Open Collections

The Chung Collection

Chung Logo

The Chung Collection

Vancouver Island : its resources and capabilites as a colony Forbes, Charles 1862

Item Metadata


JSON: chungpub-1.0056043.json
JSON-LD: chungpub-1.0056043-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): chungpub-1.0056043-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: chungpub-1.0056043-rdf.json
Turtle: chungpub-1.0056043-turtle.txt
N-Triples: chungpub-1.0056043-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: chungpub-1.0056043-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

ttWs&nJv iSuS.~l/. <yie€<d
i?*^^(^?€e€»9ty/k€€i'  /S2> 3%^
llll '
Wt: AS   A
CHAKLES   EOEBES, Esq.,   M. T>.,   M. E. 0. S., ENG.,
1 V
*^&^|^ *^ ii *S^SI*N
^^^^Sra^i s l
AN D .
Colonial Secretary?s Office, \
29th October, 1861.
•JjsISiSl^overnment^^ wnteh sn^allvffeL adiudged
to set forth in^the clearestVmd most comprehensive mannerflie capabilities, resources and advantages, of Vancouver's Island as a Colony for settle-
The following rules will govern the award: —
1. Competitors must send their Essays in a sealed cover, directed to the
Colonial  Secretary  of Vancouver's Island, on or before the 1st of Jalruarj
1860. ^\
2. No name or mark is to be attached whereby the writer can be known#oy
his Essay; but some distinctive motto is to be affixed
3. A duplicate of the chosen motto is to be sent to the Colonial Secretary,
marked on the outside of a sealed envelope, upon the inside of which is to be
given the name of the writer of the Essay bearing such corresponding motto.
4. The Essay will be submitted for award to a Board composed of the following gentlemen, who have kindly consented to act on the occasion;
The Rev. C. T. Woods, M. A.
William F. Tolmie, Esq., M. D.
Gilbert M. Sproat, Esq.
5. After the Board has arrived at its decision, and signified the same to the
Colonial Secretary, the Colonial Secretary will forward to it the sealed Envelope, bearing the motto corresponding to that of the chosen Essay. The
Envelope will be opened by the board, and the name found therein signified
to the Colonial Secretary.
Envelopes of unsuccessful  competitors will be returned unopened, if desired; but all the Essays will .remain the property of the Government.
An award of Ten Pounds will be made for the second best Essay.
By order of the Governor.
[In accordance with the foregoing announcement, a number of. Essays were
sent in to the Committee, who after a careful examination,^wardedSfcJie^)rfefi
>to the Essay here produced.] CONTENT
Introductory and Descriptive.  Geographical Position—General Appearance
—Nature of Climate—Early History.
Physical   Geography  and  Geology.
Hydrography. Currents—Tides—Lighthouses—Harbours—Coast Line and
adjoining Agricultural Districts—Islaads—Banks, &c.
Meteorology—General and Local—for the years 1846, '47, '4B, '49., '50, '51,
1860, '61 and 1*862—Influence on Vegetation.
Part hi.
PoLixiCAL Geography. Population (Aboriginal and Colonial)—Language and
Habits—Employment of the People—Rates of Wages—Comparative
Walue of Money—Expense of Living—Price of Provisions, &c.—Cost
of House Building—Towns, Villages, Settlements—Joint Stock Companies—Ship Building—Foundry—Breweries—Public Buildings—Theatres, &c.
•Government—Executive and Legislative—Judiciary, and Legal Profession—
State of Crime—Religious Denominations—Education—Literary Productions—Salubrity of Climate—Statistics of Disease—Medical Pro*-
fession, Hospitals, Sanataria—Agriculture—Horticulture—Floriculture
Currency—Capital—Weights and Measures—Trade and Commerce—
Imports—Exports—Gold Assaying—Banking, Revenue and Expenditure—Do of British Columbia—Steam Communication—{Subsidies for
Mails and Road Making.
Emigration—Classes of Emigrants—Routes—Expenses—Emigration Barracks
—Settlements of Pensioners—Free Grants of Land—Emigration
Agency—Land and Roads—Britisa Columbia and Vancouver Island,
Anomalous {Relative Positions of.
statural Productions-
Natural History.
'Recapitulation and General Summary of Capabilities, Resources aswl Advant-
The Voyager, approaching the Western Coast of North America, between
the parallels of 48° and 49° North latitude, sees the land rising: before him, in
bold and rugged  outline, both   on' the right hand and on the left, and, as he
OO 7 O. 7 7
pursues  his course towards what  appears to be but the rugged inhospitable
A   i   m- OO XT
shore of a savage country, views with delight, resting on its rock}' pedestal,
that truest emblem of civilization "The Friendly Beacon," which, proclaiming
that the wished for Haven is at hand, relieves the navigator from anxious care,
and lights the emigrant to his new home.
On the right hand, away in the South East, in Washington Territory, is
O 7 t/ / O i/  7
the Olympian range of mountains, forming the prominent feature of the coast
line—a dark, ragged, snow capped mass, the precipitious cliffs of which
appear to descend abruptly into the sea, fringed however, by a belt of gently
sloping, undulating country, its sea wall shattered and broken up, by the force
of the restless and resistless ocean, into rociff' needle shaped promontories, and
rugged outlying Islands.
On the left, stretching far into the North West horizon, is a mountain range,
7 O 7 O      7
rising abruptly from the sea, rugged and broken in its outline, and presenting
to the beholder's eye, every feature of mountain scenery—the sharp solitary
peak, the broken sierra, and the rounded dome shaped mass, reflecting in the
western sunlight, from their various surfaces and angles, the rays of light in
infinite variety -of hue, from the dark indigo, of the lower ranges to the rosy
purple of tbe peaks.
And this, the first view of VANCOUVER ISLAND, which presents itself, is
one, to which a romantic interest is attached: for who will not recall, with de-
' 7 7
light, the early feelings and associations of his boyhood, when glancing at the
chart, he sees, that under yonder rugged mountains lie Nootka and Clayoquot,
names well remembered, but over the reality of which, from the remoteness
of the scene, a certain mystery seemed to hang, graphically described though
the places were, by Cook and Vancouver. The romance and the mystery have
now however alike given way to a hopeful reality, and the Emigrant sees before
him in that mountain range, the rocky pillars and stony buttresses of the land
of his adoption—aland full of promise and of hope.
Passing the lighthouse at Cape Flattery, and entering the Strait of Juan de
Fuca, nowhere more than ten to twelve miles in width, the voyager sees on the
right hand the snow capped range of Olympia,its dark and frowning precipices
descending gloomily to the shore. On the left, reflecting a purple light, the
metamorphic and trappean rocks of Vancouver, with a fringing belt of
yellow sandstone—and, sweeping on for about sixty miles, he sees before him, and approaches another " Guiding Star" for the adventurous seaman, "The
Flashing Light" on the Race Rocks ; rounding which, a magnificent Panorama
opens to his view"; a picture which, viewed by the warm sunlight of a fine
Autumnal day, can nowhere be surpassed for beauty of outline, or richness
and variety of colouring.
On his immediate left, are the rounded trappean hill3 of Vancouver,
covered nearly to the summits by a thick vegetation, the purple tints of the
bold outstanding rocks mingling in harmony of tone, with the dark green of
ml Pine and of the Oak, while below, in the vallies, and lower grounds, the
cool greys of the rounded rock masses, fringed by a thick carpet of purple brown
fern, join with the Autumnal orange tints of the Maple, and the bright, yet
tender green of the Alder and the Willow, to form a mass of colour, on which
the eye dwells with delight.
Before the observer, stretches an undulating park-like Country, backed
by wooded hills of moderate height—the sea face formed of a succession of
low, rounded, rocky promontories, with outlying reefs and Islands. From Fis-
gard lighipvhich, like a watchful sentinel, guards the entrance to the harbour
of Esquimalt, past Victoria harbour, Beacon Hill, and, sweeping on by Cad-
borough Bay, this same character of country obtains ; its sloping pastures,
studded with oak and maple, giving, from their general appearance, the idea
of a country long occupied by civilized man, and covered with flocks and herds
To the North, outlying groups of Islands, some low and undulating, others
bold and picturesque, stud and spring from the glassy sea.
And in the East, the horizon is bounded by the American Continent, grandly
outlined and defined by the noble proportions of Mount Baker, towering in its
mantle of perpetual snow, from the giant shoulder of which, stretches, in a
South Easterly direction, the serrated snow clad range of the Cascades.
Vancouver in his " Voyage," thus speaks of a portion of this locality, and
his special description, has a general application: "To describe the beauties
of this region, will, on some future occasion, be a very grateful task to the
pen of the skilful panegyrist. The serenity of the climate, the innumerable
pleasing landscapes, and the abundant fertility, that unassisted nature puts
forth, require only to be enriched by the industry of man, with villages, mansions', cottages, and other buildings, to render it the most lovely country that
can be imagined, whilst the labour ot the inhabitants would be amply rewarded
in the bounties which nature seems ready to bestow on cultivation."
Thus Vancouver wrote, in May 1T82, nearly 80 years ago, and the field is
still unoccupied, still open, calling for the labour of man, to regulate its wild
luxuriance, and develope its latent wealth. The first, the initiatory steps have
been taken, however, for the occupation of this fruitful, smiling land; and the
industry of man will soon complete the lovely scene, which, with prophetic
eve, its discoverer so clearly foresaw, and which he so eloquently foretold.
Situated between the parallels of 48° 20// and 51° N. Lat. in from 123° to
128° W. Long. Vancouver, from its insular position, enjoys a climate much
less rigorous, and more equable, thau the corresponding area, on the continent
off the shores of which it lies.
Of an elongated oblong form, it is essentially a mountain ridge, attaining,
at Mount Arrowsmith, an elevation of 5,900 feet, composed of metamorphic and
trappean rocks, fringed by a belt of carboniferous sandstones and other sedi- 3
mentary deposits. Cut up by numerous arms and inlets of the sea, in no case
does the water-shed suffice to give a navigable stream, though numerous fresh
water lakes are found, embosomed amongst the spurs of the mountain ranges.
In length, 300 miles, with an average breadth of 30 to 50, its outline is boldly
picturesque, its shores are characterized by abrupt cliffs, rocky promontories,
magnificent harbors, sheltered coves, and pebbly beaches.
Its surface is beautifully diversified by mountain precipice, hill and dale,
and undulating prairies, the tameness of which is broken, by numerous bosses
of trappean rock, which raise their forms on either hand, and round which, the
gnarled oak, spreads its leafy arms, affording a grateful shade in the summer
In such localities, the general feature of the landscape is very similar to
many parts of Devonshire, more especially to that on the eastern escarpment of
Dartmoor, and the resemblance is rendered the more striking by the numerous
stone circles, which lie scattered around. The trappean rocks, which, in Vancouver take the place of the granite of Devon, as giving feature to the
scene, furrowed, grooved, and scratched by ice action, point to a period far
back in time, when a submerged land lay under a Boreal ocean, and these
stone circles point to a period in ethnological history, which has no longer a.
place in the memory of man.
Scattered in irregular groups of from three or four, to fifty or more, these stone
circles are found, crowning the rounded promontories over all the South
Eastern end of the Island. Their dimensions vary in diameter from three to
eighteen feet: of some, only a simple ring of stones marking the outline now
remains. In other instances the circle is not only complete in outline, but is
filled in, built up as it were, to a height of three to four feet, with masses of
rock and loose stones, collected from amongst the numerous erratic boulders,
which cover the surface of th
e country, and from the gravel of the boulder
drift which fills up many of the hollows. These structures are of considerable
antiquitv, and whatever they mav have been intended for, have been long
disused, for, through the centre of many, the pine, the oak, and the arbutus
have shot up and attained, considerable dimensions—a full growth.
The Indians when questioned, can give no further account of the matter,
than that, "it belonged to the old people," and an examination, by taking some
of the largest circles to pieces, and digging beneath, throws no light on the
subject. ' The only explanation to be found, is in the hypothesis, that these
were the dwellings of former tribes, who have either entirely disappeared, or
whose descendants have changed their mode of living, and this supposition is
strengthened by the fact, that a certain tribe on the Fraser river, did, till very
recently live, in circular beehive shaped houses, built of loose stones, having
an aperture in the arched roof forentrance and exit, and that in some localities
in upper California the same remains are found, and the same origin assigned
to them.
The climate of Vancouver, in the succession of ' its seasons, and general
thermal conditions, approximates closely to that of Great Britain, modified by
special circumstances connected with its physical geography.
Situated close to a continent the mountain ranges of which are clothed or
capped with perpetual snow, surrounded by an ocean remarkable for its
extremely low temperature, certain local peculiarities present themselves  to
d^ the observation of the climatologist—and these are well and specially marked
in the S. E. end of the Island, owing to its proximity to the Olympian range
of mountains in Washington Territory.
This range, running East and West, presents its Northern aspect to Vancouver Island, and since on this aspect the snow remains on the mountain peaks
all the year round, the winds which blow from this direction arc occasionally
cold andchilling.
The balmy breezes of the South, laden with moisture which would materially modify the arid heat of the later summer, are intercepted by this range,
their moisture condensed and heat abstracted, if they do blow home, they come
not like the genial South, breathing incense and bringing fertility, but more
like an easterly wind in Europe, dry, chill and cold.
On a clear summer day, when the direct rays of the sun are scorching, and
labour or exercise on the dry and heated surface of the earth is overpowering,
a gentle southerly breeze may be blowing, so gentle as not to make itself felt
in the open, yet so cold as to make the heated traveller long for an extra cov-
ering if he seeks the shade. In like manner, to the hot day succeeds a cold
sight. The heat obtained from the calorific rays of the sun during the dayf-
is quickly radiated from the surface of the earth, and down from the mountain peaks comes creeping the heavy cold air, to spread itself over the surface
of sea and land.
Setting in about the middle of November, the rains are frequent until
April, the weather in general taking the following course :
A 7 O O O
After the gales with rain, Which generally mark the period of the equinox,
fine clear weather sets in, and continues until about the middle of November; at
this period, rain begins to fall continuously for days, and gales of wind are
frequent on the coast.
The Barometer ranges from 29.50 to 30.10, and falls rapidly on the approach of a southerly gale. Rising gradually to 30.20 and 30.50, a northerly
wind springs up, and three days of fine clear weather with hoar frost generally follow.
After the third day the Barometer slowly falls, and again the gale springs
up, and the rains come down, to be succeeded after a few days by a
rising glass and frosty weather, which, as the season advances, becomes more
o   o v 7
intense and is accompanied by hail and snow. The latter seldom lies for
any length of time, the winter of 1859-'60 being, however, a remarkably severe
These exceptional seasons occur in all climates, and here only prove the
rule that an open, wet, winter, characterizes Vancouver Island.
During this period the appearance of the landscape is gloomy, the sombre
dark green foliage of the pine throws a heavy shadow on the bare rocks, the
warm brown carpet of fern has in a great measure disappeared, the bramble
has died down, the thickets of rose, of raspberry, and of sweet briar are but
naked" skeletons, and nothing is left to gladden the eye but the graceful clusters
of the wax-like suowberry, contrasting with the beautiful green of the young
and springing pines.
In the month of March winter begins to disappear, and, bursting from
the teeming eart3i with the first war-nith of spring and early summer,
numerous bulbous  plants raise their beauteous heads 'arrayed in the loVe~«2 I
licst colours, to welcome the coming season. The delicate lilac petals of
the Kamass, the beautiful blue Collinsia with its starry eye, bringing to remembrance the " Forget me Not" of the old home, the graceful Trilium in its
glossy setting of dark green l<*af, and, amongst the broken rocks and gnarled
roots of trees, springing lightly on its delicate stem, the graceful drooping Ery-
thronium or dog tooth violet. The wild Ribes with its scarlet blossom gives
early evidence of life, and amongst the dead leaves of a bygone year, smiles
a bright encouragement and welcome to the opening buds. The spring grass
and young shoots of the fern give a covering of tender green to the earth,
over which, during the dark months of winter, the solemn pine has been
brooding,—the Oak unfolds its leaf, the Maple gently opens unto day, the
Willow, Alder, and Aspen, fill the hollows with their yellow green light, the
Gooseberry and the Currant, the Raspberry and the Rose, in their native
thickets burst into le'af and into blossom.
Numberless minute but lovely flowers spring through the grassy carpet, or,
in groups of rich and gorgeous colouring, irregularly scattered by nature's
hand, clothe the but now dead and naked rock with a bright mantle. The
surface of the earth is teeming with life, the air is redolent of the odours
of a thousand blossoms, and the face of the whole country sweeping on in
o-raceful undulations is, literally, a Garden of Roses.
In the months of June and July, vegetation attains its most vigorous
growth, and its progress is most remarkable. In August and September the
want of rain begins to be felt, the summer heats parching the ground and
scorching the pastures. After the break of the season, the fine weather of the
later Autumn (the Indian summer) sets in, and the mellow tints on leaf and
spray give the chief charm of the year to the lovely landscape, while they,
proclaim that its beauty is for a time about to pass away.
The prevailing winds during the summer months, are from S. W. to N. W.
blowing freshly during the day, the nights tranquil and clear.
Northerly winds occasionally prevail, and, for such a latitude as Vancouver,
are quite exceptional in their character—being hot and dry. Blowing gentlv
from the north, they sweep over the land heated by the rays of the summer
sun, and gathering fragrance in the Pine woods as theypass,they fill the air with
a transparent haze, and give an almost tropical appearance to the landscape.
Such is a brief outline of the nature and succession of the seasons in
Vancouver Island, and a glance at the Meteorological Register appended, if
compared with that of Great Britain, will show a close isothermal relation.
The chief and most striking differences; appear to be, that in Vancouver,
the spring is somewhat later and colder, the summer drier, the sun more
scorching, though the average mean temperature is the same.
The autumn of the American climate is finer than that of the European,
and the fine weather, (the Indian summer) extends further into the year. The
winter months, in ordinary seasons, are much the same as in the West of
England, in the severer and exceptional, like the Midland counties, and East
coast of Scotland.
Such also are a few of the objects of beauty and interest which present
themselves to the observer and admirer of the varied charms of nature, on his
first approach to, and landing on, the Island of Vancouver—an island destined to play a great part in the future political history of the world. ,
The early history of this important region can be nowhere better studied
than in the voyages of Cook and Vancouver.
Brought into special notice just eighty years ago, Vancouver Island was
the cause of a dispute, a political rupture, and very nearly of a war, between
Great Britain and Spain. In 1788, certain individuals, subjects of Great
Britain, agents of a mercantile house in Canton, purchased from the natives
the land about Friendly Cove, in Nootka Sound, the latter at the same time,
according to their customs, conferring sovereignty on Mr. Meares, the purchaser, by doing homage to him. Dwelling houses, warehouses, &c, were
erected, and on the English leaving for a season, these were left in charge of
the Chief, Maquinna, Mr. Meares intending to return in the following year.
In the mean time a Spanish officer arrived with two ships of war, and took
formal possession of the place, claiming sovereignty over the whole. The
dispute was referred to the respective Governments of Great Britain and of
Spain, and on the latter attempting to justifytbe measure, a fleet was promptly
fitted out by the former, and a declaration of war was imminent.
This prompt measure brought Spain to terms, and Nootka was eventually
given up, Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy, being sent out on the
part of England to receive the transfer, and at the same time survey the
coast and prosecute a voyage of maritime discovery.
From this period onwards, the country was visited only by Fur Traders, and
it was not until 1843 that any settlement was formed on the Island. In that
year the Hon. Hudson's Bay Company started a Trading Fort in the Harbor, and
on the land which now forms the site of the City of Victoria.
In 1849 a Colony was formed, and encouragement given to agricultural
immigrants, under the auspices of the Puget Sound Agricultural Association.
In 1858, the existence of gold in the banks and on the bars of Fraser River
was made public, and a great rush took place to tbe new "Dorado j" gold
miners, capitalists, and land speculators, flocking to the scene of speculation,
enterprise and adventure.
Since that time the progress of the Colony has beea rapid, the City of Victoria springing into existence as if at the touch of a magician's wand. At the
present moment the prospects of the Colony look brighter than ever, a great
advance, a grand development is " looming in the future," both for Vancouver
and the sister Colony of British Columbia an advance and development—which
must tend to the natural and inevitable result of combining them politically,
as they are physically, together, and giving them a community of interests, in
their mutual relations. PAET   ii.  ?,.:
The great chain of the Rocky Mountains running from N. W. to S. E. form
the axis of elevation of the Western coast of North America; and the Physical
Geography of British Columbia aud of Vancouver Island is due, primarily to
this mountain range, and secondarily, to the eruptive elevatory forces of that
great line of volcanic action/ of which Mount Baker, Mount Ranier, and Mount
Helen, are the vents.
The range of the Rocky Mountains is composed, generally, of igneous
hypogenic rocks, having, resting on and flanking them, Silurian deposits, associated with gold bearing rocks..
It has been recently ascertained, however, by Mr. Bauerman, of the North
American Boundary Commission, that in the vicinity of the 49th Parallel, this
range is mainly composed of contorted, false bedded, stratified rocks, very full
of ripple mark, with some interstratified basaltic traps. These beds rest on a
gneisso-granitic mass which is exposed at Pend-Orielle Lake, about halfway
between the Columbia and Kootaine Rivers.
This granite is the Central Geological Axis of the country, and it divides
the unaltered rocks of the Eastern Slope, from those of the Western side,
which are principally black slates and limestones, contemporaneous with the
lower beds of the Rocky Mountains, but they are very much altered and disturbed both by granitic and greenstone rocks. It is remarkable that only one
greenstone dyke is exposed to the eastward of Pend-Orielle Lake, (in the
valley of the Kootaine River), while the amount of metamorphism in the rocks
increases as we pass westward from the Columbia to the Pacific, or valley of
the Fraser River.
This great range, then, runs in a X. W. and 13. E. direction, at an average
distance of from 350 to 400 miles from the coast.
Parallel to this, running in the same general direction, is the Coast Range,
which sends down westerly, numerous rugged mountain spurs to meet the sea,
and to form deep inlets.
This range, composed of plutonic, metamorphic and trappean rocks, permeated throughout by a system of metalliferous quartzose veins, and trappean
dykes, sends off a branch known as the Lilloet spur, to terminate at the Fraser
River, west of Hope. Between the range and the spur, is enclosed a chain of
lakes, which, with their portages, are of great importance as a means of transit
to the upper country. A succession of elevated plateaux of the tertiary age,
stretch westerly from the base of the Rocky 'Mountains and their flanking 1
ridges, to this Lilloet Spur of the Coast Range, and. cutting its way through ;;
the friable materials of this deposit, bursting through the mountain passes at
Yale and Hope, the Fraser River with its golden waters, flows onwards to
the sea, bringing down in its spring and summer torrents, those lighter particles of gold which, accumulated on its banks and bars, have been the means of
directing attention to, and developing that amazing wealth of the rugged upper
country, whence the noble stream derives its springs of life.
Sweeping on past Yale and Hope, the River leaves its rocky barrieis behind,
and rolling on in graceful, sweeps, passes the rising city of New Westminster,
to empty its flood into the Gulf of Georgia. During the latter part of its
course, it flows, a tranquil, steady stream, through tertiary and alluvial deposits,
carrying with it sedimeiitarjr matter to be deposited as banks and shoals, the
nuclei of future "green fields and pastures new."
The Colony of British Columbia, which thus extends its western  borders
to the sea, has a noble barrier for the protection of its shores. An outlying
ridge, another parallel chain of mountains, cut off however by the sea from
the Continent, with which, in its physical geography it is connected, forms an
archipelago of islands, the chief of which is the sister Colony of Vancouver.
The whole northern and western sea face of British Columbia as far south
as Howe Sound, is a rugged mass of plutonic, trappean and quartzose rocks,
with associated semi-crystalline limestones. Cut up by numerous inlets and
arms of the sea, it needs no protection against the winds and waves, but sends?
out its adamantine promontories to meet them.
Far different however is the coast line from Howe Sound or Burrard's Inlet
southwards. Stretching in a semicircle the convexity of which touches the
foot range of mountain above Langley on the Fraser, and reaching south past
Bellingham Bay into United States territory, is a deposit of loose friable sandstones and alluvium, the same through which the Fraser River cuts its way.
These sandstones at Burrard's Inlet and at Bellingham Bay contain seams of
lignite, the associated friable sandstones where hardened and partially metamorphosed, shewing impressions of a dicotyledonous plant allied to the maple.
All geological evidence tends to prove, that the last upheaval of this continent and outl}"ing islands was slow and gradual, occurring in the post
pleistocene or most recent tertiary epoch. And the existence of this belt of
sandstone and alluvium, which is of such vast importance to British Columbia.
is due in the first place to stikth upheaval and deposition of alluvial matter, in
the second place to the protection of the outlying insular barriers, Vancouver,
and its dependencies.
The great importance (physically speaking), to British Columbia of this:
barrier group of islands, will be at once apparent to any one who takes into
consideration the powerful effects of the violent storms which rage on tMss
coast in the later autumnal and early spring months, together with the sweeping currents, which, rushing irregularly in all directions, carry everything but
the hardest rocks befoie them. Without such protection a? is thus afforded,
the loose friable materials of the district indicated, must have been long since
swept away, and what will eventually be a rfeh agricultural country lost to
the industry of man.
The special physical geography of Vancouver in so far as regards its form
and feature has been already briefly given—it now remains to say a few words?
on its geology.
m 9
The geological structure ot a country like Vancouver, owing to practical
difficulties, can only be arrived at by deductions from partial observations,
such as are afforded by sections on tho coast, by ravines, water courses and
mountain summits. Covered by a thick vegetation it is impossible in the
summer months to penetrate the valleys to any good purpose, and in the
winter months the task is too arduous, if not impracticable. Enough however
is apparent and known to shew the general geological character of the Island.
An axis of metamorphic gneissose rock is found in the southwestern extremity
of the Island, having resting thereon, clay slates and Silurian deposits, or at all
events  rocks of   the Palceozoic age.    A black bituminous   looking slate is
brought from that locality, as  also  from  Queen Charlotte's  Island, but no
observer  has" yet  seen it  in situ and  no true or definite account of it can be
obtained.    A great deposit of clay  slate   has   existed along the whole  south
and west, but, shattered and broken up by intruded trappean rocks, it has been,
almost entirely removed by the subsequent glacial action which grooved and
furrowed the dense crystalline felspathic traps.    Masses of lenticular or concretionary limestone are  interspt-rsed throughout  this  formation, and afford
good lime for   economic  purposes.     Along with  the  traps, other rocks   of
igneous origin have been erupted, and at the Race Rocks, a remarkably beautiful dark green hornblendic rock is found massive, studded with large and perfectly formed crystals of quartz.
The sedimentary rocks  are—carboniferous sandstones and grit, limestones :
and shales, of both the cretaceous and tertiary ages.    These, in patches, fringe
the whole coast   from   the extreme north,   round by the Straits  of Fuca to>
Nootka Sound, and enter largely into the formation of the numerous outlying
islands in the Gulf of Georgia.
As shewn by the associated fossils, the coal field of Nanaimo is of cretaceous age, the whole deposit has undergone many changes of level, numerous
extensive faults existing.
The sandstones with  lignitic beds at Burrard's,Iial-et and. at Bellingham,
Bay on the mainland, are, on the.contrary, almost horizontal, La general loose
and friable in   their structure, in some  cases sligtg^j: metamorphosed by the
intrusion and contact of heated rockv and   containing,  as   fossil  testimony of
age, impressions of the leaves of a maple like tree.
Upheaval,  subsidence,   and   denudation   had  all done  their  wgrk on the
dense crystalline  rocks of the axis  of the Island, and on the cretaceous beds
of Nanaimo, long before the tertiary sandstones, and lignites were elevated bj§j
the slow upheaval of the post glacial period.
Associated with this coal field and scattered over the neighbouringgislands
are numerous   nodules of "Sepj&ria,"   a calcareous   clay charged  with iron,
of great value as a hydraulic cement.
(Mi ui
Copper pyrites and perjO&de of iron are found in various localities giving
promise of mineral. In Queen Charlotte's Island, to the north^a- very^pod
Peacock copper ore has been obtained in considerable quantities, and at Barclay
Sound on theS. W. coast, inthe metamorphosed rocks of that locality, another
pyritic ore of copper has been found, ay also at Cowitchan on the east coast.
Traces of gold are to be found in the clay slates and permeating quartz veins,.
disseminated in fine particles throughout the mass, and also .as auriferous
iron pyrites. 10
In the neighbourhood of the coal measures are salt springs, from which a
Supply of salt may be readily obtained. ■ These occur at Admiral or Salt
Spring Island, and at Nanaimo.
The general lithological character of the whole Island is as follows:—
Amongst the metamorphic and erupted rocks are—gneiss, (gneisso granitic)
killas, or clay slate, permeated by quartz veins, quartz and hornblende rocks,
compact bituminous slates, serpentine, highly crystalline felspathic traps,
(bedded and jointed,) semi-crystalline concretionary limestone. Amongst the
sedimentary, are sandstones, and stratified limestones crystallized by intruded
igneous roeks, carboniferous sandstones, fine and coarse grits, conglomerates,
a&d fossiliferous limestones, shales, &c, &c, associated with the seams of
The most remarkable feature in the Geology of the South Eastern end of
the Island, is the scooping, grooving, and scratching of the rocks, by ice
action. The dense felspathic trap already spoken of, is ploughed into furrows
six to eight inches deep, and from six to eighteen inches wide. The sharp
peaks of the erupted, intruded rocks, have been broken off, and the surface
smoothed and polished, as well as grooved and furrowed, by the ice action on
a sinking land, giving to the numerous promontories, and outlying Islands,
whieh here stud the coast, the appearance of rounded bosses, between which,
the soil is found to be composed of sedimentary alluvial deposit, containing
the debris of tertiary and recent shelly beaches, which have, after a period of
depression, been again elevated to form dry land, and to give the present aspect
to the physical geography of Vancouver Island.
As might be looked for in a country so marked by Glacial phenomena, the
whole surface of the land is strewn wTith erratic boulders.    Great masses of
many tons weight, are to be found, of various igneous and crystalline, as well as
of sedimentary rocks, sufficiently hard to bear transportation and attrition.
Granites and granitoid rocks of various descriptions are to be met with,
trappean rocks of every kind from whinstone through the whole series, Mica
schist with garnets, breccias and conglomerates.
From these granitic boulders, and from the sandstones of the outlying Islands,  valuable  building  material  is obtained.    Some   of the   grey  grauite
eqalling in beauty, and closeness of crystalline texture, the best granites of
Aberdeen or Dartmoor.
A glance at the chart will show, that, while the last upheaval of the land,
which took place'at a geologically recent period, failed to connect Vancouver
Island with the North American Continent, it, at all events was sufficient, to
effect, to a great extent, the junction of numerous insular ridges, and thus to
form a connected whole, of what zoas, and might have continued only to be, an
archipelago of scattered islets. The upheaving force elevated and connected
those, and brought to the surface, the great clay, gravel and sand deposits of
the Northern drift,which had swept over and been deposited on, the submerged
land. These sands, gravels, aad clays, were now to form the surface soil of
land, prepared for the habitation of man.
These  constituents of the drift remain, in many parts, thinly covered by a
coating of vegetable mould ; but much has' been washed away-.    The clay
remains niost generally and widely spread out, as a retentive subsoil, having, 11
resting upon it, a thick coating of vegetable mould. This most valuable soil
is found sweeping down the sides of gentle slopes, filling up hollows and
swampy bottoms, and, mixed with the rich alluvial deposits of such districts as
Saanich, Cowitchan, Delta of Nanaimo, and Comax, forms an almost inex-
haustable source of agricultural wealth.
The sandy loams formed on the surface, from the breaking up of the
underlying sedimentary rocks, as at Nanaimo and Salt Springjsland, are very
muclf richer than those of the great gravel deposit alludetTto. In Cowitchan
valley, calcareous soils and rich loams occur, formed by the disentegration and
decomposition of the neighbouring limestone rocks. In some localities, the clay,
cold and retentive, forms the only soil, and will require skilful treatment to
bring it into use.
The Soils of Vancouver Island mav be thus distinguished and described.
1st—A poor gravelly soil, with a thin coating of vegetable mould, bearing
large timber of superior quality, coarse grass, and little under-wood.
2nd—A Calcareous sandy loam of good quality, producing excellent crops
of vegetables, and very suitable for clover and other lime plants.
3d—The rich dark brownish black soil, humus, resulting from the decay of
vegetable matter, mixed in some localities with alluvium, of variable depth
and resting on the clay subsoil, which itself overlies trap and concretionary
The poverty of the soil, first described, is due to its inability to retain
moisture.    The winter rains   and the more genial showers  of spring, alike
percolate the mass, and drain  off into  lagoons, leaving the hot sun of dry
summers to desicate the surface.
The second soil or sandy loam is always ready ior cultivation, and the third
and by far the richest, only wants subsoil drainage to carry the heaviest
possible crops of wheat and other cereals.
From its insular character, and peculiar physical formation, Vancouver,
possesses abundant means of water carriage—inlets and arms of the sea, run
up to its most fertile valleys, and supply the place of navigable streams.
There are no rivers in the stricter sense of the word, such streams as flow
through the country, being simply, the short water courses which discharge,
the overflow of lakes, or the surface waters of the neighbouring ridges,
torrants in winter, nearly dry in summer, valuable only as a power for driving
grist and saw mills, and possibly at a future day to be rendered useful as a
means of irrigation, a process by which many parts of the country would be
much benefited^
As might be expected in a country having a clay sub-soil, and covered with
material through which water readily percolates, springs are numerous and
the water excellent.
There are localities, however, where, clay forming»the surface soil, the water
lodges or runs off, and must be looked for at some little distance, where the
clay is overlaid by a porous material;*** In these places it is readily found • in
other cases the clay must be gone through before the water wells up.
Many springs are charged with sulphuretted hydrogen, and much resemble
the Bath waters, being, however, farr from unpleasant to the.taste.
Stretching into the heart of the country, lying along the bases of the par- 12
aliel ridges of trappean rock, are numerous lakes, in some cases forming a
continuous chain, others, solitary, lie embosomed among the mountains, and
form a beautiful feature in the landscape, placid, clear and calm, they lie,
amongst the rocky, pine-clad hills, fringed by the willow, the alder, and the
trembling aspen, the tender green of the foliage brightly yet softly reflected in
the sunshine from the watery mirror, while stretching across as if to grasp the
light, the dark purple outline of the shadow of the frowning peak, envelopes
the farther side in gloom.
Washed by a truly boreal ocean, Vancouver Island and the neighbouring
shores, present a peculiar, special, and most interesting study to the hydro-
graph er. Nowhere are the peculiarities and irregularities of tidal currents
so marked, nowhere are their problems so difficult of solution. The temperature of the sea water all the year round is remarkably low. In the summer
months, when, on the water, the temperature in the shade ranges from 60 to
C5, the water itself is from 52 to 56 deg. Fah., and it has a peculiar thick
muddy appearance.
This low temperature which has a special effect in modifying the climate
and keeping doWn the summer heat, and this muddy look of the water may be
due to two causes or to both combined. The melting of snow will lower the
temperature of water, and we know that a very considerable quantity of snow
water, reaches the sea in the neighbourhood of Vancouver Island. Again,
there are probably strong under currents setting southwards from the Arctie
sea. These currents of cold water, are necessarily, from their specific gravity,
at a considerable depth, and beyond the scope of ordinary observation.
Sweeping southwards, when they approach the shores of a continent or island,
they first course along the sea bottom, and stirring up the mud and sand, rise
at length to the surface,'laden with the finer particles of these substances.
Around the shores of Vancouver Island, the sea bottom varies in different
localities; where the felspathic trap and clay slate forms the bounding rock of
the coast or harbour, a tenacious blue clay is found, where sandstone or other
sedimentary rock exists, the sea bottom partakes of that same special
The survey of this important Island, begun by the distinguished navigator,
from whom it takes its name, continued from time to time by different marine
surveyors of the Royal Navy, was never specially undertaken until the year
1856, when H. M. S. Plumper was commissioned by the Lords of the Admiralty for that purpose, aud the command given to an officer of great talent,
energy and experience.
This survey was begun in the fall of the year 1857, aud has been continued
up to the present time. Charts of nearly the whole coast complete in every
detail, and a book of " Sailing Directions," clear, concise and comprehensive,
have been published by  Captain George Henry Richards, R. N., the officer
-L %/ i. CD si J J
commanding and conducting the survey.
To these beautiful charts, and to this admirable work, the navigator and
the physical geographer are referred for full information on such points of
hydrographic interest as can be, in this Essay, only briefly alluded to.
In reference to  the tidal anomalies of some parts  ofdthe  coast,   Captai
Richards says, "In the outer part of Juan de Fuca S traits ■there is no very
great strength of tide, it varies from one  to four knots,  seldom so much  as the latter, but when approaching the more contracted part in the neighbourhood of the Race Islands which receives the first rush of the pent up waters
of the Gulf of Georgia, strengthened and divided by the labyrinth of islands
which choke up its southern entrance, it is not surprising that eddies, races
and irregularities occur, which almost baffle any attempt at framing laws
which may not rather embarrass than assist the seaman."
"The flood tide sets to the northward along the outer coast of the Continent and Vancouver Island."
" On the western side of the Island, the tidfcs were found to be regular
flood and ebb of six hours' duration."
"The great and perplexing tidal irregularities may therefore be said to be
embraced between the Strait of Fuca near the Race Islands and Cape Mudge,
a distance of 150 miles, and a careful investigation of the observations made
at Esquimalt, and among the islands of the Haro  Archipelago,
during the summer  months, Ma
v, there occurs but one high
and one low water during the 24 hours. High water at the full and change
of the moon happening about midnight and varying but slightly from that
hour during any day of the three months. The Springs range from eight to ten
feet, the neaps from four to five. The tides are almost stationary for two hours
on either side of high or low water unless affected by strong winds outside."
" During August, September and October, there are two high and low
waters in the twenty-four hours.""
" During winter almost a reversal of these rules appears to take place,
thus, in November, December and January ,thfe twelve hour tides again occur |
but the time of high water is at or about noon, instead of midnight."
" In February, March   and April
water occurring  from Hi. to 3h. p. m. ;
mer months the water is   low during  the  day, and   in   winter low  during
the night."
To meet these, and other no ordinary dangers, to afford protection to the
7 e' © 7 -L
seaman navigating these shores, Lighthouses, have 'been   established  and   are
■     - ©- © I   J, CD
thus described in detail by Captain Richards :
" The Strait of Juan de Fuca is fairly ighteqt On the small Island of
Tatoosh, close off Cape Flattery, is a fixed white light of the first order one
hundred  and sixty-two feet above the mean level of the  sea, and visible in
L April,   there  are  two  tides, the   superior high
thus it may be  said that in the sum
clear weather from eighteen to twenty mil
At New Dungeness and Admir
alty Head on the southern shore, and on Smith or Blunt Island'at the eastern {
end of the Strait, are also excellent lights, while on the northern side  is the
flashing light on the Race Imarids and the harbour light at the entrance of the
port of Esquimalt.    Thus, after making the light of Cape Flattery there will
only be an interval of about sixteen miles from losing sight of it until sighting
*.' o © © ©
that of Race Islands, and from the latter,   New Dungeness and Esquimalt are
both visible."
Many fine harbours'are found along the coast of Vancouver Island, and
from its extreme south western end where port San Juan affords effectual
shelter to ships from all but S. W. winds, it will be bpth useful and interesting, briefly to describe the coast lines, harbours, and agricultural districts
appertaining thereto: 14
from port San Juan eastwards the coast is bold and rocky, numerous
creeks and inlets however, give protection to small craft, and Sooke Inlet is
well adapted for coasting vessels and small steamers.
Esquimalt harbour, distant eight and a half miles from the Race Rocks on
which is placed the flashing light before described, is distinguished By the
white tower of the Fisgard Light, which marks the western point of the
entrance. This is a safe and excellent anchorage for ships of any size, and
with the aid of the " light," may be entered at any time with great facility ;
the holding ground is good—a tenacious blue clay. The extent of this fine harbour is about three miles by two, with an average depth of six to eight fathoms,
and round the whole of the irregular circle described, numerous rckypio-
montories with outlying islands and gently sloping sandy bays, form the chief
feature of the scene. Great natural advantages and facilities exist for the
extension of townships and formation of docks, and there is no doubt but that
this favoured spot will become the established headquarters of the Royal
Naval Force iu the Pacific. An Hospital and Storehouses for the service afloat
and a Barracks for the officers and men of the North American Boundary Commission, already give an official service like character to the Port.
" Victoria Harbour is a little more than two miles reastw:ard of EsquimalfJ
with its entrance between Ogden and McLauchlin points. The entrance is
shoal, narrow, and intricate, and with S. W. or S. E. gales a heavy rolling
swell sets on the coast, which renders the anchorage outside unsafe, while
vessels of burthen cannot run in for shelter, unless at, or near high water.
Vessels drawing fourteen or fifteen feet Water may, under ordinary circumstances enter at such times of tide, and ships drawing seventeen feet, have entered,
though only at the top of spring tides."
'•The channel is buoyed, and every means has been taken to make the
entrance as safe as possible, and doubtless the Harbour is susceptible of
improvement by artificial means."
A dredging machine is about to be used in the Harbour, by means of which
It is expected that an average depth of over twenty feet will be obtained.
" Originally selected by the Honourablelludson's Bay Company, as the depot
of their establishments, in consequence of the quantity of good clear land in
the immediate neighbourhood, and the Harbour being sufficiently spacious foi
the few small vessels in their employ, was as a site in these respects admirably
chosen, but it has been a fatal mistake, at a later date, not to have adopted
Esquimalt as the commercial port."
The inlet of the sea which forms the Harbour of Victoria, runs northerly for
some miles, with an average breadth of a few hundreds yards, and at one point
is separated by but a very narrow neck of land from Esquimalt Harbour.
Through this it has been proposed to cut a canal and so connect the two Harbours a plan which, if completely carried out by the removal of the only
impediment to navigation by barges, tke narrow gut of the " gorge," would
be of very great advantage to the commercial interests of Victoria. Second
only to the establishment of a tram-road or railway between the two ports.
Proceeding northw;ard along the coast, numerous flat, rocky Islands and
islets are passed, between which, at certain times, the pent up waters of the
"Georgian gulf" rush with the noise and turbulence of a mountam torrent. 15
Gently undulating land, park like in its scenery, with curving bays, marks the
coast line to the opening known as Saanich Inlet, thus graphically described
by Captain Richards :
"This inlet forms a Peninsula of the South East portion of Vancouver
Island, of about 20 miles in a N. >'. W. and S. S. E. direction, and varying in
breadth from eight miles at its southern part, to three at its northern. On the
southern coast of this Peninsula are the harbours of Esquimalt and Victoria,
in the neighbourhood of which, for some five miles the country is pretty thickly
wooded, its prevailing feature—lake and mountain, with however some considerable tracts of clear and fertile land. The northern portion for about ten
miles, contains some ot the best agricultural land in Vancouver Island. The
coast line is fringed with pine forests, but in the centre it is clear prairie, or oak
land, much of it under cultivation.    Seams of coal have also been found."
"Further north Cowitchan Harbour possesses one convenient anchorage
and but for the large tract of good land contained in the valley of Cowitchan
the port would scarcely deserve notice, and certainly the term Bay, is more
applicable to it than that of Harbour."
This most important district of Cowitchan, with those of Comiaken.Quam-
ichen, Somemos and Shawnigan, require a.special and detailed notice, the
importance to the colony in an agricultural point of view being very great
besides affording an excellent example, comprising as they do, the general
characteristics of the fertile valleys, and prairies which fringe the Eastern
The Cowitchan valley maybe considered to be, about fifteen miles wide,
upon the sea coast, narrowing-rapidiy in a westerly direction to the width of
about six miles. Bounded by high ranges of mountain composed of Calcareous
Sandstones, these ranges form almost impassable barriers to the valley, north
and south. To the disintegration and decomposition of these rocks, all hio-hly
charged with the carbonate of lime, is due, the distinctive character of the
soils, throughout the Cowitchen Valley. In their nature they are essentially
calcareous, for while the other principles occur in different degrees, in this;
locality Carbonate of lime almost invariably predominates, and of this soil
there is usually a good depth of from two to three feet, resting on a sufficiently
retentive subsoil of blue clay or gD&njeH >
J ©
The Earths, chiefly light, very porous, and composed of due proportions of
clay, sand, carbonate of lime and humus are well constituted for absorbing
and retaining moisture, and the general colour from brown to black, with the
entire absence of chalky or white earths, would likewise indicate a favourable
soil for receiving and retaining heat. Samples taken from the Somenos Plains
were found by experiment to absorb water sufficient to increase the volume of
soil, from one-fifth to one-eight.h of its whole bulk. Much of the soilalono1 the
river bottom is a clay loam of a brown colour, and is an excellent soil for wheat,
beans, turnips and red clover. The alluvial deposit of the valley is, however
far from being all of a clayey nature, in many par%. chiefly on the southern
side, the mould rests upon a gravelly and even a sandy deposit. ThisJis likewise a rich soil, as may be seen from the abundant crops of potatoes, one of
the most exhausting of plants, raised by the natives on the same patches of
land for a series of years. 16
The soils on the prairie lands are either gravelly, or sandy aid gravelly
loams, eligible for barley, oats, rye, buckwheat, beans, peas, the root and leaf,
crops, potatoes turnips, Carrots, and the usual garden vegetables. Wheat may
be successfully raised upon most of the soils, and, with proper tillage, upon all.
The humidity of the atmosphere at certain seasons may prove a barrier to the
• cultivation of Indian Corn, but there is every probability, that this grain will
one day form a staple, as it will assuredly be a profitable commodity both of
consumption and export.
Under aiudicious system of farming there can be no doubt, but that as good
returns can be obtained from these lands as from any part of the Continent of
America—the climate being especially adapted, to the pursuits of agriculture
—free from either the excessive heat and drought of the Californian summer,
or severity of Continental American winters.
The loamy soils, everywhere possessing a depth of two to three feet, and
containing a large proportion of the calcareous principle, are especially eligible
for fruit culture.
The river lands would be easily fitted to bear varieties ol the plum and the
pear, and the oak plains around the Somenos and Quamichan Lakes, with an
arenaceous clay subsoil so dry, that it could be worked immediately after a
rain of several hours, are exceedingly well adapted for garden or orchard purpose!. Apples, pears, plums, cherries, and, indeed, all our hardy garden fruits
might be grown to perfection.
It is believed that the filbert and hardy grape vine could be easily and successfully cultivated, and among the native fruits, the blackberry, mulberry,
raspberry, strawberry, gooseberry, currant, and high bush cranberry would
1 _ «/   7 «/  7      © t/   7 2""1 J
require but little and culture to produce luxuriantly. The strawberry
grows wild on the prairie lands, nearly of the same size as the garden
The species and varieties of plants growing in this rich and fertile district
are exceedingly numerous: growing on the meadow lands are the follow-
White pea, (five to six seeded,) wild bean, ground nut, a species of white
clover, reed meadow grass, bent spear grass, wild oat, wild timothy, sweet
grass, cowslip, crowsfoot, winter" cress, partridge berry, wild sunflower,
marigold, wild lettuce, nettles, wild angelica, wild lily, brown leaved rush.
The fern attains the enormous height of from six to eight feet, and the
grasses have all a most vigorous growth.
The chief economical woods are the oak and pine, and the following list
comprises a general summary of the trees and shrubs met with.
Oak, red or swamp maple, elder, trailing arbutus, crab apple, hazel, red
elder, willow, balsam, poplar, various species of pine—balsam fir, cedar, barberry, wild red cherry, wild blackberry: yellow plum, choke cherry, black and
v   * vi «//«/ X, 7 %/   7   .
red raspberry, white raspberry, prickly purple raspbery, prickly gooseberry,
swamp gooseberry, several kinds of currants, bear berries, red elder, moose-
berry, snow berry, blue berry, bilberry, cranberry, whortle berry, red  and
«/     / V    / VI V     * VI VI
white mulberry.
The Geological character of the district generally, from various indica-
^^ CO vi *
tions, warrants the belief, that special exploration and examination will show 17
the existence of valuable minerals, excellent building material, free-stone and
limestones, (some of the latter highly crystalline) are to be found in any
The region abounds in lakes and good sized streams, several good " Falls"
are situated a short distance above the mouth of the mill creek in the Shaw-
nigan district, and this creek has like facilities for mills at various other points,
to its junction with the Cowitchan river. Several other streams afford a sufficient extent of water-privilege to meet the requirements of a large population,
as regards both grist and saw mills, as well as factories^ but these are all
inland at a distance of several miles from the coast.
The whole district is a rich delta, flanked by spreading prairies, bounded
by precipitous hills; no site for any town or settlement, has yet been decided
V      XT X. ] v iv
upon. Numerous favorable localities are to be found though the shoalness of
the water is somewhat of a drawback.
The whole area of these five districts is, 57,658 acres, of which about
50,000 may be set down as superior agricultural land, the remaining 7,600
acres being likewise good arable land.
There is then a sufficient extent of good land laid out in this valley, to
provide farms for a population of from five hundred to six hundred families,
at an average of about one hundred acres to each.
The number of families comprising the native population of these districts,
has been, after careful enquiries  made, set   down at two  hundred, giving an
7 1 I i   © ©
estimated aggregate of 800 to 1000 souls. The disposition shown by these
people has been most friendly, and they constantly express a wish to have
white settlers amongst them.
Lying off this fertile region, the five districts of which have been comprised
in the foregoing general description, is Admiral or Salt Spring Island, which
has two good ports, Fulford Harbour on its S. E., and Ganges Harbour on its
Eastern side.
" This Island is for the most part thickly wooded, but there is a considerable
extent of partially cleared land, both at the northern end, and at the head of
Fulford Harbour, which is now becoming peopled by settlers, under the name
of Salt Spring District, a name derived from several salt springs on the Island."
Of the same geological formation, as the district off which it lies, there is
an abundance of excellent building stone, and a fertile sandy loam gives scope
for the labour of the Agriculturist. The Brinesprings have been ascertained by
analysis to contain 4994 grains of salt per imperial gallon. The returns from
the numerous small farms into which the district is divided, have been most
satisfactory, and give great encouragement to the energetic settler, who, putting
his own hand to the plough, can cultivate his land independently of hired
From the north end of Admiral Island to Nanaimo, there is about twenty
miles of coast line, guarded by a chain of islands, between which and the mainland are numerous passages, through which the tides course like torrents—the
more remarkable of these are known as the "Narrows."
Nanaimo Harbour, in the "Sailing Directions," is thus described "when,
the banks are covered this harbour gives the idea of a large street of water, —-1
but the deep partis limited, although there is plenty of room for a considerable number of vessels moored."
Of the Coal, Capt. Richards thus speaks : " Tho mines of Nanaimo produce
a fair bituminous Coal, which answers well for steaming purposes. It is lighter
by about ten per cent, than Welsh Coal, and its consumption proportionately
rapid. The working of the mines has not yet been undertaken on a scale commensurate with their importance, probably owing to the demand having been
comparatively small. As the quality of the coal is, however, becoming better
known the demand is rapidly increasing. It is now exported to California in
large quantities, and ships are inconveniently detained waiting for cargoes.
Some new and very promising seams have lately been discovered by boring,
and the quality is said to be superior to any hitherto found.
"Newcastle Island, which lies close off the settlement, produces large quantities of coal, and  the mines there, are being rather  extensively worked.
" The Nanaimo coal is far superior to any that has yet been discovered or
worked in this country, and there can be little doubt, but that it exists In sufficient quantities to supply the whole Pacific coast, for almost an indefinite
period.    The present price is twentj^Sve shillings per ton."
As already stated, this coal field, composed of coarse grits, sandstones,
shades, and seams of coal is shown, by the associated fossils, to be of the
Cretaceous age.
The specific gravity of the coal, is 1-24 ; its chemical composition—carbon,
66*93; hydrogen, 5-32 nitrogen, 1-02 ; sulphur, 2-20 ; oxygen, 8-70 ; ash, 15-83—
thus closely resembling much of the Chili coal, and some of Borneo—the chief
approximation being in the relative proportions of Hydrogen.
The whole deposit has undergone much disturbance from the action of
volcanic forces in the neighbourhood, faults are very numerous, and the
members of the sedimentary stratified rocks of this coalfield are disturbed and
twisted about in a very remarkable manner.
Brine springs are found, containing a proportion of 3446 grs. of salt to the
Imperial gallon. In Mr. Pemberton's " Facts and Figures" will be found an
analysis of salt springs here and at Admiral Island.
To these mineral riches, Nanaimo with its associated districts, adds great
capabilities for the development of agricultural wealth, and the town of
Nanaimo, with about two hundred inhabitants, already affords a market for all
kinds of farm produce.
The surrounding country has been divided into the mountain, cedar, and
cranberry districts, these names having reference to the character of each.
The mountain district contains 16,000 acres ; as its name implies, the general
character of this region is mountainous and broken, the only good land lies
along the stream known as the Millstone river, the grazing, however, is excellent, and the timber large and small of the b3st possible quality. The description given of the Cowitchan and associated districts applies to the cranberry,
cedar, and delta plain divisions of this region, the fertile soils being in this case
arenaceous loams, and on the Delta plains of the Nanaimo river, vegetable
mould of great depth. Nearly the whole of the cedar district which contains
about 11,000 acres is available for cultivation, and contains some very rich land. 19
Mr. B. W. Pearse, Surveyor, in his report says, " the climate very nearly
resembles that of Victoria, the general character of the summer being warm,
with litt]
e o
r no rain, but  heavy dews, and that of the winter mild, with an
average of perhaps ten days snow, the frosts, though not severe, are of longer
continuance. Rain falls in considerable quantities in the spring of the year,
and it is generally thought that the average fall exceeds that of England."
Nanaimo is situated about 70 miles north of Victoria, and at present has
only communication by sea. Passages are easily and quickly made by numerous
small trading vessels.    A screw steamer of small power is now running.
Measures are being taken to open a road direct to Victoria, which, when
effected, will prove of the greatest value to both places, and to the intermediate
districts. Owing to the great range of tide, which is sometimes as much as
sixteen feet, the harbour of Nanaimo presents peculiar facilities for the construction of docks.
The valley of the Comax, another fine agricultural district, estimated to
contain 300,000 acres of arable land lies north of Nanaimo; as yet unsurveyed,
and but partially explored, no further special account of its capabilities can be
given than that, in its general characters it closely resembles the Cowitchan valley, the districts and delta of which have been already fully described.
Proceeding north and west, passing Valdes Island and through Johnstone's
Straits, an excellent route for steamers, abounding in good anchorages, the
extreme north-west point of the Island is reached, where Fort Rupert, a trading station of the Hudson's Bay Company is established.    Here the same car-
© * X V
boniferous formation is met with as at Nanaimo, but apparently there have
been fewer disturbances, the strata lie almost horizontally, only the upper
beds hare been as yet examined, and that but partially.
v U v
The western coast of the Island commencing at Cape Scott, possesses a
great number of remarkable and interesting features. The general character
and appearance of the mountain range which here forms the coast line have
been already given, and it remains but to notice the points of interest connected with its hydrography, etc.
From Cape Scott a remarkable group of Islands extends westerly for forty
miles ; it is composed of three large and several smaller ones, which are high,
conical, bare, nine pin rocks. Triangle Island, the westernmost of the group,
is a very remarkable bare island, 1000 feet in height, having a curious notch
on the summit. Between the Cape and the nearest Islands there is a good
clear passage of two or three miles wide.
Extending from near this group off and round the coast, southerly, towards
Woody Point, is a bank exaetly similar to   one, which, lying off the entrance
VI v I I %/ CD
of the Straits of Juan de Fuca stretches northerly to near Nootka Sound, and
southerly to below the 48° parallel on the coast of the main Continent. A
middle ground of deep water extending from Woody Point to below Nootka
separates these banks which extend westerly to 125° and 126° of W. Long.,
with an average depth of water of from forty to one hundred fathoms having
a gravel or sandy bottom in the shallower and blue mud in the deeper parts ;
these banks get shallower as they stretch westerly and terminate abruptly at
a sharp ridge, beyond which there are no soundings. 9fJ
Both at the N. W. and S. W. extremities of the Islands these banfcs
abound with Cod and Halibut.
A southerly current prevails along the whole west coast and often sends
ships south of their reckoning.
Immediately south of Cape Scott, is Eoatsine, an important inlet stretching across the Island nearly to Fort Rupert on the eastern side.
The natives in this  harbour are more primitive than in any other part of
J. V x
the Island.    They are a mild and harmless people, about 528 in number, and
v L L 7 /
apparently diminishing yearly, yet there are more young people and children
amongst them than in other tribes which have more intercourse with the white
races. While all the other tribes flatten the heads of their children br strapping them on a board, these people simply compress the bead by means of a
handkerchief, and form it into a cone, the vertex forming tbe apex.
Coal has been found in this inlet, of the same character apparently as that
at Fort Rupert and Nanaimo, and will some  day be worked to advantage.
Woody Point separates Eoatsina from Kayoquot. a district wrhich extends
v J- «/ J. 7
to Nootka Sound. The natives here are very numerous, but were more so a
few years ago.    There is a feud between them and the Nootka tribe, who have
V © J
killed a great many of them*
Nootka Sound is a deep inlet possessing few harbours or good anchorages.
The small harbour or cove at its entrance is famous as the scene of the Spanish
occupation dispute, and an anchorage nearly opposite, has a special interest as
having been Cook's.    The Nootka tribe numbers about 457 in all.    Along  the
o ©
whole coast every promontory and bit of level land bears marks of old occupation, indicating a very numerous population at one time, though the well
known migratory habits of the people must be taken into account.
Clayoquot Sound differs from all the other inlets of this coast. Its entrance full of banks and shoals of sand and gravel, instead of a deep muddy
bottom. The narrow arms more resemble the neighbouring sounds except in
geological feature. A gneisso-granitic rock (metamorphic) forms the axis of
elevation, associated with which are hornblende and coarse grained quartzose
rocks, intruded traps and quartz veins, indicating a region, most probably rich
in mineral wealth.
Barclay Sound, situated close to the entrance of the Straits of Fuca, has a
very important geographical position. A somewhat open sound studded with
numerous Islands : it possesses several good anchorages, one within very con
venient distance of the ent
J. GitLx.\s\J
at Cape Beal, on which Cape a Light-house
will ultimately be erected.
At the upper end of the Sound a very remarkable cleft in the mountain
range, known as the Alberni Canal, leads, after a course of 25 miles, to a level
country of considerable extent, heavily timbered, with the finest specimens of
pine and other woods, perhaps anywhere to be seen. Through this flows a
stream discharging the waters of a chain of lakes, which penetrates northerly
into the interior. The anchorage is good, and the whole sound, canal and harbour, can nowhere be excelled in the facilities they afford, for the defence and
protection of commerce. The natives number about 800 or 900, and here, as
elsewhere, their sole occupation is in obtaining supplies of food. 21
Bears, racoons, mink, hare, and fur seals are numerous, deerof two kinds,.
In large herds. From this locality was se*at the magnificent spar, erected in.
Kew Gardens as a flag-staff.
Arriving next at Port San Juan, the a%eve imperfect sketch of the coast line
© i *
and harbours, &c, &c, of Vancouver Isiand is completed.
Tn the general introductory remarks, a  description of the  nature  of the
climate of  Vancouver
foeea incidentally given.    The following meteoro
logical observations having reference to the Tables appended, will show the
■character of the seasons whicfe have prevailed on the coast generally, for the
3ast fifteen years., -as^d will farther elucidate the subject by pointing out the
causes of the difference observable between the littoral aud inland insular
On the western side of the North American Continent, the summer heats
svre modr&ed by the boreal currents and melting snows of the watersheds,
while the severity of winter is i*ot increased by a sweeping arctic current such
as washes the Eastern Shores.
Arctic currefits do sweep down, however, and in summer are felt far South,
below foh<e latitude of San Francisco, but, more diffused, they do not lower the
temperature in a correspeading degree, and the coast, open to the warm rays
of the western sun, and the moist westerly winds, presents to equal latitudes
®m ifee Easter a. side, very unequal isothermal conditions-
A more extended series of observations is needed, before any general deductions casa b-j made whereby to reeognize the existence of any cycle, or predicate the possible recurrence of any particular season. Enough however is
known to give the general character already assigned to the climate of Vancouver, viz.—a dry, warm summer—a bright, and beautiful autumn—an open,
wet, winter and spring. Severe and exceptional seasons occurring at irregular
The winter of 1846 was remarkably severe, the  cold setting in on the 5th
V I ©
of January, and continuing with severity until the middle of March, during
whieh time the Columbia River was firogen, the thermometer ranging 5° below
1847—Very mild throughout.
1848—The cold weather began on the 17th December, the Columbia River
froze over, but the ice broke up before New Year's Day, the river remaining
1849—The cold weather set in on the 27th November, when the moon was
at full, clear days and sharp frosty nights continued till the 10th December,
when the Columbia was covered with floating ice, and snow began to fall
heavily. This continued till the 18th (7 inches of snow on the ground), when
it became mild, with S. E. winds and rain, and open weather continued to the
end of the month.
These remarks apply to the coast generally; the following have reference
specially to Vancouver:
The year 1850, as shewn by a thermometric register kept at Fort Victoria,
was fine throughout. mm
A glance at the Abstract, Appendix No. 1, will show that there were in that
year 201 fine days, 96 overcast and foggy, 97 rainy, and 17 days on which snow .
fell.    The abstract is not critically correct, as respects doing justice to the fine
weather, for under the two last heads are included all days on which rain or
•now fell, although the amount might be trifling.
Maximum Temperature of air in shade.
At 8, A. M., 65° Fah. on 20th June, 1850.
2, P. M., 84a   " 26th June,    "
8, P. M., 73°    " 28th July,     "
Minimum Temperature of air in shade.
At 3, A. M., 14£° Fah. on 4th December, 1850.
2, P. M., 24°      " 4th        | "
8, P. M., 16°      " 4th        " "
Mean daily temperatures given in Abstract Appendix, No. 1.
Snow began  to fall on the 5th January.    On the 24tb there were 17 inches
on the ground, which however was all gone by the 28th.
The maximum temperature for January was 47° Fah.
The minimum temperature, 21° Fah, on tbe
February—Was open and mild, on the 12th. gooseberry buds were opening:
*s X 7 /    © v L ©   *
some hail, showers and frost towards the end  of the month.    Maximum temperature 58°, minimum 26°, Fah.
March—Variable weather, slight snow storms in early part, but so partial
that on the 2d, early plants were coming into leaf in sheltered spots, native
hemp was three inches high, elder bush putting out leaves. On the 7th, the
catkins of the palm willowr in full bloom. On the 29th there was still snow or*
the ground, and buttercups in flower. Maximum temperature 60°, minimum
27° Fah.
April—High winds   alternating  with  ca
Strawberries   coming   into
bloom on 13th.    Maximum temperature 69°, minimum 35° Fah.
May—15 fine clear days, 12 overcast, 4 rainy. On the 1st, Plains covered
with verdure, the turn cup lily, heartsease, crowsfoot, jonquil and many other
flowers in full bloom, camass flowering, spring wheat and peas ri-ing, early
potatoes above ground. On the 4th, campaniola and lupin coming into flower,
wild cherry and service berry coming into blossom, and wild vetch flowering
in warm places. On the 6th, apple tree in blossom-, strawberries forming, Tth,
potatoes planted in March and April coming up. 12th, early beans in bloom.
18th, wild rose eoming into bloom. 25th, strawberries ripening. 31st, wild
gooseberries ditto.    Maximum temperature 79°, minimum 39° Fah.
June—23 fine clear days, 7 overcast and foggir.    On the I4th, queen of the
V        I CJCDV I     -»
meadow and golden rod in bloom.    17th, potatoes flowering.    Maximum temperature 84°, minimum 47° Fah.
July—22 fine days, 9 overcast. Maximum temperature 82°, minimum 52c
Fah. 11th, barberry and raspberries ripe. On the 17th, first double rose on
Vancouver Island came into flower.
August—26 fine days, 5 overcast. Maximum temperature 79°, minimum 53°
Fah.   On 16th, distant thunder, high wind, N. E, 23
September—24 fine days, 6 overcast. Maximum Temperature 74°, minimum
45° Fah.    On the 7th, heavy dews.
7 •/
October—20 fine days, 10 overcast. Maximum temperature 70°, minimum
38° Fah.
November—13 fine days, 14 overcast, 3 rainy. On the 19th a heavy gale of
wind, felt simultaneously along the whole coast. Maximum temperature 55°,
minimum 32° Fah.
December—10 fine days, 16 overcast, 4 rainy, 1 snowy. Fraser River frozen
on the 4th, ice quickly broke up.   Maximum temperature 48°, minimum 14^-° Fah.
The above gives the general character of the year 1850, and may be taken
CD CD v i V
as a good type of a season, intermediate between the severity of 1846, and the
© «/   I 7 v i
mild, open winters, which prevailed until 1859-60 ; when, as will be seen by
Abstract, Appendix No. 3, the cold set in in November, and continued tor some
months witli heavy falls of snow.
From March, 1860, the weather was mild throughout, and continued so
through the winter and into the spring of 1861. The summer of this latter
year was very hot and dry, the early autumn was very fine and clear, with oc-
V v v   1 v v i
casional cold, south-easterly winds, heavy rains in November and early part
J v 7 v v     i
of December.
The Abstracts appended  (Nos. 2, and 3,) give  for the year 1860-61, the.
ranges of the  barometer, thermometer (wet and dry bulbs), number of days
fine, rainy, &c, and although not altogether tabled in the same  way, nor
equally complete in all details, furnishes with that of 1850, a good comparative estimate of climatorial variation.
Care must be taken, however, to bear in mind, that in consequence of its
insular position, washed by an ocean having a remarkably low temperature,
the littoral climate of Vancouver, differs materially from that of the inland
plains and valleys, therefore the Register No. 2, for 1860-61, kept on board
one of H.M. ships, is peculiarly interesting as showing what range the thermometer takes in the shade, when removed from all possible influences of radiated
or reflected heat.'
To this cause is to be assigned the differences in the mean daily temperatures, observable on comparison of the different months in the two years, both
ashore and afloat, and not simply to change or variation of climate, as will
be seen by examination of abstract No. 4.
In the quarter ending 30th June, 1860, the highest barometric range was
in April, 30.53; the lowest, 29.25. In the same month, there were 17 fine
days, 7 rainy, and 6 overcast, with variable and light winds from E. and S.
Sea water 50° Fah., the hygrometric observations show an average difference of
3° 7-10 Fah. between the wet and dry bulbs.    Average temperature 51^° Fah.
In May—the barometer had an average range of 30.04.    There were 18 fine
-ainv, and 4 overcast, with variable winds, chiefly from  S. W.    Sea
days, 9
water 51° Fah.    The thermometer average 55°£, with 4° 1-10 Fah. difference
between wet and dry bulbs.
June—20 fine clear days, 6 rainy, and 4 overcast. Barometric range, average 30.02. Average of thermometer 61°, and difference of bulbs 4° 7-10. Sea
water 55° Fah. 24
July—16 fine days, 6 foggy, 7 rainy. Average range of barometer, 29.93,
thermometer 60° 1-10, Fah. Hygrometer, ?>\° Fah. Sea water 58£° Fah. Prevailing winds, S. and S. E. with calms.
August—24 fine days, 7 rainy.   Average range of barometer 30.01, thermometer 63J° Fah., hygrometer 1°.    Sea water 58^° Fah.    Winds S. W., S.-
and S. S. E.
September—18 fine days, 7 rainy, 5 overcast. Average range of barometer,
30.12, thermometer, 57^° Fah., hygrometer 1°, sea water 55° Fah. Prevailing
winds S. and S. S. E.
October—13 fine days, 11 rainy, 7 overcast. Average range of barometer
30.01,   thermometer  54°  Fah.,  hygrometer   103-155.     Sea  water  50°  Fah.
I I V   CD
Winds N. E., variable, calm?.
November—10 fine days, 12 rainy, 8 overcast. Average range of barometer
30.18, thermometer 49£°  Fab. hygrometer 1° 1-30, Fah.    Sea water 47£° Fah.
/ £ v   CD J +d
Prevailing winds, N. and S. W. to E. S. E.
December—15 fine days, 9 rainy, 7 overcast. Average range of barometer
29.96, thermometer, 42° Fah. hygrometer, 1° 5-6 Fah. Sea water 45^° Fah.
Winds N. and N. E., variable, frequent calms.
1861. January—10 fine days, 11 rainy, 10 overcast. Average range of
barometer,   30.01, thermometer 38°  Fah., hygrometer, 3° Fah.     Sea water
II Iv   CD I
43^° Fah. Winds variable, frequent calnn.
February—9 fine clear days, 7 rainy, 11 overcast, 1 snowy. Average range
of barometer 29.94, thermometer 44£° Fah , hygrometer 3° Fah.    Sea  water
' £» I V   ©
43^° Fah.    Winds light, variable, frequent calms.
March—15 fine days, 4 rainy, 19 over cast, 3 snowy. Average range of
barometer, 25.02, thermometer 46° Fah. hygrometer 2\° Fah. Sea Water
44*p Fah.    Winds, light, variable.
The importance of a knowledge of the remarkable differences observable in
these registers, kept, one on shore, the other afloat, is obvious, both in a sanitary and agricultural point of view.
The humidity of the atmosphere can be only estimated by the above average
%. X v V Td
difference between the wet and dry bulbs.
The absence of thunder storms is a remarkable fact. Distant thunder is
heard at times, but very- rarely does the electrical discharge take place over
I v v © X
To these tables of Meteorological Observations applying to Vancouver, is
added an abstract from the register kept at the camp of the Royal Engineers
at New Westminster, as published by Capt. R. M. Parsons, R. E. Clear and
concise, it shows at a glance the nature of the continental climate, and is
most valuable as a means of comparison.
New Westminster is situated on the right bank of the Fraser, 15 miles from
where that river joins the Gulf of Georgia, about 70 miles from Victoria. As
might be looked for, the differences in temperature, &c, are those of a continental as compared with an insular climate. SB
The population of the Colony of Vancouver, exclusive of natives, numbers
from 4000 to 5000, and amongst these are representatives of nearly every
European and American nationality, with a considerable and increasing- proportion of the coloured races, and of Chinese.
The native population, estimated at 18,000, is, generally, in a very degraded
state : efforts are being made by-missionary clergymen of various churches, to
7 CD v * «-2*
bring them into something like civilization, and no doubt, in time on the
plastic minds of the young, such good work will bear fruit, but from the adult
much cannot be expected, and the native in this way, can only be looked upon
prospectively, as a useful element in the body politic.
Occasionally, industrious, trustworthy individuals are to be met with
amongst them, but as  a body, their labour cannot be depended on, and. with
©7 v   ' X i -v.?* >
one or two slight exceptions, at present forms no point of consideration in the
labour market. Like all uncivilized races they have an invincible dislike to
hard and continued manual labor, but they show in their rude carvings, and
imitative jewelry, an vaptitude for handicraft, and their acuteness in barter
is remarkable.
The dialects of the various tribes are derived from the five great divisions
of language spoken on the main land. Deep gutturals characterize them all,
and from the constant repetition of sounds that can only be expressed by the
letters X, T, L, in conjunction, give an idea to the hearer of what the ancient
Mexican language must have been. A jargon called Chinook, is the medium
of communication with the white races ; it is composed of mutilated words of
the English, French, and Spanish languages, with a mixture of the native
dialects, the words strung together, without the slightest attempt at grammati-
/ O © 7 © -*■ ©
cal construction.
The energies of this people are at present only called forth and directed to
the pursuit of the chase and of revenge; degraded, they do not scruple to live
by the prostitution of their women, and under the influence of " fire-water,"
commit great crimes.
On the whole, however, their behaviour is wonderfully good, and the settler
need fear no injury or molestation so long as he keeps the natives at a proper
distance, manifests no want of confidence, and avoids giving to, or taking with
them, intoxicating drink.
No census having been taken, the number of the white or Colonial population given above, is merely approximate and confined to established residents.
There is besides however a large floating population, one of great importance
to thecolon3r, viz.the gold miners from the Upper Country ; unable to work during the winter months, they come down to Victoria and there many establish 26
their winter quarters. They spend a great deal of money, and, open handed
and generous, are ever ready to help a fellow creature in distress. To the
honour of the British Columbian gold miners be it told, that competent
authority has declared no more qrderly set of men were ever met together in
the pursuit of gold, the encampment or town at the Cariboo diggings being on
a Sunday afternoon as quiet and orderly as the streets of Victoria.
Circumstances and times have changed since the early days of Californian
and Australian gold digging.    The search for that metal has become a regular
CD *3 <• CD ©
steady branch of industry, and like all men who explore the crust of the earth
for valuable ores and precious metals, the miners are distinguished by steadiness, industry, and marked intelligence.
One element of discord alone exists in the community (for political differences go for nothing) and that is the unhappy* question of the social position
of the colored races. It is a question which can only be settled by and in
time.    The sudden  jar and conflict arising from attacking long established
1/ © © ©
ideas and prejudices, give rise, in the kindest natures, in the most intelligent
minds, to extreme views and violent measures.
Circumstances connected with the relative positions of the two races, more
especially on the North American Continent, render it impossible that any
sudden coalition or recognition of equal social rights should take place ; and
while on the one hand these rights should not be absolutely denied simply on
account of Race, neither on the other hand ought they to be too loudly
asserted on account of wealth or acknowledged political status. Neither side'
is yet prepared to meet the other, the transition to a different tone of feeling
must be slow and gradual, the growth of a just appreciation and esteem
engendered by the exercise and recognition of high moral principle. In no
other case than this can there be a greater need to "bear and forbear." Let
the white man endeavour to drive from his mind any idea ol his absolute and
necessary superiority over his fellow-man on account of race, " each has his
own gifts," and let the coloured man remember that in bearing for a time his
lot with patience he is elevating his moral nature, and in due time  he will get
X © 7 ©
his reward in the removal of those prejudices which now are brought to bear
against him.
The employment of the People, generally, will be readily seen, by an examination of the analysis of the Trades License Act, Appendix No. 5, and to
the occupations there detailed must be added, those very important classes, the
miner, the stone cutter, the house carpenter, the artisan and skilled laborer in
every branch of industry, whose numbers are too few to supply the constant
demand for their labor.
The rates of wages are high, a shilling in any part of Great Britain being
here represented by a dollar, 4s. 2d. Thus a stone cutter makes from four to
five dollars, that is sixteen to twenty shillings a day. The blacksmith about
the same, and, depending on his abilities, possibly much more.
For good shoeing smiths, excellent opportunities offer, the cost of shoeing
a horse being in this country, three dollars, or twelve shillings and sixpence.
House carpenters are paid according to the number of hours work ; in general the wages average about the same as the other workmen stated above. 9T
For all other labour the proportion holds good ; where a man gets a shilling in Great Britain he would get a dollar here, and he could live better and
for less money provided he had a cottage of his own. Independent of hired
domestic help his only increased item of expenditure would be in the article
of clothing, and that is now imported ready made at very cheap rates. It will
be said, if wages-are so high, the expenses of living will be commensurate,
and what then will be the necessary expenditure of individuals and of families ?
To such families as might be compelled to rent houses and hire domestic
servants, the expenses would be heavy, for these, together with clothing, form
the heaviest items of expenditure.
But there is no reason why every man should not be his own landlord, and
in a new colony the more independent of domestic help that a family may be
the better for the prospects of that family ; in no country in the world can a
working man earn such wages, and at the same time live so cheaply; and
every man with a small capital and the exercise of patient industry may soon
have a house of his own. •
The following are the prices of provisions ordinarily in use in domestic life
for the years 1859, 1860 and 1861 :
1859. Beef per lb. Is. 0}&.; Mutton, Is. 3d.; Pork, Is. 3d.; Vegetables,
3d. per lb. ; Flour, 2d.
1860. Beef, Is. Od. ; Mutton, Is. 3d.; Pork, Is. Od. ; Veal, Is. Od. ; Vegetables, 2d.; Flour, 2d.
1861. Beef, 8d. ; Mutton, 9d.; Veal. lOd.; Pork, 9d. per lb.; Vegetables,
2d. ; Potatoes, Id. per lb.; Flour, 2d. per lb.; Wheat, Oats, Barley, Id.
per lb.
Groceries, etc. Tea, 3s. per lb.; sugar (hard), 9d.; brown do., 5d. ;
coffee, Is. 6d. per lb. ; eggs, from 2s. to 6s. per dozen ; butter (winter), 3s. ;
Cheese, Is. 6d. to 2s.; bacon, Is.; Hams (English), Is. 8d. per lb. ; American,
Is. Id. ; pearl barley, 4d.; rice, 5d. per lb. ; apples, 4d. per lb. ; pickles, Is.
6d. per bottle. Fish of fine quality can alwaj-s be procured at a cheap rate,
and abundance of excellent oysters are found in the creeks.
The market is usually well supplied with wine, beer, and spirits, which are
sold at moderate rates.    Ale and Stout range from £5 to £7 10s. per hhd.
Wines.    Port in wood, per gallon  £ 0 6s. Od.
In glass, per dozen      1 16 0
Claret, per cask    10 0 0
I    * per dozen    16 0 0 to £2    0    0
Sherry, in wood, per gallon       1 6 0 to    1    0    0
In glass, per dozen      1 0 0 to    1   12    0
1                "      fine      1 12 0 to    3    0    0
Materials for housebuilding are plentiful and cheap. Lumber costs £3 to
£3 10s. per 1000 feet. Bricks from £1 10s. to £1 15s. a thousand. Lime
and sand in abundance, the former costs 2s. a bushel; convenient temporary
residences can therefore, both in town and country be put up very cheaply.
A mechanic or working man can build a convenient, comfortable house to
accommodate six persons for from £100 to £150. Of course, for a smaller
family, proportionate fractional sums. 28
In the town of Victoria and other settlements, six roomed-houses or neat
cottages with all convenient outhouses, built of wood and plastered, cost,
according to style, from £200 to £400.    Of sandstone and brick at an increased
© v 1
expense of one fourth ; of brick alone, one third more.
As already stated, house rents'are high, 18 to 24 per cent, per annum, being
the usual rate of interest for brick buildings, 40 to 50 per cent, for wooden
The towns, villages, and settlements at present existing in Vancouver, are
Victoria. Esquimalt, and Nanaimo. At Fort Rupert, in the north, the Hon.
Hudson's Bay Company have a dep6t, and at Barclay Sound in the south west
there is an establishment for the export of spars and of lumber.
The town of Victoria, situated on the eastern side of the harbour already
described, has sprung into existence during the last three years.
Originally the site of a depot and trading establishment of the Hudson's Bay
Cornpauy, it has, under the influence of the neighbouring gold regions and the
great natural advantages, present and prospective, of its position, become a
place already of great importance, not only to British Colonists but to those
also in American territory along the whole seaboard of the Pacific. A Free
Port, it puts no restraint on commerce but admits without duty and burthened
with but few charges, all the necessaries as well as all the luxuries of life, all
the tools, implements, and machinery needed for those industrial pursuits
which develop the wealth of a colony. Already it has become the emporium
of commerce, the metropolis of the north-west coast of America. The site is
an admirable one (the only drawback being the comparative inadequacy of
the harbour). A sweep of level land broken by a few ravines, rises gently to
a moderate elevation from the rocks which bound the harbour. The soil is
partly clay and partly gravel, the objections to the former can be readily
obviated by drainage, for which the sloping declivities on every side afford
great facilities.
Starting from the corner of Fort and Government streets as a centre, with
a radius of three quarters of a mile, the plan of the town describes two-thirds
of a circle stretching round the harbour. The streets, of good width (sixty
feet), are conveniently laid off, crossing each other at right angles, the
plan including school and church reserves.    From any point of view Victoria
presents a charming picture, and affords a striking proof of the energy and
industry of the human race.
Twent3r years ago, a wilderness; for many years afterwards, occupied only
v      v CD      i J v     v 7 XT J
by the enterprising traders who first brought civilization  to its savage shores,
v x n o © /
V<incouver Island long lingered in neglect; its important geographical position
was, however, at length recognized, and steps were taken by means of a complete marine survey to develop its maritime capabilities and other resources.
This had been commenced, when, at the touch of the "golden wand"
faved on the banks of the Fraser, Victoria sprang into existence ; the forest
and the brush disappeared, tents were pitched, and buildings run up, sales of
land took place, the plan of the new town was formed and quickly grew into
During the months of June, July, and August, 1858, eight large and power- !9
ful steamers ran constantly between San Francisco and Victoria crowded with
passengers and loaded with freight.
X. CD ©
A subsequent check to imigration took place, but nothing has impeded the
steady advance of the colony, and remarkable progress of Victoria.
From any point on the western side of the harbour, the observer sees
sweeping over a gently rising plateau, the town spread out before him ; in the
X CD O v ©    X / * '
fore ground at his feet crossed  at various points by several bridges,  is  the
winding arm of the  sea,  along the bold rocky shores of the eastern side of
© " 7 © v
which    are    built   wharves   and   storehouses,   where    lie   vessels    of   all
sizes, from the coasting schooner of ten tons to the   clipper craft of five bun-
7 © jl    L
The stores, the shops, the hotels, and restaurants would grace a town of
fifty instead of three years' standing ; the rapid growth and increase may be
judged of by the fact that of brick buildings alone, fifty-six have been erected
v CD v © l V
during the present year.
Numerous churches and schoolhouses, belonging to Christians of nearly
all denominations, testify to the anxious care, bestowed on the religious instruction of the community. An Hospital for the relief of the sick, and a
charitable institution supported by the French residents, give proof that suffering humanity is not neglected.
Hook and Ladder Companies have been formed, to stay the scourge of fire,
a small but very efficient Police force has been established, and the town only
wants the introduction of gas, to vie  successfully with many, a colonial   city of
© 1 v v v
much older date.
about to be  effected by the " Victoria Gas Company (Joint stock
'he   Com
Limited)" which has its operations in considerable progress,
possesses a capital of £10,000, which may be, by special resolution, increased
to £20,000. This and the " British Columbia and Victoria " Steam Navigation
Company (also limited), are the only joint stock   associations in the   Colony:
X V \ J I V V »
this latter runs  three  steamers,   built  specially  for the trade on the  Fraser
* i xv
One great drawback to Victoria is the want of good water on the spot, the
supply at present, is brought from a distance in carts, at a considerable expense.
It is to be hoped that a water company  or some  other  agency, may soon  be
formed to remove this great defect, and provide the colonists with a full supply
of that great element of health, at a cheap rate.
A great oversight has occurred in-laying out the plan of the town, no squares
or other open places have been reserved ; the present, to the exclusion of the
future wants of the community have alone been attended to ; and a great error
has been committed in placing the cemetery where it now is, a locality objectionable in every way. The evils attendant on infra-mural interments, have of
late been forced on every one's observation, and although just at present, the pure
V i CD        O I. 1 XT
air of heaven blows freely over the town, the time will come, when, without
squares, the air will stagnate in the long rows of streets, and the emanations from
the confined burial ground, prove a fertile source of disease and of death. Noil
only is the situation oi this cemetery bad, but a Worse soil could not have been
I 30
A tenacious retentive clay, it is quite unfit for the purpose of a grave-yard,
which must, as the population of the colony increases, be removed to some distance. Many more suitable spots could easily be found, and are to be sought
for in the sandy gravelly soil, which in many parts skirts the town. The less
clearing the better, the pine, the yew, and funereal cypress give character to
the scene.
Having no squares then, let the present cemetery be converted into a public
flower garden, let it still retain its sacred character however, and while the eye
dwells?with delight on the glowing colours of nature's choicest blossoms, le'
there be shade and quiet for meditation and repose.
The Government buildings, structures of brick in a frame-work of wood, are
situated^on the South side of James'Bay. They comprise a central building,
with Treasury and Land office, Court House, and Register office appended.
The only other public edifices are the Jail and Police offices, built of solid
stone work.
Several ship building yards have been established in the harbour, and many
• small river steamers have been launched.
A Foundry also supplies the wants of the community, and affords means of
V X   X VI
repair  to the machinery of coast and ocean   steamers.
Among the public places of amusement may be mentioned a Theatre and
© x. x v
Lyceum, a Library associated with a "Literary Institute " is spoken of.    The
v i v v x
Atbletae have a Gymnasium, and the admirers of horse racing enjoy their
favourite sport, on a very beautiful race-course which runs round Beacon Hill,
a promontory overlooking the sea, about a mile from town.
I v © 7
Slightly sketched and briefly commented on, such is the plan and general
appearance of the town of Victoria, in the neighbourhood of which, from many
points, the views are striking, the landscape at once grand and beautiful.
On a clear, crisp, autumnal or spring morning, from the northern side, a
beautiful and interesting scene meets the beholder's eye.
Immediately before and somewhat below him lies the town in repose, tbe
only evidence of life, the thin blue smoke which from numerous hearths
floats upwards in the motionless air. The grouping of the houses with the tone
of the colouring that prevails is most pleasing, la the first faint light of the
morning, the various styles of architecture, assume fantastic shapes, pointed
gables and ornamented roofs, standing out, clear and sharp, the shadows dark
© / © x J
neutral, the lights cool grey,  the whole warmed by the depth of colour of the
I CD CD v   J %f X7
brick houses and other edifices. Away on the left, in the east, Mount Baker
and the Cascade Range have caught the sun's first rays, and a blush of pearly
© © V        1 XT ^
light is stealing over the heavens. The sea, still and unruffled, stretches over
to the foot of the great Olympian range, which, clear and defined  against the
CD v X. CD      I 1 .CD
southern sky, stretches its massive dark blue length along, and far on the right,
where hang the heavy clouds, night is gathering his mantle around him, and
is disappearing in the west. \
As the day passes on, and the sun approaches the zenith, the same clear
fresh air, plays around, and an elasticity of body and mind is felt by all. The
character of the scene has changed, however, a busy hum fills the air, and man
CD I I v I
at his daily toil.    The sea is like a mirror, numerous tiny craft, with drooping 31
sails, dot its surface, and seem at the same time suspended in the air by the
refraction which elevates and brings into view the cliffs at Dungeness, reminding the observer of the chalk cliffs of old England.
The mountain range has become a cloud land, stretched along mid-way,
are lengthened lines of strati, drawn clear and sharp against the heavy dark
blue mass, while, piled heap upon heap, resting on the lofty summits, are masses
of cumuli and cumuloni, seeming fit abode for the Olympian Jove. As the sun
goes west, cirri and cirro-strati begin to float off into the upper air, and before
the warm westerly breeze, the wondrous cloud laind disappears, the light is
reflected in sparkling rays from the.waters of the winding reaches of the upper
harbour, the shadows become purple, and in the pine woods black. The whole
sky on the right, is one blaze of crimson and deep orange hues, and as the sun
sinks in the western ocean, he pours a flood of yellow light along the narrow
strait, such as Turner would have loved to paint, touches the Olympian peaks with
/ X i v XT ST
a rosy hue, and resting for a moment on the summit of the tower on the Race
Rocks, with a golden gleam, seems there to leave " the Flashing Light," the
seaman's safeguard against the dangers of the night.
Esquimalt, a village or hamlet, prettily situated in one of the numerous coves
of the excellent harbour from which it takes its name, derives its support from
the presence of Her Majesty's ships, and from the mail steamers which here
land their mails and passengers, these towns are connected by a good, new,
waggon road, which has just been completed.
Its capabilities as a harbour, and the probabilities of its being a place of
great importance have been already stated. The position is "unrivalled as the
site of a magnificent town, about a'mile on the road to Victoria, a most favourable position, with a light sandy and gravelly soil existing.
x 7 ©•/©»/ ©
The town of Nanaimo ha3 been also alluded to, it possesses, at present, chiefly
J x is. 7 j
a mining population, but is the nucleus of a great town, the centre of a cultivated agricultural district.
The Government of Vancouver Island is vested in a Governor appointed by
the Queen, in a Legislative Council and House of Assembly.
The Legislative Council is composed of five members, nominated by the
The House of Assembly consists at present of thirteen members elected by-
registered voters.
The following list will show the areas in square miles of the towns and
districts returning members, with the number of voters in each :
Name of Town or District.      Area.       No. of Voters.    No. of Members.
Victoria Town     3 sqr. miles   331     2
"    District   12        |   97    3
Esquimalt Town     1        " „   50     1
"    District  21        |   61   2
Nanaimo  80        "   32   1
.   Lake District   25        | '   57   -   l
Saanich    "         37        |    29   1
Sooke   25        |    15   !..."!!!!""!'.  1
Salt Spring Island ... 95        "    29   i   l
The House of Assembly, presided over by a Speaker, is elected triennially.
In the Appendix No. 6 will be found a list and abstract of the Acts passed
since the beginning of the first Session in March, 1860. mnm
ft 9.
A Colonial Secretary and a Colonial Treasurer preside over Special Departments, an Attorney General, a Registrar General, and Clerk of the Writs,
complete the staff.
The Judiciary of the colony dates from an order in Council of 4th of April,
1856, when Her Majesty " did constitute a Supreme Court of Civil Justice of
■.the colony of Vancouver Island, with a chief justice of said court, a Registrar
of said court, and a sheriff of Vancouver Island." "And Her Majesty did
further authorize and empower said Supreme Court to approve and admit Barristers and Solicitors, the former to be members of the Inns of Court of England and Ireland, or Advocates in the quarter Sessions of Scotland," &c, &c.
By Patent from the Governor the functions of the Chief Justice are extended to criminal matters.
The common law of England is in force as were also the statutary laws, up
to the time a Legislative Council and Assembly were given.
There are two branches of the Supreme Court, viz " the Supreme Court"
and the Summary or Inferior Court.
The former has original Jurisdiction in all matters involving the recovery of
a sum exceeding fifty Pounds With "an appellate jurisdiction from its inferior
CD J X   1 ^ V
branch to an amount of £50. The inferior branch has an original jurisdiction
in all matters up to £50. The Chief Justice also acts under Patent from the
Governor as Judge of the vice-Admiralty Court of Vancouver Island.
There is a Police Magistrate with an efficient constabulary force. Four or
five persons hold commissions as Justices of the Peace, whose duties are
confined to Victoria and Esquimalt. There is also one for Nanaimo and one
for Barclay Sound. There are three practising Barristers and four practising
Taking into consideration the nature of the population of Vancouver,
Varying as it does through everv degree of civilization from savage life upwards
and amongst representatives  of nearly everv  nationality under-the Sun,   it
© XT v v v 1
would not be a matter of surprise if the Statistics of Crime, in a colony so
X iv
situated, wrere found to be large in their relative proportions.
But, as shown by the abstract of charges against convictions and sentences,
Appendix No. 7, for a period of years, these statistics, when" weighed by the
number of charges are found to be in no way remarkable, and certainly show
a smaller amount of crime than might have been anticipated.
The charges before the Police Magistrate resolve themselves into the following categories, viz., Misdemeanours, Common assault, Assault with weapons,
Larceny, Felony, Selling Spirits to Indians, Recovery of Wages, Desertion. In
the year 1859, the charges under these heads were 1048, of these 832- were
convicted, 316 acquitted. 1860, in this year, charges were 758, canvictions 548
acquittals 230. In 1861, up to June, there were 399 charges, 306 convictions
and 93  acquittals.
An examination of the calendar shows that the crimes brought for trial
to the Assizes, were Murder, Larceny, Perjury, Burglary, and obtaining goods
on false pretences.
From Nov. 1860 to Nov. 1861, the cases tried of all classes, numbered 51,
of these 18 were convicted, sentence of death being in no case carried into
execution during that period, the severest sentences being 18 months and two 99
years' imprisonment with hard labour, 33 cases were discharged either through
acquittal, or " no prosecution " during the present year.
The Different Religious Denominations are thus represented in Vancouver
Island. Church of England, Church of Rome, Wesleyan, Congregational, Presbyterian, and Hebrew. The Episcopalian Churches are each under the super-
intendance of a Bishop, with efficient staffs of Parochial and missionary Clergy.
The other Congregations are very ably directed, and are under the spiritual
guidance of earnest, intellectual, efficient Pastors. The Hebrew community
has many members.
'The great   majority of the natives are in a state of heathenism : vigorous
CD v V t CD
missionary efforts are, however, being made by both the churches of England
and of Rome to reclaim them—educational being combined with spiritual instruction.
Education, and its cost form considerations of the highest importance,
and give  serious thought to   every parent  and guardian of youth.    It is p er-
© CD V        JL *-? v X
haps the first care that troubles the anxious mind of the man about to emigrate, about to expatriate himself, and perhaps cut off from his children those
advantages which he himself has enjoyed, and of which he knows the value.
He looks back to the days of his own hopeful youth and pupilage, and earnestly
desires for his offspring, the same'if not greater educational advantages. And
knowing how much their moral and intellectual worth, will be influenced and
affected by suitable means of mental culture, he naturally looks around when
seeking a new home, for one which  will provide the  great  blessing of a good
-© / X. CD © O
education for his family.
In this important respect the Colony of Vancouver Island is peculiarly
favoured. The value and necessity of a good sound education has been fully
recognised, and in Victoria the means of obtaining this inestimable blessing,
meet the requirements of all classes ; they are in fact equal to the ordinary
facilities of the largest communities in Great Britain.
A system of District Schools inaugurated by the Hon.Hudson's Bay Company,
and for a time meeting all the wants of the community, exists in the colony.
The capabilities of these schools as a means of instruction are well shewn
in the interesing report, by the Rev. the Acting Superintendant (appendix
No. 8.)    The establishment of an educational system on a broader basis is now,
/ v 7
however, contemplated.
A Collegiate School for boys, and a " Ladies College," have been established
in Victoria—the former conducted by Clergymen, men of high scholastic
attainments ; the latter, by Ladies, devoted to their important duties.
An examination of the " Published Prospectus " of these admirable institutions, as given in Appendix No. 9, will better show the nature and scope of
the course of instruction than any description can, and guaranteed, as these
schools are, by the high respectability, and distinguished scholarship which
superintend their interests, no man need fear but that the mental requirements and endowments of his children will be met, and find expansion in the
Colony of Vancouver.
The Roman Catholic Church has, under the direction of its Bishop, a very
efficient system of schools.    A girls' school presided over by Sisters of Charity
dished in 1858, and a bovs' school was opened in the following year.
Iv X, ©    %/
was establ 34
The missionary efforts of this Church amongst the heathen are very praiseworthy, and their schools are well attended.
An independent Institution, called the Central School, conducted on tbe
Canadian system, has lately been opened.
Sunday Schools are conducted by ladies and teachers, members of the different churches. There is, on all hands, a general recognition and just appreciation of the incalculable benefits and advantages to be derived from a liberal
and religious education, and there is no doubt but that as the Colony advances,
so will the educational institutions expand.
. The Literary productions of the colony are at present limited to two daily
newspapers, which  have  each  a weekly as well as  daily issue.    The British
Colonist and Daily Press, are the two enterprising papers  which represent the
"Fourth Estate."    The former was  started in  December   1858  as a weekly-
paper, in May,  1859, it was published three times a week
in Ju
1860, five
times a week. In January 1861, it became a daily paper with a weekly issue.
The original circulation was 200, the daily and weekly together (according to
editorial statement)  now number 4000.    The prices charged are, for the daily,
£2 0s. Od. for the weekly, £1
Od. per annum.
The Daily Press, was started on the 9 th of March, 1861, as a three-times a
week paper, but after a month found it necessary not only to enlarge but to issue
daily.   It has a semi-weekly issue for British Columbia and foreign circulation.
It is worthy of note, as shewing the interest taken by all classes of the community in literary and scientific pursuits, that a series of Winter Evening Lee-
" Poetry,"
;'History," "Popular N«
Tho subjects
British Civilization,"   and the  programme  con-
tures are now being  delivered  once  a  fortnight  in  Victoria.
CD ©
lectured on up to this  time
" Geology,"   " Chivalry,"   <
©•/    / VI
tains further, " Mineralogy," and "Reminiscences of a Military Chaplain."
These lectures have been generally well attended.
A belief in the salubrity of the climate of Vancouver was long ago-expressed,
v CD © XT J
ftnd the experience of the last few years, when an increase of population lias
given a better means of mdging,  has amply  confirmed  the  impressions  and
D d CD CD I *       v' X
assertions of those who first became acquainted with the region. No endemic
disease is known, and the only epidemics that have as yet visited the Island
Jiave been Influenza, Small-pox (amongst the natives), and the milder forms of
Infantile diseases—such as Measles, &c, &c.
With such a population, however, as is to be found in the neighbourhood
of all gold regions, especially where the deleterious nature of the alcoholic
drinks indulged in and the licentiousness of the surrounding savage life which
prevails, are taken into account, it is not to be wondered at that even in this the
most salubrious of climates, much disease and misery should exist. With the
exception however of the diseases induced by and accompanying the above
forms of vice, the list of " ills that flesh is heir to" is in this country, small,
and confined chiefly to pulmonary and rheumatic affections. These occur in
every degree of intensity and variety of complication, all, however, amenable
4o treatment, except in constitutions undermined by syphilis and poisoned by
Iticohol. These affections of the respiratory organs, pneumonic, bronchitic,
find pleuritic, are due no doubt to sudden alternations of temperature acting
rfa   tbiiitftsed frames, and the rheumatic affections, irrespective of the special
*^> 35
character which distinguishes most of them, to undue exposure to wet and
The remarks already made on the peculiar nature of the climate of the
south-eastern extremity of the Island, will readily explain to the inquirer the
reason why at Victoria such diseases should be the prevalent types ; the hot
sun and cold winds of the summer and autumnal littoral climate, and the
humid winter season, shew the atmospheric influences which are in operation
on the human frame. At the same time it must be borne in mind and kept in
view, that these causes by no means exist in equal force all over the Island,
and that their injurious influence is exerted only on constitutions debilitated
by previous disease or by intemperance.
v     St mi ST
The statistical returns from one of Her Majesty's ships lying in the harbour
v v X v CD
of Esquimalt, give, during a period of twelve months a fair criterion by which
±. I    CD 7 © t J
to judge of the nature of the climate in so far as regards its salubrity.
Excluding from these returns_all/such cases as are due to accident or other
causes not purely climatorial, it is found that out of a ship's company numbering on an average about 500 men, there were entered on the Sick List during that period of time, two hundred and thirty-three cases of slight catarrhal
© X l V CD
affections—of diseases of the   nervous, respiratory,  and digestive   systems :
7-1 vt Cn %, 7
for rheumatism and all such complaints, in fact, as can be fairly regarded as
being attributable to, or materially influenced by, climatorial agencies.
© 7 v v* i ©
Of those cases of sickness two hundred and five were discharged to duty,
twenty were sent ashore for the benefit of hospital treatment, all but one
recovering, and eight were invalided either as incurable or requiring hospital
treatment in England.
At a first glance, the above list, taken relatively to the number of indivi-
© 7 7 */
duals comprising tbe ship's company mav appear large, but a consideration of
X O X X V v -   X CD       i
the nature of a military service will shew that its aggregate of sick will always
be numerically larger than that of a corresponding   community in civil life—
*J CD X CD v
since, from the nature of the service, men who could do an ordinary day's
work ashore, must be entered on the sick list simply from inability promptly
and quickly to perform their duties; the best criterion, therefore, of the gravity
TLi/Ir 7 7 7 cd %7
of the attacks occurring under the above different nosological  categories, will
CD © CD 1
be found in the aggregate and separate number of days' sickness ; 1818 in  the
© © O X VI
former, giving an average of seven and one-half day's sickness for each case,
but one death (at hospital,) most of the cases invalided being subjects of originally debilitated constitutions, and aged men suffering under chronic diseases.
The whole state of the case amounts to seven or eight days' slight illness in the
year from feverish colds, coughs, and rheumatic complaints, in 233 cases out
of about 500 men.
The medical profession is represented by practitioners from various countries, the field is quite open to all or any qualification, no legislative enactment existing for the protection of the duly educated and legally qualified
medical man, nor, in this important particular, for the community at large.
An Hospital, originating in the benevolent exertions of the Chaplain to the
Hudson's Bay Company and the Police Magistrate of Victoria, was established
temporarily in a small building in the Town of Victoria in the year 1858.    Iu
\ 36
the summer of the following year, a building capable of providing accommodation for twenty patients, was erected by His Excellency the Governor on the
Indian Reserve, at an expense of between £400 and £500. The institution
thus established is supported by subscriptions and donations, and is under the
management of a Committee elected annually by the subscribers, the medical
care anl supervision being vested in one or other of the resident practitioners
in Victoria, who, alternately, take monthly charge.
Since the opening of this hospital 350 patients have been admitted, and an
equal number of out-door cases have been treated.    The diseases have been of
a general character, such as are met with in  all communities, the majority
being acute and sub-acute forms of rheumatism with its various complications,
chest affections, and a few cases of paralysis.
/ XV
The great proportion of cases have done well, but the " locale" of
the hospital is bad for chest or rheumatic complaints ; situated on a promontory washed by the frigid sea water and exposed to the bleak spring southerly
winds, the patients make but a lingering convalescence.
This is the only public charitable institution, and it is specially intended
for the care of the sick needing shelter, surgical and medical treatment;  but
© * —■ i
for the provision of the distressed, to the high honour of the community be it
said, no special institution is required : an open handed charity pervades all
classes, which cheerfully affords assistance to honest poverty, or soothes the
sorrows of unlooked for misfortune.
It has been stated to be the intention of the Imperial Government to
establish in Vancouver a sanatariurn for the restoration of the health of
invalids from the forces serving in India and China—tbe plan if carried out
will be found to succeed admirably.    For all  diseases of functional  derange-
ment and nervous debility the climate is most suitable, eminently partaking of
that great qualification remarked some two hundred years ago of England, by
a Royal personage, a keen observer, "A climate that a man can be out of
doors in every day of the year." Even for chest affections many most desirable localities can be pointed out; undulating land, sheltering hills, gravel
soil, fragrant pine woods, fragrant even to oppressiveness in the balmy north- '
ern breezes of summer. Removed from the sea-coast the sudden alternations
of heat and cold would in a great measure be avoided, and the open out of
door life, so generally pursued in new colonies by all people, would soon set
up'the shattered frames of invalids from the tropics, restore the weakened
nervous power and remove hepatic and other obstructions.
The energy, the bustle of the struggle of life  going on around him. would
©*/   / CD CD CD O I
rouse the dormant mental powers of the hypochondriac ; while the new scenes,
the new views of life and of human nature which forcibly strike tbe observer
in all young colonies, would give a wholesome action to his mind, and a health-
V CD 1 CD /
ful tone to his frame.
Such an institution as here spoken of could be nowhere more conveniently
or advantageously placed than in Vancouver Island. The only drawback would
be the temptation to desert owing to the proximity of the gold fields.
Agriculture, Holdings of Land, &c, &c.—The soils wkich are found on
Vancouver Island  have been already  described as consisting of sand   and o.
• gravel deposits, of sandy loams, some of them calcareous, and, in many places,
of a very rich  deposit of humus  or  vegetable mould overlying a subsoil of
retentive clay.
The origin of these soils is due to the sands, gravels and clays of the
boulder drift, to the decomposition and disintegration of the bed rocks, aud to
the decay of vegetable matter growing on the surface.
The land already taken up and occupied is held by companies and private
individuals, the chief holders being the Hudson's  Bay and Puget Sound Com-
panies.    It is  distributed in larger and smaller portions, the above companies
1. © X 7 *-
holding respectively 7,000 and 2,000 to 3,000 acres. These companies and
individuals hold by purchase, originally at the rate of £1 per acre, but this,
however, has been since reduced to an up3et price of one dollar, or foui
shillings and twopence per acre.    There are holdings of land from one hundred
to four hundred acres, a few amount to upwards of one thousand acres.
There are also many farms of from forty to one hundred acres enclosed and
under cultivated grasses and rotation crops. Lands occupied by tenants are
generally held by agreement from year to year, and rents are paid in
money. In all farming operations the same tools and implements are made
use of as in Great Britain. In preparing the land the following measures are
necessary and generally adopted : 1st—Boulder and other loose surface stones
are-carefully removed, and for this as well as clearing the land of stumps,.
Indian labour is available. 2nd—It is necessary to clear the land, with pickr
axes, of bedded boulders, the presence of which would not be known until the
plough came in contact with them. Ditching and draining are the next steps,
and the land is then broken up by the plough with a yoke of bullocks, which
are much preferred to the horses of this country on account of their steadier
The land is now left as a summer  fallow until  the early  part of October,
when the grain is put into the ground. The crops generally raised are—wheat,
barley, oats, and peas. The green crops are—turnips (Swedes), mangel wurtzel,
vetches, potatoes', and all kinds of vegetables ; cabbages, and pumpkins,
attaining a very great size. Of the cereals, wheat does best; of the leguminous
plants, peas are the most profitable.
Nowhere does the potato flourish more, or attain a better flavour; it is
grown in great quantities by the natives on all parts of the coast. The Hydah
Indians of Queen Charlotte's Island hold an annual potato fair, customers
reaching them from Fort Simpson on the mainland.
The rotation of crops in virgin soil is—wheat after fallow, then a crop of
peas, wheat again or oats, and then a fallow is made for turnips, and by this
time the land will be pretty clean. After turnips, a crop of barley or oats,
^spring sown], is raised and followed by potatoes, the land being well manured and thus mended. After this, farming operations are conducted on the
same rotation four course system as in Great Britain.
Threshing is done by machine, but in some cases the flail is still used.
The average production of wheat is twenty-five to thirty bushels per acre,
64 lbs. to the bushel; of oats, forty bushels per acre, weight 36 to 46 lbs. Potatoes two hundred bushels per acre, and of very superior quality; all vegetables mm
■ I
succeed much better in£ Vancouver than in Oregon or Washington Territory j
The following are the usual quantities of seed sown per acre:—of wheat one-
and a half bushels, barley two and a half, oats two and a half to three bushels,
peas two to two and a half bushels, vetches two and a half. The yield of
barley varies according to the cultivation of the land from 24 up to 40 bushels)
per acre.
All fruit trees bear profusely and the fruit is of the finest quality.
The animals employed in the field and farm yard, are horses, oxen and
mules, the latter being of great and special value. Pigs are easily reared, and
poultry also.
Sheep generally do well, the South Down especially, which do best, the
Merino sheep being too loose in the wool to suit the wet winter climate.—
Fleeces are light, the quality of the wool good. The meat is excellent, of the
finest and most delicate flavor—fit to kill at two years old. There are about
5000 sheep on Vancouver and the neighbouring Islands. The annual increase is
about 90 per cent. Lambs are dropped about the beginning of April—a favourable season, and little loss is experienced, except from the occasional attacks
of native dogs or wild animals. Some of the finest South Down Rams have
been Imported at a great expense by the Hudson's Bay, and Puget Sound Com
Large  herds of cattle exist in the mountains In a wild state, haviDg strayed
s 7 © y
from the different farms and settlements.
Agriculture is progressing and is looked on most favorably, kept back at
present, only by the scarcity of labour, and consequent high rate of wages, and
by the want of roads.
An Agricultural and Horticultural Society has been formed, and was very
successfully inaugurated in the autumn of the present year. The first exhibition was held in October, prizes being awarded to the exhibitors of the best
liorned cattle, sheep, stallions, and brood mares, (thorough bred and for farming
purposes) and also for pigs. Amongst the cereals—for wheat, barley, and
oats, an d amongst the leguminous plants for field peas ; of the root and
leaf-plants—for Swedish and bullock turnips, parsnips, mangel-wurtzel, carrots
beets and potatoes, cabbages, squashes, celfry and tomatoes.
Fruit culture will prove a valuable and paying branch of industry.    In this
.particular the capabilities of Vancouver Island excel those of tbe continent;"
and this may prove an article of export, though agricultural products generally
never will.
Currency*    The chief difficulty to be met with in the matter of the currency
V •
is the fact, that the legal money of account, viz : £ s. d. is insufficiently represented by coins, so that a legal tender for any large amount, having fractional
parts of a pound sterling can haidly be made.
As the law stands at present, this difficulty can only be removed by coining,
or else importing sterling coins, either of which proceedings would be expen-.
sive, the former would not cost less than 4 per cent., the latter about 7 per
The only other method of removing the difficulty, would be to declare the
dollar legal money of account as well as the pound sterling. 39
One of the greatest obstacles in arranging the currencies of the Colonies,
has invariably arisen out of the anomaly of the money of account being of a
V V v **-*
different denomination from the coins in circulation. And the experience of
other British Colonies shews the necessity of adopting for Vancouver as the
money of account, that denomination which is best represented by coins, or at
least adopting both systems—as the legal monies of account.
That Vancouver is at liberty equally with other British North American
Colonies, to adopt the latter plan, there cannot be a doubt. The intrinsic par
between the two eurrencies, which is acknowledged all over the continent of
North America, including the British Provinces, is 9^ per cent, premium on
the old Federal Par. and is thus calculated.
£100 0 0 sterling.
Add one ninth    112 3
Multiply by
$444 44   Federal Money.
Add nine and one half per cent.    42 22
$486 66
This Par of exchange is verified by reference to the coine, thus
British sovereign contair
grains fine gold.
American half Eagle "
line gold..
Hence,    113 025 : £1 0 0 :
)115.103(1.027—£l 0 6£
s 113 25-10001
116 1-10 grs
.117 100, or, 116.100: $5 :: 113.025
$5-£l 0 6| £10 0-$4 86
The present fictitious par of $5 per pound sterling, has a tendency to inundate the circulation of the Colony with depreciated sovereigns, which have
long been in circulation on the Pacific coast, in Australia and elsewhere, and
this will ultimately tell against foreign exchange, if these eoins are not replaced
by new sovereigns. Account sales are invariably rendered in dollars and cents,
a*id to the commercial community it is of great importance that it should continue to be so, preventing general inconvenience in the trade between this and
neighboring American states, which is very large and rapidly increasing.
About thirty per cent, of   the sovereigns, in   circulation   in this colony of
v        x *^ I 4/
Vancouver, are under the legal weight, which is equivalent to a deduction of
one and a half per cent,  at the Bank of England. mmm
m '
1 1}—$10.
1 0 6h— 5.
0 10   3^—     2.50
At the aforesaid Par the different coin3 would stand relatively thus
£1    o   0—$4,866 Or, £2
0 10   0—  3.433 1
0    10—  0.243
0   0   6—     122 0    4   11—     1.
0    0   1—     020 0   0   Oh—     0.01
Capital commands a high rate of interest, 25 to 18 per cent, per annum
can be obtained on the best securities.    The great want of Capital is shown hy
the fact, that on one occasion, Government requiring money, even on such
security it could only be obtained at the rate of 24 per cent, per annum for
four months.
The interest of money and increased value of investments in property, have
since 1858 realized from 15 to 30 per cent, per annum.
Any person coming out to this colony and bringing from two to three thou-
J     x © v ©        ~
sand pounds can obtain for that sum from £300 to £400 per annum by putting
out his money at interest on good security.
The weights and measures of the colony are Imperial, though in practice
the American gallon which is one-fifth less is frequently used by agreement.
Public feeling is strongly in favour of a decimal currency. Accounts are
kept in dollars and cents, by wholesale as well as retail dealers. Government alone keeping accounts in £ s.   d.
Trade and Commerce.—Possessing at Victoria a Free Port, the Colony of
Vancouver enjoys an immunity from all restrictive duties on trade and commerce, and, considering her geographical position, nothing could have been
more wisely determined on. For, great as are the inducements to agriculturists of a certain class to come and take possession of the virgin soil of the
fertile valleys and plains, yet it must always be remembered that these at the
best are but limited, and that, agricultural pursuits must per force take a
Secondary position to those of trade and commerce In the colony of Vancouver.
Situated as it were on tbe highway between two great gold producing
countries, her capital Victoria, the sea-port of tbe vast regions of British Columbia, serves as a depot or medium for tbe interchange of commodities.
/ x CD
Already the influence of Victoria as a commercial dep6t is felt in Oregon
and Washington Territory, and is now being acknowledged in California.
A San Francisco newspaper—UEcho du Pacific—of this year, thus states the
case : October 30, 1861—"Heretofore goods might remain in bond three years
without paying duties : now the term is restricted to three months, and as consignees are not always disposed to pay the large amount of duties they would
be called upon to advance, the above restrictive measure will have the effect
of throwing this business into the hands of parties in some other place, where
the laws are more liberal. Commerce has neither country or affections, all it
wants is freedom, if that is taken from it in one place, it will seek it in
% For this reason it would appear that Victoria, a Free Port, will profit by
what San Francisco will lose, as the shipper will find there the advantages
which are refused to him here, and there («. e. Victoria) will be the depot of
the Pacific Coast."
It is stated that the French merchants of San Francisco in the prospect of 41
having to pay these duties, contemplate directing their next importations
to Victoria; these facts speak for themselves.
The chiet argument brought forward by those who advocate the abolition of
the present Free Port system is based upon the belief, that no country can
continue to prosper or become wealthy, without agricultural resources. And
accordingly, protection has generally been extended to the agriculturist.
However applicable the principle may be to a country having within itself
all the elements of self-support, it does not carry with it the same weight or
importance, when applied specially to the development of the resources of
Vancouver Island.
The agricultural portion of Her Majesty's dominionson this side of the'Rocky
Mountains, has been unnaturally and unwisely severed from what is destined
to be the mercantile and manufacturing districts.
This is self-evident if the geographical position of Vancouve r Island, forming as it does the natural sea-bo'ard of British Columbia, is considered, thus,
with the navigation of the Pacific, commanding mercantile facilities, while her
© 7 © 7
extensive coalfields will necessarily attract manufacturing population and
It can never be for the good of the agricultural interest to discourage the
industry of the larger—the mercantile class of the community — because
the greater the facilities granted to the trading population, the cheaper will
'the farmers be supplied, not only with foreign goods, but with the manufactured produce of their own country.
Under a Protective Tariff, the agriculturist will not necessarily enjoy a
high price for his produce. He will have to pay higher taxes, because the proportion of farmers to the commercial class, will always be small in Vancouver,
and the oppression of the interests of the larger class, will fall heavily on the
smaller, as well as on the individual.
If the agricultural interests suffer from the present Free Trade system, they
would languish and die if commerce were discouraged ; their markets woulc
be altogether removed by the withdrawal of mercantile capital and population.
Whatever encourages commerce, directly encourages agriculture.
British Columbia has great mineral wealth,   and abundant agricultural re*
sources.    Vancouver Island has great mineral wealth, agricultural resources^
and vast commercial capabilities.    Her ultimate destiny is clear—it is nothing
less, than to be the great commercial mart of the world, to supply the Pacific
with the manufactures of the world.
A purely mercantile or manufacturing country can generally procure food
at a cheaper rate from one that is devoted to agriculture than she can raise it
for herself, and the only disadvantage arising from this division of labour,
would be the danger of war cutting off the supplies.
© © xx
The relations which exist between Vancouver Island and British Columbia,
prevent the possibility of such a contingency, and the special capabilities and
resources of the two Colonies clearly shew their mutual dependence upon,
and relation to, each other.
The scope of this essay does not admit of a full consideration of the whole
bearings of the case, and the great and manifest importance of the immediate -jL.mi
junction of the two Colonies which might be  earnestly urged, can be here
only incidentally alluded to, when treating of the trade and commerce of one.
v v I CD
The Imports and Exports of a country generally furnish the means of estimating and setting forth the extent and nature of its commerce, but Victoria
being a Free Port, no account of the latter is taken, and it is impossible to
arrive at any correct estimate of the amount of gold, furs, skins, hides, wool,
exported—these, with whale, seal and fish oils, coal, lumber, and spars from
various parts of the insular coast line, being shipped off annually, in great and
increasing quantities.
The Imports, however, 3hew the amount of foreign trade, and the British Columbian imports from Vancouver, with tho returns under the " Traded
License Act," give an approximate ratio of the amount of business done in
the home or colonial trade.
The aggregate value of goods imported into the Colony of Vancouver fbJ
the period of twelve months ending 30th June, 1»60, was £499,178 4s. Od.
X CD i I I
For the twelvemonths ending 31st December, 1861, £400,113 0s. Od. (Id|
particulars, see Appendix, No. 10.
In 1860, the value of goods exported to British Columbia from Victoria,
a«nounted to £20.1, 712 13s. 6d. asper abstract of Imports into British Columbia,
Appendix No. 11, the list comprising all classes of goods and commodities of
Under the Trades License Act, of I860, returns are made half yearly, of the
amount of business^transacted, (as per act, "shall pay half yearly an assessment upon the actual amount of the money, or equivalent for money, which,
during the three calendar months next preceding, shall have been received,")
by merchants and traders of all classes, and, according to the scale already
referred to under the head of " Employment of the People," a tax is imposed by
Assessors appointed for that purpose, the amount of which tax must be paid
into the treasury within ten days of the final passing of the assessment by.a
*i v I © v
Board of Revision.
>e is,t
urns are for the quarter—the tax for the half year.
According to these returns, it will be seen that for the three months ending
SIst December, 1860, the amount of business transacted was £205,035.
For the three months ending June 30th, 1861, £108,150.
For the three months ending December 31st, 1861, £195,880.
The analysis appended with these returns gives a clear view of the nature
of the home trade as applied to the Colony, which is chiefly retail, but is not
confined to residents in the island, purchasers from all the settlements in the
Sound, (Washington Territory) being among the best customers that tradesmen have.
The wholesale trade is cramped and limited in consequence of the deficient
supply of goods, which are for the most part sent out in vessels of a very inferior description, making long voyages, and often bringing damaged cargoes.
As already stated, no account of exports being taken, it is difficult, impossible, indeed, to arrive at anything like a correct estimate of the amount of'
the most important item, viz. the gold in dust and bars brought to, and ultimately shipped from, Victoria.
t/ x   x J The gold is brought from British Columbia to Victoria by the miners, an I
there a small portion is sold, but the great bulk goes to San Francisco, a;|
does ultimately that portion purchased in Victoria.
In 1860, the value of the gold obtained from Cariboo and other diggings
in the upper country of British Columbia, was computed at a million sterling.
For the present year, 1861, nothing to be relied on as to the quantity produced, can be ascertained, but not less than twice that amount must be taken
as the lowest computation.
Cariboo coarse dust is sold in Victoria at from $15 50 to $17 50 per oz.
Amalgam gold on the Fraser River, at from $14 to $15 per oz. Were it properly retorted, which it is not, this gold would be worth $17 per oz.
The coarse gold found on the western side of the Blue Mountain range,
(the Cariboo gold range), is less valuable than that found on the Eastern side,
lying between the above range and  the Rocky Mountains.    This inferiority is
owing to the quantity of silver mixed with it, and it only fetches from $15 50
to $16 25 per oz.
The finest gold of all  has been found in Lightning and Nelson  Creeks-—
averaging $18 50 in the bar, some of it as high as 920 " fi»e," about 22£
carats. Some of the fine amalgam gold on the Fraser River, runs as high as
900 "fine."
The gold assayed in Victoria, and run into bars, is ultimately sent to California, and generally sold at a discount of between 2 and 3 per cent, on stamp
"on bar." This discount is owing to the scarcity-of coin. If there were
sufficient coin in the place, the bars would be sold at about one per cent, dis--
eount, to cover rate of exchange or coinage, at the mint of San Francisco, or
in Victoria, did the place possess such an establishment.
The establishment of a mint in Vancouver Island, is a vexed question ; in
some respects it would increase trade, especially in so far as dealers in gold
and assayers are concerned, being at the same time an advantage to the miner
by saving one or two per cent, discount, and it would undoubtedly tend to improve Victoria and Vancouver generally, by increasing population. If there
were coins to purchase gold, that metal would  be bought and transmitted by
X © 7 ™ t,'
merchants as cash in payment of goods, and so, differences in rates of exchange
would be saved. The gold thus retained for a time, would of course ultimately be taken away. The only permanent retention of that metal in th&
shape of coin, will depend on and follow the development of the agricultural
and manufacturing resources of British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
The mint in San Francisco, charges one quarter per cent, for assaying, and
one-half per cent, for coining, three-quarters per cent, in all, making a return
of the silver which the}- part. The returns are made in from 12 to 15 days,
and the silver generally found in Californian gold dust pays for assaying, so
*-" •* © XT       v v © 7
that the total expense is only one-half per cent.
For assaying in Victoria, the charge of one-quarter per cent, is made on all
sums above 50 oz.    Silver is not parted; the purchaser of the bar   (stamped
intrinsic gold value), getting the benefit of the quantity of that metal therein
contained.    Thus, a bar bearing 800 on the face  of it, purchased in Victoria
at 2 per cent, discount, and sold in San Francisco when the par value is 850 ' - ■'-■■-
"fine," would be making £ per cent, on the face of the bar. And if the same
party were purchasing a bar 900 " fine," and selling it in San Francisco at the
same par value (850 " fine,") he would be losing a half per cent.
Par value is explained in this way—If par value in San Francisco be estimated by bankers and others drawing drafts, at 850 par, all bars under that
stamp of " fineness," stand at a premium. 825 " fine," would be one-quarter
per cent., 800 " fine," half per cent., and 750 one per cent., because the amount
of silver in the bar increases as the " fine" number decreases, and this premium is paying the silver in the bars.
On the contrary, the bars increasing in fineness would be at a discount,
because, be3rond 850 par, there is not silver enough to  cover the rate of ex-
/ v X. 7 ©
change.    Sometimes the bars run up to 910 par, when the demand is heavy.
One of the Assaying firms in Victoria, assayed and melted 750 ounces of
gold weekly between the months of March and September of the present year;
in October, of Cariboo gold, within a fraction of ten thousand ounces was
melted.    Another assaying firm has done much the same amount of business*
v o
As already stated, it is   impossible to   arrive  at any just   estimate of the
v 7 X v        v
amount of gold brought to Victoria this year; when successful, the miners'
usual rule is secrecy, and the want of coin in Victoria for the purchase of the
" dust," has compelled them to take a great proportion of it to San Francisco.
One enterprising firm alone, from August, 1858 to the present time (December,
1861), has shipped to San Francisco gold dust and bars to the aggregate
amount of $3750,111 30—equal to £750,022 4 3; the details are given in
Appendix No. 12.
It is calculated that next year at least five times the number of miners
will be assembled at the gold fields, and full ten times the amount of gold
extracted. A party of seven men with the money they made at Cariboo, lately
left Victoria for San Francisco to buy 600 head of cattle and 1000 mules with
which to return to British Columbia in the spring. Such preparation
for  exigencies    likely   to   arise,   affords   a   good   indication   of  what  the
* * v I CT*
probable increase of population will be during the ensuing season.
Banking, &c.—Discounting is not in fashion with the bankers of Victoria.
The exchange business is chief! }r with San Francisco ; drafts on Portland,
Oregon, U. S., are also frequently in demand; the trade in exchange is
increasing steadily, and will do so still more, especially if a direct route by
steamships is opened via San Francisco to Panama.
tlnited States drafts are frequently in the market, and can be bought at a
discount of 2 to 5 per cent.
Government and Navy Bills are sold at from 1 per cent, discount to 1 per
cent, premium, and remitted to England. They form the basis of nearly all
the exchange required. Coin is wanted for both these descriptions of exchange ;
it is scarce, as it can generally be better employed in buying gold dust, drafts
on Portland and San Francisco.
The Bank of British North America receives deposits for which a charge is
made of one-fourth per cent per month. It draws on the principal commercial places in Canada and in Europe, issues notes of Exchange, and discounts a
little.; but does not buy gold dust or bars.
There is one other Banking establishment—McDonald & Co.—doing busi- ne3S in much the same way, but purchasing gold dust and bars, drawing on
San Francisco and London.
The House of Wells, Fargo-& Co., in Victoria, do a Banking and Exchange
business.    They buy and  sell Exchanges, and gold  in bars, drawing on San
Francisco  and other  principal  places.    The amount of gold shipped by this
firm since August. 1858, has been given above.
© / / CD
One great addition to the exports will be found in copper ore, late discoveries of which in Queen Charlotte's Island to the north, and at Barclay Sound
in the southwest of the Island give excellent promise of valuable lodes ;
affording the means of stimulating industry and extending commerce.
© ™ v O
Such, rapidly sketched, is the state and condition of trade and commerce
in the Colony of Vancouver, a state and condition at once surprising and gratifying, when the youth of the Colony, and the many'drawbacks consequent on
distance from, and difficult access to, the Mother Country are taken into account. Its present stage of development warrants the sure belief in its great
and immediate expansion.
Vancouver, in her commercial relations, has a noble mission before her.
As   an   outpost   of the Mother Country,   this favored Island   offers   to   the
1 VI
enterprising emigrant, to the true Colonist, who w-ill make it his home, an ample field for all his energies. The centre and focus of trade of the North-west
Coast—the natural outlet for the stores of wealth produced and accumulated
by the industry of man in the Canadas—Vancouver will, in tbe coming
time, radiate the light of civilization across the whole Northern Pacific, and
illuminate the dark and barbarian shores of China and Japan. Ever since the
days of the nomadic Celts, the face of man has been turned to the Western
sun. The dawn of civilization, for those countries, has arisen in the East on
the shores of their  own ocean, and civilized  man, still looking West, will by
' i © 7 J
means of trade and commerce, carry the enlightenment of the 19th century to those benighted shores, and  develop the wealth of the  lonely Islands
v CD i x. v
of the North and South Pacific Ocans.
The following interesting extracts from Hazlitt's Work, clearly and concisely convey the opinions of Statesmen, commercial men, and travellers,
and show,*at the same time, the great importance—political and commercial—
of Vancouver Island, while they are sufficiently comprehensive to embody all
that need be said of the prospective field of commerce in view.
" Fur Trade."    Pamphlet by Mr. Roche.
"Profitable as the fur trade has already been, there is a certain prospect of
its value being greatly enhanced by the opening to general commerce of the
markets of Japan. In those wealthy and densely populated Islands, where
the temperature of winter ranges almost as low as it does in the north of
China, direct, and comparatively near markets for the furs, the fish, and probably for the timber of these regions, will ere long be  opened out, the im-
portance of which to the latter country it is impossible to overrate. Probably
these highly cultivated Islands will be found to be so cleared of their forests
that they will afford the most lucrative markets for the valuable timber of
North-Western America. In a large portion of China timber has already become very scarce." ni:-
Mr. Earl, in his work upon the "Eastern Seas," says, that the junks of the
Chinese are generally built in other countries where wood is plentiful.
There can, therefore, be no question of the profit of establishing a trade
oetween that country and the North-West Coast, in this staple production of
the latter. " The greater portioa of the south of Persia, which is wholly barren in timber, and a great part of South America^ which is equally so, might
also afford excellent markets for the useful timber of the North West-Coast."
Mr. Montgomery Martin, writes :
"The position, resources and climate of Vancouver Island eminently adapt
it for being the Britain of the Northern Pacific. There is no port between the
Straits of Juan de Fuca and San Francisco ; it is within a week's sail of California ; within double that distance from the Sandwich Islands, with which a
thriving trade has already been established; five days' voyage from or to New
Archangel, the head quarters of the Russian Fur Company's settlements,
where large supplies of provisions are required," and it is within three weeks'
steaming distance of Japan."
" This commanding position justifies the expectation that Vancouver Island
will become, not only a valuable agricultural settlement, but also a rich commercial entrepot for British trade and industry."
Sir Bulwer Lytton says: "Already on the Pacific, Vancouver Island has
been added to the social communities of mankind. Already, on the large territory west of the Rocky Mountains, from the American frontier up to the
Russian domains, we are laying the foundations of what may become hereafter
a magnificent abode for the human race. And now, eastward of the Rocky
Mountains we are invited to, see in the settlement of the Red River, the nucleus
of a new Colony, a rampart against any hostile inroads from the American
frontier, and an essential one, as it were, to that great viaduct by which we
hope one day to connect the harbours of Vancouver with the Gulf of St.
And that great contemplated viaduct is thus ably commented on by a correspondent of the Times, who shews, that passing from Halifax through British Territory, for a distance of 3200 miles there would be a gain on the
present route to British Columbia, via Panama, of no less than twenty-two
days. And, in reference to the all important question of postal communication, not only with these Colonies, but also with China and Australia, shews
the distances to be from—
Panama to Canton, about 10,000 miles
Vancouver Island to Canton     "        6,900    "
Panama to Sydney      "        8,200    "
Vancouver to Sydney     "        7,200    "
" This proximity to Australia is especially worthy of note at a time when
the transmission of the mails across the Pacific is again being prominently
advocated. It will be apparent from the afore given distances, that by transmitting the Australian mails from England to the Pacific across British North
America via Vancouver Island, instead of via Panama, a saving of five days
is effected between England and the Pacific, and ot 1,000 miles, or say five
days more, in the passage across that ocean—ten days  saved in all"—and on 47
the same subject Lord Bury states truly, " that our trade in the Pacific Ocean
with China and India must ultimately be carried on through our North American Possessions."
To these quotations maybe added one from a report furnished to the United
States Government by Mr. Aaron H. Palmer, which has especial and particular
interest at the present time, when a trade with Russia is being opened through
the Amoor River; a trade which may reach the heart of Asia, and even the
shores of the Baltic.
Mr. Palmer says:
" The Amoor is the most valuable river in Northern Asia; the only highway Of nature that directly connects the central steppes of Asia with the rest
of the world. The extent of the rivers which disembogue at it» mouth is
amazing—the principal towns of Manchuria, and several places in Mongolia,
are accessible to them ; they extend to upwards of thirty degrees of Longitude. By its position with respect to the sea of Japan, a settlement at or near
its embrochure would open a new and most profitable trade with Manchuria,
Central Asia, Siberia, the Japanese Islands, Corea, &c."
"There appear to be no insurmountable obstacles to a direct communication being opened between the Pacific and the Baltic, and with the Caspian
and Black seas,  by  the route of   this
The Revenue and Expenditure of the  col
approximate, is shewn by the following abstract
no. tne
waters  of
ony for the year 1861, close!1
v V I %
Real Estate One
£    Knr
Harbour Dues	
"      to Harbour fund.
Victoria Street Tax...	
Liquor Licenses	
Trade Licenses	
Land Sales  (including
Pre-emption Fees]
Fines,   Forfeitures,    and
Fees  of Court	
Fees  of Office	
Re-imbursement in aid of
Expenses  incurred   by
Miscellaneous Receipts,
Balance from I860.
1029    4
palaries fixed. £1659    8    1
3    6iSalaries  pro
visional and
XOO     i-ii    i-i.
9    0< Office Contin-
2    6   gencies 	
0    0
Administration of Justice,
6 101    exclusive   of  Establish-
10,038    8
310 11
iCharitable Allowances	
1482  15    1 Police and Gaols, exclusive MPS*P
The amount and kind of taxation in force will be clearly seen under the
" Heads of Receipt," and are comprised under the different headings of Real
Estate, one per Cent Tax, Harbour Dues and Fund, Victoria Street Tax, Liquor
and Trade Licenses.
In the neighbouring Colony of British Columbia, the Revenue and Expenditure, with the imports, for the vear 1860, were as follow:
Gross Revenue     £83,044 16 11
Total Expenditure     £71,859    9    6
Total value of Imports    £257,388    0 10
Of this, Vancouver Island alone, sent      £201,712 13    6
The Imports from the United States reached the value of   £55,674 16    6
The gold produce in the above year, is computed at one million sterling.
This present year, 1861, has witnessed the full development of the great
wealth which British Columbia possesses in her gold fields.    At least the great,
the wonderful promise has been seen, the full development awaits the enterprise of the miner for years to come.
The extent of gold bearing debris and gravel, can only be guessed at, but
© © CD 7 v CD 7
it is known to extend over a very large area.
b CD
Besides these extensive gold fields, the other valuable—and economically,
most important metals—silver, copper, tin, platinum, and plumbago, have been
found. Lignites and other Tertiary carboniferous deposits exist, and valuable building materials abound.
Steam Communication exists with the United States and Europe via Panama. At the present time, December, 1861, there is but one steamer every
three weeks, and calling at Portland on the Columbia, she does not communicate directly with Vancouver. The mail is brought by this conveyance, and
consequent on this divergence is subject to great delays.
X ©      . v CD v
The imperative necessity of a direct line of steamers has made itself
strongly felt, and the proper steps are now being taken to ensure, as far as
possible, this great desideratum. A subsidy has been granted by th« Colonial
Government, and arrangements have been made by which communication with
San Francisco shall take place weekly, each alternate steamer coming direct
to Esquimalt Harbour in Vancouver Island.
With the present prospects of the Colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, it is not only of the greatest importance that a direct and
speedy Postal Communication should be established, but that also a means of
conveyance that shall oring merchants, miners, agriculturists and immigrants
of all classes  straight to their port without unnecessary and vexatious delay,
© X K til
should be at once made available.
A steamer direct to San Francisco will of itself be a great boon, but there
ought to be vessels direct to Panama calling at San Francisco, " an interme-
© CD I
diate port."
With a moderately swift and convenient relay of vessels such as the South
Pacific Steam Navigation Company possesses, the service, aided by subsidies
from the Imperial and Colonial Governments, could be quickly, efficiently, and
eventually profitably, carried out.
v       X vi
For performing it, no capital or company commands the same facilities
X CD) f X X v I        f. '49 '.    .
as that above named,' with a powerful and numerous fleet of steamships, they
have profitably conducted the mail service and both developed and increased
the wealth and commercial interests of the whole South American coast.
Possessing at Tabogo (Panama), a regular dockyard and steam foundry,
originally placed there with a view to steam communication with Australia,
they are in a position to effect what, as above stated, no other company can
effect, and which, if undertaken, would, under the present able management,
be effectually carried out.
Such an undertaking—the establishment of such a line of steam communication—would" be the greatest boon to Vancouver Island, British Columbia,
and Washington Territory. From Esquimalt, to which Port, as being accessible at all hours of day and night, the ocean mail steamers must go ; a line of
small, swift, screw, or paddle steamers, would run to New Westminster and
Puget Sound, carrying the mail and passengers with light freight. No line of
Ocean Steamers can successfully run direct to New Westminster. The delays
consequent on wind and weather, making the land in the dark, threading a
passage through the intricacies of shoals, will always deter large vessels which
are under Time engagements.
Esquimalt Harbour, in Vancouver Island, is the natural—the only safe and
available Port, on the»North-West Coast of America, for steam mail communication, and when the junction of the two Colonies, at present in such things
unnatural rivals, shall have taken place, the great national advantages, possessed by this harbonr, in its position safe and commodious, and the wisdom
of its selection, will be acknowledged by all.
7 CD v
There are two great objects of vital importance to all Colonies, but especially so to this and the neighbouring Colony of British Columbia, viz. that
X «/ CD m    CD v J
they should have speedy, direct, and certain communication, with the mother
country, and that the capabilities of the inland,.mineral and agricultural districts, should be developed by means of roads and the construction of bridges,
and it is, in most cases, the duty of the mother country to provide these, the
greatest elements of successful progress, before financially casting off a Colony,
"leaving it to develop itself."
The policy of Great Britain in this respect, has been thus given by an eminent statesman, himself much interested in the successful progress of these
Colonies, "For a Colony to thrive and develop itself with steadfast and healthful progress, it should, from the first, as far as possible, be self-supporting."
And this great end is to be attained, by " self-exertion and the noble spirit-
self sacrifice, which self-exertion engenders."
Commenting on this despatch in an able article in the North British Revifr
for August, 1861, the writer says : " The despatch embodying these sentimer"'s
may be a very able literary composition, but we must be permitted to dJ
the correctness of its reasoning."    And with this opinion, most men who k&YQ
seen or know anything of Colonies will agree. -jJP
Admitting   the   statement   and the reasoning   therein   contained f°
correct, it is, and can be so, only generally, and to such exceptional c^Pes as
those of the Colonies and British Columbia and Vancouver, can bearf10 aP"
plication whatever. *
V- Si
It cannot be right that the only means of communication with the mother
country should be carried on from these important Colonies by foreign enterprise, or that the correspondence of the Government and of commercial men
should be transmitted in any way by favor of or dependent on a foreign and
possiblyrhostile power.
A liberal sum of money given at once, to subsidize Steam Communication,
and to open up the Agric ultural Districts of Vancouver Island, would do infinitely more good, and advance the Colony much more materially, than all the
v D 7 v vi
noble spirit of self-sacrifice engendered by self devotion is likely to do for a
thousand years.
The spirit of self exertion is not wanting, but it is to be feared that sacrifice of any material kind, has rather a depressing effect, a downward tendency.
The position of Vancouver Island, a great commercial entrepot between
two gold producing countries is special and peculiar, events are hurried upon
her, preventing self development, a process generally, like a child learning to
walk, slow and full of stumbles. Bring her at once into direct steam communication with Panama, open up her agricultural, districts, and the consequent
prosperous development will be instant and remarkable.
To emigrants of a certain class, the establishment of direct steam communication with Panama would he a great boon, and to many, an inducement to
encounter, what for a long time, without such means of transit, must continue
to be the great drawbacks to the full development of these colonies, viz.: the
distances, the delays, and contingent expenses. That there will ultimately be
. a route through Canada direct from Europe, no one doubts, possibly one also
by the Nicaraguan Lakes; but in the meantime the question is, how to bring,
with the least amount of expense, hardship- or trial the enterprising emigrant
with, it may be, a young family, to his future home.
There are at present three routes—one by way of the West Indies and
x i v
Panama, another via New ^'ork and Panama, in each case by steam, and the
third, least expensive though the longest, via Cape Horn by sailing ships.
There are three great classes of emigrants for whom this Colony holds out
special inducements, viz.: the capitalist, the merchant, and general trader.
The working farmer, the skilled artisan and mechanic ; the practical miner and
© / IX
the labouring man. To the two first ot these classes only, are the first named
routes open, the expense (speaking generally), being too great for the other
classes of emigrants indicated.
From Southampton to the Isthmus of Panama, is a Voyage of three weeks'
^ation,  the expense varying from £25 to £44 : across the Isthmus by rail,
* by American steamers to San Francisco, the fare is variable,  averaging
£15.     From   Panama to San Francisco the distance is 3200 miles, and
to Vancouver Island 800 ; the fare £10.    These fares include provisions
vhole voyage.    From New York to Panama is about 1,950 miles, tha
"ugh to San Francisco, $100 to $150 and $200,- but variable.
Europe the voyage will occupy seven to eight weeks ; from New York
jre weeks.    The  voyage round Cape Horn   from  any part of Great
| a first class dipper, thi only  ship admissable, ought not to occupy-
\from 95 to 110 days ; and emigrants can bo carried from  any Euro 51
pean port for £18 each adult, children proportionately less. It has its hardships of course, but to most men the sea voyage in a fine ship will be a source
of pleasure, an experience of life to be looked back upon and recalled with
interest in future years.
Emigration Barracks should be built to shelter the emigrant on his first
arrival, and to prevent expenses which might cripple his means and cramp his
Immediate employment would be found for all. For the agriculturist the
best time of arrival would be in the latj autumn or winter months ; he would
then have the spring and summer before him and thus have a good opportunity
of judging of the land, and settling himself before the ensuing winter.
It would be of great advantage to the colony to allot, if possible, unoccupied lands to pensioners, these would form the nucleus of a permanent defensive corps, and with the volunteers would be available on any sudden emergency.
The wives and daughters of these pensioners would supply the great want
of the colony, viz: female domestic servants—while the men would to a great
extent supply the labour market with a permanent and useful body of
labourers. With settled homes aud their families around them, these men are
the only class not likely to be carried off by " gold fever."
The best means of procuring an agricultural population of the right stamp
for this colony and the neighbouring one of British Columbia is by giving Free
Grants of Land. The offer of such grants will induce many a man to
emigrate who would grudge to pay, and probably would not leave his home to
pay, even a fourth part of the small sum now charged for land. Other colonies
have been for years gathering together a most valuable population by means of
Free Grants—and In no colony is it so necessary as in this. Get a working
population at once, and corn enough will soon be grown on the alluvial plains
of the Fraser, and in the fertile valleys of Vancouver, to feed the mining population of the Upper Country and retain the produce of the mines instead of
allowing it as now, to find its way to California. A great demand for wheat is
imminent, let the wheat growers be brought to till the fertile soil'now lying
waste and useless.
Let an Emigration Agency be established in Great Britain and every means
taken to diffuse information regarding these two colonies for it is impossible
to separate them.
It is a well known fact that less is known of British Columbia and of Vancouver Island by nine-tenths of the people of Europe than of any other part
of Her Majesty's dominions. The gold fields have not been recognized as a
"fact," their existence has made no general impression, and that simply because the gold has never made itself tangible, all having been swallowed up
by California.
But, as is well known, a railway carried through a new and hitherto remote
* ' v co
region, soon developes traffic for itself, so, were an active Emigration Agency
at work, and a line of clipper ships advertised to sail regularly for Vancouver
ialand, would Emigration begin, and once begun the. tide would flow on.
Base 0
Land and Roads.—The actual amount of land available for the agricultur-
ist has not yet been ascertained.
The whole area of the Island of Vancouver comprises twelve million acres,
the greater proportion of which is mountain and barren'rock. There are probably about 250,000 acres of valuable farming land in the districts of Victoria,
Saanich, Cowitchan, and Nanaimo. In Comax, an unexplored district, about
300,000, and with other outlying portions, in all, about one million acres available land.
Heavy and very valuable timber now covers many fine districts, which, as
V v vl
they become cleared, will be available for cultivation.    The price of clearing
varies in different localities, averaging from" £6 to £14 per acre.
The richer alluvial soils, bearing willow, alder, poplar, &c, are readily and
cheaply cleared by fire, the sandy soils bearing heavy timber, are more expensive and difficult to clear, owing to the great size of the roots of the pine trees,
for this however, Indian labour is available, and what is more, the cost of
clearing is becoming annually less, especially near to towns and settlements,
owing to the increased value of fire wood.
In the agricultural distrists, however, there is .enough open prairie land for
farming purposes, into which the settler can put his plough, and at once raise
the much wanted crops, the clearing of the timber from the land, keeping pace
with the wants of a farm, for outbuildings, fencing, &c, &e.
The upset price of land is one dollar, or four shillings and two pence per
acre.    Payment is made by instalments spread over a number of years.
Land may be pre-empted on a system which enables a man at once to settle'
himself on a given number of acres proportionate to his condition, whether
married or single.   The former,'having a wife resident iu the Colony, can preempt 200 acres, and for every child under eighteen years of age, also resident,
ten acres in addition.
The latter has a right to 150 acres.    After two years occupation of the land,
© v XT I
on its being shown that improvement to the extent of ten  shillings  per acre
'- has been made, a " Certificate of Improvement" is granted, which  gives full
and absolute right to the holder to sell, lease or mortgage, all the  rights in
D CD       CD       1 %   CD
fact of proprietorship.    Full particulars will be found in the copy of the Act,
Appendix, No. 13.
. An individual, therefore, having a wife and six children, may pre-empt and
settle at once, upon a farm of 260 acres. Abundant material for building
rough, temporary dwellings and outhouses are around him, and under his foot
he has a rich and virgin soil.
The number of acres of land purchased and pre-empted in the Colony, up
to the present time, is approximately: purchased 100,000 ; pre-empted 3,000.
The number of pre-emptive claims recorded, is 244, of these there are in
the Lake District 8, Esquimalt 2, Sooke 4, Metchosen 3, Highland 3, North and
South Saanich 22, Cowitchan 68, Somenos 20, Salt Spring Island 52, Barclay
Sound 23, Small Islands and dependencies 14.
From various causes, these purchased and pre-empted lands are not yet
fully occupied. The chief cause being the want of an agricultural population
of the right class. 53
To bring this population and provide for its wants, the system of "Clearing," so advantageously adopted in Australia, is much wanted here. It has
been tried in a few cases, and succeeds admirably. But, an immigration on a
large scale is requisite to bring at once these lands now lying useless, into
fertile, grain growing districts. On the system of clearing, the engagement
between the landowner and the settler, is generally for five or seven years.
The former  provides food  for one season and affords   all  the  necessary aid
X v
to start farming operations ; the latter undertakes to clear, fence, ditch and
drain the land committed to his care, deriving, for the period of time agreed
on, all profit accruing from the cultivation of the. soil, and farm produce
Under such conditions, a working Farmer will find himself, at the end of his
agreement, an independent man—and may purchase or pre-empt for himself.
At the present time, the average price of some of the more important agricultural implements and produce, is as follows: Ameriean ploughs, $20 to $-25 ;
wagons, $200 ; good horses,'$150 ; yoke of oxen, $120, to $200; sheep, from
%5 to $8 ; pigs, five cents per lb., liv« weight; hay, $25 per ton ; wheat, $1 50
per bushel. "Farm labourers are much wanted. Occasional labour, especially
in. the neighborhood of towns, may be obtained : but cannot be depended on.
C-* I V \ J X
The Public Roads are being developed and improved; it is, at present, a
great drawback to the country, that the means of access to inland agricultural
districts should   be attended with  great and almost insurmountable- difficul-
.   . r. \ -- CD
ties. W
The time that has elapsed'since the country first began to be settled, is certainly not great, and special exigencies have suddenly sprung up in a Colony
"where such labour as is required for road making, cannot readily be procured.
Abundance of whin-stone and other varieties of trap rock afford excellent
material, and it might be thought tha*t here native labour would be available
for preparing metal as it was in New Zealand.
To obviate the difficulty attending want of labour, an " Act to provide for
the repair, improvement, and regulation of Roads in Vancouver Island, and its
dependencies," has been passed, wherein it is enacted, that every male person
over ten years of age, and every male and female entitled to any interest in
any real estate, in any of the Road Districts shall perform six days labour upon the Public Highway, with extra days if property is extensive. This labour may be compounded at the rate of—for a man's days labour, six shillings
v X %J I © "*
and three pence. A cart or wagon; with a pair of horses or oxen for twelve
shillings and six pence.
© x
One important " Regulation" for the Road has been omitted, and as it
concerns not only property, but life and limb, should be enforced at once, viz :
that all carriages, wagons, &c, should keep the near, or left hand of the road
when meeting, and the right hand side when passing any other carriage or
wagon, and the same side for horsemen.
The Natural Productions of Vancouver Island in the animal, vegetable,
►JK'XJ^fe I CD 7
and mineral kingdom, will, on due development, prove a source of great wealth
to the Colony. The fisheries are inexhaustible, the timber is unrivalled, and
the coal is the best on the whole North Pacific Coast.   Salmon in millions of
■ m.r^
many species, abound in all the seas, lake3 and streams of the Island and
neighboring Continent. Great quantities are annually caught by the Indians,
and a considerable export trade, capable of great expansion and development,
is carried on by the Hudson's Bay Company. To give this trade its full value,
so that the really excellent fish to be found in these waters may command
ready sale in foreign markets, it is necessary that a careful selection should be
made, many species being very coarse.
Trout, some of them from four to six lbs. in weight, are found in all the
streams and lakes on both sides of the Island.
Eulachon—a very delicious fish, of the size of a large sprat *or small herring, classed by naturalists among the salmon family. It visits the north coast
of the Island annually in large shoals and every spring ascends the rivers of
the Continent as far south as the Columbia, for the purpose of spawning.
Immense quantities are taken by the Indians who manufacture from it an oil
much esteemed by inland tribes, and it forms an article of trade betwees
them.    The oil is obtained by immersing tbe fish in a small Quantity of water
v CD X v
and applying heat, it is then skimmed off, and when pioperly filtered is a rery
fine pellucid oil of a delicate pale yellow colour. Some of the Northern natives
allow the fish to become' half pntrid and then express the oil by pressure upon
There is no doubt but that thi3 oil will be of great economic value. It has
been given medicinally and will probably be found useful where cod liver oil
or other hydro-carbonaceous food is indicated.
There is every promise of most valuable deep sea fisheries. Cod, the true
" Gadus," is found on the west side of the Island, and there is reason to believe that the great banks  described as   extending off and round the north-
D ©
western extremity of the Island and Straits of Juan de Fuca, will prove to be
fishing grounds rivalling those of Newfoundland. This fish averages about
two feet and a-half in length, with a girth round the shoulder of eighteen
inches—it is well flavored and good eating.
Halibut is found in great abundance round the whole coast. Their size is
often enormous, an I the quantity in which they are found may be estimated
by a statement of an official of the Hudson's Bay Company, that in forty-
eight hours' fishing a vessel of six hundred tons might be laden with them.
At certain seasons this fish is very delicate, far excelling in tenderness and
flavour its congener of the Atlantic seas.
Sturgeon is plentiful off tbe mouth of the Fraser River, and runs to an
immense size. Isinglass made from this fish is exported by the Hudson's Bay
Herrings are in countless thousands—not so full Savoured a fish as the
herring of the European seas—it is less suited for salting, but makes a most
excellent bloater, equal to anything exported from Europe ; this will prove a
very important and remunerative branch of industry.
The smelt—a very delicate fish, is captured by boat leads.
The haddock and the whiting are found, and the pilchard is said t© haTe
been seen in the Gulf of Georgia.
The dogfish is taken in incredible quantities by the natives of the various 55
sounds on the west coast, Jls much as two thousand gallons of oil have bee n
obtained from this fish in a season by one tribe of Indians, and that a very
small one in Clayoquet Sound. Considerable quantities are exported annually by the Hudson's Bay Company.
Several varieties of roek fish and of deep sea perch, are found. One species
of the latter, very plentiful, often reaches 61bs. to 8Ibs. in weight. Great
quantities of small fish are caught and dried by Chinamen who export them
to British Columbia.
Salmon and halibut are both put up and well preserved ia hermetically-
sealed tins by parties in Victoria.
There are several varieties of Cetaceous animals in the surrounding ocean,
but the value of whale oil even, when of the right kind, is everywhere much
depreciated by the discoveries vof the chemist, and though this article is at
present exported in Small quantities, it will never prove an extensive branch
of industry or of comiaerce.
The quantity and variety of furs are limited, the sea otter being of all, the
TL hi v I CD l
most valuable.
Seal oil is obtained in considerable quantities and sent to England.
In the Vegetable Kingdom, the following list of trees and shrubs will give
/ •© CD
©ome idea of the great variety found on the Island, although the account must
he necessarily circumscribed and confined chiefly to those possessing economic
value.    Many have been already cursorily given in the description of the Cow-
v v v    CD *
itchan and other agricultural valleys and districts on the East. On the West,
along the whole coast are found "White Fir, Spruce Fir, Balsam Fir, white
pine, Yellow pine, Cedar, Alder, vine leaved Maple, broad leaved Maple,
Willow, Dogwood, Yew, a tree resembling the Scottish Larch, Yellow-cypress
Crab-apple, Cottonwood, Hemlock oak, Aspen, Arbutus, Service tree, &c, &c.
TheDouglas pine or Yellow fir, called sometimes by woodmen the "Oregon
red pine," is the most important of all these trees above designated by their
popular names. It grows to an enormous size, and is one of the best-woods
for large spars known. It can be obtained of one hundred and fifty feet in
length, and has squared forty-five inches for ninety feet, makes admirable
lumber,, and may be procured in any quantity. "This is the tree of the Colony,
and is probably worth all the others puttogether; it is the commonest tree on
the North West Coast, ranging from the Columbia river to farnorth of Vancouver Island. This wood is sawn into lumber, shipped to San Francisco, the
Sandwich Islands, down the South American Coast, and in great -quantities to Australia, and this is the wood, which, sinee the dimmunition of the
supply of Riga spars, has been so prized m Europe for masts.
The French, Spanish, Sardinian and Dutch Governments have been supplied
with masts and spars by a Company who have established saw mills, 4cc,
at the head of the Alberni Canal in Barclay Sound ; In the English merchant
service they have been largely used, and base given great satisfaction, being
universally considered the finest masts ever imported.
Appended is the translation of a report made upon the qualities of these
spars in the French dockyard at Toulon. The freight from this remote quarter^ makes the price somewhat high per load, as compared with the prices of 5(5
masts brought, from countries nearer Europe, but notwithstanding this drawback, such is' the general superiority of the wood, and the ease and economy
with which the tree can be converted into a good mast, that it is really, to the
ship-ownerwho wants a good article, very much cheaper in the end than any
other. The extraordinary size, straightness, and uniform thickness of the
trees,  their  strength   and flexibility, the  regularity and beauty of the grain,
/ CD M   I CD v v CD ?
their durability, freeness from knots and sapwood, place them almost beyond
competition in point of quality, and especially, fit them for the masting of
large vessels.
In buildings, the wood is used chiefly for other than what is called " finishing purposes," for which it is too rough, hard, and strong a wood. Along the
coast of North-West America "California red" wood" a species of cedar is
generally used, but is not equalto white pine. Doors and windows made of
white pine are imported via San Francisco from the Kastern Uuited States.
But there is a good white pine in Vancouver, very much like the Easterns
pine, (called Pins Strobus or Weymouth pine,) and cedar on the West coast
can also be got " clear " and would no doubt do for fine work. For masts,
and for heavy rafters and other important parts of the wood work of houses,
there is no better wood in tbe world than this—the yellow Fir, the Abies-
Douglassii or douglas Pine, and if a sufficient supply of good clear cedar, an«J
white pine for fine work can be found on Vancouver Island, then the colony
can command two important sources of supply for all accessible markets.
The Balsam Fir, resembles the balsam fir of Canada, but is larger..
and possibly " balsam " may be obtained from this 'tree, as well as from the
The alders   are  remarkable for their size, some  are of great  height, ah el
/ . CT © 7
three feet  in diameter.    They  make a  good charcoal for working   steel and
for light black smith's work.
Two kinds of maple; the vine maple is scarce, it is hard and tough, of this,,
as of the yew and the crab apple, good boats knees might-be made. The
broad leaved maple, (Acer Macrophyllum) grows plentifully in Vancouver,,
and to a large size. The wood is esteemed^by the natives of New Caledonia,,
as being   the toughest and most suitable for tbe frame of the snow shoe.
The white pine of commerce has been spoken of, it exists on the West
coast of Vancouver, in belts of some miles in length.
Yellow Cypress yields a fragrant wood, close, grained and capable of a good
polish; from the bark is manufactured, by the natives,, many articles of wearing;
apparel, caps, hats,«&"c, and baskets, large and small. It is also woven into
rope, which is strong and durable, used for fishing lines, short whale, and
gpear lines,-and canoe purposes generally. From the root, plank can be obtained which is very handsomely veined, and bears a light polish, all fitted for
ornamental work.
The oak found in the southern part of the Island, is small in size but admirably adapted for ships' knees, &c.
The service tree, (Amclanchier racemosa) a beautiful shrub, produces a
berry of great utility, dried in the sun" it is stored by the natives for "winter
use* The Cluster Cherry (Cerasus Cracemosa) yields an agreable fruit, the berry of
this shrub, and of the preceding, is added to the finer kinds of pemican.
The Camass of the natives (Scilla Esculenta), the native onion, forms an
article of diet. Hemp nettle, {TJrtica Cannabina) grows wild around Indian
lodges, and is used by the natives to make a capital twine, which is manufactured into nets, etc.
Sallal berry (Guallhrubria Shallon) a capital fruit for domestic use.
Many varieties of the  order' vacciniae are found, the blueberry bushes of
Scotland, are represented by handsome shrubs.    The cranberries are collected
in large quantities and form an article of export.
In her Coalfields the Colony of Vancouver possesses almost inexhausible
wealth. Their geological history and character have been already given : it
now remains to state a few commercial and working details, in reference to the
portion of this valuable carboniferous deposit, which extending round the
Whole of the northern part of the Island, is at present only worked at Nanaimo.
At this place there are three mines at work, viz. Newcastle Island, No. 3 Pit,
and Parkhead Level and Slope.
The area of land belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, who work this
o        © v x '  I
coal, is about 6000 acres, of which probably more than one half are coal beds.
The area of coalfield explored  by bores, is  nine hundred thousand square
yards.    In these new explorations a seam 4 feet 6 inches in thickness, with a
dip of 4 in 21, or nearly 2  in 5, has  been found and proved—a good, clean.
hard coal.
The outcrops of two other, seams, apparently underlying the one proved,
have been found.    One measuring six feet in thickness, the  other three feet
six inches.
From the three mines above named there were during the twelve months
ending April 30th, 1860, raised and shipped, 14,455 tons of coal, on board of
173 vessels. The total tonnage of which probably exceeded 15,000 tons. In
the succeeding year, ending 30th April, 1861, there were 13,900 tons raised,
and for the six months ending October 31, 1861, 8,288 tons.
© ill
The price averaged six to seven dollars, or from twenty-five to twentvrnin©
shillings per ton.    Coal for blacksmiths purposes, three dollars per ton.
The number of miners employed in these works at present, is about forty-
six ; of other Jiandsfthere are seventy-two, often more.
The average earnings of miners paid by task work, are twelve shillings
and six pence per diem. Artisans, eight and four pence to ten shillings. Labourers sikfand three pence to seven and two pence, and in addition all receive
medical attendance, house, and allowance of fuel gratis.
The following statement of the chemical composition of some of the coals
found-on the Pacific, will be illustrative and useful, showing the close relative
approximation of all, while those added from the carboniferous deposits of
England, will show the special differences existing. It is not merely intended
to depreciate in any way the coalfields of the Pacific, which scattered around
in various regions, are of the highest value, but merely to point out the true
nature of the coal, and in some degree show how all will tend, each assisting mm.
the other, to tbe development of commercial enterprise.    The composition of
a sample of Welsh coal is given for comparison.
Welsh Coal I 1.305
Van Dieman's f^and  	
Sydney, N. S. W	
Formosa island      1.24
Borneo, 11 ft. seam        1.21
Conception Bay, Chili ...   1.29
Vancouver  '
1          1
| 4.28
It has been well said, by Captain Richards, in the "Sailing Directions," that
these coal mines have not yet been worked in a manner commensurate
with their importance, for the quantity produced though considerable, is but
a fraction of what may and will be produced under enterprising management.
The high rate of wages, and the difficulty of getting labourers tell heavily
agaiuet them, and prevent a fair competition in foreign markets. A good
and most useful coal, it undoubtedly is, but not sufficintly good to compete in
foreign markets, unless at a reduced price.
The Labnan coal in the East is being extensively developed by the terms of
the lease granted in 1850 to the Company working these mines. They are
bound to supply coal to any of Her Majesty's ships, at £1 per ton—and should
they raise in any three successive vears, 15,000 tons of coal, the lease to deter-
V V V * I 1
mine and cease.
All that is wanted to develop the coal-field of Vancouver, is cheap labour.
When that shall be available, then the coal will command all readily accessible
markets—for it is undoubtedly the best on the whole Pacific Coast.
When the labour market shall be in process of time fully supplied, and wages shall have reached a lower level, theu the coal will be raised at a price
sufficiently low to admit of its remunerative employment in smelting and manufacturing works. At the present rates of wages and consequent price of
coal, all metalic ores must be sent to England for reduction.
<iold is found disseminated through altered clay slates—spread out upon
the deposits of yellow tertiary clay, and in tho sands and gravel at various
parts of the Island; but the quantity is too small to be remunerative. Indications of silver are reported^—and prolific ores of copper are found at Cowitchan, in the East, at Barclay Sound, on the West, and at Queen Uharlotte's
Island, in the North, a most promising Peacock or Horseflesh ore has been
found. The red and black oxides, green carbonate, and silicate of the metal
me all associated.    Of this ore the following analysis has been returned ;
The Brine Springs described as existing at Admiral Island and in Nanaimo District, may prove of value at a future day. Good clay for brick making
abounds, fine grained granite boulders, freestones and limestones, for building
imrposes—tough whinstones for road making.
Such are the natural productions of the colony, and in its present infant
|-i 59
state little has as yet been done to turn them to commercial advantage. Capital and labour are both wanted. The chief industrial products at present are,
salted and smoked fish, in the animal kingdom ; in the vegetable, all the usual
agricultural and garden produce, with spars and lumber for home use and
exportation. Ship building will prove a most valuable and very remunerative
branch of industry ; at present good useful vessels not copper-fastened, fit for
the coasting trade and for fishing purposes, can be built at the rate of fourteen pounds sterling per ton.    Saw mills and grist mills are much wanted, the
St ©    i *—
latter especially.    The grain grown on the Island has  been up  to this  time
ST v <3 CD
actually exchanged agaihst flour from Oregon to the manifest loss of the
farmer. A foundry and steam saw mill in Victoria afford the means of construction for ships of all classes, for buildings of all sizes.
In the mineral kingdom, coal, as has been fully detailed, is the only important article at present produced. Suitable buildings are being erected by a
company (joint stock, limited), and the Town of Victoria will be lighted with gas.
The anomalous relative political position held by the Colonies of British
Columbia and Vancouver Island, has been frequently though incidentally reverted to. Essentially one. the community of interests is so marked that it is
quite impossible to treat of them separately—to consider a part and not the
whole is too narrow a basis to allow of justice being done to either. Both
possess great mineral wealth, and when the coal fields of Vancouver shall be
X © *
fully developed b.y cheap labour, it is questionable which shall possess the
greatest. British Columbia possesses a far greater area of agricultural land
but she is deficient in sea ports, this Vancouver Island at once the shield and
bulwark of her shores, supplies.
When a junction of these colonies shall have been effected, and time shall
have developed the resources both of the rocky sea repelling island and the
fertile inland plain, Vancouver will be the commercial mart, the u place where
merchants most do congregate," her sea ports filled with shipping from every
quarter of the globe, her storehouses and wharves proclaiming the advantages
of Free Trade, and British Columbia participating in her prosperity, will then
find a market and exit for her produce.
In Vancouver Island the naturalist and the Sportsman will find wide fields
of interest and amusement in their various pursuits. The lists given in
the Appendix will show in some degree the zoology, ornithology, coucho-
logy, and economic botany of the country. Necessarily very imperfect, they
are intended simply to illustrate and convey some notion of its natural history.
The popular as well as the scientific, or s}'3tematic names are given, the latter
adopted from the 9th vol. of Pacific Railroad Reports.
The Shells are entirely from one locality, viz. Between Esquimalt Harbour
and Beacon Hill, from the rocks at low water, and the dredge from a depth of
about 10 fathoms, chiefly off the harbour of Victoria. As might be expected,
many of the shells are of a boreal type, and shew the influence of those arctic
currents spoken of as sweeping south, to below the latitude of San Francisco.
The list of birds shews Vancouver Island to be a resting place for many*
migratory species. Insect life is too limited to keep the feathered tribes stationary. ■ttif^,^
The sportsman will find abundant use for both rod and gun, and as a hunter he may distinguish himself in the forest, the puma, the bear and the wolf,
being worthy of his prowess. Deer stalking may be enjoyed to any extent, if
the term be admissable m a country so thickly wooded. Great numbers are
shot annually, and the great red deer, or elk, as he is popularly called, is indeed a prize any sportsman may be proud of. Good sport might be had with
a few couple of staunch slew hounds, broken from deer; and with other
hounds a blank day need never happen.
Two species of grouse are found on .the Island, the blue and the ruffled
grouse.    The latter only is stationary, the former comes in the spring to breed
and is popularly known as the drum patridge, from the drumming noise made
by the male bird.    In the early part of May the hen bird is.hatching, the nests •
generally having from ten to eleven eggs.
In September these birds disappear, and it is not known where they go to,
as they are never seen again till the following spring, when unfortunately they
fall a prey to the prowling Indian. A law in some degree protective, is in
force, inflicting a penalty for dealing in game after and before a certain date,
but nothing will ever stop the poaching propensities of the natives, nor is it
natural that it should.
Grouse shooting begins on the 12th of August, but the sport is very different from that enjoyed on the breezy moors of. Yorkshire, or of Scotland, and
more resembles pheasant shooting. The cover is very thick, and the birds
quick on the wing, he must fag hard, and have a ready eye and finger, who
■• O / v v © 7
would make a bag. One or two couple of well broken active spaniels are best
for the thick underwood, pointers or setters are in a measure lost, and there is
no fur to distract the spaniel and draw him from feather. Down amongst
the thick fern, and tangled thickets of rose and sweet briar, where along a
gentle hollow ripples a tiny stream, is the place to find " Tetras." With a
rush and a whirr he is on the wing, and good snap shot must he be, that stops
and bags the noble bird ere he shoots amougst the branches of yonder noble pine.
A good retriever is invaluable, and perhaps the best dog of all, a well-
broken Irish Spaniel, an animal with strength and dash and yet obedient to
command, will give most sport in this country. The birds when sprung take
to tree, where they may readily be bagged by any poacher.
In the early winter snipe and wild duck afford good sport, the former has
so me* specific difference, the eye sees at once that it is not. the same, though
very like the snipe of great Britain—its flight is straighter, and the bill is
slightly turned up.
Excellent trout fishing may be had on every stream, and in all the arms of
\ © «, vi
the sea into which fresh water runs. In the former, the yellow burn trout,
and in the latter sea trout rise readily to the fly ; the red and brown hackle,
and a fly with a purple body and a drake's wing being very killing.    Trolling
with minnow and spawn, are also effectual, and are the only means by which
salmon can be caught, these lordly gentlemen refusing to shew a fin to any fly,
© V © . © V «>
either in Vancouver or on the continent. Close to his own door, every man
who loves the rod and gun, may enjoy good sport in a fine climate, nearly all
CD I v v      v      CD ST IV
the year round. Gl
The   capabilities,  resources,  and advantages  of Vancouver Island as  a
Colony have been stated generally, in the foregoing pages, as  they severally
presented themselves to notice, under the special descriptive heads.
The Capabilities may now be concisely stated, as
1st. Geographical Position.
2d. Climate.
3d. Harbours.
The Resources, as
1st. Soil.
2d. Timber and other Vegetable productions.
3d. Coal and other Minerals.
4th. Fisheries.
5th. Trade and Commerce.
The Advantages—Present and Prospective.
High rate of Interest for Capital—High rate of Wages for Labour,' Cheap
Food and excellent Means of Education-: The Rapid Growth and Development
of Commercial Importance: Ready Employment and Provision for Families.
Capabilities.—1st: The geographical position of Vancouver Island is one
most favorable to the development of her resources, and quite sufficient in itself, with the other natural advantages she posseesses, to have ensured success
under favorable circumstances to Colonial enterprise, irrespective of any collateral advantages, derivable from proximity to gold producing countries—that
© / X tl CD X «—'
Vancouver Island failed to do so when tried, is no objection to the proposition ;-.
the circumstances under which the trial was made were not favourable.    It is
not intended to assert that Vancouver could  ever  have made a great Colony;
but she would have made a prosperous one, and could have well maintained a
population on her own natural resources.
Her geographical position gives her commercially and in a military point of
view, stratagetically the command of the North Pacific. Her bold and rugged
shores have few hidden dangers, and the seaman knowing that he has safe and
sure guides, can in the darkest night as in the open day run for his port.
O  . 7 ©. ST v x
Carrying on a trade with Australia she has thus already established relations with three gold producing countries.    Her importance  will soon be felt.
© X CD X
on the distent shores of Russian Asia, of Japan, and in the China Seas, from
whence an important immigration has already set in ; and when the wealth of
tne Pacific Islands comes to be developed, Victoria will be the emporium of
their trade for the supply of North West America. An outpost of the Mother
Country, dockyards will receive and refit the ships that protect her commerce
and the honour of her flag, to the golden regions and fertile plains of British
Columbia, Vancouver Island will be % As the strong man armed that keepeth
the door."
The Climatc is most suitable for the Anglo-Saxon constitution, in fact for
all races and temperaments, neither too relaxing in the Summer heat, nor de-
'J- ssmi
pressingly severe in the Winter cold. Free from all endemic, and, with slight
exceptions from all epidemic diseases, residents enjoy good health, and suffer
only, or in great part, from causes already given.
The Harbours form the chief of all the capabilities of the Island—without
them, geographical position would avail her nothing; but having these, she is
enabled to make for herself a position, and with the concomitant advantages
of Free Trade, take independent rank as a Colony. But these great natural
advantages, belong of right, as  much   to  the  Continent, the shores of which
O / O © 7 /
Vancouver guards, and no such distinctive right as now obtains  can long hold
good. The harbours of Vancouver are the sea-ports of British Columbia—and
as such, when a union of the Colonies shall have taken place, their great importance, not only to the North-Western portion, but to the whole of British
North America will be known.
Such are a few of the capabilities of Vancouver as a Colony, and they may
x v  i v v
be safely described as unrivalled in the North Pacific.
Resources.—In her soils, Vancouver, as has been fully shown, possesses all
the qualifications necessary for raising food tor man and beast—and these soils
are by no means so limited in extent, or inferior in quality, as to preclude the
probability of the Island being a grain producing country. It is simply that
her commercial capabilities are greater, owing to her remarkable natural
advantages—her position between two gold producing regions, and close to a
CD X CD I O 0 7
grain-bearing country, where, for some years, the facilities for obtaining and
working land have been greater—it is simply for these reasons that agriculture has taken a secondary place in this Colony—when the land shall be occupied by a class of Farmers--working men—who will put their own hands
to the ploughs ; then will the full value of the soil be known, and for home
consumption, the Colonists need seek no foreign aid.
The timber ot Vancouver is nowhere surpassed, and tbe supply is inexhaustible, except in so far as obstacles may exist for its transport to the sea. The
report on its qualities, by the French authorities in the Imperial Dock-yard at
Toulon, of which a translation is given, is  very interesting and instructive—
showing clearly the great value of this splendid pine, of which a large export
trade is in the shape of masts and spars of the largest size, and in lumber.
Coal.—This is an invaluable resource and means of wealth, and each succeeding year will increase its importance—when the wood around the settlements shall be no longer ready at hand, or easy of access, the demanjl for coal
will increase both here and at San Francisco, and more labour will be required
—when labour shall be at lower rates, then the coal maybe raised at sufficiently low prices to pay in smelting works and general manufactories.
The Fisheries are very promising, and will be an important element in the
prosperity of the Colony. They form an exceptional case as regards Indian
labour—for in such an occupation as this, the native will work freely, and better than a white man. Salmon, cod, halibut, sturgeon, herring, eulachon, &c.r
may all be caught in great quantities and prepared for export.
Trade and Commerce are the grand resources of the colony, geographical •
position, natural advantages, and Free Trade Institutions, destine her to be the 6<
commercial mart of the Pacific.    Commerce when free will .always find expansion.
The Advantages derivable from the capabilities and resources detailed
above and which might lead an intending emigrant to adopt Vancouver as his
© CD CD *
home, are Present and Prospective. The present advantages are—to the
capitalist, a high rate of interest for his money—to the agriculturist a rich
and virgin soil, after clearing requiring little labour of working for many
years, giving an abundant return for seed sown. For him, Free Trade provides
cheap tools and agricultural implements, and at the same time will develop
and form a home market for his produce. But thfg agriculturist who would
succeed must be his own servant, must put his own hand- to everything. A
paying branch of industry will be found in  the establishment of flour mills,
X        v CD v *
"wherewith to grind the wheat on the spot.
Labour commands a high price, the wages earned by artisans and skilled
mechanics of all kinds, as  well as  by  dav labourers, with   whom   a  dollar
/ V V I
represents a shilling in   Great Britain, is proof of this, and withal food is
Domestic servants are so scarce that the rates of wages given are no
to go by.    Nothing better exists in the colony however  than such labour, and
an immigratiou of respectable voung and middle aged women as domestic ser-
© X v CD ©
vants and nurses, is very much needed.
The prospective advantages are those accruing, 1st—From an early settlement in a young and growing colony situated as a commercial emporium between great wealth  producing  countries.    2d—The  certainty  of obtaining
independence and ultimately a competence in a short time by steady industry.
3d—The many opportunities afforded by the development of the colony in
its home and foreign relations, to provide for and settle in life the youthful
members of families. 4th—The excellent systems of schools and of educa^
tion in this colony, which under various managements meet the wants of all.
Such, then, thus briefly and slightly sketched, are some of the capabilities, resources and advantages of Vancouver Island as a settlement.
Within the limits of an Essay it is impossible to do justice to them all, but
they are sufficiently obvious, and their force sufficiently self-evident to invite
attention from the capitalist, the merchant, the working farmer, the miner, the
artisan and. skilled mechanic, and from every man who takes a pride in honest
I pl ABSTRACT of Meteorological Observations, taken on hoard Her Majesty's Ship
at Esquimalt, Vancouver's Island.
Quarter Ending 30th June, 1860.
Range 1
L. •
• of  |
j   No. of
.of  1
est,    j
1 Days.
i N
£h   ...
4.   OQ
o °
.128   j
j   7
Diff'nce between
wet & dry bulb,
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
4 1-10°
75 1-10
j   «
s w
Diff'nce between
wet & dry bulb,
4 7-10°
s w
j 55
1 22
Quarter Ending 30th  September, 1860.
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
s w
• 63^°
1        i
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
18 1
BiiPnce between
wet ft dry bulb,
I  i
1 60
1  a  1
1  s
Quarter Ending 31st December.
Diff'nce between
wet & dry bulb,
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
1  5°
1 1-30
15-6  1
u 1
1  oo
1 J£^^^^
Meteorological Observations, continued-
Diff'nce between
wet ft dry bulb,
Bafomtgter, j
Diff'nce between I
wet ft dry bulb,
.Barometer. !
'Thermometer,... j
wet ft dry bulb, I
Quartir  Ending 31st March.
44 VC
(xirand Total
|  ft
14   Var,
11   Var.
> 31
4   I
I        I
I 78 I
4   |
Meteorological Observations; taken at Victoria, Vancouver bland, during the years
1859, 1860, and 1861, deduced from Observations taken daily at 9 a. m., 3 p. m^
and 9  p. m.
Tear.  Month. Days.
j October.} IS
[Nevem'rl 30
jDecem'rl   30
; March
j April
I May
1 49.
! 47.46
i 51.79
Ex-. | Extreme jtreme
Heat.   Cold.
tNo. of Ther.
Year. Month.' Days. Mean.
! 54.00
1860 Sept.
1861 |Jan.
jAugust!   20
! 41.22
! Bar.
" -iEx- *
Q*> fix
Abstract of Thermometrical Observations, from a Kegister kept at Fort Victoria.
Vancouver Island, for 1850, showing Maximum and Minimum Temperaturesj
&c, &c
■ January,,
March, ...
I   8
P.M. P.M.
•2       8
64 I 50
W E A T H ££
No. of Days, j No. of Days. I No. of Days.    No. of Days*
&.S    Wind
SO   Wind
n & n by e
16 1
sw andw
>' and. ne
N and ne
N andw
N and SE
nw to sw
nw to NE
s to SW
Light ft
N,. NE, SW
Cms, l't s
Cms, L't
E winds
C'ms, L't
N winds
1 o«
17 [3]
Mean daily Temperature, in the shade, for the yearhMean Maximum and Minimum daily Temperature,
1850.  Register kept on shore at Fort Victoria.
1850 8 a. M.
January,  32' '
Febrmrv,.. ,  36
March, 37
April,  46
May.  54
June,  o7j£
July, 61
August, L\  59l£
September, <**?!
October,  46%
November,  39?a
December.  35
!P. M.
8 P. M.
in shade, for the year 1860-61.
board ship.
1860 deg.
April,  54
May,  59
lJune,  63
'July,'  64
August  65%
September.  60
October,  55%
November,  50
December,  46
January, 43
I February 43%
Register kept on
ABSTRACT of Meteorological Observations, taken at the Royal Engineer Camp, New
Westminster, during the year 1861, by order of Col. It. C. Moody, R. £., Commanding the Troops. Latitude, 49 deg. 12 min. 47 sec, North; Longitude,
122 deg. 53 min. 19 sec, West.
at 3.30 p. m. '•
at 9.30 a. m. on 3rd Dec.
The highest reading of the Barometer, corrected for temperature, at 9.30 A. M, on 4th Feb., wasJ..30 565
at 9.30 a. M. on 9th July, 1861,  74.3
3.30 p.m. I   84.0
9.30 a.m. "   48.8
3.30 p.m. "   52.2
9.30 a. m. on 21st Januarv  20.0
3.30 P. m. on 23rd December,....  24.0
on 21st January  10.0
" '       1.0
9.30 a.m. "  7
3.30 p.m. h  8
3.30 P. M. on 9th July, „ 420
The cistern of the Barometer is about 54 feet above the level of the sea. All the Observations were
made at 9.30 A. m. and 3. 30 p. m. daily throughout the year.
There were several frosty nights in April, one on the 20th May, and they re-commenced on the 20th
Thunder and Lightning on the 27th May, and 5th, 21st, 22nd, and 29th August.
During the months of June, July, August, and September, the amount of Ozone was inconsiderable.
On the 10th July the test paper gave no indication of its presence. The mean daily amount for the
year would be indicated by 5 on the Scale. .
Showing the depth of rain, the number of days on which it fell, the mean humidity, and mean temperature of the air, at 9.30 a. m., and 3.30 p. M., and the lowest temperature on the grass in each
The mean height
The lowest reading «
Maximum temperature of Air in shade
Mean temperature "       "
Minimum temperature       "       "
ii ii H
Minimum temperature on the Grass,
Greatest amount of Humidity,
Mean •• "
Least 1 I
Januarv.. £-..
...   7.190 .
  15 ....
  18 ....
  12 ....
9.30 A. m
  38.2 ...
  42.6 ...
3.30 p. M.
  35.4 ...
  42.3 ...
10 0
...    5.485 .
...    3.270 .
  47.5 .
25 0
,,      16 ....
  12 ....
15 ....
         O    ....
 713  ;
1 . kqa  '
.....   . 1 OO   	
Oft A
 07*  .....
. 51.4
.29 0
  53.6 ...
  57.7 .
... 31.0
..    4.770 .
  59.1 ...
  54.6 .
. 37.0
July.. ..&..
...    0.339 .
  64.8 ...
. 68.9
. ^00
...    1.075 .
...    1.075 .
...    7.145 .
.... 11.720 '.
...    7.520 .
  68,0 .
. 38.5
      6 ....
16 ....
  23 ....
  20 ....
  59.9 ...
  64.4 ..
  50.9 ..
5 when SW.
  48.8 ...
  39.1 ...
  40,6 ...
9.7 0
34.2 ....
9 when W.
■ S5"9 -
, 1 When NW.
on 12
Rain fell
,. 60.485
when the
wind was S.;
14 when NE., 6
when E., 26 when SE., and 32 when calm.
The greatest fall of rain in 24 hours measured 2.150 inches, on the 4th November. The average fall
for every day of the year was 0.166 inches.   The average fell for each wet day was 0.369 inches.
A comparison of this abstract with that for the year 1860, shows that 6.055 inches more rain fell in
1861 than in 1860. Rain fell on 13 more days in 1861 than in 1860. The mean height of the Barometer
was .070 less. The mean amount of humidity was .008 greater. The mean temperature of air in shade
^vas 5.1 greater.   The absolute limiting nights of frost, were nearly at the same date in both years. [*[
In the four winter months, from January to March, and October to December, 41.230 incljfr&of rai»
fell in 1S6L and 40.586 inches in 1860, In the remaining months 19.255 inches fell in 1861, sad 13.83$
in 1860. Of the entire quantity of rain 26 inches fell in January, November, and December-, in each
The prevailing direction of the wind during rain in both years was E. and SE.
June was the driest month, and August'the warmest in I860".' July was both warmest and driest in
The Fraser/River attained its highest level at New Westminster, for the year lSoL/bn the 8th June,
and its lowest, being a difierence of 9 feet 6 inches, on the 17th March; between the 10th of May and
10th of August, ships did not swing te the flood tide. These periods, and the difference of level, correspond very closely with the Observations for 1859 and 1860.
There was floating ice in the Fraser River opposite New Westminster, 7th January, 1361; it increased 22nd January, and disappeared On the 2nd February. The navigation to the'mouth of the River
was not impeded.    There was rio ice in the Fraser, at New Westminster, in I860.'
The Observations were taken by 2nd Corporal P. J. Leach, and Lance Corporul J. Conroy,'R. E.
R. M. PARSONS, Captain, R. E.
03    C
O    O
i     CT.
c „
v. -
O   to
O       -C
O   G S3
+-   C    I     I   o
_<   TO     1
1 .2
C^    «      1
T3   G.   '
I    ft
S   C
■ ©  «
CS3 cd
o ^^
.2 2 o
i: .y C3 ci
Eh ^ — —
a i
• M
■, i
j ~
.   C/
■»   w
: o
^    SL«
o o
1 ^
i -v
w  „_
f^_         ^*
- 'w
O    «    C
r*    <£    O
jSot guilty
'<M C<*
r—I   CO
•    LSJ
w *
T^      J
r-i   r-V
1    '""
-^ u
N N H c<J CO;6>l
rj< v^5 o ir
S o 2
S-1    ;_    CO  __i
o ^2 c o
g - jj A
C    DO?    fl
-*J    O    4>   •**
o-So-2gc«o"-E»ggg. J-
,a> o-
a o
->-    O   CO
bC ~   bD
lotf^jfficn'racs^KseeactaTisasaKsaraasniirasEie^R £5]
' j'
A List of Charges and Summary Convictions before the Police Magistrate, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, from January 1st, 1859, to 30th June, 1861.
Misdein can ours	
€ommon Assault	
Assault with Intent....
Sellingspirits to Indians
Recovery of Wages....
Desertion  -....
074   294 1048
I   I
"54 i
t   O
• • •
1 61
SCHOOL KEPGRT Drawn up by the Eev. E. Cridge, Acting Superintendent of Education.   August 27th, 1861.
Sir,—I have the honor to submit, for the information of His Excellency the Governor, the accompanying Report on the state of the Colonial Schools:
1st. Victoria School. Mr. W. II. Rurr, master. The sixth annual examination of |k*g School took
place on the 16th of July, ultimo, at which fifty-three pupils were present, and fifteen boys received
prises, donations by His Excellency the Governor.
The subjects of .examination will be found in Schedule No. 2.
Very satisfactory progress was manifested in some of the advanced subjects, particn';trly in Rook-
keeping, and the school at large was being well founded in the elementary subjects, especially in read.,
ing and orthography.
I consider the school in a generally satisfactory condition, and, seeing that there is bnt one teacher
to fifty pupils, doing its work well. The chief defect observable is some want of uniformity and
punctuality in attendance, the remedy for which perhaps rests more with the parents than with the
The School room is also too small for the number of pupils frequently in attendance. The house,
which consists of eight rooms, as well as the premises generaRy, fe in fair repair.
Of the ten acres of which the School Reserve consists, a portion of six acres is enclosed, and four
acres under cultivation by the teacher.
As some inconvenience has been alleged with regard to the distance of this School from the town.
I would observe that it is situated at adistance of 300 paces beyond the boundary of the town, and
there is a good footpath to within that distance of the School, constructed last year for the benefit of
the scholars, by the Commissioner of Police, A. F. Pemberton, Esq., by private subscription and by
the labour of prisoners.
The remainder of the road is in the winter rough and inconvenient, but at a very little expense a
good pathway could be extended the whole distance. It would- be for the benefit of education that this
should lve done before the winter, either by the Government or by Subscription.
The almost nominal rate ($5,- or 20s. per annum), at which  instruction at a really useful school is
given, might be an inducement to parents and others to contribute to its improvement in this and
' other respects.
2nd. Craigfiower School, Mr. H. Claypole, teacher. The sixth annual examination of this School
was held on the 11th July, ult., at which twenty-one pupils were present. Prizes, the gilt of His
Excellency, were awarded to three boys and two girls.
Great pains has evidently been taken with the scholars during the past year. They are well
grounded in the elementary subjects, and some of the elder pupils displayed considerable aptitude in
Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic.
This School is well situated for the population growing in the neighbourhood, and ie, I feel sure,
conferring important advantages on the community. The School hau^e, which contains six rooms,
and the premises generally, need considerable repairs. The School Reserve consists of five acres; no
portion is at present under cultivation.
3rd. Nanaimo School, Mr. C. Bryant, master. Of the children in th» School are eighteen not
exceeding seven years of age. I have not had an opportunity of visiting it recently, but from frequent
communications with the teacher and information derived from other sources, I have reason to believe
that Mr. Bryant continues to display the same assiduity in the discharge of his duties as heretofore,
•> From the teacbsr's Report it appears that the School house, which consists of four rooms need some
The following Schedules will afford more detailed information on the points to which they refer:
The period to which these returns relate is the year ending July, 1861. 'HkS+l^
Victoria School.
Craig flower	
ATTENDANCE—Number now on the books:
Male.      Female.      Above 10.
  '  53   3   35 .
      15   8   11 .
      22  .10     5 .
Under 10.
Total ..%..     90  21   51   60
Admitted during the year—
Victoria School 24
Craigflower «>..%    5
Nanaimo 24
Total 53
Removed during the year—
Victorl*l  22"
CltAlGFLOWER <      5
Nanaimo JL L. *r...   9
Total 36
Average Attendance—
Victoria School 42
Craigflowjsr. 16
Nanaimo JL;. 24
SUBJECTS—Numbed of Pupils in each:
} Reading, Writing,   Grammar, Geo-   Gjeometay.   Latin.   Book-Keep-   Draw-   Scriptures
j Arithmetic.        graph y, His try iflg~ , ing.
30   15   0   0   4   20   38
Craigflower 10  10   2   l   0      0   above 20
Nanaimo    9     3   0 ..  0  '.**S)     0   20
Total, 49   28   2   1 ..
?d. Emoluments received by the Teachers during the past year:
Victoria  £im   0   0
Craigflower    150   0   0
Nanaimo...    150   0   0
from Pupils
. £35 10 o:
.     12 12   0.
25   7    b.
Voluntary contributions.
  £9   3   0
    0    0   0
     0   0   0
Total... £450   0   0   £73   9   6  £9   3   0
Although it is beyond the Province of this Report to enter into the wide question of an Educational
system, I venture to submit one or two remarks on the present state of the Colonial Schools. "While it
is plain that they are conferring a great benefit on a large-proportion of the community, that they are
doing so at a small charge on the Public Revenue: and that the absence of any one of these school'?
would be severely felt, it is also plain that they are at present in an imperfect and elementary state.
' This arises partly from the growth of the pupils and tho short time during which, in many cases, they
. remain at school; but chiefly from the insufficient supply of teaching power.
It cannot be expected that while from 25 to 50 scholars are under the care of a single teacher
without assistants or monitors, the schools should be in so efficient a state as might be desired.
It is therefore gratifying under these circumstances to be able to report that they are working in
& really useful manner.
Acting Superintendent of Education.
COLLEGIATE SCHOOL FOE BOYS—Victoria, Vancouver Island.   Visitor—The
Lord Bishop of British Columbia.
This School is conducted upon the plan of the Grammar Schools of England, and designed to
, qualify for the. learned professions, commercial and mercantile pursuits, and for the universities.
In addition to sound religious instruction, the course, of education comprises a thorough sound
English education, Arithmetic, Penmanship, Mathematics and Book Keeping.
Modern Languages—French, German and Spanish, Hebrew, Greek and Latin.
Elements of Natcral Philosophy—Drawing, including Landscape, Figure and Line Drawing,
with the principles of architecture and design.
Boys will be admitted from the age of 7 and upwards.
, Terjis:
From 7 to 12 years   $5   0   or £1   0   0*)
"   12 to 16   '•          6   0   or    1   5   0>    Per month.
u   16 and upwards     8   0   or    113   0)
Payable in advance.   A reduction to families sending more boys than one.   Two vacations in the
LADIES' COLLEGE, Victoria, Vancouver Island.    Visitor—The Lord Bishop  of
British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
The course of Education comprises Religious and Moral training, English in all its branches
Modern Languages, Music, Singing. Drawing, Painting, &c, &c, &c.
mm I c7 ;i -^
Terms |*
Under 10 years of age  $5   0   or £1   0   0)
From lo to 15       "         6   0   or    1   5   0 > P#r moitk
Above 15 "       10   0   or    2   0   0)
The only extras are—1. Modern Languages; 2. Music and Singing; 3. Drawing and Paiiitinj
$2, or 8s. per month each.
 *+-. .
AMOUNT of  Gold Dust and Gold Bars  shipped by Messrs. "Wells, Fargo &' Oo.,
Victoria, V. I., from August I4th, 1858, to December 8th, 1861.
Dates.                                    U. S. Currency Pounds Stg.
1858. From August 14th, to August 27th                     $8.803 06 £1,760 12 00
|     Septembr 2nd, to Septembr 25th              27.871 40 5.574    4 00
"     October 8th,     to October 24th                9,7075 92 19^415    4 00
"     Noverabr 8th   to Noverabr 22nd              95,248 09 19,049 12 00
I     Decembr 4th    to Decembr 27th             108,766 70 21,753    7 00
1859. From January 6th     to January 22nd                33.041 90 6,608    8 00
|     February 10th to February 28th              85,664 48 .17,132 18 00
"     March 10th       to March 28th                    44,246 06 8,849    4 00
"     April 11th        to April 27th                      58,959 23 11^791  17 00
"     May 8th             to May 26th                       112,802 88 22,560 1100
"     June 6th            to June 25th                        79,45128 15.890    5 00
"     July 9th            to July 26th                        55,819 03 11^163 16 00
4 August 7th to August 28th 75,713 83 15,142 15 00
" Septembr 7th to Septembr 24th 51,320 72 10,264 3 00
" October 6th to October 27th 53',021 00 10,004 25 00
" Novembr 10th to Novembr 11th 44,796 00 8,059 4 00
"     Decembr 5th    to Decembr 24th              128,652 00 25,730    8 00
1860. From January 6th   to January 30th                 76,600 00 17,320 00 00
|     February 8th   to February 29th               54,995 00 10,999 00 00
"     March 14th      to March 30th                     49,81100 9,962    4 00
|     April 8th          to April 30th                      89,780 00 17.956 00 00
"      May 11th         to May 30th                        109,956 00 21,991    4 00
"     June 9th            to June 29th                     124,619 00 24,923 16 00
u     July 9th            to July 25th                      107,260 00 21,452 00 00
|     August 1st       to August 26th                 135,126 00 27,025    4 00
"     Septembr 4th   to Septembr 18th             .84,403 00 1.6^880 12 00
"     October 9th     to October 27th                166,448 00 33,289 12 00
li     Novembr 11th to Novembr 19th              121,369 00 24.273 16 00
"     Decembr 3rd   to Decembr 23rd              178,099 00 37,619 16 00
1861. From January 4th    to January 28th                  73,56100 14.703    4 00
"     February 9th  to February 24th               43,527 00 8,705    8 00
"     March 1st         to March 27th                      72,04100 16^408    4 00
"     April 4th          to April 25th                        77.027 00 15,405    8 00
5 May 2nd to May 24th 97,067 00 19.413 8 00
| June 3rd to June 25th 144,088 00 28,817 12 00
u July 15th 74,706 00 16,541 4 00
I August 9th to August 27 168,226 72 33.645 7 00
| Septembr 17th 71,18100 14.236 4 00
u October 8th to October 26th 154,916 00 30^973 4 0O
u Novembr 17th 205,998 00 41,199 12 00*
$.     Decembr 8th                                                108,053 00 21,610 12 00
Total.                               $3,750,11 L 30 £750,022    4    3
— ■ » «	
By His Excellency, James Douglas, C. B.. &c. <fcc.
Whereas, I havo»been empowered by Her Majesty's Government to fix the upsefc, price of Country
Land within the Colony of Vancouver Island and .its Dependencies, at 4s. 2d. per acre
m mmmmmm
And whereas, I have been authorized as aforesaid to take such steps as may teni to promote tbo
settlement of Countr^'Land in the said Colony.
And whereas, it is expedient to make public the method by which bona ftd* settlers may acquire
the same land;
Be it therefore known unto all men:
All Country Land to be Sold at 4s. 2d. per Acre.
I. That the upset price of all Country Land in Vancouver Island shall be from henceforth 4s. 2d.
per acre.
British Subjects may enter upon and occupy Land, not being otherwise reserved, in certain quantities
and in certain districts.
II. That from and after the date hereof, male British Subjects, and Aliens who shall take the oath
of allegiance before the Chief Justice-of Vancouver Island, above the age- of eighteen years, may preempt unsold Crown Lands in the Districts of Victoria, Esquimalt, Metchosen, the Highlands, Sooke,
North and South Saanich, Salt Spring Island, Sallas Island and Chemanis, (not being an Indian
Reserve or Settlement.) of the area, and under the conditions following:
A Single Man* 150 acres.
A Married Man, whose wife is resident in the Colony, 200 acres.
For each of his children Tinder the age of eighteen years, resident in the said Colony, an additional
Pre-emptor, before recording his Claim, to take the Oath of Allegiance if a British Subject who has
become Subject to some other Nation.
III. All British subjects, who shall be desirous of Pre-empting, and who may, at the time of
^record, have taken the oath of allegiance to, or become the subject or citizen of any Foreign Sovereign,
State or Nation, shall, as a condition precedent to recording their claims, take the Oath of Allegiance
in manner-aforesaid.
Pre-emptor to Record his Claim immediately on Occupation.   Fee.
IV. Immediately after occupation, the Pre-emptor shall record his claim at the Office of th»
Surveyor General at Victoria; paying for such record the sum of eight shillings and four pence.
Regulating the Form of Claims.
V. The land selected, if unsurveyed, shall be of a rectangular form, and the shortest side Of said
rectangle shall be two-fifths the length of the longest side; and the boundaries of such land shall also
run as nearly as possible by the cardinal points of the compass.
VI. Where the land sought to be acquired is unsurveyed, and in whole or part bounded by rocks,
mountains, lakes, swamps, the margin of a river, or the sea coast, or other natural boundaries, then
such natural boundaries may be adopted as the boundaries of the land selected.
VII. The claimant shall, if the land is unsurveyed, give the best possible description thereof in
writing to the Surveyor General, at the time of record, with a map thereof, and shall identify the land,
by placing a post at each corner, and by stating in his description any other landmarks whicn may bo
of a noticeable character.
Mode of Recording Claims in Surveyed Lands.
YHI, If the land, however, be surveyed, the claimant shall give-the description aforesaid by
identification with the landmarks laid down by the Government Survey.
IX. The claimant shall, if the land be unsurveyed, pay into the Land Office at Victoria, the sum
of four shillings and two pence per acre for the same as soon as the land is included within the Government Survey; if the land be surveyed, he shall pay into the said Land Office the sum of four shit-
lings and two pence per acre by three instalments, viz: One shilling and one penny per acre within
one year from the day of record; one shilling and one penny per acre within two years from the said
day of record, and two shillings within three years from the said day: and any default in any. of th»
payments aforesaid, shall cause a forfeiture of the pre-emption claim, and of the instalments (if any)
paid up. '
Certificate of Improvement to be granted after two years occupation and 10s. per acre improvement.
X. When the pre-emptor, his heirs or devisees, shall prove to the Surveyor General by the satisfactory evidence of third parties, that he has, or they have, continued in permanent occupation of tho
claim for two years from the date of record, and has or have made permanent improvements thereon,
to the value of ten shillings per acre, the said Surveyor General shall issue to him or them, a certificate
of improvement, in the form marked A, in the Schedule hereto.
Holder of Certificate of Improvement may Sell, Lease or Mortgage.
XI. Upon the grant of the Certificate of Improvement aforesaid, the person to whom the same-is
issued may, subject to any unpaid instalments, sell, mortgage, or lease the land, in respect of which
such.certificate has been issued* but until the entirety of the purchase money of the said land has
been paid, no sale, mortgage, or lease of the said land shall be valid, unless a Certificate of Improvement as aforesaid, has been issued in respect thereof.
C mveyance of Surveyed Lands.
XII. Upon payment of the entirety of the purchase money, a conveyance of the land shall he
executed in favor of the Pre-emptor, reserving to the Crown the right to take back so much thereof as
may be required for roads or other public purposes, and reserving also the precious minerals, with a
right to enter and work the same infavor of the Crown0*s^Assign8 and Licencees.
Conveyance of Pre-empted Claim in Unsurveyed Lands.
XIII. If the land is not then included in the Government Survey, the conveyance shall, with the
reservations aforesaid, be executed as soon as soon as possible after the same is so included; and the
Pre-emptor shall, upon survey, be entitled to take any quantity of unpre-empted land, at the price of
four shillings and two pence per acre, which laid off into the Sections in which his pre-empted
land is situate, or if unwilling so to do, he shaft ^forfeit so much of the pre-empted land as lies in
those Sections which he is unwilling to purchase. £9]
XTV. Priority of titteahail be obtained by the person who, being in actual occupation, shall first
record his claim in manner aforesaid.
Forfeiture by Cessation of Occupation.
XV. Whenever any person shall cease to occupy land pre-empted as aforesaid, for the space of tw»
months, the Surveyor General may, in a summary way, on being satisfied of such permanent cessation,
•cancel the claim of the person so ceasing to occupy.the same, and record de novo the claim of any
other person satisfying the requisitions aforesaid, and in the event of any person feeling aggrieved
thereat, his remedy shall be personally against the person so recording.
Compensation for Waste or Injury.
XVI. In (he &vent of the Crown, its Assigns or Licensees, availing itself or. themselves, of th»
.reservation to enter and work the precious minerals as aforesaid, a reasonable compensation for the-
waste and damage done shall be paid by the person entering and working to the person whose land
shall be wasted or damaged as aforesaid; and in case of any dispute, a jury of six nfteh", to be summoned by the Surveyor General, shaU settle tbe same.
XVII. Nothing in the conditions hereinbefore contained, or in any title to be derived herennder,
shall be conbtrued as giving a right to any claimant to exclude Licensees of the Crown from searching
for any of the precious minerals in any unenclosed land on the conditions aforesaid..
Saving of Water Privileges for Mining Purposes.
XV ill. Water*privileg68, and the rightjXjf carrying water for mining purposes, may, notwithstand-
mg any claim recorded, certificate of improvement, or' conveyance aforesaid, be claimed ,and taken
upon, under, or over the land, so prt^mptedl-bykminers requiring the same, and obtaining a grant or
licence from the Surveyor General in that behalf, and paying a compensation for waste or damage to
the person whose land may be wasted or damaged by such water privilege or carrying of water, to be
ascertained in- case of dispute by a jury of six men in manner aforesaid.
• XIX. In case any dispute shall arise between, persons with regard to any land acquired as aforesaid, any one of the parties in difference may (before ejectment or action of trespass brought) refer
the question in difference to the Surveyor General', who is hereby authorised to proceed in a summary
way to restorert&e possession of any land in dispute to the person whom he may deem entitled to tho
same; and to abate all intrusions and award and levy such costs and damages as he may think fit,
and for all or any of the purposes aforesaid to*call in tohia assistance the Ohfil authorities on any process of law. &«i*Hj
Given under my hand, &o.
By His Excellency, James Douglas, C. B., Ac,
as may tend to
Whereas, I have been empowered by Her Majesty's Government to take suoh steps j
promote the Settlement of Country Land in the said Colony:
And whereas, it is exedient to exteiid the provisions of a Proclamation* given under
the public seal of this Colony, and dated the 19th day of February, 1801, to the whole
LsiaSid and its Dependencies ;-
Now, therefore, be it known ^unto all men, that
The provisions of the said Proclamation, given under my hand and the public seal
aud'dated the 19th day of February, 18'6l, shall, from and after the date hereof, extend
the entirety of Vancouver Island and its -Dependencies.
Given under my hand and the Public Seal, &c.
my hand
of Vancou
of this Cole
to and inch
By His Excellency James Douglas, C. B., &c.
Whereas, 1 have been empowered by Her Majesty's Government, to take such steps as may tend to
promote the settlement of Country. Land in the. said Colony.
And Wh*4rdas, it is expedient to extend the time during which a person may cease to occupy land
pre-empted under the provisions of a Proclamation given under my'hand and the Public Seal of this
Colony and dated the 19th day of February, 1861.
Now therefore, be it known unto all men that any person having pre-empted land under the provisions of the said Proclamation may if he shaU have been continuously in "occupation of the same
for the space of (8) eight calendar months next previously to his leaving, leave the same for any period
not exceeding (.61 six calendar months, provided that within (21) twenty-one days from the date of his
leaving the same he shall fill in a memorandum in the book kept- for that purpose in the Land Office- at
Victoria, wiih the particulars and in the manner therein contained.
Given under my hand sind the Public Seal, &c.
• •- [10]
Victoria and Esquimalt Harbour Dues Act, I860.
Fees for Entrance and Clearance of "Vessels entering an-d clearing the Perls
t>f Victoria and Esquimalt.
£   s.
All Vessels under  15 Tons      00    4
"   Between 15 k     30 tons. 00    6
30 &      50    "
50 k    100    u
109 &   200    "
200 k   300    I
300 k   400    "
400 &   500    ••
D ■£     S.     I»
2 All Vessels under 400  Tons 1  13   4
3|      "  Between 500 k    600 tns. 2    5 10
600 &    700 " 2 10 0(«
700 &    800 " 2 24    2
800 &    900 '* 2 28    1
900 k 1000 " 3    2    j£
1000 & upwards. 3    6    1*
00    8
00  12
00 18
a .
1    5
]   13
2    1
Ail Steamers, bona fide, carryirrg mails to pay half tbe amount of the above
scale of Fee?, according to their tonnage.
Half-yearly License for Coasters.
Under 10 tons . -
Above 10 and under 30
"    30 and under 50    -
Wherries and Skiffs plying for hire and licensed to carry not exceeding six
passengers.    Per quarter -       -       -        -        -       -£100
How Boats and Yawls plying for hire  and licensed to carry more than six
passengers, and under 10 tous burthen.    Per quarter       -        £1 10    0
Lighters and Scows employed in freighting or discharging vessels, or otherwise for hire, under 10 tous burthen.    Per quarter -       £2    0    (»
Lighters arid Scows exceeding 10 tons.    Per quarter       - £2    0    0
tind Is. additional for every ton, exceeding 10 tons, and up to 100 tons burfcheu.
Landing Permits.
For invoices under £100 in value
Above £100 and under £250 in value
For invoices above £250 and under £500 in value
For invoices above £500 and under £1000 in value
or invoices above
£0 4
0 6
0 8
0 12
0  16
As adopted in Vol. 8th Pacific Railroad Reports.
American Panther, or Cougar;   Felis concolor.    L.
WildCat:    Lynx fasciatns.    Raf.
Gray Cat :     Canis occidentalis.    Var. griseo alb-us
Dusky Wolf:   Canis occidentalis.    Var. nubilus.
I [11]
RedFoxj  Vulpes macrourus.    Baird.
Fisher, Black Cat;  Mustela Pennantii.    Erxl.
Mink", or Minz ,  Putorius vison.    Baird.
American Sable, or Pine Martin ;  Mustela Americana.    Turton.
Racoon, Black footed     Proceon Hernandezii.    Baird.
Beaver;    Castor Canadensis.    Kuhl.
Black Bear ;  Ursus Arhericanus.    Pallas.
Brown Bear:     Do do do
Wolverine;  Gulo luscus.
Common Otter;   Lutra Californica.    Gray.
Sea Otter;   F.nhydra marina.    Fleming.
Red, or Pine Squirrel;   Sciurus Douglasii.
Red Deer, "Elk;"    Cervus Canadensis.
Black Tailed Deer;    Cervus Columbianus.
Ermine ;  Mustela erminea.
Musquash, or Musk Rat;  Fiber zibethecus.
Sea Lion :  Platyrhynchus leoninus.
Hair and Fur Seals;  Phoca, vitulina,  and  Arctocep
Mountain Goat:  Aplocerus montanus.
Names adopted from 9th Vol. Pacific Railroad Report.
Pigeon Hawk ;  Falco columbarius.
Sparrow Hawk;   Falco sparverius.
Goshawk ;   Astur atricapillus.
Sharp Shin Hawk;  Accipiter fuscus."
) Western Red Tail Hawk ;    Buteo montanus.
White-headed Eagle ;   Haliastus leucocephalus.
I Great Horned Owl;   Bubo Virginianus.
Snowy Owl;   Nyctea nivea.
Saw Whet Owl:-  Nyctale Acadica.
Pigmy Owl;   Glaucidium gnoma.
Harris's Woodpecker ;   Picus Harrisii.
Gairdner's Woodpecker:   Picus Gairdneri.
Red Breasted Woodpecker ;    Sphyropicus ruber.
Pileated Woodpecker, or Log Cock :  flylatomus pileatus.
Red Shafted Flicker:   Colaptes Mexicanus.
Red Backed Humming Bird ;  Selasphorus Rufus.
Night Hawk ;   Chordeiles popetue.
Belted Kingfisher; .....  ,  Ceryle alcyon.
Olive Sided Fly Catcher:   Contopus borealis.
American Robin, or Thrush ;   Turdus migratorius.
Varied Thrush, or Painted Robin ;   Turdus n'sevius.
Western Blue Bird ;  Sialin Mexicana.
Ruby Crowned Wren ;  Regulus calendula.
Golden Crested Wren;     Regulus satrapa.
American Titlark ;   Anthus Ludovicianus.
Macgillivray's Warbler ;    ,  Geothlypis Macgillivrayi.
Orange Crowned Warbler :  Helminthophaga celata.
Audubon's Warbler;     Dendroica Audubonii.
Yellow Warbler ;  Dendroica asstiva.
Louisiana Tanager ;  Pyranga Ludoviciana.
Barn Swallow;  Hirundo horreorum.
White jellied Swallow  Hirundo bicolor.
Violet green Swallow  Hirundo thalassina. MtawBHi
Warbling Flycatcher  Tireo gilvus.
Blue-headed do  Vireo solitarius.
Winter Wren  Troglodytes hyemalis.
Rock Wren  Salpinctes obsoletus.
blender-bill Nuthatch  Sltta aculeata.
Chestnut backed Tit  Pafus rufeseenq.
Western purple Finch..  Carpodacus Californicus.
Pine Finch  Chrysomitri3 pinus.
Western white crowned Sparrow   Zonotrichia Gambelli.
Golden crowned do  do        coronata.
Oregon Snowbird...  Junco Oregon us.
Chipping'Sparrow   Spizella socialis.
Western song Sparrow  Mclospiza rufina.
Townsend's fox Sparrow  PassarellaTownsendii.
Blackheaded  Grosbeak  Guiracamelanocephala.
Oregon ground Robin  Pipilo Oregonus.
Western meadow Lark  Sturnella neglecta.
Brewer's Blackbird........  ScolecophagU3 cyanocepholus.
Redwing       do   Agelaiu3pbce"rticeus.
American Raven  Corvus carnivorus.
Northwestern  Fish Crow         do    cartrinus.
Stellers Jay    Cyanura Stellerii.
Band-tailed Pigeon   Columba fasciata.
Blue Grouse  Tetrao obscurus.
Ruffed Oregon Grouse, or ■* Partridge" BonasaSabinii.
Sandhill Crane  Grus Canadensis.
Great blue  Heron  Ardea Herodias.
Surf Bird  Aphriza virgata.
Bachman's Oyster Catcher  Hcematopus niger.
Black Turnstone  Strepsilas melano-cephalus.
Wilson's   Snipe   Gallinago Wilsoni.
Telltale Tattler.... ,  Gambetta melanoleuca.
American Coot or Mud Hen  Fulica Americana.
The Swan............  ,   Cygnus Americanus.
Canada Goose  Bernicla Canadensis.
White cheeked Goose ^....        do        Leucopareia.
Hutchin's Goose  Bernicla Hutchinsii.
Snow Goose  ..   Anser byperborea.
Mallard or Stock Duck ...>  Anas boschas.
Green winged Teal.. ... Nettion Carolinensis.
Baldpate or American Widgeon  Mareca Americana.
Big/blackhead or Scaup Duck  Fulix marilla.
Canvas-back Duck   Aythia vallisneria.
Golden eye or whistle-wing Duck  Bucephala Americana.
Bufflehead Duck.......         do       albeola.
Harlequin Duck  Histrionicus torquatus..
The Longtailed Duck or South-south- Harelda glacialis.
■xt\*^ 1'mMm     vMelanettavelvetma.
Velvet Duck    \
Surf Duck  Pelionetta perspicillata.
Goosander  Mergus Americana.
Redbreasted Merganser         do    serrator.
Hooded Merganser  Lophodytes cucullatus.
Violet-green Cormorant  Graculns violaceous.
Shorttailed  Albatross..  Diomedea bracbynra.
Glaucous winged Gull  Larus glaucescens.
Sucklev'sGull  do    Suckleyi.
Great Northern Diver.  Colymbus torquatus.
Blacktbroated Diver         do       arcticus.
Redthroated       do         do       septentrionalis. [15 J
Shewing Gross Amount of Returns under " Trades Licenae Act." for the Half
Tear ending 30th December, 1860, and 30th June, 1861, with an Analysis
of the "Return for the Half Year ending 31st December, 1861.
Return for the Half Year ending 31st December, 1860,    £205,035
Return for the Half Year ending 30th June, 1861,        108,150
Half Year ending 31st December, 1861.
*).   K *-*i rprsi
£i    XLOC u. J ^L O.......... .  ...  ......  .
1 Agent, Estate	
I Agent, Nesw 	
5 Barbers and Hair dressers.
1 Bagmaker	
7 Blacksmiths	
14 Bakers	
8 Boot and Shoe Makers	
0 Butchers	
2 Brewers	
5 Brickmakers 	
2 Brokers	
1 Boot and Shoe Dealer	
3 Booksellers	
2 Board and Lodging House
2 Carriers 	
1 Carman	
1 Camphine Dealer	
35 Carpenteis and Builders...
1 Cigar Dealer	
1 Confectioner	
1 Cooch Builder	
1 Coffee Dealer	
3 Cow Ceepers	
14 Clothiers	
7 Contractors	
1 Commission Dealer 	
2 Commission Agents	
3 Commission Merchants	
1 Drayman	
3 Druggists and Apothecaries
8 Fruiterers 	
2 Fish Dealers 	
1 Flour Dealer	
1 Furniture Dealer	
1 Fur Dresser  	
1 Gunsmith  	
25 Grocers 	
2 Greengrocers	
2 Gardners, Market	
1 Hosier	
2 Horse Dealers	
5 Ironmongers 	
1 Ironfounder   	
2 Jewelers  	
I Jobber ■ ,	
1 Lime Burner	
1 Letter and Hirer  95
2 Livery Stables   1100
3 Lumber Merchants    4000
1 Mason  500
1 Marketman, Meat and Vegetable   <.... 300
23 Merchants  84,715
3 Milkmen    175
3 Milliners  1005
1 Miller and Baker   1200
1 Nurseryman    95
3 Paper Hangers   195
7 Painters  1125
1 Photographer  150
5 Plasterer   640
1 Prices Currents, dealer  in 95
2 Provision Merchants  5450
5 Restaurants, Keepers of ... 2250
1 Sail Maker  150
2 Saddlers  300
1 Scourer   95
2 Scriveners  1350
1 Ship Chandler   450
1 Shipwright  240
1 Skin Dealer    100
1 Snda Water Manufacturer 150
5 Store Keepers  4695
8 Ship Owners  1095
1 Syrup Manufacturer  95
3 Traders, Indian  1245
4 Traders   695
4 Tailors  1040
12 Teamsters   1545
1 Tentmaker  550
3 Tobacconists  3105
4 Tinsmiths   1020
1 Upholsterer	
2 Watchmakers 	
1 Washerman	
4 Water Carriers	
3 Warehouse k Wharfingers
1 Wood Dealer	
1 Woollen Goods Dealer	
1 Wheelwright k Blacksmith
1 Veterinary Surgeon
v CD
£95 8180 w
ARTICLES Imported into British Columbia from Vancouver Igland in  ISSO—Yalu'S,.
S \i if!
£201,712 13s. 6d.
Ale and Porter in wood,
in bottle,
Agricultural Implements,
Bacon and Hams,
Boots and Shoes,
China Merchandise,
Drugs and Chemicals,
pry Goods,
V '
Fish (preserved,)
Fish—dried and salt,
Fruits (preserved,)
do    dried,
do    fresh,
Harness and Saddlery,
Iron and Steel,
Lime and Cement,"
Xive Stock—I
Cowst, ,
Beef Cattle.
Sheep and Goats.
Meats preserved,
do    dried,
d^    fresh. *
Miscellaneous Ware.
Nuts and Almonds.
Oils, (sweet).
do    (Linseed),
do    various
Pork (salt).
do    do.
Personal effects.
E.ope and Cordage.
Seeds (Garden).
do    (Grain, etc).
Tar and Pitch.
do       Turnips, Carrots,
do       fresh.
do        preserved
do    Champagne.
do    China medicated.
do    Claret, other description a&d better.
Window Sashes and Doors.
Yeast Powder
:tC.» tit. ABSTRACT  OF  ACTS  Passed by House of Assembly, since the Jlrst Session,
beginning 1st March, 1860.
No. 1
Authorizing the collection
•'Administration of Oaths Act."    Provides for the administration of
Oaths in the House of Assembly, and the production of Evidence before Committees of the same.
"Vancouver Island Joint Stock Companies' Act."    Extends the  Provisions of the Joint  Stock Companies Acts, 1856, 1857  and  1858, to
Vancouver Island and its dependencies.
Act for the payment ot certain Salaries.
Bill of Supply £3,207 14    1.
Bill of Supply, £.9,364    0    0.
" Act to Improve the Streets of Victoria."
of a Tax to be called the Victoria Street Fund.
••Fireman's Protection Act."    Provides for the Protection of the Members of Fire Companies of Victoria.
" Trades License Act."    Imposes a Tax on all Trades and Occupations.
'•Indian Liquor Act."    For Preventing the Sale or Gift of Spirituous
Liquor to Indians.
.    " Road Act."    Provides for the Repair, Improvement, and Regulation
of Roads in Vancouver Island and its dependencies.
"Act to Amend Imperfect Titles."    Confirms certain persons in the
Fee Simple of the Real Estate they now hold.
.    " Real Estate Tax Act."    Levies an Annual Tax of 1 per cent, on all
Real Estate.
.    " Victoria and Esquimalt Harbour Dues Act."    Amending the scale of
Fees charged for the Entrance and  Clearance of Vessels, Licenses to
scows, boats, and other craft; and dues for Landing Permits, &c.
i    " Minor Offences Act."    For Rendering the Administration of Justice
in minor Criminal Cases, more speedy and certain.
" Limitation of Foreign Actions Act."    Declaring the Limitation   of
certain causes of action and suit.
" Annual Registration of Voters Act."    Amends the Registration  of
Voters Act, of 1859.
" Victoria Gas Company Act."    Incorporates the Victoria Gas Com-
X v X
" Victoria Bridge Removal Act."
" Act for Confirming Titles from the Hudson's Bay Company." Confirming certain Titles to Real Property in Vancouver Island.
"Land Registry Act." To Facilitate the Transfer of Real Estate, and
to provide for the Registration of Titles.
" Powder Magazine Act." Grants certain Privileges to the Builder or
Builders of a Powder Magazine.
" Vancouver Island Land Proclamation."    By the Governor.
k 24.    Supplemental to ditto.
** Victoria Harbour Act." Authorises the raising of a Loan of Ten
Thousand Pounds upon the security of the Dues and Moneys levied by
virtue of the Victoria and Esquimalt  Harbour Dues Act, 1860.
" Liquor License Act." Provides for and Regulates the Sale of Wines,
Spirits, Malt and other Liquors.
Proclamation, by His Excellency the Governor," Establishing Alberni,
in Barclay Sound, as a Port of Entry."
" An Act to Extend and Amend the Provisions of the Fireman's Protection Act, 1860.
" An Act, To enable Aliens to Hold and Transmit Real Estate."
I Supplementary Street Act." Authorises the continuation of certain
streets in Victoria.
" Vancouver Island Civil Procedure Act." Amending the Procedure
in Civil Cases.
" Alien Act, 1862."    Provides for the Naturalization of Aliens.
" Act for the Confirmation of the Titles of Aliens to Real Estate, 1861." 37
Cures Defects in Titles to Real Estate, held by or devised through
" Bills of Sale Act, 1861." For Preventing Frauds upon Creditors by
Secret Bills of Sale of Personal Chattels.
" Pawnbroker's Act."   Regulates the Business of Pawnbrokers.
"Summary-Procedure on Bills of Exchange Act, 1861." Facilitates
the Remedies on Bills of Exchange, and Promissory Notes, by the prevention of frivolous or fictitious defences to Actions thereon.
" Victoria Gas Company Extension Act, 1861." Enlarges the time
limited by the Act of 1860, for the Establishment of Gas Works and
Buildings by the Victoria Gas Company.
" Trades License Amendment Act." Amending the Act of 1860. Casual Traders to pay Annual License of Five Pounds, and the Half-yearly
Assessment to be as shewn by schedule A.
Lder £100
and undi
er        250
" Extension of Limitation of Foreign Actions Act." Extends provisions of the same.
" Swine and Goat Act." To prohibit Swine and Goats running at
large in Victoria, and Goats in settled districts.
" Bankruptcy Act, 1862." Declares the law relating to Bankruptcy
and Insolvency in Vancouver Island and dependencies.
In last line of page 17, for '•' street of water" read I sheet of water."
In page 22—second line in first paragraph—for | 96 overcast and foggy"
•ead " 50 overcast and foggy."
* I
********* min>  *^SSH»S»
"■!!»■ 1  "British Colonist". June 20, 1862,    (Editorial)
Prise Essay on Vancouver Island.
We can boast of a Prize Essay on Vancouver
Island at last.  We have something concise about this
colony that we can mail to our enquiring friends abroad,
without writing up every mail a quire of letter paper.
The "Prize Essay: Vancouver Island, its Resources and
Capabilities as a Colony," by Dr. Charles Forbes, Royal
Navy, to whom was awarded the Provincial Premium of £50,
has just been printed.   It appears in octavo pamphlet
form.  The Essay itself contains 63 pages, to which is
attached an Appendix containing 18 pages of useful information.  As a whole it is a valuable little production--
the best collection of facts that has yet appeared about
this colony.  As a literary production it is not to be
expected that the multifarious subjects to be treated of
v/ould entitle it to take high rank.  At best, such a work
to reach its object as a hand-book to emigrants seeking for
information respecting this colony, could be little more
than an index to the country, amplified so as to throw
sufficient light on its resources and capabilities to enable an emigrant to form a correct opinion as to whether
it would suit him.  We believe that end has been attained.
It is not, however, without considerable literary merit.
Some passages are remarkably well written.   In the first
chapter the author indulges in a glance at the Island and
neighboring territories, such as might be taken by an immigrant from on board a ship, from the time the Island
was first sighted off the Straits, till he lost himself in
its Archipelago.  The first ten or twelve paragraphs are
written in a very flowery style--letter painting: but the
author suddenly falls off into a more matter-of-fact--
certainly a style better adapted to the end in view.  We
have no wish to criticise it too closely;  still we think
that the Essay .might have answered equally well if nearly
all the first chapter had been left out.  The flowers of
rhetoric are however but a trifling defect.  The next and
most marked peculiarity of the Essay which prevades nearly
every part is the multitude of technical words.  Some of
them to the unscientific reader are perfect jaw-breakers,
like reading the Book of Samuel in Hebrew.   In a purely
scientific work, it might be right and proper;  or if the
Essay were designed to promote the emigration of scientific men, it would be all very well.  But as the object
of the Prize Essay is mainly to attract the attention of
two classes--capitalists and laborers--the simpler the
descriptions and the more practical the details the better.
There are so many facts, howrever, of the latter character
supplied in the Essay that we may well excuse the display
of so extensive a knowledge of the natural history of
the country.  The arrangement of the Essay may be open
to some objection.  From a rapid glance through it we are
led to conclude that there might be an improvement in that
particular.  What an intending emigrant v/ants most is to
get a birdfs-eye view of the country--neither too brief
to leave doubts on his mind as to this or that, or too
voluminous to cost much labor in getting at what he wants.
There is an abundance of matter in the Essay and ample in-
L^_ - 2 -
formation on most subjects touching the resources and
capabilities of the colony; but a little more attention
to arrangement, would, in our opinion, have been better.
Then the laborer, artisan, farmer, merchant or capitalist
could have referred at once from the index to the subject
of most interest to him.  We presume that these defects—
if they be defects at ail-chiefly arise from the author
being pressed for time.  Certainly the ability displayed
in the Essay—in the collection of truthful information —
the great labor it must have cost--prove convincingly
enough that such minor matters as we have alluded to
would have been obviated by leisure, or if the government
had given a longer time to prepare the Essay.
Were there a good map attached to the Essay,
its value would be greatly enhanced.  The emigrant abroad
could then with the Essayist start from Victoria, coast
along the Island up to Saanich, Cowichan, ITanaimo, the
Comax, and learn all about the agricultural resources of
the Island. . From thence go to Cape Scott, and thence
down the West Coast, and through the Straits to the point
of starting.  With the exception of the country from
Victoria to the Comax, very little is explained about our
agricultural resources.  Within these two points, there
are belts of agricultural land that total up to about
550,000 acres.  On the land question we thing much more
might have been saide  Our agricultural land far exceeds
that quantity.  Cf the north end of the Island, and the
west coast, we obtain very little information as to its
resources.  Beyond the timber and the cod banks, there
is nothing in an industrial point of view.  The conclus-*
ions of the Essayist on most topics are correct.  We are
told that the destiny of the colony is maratime and commercial, that it ought to be united with British Columbia;
and he rather censures the policy that keeps them apart.
Some allusions to social matters might tion that it would
y    be wise to note, as they form the ground of a policy which
it is advisable., just as well have been left out.  Without knowing anything of the Essay that took the second
prize, or the merits of the rejected Essays, we cannot
but speak well of the Forbes1 Prize Essay as a grand whole.
It supplies a public want long felt.  There is nothing
overdrawn in it.  The Colony is not painted in such lively
colors as to deceive any one; rather the reverse.   It is
truthfully represented—offers a mass of information to
the public such as was never before published in a concise
form, and is deserving of a wide circulation abroad.  Hereafter, as the country becomes developed, its resources and
capabilities better knowp, other Essays illustrating the
change, will no doubt be substituted,whilst on many points
the credit will be due to Dr. Forbes for having, under
serious difficulties, laid the groundwork for them.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items