Historical Children's Literature Collection

A Natural history of quadrupeds to which is prefixed the history of Tommy Trip and his dog Jowler [unknown] [between 1800 and 1809]

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 of   _	
Q IT A D11 IT I1 E11S
To which is Pre fired
 _   and his        '„
Embellifhed with Ei^ht   Elegant
Co/iper Plate Cuts.
G J* A  S 0-  O   W*
Published ^jrLumfden^ Son ai iheir
 •  4
And of his Dog Jotvler.
ommy Trip, the author of the
. following {heets, is the only fon
of William Trip of Spinal-Fields,
London. He is but fliort in ftature,
and not much bigger than Tom
Thumb, but a great deal better, for he
is a good fcholar; and whenever you
fee him, you will always find him with
a book in his hand, and his faithful
dog jowler by his §de. Jowler ferves
him for a horfe as well as a dog; and
Tommy, when he has a mind to ride,
pulls a little bridle out of his pocket,
whips it upon honeft Jowler, and a-
way he gallops tantwivy. As he rides
through the town, he frequently (tops
at the doors, to know how the little
children do within; and if they are
good, and learn their books, he then
i A leaves
 (   6   )
leaves an apple, an orange, or a plumb
cake at the door, and away he gallops
again tantwivy, tantwivy, tantwivy.
You have heard how he beat Wog-
]og the great giant, I fuppofe, have
you not? but leafl yqu fhould not, I
will tell you; as Tommy was walking
through a meadow on a moon-light
night, he heard a little boy cry, upon
which hecaiied to Jowler, bridledhim,
and galloped awray to the place. When
he came there, he found Woglog with
a little boy under his arm, whom he
was going to throw into the water.
Little boys fhould never loiter about
in the fields, nor even in the ftreets after it is dark. However, as he had
been a good boy in other refpecls, little Trip was determined the giant
fhould not hurt him; and therefore
he called to him; " Here you great
" giant, you Woglog; fet down the
sc little boy, or Til make you dance
" like a pea on a tobacco-pipe; are
46 you
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I-   M
(    9    )
you not afhamed to fet your wits to
a child?" Woglog turning round,
attempted to feize little Trip between
his finger and thumb, and thought to
have cracked him as one does a walnut; but juft as'his hand came to him,
Jowler, fnappM at it, and bit a piece
off his thumb, which put the giant in
fo much pain, that he let fall the little boy, who ran away. Little Trip
then up with his whip, and Iafh'd
Woglog till he lay down and roared
like a town bull, and promifed never
to meddle with any little boys or girls
again. After he had thus beat the
giant, Trip put the little boy upon
Jowler, and carried him home to his
father and mother; but upon the road
he charged him to be a good boy, and
to fay his prayers, and learn his book,
and do as hispapa and mam ma bid him,
which this little boy has done ever
fmce, and fo muft all other little boys
and girls, or nobody will love them.
In the burning and defolate regions
of the torrid zone, in the deferts of
Zaara and Biledulgerid, and in all
the interior of Africa, this animal
reigns fole mailer. Inflamed by the
ardour of his native foil, he is both
tremendous in rage, and undaunted
in courage. The form of the lion is
finking, bold, and majeftic; his large
and fhaggy mane, which he can erect
at pleafure, furrounding his awful
front; his huge eye-brows; his round
and fiery-eye balls, which, upon the
leafl irritation, feem to glow with peculiar luftre, together with the formidable appearance of his teeth, ex*
hibit a picture of terrific grandeur
which no words can defcribe.
The lion diminifhes in fiercenefs as
he approaches the habitations of man.
All his paffions, however, are vehement, his anger noble, and courage
* i
c « )
magnanimous; and his temper is not
incapable of grateful impreffions.
The length of this animal is between
eight and nine feet; its height about
four and a half; its colour is tawny;
its roaring loud and dreadful, and,
when heard at night, refembles dif-
tant thunder. Its cry of anger is
louder and fhorter. He lurks near a
fpring or river, crouching on his belly, and waits till fome prey approach.
He then leaps upon it at the diftance
of fifteen or twenty feet, and generally feizes it at the firft bound. The
lionefs goes five months with young,
produces three or four, which take
five years before they arrive at full
growth. The lion will live feventy
The Jackall, an animal ffiaring thp
figure and qualities of the wolf and
fox, is found in almoft every part of
Afia, and in many places of Africa.
Its fize varies with its native climate.
A 3 Ihe
 (      12      )
The fmaller fort are about the bulk
of a fox. Their common colour is
reddifh-brown, or bright yellow.
They go in packs of forty or fifty, and
hunt for prey like hounds in full cry
the whole day. They ravage folds,
flails, and courtyards; devour every
thing they can find, their voracity descending even to the vileft carrion, to
fkins, offals, and every article made
of leather. They dig up the repofi-
tories of the dead, and feed upon the
moft putrid bodies. Their fcent is
acute beyond defcription; and they
will attend caravans and marching
armies in hopes of prey from the
flroke of difeafe or battle. They''generally lurk by day, and, marching
out in the twilight, by their dreadful
howlings fpread univerfal confterna-
tion. The lion, the panther, and o-
ther fcentlefs beafts of prey, watch the
favourable opportunity of following
eir fteps, and feizing their booty.
*3    )
This fpecies is confiderably lek
than the Panther: its length from the
nofe to the tail is only four feet; and
its tail is two feet long.
It is of a lively yellow colour;
marked on the back and fides with
fmall fpots, difpofed in circles, and
placed pretty clofely together: its
face and legs are marked with ftngle
fpots: its breaft and belly are covered
with longer hairs than the reft of its
body, of a whitifh colour: the fpots
on its tail are large and oblong.
It inhabits Senegal and Guinea,
and fpares neither man nor beaft.
When the beafts of chace fail, the
leopards defcend in crowds from the
interior parts of Africa, and make vaft
havock among the numerous herds
that cover the rich meadows of the
Lower Guinea: they tear their prey
in pieces with both claws and teeth;
"1-**"! Hi
 (    14    )>
and though perpetually devouring,
they are always thin: the panthers are
their enemies, and deftroy numbers
of them: the a negroes take them in
pitfalls covered at the top with flight
hurdles, on which is placed fome flefli
as a bait: when they have killed one,
they feaft on its flefh which is faid to
be as white as veal, and very weH
tailed. The negrefTes make beads or
a collar of its teeth, and attribute to
them certain virtues. The fkins are
frequently brought to Europe, and
are reckoned very valuable. BufFon
fays, that when it is of a bright yellow, and has its fpots black and well
defined, one fkin will give eight or
ten louis d'ors.
In Afia, it is found in the mountains of Caucafus, from Perfia to India; and alfo in China, where it is
called Poupi. It inhabits Arabia alfo, and in that country, as well as
Egypt, it does no hurt to man unlefs
( 17 )
provoked; but will enter houfes by
night and deftroy cats.
The manners and difpofitions of
the leopard are fimilar to thofe of the
panther; but we have not heard of
his being ever trained to hunting, or
any way tamed. This fpecies feems
to be fubjecl: to more varieties than
the former; but thefe affect, chiefly
the darknefs or lightnefs of its colour.
The LefTer Leopard is another fpe*
cies, not half the bulk of the former:
its tail is alfo fhorter in proportion,
and tapers to a point; whereas the
tails of the panther and great leopard
are of equal thicknefs from top to
bottom. Its back, fides, and rump-,
are covered with hair of a bright yellow, marked with circles of fpots like
the former, but the circles are lefs.
One of thefe was kept fome years
ago in the Tower, and feemed a good
natured animal.
Next to the lion in the clafs of
carnivorous animals is the tiger,
which, while he pofTeffes all the bad
qualities of the former, feems to be
a ftrahgerto his goodones. To pride,
to courage, to ftrength, the lion adds
greatncfs, and fometimes, perhaps,
clemency; while the tiger, without
provocation is fierce, without necef-
fity is cruel: thus it is throughout all
the clafTes of nature, in which the fu-
periority of rank proceeds from that
of ftrength: the firft clafs is lefs tyrannical than the inferior clafTes,
which, denied fo full an exertion of
authority, abufe the powers with
which they are entrufted.
The tiger is therefore to be more
dreaded than the lion. He is the
fcourge of every country which he
inhabits. Of the appearance of man,
and of all his hoftile weapons, he is
( 19 )
fearlefs. Wild animals as well as
tame ones fail a facrifice before him.
He attacks the young elephant and
rhinoceros; and fometimes, with an
audacity fuperior to his nature, he
braves the lion himfelf.
The form of the body ufually cor-
refponds with the nature, and the dif-
pofition of the animal. The tiger,
with a body too long, with limbs too
ij* fhort, with a head uncovered, and
with eyes ghaftly and haggard, has
j no characTeriftics but thofe of the ba-
feft and moft infatiable cruelty. In-
flead of inftincl he has nothing but an
uniform rage, a blind fury; fo blind
% indeed, fo undiftinguifhing, that he
frequently devours his own progeny,
and, if fhe offers to defend them, he
tears in pieces the dam herfelf.
The tiger is found in Malabar, in
Siam, in Bengal, and in ali the countries which are inhabited by the elephant or the rhinoceros.
B % -When
 (     20     )
"When he has killed a large animal,
fuch as a horfe, or a buffalo, he does
not devour it upon the fpot, but in
order to feaft at his leifure, he drags
it along with fuch eafe to the foreft,
that the fwiftnefs of his motion feems
fcarcely retarded by the enormous
The fpecies of the tiger has always
been much rarer, and much lefs generally diffufed, than that of the lion,
Like the lionefs, neverthelefs, the ti-
grefs produces four or five at a birth.
From her nature fhe is fierce at all
times; but when furrounded with
her infant progeny, and in the fmal-
left danger of lofing them, her fury
becomes extravagant. The ikins of
thefe animals' are much efteemed in
the eaft, particularly in China, where
the Mandarines cover their feats of
jiiftice with them. The Indians eat
the flefh of the tiger, and find it neither difagreeable nor unwholefome.
Of this tribe there are two principal varieties, the brown and the black.
The brown are natives of almoft e-
very country, the black only of northern, Europe and America. Of thefe
the firft is fometimes carnivorous, but
its general food is roots, fruits, and
vegetables. It is a favage and folita-
ry animal, inhabiting the wildeft
woods and moft defert mountains; it
fleeps or lies in a torpid date during
the winter in its cave, and for fame
weeks together abftains totally from
motion or food. In this inacTive condition it produces its young, which it
tends for four months with unremitting care, and all that time fcarcely
allowing itfelf any "nourishment. In
fpring they come forth quite lean and
ravenous, and almoft famimed with
their long confinement. They then
climb trees for fruits, rifle bees of
C their
 (     M     )
their honey, and ravage everywhere
the neighbouring country. Thefe a-
nimals are exceedingly dull and clum-
fy, but not entirely unfufceptible of
being inftrucTed. The methods by
which this is done are, however, cruel and unwarrantable, and it is more
the effedfc of neceflity than of confent.
The bear enjoys the fenfes of feeing, hearing, and feeling, in great
perfecTion; and yet, compared with
the fize of his body, his eye is very
fmall. His ears are alfo fhort, his
Ikin is coarfe, and his hair very thick.
His fmell is exquifite; more fo, perhaps, than that of any other animal,
the internal furface of his nofe being
very extenfive, and excellently calculated to receive the impreffion of
fmells. He ftrikes with his paws as
a man ftrikes with his fills; but in
whatever he may bear a rude kind of
refemblance to the human fpecies, he
• w
1^^——-^^"."' ^
J!?.  „,   ,■     ,:rrrj
C   25   )
does not gain by this the lead afc<m-
dancy over other animals.
The White Bear is a third variety
of this fpecies; an inhabitant of the
coldeft regions, even within nine degrees of the pole.    It is twice as large
as the brown, and is fometimes thirteen feet long.    Its limbs are of great
fize and ftrength; its hair long, harfh
and difagreeable to the touch, and of
a yeilowifh white colour.    In dimmer they refide on large iilands of
ice; can fwim well and dive, but cannot remain long under water.    They
are often driven out to fea^ and pe-
rifh on thefe icy mountains.    They
feed on fifh, feais, and the carcafes of
whales.    They are fullen, ferocious,
and daring.    They will die rather
than defert their young.    The black
bear is the fmalleft of all; is entirely
fuppo'rted by vegetables; and is chiefly found in America.
 (      26      )
Approaches  in a great degree
the variety of the dog fpecies.    The
fhape of the head is different; and the
eyes being fixed in a more oblique
fituation, create a look of more lavage ferocity.    Its ears are fharp and
erect; its tail long, bufhy, and bending between its legs; its body is generally ftronger than that of any dog;
its jaws and teeth are larger; its hair
coarfer and thicker.    The voraciouf-
nefs and hunger of this animal are
proverbial.    It poffeffes courage only when forced by neceflity.    As it
inhabits wild defert mountains and
cold climates, the rigours of frofl and
fnow deprive it of fubfiilence in its
retreats, and then the combined fqua-
drons of ftarving lavages fcatter devaluation over every part of the country.    They will attack villages, dorm
fheepfolds and houfes, dig the earth
c 27 )
under the doors, and, entering, de-
droy every living creature before
they depart. The wolf was common
in Britain in the times of the Saxons,
who believed it to be animated with
an evil fpirit. It was extirpated by
the mod active exertions both of the
date and individuals; but in both the
Old and New World, thefe dedruc-
tive plunderers, fecured from a like
fate by their continental fituation, often conditute the dread and dedruc-
tion of the natives. The wolf will
eat the mod putrid fubdances in a
feafon of want; and droves of them
frequently ranfack the manfions of
the dead. They will affemble in
troops on the rear of armies, tear up
fuch bodies as have been carelefsly
interred, and devour them with in-
fatiable avidity. Thefe, when once
accudomed to human flefb, prefer
the fhepherd to his flock, and devour
women, and carry off children.
 (    23    )
This noble animal, on account of
his various excellencies, the grandeur
of his flature, the fine and elegant
proportion of his body, the beautiful
fmoothnefs of his fkin, the graceful-
nefs of his motions, and, above all,
his ufefulnefs, merits the precedence
mthehiftory of the brute creation.
The horfe is produced in almod
every country in the known world,
more or lefs in a (late of fubjeetion
to man. But fhould we with to behold him in his original perfection
and beauty, we muft feek for him in
the wild and immenfe deferts of A-
rabia and Africa. In thefe he ranges
without controul, in a ftate of entire
independency, in full pofTeflion of his
natural freedom. Ihe wild horfes
of Arabia are the moft beautiful in
the world; their colour is brown;
their mane and tail are of black tufted
29 )
ed hahvvery fhort; they are fmaller
than the tame ones, exceedingly active, and of extraordinary fwiftnefs.
They feed in droves of four or five
hundred together; and in cafe of danger, upon,a fignal given by one of
their number, who conftantly ads as
centinel, they fly off with aftonifhing
rapidity. There is fcarce an Arabian, however poor, who is not poffeffed of a horfe, to him an invaluable treafure. His only abode being
a fingle tent, his wife and family, his
mare and her foal, are often feen lying promifcuouily together; while
his little children frequently climb
without fear upon the body of the in-
offenfive animal, which permits them
to play with and carefs it without injury. The Arabian never beats his
horfe; he fpeaks to him and feems
to hold friendly intercourfe with him.
The breed of Great Britain is as
mixed as that of its inhabitants.   The
 ( 3° )
race-horfe, by diligent care and fu-
perior fkill in rearing, excels both in
point of violent exertion and fleet-
nefs, thofe of the whole of Europe,
and perhaps of the world.
The horfe is endowed with vaft
ftrength and powers, but feldom exerts either to the prejudice of his maf-
ter. Devoting himfelf entirely to
his fervice, he fhares in his labours,
and feems to participate in his plea-
fures. Generous and perfevering he
furrenders his whole powers; curbs
his natural fiery and impetuous temper, and yields not only to his maf-
ter's hands, but even feems to con-
fult his inclinations. Flow unfeeling
mud he be who would abufe fuch
noble qualities! and with what regret mud we obferve that they are
too often facrificed to vanity and folly, or rewarded with the mod inhuman negligence and cruelty.
(   31   )
This animal has always been famous for his artifices; and the reputation he has thus acquired, he partly
merits.    What the wolf cannot ac-
complifh but by his iuperior ftrength, .
the fox accomplices by his fuperior
cunning.     Without attempting  to
oppofe either the fhepherd, his dog,
or his flock, he finds an eafier way
to fubfid.    Patient and prudent, he
waits the opportunity for depredation,
and varies his conducl: as he perceives
that  circumftances   vary.     Though
as indefatigableand more nimble than
the wolf, he does not truft entirely
to the fwiftnefs of his courfe, but
contrives for himfelf an afylum, to
which he retires in cafes of neceffitv,
and in which, flickered from danger,
he brings up his young.
The fox generally fixes his reft-
dence at the edge of a wood, and yet
 ' ( 32 3
not far removed from fome cottage,
or fome hamlet. He lift ens to the
crowing of the cock, and the cackling of other domedic fowls. Even
at a confiderable diftance he fcents
them, and feizes his opportunity. If
he be able to get into the yard, he
begins by levelling all the poultry
without remorfe. After this, he carries off a part of the fpoil, hides it at
fome convenient diftance, and again
returns to the charge. Taking off
another fowl in the fame manner, he
hides that alio, though not in the
fame place; and in this manner per-
feveres, till, warned by the approach
of day, or the noife of the family, he
The fox is fo voracious, that when
he has no better food, he devours
rats, mice, lizards, toads, and fer-
pents. InfecTs andfhell-fifh fometimes
ferve him for food. In vain does the
hedge-hog roll itfelf up into a ball to
 C   35   )
oppofe him. The wafp and the wild
bee are attacked by him with equal
fuccefs. Though at firfl they fly out
upon their invader, and actually o-
blige him to retire, yet this repulfe
is but for a few minutes, till he has
roiled himfelf upon the ground, and
thus crufhed fuch as may have ftuck
to his fkin. He then returns to the
charge, and at length, by dint of per-
feverance, obliges them to abandon
their combs, which he greedily devours.
The young foxes are produced
blind like dogs. Like them too, they
are eighteen months or two years in
reaching their full growth, and live
about thirteen or fourteen years.
The fenfes of the fox are as good as
thofe of the wolf; his fentiment is
moreacute,and the organ of his voice
is more fupple, and more perfecl.
He bites dangeroufly, and with the
moft determined fury.
 (    Z6   )
The dag, as being the moft noble
among the tenants of the woods, inhabits the moft fecret parts of the fo-
reft,  where the fpreading branches
form a lofty covert.    Whilfl the roebuck contents himfelf with a more
lowly refidence, and is feldom found
but among the thick foliage of young
trees and fhrubs.    But, if this animal
is lefs noble, lefs ftrong, and lefs e-
3ev«tea: J'n dature,   ne is,  however,
poffeffed of more grace, more vivacity, and even of more couraee than
the ftag.   Though but a fmall animal,
yet when his young are attacked, he
combats even the flag himfelf; and
often  obtains  the  vidory.     He  is
more gay, more handfome, more active; his fliape is more full and more
elegant, and his figure is more agreeable than that of the flag.    His eyes
in particular, are more brilliant and
{   37   )
animated; his limbs more fupple, his
movements quicker; and, poffeffed
of equal vigour and agility, he bounds
without effort.
The roe-buck differs from the flag,
not only in fuperior cunning, but al-
fo in his natural* appetites, his inclinations, and his whole habits of living. Jnftead of herding together like
the latter, the fpecies of the former
live in feparate families. The fire,
the dam, and the young ones, form
of themfelves a little community, nor
do they ever admit a ft ranger into it.
The roe-buck never forfakes his mate;
and as they have been generally bred
up together, the male and female form
for each other the ftrongeft attachment.
The female of this fpecies goes
with young five months and a half,
and brings forth about the end of
April, or the beginning of May.
 (    38    )
As the rein-deer to the frozen
countries of the Pole, fo the camel is
horfe, cow, and fheep,to the parched
native of Arabia. Its milk is rich
and nouriOiing; its flefh when young
is excellent food; its fleece or hair,
always cad in the fpring, is woven into very fine fluffs for cloths, coverings, tents, and other furniture. In
fandy deferts, where nature is only
one uniform void, naked and folita-
ry, the Arabian, with this animal,
can in one day journey fifty leagues.
The whole merchandife of the ead is
performed on camels. They ftoop
to be loaded, bear from three to four
hundred weight, and will fubfid fe-
veral days without water in the de-
fert, by means of a bag defigned by
nature for referving that liquid ♦attached to their domachs, of which
they have four like all other ruminating
C    39    )
ing animals. There are two varieties, the Ba&rian and Arabian, the
latter having only one, the former
two hunches on the back. The hoof
of the camel is admirably adapted to
flippery, yielding, Hoping, or ftony
ground. Extreme heat is however
deftru&ive to this animal; its proper
foil feems to be Arabia; and all attempts to tranfplant it have failed.
Their dung, when dried and powdered, ferves either themfelves or their
horfes for litter. A kind of turf is
alfo made of this dung, which burns
freely, and emits a flame as clear,
and almoft as lively, as that of dry
wood. Even this is another great
ufe, efpeciaiiy in defarts, where not
a tree is to be feen, and where, from
the deficiency of combudible matters, fire is almoft as fcarce as water. The camel generally lives forty or fifty years.
 (    40    )
Is a native of the icy regions of the
North. In the countries near the
pole, this animal feems to have been
deftined by providence to relieve the
wants of a hardy race of men, whofe
rigorous climate can admit of no o-
ther ufeful animal. It fupplies the
place of the horfe by being yoked to
the fledge; of the cow by its milkj
of the fheep arid goat by its fkin and
flefh, to the inhabitant of dreary Lapland. It will run, upon being hard
puflied, to the diftance of fixty miles
without ftopping; in general about
thirty, without any great or dangerous effort. The horns of the reindeer are large and flender, with brow
antlers, broad, and palmated. The
colour is dark brown, fometimes fhad-
ed with a little white. It lives chiefly on the lichen, and other moffy
flirubs; goes with young eight months,
 (   43    )
and has generally two at a time. It
is found in North America, in Spitsbergen, and Greenland, and in Afia
as far as Kamtfchatka. They live in
herds, but are detached, and kept by
the natives Separately near their cottages. The attempts to introduce it
into warmer climates have ail hitherto been without fuccefs.
The principal enemy of the reindeer is the wolf. But a more dangerous, though a lefs frequent, and
lefs numerous enemy than the wolf,
is the rofomack or glutton. This a-
nimal, more voracious, but heavier
than the wolf, does not purfue the
rein-deer, but climbs and conceals
himfelf in a tree, and waits the arrival of his prey. As foon as he fees
him within his reach, he rufhes upon
him, and faftening himfelf with his
nails upon his back, and tearing his
head or neck with his teeth, never
quits him till he has difpatched him.
 (    44    )
Is the largeft, the wifeft, and mod
obedient of all the animal creation.
The elephant has been employed for
the purpofes of war, labour, or parade, from time immemorial. It is
found in Ada, and particularly Africa. They feed in herds of many
hundreds together; are fhot by the
colonifts at the Cape of Good Hope,
and entangled in fnares by the hunters of the eaftern fovereigns to fup-
ply the great ufe of them in a tame
condition in the Afiatic countries.
In a fervile date they never breed;
but, lofing all their wildnefs, become
the mod tradable, fagaciou-s, and ufeful animals in the world. Their
trunk is the organ by which they feed,
and ferve or defend themfelves; and
this can not only tear up trees from
the very roots, but even lift the final-
left article.    They are feniible of in-
( 45 )
jury even to human acutenefs, and of
kindnefs in an equal degree. Patient
of labour, a word or a look will command them, and they will die rather
than difobey. In fhort, what is known
for certain of this animal can fcarcely be credited without being actually feen; to fuch a degree its fubmif-
fion and fagacity furpafs the mod
fanguine expectation. It ftoops to
take on its load, and helps to load it-
felf with its trunk. It feeds on grafs,
herbs, and leaves of trees; goes two
years with young; is from ten to fifteen feet high; is thirty years in attaining its full growth, and is faid to
live, even in captivity, one hundred
and twenty, or one hundred and
thirty years.
In a wild date the elephant is neither bloody nor ferocious; his manners are focial, and he feldom wanders alone: the olded leads the herd,
the next in age drives them.
 (46    )
The fervices and fidelity of the
dog fpecies are coeval almod with
the hidory of man himfelf. Vigilant,
faithful, bold, obedient and tradable
in the extreme, this tribe of animals
are the mod ufeful guardians of his
property, the mod devoted attendants
and fharers of his toils and fortunes.
The varieties of the dog are almoft
innumerable; the madiff, the cur, the
bull, the greyhound, pointer, beagle,
terrier, fetter, fpaniel, Newfoundland,
pug, lap and water dog, and many o-
thers, are found in this ifland. The
maftiffs of Great Britain were famous
in the Roman amphitheatre; three of
thefe, or four at the moft, are a match
for the lion; and they will be cut in
pieces and die rather than yield. The
fagacity of the large dog, wrhen appointed guardian of houfes, gardens,
yards, &c, is equal to his ftrength
(    47    )
and fidelity. His forbearance under
injury, when offered by an unworthy
antagonift, is fo great, that he has
been known, when infulted by a mun-
grel on board a (hip, to take no other
revenge thanfeizing him in his mouth,
and dropping him over deck. The
fkill and obedience of a fhepherd's
dog makes him equally manageable,
and far more ufeful, than any man.
He will, at a word, collect a whole
flock, drive them before him, purfue
draggling ones, and reconduct them
fafe into the main troop, with the
moft wonderful ability. In fhort, the
dog is a treafure without value, a
friend in all fituations, capableof fym-
pathy, devoted to his mafter even in
death, often his preferver, always his
aftiftant and comforter. This poor
animal is frequently neglected, or actually treated with ill ufage; but he
muft be thoughtlefs, barbarous, cr
ftupid beyond expreffion, who can
 C  48   )
fpurn the humble .pitiful look, the
fervile furrender, the melting gedures
and fuppliant fawnings of his anxious and trembling flave.—The dog
is carnivorous; its  domach  digeds
bones; it eats grafs for a vomit; voids
its urine Tideways; fmells at a drang-
er, and dillikes beggars or ill-looking
people.    He fcldont fweats, but lolls
out the tongue when hot;  is fubject
to hydrophobia;  hears very quick;
dreams; the female goes with young
fixty-three days, of a litter of from
four to eight.    It barks at drange
dogs or men; fnaps at a done thrown
at it; howls at certain mufical notes;
when about to lie down, frequently
goes round the place;  fawns at the
approach of his mader, and will not
patiently fuffer any one to drike him.
He runs before him on a journey, often going oyer the fame ground; and
when he has committed a fault flinks
away with his tail between his legs.
( 51 )
Is the only one of the tiger kind
with which we live in perfect friend-
fhip. Yet dill this animal betrays
the ferocity of its fpecies by its felfilh
character, its difpofition to turn wild
in fummer, and its loud and importunate cry. The cat fees better in twilight than by day; is extremely averfe
to water, cold, and bad fmeils; on the
contrary, it is very fond of valerian,
ma'rum, and cat-mint. She brings
forth twice, and fometimes thrice a-
year; produces five or fix at one litter, which fhe hides from the male,
who is apt to dedroy them. The cat
feems to be under no fubjection, but
to act entirely for herfelf. Gratitude
will not caufe her to prefer a benefactor to an old haunt; and fhe frequently deferts both for the .woods,
in which they are to be found much
fiercer, larger, and dronger.   Cats
( 5* >
will meet in the night time, to the a-
snount of fome hundreds, at the call
of didrefs from one of their own fpecies. They affemble in crowds, and
with loud yells exprefs their horrid
fympathies. They have been known
to tear the miferable object to pieces,
and, witlrthe mod blind and furious
rage, to fall upon one another, killing
and wounding, till there was fcarcely
one left*
As they are very cleanly, and as
their coat is always dry and fhining,
their hair eafily ele&rifies; and fparks
are feen to come from it, when rubbed with the hand in any dark place:
their eyes fhine in the dark, almod
like diamonds, and reflect outwardly, |
during the night, the light which they
may be faid to have imbibed during
the day.
In this climate, we know but one
fpecies of the wild cat.


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