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The Chung Collection

Church sketches [unknown] Aug 21, 1869

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 August 21, 1S69
the two middle pages of this number, we have
the pleasure of setting it before our readers.
In going about the city to explore its objects
of interest, the visitor may as well begin with
the beautiful promenade of Northernhay, close
to the High-street and to the London and
South-Western Railway station. This is a high
terrace, planted with shady elms, overlooking a
portion of the valley towards the north-west
from an elevation formerly occupied by the
Castle of Rougemont, which guarded the old
city waUs. The glacis of the ancient fortress,
with the site of the moat or fosse beneath it,
having been converted into a public pleasure-
ground, this lofty boulevard, with gardens adjacent, adorned with statues of public men, is
a delightful retreat. A part of the city wall is
accessible from the "Castle Yard," the inner
area of the old castle, where the Devon County
Sessions House has been erected, containing the
Assize Courts. The wall here commands an extensive view over the suburbs of St. David's, St.
Sidwell's, Heavitree, and Mount Radford, on the
northern and eastern sides of the city. The
ruined gate-way, or gate-house, of Rougemont
Castle, by which the "Castle Yard" is entered,
is a picturesque fragment overgrown with ivy,
represented by one of our Artist's minor sketches.
This castle was built by William the Conqueror,
after his eighteen-days' siege of Exeter, where
the mother of Harold had taken refuge when
her son was killed at Hastings. It is believed,
however, that there was a more ancient fortress
on the site, erected by King Athelstan, about
the year 927, when Athelstan drove out the
Cornish Britons, and protected the Saxon city
with ramparts around it. The Norman name
of "Rougemont" was obviously derived from
the red colour of the soil, which has been alluded
to. In September, 1483, Exeter was visited by the
usurper Richard III., of whom an anecdote is
told by the chroniclers, which Shakspeare has
made use of in this well-known passage of the
When last I was at Exeter
The Mayor in courtesy shewed me the castle,
And called it Rougemont—at which name I started,
Because a bard of Ireland told me once
I should not live long after I saw Richmond.
There is not much in this; but Exeter has
witnessed some historical incidents worthy of
record. It was the seat of a Roman colony;
it was rescued by King Alfred from the Danes;
it was wrested from the Saxons by the Normans;
it fought against Stephen for Matilda; it withstood the rebellion of Perkin Warbesk, and the
Popish rebellion in the time of Edward VI. ; it
.was captured and recaptured by the armies of
the Commonwealth and of Charles I., whose
Queen, Henrietta Maria, dwelt here some time,
and here gave birth to a child; moreover, it was
here that William, Prince of Orange, after his
landing at Brixham, in Torbay, made the triumphal entry described by Lord Macaulay, and was
joined by many influential persons.   The motto
and General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, both
painted by Sir Peter Lely, and presented to the
city by Charles II.; and with a portrait of Lord
Chief Justice Pratt, father of the first Earl
Camden, whose estates in the parish of St.
Pancras have given his name to a populous
suburb of London. The armorial escutcheons of
many defunct mayors, judges, members of Parliament, benefactors of the city, and incorporated
trades, are emblazoned on the walls of this hall,
which is used for meetings of the town council,
for the city sessions and assizes, and for public
city meetings. There is a smaller council-room
up stairs, and the city police court.
The modern institutions of Exeter—including
the new Albert Museum, at the Queen-street end
of Northernhay; the Hospital, in Southernhay;
the Higher Market, in Queen-street, and the
Lower Market, in Fore-street, which are commodious and handsomely built; with its important
works of street improvement, such as the iron
viaduct of St. David' s-hill and the embankments
of the New North-road and Magdalen-road—
have proved the enterprising public spirit of the
citizens. Its riverside quays, the large basin for
shipping, and the ship canal, 30 ft. wide by
15 ft. deep, which is five miles in length, and was
constructed in the seventeenth century, have in
their time admitted much more traffic than is
now to be seen there. There are many quaint-
looking old houses, with gabled roofs to the street,
and with jutting wooden fronts—there are heavy
stone arches; grotesque figures, sculptured or
painted ; winding alleys and secluded courts, with
the long back gardens in the rear of the tradesmen's houses and shops; which show the old-
fashioned character of the city, to be seen in High-
street and Fore-street, in North-street and South-
street, as well as in its obscurer nooks and corners.
Father Peter, whose effigy, with the keys in
his hand, keeps watch and ward at the corner
of North-street, is not less remarkable than
"Matthew the Miller," with his two sons (the
chief of this trio is really King Henry VIII.),
who stands before the clock of St. Mary Steps
and nods his head whenever it strikes the hour.
The lower part of the city is intersected by the
artificial streams, or mill-leats, brought through
cuttings across the Bonhay and the Shilhay to
supply water-power to the old cloth-fullers and
others in bygone times. "Exe Island" and
"Water-lane" are scarcely likely to attract the
notice of visitors, nor will they be apt to stray
down through West-gate, towards St. Edmund's
Church; but if they should lose their way in
that quarter, they will probably come upon the
subject of a leaf of our Artist's Sketchbook, with
which this commentary must here be ended.
We present a view of the substantial and rather
stately building lately raised for the use of the
Church-of-Scotland   congregation  in  the   most
westerly colony of British America.   Its materials
roof of the nave. The general shape of the cathedral is cruciform;
but the arms or transepts are very short, being formed out of the
towers. These are 145 ft. high, and adorned with blank arcades and
other Norman details. The length of the whole building is 408 ft.,
including the Lady Chapel, at the head of the chancel. The date
of its erection is the twelfth century, having been begun, in 1112,
by Bishop Warelwast, but it was finished by Bishop Bothe, about
1470. The interior of the nave, 180 ft. long, with its fine clustered
columns of Purbeck marble, the superb west windows, the bold
vaulted roof, the curiously ornamented minstrel's gallery, and the
triple-arched, screen, bearing the organ, and painted with scripture
stories, which separates the nave from the choir, has an imposing
effect; the choir, with its great east window, contains the carved
oaken stalls and pulpit, but, above all, the Bishop's throne, a
pyramidical structure of open tracery and pointed arches in carved
oak, 52 ft. high, which is greatly admired. It was taken to pieces
and hidden, to escape the destroying axes of the Puritans, when the
city surrendered to Fairfax in 1646. Some of the chapels and
chantries, and the monuments of prelates and peers interred in this
cathedral are worthy of inspection. The Bishop's palace, which
stands near the cathedral, has not been inhabited since the accession
of Bishop Phillpotts in 1830; he has constantly resided at his
marine villa Dear Torquay. The deanery, in Palace-street, is
remarkable as the lodging of William, Prince of Orange, for some
days, in November, 1688, upon the occasion before mentioned.
The Guildhall, which is situated in the High-street, nearly
opposite the Cathedral-yard, is the subject of another of our
Illustrations. Its projecting front, supported by semicircular
arches which rest upon massive stone columns, forming a capacious
portico over the street pavement, strikes the visitor's eye in his first
walk through the city. The principal room, a paved hall 63 ft. long
by 25 ft. broad, is adorned with portraits of Queen Henrietta Maria
of Exeter is " Semper Fidelis; "
but its political inclinations have
always been to combine liberality
With loyalty.
The venerable Cathedral, which
is, of course, one of the most
conspicuous features in any view
of the city, stands in a spacious
open ground, "the Cathedral
Yard," entered through Broad-
gate from High-street; or by
Palace-gate, from South-street;
or from Southernhay, by the
Close; and thus occupying a
central position. Its west front
is a noble specimen of Gothic
architecture, in three stories.
The basement is an elaborate
screen, with a doorway in the
middle, and a smaller one on
each side; the whole screen is
filled with a range of canopied
niches, each containing a statue;
but the sculpture is much worn
away. The figures are those of
angels, patriarchs, saints, kings,
barons, and prelates of the
Church. The second story,
which slightly recedes, contains
a magnificent window, 39 ft.
high by 27 ft. wide, composed
of nine trefoiled lights, supporting a gorgeous rose of
twelve quatrefoiled lights, with
a splendid diversity of colours;
on each side are decorated arcades, and two bold flying buttresses support the waU. The
third, or upper story, which is
likewise receding, has a smaller
window, but of similar design;
this story is formed by the gable
are brick, on a solid foundation
of stone. . The style of architecture is Gothic Perpendicular.
The dimensions are, 82 ft. long,
52 ft. wide, and 54 ft. high in
the middle of the nave. The
groined roof is upheld by two
* tiers of massive columns, dividing
the nave from the aisles. Above
the doorway, in front, is a circular rose window, 14 ft. in
diameter, of beautifully-stained
glass; there is a large Gothic
window, 30 ft. high, at the opposite end; and there are five
smaller windows on each side.
A small and unpretentious building, erected for the worship of
the English Church in the district of Howick, in the South
African colony of Natal, is the
subject of one of our Illustrations. It is engraved from a
photograph sent us by Messrs.
Stantial and Marrian, of Pieter-
maritzburg, the chief town of
that colony. The edifice is simple, but neat and commodious
Some of the friends of the London City Mission, feeling an
occasional rest and change of air
to be necessary' for men working
continually in a foul atmosphere 186
August 21, 1869
and under depressing influences of various kinds, lately resolved
to establish a sanitarium or seaside home for their benefit. The
enterprise has prospered, and about £3500 has already been contri
buted. The block of cottages shown in our Engraving, valued at
more than £2000, has been presented to the commiteee by Mrs.
Huish, widow of Captain Huish, the late respected secretary of
the London and North-Western Railway. They are situated upon
high ground between Ventnor and Bonchurch, and will be available
as a health resort in the winter as well as in the summer. Some
of the agents of the London City Mission have been fifteen and
even twenty years without a holiday out of the London streets;
and it is a matter of great importance to provide them with the
means of an annual change. The salaries received by these useful
men are quite inadequate to providing such a change for themselves, and it is hoped that a sufficient endowment will be raised by
the friends of the mission to secure for its agents the benefits of
this institution permanently. It is proposed that each missionary
shall have a fortnight at the seaside once a year. The whole
number employed is 361; during the last year they have spent in
domiciliary visitation in some of the worst parts of London 483,581
hours and paid 1,987,259 visits, of which 255,102 were to the sick
and dying; and when to this is added a large amount of other
work, it will be seen that a short period of rest must be greatly
needed, at least once a year. A pamphlet, with many interesting
details on this subject, entitled " On Repairing and Keeping in
Repair London City Missionaries," may be had for gratuitous circulation by applying to the Rev. P. B. Power, M.A., Abbey
Wood, Kent; or to Mr. Sawell, the secretary, at the London City
Mission House, Red Lion-sqtiare.
The Sydney Morning Herald supplies the following curious facts
respecting Lord Howe Island, which is situated in latitude 31 S.,
longitude 159 E., and is about 450 miles from Sydney:— _
It is sixteen miles in circumference, six miles and a half in length,
and averages about half a mile in breadth. About one third of the
island is taken up by two mountains at the south end, which descend
in some places perpendicularly to the water. One of these rocks,
called Paul's Pyramid, from its peculiar shape, is about 2500ft.
above the level of the sea. There is a kind of harbour at the south -
west side of the island, protected from the swell by a bar about three
quarters of a mile from the shore. The island is well timbered in
every direction. It is inhabited by about thirty-five persons,
including children. There are, however, only about eight or ten
able-bodied young men. The islan d was, in years gone by, used
as a calling station for whalers; and it was with the view
of trading with whalers, it is said, that the first settlers
were induced to make it their home. The islanders live
very peaceably together, although they have no laws, nor
anyone to superintend or guide them. There is neither
schoolmaster nor clergyman on the island. The inhabitants live in
a state of blissful ignorance as to what takes place in other parts of
the world. There seems to be a tacit understanding among themselves to respect each other's property. No register of births and
deaths is kept, and marriage, in a legal sense, cannot be performed.
One remarkable fact which struck some of the visitors was the
indifference on the part of the islanders with regard to what was
going on in the colonies or elsewhere, and their disinclination to ask
questions concerning other countries. Except in one or two
instances, they manifested no desire whatever to leave their island
home. Most of the people are English, or natives of one or other
of the Australian colonies. They were strongly advised by Captain
Cloete and the gentlemen who visited the island with him to keep a
register of the births and deaths; and they adopted the advice, and
appointed Captain Spurling to perform that duty. Now that the
wants of the island have been more prominently brought under the
notice of the Government, steps will probably be taken to amend
the present state of things existing there, and to induce the people
to provide means for educating their children.
Some of the houses are good substantial buildings, built of
hardwood slabs; others are constructed of palm-trees, and covered
with palm-leaves. The palm-trees grow luxuriantly everywhere,
and houses are freqviently surrounded with them. No manufactures
are carried on—everything, both in the way of furniture and implements, being imported. At the time of the visit of the Commission, the islanders were all decently clothed. There is a small
vessel, belonging to two or three parties on the island, which trades
to Sydney about three or four times every year, bringing produce
and taking back flour and such other commodities as are required.
This is the only direct communication which takes places between
the island and this continent. Occasionally a vessel calls at the
island, and exchanges of goods and produce then take place. They
generally barter their goods for produce which they require, and
seldom either give or take money for anything. They occasionally
run short of flour, biscuits, and sugar; but they always have plenty
©f other food.
The island is overrun with great numbers of pigs and goats.
The pigs roam about in a wild state and feed on palm-seed, and
their flesh is said to be very good eating and of good flavour. There
are also great quantities of poultry of almost every kind. The
chief products of the island are onions (some of which annually
find their way to this colony), potatoes, maize, and bananas. The
.egetation resembles in a great measure that of tropical lands.
Amongst the trees are to be found the banyan. One specimen of
this kind of tree is said to cover about an acre and a half. The
soil is rich and capable of producing plants either of a tropical or
semi-tropical character. The ground is of an undulating character,
cultivation taking place chiefly on the lower ground.
A correspondent (Mr. John Brazier, formerly conchologist to
her Majesty's steamer Curaqoa) sends us the following particulars :
" The island was not inhabited until about thirty years ago, when a
European family landed, and lived on it for seventeen years. When
he was there in 1855, there were thirty-three Europeans with their
wives. At that time there was plenty of water, fish, fowls, birds, pigs,
and goats. The greater part of the settlers on Lord Howe Island are
old whaling captains and sailors who leave their ships. Nothing
was known of the natural history of the island until the late Mr.
John Macgillivray, formerly naturalist to H.M.S. Rattlesnake and
Herald, visited it in 1851, and discovered the following species of
mollusean land fauna—four species of the genus Helix, one of the
genus Bulimus, four of the genus Diplommatina, one of the genus
Cyclophorous, one of the genus Registoma, and one of the genus
Omphalotropis. The island is a general rendezvous for the colonial
and foreign whalers to get fresh provisions, such as onions,
potatoes, &c. These things are generaUy given in exchange for
liquors. This island is not the one that was discovered by Captain
Wallis on July 30, 1766. The one discovered by Wallis is in
latitude 10-49 S., longitude 166.1 E."
The neighbourhood of Mendrisio, in the Ticino, is infested with
a plague of black caterpillars, which cause painful swellings.
Thousands have been killed, but the number does not seem to
decrease. In some localities prayers have been offered up for their
The Military Council of Revision at Gardanne, in France,
recently discovered a singular fraud to escape service in the army.
Four conscripts successively presented themselves for the medical
visit, aU apparently blind of one eye, the pupil of which was
enormously dilated. Three of the young men were exempted, but,
on the fourth appearing, the coincidence seemed so remarkable that
the members of the council questioned him closely, and, becoming
embarrassed, he at last acknowledged that the apparent infirmity
had been produced by rubbing the eye that morning with a pomade of belladonna. The three other conscripts were caUed back,
and, having acknowledged that they had had recourse to the same
means, were all declared good for the service. A singular fact was
that there had been no concert between the young men, and that
the operations had been performed by different persons, who appear
to make a trade of such frauds. All the parties have since been
prosecuted, and the young men have been now each sentenced to
one month's imprisonment, the operator to one year of the same
punishment, and some persons who had acted as intermediaries to
three months' each,
Mr. James Fallon, barrister, has been appointed Recorder of
At a Court held by Vice-Chancellor James, at Guildford, last
Saturday, the publisher of the Poole Post appeared to show cause
why he should not be committed for contempt of court, in consequence of some comments made in that paper upon the pending
Tiohborne Baronetcy case. An apology was entered and accepted,
but the respondent was ordered to pay the costs ; and the Vice-
Chancellor gave notice that, it future, the full powers of the Court
would, under similar circumstances, be exercised.
At Judges' Chambers, on Monday, an application was made on
behalf of Mr. Grenville-Murray to stay execution of the order
obtained by Mr. Hughes, at Croydon Assizes. The application
was made with a view to a new trial, and was supported by affidavits from two Paris physicians to the effect that, since the 29th
ult., Mr. Murray has not been in a condition to travel without
danger to his life. On the payment of a sum of money into court
to abide the event of a new trial, the application was granted.
An application was made, yesterday week, to Mr. Commissioner
Holroyd, in the London Bankruptcy Court, to set aside the bankruptcy of the Duke of Newcastle, on the ground that the law on the
subject did not apply to his Grace as a peer. The Commissioner
did not seem to think the objection of much weight, but he declined
to give any decision. He adjourned the case, in order that the
application might be heard by Mr. Commissioner Winslow, who had
first dealt with the matter. It was stated on Monday, at a hearing in the case, that there will be sufficient to pay everybody.
An adjournment was agreed to till Oct. 18, to hear objections, but
not to decide on the matter of the petition. One of the objections
raised by the counsel for the Duke is that a petition in bankruptcy
will not lie against a peer of the realm. There was a long discussion at Chambers on Tuesday before Mr. Justice Willes upon the
Duke's affairs. The Sheriff of Nottinghamshire has paid into
court £11,000 as the proceeds of the sale at Clumber; and Mr.
Padwick, as the first execution creditor, asked that £5000 might be
paid out to him. The Sheriff of Middlesex had already paid him
the proceeds of the sale at Carlton House-terrace. As the question
of the Duke's bankruptcy is adjourned till October, it was argued
that it was very hard upon Mr. Padwick to keep him so long out
of his money, and the opinion of counsel (Mr. de Gex, Q.C., and
Mr. Joseph Browne, Q.C.) was cited to prove that the Duke cannot
be adjudicated a bankrupt. Mr. Justice Willes finally ordered the
money to remain in court.
The Court of Bankruptcy held a sitting last week " In re Henry
Fitzwarrine Chichester," a son of the late Lord Edward Chichester,
and nephew of the Marquis of Dcnegall. The balance-sheet discloses debts of £5215—butchers, bakers, dressmakers, and every
description of traders. The bankrupt's wife had an aUowance of
£3000 or £4000 a year; he received the money, and incurred further
debts. The assignees required the bankrupt to file accounts of all
property and money which had come into his possession during the
twelve months preceding the date of adjudication, a copy of his
marriage settlement, and copies of all deeds whereby his interest
under the settlement had been in any way dealt with. Mr. Commissioner Holroyd said the bankrupt must file the desired accounts.
Meanwhile he remains in custody.
At the Court of Bankruptcy, on Thursday, a young French
lady, named Pauline Guibot, applied to Mr. Commissioner Winslow
to be released from custody. It appeared that she had brought an
action for breach of promise of marriage; but, when the case was
called on, neither counsel, attorney, nor witnesses were in attendance, and, of course, the verdict passed for the defendant, and the
plaintiff was now in custody for costs. There was no opposition,
and his Honour granted the release.
A curious libel case was yesterday week decided at Leeds
Assizes. The plaintiff was a farmer, who held a farm belonging to
the Duke of Portland, in Nottinghamshire; the defendants were
the members of the Mansfield Game Association, a body who rent
the game on the Duke of Portland's property. They had written a
letter to the Duke's steward charging the plaintiff with destroying
the game on his farm, contrary to his agreement. In consequence
he was turned out of his farm. He brought an action against the
Game Association for libel, and the jury awarded him £500 damages.
The proprietors of Echoes, a weekly publication, were sued at the
Croydon Assizes, last Saturday, for libel. Mr. Allington, the plaintiff:, is a magistrate for the county of Lincoln, and some time ago he
was fined at Marlborough-street for an assault upon an official at
the Prince of Wales's Theatre. The magistrate characterised Mr.
Allington's conduct in strong terms, and immediately afterwards
the libel complained of was published. The jury returned a verdict
for the plaintiff—damages, £500.
An amusing breach of promise case was tried at Liverpool
last Saturday. The plaintiff, Miss Jane Speight, was thirty-four
years of age, and the defendant Mr. Hewitt, was a widower, with
a family, and the postmaster of Lancaster. Several letters were put
in, but the correspondence was remarkable for its laconic character.
One was "Miss Speight—all's right. L. H." The jury returned
a verdict for plaintiff—damages, £200, which no doubt Miss Speight
considers "allright."
Heavy damages were obtained on Wednesday, at the Liverpool
Assizes, in the action for breach of promise brought by a young
lady, named Fleming, against a Mr. Thompson. The jury awarded
the plaintiff £1500.
Mr. Praeger, a professor of Clifton College, has recovered £1500
damages from the Bristol and Exeter Railway Company for injuries
sustained by him from falling through an open space between a
railway carriage and the platform of Yatton station. It was alleged
that the train was brought to a stand short of the station, and that
the guard opened the doors at this place, leaving the passengers to
get out without light, caution, or warning.
The August session of the Central Criminal Court was opened
on Monday, The first edition of the calendar contained the names
of 118 prisoners, two of whom are indicted for murders committed
without the district of the Court—namely, on the high seas. The
other crimes are of the ordinary character. After the grand jury
had been charged, the Court proceeded to try John Webster, who
had been remanded from the June session, for conspiracy to defraud,
and the case occupied the whole day. The prisoner was found
guilty, and sentenced to ten months' imprisonment.
At the same court, on Tuesday, Thomas Richards, a police inspector in the employment of the Brighton Railway Company, was
convicted of conspiring with William Critchley to defeat the ends
of justice by bribing two detectives. The object the prisoners had
in view was to prevent the arrest of two men named Green and
Simpson, who committed several robberies. They were sentenced
to two years' hard labour.    The men whom they had sought to
screen were sentenced each to twelve years' penal servitude.	
Walter Sedley, who pleaded guilty to a charge of bigamy, and
whose case, it will be remembered, exposed a wholesale system on
his part of matrimonial advertising, was sentenced to five years'
penal servitude. Henry Scriven, Post-Office letter-sorter, was
sentenced to six years' penal servitude, for stealing a post-letter
containing a draught for £60, an indorsement to which he afterwards forged.
William Dixon, a private in the 7th Fusiliers, was found guilty
at the same court, on Wednesday, of the murder of a corporal at
Aldershott about a month since, and sentenced to death. The
trial of William Taylor, the soldier who is charged with the murder
of a corporal at Plymouth, is postponed, on an affidavit that evidence to prove the prisoner's insanity will be forthcoming.	
Amongst the other cases disposed of on Wednesday was that of
Robert Saltmarsh, who pleaded guilty to two charges of forgery.
He was sentenced to five years' penal servitude.
A Post-Office clerk at Euston-square station has been sentenced
to eight years' penal servitude for abstracting letters from the Hull
Dr. Hardwicke hold an inquest, on Tuesday, at the College Ams,
Crowndale-road, St. Pancras, on the body of Griffith Griffiths, who
was found dead in his lodging in Northampton-street, after he had
been hanging four days and nights by a rope round the neck
from a nail m the room door. The pawnbrokers' duplicates produced showed that deceased had been reduced to great poverty, and
had parted with nearly all his things. The jury returned a verdict
that deceased committed suicide whilst in an unsound state of
mind induced by distress.
An inquiry was held, on Tuesday, into the death of James Crew,
a pauper in the St. Pancras Workhouse, which was supposed to
have been caused by anxiety, in consequence of the new board
threatening to sell up his home and refusing all relief out of the
the workhouse. The jury added to their verdict a recommendation
in favour of a more judicious system of outdoor relief.
In the case of the outrage and robbery in the Old Kent-road,
which has excited so much indignation on account of the daring
nature of the crime and the shocking barbarity to which Mrs. Peake
was subjected, the police have at length made an arrest. A man.
named Paull was brought on Monday before Mr. Woolrych, at
Lambeth, charged with being concerned in the crime. He was
identified by Miss Peake among several others in custody at Carter-
street police station, and was also positively sworn to by another
witness. The prisoner, who was described as a desperate character,
was remanded, as was also a woman who was charged with having
pawnbrokers' duplicates relating to the stolen property.
Three charges of attempted suicide were brought before the
metropolitan police magistrates yesterday week. At Southwark a
young woman, who had either thrown herself or fallen from a
second-floor window, declared the occurrence to have been accidental, and was given up to her friends. A man who had jumped
into the Thames at London Bridge also pleaded the absence of
any intention to commit self-destruction, and was liberated. At
Worship-street a clerk, twenty-two years of age, who had attempted
to poison himself, explained his conduct by stating that he was in
difficulties, and had not a friend in the world. He had been in
prison several days, and was again remanded in order that he might
be benefited by the ministrations of the chaplain.
A wine cooper, named Joseph Kay, forty-two years of age, was,
yesterday week, brought up at the Mansion House, charged on
his own confession with the murder of two of his young children.
The poor man had gone to the Bow-lane police station, at one
o'clock in the morning, and there related in a circumstantial manner
the details of what appeared to be a dreadful crime. On a policeman going to the prisoner's house he found that the story was a
fabrication. In explanation, he now told the Lord Mayor that he
had been out of employment for a long time, and he supposed that
his mind had temporarily given way. The Lord Mayor, with a
view of ascertaining whether the man's intellect was permanently
affected, remanded him for a week, and gave the wife some relief
from the poor-box.
There was another conviction under the Vaccination Act, yesterday week, at the Thames Police Court. An ignorant woman, who
objected to vaccination "on principle," and who had been previously fined, was convicted in a penalty of 20s. for refusing to have
the operation performed on one of her children. Rather than pay
the money the defendant went to prison.
A working man, fifty-seven years of age, was lately passing
through Summers-street, Leather-lane, when he was struck on the
head with an earth enware pot, and soon afterwards died. The
missile had been thr own by one of a gang of boys who infest this
locality. These youths had insulted the Coroner's jury assembled
at the inquest, thrown a stone at the doctor who attended the
deceased,-robbed the widow, and threatened the witnesses. The
inquiry was adjourned, as the lad who had thrown the missile was
not in custody.
In a case tried at Croydon Assizes, last week, the plaintiff's
name was Skinner and the defendant's Rabbits.
The Bolton magistrates, on Monday, sentenced William Lever,
a butcher, to three months' hard labour, without the option of paying a fine, for having in his possession the carcass of a diseased
cow. The offender was informed that he would also forfeit his stall
in the Market-hall.
The new Act to consolidate and amend the Law of Bankruptcy
was issued yesterday week. There are 136 sections and two-
schedules in the statute, to take effect on Jan. 1 next. The law is
divided into eight parts. The first chief judge is to be one of the
present commissioners, the office afterwards to be filled by one of
her Majesty's common law judges. The officers of the London old
court may be attached to the new court; and the Lord Chancellor
is to make provision for concluding the old cases which cannot be
conveniently transferred to the new tribunal. The business under
the old system is expected to increase, as, under the new, debtors
cannot make themselves bankrupt; and, until they pay 10s. in the
pound (unless by the consent of the creditors) they have no status,
and after three years the debts can be enforced against their property. It must take some time to form a new practice out of the
raw materials contained in the Act. The first part relates to the
adjudication by creditors on petition, and the appointment of a
trustee to administer the property. The second part has reference
to the administration of the property. The third part relates to
the constitution and powers of the county courts acting in bankruptcy; and from the latter there may be appeals to the chief
judge. General rules may be made by the Lord Chancellor with
the assistance of the chief judge. There are supplemental provisions in the fourth part; and the fifth part treats of persons
having privilege of Parliament. An adjudication is to vacate a
seat in the House of Commons. Various provisions as to " liquidation by arrangement" are contained in the sixth part. The
seventh deals with " composition with creditors; " and the eighth
relates to temporary provisions as to the bankruptcy courts*
Solicitors, as well as barristers, are to practise before the chief
judge and the registrars, both in court and chambers. The new
court, as weU as the old, will sit, it is expected, in Basinghall-
street, and much will depend on the new rules to be framed;
and it would seem that daily sittings by the chief judge will be
necessary under the new law, both in chambers and in court.
The new Act further to amend the Law of Evidence was issued
yesterday week. It has immediate operation. The preamble
declares that the discovery of truth in courts of justice has been
signally promoted by the removal of restrictions on the admissibility
of witnesses, and it is expedient to amend the law of evidence with,
the object of still further promoting such discovery. The new law
enacts that parties to actions for breach of promise of marriage are
now competent witnesses; but no plaintiff in an action for breach
of promise of marriage is to recover a verdict unless his or her
testimony is corroborated by some other material evidence in support
of such promise. Parties and their husbands and wives in suits for
adultery are competent witnesses. No witness is to be asked or
bound to answer questions tending to show that he or she has been
guilty of adultery unless the witness has already given evidence in
disproof of adultery. With regard to persons objecting to take an
oath, the judge in civil or criminal proceedings may allow a declaration to be made on "being satisfied that the taking of an oath
would have no binding effect on his conscience." The Act is not
to extend to Scotland.
An Act was issued on Monday for facilitating the payment of
dividends on the public stocks, and for making regulations in respect
thereto. The Bank of England, with the sanction of the Treasury,
may send warrants, which are to be deemed cheques, through the
post. Every shareholder is to make a request in writing to the
Bank, in a form appended. Dividends on stock after this Act
falling due on Oct. 10 are to become due on Oct. 5.
On Monday an Act was printed to amend the law relating to
clerks of assize and as to fees in criminal matters.   No clerk is to
be appointed unless a barrister, conveyancer, or attorney in actual
practice for three years.   Clerks of assize after this Act not to be-
entitled to compensation.


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