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[The yellow peril in action : a possible chapter in history, dedicated to the men who train and direct… Manson, Marsden, 1850-1931 1907

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Dedicated   to the  Men  who train  and  direct
the  Men  behind the  Guns
JANUARY 2, 1907
BRITTON   &   REY.   PRINTERS,   S.   F" The University of British Columbia Library
Dedicated to the Men who train and direct
the Men behind the Guns
, Copyrighted January 1907,
Marsden Manson. PREFACE
The indifference with which our people and Congress
regard the development of the commerce of the Pacific
Ocean prompts the writer to point out some of the possibilities of a war and its effects upon that commerce and our
industries. Incidentally other matters are brought in which
have a bearing upon these and upon our Naval and Military
Power. If this brochure shall serve to bring about a better
understanding of our needs and a recognition of their importance, and shall tend to an abandonment of our policy
of neglect, its purpose will be served.
Dedicated  to  the  Men  Who  Train  and  Direct the  Men
Behind the Guns.
(Supposed  to  be  written  in   1912.)
In 1908 the friction between the United States and
China became severe, and only by great forbearance and
concessions had the actual breaking out of hostilities been
This near approach to war, although with a country
having no navy comparable with that of the United States,
induced the Congress meeting in March, 1909, to make
quite liberal appropriations for fortifications at Manila, Pearl
Harbor, Guam, Pago Pago and Kisga. On the basis of
these appropriations contracts were let for materials, coal
and supplies, and the War Department was ordered to go
over the plans prepared many years ago for fortifications
at these points and bring them up to the most modern
It appeared that: the unprepared conditions of these
vital military and commercial points would be at last
In the winter of 1909-10 China resumed the practice of
"boycotting" American goods and materials; and, American
sailors and citizens were insulted and hooted in several
Asiatic cities. In two or three instances in China, where the
lack of raw cotton caused factories to close, severe race
riots occurred, followed by the expulsion of all American
citizens and the destruction or forfeiture of their properties. This was followed, in seeming retaliation, by outbreaks of a similar nature in San Francisco and a few other
Pacific Coast cities and towns. Intense bitterness and racial
hatred were developed and in the riots several scores on
each side were killed and wounded. These riots were not
repressed until United States troops and marines were
brought into service.
Counter claims for indemnity for loss of property and
lives were presented by both sides, and they were finally
referred to a court of Chinese and American jurists, which
met at Asheville, North Carolina. The proceedings were
characterized by extreme urbanity at first, but the acrimony
of counsel on both sides involved the members of the court
in very bitter and caustic debate. The President then with
drew the American members of the court to Washington f
for further instructions—thinking also that a few weeks
calm consideration would restore a better state of mind on
both sides. The Chinese members sullenly remained in their
hotel quarters and the Chinese Ambassador left Asheville
and returned to Washington. He then conducted a series
of wireless communications in cipher via Vancouver Island
station and a Chinese cruiser in midocean, which transmitted these via Sakhalen Island to China.
On the 13th of March, 1910, the Chinese Ambassador
directed the Chinese members of the court to return to
China on the German mail steamer, Kron Prinz Wilhelm
III, and they immediately left for New York and embarked
on the 15th.
On the 17th he handed the Secretary of State a declaration of war and demanded his passports, and sailed on the
morning of the 19th.
The country was thunderstruck, China had no navy oi
moment, but her army, under Japanese example and training, had been put in a high state of efficiency, and her two
ordnance works had been turning out high class arms and
guns for several years. All her naval stations and commercial cities had been fortified in superb style and large
stores and munitions of war were said to be on hand.
The United States calmly and confidently began to prepare for war with an Asiatic foe. The general plan had
been laid out to simply and effectively blockade Chinese
ports and attack her commerce until she came to reason.
Great Britain was notified that in accordance with the
treaty of 1908 she was expected to close Hongkong and
Wei-Hai-Wei to Chinese vessels, both of war and commerce. She gave assurance of her good faith and kept these
and other treaty obligations inviolate in the most cordial
and friendly manner, but being in no way involved, her
attitude was purely that of' a friendly and sympathetic
The Atlantic fleet was ordered to reinforce the Pacific
fleet with four first class cruisers, two battle-ships, all five
of its recently commissioned scouting cruisers and its
entire flotilla of torpedo-boat destroyers—these latter, in
accordance with recent developments, being prepared to
serve as either torpedo destroyers or torpedo-boats of high
efficiency. The most important strategic point in the Pacific
Ocean, GUAM, not having been prepared to receive large
quantities of naval stores; and the fortifications, docks,
and wireless outfit being principally on paper, was not suited
for the receipt and protection of such a fleet. Hence the
next best station, Manila, was selected as the headquarters
of the reinforced Pacific fleet. This reinforced Pacific fleet
was expected to cruise in Chinese waters, completely blockade her ports and bring her to terms.   Colliers were put into service and ordered to increase the coal supply at all stations on the Pacific seaboard, particularly at Pearl Harbor,
where immense coal sheds had been built and a splendid
drydock and repair shops constructed. Coal ships were
also prepared to increase supplies at Manila, Guam and
Pago Pago; at Kisga preparations were yet incomplete and
a fair supply of coal being on hand, no colliers were sent
The United States had accepted the gage of war with
China, and our navy was able to meet the requirements of
the country, although scattered and but partially provided
with aedquately fortified and well equipped military stations. But fortifications and strong garrisons were not
needed, as our Asiatic enemy was not prepared to carry
on a war which would in any way jeopardize the control of
the Pacific Ocean.
Two regiments of the National Guard of California and
one of Washington were ordered to prepare for garrison
duty at points to be indicated by later orders; and secret
instructions were given to the proper officers to outfit two
companies from each regiment for duty at Manila, the same
at Pearl Harbor and one at Guam, thus reinforcing the*
small forces at these points. The volunteer naval battalions at all Pacific Coast ports were mustered into service,
and preparations made to assign them to the proper vessels.
The actual declaration of war made it more difficult
to keep racial antagonism from breaking out in greater
violence. These difficulties were intensified by the newspapers, which continued to incite the vicious and ignorant
into discontent and violence. The commercial marine of
San Francisco and Pacific Coast ports had been admirably
advised, anticipating trouble by reason of riots at San Francisco, and by the recent embarkation of wealthy Chinese
from American cities, these steamers had been ordered to
leave Chinese ports and to take refuge in nearby Japanese
and English ports. Learning of the declaration of war, some
of those in English ports had crossed to Japan to take on
coal or to await orders for other cargoes.
Such were the conditions on the morning of March 23,
1910. On that day, at 10 o'clock in the morning, the Japanese Ambassador at Washington delivered to the Secretary
of State a copy of a secret treaty of offensive and defensive
alliance between Japan and China, certified with ihe seals
of the two Governments and dated as far back as June,
1906, just after the close of the Japanese-Russian war of
1904-5. He then demanded his passports and left on the
German mail steamer, superb quarters being furnished him
and his suite, by reason of the declination of these quarters
bv a New York banker, who had previously engaged them,
ostensibly for himself and family. During the next four days events happened in a Woody
and humiliating procession. During the night of March
23d cable communication with Honolulu was cut off, a few
leagues east of that harbor; and, as was afterward learned,
a rapid and puzzling series of signals from more powerful
electric batteries than those on the islands, completely interrupted the efficiency of the wireless station at Honolulu
until early dawn on the morning of March 24th, when the
top of the signal mast, was blown off by a high explosive
attached to a kite, and arranged to catch the mast from a
distance of a mile or more.
During the same night boat load after boat load of uniforms, arms, ammunition and supplies were unloaded four
miles west of Pearl Harbor, and just before dawn on the
24th of March, eight thousand well drilled and well officered troops, thoroughly armed and equipped and previously employed as Chinese and Japanese laborers, stormed
the partly constructed fortifications at Pearl Harbor and
adjacent to Honolulu/1, The garrisons at these points, consisting of two companies of coast artillery, were killed or
captured before sunrise, and the heavy guns in place were
used against the two cruisers and one battle-ship in the
harbor. One of the cruisers was sunk at its anchor, the
battle-ship and other cruiser replied, but were crippled, and
escaped from the harbor, when they were forced to surrender to an overwhelming fleet, flying the Chinese and
Japanese colors. The surprise was so complete that no time
was given to blow up the magnificent drydock just completed at Pearl Harboi, with its full equipment of shops and
repair machinery. Every American steamer on the Asiatic
coast was seized except four, and later three of these, with
others en route between ports, fell a prey to small, swift
torpedo destroyers cruising around and between the Hawaiian Islands and Kisga, and in constant wireless communication with the fleet at the islands. This loss was enormous, for all lines from San Francisco and Puget Sound
had trebled their carrying facilities, and the steamers were
large and new except the Siberia. The great line from San
Diego lost the fine new steamer Citrus, but the Burbank,
one half day out of port, was caught by wireless and recalled. The Cooper was accidentally south of her usual
course home and was not intercepted by the hostile fleet,
and arrived home on the 26th.
All captured steamers were immediately sent over to
China, where troops, arms, ordnance, ammunition, engineers' tools and supplies of all kinds were rapidly loaded
and then sent to the Hawaiian Islands. In the interim
the fortifications there were rendered almost impregnable.
*These laborers, it was afterwards learned, had served
two years with the colors before emigrating to the islands. The laborers and soldiers there having been put to work
night and day in six-hour shifts, upon plans already prepared to thoroughly fortify not only Pearl Harbor and,
Honolulu, but every harbor of advantage on the islands.
The capture had been so thoroughly and rapidly carried out
that supplies and stores of all kinds fell into the hands of
the captors, so that by the time of the arrival of the converted troop ships and transports, everything was in readiness. Indeed, trained troops, police and civil officials were
already on hand and a provisional Asiatic Government was
established within sixty hours after the storming of the
The  First  Naval  Battle.
The Admiral's flagship the cruiser Michigan, the
cruisers Tennessee and Colorado, and the battle-ship Vermont, of the Pacific fleet, had been ordered to hasten to
Honolulu to overhaul, take on coal and stores, and proceed
to Manila. They were intercepted on March 26th, with
bunkers nearly empty, and fought a running fight against
far superior numbers. The foremost of the Asiatic cruisers
was sunk and the others heavily damaged, one hardly
reaching the Pearl Harbor drydock under forced draught.
The Vermont and the Michigan were sunk, and the other
vessels forced to surrender to three times their efficiency
of higher speed—the. Tennessee sunk, however, within thirty
minutes after striking her colors. The enemy attempted
to use torpedo destroyers as torpedo-boats, but they were
torn to pieces by the rapid and accurate fire of the American
guns. The efficiency of the new hospital service steamers
of Japan was a merciful marvel. They flew in amongst the
fighting ships like darts. The small boats attached to each
were of lifeboat pattern, and motor driven, with a type of
engine using compressed oxygen and oil—an improvement
on the old Deisel motor.
In addition to the Red Cross flag each was painted
white, with the red cross on each side near the bow and
again near the stern.
American steamers en route to Asiatic and Australian
ports were nearly all captured by scout cruisers and torpedo destroyers, and were sent as prizes to Chinese ports,
none being sent to Japan. Several sailing vessels flying
the American flag, were overhauled, but were allowed to
proceed either way, not being considered worth a prize
crew. Foreign ships loaded with coal, destined for American ports, were sent to Pearl Harbor and detained or the
coal paid for.
Similar results followed at Manila to those at Pearl
Harbor, where there were only the old battle-ship Iowa,
two   antiquated   cruisers   and   the   same   number   of   old 10
monitors. There was a new and astounding use made
of torpedo-boats in this attack. The wealthy Japanese, after the war with Russia, took to steam yachting.
Their boats were of their own peculiar pattern and were
designed for racing and the sport was indulged in on all
occasions. The cylindrical traps for carrying live fish, of
which the Japanese are very fond, only needed a pair of
doors to convert them into torpedo tubes; and the ventilating and refrigerating machinery on board were air compressors. A few connections converted these yachts into torpedo-boats. These entered the harbor and were repulsed—
but the explosion of a light torpedo against the hulls of
the American ships inevitably followed. These light torpedoes were very effective and were evidently fired from
submarines of some sort, the converted torpedo destroyers.
having been sacrificed in the ruse. Corregidor Island was
seized, ten heavy rifles on disappearing carriages were
mounted in pits, which, with quite a complement of heavy
rapid fire field guns behind temporary fortifications made
this little island a veritable Gibraltar in less than a week.
The Asiatic fleet hovering outside the harbor then withdrew entirely and took up positions near the western entrance to the China Sea, with scout cruisers in pairs, 300
miles west of Singapore and 400 miles southwest of Batavia.
The garrisons on the Philippine Islands were gradually
killed or captured by Chinese troops, officered, armed and
equipped in a quick and thorough manner and appearing in
overwhelming numbers wherever needed.
Fortifications at Guam, Pago Pago, and Kisga being
lacking, or only in process of construction, the handful of
troops at each point had to surrender. The surrender was
immediately followed by one or two troop ships, with the
necessary trained garrisons, with plans, tools, equipments,
ordnance, munitions, etc., to put these harbors in a fair state
of defence. Guam received particular attention. The new
works raised there being of the most formidable and permanent types, with additional works in the rear, the heavy guns
of which commanded the offings of the harbor, while the
rapid fire guns commanded the line in front. A large new
floating steel dock was towed into the harbor from Formosa
and put in condition to be of service if needed.
The Blockade.
The powerful Asiatic fleet off the Hawaiian Islands on
the 24th and the 25th of March was divided into three
squadrons, which appeared off San Francisco, Puget Sound
and San Diego almost simultaneously on April 2d. The
battle-ships Connecticut and Kansas, and armored cruisers
Colorado and South Dakota, in San Francisco, were confronted by treble their efficiency outside; and the' battleship Louisiana and cruiser Washington, at Bremerton, were 11
confronted by three battle-ships and the necessary complement of auxiliary vessels. A light cruiser and supporting
auxiliaries did duty off San Diego. The three squadrons
being directed by wireless from Pearl Harbor, where the
Commander-in-Chief of the allied Asiatic fleets had established his headquarters.
Thus, early in April, 1910, American commerce was
swept from the Pacific Ocean, and San Francisco, Puget
Sound and San Diego were as effectually blockaded as was
Port Arthur in 1904-5. The reinforcing squadrons en route
to the Pacific Ocean, one by Suez and the other by Cape
Horn (the Panama canal being only about one-third finished), were necessarily recalled. For, had either squadron
continued, it would have been met by an equivalent or a
more powerful enemy, with nearby bases, whilst our vessels would have arrived with empty or nearly exhausted
bunkers, foul bottoms and no supporting harbor or safe
place of rendezvous. Upon recall of these reinforcements
the Allied Asiatic fleet ,'n the China Sea took up its station
at Guam and m-ade this harbor its headquarters.
The superb base at Pearl Harbor, with a temporary
base at Catalina Island—where hospital, repair ships and
colliers were assembled—made the squadrons of the Allied
Asiatic fleet not only effective on blockade duty, but also
effective as an offensive unit, should circumstances demand
such action, for the Commander-in-Chief at Pearl Harbor
directed all movements and was apprised by wireless of all
important facts by the Admirals in command of squadrons.
Whilst the commanding harbor at Guam, with Manila us a
sub-base, gave an almost overwhelming advantage over a
fleet approaching from the Indian Ocean, and commanded
the very harbors this fleet was expected to assist in blockading.
There was no attempt whatever on the part of the
squadrons of the Allied Asiatic fleet to attack or shell San
Francisco, Bremerton and San Diego; they simply maintained a thorough blockade of each port, now and then
capturing a belated sailing vessel or blockade runner, risky
enough to attempt to escape.
The battle-ships and cruisers in San Francisco Bay
and those at Bremerton were in fine shape, but there was
no justification in sending them to attack the seven hostile
ships on duty off San Francisco and those in Puget Sound—
particularly as there was known to be a full complement of
armored cruisers, torpedo destroyers and probably submarines in the blockading squadrons.
Doubts as to the presence of submarines were laid at
rest in the early part of April, for on the 10th a suspicious
floating object was fired on and probably sunk in the harbor by a marine battery on shore duty on   Yerba Buena .     —:	
Island, aided by the rapid fire guns of the.cruiser Colorado,
at anchor in the harbor.
After this occurrence the positions of the war vessels in «
the bay were changed every night after dark, and motor
launches kept patrol around each vessel during the entire
night. Searchlights were shifted to points on shore and
.the closest watch kept. Just a little before sunrise on the
morning of April 17th, after a dark and rainy night, several
muffled explosions were heard, and the city was startled
by the news that every drydock in the Bay of San Francisco
had been mysteriously blown up. Mare Island docks, the
two at Hunters' Point, Union and Risdon Iron Works, and
even the floating docks at Center Street, were all irreparably damaged, and the magnificent battle-ship Connecticut
was sunk in the harbor, though the others escaped. A small
fleet of submarines, especially equipped, had been towed
nearly into Golden Gate during the previous night in a dense
fog. Each had made its way during the night to its appointed duty and within an hour after daylight had done its
w^ork. Whether they escaped or not was never known. The
violence of the explosion at Mare Island was terrific. Hardly
one of the great shops and their costly equipment escaped
serious damage. Doors and windows across the strait, in
Vallejo, were blown in, but there was a remarkably small loss
of life—workmen not having assembled for the day's work.
A similar attempt at Bremerton two days later was completely foiled, but both approaches to the dock were fairly
strewn with fixed mines, which would require several weeks'
work, with special appliances, not then available, to remove.
Thus the American navy was deprived of coaling and docking facilities in and around the entire Pacific Ocean, except
at Bremerton, and here the dock was rendered dangerous of
approach for months, and our commerce was scTcompletely
and swiftly swept from the Pacific Ocean that we had not a
flag upon its- vast waters.
Effect of Destruction of Ocean Traffic on Transcontinental
Lines and Internal Affairs.
The obliteration of ocean traffic by the capture of the
great steamer lines from San Francisco and Seattle, and the
blockading of a magnificent new line from San Diego in that
port, coupled with the cessation of the traffic done by nearly
an equal number of Asiatic steamers, put a stop to the
greater portion of transcontinental rail traffic.
The recently completed Western Pacific Railway had
developed its terminals on both oceans, and was engaged
in distributing materials for branch lines, and its low
grades and superb equipment made it the successful bidder
for the transportation both ways of Government supplies 13
and mail. Its old contracts for 1909-10 did not expire until
July, 1910, when its new contracts for 1910-11 came into
force. Hence this road maintained its old rates and made
but slight reductions in its forces. The previous labor
troubles were aggravated and intensified by the enforced
necessity of laying off the greater portion of all railway
employees and of reducing the wages of those remaining.
This caused strikes on all lines. The presence of Japanese
and Chinese was regarded as an opportunity for revenge,
and as their countries were at war with ours, roughs assumed that it was a part of their patriotic duty, as sympathizers with the strikers, to attack these foreign laborers
or residents within our borders at every point, or at least
to make life unendurable for them; indeed, this seemed
to be the sole measure of their patriotic duty to their country, and the surest and best manifestation of their sympathy
with, or adherence to, the principles of the labor unions.
The Japanese track gangs on most of the roads were a
source of treble danger: First, no one knew what they
might be up to, particularly under the aggravations to which
they were subjected; second, they were the objects of special animosity by the sympathizers of the strikers; third,
it took a large portion of the National Guard to maintain
order and guard railway and other property.
Finally, in the early part of April, 1910, upon the refusal
of the National Guard to fire upon a gang of roughs who
were attacking a small camp of Japanese laborers in Nevada,
the Ninth Cavalry was sent to the scene. These troops had
to fire upon an indiscriminate mixture of roughs and National Guardsmen, the former having rushed in and seized
some of the guns of the guardsmen with which to attack the
Japanese and the Ninth Cavalry. This apparently unavoidable trouble resulted in the killing and wounding of nearly
100, among whom were Captain O'Brien and Lieutenant
Rafferty, and a score of non-commissioned officers and men
of the National Guard, and Lieutenant Gordon and eleven
non-commissioned officers and privates of the Ninth Cavalry. The ultimate outcome of this lamentable affair was
appalling; the strikers refused to move a single car west of
the Mississippi River, and they and their sympathizers commenced the most outrageous series of destructions ever
imagined. Tunnel after tunnel, and some important bridges
and minor structures were blown up. The great summit
tunnel of the Southern Pacific, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, was in course of construction; a carload of powder
intended for this work was exploded in the old tunnel;
another carload was exploded on the track at "Cape Horn"
and the costly steel braced track and masonry at that point
were tumbled into American River. The blowing \ip of the
Needles bridge over the Colorado was done with such skill 16
ment was on its regular tour of assignment of duties at
different posts, and was the most available body of reliable
troops when the disorder broke out. The clamor was so
great that it became necessary to order a court martial of
the officers of the regiment. The finding of the court was
highly creditable to them, it having been irrefutably proved
that they and their command had been subjected to the
severest and keenest trial of patriotism and duty which
comes to a soldier, and had simply discharged their awful
responsibilities. This finding was concurred in by a court
consisting of army officers and of the National Guard of
the States in which the troops were then stationed. The
mass of the American people, and the better classes of our
foreign born citizens, recognized the facts and accepted the
justness of this verdict; but, the yellow press and its corrupting and inflammatory writers, smarting under the refusal of the court to allow its attorneys to assist the Judge
Advocate and his associate from the National Guard of
Pennsylvania, continued to distort the truth and misrepresent the facts. This action on their part encouraged and
incited the ignorant rough element in their deeds of violence. The previous vicious course of yellow journalism,
having culminated in bringing on the most disastrous war
the country ever knewr—a war practically taking the shape
of a civil and foreign war combined—its writers actually
continued to clog or destroy the effectiveness of our energies in war by pandering to and exciting the passions of
the ignorant and vicious; this, however, tended to draw a
clean and well defined line between the workingmen proper
and the riotous and "sympathizing" element. The former
began to see that their first allegiance was due to their country and its laws, from which duty they had been led away
by the example of the trusts and monopolies. Both the
capitalist and the laborer were thus paying tenfold for their
past work, but the punishment fell, it is true, on the innocent more than the guilty.
The yellow press demanded with the most intemperate
denunciations, the impeachment of the Secretary of the
Navy, holding that competent official responsible for decades
of failure by our people and Congress to recognize the importance of providing fortified stations in and around the
Pacific Ocean, and for not making the Pacific fleet the most
efficient in that ocean. It even attacked the entire Navy
Department—that service which alone can insure us safety
and success in i foreign war—for the United States is so
situated that excepting internal foes, no foe can reach our
borders without controlling the sea. The only justification
for these tirades of the yellow press was the past failures
of our people and Congress to recognize and act in harmony
with the importance of efficient and well fortified military 17
stations in and around the Pacific Ocean and commeasur-
able with our naval and commercial needs. These journals, with the milk-and-water-sop dished out to us in the
past, and until now by the so-called universal peace advocates, had been our worst foes. It is, however, not our task
to moralize over the causes of this disastrous war, but to
briefly recall the principal events and results.
Effect  of Asiatic  Mastery  of the  Pacific   Ocean  on Our
Conditions in the Eastern States were sad, but the putting forth of hundreds of millions of dollars by the Government for naval and military purposes, and the working of
eight-hour shifts in every dock yard or factory producing
naval and military supplies, partly ameliorated their conditions. Japan and China ceased, of course, to take our great
staple, cotton; but European industries were revived, and
bought freely at high prices. Atlantic ports were open and
commercial interchange practically undisturbed, except that
the paralyzing effects of war decreased the productive
capacities of the whole country. The absolute and entire
wiping out of American trade and commerce on the Pacific
Ocean just as it was assuming enormous proportions, and
entering into competition with powerful Asiatic rivals in its
development, was a blow inflicted in a few weeks, and
requiring centuries to recover. This blow fell on the Pacific
States with the greatest severity. These being the theater
of internal disorder, isolated the energies, patriotism and
power of the States east of the Rocky Mountains, by lawlessness almost reaching rebellion and civil war. Between
the line of contact with the enemy and the great energies
of the nation, was this embroiled and bitter industrial and
racial conflict—paralyzing every effort and humiliating
every heart.
These conditions imposed such a terrible hardship on
the Government that, coupled with the complete mastery
of the Pacific Ocean by the enemy, made a successful prosecution of the war impossible and hopeless. Even if the keys
of the Pacific Ocean, Guam and the Hawaiian Islands only,
were in the hands of the enemy, an attack upon his commerce and the blockading of his ports would be well nigh
impossible. But, with these keys and all else—Manila,
Pago Pago, and Kisga, a temporary base well established
on Catalina Island, and his powerful blockading squadrons
off our western ports, and operated as a unit from the
single station at Pearl Harbor, its splendid dock and its
facilities in his possession—a continuation of the war was
indeed hopelessly impossible.
The dire strait in which the country was, can best be
appreciated by *. glance at the accompanying map, show- 18
ing the three great oceans as units, and our masterly position between them. It is seen at once that Guam is midway
on a nearly direct line from Yokohama to Torres Strait, in
Northeast Australia; and from its splendid harbor, well
fortified, an efficient navy can control on radial lines every
entrance to, and every harbor on the southwest half of the
Pacific Ocean. Also, that Pearl Harbor, on the Hawaiian
Islands, commands on correspondingly radial lines, all
Pacific Coast harbors on the east side of that ocean, from
Alaska to Acapulco. Two more masterly positions from
the standpoint of commercial and naval control, do not
exist on the globe. Add to these the sub-stations Pago
Pago, Manila and Kisga, and the chain, properly fortified,
is impregnable. With the three great continental harbors,
San Francisco, Puget Sound anel San Diego—these absolutely dominate the Pacific Ocean. These points of control
had been secured for us by the clear foresight of those
directing our military affairs—but through the supine indifference of our people and Congress, they had been permitted to remain unfortified and unprotected, consequently all,
except the three continental harbors had been seized by
an alert and far seeing foe, and these continental harbors
were, by this stroke, rendered almost as useless as waste
sand bars.
Let us now look at the relations of these three harbors
to the empire to the east of them. Each is approached by
great lines of transportation traversing a continent, and
linking them to its millions and the commerce of the Atlantic. These lines were almost completely paralyzed by
internal disorders. Could a more humiliating condition be
imagined for the greatest of Anglo-Saxon peoples!
The Losses.
The losses 'n lives had been comparatively slight, excepting the sharp and bloody conflicts of small isolated garrisons and the naval conflicts in and around Honolulu and
Manila, no serious conflicts were had. The crews of the
vessels previously mentioned had been killed or captured,
and these latter were being cared for with even greater
medical skill and humanity than the crews of the Russian
fleets in 1904-5. The loss of life in the sinking of the Connecticut was small by reason of the splendid discipline on
board American war vessels, and the ready assistance
.The killed in the race riots, lawlessness and internal outbreaks accompanying strikes were nearly double the losses
in naval and military conflicts, and ten times the number
*The vessel itself has been raised and will be repaired
as soon as the repair of the docks can be completed.—Eds.  MAP of the WORLD
The three Great Oceans as Units
Unfortified Military Stations in
a 19
of troops were engaged in preventing further outrages and
conflicts and in guarding railway and telegraph lines than
were needed to man the entire navy.
The real damage and loss to the country after that
inflicted by these causes, was in the entire and irreparable
loss of the opportunity—not to control, but even to compete
for the control—of the commerce of the Pacific Ocean, with
Asiatic rivals. '
Negotiations for Peace and Its Price.
Europe stood amazed and almost aghast at the condition of the once powerful and rich United States. Germany
was apparently contemplating some stroke, for her entire
fleet was concentrated at a few points. It is not known
what was contemplated, but the concentration of the British home squadron off Dundee and Hull, and the recall of
the most powerful vessels of the great Mediterranean fleet
to Portsmouth seemed to have restored confidence and
allayed any alarm.
Our own people were simply dumb with humiliation.
The overwhelming blackness of the situation confronting
them for a time paralyzed their powers of thought. But
their Executive went at the dark task before him on the
best and most feasible lines. An armistice was asked for.
To which our Asiatic conquerors replied that no conflict
was going on and none possible, except upon our advance
and choice. The terms of peace and the withdrawal of their
blockading fleet from our ports were then solicited. These
terms were moderate, but extremely galling. Briefly stated
the terms were as follows:
Provided for The cession to the Allied Asiatic Powers of
Guam, the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands,
Kisga,, Pago Pago, Catalina Island, and the
Farallone Islands (light house privileges on
these latter to be retained by the United States
in time of peace).
Provided for The payment by the United States of an
indemnity of $750,000,000.00. With part of
which the United States was permitted to reimburse the owners of the steamers captured
during the war, and the owners of Catalina
Island. 20
Provided That a part of this indemnity should be paid
to the relatives of each Asiatic subject killed,
or to such subject in the case of injury; to
person or property which had been incurred
by rioting during the war and the year immediately preceding.
Provided That the Constitution and Laws of the United
States should be so amended so as to extend
to all aliens equal rights of citizenship.   .
Provided That the minutiae of these terms and the
financial details should be adjusted and fixed
by an Imperial High Court composed of Chinese and Japanese jurists, sitting in the hotel
on Catalina Island.
The effect of the announcement of these terms can only
be likened to the outburst of Mt. Pelee.
The provisions of Article IV set the whole country
ablaze—that Asiatic powers should dictate the terms upon
which the right of citizenship should rest w^as too unbearable to consider for an instant. Indignation on the Pacific
Coast knew no bounds—the terms were simply heinous—
and the entire daily press went into hysterics of denunciation and threatened the most dire consequences unless Article IV be immediately withdrawn. But the chain of floating steel fortresses aiound our great gates of commerce
remained the same and each of its relentless links responded
in a single minute to the directing genius of one man, situated 2000 miles away, at Pearl Harbor. Not a single non-
combatant within our vast borders had seen the armed
legions of our foes, nor his emblazoned sun and dragon
flags—yet the most secluded hamlet felt the crush and humiliation of his steel squadrons. No eyes, save those of
the thousands of tireless watchers at the guns on the
heights saw those black dots on the sea which forbade our
flag to fly to its breezes, and our commerce to seek its marts.
The situation was so intensely critical that those legislatures not already in session were immediately called
together. Denunciatory resolutions of the most extreme
and lurid wordings were introduced in all of them except
Massachusetts, South Carolina, Virginia, Texas and Minnesota. 21
The country seemed to be in the control of the unbridled demons of black despair.
Out of this despairing wail came a few calm words.
It was pointed out that all of the islands mentioned in
Article I were already in the possession of the enemy, and
that an increase in the indemnity might induce him to relinquish Catalina Island and the Farallones, which should
never be surrendered.
Article II was favorably commented on by European
journals and it was pointed out that the capitalization of
the ocean transportation companies whose property had
been swept out of existence, and of the hotel company owning Catalina Island, were nearly half the total indemnity.
Article V was harmless except for the indignity of the
place selected for the meeting of the Imperial High Court
and the outrageous and humiliating terms of Article IV.
These outbursts and manifestations of hatred had no
effect wdiatever on the grim girdle of steel fortresses holding our western sea front, and the very horror of the situation seemed to awe even the rioters into humiliation, so
that the guarding of Chinese and Japanese laborers became
a less difficult task; and men, real men, stepped forward
from the mighty ranks of labor, and, with patriotism blazing in every feature, volunteered by hundreds of thousands
to undertake any class of service our country might need,
to act as their own guards and to protect life and property.
There was nothing else to do but to accept the profered
terms, this nation could not wait in its crippled condition
until an adequate fleet could be built in Eastern yards
and sent around the Horn, or through Suez to restore our
power. What could the allied powers of Asia do in the
same time ? What would be. the nature and strength of a
fleet which could steam from Atlantic ports to the eastern
ports of Asia and without fortified harbors and coaling stations carry on a war? Could we ask our only friend to help
us and risk an attack from European rivals? All these
questions, and more, were asked and unanswered save by
sighting off our fair shores the flags of a hostile fleet beyond
our power to harm, yet infinite in his power to harm us;
and these conditions had been brought about by our own
disregard of our own laws and opportunities.
The terms were yet before us. The Imperial High
Court met for the adjudication of details. It was largely
composed of jurists educated in American or European
universities, qualified in every way to consider and discuss
the questions in the English language. All its assistants,
clerks and even stenographers were similarly qualified, and
were so organized that any detail was instantly produced or
executed as required.
Brevity   and   businesslike   methods   characterized   the p
whole proceedings. Each article was taken up seriatim and
its exact scope and meaning fixed. The United States practically appeared through its Commissioners as an uncontested plaintiff, and stated its case, which the Imperial High
Court took into consideration and promptly brought in its
findings.' It, however, graciously and with extreme oriental
courtesy, permitted the plaintiff to restate his case and
reconsidered its previous findings, generally with slight or
no modification.
Article I was modified, omitting the surrender of. Catalina Island and the Farallones, and adding $10,000,000.00 to
the indemnity.*
Twenty millions of dollars were deducted from, the
indemnity, as being the sum paid by the United States to
Spain for the Philippine Islands. This was an auspicious
beginning, although all points were to be held by the Asiatic
Allies until the final payment of the sums ultimately fixed
by the Imperial High Court and the ratification of the terms
of the treaty by Congress.
In the consideration of Article II the American Commissioners presented sworn statements of the capitalization of each of the steamer lines, and asked that the United
States be permitted to pay this sum, amounting to $391,870,-
000.00, to the steamer companies.
The Imperial High Court took the matter into consideration and fixed the sum at $42,728,490.00, that being the
exact value sworn to by the honorable officers of the honorable steamer companies at the assessment just preceding
the breaking out of hostilities and appearing upon the
assessment records of their home ports, plus $924,782.00, as
the assessed values of the private works destroyed in the
harbor of San Francisco by reason of the exigencies of war.
Damages for this latter property not having been asked for,
suits being in preparation against the United States for a
far larger sum. The figures having been obtained and verified by law students from Asia attending the universities in
America and verifiable by them as they were now present
in the employ of the Imperial High Court. The Imperial
High Court heard the American Commissioners, but politely
declined to change its evidently just findings. It admitted
that these vessels and works could not be built and restored,
even in Japan or China, for the sums found by it, but that
it could not reject official records of the honorable States
of California, Washington and Oregon.
*This, as was afterwards learned, was spent in a lease
for 99 years from Equador of the Galapagos Islands, with
the privilege of renewal at the same price for the same
terms. These islands command the Isthmian canal and
adjacent ports.
__ 23
Article III was then taken up for adjustment *and the
American Commissioners suggested $5000 for each Japanese
or Chinese killed during the riots, and $1000 for each one
injured or maimed, with as accurate lists as could be obtained of these unfortunates and their losses. The sum to
be paid them aggregated on this basis $985,000.00.
In fixing the amounts to be paid to the relatives of the
killed and to the maimed Japanese and Chinese the High
Court had in its possession the exact names, dates and
places of every Asiatic covered by the terms of the article
tinder consideration, his death, injury or loss, and fixed the
price at the mean amounts determined by the juries of the
several States in cases of awards for.damages or for loss of
life or serious injury. The Imperial High Court expressed
its surprise thai the awards in the latter cases generally
exceeded those for actual loss of life—but verified its conclusions in each case by citations from the Court Reports
of the several States in which the outrages had taken place.
This data also had been collected by Asiatic law students
at various American universities and was verifiable by clerks
then present, if so desired.
The sum fixed by the Imperial High Court for this
particular and on this revised basis, amounted to $18,496,-
754.00. One of the Chinese members of the High Court
made some reference during this presentation to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth verses of the Twentieth Chapter of
Exodus, but the exact relation of the reference to the case
could not be ascertained until the American Commissioners
got back to Los Angeles and examined the reference.
When the American Commissioners came to present
Article IV they grew livid and demanded that it be expunged from the treaty. The Imperial High Court announced that this exceeded their powers and that it must
be enforced, as the Allied Asiatic powers had at least established their equality with the nations of Europe and America, and were determined to insist upon the full recognition
of this. The Imperial High Court, however, consented to
the transmission of its views to the Capitol at Washington,
and to await further instructions to the American Commissioners.
These communications were passed in duplicate by
separate sets of officials, one by wire and one by wireless,
to the Secretary of State at Washington. Both the American Commissioners and the Imperial High Court were
astounded at receiving imperative instructions from the
Secretary of Stale to accept the terms of Article IV without
To the anathemas of denunciation launched at him by
the press and Legislatures the Secretary of State coldly
called attention to the fact that under the terms of Article 24
II, Section 2, of the Constitution of the United States, Congress had the power to make war or to declare peace, and
that this important function of the Government had not been
delegated to the Legislatures of the several States, nor even
to the press. He intimated that he hoped to make some
suggestions to the former for their consideration in the near
It is difficult, even at this time, to realize the intensity
and fierceness of the denunciations directed at the Secretary
of State for his action in this matter. Resolutions demanding that he be impeached and hung for high treason were
passed by many States and forwarded to Congress; and his
life was attempted twice. Only with the greatest effort
could the police and troops protect him, and a member of
the police was even suspected of having made one of the
attempts on his life.
When final action was had on the treaty this fact was
transmitted in duplicate by wireless and wire, as heretofore
mentioned, and the Secretary of State, through the President, transmitted the terms to Congress and recommended
their acceptance to that body.
On the same date he transmitted a separate recommendation through the President to Congress, and asked
that considered in joint executive session with the
President and Cabinet present.
During this session troops were to guard the entire
Capitol grounds and no one was to enter or leave; the
United States printing office was to be guarded by double
lines of secret police and troops.
Congress sat but for a short time, and on July 3d
accepted the terms and ratified the peace, ratifications being
exchanged by duplicate dispatches as before. It then went
again into executive session and sat continuously through
July 4th, 5th and 6th.
The gloom of that Fourth of July is a memory graven
deep in the hearts of American patriots. Flags were half-
masted. Governors proclaimed it a day of fasting and
prayer. Ministers took for their texts passages from the
Lamentations of Jeremiah, and preached to congregations
with set jaws and bowed heads.
By the 6th of July the final and ceremonial exchange
of copies of the treaty of peace were made, and the.American Commissioners left - Catalina Island. Then the grim
silence of Washington burst forth, Congress had, in accordance with the recommendation of the Secretary of State,
and without a dissenting vote* amended the Constitution of
the United States, absolutely prohibiting foreign immigra-
* Although there were many foreign born Senators and
Representatives present. 25
tion from all countries for ten (10) years; and FOREVER
Drafts of amendments to the Constitution and Laws of
every State in the Union in harmony with this action had
been prepared and printed and were transmitted to the
respective Legislatures by telegraph and mail, with the
unanimous recommendation of Congress that they be
adopted as soon as the requirements of their several constitutions permitted.
The blaze of patriotic glory that burst forth and shone
from mountain top to prairie, to mountain top and ocean,
brought a delirium of joy to every heart. The purification
of the ballot box was assured. Never again would the foul
hand of the ignorant or purchased voter touch that sacred
signet of the right of franchise of the American citizen—the
ballot. The people, scourged and purified by the suffering,
grief and/humiliation of defeat, were ready to make it, what
the forefathers made it—the hallowred exponent of the right
to participate in the affairs of the nation.
The War's Lesson.
To rehabilitate the country was an immense task. The
first and greatest problem was the transportation problem.
The transfer of the products of the farm to the consumer,
of those of the mine and field to the factory or mill, and then
to the homes of the people. It has been mentioned that in
the early part of the war the Western Pacific Railroad was
seized by the Government as a war measure, and that the
Secretary of War had been required to put the actual cost
of the road and its equipment in United States 4/4% gold
bonds, $250,000,000.00, in the hands of the directors. That,
becoming alarmed as to the safety of the road and its
equipment, they had formally notified the Secretary of their
acceptance of the bonds, thus making the Government the
absolute owner of the most recently built and best equipped
transcontinental line, with splendid terminals and branch
lines. The other transcontinental roads practically forced
the late directors of the Western Pacific to ask the United
States Supreme Court to issue a mandamus compelling
the Government to accept the return of the bonds, and
restore the road to their ownership and control. The Court
heard the arguments and pronounced the transaction legal
and the sale just and valid.
This sale carried with it the existing and unexpired
contracts and the then recently awarded contracts for the
ensuing fiscal year. Among these were the contracts for
carrying the bulk of the great interurban and transconti- 26
nental mails and for Government troops, supplies and materials of all sorts. The Government officials therefore
found themselves executing contracts for the Government
at enormously profitable rates. They learned that in the
collection and distribution of mail there was carried out the
most expensive and yet profitable part of the mail service,
and that these vast profits were swallowed up in the contracts for doing the most inexpensive part of the service;
or, that in carrying out both of these parts of the service,
as provided in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution of
the United States, there was sufficient profit to build a
battle-ship or two every year. This article authorized Congress to build and maintain postoffices and post roads; we
had been performing the hard and costly part of this at a
profit and farming out the real money making part at ruinous profits to the bond-aided and other railroads. They also
found out the exact cost of hauling freight long and short
distances, and deducted this cost from the "contract prices"
under which they were hauling it, left an astounding profit.
When these facts were reported to Congress that body
passed a very simple law, requiring the Government road
to transport all classes of freight at the same price, which
price would pay the four and one-half per cent interest on
the bonds paid for the road, the cost of service including
maintenance and 3/4% for depreciation, and to retire the
bonds in forty years. Shippers were privileged to insure
freight at its value at very reasonable, but profitable rates
to the Government. In the case of loss or damage to uninsured freight the amount of such loss was fixed by a court
of competent jurisdiction and paid. This simple and equitable law did away with costly and intricate "classifications"
of freight, which were recognized as only methods to secure
rebates or extort higher rates. It was actually found out
that it cost no more to transport a ton of gold than a ton
of pig iron, a box of oranges than a box of potatoes; and,
the simple expedient of insuring the goods at their actual
value, as is done in many marine transportation companies,
made the shipper safe for high class freight. Without
going into details, this simply and quickly forced all transportation rates down to this equitable basis. A large percentage of the roads went into "liquidation," but this process
seemed to affect the "water" in the stocks and bonds, without impairing the roads, their equipment nor their ability
to carry freight and passengers.
Of course there were enormous losses due to the
"shrinkage" in values of stocks and bonds, but no actual
property was lost. Only certain people who thought that
strips of paper representing an "indebtedness that had never
been incurred" were wealth, found out the true value of the
paper, namely, the value of the actual property which the 27
actual money economically invested in the road or enterprise had produced, plus the reasonable value of the service
this form of stored wealth rendered to the community. This
shrinkage ranged from two-thirds to five-sixths or even
more, of the so-called "face" or par value of the stocks and
bonds, as a shrewd Japanese professor remarked, "they had
saved a fraction of their face."
There had been a fictitious value added to these stocks
and long as they stood as "evidence of an indebtedness which had never been incurred," and the country
permitted charges to be made sufficiently high to maintain
this fictitious value. But this transaction no more produced actual wealth than recoining money and stamping
treble its value on its face would create new gold; in other
words, the mere transformation of the form of wealth created no new wealth.
This difference, between the actual value of the wealth
used in the construction and equipment of a railroad, and
the service it rendered the country, and the total face and
par value of its stocks and bonds, was "the water," which
went into "liquidation," and was effectually "squeezed out"
by the ownership and operation, on just and equitable principles, of a single line of transcontinental road!
This effectively put a stop to discrimination and rebates. There could be no monopoly of crude nor of manufactured products. Monopoly simply "died of inanition."
The enormous, real and permanent stimulus to the productiveness of every industry, and the equitable distribution of profits among the real producers, can hardly be estimated or appreciated- When a man raises oranges in Por-
terville, Cal., and ships them to New York or Chicago at
equitable rates, and actually receives the bulk of the profit
between the sale price of the oranges and the cost of raising and packing them, he simply grows wealthy; he cannot be stopped except by sheer laziness or worthlessness
on his own part. It is the same with all other products;
the most notable instance is the cotton crop. This crop has
been found to be so peculiarly suited to the delicate balance
of soil conditions, temperature and moisture found in the
South Atlantic and Gulf States, that no other part of the
world can compete in its production. The home mills can
now consume over two-thirds the annual crop and the surplus is contracted for by British factories at fair figures for
the coming fifteen years, or until 1929.*
When the actual profits upon the well directed energies of 100 millions of intelligent people ceased to be swallowed up in interest and dividends upon fictitious values,
and began to be equitably distributed among those engaged
*This is causing at the present time terrible poverty
and suffering in Japan and China.—Eds. 28
in the various processes of production and transfer, recuperation from the terrible results of the war was rapid.
The most distressing of the many distressing results
were and are yet in the great city of New York.
Deprived of the principal sources of income, namely,
illegal profits by trading in and cornering these "evidences
of indebtedness which had never been incurred," and without sufficient occupation for the great army of clerks, stenographers and other employees of bankers, brokers, etc.,
her condition was for some time pitiful. But the transfer
of these unfortunates to the towns growing up in the great
irrigated regions relieved this. Nevertheless, the distress
in part continues, for rents and values have continued to
shrink, as the population has fallen off nearly three-quarters
of a million, and is still decreasing.
Similar conditions prevail in other minor "financial
centers," but these, too, are in process of alleviation by the
great and new developments in agriculture, which has become so attractive and profitable a science that the most
ambitious and energetic people follow it.
Still, in the review of results, it is manifest to the philosopher and the economist, that the price of this war has not
been too great. We have lost, it is true, all control of the
commerce of the Pacific Ocean, and may never regain it,
but we have gained control of that of our own country. We
have learned that there shall be no monopoly in transportation is the prime, essential law of prosperity.
There is another class who now see this war and its cost
and lessons in a truer, better light. This class is the great
army of men and women who from childhood learned to
sing the words and music of the patriotic songs of our
country without learning the meaning. They had learned
the words and tunes in the schools of their country, but had
not learned the meaning in their homes. In a general- way
they loved these songs—but they had not learned to feel
and love the patriotism that swelled and burst forth from
the hearts that wrote them. But this war and its trials and
humiliation has burned this true meaning, this true love,
into their very souls; and now, when with bursting hearts
and tearful eyes they teach them to their children in the
home, the true meaning is learned, to be passed on to their
children's children.      


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