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The Chung Collection

The Selkirk Mountain Range, near the Glacier House and the Loop, British Columbia Prior, Melton Dec 1, 1888

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  MOUNT   SirEPHEIT,  EAST   SIDE;  RO^KT MOOTTAIN RA^GE
The railway  station called STEPHEN   is  5290 ft.
above  sea-level,   and here  the waters begin to
flow  in two directions,   the  streams .running eastward having to  Join the  Athabasca  or Saskatchewar
and finally to be discharged into Lake Winnipeg
and Hudson*s Bay;  while  those  of  the westward
slope meet    with the  Columbia River,   the "Fraser
River,   or the  Thompson river,  whose   issue   is  in
the Pacific Ocean,
THE   ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS,   Dec.   1,   1888
nursery rnyme tnat tne nttie goa or love will neither maice a
fire in the kitchen nor turn the spit. A poet, with children
clinging to his skirts and a wife ailing for lack of delicacies,
may write against money in verse, but will assuredly praise it
in prose. It means milk for the little ones, nourishing food
and generous wine, good medical advice, a bright fire, an
amusing book, a weekly copy, perchance, of the 3llust rated
London Neivs, and a score of things besides. Poverty, says an
old writer ,is the way to heaven and the mother of religion—a bold
statement truly, for it does not take into account the measure
of the poverty. The man who is out at elbows, and in debt to
his butcher, is so confronted with the cares of this world that
the difficulty of looking onwards and upwards is increased
tenfold. Poverty is a theme upon which philosophers and
divines love to dilate. They tell us that herbs and bread and
pure water with content in a cottage are better than purple,
fine linen, and discontent in a palace. Who doubts it 1 but
content is not incompatible with a well-cooked dinner and a
glass of claret. Then they insist that money will not purchase
love or health, or the qualities that ennoble human nature.
Who doubts that either ? Money is limited in its power : it is
not like Mr. Whiteley, a universal provider ; but it does oil
the wheels of life, and it does make life more beautiful and
more varied. Nor is this all, for the freedom it gives puts a
man in the position of winning the highest goal to which he
can aspire. He has leisure for thought, leisure for knowing
himself, leisure for developing his faculties, and these are
advantages denied to poverty. The man who sweeps the
streets for a living, or the woman who stands for ten or
twelve hours daily behind a counter has so hard a struggle to
live that to do more would seem to be wellnigh impossible.
Poverty, says the proverb, makes a man acquainted with
strange bedfellows, so that it is not only in the daytime that
the want of money is felt. Indeed, it is the one want of which
every rational person is conscious, and to this desire we owe
much of the progress of the world, and most of its inventions.
One cannot easily escape from platitudes in praising mone3r,
which may be truly called the parent of marriage, the source
of energy, the strength of mature manhood, the solace of old
age. To it the individual and the State are alike indebted ;
and if our national wealth is sometimes a source of danger,
it is at all times a means of defence. When the honour of the
country is at stake Englishmen even feel a respect for the
tax-gatherer.
" Put money in thy purse," was the sage advice of Iago;
no very respectable adviser I must admit, but not on that
account need we neglect his counsel. Since the world began
Adam and Eve are the only decent people who could afford to
disregard it. Abraham's grief for the loss of Sarah would
have been greatly increased, I think, if he had not had sufficient money in his pocket to buy a family grave ; and, in our
day, the most afflicted widow has been known to " weep in
comfort in her graceful weeds" on learning that her husband
has left a goodly fortune behind him.
The art of money-making has been lost in my familj' for
generations, and I can therefore write of it with entire impartiality ; but though my worthy ancestors might have done
better for themselves and for me, the want of money does not
lessen the respect for it, and the receipt of sovereigns stamped
with her Majesty's head invariably gives a stimulus to my
ioyalty. If they did but come to me in sufficient numbers. I
might in time be led to believe in the divine right of kings.
Eav. I said enough   ir praise of what Pope aptly calls
UUWllL)U\ja KJJt J-!-*-V^OOJ. O. __-_..; U-JJA.'.i. _V_A_*. K-I\s, J-"V
' Mary Chater and Ellis Walton, the music by
1.    In both respects the publication is calculated
senile people ; the text being in an appropriately
simple styie, and the music tuneful and pleasing.
" Album for the Young " is the title of forty short pieces
for the pianoforte by Ernst Pauer, who has here provided a
most acceptable supply for juvenile pianists. The two books
of which they consist offer examples of almost every form of
movement, from the serious style of prayer and hymn, to the
light strains of the modern waltz, polka, and other popular
dances. While steering clear of executive difficulties which
might deter youthful players, Professor Pauer has succeeded
in investing his collection with a variety and interest which
cannot fail to render them highly attractive. Messrs. Forsyth
Brothers, of London and Manchester, are the publishers.
" Maritana" is the title of a brilliant fantasia for the
pianoforte, by A. De Lorme, who has taken prominent subjects
from Vincent Wallace's popular opera, and treated them with
elaborate amplifications and florid ornamentation that give
abundant scope for the display of the pianist's executive skill
with highly effective results. Some indications of the proper
fingering of many of the passages will facilitate their rendering, the practice of which will be of advantage to the student.
The piece is published by Messrs. Duff and Stewart, who also
issue a brilliant pianoforte duet, by E. L. Hime. entitled
" Phospho," a vigorous and spirited piece, adapted from the
original full score. Another effective duet, from the same
publishers, is Kowalski's characteristic " Marche Hongroise,"
adapted for four hands by A. De Lorme. Messrs. Duff and
Stewart likewise issue twelve duets for violin and piano by
Charles Le Thiere. Each piece has a distinctive title appropriate to its character, including dance forms in the old and
modern fashions and movements in other styles. They are
well written for the instruments employed, each of which has
a fair share of prominence ; and, being comparatively easy of
execution, they should find favour with many amateurs.
An " Arabian Serenade " is a very characteristic song, both
the words and music of which are by Michael Watson, who
has impressed a distinctive tone on the vocal melody and the
pianoforte accompaniment associated therewith. Mr. E. Ash-
down, of Hanover-square, is the publisher, as also of " Waiting
for Thee " and " Little Lady Bountiful," the music of both of
which is by the composer of the piece previously named.
" Minuetto in D major," by Theresa Beney (Weekes and
Co.), is a very graceful and characteristic pianoforte piece, in
which an antiquated dance form is excellently maintained
while preserving a graceful flow of melody that removes all
impression of stereotyped formalism. The minuet itself is
well constrasted by an alternativo (or trio) in the subdominant
key.
TEA DUTIES IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
According to a return of the customs duties on tea in the
various European countries issued by the Board of Trade,
Switzerland levied the lowest (with the possible exception of
Turkey), and Russia and Portugal the highest duties. The
following are some of the rates per English pound avoirdupois :— Switzerland, P75d. ; Holland, 2-26d. ; Roumania,
2'Gld. ; Denmark, 2'98d. ; Sweden, Germany, Belgium, and
Spain (conventional tariff) are all under 6d. per pound ; the
United Kingdom charges 6d. ; Norway, France, Italy, and
Austria-Hungary, between 8d. and lOd. ; Portugal and Russia,
about Is. lOd. ; and Greece, Is. Id. per pound. The duty in
Turkey is 8 per cent ad valorem, which would place that
country among the lowest on the list. In the nineteen countries
included in the return, England stands just midway.
oysters forms a topic which, of course, possesses a stron
economic interest. The salmon-fry, in particular, requirt
great care in order that they may be duly nurtured through
the stages of their infant life. Like the human baby itself,
the young salmon has to be tended with scrupulous care, if it
is to attain to the days of its youth, and to a healthy and
satisfactory adult condition. The fry have been fed upon a
variety of foods, the mere mention of which is apt to excite
our wonder and admiration at the diverse tastes of the
infantile fish-gourmets. Curdled milk, coagulated blood,
macerated sheep's brains, hashed meat and liver, and grated
yolk of egg, have one and all been offered to the young
fishes as suitable and appetising dietary. But the feeding-processes have not been attended with success after
all, probably because artificial foods do not adequately
represent or replace the natural pabulum of the fry.
At Gremaz, in Eastern France, is practised the Lugrin
method of feeding the young fishes—a plan which appears
to be attended with complete success. The Gremaz
tanks, which are 150 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 5 ft. deep, are
lined with cement, and are separated by fine gauze which
allows the water to pass through, but prevents the escape of
the fishes. M. Lugrin on the bottom of the tanks spreads
materials which are calculated to attract the water-fleas
and fly - larvas on which the young fry feed. Among
these materials the prolific water-fleas breed and multiply
during a period of a few weeks' duration when the water
is left undisturbed. Myriads of the fleas and other minute
fresh-wrater organisms are thus produced, and then—enter the
fry ! A natural repast is provided for them, and when we
learn that 20,000 young fry and 3000 fishes a year old
will consume in a month from 600 to 8001b. of food we may
find reason to admire M. Lugrin's ingenious method of making
Nature their real nurse. Each of the Gremaz tanks besides
produces from 650 to 900 lb. of ererettes, or fresh - water
shrimps, so that the industry is a highly profitable one ; and
the flesh of the trout fed therein on their natural food is
certified to be of high flavour and firmness. In fishes, as in
humanity, a natural mode of life conquers and surpasses all
artificial ways of living.
# * % . =fc
Within the body of a haddock, some seventeen inches
long, I note that fourteen young whiting, and a small crab
were found. The total weight of the food was six and a half
ounces. Happy the fishes which know not the pangs and
pains of dyspeptic troubles which annoy and perplex higher life !
We are justly proud of the spread of education amongst
ourselves, but our self-adulation may received a shock after a
perusal of a foreign estimate of the proportion of illiterate
persons in various European countries. In Russia. Roumania,
and Servia I observe the statistics give 80 per cent of the
population as unable to read or write. Spain shows 63 per
cent, and Italy 48 per cent of illiterates ; France has about
15 per cent, and Belgium also about 15 per cent of such persons.
Hungary is declared to have 43 per cent; Austria, 39 ; Holland,
10 ; and the whites of the United States 8 per cent. As regards
England, 13 percent is given as the proportion of our illiterates,
while Scotland has 7 per cent, and Ireland 21. But the Swiss
overtop us in this matter of education, inasmuch as they show
2-5 per cent as their highest illiterate proportion. Throughout
Germany the rate is only 1 per cent: while in Sweden, Denmark, Bavaria, Baden, and Wiirtemberg, says the account from
which I quote, <: there is practically no one who cannot read
and write." Evidently the schoolmaster is "not at home," with
a vengeance, not only among ourselves, but still more so among
the Slav and Latin races. Andrew Wilson

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