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The Fraser Canyon, Cascade Mountain range, British Columbia view from the Canadian Pacific Railway [unknown] Apr 13, 1892

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 216
THE    ILLUSTRATED    LONDON    NEWS
AUG. 13, 1892
THE  FRASER  CANYON,  CASCADE  MOUNTAIN  RANGE,  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
VIEW FROM  THE  CANADIAN PACIFIC  RAILWAY. AUG. 13   1892
THE    ILLUSTRATED    LONDON    NEWS
215
SCIENCE     JOTTINGS.
BY  DR. ANDREW WILSON.
Now that the holiday season is upon us, I presume my
readers will be scattered far and wide over the land—fishing
in Norway, climbing mountains in Switzerland, shooting on
the moors, and otherwise endeavouring to recuperate body
and mind for the more serious business of life. Reflections on
the best method of spending a holiday have been indited from
time immemorial of course, but, as far as I can observe, with
but scant success. For holidaying, like most other earthly
things (including digestion) is a strictly relative matter.
What suits one won't please another ; it is impossible to lay
down any but the most generalised rules for the proper observance of one's leisure time, and we all know how extreme
generalisation thins itself out, in the long run, into sheer
nothingness. Personally, I confess to a strong liking for the
society of my fellow-men. I prefer Brighton, for instance, to
some sequestered seaside nook, and I confess to finding extreme
pleasure in watching the antics of old and young at Margate
or Yarmouth—a confession, I know, which will stamp me at
once as a veritable Philistine in the eyes of those aesthetic
persons who hate crowds, and who prefer to surve}' life from
a balcony. Be it so ; only I should not dream of recommending
my prescription to other people, any more than I should
insist on advising a man who is upset by the sea to try a
yachting holiday, or on setting an ardent golfer down somewhere or other with links ten miles off.
Only, I am convinced that many of us do not get all the
good we might obtain from our rest, because we do not choose
that mode of life which best suits our ways and ideas. Many
a man thinks it a bounden duty to stow himself away in a
dreary silent resort, where there is " nothing to do" and little
to see, and where, when he has read his morning paper, the
rest of the day is spent in—well, yawning, and indulging in
the vain desire to get back to town. Surely we can get fresh
air and rest and change without laying ourselves open to ennui;
and hence my plea for a better consideration of the question
where to go for holidays. One point always strikes me as
irrelevant and foolish—namely, that people will often leave
comfortable homes and will stow themselves and their families
in houses which are devoid of all comfort and, what is worse
still, of sanitary arrangements. Then they wonder why their
holiday has not effected all the good that was expected of it,
and where this typhoid, or that attack of measles, was contracted. This is a serious business, only things are getting
better now—thanks to the increased attention paid at health-
resorts to drainage and other essential matters.
The recent cholera scare need not, I fancy, deter people
from going on the Continent—that is, the Continent most of
us know. Farther east there may be danger—indeed, there
always is—from defective sanitation, when the cholera season
is upon us. I would add, never drink water abroad when yon
can help it. Lest it be thought I am encouraging habits of
intemperance, I would say, follow my plan, and when you go
abroad drink Apollinaris or Godesberger water. You pay
for it, but then it is better to pay a small sum for prevention
than a big one for treatment of typhoid. An old Scotchman
once remarked to me that he had never experienced any ill
effects from drinking water in Paris in summer or elsewhere,
but then he added the observation that he always qualified
the water with the wine of his country, which, lie remarked,
'•You'll admit is very destructive to germs" ! All the same,
we are not all lovers of " mountain dew," and I advise my
readers to drink a pure mineral water abroad in preference to
any native product, and, above all things, to avoid the siphons
of aerated water which most of the hotels furnish. They are
deadly inventions, and, I believe, along with the carafes
f rappees, are the cause of much illness from the impurity of
the water and ice they respectively contain.
One of the most important books of the season, from a
scientific standpoint, is that just published on " The Diseases of
Occupation," by Dr. Arlidge. I have read it with much
interest and a corresponding meed of instruction. It is a
curious study this, which shows how diseases of a special kind
follow on the footsteps of the trades and occupations incidental
to civilisation. What Dr. Arlidge has to say about the
"grinders" of Sheffield with their shortened lives, and about
" dusts " at large breathed into the lungs of workers, is worthy
the study of everybody. If certain diseases follow upon certain
occupations, limited as these diseases are to-day by improved
sanitation, it is curious to note that even our amusements moy
bring specific ailments in their train. What are we to say to
"horse-rider's sprain " or to "lawn-tennis elbow," both being
ailments well known to surgeons ? Then the ballet-dancer's
big toe is liable to assert itself as a consequence of her art, and
there is also a trouble known as "dentist's leg," produced by
the cramped posture in which that gentleman has to work.
Even coal-miners are liable to a peculiar affection of the eyes,
due to the cramped position in which they often work. It is,
I repeat, a curious study, this, of the industrial diseases of our
time, and one to which we may be glad to notice that increased
attention is being paid.
A correspondent invokes my aid in exposing what must
certainly, as he puts it, be regarded as a deliberate fraud upon
consumers of condensed milks. When anyone buys a tin of
condensed milk, he naturally expects to purchase ordinary
preserved milk containing all the constituents of that fluid.
Yet it seems that commercial ingenuity has been equal to the
task of defrauding the public by substituting, for the pure
article, condensed "skim" milk, from which the fat—so
important an element in nutrition—has been removed. If
we reflect upon the extent to which condensed milk is used in
the feeding of infants, and especially the children of the poor,
the deprivation of fat to which I allude becomes, medically
speaking, a most serious matter. It is a fraud which has the
worst consequences, in that purchasers are not merely wronged
as regards the money paid for what they assume to be milk of
full nutritive value, but also as regards the health of those who
have to depend on the milk for their nourishment.
Doubtless manufacturers are compelled to label their condensed " skim " milk as such, but we all know there are ways
and means of labelling which simply defeat the object of
legislation and delude the customer, who in no case, surely,
could possibly prefer "skim" milk to that of full strength.
"Skim" milk should not be labelled "milk" at all. That is the
only remedy for the abuse of the name, and I hope to see it
applied in due course. Then there is yet another piece of
ingenuity to be noticed in connection with condensed milks.
Some tins are labelled so as to make it appear that they
contain goat's milk. Here a popular error is fostered. Swiss
condensed milk itself, is not goat's milk. It is cow's milk,
and there is no difference to be detected between average Swiss
milk (cow's) and English milk. But the chief cause of complaint is the selling of condensed "skim" milk for the full-
bodied article ; and it is desirable that the delusion about
goat's milk should be also banished from the public mind.
CHESS.
TO CORRESPONDENTS.
Communications for this department should be addressed to the Chess Editor.
P Kell.eii (Leipsic).—Your problems have arrived, and shall receive our earliest
attention.
C Burnett ( Biggleswade).—You do not say in bow many "moves your new problem
is to be solved, hut the key you give, Black's reply of Kt takes P (ch), seems to
stop any mate in less than five. The amended position of the other is under
examination.
DbF S*r (Oimberwell).—Your last three-mover can be solved by 1. K to B 3rd or
1. R to B Gth, if, indeed, there are not more.
W P H (Seaford).—The two-mover is a very neat composition, but you do- not give
the name of the author.
J F Moox.-We are obliged for your contribution, which shall be reported upon at
an early date.
G K A'XSEI.L.—Your position is neatly constructed, but we are receiving problems
by the dozen with precisely the same move and play. The idea of the Queen
mating in the fashion you employ was exhausted twenty years ago.
W P Hi>*d.—We cannot see the likeness beyond the first move. Your problem was
discarded on account of the B B at Q R sq., and B P at Q Kt 2nd—a palpable
impossibility.
Columbus.—Problem to hand, with thanks.
J Smith (Mullbrook, Jersey).—In No. 2517, if Black play 1. Kt to Q B 3rd, White
mates by P takes P.
B W TjA Mothe (New York).—Thanks for problems, which we Shall examine with
careful interest, and also review our criticism of the last.
Correct Solutions of Problem No. 2515 received from S D Hill (Indian
Orchard, Mass.); of No. 2517 from J W Shaw (Montreal); of No. 2519 from W If
Thompson (TenerifEe) and Captain J A 'Challice ; of No. 2520 from L Desanges, J C
Ireland, A W Hamilton G-ell (Exeter), Captain J A Challice (Great Yarmouth),
Dr F St, Bluet, and F C Hands.
Correct Solutions of Pboblem No. 2521 received from C E Perugini, Dr F St,
J F Moon, Bluet, R H Brooks, W Percy Rind (Seaford), Joseph Willcock
(Chester), H B Hurford, J D Tucker (Leeds), W R B (Plymouth), . J Knight,
WRRaillem, C M A B, Admiral Brandreth, Martin F, Shadforth, William Guy,
jun (Johnstone), B D K, H S Brandretb, T G (Ware), H J Lane, JCoad, G Joiccy,
A L Jones (Belfast), E Louden, G T Hughes (Waterford), Sorrento (Dawlish),
E E H, J B Baxter (Perth), Dr Waltz (Ostend), A Newman, R Waters (Canterbury), Mrs Wilson (PI> mouth), L Schlu (Vienna), W Vincent, JR Dow,T Rob.erts,
Mrs Kelly (of Kelly) W F Payne, Columbus, Alpha, J Ross (Whitley), W Wright,
and A W Hamilton Gell.
Solution of Problem No. 2519.—By J
WHITE.
1. Kt to B 6th
2. Mates.
S. Thorns,
black.
Any move
PROBLEM      NO.      2523
By Dr. P. Steingass.
BLACK.
WHITE.
White to play, and mate in three moves.
CHESS IN GERMANY.
Game played in the Dresden tournament between Messrs. Winawer and
Alapin.
(Buy Lopez.)
black (Mr. A.)
P to K 4th
Kt to Q B 3rd
P to Q R 3rd
P to Q 3rd
P takes B
P to B 3rd
B P takes P
Kt to B 3rd
B to K 2nd
B to K 3rd
WHITE (Mr. W.)
1. P to K 4th
2. Kt to K B 3rd
3. B to Kt 5th
4. B to R 4th
5. B takes Kt (ch)
6. P to Q 4th
7. P takes P
8. Kt to B 3rd
9. B to Kt 5th
10. Q to Q 2nd
11. Castles (QR)
This is difficult to understand. Castling
K U is quite safe, and answers his purpose, but to Castle, on the Q side in face
of an open file for his opponent's Q R
seems tempting fate.
11. Kt to Q 2nd
12. B to K 3rd
B takes B would have prevented the
resistless combination which Black's
Bishops make presently.
12. Castles
13. Kt to K sq Q to Kt sq
With the better game clearly in hand,
Black now commences a well-sustained
attack on his opponent's weak spot.
white (Mr. W.)
20. Kt (K sq) to
Q 3rd
21. P to Q B 4th
22. K to B 2nd
23. Kt to B sq
24. Q to Q 2nd
BLACK (Mr. A.)
Q to R 3rd
Q to Kt 3rd
Q R to Kt sq
Q to Kt 2nd
P to Q.4th
An excellent move, that opens up a
splendid attack
25. Q to Q 3rd
26. It to Q 2nd
27. Kt takes Kt
28. P takes P
Kt to Kt 3rd
Kt takes B P
P takes Kt
Q to R 3rd
Q to Kt 7th (ch) might now have beep
plaved, followed by Q to Kt 5th, attacking both R PandBP.
29. Q to B 3rd
Q takes P
14. P to Q Kt 3rd
15. P to B 3rd
16. Kt to R 4th
17. Kt to Kt 2nd
18. P to Q li 4th
19. Q to B 2nd
P to Q R 4th
Q to Kt 2nd
P to B 4th
Kt to Kt 3rd
P to B 3rd
Kt to Q 2nd
A fatal blunder! He should have
played R to Kt 5th, and, in reply to Q
takes P, Q takes P (ch), &c, we believe,
should win without much trouble.
30. Q takes Q B takes Q
31. RtoQ 7th
White has now got over his difficulties,
and luckily wins a game that he certain y
ought to have lost.
The moves in this part of the game
are played with admirable precision by
Black, whose object clearly is to advance
his centre Pawns, while White is equally
anxious to prevent it.
31
32. K R to Q sq
33. R to Q 8th
34. B takes P
35. R takes R
36. Kt to Q 3rd
37. K takes B
38. K to B 4th, and wins.
R to B 2nd
B to B sq
R (B 2nd) to Kt
2nd
R takes R
R to K B 2nd
B takes Kt
P to Kt 3rd
The meeting of the Counties Chess Association at Brighton met with a
well deserved success, and attracted a good attendance of amateurs and the
public alike. Additional interest was excited by the presence of the Rev.
G. McDonnell, Mr. Gnnsberg, and Herr Lasker, who during the week gave
exhibition matches in various forms, to the delight of the chessplaying
visitors.
The International Chess Congress at Dresden has given further proof
of the exceptional skill of Dr. Tarrasch, who for the third time in succession wins the chief prize in a great masters' tournament. The merit of
this unique performance is enhanced by the fact that in all these contests
he has lost but a single game, which we published a fortnight back, an
unprecedented record in first-class play. A meeting between the Nurem-
burg physician and Mr. Steinitz would arouse the liveliest feelings in chess
circles, and a much liner struggle than any yet fought might be reasonably anticipated. Belonging to the same school as Steinitz, and with as fine
a sense of position, Dr. Tarrasch has the advantage of years, and if anyone is
capable of bringing the world's championship back to Europe he is the man.
Special mention ought also to be made of the fine play of Herr Walbrodt,
of Berlin. Although not yet twenty years of age, he more than held his
own amongst the masters, and ultimately tied for the fourth and fifth
prizes with a score of 10. When it is remembered 10J took the second
prize, this total means more than his position on the prize list fully represents, and practically makes him as good as anybody but Dr. Tarrasch.
With ability so promising, Herr Walbrodt's chess future will be closely
watched. The English players did not show to much advantage. Mr.
Blackbnrne takes a special prize for the best score against the winners, and
there ends England's interest in the awards. Mr. Mason at one time looked
formidable, but lost ground towards the end, whilst Mr. Loman all through
was palpably below form.
THE    LADIES'   COLUMN.
BY MRS. FENWICK-MILLER.
The wedding of the heir of the Duke of Devonshire was as
"smart" a function as was anticipated. The bride's going-
away dress was very pretty ; it was in pale-blue soft material,
the bodice almost covered with folded white crepe de Chine,
and finished with revers of white moire antique. Lady Evelyn
received a great number of presents of jewellery. Her father
is the Viceroy of India, and his staff sent a bangle with heart-
shaped brilliant centre. The Marquis of Lansdowne himself
gave his daughter a pearl and a diamond necklace ; one of her
aunts sent a nscklace of the two stones combined, and the
Duke of Devonshire a splendid three-row pearl necklace.
The Duke of Westminster's present was a very uncommon
necklace of white enamel olive leaves, with setting of
brilliant points and pink topaz. Besides the jewellery now
given her, however, Lady Evelyn Cavendish will have at once
a large quantity of precious stones which have been bequeathed
direct by the late Duke of Devonshire to his grandson,
the bridegroom. It will take a long time for this over-
rich young lady to so much as know the contents of her own
jewel-cases ! I say " over-rich " because, after all, an English
lady cannot (an she would) bedeck herself with innumerable
gauds, asihough she were a Hindoo idol; and so many necklaces, brooches, bracelets, and rings as Lady Evelyn Cavendish
now possesses are useless, except to afford mere variety, which is
a doubtful pleasure. I suppose it occurs to most of us to make
favourites of some among even a small stock of personal ornaments : some are worn, constantly, others are hardly ever taken
out of their cases.
It has amused me much to see the difficulty that many
journalists seem to experience about the titles of English
ladies in the case of marriages such as this one. A great
London daily sent a reporter who knew no better than to
speak of the going-away dress of " Lady Victor Cavendish " ;
and another improved even on that by depriving her of her
courtesy title altogether, and speaking of " Mrs. Victor Cavendish " ! Of course, a marquis's daughter marrying a " Mr."
retains her own Christian name, with the title of " Lady"
before it, and her husband's surname to follow. This
should be known even to reporters, since it is not " specialised " knowledge, so to speak, like descriptions of ladies'
dress. Most men are absolutely incompetent to write
about frocks, and the poor things flounder dreadfully when
they attempt it. Not from what the doctors call congenital
incapacity—that is, being born so—for when the great male
mind applies itself to- chiffons it can master them. Some of
our very best dressmakers and the buyers and managers of
millinery and drapery establishments are men. Think of
the great Worth at Paris, or Mr. Joyce at Russell and
Allen's ! Even as far as literature goes, where is there a
writer with a finer appreciation of flounces nnd furbelows
than " The Lazy Minstrel," whose poems have just reached the
well-deserved honour of a shilling (and eighth) edition ? One
can see the pretty gown that Mr. Ashby-Sterry so accurately
describes as " The Pink of Perfection "—
It must not remind you of raspberry ice,
Nor cheek of a milkmaid or cotter;
A lobster-like redness is not at all nice,
Nor feverish glow of the blotter.
A strawberry crushed, almost smothered in cream,
Nearly matches the colour, it may be ;
The Jungfrau just flushed with the earliest beam,
The hue of the palm of a baby.
This frock, when it's made with most exquisite taste,
And fits like a glove on the shoulder,
With yoke and full pleats and a band at the waist,
Will gladden the passing beholder.
There it is, you see. in rhyme, and graceful and polished
rhyme too, and yet a perfect picture of a little frock, colour
and make too. But such skill is rare, very rare, in men. and
the stuff which is printed by some journals as descriptive of
ladies' dress is both perfectly useless and too funny. " Here was
pale-blue combined with watercress-green, and worn with a
black hat with yellow roses, next to a black and white check
with brown velvet waistcoat. Close by one saw a flowered
muslin with crushed strawberiw trimmings, and a peach-coloured
soft material relieved with brown, and worn with a big white
lace hat." This uncouth jumble of verbiage is no joke from
my imagination, but is what a great London daily paper
seriously offered to its lady readers as descriptive of the frocks
at a smart race meeting. There was half a column of this
useless stuff.
Men should comprehend that women read descriptions of
dress just as men read the City article—not for fun, but for
business purposes. No women finds it particularly amusing
to read about styles and stuffs, but it is intensely interesting because it is imperatively necessary when she is
going to have a new frock or bonnet herself. John Stuart
Mill remarked that the amount of observation and reflection that a lady had to bestow on having her own and
her children's costume all that it should be might suffice, if
otherwise applied, to produce really great results. This is
quite true ;. and sad enough it is, when you look at the matter
from the serious standpoint, that we should have to waste our
time so utterly. But from the practical, worldly point of view,
to consider costumes is by no means waste of time. Until we
wear a uniform, every woman who wants to hold her own
socially (and to do this is the main duty for the average woman)
must give thought to make her various costumes suit her
person, agree with her purse, and march with the fashion.
For these ends, descriptions of dresses and hints on styles are
eagerly read by women. But, in order to be of any use, such
descriptions must be done by "expert" hands, and must be
sufficiently detailed to be followed.
So long as there is so great a choice of fabrics, and such
variations in style, and such scope for individual (good or
bad) taste in dress, the subject must absorb a considerable
share of women's thoughts and of the space in papers and
"columns" devoted to feminine affairs. It is needed. This
must be my answer to the three kind correspondents, who have
all written to me (by a curious coincidence—what Wendell
Holmes calls a " thought-wave " ) in the same week stating
that they prefer this column in those weeks when it has but
little about dress in it. As Macaulay said when the editor of
the Edinburgh Review objected to the meretricious glitter of his
style : "I may not altogether disagree with you personally,but
the angler is not determined in his choice of a bait by his own
taste but by that of the fish." Undoubtedly women must care
for, and therefore must be given news about, the fashion of
dress. The only way to avoid any particular trouble on that
head would be to do what men have, in fact, almost done in
this age : adopt a uniform costume, scarcely differing from
year to year, and hardly marking the distinctions of wealth and
caste. But how to achieve this end ? Even the power of
mighty Elizabeth failed to secure the prolonged observance of
the sumptuary ordinance which she passed in 1574, requiring
everybody to dress according to a pattern approved by the
Queen. How much less chance is there for such laws to-day !
Besides, I don't really think there is a demand for them.
The only novelty and variety that many women get in life
comes by a new cut in bodices and a fresh colour in bonnets I

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