Historical Children's Literature Collection

The history of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, commonly called the Pretender [between 1840 and 1857?]

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 .-.. ■■-;■ .^--     . ' 7~"~--V~r ~~
Prince Charles Stuart, commonly called
^Pretender, was born at Rome, on the 20th.
of Be^txxber, 1720.    When he had attained the
age of seven jears he was placed under the tuition of an Irish (xt*tleman. of the name of Sheridan, a Roman Catholic,    And as he advanced
in years he not only displayed an unusual vivacity
of spirit, but also manifested a great genius formed for Millitary tactics.    When about the age of
fourteen, he was present at the Siege of Gieta,
where ;he behaved so well, though only a youth,
as fully justified the high opinion held of his courage and intrepidity.
This interesting young Prince, aft^r signalizing himself at many engagements, by the war
which broke out on the Continent, upon the
election of a new Emperor, in the room of Chmie$
 the VI. In some of which battles he was one of
the foremost in charging the enemy,, and the last
who left the field.    He returned to Rome.
About the year 1744. Prince Charles having
sworn allegiance to the Pope; was invited by
the French Monarch to Paris, where he was
greatly carressed by the French Ministry, and
told of the vast preparations making in France to
assist him to recover the British Crown.
The Regency of England, for the King was
then at Hanover, being informed that Charles
was about to make a descent in Scotland, issiw(i
a proclamation, promising a reward of 3^0001.
to any person who should seize and secure the eldest son of the.Pretender, in <**se he should land
or attempt to land in any of his Majesty's dominions. . Charles also issued a proclamation of the
like nature, offering the same reward, to seize and
secure King George, whom he called an usurper.
As soon as Charles landed, he went to the
house of Mr. M< Donald, of Kinloch Moidart,
from which he wrote to the adjacent clans, to acquaint them of his arrival/  Upon this Cameron of
Lochiel went to wait upon him, but he refused to
arm his clan, until Charles could produce in writing, the resolution of the King of-France* to assist
and support him with a proper number of forces.
Being satisfied on this point, he summoned his
clan, and   erected   Charles'   standard with this
motto, " Tandem   Triumphans: "  Triumphing
at last.
When the news of Charles' arrival was spread
abroad, the chiefs who had been previously informed of it, and who concurred in his scheme,
soon repaired to his standard.    When he had got
a sufficent number to make the appearance of an
army, he marched with them to within a mile of
Fort-William, and there encamped.    Having en-
creased his forces to the number of about two
thousand, he marched forward to a hill, about
six miles distant from Fort Augustus, and being
informed that General Cope was coming to attack him, he waited with a resolution of hazarding an  engagement; but  the   General,   either
distrusting his own strength, or for some other
reason,  proceeded to  Aberdeen, where  he embarked his army on  board  some   ships, which
transported it to Dunbar, where he landed.
On the 30th of August Charles arrived at
Blair, the residence of the Duke of Athol, upon
which that nobleman and several gentlemen of
the county of Fife retired to Edinburgh. After
this he proceeded to Perth, Dumblain, and Stir-^
| ling, and on the' 16th of September encamped
with his army at Gray's Mill, about two miles
from Edinburgh, where some of the magistrates
traited on him to treat concerning a capitulation.
In the mean time one of the gates being opened
for the admission of a coach,  Cameron of Loch-
iel rushed into the place with a party of his men,
and secured it without opposition.    Next morn*
ing the whole army entered, Charles took posses*
sion of the royal palace of Holyrood House, and
having caused his father to be proclaimed at the
market cross,   ordered a manifesto to be read, in
which the Chevalier declared his son Regent of
his dominons, and  promised  to redress all the
grievances of Scotland.
During these transactions, Sir John Cope began his march towards Edinburgh,  to give the
rebel army battle, and on the 20th of the month
encamped in the neighbourhood of Preston Pans
with all his troops, amounting to nearly three
thousand men.    Early next morning he was attacked by Charles, at the head of about the same
number of Highlanders,   who charged sword  in
hand, with  such impetuosity,  that  in less than
ten minutes the  King's troops were broken and
totally routed.    The dragoons fled in the utmost
confusion, and the General Officers,   after some
unsuccessful eiforts to rally their men, retreated
towards Coldstream on the Tweed.    Never was
a victory perhaps obtained at a smaller expenee:
only fifty of the rebels lost their lives, while five
hundred of the opposite party were killed on the
spot, and among these the brave colonel Gardiner
who fell greatly lamented.
Charles's followers encreasing every day, and
several of the highland chiefs, encouraged by his
success, beginning to   exert  themselves in hi*
cause, he resolved  to make  an  irruption into
England, which he did on the 6th. of November,
having by that time collected an army of about five
thousand man.    Carlisle wras the first place he
invested,* which surrendered in less than  three
days, and here his father was proclaimed King of
Great Britain, and himself Regent, by the Magistrates in all their formalities.    General Wade
being informed of his progress across the country
as far as Hexam, but receiving intelligence there
that Carlisle was reduced, he returned to his former station.    Orders were issued for asembling
another army in Staffordshire, under the command
of Sir John Ligonier; but Charles notwithstanding this opposition, determined to proceed.  Leaving therefore a small garison in  Carlisle, he advanced to Penrith, marching on foot in the highland dress, and continued his route through Lancaster and Preston, to Manchester, where, on the
29th of the month, he established his head quarters, and wes joined by about 200   Englishmen,
who were formed into a regffneftti   under colonel
Townly.  His supposed intention was to pursue
his  way through Chester to Wales, where he
hoped to find a great number of adherents; but
all the bridges on the river Mersey bein^* broken
down, he choose  the road to Stockport, and forded the river at the head of his division, though
the water rose to his middle.    Taking Macclesfield and Congleton in his way, on the 4th of
December he entered the town of Derby, where
his father was proclaimed with great solemnity.
He had now  advanced to within one hundred
miles of the capital, which was filled with consternation, and had he proceeded might have made
himself master of it, and been joined by a considerable number of his friends,  who impatiently
waited for his approach.
Though success had   hitherto attended him,
Charles however found   himself miserably disappointed in his expectations.    He was now in
Ae heart of England, and, except a few that joined him at Manchester, not a soul appeared in his
behalf.    The Welch took no step to excite an insurrection in his favour; the French made no attempt towards an invasion; the highland chiefs
began to murmur and he saw himself with a handful of men hemmed in between two considerable
armies, in the middle of winter, and in a country
disaffected to his cause.    He could scarcely hope
to proceed to the metropolis without hazarding
a battle, and a defeat would have been attended
with inevitable ruin, both to himself and his
followers. Besides this, he had received information, that his friends and officers had assembled a body of forces in the northern parts, superior in number to those by whom he was attended.
Having called a council  at Derby,   and proposed to advance towards London, this plan was
very strongly supported by Lord Nairn; but after violent disputes, the majority determined that
they should return to Scotland with all possible
expedition. v They abandoned Derby, therefore,
on the 6th of December, early in the momiiig,
and retreated the same way by which they had
advanced.  . On  the 9th, their advanced guard
reached Manchester, and entering Preston on the
12th.   they continued their march northwards.
The Duke of Cumberland, who was encamped
at Meriden, when informed of their return, detached some horse and dragoons in pursuit of them
while General Wade began his march from Ferrybridge into Lancashire, with a view of intercepting them in their way ; but at Wakefield he understood they  had already reached Wigan; he
therefore repaired to his old post at Newcastle,
after  detaching   General Oglethorpe, with his
horse and dragoons^, to join those that had been
sent off from the Duke's army.    They pursued
with much alacrity, and having overtaken the rear
of the rebel army, had a few skirmishes in Lancashire.    Though the millitia of Cumberland and
Westmoreland were raised and armed,   by   the
Duke's order, to harass them in their march, and
though the bridges were broken down, the roads
' ^ damaged, and the beacons lighted to alarm the
country, they retreated very regularly with their
small train  of Artillery.    On the  19 th   of the
nlonth the highland army reached Carlisle, where
the majority of the English in it were left at their
own desire, after which Charles reinforced the ga-
rison of the place, and crossed the rivers Eden
and Solway into Scotland; having thus accomplished one of the most surprising retreats, perhaps ever performed.—They comitted no violence
nor outrage, and they were effectually restrained
.from the exercise of rapine.    Though the weath
er was excessively cold,  and though they must
have been exposed to much hunger and fatigue
they left no sick, and lost only a few stragglers,
but retired in good Order, carrying off their cannon in the face of the enemy.    The   Duke of
Cumberland invested Carlisle with his whole army, on  the 21st day of December; and on the
30th, the whole garrison surrendered by a kind
of capitulation with the Duke of Richmond.
The prisoners, amounting to about four hundred,
were confined in different gaols in England, and
the Duke returned to London.
Charles proceeded by the way of Dumfries to
Glasgow, from which last city he exacted severe
contributions,   on  account of its attachment to
government.    Having continued several days at
Glasgow,  he  advanced towards   Stirling,   and
was joined by some  forces  which  had been assembled in his absence by Lords Lewis Gordon
and John Drummond, brothers to the Dukes of
Gordon and Perth.    This last nobleman had arrived from France in November, with a small
reinforcement  of French and IrisK and a commission as General of these auxiliaries.    He fixed his head quarters at Perth, where he was re*
inforced by the  Earl of  Cromartie, and  other
clans, to  the number of two thousand,  and he
was supplied with a small train of artillery.    Having found means to surprise a sloop of war at
Montrose, they fortified that  harbour with the
guns, and they had received a considerable sum
of money from Spain.    They likewise took possession of Dundee, Dumblaine, Down castle, and
laid Fife under contribution.    The Earl of Loudon, who remained at Inverness, with about two
thousand Highlanders, in the service of his Ma-
jesty, conveyed provisions to Fort Augustus and
Fort  William,   and secured the person of Lord
Lovat; but this cunning* veteran found means to
escape.    Charles being joined   by   Lord  John
Drummond, invested the castle of Stirling-,  in
which   General  Blakeney commanded; but his
people not being much used to enterprises of this
kind, they made very little progress in their operations.
By this time a considerable body of forces was
assembled at Edinburgh, under General Hawley,
who determined to relieve Stirling Castle, and
advanced to Linlithgow on the 13th of January.
Next day his army rendezvoused at Falkirk, while
the rebels were cantoned at Bannockburn.    On
the 17th day of the month they began their march
in two columns to attack the King's forces, and
had forded the water of Cawen within three miles
of Hawley's camp, before he discovered their intention; but such was his obstinacy or contempt
of the enemy,   that he paid  no   attention to the
repeated intelligence he received of their motions,
being firmly persuaded that they would not venture   to  hazard  an    engagement.    Perceiving,
however, that thfey Jhad got possession of a rising
ground to the southward of Falkirk, he ordered
his cavalry to advance, and drive the enemy from
their post, while he formed his infantry in the oi**
der of battle.
The Highlanders, in the mean time, kept up
so   close a fire, and took so good aim,  that the
assailants being soon broken, retreated with precipitation, and fell in amongst the infantry, who
were likewise incommoded by the wind and the
rain  beating with  great violence in their faces.
Some of the dragoons rallied, and again advanced to the charge with part of the infantry, which
had  not  been  engaged; upon  which   Charles
marched up  at the head of his corps de reserve
consisting; of the regiment of  Lord John Drum-
mond, and the Irish piquets.    These joining the
Camerons and the Stuarts in the front line, immediately  obliged the  dragoons to give way a
second time,  and they again disordered the foot
in their retreat,   so  that  the   King's troops, at
length, set  fire to their   camp,   and  abandoned
Falkirk with their baggage and artillery; the
last  of which never reached the  field of battle.
The rebels  followed their  first blow, and great
part  of the royal army, after one  irregular discharge, turned their  backs, and fled in the utmost consternation.    Few or none of them, perhaps, would  have   escaped,   had  not   General
Huske and  Brigadier Cholmondely rallied part
of some regiments, and made a gallant resistance
for a little time, which favoured the retreat of the
rest to Falkirk, whence they retired in confusion
to Edinburgh.
It was now judged necessary by the King's Ministers that the army in Scotland should be commanded by a General in whom the soldiers could
confide ; and the Duke of Cumberland was chosen for this purpose.    Besides being universally
beloved by the troops, it was suggested that the
appearance of a prince of the Blood in Scotland,
might have a favourable effect on the minds of the
people in  that kingdom: he  therefore began to
make preparation*  for his  northern  expedition.
In the mean  while, the  French Minister at the
Hag-ue having represented to the States General
that  the auxiliaries  they had sent into  Britain
were part of the garrisons of Tournay and Den-
dermonde, and restricted by the capitulation from
bearing arms against France for a certain period,
the ■States thought proper to recal them, rather
than  come  to an open rupture with his  Most
Christian Majesty.    In the room of these troops,
six thousand   Hessians  were  transported from
Flanders to Leith, where they arrived in the beginning  of February,  under the command  of
their Prince   Frederick  of . Hesse, son-in law to
his Britannic Majesty.    By this time the Duke
of Cumberland had put himself at the head of
the troops at Edinburgh, consisting of fourteen
battalions of infantry, two regiments of dragoons,
and twelve of Highlanders,   from   Argyleshire,
under the command of Colonel  Campbell.    On
the last day of January, his Royal Highness began his march to Linlithgow, and the enemy,
who had renewed the siege of  Stirling   Castle,
not only abandoned that enterprise, but crossed
the river Forth with precipitation, while Charles
found great difficulty in maintaining his troops,
as that part of the country was quite exhausted.
Hoping, however, to be reinforced in the Highlands, and to receive supplies of all kinds from
France  and Spain, ( he retired by Badenoch towards    Inverness,  wThich the Earl of Loudon a-
bandoned on his approach.    The fort surrendered  to him almost without  opposition, and here
he fixed his head quarters.    The Duke of Cumberland  having secured the important posts of
Stirling and Perth with the Hessian battalions
advanced  with his army to Aberdeen, where he
was joined by the   Duke of Gordon, and other
persons  of distinction.    While  he  remained in
this place, the rebels surprised, at the village of
Keith, a detachment of Kingston's horse, and-a-
bout seventy Argyleshire Highlanders, who were
all  either  killed or  taken.    Several  advanced
parties of the militia met with the same fate in
different places. Charles having ordered liis forces to assemble, proposed marching to Aberdeen,
to attact the Duke of Cumberland; but in consequence of a remonstrance from the clans, who
declined leaving their families at the mercy of
the King's garrison in Fort William, he resolved
previously to reduce the fortress. Tfce siege
was accordingly undertaken by Brigadier Stap-
leton, an engineer in the French service; but the
place was so bravely defended by Captain Scot,
that in the beginning of April it was thought proper to relinquish the enterprise.
In the beginning of April, 1746, the Duke of
Cumberland began his march from Aberdeen, and
on the 12th passed the river Spey, without any
opposition from the rebels, though a considerable
body of them made their appearance on the other
side.    His Royal   Highness  then proceeded to
Nairn,  where he received intelligence that the
enemy had advanced from Inverness to Culloden,
about  the   distance of nine miles from the royal
army, with intention of making an attack.    Charles' design wras to march in the night time, and
to surprise the Duke's army at the break of day.
For  this purpose, the English camp* had  been
reconnoitred,   and on the night of the 15th, the
Highland army began to march in two columns.
They intended to surround the enemy, and at-
tack them in all quarters,  but the length of the
columns  inpeded their march, so that they were
obliged  to make many halts.    The men,   who
had been under arms all the preceding   night,
were faint with hunger and fatigue; so that these
disadvantages retarded them greatly, and rendered it impossible for them to reach the   Duke's
camp before sun-rise.    Their scheme being thus
frustrated, Charles, with great reluctance, followed the advice of his general officers, and returned
to  Culloden, where, as soon as he arrived, great
numbers of his followers   dispersed in quest of
provisions, and   many, overcome by   weariness
and sleep, threw themselves down on the heath,
and along the park walls.    Their  repose  however, was soon interruped in a very disagreeable
manner, for Charles receiving intelligence that
the enemy were advancing in   full march to attack him, resolved to hazard an engagement, and
ordered his   tro'ops to be formed for that  purpose.
On the 16th of April, the Duke having made
every necessary disposition, decamped early from
Nairn, and after a m^rch of Nine miles, perceived the Highlanders drawn up in order of battle,
to the number of between four and five thousand
men, in thirteen divisions, supplied with a few
pieces of artillery.    His   Royal Highness  irn~
mediately formed his  troops, who   were more
numerous, into three lines, disposed in excellent
order; and about one o'clock  in the  afternoon
the cannonading began.    The artillery of the rebels was ill served, and did very little execution,
but that of the   King's army  made prodigious
slaughter  among the   enemy.    Being  severely
galled by this fire, about 5 hundred of the clans?
charged  the Duke's left wing with their Usual
impetuosity and courage.    One regiment   was
disordered by the weight of this column, hut two
battalions advancing from the second line sustained the first, and soon put  a stop to their career by a severe fire,  which killed a great number of them.    At the   same time,   the dragoons
under Hawley, with the Argyleshire militia, pulled   down a park wall that covered their  right
flank, and the cavalry falling  in among the rebels, sword in hand, completed their  confusion.
The French piquets on their left covered the retreat of the Highlanders by a regular and well
directed fire, and then retired to Inverness, where
they surrendered  themselves  prisoners   of war.
An entire body of the rebels  marched  off the
field in great regularity with their bagpipes playing  before them, and Charles' standard display*,
ed; the rest were routed with great slaughter, and
their chief was with great difficulty prevailed on
to retreat. In less than half an hour they were
♦otally defeated, and the field covered with slain.
The road, as far as Inverness, was strewed with
dead bodies, aud a great many people, who, from
motives of curiosity, had come to see the battle,
were sacrificed in the hurry of pursuit. Twelve
hundred of the rebels were slain or wounded
in the field, or in their flight. The Earl of Kilmarnock was taken, and in a few days Lord
Balmerino surrendered to a country gentleman,
to whom he presented himself for that purpose.
Thus vanished, in the short space of one hour, all
the hopes of the young adventurer,* and thus was
a dangerous rebellion entirely extinguished.
When Charles saw the battle irrecoverably lost,
he retired over the water to Nairn, where stopping to take a view of the field of battle, he was
joined by some of his people that had fled the
same way.    After this he paid a private visit to
old Lovat, in hopes that some plan might be concerted for his relief; but  finding  that nothing
was to be done,  it was resolved by his friends
that they should keep at as great a distance from
the enemy as possible.    Sullivan, his faithful adherent, was of opinion, that they ought to go to
Glengary, being persuaded that the enemy had
not taken that route.    They accordingly set out,
^nd were  received with milch cordiality by Mr.
M'Donald, with whom Charles continued some
time, reflecting on the miseries and misfortunes
which he had brought upon his followers, and
upon those which he wTas likely t*o experience before he could reach a place of safety. Several of
the Chiefs, who visited him in his concealment
in Glengary Castle, struck with his melonchaly
situation, began to devise some scheme for retrieving his affairs; and for this purpose-it was
suggested, that the clans should continue on the
hills, till they could by some trusty messenger
inform the Court of Versailles of the true state
of his army. This plan might in all probability
have been agreed to, had they been able to procure money for the subsistence of those troops
but as this was impracticable, the proposal was
On the 23d of April, Charles being informed
that General Campbell was on his march for Inverness, with a large body of the Argyleshire
militia, he, with a few of the Chiefs, his two favourites Sheridan and Sullivan, and about forty
others, marched to Achnacarrie, where they had
an interview with Lochiel; at a fresh consultation it was agreed that this Chief, with the Carn-
erons and the M' Donalds, should keep in a bodv,
and favour any landing of succour from France;
while Charles,  with his friends Sullivan, Sheri*
dan, and some others, should endeavour to raise
such a force, as with reinforcements from abroad,
might enable him to make a stand till more assistance could be procured. Next morning they
set out for Glenpbiliin, where at his first landing,
the Cameron* erected his standard. Here they
made a ^ave the place of their residence, and were
prided with every thing necessary for life; but
Charles being uneasy in his mind, intimated a
desire to be gone; and accordingly, after remaining three days, they set out for the isles.
Aboat this time, that is, the beginning of
May, two French men of war appearing on the
coast, they were attacked by the Grey hound
and two sloops, which they obliged to sheer off,
and having landed a considerable quantity of
money and ammunition, took on board the Duke
of Perth, Lord John Drummond, and several o-
ther officers, and conveyed them all to France except the Duke of Perth, who died on his passage.
Charles being informed of this adventure, was
exceedingly uneasy that he had missed the opportunity of escaping in them, and the more so,
as he understood they had landed 40,000 louis-
d'ors, 35,000 of which had fallen into the hands
of a person in whom he placed very little confidence.
Charles now finding that his affairs grew every
day more and more desperate, that he was surrounded by enemies, and in continual danger of
falling into their hands, consented to follow the
advice given him by Sullivan of yielding to his
misfortunes, so far as to consult his own safety.
He therefore resolved to go in q^st of a boat, to
carry him over to the island of Lew\&> where he
entertained some hopes of finding a ves^| to
transport him to France. When they reaches
the sea shore, they could find no boats, as the
M.c Donalds of Clanronald's family had seized on
all they could meet with, in order to transport
themselves to South Uist and the boats were not
yet returned. This obliged them to retire to the
mountains, in which they wandered about for three
days and nights. A boat, however, returning
from South Uist, to fetch more of their people
that were missing, Charles; who observed it,
immediately hastened to the shore, and raising a
signal, the crew, who imagined that it was made
by some of their party in distress, put into a small
creek to the westward of Barrisdale, and taking
him and his party on board, sailed directly to
South Uist; and night comingl on, • they were
soon out of sight.
Being out at sea, some of the crew proposed to
sail towards a small island called Canna, lying to
the westward of Mull, and Charles knowing that
the inhabitants were Roman Catholics, approved
of the motion. Here they landed, and were received by the people with great hospitality; from
thence they proceeded to South Uist, where after having undergone many hardships; he was
conducted by Flora Mfi Donald, disguised in women's apparel to the Laird of M< Kinnon's house,
where she left him, and returned home.
After this he underwent   many hardships and
narrow  escapes; he and   Lochiel embarked  on
the 20th of September, in a privateer of St. Malo,
hired by   Sheridan  and some other  adherents,
having set  Sail for France, they passed unseen,
under  cover of a thick fog,   through a   British
squadron, and after being chased by two English
Ships of war, he arrived'in France where he remained till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, was concluded in 1748, when he was Exiled from France,
and repaired to Avigon, where he  was  received
with extraordnary honours by the Pope's Legate,
at this place however he  remained only  a  few
months,  and then went to Leige, and assumed
the title of Baron de Montgomerie.
About the Year 1757, he settled at Bouillon,
(a town in France,) where he resided till the
death of his father, when he went to Rome
In the begining of the year 1766 soon after
the  death  of his .father,   Charles returned to
 Rome, and had his audience of the pope on the
19 th of January; but his holiness, refused to acknowledge him by his father's title. He left
Rome and retired to Florence, where he lived on
a small revenue allowed him by his brother.
In the vear 1772 he married the Princess of
Stolberg, a German lady. This union however,
to whatever cause it might have been owing, was
not attended with that happiness which is generally expected in the married state, for she separated from him a few years after, and the breach
between them was never made up.
After this period Charles seems to have sunk
into insignificance and oblivion; and he lived almost entirely forgotten, till the period of his
death, which happened at Rome, on the 31st of
January, 1788, being then in the sixty-eighth
year of his age. By his will he made his natural daughter, whom he had by a Scots lady of
an ancient family, and whom, in virtue of his
pretended royal power as King of Britain, he
created Duchess of Albany, sole heiress of all his
property, which was very considerable. / t
His remains were interred with great pomp
and ceremony in the church of Frescati, atown
twelve miles from Rome, of which his brother the
Cardinal was Bishop. The funeral service was
performed on the 3d of February by his brother*


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