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Sketches in British Columbia : upper entrance to the defile at the head of Bute Inlet M., J. Sep 5, 1868

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Sept. 5, 1868
SKETCHES     IN     BBNTTSH     COLUMBIA:     UPPER     ENTRANCE     TO     THE     DEFILE     AT     THE     HEAD     OF     BUTE     INLET.—bkb  prwrthng paws. Sept. 5, 1868
Doubtless there is something in electioneering that begets appetite
out of what it feeds on, for the spirit and universality of canvassing
have in no way become circumscribed. Indeed, there have been incidents which are not only noticeable, but marked, and, on the
whole, it may be said, fcrvet opus. The first notice which comes
to hand refers to an interesting matter; for at Cockermouth, where
Lord Mayo has been meeting his new constituents, that noble Lord
made a valedictory oration, in the course of which he informed the
electors that he was really and in fact to be appointed Governor-
General of India. The natural incredulity on the point which prevailed up to that moment has, therefore, been set at naught, and
India will have a good-natured if not a brilliant and suggestive ruler;
and certainly a man who has never shrunk from hard work.
During last Session it was currently said that Lord Mayo's health
had almost broken down under the influence of the hot weather, and
that was certainly not encouraging to one who is about to undertake the government of an immense empire and to reside at
Calcutta. The borough of Cockermouth has been reduced by one
seat, and Major Greene Thompson, who was elected during last
Session, on the death of Mr. Steele, as a moderate Liberal, declines
to contest the coming election; so that the struggle will be between
the Hon. Henry Bourke, Lord Mayo's brother, who comes forward
as a Conservative, and Mr. Isaac Fletcher, who is the Liberal candidate. So many of the electors of East Devon as may be supposed to have been represented at a recent meeting at Torquay
are decidedly opposed to the candidature of Sir Lawrence Palk. an
old member, and Lord Courtenay, a new aspirant for county representation ; for there was a tremendous row, and it was with difficulty, and scarcely at all, that the candidates could get a hearing.
At the last general election smart, witty, but occasionally too sententious Mr. E. A. Leatham failed to get re-elected for Hudders-
field, for which he had sat in the previous Parliament; but on the
death of Mr. Crossland this year he regained the seat. Of course
he seeks re-election now; but he is again to be opposed by Mr. C.
Brooke, a Conservative proper, which at the former contest Mr.
Crossland was not, inasmuch as he professed Liberalism when
chosen, but voted with Mr. Disraeli when in the House. It
would seem that the opposition to Mr. Clay and Mr.
Norwood at Hull, by Messrs. Atkinson and Baxter, is
serious, for a proposition made by the former that canvassing
should be suspended until November was unhesitatingly rejected,
and the town is still kept in the bustle of electioneering. Amongst
the boroughs which suffered amputation by the Reform Act was
Ludlow. It was represented by two Conservatives, Colonel Clive and
Mr. Severne; and now the latter leaves the one seat to the former,
who is threatened with Liberal opposition; but no overt act in that
direction has yet been done. Looking to the great pains both in a
written and a personal address with which Mr. Thompson Hankey
has favoured the electors of Peterborough, one might have detected
a lurking fear of opposition in his mind; and it seems that there was
such a thing looming, for Mr. "Wells hasdeclaredhimself as a claimant
for Mr. Hankey's seat. We say Mr. Hankey's, because there is an unqualified assertion that Mr. Whalley's seat is perfectly safe. Of
course, when a constituency has such a member, of whom it can be
distinctly said that "none but himself can be his parallel," it is
not likely that they would part with him. Mr. Wnalley has not
yet been amongst the electors, on account of illness; but his
interests, they say, do not suffer in consequence.
The contest for Cambridgeshire is being carried on with great
spirit. The address of Lord Royston is characteristic, and it has
touches of Liberalism in it—such as claiming credit for having
supported Mr. Gladstone's Church Rates Abolition Bill—which-
mark the subordinate member of the Ministry whom, it is
said, Mr. Disraeli specially instructed his whippers-in to
read a lecture for insubordination. One day there was
quite a dramatic scene in the town of Cambridge. It being
market-day, Lord George Manners and Lord Royston suddenly appeared and delivered electioneering speeches, seeming
for a while to have it all their own way. But by a curious coincidence Mr. Brand and Mr. Young, the Liberal candidates for the
county, happened to be there, too; and, having formed part of the
audience of their rivals for a while, took up their parable, made
rattling speeches for their own candidature, and in the event spoiled
the other candidates' market; for they got a decided resolution
passed in their favour, whilst the others were nowhere. So far as
demeanour and habitudes of speech give any indication of his
idiosyncrasy, Lord John Manners is the most self-satisfied
of men. There have been rumours of his obstructiveness
and angularity in the Cabinet; while in party debate in the House
he is always overbearing, not to say insolent. An address which
he has just issued to the electors of North Leicestershire, which he
has represented since 1857, is an epitome of the man—daring in its
tone and expression, haughty, confident, but politically shortsighted, and, on the whole, lamentably weak, even to the verge of
being inane. To be sure, he may think that as the close of his
official career is drawing near he may compensate himself for all
the restraint he has had to suffer tinder Mr. Disraeli's educating
process, by letting out his own special sentiments couched in his own
special language. The gentleman who now sits for Whitehaven, Mr.
Cavendish Bentinck, is in his way an original; and, as he is sometimes
amusing in the House, and really does nobody else any harm by exhibiting himself invariably from a ludicrous point of view, one may
indulge oneself in a hope that the appeal which he has just made,
nominally to the electors of this borough, but actually to its patron
and his own relative, Lord Lonsdale, will be successful. Notwithstanding that an intimation (though he has not yet issued a formal
address) has been given by Lord Stanley that he means to seek reelection at King's Lynn, the Edinburgh folk who conceived the
idea of setting him up for their "romantic toun " have gone
forward so far as to get up a requisition which, for some
reason or other, they hope to be able to present to Lord
Stanley personally, and in Edinburgh itself. Talking of Ministers,
it may be added that the opposition threatened to Sir John
PaMngton in his little political estate in fee, as he has
no doubt thought it, at Droitwich, is assuming more palpable
shape, and it is now said that Mr. Corbet will do his best to open
this close borough.
Wareham is not a splendid specimen of a borough, for before
the last Reform Act it numbered but 273 electors. Nevertheless,
its representation has been time out of mind the subject of contention between the two local families of Drax (Conservative) and
Calcraft (Liberal). In 1832, and again in 1837, a Drax unsuccessfully contested for the seat—those being times when Toryism was
in its apogee; but in 1841, when Conservatism, under Peel, was in
the ascendant, one of that family was elected, and sat till 1857, when
he was rejected for a Calcraft. In 1859, when the Earl of Derby
dissolved Parliament, the same Drax recovered the seat, but at the
election of 1865 he was beaten by the present member, Mr. Calcraft.
Now the contest is renewed with more than pristine vigour, and
Drax and Calcraft personally, or by their champions, are daily
rampant about the town. It seems that Mr. Disraeli has given a
mot d'ordre that in all cases of unicorn or three-membered counties,
where the minority clause applies, the Conservatives are not to
start a third member. In Buclanghamshire, his own county, this
course is to be pursued; the like is the case in Oxfordshire,
Cambridgeshire, and Berkshire. This is a somewhat adroit
mode of averting, if possible, the attacks which are
being made, and will be made, on the principle; but,
though it may be successful as regards the counties,
it is not likely to conciliate Mr. Bright and others who are
troubled by the system in great towns. Indeed, the member for
Birmingham, who, simultaneously with Mr. Dixon and Mr. Muntz,
has just issued his address to the electors of that town, is vehement
in his denunciation of the minority voting, which he seems almost
to conceive to have been projected against him personally. Besides,
he takes every possible opportunity of anathematising it; and
several Liberal candidates have made the repeal of the clause a part
of their Parliamentary programmes. It would seem that the mental
and moral wryness which induced Mr. Loftus Pemberton to publish
an address falsely purporting to come from Sir John Croft, one of
the Liberal candidates for East Kent, still influences him, when
he declines to treat the matter as anything but an electioneering
squib, justifiable under the circumstances, and refuses to make any
retractation or amende in the matter. The cutting away of a seat
from Bridgnorth, brings Mr. Whitmore and Sir John Acton more
immediately into rivalry than was the case at the last election, when
Mr. Pritchard gained one seat unequivocally, and Sir John beat
Mr. Whitmore for the other by one vote. As is probably remembered, an election committee unseated Sir John, and gave the seat
to Mr. Whitmore, which he enjoyed, and with it afterwards a Lordship of the Treasury in the present Government, which with all his
claims to it he could not have obtained if he had been out of Parliament. The contest, it is said, will be close, both gentlemen
having great local influence. It is probable, however, that the
Pritchard interest, which is not now directly involved in the struggle,
may be given to Sir John Acton as the Liberal candidate. Devices
for securing votes are often recondite, but one which has been
adopted by Mr. Coope or his committee is original. The usual
election-card asking for vote and interest for Mr. Coope in the
Tower Hamlets has been issued, and inclosed in the envelope with
it is another card, which states the locality of all Messrs. Ind,
Coope, and Co.'s beer depots on one side, and on the other gives a
list of prices of their malt liquors from XXX-KK down to the
"poor creature small-beer." Though professing personal good
feeling, yet Mr. J. G. Hubbard (Conservative) and Sir Harry
Verney (Liberal), who have been colleagues for some years
for Buckingham town, are resolved to fight to the utterance
for the one seat which cruel fate has left to the
borough. There will also be a struggle between Major Anson
(Liberal) and Colonel Dyott (Conservative), who have hitherto
represented Lichfield, for the only seat that now remains tinder the
operation of the Reform Act. The borough of Midhurst is a corpus
vile over which, in an electoral sense, two great Peers and local
landholders are fighting. One of them favours Mr. Mitford, the
present Conservative member; and the other, without having any
personal objection to that gentleman, would like to oust him in
order to flout his rival proprietor. This has served to give a favourable opportunity for a Liberal to strike in and try to open the
borough, which has been closed for a period beyond the memory of
man, and so Mr. David Adolphus Lange has taken the field, and
is personally prosecuting his canvass.
After apparently long deliberation, Mr. Barrow, who is eighty-
four years of age, and has sat for South Notts since 1851, has made
up his mind to retire from Parliament; and a requisition has been
sent to a gentleman who bears the suggestive names of John
Chaworth Musters, and is master of Annesley Hall, asking him to
stand in the Conservative interest. Hitherto, seemingly unalarmed
by fitful rumours of rather queerish candidates for Finsbury, the
present members have not until just now issued any formal address.
Documents of that nature have been promulgated, and Mr.
Alderman Lusk asks to be re-elected, in order that he may continue
to keep what may be called his Parliamentary matter-of-factory
going in the next convention of the representatives of the people; and
Mr. M. Cullagh Torrens puts forward his fair claims to be again one of
the members for this metropolitan borough. It is a far step from
Finsbury to Bury in Lancashire; but it may next be set down that
the efforts of the Conservatives of that borough to get a candidate
to oppose the sitting member, Mr. R. N. Phillips, have resulted in
the appearance of Viscount Chelsea, son of Earl Cadogan.
Although Devizes has now but one seat to bestow, surely it will not
desert Mr. Darby Griffith, particularly after the address which he
has just issued, in which he shows how watchful he has been over
the Foreign Secretary at all times, and how he has done all he
could for the oppressed nationalities of Hungary, Poland, and
Roumania; and in which, besides, he proves, with specific
logicality, that the Irish Church is not in the least
oppressive to the Roman Catholic population of Ireland.
Somehow the other sitting member, Sir Thomas Bateson, does
not see the impropriety of opposing such a man as Mr. Darby
Griffith, and he persists on entering into a contest with him for the
single seat. The candidature of the Hon. G. P. Broderick for
Woodstock is remarkable, inasmuch as he, the son of a Tory Peer
and brother of a gentleman who has been before, and is now,
a Conservative candidate for one of the divisions of Surrey, is about
to attempt to open the close borough of Woodstock in the face of
the local influence of the Duke of Marlborough, always fully exercised ; and is a candidate on almost extreme Liberal principles. It
has long been known that Mr. Moncrieff, ex-Lord Advocate of half-a-
dozen Liberal Ministries, had had such a warning that he would
not essay the constituency of the city of Edinburgh again, and
he is now actively engaged in wooing the confidence of the
new electors of the Universities of Glasgow and Aberdeen. It
was thought that, when Mr. Holland (Liberal) signified that he
should not contend for the only seat which Evesham now possesses,
Colonel Bourne, the other and Conservative member, would have a
walk over; but this, it seems, is not to be the case, for Mr. A.
Halcombe has come forward in the Liberal interest to compete for
the representation. Another pretendant (to use a Frenchified
word) to the favour of the electors of Hereford has appeared in
Major Arbuthnott, who joins Mr. Baggallay in contending on the
Conservative side; but there is a well-grounded confidence that this
junction is likely to defeat its object, and that in the event the
Liberals, Mr. Clive and Mr. Wyllie, will be returned. What is
there in particular about Barnstaple that it should have so many
aspirants to its representation ? A fifth has just been added to the
list; for Mr. David Morgan Thomas, a barrister, and who, par
parenthese, it may be said, is chairman of the committee organised
to get up a testimonial to Mr. Beales, and thence may be presumed
to be an extreme Liberal, has come forward. One of the present
members for Southampton, Mr. Russell Gurney, has just issued his
address, asking for re-election, which, it is believed, is merely a
necessary form; for, owing to the position he has taken in the
House and to his personal merits, whichare universally acknowledged,
his return, though a Conservative, a Liberal onealbeit, it is said, would
be quite a matter of certainty, even if he did not for certain reasons
have an indirect local influence in the town. The struggle for the
second seat will therefore probably be between the two Liberal
candidates, Mr. Moffatt, one of the present members, and Captain
Maxse, R.N., who is by marriage a connection of the family of
Berkeley. Something, however, has been said about the candidature, as a Conservative, of Mr. F. Perkins, a commercial man in
the town, who has until now been remarkable for his advocacy of
Liberal principles.
Naturally, Mr. Dillwyn, in asking the suffrage of the electors of
Swansea, a place which he has represented since 1855, points to the
prominent part which he has taken in the question of the abolition
of the Irish Church, and probably he did not need so elaborate an
address as that which he has published to make the constituency
aware of his claim to re-election. The eldest son of Mr. Gladstone,
who in the present Parliament sat for Chester, is, as is known,
seeking election for Whitby; and, that being so, a rev. gentleman
has thought it necessary to get up and deliver what he calls a
lecture against Mr. W. H. Gladstone's pretensions. It need only be
hinted that the objections are strong, and based on the probability
of hereditary hostility in that gentleman to all that the Rev. Mr.
Keene holds particularly dear. Nothing, as yet, has seemed to indicate
that the success of Mr. Cardwell and Mr. Vernon Harcourt for Oxford
city was perilled; but those gentlemen do not seem to think it desirable
to slacken in their canvass, and so, on Monday, they both met
a large body of the electors and made appropriate speeches. Of
course Mr. Cardwell's return for Oxford and his seat in the next
Liberal Cabinet are secure; but Mr. Vernon Harcourt is working
at once for a place in Parliament, contingent on his obtaining which
will necessarily depend his attainment of the Solicitor-Generalship,
which it is commonly supposed that Mr. Gladstone would give him,
provided such arrangements could be made as that Mr. Coleridge
should be Attorney-General. The peculiar position of Wednesbury,
in regard to a plethora of candidates, has apparently been met by
the electors; for they have set up amongst themselves a ballot,
in order to decide which of the Liberal candidates shall be
their choice. The lot fell on Mr. Brogden; but Mr. Kerr and Dr.
Kenealy, the other candidates, decline to be bound by the result,
and are going on with their canvass. Until very lately it was
thought that Mr. Bolcklow, the "King" of Dewsbury, would not
be opposed in that new-fledged borough ; but now there is a talk of
bringing forward a Conservative candidate against him.   During
last Session Mr. Wyld, one of the members for Bodmin, was remarked as having shown proclivities towards the present Ministry,
though a nominal Liberal of old standing. There is but one seat
now for this borough, and that the other present representative, Mr.
Leveson Gower, has already asked. Nevertheless, Mr. Wyld has
come forward, and with great elaboration endeavours to explain
away his vote against the Irish Church resolutions, and asks reelection, on the whole, on the ground of long Parliamentary service
to Bodmin. There is a rumour, and no more, that an effort will be
made by the Liberal party (for there is such a thing) in the University of Oxford to rehabilitate Mr. Gladstone as the representative
of that body.
At a late meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, a paper was
read on " The Geography and Mountain Passes of British Columbia,
with reference to an Overland Route," by Mr. A. Waddington, who
has devoted many years in exploring, personally or by his agents,
the different valleys and passes to ascertain which is the most practicable for a waggon-road and railroad from the Pacific across the
Rocky Mountains. In explaining the nature of the country, the
author said that the two mountain ranges—the Cascade or Coast
Range, having an average width of 110 miles, and the Rocky Mountains, a width of 150 miles—nearly meet on the southern frontier of
the colony; but diverge farther north, and leave a fertile central
plain 120 miles wide. In the southern part of the country all
attempts to discover practicable passes had been in vain, and no
throughroute was possible by way of the mouth of the Frazer river.
He had examined the various long inlets or fiords to the northward, and found Bute Inlet to be by far the most suitable as
the Pacific terminus of the future overland route. He had discovered a river flowing into the head of the inlet, and had planned
a dray-road through the narrow valley thus formed through the
whole width of the coast range. The road that he had projected
ran north-eastwardly across the plain, and struck the Upper Frazer,
opposite the mouth of the Quesnelle River. The Frazer is here a
navigable stream, and affords a route to the Yellow-head Pass of
the Rocky Mountains, which leads to the rich level country on the
eastern side of the range, extending towards the Red River Settlement. The Yellow-head Pass, according to Dr. Rae, is 3760 ft.
above the sea level, the central plain is 2500 ft. in its southern part,
and the Bute Inlet trail runs across it between 51 deg. and 53 deg.
N. lat. The pasture is excellent, and the cereals (including wheat)
can be grown. Mr. Waddington stated that the Canadian Government had already begun to construct the eastern end of the overland waggon-road between Lake Superior and Red River; but that
no arrangement had yet been entered into with regard to the other
sections, and he urged the importance of the undertaking on
political and commercial grounds.
We present our readers with three views on the Bute Inlet route.
They were taken on the spot by Mr. Fred. Whymper, who accompanied Mr. Waddington's last expedition; and they will give some
idea of the grand scenery which accompanies the Bute Inlet valley
for more than eighty miles through the cascade or coast range of
British Columbia. It must be borne in mind that they were
sketched in the month of March.
The first view represents the upper end of a deep gorge or
defile, about thirty miles from the head of the inlet, called the
Canyon. At this point the mountains, 2000 ft. to 3000 ft. high,
close in abruptly, leaving nothing but a deep, narrow fissure
beneath their almost perpendicular walls of granite, at the bottom
of which the river Harrison works its way with impetuosity.
This defile, the only one on the road, is a mile and a quarter in
length, and presented almost insuperable difficulties, but which have
since been overcome. Mr. Waddington's road may be seen
emerging from the defile on the right-hand side, as it opens towards
the spectator. A small cataract opposite, which falls from a height
of 2000 ft., is still buried under a narrow covering of ice and snow.
The second view is taken at the foot of a great glacier named
"Tiedemann's Glacier," of which only a small portion is represented, the glacier being here about a mile wide. This magnificent
mer de place, which averages from one to two miles in width
by more than eight in length, occupies the greater part of
a transverse valley some six miles above the defile. Its upper
end is surrounded by a lofty range of towering peaks, separated from each other by vast chasms or ravines, forming so
many feeders to the main glacier; and from the mountain tops
immense detached blocks have rolled down upon the ice, and are
being gradually carried or pushed along with it. The prominence
which is seen on the top of the glacier in the Engraving represents
one of these large heaps of travelling rock enveloped in snow, but
which later in the season would be entirely uncovered. The lower
end of the glacier is hemmed in on each side for several miles by a
double and triple row (if not more) of moraines, disposed in ridges
from 60ft. to 100ft. high; and some of the blocks composing
these are of immense size, especially in the outermost ridges,
which are also the highest and biggest, and evidently the
most ancient. These latter extend down the two sides of the
valley, to its junction with the main valley, nearly two
miles below the present glacier, thus showing how far and how
often it has advanced in former times, and then again
retreated: the number and order of the ridges indicating
the number and succession of times. At present this vast
body of ice seems to be receding, and it has left a stony
barren interval of 200 or 300 yards between its present base and
the further end of a ridge of somewhat semi-oval form, which it
hastabandoned, and which is of smaller dimensions than those of
its predecessors. The thickness of ice as seen at the foot of the
glacier may be about 250 ft.; and, though the bedrock on which
it rests offers a very gentle gradient, it is easy to see that the
whole mass is %in 'motion, for not a second passes without something falling, from the size of a grain of sand to that of a piece of
The third is a view of the valley below the defile. It is taken
from the mountain side a little below where the mountains close in,
and the spectator is looking down the valley, at the bottom of
which the Harrison river has resumed its natural course. The
road, which is not seen, winds its way through the woods at his feet.
The mountains at a distance are probably over 8000 ft. high, and
present an almost unbroken sheet of perpetual ice and snow.
The Board of Trade has ordered a binocular glass to be prepared
for presentation to Captain Eli Curtis, master of the Sunderland, of
Jersey, in reward for the kindness and humanity displayed by him
towards the master and crew of the barque Arbutus, of St. John, New
Brunswick. At the time the master and crew of the Arbutus
(thirteen in number) were picked up they had been three days in
open boats, without water and with only a few biscuits. They
were all in a very exhausted state, and one of them was supposed
to be dead. This man was, however, by great care and attention
eventually restored, and the whole of the party were treated with
great kindness till they were landed at Quebec on June 7 last.
Some correspondence has been published between Mr. Forbes
Campbell and Lord Stanley with reference to the crew of the
Tornado. In a letter dated May 29, Mr. Forbes Campbell says that
more than a year has elapsed since he asked the British Government
to enforce the claims of the crew upon the Government of Spain for
injuries and losses sustained in consequence of illegal detention and
imprisonment, and that, although in the interval he has frequently
been requested to urge these claims anew, he has abstained from
doing so owing to his Lordship's declaration in Parliament that her
Majesty's Government would watch the case and insist on justice
being done. The Spanish Government has liberated all the prisoners,
but has not restored any of their personal effects (worth £1093) of
which they were robbed; he hopes, therefore, that Lord Stanley
will tolerate no further delay. Mr. Hammond replies, on Aug. 24,
that Lord Stanley, after consulting the law officers of the crown,
considers that the final issue of the proceedings in the Tornado case
must be awaited before any decision is arrived at. Mr. Campbell,
answering this the same day, expresses his regret at the determination Lord Stanley has formed, and says that there "was a time
when such a flagrant outrage on the British flag and British seamen
would not have remained so long unavenged."


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