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Ministry of Labour Annual Report for the year ended December 31, 1978 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1982]

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 r
Province of British Columbia
Ministry of Labour
Annual Report
For the year ended
December 31, 1978
HON. ALLAN WILLIAMS, Minister
JAMES G. MATKIN, Deputy Minister
rinted by Authority
Df The Legislative Assembly
 To Colonel the Honourable
Henry P. Bell-Irving, D.S.O., O.B.E., E.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of
British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Ministry of Labour of
the Province for the year 1978 is herewith
respectfully submitted.
ALLAN WILLIAMS
Minister of Labour
Office of the Minister of Labour,
December 31,1978.
Allan Williams
 The Honourable Allan Williams,
Minister of Labour.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit herewith the 60th
Annual Report on the work of the Ministry of
Labour up to December 31, 1978.
JAMES G. MATKIN
Deputy Minister of Labour
Ministry of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., December 31, 1978.
 Ministry of Labour
Directory of Services
Compensation Advisory
& Safety Services
Compensation Advisory Services
— Services to Employers
— Services to Employees
Safety Engineering Services
— Electrical Inspection
— Gas Inspection
— Boiler & Pressure Vessel
Inspection
Elevating Devices Inspection
Labour Relations
& Employment Standards
Employment Standards
Mediation Services
Arbitration & Special Services
Labour Education
Occupational Environment
m:f-
Training & Employment
Development Services
Manpower Planning & Policy Development
Employment Opportunity Programs
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Trade-schools Regulation
Immigration Policy
Administrative Services
Finance & Administration
Personnel Services
Research and Planning
Information Services
Special Services
Construction Industry Coordinator
— Building Standards
Coordinator— Native Indian Programs
(Office of the Minister)
Human Rights Programs
Manpower Advisory Services
   Contents
Personnel Directory  8
Review of Major Developments  13
Labour Market Information  14
Work Stoppage Statistics   21
Administrative Services, Compensation and Construction Industry Programs  37
Finance and Administration   38
Personnel Services  38
Information Services  39
Research and Planning  40
Compensation Advisory Services  40
Construction Industry Co-ordinator  41
Job Training and Employment Opportunity Programs, and Technical Services  43
Introduction  44
Apprenticeship Training Programs   44
Employment Opportunity Programs   47
Manpower Training and Development, and Trade-schools Regulation   47
Manpower Advisory Services  48
Occupational Environment  49
Elevating Devices   50
Industrial Relations and Human Rights Programs  53
Introduction  54
Labour Standards   54
Mediation Services   55
Arbitration and Special Services   56
Human Rights  58
Safety Engineering Programs   61
Introduction  62
Boiler Safety Inspection   62
Electrical Safety Inspection    63
Gas Safety Inspection  64
Building Standards and Research  64
Boards and Commissions  66
Board of Industrial Relations   67
Boards of Review  67
Statistics   69
 Personnel Directory
MINISTRY OF LABOUR
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V1X4
Minister of Labour
HON. L. ALLAN WILLIAMS  387-6070
Executive Assistant to the Minister
DAVID McPHEE 387-3336
Deputy Minister
JAMES G. MATKIN  387-3282
Assistant Deputy Minister — Administration
FRANK A. RHODES  387-5611
Assistant Deputy Minister— Labour Relations
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
DOUGLAS CAMERON 291-7351
Co-ordinator — Native Indian Programs
ROBERT EXELL  387-6296
Construction Industry Co-ordinator
CLAUDE HEYWOOD  387-6093
Director, Human Rights
KATHLEEN RUFF 387-6861
Director, Finance and Administration
RAY J. McMANAMAN 387-1615
Director, Personnel Services
WILLIAM H. BELL  387-1564
Compensation Advisory Services
— Compensation Consultant
MARIA GIARDINI 291-0401
— Employers' Advisor
ED ZURWICK 291-9448
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
Director, Research & Planning
ALAN H. PORTIGAL 387-3445
Director, Information Services
JACK E. NUGENT 387-6575
Director, Building Standards and Research
JIM CURRIE 387-6871
Labour Relations and Employment Standards
Executive Director
JAMES R. EDGETT 387-1226
Director, Labour Standards
WILLIAM J. HOSKYN  387-3284
Director, Mediation Services
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
GUS G. LEONIDAS 291-0681
Director, Labour Education
RONALD M. TWEEDIE 291-6126
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
Director, Arbitration and Special Services
GEORGE D. BISHOP 387-5753
Director, Elevating Devices
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
ALFRED MOSER 291-6446
Director, Occupational Environment
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
KENNETH MARTIN 291-9494
Job Training and Employment Opportunities Division
4946 Canada Way, Burnaby, B.C. V5G 4J6
Consultant, Manpower Advisory Services
RANJIT S. AZAD 291-6116
Executive Director, Manpower Planning
and Policy Development
(880 Douglas St., Victoria)
ROBERT PLECAS 387-1226
Director, Manpower Training and Development and
Trades-schools Regulation
JOHN MELVILLE 291-7591
Director, Apprenticeship Training
Programs
SAMUEL W. SIMPSON 294-3878
Director, Employment Opportunity Programs
(808 Douglas St., Victoria)
VERN A. BURKHARDT   387-3408
Safety Engineering Services Division
501 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5Z 1M6
Executive Director
WILF LAWSON 879-7531
Branch Manager, Boiler Safety
BRIAN COLE  879-7531
Branch Manager, Electrical Safety
AL LUCK 879-7531
Branch Manager, Gas Safety
BILL MONTGOMERY 879-7531
J
 Boards and Commissions
Board of Industrial Relations
Parliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman   JAMES G. MATKIN
Vice-Chairman
Secretary  J.R. EDGETT
Members C. MURDOCH
E. OSTAPCHUK
R.K. GERVIN
A. MACDONALD
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
(4946 Canada Way, Burnaby)
Chairman   JOHN MELVILLE
Members B.H. CAMPBELL
J.A. GRAY
E.H. McCAFFERY
A.E.SMITH
C. STAIRS
S.W. SIMPSON
T.W. TRINEER
Boards of Review
(Workers' Compensation Act)
4946 Canada Way, Burnaby
Administrative
Chairman  	
Chairmen 	
Human Rights Commission
Chairman  	
Members	
Members .
.PAULDEVINE
. W.I. AUERBACH
F.C.J. NEYLAN
B. BLUMAN
J.L.T.JENSEN
G.D. STRONGITHARM
.W.I. BEEBY
J.S. DON
D.C. FRASER
D. HAGGARTY
H. HUEBNER
N. MILLS
S.J. SQUIRE
W.N. PEAIN
L CAMPBELL
M. SALTER
. M.S. STRONGITHARM
. J.T SMITH
S.S. GILL
L CHECOV
J. KATZ
H. CROSBY
M. GOTTFRIEDSON
T.G. PEARCE
D. MOWAT
T.N. VANT
R.JEFFELS
W.S. ENG
Labour Relations Board
1620 West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver
Chairman   D.R. MUNROE
Vice-Chairmen J.A. MOORE
R.F.. BONE
J. BAIGENT
R.L GERMAINE
B. VAN DER WOERD
Members A. MACDONALD
A.J. SMITH
J.M. BILLINGS
J. BROWN
H.L FRITZ
M.L. KRAMER
G.D.M. LESLIE
K.R. MARTIN
P. CAMERON
J. McAVOY
CJ. ALCOTT
R. GAUTHIER
A. SAUNDERS
C. LOYST
Workers' Compensation Board
5255 Heather Street, Vancouver
Chairman   DR. A. LITTLE
Vice-Chairman J.B. PARADIS
Commissioners  D. DAVIS
S. BROWN
Executive Director,
Legal Services I.E. TUFTS
Executive Director,
Administration
and Finance  J.A. TAYLOR
Executive Director,
Medical
Services  J. GIBBINGS
Executive Director,
Prevention
Services  J.D. PATON
Executive Director,
Compensation
Services  A.H. MULLAN
 Principal Office
Victoria: 880 Douglas Street
Burnaby: 4946 Canada Way
Regional Office Locations
Abbotsford: 116-33780 Laurel Street
Alberni: Box 1172, Court House
Burnaby: 4946 Canada Way
Campbell River: 210-437 Tenth Avenue
Chilliwack: 24 Victoria Avenue West
15-300 Yale Road West (Safety Engineering
Services Div.)
Courtenay: 479-4th Street
Cranbrook: 117 South 10th Avenue
110-12 Avenue South (Safety Engineering
Services Div.)
Dawson Creek: 1201-103rd Avenue
Duncan: 238 Government Street, Provincial Building
Fort St. John: 10600-100th Street
Kamloops: 220-546 St. Paul Street
1168 Battle Street (Safety Engineering Services
Div.)
Kelowna: 1913 Kent Street
1921 Kent Street (Safety Engineering Services Div.)
Ladner: P.O. Box 55, 4893 Bridge Street
Langley: Box 3092, 20423 Douglas Crescent
Mission: 32818 Seventh Avenue
Nanaimo: 238 Franklin Street
20-5th Street (Safety Engineering Services Div.)
Nelson: 310 Ward Street
New Westminster: #360-550 Sixth Street
100 Mile House: Box 7000, 272-5th Street
Parksville: P.O. Box 759,103-182 West Harrison
Penticton: 269 Brunswick Street
Powell River: 6953 Alberni Street
Prince George: Plaza 400,1011 4th Avenue
Prince Rupert: Court House
Quesnel: 206-350 Barlow Avenue
Revelstoke: P.O. Box 1700, Office 'B', 518-2nd Street West
Salmon Arm: P.O. Box 636, Court House, 125 Alexander
Avenue N.E.
Smithers: Government Building, P.O. Box 998
Squamish: P.O. Box 2330, 38066 Cleveland Avenue
Surrey: 5691 -177B Street
Terrace: 4548 Lakelse Avenue
4827 Keith Avenue (Safety Engineering Services
Div.)
Trail: Federal Building
Vancouver: 501 West 12th Avenue
Vanderhoof: Box 1369, Provincial Building
Vernon: Court House
Williams Lake: 307-35 South 2nd Avenue
10
 1978 in Re'
Major Developments in 1978
Labour Market Information
Work Stoppage Statistics
  Ministry of Labour
teview of Major Developments in 1978
1978 was a year of accelerated growth in British
Columbia, both in the labour force and in employment.
The unemployment rate of 8.3 per cent for the year was
down slightly compared with the previous three years,
largely as a result of an improved labour market for
women. The year was also one of major growth and
activity for the Ministry of Labour.
British Columbia's exporting industries, the forestry
industry in particular, enjoyed a prosperous year as they
were able to take advantage of a relatively high level of
prosperity in the U.S., and the lowered foreign exchange
value of the Canadian dollar. Despite the phasing out of
the federal anti-inflation program in 1978, wages
increased at a moderate rate. Although work stoppages in
the provincial jurisdiction, at 421,363 man-days lost,
exhibited higher levels of time-loss than in 1977, they
remained at levels well below the 1974-1976 period, and
well below work stoppages in other provinces.
A number of significant events involving the Ministry of
Labour took place in 1978. In May, for example, the
Minister of Labour was host to a meeting of Ministers with
Manpower Responsibilities, and the Council of Ministers
of Education, in Victoria. In June, the Minister led a group
of management and labour representatives from the
forest industry on a trip to Japan to investigate possible
marketing opportunities for B. C. forest products.
At the First Ministers Conference in Ottawa in November,
the Minister spoke to the agenda item on manpower,
stating the B.C. position on manpower matters, and
emphasizing, in particular, the provincial responsibility
for employment programs. The Deputy Minister of Labour,
James G. Matkin, participated in the International Labour
Conference in Geneva in June as a member of the
Canadian delegation.
Several major changes in the organization of the Ministry
of Labour took place in 1978. In order to better implement
a co-ordinated approach to the labour relations and
manpower problems of the construction industry in B.C.,
the position of Construction Industry Co-ordinator was
formed. Further to this policy, the Construction Industry
Advisory Committee was re-established, after having lain
dormant since mid-1975.
To facilitate the improved provision of safety services and
the creation of a safer living and working environment for
the residents of British Columbia, the Ministry acquired,
from the Ministry of Highways and Public Works, four
Safety Inspection Branches - Boiler, Electrical, Gas and
Buildings. The Manpower Advisory Services Branch was
enlarged to deal with matters concerning immigration,
plant closures, and special requirements for manpower.
In the latter part of the year, the West Kootenays Schools
Collective Bargaining Assistance Act was passed by a
special session of the Legislative Assembly. This
legislation had two objectives: first, it brought to an end a
lengthy strike that had disrupted the school systems of a
number of communities in the West Kootenays, and
second, it also expanded the coverage of the Essential
Services Disputes Act to include colleges, universities
and municipalities.
The Apprenticeship and Training Development Act, was
proclaimed August 31,1978. This Act deals with the
apprenticeship programs of the Ministry and the
registration of trade-schools. It also authorizes the
Minister of Labour to enter into agreements affecting
training, job creation, immigration, apprenticeship, and
related areas. A new three-year Training Agreement with
the federal government, signed early in 1978, increased
the number of institutional and industrial training
opportunities in B.C.
The number of apprentices registered at the end of 1978
was 12,518, down 994 from 1977. A film, titled "The
Apprentice", was produced for the purposes of
encouraging more apprenticeship training. Ten regular
meetings of the Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
were held in 1978 to consider and approve new contracts
of apprenticeship, issue apprenticeship certificates to
apprentices who had successfully completed training,
and to fulfil its other varied responsibilities under the Acf.
The Youth Employment Program undertaken in the
summer of 1978 provided 13,800 jobs at a total cost of
$22,800,000. Increased emphasis was placed on training
in the creation of employment opportunities by providing
funding to employers in the private sector throughout
British Columbia.
In 1978 the Human Rights Branch handled 704 formal
complaints, of which 520 were new complaints and 184
were cases carried over from 1977. Boards of inquiry
heard five cases, two of which established significant
precedents. In addition to handling formal complaints,
the Branch conducted a wide variety of education
programs aimed at promoting the principles of the
Human Rights Code.
The number of inspections and investigations conducted
13
 by the Labour Standards Branch in 1978 was 49,855,
down 18 per cent from 1977. Recoveries under the
Annual and General Holidays Act, the Minimum Wage
Act and the Payment of Wages Act stood at $2,119,628
in 1978. This total was slightly higher than in 1977.
The Occupational Environment Branch is responsible for
ensuring that factories, stores, and offices provide
environmental conditions that are conducive to the
health, safety, and comfort of employees. During 1978,
the Branch increased the number of inspections by 12
per cent over 1977 in addition to developing new
educational programs for labour and management.
Labour Market Information
Increased rates of participation in the labour market
resulted in a 4.2 per cent expansion in the size of the
provincial labour force during 1978. In June 1978 the
number of persons participating in the labour force
totalled 1,192,000.
Employment growth was also significant during the past
year; the 4.4 per cent expansion in jobs resulted in an
average of 1,093,000 persons employed during 1978.
The similarity in labour force and employment growth
rates resulted in virtually no change in the level of
unemployment recorded in the Province. On average,
98,000 persons, or 8.3 per cent of British Columbia's
work force, were estimated to be unemployed during
1978.
There were 104 work stoppages recorded during 1978,
an increase of 37 compared with the previous year.
Stoppages in the Province accounted for 754,022 man-
days, about two thirds more than in 1977, but half as
many as in 1976.
Settlements reported during the year numbered 471 and
covered 204,687 employees. The average annual wage
increase reported in these major settlements was 6.2 per
cent or 50 cents an hour. This annual settlement was
down slightly from the previous year's average of 6.4 per
cent, but was much lower than the 1975 peak of 16.3 per
cent.
Population
The estimated population of British Columbia increased
by 36,700 persons to a total of 2,530,200 in June. Net
migration and natural increase made approximately the
same contribution to this growth.
o
o
o
75-
70-
65-
60-
55-
ii 50-
*    45-
O    40	
CC
O
2    35-
O
P    30-
<
2    25"
O
o.    20-
15-"'
10-
5-
INTERPROVINCIAL   MIGRATION
TOTAL
POPULATION
GROWTH
INTENDED   IMMIGRATION
NATURAL   INCREASE
—I	
1969
 1	
1973
 1-
1977
1968
1970
1971
1972
1974
1976
1978
Source:       Statistics Canada,   Canadian  Statistical Review,   Ottawa  Catalogue  11-003
Note: Interprovincial  Migration   negative in 1976 and 1977.
14
 Population 1969-1978
Year
British Columbia
Population1
Population Growth (percent)
British Columbia       Canada
1969  2,060,000
1970  2,128,000
19712   2,184,600
1972  2,241,400
1973  2,302,400
1974  2,375,700
1975  2,433,200
19762   2,466,600
1977  2,493,500
1978  2,530,200
3.2
1.5
3.0
1.4
2.7
1.3
2.6
1.1
2.7
1.1
3.2
1.5
2.4
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.0
1 As of June 1 of each year.
Source: Statistics Canada,
(monthly).
2Census counts.
Canadian Statistical Review, Ottawa, Cat.
Net interprovincial migration, which had been negative in
1976 and 1977, reversed to a positive flow of 5,000
persons in 1978. Migration from abroad was at its lowest
level since the mid-fifties, and has been declining
rapidly since 1975. The rate of natural increase - that is,
the difference between the number of births and deaths
expressed as a percentage - has been stable at 0.7 per
cent of the population since 1975. The combined effect
of these three forces has been a rate of population growth
of 1.5 per cent in 1978, an increase above the level of 1.4
per cent and 1.1 per cent in 1976 and 1977, but much
lower than the levels prevailing in the late sixties and
early seventies.
This rate has been increasing consistently for many years
by 0.5 percentage points a year. In 1978, however, the
increase was 1.1 points. A breakdown of this ratio by sex
shows a rapid growth of 2.4 percentage points in the rate
for women, and a decline of 0.2 percentage points in the
rate for men. This difference between the labour market
participation of men and women is even more
pronounced in the over-25 years age group.
The reasons underlying these behaviour patterns are
varied and complex but, for the sake of analytical
convenience, can be divided into long-term structural
factors and more specific factors. In the former category
are such demographic trends as the shift from the heavily
male-dominated resource and primary manufacturing
industries to the often more female-oriented service
industries, changes in the family and in family
responsibilities, and changes in social and personal
attitudes, to name but a few. In the latter category are
such factors as women assuming the primary
breadwinner role in periods of high unemployment
among males, the need for supplementary income in
periods of high inflation, and competition for jobs.
The net effect of all these factors over the last year has
been an increase in the labour force of 14,000 men and
34,000 women, resulting in an average labour force of
1,192,000 persons and an annual growth rate of 4.2 per
cent. This growth rate is considerably higher than that in
1977 (2.5 per cent) or in 1976 (2.6 per cent) and is
concentrated among women 25 to 44 years of age. The
latter group accounted for 32,000 persons, or two thirds of
the entire labour force growth.
Labour Force
The relationship between population and labour force
can be expressed as the combined effect of two factors:
the ratio between the 0-14 age group and the total
population, and the labour force participation rate.
The first of these ratios, which is a fairly stable
demographic variable, has been slowly declining from a
peak of 35.4 per cent in 1961, and 24.1 per cent in 1976,
to an estimated value of just under 24 per cent in 1978.
The second ratio, the labour force participation rate, is
much more critical and volatile, and deserves further
attention.
Labour Force Participation Rates, 1975-78
(per cent)
1975
Total   61.1
Men  77.2
Women  45.2
15-24 Years  66.1
25 and over   59.4
Men  79.3
Women  40.1
Labour Force by Age and Sex
(thousands)
61.3
61.5
62.8
77.1
77.5
77.3
45.8
45.9
48.3
65.2
66.2
66.9
60.0
60.0
61.3
79.1
79.2
78.9
41.5
41.5
44.4
1975
1976
1977
1978
Total 	
...    1087
1116
1144
1192
Men	
...      680
694
711
725
Women	
...      407
422
433
467
15-24Years ....
...      290
291
298
305
25 and over
Men	
...      524
535
548
559
Women	
273
290
298
328
Changes in educational attainment can be expected to
take place slowly. Persistent trends over the last four
years, that have been maintained into 1978, include the
relative decline in the "0-8 years of school" category and
in the "post-secondary diploma" category, as well as
stability in the group with a university degree, and rapid
growth in the group with a full or partial high school
education. The growth of the group with some or
complete post-secondary education appears to have
stopped in 1978.
The labour force participation rate is the ratio between
the number of people in the labour force and that part of
the non-institutional population that is 15 years and over.
15
 Educational Attainment of the Labour Force
(thousands)
1975
1976
1977
1978
0-8 years of
school      132 133 123 123
Some secondary
school      560 602 623 668
Some post-
secondary      126 133 148 148
Post-secondary
diploma      158 137 130 128
University
degree       111 111 120 124
Total   1,087       1,116       1,144       1,192
In addition to the average of 1,192,000 persons who
participated in the provincial labour force during 1978, an
additional 712,000 persons of working age (15 years and
over) stayed outside the labour market. Going to school,
keeping house, retirement and illness were all common
reasons why an individual might not be in the labour
force.
Women comprised the bulk of those outside the labour
force, 499,000 persons, or 70 per cent of the total. An
additional 150,000 persons not in the labour force (21 per
cent of the total) were men aged 25 years and over, and a
further 63,000 (9 per cent) were younger men.
Estimates of the occupational structure of the labour force
showed that 63 per cent of workers had white-collar
skills. The largest single occupational group remained
the managerial, administrative and professional group
with 252,000 members, slightly more than one fifth of the
total work force. Clerical and service groups provided
199,000 persons and 170,000 persons. Another 135,000
persons, one ninth of the work force, were sales people.
An additional 37 per cent of the labour force, or 436,000
persons, were classified as working in blue-collar
occupations. The largest components of this group were
the 169,000 persons in processing and the 90,000
persons in construction occupations. The number of
persons engaged in primary occupations (forestry,
fishing, mining and agriculture) rose by 4,000 last year to
a total of 64,000 persons. A further 106,000 persons had
skills related to transportation, material handling and
other craft.
The largest growth in the labour force during 1978 (9.5
per cent) occurred in the managerial, professional and
technical class. In the processing group the labour force
increased by 7.0 per cent. The construction labour force
fell for the second consecutive year by 4.2 per cent, or
4,000 persons, and a decline of 8,000 persons was
recorded for the sales category.
The female labour force remained heavily concentrated
in white-collar occupations. Over one third of women
were employed in the clerical group, and 90 per cent
were in the four white-collar categories. This degree of
concentration was the same as that recorded for 1975.
Labour Market Age Distribution, 1978
1.3
Note:   All figures
are expressed
in percentages.
UNEMPLOYMENT
 Employment
Employment in British Columbia increased by 46,000
persons, or 4.4 per cent in 1978 to an average of
1,093,000. Last year's growth compared favourably with
the 2.6 per cent and 2.5 per cent increases experienced
over the previous two years. During 1978 almost three
times as many women as men entered employment —
34,000 women versus 12,000 men. This was a reversal of
the pattern during 1977 when men obtained 63 per cent
of the increase in jobs.
Employment growth was most significant among the
25-44 age group, in which total employment expanded
by 29,000 persons, or 5.6 per cent. During 1978,47 per
cent of all those working were in this age category.
Employment growth was also significant among the
15-19 age group, 4.8 per cent, representing 5,000
additional workers.
Employment by Sex
(thousands)
Both
Sexes Men Women
1975  995
1976  1020
1977  1047
1978  1093
Employment by Age Group
(thousands)
Age Group 1975 1976
15-19years  106 104
20-24 years  143 143
25-44 years  450 472
45-64 years  279 285
65 years  17 16
Total    995 1020
626
369
642
377
659
388
671
422
105
110
147
151
485
514
291
302
18
16
1047
1093
Part-time employment grew at a slightly faster rate than
full-time employment in 1978, but in both these
categories the growth was substantially higher for
women. The 10.2 percent increase in full-time
employment of women stands out as particularly
significant. The relative importance of part-time work was
fairly stable for men, but declined for women in 1978,
after a steady increase since 1975. It is interesting to
note that the percentage of people who worked part time
because they did not want full-time work decreased
rapidly in 1978.
Full-time and Part-time Employment (thousands)
Total
Both Sexes
1975  995
1976  1019
1977  1047
1978  1033
Men
1975  626
1976  643
1977  659
1978  671
Women
1975  369
1976  378
1977  388
1978  421
Fulltime
867
882
902
941
590
602
618
629
277
281
283
312
Part-
time
128
137
145
152
36
41
41
42
92
97
105
109
Most major industry groups have exhibited continued
growth in employment since 1975, except for
construction, where employment has been stable,
although down slightly since 1975. In finance,
employment stabilized in 1978 after earlier growth. Over
the period from 1975 to 1978 the goods-producing sector
grew at a slightly higher rate (10.8 per cent) than the
service-producing industries (9.8 percent). These
aggregate growth rates conceal the fact, however, that in
the last two years, employment in the service-producing
industries has been growing at increasing rates (2.9 per
cent and 5.3 per cent). Almost four fifths of the total
increase in employment in 1978 took place in the trade
and service industry groups, compared with slightly more
than half for the entire 1975-1978 period.
Reasons for Part-time Employment
1977
Number     PerCent
1978
Number    PerCent
Family responsibilities... 15
Going to school    41
Could only find part-
time work  24
Did not want full-
time work  61
Other  5
Total  145
10
16
11
28
53
35
17
28
18
42
49
32
3
6
4
100
153
100
The combined service-producing sector provides about
70 per cent of all employment, a percentage that has
remained virtually constant since 1975. The comparable
figure for Canada as a whole is 66.7 per cent.
Estimates of Employment by Industry, 1975-78
(thousands)
Per Cent
Change
1975     1976     1977     1978     1975-1978
Goods  288
Agriculture  16
Other primary
products  41
Manufacturing  153
Construction    78
Sen/ice  705
Trade  192
Transport, communication, other utilities .. 105
Finance, insurance,
real estate   54
Community, business,
personal service  287
Public administration ... 67
Total   995
307
313
319
10.8
18
21
25
56.3
44
43
45
9.8
167
170
174
13.7
78
79
75
-3.8
713
735
774
9.8
192
194
213
10.9
108
106
106
1.0
59
62
62
14.8
286 299 316  10.1
68  74  77  14.9
1020 1047 1093  9.8
Unemployment
The number of unemployed men and women remained
virtually the same in 1978 as in 1977; last year an
average of 53,000 men and 45,000 women were without
work. The unemployment rate — that is, the ratio
between the number of unemployed persons and the
total labour force — decreased slightly because the
labour force growth rate exceeded the growth rate in the
number of unemployed persons. Male unemployment
rates remained unchanged compared with 1977,
averaging 7.3 per cent of the labour force. The
unemployment rate for women dropped to 9.7 per cent in
17
 1978 from 10.4 per cent in 1977. The fact that female
employment expansion kept pace with the rising female
labour force was the major factor behind the lowered
unemployment rate.
Unemployment by Sex and Age, 1975-78
(thousands)
1975
1976
1977
1978
Total    92 96 97 98
Men  54 52 52 53
Women  37 44 45 45
Age Group
15-19 years  22 24 24 23
20-24 years  19 20 21 21
25-44 years  33 34 33 36
45-64 years  17 18 18 18
The distribution of unemployment by age and sex has not
changed substantially. Unemployed persons under 25
years of age maintain a disproportionate share — last
year they comprised 45 per cent of all unemployed
persons, although they accounted for only 25 per cent of
the labour force. The average annual unemployment rate
for this group was 14.4 per cent in 1978 (15.1 per cent in
1977), and for the younger subgroup (15-19) was 17.0
per cent in 1978 (18.7 per cent in 1977).
8.6
8.5
8.3
7.4
7.3
7.3
10.5
10.4
9.7
19.0
18.7
17.0
12.2
12.4
12.4
6.6
6.5
6.6
5.8
6.0
5.7
Unemployment Rates by Sex and Age, 1975-78
(per cent)
1975 1976 1977 1978
Total     8.5
Men  8.0
Women  9.4
Age Group
15-19years  17.4
20-24 years  11.9
25-44 years  6.9
45-64 years  5.6
Among older workers, neither levels nor rates of
unemployment showed much change in 1978 when
compared with the three previous years. A total of 36,000
workers 25-44 years of age were without jobs during
1978, equivalent to a 6.6 per cent rate of unemployment,
and 18,000 persons 45-64 years of age (5.7 per cent)
were unemployed.
The British Columbia unemployment picture exhibited an
improvement relative to the broader Canadian picture.
British Columbia's share of unemployed Canadians has
declined consistently from 13.3 per cent of the 1975 total
to 10.8 per cent last year. The main reason for this
apparent improvement was that the unemployment
picture in the rest of the country has continued to
deteriorate while British Columbia's situation remained
unchanged. For the first time since 1956 the B.C.
unemployment rate dropped slightly below the national
average: 8.3 per cent of the B.C. labour force were
without work last year, compared with 8.4 per cent
nationally. Provinces east of the Ottawa River continued
 to have the highest unemployment rates during 1978.
Newfoundland and New Brunswick experienced rates of
16.4 per cent and 12.6 per cent. In the prairie provinces,
rates of unemployment were up relative to 1977, but still
remained the lowest in the country. In Alberta and
Saskatchewan, average unemployment rates during
1978 were 4.7 per cent and 4.9 per cent. Last year a total
of 911,000 persons were without work in Canada, an
increase of 61,000 over 1977.
In addition to examining the levels and rates of
unemployment, it is also of some interest to know the
reasons why individuals were without work, how long
they have been unemployed, and what types of
employment were being sought. As the accompanying
table shows, the major reason for unemployment
affecting over one half of those without work was that
they had been laid off or had lost their jobs.
Reasons for Unemployment, 1977
(thousands)
Average
Number
Per Cent
of Total
Illness	
Personal responsibilities	
School  	
Laid off or lost job 	
5
6
5
51
5.1
6.1
5.1
52.1
Other	
Never worked 	
26
5
26.5
5.1
Total 	
98
100.0
as illness, personal responsibilities, and school were the
major initial reason why an additional 16,000 persons
were out of work; a further 5,000 persons were new to the
labour market and had never worked previously.
The average duration of unemployment in B.C. during
1978 was 13.9 weeks, an increase of half a week over
1977 (13.4 weeks). This increase was largely caused by
longer average unemployment among men, from 13.0
weeks in 1977 to 13.8 weeks last year. Average duration
among women remained higher at 14.1 weeks during
1978. The average duration of unemployment was lower
in British Columbia than in Canada as a whole (15.5
weeks), and lower than in all provinces except
Saskatchewan (12.0 weeks) and Alberta (9.2 weeks).
Of the 98,000 persons without work during 1978, an
average of 34,000 had been unemployed for 14 weeks or
longer; 18,000 men and 16,000 women were long-term
unemployed.
Full-time permanent work was the type of employment
sought by an average 69,000 persons during 1978, over
two thirds of the unemployed. A further 6,000 individuals
sought full-time work on a temporary basis, and 14,000
persons were seeking part-time employment. An
additional 9,000 persons, counted as unemployed, were
on layoff or had a job to start at a future date and therefore
had not looked for work.
The 26,000 persons who were unemployed for "other
reasons" included individuals who are new to the
provincial labour force, but who may have had previous
work experience namely.immigrants, in-migrants from
other provinces, and recent school leavers. Factors such
 Unions With a British Columbia Membership Greater Than 5,000
Union
Relative
Relative
Membership
Position
Position
January
1977
1978
1978
International Woodworkers of America  1 1 47,536
B.C. Government Employees' Union  2 2 38,323
B.C. Teachers' Federation  3 3 29,339
Canadian Union of Public Employees  4 4 24,950
Hospital Employees' Union  6 5 21,060
Teamsters   5 6 21,016
Carpenters  7 7 14,973
Public Service Alliance of Canada  9 8 13,788
Registered Nurses' Association of B.C  8 9 13,5161
Operating Engineers   10 10 12,449
Hotel and Restaurant Employees  11 11 11,255
United Steelworkers of America  12 12 10,796
IBEW (Electrical Workers)  13 13 10,398
Telecommunications Workers Union  14 14 10,347
Laborers' International Union  15 15 9,373
Canadian Paperworkers' Union  17 16 8,899
International Association of Machinists  16 17 8,847
Office and Technical Employees' Union   18 18 8,185
Retail Clerks' International Association  19 19 8,029
Pulp Paper and Woodworkers of Canada  20 20 6,621
United Fishermen and Allied Workers  21 21 6,027
1 Does not include 1,935 who are in the Association but are not covered by collective bargaining.
Organized Labour Force
As of January 1,1978, a total of 450,802 workers in British British Columbia was the International Woodworkers of
Columbia were members of trade unions. This represents America, with 47,536 members. The other largest unions
an increase of 11,072, or 2.5 per cent, over the previous in the Province were: second, B.C. Government
total of 439,730 reported for the same date in 1977. Employees' Union — 38,323 members; third, B.C.
These 450,802 union members in 1978 comprised 45.3 Teachers' Federation — 29,339; fourth, Canadian Union
per cent of the estimated total number of paid workers in of Public Employees — 24,850; and fifth, the Hospital
the Province. Employees' Union — 21,060. Altogether 21 unions
claimed memberships in the Province exceeding 5,000,
Again in 1978 the union with the largest membership in as indicated in the accompanying table.
Union Membership as a Percentage of Paid Workers
I
100
 Union Membership in British Columbia, 1945-1978
Year
Total
Membership
Percentage Change
From Previous Year
Total Paid
Workers'
Organized Labour
as a Percentage of
Total Paid Workers
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
110,045
283,000
38.9
146,259
335,000
43.6
186,951
381,000
49.1
215,437
430,000
50.1
237,864
4.9
550,000
43.2
256,241
7.7
588,000
43.6
273,946
6.9
626,000
43.8
287,502
5.0
654,000
44.0
292,842
1.9
706,000
41.5
310,222
5.9
713,000
43.5
316,587
2.1
743,000
42.6
332,091
4.9
784,000
42.4
350,175
5.5
850,000
41.2
395,846
13.0
895,000
44.2
401,608
1.5
914,000
43.9
426,723
6.3
934,000
45.7
439,730
3.0
958,000
45.9
450,802
2.5
995,000
45.3
11ncludes Agricultural Workers in 1976,1977 and 1978
Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, catalogue 71-001 (monthly)
Female union membership grew by 5,441, or 4.3 per
cent, over the previous year. Female members totalled
132,106 as of January 1 st, 1978, and comprised 33.5 per
cent of the estimated 372,000 female paid workers in the
Province. About half of the male paid workers — 318,696,
or 50.5 per cent — belonged to unions as of the first of
this year. Twenty-two unions in the Province had
memberships containing more than 1,000 females, led
by the Hospital Employees' Union with 16,890 female
members, and followed by the B.C. Government
Employees' Union with 16,382, the B.C. Teachers'
Federation with 14,324, and the Registered Nurses
Association of British Columbia with 13,110.
On an industry basis, union membership is most heavily
concentrated in the miscellaneous services category
(which includes a substantial proportion of federal and
provincial public administration) with 119,231 members,
or 26.4 per cent of the total union membership in the
Province. Second in importance was the wood and paper
products group with 64,336 members, or 14.2 per cent of
the total union membership.
Again, about three fourths of all union members in British
Columbia belonged to unions affiliated with a national
and/or international congress or confederation of unions.
The majority of union members are in unions affiliated
with the Canadian Labour Congress. There were 319,673
members in unions that belonged to the CLC, and this
comprised 70.9 per cent of all union members in the
Province. Of the total number of workers in unions
affiliated with the CLC, 190,143 are in international
unions also affiliated with the AFL-CIO, and 129,530 are
in national unions. The Confederation of Canadian
Unions (CCU) has union affiliates which have 15,131
members, or 3.4 per cent of the total union membership
in the Province.
:
Work Stoppage Statistics
efinitions
The British Columbia Ministry of Labour has been
collecting and reporting labour dispute statistics since
1918. The series has been developed for the purpose of
providing a quantitative measure of the extent to which
lisagreements between labour and management result
n work stoppages. Information about possible disputes is
collected from a variety of sources such as the news
media, ministerial information sources, and other
government and private publications. Specific details for
;ach dispute are then verified by direct contact with the
jarties involved.
Dispute
The major criterion used in the collection of dispute
statistics is the concept of work stoppage. All stoppages,
whether or not authorized by the union, legal or illegal,
are included, with no attempt at categorization.
Consequently, labour dispute statistics for 1978 are
composed of strikes, lockouts and jurisdictional disputes,
as well as the occasional sympathy or protest strike.
Small disputes of less than 10 man-days duration,
however, may occasionally be omitted. There is some
reservation as to whether such disputes should be
21
 included because of the difficulties involved in defining,
identifying and securing information on disputes that last
only a few hours or less.
Duration
establishments in which the number of weekly working
days exceeds the work week of individual employees,
the duration in man-days is so weighted. As far as
information permits, variations in the number of workers
directly involved in the course of a labour dispute are also
taken into account in the calculation of man-days.
The duration of a labour dispute is calculated in terms of
working days from the commencement date of the
dispute to the termination date. The commencement
date is the first day on which normal operations were
affected by the work stoppage.
The termination date is the day on which work was
resumed. If normal operations could not be resumed after
the settlement of a dispute, the day on which the workers
were available for work is regarded as the termination
date. The days counted as "working" are those on which
the establishment involved would normally be in
operation.
Duration in Man-days
Duration in man-days is calculated by multiplying the
duration in working days by the number of workers
directly involved. For work stoppages involving
Work Stoppages in British Columbia, 1958-1978
Workers Involved
Only those workers directly involved in a dispute are
reported. Workers indirectly affected by disputes, such
as those involved in layoffs resulting from lack of
materials, or those respecting picket lines, are not
included in the number of workers directly involved. If the
number of workers involved varies during the course of
the stoppage, the maximum number is shown.
Work Stoppages
Preliminary statistics for 1978 show increases in the
number of work stoppages, workers involved and man-
days recorded when compared with 1977. Although there
were more stoppages in 1978 than 1976, they involved ■
considerably fewer workers and resulted in fewer man-
days lost.
Time-loss as a
Workers
Total
Percentage of Total
Number of
Directly
Duration in
Paid
Time Worked by
Year
Stoppages1
Involved
Man-days
Workers2
Paid Workers
1958  36
1959  34
1960  14
1961   17
1962  28
1963  23
1964  34
1965  43
1966  39
1967  54
1968  66
1969  88
1970  81
1971   110
1972  101
1973  142
1974  139
1975  174
1976  97
1977  67
1978  104
14,663
33,443
999
1,638
1,982
9,651
9,633
9,197
24,748
11,371
12,179
22,329
46,649
53,368
106,399
96,078
86,932
67,502
84,565
31,865
46,947
421.
1,423.
35
34
32.
85.
182.
121.
272
327
406,
519.
1,684
275.
2,120
705
1,609.
1,864.
1,470.
448
754
837
268
848
659
987
372
489
374
922
167
729
663
463
580
848
525
131
596
7573
,460
022
422,000
438,000
430,000
438,000
461,000
488,000
519,000
550,000
588,000
626,000
654,000
706,000
713,000
743,000
784,000
850,000
895,000
914,000
934,000
958,000
995,000
0.4
1.3
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.9
0.1
1.1
0.3
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.2
0.3
'Definitional changes made for 1976 make more current work stoppage totals non-comparable with earlier years (revisions forthcoming). See Labour Research Bulletin,
March 1976 p.27 for details.
2Does not include persons who operated their own business, farms, or professions, or persons who worked without pay on a farm or business owned or operated by a
member of the household to whom they were related. Totals include agricultural workers for the first time in 1976. Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, Ottawa,
Catalogue 71-001 (monthly).
3Total does not include October 14th Day of Protest (est. 139,150).
22
 Work Stoppages by Month, 1978
Disputes
Workers
Duration in
Man-days
Disputes
Duration in
Man-days
January
Agriculture  —
Forestry2    —
Fishing   —
Mines   —
Manufacturing  1
Construction   —
Transport   3
Trade  1
Finance    —
Service  1
Public Administration  1
Provincial  4
Federal  3
Totals   7
February
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing   —
Mines   —
Manufacturing  1
Construction   —
Transport   5
Trade  1
Finance    —
Sen/ice  2
Public Administration  2
Provincial  9
Federal  2
Totals   11
March
Agriculture  —
Forestry   3
Fishing   —
Mines   1
Manufacturing  5
Construction   —
Transport   4
Trade  1
Finance   —
Service  3
Public Administration  3
Provincial  17
Federal  3
Totals   20
April
Agriculture  —
Forestry  2
Fishing   —
Mines   —
Manufacturing  5
Construction   1
Transport   3
Trade  1
Finance    —
Sen/ice  2
Public Administration  2
Provincial  14
Federal  2
Totals   16
85
120
1,570
1,285
1,190
10,105
212,025
180
3,780
5
50
15
8
285
5,028
10,105
212,025
10,390
217,053
480
12,873
83,113
180
3,600
110
1,140
92
947
3,280
9,380
10,095
81,900
13,375
91,280
2,770
1,370
867
10,960
2,576
3,452
180
19,160
3,960
160
119
7,216
502
7,718
1,935
2,268
39,521
4,108
43,629
2,825
812
3,466
50
250
755
6,070
180
360
75
700
605
5,561
3,277
13,432
485
5,800
3,762
19,232
May
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing   —
Mines   1
Manufacturing  4
Construction   —
Transport   4
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  1
Public Administration  2
Provincial  11
Federal  1
Totals   12
June
Agriculture  —
Forestry   3
Fishing   —
Mines   1
Manufacturing  9
Construction    —
Transport   4
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  1
Public Administration  1
Provincial  18
Federal  1
Totals   19
July
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing   1
Mines   1
Manufacturing  12
Construction   —
Transport   7
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  3
Public Administration  1
Provincial  20
Federal  5
Totals   25
August
Agriculture  —
Forestry   1
Fishing   —
Mines   1
Manufacturing  10
Construction   1
Transport   7
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  7
Public Administration  2
Provincial  26
Federal  3
Totals   29
408
583
1,324
360
1,048
408
270
916
27
1,632
7,756
5,078
25
350
605
4,300
2,850
19,021
95
95
2,945
19,116
530
8,976
29,794
3,667
20
440
75
1,650
3,337
45,048
100
9
3,437
45,057
600
1,200
408
8,160
6,406
45,939
4,012
143
1,193
75
1,350
7,224
59,862
1,324
1,992
8,548
61,854
27
408
8,976
2,147
26,912
800
3,200
2,495
9,638
1,526
17,735
520
263
6,987
63,001
936
3,750
7,923
66,751
23
 Work Stoppages by Month, 1978
Disputes
September
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing  —
Mines   3
Manufacturing  5
Construction   —
Transport   5
Trade      —
Finance    —
Service  6
Public Administration  1
Provincial  17
Federal  3
Totals   20
October
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing  —
Mines   4
Manufacturing  6
Construction   —
Transport   2
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  3
Public Administration  1
Provincial  15
Federal  1
Totals   16
940
825
807
1,766
628
3,150
Duration in
Man-days
14,012
4,432
5,778
881
9,188
150
150
2,955
30,880
648
2,680
3,603
33,560
21,392
1,487
2,864
668
4,629
2,900
20,300
6,212
30,372
2.900
20,300
9,112
50,672
Disputes
November
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing  —
Mines   3
Manufacturing  3
Construction   —
Transport   —
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  2
Public Administration  1
Provincial  9
Federal  —
Totals   9
December
Agriculture  —
Forestry   —
Fishing   —
Mines   3
Manufacturing  4
Construction   —
Transport   2
Trade  —
Finance    —
Service  3
Public Administration  —
Provincial  12
Federal  —
Totals   12
940
1,444
2,752
940
1,955
172
Duration in
Man-days
19,740
29,066
318
6,678
50
100
2,752
55,584
55,584
17,860
27,485
1,127
918 3,762
3,985 50,234
3,985 50,234
There were 104 work stoppages recorded during 1978,
an increase of 37 over 1977. Increases occurred in
industries in both federal and provincial jurisdictions.
Although the number of work stoppages under provincial
jurisdiction accounted for 85 per cent of the total, they
contributed to only 56 per cent of total man-days lost. The
overall proportion of disputes in the provincial sector is
little changed from the 87 per cent and 86 per cent
proportions recorded in the previous two years.
The increase in the number of workers directly involved
in work stoppages grew in direct proportion to the
number of disputes. In fact, the average number of
workers involved in each stoppage (45) represents a 5
per cent decl ine from 1977 (476) and is wel I below the
1976 average of 872 workers per stoppage. Estimates
based on 1971 Census proportions indicate that
approximately 89 per cent of B.C. workers are employed
in industries that come under provincial jurisdiction.
Thus, while the number of stoppages are in proportion to
the division of employees, the number of workers
involved and man-days recorded are heavily weighted
toward the federal jurisdiction.
Work stoppages in the Province accounted for 754,022
man-days, about two thirds more than in 1977, but half as
many as in 1976. Fifty-three stoppages in the service-
producing sector of the provincial economy during 1978
accounted for 60 per cent of the total man-days recorded.
This is somewhat lower than the proportion of
employment in this sector, but it is also a probable
24
indication of the lower level of unionization in the service
sector.
The largest number of stoppages occurred in the
manufacturing sector, in which there were 35 disputes
involving 11,690 workers. The largest number of workers
involved, and most man-days recorded, however, both
occurred in the transportation, communication and other
utilities sector. The average duration of disputes was
longest in the mining industry, in which each worker
involved in a stoppage was off the job for an average of
almost 36 days.
By comparison, workers in the transportation sector
averaged just over 16 days off the job, and workers in
manufacturing averaged just over 15 days off for each
stoppage. Not all work stoppages occur over bargaining
issues. In fact, 46 of the 1978 disputes, or 45 per cent of
the annual total, were over non-bargaining issues. The
12,377 workers involved in these disputes represented
26 per cent of the total workers involved in stoppages, but
accounted for only 33,508 man-days, just 4 per cent of
the overall total.
A number of the major stoppages in the Province
originated as lockouts rather than strikes. The eight major
lockouts during the year affected 13,084 workers for
435,684 man-days. The latter figure represents 58 per
cent of the man-days total recorded.
Despite the increased number of work stoppages in the
Province during 1978, the percentage of work time
attributed to stoppages increased only 0.3 per cent. Thus
three out of every 1,000 workdays in the Province during
1978 were affected by strikes or lockouts.
 Work Stoppages by Industry, 19781
Workers
Duration
Directly Involved
in Man-days
Percentage
Percentage
Stoppages
Number                          of Total
Number                 of Total
Jurisdictional Classification
Provincial	
Federal	
Industrial Classification
Goods-producing 	
Agriculture	
Forestry 	
Fishing 	
Mines 	
Manufacturing	
Construction 	
Total 	
Service-producing  	
Transport 	
Trade	
Finance  	
Service	
Public Administration
Total 	
Totals for All Industries	
88
16
8
1
5
35
2
51
27
1
16
9
53
104
31,163
15,784
2,042
600
3,136
11,690
850
18,318
21,535
180
2,657
4,257
28,629
46,947
66
34
4
1
7
25
2
39
46
6
9
61
100
421,363
56
332,659
44
6,152
1
1,200
—
111,708
15
180,583
24
3,450
—
303,093
40
354,532
47
11,700
2
47,800
6
36,897
5
450,929
60
754,022
100
1 Figures subject to revision.
25
 Wages and Salaries
Earnings in British Columbia during 1978 averaged
$301.87 a week, an increase of S17.74 over the 1977
average of $284.13 a week. This increase of 6.2 per cent
was down substantially from the 9.5 per cent change of
the previous year, and the average 11.5 per cent earnings
increase experienced during the five-year period, 1973
through 1977.
Average earnings in British Columbia continued to be the
highest in Canada last year, 14 per cent above the
national figure of $265.35 a week. Alberta was the only
other province with weekly earnings above the national
figure, as its 1978 figure of $276.47 a week was 4 per
cent higher than the Canadian average. Lowest earnings
in Canada were recorded in the provinces of Prince
Edward Island and Nova Scotia, where 1978 averages
were only 75 per cent and 84 per cent of the national
average.
Average Weekly Earnings, by Province (Industrial Composite)
1975
Province as
Percentage
of Canada
1976
1977
19781
Average
228.03
249.95
265.35
100
221.63
242.43
248.49
94
170.88
187.73
197.57
74
193.21
212.09
223.60
84
202.56
223.34
232.64
88
222.41
244.79
262.82
99
228.78
249.46
264.01
99
208.55
226.29
239.49
90
214.87
235.56
250.34
94
236.89
261.96
276.47
104
259.52
284.13
301.87
114
Canada  203.34
Newfoundland  196.44
Prince Edward Island  149.84
Nova Scotia  172.40
New Brunswick  182.40
Quebec  199.22
Ontario  204.85
Manitoba   197.25
Saskatchewan  186.10
Alberta   207.38
British Columbia  229.97
Preliminary
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings and Hours, Ottawa Cat. 62-002 (monthly)
Last year was one of moderate earnings increase, not
only in British Columbia, but all across Canada. Canadian
industrial composite earnings rose 6.2 per cent last year,
identical to the rise experienced in B. C. As shown in the
accompanying table, average weekly earnings changes
in Canada and British Columbia have followed similar
patterns in previous years. Elsewhere in the country, the
7.4 per cent rise in Quebec's average weekly earnings
was the largest annual increase, whereas
Newfoundland's 2.5 per cent change was the smallest.
Information concerning average weekly earnings
provides a comparison of earnings in current dollar terms,
and hence does not take into account the impact that
inflation might have on purchasing power. The real
purchasing value (or constant-dollar value) can be
calculated by deflating average weekly earnings by the
consumer price index (CPI) and expressing this in terms
of dollars of equal purchasing power. On page 27,
average weekly earnings for British Columbia and for
Canada are presented for the 1972-1978 period in
current-dollar terms (Column 1), and in constant-dollar
terms (Column 4). This table shows that, although
average weekly earnings rose 6.2 per cent during 1978 in
current-dollar terms, the increase actually represented a
decline in purchasing power of 2.5 per cent in British
Columbia and 2.6 per cent in Canada when compared
with the 1977 figures.
One reason forthe decline in real earnings during 1978
was the continuation of wage and price controls.
Although the federal Government's anti-inflation program
was effective in moderating the rise in wages during this
period, it was not nearly as effective in moderating
prices. The latter were influenced by a number of items
not under the controls, including a variety of imported
products and many food items.
26
 Average Earnings, Canada and British Columbia 1972-1978
(1)
Average
Weekly
Earnings
(2)
Annual
Change in
Earnings
(3)
CPI
Canada
(1971 = 100)
(4)
Constant
Dollar Earnings
(Col. 1 + Col. 3)
Changes in
Constant
Dollar
Earnings
CANADA $s
1972  149.22
1973  160.46
1974  178.09
1975  203.34
1976  228.03
1977  249.95
1978  265.35
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1972  165.08
1973  178.29
1974  200.31
1975  230.01
1976  259.52
1977  284.13
1978  301.87
Per Cent
$s
Per Cent
8.4
104.5
142.79
3.7
7.5
112.7
142.38
-.3
11.0
125.0
142.47
.1
14.2
138.5
146.82
3.1
12.1
148.9
153.14
4.3
9.6
160.8
155.44
1.5
6.2
175.2
151.45
-2.6
8.2
104.5
157.97
3.6
8.0
112.7
158.20
.1
12.4
125.0
160.25
1.3
14.8
138.5
166.07
3.6
12.8
148.9
174.29
4.9
9.5
160.8
176.70
1.4
6.2
175.2
172.30
-2.5
In British Columbia, 1978 average weekly earnings were
worth $172.30 a week in 1971 dollar terms, whereas in
Canada as a whole, constant 1971 dollar earnings were
$151.45 a week last year.
Industrial information for 1978 shows that workers in the
construction industry enjoyed the highest level of
average weekly earnings, at $477.69 a week. Workers in
the mining and milling sector earned $383.85 a week,
and forestry workers were paid an average of $379.52 a
week. Earnings in these industries were 58 per cent, 27
per cent and 26 per cent above the industrial composite
average. In the Province's manufacturing sector, earnings
last year averaged $339.91 a week.
Average Weekly Earnings in Major Industries
MANUFACTURING
Year
Forestry Mining
Industrial        (mainly and
Composite      Logging) Milling
Total
Wood
Products
Construction
Transportation
Communications
and
Utilities
Trade
Finance
Insurance
and Real
Estate
Service
1967  114.40 138.57 142.97
1968  120.76 150.82 152.43
1969  129.20 158.07 160.23
1970  137.80 162.31 177.37
1971   152.50 178.01 191.10
1972  164.75 196.76 206.00
1973  178.22 225.05 226.67
1974  200.55 246.71 262.37
1975  229.97 278.13 297.50
1976  259.52 328.52 330.00
1977  284.13 358.92 358.69
1   275.66 350.92 349.09
2   283.24 361.96 354.63
3   288.59 358.80 360.92
4   289.02 364.01 370.12
19781   301.87 379.51 382.85
1   293.07 372.04 375.61
2   299.83 392.99 376.41
3   308.15 400.16 384.41
41  306.43 352.86 395.22
Estimated
Per cent of
Coverage2   42       67
119.76
128.44
137.78
146.97
162.67
178.82
193.28
217.87
252.77
288.20
314.81
307.78
312.45
314.15
324.85
339.91
331.16
333.08
344.38
351.02
76
114.66
123.54
130.76
138.62
156.56
177.64
189.73
195.26
249.05
290.67
315.98
311.66
312.20
309.73
330.31
343.50
336.68
336.08
345.16
356.07
165.24
162.11
178.65
196.37
224.68
246.71
246.43
282.64
344.41
378.53
424.47
393.97
421.42
452.44
430.05
477.69
428.46
476.09
529.04
477.19
25
123.55
131.74
140.15
153.75
169.00
183.69
194.24
218.18
251.64
287.06
316.38
301.02
309.71
323.89
330.88
343.88
336.50
342.46
347.06
349.49
85
88.55
96.93
106.15
113.15
123.06
132.36
148.04
166.96
190.08
212.21
230.90
224.63
229.81
235.79
233.38
237.10
231.34
235.65
239.23
242.17
42
97.19
105.11
113.89
118.12
127.60
139.12
150.95
172.51
198.18
219.18
237.50
229.75
239.41
238.99
241.87
253.75
245.58
251.74
257.18
260.52
62
78.63
83.02
89.99
94.17
102.80
107.42
119.26
132.70
149.72
169.34
182.9
176.06
181.35
186.01
184.95
189.93
186.12
186.65
191.57
195.39
20
'Preliminary
Calculated using average large firm employment as a percentage ot Labour Force Survey results; 1978 averages
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings, and Hours, Ottawa Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
27
 Lowest industrial earnings during 1978 continued to be
recorded in the following sectors: service, $189.93 a
week; trade, $237.10 a week; and finance, insurance and
real estate, $253.75 a week. Average weekly earnings in
the service industry were 37 per cent below the industrial
composite average for last year.
In general, the largest increases in earnings, both in
percentage and in dollar terms, were recorded by
industries with the highest earnings averages. Average
weekly earnings in construction rose 12.5 per cent last
year, those in manufacturing were up 8.0 per cent, and
those in mining and milling increased 6.7 per cent. In
trade and service industries, average earnings rose 2.7
per cent and 4.3 per cent. In the construction industry,
approximately half of the increase in 1978 resulted from
an increase in the average weekly hours worked in the
industry, and half resulted from higher hourly
compensation. The dollar gap between the high earning
construction industry and the low earning service industry
increased to $287.76 a week during 1978, up from
$242.38 in 1977 and $79.09 in 1968.
Average weekly earnings by major urban centres in the
Province in 1978 show Prince George with the highest, at
$303.36 a week, followed by Vancouver, $290.63,
Kamloops, $258.19, and Victoria, $237.96. All four urban
centres experienced increases in average earnings
considerably below the 6.2 per cent provincial average.
It should be noted that the source of most of the
information used in this section is Statistics Canada's
Employment, Earnings and Hours Survey (cat. 72-002,
monthly). This survey covers only establishments
employing 20 or more persons, and this can affect the
reliability of the information in industries in which a great
deal of the employment is concentrated in smaller firms.
Estimated percentage coverage of this survey is provided
at the bottom of the accompanying table, and varies from
a high of 85 per cent in the transportation,
communications and utilities industry to 42 per cent in
trade, and only 20 per cent in the service industry. During
last year, 5,076 establishments, with an average total
employment of 462,000 persons, were included in the
survey. This represented more than two fifths of total
provincial employment.
The following industries—agriculture, fishing and
trapping, education and related services, and defence
and public administration — are not covered by the
survey. The earnings data cited refer to gross pay, and
include straight-time wages, piece work, bonusses,
overtime earnings, commissions, etc., before deductions
for taxes, unemployment insurance and Canada Pension
Plan contributions.
In addition to the preceding information on average
weekly earnings, additional data on labour income are
available from Statistics Canada's Estimates of Labour
Income (Cat. 72-005, quarterly). Preliminary estimates
for 1978 showed total wages and salaries in the Province
rising to $14,416.1 million from $13,335.2 million in
1977, an increase of 8.1 percent. Part of this increase
stems from an employment base that was larger in 1978
than in 1977; average employment last year rose to
1,093,000 persons from 1,047,000 in 1977.
Dividing total wages and salaries by the average
employment during the year provides an estimate of
annual wages and salaries per employed person. During
1978, wages and salaries averaged $13,189 per
employed person, up 3.5 per cent from the $12,737
average of 1977. The 1978 increase was substantially
below the 1977 increase over 1976 of 9.3 per cent. It
should be remembered that neither of these increases
have been adjusted to take into consideration the impact
of inflation.
Consumer Prices
Compared with the record of the past several years, there
was a slight moderation in the rate of consumer price
increase in 1978. The Canada all-items index rose to
181.3 (1971 100) in December for a twelve-month
increase of 8.4 per cent. This compares with the 9.5 per
cent advance for the period December 1976 to
December 1977. The average monthly rise in consumer
prices was about 0.7 per cent, but a great deal of monthly
variation occurred.
As a result of higher price levels, the Canadian dollar has
continued to shrink in terms of its purchasing power. As
the adjacent table shows, a 1978 dollar would purchase
goods worth only 57 cents in 1971, which is a 43 per cent
decline in value over seven years. A 1971 dollar was
worth 80 cents in 1974 and 62 cents in 1977.
Purchasing Power of the
1971 Consumer Dollar
Consumer
Price Index
(1971 =100)
Percentage
Change
from
Last Year
Purchasing
Power
1971   100.0
1972  104.5
1973  112.7
1974  125.0
1975  138.5
1976  148.9
1977  160.8
1978  175.2
2.9
$1.00
4.8
.95
7.5
.89
0.9
.80
0.8
.72
7.5
.67
8.0
.62
9.0
.57
Canada's rate of price increase can be considered to
occupy the high end of the international scale. The 8.4
per cent increase in the Canadian Consumer Price Index
between December 1977 and December 1978 was
slightly higher than that experienced by Australia (8.0 per
cent) and Sweden (7.5 per cent), but on a par with the
twelve-month increase in the United Kingdom (8.5 per
cent), and less than that of the United States (9.0 per
cent), France (9.5 per cent) and Italy (11.5 per cent). The
countries that were most successful in controlling
inflation during 1978 were West Germany and Japan,
where consumer prices rose only 2.5 per cent and 3.5 per
cent.
28
 Twelve Month Percentage Change in Consumer Price Index, 1978
VANCOUVER
14 -
13-
12-
11-
9-
8-
r-    7-
Z
UJ
o
a.   6-
UJ
a.
5-
4-
3-
2-
1-
-
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
Information  in this chart is from  Statistics   Canada,   Consumer Price & Price indexes,
Catalogue Number 62-010, quarterly.
Movement in All-Items Indexes
(1971 = 100)
Canada lnde>
Vancouver Index
Per Cent
Per Cent
1977
1978
Change
1977
1978
Change
January  ..
..  154.0
167.8
9.0
159.1
171.0
7.5
February..
..  155.4
168.9
8.7
160.2
171.7
7.2
March ....
..  157.0
170.8
8.8
161.3
173.5
7.6
April	
..  157.9
171.2
8.4
162.4
174.3
7.3
May	
..  159.2
173.6
9.0
163.2
176.2
8.0
June 	
..  160.3
175.1
9.2
164.2
177.7
8.2
July	
..  161.8
177.7
9.8
165.2
178.8
8.2
August ...
..  162.5
177.8
9.4
166.0
179.2
8.0
September
..  163.4
177.5
8.6
166.8
180.2
8.0
October ..
..  165.0
179.3
8.7
168.2
181.2
7.7
November
..  166.1
180.8
8.8
169.1
182.2
7.7
December
..  167.2
181.3
8.4
170.2
183.0
7.5
Increases in domestic price levels can adversely affect
trade by making domestic products relatively more
expensive than products from other countries. This in turn
can influence the volume of imports and exports, thereby
putting pressure on employment, levels of foreign
currency reserves, and exchange rates.
One result of this pressure was the 1977 devaluation of
the Canadian dollar in relation to major world currencies.
Although this cheapening of the dollar helped improve
our trade balance in 1978, it did not improve our total
balance of payments. The balance continued to
29
 deteriorate owing to the large outflow for payments by
tourists travelling abroad, and for interest payments made
outside the country.
The results were a further round of currency devaluation.
Between December 1977 and December 1978, the
Canadian dollar fell by 8 per cent against the U.S. dollar,
17 per cent against the British pound, 26 per cent against
the German mark, and 34 per cent against the Japanese
yen. Although the long-term impact of devaluation should
be to further stimulate Canadian manufacturing and
exports, the short-term impact has been to make
necessary imports more expensive, thus adding to
domestic inflation.
Food price changes have continued to provide the major
impetus to change in Canada's all-items index. The
December 1977 to December 1978 advance in the food
index was 12.8 per cent, as rising food prices contributed
approximately two fifths of the total annual change.
Significantly higher prices for beef led to a 26.4 per cent
rise in the meat, poultry and fish index, and large jumps
were also recorded for sugar (1.46 per cent), fruits and
vegetables (8.2 per cent), and dairy products (7.8 per
cent). During the period between December 1976 and
December 1977, the food index advanced 15.4 per cent.
The housing index also continued to be a major factor in
the total CPI advance, rising 7.3 per cent in the period of
December 1977 to December 1978. As with the food
index, however, this year's increase was below the
previous 12 months advance of 8.6 per cent. In both 1977
and 1978 the housing index contributed slightly less than
one third of the total all-items change. One of the
significant factors affecting housing costs during 1978
was a 15.1 per cent increase in the price of fuel oils that
greatly increased the cost of household heating for many
home owners.
Although all other major components of the CPI
experienced some rise during the twelve-month period,
of significant importance was the 7.2 per cent jump in the
transportation index. This resulted primarily from higher
charges for new automobiles and gasoline.
For the third consecutive year, Vancouver experienced
one of the lower rates of increase of the 15 regional cities.
The Vancouver all-items index rose to 183.0 (1971 100)
in December 1978, an increase of 7.5 per cent over
December 1977. This was down slightly from the
previous twelve-months rise of 7.7 per cent.
Across the country, the largest rise in prices was
experienced in St. Johns' (9.0 per cent), and in
Winnipeg (8.3 per cent). The lowest increases were in
the Saskatchewan cities of Saskatoon and Regina, where
the CPI increased by 6.4 per cent and 7.0 per cent. The
adjoining table compares the annual rise in the all-items,
food and housing indexes for the major regional cities. In
Saskatoon the moderate increase in the all-items index
appears to have resulted from a relatively small jump in
housing costs, despite a large jump in food prices. In St.
Johns', the city with the highest all-items rise, large
increases were recorded by both housing and food
components.
Percentage Change in Consumer Price
Indexes for Regional Cities
December 1977-December 1978
All-Items
Food
Housing
St. John's  9.0
Halifax    7.8
Charlottetown-
Summerside .... 8.0
Saint John   8.0
Quebec  7.9
Montreal  7.4
Ottawa  8.1
Toronto  7.8
Thunder Bay   7.2
Winnipeg   8.3
Saskatoon  6.4
Regina  7.0
Edmonton    8.1
Calgary  7.6
Vancouver  7.5
15.1
8.0
12.5
6.1
12.3
7.3
11.9
6.8
11.4
8.6
10.7
7.9
12.2
6.8
10.5
7.1
10.4
7.0
11.3
8.1
11.3
4.7
12.1
4.0
8.1
8.7
10.7
7.9
11.0
5.6
As with the national index, rising food prices played a
major role in the all-items advance in Vancouver
between December 1977 and December 1978. The food
index advanced 11.0 per cent during this period
(compared with 11.2 per cent 12 months earlier), and
contributed 37 per cent of the total consumer price
change. Higher prices for beef, fresh fruits, vegetables,
and sugar helped push up the cost of food for home
consumption by 11.2 per cent.
The advance in the Vancouver housing index during 1978
was 5.6 per cent, somewhat below that recorded by most
other regional cities. Despite the large jump in fuel oil
costs experienced in all areas of the country, a moderate
rise in a variety of other items in the index led to the
relatively small overall increase.
Major changes in other components of the Vancouver CPI
occurred in the transportation and the tobacco and
alcohol indexes. The former rose 7.6 per cent during the
December 1977 to December 1978 period, as large
increases were registered for both public transportation
(up 10.2 per cent) and private transportation (up 7.5 per
cent). Higher prices for wines and spirits, and increased
taxes on cigarettes pushed the tobacco and alcohol index
up 10.2 per cent over the previous December.
It is difficult to predict at this point what prices will do in
1979. Indications are that the forthcoming year will bring
a continued rise in food prices, and that renewed
pressures may be felt in the housing market. Current
forecasts for the year are mainly for a 7.5 to 8.0 per cent
rise in the Canada CPI, slightly below the increases
experienced during 1978. Higher oil prices, however,
may push the actual rate somewhat higher.
30
  Wage Settlements
During 1978, 471 major settlements, covering 204,687
employees, were reported. During that period the
average annual increase negotiated was 6.2 per cent per
annum, equalling 50 cents an hour. Although the
manufacturing sector had the settlements with the largest
percentage increase (7.1 per cent per annum), the
B.C. Wage Settlements by Quarter, 1978
construction industry, at 63 cents an hour, experienced
the largest increase in terms of cents per hour.
The accompanying table compares the 1978 wage
settlements with those of previous years. The average
increase fell slightly from the 6.4 per cent increase of
1977, and was significantly below the 12.0 per cent
average of the past five years.
Number of
Contacts
First Quarter, 1978
Contract average1  90
Skilled Classes	
Unskilled classes 	
Second Quarter, 1978
Contract average   155
Skilled classes	
Unskilled classes 	
Third Quarter, 1978
Contract average   161
Skilled classes	
Unskilled classes 	
Fourth Quarter, 1978
Contract average   65
Skilled classes	
Unskilled classes 	
Average for Four Quarters
Contract Average   471
Skilled classes	
Unskilled classes 	
1 As represented by the arithmetic average of the modal skilled and modal unskilled pay rates.
Employees
Covered
Average Annual Increase
Cents
Percentage Per Hour
35,054
34,766
107,241
27,626
204,687
5.7
48
5.5
53
6.0
42
5.5
44
5.3
47
5.7
40
6.2
53
8.1
58
6.5
47
7.5
49
7.1
59
7.6
45
6.2
50
7.0
55
6.4
44
Negotiated Wage Settlements in British Columbia 1975-1978
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
r-   12
Z
UJ    ..
o  "
CC   10
UJ
0.
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
O
32
„
1
 SKILLED
-
\\/
-
-
—          V \
*
%
-
-
1              II              III             IV
1975
I                II               III               IV
1976
1            1            1
1           II          III
1977
I
IV
■            III
1               II              III             IV
1978
J
 Settlements affecting skilled workers showed a 7.0 per
cent increase during 1978, up from the 6.0 per cent rate
experienced the previous year. Settlements for unskilled
workers were somewhat lower, and, at 6.4 per cent, were
down from the 6.7 per cent increase recorded for 1977.
An increase for the skilled group above that reported for
unskilled workers represents a reversal of the previous
three years.
Last year was the second consecutive year in which the
increase in the Vancouver Consumer Price Index
exceeded the average wage settlement. This suggests
that, if the downward trend in settlements continues, an
erosion of real incomes will occur for the unionized
segment of British Columbia's work force.
Wage
(per cent)
Settlements, 1972
■1978
Year
Contract
Average
Skilled
Unskilled
Vancouver
CPI
Change
1972 ..
8.2
8.1
10.2
17.2
15.5
10.3
6.0
7.0
8.6
11.3
15.3
17.2
11.4
6.7
6.4
5.3
1973 ..
...     10.3
7.2
1974
1975 .
16.2
...     16.3
11.7
11.1
1976
...     10.7
9.7
1977 ..
6.4
7.2
1978 ..
6.2
7.7
Cola Clauses in 1978
Cost-of-Living Allowance clauses (COLAs) were
negotiated in only about one tenth of the settlements
reported in 1978, and these COLAs extended to only
about one twentieth of all the employees covered by
settlements in 1978. In terms of the size of the wage
settlements, those agreements with COLAs averaged
somewhat higher than those without — 6.5 per cent per
annum for those containing a COLA, and 6.2 per cent for
those without.
During the anti-inflation program, the full, projected value
of a COLA was considered by the Anti-inflation Board to
be in effect from the first day the COLA was operational,
even if the COLA was kicked in on a delayed basis. This
made straight wage increases more attractive, and during
the period the controls were in effect, the number of
COLA clauses negotiated actually decreased. It might be
expected that their popularity would be rejuvenated, now
that controls are passing out of existence, but such a
trend has not, as of this time, been discerned.
Length of Agreements Negotiated in
1978
The majority (56.6 per cent) of the collective agreements
negotiated in 1978 were one year in length. Two-year
agreements were negotiated in 34.7 per cent of the
settlements, and three-year agreements in 5.1 per cent.
When measured by the number of employees covered by
these settlements, however, a slightly different picture
emerges. There were 72,430 employees covered by
those one-year agreements (35.4 per cent of the total),
and 107,151 by the two-year agreements (10.3 per cent).
So, although a majority of the settlements were for one
year's duration, the larger bargaining units tended to
settle more frequently for two-year agreements.
Weighted in terms of the employees covered,
settlements in 1978 averaged 21.0 months in length,
compared with an agreement-weighted average of 17.7
months.
Wage Settlement by Industry, January 1 to December 31,1978
Industry
Contract Average
Skilled
Unskilled
Average
Average
Average
Annual Increase
Annual Increase
Annual Increase
Cents
Cents
Cents
Number of
Employees
Percen-        Per
Percen-        Per
Percen-        Per
Contracts
Covered
tage           Hour
tage           Hour
tage           Hour
471
204,687
6.2         50
7.0         55
6.4          44
138
28,702
7.1          57
6.4         59
7.6          55
48
10,750
8.0         62
7.0         63
8.6         61
9
6,663
6.7         57
5.9         57
7.8         57
12
2,316
6.1          51
6.0         56
6.3         48
19
4,324
6.6         55
6.5         58
6.7          50
50
4,649
6.3         51
6.0         57
6.4          44
56
38,216
5.6         63
5.5          65
5.8          58
217
95,882
6.2         43
8.5         50
6.1          36
31
7,825
8.6         66
9.8         77
7.8         61
49
10,913
5.8         43
5.1          45
5.8         37
63
14,226
6.7         46
5.2         59
4.7         31
74
62,918
5.8         39
5.5         47
6.2         32
60
41,887
6.1          51
5.7         55
6.4         46
13
2,668
5.4         42
5.1          44
5.8         41
39
22,181
6.6         57
6.3         60
6.7         51
8
17,038
5.6         45
4.9         49
6.1          41
All  	
Manufacturing	
Food and Beverage 	
Wood and Paper	
Metals	
Machinery et al1   	
Miscellaneous manufacturing
Construction 	
Trade and Service	
Trade	
Education	
Municipal Service	
Miscellaneous Service	
Other Industries  	
Mining	
Transportation	
Communication and Utilities .
1 Machinery, transportation equipment and electrical products
33
 Major settlements Reported, 1978
A large number of major settlements were signed during
1978. In the first quarter of the year these included
settlements between B.C. Telephone and the
Telecommunications Workers (1,000 employees);
Finning Tractor and the Machinists Lodge 695 (1,025
employees); Government of British Columbia and the
B.C.Government Professional Employees Association
(986 employees); CN Rail and the non-operating unions
(1,600 employees) and UTU (450 employees); and
Independent Contractors and the United Brotherhood of
Carpenters and Joiners, Local 1928 (800 employees).
The major settlements reported during the second quarter
of 1978 included those between Transport Labour
Relations and the Teamsters, Locals 31 and 213 (5,000
employees); B.C. Hydro (urban transit) and the
Amalgamated Transit Union, Local 101 -134 and Local
109 (3,100 employees); the City of Vancouver and CUPE,
Local 1004 (1,560 employees) and the Vancouver
Municipal and Regional Employees Union (1,776
employees); UBC and CUPE, Local 116 (1,600
employees); the Council of Marine Carriers and the
Canadian Merchant Service Guild (900 employees);
School District  36, Surrey, and CUPE, Local 728 (700
employees); the City of Vancouver and the Fire Fighters,
Local 18, (800 employees); and between Utah Mines
and the Operating Engineers, Local 115 (680
employees).
The third quarter of the year continued to be the busiest
in terms of settlements; 19 agreements, covering 600 or
more employees, were concluded. Included were several
very large settlements between CLRA and the Council of
B.C. Building Trades Unions (35,000 employees); Health
Labour Relations and the Hospital Employees' Union,
Local 180 (17,000 employees), and the Registered
Nurses' Association (13,500 employees); and the
Government of Canada and PSAC (clerical and
regulatory) (3,922 B.C. employees).
Other major settlements concluded were between
Burrard Drydocks and Yarrows Ltd. and the Joint Shipyard
Conference (1,264 employees); CP Air and Machinists,
Lodge 764 (1,942 employees); CLRA and the Sheet
Metal Workers, Local 280 (1,600 employees); the
Fisheries Association of B.C. and the United Fishermen
and Allied Workers (cannery 2,000 employees, and fresh
fish and cold storage, 1,000 employees) and the Native
Brotherhood (cannery, 1,000 employees); FVMPA and
the Teamsters, Local 464 (1,100 employees); Master
Maintenance Contractors and the Service Employees'
Union, Local 244 (1,300 employees); Metal Industries
Association (Mainland) and the Machinists, Local 692,
International Molders & Allied Workers, Local 23, and
Pattern Makers (1,000 employees in total); Carling
O'Keefe, Columbia, Labatts and Molsons Breweries and
the Brewery Workers, Locals 280,300 and 308 (1,000
employees); Board of Police Commissioners, City of
Vancouver and Policemen's Union, Local 1 (900
employees); the B.C. Assessment Authority and CUPE,
Local 1767 (650 employees); Kelly Douglas and
CAMWRU, Local 6 (700 employees); and MacDonalds
Consolidated and the Retail, Wholesale & Department
Store Union, Local 580 (800 employees).
The fourth quarter saw only eight large agreements
concluded. These were between Health Labour Relations
and the Health Science Association (3,200 employees);
the Government of Canada and the Letter Carriers (2,500
B.C. employees); ICBC and OTEU, Local 378 (2,047
employees); B.C. Hotels Association, Master, and the
Hotel, Restaurant and Bartenders, Local 40 (two
agreements, 9,500 employees); the Government of
Canada and PSAC (program administration, 2,618 B.C.
employees, and engineering, scientific support, 888 B.C.
employees); and B.C. Rail and CUTE, LOCAL 6 (700
employees).
Expiring Collective Agreements,
1979
Collective bargaining activity prompted by the
forthcoming expiration of collective agreements in 1979
will involve fewer bargaining units but more employees
compared with 1978. The prognosis for 1979 is that it will
likely not be nearly as busy a bargaining year as was
1977.
Scheduled to be renegotiated in 1979 are 339 collective
agreements covering 231,386 employees in the
Province. This compares with the revised 1978 totals of
549 expiries covering 177,092 employees, and revised
1977 totals of 687 expiries covering 342,451. It should be
kept in mind, however, that when final figures for 1979
are available next summer, the total number of expiries
and covered employees is likely to be somewhat larger
than those reported at this stage.
The majority of agreements due to expire in 1979 are
two-year agreements, and they indicate a swing away
from the one-year agreements generally negotiated
during the last few years.
Collective Agreements Expiring in 1979,
by Month
January ...
February...
March	
April	
May	
June 	
July	
August
September.
October ...
November .
December .
Totals 	
The month in 1979 with the greatest number of expiries
will be March, when 61 agreements are due to be
negotiated. April will have the second highest number of
expiries, with 49, and December the third highest, with
42. The months with the greatest number of employees
covered by expiries will be December, with 63,254
employees, and June, with 57,245.
Employees
Agreements
Covered
38
6,222
29
9,091
61
21,664
49
15,581
19
1,418
36
57,245
12
37,557
26
12,322
14
4,708
9
1,935
4
389
42
63,254
339
231,286
34
 20 Largest Expiries During 1978
Employer
Employees
Covered
Date of
Expiry
B.C. Food Industry
Labour Relations Council
B.C. Government
B.C. Government
B.C. Hydro
B.C. Hydro
B.C. Hydro
B.C. Roadbuilders Association
B.C. School Trustees Association
B.C. Telephone
Cominco (Trail, Kimberley and Salmo)
Fisheries Association of B.C. (Cannery)
Forest Industrial Relations
(Coast Master)
Health Labour Relations Association
Health Labour Relations Association
Independent Forest Companies
Interior Forest Labour Relations
North Cariboo Forest
Labour Relations Association
Okanagan Federated Shippers
Pulp and Paper
Industrial Relations Bureau
Pulp and Paper
Industrial Relations Bureay
Retail Clerks, Local 1518
Fruit and Vegetable Workers
Local 1572
CPU, several locals
PPWC, several locals
3,400
1,800
7,200
5,500
31 Mar
BCGEU (master and 9 components)
34,070
31 Jul
Ferry Workers
2,780
31 Jul
IBEW, Local 258
2,500
31 Mar
OTEU, Local 378
3,100
31 Mar
Transit Union, Locals 101 -134 and 109
2,500
31 Mar
Operating Engineers, Local 115
3,000
28 Feb
Teachers
29,339
31 Dec
Telecommunications Workers
10,000
31 Dec
Steelworkers, Locals 651, 480 and 901
3,950
30 Apr
UFAWU
2,000
15 Apr
IWA, several locals
28,000
14Jun
Health Sciences Association
2,700
31 Dec
Registered Nurses
13,000
31 Dec
IWA, several locals
2,500
14 Jan
IWA, Locals 1-405,1-417 and 1-423
7,500
30Jun
IWA, Local 1-425
3,760
31 Aug
31 Aug
30Jun
30Jun
Collective Agreements Expiring 1979,
by Industry
Agreements
Employees
Covered
All Industries   339 231,286
Manufacturing  150 82,022
Food and Beverage   25 8,965
Wood     51 64,202
Metals  19 2,787
Machinery   18 2,909
Miscellaneous manufacturing .. 37 3,159
Construction   14 8,260
Trade and Service  115 103,263
Trade  18 6,008
Education  33 37,512
Municipal Services  12 1,459
Miscellaneous Services  52 58,284
Other Industries    60 37,841
Mining  22 10,309
Transportation  29 10,262
Communication  9 17,270
The industries with the greatest number of expiries during
1979 will be miscellaneous services, with 52 expiries,
and wood and paper products, with 51. These two
industries will also have the most employees covered by
expiries — 64,202 employees in wood and paper
products, and 58,284 employees in miscellaneous
services.
35
  and Construction Industry Programs
Finance and Administration
Personnel Services
Information Services
Research and Planning
Compensation Advisory Services
Construction Industry Co-ordinator
 Finance and Administration
The responsibilities of the Finance and Administration
Branch include general financial management of the
Ministry, and related administrative services.
Throughout 1978 the Branch undertook to improve the
financial management and management accounting of
various Ministry programs and activities. This process
involved a continuing review and evaluation of
procedures and reporting systems designed to facilitate
effective decision making.
Two major activities of the Branch include the coordination of estimate and budget administration. The
following table summarizes the financial resources
allotted to the Ministry for the fiscal year ended March 31,
1978.
Estimates of Expenditure
Ministry of Labour — Fiscal Year Ended March 31,1978
Vote
Purpose
Estimates
203 Minister's Office        131,284
204 Ministerial Administrative and Support Services     1,632,508
205 Job Training and Employment Opportunity Programs 35,536,112
206 Occupational Environment and Compensation Advisory Services    1,179,094
207 Collective Bargaining and Employment Standards Programs    2,583,042
208 Human Rights Programs           402,488
209 Labour Relations Board    1,147,204
210 Building Occupancy Charges        905,205
211 Computer and Consulting Charges        181,000
43,697,937
Manpower Subcommittee on Northeast Coal Development       250,000
Total  43,947,937
During 1978, the Branch continued to restructure Ministry
estimates in order to broaden the definition of activities
and to improve financial administration and reporting for
management of the Ministry.
The general administrative responsibilities of the Branch
include the co-ordination of office accommodation and
facilities, furniture and equipment, data systems and
computer services, telecommunications equipment,
vehicle fleet management, stock control, and mail and
courier services. These sen/ices are provided for the
Ministry and several related boards and commissions.
Throughout 1978, the Branch continued to upgrade
accommodation and to encourage more effective use of
the facilities, equipment, and data processing.
Personnel Services
In 1978, the Personnel Services Branch continued to
provide a complete range of personnel services for the
Ministry, including recruitment, classification analysis,
consultation on organizational matters, and union-
management relations.
Late in 1978, the Safety Engineering Services Division,
formerly with the Ministry of Highways and Public Works,
was incorporated into the Ministry. As a result, the
Ministry's approved establishment increased to 595
positions. The Ministry also employed an additional 120
auxiliary employees for terms of up to eight months to
assist with the Youth Employment Programs
administered by the Employment Opportunity Programs
Branch. The Work-in-Government program created
summer employment in the Ministry for 33 students.
Recruitment activity involved not only staffing the
auxiliary positions described above, but also the
appointment of 60 permanent employees. A total of 68
competitions were held during the year, 41 were posted,
and 22 were made by direct competition. The turnover
rate within the Ministry was 10.8 per cent, which
compares favourably with the 14.8 per cent rate recorded
for the Public Service as a whole.
38
 oiassmcauon analysis was unaertaken tnrougn executive
position evaluation committees that focused on
management or other positions excluded from the
bargaining units. Branch staff prepared job descriptions
for 120 positions. In addition, the Director participated for
several months as a member of a committee reviewing
and evaluating management positions throughout the
Public Service. Organizational work was conducted on
both the Employment Opportunities and the Research
and Planning branches.
The Branch successfully handled a number of labour
relations issues during the year, and developed
personnel manuals for use by senior Ministry executives.
A joint committee, comprised of union and management
members, dealt with issues related to hours of work and
the definition of seniority units.
In the area of training, the Branch undertook a training
needs survey of managers and supervisors in the Ministry.
The results of this survey permit a cost-effectiveness
approach to designing and tailoring training packages.
Many employees received financial training assistance
during the year to take such diverse courses related to
their work as: time management; clerical and secretarial
aeveiopment worksnops; accounting for managers;
developing industrial modules; principles of supervision
and advanced supervision; management psychology;
audio-visual production techniques; energy management
for industrial plants; test and measurement; and business
law.
Staff in the Personnel Services Branch attended courses
on short-term illness and long-term disability plans,
seminars on management by objectives and
performance appraisal systems for executives, and a
workshop on designing management training programs.
The Director, with other senior Ministry staff, was host to a
one-day seminar for the local chapter of the Pacific
Northwest Personnel Management Association on the
programs and services of the Ministry. Ken Hughes,
Daniel O'Neill and Herbert Cumming were accepted on
the Executive Development Training Course, and Stanley
Killeen and Joe Small enrolled in the correspondence
course in Public Administration.
The following employees received Long-Service Awards
in 1978: Mona Morgan, Industrial Training Branch, 35
years; Annie Berton, Labour Standards Branch, 25 years;
and Ralph Sollis, Assistant Director, Labour Standards, 25
years.
Information Services
Information Services Branch is responsible for
communicating the activities and services of the Ministry
to labour and management representatives and
organizations, academic institutions, and the general
public. The Branch provides public information programs
to explain the functions of the various branches of the
Ministry, and to show ways in which their services are
made available to residents of British Columbia.
During 1978, the Branch collaborated with six branches
of the Ministry on a variety of projects intended to
broaden public awareness of the services they provide.
In co-operation with Apprenticeship Training personnel,
the Branch produced 15-week television and 3-week
newspaper ad campaigns urging employers' in business
and industry to hire apprentices in greater numbers
throughout the Province. The TV segment of the
campaign employed clips from the Branch's new film,
"The Apprentice," which was produced earlier in the
year to encourage school-age young people to consider
careers in the skilled trades.
A second recruiting device, in the form of a booklet titled
Apprenticeship—Doorway to Opportunity, also made
its appearance early in 1978, followed later in the year by
training pamphlets on refrigeration and inboard-outboard
motor repair, a brochure dealing with tradesman's
qualification certification, and a curriculum chart outlining
the new Women's Exploratory Apprenticeship Training.
Under Information Services direction, a new format was
designed for newspaper advertisements describing
apprenticeship training courses offered by the Ministry.
By the close of the year, Information and Apprenticeship
Branches had jointly set in motion a series of projects
aimed at the complete redesign and rewriting of all
apprenticeship literature published by the Ministry,
ranging from brochures describing the approximately 150
pre-apprenticeship and apprenticeship trades available,
to training manuals detailing the practical and classroom
procedures for those trades.
The Human Rights Branch co-operated with Information
Services on a variety of projects including production of a
pamphlet, Human Rights— Working for You, which was
translated into Cantonese, French and Punjabi.
Toward the end of 1978 the two branches were jointly
engaged in planning for a comprehensive public
information kit, and the writing of a script for a projected
film on human rights in British Columbia.
Two pamphlets created for Elevating Devices Branch on
the subject of elevator and escalator safety were released
during the year. A conference portfolio was produced for
the Occupational Environment Branch, and the
groundwork was laid for a training booklet on lighting
maintenance that is scheduled to appear early in 1979.
Information Services assisted the Research and Planning
Branch with the design of a new format for the monthly
Labour Research Bulletin, and with production of three
annual publications: the B.C. Labour Directory, 1978,
Negotiated Working Conditions, 1977 and the Calendar
of Expiring Agreements.
39
 Also with Research and Planning's co-operation, the
Branch set in motion a project to produce a guide to the
Labour Code of British Columbia.W has been scheduled
for introduction early in the new year. In 1978 the Branch
was responsible for introducing the Government's Visual
Identity Program to the Ministry, and for distribution of
VIP-related material to all branches and field offices. The
Branch also co-ordinated production of the Ministry's
1977 Annual report; prepared press releases; contributed
information and articles ror puoncations inciuaing ts.v.
Government News, the PSC's Contact, Corpus Almanac,
Canadian Alamanac, The Columbian and the 6. C.
Gazeffe; assisted in production of the Ministry's program
directory; provided background information for seminars;
prepared outlines of the duties and responsibilities of the
various branches for the Ministry's procedures manual;
and supplied evaluations of several films on industrial
relations.
Research and Planning
The function of the Research and Planning Branch is to
apply the techniques and methodology of social science
to problems in the fields of labour relations, labour
standards, human rights, safety and manpower. The
Branch is primarily a service unit, providing advice and
information to Ministry officials, as well as support for the
various program areas within the Ministry.
The Branch also engages in joint activities with other
ministries, assists various boards and commissions,
distributes information to the public through the
collection of statistics and the production of publications,
and provides answers to inquiries on labour and
manpower matters.
During 1978, the Branch completed a variety of projects,
including assistance to a number of task forces and
interministerial committees.
The Branch's regular publications included 1978 editions
of the Labour Directory, the Calendar of Expiring
Collective Agreements, and Negotiated Working
Conditions. Further improvements were made to the
format and processing of the monthly Labour Research
Bulletinlhe Bulletin featured special issues on
occupational health and safety, and on the occupational
health problems of women. Feature articles published
during the year included "The Development of Labour
Market Policy in Canada," "Provincial Earnings During
the Anti-Inflation Program," and "The Revised Consumer
Price Index." Branch support was provided for a number
of committees and task forces, including the Alcan
pipeline task force, the Northeast Coal Committee, the
Task Force on National Economic Programs, the
Interdepartmental Committee on Equal Opportunities for
Women, and the CAALL Research and Statistics
Committee.
Trade studies were completed on refrigeration
mechanics, automotive mechanics, linemen and
cablemen, and the mechanical contracting trades
consisting of plumbers, pipefitters, and sprinkler-fitters.
Work continued on a layman's guide to the B.C. Labour
Code, which is scheduled for publication in 1979. Papers
were prepared on occupational forecasting, the Skeena
Manpower Development Committee, and changes in the
Unemployment Insurance Act, and an article and
bibliography on "Employment and Industrial Structure"
was produced.
During 1978 a major effort was undertaken to secure
properly executed collective agreements (as required by
law), and to bring the Branch's collective agreement files
up to date.
Compensation Advisory Services
Under the provisions of Section 77 of the Workers'
Compensation Act, a Compensation Consultant and
Employers' Adviser are appointed by the Province of
British Columbia to provide independent advice to both
workers and employers concerning problems arising out
of the Act.
The Compensation Consultant and a staff of two
compensation advisory officers give assistance, advice
and information to workers and dependents or their
representatives, with respect to claims under the Act. A
similar service is provided for employers by the
Employers' Adviser and a compensation advisory officer.
The Compensation Consultant, Employers' Adviser and
compensation advisory officers have access to Workers'
Compensation Board claim files, and are therefore able to
advise both employers and employees as to the nature
and status of a claim.
40
 Branch officers may communicate with and appear
before the boards of review and the commissioners of the
Workers' Compensation Board on behalf of a person
seeking assistance. Personal representation, however, is
generally limited to claims that are of such complexity or
importance that, in the opinion of the Branch, assistance
is required.
Advice is also given with regard to the administration and
interpretation of the Workers' Compensation Act, its
regulations, and policy decisions made under the Act.
The officers of the Compensation Advisory Services
Branch are independent from the Workers'
Compensation Board and do not make decisions or
policy with respect to matters under the Act. Their
function is an advisory and educational one involving
various programs to supply information to workers, worker
representatives and employers representatives.
During 1978, the Branch dealt with 1,023 claims for
workers and 514 claims for employers.
Construction Industry Co-ordinator
In recognition of the contribution made by the
construction industry and its impact on the provincial
economy, the Government of British Columbia opened an
office for a Construction Industry Co-ordinator on July 1.
The position was created to encourage greater stability
within the construction industry.
The Co-ordinator is charged with government-industry
liaison, policy development, assessment of manpower
requirements, project forecasting, and the development
of industrial relations procedures appropriate to this
sector of the economy.
Working in co-operation with the Ministry of Economic
Development, the Co-ordinator has prepared a demand
forecast of the construction services required by
provincial Ministries and Crown Corporations over the
next three years.
Other major areas of activity have included:
— preliminary work on the restructuring of the joint
labour-management Construction Industry Advisory
Council;
— participation on the Alaska Highway Pipeline
Manpower Assessment and Supply Committee; and
— liaison with both the Construction Industry Advisory
Council Manpower Committee and the Joint
Technical Planning Committee.
41
  Job Training, Employment Opportunity
Programs and Technical Services
Introduction
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Employment Opportunity Programs
Manpower Training and Development, and Trade-schools Regulation
Manpower Advisory Services
Occupational Environment
Elevating Devices
43
 Introduction
Throughout 1978 the Job Training and Employment
Opportunities Division continued to develop effective
employment and training-related policies for British
Columbia.
Various sections of the Apprenticeship and Training
Development Acf were proclaimed, enabling the Minister
to enter into a training agreement with the Government of
Canada covering vocational, institutional and industrial
training. The new three-year Training Agreement was
signed in early 1978, thereby increasing the level of
institutional as well as industrial training opportunities for
British Columbians. Under the Agreement, the federal
government agreed to spend $40 million on the purchase
of training in this Province. The Act also enables the
Minister of Labour to enter into agreements with
employers concerning youth employment.
In February 1978 the Ministry of Labour, in conjunction
with the Ministry of Education, appointed the nine-
member board of the Occupational Training Council. The
primary function of the OTC is to resolve interinstitutional
conflict in apprenticeship and vocational training, and to
allocate training funds to provincial institutions in line
with the requirements of industry for skilled employees
over the next decade.
British Columbia was host to the first joint meeting of
provincial ministries with manpower responsibilities, the
Council of Education Ministers, and the federal
Employment and Immigration Commission in January
1978. For the first time in Canadian history, the provincial
and federal Ministers with education, training and
employment responsibilities in Canada were brought
together.
A further federal-provincial Manpower Ministers Meeting
was held in October in Ottawa to discuss changes
proposed by the federal government for the
Unemployment Insurance Program.
The important topic of labour market policy was an
agenda item at the First Ministers Conference on the
Economy held in November. The Minister of Labour,
speaking on behalf of the Province of British Columbia,
called for closer consultation and agreement between
the federal and provincial governments in the area of
manpower. Discussions are continuing between officials
on the development of umbrella agreements in this
important area. The Policy and Planning Development
Department continues to develop the policy options on
these important issues.
Apprenticeship Training Programs
The Apprenticeship Training Programs Branch works with
industry, trade unions, and other government agencies to
promote and manage apprenticeship training programs
throughout the Province. The Branch is also responsible
forthe issuance of tradesmen's qualification certificates.
The Branch supervises the on-the-job work experience of
apprentices, assigns their in-school technical training,
and prepares and conducts examinations to certify the
competence of apprentices and tradesmen. It is
responsible also for operating an extensive pre-
apprentice, trades training program for young men and
women seeking employment. The Branch works closely
with vocational schools, colleges, school boards, the
Ministry of Education, and the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission in the development of these
programs.
During 1978 the number of apprentices registered
remained relatively high. As of December 31, the Branch
listed 12,518 apprentices on its records, down 994 from
the same date last year.
The responsibilities associated with conducting pre-
apprenticeship, apprenticeship and journeymen
certification programs include supervision of on-the-job
work experience, assignment of technical training,
preparation and supervision of examinations,
development of class schedules, course outline
development, and enrollment of classes. In addition to
these duties, apprenticeship training counsellors must
investigate requests for training under the Canada
Manpower Industrial Training Program.
The administrative duties connected with a program
dealing with 12,518 apprentices, 1,808 pre-apprentices,
and the certification of tradesmen are many and varied.
The decentralization of operations and the
computerization and processing of all apprenticeship
records is now fully operational.
44
 Apprenticeship Training
The Branch is responsible for the scheduling of
apprenticeship technical training classes for the
designated trades and apprenticeable trades, and for the
assignment of indentured apprentices to these classes.
The technical training classes are day-school programs
that vary from two weeks to eight weeks duration,
depending on the trade. Apprentices attend one term of
training for each year of their apprenticeship.
Technical training is conducted at a number of
institutions in the Province: Pacific Vocational Institute,
Burnaby Campus and Haney Campus; Camosun College,
Victoria; Malaspina College, Nanaimo; Cariboo College,
Kamloops; Okanagan College, Kelowna; College for New
Caledonia, Prince George; Selkirk College, Nelson;
Northern Lights Community College, Dawson Creek;
Northwest Community College, Terrace; East Kootenay
Community College, Cranbrook; and Vancouver
Vocational Institute, Vancouver. The Branch also arranges
for evening classes in trades for which there are
insufficient numbers of apprentices to operate a viable
day-school program. Extra training for interested
apprentices is also provided through the upgrading
courses offered at various centres.
During the year, 10,093 apprentices were assigned to
day-school classes, 740 classes were scheduled in the
day program, 183 apprentices were assigned to
scheduled evening classes, and 654 attended upgrading
classes. Technical training for apprentices was
scheduled in 48 trades.
Pre-apprenticeship Training
Pre-apprenticeship training is designed to prepare
persons for entry into the skilled labour force by providing
basic skills and technical knowledge in a particular trade.
The courses are from four to six months duration,
depending on the trade, and are offered at various times
during the year. Students enrolled in pre-apprenticeship
classes have all their tuition costs paid by the Branch,
and also receive subsistence and travel allowances.
Under the pre-apprenticeship program, training was
offered in 24 trades for 1,808 students in 110 classes.
Graduates of this program are employed as apprentices
in industry, and in a variety of craft areas. Two pre-
apprenticeship programs, cooking and electronics, were
discontinued during the year. A new floorcovering pre-
apprenticeship program was begun in 1978. The pre-
apprentice program, which has been instituted in
secondary schools, continues to expand. Several of the
secondary schools graduated their first pre-
apprenticeship classes during 1978. These programs are
the outcome of pilot programs that were started in 1975
in the Langley School District, and are being monitored in
co-operation with the Ministry of Education.
Advisory Committee
Ten regular meetings of the Provincial Apprenticeship
Committee were held in 1978 to consider and approve
new contracts of apprenticeship, cancel apprenticeship
contracts, transfer apprentices between employers,
extend apprenticeship contracts, and issue
apprenticeship certificates to apprentices who had
successfully completed training.
Provincial Trade Advisory Committees are established to
ensure that manpower training programs are being
conducted in accordance with existing trade
requirements, and to plan for the appearance of new
technology within the various trades. These committees
represent 57 different occupations. During the year, 99
committee meetings were held, six of them in locations
other than Branch headquarters.
During 1978, discussions were held with representatives
of the marine engineer trade concerning the possibility of
establishing an apprenticeship training program.
Federal-Provincial Co-operation
British Columbia, with the participation of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and
the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission,
continued to enroll out-of-province apprentices in B.C.
apprenticeship technical training programs. Some B.C.
partsman apprentices were trained in the Province of
Alberta. This opportunity for special training was made
possible by financing from the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission, which provides for maximum
use of training facilities.
Under the terms of the Adult Occupational Training Act,
the Interprovincial Standards Co-ordinating Committee,
directors of apprenticeship, and examination coordinators from the various provinces and territories met
with representatives of the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission to discuss inter-provincial
examinations, course outlines, new testing procedures,
trade analysis, and other topics related to apprenticeship
training, tradesmen's upgrading, and the certification of
apprentices and tradesmen on a national basis.
Industrial Training
British Columbia and the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission jointly administer the Canada
Manpower Industrial Training Program. Staff of the
Apprenticeship Training Programs investigate, report on,
and recommend or reject industrial training contracts that
are directly related to skill training and apprenticeship.
During 1978 the Branch collaborated with Canada
Employment and Immigration Commission officials to
process 4,619 contracts for training in industry. In all,
1,161 contracts were written in apprenticeable areas,
resulting in the placement of 1,335 trainees in
apprenticeship programs. The program has been
instrumental in providing job opportunities for many
persons who might not otherwise have obtained
employment, and it has aided employers during the low-
productivity period experienced by new trainees.
45
 Program Development Section
The Program Development Section of the Branch
continued development and revision of training and
testing materials for provincial purposes. The Section cooperated with officials of the governments of other
provinces and Canada in the preparation of material for
interprovincial use and national standards.
On a national basis, B.C. developed examinations for the
trades of bricklayer and boilermaker; these were adopted
for use as Canadian Interprovincial Standards
Examinations. An examination developed for the
sprinkler fitting trade is expected to be adopted for
interprovincial purposes in 1979.
The Section played host for an Examination Development
Techniques Workshop at which representatives from the
Territories and Western Provinces joined with Branch
program development officers in sessions conducted by
federal government experts. Special projects were
undertaken with funding from the federal Training
Improvement Project for curricula in the trades of
carpentry, drywall finishing and heavy-duty mechanics.
A program development officer visited training officials
and establishments in Ontario and Nova Scotia for the
purpose of examining other curriculum material that had
been developed under the same funding.
Within the Province, program development officers met
with officials of other Ministries, federal agencies and the
Canadian Armed Forces to discuss matters related to
training and certification. Program development work
was undertaken in co-operation with industry resource
people, advisory committee members, examining board
members, Branch counselling staff, Ministry of Education
personnel, and instructional staff of the colleges and
provincial institutes.
Attention was directed toward developing and revising
course outlines, student study guides and manuals,
training charts, examinations, and trade analysis and
descriptive brochures for use by students in pre-
apprenticeship classes, indentured apprentices,
journeymen tradesmen, vocational instructors, employers
and the general public. At year-end, there were 49 such
projects awaiting printing.
Legislation
The Apprenticeship and Training Development Act was
formulated to complement legislation being developed
for the control of colleges and institutes, and to provide a
formalization of apprenticeship training, tradesmen's
certification, trades-school administration, and job
creation programs. The Act received final reading in the
Legislature and was officially proclaimed by Order-in-
Counci I Number 2301 on August 31,1978. The
regulations and directives that will make the new Act
operative are currently being developed.
 Employment Opportunity Programs
The Employment Opportunity Programs Branch is
responsible for the adminstration of provincial job
creation programs under the authority of the
Apprenticeship Training and Development Act (1977).
The Provincial Youth Employment Program, administered
by this Branch, is designed to provide employment
opportunities to youth throughout the Province. The
objectives of the program are to promote the
development of skills that will enable young people to
enter the labour force, and to promote employment that
will contribute to the social and economic development
of the Province. In 1978, the program provided 13,800
jobs for youth at a total cost of $22,800,000.
This year an increased emphasis was placed on the
provision of funding to private sector employers
throughout British Columbia so that job opportunities for
youth could be expanded. Jobs totalling 4,561 in number
were created with businesses at a cost of $4,800,000.
Farms accounted for 1,936 jobs, at a cost of $2,000,000.
Non-profit organizations received a total of $1,600,000 to
create 778 jobs for youth.
Local and regional governments in the Province received
a total of $3,600,000 to provide 2,670 jobs for youth.
Colleges and institutes created 386 jobs for students at a
cost of $800,000, and universities provided 977 jobs for
students from a funding level of $2,300,000 for the
Provincial Youth Employment Program. Ministries in the
provincial government provided 2,319 jobs for youth at a
cost of $6,300,000.
In order to increase the effectiveness of Branch programs
and improve the level of service offered to the public, the
Branch established permanent regional offices in
Kelowna, Prince George, Burnaby and Victoria.
In 1978 the operation of the computerized Youth Referral
Service was extended to assist participating private
sector employers in recruiting youth for summer jobs. For
the first time, a joint federal-provincial Youth
Employment Centre was established in Victoria to assist
the private sector, federal government departments, and
provincial government ministries in hiring youth.
Manpower Training and Development,
and Trade-schools Regulation
The efforts of the Manpower Training and Development
Branch are directed toward supporting industrial
development throughout the Province, expanding
employment opportunities for unemployed and
underemployed workers, alleviating persistent skill
shortages, preventing the layoff of workers through
technological or economic change, and encouraging
employers to establish training programs and to improve
the quality of training within industry in order to increase
productivity and economic growth.
Pipeline Manpower Assessment and
Supply Group
This working group, of which a member of the Branch is
chairman, is regarded as a desirable alternative to the
multitude of often conflicting agencies with which
industry has had to deal.
Initially, strong emphasis was placed on identifying the
nature and magnitude of the labour market impact of the
pipeline in B.C., especially with regard to training and
local participation. Toward this end, two specific projects
were under study. The first project, now completed, dealt
with the development of a pipeline occupational
brochure needed to provide counselling to the large
numbers of interested job seekers.
The second project is a pipeline industry manpower
study focussing on the development of past and
anticipated patterns in the industry. The objective is to
determine specific occupational shortages and training
needs. Special attention has been given to local and
preferential hiring. The group tackled this project to the
fullest extent consistent with data availability. The focus
of the group's activities is now on information-exchange
and liaison.
47
 Welding Code
Committee
The Branch continued its participation as a member of
this Committee. During the year, members received an
interim report from the task force assigned to prepare a
plan for new welding training and qualification levels.
The study recognized the need for (a) a well-delineated
course content and recognizable performance standards;
(b) the provision of some documentation to bear witness
to satisfactory performance by graduates; and (c)
definable steps to provide for progressive qualification
with increased training and work experience.
Trade-schools
Regulation
The Branch also supervises the operation and
certification of private trade schools. Supervision of these
schools includes approval of: premises and equipment;
health, sanitary, and safety conditions; hours of operation;
courses offered; fees charged; form of contract; teacher
qualifications; performance bond; cancellation
provisions; advertising copy; and any other procedures
that serve to protect the public and exclude unscrupulous
practitioners. The issuing of a Certificate of Registration
authorizes an institution to operate a trade-school, and
provides the public with the assurance that Ministry
standards have been met.
During 1978, administrative officers of the Trade-schools
Regulation Branch held 12 meetings, out of which came
recommendations to the Minister of Labour concerning
registration, re-registration, requests for changes in
tuition fees, requests for approval of new courses, the
general conduct of private trade-schools, and other
matters related to administration of the Trade-schools
Regulation Act. As in previous years, a Branch
representative attended school graduation ceremonies.
As of December 31 1978,120 schools offering
correspondence and practical courses, or combined
correspondence and practical training, were registered
under the Acf. One hundred and two schools were re-
registrations from the year 1977, and 27 new schools
were considered and recommended to the Minister and
approved for Certificate of Registration during the year.
Nine schools discontinued operation. These figures
represent a net growth rate in the number of trade-
schools of 17.6 per cent. Based on year-end statistics
provided by the schools, the student population of private
trade-schools exceeded 19,000 in 1978.
In addition to the inspections conducted in each school
at least twice a year, special visits were made to schools
to resolve specific problems and complaints. Students
wishing to discontinue training, and who had prepaid
tuition fees owing to them, were granted refunds.
The new Apprenticeship and Training Development Act,
proclaimed in full on August 31 1978, now enables a
newly registered school to enjoy a full year of registration
from one anniversary date to the next. Prior to the Acf, all
licences expired on December 31.
During 1976 the Private Career Educational Council,
incorporating trade-schools representatives from many
parts of Canada, held a successful meeting and seminar
in Vancouver, at which a Branch representative delivered
a well-received address that focused on the new
legislation.
Manpower Advisory Services
Manpower Advisory Services was established in 1978 to
administer the Province's delivery of immigration
services, and to assist the federal government in
employment services for major industrial dislocations. It
maintains liaison with construction, mining and smelting
industries, and consults on manpower issues.
Manpower Advisory Services also co-ordinates those
provincial services that may be required to resolve
problems arising from industrial expansion, contraction
and technological change. In this endeavour, the unit
works closely with its federal counterpart, the Manpower
Consultative Service.
The primary objective of the combined federal and
provincial effort is to mitigate the adverse effects of
industrial adjustment on workers. The two governments
also promote manpower planning within industry as a
means of ensuring that both long- and short-term needs
are met. The co-operative endeavours of Manpower
Advisory Services and Manpower Consultative Services
have successfully resolved such major industrial
problems as a railroad closure, the reduction of the
workforce at a plywood plant, and the temporary
shutdown of a sawmill when a fire interrupted operations.
A number of other cases of a similar nature were also
effectively dealt with.
48
 Although the provincial jurisdiction in immigration
matters is provided for by the British North America Act, it
is only recently that the provinces have become actively
involved in this field.
During 1978, a number of discussions were held to clarify
the roles and responsibilities of the two governments in
the immigration area. Even in the absence of a formal
agreement, the two levels of government have
maintained close I iaison and have exchanged views on a
large number of immigration issues, such as the granting
of temporary employment authorizations, the settlement
of refugees, and the admission of foreign students.
During the year, the Manpower Committee of the
Construction Industry Advisory Council met four times to
review and discuss manpower problems within the
construction industry. The Committee's views on training,
employment and unemployment have been regularly
presented to the Ministry. The Committee prepared and
presented a plan to reduce unemployment in the
construction industry. Under the Committee's direction, a
number of trade studies were also completed during
1978, and the Mechanical Industry Study was reviewed
and updated.
The Mining and Smelting Committee met once and
completed a comprehensive study that analyzed the
government services available to the industry in the event
of a reduction in work force or a closure.
Occupational Environment
The primary responsibility of the Occupational
Environment Branch is to ensure that factories, stores and
offices provide environmental conditions that are
conducive to the health, safety and comfort of
employees. This objective is accomplished through the
application and enforcement of the Factories Act, 1966
and of the Occupational Environment Regulations, which
establish various standards and requirements designed
to maintain at least a minimum acceptable physical
working environment.
Of first priority is the program of field inspections, which
ensures that acceptable working conditions are being
maintained in existing industrial establishments. Advice
is provided on the technical means required to achieve at
least minimum standards, and the employer is allowed
adequate time to complete corrective measures. The
number of individual visits to work places throughout the
Province totalled 11,551 during the year, and 5,246
separate items were brought to the attention of
employers for improvement. This represents a 15 per
cent increase in inspection activities over the previous
year, with no increase in staff.
Branch inspectors examine, test, and assess the
adequacy of lighting systems, heating systems, exhaust
and make-up air systems, and air-contaminant controls to
ensure that acceptable minimum environmental
standards are being maintained. Building maintenance
related to sanitation, interior finishes, and housekeeping
are priority items, together with employee amenities that
determine comfort and personal hygiene, such as
washrooms, lunchrooms, shower facilities, clothing
lockers and seating provisions.
Wherever possible, employees are encouraged to make
suggestions that will assist in the maintenance of
acceptable working conditions, and to participate in
discussions that will promote development of a cooperative solution to problems in the working
environment. The policy of the Branch is to obtain
compliance by persuasion and education.
Prosecution was necessary in one case in which
compliance could not be obtained by normal methods. In
that case, it was also necessary to obtain a court order to
improve both the working conditions and the
manufacturing process that involved the production and
packaging of asbestos-bearing material.
The Branch continues to enjoy the co-operation of the
major mining-and forest-related industries of the
Province in its long-term program of upgrading and
improving environmental conditions in the work place.
Although a large part of this program has now been
completed, the Branch continues to monitor the
occupational environment.
One arbitration decision resulted in the formation of an
overview committee to assist labour and management in
finding solutions to health and safety issues. The Branch
is represented on the committee and considerable
progress has been made toward improving working
conditions. In the case of new factory construction, or
additions and alterations to existing buildings, the Act
requires that architectural and engineering plans and
specifications be submitted to an inspector for
examination and approval prior to the start of
construction. The objective is to ensure that all
requirements of the Act and regulations are met, and to
avoid costly changes after completion. Plans and
specifications for 852 proposed projects were approved
by the Branch during 1978. The 2 per cent reduction in
plan approvals since 1977 reflects a slowdown in the
construction of commercial and industrial projects in
British Columbia.
49
 Throughout the year, the Branch continued to provide
consultative services to employers, architects, consulting
engineers and construction companies concerning
design and performance standards for building systems
and services. The purpose of this program is to assist
employers in providing working environments suited to
the number of employees, and to the industrial process
and the materials being used.
The Branch, in co-operation with the other provinces, is
working to determine the need for a uniform labelling
system for hazardous industrial materials. Adequate
labelling would inform employers and employees of the
exact chemicals contained in the material, and the
precautions to be taken. The objective is to reduce
industrial exposure to toxic chemicals, and to reduce the
need for subsequent inspection and control at the user or
plant level. The Branch developed several educational
programs aimed at providing basic instruction and
guidance in designing and maintaining environmental
systems. A program titled "Light, an Aid to Sight" uses
visual aids to show the relationship of good illumination
to visual comfort, safety and productivity. Participants are
instructed in the use of basic calculations required to
design and evaluate lighting systems.
Maintenance procedures and energy conservation
methods are also demonstrated. A 17-page booklet
containing this information is available for distribution.
The Branch has continued to provide its services
throughout British Columbia from its main office in
Burnaby and seven regional offices located in Victoria,
Nanaimo, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson and
Prince George. During 1978 the service provided in the
more heavily industrialized regions of Nanaimo and
Prince George was improved by relocating a second
inspector to each office.
As part of its summer student employment program for
1978, the Branch employed a second-year student from
UBC to research and develop an inventory of work places
in the Province. This information will be used to identify
and locate industrial establishments, program inspection
cycles, and manpower requirements, and to establish
priorities. The information obtained will enable B.C.
Systems Corporation to program a suitable inventory and
internal control system during 1979. Expectations for
1979 are that Branch programs will provide labour,
management, and persons involved in building-systems
design with improved service in the areas of energy
conservation and consultation.
Elevating Devices
The safety of freight and passenger elevators, escalators,
moving walkways, hoists, specialized lifts for the
handicapped, lift platforms and midway amusement
rides is the responsibility of the Elevating Devices
Branch.
Each device undergoes an acceptance inspection prior to
being licensed and registered for public or commercial
use. Subsequent to acceptance, periodic inspections
ensure that all installations are maintained in a safe
condition, and in accordance with applicable regulations.
Any accident, equipment failure or other event that
results in personal injury or damage to a device is
investigated by the Branch. The Branch responds
promptly to complaints from the public regarding the
operation or condition of elevating devices by making
special inspections or undertaking other appropriate
action.
The competence of the industry that installs and
maintains these devices is monitored regularly by a
system of contractor registration, thus ensuring that those
working on these devices are qualified.
The Branch provides a consultation service to the general
public, owners or management groups, industry, and
other government agencies. The legislation covering the
safety of elevating devices and amusement rides is under
constant review, and recommendations for policy or
legislative changes based on safety experience,
technological advance and the public need are
submitted to the Minister.
During 1978 the Branch conducted a total of 8,028
inspections throughout the Province. These inspections
resulted in the issuance of 9,765 directives requiring
repairs or alterations to ensure that equipment was in safe
operating condition. In addition, 372 engineering plans
and specifications were registered for new installations
and major modernization of existing equipment. This
represents a 7.4 per cent increase in workload that has
been absorbed by the Branch with no expansion of staff.
Such improvements in productivity have been achieved
through the implementation of new systems and more
effective use of resources.
The Branch was represented at eight meetings of the
Canadian Standards Associate Code Committee and
participated prominently in the formulation of better
safety standards for amusement devices, handicapped
lifts, firefighters elevators, and conventional elevating
devices.
During 1978 the Branch's arrangements with the federal
government were continued. All elevating devices in
buildings under federal jurisdiction throughout the
Province were inspected. The elevating devices in British
Columbia ferries were also inspected, and improved
service was achieved.
50
 The most notable accomplishment of the Branch during
the year was the assistance extended to handicapped
persons in British Columbia. Expanded services included
the introduction of realistic minimum safety standards for
handicapped lifts, registration of all manufacturers and
installers of wheelchair lifts, inspection and licensing of
all such devices in public buildings, free consultation,
and inspection of handicapped elevators in private
residences at the request of owners. Arrangements have
been made to ensure safe and convenient transportation
and greater mobility for handicapped persons at the
Vancouver International Airport, several major department
stores, Simon Fraser University, and other public places.
During 1978 the pulp and paper industry of British
Columbia was invited to participate in a comprehensive
elevator safety program. All companies responded
favourably. By mid-year, after individual review of
facilities and resources, 21 mills were extended Class B
registration and permitted to carry out routine
maintenance and emergency repair work previously
restricted to a limited number of registered elevator
contractors.
Staff education was again a major concern in 1978; and
in addition to frequent training sessions, a three-day
technical seminar was held in Parksville. Several staff
members attended an industry-sponsored educational
conference in Toronto, also with excellent results.
In 1978 all Branch records and operations were included
in a computerized program, in order to provide a higher
level of efficiency and public service. This program will
enable the Branch to provide improved services in a
constantly growing industry at a time when increases in
personnel are unlikely to be forthcoming until some time
in the future. The system will be in operation by
mid-1979.
Requests for British Columbia elevator and escalator
safety brochures came from as far as Alabama and Prince
Edward Island.
|-~^
  Industrial Relations and Human Rights
Programs
Introduction
Labour Standards
Mediation Services
Arbitration and Special Services
Human Rights
8
:
53
 Introduction
1978 proved to be a significant year for industrial
relations with the decision of the federal government to
phase out its wage and prices anti-inflation program. The
phaseout period began on April 14th, 1978 and
terminated December 31st, 1978. Despite predictions
that work stoppages would substantially increase once
labour and management assumed full responsibility for
collective bargaining decision making, the transition in
British Columbia, at least, took place with much less
difficulty than many had anticipated.
Although man-days lost through labour disputes in both
federal and provincial jurisdictions increased in 1978
over 1977, the estimated total of 753,000 lost man-days
was approximately half the level recorded during the
years 1974-76. Of the 1978 total, 421,363 man-days, or
66 per cent, were lost in industries under provincial
jurisdiction. One of the federal disputes, occurring in the
telecommunications industry in early 1978, was the
largest single dispute of the year, accounting for 290,000
lost man-days.
On the positive side, collective agreements covering
thousands of employees were negotiated and completed
without work stoppages. In this connection, the 1978
settlement in the B.C. construction industry is of special
interest. On February 15th, 1978, in a landmark decision,
the Labour Relations Board issued a judgment to the
effect that "the unit appropriate for collective bargaining
in building construction in this Province must be multi-
trade in scope." Subsequently, under the auspices of the
B.C. and Yukon Building Trades Council, a voluntary
bargaining council was established. For the first time in
B.C. history, all of the trades representing up to 40,000
workers settled with representatives of the construction
industry in one round of bargaining. It is significant to
note that there were no work stoppages, nor was there a
need for third-party assistance. Some of the other larger
agreements successfully concluded during 1978
involved 300 employees in the transportation industry,
4,100 in the food industry, and 4,000 in the fishing
industry.
On February 2nd, 1978, the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council passed strike and lockout vote regulations, which
became effective March 1st, 1978, to govern votes as
prescribed in'Sections 81 and 82 of the Labour Code. In
addition, on December 8th, 1978 the Legislature, in
special session passed Bill 46, the West Kootenay
Schools Collective Bargaining Assistance Act. This step
brought to an end a protracted strike-lockout affecting
several units of British Columbia's educational system.
The Minister subsequently appointed Dr. Noel Hall of the
University of British Columbia as special mediator in an
effort to assist the parties in concluding terms of
settlement for revised collective agreements. The Bill
also provided for binding arbitration for disputes in which
mediated settlements were not achieved.
Section 11 of Bill 46 also provided, upon proclamation,
for the inclusion within the Essential Services Disputes
Actoi colleges and boards of school trustees,
universities, institutions as defined in the Colleges and
Provincial Institutes Act, municipalities, regional districts,
and improvement district corporations under the Water
Act. Earlier, on August 15th, 1978, the Minister of Labour
had appointed three distinguished industrial relations
practitioners to membership in the Essential Services
Advisory Agency: Clive McKee, a well-known mediator
and arbitrator, as chairman; Gordon Anderson, a former
international vice-president of the International
Association of Fire Fighters; and Edward Strang, a labour
relations consultant and former president of the B.C.
Maritime Employers Association.
The Mediation Services Branch of the Ministry was
involved in a record 434 disputes in 1978, and the 337
applications received during the year were also the
highest recorded. Of the 279 cases completed in the
calendar year, the Ministry's mediators reported 232
settlements, which represents a success ratio of 83 per
cent.
Throughout the year, the Ministry provided speakers and
panelists for trade union and employer organizations and
educational establishments. Officers of the Ministry also
met for formal and informal exchanges with labour
ministry officials from other jurisdictions. Ministry
representatives attended the annual conference of the
Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour
Legislation at St. Andrews, New Brunswick, the annual
conference of the Association of Labour Relations
Agencies in Boston, Massachusetts, the International
Labour Organization in Geneva, and the National
Association of Government Labour Officials in Jackson,
Wyoming.
Labour Standards
The Labour Standards Program Branch administers a
large number of statutes, orders, and regulations affecting
the quality of the work place and the conditions of
employment of most employees. The diversity of its
programs is reflected in the variety of statutes affecting
54
labour in British Columbia. These include the Payment of
Wages Act, Minimum Wage Act, Control of Employment
of Children Act, and Annual and General Holidays Act.
 Inspections and investigations are conducted by Branch
industrial relations officers who also pursue educational
duties and help to administer compliance with the
Labour Code and the Human Rights Code.
During 1978, Branch industrial relations officers made a
total of 61,116 calls and investigations in connection with
the enforcement of labour standards legislation.
Adjustments totalling $2,119,128.43 were made on
behalf of 12,130 employees by 4,368 employers. The
majority of payments were the direct result of the inability
of employers to meet payroll commitments owing to
financial instability.
The Branch continues to represent employees who are
denied payment as a result of a business failure. Such
representation involves the auditing of employers records
and the documenting of the employee's claim with the
receiver or trustee responsible for the liquidation.
The primary intent of the Branch is to obtain voluntary
compliance with these statutes through education and
persuasion. Only in extreme cases does the Branch resort
to litigation to obtain compliance. Under the Payment of
Wages Act, which is the main vehicle for wage recovery,
the Board of Industrial Relations issued 738 certificates.
In addition, 561 demand notices were issued to persons
and institutions owing money to employers who, in turn,
owed unpaid wages to employees. Acting as
representatives of the Board, officials of the Labour
Standards Branch are responsible for the enforcement of
these certificates. Such action involves the use of
demands, writs of seizure and sale, and certificates of
judgment.
The Branch is also responsible for registering
employment agencies in the Province. After a thorough
investigation to determine the extent of compliance with
the provisions of the Employment Agencies Act,
registrations of $50 were issued to 104 employment
agencies.
In addition, 323 permits were issued under the
Employment of Children Act, authorizing the
employment of children under the terms and conditions
of the permit. In every case, applications were thoroughly
investigated to ensure that the proposed employment
would not be injurious to the employees, or adversely
affect their scholastic and educational standards.
Statistical data on a number of the Branch's activities
during 1977 appear in Tables 1 to 3 on page 70.
Officers of the Branch are located in Victoria,
Vancouver/Burnaby, Chilliwack, Williams Lake, Prince
George, Terrace, Dawson Creek, Kamloops, Nelson, and
Cranbrook.
Mediation Services
Settling labour disputes within the Province is the prime
objective of the Mediation Services Branch. To this end,
the Branch provides assistance to both management and
trade unions during negotiations for an initial collective
agreement or for the renewal of an existing agreement.
During 1978, offices of the Branch were involved in a total
of 434 disputes: 337 occurred in 1978,8 involved no
official appointments, and the remaining 89 were carried
over from 1977. In addition, the officers were involved on
a continuing basis in 22 disputes, subsequent to the
report of the officer. Of the 279 cases completed during
1978, mediation officers assisted in the successful
settlement of 232 of them, or 83 per cent of the total.
The assistance of a mediator is available, on an unofficial
or informal basis, if a labour-management dispute has
resulted in a strike or lockout. Mediation assistance is
also provided to government employees in labour
disputes coming under the Public Service Labour
Relations Act, and to teachers under the Public Schools
Act. Trade unions and employers, either separately or
jointly, may apply to the Branch for the assistance of a
mediator by making application, under the Labour Code
of British Columbia, to the Director, Mediation Services
Branch, Deer Lake Centre, 4946 Canada Way, Burnaby,
B.C.
The mediation officer prepares a report on each dispute
for the Minister. Upon receipt of copies of that report from
the Minister, the parties to a dispute are free to initiate
strike or lockout action, but the mediation officer remains
available to assist the parties in concluding a collective
agreement. His report to the Minister simply indicates the
status of negotiations between the parties at that time; it
does not relieve him from further participation.
The Branch maintains files of copies of collective
agreements and certifications that are available for
scrutiny by trade unions and employers on request.
Throughout the year, the Branch also maintained contact
with a variety of conciliation and mediation services in
Canada and the United States for the purpose of
exchanging information on matters of administration,
legislation, trends, and problems of mutual interest and
concern.
55
 Arbitration and Special Services Branch advises the
Minister of Labour on the appointment of arbitration
chairmen in grievance and interest disputes. The Branch
prepares and publishes arbitration award summaries,
keeps a close watch on the international labour scene,
stays abreast of developments in the field of labour
legislation, and represents the Ministry at national and
international conferences.
The Branch maintains an inventory and statistical profile
of arbitration awards in the Province, and provides
information about these awards to interested parties.
Copies of awards may be viewed at the office of the
Director of Arbitration and Special Services, 880 Douglas
Street, Victoria, B.C., or may be obtained at a charge of
25 cents a page (to a maximum of $2.50). Cheques or
money orders should be made payable to the Minister of
Finance.
Award summaries are published monthly in the Ministry's
Labour Research Bulletin, and copies are forwarded for
publication in Labour Arbitration Cases and Wesfem
Labour Arbitration Cases.
The Branch deals with submissions to the Minister
regarding arbitration boards. In addition, it responds to
matters coming from the International Labour
Organization, and determines the extent of compliance
with ILO Conventions and Recommendations.
Arbitration Awards
Although there may have been a very slight decline in
the use of private arbitration to resolve those disputes
arising during the term of col lective agreements, there
was an increase in the use of the Labour Relations Board,
under Section 96 of the Labour Code, tot the purpose of
resolving rights disputes. In all, 340 arbitration awards
were filed with the Minister, two per cent less than the
351 filed in 1977. Of these awards, 149 were the
decisions of arbitration boards, and 191 were the
decisions of single arbitrators.
Most arbitration boards are selected by the parties to a
collective agreement. The Code, however, states that if
there is a failure to appoint or constitute an arbitration
board under a collective agreement, the Minister, at the
request of either party, shall make such appointments as
are necessary to constitute a board. In 1978, the Minister
made 41 such appointments, 26 of which were for
chairmen of arbitration boards, and 15 for single
arbitrators.
One hundred of the awards handed down in 1978 dealt
with the discharge of employees. In discharge cases
covered by the Labour Code, the average elapsed time
between the date of the alleged violation of the collective
agreement and the date of the award was 213.8 days.
The shortest length of time required by an arbitration
board to deal with a discharge case was 28 days; the
longest was 1,319 days. The shortest length of time
required by a single arbitrator to deal with a discharge
case was 31 days; the longest was 643 days. Arbitration
awards deal with a variety of matters as extensive as
those covered by collective agreements. The frequency
of occurrence of issues in cases reported in 1978 is
outlined in Table 5 on page 71. Table 6 on page 71
indicates the average number of days required to
complete arbitration cases in 1978.
The Branch regularly prepares material that enables the
Ministry to respond to industrial relations issues of
concern to the Province that are raised by other national
and international bodies such as the Canadian
Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation
(CAALL), the Organization of Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD), and the International Association
of Governmental Labour Officials (IAGLO).
In 1978, the Branch was involved with issues related to
Canada's endorsement of the two United Nations
Covenants: one respecting Civil and Political Rights, the
other respecting Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The Branch prepared and co-ordinated provincial reports
dealing with current law and practice in these areas, and
submitted these reports to the Continuing Federal-
Provincial Committee of Officials Responsible for Human
Rights. George Bishop, Director of Arbitration and Special
Services, was one of the Ministry representatives who
attended meetings and conferences held to consider
these new initiatives.
In order to help prepare the Canadian position on ILO
questions, the Branch provides the International and
Provincial Affairs Branch of Labour Canada with
information about British Columbia's response to such
issues. As a result of these efforts, the Branch is often
able to initiate action directed toward the improvement of
provincial legislation. James G. Matkin, Deputy Minister
of Labour, was a member of the Canadian delegation
attending the 64th Session of the International Labour
Organization Conference held in Geneva, Switzerland in
June 1978.
The Branch also continues to circulate ILO descriptions of
job vacancies in foreign countries. These positions call
for expert help in vocational training, manpower and
employment planning, and related labour fields. Tenure
generally ranges between six months and two years.
Further details may be obtained from the Branch. (See
Tables 5 and 6 on page 71).
56
  Human Rights
The Human Rights Code is based on the principle that all
persons are free and equal in dignity and rights. Under
the legislation, every person has the right to equal
opportunity, and equal access to employment, tenancy
and public services, regardless of race, colour, ancestry,
place of origin, religion, sex, marital status or other
characteristics. It is the role of the Human Rights Branch
to administer the Code.
The Human Rights Branch is responsible for investigating
complaints of discrimination, and endeavouring to
conciliate settlements acceptable to all sides. In 1978,
704 formal complaints were handled by the Branch, of
which 520 were new complaints and 184 were cases
carried over from 1977.
During the year, 379 cases were closed. Of these, 62 per
cent resulted in the disclosure of evidence of
discrimination, and settlement of these complaints was
achieved. In 15 per cent of the cases, investigation failed
to reveal evidence of discrimination. Another 9 per cent
of the complaints filed were withdrawn and 10 per cent
were not pursued, owing to a lack of interest by the
complainant. One per cent of the complaints did not
come within the jurisdiction of the Code.
When the Branch is unable to bring about a settlement of
a complaint, the case is submitted to the Minister of
Labour, who may call for a Board of Inquiry. The Board
hears the evidence, interprets the statute, either
dismisses or upholds the complaint, and orders such
compensation and restitution as it deems fit. Three per
cent of the total number of cases handled by theBranch
were referred by the Minister to a Board of Inquiry.
During 1978, the Branch received over 4,100 calls and
inquiries. A significant number of these were from
employers seeking information and advice about the
provisions and application of the Code. Often, policies
and practices that might have led to a complaint under
the Code were rectified through consultation of this kind.
The Branch also received calls and inquiries from
persons who had encountered problems outside the
jurisdiction of the Code. The problems were varied, and
covered such areas as unjust dismissal; legal problems
related to marriage breakdown; problems with
government departments, housing and welfare; mental
and emotional problems; and conflict with neighbours or
co-workers. These were referred to appropriate agencies.
Some 73 per cent of complaints investigated under the
Human Rights Code dealt with job discrimination. The
next largest category, 20 per cent, was related to public
services; and 6 per cent fell in the area of tenancy.
A woman was denied employment as a sheet metal
worker because of her sex. The settlement included one
month's salary and a promise to hire the woman for the
next vacant position.
A restaurant owner, who fired a pregnant employee,
resolved the woman's complaint by paying her
compensatory damages amounting to one month's
salary.
A plant manager requested two workers from a union
hiring hall but specified that no Indo-Canadians were to
be sent. The settlement included removal of the
discriminatory hiring practice, an agreement to hire the
Indo-Canadian complainant with full seniority rights, and
compensation for the workdays he missed.
Three female insurance underwriters alleged that they
were paid less than a male counterpart doing similar
work. The settlement awarded them a pay difference
totalling $2,500.
A landscaper refused to hire a female grass cutter.
Settlement included compensatory damages amounting
to the difference in a week's wages between what the
complainant was making at the time of her application
and the wages paid a grass cutter.
A construction superintendent laid off a 57-year-old
carpenter because he wanted a younger man. Settlement
included the carpenter's reinstatement in his former
position, and payment of $900 for lost wages.
Twenty-two female janitors who had been paid less than
males performing similar work, received a settlement of
$50,000 in back wages and a guarantee of equal pay in
the future.
An Indo-Canadian was denied employment because his
religion required him to wear a turban and a beard. The
settlement included $500 damages, a position with the
company, and a change in the company's policy so as to
accommodate religious belief.
A small business, which refused to hire a male secretary
because of his sex, settled the complaint by offering him
the next opening.
A heavy-duty machinery company refused to pay sick
leave and long-term disability benefits to a female
employee unable to work because of a pregnancy-
related illness. Settlement included over $2,000 in
disability benefits, and a guarantee to make a position
available should the woman decide to return to work
within six months of her delivery.
Settlements
The following are examples of settlements worked out by
the Human Rights Branch in 1977:
58
 Settlements Prior to Board of Inquiry
A female employee of a regional district made a human
rights complaint alleging discrimination when the district
refused to hire her for a position as a waste-water
monitoring technician. Prior to a hearing of the Board of
Inquiry, the case was settled with payment of $2,000 to
the claimant, an offer of employment in the next vacancy,
and an agreement to abide by the provisions of the
Human Rights Code.
A Sikh was suspended from his position as a security
guard after he refused to shave his beard and wear a
company cap in place of his turban. The Human Rights
Branch took the position that an employer has the
responsibility to try to accommodate the religious beliefs
of an employee. The case was referred to a Board of
Inquiry but was settled prior to the hearing with payment
of $3,000 for lost wages, and an agreement to allow the
Sikh to keep his beard and wear a turban in the company
colours.
A female employee of a janitorial firm made a complaint
alleging that the company had refused to hire her as a
spray buffer (heavy-duty janitor) because of her sex. In a
settlement agreement reached prior to the hearing, the
janitorial company paid $800 damages to the claimant
and $200 to the Human Rights Branch for expenses
incurred in setting up a Board of Inquiry. The company
also apologized to the employee in question and agreed
that all applicants for heavy-duty janitorial work will be
evaluated on individual merit without reference to the
applicant's sex.
Boards of Inquiry
Of the 10 cases scheduled for a Board of Inquiry in 1978,
four were settled prior to a hearing, and one was
withdrawn by the complainant. Boards of Inquiry heard
five cases, of which four were upheld and one dismissed
on grounds of jurisdiction. Two of the cases that were
upheld established significant legal precedents.
(1) Place of Origin.
A Board of Inquiry ruled that a private security firm had
contravened Section 7 of the Human Rights Code by
using application forms that inquired into the place of
origin of the applicant and the applicant's spouse. The
Board ordered the firm to cease contravening the Code,
and to supply the Director of the Human Rights Branch
with a copy of a revised application form.
(2) Pregnancy-Related Illnesses
A Board of Inquiry ruled that a school district policy of
denying women the right to draw on accumulated sick
leave benefits, when absence is caused or aggravated by
pregnancy, discriminates without reasonable cause and
must be removed. The Board ordered the school district
to refrain from committing the same or similar
contraventions of the Code, and a woman who had been
denied benefits was paid $3,609 by the school board.
Educational and Community
Activities
In addition to handling formal complaints, the Human
Rights Branch is involved in information programs aimed
at explaining the law and encouraging compliance with
its principles. The Branch conducts workshops for
schools, employers, unions and community groups, and
provides resource persons to speak at seminars and
conferences. A representative sample would include the
Simon Fraser University International Students Club, the
University of British Columbia School of Social Work, the
Arbutus Rotary Club, Immigrant Services Centre,
S.P.A.R.C. of B.C., Y.W.C.A., Y.M.C.A., Canada
Manpower, B'Hai Faith, Kamloops Justice Council,
B.C.IT. Business Management, Abbotsford Diabetic
Association, and Champlain Heights Community School.
Between May 9 and 12,1978, the Branch and the federal
department of the Secretary of State sponsored a Human
Rights Conference for 300 high school students from
around the Province. Students had the opportunity to
discuss human rights on the local, national and
international level, with speakers from various ethnic
groups, women's groups, and organizations working for
the handicapped. A post-conference evaluation showed
that the conference was a great success and that
students had gained an increased awareness of the
many complex human rights issues in our society.
Occasionally, an educational program results from a
formal complaint made to the Branch. Following a
complaint from two Bangladesh students who were
harassed on a city bus, the Branch embarked on an effort
to alert bus drivers to the potential hazards of racial
incidents, and produced a video tape for use in driver
training. Currently, the Branch is exploring other methods
of preventing racial harassment on buses. The
possibilities include the installation of emergency siren
systems and two-way radios on buses, human rights
posters promoting pride in Canada's ethnic diversity, and
a public education campaign. The Branch's Human
Rights brochure has been translated into Punjabi, French
and Cantonese and is now ready for distribution. The
Branch is also about to make available a comprehensive
public information kit containing the Human Rights Code,
a number of special interest brochures, case summaries,
and a human rights bibliography. For further statistical
information refer to Tables 7 to 9 on pages 72 and 73.
59
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Introduction
Boiler Safety Inspection
Electrical Safety Inspection
Gas Safety Inspection
Building Standards and Research
 Introduction
The Safety Engineering Services Division has been most
successful in meeting its objective of providing a safe
living and working environment for the people of British
Columbia, as evidenced by the comparative statistical
data on deaths, injuries to persons, and property loss
presented in the reports of the Boiler Safety, Electrical
Safety, and Gas Safety Inspection Branches in this
Division.
The Division's mode of operations placed increased
emphasis on the benefits to be acquired from providing
safety services in co-operation with municipalities and
industry. Both standards development and educational
and inspectional programming continued to reflect the
advantages of using a facilitative approach as opposed to
a prohibitive one.
In order to encourage the best use of Division resources,
the safety education content was increased through the
option of improved information on safety for industry and
the general public. For example, innovations were
introduced in seminars and technical releases to assist
the industry in becoming better informed and more
knowledgeable about the latest standards and safety
procedures. Appeals procedures were both adopted and
further refined to ensure that persons subject to the
rulings of enforcing authorities would be able to obtain an
impartial hearing of any of their concerns.
Various Branch programs have continued to contribute to
the National Standards Systems and, through
representation on national code-making bodies, have
ensured that such standards are appropriate for adoption
in British Columbia. In addition, emphasis has been
placed on participation by industry and society in the
various systems for developing and interpreting
regulations, and for reviewing procedures, in order to
ensure that unnecessary complications and forms are
eliminated.
Specific activities undertaken by the Division include:
surveying plans and designs to ensure conformity with
adopted safety standards; examining and certifying
persons and equipment; investigating accidents and
fires;inspecting installations; undertaking such
educational functions as the organization of standards
development meetings and code seminars; and
disseminating information on new and amended
requirements.
As part of the reorganization of Government in December
1978, the Division was transferred from the Ministry of
Highways and Public Works to the Ministry of Labour.
(See also Table 13 on page 77).
Boiler Safety Inspection
The purposes of the Boiler Safety Inspection Branch are
the development and provision of a safe environment for
the people of the Province in the area of pressure
containment components. These objectives are reached
through the development of standards and education,
and the design of systems to prevent defects.
Numerous provincial committees meet regularly to
discuss and develop safety codes and standards. These
efforts are co-ordinated with and related to national and
international technical and administrative committees.
Educational activities are undertaken on a regular basis
through consultations, meetings and seminars of both a
technical and informative nature.
Greater emphasis and work has been directed toward
preventing defects by placing greater responsibilities for
quality control on the owner-user, installer and fabricator.
As part of this process, design inspection and plant
survey monitoring and auditing functions are being
developed.
During the year the Branch was reorganized, and it now
consists of a management team whose members have
province-wide responsibilities for clearly delineated
functions.
An expanding workload and changing activities continue
to put tremendous strains on Branch personnel who,
nevertheless, can feel justly proud of the level of service
they provide. In addition to inspecting 13,300
installations, writing 1,750 reports on defects and
hazards, and certifying 10,000 pieces of boiler
equipment, staff members have actively promoted the
concept of self-regulation to industry, contractors and
tradesmen.
Over the year many potential hazards were corrected, low
water conditions, safety valve faults, cracking of tubes
and tube sheets, weld failures and corrosion being the
more predominant. There were no fatalities attributable to
pressure containment equipment failures for the year,
and only minor injuries to persons. Table 14 on page 77
provides a more detailed summary of the activities
undertaken by the Branch.
62
 Electrical Safety Inspection
The Electrical Safety Inspection Branch is primarily
responsible for ensuring a safe electrical environment for
the citizens of the Province at home, at work and at
leisure. Many aspects of electrical safety involve personal
commitment and, for this reason, the Branch fulfils its role
best through education, safety standards development,
and an inspection service.
The Branch, whose head office is located in Vancouver at
501 West 12th Avenue, has divided the Province into
nine geographic areas or regions. Regional offices are
located in Saanich (Victoria), Parksville, New
Westminster, Abbotsford, Kamloops, Kelowna, Prince
George, Terrace and Cranbrook. Local or district offices
are also located in Duncan, Nanaimo, Port Alberni,
Courtenay, Campbell River, Powell River, Mission,
Langley, Chilliwack, 100-Mile House, Williams Lake,
Salmon Arm, Vernon, Penticton, Quesnel, Dawson Creek,
Fort St. John, Prince Rupert, Smithers, Vanderhoof, Trail,
Nelson and Revelstoke. The feasibility of opening two
additional district offices to provide improved service to
industry and the public is being investigated at present.
By Ministerial Order the Branch has established two
advisory committees. The first of these, the Electrical
Safety Review Committee, is composed of
representatives of a broad cross section of the electrical
trade and industry, and concerns itself with broad safety
and procedural issues. This Committee has worked with
the Branch to develop an appeals procedure that will be
employed pending legislative changes necessary for
adoption of a formal appeals process. The second
Committee, the Electrical Wiring and Equipment
Standards Committee, is a subcommittee of the ESCR,
and concerns itself with technical matters and standards.
Various ad hoc committees and task forces are formed
from time to time to study and prepare recommendations
regarding specific items of interest or concern.
In addition to standards work at the provincial level, the
Branch actively participates in standards work at the
national level as a member of the Canadian Standards
Association Advisory Council on Electrical Safety, and
the Committee on the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I.
Furthermore, at the request of the Canadian Standards
Association for increased regulatory agency participation
in the formulation and review of standards for the
manufacture of electrical equipment, the Branch
participates in subcommittee activities related to 28
separate CSA electrical equipment standards. The
Branch has also been asked to participate in the
development and review of a number of international
=lectrical standards under the auspices of the
International Electro-technical Commission.
[The Branch's responsibilities also include the
sxamination and certification of persons aspiring to
Decome electrical contractors. During 1978 a total of 631
such examinations were written, and the success rate
was 63.5 per cent. In addition, eight examinations were
neld for electrical inspectors, and assistance was
Drovided to the Fire Marshal's office during the
examination of 25 candidates for the position of motion
picture projectionist. The Branch gathers, analyses and
summarizes information concerning electrical fires,
accidents and injuries caused by electrical equipment.
The purpose of this activity is to determine the cause of
each such incident so that proper evaluation and
assessment can be made of the adequacy, interpretation,
and application of rules and regulations related to
electrical safety. It should be noted that a difference
between the number of electrical incidents investigated
by the Branch and those reported by the Fire Marshal
exists because the Fire Marshal's reports include
electrical fires in automobiles, boats, aircraft, and other
similar sources that do not fall within the Branch's
jurisdiction.
Even though safety activities are given high priority,
accidents and fires continue to occur because of the ease
with which electrical equipment can be abused,
improperly used and misapplied. Perhaps the clearest
example of the latter classification during 1978 has been
the number of fires that occurred as a result of blanketing
recessed lighting fixtures in thermal insulation.
This problem, first detected as a side effect of the federal
government's Energy Conservation Program, also arises
in new homes in which insulation has been permitted to
blanket recessed lighting fixtures. Working in
conjunction with the provincial Fire Marshal, joint news
releases related to the problem were carried in the press;
in addition, public service television coverage was
arranged, and this was considered sufficiently
newsworthy to be given national coverage over the CBC
network. As indicated by Table 15 presented on page 78,
and verified by other published indicators, the
construction industry has experienced a slowdown over
the past few years. The year 1978 appeared to be
following this trend, but increased activity occurred
during the fourth quarter. At that time, the value of
building permit statistics began to show a slight but
apparently significant increase over 1977 figures. Branch
statistics related to the number of electrical permits
issued displayed a corresponding increase. The Branch
keeps these statistics under constant review, with the
goal in mind of optimum use of the Branch's resources of
manpower and facilities.
The Branch also provides an inspection and approval
service for specialty electrical equipment that does not
bear evidence of certification by a recognized testing
agency. Activity in this field varied from that of the
previous year; a decrease in the number of applications
received was being offset by an increase in the number
of pieces of equipment for which Branch examination
and approval were sought.
The Branch examines plans for large electrical
installations and approves them if they are found to
comply with regulations. Early in 1978 the Branch
introduced a procedure that produced a significant
decrease in the number of sets of plans required to be
63
 submitted. The procedure now requires a judgment
decision on the part of the submittor; the submittor need
submit only one set of plans for the installation, but if he
or she requires an approved set of plans for records, extra
sets must now be submitted. Approval or modifications
required are now indicated by means of an approval
notice. This procedure introduces a saving of the
inspector's time and a reduction in the cost to industry.
Gas Safety Inspection
The Gas Safety Inspection Branch is reponsible for
ensuring that the distribution of natural gas and gas-air
mixtures, and their use in gas appliances, whether in
industry or in the home, are installed in a safe manner.
Some of the functions of the Branch include: on-site
inspections; field testing and certification of gas
equipment; examining and licensing of gas fitters;
certification of contractors and municipal inspectors;
designing of surveys; investigation of all gas incidents;
and processing of appeals.
The Branch has undergone a further reorganization and a
reassignment of geographical areas to improve the
provision of services to the trade and the general public.
Some of the activities of head office staff have now been
transferred to the regional offices, a move that has
speeded up the issuing of permits.
During the year, several meetings were held with
representatives of the electrical trade, construction
industry, and other ministries and municipalities, to deal
with common concerns and areas of conflict and overlap.
Although such conflict sometimes occurs when two or
more authorities have been involved, their incidence has
been greatly reduced.
The Gas Safety Review Committee has been established
by a Ministerial Order. The function of the Committee is
to consider and advise the Ministry on acts, rules,
regulations, equipment standards, appeals processes,
and any other matters pertinent to the gas inspection
service. The Committee is already reviewing drafts of two
sets of regulations, and it is hoped that these will be
ready for adoption this spring.
The work load of the Branch was reduced slightly during
1978, with a decrease of about 20 per cent in appliance
certifications and a similar decrease in the number of
new designs checked. This is somewhat offset by an
increase of 13 per cent in the issuance of gas permits.
The number of gas contractor and gas fitter licenses
issued in 1978 remained fairly constant.
There were 30 special investigations during the year,
including 12 fires, 4 explosions, and 14 other incidents
that caused one fatality — an alleged suicide — 5
injuries, and 32 near asphyxiations. Table 16 on page 78
presents more statistical information on the activities of   |
this Branch.
Building Standards and Research
Building Standards and Research Branch provides a
complete technical advisory service on the use and
applications of the S. C. Building Code, together with all
related regulations and standards. This service includes
an evaluation of any changes proposed to the Code, and
an assessment of new building materials to be adopted
by the Province. In order to supply such a service
effectively, the Branch maintains close contact with the
federal government and with standards branches in other
provinces. The technical advisory service is supplied to
other ministries in the provincial government, and to
those members of the public connected with building
construction.
During the year, the Branch completed the drafting of a
proposed new section of the S. C. Building Code, which
dealt with accessibility for the handicapped in new
buildings. A series of seminars to be conducted
throughout the provinces are currently being prepared.
Audiovisual and documentary aids will be used in these
seminars to familiarize designers, owners and inspection
authorities with the requirements of the new section.
A member of the Branch acts as chairman of the Building
Code Appeal Board, which dealt with over 100 appeals in
64
1978. The Branch also undertakes the research
necessary to determine appeals and, by providing
opinions acceptable to both parties, can assist in
disagreements and eliminate the need for formal
appeals. Staff members represented the Province at
meetings and seminars across Canada that dealt with a
variety of subjects, including log housing and energy
conservation. In addition, the Branch provided guest
speakers and workshop leaders for specific groups.
Work continued on the preparation of a new education
program designed to certify building inspectors. The first
course dealt with housing. In order to be up to date on the
many types and problems associated with such a
program, staff members completed similar courses
offered by codewriting organizations in the United States.
The Branch has carried out extensive investigations into
overlapping legislation and regulations that affect
building standards. Each specific item of duplication has
been identified, and the manner in which it should be
amended has been proposed to other concerned
ministries.
In December 1978, the Building Standards Branch was
transferred from the Ministry of Public Works to the
Ministry of Labour without any disruption to its activities.
  Boards and Commissions
Board of Industrial Relations
Boards of Review,
Workers' Compensation Act
* The annual reports of the Labour Relations Board, the
Workers' Compensation Board, and the Human Rights
Commission are submitted separately to the
Legislature through the Minister of Labour.
66
 Board of Industrial Relations
The Board of Industrial Relations is a quasi-judicial body
appointed under the Minimum Wage Act. It performs
various functions under the Annual and General Holidays
Act, Hours of Work Act, Minimum Wage Act, Payment of
Wages Act, and Truck Act. Its responsibilities include
making regulations and orders to establish conditions of
labour and employment; reviewing and recommending
changes to minimum wages; establishing hours-of-work
regulations; issuing overtime permits and variance in
hours of work; establishing orders regulating the
observance of, and pay for, general holidays; and the
issuing and enforcing of certificates for the recovery of
unpaid wages.
Pursuant to the Minimum Wage Act, the Board of
Industrial Relations established four regulations during
1978 exempting certain employees from the Act.
The Board considered numerous applications for
overtime permits, and when the requirements of the
legislation were satisfied, permits were issued. The
Board also considered and granted many requests for
scheduling and varying hours and overtime rates to
acommodate short-week, flextime, and other working
arrangements.
The Board confirmed many certificates for wages owing
under the Payment of Wages Act. (For details, reference
should be made to the Labour Standards Table 1 on page
70). Several requests for exemption from section 15A of
the Act were also dealt with. During the year, the Board
held 47 regular meetings and 52 hearings throughout the
Province.
Boards of Review
The boards of review obtain their jurisdiction under Part I
of the Workers' Compensation Act. Section 76A of that
Act provides that the Lieutenant-Governor-ln-Council
shall establish boards of review, each one of which is
comprised of a chairman and two members. One
member of each board is recommended for appointment
by an organized group of employers, and the other is
recommended by an organized group of workers.
The boards of review provide an independent forum in
which appeals related to decisions of the Workers'
Compensation Board can be considered. The boards of
review may consider the decision of an officer of any
department of the WCB, provided that the decision
concerns a worker. In practice, the bulk of appeals are
from decisions made at the claims adjudication level,
with infrequent appeals filed regarding original decisions
made by other departments of the Board. A decision of a
board of review may subsequently be appealed to the
Commissioners of the WCB. An appeal to a medical
review panel on a medical issue only is also available to
a worker or employer at any level of appeal.
The worker or employer filing an appeal may request a
meeting with a board of review, but if no such request is
received, an appeal is determined in their absence. The
structure of a meeting, if requested, is intended to be
informal, and is generally conducted on an inquiry rather
than on an adversary basis. The boards of review are
given power, by regulation, to conduct such inquiries as
they feel are necessary to determine an appeal. Their
decision is to be based on the results of those inquiries,
together with other information and submissions provided
by the interested parties to the appeal. The regulations
made under section 76A direct that the practice of courts
of common law is not to be initiated, and they further
empower the boards of review to determine their own
procedures.
The boards of review are required to render their
decisions in writing. The decision must contain the
findings of the panel considering the appeal, together
with their reasons in support of that decision.
In 1978 four separate panels performed the work of the
boards of review until a fifth was appointed and
commenced sittings in November of 1978. Each of the
panels serve on hearings both at the main office in
Burnaby and at various locations throughout the Province.
Early in 1978 the boards of review were concerned about
the excessive time necessary to convene a meeting
following filing of an appeal for hearing at the main office
or in cities outside the Lower Mainland. Efforts have been
directed toward reducing the waiting time; currently
meetings are set, on the average, between six weeks and
two months after receipt of the Notice of Appeal.
67
 Between 1974 and 1977, there was a steady increase in
appeals not completed by the boards of review by year-
end. Despite a rise in the number of appeals from 1,864
to 2,155 in 1978, the number of incompleted appeals has
since decreased. As of December 31 st, 1977, there were
1,494 cases before the boards of review, compared with
1,238 cases by December 31 st, 1978. This represents a
current backlog of approximately 450 cases, the balance
being made up of appeals that are either waiting to be
checked in, or are set for hearing, or are likely to be
disposed of within the current month. It is expected that
the fifth board of review will help clear up a significant
part of the current backlog during 1979, notwithstanding
the current increased level of appeals being received.
Of the appeals adjudicated in 1978, 97 were made by
employers, of which 77 were subsequently disallowed by
the boards of review. Workers' appeals totalled 2,041
during the same period, and 1,148 were disallowed.
More than 1,050 of the appeals received in 1978 were
directed against decisions in which the applications of
workers had been disallowed in the first instance. Over
800 appeals involved the refusal to reopen claims; and
another 537 were initiated by workers who believed
either that their claim had been closed permanently, or
that timeloss benefits had been terminated prematurely.
(See Tables 17 to 21 on pages 78 and 79).
Back injuries — 1,085 in 1978 — continued to account
for the majority of claims. The relative importance of other
types of injury are presented in Table 21, on page 79.
68
 3TIS
 Labour Standards
Table 1 — Payment of Wages Act
Certificates made under Section 5(1) (c)	
Certificates confirmed under Section 5(2) (a)	
Certificates cancelled under Section 5(2) (b) (ii)	
Certificates cancelled and remade under Section 5(2) (b) (i)	
Certificates paid before confirmation	
Certificates paid before filed in Court	
Certificates confirmed under section 5(2) (b) (i) filed with Registrar of:
County Court	
Supreme Court 	
Appeals under Section (5)4	
Demands made under Section 6(1)	
1977
1978
905
738
727
611
34
28
45
25
77
67
55
28
711
569
13
11
2
3
620
561
Table 2 — Comparison of Investigations and Wage Adjustments, 1977 and 1978
1977
Inspections and Investigations   61,116
Annual and General Holidays Act
Firms involved  1,004
Employees affected   1,340
Arrears Paid  $135,859.65
Minimum Wage Act
Firms involved  234
Employees affected   378
Arrears Paid  $59,479.96
Payment of Wages Act
Firms involved  3,150
Employees affected   9,922
Arrears paid  $1,901,197.01
Total Adjustments  $2,096,536.62
1978
49,855
1,078
1,359
$169,113.91
224
374
$49,746.04
3,319
10,397
$1,900,768.48
$2,119,628.43
Table 3 — Summary of Permits Issued, 1978
Under Control of Employment of Children Act
Amusement  9
Automobile  2
Catering  26
Construction   2
Laundry, cleaning & dyeing industry   2
Manufacturing  9
Mercantile   7
Miscellaneous  2
Shipbuilding	
Transportation	
Totals   65
2
4
1
2
5
2
3
1
5
2
1
20
7
6
16
8
5
2
5
2
1
2
8
3
2
4
6
5
1
5
2
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
32
13
8
21
13
14
9
5
20
15
8
70
 Mediation Services
Table 4 — Analysis of Mediation Services for 1978
1978
Appointments continued from previous year  89
Appointments made  337
No official appointment          8
Total     434
Appointments rescinded    37
Appointments continuing  118
Total appointments completed    279
Settlements —
During term of officer's appointment    202
Following officer's report   22
No official appointment          8
Total settlements  232
Employers involved    826
Bargaining units involved  855
Employees involved   64,644
Arbitration and Special Services
Table 5 — Frequency of Occurrence of Issues Reported in 1978
Frequency
of
Issue Occurrence
Allowances	
Annual vacation	
Annual vacation pay
Arbitrability	
Benefits	
Call-time 	
Contracting out	
Damages	
Demotion	
  2
  1
  1
  12
  2
  2
  6
  5
  5
Discharge   100
  15
  1
  1
  1
  8
  1
  54
  18
  13
  1
  15
  8
  3
  1
  10
  1
Disciplinary action
Dismissal	
Estoppel 	
Hiring policy 	
Hours of work	
Illegal strike	
Interpretation 	
Job classification	
Job posting	
Jurisdictional dispute .
Layoff	
Leave of absence....
Management rights ..
Mandatory retirement
Overtime	
Past practice	
Policy grievance	
Probationary employee
Promotion	
Recall	
Reinstatement after injury ..
Retirement 	
Retroactivity 	
Reclassification &
re-evaluation	
Scheduling hours	
Seniority  	
Severance pay	
Sick leave 	
Statutory holiday pay	
Substitution pay	
Suspension	
Technological change	
Termination	
Terms of agreement	
Timeliness	
Transfer	
Union representation policy
Union security	
Wages	
Work assignment	
Work stoppage	
Table 6 — Average Number of Days to Complete Arbitration Cases in 1978"
Single
Arbitrators
Date of discharge to date of award  197.1
Date of appointment by Minister to date of award    97.1
Date of hearing to award date  27.9
Not all awards contained the data necessary to prepare the above statistics.
1977
76
227
12
315
12
89
214
165
11
12
188
866
881
79,758
Frequency
of
Occurrence
1
8
7
2
1
1
1
6
6
31
3
2
2
1
34
2
2
18
2
1
1
2
20
3
2
Arbitration
Boards
257.1
94.4
47.8
 Human Rights
Table 7 — Number of Complaints Investigated, by Section of the Human Rights Code
Discriminatory publication  1-4 0-1
Discriminatory public facility  38-102 21-26
Discriminatory property
purchase   0-0 0-0
Discriminatory tenancy    12-27 9-14
Discriminatory wages  7-18 3-4
Discrimination in employment
advertising  20-74 5-36
Discrimination by trade unions
and occupational
associations  4-11 0-3
Retaliation   2-5 0-1
Totals   184-520 75-161
0-1
0-0
0-2
0-0
0-0
1-0
5
6-7
0-1
6-64
3-1
0-0
2-3
140
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-0
0
0-1
0-0
2-9
0-2
0-0
1-1
39
2-1
0-0
2-10
0-1
0-1
0-1
25
1-1
1-0
4-36
0-1
0-0
9-0
94
0-0
0-0
3-8
0-0
0-0
1-0
15
0-0
0-0
1-3
0-1
0-0
1-0
7
26-27
3-10
41-284
12-23
2-3
25-12
704
Note: Figures in left-hand column indicate 1977 complaints handled during 1978.
Figures in right-hand column indicate complaints opened in 1978.
Table 8 — Number of Complaints Investigated Under the Human Rights Code, by Nature of
Complaint
Nature of Complaint
If
tr o
0J
>
o
OJ
I
s
2
■o
OJ
z3
—i
o
Z
Ifl
O-
B
z
c
(0
I
CO
1-0
5-72
2-3
0-0
5-2
151
1-4
26-107
5-12
0-1
14-5
292
0-0
1-3
0-1
0-1
1-1
20
0-2
0-14
0-3
0-0
0-3
40
0-1
1-7
0
0
0-0
18
1-0
0-5
1-1
0-0
0-0
20
0-0
0-4
0-0
0-0
0-0
7
0-1
0-24
1-1
0-0
1-0
46
0-0
0-2
1-0
0-0
0-0
4
0-0
1-5
0-0
1-1
1-0
12
0-2
6-38
2-1
1-1
2-1
87
0-0
1-3
0-1
0-0
1-0
7
Raceandcolor   33-118 16-31 4-10
Sex  92-200 38-65 8-6
Sex and marital status  8-12 5-7 1 -0
Marital status  6-34 6-11 0-1
Religion    5-13 2-5 2-0
Placeoforigin   3-17 0-10 1-1
Ancestry  1-6 0-2 1-0
Age  5-41 1-10 2-5
Political belief   2-2 1-0 0-0
Criminal conviction  4-8 1-1 0-1
Without reasonable cause  23-64 5-18 7-3
Retaliation   2-5 0-1 0-0
Totals   184-520 75-161 26-27
3-10       41-284      12-23
2-3
25-12
704
Note: Figures in left-hand column indicate 1977 complaints handled during 1978.
Figures in right-hand column indicate complaints opened in 1978.
7?
 Table 9 — Nature of Complaints Investigated Under the Human Rights Code, by Section
O  Q>
S3
Discriminatory publication
Discriminatory public
facility
Discriminatory property
purchase 	
Discriminatory tenancy  ..
Discriminatory wages ....
Discrimination in employment advertising	
Discrimination in
employment	
Discrimination by trade
unions and occupational associations ....
Retaliation 	
66
Total handled in 1978 .
Per cent of complaints
27
11
25
18
25
3       59
61     167
2       12
151     292       20
22%   40%    3%
15
3 2 5
11        15       12
40       18       20
6%    2V2%    3%
7
1%
18
28
46
7%
4
y2%
12
60
12       87       7      704
2%     12%    1%
Vi
140
20
39
51/2
25
31/2
94
13
379
54V2
15
2
7
1
Board of Inquiry
Table 10 — Activities of the Boards of Inquiry
1975
Number of cases referred to Board
of Inquiry by Minister of Labour   23
Number of hearings scheduled    16
Number of cases settled prior to hearing    5
Number of cases withdrawn  —
Number of hearings held  11
Number of cases upheld  9
Number of cases dismissed   2
'The Board ruled that complaint fell under federal jurisdiction.
TOTAL
11
8
10
52
11
11
10
49
4
4
4
17
—
—
1
1
7
7
5
30
5
5
4
23
2
2
11
7
Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Table 11 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Trade or Occupation
Terms
Years
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Second
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren
in
tices in
1978
Training
Air compressor and
pneumatic tool mechanic  4
Aircraft —
Maintenance mechanic  3
Painter   2
Anvilman    3
Armature winder  4
Autoglass installation  3
Automatic Transmission
Repair  4
Automotive —
Body repair   4
Electrical and tune-up    3
Electrical    3
Machinist   4
Mechanical repair  4
Painting and refinishing  2
Parts, warehousing and
merchandising  3
Radiator manufacturing
and repair  3
7
2
1
1
1
3
2
1
10
9
7
3
112
92
54
78
10
11
7
2
1
6
11
7
7
329
315
251
234
22
24
33
27
41
8
13
14
9
1
1
6
3
1
29
6
336
76
28
3
3
31
12
1,129
265
46
23
101
26
35
3
73
 Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Table 11 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Trade or Occupation
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren
in
tices in
1978
Training
11
4
84
11
96
50
14
21
4
3
41
6
15
3
78
19
16
10
8
9
177
36
6
2,309
589
1,556
495
17
6
34
30
12
6
1
13
3
13
4
94
15
27
1
66
20
1
65
10
1
1
Trimming    4
Baking    3
Bandsaw benchman  3
Barbering  2
Benchman — Lumber
manuf. industry  1
Blacksmith  4
Boatbuilding  4
Boilermaking  4
Boilermaking (erection)   3
Bookbinding1  4
Bookbinding2  2
Bricklaying  4
Cableman    3
Carman    4
Carpentry  4
Cement mason   3
Circular saw filer —
Lumber manuf. industry  1
Cladding  2
Collator  4
Compositor   5
Construction millwright —
lumber manuf. industry   4
Cooking   3
Cutting machine operator   5
Dental —
Mechanic  4
Technician   4
Diesel
Engine machinist    4
Engine repair  4
Fuel injection  4
Domestic radio and TV
servicing  4
Draftsman —
Construction   5
Hull   5
Mechanical    5
Drapery making  2
Dressmaking and
dress designing  2
Drywall
Finisher    3
Installer  3
Electric Metering  3
Electrical
Construction section  4
Marine section  4
Neon section  4
Electrical
Shop section   5
Appliance repair   3
Motoring  3
Operator  3.5
Electro plating  4
Electronics  4
Audio and radio
servicing  4
Commercial antenna TV   4
Industrial    5
Instrument repair
and calibration  5
Marine    4
5
4
2
32
32
20
29
67
14
2
1
1
16
10
5
10
5
3
1
6
24
29
25
5
4
5
2
3
5
25
41
46
65
3
3
8
9
12
4
313
387
396
460
9
5
3
34
2
10
1
6
2
3
2
2
2
5
4
37
37
20
8
4
8
7
12
13
25
16
1
11
21
17
1
16
11
10
31
10
13
17
29
59
10
23
51
19
93
12
7
4
11
165
264
279
329
1,037
265
1
2
3
2
2
3
7
1
8
7
15
5       5,485
1,487
4
7
1
7
18
1
9
3
12
5
1
2
4
1
1
2
1
5
1
3
1
3
15
22
17
1
1
1                4
1
1
1
2
1
74
 Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Table 11 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Trade or Occupation
Year of Apprenticeship Be
ng Served
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren-
in
First
Second
Third
Fourth             Fifth            tices in
1978
Training
2
2
2
1
7
3
1
5
9
4
4
4
7
3
3
5
18
5
6
5
11
7
2
4
1
7
1
28
33
1
28
89
1
30
3
3
1
1
1
18
10
28
15
6
3
3
2
14
1
2
5
1
1
9
48
51
57
40
196
159
525
684
486
10
29
36
24
99
15
271
324
319
182
1,096
280
1
1
2
11
15
7
6
39
2
95
109
135
149
488
144
16
20
17
17
20            90
20
10
9
8
27
48
81
42
171
77
2
2
2
12
9
6
4
31
7
31
37
51
36
155
42
3
3
2
1
2
1
1
5
1
34
50
2
50
134
2
41
1
1
1
3
4
1
4
3
3             15
2
2
1
3
7
6
3
1
1             18
1
1
1
3
16
13
18
13
60
10
1
1
1
3              6
2
95
78
47
66
286
89
4
2
1
4
11
2
1
2
2
5
7
5
9
4
25
4
1
1
1
3
32
26
10
68
4
3
21
24
12
149
163
171
159
642
180
Panels and controls   4
Radio communications   4
Sound communication  4
Telecommunications   4
Technician   4
Elevator mechanic   4
Embalming and funeral
directing  2
Farm machinery mechanic   4
Floor covering  3
Floor laying (hardwood)  3
Florist  2
Folding machine operator  5
Forklift mechanic  4
Front end aligning and
brake service  2
Front end aligning and
frame straightening  4
Fur finisher  2
Gas fitting  4
Glassblowing (scientific)   4
Glazier   4
Graphic Arts  5
Hairdressing   2
Heat and frost insulation   4
Heavy-duty mechanic    4
Hydraulic servicing  5
Inboard/outboard
mechanical repair  4
Industrial —
Electrical    4
Instrumentation  5
Mechanic  4
Warehousing  3
Ironwork  3
Ironwork  4
Jewellery —
Engraver (machine)   2
Manuf. and repair  4
Joinery (benchwork)  4
Lathing  4
Leadburning    4
Letterpressman  4
Lineman  3
Lithography —
(5-6 years)  6
Artist  5
Camera   5
Platemaking  5
Preparation   5
Press feeder   2
Pressman  4
Stripping & assembly  5
Loftsman   5
Machinist  4
Machinist fitter  4
Maintenance mechanic   4
Maintenance mechanic
(pipeline)   4
Marine engine repair    4
Marking & stamping
device technician   5
Meat cutting  3
union indentured  2.5
Millwright   4
75
 Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Table 11 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Trade or Occupation
Terms
in
Years
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Second Third
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren
in
tices in
1978
Training
4
12
5
2
32
3
16
1
198
38
132
27
5
13
10
12
2
10
1
533
141
1
1
42
18
71
14
1
1
128
38
3
84
31
1
1
91
63
3
373
112
6
1
30
8
19
8
1
1
25
4
2
57
27
Motorcycle repair   4
Moulding    4
Moulding & coremaking  4
Multilith operator  4
Office-machine mechanic  4
Oil-burner mechanic  4
Optical technician  4
Ornamental ironwork  4
Orthodontics   4
Painting & decorating  3
Partsman  3
Patternmaking  5
Piledriving & bridgeman  3
Plastering  4
Plastic & rubber
fabrication   4
Plastic fabrication  3
Plastic sign making  4
Plumbing   4
Power saw repair   2
Practical horticulture  4
Practical nursing  1
Precast concrete moulder  1
Printer (5 to 6 years)  6
Printing (flexographic)   2
Refrigeration   4
Rigger sailmaker  4
Roofing —
damp & waterproofing   3
Sailmaking  4
Saw fitter — lumber
manuf. industry  2
Saw making & filing    4
Sewing machine mechanic  3
Sheet-metal work  4
Ship & boatbuilding ind  4
Ship plater  4
Shipbuilding  4
Shipwright   4
Sign painting   4
Silversmithing & plating  5
Small engine repair  4
Springmaking   4
Sprinklerfitting  4
Standard transmission
repair   3
Steam engineer  4
Steamfitting
& pipefitting   4
Lumber manuf. industry  4
Steel fabrication   4
Tailor  2
Telecontrol technician    5
Tile setting  3
Tire repair  2
Tool & die maker  5
Truck body building  4
Truck mechanic  4
Upholstery  4
Watch repairing  5
Welding    3
Winder electrician  4
TOTALS 	
13
7
59
46
1
5
4
84
14
9
1
28
2
28
42
98
48
4
53
5
7
5
1
2
14
17
72
31
10
1
147
9
17
20
33
1
2
100
1
6
6
5
9
1
52
1
24
9
17
2
1
13
4
67
55
1
3
2
1
118
1
13
15
27
23
49
85
3
4
3
6
18
59
1
54
1
6
4
4
1
9 4 5
2 1 1
17 18
12 2 2
4
6
184
6
18
53
1
1
90
1
11
4
5
29
100
45
12
259
59
6
3
176
56
16
6
30
3
9
4
12
2
3
26
1
4
49
33
3,146  3,919  2,990  2,608
51
12,518  3,909
 Table 12 — Tradesmen's Qualification Certificates and Exemptions
Issued in 1978
Trade
Automotive body repair 	
Automotive mechanical repair 	
Boilermaker (erection)	
Bricklaying	
Carpentry	
Cook	
Heavy-duty mechanic 	
Industrial electrical 	
Industrial instrumentation 	
Ironwork	
Joinery (benchwork)	
Lumber manufacturing industry —
Benchman 	
Circular saw filer	
Saw fitter 	
Machinist	
Millwright 	
Oil-burner mechanic	
Painting and decorating	
Plumbing 	
Radio and TV, domestic	
Refrigeration 	
Roofing, damp and waterproofing 	
Sheet metal	
Sprinkler fitting  	
Steamfitting and pipefitting 	
Totals	
Certificates
Exemptions
Issued
Issued
81
381
16
40
603
39
344
209
42
93
44
18
30
41
111
401
19
107
163
13
20
66
2
51
3
108
2
54
2
102
8
3183
30
Safety Engineering Programs
Table 13 — Activities, Safety Engineering Division
Inspections conducted   161,086
Work permits issued   76,602
Home-owner permits  10,300
Equipment certified  22,431
Examinations given  7,425
Individuals or contractors certified or licensed     15,737
Investigations conducted   400
Plans examined or designs surveyed  4,786
Meetings or seminars conducted    614
Written recommendations and reports on defects and hazards (estimate)  16,350
Fatal accidents  6
Injuries (serious)   49
Property loss           $8,500,000
Licence suspensions and prosecutions  16
Table 14 — Activities, Boiler Safety Inspection
Inspections concluded   13,300
Work permits issued   760
Equipment certified  1
Examinations given  6,400
Individuals or contractors certified    7,700
Investigations conducted   205
Plans examined or design survey  1,430
Meetings or seminars conducted   350
Written recommendations and reports on defects and hazards  1,750
77
 Table 15 — Investigations, Electrical Safety Inspection and Municipal Authorities
Electrical Safety Municipal
Inspection Authorities
Fatalities (human)              5 —
Fatalities (animals)              1 —
Electrical burns1                 8 4
Electrical shock              3 1
Broken limb from fall           — 1
Failure of equipment (no fire)              17 4
Overhead line contact without injury               2 1
Fires —
Attributed to human failing            11 4
Attributed to damage or substandard wiring            28 —
Undetermined origin            35 —
Equipment failure             28 —
Non-electrical causes            11 —
Miscellaneous              1 —
Total            150 15
1 More than one person was injured in some incidents; therefore the total number of persons suffering burns was 13.
Table 16 — Activities, Gas Safety Inspection
New designs checked  2,700
Appliance certifications  1,600
Gas permits   16,919
Gas fitter examinations  361
Gas fitter licences issued (new)  200
Gas fitter licences renewed   2,801
Gas contractor licences issued or renewed  958
Prosecutions   1
Licence suspensions    5
Special investigations —
Explosions   4
Fires    12
Other incidents1  14
11 fatality, 5 injuries, 32 near asphyxiations
Boards of Review
Table 17 — Appeals Considered
1976
Appeals received         1905
Appeals adjudicated          1196
Appeals pending at year-end        1125
Table 18 — Results of Appeals
1977 1978
Workers appeals allowed   689 893
Workers appeals disallowed  880 1148
Employers appeals allowed   8 20
Employers appeals disallowed  62 77
Miscellaneous dispositions (appeal suspended, no appealable
issue, no extension of appeal period, etc.)  174 273
Totals  1513 2411
1977
1978
1884
2155
1513
2411
1494
1238
78
 Table 19 — Meetings Held
Month Vancouver
January          85
February   102
March ...,  100
April    100
May  72
June         75
July         46
August   35
September         60
October   69
November         74
December         63
Totals  881
of Town
Cancellations
38
6
42
4
41
7
42
6
86
6
73
7
60
3
40
7
40
3
95
7
91
9
21
8
69
73
Table 20 — Issues Dealt With on Appeal
Claimants Appeal:
Disallow  1055
Refusal to reopen  811
Finalled prematurely  428
Time-loss benefits refused  109
P.P.D. award refused   107
P.P.D. insufficient    271
Medical aid refused  33
Surgery refused  35
Repairs or replacements refused    55
Rate of compensation  29
Commutation   15
Other  93
Widow/Widower/Dependents:
Death in the course of employment  3
Death from industrial accident or complications thereof  0
Discontinued benefits   0
Other  2
Employers Protest:
Not within scope of employment   87
No injury   40
Not in industry under Part I  1
Cost allocation (affecting claimant)  2
Other  18
(Some appeals involve more than one issue; therefore the above totals exceed the total number of appeals.)
Table 21 — Classification of Injuries
Abdomen  20
Allergies    8
Ankles   64
Arms    94
Asthma   8
Back  1085
Burns  5
Buttocks    4
Chest  39
Dermatitis   9
Ears  6
Elbows  72
Eyes  35
Face  17
Fatal  8
Feet   68
Fingers    54
Glasses  55
Groin   42
Hands   85
Head   69
Hearing loss  0
Hemorrhoids  0
Heart   3
Hepatitis   2
Hernia   80
Hips   71
Inhalation  18
79
 Table 21 — Classification of Injuries
Knees	
Legs	
Mental stress  	
Mononucleosis	
Multiple 	
Neck	
Paraplegic	
Pelvis	
Poisoning   	
Respiratory problems 	
Ribs 	
Shoulders 	
Sides 	
292 Silicosis	
145 Sinus 	
5 Staph infection
0 Stomach 	
175 Tailbone	
109 Teeth 	
0 Throat  	
7 Thumb	
3 Toes 	
7 T.B	
17 Undetermined .
188 Whiplash	
13 Wrists	
5
2
0
6
2
7
2
21
4
0
9
2
87
Acts Administered by the Ministry of Labour
* Annual and General Holidays Act (R.S. 1960)	
Apprenticeship and Training Development Act (1977)	
Boiler and Pressure Vessels Act (R.S. 1960)	
* Control of Employment of Children Act (R.S. 1960)	
Electrical Energy Inspection Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Elevator Construction Industry Labour Disputes Act (1974)
* Employment Agencies Act (R.S. 1960)	
Essential Services Continuation Act (1974) 	
Essential Services Disputes Act (1977)	
Factories Act (1966)	
Gas Act (R.S. 1960) 	
* Hours of Work Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Human Rights Code of British Columbia (1973)	
Labour Code of British Columbia (1973)	
* Maternity Protection Act (1966) 	
* Minimum Wage Act (R.S. 1960)	
Ministry of Labour Act (R.S. 1960)	
* Payment of Wages Act (1962)  	
Public Construction Fair Wages Act (1976)  	
Railway and Ferries Bargaining Assistance Act (1976)  	
* Truck Act (R.S. 1960)	
West Kootenay Schools Bargaining Assistance Act (1978)
Workers' Compensation Act (1968)	
Other Statutes Affecting Employees
$
.25
.25
.30
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.30
.25
.25
.25
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.80
Barbers Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Coal Mines Regulation Act (1969)        1.20
.25
 25
 25
 25
 25
 25
 25
 30
 75
 25
* Deceived Workmen Act (R.S. 1960)
Fire Departments Hours of Labour Act (1960) 	
Fire Departments Two-platoon Act (R.S. 1960)	
Hairdressers Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Hospital Services Collective Agreement Act (1976)
Labour Regulation Act (R.S. 1960)  	
* Master and Servant Act (R.S. 1960)  	
Mechanics' Lien Act (R.S. 1960)  	
Mines Regulation Act (1967)	
Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act (R.S. 1960)	
Copies of the foregoing Acts and Statutes are available, at the prices indicated, from: Queen's Printer,
Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4. Please make your cheque payable to the Minister of
Finance.
* Plans are underway to consolidate these Acts in a single Labour Standards statute.
80

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