station 79, Summit 4072 of the table.    To
the right is the valley at the head of Earragut
Bay, and across on extreme right is the range
which the line attains and follows to Port
Houghton.
On the left is the range which the line foUows
from the valley at head of Earragut Bay to
where it crosses Port Houghton.
To the left across Thomas Bay is the range by
which the Une reaches bay from the south.
The high peak in foreground to left of centre
is triangulation Station 78, Summit 4050 of
table in Appendix I.
Shows >the   summit   of   the   range   between
triangulation Stations 78 and 79.     To the
left of centre is faintly seen the range which
the line attains to the north of the valley at
the head of Farragut Bay.
Frederick Sound to the left.   In the middle of
the view is seen the foothiU country north
of Farragut Bay.
Shows the vaUey at the head of Farragut Bay
and the foothUl country beyond.
To the left, across the valley, is  the range
which the Une foUows to the north.
To the extreme right is the range by which
the line reaches Port Houghton from the
south.
To the extreme left is the range by which the
Une reaches Port Houghton from the south.
To   the   right   are  the   foothUls   between
Farragut Bay and Port Houghton. 70
i! ?!p
Description of  Photographic Vdsws Depicting the Mountain Boundary
the Lisiere—continued.
OF
Station
No. of     from which     Page of
View. taken Album.
67
B
93
68
B.
93
30
B.
93
31
B.
93
30
M
93
31
M.
93
32
B.
93
33
B.
93
lb.
lb.
85
85
34
2
B. 93
35
2
B. 93
16
86
B. 93
17
86
B. 93
18
86
B. 93
22
88
B. 93
23
88
B. 93
24
88
B. 93
11
91
M. 93
1
90
M.93
16
92
M.93
25
2 b.        27
28
29
Bearing of
Centre.
S. 48° 15' E.
25 & 8° W.
56        S. 70° 15' W
26       N. 61° 00* W
5 m        26       S. 59° 35' W
5 m        26       N. 45° 45' W
2 b. 27        S. 16°45'E.
S. 39° W
27       N. 88° 15' W
2 b. 27       N. 35°00'W
28       S.14°30'E.
28       S. 73° 15' W
28       N. 56° 45' W
S. 3°E.
29       S. 52° 45' W.
N. 80° W.
29        S. 36° 30' E.
29       N. 15° 25' W.
30       N. 16° 15' W.
Description.
Shows the mountains to the east of the range
which the Une foUows between Thomas Bay
or Port Houghton.
Towards the centre of view is the range which
the line foUows from Thomas Bay to Port
Houghton,    To the left is the depression to
the East.
Shows the range which the Une foUows between
Hobart Bay and Windham Bay.
In the centre of the view is summit 4290 on
the range which the line foUows to Windham
Bay.
Looking across arm at range which the line
foUows from Holkharn Bay to Port Snetti-
sham.
Shows the entrance to Port Snettisham and
the abutting range which the Une follows
beyond.
To the extreme right is the range which the
Une foUows South of Hobart Bay.
Shows the range which the Une foUows from
the valley at the head of Hobart Bay to
Windham   Bay.     The   high peak   to  the
extreme right is Summit 3750 to 4000, lat.
57° 33' long. 133° 23'.
To the left of centre is Windham Bay.    The
highest point on ridge to right is Summit
4290 of table.
To the left is the range which the Une follows
to Holkhani Bay.
In the centre of view is the range along which
the Une comes to Windham Bay.
The peak in centre of view is North of Windham Bay, and is Summit 4290 of the table.
Shows the range which the Une foUows to Holkharn Bay, and the abutting range beyond.
Shows the range which the Une foUows from
Summit 4290 of   table   to Holkharn   Bay
panoramic with 23 and 24.
Shows the range along which the Une foUows
to Holkharn.
Shows the range leading to Holkharn Bay.
In the middle distance to the right is the range
which the Une foUows to Holkharn Bay.
On the left is the range which the Une foUows
towards the north from Holkharn Bay.
Looking northwards along the summits of the
range which the Une follows to Port Snettisham. 3ust visible over the range on the left
is Summit 3748 of the table. 71
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the  Mountain Boundary
the Lisiere—continued.
OF
No. of
View.
Station
from which
taken.
Page of
Album.
Bearing of
Centre.
62
3 m
30
N. 24° 15' W.
M.93
159
28 m.
30
N. 74° 30'E.
M. 93
132
99
30
N. 60° 25' W.
M.93
42
97
31
S. 78° 20' W
M.93
121
6 m.
31
M.93
148
105
31
M. 93
158
28 m.
31
M. 93
157
106
32
M.93
43
111
32
O. 93
45
111
32
0.93
46
111
32
0.93
52
109
33
C93
53
109
33
0.93
66
169
33
T. 94
67
169
33
T. 94
N. 42° 55' W.
S. 3° 28' E.
S. 61° 35' E.
N. 18° 53' E.
S. 20° 05' E.
N. 80° W.
N. 21° 55' W.
S. 72° 05' W.
N. 54° W.
N. 61° 39' E.
S. 83° 25' E.
Description.
Just to left of centre is the depression to the
east of the range north of Port Snettisham.
To the right is summit 3000 to 3250, lat»
58° 12' long. 134° 02'.
The long stretch of water on the right in
the distance is the Gastineau Channel. On
the extreme right is the range which the Une
foUows northerly beyond Taku Inlet.
Entrance to Port Snettisham on the left.
Left of centre is Station 98 of the triangulation. Summit 3748 of the table. About
half-way to the right is Triangulation
Station 99, Summit 3588 of the table.
Stephen's passage to the left. Triangulation
Station 99. Summit 3588 of table is right
of centre.
About half-way to the left is Station 99, and
farther to the left and visible over the
ridge is Station 98 of the Triangulation
Summits 3588 and 3748 respectively.
The point to the right is Triangulation
Station 105, Summit 3475 of the table,
and the left is Summit 3000 and 3250,
lat. 58° 12' long. 134° 02' of the table.
Shows the entrance to Taku Inlet. Shows
Bishop, Cooper, and Jaw Points.
The junction of Taku Inlet with Stephen's
Passage. Left of the centre in the distance
are seen Summits 3748 and 3588 of the
table, and closer to the left of the mouth of
Slocum Inlet is Summit 3475, Station 105
of the triangulation.
Looking north-westerly along range which the
Une follows. On the extreme right beyond
the saddle is Summit 3300, and to right of
centre is Summit 4175.
Shows the summit of the range which the line
foUows. On the right is the vaUey to the
north-east.
In the distance is the range which the Une
follows north-westerly from Taku Inlet.
In the distance is the range which the Une
foUows north-westerly from Taku Inlet.
Looking across Lynn Canal. To the left of
centre is Berners Bay.
Looking across Lynn Canal. To the right of
the centre is Herbert Glacier.
i 72
Description of Photographic Views Depicting the Mountain Boundary of
the Lisiere—continued.
No. of
View.
Station
from which
taken
21
113
0.93
20
113
0.93
18
113
0.93
71
0.93
117
34       N. 44° 00' W.
34
N. 37° 25' W.
Page of Bearing of Description.
Album. Centre.
34        S. 42° 58' E.      This one shows the summit of the range which
the line foUows north-westerly from Taku
Inlet.
34        N< 77° 00' E.     This view shows the ridge connecting Stations
112 and 113 of the triangulation.
The point marked No. 10 on the view is
Summit 3500 to 3750, lat. 58° 23' long.
134° 30', Station 117 of triangulation. To
the left of centre, in distance, is Station 119
of triangulation, Sunimit 4322 of the table.
The black peak in centre is Station 119 of
triangulation, Summit 4322 of the table. On
the right the second peak along the glacier
is Summit 3655 of the table.
Looking across Lynn Canal. To the extreme
left is Berners Bay.
Looking across Lynn Canal. Douglas Island
blends with the coast mountains at the
extreme right.
Taken near the entrance to Lituya' Bay.
Mount Fairweather to the left of centre,
Mount Lituya to the right.
Mount Lituya to the left, Mount CriUon to
the extreme right.
Mount CriUon to the extreme left.
Mount Fairweather on the left, Mount Lituya
on the right.
Mount Lituya to the left. Summits of the
St. Elias Alps extending to the right.
Mount CriUon on the left of centre. Mount
Dagelet close to the right.
Looking across Dry Bay. The St. Elias Alps
south from Disenchantment Bay.
Looking across' Dry Bay at the St. EUas Alps.
56
T. 94
170
35
N. 51° 20' E.
55
T. 94
170
35
S. 84° 30' E.
107a
M. 94
212
35
N. 23° 00' E.
105a
M. 94
212
35
N. 54° 30' E.
104a
M. 94
212
36
S. 72° 30' E.
112a
M. 94
213
36
N. 21° 35' E.
113a
M. 94
213
36
N. 57° 00' E.
114a
M. 94
213
36
S. 71° 40' E.
65
B. 95
214
37
N. 13° 50' W.
66
B. 95
214
37
N. 39° 50' E.
67
B. 95
214
37
N. 89° 19' E.
77
B. 95
216
37
N. 11° 13' E.
78
B. 95
216
38
N. 65° 50' E.
79
B. 95
216
38
S. 67° 16' E.
The St. Elias-Alps between Disenchantment
and Dry Bays.
Looking down the coast.    Mount Fairweather
and mountains to the south in the distance. 73
Second Declaration of James Joseph
McArthur.
City of London.—To Wit :
I, James Joseph McArthur, of the City of
Ottawa, in the Province of Ontario and
Dominion of Canada, Dominion Land Surveyor, do solemnly and sincerely declare:—
1. In 18931 was on the staff of Her Majesty's
Commissioner, W. F. King, and engaged on a
survey of that part of the disputed territory
lying between Holkharn Bay and Taku Inlet
and River. Mr. P. A. Welker of the U.S.
Coast and Geodetic Survey, with one man to
assist him in his survey operations, carrying
his instruments, &c, was attached to my party.
2. During the season I occupied sixteen
Mountain Triangulation Stations, viz., 91, 92,
93, 94, 95,96, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,
105 and 107 of the British Commission Maps
in Appendix HI. of the British Case. At each
of these stations I took the necessary theodoUte
and camera observations.
3. Of these stations Mr. Welker ascended
nine only, viz., Stations Nos. 92, 93, 94, 95, 97,
98, 99, 100 and 107.
4. Besides the above mentioned triangulation
or principal stations, I occupied four independent Mountain Camera Stations, viz., Nos. 5 m,
11 m, 15 m, 12 m. Of these Mr. Welker made
the ascent of 12 m. He made one ascent
independent of me, to the foot of a peak
protruding from a glacier to the south-west
from Station 104.
5. Incidental to the ascents to the principal
stations, I occupied six additional camera stations on the mountain ridges, from which I had
more complete views of certain valleys than
from the higher summits.
6. Along the shores of inlets, passages and
rivers, I located twenty-one more camera stations,
viz., 2.m., 3, 4, 7, 10, 16, 18, 19, 20, 20a, 21,
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 31.m., of
the British Commission Maps in Appendix IH.
of the British Case.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true, and
by virtue of the provisions of " The Statutory
Declarations Act, 1835."
Declared at 9, Fleet Street/
in the  City of London,!
this 23rd day of  June,
a.d. 1903.
Before me,
Chas. Upton,
A Commissioner for Oaths.
J. J. McArthur.
1 DECAY OF DYEA AND SKAGWAY. THE SETTLEMENTS AT THE
HEAD OF LYNN CANAL AN ECONOMIC UNIT WITH THE
BRITISH INTERIOR.
Declaration of S. Morley Wickett
It w'« (■
il!5
1<(%
Dominion of Canada
Provincb of Ontario \
City of Ottawa.
I, S. Morley Wickett of the City of Toronto
in the Province of Ontario and Dominion of
Canada, manufacturer, do solemnly declare as
foUows:—
1. I was last year appointed by the Canadian
Manufacturers' Association to report on the
mining and trade conditions of the Canadian
Yukon, and visited the Yukon territory for
some weeks to make the personal investigation
necessary to the preparation of such a report;
as the trade with the Yukon Territory is carried
on by way of Lynn Canal, I naturally gave a
good deal of attention to the trade condition of
Dyea and Skagway.
2. In the spring of the present year, at the
request of the British Agent before the Alaska
Boundary Tribunal, I made a second visit to
the settlements at the head of Lynn Canal, for
the purpose of inquiring into the past and
present commercial situation of the ports of
Dyea, Skagway, Haines Mission and Pyramid
Harbour.
In making this latter investigation, I visited
Ottawa, Washington, San Francisco, Portland,
Oregon, Tacoma, Seattle, Victoria and Vancouver,.
as preliminary to my trip to the Lynn Canal.
At these places I made use of available information in various official departments and
Chambers of Commerce, as well as in the hands
of Customs Officials, and, where possible, of
shipping companies as weU.
1 have rigorously checked all assertions,
estimates and statistics furnished me, and
heUeve that the statements made below are
worthy of reliance. I was in the better position
to assure myself of the reliabUity of various
sources through my study last year of the
commercial conditions and prospects of the
Yukon Territory.
3. If we except mention of a small trading
post at Dyea, in 1896, Dyea and Skagway were
both estabUshed in 1897-98 by the thousands
of stampeders seeking to reach the Yukon
goldfields, Dyea being the port for the Chilkoot
Pass, and Skagway that for the White Pass.
Dyea's maximum population has been estimated by most reliable authorities to have
been 12,000, which it reached in 1898.   The 7o
Declaration of S.
continued.
Morley  Wickett-
maximum population of Skagway was estimated at some 2,000 less. With the construction of the White Pass and Yukon Bailway
from Skagway through the White Pass to
Bennet City, and finally to White Horse—the
head of Yukon navigation — Dyea rapidly
declined. Part of its population went to
Skagway, and the rest left for the United
States or for the interior. I visited the site on
May 3rd last and found the cabins and booths,
with a single exception, absolutely abandoned.
The exception was a cabin occupied by a squaw
man and his klootch (squaw). Beyond what
may be called the immediate town site—a
mile and a-half more up the vaUey—a petty
gardener grows vegetables to seU in Skagway.
As is usual in these mushroom settlements,
the buildings are of saU-cloth over scaffolding, tar paper, logs, and more or less rough
timber. For a time certain local characters
found it profitable to tear down some of the
cabins and carry the material by water to
Skagway, a distance of about four to five miles.
But with the rapid decUne of Skagway's population even this has become unprofitable. A
few days prior to my visit to Dyea the sole
survivor of these squatter-poachers was arrested
and imprisoned for forcibly driving off an
Indian who was attempting to occupy one of
the abandoned huts. Dyea, therefore, no longer
exists ; it is of the past. There is not even a
pier left at which a ship could enter. Bows of
cabins and booths, many of them with their
glass windows still in position and their doors
still swinging, remain, but all save one are
abandoned.
4. The completion of the White Pass Bailway
from Skagway over the summit of the White
Pass and into the interior made Skagway the
sole port of trans-shipment for the Yukon, and
as there was no longer a reason for settlement
at Dyea, that port at once became depopulated.
The railway was opened for traffic over the Pass
in June, 1900, but complete connection with
White Horse was not estabUshed before July
30th, 1900.
5. Notwithstanding that Skagway has become the sole port of trans-shipment for the
British interior, its population and trade have
rapidly declined.
From a maximum estimated at 10,000, the
population had decreased to 3,117 according to
the official census of 1900. In 1902 the liquor
dealers made an enumeration of their own to
support their demand for a reduction of saloon
licences.   Their enumeration, which  was in 'il 7f SiJ '
'i-'■:.'■
ill
ihi
•■-
76
Declaration of
continued.
S. Morley Wickett—
charge of a reputable soUcitor, and was checked
by a Committee of the local Chamber of Commerce, showed the population to have dechned
to 1,257. A further census taken under the
authority of the local town counsel on May 28th,
1903, shows a total population of 1,205, exclusive of 131 military and 29 Indians. It must
be noted, though, that census enumerations in
the United States are enumerations of the de
jure or domicUed population. The Skagway
census will accordingly embrace many property
holders who are no longer residents in the town.
The actual population is estimated by most
reputable merchants familiar with the town at
about one thousand persons. An analysis of
this population wiU show how small a portion
of it is of a permanent character:— .
United States Garrison, men and help,
two companies ...        ...        ...    200
Railway and Wharf emplojrees and longshoremen        ...        ...        ...        ...    202
Two-thirds   of   these   married,   each
family with two children           402
Saloon and Gambling proprietors and
Assistants       ...        ...        ...        ...      35
Shop keepers and miscellaneous ...    150
989
With the completion of the United States
Barracks, now under construction at Haines
Mission, the troops will be removed from
Skagway. Should the shops of the White Pass
Railway Company, which is a British Company,
with headquarters in London, England, be
removed to White Horse in the Canadian
Interior, a further decline in population would
foUow.
On the day of my arrival at Skagway I took
the trouble to count the number of sale shops,
exclusive of saloons, hotels, and lodging-houses.
I found the number to total 196, of which 128
were unoccupied.
6. The foUowing figures, gathered from
official sources, show the rapid decline in value
of assessable property in Skagway during the
last few years:—
Year. Personalty. Realty. Total.
1898-1899   No assessment but voluntary contributions for fire protection.
1899-1900 — $927,079    $927,079
1900-1901       $254,930       677,450       982,380
1901-1902 188,604       578,300       766,904
It is to be noted that the assessment for 1901
as against 1900, declined over 17%.
The assessed value of real estate since 1898-
1899 has decreased from $927,079 to $578,300,
a falling off of $348,779 in a total of $927,079, Declaration of S.   Morley  Wickett—
continued.
77
or much more than 33££. An assessment at
the present time would show an even greater
decline.
7. For 1901 the sales of drafts by the Bank
of Commerce, was $1,017,021.90; for 1902 the
sales feU to $655,344.97, or over 35%%.
The single bank doing business at Skagway
is a Canadian bank—the Canadian Bank of
Commerce. I was positively informed that the
Skagway branch of the bank is maintained, not
on account of local business, but as a link with
the banks in the Interior. By way of contrast
with Skagway, Juneau has one State and one
Private Bank (Census population 1,864), Nome,
two State banks and one private bank.
8. The United States direct trade with
Skagway and the Yukon has suffered a marked
decUne.
The local Manager of the Moore Wharf
Company at Skagway (Mr. Shaw), acting under
instructions of the General Manager, Mr.
Wynn-Johnston, made special investigation of
the Company's books, and has furnished the
following report to me.
The shipments to Skagway in United States
bottoms have fallen off steadily untii at present
only 4QX of the total freight tonnage now
entering Skagway comes in United States
vessels, the balance being carried in Canadian
boats. At present the freight and passenger
fleet of boats running regularly to Skagway
consists of four United States and two Canadian
vessels. But* for the special exemption of
United States vessels from the ordinary Canadian coasting regulations the percentage to the
credit of the United States would be much
smaller. As it is, much freight of Canadian
origin is frequently shipped in United States
vessels in order to expedite deUvery. For the
calendar year 1902, 40,596 tons of freight
(26 cwt. to the ton) were shipped into Skagway
through the Moore Wharf Company, which has
sole control of local freight.
9. The United States Customs coUections at
Skagway are of merely nominal amount, so that
the Port is a steady charge on the United
States finances.
The ordinary customs coUections and expenditures at the Port of Skagway for the past two
years have been as follows:—
Customs Customs
Year. Collections. Expenditure.
1900 ...       14,860       ... ?
1901 ...   11,692   ...   10,762
1902 ...   13,542   ...   12,139
1903 (4months)  913   ...    — pi;
ft
Declaration of S.
continued.
Morley   Wickett-
78
This ordinary expenditure   does  not include
outlay for buildings, &c.
The greater part of the Customs revenues
are duties levied on Canadian coal imported by
the White Pass and Yukon Railway. The
foUowing figures, while not complete, wiU bear
out this statement:—
Coal Exports.
Vancouver to Skagway.
Tons.
14,314
10,837
8,470
Duty.
67c. per ton
Duty
collected.
$9590.38
7260.79
5674.90
3,657
f duty removed and revenue
\ accordingly declines.
Year.
1900 ..
1901 ..
1902 ..
1903
(4 mths.
The export returns were furnished me by the
CoUector of Customs at Nanaimo.
In fine, although Skagway has four piers for
the accommodation of its trade, it has been
found unprofitable to keep the three outer piers
in repair. These three are accordingly left to
fall to ruin, a single pier now meeting all the
requirements of Skagway trade.
10. The reasons for the rapid decline of
Skagway may be briefly stated :—
(a) There is no local industry, such as fishing
or mining, to support a population at the head
of Lynn Canal.
(6) It drew its sole sustenance from handling
freight on the way to the Yukon, and from the
small sales of certain United States goods
which it kept ready for export to the Canadian
Interior as " short orders." These goods
consisted of oats and hay, canned fruit and
vegetables. This short order trade is not
important, as is evident from the statistics of
export as presented by the Collector of Customs
at Skagway. It is evident too, from the figures,
which I herewith furnish, that even this small
trade is rapidly decUning.
The following figures, showing the exports
from Skagway into the Canadian Interior, were
compiled by the United  States Collector of
Customs at Skagway :—
1903.
1900. 1901. 1902. (4 months.)
$1,579,710 $1,457,076 $1,176,147    $166,980 .
It is to be noted that the returns for 1902 as
compared with 1900 declined over 251.
11. Only the exceptional coasting privilege
allowed United States vessels of carrying freight
from Canadian ports to Skagway has kept the
United States direct trade with Skagway from
faUing to a much lower level. For clearances
-from a southern Canadian town are much
preferred to clearances at the distant port of
Skagway. where delays may too readily happen.
12. Citizens   of   Dyea,   while   that   town
continued   to   exist, recognised  clearly their 79
Declaration of S.  Morley Wickett
continued.
dependence on Canadian trade, and their connection with Canadian Territory. The Dyea
Chamber of Commerce accordingly circulated a
petition in 1899, praying the United States
Government to allow their town to become a
Canadian Port. As wiU be seen from the
statutory declaration of Thomas B. WaUace, of
the 1st of May last, the petition was signed
very largely by the reputable traders of Dyea.
The merchants of Skagway, as organised in
the Skagway Chamber of Commerce, have
petitioned Washington to the same purport, as
is evident from a reproduction of the petition
in " The Daily Alaskan " of March 26th, 1902,
a copy of which is now shown to me marked
f- A." I have had this reproduction examined
by a most reUable authority, and am assured
that it is a faithful reprint, and that it was
signed by every merchant carrying on any
business of importance in Skagway at the date
of its circulation.
13. Secretary H. B. Le Fevre and Mr. John
W. Troy, editor of J The Daily Alaskan," both
stated to me personaUy that the existence of
Skagway was of necessity so dependent upon
Canada that the citizens of Skagway, while
making outward demonstrations of their loyalty
to their native country, would prefer to cast in
their lot with Canada, " for it was money in
their pockets." Editor Troy, in an editorial
in his paper of July 24th, 1902, reverts to this
point, and states that " it may as weU be
admitted that there are many people in Skagway, if indeed not a majority of them, who
would like to have this city made a Canadian
town." A copy-of this paper I could not
procure, even for my own use.
14. On April 29th, 1902, the Skagway
Chamber of Commerce again emphasised the
fact that Skagway is dependent for its existence
upon Canadian trade, and that Lynn Canal is
an economic unit with the Canadian Interior,
in the letter to the Canadian Manufacturers*
Association, a certified copy of which is now
shown to me, marked " B."
15. Haines Mission Ues on the Lynn Canal,
about 17 mUes to the South of Skagway. It is
the site of a New York Presbyterian Mission,
and of a small trading post for the Chilcat
Indians.
Haines Mission has been given some sUght
additional importance by being one of the starting points for the Porcupine Mining Country. A
United States nulitary barracks is also in course
of construction there. The building operations,
which at the time of my visit had not yet com-
t*!
I 80
Declaration of S.
continued.
Morley Wickett-
menced, have been anticipated by the local
shopkeepers, and an air of temporary activity is
being given to the town. Forty-six Indian
children were in attendance at the mission at
the time of my visit; whUe a reUable authority
estimated that there were not more than fifty
whites in the town. There does not appear to
be a separate return for its population in the
Census of Alaska taken in 1900.
16. The time at my disposal would not allow
me to visit Pyramid Harbour, which lies just
across the Chilcat Inlet from Haines Mission.
I made, however, careful inquiries as to the
present condition there, and learned that the
only whites there resident are the few officials
of the Salmon Cannery operating at that point
and the keepers of a small trading post and road
house.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously beUeving it to be true, and knowing
that it is of the same force and effect as if made
under oath and by virtue of the " Canada
Evidence Act, 1893."
Declared before me at the City
of Ottawa, Province of On- f S.
tario, this 27th day of June, C
a.d. 1903. /
N. A. Belcourt,
A Notary PubUc in and for the
Province of Ontario.
i i
Morley
Wickett.
Petition|by Merchants and Citizens
of Skagway to Special Agent of
Treasury Department.
"A"
This is Exhibit "A" referred to in the Statutory
Declaration   of   S.  Morley Wickett,   made
before me this 27th day of June, 1903.
N. A. Belcourt,
A Notary PubUc, &c.
Skagway, Alaska,
March 20th, 1902.
J. F. Evans, Esq.,
Special Agent,
Treasury Department.
Sir,
The Merchants and Citizens of Skagway
wish to renew the efforts made by the Chamber
of Commerce some two years ago to obtain some
reasonable privileges for doing business at the
Port of Skagway.
Heretofore we complained of the excessive
valuation placed on goods at the Boundary Line
by the Officers of the Canadian Government for
the coflection of duty, it being greater than the
valuation placed on the same kind and quality 81
Petition by Merchants and Citizens
of Skagway to Special Agent of
Treasury Department—continued.
of goods imported at Vancouver or Victoria, a
practice which still exists. The valuation
mentioned is the retail price at Skagway.
As no rehef has been given us in this respect,
we desire to submit a distinct proposition:
Inasmuch as the bonded warehouse system
has been extended to Skagway, we wish to
warehouse Canadian goods at this port and the
permission to return those goods to Canada,
free of duty.
The reason for requesting this privilege is to
enable the merchants to enjoy the natural
advantages of Skagway for promptly supplying
the trade of the interior between this port
and Dawson.
In its favour is cheapness to the consumer,
readiness of shipment, added facihty and
quickness of despatch of from 10 to 15 days.
We are justified in saying that business men in
the territory interested have often expressed
themselves in favour of it, and of their readiness
to sign a petition for such a permission, and
the persons accommodated are the miners and
others residing in Canadian territory and who
consume these goods, and it would be a great
convenience to them.
The objections likely to arise to this privilege
being granted, are likely to come from
Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., the two
principal shipping points in British Columbia,
which supply this trade, but these ought not to
be serious, as they have the trade from there,
can establish branch houses at Skagway if they
wish, a privilege which we invite them to
engage in on terms of perfect equality. They
would get the commission on goods handled
through their ports, and it would, in fact,
increase their business and give regularity to it.
The privUege enjoyed by the Dawson
merchants of returning American goods into
United States territory (Alaska) is similar to
that which we ask.
It has been pointed out to us that Section 68
of the revised Customs Act of Canada interposes
an objection to the return to Canada of Canadian
goods warehoused in the United States. We
do not think that this should be construed as a
bar to the privUege asked, since it is wholly
with Canadian goods and carried in British
bottoms that we are concerned, and their delay
in warehouse at Skagway in no wise changes
their character. Canadian goods shipped in
bond by way of St. Michael's, we are advised,
are often delayed at that place for the winter,
and are warehoused during the interim and are
shipped forward without objection at Dawson.
SI. Wi
82
H!
m
i
Petition by Merchants and Citizens
of Skagway to Special Agent of
Treasury Department—continued.
Letter of the Skagway Chamber
of Commerce to the Canadian
Manufacturers' Association.
We also rely upon the fact that the Treasury
Department at Washington has granted
extraordinary privileges for the convenience and
despatch of Canadian merchandise, a system
conducted at great expense and without charge
on the goods in transit, and whUe we do not
ask that the port be closed to such traffic, we
do think the fact, should have weight upon the
merits of the decision in our case.
We respectfully ask you to forward this
petition immediately and urge action at once;
as we have been waiting for a decision upon
this point for more than two years, we would
ask that you either grant our request or turn us
over to Canada, as the only alternative of the
dilemma.
"B"
This is Exhibit " B " referred to in the statutory
declaration of S. Morley Wickett made before
me this 27th day of June, a.d. 1903.
N. A. Belcourt,
A Notary PubUc, &c.
Skagway,
April 29th, 1902.
Manufacturers' Association, Toronto, Canada.
Gentlemen,
The Skagway Chamber of Commerce asks
your co-operation in obtaining from your Government customs regulations at Skagway that
will   permit   the   warehousing   in  bond   and
subsequent re-entry of Canadian   goods   into
Canada,  in  broken bulk,  as the trade  may
require.    The immense benefits that the people
of the Canadian Yukon would derive from such
a customs regulation are  too   self-evident to
require more than a mere mention.
Dealers could hold their stocks in bond at
Skagway, breaking the bulk as demanded by
their trade, and relieved of the necessity of
ordering their every invoice from a distance a
thousand miles farther away than the port of
S'kagway, would be under no necessity of carrying large sums of money in the high freight
between Skagway and interior points.
It would further obviate the necessity of
buying beyond current needs, as under these
circumstances Canadian wholesalers would
certainly carry adequate stocks in bond at
Skagway.
The benefit to the Dominion at large would
bv no means be inconsiderable The impetus
thus given to Canadian trade would displace
United States goods in the Skagway market, Letter of the Skagway Chamber of
Commerce to the Canadian Manufacturers' Association   continued.
by enabling the merchants of this city to fill
their orders with Canadian goods. The
business which Skagway now carries on with
the Canadian interior consists almost solely in
filling orders to satisfy the requirements of
trade that cannot wait for shipments from
Vancouver. Under present circumstances this
trade, which in the aggregate is by no
means inconsiderable, must apply to dutiable
merchandise of the United States. The
merchants of Skagway could not find it profitable
to do business with an interior patronage with
dutiable merchandise where they brought in
competition with local stocks of Uke non-
dutiable goods.
An arrangement of this kind would moreover greatly tend to obUterate border Ul-feeling
over matters of present international controversy.
Yours respectfuUy,
(Sgd.) The Skagway Chamber of Commerce,
H. B. LeFevre,
(Secretary).
m-
I hereby certify the above to be a true eopy
of a letter received by the Canadian
Manufacturers' Association from the Skagway
Chamber of Commerce.
R. I. YoUNGE,
Secretary, Canadian
Manufacturers' Association.
m
Relating to the Petition of the
Citizens of Dyea to have that town
made a part of British. Territory
Statutory Declaration of Thomas
B. Wallace.
Dominion of Canada \
Province of British Columbia I to wit :
City of Victoria.
I, Thomas B. Wallace, of the City of Tacoma,
State of Washington, United States of America,
Executive officer of the Tacoma Street RaUway
Company, do solemnly declare as follows:—
1. I was a resident of the town of Dyea from
January, 1898, until August, 1899, and was at
that time manager of the ChUcoot RaUroad and
Transport Company.
2. WhUe I was a resident of Dyea aforesaid,
and during the spring of 1899, a petition was
prepared addressed, I think, either to Ijhe Congress of the United States, or to the Joint High
Commission for the settlement of the Alaska
Boundary question, which petition set out the
advantages which the citizens of Dyea would
receive if the said town were made a part of
British Territory, and the prayer of the petition
1 Relating to the Petition of the Citizens
of Dyea to have that town made a
part of British Territory—continued.
84
was that it should be so ceded by the United
States if they had any possessory title thereto.
3. This petition was very largely signed by
the principal merchants, business men, owners
of real property, and prominent citizens of Dyea,
and- in about the month of July, I think, Senator
Fairbanks, who was the Chairman of the Joint
High Commission, came to Dyea in connection
with his official duties, and while he was there
the said petition was, I think, presented to him
by a deputation of citizens who were appointed
to wait upon him officially for that purpose.
4. I was resident in Dyea at the time, and
have a distinct recoUection of the fact of the
said petition being prepared and signed, and I
am sure that it was presented; and from newspaper reports which I read at the time I beheve
that the petition was forwarded to the proper
officials in the City of Washington.
5. The preparation and signing of the said
petition was a voluntary act on the part of the
citizens of Dyea, and was signed by the persons
whose signatures are attached because they
believed that it would be in their own interest
that the said town should become part of
British territory and should not remain under
the sovereignty of the United States of
America.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously beheving it to be true and knowing
that it is of the same force and effect as if made
under oath and by virtue of the " Canada
Evidence Act, 1893."
Declared before me
at the City of Victoria,
Province of British
Columbia, this 1st day
of May, A.D. 1903.
Thomas B. Wallace.
(Signed) E. V. Bodwell,
A Notary PubUc in and for the Province of
British Columbia. 85
CORRESPONDENCE  RELATING   TO   THE   INTERNATIONAL   BOUNDARY
LINE NEAR PEMBINA,  MINN., U.S.
Correspondence Relating to the
International Boundary Line near
Pembina, Minn., U.S.
Legation of the United States,
London,
My Lord,-
I have
Government   to   call
discovery   which   has
Engineer   Officers   of
17th October, 1870.
the honor by   direction of
my
your   attention   to    a
been   made   by   the
the United   States in
regard to the true location of the boundary line
between the British Possessions in North
America and the United States as ascertained
by the usual scientific method of determining
such matters.
It appears by a communication from the
Honorable the Secretary of the Treasury of
the United States to the State Department,
enclosing a letter of the 23d June last from
the CoUector of Customs at Pembina,
Minnesota, that the United States MUitary
Commission under Major General Sykes, U.S.
Army, had, by a series of careful solar and
lunar observations, located and estabUshed the
49th parallel or international boundary Une,
upwards of four thousand six hundred feet
north of the one hitherto recognised.
The result of this change, in one respect at
least, your Lordship wiU find noted in the
above cited letter of the Collector of Pembina,
copy of which I annex among other documents.
The question arising at the Treasury
Department whether the said new Une has
been estabUshed by competent authority binding
upon the two Governments of Great Britain
and the United States, has been answered as
you will observe by enclosed copy of a letter
from the Acting Secretary of State of the
United States that no joint action of the two
Governments had been taken for marking upon
the surface of the ground that portion of the
boundary along the 49th paraUel which extends
from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky or
Stony Mountains.
It has therefore been suggested by the State
Department that no proceedings he adopted by
the Custom House authorities which wiU disturb
the existing condition of things on the border,
untU the British Government can be informed
of the discovery which has been made by the
United States MUitary Commission under
General Sykes.
I have accordingly the honor herewith to
notify your Lordship of said discovery. 86
■. ? ..
lilii
■
-
■
'
1
Correspondence Relating to the International Boundary Line near Pembina, Minn., U.S.—continued.
I have the honor to be,  with the highest
consideration,
My Lord,
Your Lordship's most obt. servant,
John Lothrop Motley.
To the Right Honble.
The Earl GranviUe,
&c, &c, &c.
Enclosures:—
a) Mr. BoutweU to Mr. Fish, 19 July,
1870.
(2) CoUector at Pembina to Mr. BoutweU,
23 June, 1870.
(3) Mr.   Davis   to   Mr.   Richardson,  13
August, 1870.
Treasury Department,
Sir, July 19th, 1870.
I have the honor  to enclose herewith
a letter dated the 23d ult. from the Collector
of Customs at Pembina, Minnesota, relative to
a change effected by a survey recently made by
a U.S. MUitary Commission under Major Genl.
Sykes, U.S.A. in the Une heretofore recognised
as the proper boundary between the United
States and the British possessions in that region .
fixed by treaty at the 49th parallel of latitude.
It is therein stated that the Une now estabUshed
is 4,600 feet north of that heretofore reorganised,
and the results of the change are in one respect
at least noted therein.
I wiU thank you for any information on the
subject you may be able to furnish, and whether
said new Une has been estabUshed by competent
authority, binding upon the two Governments of
Great Britain and the United States.
Please return the enclosure.
I am, &c,
(Sd.)       Geo. S. Boutwell,
Secretary.
Hon. Hamilton Fish,
Secretary of State.
Sir,
Custom House,
Pembina,
June 23,1870.
I have the honor to call your attention to
the fact that the U.S. Military Commission
under Maj. Genl. Sykes, U.S.A. and Capt.
Heap, U.S. Corps of Engineers, while here
this Spring for the purpose of locating the
new Fort and Military Reservation, have
by a series of careful solar and lunar observations located and established the 49th
parallel or international boundary line, upwards
of 4,600 feet north of the old estabUshed post. If"
87
Correspondence Relating to the International Boundary Line near Pembina, Minn., U.S.—continued.
and that from the initial point established on
the west bank of the Red River by the said
MUitary Commission, a careful survey of the
said boundary Une was made for military
purposes as far west as St. Joseph, and the
same distinctly marked and stakes driven at
every mile. This change brings the Hudson
Bay Co's. Trading Post north of here within
our lines on U.S. territory, which in case the
said last estabUshed location shall be recognised
as the actual boundary line, would subject
the whole of said Hudson Bay Co. stock of
goods on hand, at said trading post and aU
future importations thereto to the payment of
duty. I have therefore ordered a fuU inventory
of all their goods and effects for the purpose of
assessment of duty, in case the said estabUshed
Une shall be recognised as the true boundary.
1 would therefore in view of these facts
respectfully request instructions in the premises
and beg to be advised as to which of the two
different lines established I am to recognise as
the true boundary line for Customs revenue
purposes.
I am, &c.,
(Sd.)       J. C. Storer,
Collector.
Hon. Secretary of the Treasury,
Washington, D.C.
Department of State,
Washington, 13 Aug., 1870.
The Honorable
W. A. Richardson,
Acting Secretary of the Treasury.
Sir,—I have the honor to acknowledge the
letter of the 19th ult., from the Treasury Dept.,
making enquiry concerning the boundary line
between the possessions of the United States
and Great Britain and in reply to inform you
that no joint action of the two Governments
has been taken for marking upon the surface
of the ground that portion of the boundary
along the 49th parallel, which extends from the
Lake of the Woods to the Rocky or Stony
Mountains. I therefore beg leave to suggest
that no proceedings be adopted by the Custom
House authorities which wiU disturb the existing condition of things on the border, until the
British Government can be informed of the
discovery which has been made by the officers
of the Engineer Corps, which wiU be immediately done.
I have the honor, &c,
(Sd.)        J. C. B. Davis,
Acting Secretary.
ijii
m
ffl
iff.
i
t
if
I
I
life
!«•
m 88
LOCAL   TESTIMONY  CONCERNING   RUSSIAN   AND  UNITED   STATES
OCCUPATION.
Canada.
Yukon Territory.
To WIT.
(
it -PmW
fc, . ■ ■■ ■
In the matter of certain understandings as
to the territory claimed by the Chilkat
Indians:
Testimony of George Shartrage.
II
1. I, George Shartrage, am hereditary chief
of the Chilkat Indians, living at Kluckwan,
which lies on the left bank of the Chilkat River
as it flows towards the sea, and one and a half
miles below the boundary line between the
Province of British Columbia, Dominion of
Canada, and the District of Alaska, U.S.A., as
estabUshed by the modus vivendi of the 20th
October, 1899.
2. I am about sixty years of age. Succeeded
my father as chief. That I have lived all my
life about the district, and have a knowledge of
the matters herein declared.
3. That prior to the appearance of the white
men in 1898, the Indians all looked upon Dyea
as neutral ground to all tribes. The Stick
Indians who inhabit the interior would go
down to the coast to hunt and fish, and the
Chilkats would go up for the same purpose;
and we did not know anything of any boundary
line or nationaUty, and everyone was free to go-
or come into the country without interference.
4. The first we knew of nationaUty or
boundary was when the soldiers (North-west
Mounted Police) arrived and commenced
collecting duty at the White Pass and Chilcoot
summits in 1898. I was told that that was
the line between Canada and the United States.
I had seen before the United States soldiers at
Sitka.
5. And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously believing the same to be true and
knowing that it is-of the same force and effect
as if made under oath, and by virtue of The
Canada Evidence Act, 1893. Testimon
v <
>f George Shartrage
continued.
His
George X Shartrage
mark
89-
This Declarationhav-
ing been first read
over and interpreted to the declarant
by Samuel Jackson
and the said declarant seemed to
perfectly understand the same,
and did set his
mark thereto in my
presence, and did
declare the same
to be true at White
Horse, in the
Yukon Territory,
this 2nd day of
June, 1903, J
T. W. Jackson,
A Notary Public in
and for the Yukon
Territory.
I, Samuel Jackson, do declare that I did truly
interpret the foregoing declaration to George
Shartrage and that he assented thereto, and
did affix his mark thereto, in token of such
assent in my presence. §»-,.
Declared  before   me   this-j
the  2nd  day of   June, V Samuel Jackson.
1903, J
T. W. Jackson.
iffc
Testimony of Jack Kttchk.
Canada.
Yukon Territory
To wit.
In the matter  of  the prior   occupation of a
. certain area of land in the Yukon Territory
and District of Alaska.
I, Jack Kitchk, of Kluckwan, which Ues on
the left hand of the Chilkat River, as it flows
towards the sea, and one and a-half miles
below the boundary line between the Province
of British Columbia, Dominion of Canada, and
the District of Alaska, U.S.A., as estabUshed
by the modus vivendi on the 20th October, 1899,
do solemnly declare as foUows :—
1. That I am at present, and have been for
about thirty years, a sub-chief of the Chilkat
Indians, with local residence at Kluckwan,
aforesaid.
2. That I am about fifty-five years of age,
and have a knowledge of the matters herein
deposed to.
3. That prior to the year A.D. 1898, I did not
know of any national boundaries in what is now
I
I
I: 90
Testimony of JackKitchk—continued.
■;. ■■■
"■?''■
U:
I.*"
called disputed territory in and around the Lynn
Canal, and I further declare that among the
Indians nothing was known around the said
Lynn Canal about boundaries between the
United States and Canada.
4. The Stick Indians Uved beyond the
summit of the mountains, and the Chilkat
Indians inhabited the lands around the coast;
the latter Indians Uving there for the purpose
of fishing and conducting trade with the Stick
Indians from the interior. The lines were
never within my recoUection so drawn as to
prevent the interior Indians from coming to
the coast to trade and barter, nor so as to bar
the ChUkats from entering the interior to trade
with the Sticks and for the purpose of hunting.
5. The first I knew of rights being claimed
by   any   Government    within   the   territory
surrounding the Lynn Canal was   the year
1898,   whUe packing over the   White   Pass-
Summit, I was  examined for  the purpose of
being charged duty by a member of the North-
West Mounted PoUce, who, I was informed,,
was acting for  the Government  of  Canada;
prior to that the Indians did not recognise the
authority of any white man other than officials
stationed at Sitka after the coming there of
the United States soldiers, and any authority
exercised was confined to Sitka, and did not
untU 1898 or afterwards, extend to Haines or
other points on the aforesaid Lynn Canal.   I
have not at any time personally known of any
boundarylines between the United States and
Canadian territory.    The recognised home of
the Chilkat Indians was along the coast, and
we did not  extend  farther  north than the
Chilkat River.   The officials of the government
of the United States did not at any time until
1898, or later, exercise rights as officials of the
Government of the said United States outside
of Sitka except in a few isolated instances
where Indians were arrested in the immediate
neighbourhood of Sitka.
6. I was present at Skagway in the month of
June a.d. 1899, with chief Shartrage and some
other sub-chiefs and ChUkats, and I say positively that the statement made, as I am informed,
that I or chief Shartrage or any of the sub-
chiefs made affidavits to the effect that the
land or territory of the ChUkats extended to
the present disputed boundary between the
United States and Canada, is untrue; we did
not, nor did any of the chiefs, sub-chiefs, or
Indians then there present, make such affidavit,
nor any affidavit intending to have such import.
And I make this solemn declaration,  con- 91
Testimony of Jack Kitchk—continued.
His
>-Jack X Kitchk.
mark.
scientiously beUeving the same to be true, and
knowing that it is of the same force and effect
as if made under oath and by virtue of the
Canada Evidence Act, 1893.
This   declaration   having ->
been   first   read   over
and interpreted to the
declarant    by   Samuel
Jackson,  and  the said
declarant     seemed    to
perfectly understand the
same,  and did set his
mark   thereto   in    my
presence, and did declare
the same   to   be true,
at White Horse in the
Yukon    Territory   this
fourth day of June, 1903,
T. W. Jackson,
A Notary PubUc in and
for the Yukon Territory.
I, Samuel Jackson, do declare that I did
truly interpret the foregoing declaration to
Jack Kitchk, and that he assented thereto, and
did affix his mark thereto in token of such
assent in my presence.
Declared   before   me    at
White   Horse   in   the ,
Y Samuel Jackson.
Yukon Territory this the
4th day of June, 1903,
T. W. Jackson.
,
1
t
fifi
1
Testimony of Unde-sa.
Canada.
Yukon   Territory.
To Wit.
In the matter of certain rights held by the
Indians of the Yukon Territory in respect of
lands adjacent to the Lynn Canal:
I, Unde-sa, of Lake Lebarge hi the Yukon
Territory, Indian Chief, do solemnly declare:—
1. That I am now sixty-six years of age and
am the hereditary chief of the Lebarge and
Hootch-i Indians, and have a knowledge of the
matters herein declared to.
2. That about the year a.d. 1885 or 1886, one
Captain John Healy estabUshed a trading post
or store at the head of Lynn Canal, at a
point now known as Dyea. The said Healy
was the first white man to commence trading
with the natives of the southern Yukon at any
I '£
Testimony of Unde-sa—-continued.
Ss»
92
point north of what is now called Haines
Mission. Thereafter, some Indians from
Haines Mission and also some Canadian Indians
from Tagish in the Yukon Territory settled at
Dyea aforesaid.
3. That prior to the estabhshment of the
store by Healy aU the country northerly from
Haines Mission to the present sites of Dyea and
Skagway along the Lynn Canal was looked
upon as neutral ground. The Chilkat Indians
did not, nor did any other band of Indians,
claim to own the said ground, or territory, or
any of it, nor did: they exercise any rights of
ownership to the territory.
4. That my Indians and other Canadian
Indians owned the land southerly until we
came to the ChUkat River, except the neutral
ground referred to in the preceding section, and
it was understood by us that when going to
Haines Mission, as soon as we passed Kluckwan
we were in territory claimed by the Coast
Indians, that the territory between the summit
of the coast range and the Lynn Canal southerly
from the Chilkat River was aUowed to belong
to the said ChUkat or other coast Indians.
And I make this solemn declaration, conscientiously beUeving the same to be true, and
knowing that it is of the same force and effect
as if made under oath, and by virtue of the
Canada Evidence Act, 1893.
This declaration having been^
first read over and interpreted to the declarant by
his son Jim Boss, and the
said declarant seemed to
perfectly    understand    the TTia
same and did set his mark   Unde-sa   X
f 6 ;;-IP
thereto in my presence, and
did declare the same to be
true, at White Horse in
the Yukon Territory, this
twenty-eighth day of May,
a.d. 1903,
T. W. Jackson,
A Notary PubUc in and for the
Yukon Territory.
mark.
it
"•
I declare that I did truly interpret the foregoing declaration to my father, Unde-Sa, and
that he assented thereto, and did affix his mark
thereto in token of such assent in my presence.
Declared     before     me     this'
twenty-eighth   day of May,
1903,
T. W. Jackson.
9
Jim Boss. m
T*&rwrfoNY of Tagiss CnittiLtx.
I, Tagish Charley, a Stick- Indian, of Caribtni
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:
That I am forty years of age and was born at
Tagish. We used to go to Dyea in the summer
time to trade our furs for clothing and food.
We also used to visit Skagway and Dyea to
fish, and camp at Sheep Camp. We would
stay at the above places about a month and
return to Tagish. The ChUcats did not visit
Skagway but used to trade at Dyea. I have
been to Kluckwan hunting but did not stay
long. John Healy and WUson used to be
partners and kept a trading post at Dyea.
They claimed to be King George men, but
don't know what part they came from. George
Dickerson also came over from Haines which
Was his home, and trade at Dyea with the
Stick Indians and ChUcat. Dickerson was
married to a half-breed and had a son Uving at
Haines three or four years ago, also married to
a Chilcat Indian. We considered our ground
ran to Dyea and Skagway. We did not
know our boundary Une. The Sticks and
Chilcats were good friends and did not
fight only with themselves. I know a King
George gunboat came to Dyea a long time ago to
keep the ChUcat Indians from killing each other.
John Healy and WUson claimed to be British
men, but Dickerson claimed to be American;
don't know what part they came from.
Dated at Caribou, Yukon
Territory,  this   29th
1903,
and   Sealed    in
presence of
John Turner.
Signed
the
Tagish  Charley,
His X mark.
Yukon Territory.
I, John Turner, CoUector of Customs, Caribou
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:
1. That I was personally present and did see
Tagish Charley, the party named in this declaration, who is personaUy known to me to be the
person named therein, duly sign for the purpose
named therein.
2. That the same was executed on the day of
the date thereof at the town of Caribou aforesaid, in the said Yukon Territory.
3. That I know the said Tagish Charley, and
he is, in my belief, of the fuU age of twenty-
one years.
Sworn before me at Caribou
Crossing,   in   the   Yukon
Territory, this 29th day of
May, 1903,
Thomas James Hilling,
Commissioner for taking affidavits.
John Turner.
1 94
Testimony of Kate Carmack.
31
I, Kate Carmack, a Stick Indian, of Caribote
Crossing, in the Yukon Territory, make oath
and say that I am forty-four years of age and
was born at Bennett, British Columbia.   We
used to go to Dyea to trade our furs for food
and clothing, and to Skagway and Dyea to fish,
sometimes staying about one month, and return
to Bennett and Tagish.   I was married to one
George Washington Carmack, who was a white
man, and came from Frisco, U.S.A., and claimed
to be an American.   He came to Dyea by steamboat accompanied by two other men, John Healy
and WUson, who used to keep a trading post at
Dyea; these two men claimed to be Canadians,
but don't know what   part they came from.
George Dickerson, a white man, from. Haines,
used to keep the mission and also traded with
us at Dyea, returning to Haines by boat.   We
considered the Stick Indians had every right to
stay at Dyea, Skagway and Sheep Camp, if we
wished.    The   ChUcat Indians  used  to   fight
with themselves, not with the Stick Indians.
Dickerson and WUson are both dead, but I
think that John Healy is stiU Uving at Dawson.
I heard that some years ago a British gunboat
came to Dyea to keep peace with the Chilcat
Indians, but I did not see the boat.   About
twelve years ago, a lot of white men came into
Dyea and   passed through into this country,
both the Chilcats and Sticks packing their stuff
over the summit.
Dated   at   Caribou, Yukon | k^ Cabmack.
Territory,   this   29th   of }   „ ,
May, 1903, )   **■** X mark-
Signed and Sealed in the
presence of
John Turner.
am%
«    -;
1 ?j
Yukon Territory.—
I, John Turner, CoUector of Customs, Caribou
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:—
1. That I was personally present and did see
Kate Carmack, the party named in this
declaration, who is personaUy known to me to
be the person named therein, duly sign for
the purpose named therein.
2. That the same was executed on the day of
the date thereof at the town of Caribou aforesaid
in the said Yukon Territory.
3. ThatI know the said Kate Carmack, and she
is in my belief of the full age of twenty-one years.
-Sworn before me at Caribou
Crossing,   in   the   Yukon
Territory, this 29th day of
May, 1903,
Thomas James Hilling,
Commissioner for taking affidavits.
John Turner. 95
Testimony of Tagish John
I, Tagish John, a Stick Indian, of Caribou
Crossing, in the Yukon Territory, make oath
and say that I am fifty years old and was
born at Tagish.    We used to go to Dyea to
trade our furs in the summer for food and
clothing, and would sometimes stay a month or
more.   We also camped sometimes at Sheep
Camp and Skagway.   At the latter place we
used to fish.   The ChUcat Indians never used
to visit Skagway, but be at Dyea to trade.
They would also come over the summit and
visit us.   We, the Stick Indians, considered we
had a right to stay at Dyea.   I have not been
to Kluckwan, and don't know if our Une was at
the summit or not.   The ChUcat Indians would
not drive us away from Dyea, as we used to be
good friends.   John Healy and WUson (white
men), had a trading post at Dyea, and we
understood they were British men the same as
ourselves.    George Dickerson, trader at Haines,
used to come to Dyea in a boat and return to
Haines, never Uved at Dyea.   He was a white
man and an American, and was married to a
half-breed.    He had a son Uving three years
ago at Haines, was married to a ChUcat, but
think he has left there now.   Old man Dickerson
and Wilson are both dead, but Healy supposed
to be Uving at Dawson.   I don't know if our
boundary Une was right at the summit, as we
used to think Dyea was our home if we wanted
to stay.
Dated at Caribou, Yukon \ jjjs
Territory, this 29th of > Tagish John   X
May, 1903, I
Signed and sealed in the presence of
John Turner.
mark
Yukon Territory.—
I, John Turner, CoUector of Customs, Caribou
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:
1. That I was personally present and did.
see Tagish John, the party named hi this
declaration, who is personally known to me to
be the person named therein, duly sign for the
purpose named therein.
2. That the same was executed on the day of
the date thereof at the town of Caribou aforesaid
in the 'said Yukon Territory.
3. That I know the said Tagish John, and he is
in my beUef of the fuU age of twenty-one years.
Sworn before me at Caribou \
Crossing,   in   the  Yukon f Jqhn Tubnbr
Territory, this 29th day of 1
May, 1903, J
Thomas James Hilling,
Commissioner for taking affidavits. Testimony of Dyea John.
96
I, Dyea John, a Stick Indian, of Caribou
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:—
That I am sixty-five years old and was born
at Dyea.   I claim that I am a British Indian
and own two houses in Dyea.    Both Stick and
Chilkat Indians have always traded their furs
at Dyea.   I have not been to Klukwan and
don't   know   anything   about   the  boundary
between the   two   tribes.   I   used   to go to
Skagway and fish, and also camped at Sheep
Camp.   John Healy and WUson had a trading
post at Dyea, and- claimed to be British, the
same   as   the   Stick   Indians   did.     George
Dickerson Uved at Haines, but used to come
over to Dyea in a boat and only stayed long
enough to trade.    He also had the Mission at
Haines and was married to a half-breed.   He
had a son, he is married to a ChUkat, don't
know where he is now.     George Dickerson
claimed to he American.   I can't say where
any    of    the     traders    first    came    from.
Steamboats   used    to   run   to   Dyea   from
Frisco,  U.S.A, and  take   our furs and fish
and bring in food and clothes.   The ChUkat
and Sticks did not fight with themselves at
Dyea and never turned the Sticks back over
the summit.    Once, long ago, a gunboat came
to Dyea, but did not see it.   It was to keep the
ChUkats from killing each other.
Dated at Caribou Crossing, \
Yukon     Territory,    this f    Draa. John
twenty-ninth    day   May, C   His X mark.
1903,    Signed and sealed /
in the presence of
John Turner.
Yukon Territory.—
I, John Turner, CoUector of Customs, Caribou
Crossing, Yukon Territory, make oath and say:—
1. That I was personally present and did see
Dyea John the party named in this declaration,
who is personally known to me to be the
person named therein, duly sign for the purpose
named therein.
2. That the same was executed on the day
of the date thereof, at the town of Caribou
aforesaid, in the said Yukon Territory.   .
3. That I know the said Dyea John, and he is
in my belief, of the mU age of twenty-one years
Sworn   before   me   at
Caribou Crossing in
the Yukon Territory, ^ John Turner.
this twenty-ninth day I
of May, 1903, J
Thomas James Hilling,
Commissioner for taking affidavits 97
Testimony of Peter Duncam.
Canada. j
Province of British Columbia. \
County of Vancouver.        J
I, Peter Duncan, of " WeUs," in the County
of Vancouver, Yeoman, make oath and say:—
I saw ChUkat Indians, i.e. "YeU-lack" and
" Ye-ka-sha," at the Oolechan grounds on
Thursday, 28th day of May, 1903, and they
informed me that they had not sworn to any
affidavit in the town of Skagway, in the district
of Alaska, in the year 1899.
Sworn    before    me,     at \
WeUs, in the County of f .
Vancouver, on 30th day
of May, 1903,
A. E. C. McDonell, J.P.
Witness—
WiUiam Hume.
■Peter Duncan.
Testimony of George Shartrage.
Canada. I
Yukon Territory. J
In the matter of the occupation of certain
portions of the Yukon Territroy by Chilcat
Indians, and certain statements said to have
been made in connection therewith so to wit:—
1. I, George Shartrage, am hereditary chief of
the ChUkat Indians Uving at Kluckwan, which Ues
on the left bank of the ChUkat River as it flows
towards the sea, and one and a half mUes below
the boundary Une between the Province of
British Columbia, Dominion of Canada, and the
District af Alaska, U.S.A., as estabUshed by
the modus vivendi on the 20th October, 1899.
2. That I am hereditary chief of the ChUkat
Indians, and succeeded my father as chief.
That I am now aged sixty years, and have a
knowledge of the matters herein declared.
3. That I am informed that it is reported
that myseU and other Chilkat Indians, stated at
Skagway in the said district of Alaska, on the
29th of June, a.d., 1899, that the territory
claimed by the ChUkat Indians did extend to
tbe disputed boundary.
4. I do solemnly declare that I was personally
present at Skagway in the aforesaid month of
June, 1899, and that no such statement was
made either by myself or other Chilkat Indians.
5. I do further solemnly declare that I stated
at the time referred to, and do now state, that
the country between Skagway and Dyea and
the White Pass and Chilkoot was considered
neutral ground and that portion of the country
extending between Kluckwan and the summit
was free to all Indians and white men, and
that  at no time were these portions of tha ffri
IH
* I9WI
Testimony of George Shartrage-
continued.
98
country claimed by Chilkat   Indians   to the
exclusion of other Indians.
And I make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true, and
knowing that it is of the same force and effect
as if made under oath, and by virtue of the
Canada Evidence Act, 1893.
This Declaration^
having been   first
read over and interpreted   to   the
declarant       by
Samuel     Jackson
and the  said  declarant seemed to
perfectly     under- His
stand   the    same f George x Shartrage
and   did   set   his mark.
mark thereto in my
presence, and did
declare the   same
to   be   true.     At
White Horse in the
Yukon   Territory,
this   3rd   day   of
June, 1903, j
T. W. Jackson.
A   Notary   PubUc   in
and   for the   Yukon
Territory.
I, Samuel Jackson, do declare that I did
truly interpret the foregoing declaration to
George Shartrage, and that he assented thereto,
and did affix his mark thereto, as token of such
assent, in my presence.
Declared before me this
3rd day  of June, a.d. \ Sam
1903,
T. W. Jackson.
Testimony of Ed. Armstrong.
\
United States of
America,
District of Alaska.
I, Ed. Armstrong, being first duly sworn, on
oath depose and say; that I am a citizen of the
United States and a resident of the district of
Alaska, and now residing at Haines in the said
district.
That I am personally acquainted with Robert
Ohman, John Wade, M. V. Sharp, and Jack
McGlotchlan, and have known them since about
the year 1884. That I personally know the
said Robert Ohman, M. V. Sharp, and Jack
McGlotchlan ; -that while I was in the United 99
Testimony of Ed. Armstron
continued.
States Marshall's office at Junean as Guard, in
about the year 1885 the said Robert Ohman,
M. V. Sharp, and Jack McGlotchlan qualified
and served as jurors in the United States District
Court while that court was in session at Junean,
Alaska. That as to John Wade, whUe I was
personally weU acquainted with him and believe
him to be an American citizen, I had no way
of knowing positively as to his being such.
Further deponent sayeth not.
Subscribed  and sworn
to   before   me   this
" 28th   day   of   May,
1903,
W. B. Stout,
Notary PubUc for Alaska.
In the presence of—
F. A. Marquam and
F. P. Horrigan.
Ed. Armstrong.
I, Fitzpatrick Horrigan, of White Horse, in
the Yukon Territory, an Inspector in the North
West Mountain PoUce, make oath and say,
to wit:—
1. That I was personally present at Haines,
in the district of Alaska, on the twenty-eighth
day of May, a.d., 1903, and did see the
annexed affidavit duly signed as his act by
Ed. Armstrong.
2. That I know the said Ed. Armstrong, and
am a subscribing witness to the execution of
the said affidavit.
Sworn   before me at White \
Horse,     in    the    Yukon \-
Territory,      this      fourth |
day of June, a.d., 1903,
F. W. Jackson.
A Notary PubUc in and for
the Yukon Territory.
■F. Horrigan.
Testimony of John P. Lindsay.
John P. Lindsay, proprietor of the Lindsay
Hotel, Porcupine, on oath states:—
I reside in ChUkat, Alaska. In the years
1890, 1891, 1892 and 1893 I was personaUy
acquainted with John Wade, M. V. Sharp and
a Jack McLaughlin, whom I presume is
the same man as Jack McGlochlan. Jack
Wade came to the ChUkat in 1890. He was
employed fishing around there, and at one time
worked under me as mate on a smaU steamer
that I was running for the cannery. On the
4th July, 1892, he got into trouble with
some Indians and shot and killed two of them.
For this he was  under bonds of $20,000 to PI
I
Pi
IS
PI
ill!
Testimony of John P.
Lindsay—
continued.
100
appear before the Grand Jury, but nothing was
ever done, no indictment was ever brought
against him.   Wade came from Texas and I
presume was an American citizen.   I do not
know what became of him.   M. V. Sharp was
in the country for some time before I came in
in 1890.     He used to come up   to Chilkat
in   the   summer   with  a   steamer,   I   don't
know what nationaUty he was or what became
of him.     Jack   McLaughlin   when   I   knew
him was  located in  Seward City,  20  miles
below Haines Mission.    He was one of  the
discoverers of the Comet Mines.   He sold the
mines and  was  killed  shortly afterwards by
shpping down the hold of the S.S. "Alki."
His death occurred sometime between 1893 and
1897.   I think he came from Eastern Canada.
Sworn before me this 26th
day  of June, 1903 at
Pleasant Camp, B.C.
A. E. C. McDonell, J.P.
John P. Lindsay.
!}  4;.| I
I, WiUiam Henderson, make oath and say
that I was present and did see John P. Lindsay,
whom I know personaUy, sign this attached
document on the 26th day of May, 1903, at
Pleasant Camp, B.C.
Sworn before me at Pleasant J
Camp, B.C., this 26th day V W.Henderson
of May, 1903. I
A. E. C. McDonell, J.P.
m  J
'■\ e!»;;'
II? K/?<?    <J7*;>   Af?e~J(.   \/. I     C .2,
P      VHl\   ACc 

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