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Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Annual Report 1977 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1978

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  Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
Annual Report
 «pfesl#v,ilNPf**«-
vS0L
  -. ■ ■  •   -
%~ ' --, ^ -.-, J
 To the Honourable Henry P. Bell-Irving, D.S.O., O.B.E., E.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
herewith respectfully submitted.
JAMES R. CHABOT
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Office of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
June 1978
 Layout and compilation
A. Sutherland Brown
RosalynJ. Moir
 TABLE  OF CONTENTS
Obituaries-
Foreword-
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1977_
Chapter 2—Activity of the Ministry	
Chapter 3—Mineral Resources Statistics	
Chapter 4—Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics..
Appendix—Directory	
Page
7
9
11
39
73
119
160
PLATES
Drill rig at Eagle field..
-Cover and 2
Afton plant in summer 1977, smelter in foreground; concentrator, shops, and
offices in middle ground; pit outlined by perimeter road beyond. Note
small saline flat in proposed pit, and diversion of Trans-Canada Highway    10
Hat Creek in summer 1977, showing pit developed for bulk testing of coals_.
Drilling crew preparing to pull out drill pipe	
Instruction in field geochemistry at first Advanced Prospectors' field school run
by the Ministry in co-operation with the Ministry of Education and Selkirk College, Castlegar	
Core from Peace River Coalfield stored at Ministry warehouse, Charlie Lake	
Marion walking dragline at Greenhills pit, Fording Coal Limited	
Pumping units at Boundary Lake oilfield	
16
32
38
56
72
118
All photographs by R. E. Player except plate on page 16, by B. N. Church.
  OBITUARIES
John Fortune Walker died in Victoria on April 10, 1977, at the age of 83,
following a distinguished career. He was educated in Montreal and received a
B.A.Sc. degree in geological engineering from The University of British Columbia,
following war service from 1916—18. He received a Ph.D. from Princeton and
then joined the Geological Survey of Canada in 1924. After being in charge of
the Vancouver office of the Survey, he became the Provincial Mineralogist with the
British Columbia Department of Mines in 1934, and was appointed Deputy Minister
in 1937, a position he held until' ■*■ retired in 1958.
Soon after joining the Department, Dr. Walker reorganized it to give a more
contemporary format, and drafted a number of important Acts. He was adviser
to the Premier on oil and gas (1938—44) and was responsible for consolidating a
petroleum and natural gas department, renamed the Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources.
Dr. Walker served on many educational bodies, was keenly interested in research, and assisted in the formation of the War Metal Research Board at The
University of British Columbia that later became the British Columbia Research
Council. His early advocacy of a Provincial conference on mining led eventually
to the present annual Provincial Mines Ministers' Conference now in its 35th year.
He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and of other professional bodies,
and a life member of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and the
Association of Professional Engineers of British Columbia.
John William (Bill) Peck, former Chief Inspector of Mines, died in Victoria
on February 21, 1978. Born in Ignace, Ontario, Mr. Peck was educated in Edmonton where he graduated as a mining engineer from the University of Alberta
in 1936. Following graduation, he was employed at Britannia Mines in various
capacities. After service in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II,
Mr. Peck joined the staff of the British Columbia Department of Mines as inspector
in Lillooet, and later in Nelson. He became Chief Inspector in January 1958 and
held this post till he retired, due to ill health, in April 1977.
During his 20-year career as Chief Inspector of Mines, many innovations developed in mining practices which necessitated updating safety standards. With
the assistance of his staff, he was successful in establishing the best known criteria
in the use of diesel equipment underground, noise suppression in drilling equipment, and in the brake-testing of large trucks used in open pits.
Through his efforts, the Canadian Mine Rescue competitions were begun
about 11 years ago. These competitions have standardized and upgraded rescue
equipment and procedures throughout the country. Surface-rescue training at
open-pit mining operations also was developed.
He was a member of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (CIM),
serving from 1958 until his retirement on the CIM Council's Medal of Bravery
Committee and the John T. Ryan Safety Committee. He was appointed a member
of council of the Association of Professional Engineers in 1975 and 1976 and
was mining member of the Provincial Pollution Control Board.
 William Douglas McCartney died at his home in Victoria on October 8, 1977.
Dr. McCartney was born in Edmonton in 1922 and, after service with'the Royal
Canadian Navy during World War II, attended The University of British Columbia
(B.A.Sc, 1950) and Harvard (M.A., 1952, Ph.D., 1959). He worked with the
Geological Survey of Canada and the British Columbia Department of Mines during his undergraduate years and joined the Survey after completion of his M.A.
His early field mapping in Newfoundland revealed features characteristic of the
remainder of his career—meticulous work and the development of new ideas as
clearly displayed in Memoir 341, Whitborne Area, Newfoundland. His later work
with the Survey was concerned mostly with metallogeny, the study of the origin and
distribution of mineral deposits. His early familiarity with the Russian literature
led him to develop similar models in the Canadian Appalachians. He also made
the initial Canadian contributions to the world Metallogenic Map. He left the
Survey to teach economic geology at Queen's University in 1966, where he stayed
four years. He then came to Victoria and joined the small consulting firm of We
Healdath, working principally for the British Columbia Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum Resources. He joined the staff of the Ministry in 1975. His last few
years were particularly productive, during which time he helped to develop and
produce the Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps that now cover virtually all of the
Province.
 FOREWORD
The Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources for
1977 follows the format of the 1976 Report. Annual Reports have been published
since 1874, from that date to 1959 as the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines,
and subsequently as the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources. Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia was initiated
in 1969, incorporating geological and technical reports previously published in the
Annual Report. Starting in 1975, this technical volume has been divided into
separate reports that are issued as they are prepared, and eventually bound together.
Detailed information on mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences, etc.,
was included in the Annual Report until 1973, for 1974 was issued separately, and
subsequently forms part of the separate volume Mining in British Columbia.
The Annual Report for 1977 contains four chapters—a general review of the
mineral and petroleum industries, a chapter on the activities of the Ministry, one
on the statistics of the mineral industry, and one on the performance of the petroleum industry.
  [ .    .   -        '--:'
-
 -?
 The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1977
CHAPTER  1
CONTENTS
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1977_
Introduction—	
The Mining Industry in 1977-
Metals	
Coal	
Industrial Minerals-
Structural Materials-
Provincial Revenue from Mining Companies-
Expenditures by Mining Companies—	
Mining and Treatment	
Metal Mines.
Concentrating-
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates-
Non-metallic Mines	
Coal	
Mine Safety
Mine Rescue.
Safety of Mechanical/Electrical Equipment-
Mining Roads :	
Reclamation	
Exploration	
Metals '.	
Pattern-
Major Exploration Activity	
Development and Feasibility Studies-
Non-metallic Commodities	
CoaL
Distribution of Coalfields-
Coal Exploration	
The Petroleum Industry in 1977-
Drilling	
Production	
Exploration and Development-
Land Dispositions	
11
13
17
17
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
21
21
22
23
24
24
26
27
27
27
28
29
29
30
30
30
30
30
33
33
34
35
37
11
 12 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 1-1—Mineral Production of British Columbia, 1976 and 1977
1976
Quantity
1977
Quantity
Value
Antimony .
Bismuth .
Units
 kg
Cadmium .
Copper —
Gold—
placer -
-kg
-kg
-kg
lode, fine .
Iron concentrates .
Molybdenum .
saver —.	
Tin	
Zinc	
-kg
-kg
—E
-kg
-kg
447 001
20 261
356 422
263 618 197
26 064
5 393 477
1 255 277
85 407 582
14088 686
239 720 882
102 262
106498 987
$
1 636 871
226 462
1530 800
378 984 941
115 613
21 761 502
14 760 526
32 796533
94 109 138
32 532 836
712 912
65 499 108
2083 161
596 207
18 540
320 711
275 224 115
46 170
5 906 336
445 317
78 172 646
15 521 970
241 503 007
187 478
103 780 228
Subtotals
646 750403
Industrial Minerals
Granules 	
Gypsum and gypsite .
Jade  .    .
Sulphur 	
Others 	
-kg
70 433
2 737
11378
31476
556 134
483 796
231704
40 727 296
182 159
33 263
1 219 884
4434 471
1 535 030
4296189
488 850
97 033
1239
28 624
29 551
653 126
266 621
248 892
Subtotals
52 917 142
Cement .
Structural Materials
Clay products	
Lime and limestone .
Rubble, riprap, and crushed rock
t
Coal
Total solid minerals	
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Natural gas to pipeline
103m3
Pmp;ine
m3
846 548
2 173 831
2 485 215
36 073 618
657
34 973 746
6995 917
5 610 063
5 205 973
48 138 635
14 314
909 522
2 231 166
2464 503
53 994 528
4 535
100 938 648
7 537 695
298683 679
$
2 519 739
187 612
' 1720 051
384 736 661
289 075
31 301 931
7 362 345
42 316 293
142057947
37 934 098
1912 300
61 301001
397654
714036 707
69 729 205
49 595
95 461
1238 485
2 357 488
825 523
3 873 206
1 017 682
79 186 645
42 705 320
4 909 799
5 861614
7 309 536
54 809 121
55 602
115 650 992
| 1099289872
1 237 721 227
2 367 450
18 309
167 576
8 799 508
109 781
88 195
Total petroleum and natural gas ■
Grand totals 	
116 595 050
901711
7 198 957
2 200 303
24 465
180 267
132 859 085
1477 248
9 751 058
287 997 059
4 591 832
3 688 955
8 895 663
111 357
91297
396601354
5 358 167
4 392 944
296 277 846
406 352 465
420 973 564
550 439 856
1 520 263 436
1 788 161 083
Metric
Tonnes .	
Kilograms .
Grams 	
CONVERSION TABLE
Symbol
 1 -T- -90718=:short tons.
 .—kg -s- .45359=pounds.
 g -=- 31.103=troy ounces.
Cubic metres	
Thousand cubic metres .
_mS X 6.29=barrels.
„..103m3 x  35.49373=thousand standard cubic feet.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
13
INTRODUCTION
By A. Sutherland Brown
The value of mineral production in British Columbia continued to climb,
setting another new record of $1.79 billion and registering an increase of 17.6 per
cent over 1976 or about double the inflation rate. In 1977, the top 10 commodities, in order of value, were natural gas, copper, coal, molybdenum, crude oil,
asbestos, zinc, sand and gravel, cement, and lead. All sectors of the industry and
most major commodities contributed to the increase but the greatest growth resulted from the significant rise in the value of natural gas. This exceeded the
value of copper by a small margin to become the most important commodity. The
mineral production of 1977 is shown in detail in Table 1-1 compared to that of
1976, and the production in 1977 is diagrammed in Figure 1-1.
Of the major sectors of mining and petroleum, industrial minerals experienced
the greatest increase in value of production (49.6 per cent) due mainly to increased
asbestos production, followed in sequence by petroleum and natural gas (30.8
per cent), structural materials (14.6 per cent), metals (10.4 per cent), and coal
(10.1 per cent). The only major commodities that experienced decreases in
quantity of production were lead, zinc, crude oil, and iron concentrates. Of these
only the latter reduction was critical, resulting from the closure of one of the two
major producers, the Texada mine and reduced shipments from the other.
30.8%
Figure 1-1—Major minerals produced in 1977 (by value).
 14
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
III
Ml
i
III              i      1      i              1       [      1              !
i  i      A
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iii                                      y/\
1                 1
rv            jr i
1                        !
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'      ,       i
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!     I     i
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!     !     1     !     !
1900 05  lO  15  20  25  30  35 40     45  50  55  60  65  66  67
YEAR
70  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78  79 19.'
Figure 1-2—Growth of the mineral industry in total value in real dollars and
deflated dollars.
,  INDUSTRIAL
j  STRUCTTURA _
PeTROLEUIj/l
; and
! NATURAL   Gin.
69      70      7 T        72     73      74     75      76     7 7      78     79    19;
Figure 1-3—Total value of industries by percentage.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
15
The growth of mineral industry and the changing proportion contributed by
the various sectors is illustrated by two diagrams. Figure 1-2 shows the growth in
total value in dollars and in deflated dollars. Figure 1-3 shows the relative proportion contributed by the various sectors. In both diagrams these trends are shown
in five-year increments to 1965 and yearly thereafter. Figure 1-2 shows that
growth has been fairly steady, with an average increase of about $80 million per
year since 196S. Comparison of the figures reveals major shifts in trends and
allows growth comparisons of specific commodity sectors. The important changes
illustrated are as follows:
(1) A dominance of metals throughout the whole period, but a fairly
constant decrease in importance since 193S.
(2) The collapse of the coal industry between 194S and 1970, related
significantly to the conversion of railways to oil.
(3) Compensating rapid growth of petroleum and natural gas between
1955 and 1965.
(4) Regeneration of significant coal production related to growth of
export markets from metallurgical coals in the early 1970's.
(5) Surge in value of metals related to copper and molybdenum production in 1972 and 1973 when the major porphyry-deposit open-pit
mines came on stream.
(6) The increase in value of natural gas in 1975.
(7) The relative decrease in importance of metals, dropping below 50
per cent of the total for the first time in 1975.
(8) Trends set in 1974/75 continuing through 1977.
 ...,..M" )•■;';; iS   V'T..
■;i
■♦^
/ 5 *'Xy:>*
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t.  * -  ■  V'-
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 . ..........
\_^>    : - -
  THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977 17
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN 1977
By A. Sutherland Brown, A. J. Richardson, and W. P. Wilson
The total value of solid minerals, that is, metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, and coal, set another new record of nearly $1.24 billion, up 12.6
per cent from 1976. This was achieved in spite of a slight decline in the production
of lead and zinc and co-products bismuth and cadmium. Most other major commodities had increased quantities of production.
Table 1-1 and Figure 1-1 show the quantity and value of each solid mineral
commodity produced in 1977 compared with 1976. The ratios of the various sectors of the mining industry are as follows: metals, 57.7 per cent; coal, 26.6 per cent;
structural materials, 9.3 per cent; industrial minerals, 6.4 per cent.
Metals
The growth and long-term trends of the quantities of major metals produced
are shown on Figure 1-4. Lead and zinc production advanced sharply in the period
1920 to 1943, thereafter starting a slow decline, a feature dependent principally
on the production history of the Sullivan mine. In contrast, copper production
remained at a modest level until the onset of major porphyry copper production in
the late sixties. Molybdenum production also started its growth in this period,
related principally to mining of porphyry deposits. Precious metals are not shown
but their history in this period is principally one of byproduct origin related to the
production of major base metals. Detailed graphs of metal production are shown
in Chapter 3. It can be seen that the quantities of copper and molybdenum were
up in" 1977, but lead and zinc were slightly down.
The year 1977 was a difficult one for copper producers even though copper
continued to be the most valuable mineral commodity produced. Because of
copper's low price, the value of copper production was exceeded slightly by natural
gas. Copper at $384.7 million, contributed 54 per cent of the value of all the
metals and 21.5 per cent of total minerals produced. Both quantity and value of
production were up slightly although the average monthly price of copper was down
slightly to $1.40 per kilogram from $1.44 in 1976. World stocks of copper and
excess copper production continued through 1977. Except for the relative devaluation of the Canadian dollar, the Provincial copper producers would have been
in an even worse position.
Molybdenum markets continued strong, and molybdenum became firmly
entrenched as the Province's second most valuable metal. At $142 million it was
more than double zinc, its nearest competitor. Production of molybdenum was
up 1.4 million kilograms or 10 per cent and the value up. 51 per cent as a result
of increased prices as well as production.
Zinc production decreased slightly (2.5 per cent), but the value was down
even more (6.4 per cent) because of poor markets.
Lead remained in fourth position, although production dropped significantly
(8.4 per cent). Price increases, however, more than compensated and the value
increased 29 per cent to establish it well ahead of the fifth metal, silver.
The precious metals, silver and gold, continued as fifth and sixth most valuable
metals. The dominant production is as a byproduct of lead and copper production
at major base metal mines and so reflects the fortunes of these metals, in spite of
strengthening markets for precious metals. Primary silver or gold now form an
important minor part of production.    Silver production in 1977 was up slightly
 18
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
W
UJ 200-
O     175-
I    ISOH
o
\ ZINC
0)
o
z
o
-4O0 a.
b.
O
-350  Z
O
-250
MOLYBDENUM
1900 19)0 1920 1930 1940 1950 I960
Figure 1-4—Quantities of major metals produced, 1885 — 1977.
  Mines in British Columbia Which Produced More Than 1 000 Tonnes of Ore in 1977
Name of Mine
Phoenix.
Metal Mines
Dusty Mac —
Highland Bell     	
HB	
Bluebird  	
Silmonac	
Scranton	
Ottawa	
Sullivan.	
Lynx, Myra  	
Similkameen 	
Brenda	
Craigmont
Lornex	
Bethlehem  ....
Afton	
Warman	
Astra (Van Silver)..
Island Copper 	
Boss Mountain    	
Gibraltar    „	
Endako    	
Granisle   ...       	
Bell (Newman)
Tasu	
Granduc ...    -.
Industrial Mineral Open Pits
and Quarry
Western Gypsum  	
Mineral K'nti	
Brisco	
Cassiar	
Coal Mines
Byron Creek (Corbin)	
Kaiser (Harmer Ridge; Balmer
North and Hydraulic)
Fording (Clode Creek and
Greenhill)
Coleman (Tent Mountain)	
Cu, Au, Ag
Au, Ag
Ag. Zn. Pb,
Au. Cd
Zn, Pb. Ag,
Cd
Ag, Zn, Pb,
Au
Zn. Pb. Ag,
Cd
Au, Ag, Zn,
Pb
Ag, Pb, Zn
Zn. Pb. Ag,
Cd
Zn. Cu, Ag.
Pb. Au. Cd
Cu, Ag, Au
Cu, Mo, Ag
Cu
Cu, Mo, Ag,
Au
Cu. Ag, Au
Cu
Au, Ag
Ag. Au. Cu,
Pb. Zn
Cu. Mo, Ag,
Au
Mo
Cu. Mo, Ag.
Mo
Cu, Ag, Au
Cu, Au
Fe. Cu
Cu, Ag, Au
Gypsum
Barite
Barite
Asbestos
Coal
Coal
Coal
Coal
NTS
Location
82E/2E
82E. 5E
82E/6E
82F/3E
82F/4W
82F/I4
82F/14E
82F/14W
82G/ 12W
92F/ I2E
92H/7E
92H/16E
92I/2W
92I/6E
92I/7W
921/10E
92J/3E
92J/3E
92L/11W
93A/2W
93B/9W
93K/3E
93L/16E
93M/1E
103C/16E
104B/1W
82K/8W
82K/16W
104P/5W
82G/10E
82G/10. IS
82J/2W
82G/10W
Rated Capacity
of Mill/Cleaning
Plant
(Tonnes/Day )
Minet
Type
110
1 090
68
9 500
900
13 600
22 000
4 860
40 900
16 800
6 350
426
91
34 500
1590
36 330
24 500
12 260
11 800
7 300
7 270
2 450
Small
3 630
1 700
28 000
17 000
O
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
o
o
o
u
o
o
o
u
u
o
u
o
o
o
o
o
u
o
u
o
o
o. u
o
o
Name of Company
Grcnby Mining Corp	
Dusty Mac Mines Ltd	
Teck Corp. Ltd	
Cominco Ltd. (HB mine)....
Standonray Mines Ltd	
Kam-Kotia Mines Ltd. and
Silmonac Mines Ltd.
Silver Star Mines Ltd	
Slocan Development Corp.
Cominco      Ltd.      (Sullivan
mine)
Western Mines Ltd	
Similkameen    Mining    Co.
Ltd.
Brenda Mines Ltd	
Craigmont Mines Ltd	
Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd.—
Bethlehem Copper Corp....
Afton Mines Ltd —
Northair Mines Ltd	
Van Silver Mines Ltd	
Utah Mines Ltd.  	
Noranda Mines Ltd. (Boss
Mt. Div.)
Gibraltar Mines Ltd	
Canex Placer Ltd. (Endako
Div.)
Granisle Copper Ltd	
Noranda  Mines  Ltd.   (Bell
Copper Div.)
Wesfrob Mines Ltd. (Tasu) .
Granduc Operating Co	
Westroc Industries Ltd	
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Cassiar Asbestos Corp. Ltd.
Byron Creek Collieries Ltd.
Kaiser Resources Ltd.	
Fording Coal Ltd	
Coleman Collieries Ltd	
Company Address
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St.. Vancouver V6E 2H7
433. 355 Burrard St., Vancouver
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver  V6E 2K5
200 Granville Square. Vancouver V6C 2R2
3567 W. 27lh Ave., Vancouver V6S 1P9
420. 475 Howe St., Vancouver V6C 2B3
c/o Kirkstiuk, 1900 Guinness
Tower, 1055 W. Hastings
St., Vancouver V6E 2E9
2002, 1177 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2K6
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C 2R2
Room 1103, Box 49066, 595
Burrard St.. Vancouver
V7X 1C4
14th Floor. 750 W. Pender
St.. Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 420, Peachland VOH 1X0
St.,
St.,
St.,
7O0.     1030    W.     Georgia
Vancouver V6E 3A8
202.   580   Granville   St.,   Vancouver V6C 1W8
2100.   1055   W.   Hastings   St.,
Vancouver V6E 2H8
1199    W.    Hastings   St..    Vancouver V6E 2K5
333.   885   Dunsmuir  St.,  Vancouver V6C 1N5
501. 409 Granville Mall, Vancouver V6C IT2
1600.    1050    W.    Pender    St.,
Vancouver V6E 3S7
1050    Davie    St.,    Vancouver
V6B 3W7
700.    1030    W.    Georgia
Vancouver V6E 3A8
700.    1030    W.    Georgia
Vancouver V6E 3A8
17th   Floor.   1050   W.   Pender
St.. Vancouver V6E 2H7
1050     Davie     St..     Vancouver
V6B 3W7
603.     1112    W.     Pender    St.,
Vancouver V6E 2S5
520. 890 W. Pender St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 5638. Postal Station A,
Calgary. Alta. T2H 1Y1
Box   700.   Lethbridge.   Alta	
Box   700.   Lethbridge.   Alta.    .
2000, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 3V3
Box  270.   Blairmore,  Alta. 	
2600.   1177   W.   Hastings   St.,
Vancouver V6E 2L1
206.    205    Ninth    Ave.    S.E.,
Calgary, Alta. T2G 0R4
Box   640,   Coleman,   Alta	
Mine Address
Box 490, Grand Fork
(Mining ended in
1976).
Box   402.    Okanagar
Falls.
Beaverdell VOH 1A0.
Salmo.
Box 669. Rossland.
Box   189,  New  Den
ver.
Kaslo.
Box 2000, Kimberlev
VIA 2G3.
Box   8000,   Campbell
River.
Box    520.    Princeton
VOX 1W0.
Box   420.   Peachland
VOH 1X0.
Box 3000. Merritt.
Box       1500.     Logan
Lake V0K 1W0.
Box 520. Ashcroft.
Box 937. Kamloors.
Squamish.
Box 370. Pbrt Hardv
VON 2P0.
Hendrix Lake.
Box     130.     McLeese
Lake VOL 1P0.
Endako.
Box 1000, Granisle.
Box   2000,   Granisle.
Tasu.
Box 69, Stewart.
Box   217.   Invermete
V0A  1K0.
Box 603,   Invermere.
Box 603.   Invermere.
Cassiar V0C 1E0.
Box  270,   Blairmore.
Alta.
Box 2000. Sparwood.
Box     100.     Elkford
V0B 1H0.
Tent Mountain
T0K 0M0.
1 O—Open pit.   U—Underground.
Figure 1-5—Major mines, 1977 (greater than 1 000 tonnes of ore).
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977 19
(0.7 per cent) with value at $37.9 million (up 16.6 per cent). Gold (lode) was
up (9.6 per cent) with value at $31.3 million (up 43.8 per cent).
Iron concentrates continued as the seventh metal commodity, but production
was down significantly as a result of the exhaustion of the Texada mine and decreased production from Tasu (Wesfrob).   The value was down to $7.3 million.
Of the minor metals, tin had the greatest growth in quantity (up 83 per cent
to 187 478 kilograms) and value (up 168 per cent to $1.9 million) as a result of
selective mining at the Sullivan mine.
Coal
Coal ranked third in value after natural gas and copper. Coal production
returned to normal following the lengthy strikes in two major mines in 1976.
Production was 8.4 million tonnes and value was up 10.1 per cent to $328.8 million.
Industrial Minerals
Production value was up 50 per cent in 1977 to total $79 million, most of
which is attributable to high production and increased price for asbestos. The
value of asbestos production was $69.7 million.
Both sulphur and gypsum production was up, but the value of production was
down.    Jade production was down significantly.
Structural. Materials
Production and value of all structural materials was up in 1977 except for
clay products. The total value at $115.6 million was up 14.6 per cent. The two
most important commodities, sand and gravel ($54.8 million) and cement ($42.7
million), were both up significantly in value and quantity produced.
PROVINCIAL, REVENUE FROM MINING COMPANIES
Direct revenue to the Provincial Government in 1977, derived from the mining
sector of the mineral industry, is shown in Table 1-2. The amount for mineral
royalties shown is the amount collected after adjustments for 1976. For coal
licences and rentals, the amount shown includes cash paid in lieu of work, some of
which may be refundable. The rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and
structural materials were collected by the Lands Service of the Ministry of the
Environment.   The total revenue is about $40 million, down 43 per cent from 1976.
Table 1-2—Revenue for Mineral Resources
$
Claims 2 234 051.14
Coal licence fees and rentals collected        694 764.00
Coal royalties 3 347 551.80
Iron ore royalties 126 653.28
Mineral land taxes 8 307 272.87
Mineral resource taxes 9 655 342.29
Mineral royalties 2 507 896.90
Mining taxes 12 658 102.00
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and structural
materials (Land Service)          656 321.23
Total 40 187 955.51
 20 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
EXPENDITURES BY MINING COMPANIES
Major expenditures in 1977 by companies involved in exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal are shown in Table 1-3. A major
part of the capital and development cost was related to the Afton mine and plant
and coal developments in the Crowsnest Coalfield. The total expenditures in 1977
were up 23.2 per cent over 1976.
Table 1-3—Expenditures (Mining Companies)
$ '     $
Capital expenditures 106 774 208
Exploration and development  133 332 291
240 106 499
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   444 698 727
Mining operations (structural materials) 57 609 865
Repair expenditures   161 564 375
Total  903 979 466
MINING AND TREATMENT
Metal Mines
Metal mining in 1977 continued to be subject to the economic stresses characteristic of recent years resulting from inflating costs of machinery, labour, fuel,
and materials, without compensating rises in metal prices. The latter have not
participated in the general inflation because of the slow economic recovery of the
industrial nations that are buyers of our mineral products and also, a general over-
supply of metals has contributed to a relative deterioration in prices. Molybdenum
and lead, and to a lesser extent, gold and silver, were the only major metals produced in British Columbia that were exceptions to this trend. Compensating in
part for the general deterioration was the decline in the Canadian dollar and some
lessening of the impact of taxes. The balance of these and other factors resulted
in a 10.5-per-cent increase in dollar value of metals produced, a new record of
$714 million.
In 1977, 41 mines produced an aggregate of 90 287 570 tonnes of ore which
was concentrated or shipped directly to a smelter (see Tables 3-12 and 3-13).
This contrasts with 59 mines in 1976 which produced 83 024 513 tonnes of ore.
Fewer small mines were producing in 1977, but the aggregate tonnage increased
8.7 per cent. Of the 41 mines, 26 produced more than 1 000 tonnes and these
are shown on Figure 1-5 classified as to product, geological type, and whether open
pit or underground.
The same 13 large mines were in production in 1977 as in 1976. These
mines, each of which produced over 1 million tonnes in aggregate, mined 87 996 263
tonnes or 97.5 per cent of the total production. Ten of these large mines are open
pits which, in order of output, are: Lornex, Island Copper, Gibraltar, Brenda,
Endako, Ingerbelle, Bethlehem, Granisle, Bell, and Tasu. The last is preparing
for underground production. The three others, Sullivan, Craigmont, and Granduc,
are underground mines. These three produced an aggregate tonnage of 5 330 919
tonnes or 5.9 per cent of the total tonnage for the Province. In regard to geological
type, there are nine porphyry deposits, two skarn deposits (Tasu and Craigmont),
one stratiform deposit (Sullivan), and one massive sulphide deposit (Granduc).
There were five intermediate mines operating in 1977, each of which produced
between 100 000 and 1 000 000 tonnes.    Actually, one former producer in this
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
21
category (Texada) closed in December 1976 and a new major mine (Afton)
opened but produced only enough at the end of the year to be included in this
category. Of these five mines, two are porphyry deposits, one skarn, one stratiform, and one massive sulphide. Two are open pits, two underground, and one
former underground mine (Boss Mountain) that is now partly open pit, a reversal
of the usual trend. The aggregate tonnage produced by these intermediate mines
is 2 104 700 tonnes or 2.3 per cent of the total. There were eight small mines with
yearly tonnages between 1 000 and 100 000 tonnes. These are all underground
vein deposits with principal values in precious metals but also producing concentrates of lead and zinc. Mines with principal value in gold include the Warman
mine (Northair) and Scranton. Mines with principal value in silver are Highland
Bell, Horn Silver (Dankoe), Silmonac, Astra (Van Silver), Bluebird, and Ottawa.
During 1977 the Afton mine began producing and stockpiling ore. The concentrator, rated at 6 300 tonnes per day, started production on December 9. The
smelter was due to be blown early in 1978. The Afton deposit is unique. It is
located only 13 kilometres west of Kamloops on the Trans-Canada Highway. It
mines a copper porphyry deposit in the Iron Mask batholith, an alkaline intrusive
body. It has a very deep oxidized (supergene) zone that provides the smelter with
a low sulphur ore composed chiefly of native copper and chalcocite. It has the
first copper smelter, and one of unique design, operational in the Province since
the closure of Anyox in 1935.
One small mine opened in 1977, the Astra (Van Silver) property near the
Warman mine. Also, production from the Bluebird again exceeded 1 000 tonnes
in 1977.
Three small mines that opened or reopened in 1976 closed in 1977. These are
the Atlin Ruffner near Atlin, Ruth Vermont near Golden, and Dusty Mac near
Okanagan Falls.   In addition, the Susie near Oliver closed.
With metal prices generally low in the year, many leasing and other very small
operations did not produce, thus accounting for the drop in over-all number of producing mines from 59 to 41.
Concentrating
In 1977, 24 concentrators operated (see Table 3-12). Six treated copper
ore, four copper-molybdenum ore, nine lead-zinc-(silver-gold) ores, two molybdenum ores, two copper-iron ores, and one copper-lead-zinc ores. One of the
copper concentrators (Phoenix) was working chiefly on. a low-grade stockpile
after closure of the mine in 1976.
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates
The only base-metal smelter in operation in the Province is the lead-zinc
smelter owned and operated by Cominco Ltd. in Trail. Concentrates of other
metals are mostly exported to smelters in diverse parts of the world, but mainly
Japan and the United States. However, molybdenum concentrates at Endako are
roasted to form molybdenum trioxide and are also processed to make ferro-molyb-
denum.
A second smelter was in advanced stages of construction at the Afton mine at
the end of 1977. This is a rotary top blown converter adapted for the low sulphur
copper ore common in this deposit.
The smelter at Trail received concentrates and scrap from a number of sources
—company mines within the Province   (Sullivan and HB), mines outside the
 22 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Province (Pine Point), and custom sources both inside and outside the Province.
The smelter received 111 077 tonnes of lead concentrates and 171 945 tonnes of
zinc concentrates from the Sullivan and HB mines, and 10 588 tonnes of lead
concentrates and 13 792 tonnes of zinc concentrates from other British Columbia
mines. The total value of concentrates, including byproduct metal, from British
Columbia treated at Trail was $125 587 697 or 17.6 per cent of metal production
of the Province in 1976.
Endako shipped products containing 7 691 235 kilograms of molybdenum.
Of this, 24 tonnes was molybdenum concentrates, 12 651 tonnes was molybdenum
trioxide, and 228 tonnes was ferro-molybdenum.
The proportions of the total value of metal production going to the various
destinations are not know accurately but are approximately as follows: smelted or
treated in British Columbia, $128.9 million (18.1 per cent); shipped to other parts
of Canada, $43.3 million (6.0 per cent); exported to Japan, $379.4 million (53.1
per cent); exported to the United States, $54.4 million (7.6 per cent); exported to
Europe, $97.7 million (13.7 per cent); other plus unattributed, $10.3 million (1.5
per cent).
The destination of concentrates of the major metals is as discussed following
and shown in Table 3-13.
Copper concentrates produced in British Columbia were shipped to the following destinations: Eastern Canada, 73 054 tonnes; the United States, 54 212
tonnes; Japan, 775 766 tonnes; Germany 52 423 tonnes; elsewhere, 31 736 tonnes.
Details of the disposition of molybdenum (15 521 995 kilograms valued at
$142 057 947) are not precisely ascertainable but, from known sales, almost half
of the total was shipped to Europe and about one-third to Japan. The balance was
disposed of to many other countries and eastern Canada.
Zinc concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
21 663 tonnes, of which 10 727 tonnes were shipped to the United States and the
balance shipped to India.
Iron concentrates produced in British Columbia were sold to the following
markets: Japan, 323 462 tonnes; the United States, 33 862 tonnes; Australia,
27 053 tonnes; Canada 60 940 tonnes.
Lead concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
2 489 tonnes and were shipped to the United States.
Non-metallic Mines
Industrial minerals in British Columbia with production value greater than
$1 million include asbestos, sulphur, gypsum, and granules (see Table 1-1). Asbestos is by far the most important, its production value of $69.7 million representing
88 per cent of the total for all industrial mineral production. Asbestos production
is entirely from the Cassiar mine (see Figure 1-5). Sulphur is produced entirely
as a byproduct, chiefly from Cominco Ltd.'s roasting operations, but also from
sour gas production in the Peace River. Gypsum is produced chiefly at the
Windermere quarry at Westroc Industries Limited (653 126 tonnes). Granules
are produced in many small quantities but production was dominated by the
International Marble & Stone Company Ltd. with a plant at Sirdar near Creston.
In 1977, jade production value dropped below $1 million after a great rise in
1976. Production came from many sources but the main mines are working
in situ nephrite at Mount Ogden (Continental Jade Ltd.), east of Dease Lake (Cry
Lake Minerals Ltd. and Nephro-Jade Canada Ltd.), and at the Cassiar asbestos
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
23
mine. Barite, an important industrial mineral, not specifically listed in Table 1-1,
was produced by Mountain Minerals Limited from two small underground mines
near Brisco in the East Kootenays.
The dominant structural materials produced are sand and gravel, cement,
limestone, clay products, and riprap, crushed rock, and building stone. Individual
mines and quarries are not shown on Figure 1-5. Many of these products are
produced at a large number of small quarries, some of which have very intermittent
production. Limestone production is dominated by four mines (Ideal, Imperial,
Vananda, and Domtar) on Texada Island. The Cobble Hill quarry (British Columbia Cement Company Limited) on Vancouver Island is being phased out. Significant operations are also located at Harper Ranch near Kamloops (Canada
Cement Lafarge Ltd.), Ptarmigan Creek near Quesnel (Quesnel Redi-Mix Cement
Co. Ltd.), and Pavilion Lake (Steel Brothers Canada Limited).
Clay and shale production in British Columbia is dominated by Clayburn
Industries Ltd.'s pit and plant near Abbotsford, with lesser production by Haney
Brick and Tile Limited, east of Haney.
Coal
Coal is the third most valuable mineral commodity to British Columbia, following natural gas and copper. Although coal is widely distributed in the Province,
the major producing mines are at present concentrated in the Crowsnest Coalfield
of southeast British Columbia. They are represented by five symbols on Figure 1-5
for (1) Fording Coal Limited's two open pits, (2) Kaiser Resources Ltd.'s open-pit
complex (Harmer Ridge), (3) Kaiser's two underground mines (Balmer North
* and Hydraulic), (4) Coleman Collieries Limited's Tent Mountain open-pit mine
and (5) Byron Creek Collieries Limited's open pit. The only other operating coal
mine is Bulkley Valley Collieries Limited's mine at Telkwa, which was a very minor
producer of thermal coal. Thermal coal was also produced for test purposes (see
Plate on page 16) at the Hat Creek mine of British Columbia' Hydro and Power
Authority but is not shown on Table 3-8B. On this table, production for Kaiser's
and Fording's mines is consolidated so that only five operations are shown. Kaiser
Resources Ltd. and Fording Coal Limited produced 94 per cent of the coal mined
in the Province in 1977.
Some salient facts of coal production in 1977 are as follows:
(1) Coal production was 8 424181 tonnes, up from 1976 but slightly
lower than the record production of 1975.
(2) Clean coal output was up 14.4 per cent to a normal output in a year
unaffected by strikes.
(3) The value of coal sold and used was $328 846 883, up 10.1 per cent
from 1976.
(4) About 93.2 per cent of raw coal produced in 1977 comes from
surface mining operations.
(5) About 92.5 per cent of raw coal produced in 1977 was metallurgical
coal.
(6) The percentage of clean to raw coal remained at 74 per cent.
A highlight of 1977 was the diversification of markets. Coal sales to Japan
were over 6.4 million tonnes and up 6.8 per cent over 1976. Nevertheless, they
represented only 80 per cent of the total clean coal sold and used. Significant coal
shipments were initiated to a number of countries for the first time. The following
list shows major shipments: Korea, 307 370 tonnes; Denmark, 304 850 tonnes;
 24 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Brazil, 136 378 tonnes; Mexico, 128 478 tonnes; Belgium, 57 749 tonnes; Rumania,
51 746 tonnes; Argentina, 47 777 tonnes.
Shipments internally in Canada were also up some 6 per cent as follows:
Ontario, 185 940 tonnes; Manitoba, 62 667 tonnes.
Use in British Columbia, however, was down. Coal used locally for coke
production totalled 150946 tonnes, a drop of 7 per cent. Other uses also dropped
nearly 4 per cent and totalled only 64 608 tonnes. »
MINE SAFETY
British Columbia continues to maintain leadership in promoting mine safety
because of the progressive efforts of the Ministry and the co-operative spirit existing
in the industry. Active safety programs were in effect at all times throughout the
Province during 1977. Mine safety is controlled by the Mines Regulation Act and
Coal Mines Regulation Act. These statutes are administered by the Ministry of
Mines and Petroleum Resources, through its Inspection and Engineering Division,
which is responsible for the observance of the Acts by all persons working at mines.
The Inspection and Engineering Division maintains a Province-wide system of
districts staffed by inspection and rescue personnel, including specialists. During
the year additional staff have been obtained to assist specialists in their duties and
additions of Senior and District Inspectors are scheduled for early 1978.
Certificates of competency, required of certain supervisors and managers of
mines, were issued by the Board of Examiners. District Inspectors continued to
examine for and issue miners' certificates and coal miners' certificates.
Monitoring of dust and ventilation conditions at mines continued, and a number of plants improved their dust control systems during the year. Noise control
surveys indicate that most operations are now performing audiometric testing on
employees. Monitoring of this testing procedure was continued to assure
conformity.
Mine Rescue
Mine-rescue stations fully supplied with rescue equipment are maintained at
Fernie, Kamloops, Nanaimo, Nelson, Prince George, and Smithers. Mine-rescue
co-ordinators are at each station and are fully qualified instructors in first-aid and
rescue training. With the exception of Fernie, each station is established as a
mobile unit to transport equipment anywhere in that area to be available for either
rescue or training purposes. Each station is equipped with sufficient self-contained,
oxygen-supplying, breathing equipment to maintain at least two rescue teams of six
men each, should an emergency arise in the nearby mines. In addition to this
equipment, some is on loan by the Ministry to supplement that owned by various
mining companies.
In 1977, mine-rescue equipment owned by this Ministry included 59 Aerorlox
three-hour liquid oxygen-breathing machines, 37 Draeger BG-174 and 52 McCaa
two-hour high-pressure gaseous oxygen-breathing machines, and 57 Chemox one-
hour chemical oxygen-producing machines. The equipment owned by industry was
37 Aerorlox, 44 Draeger BG-174, 36 McCaa, and 89 Chemox machines. Each
station, as well as most mines, has additional auxiliary equipment such as Type N
gas masks, self-rescuers, gas detectors, oxygen therapy units, and first-aid equipment.
The district co-ordinators of rescue training make periodic visits to the mine
to give rescue training to open-pit and underground employees and to check the
rescue equipment to ensure it is being maintained satisfactorily.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977 25
Both full and refresher courses in underground, survival, gravel pit, and
surface mine-rescue training, as well as first aid, were presented by the district
co-ordinators at various mines and centres throughout the Province. The instructors trained or assisted in the training of 368 persons obtaining St. John Ambulance
first-aid certificates and 1 000 safety-oriented first-aid certificates. In addition,
129 men were trained in underground mine rescue, 413 men in surface mine rescue,
31 men in gravel-pit rescue, 263 men in mine-rescue survival, and 45 in industrial
first aid. Five men received Surface Mine Rescue Instructors' certificates and four
received Survival Mine Rescue Instructors' certificates.
Four mine safety associations have been established in different areas in the
Province. These are sponsored by the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources
and the Workers' Compensation Board and are aided by mining company officials,
safety supervisors, inspectors of mines, mine-rescue co-ordinators, and, in some
areas, local industry. These organizations promote mine-rescue and first-aid
training, as well as safety education in their various districts.
On May 28, the Vancouver Island Mine Safety Association held its 63rd
annual mine-rescue and first-aid competitions in Nanaimo. In the surface mine-
rescue event the Utah Mines' (Island Copper) team, captained by Marv Orosz,
won the trophy.
On June 4, the West Kootenay Mine Safety Association held its 31st annual
competition in Nelson. The Kaiser Resources' team from Sparwood, captained by
Harry Eberts, won the underground mine-rescue event. On the same day and
place, Kaiser Resources' team from Sparwood, captained by Alex Gallacher, won
the surface mine-rescue trophy.
On June 11, the East Kootenay Mine Safety Association held its 56th annual
mine-rescue and first-aid competitions in Fernie. In the underground mine-rescue
event, Cominco's (Sullivan mine) team from Kimberley, captained by Curly
Unrun, won the trophy.
On June 11, the Central British Columbia Mine Safety Association held its
29th annual mine-rescue and first-aid competitions in Kamloops. In the underground mine-rescue event the Western Mines' team, captained by Hal Uhrig, won
the trophy and represented Vancouver Island in the Provincial. The Noranda
Mines' Boss Mountain team, captained by John Howat, placed second and represented the Central British Columbia Mine Safety Association District in the
Provincial.
These four underground teams, winning their association trophies, competed
for the Provincial Trophy and the right to represent British Columbia at the
Canadian Mine Rescue Competition held in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories,
on June 25. In this later event the entries were from Alberta, British Columbia,
Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and the Yukon. The Nova
Scotia team, captained by S. White, won the trophy, while the team from British
Columbia, captained by Hal Uhrig, placed second.
In 1977 the open-pit mine-rescue competitions were held in three districts—
the Northern, Central, and Southern Divisions. The competition for the Northern
Division was held in Smithers on May 27 where the Noranda Mines' (Bell Copper
Division) team, captained by Rick Tait, was first. At the Central Division competition held in Nanaimo on May 28, the winning team was the entry from Utah
Mines (Island Copper), captained by Marv Orosz. On June 4, the Southern
British Columbia Zone Competition was held in Nelson. The winning team, Kaiser
Resources from Sparwood, captained by Alex Gallacher, won the trophy.
 26 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
These three surface teams winning their ditsrict events competed for the
Provincial Trophy in Kamloops, on June 18. The winning team was from Kaiser
Resources, captained by Alex Gallacher.
The interest in the three-persons' Miners' First Aid Competition is increasing
and it is hoped that, by 1978, a Provincial competition will be started. The winners
in this event were as follows:
On May 27 at Smithers, the Endako mine's team, captained by Nick
Marceniuk, placed first.
On May 27 at Nanaimo, the team from Gibraltar Mines, captained by
D. Fossen, placed first.
On June 4 at Nelson, the team from Similkameen Mining, captained by
Jack Cunliffe, won the trophy.
On June 11 at Kamloops, the team from Wesfrob Mines (Tasu mine),
captained by B. Makar, placed first.
Safety of Mechanical/Electrical Equipment
During 1977 the impetus given by the Inspection and Engineering Division
to the improvement of braking systems on large mining trucks continued to have
effect. Several manufacturers of large vehicles have organized special brake tests
to demonstrate that the new tough British Columbia standards can now be met.
These tests, which are carried out on trucks ranging in size from 85-ton capacity
to 335-ton capacity, are conducted on downgrade slopes up to 10 per cent and
speeds up to 35 m.p.h. with the vehicle loaded to its full capacity. All large trucks
coming into service at British Columbia mines in future will have to demonstrate
that they can be stopped by the service brakes alone from an initial speed of
35 m.p.h. When the Inspection and Engineering Division started its investigation
into braking systems some eight or nine years ago, no large truck could be stopped
from an initial speed much in excess of 25 m.p.h., and the better brake design has
resulted to the benefit of all.
British Columbia has also pioneered the use of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids
in underground equipment in Canada. Large volumes of mineral oil are used in
the hydraulic systems of diesel-powered equipment operating in underground
workings and the potential for a serious fire is high. For several years the use of
fire-resistant hydraulic fluids underground has been required by the Inspection and
Engineering Division, and although manufacturers of equipment have been slow
in modifying designs to accommodate these fluids, considerable progress has been
made, and today over 90 per cent of equipment operating in underground coal
mines uses fire-resistant fluids, and as do over 35 per cent of all other equipment in
underground workings.
A survey has been conducted to assess the quantity of polychlorinated bi-
phenyls used as dielectric coolants in transformers and capacitors, and their
management procedures reviewed, with a recommendation issued that no new
equipment using PCB fluids be installed at a mine.
Guidelines are being prepared to establish recommended levels of maintained
illumination for the mining industry. The latest innovation to be tried at the new
hydraulic mine of Kaiser Resources Ltd. in the East Kootenays is the introduction
of a suspended mono-rail diesel locomotive, presently undergoing trials for the
transportation of men and material to the underground work areas.
^^BHUH^-' *'
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977 27
MINING ROADS
The Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources' road program has been
carried out for many years under the authority of the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum Resources Act. The purpose of the program is to encourage and assist
in the discovery and development of mineral resources of the Province.
During 1977 an expenditure of $113 000 was made by way of assistance (up
to a maximum of half cost) to build or upgrade access to mineral and petroleum
development areas.
About $170 000 was spent in the Takla Lake area building a new road that
will eventually become part of a forest access road system in that area.
Approximately $374 000 was spent on construction and maintenance of the
Omineca road which services a large mineral-rich portion of northern British
Columbia.
About $100 000 was spent building and upgrading airstrips, in northern British Columbia. These strips encourage and assist in mineral discovery and development in areas where access by other means is either very expensive or damaging
to the environment.
RECLAMATION
The objective of reclamation is to restore lands used in mining, waste disposal,
and exploration to useful purposes compatible with the surrounding countryside.
Reclamation is administered by the Inspection and Engineering Division under
authority of section 11 of the Mines Regulation Act and section 8 of the Coal
Mines Regulation Act. The Chief Inspector is Chairman of the Reclamation Committee, which is composed of representatives of the various Government resource
ministries. This committee reviews all reclamation proposals before permits are
submitted to the Cabinet for approval. The only major permit issued in 1977 for
new mines was to Afton Mines Ltd. The Reclamation Section of Inspection and
Engineering Division monitors, conducts, and encourages research on reclamation
by mines and in exploration techniques. In 1977 coal exploration was a focus of
major activity of the Section as all coal exploration must go through the Advisory
Committee on Reclamation.
The first Reclamation Symposium was held in March 1977 sponsored by the
Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, the Mining Association of British
Columbia, The University of British Columbia, and the University of Victoria.
This has provided a valuable exchange of information and communication between
Governmental agencies, industry, and universities.
The research program on tailings, short and long-term effects, and revegeta-
tion problems was continued during the year and reports have been submitted for
publications. A bibliography on Reclamation of Lands Disturbed by Mining in
Mountainous Areas was published. The staff have prepared reports on vegetation
and reclamation of mines in southern British Columbia. From field studies on
reclamation and vegetation in the Northeast Coal Block a report has been submitted.
EXPLORATION
Most indices document an over-all increase in the mineral exploration effort
during 1977. This continued the upward trend set in 1976, after six years of overall decline. The current programs are different from those of late 1960's and early
1970's and so are the performers.   Major oil companies have increased their role
 28
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
in the search for metallic as well as energy minerals. The exploration activities of
American and Japanese mining companies and their subsidiaries have decreased,
while European companies, particularly German ones, have recently initiated significant exploration programs. The Canadian mining companies' contribution has
remained constant.
The objectives of exploration have changed as well. For example, exploration of the large low-grade copper/molybdenum porphyry deposits which peaked
over the period 1969—72, dropped off sharply in subsequent years'but has stabilized
at a fairly high level principally due to molybdenum price and markets. Coal exploration has increased steadily from the late 1960's to a broad peak in 1975—78
and is expected to stabilize at a more moderate level as programs are completed
in the early 1980's. Uranium exploration has been increasing from very low levels
due to significant price increases in the mid 1970's. In general, the exploration
trends for lead and zinc have shown an increase resulting mainly from application
of new geological concepts but also as a result of improving prices even if these are
erratic. Exploration for precious metals has increased steadily in recent years
driven by price increases and futures.
Metals
The indices of metal exploration are indicated on Table 1-4 compared to the
three previous years. Most indices are up, many of them significantly, although
it is notable that exploration expenditure dropped very slightly. The following
indices are up significantly: geophysics (244 per cent), number of properties explored (30.2 per cent), claims recorded (28 per cent), drilling (13.4 per cent),
and certificates of work (8.2 per cent).
The only indices that are down are numbers of free miners' certificates and a
recent fairly steady annual decline in these seems to be ending. Three possible
explanations of the anomaly of increased work and static expenditure are that a
great increase in exploration effort took place in the southeastern part of the Province where logistics' costs are minimal, much of the geophysics was airborne radiometrics, and possibly some over-all increase in efficiency is to be expected in times
of stringency of funds.
Table 1-4—Indices of Metal Exploration
1974
1975
1976
1977
Exploration expenditure-
Claims recorded -
Certificates of work-.
Free miners* certificates:
Individual _
Companies-
Number of properties -
Total drilling (metres)	
Total geophysical surveys (line-kilometres) -
$25 400 000
16 971
48071
9 998
700
464
192 935
6 989
$22100 000
11 751"
39403
8484
562
409
92 802
4 835
$27 183 927
28 970*
36 729
7 826
555
433
97 277
4 267
$26 177 389
37 151"
39 711
7 566
520
564
110 303.6
14 623 5
• Unit modified grid system.
The release of Federal/Provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program geo-
chemical data in May 1977 had a significant and immediate effect on the numbers
of claims recorded. The increased activity in grassroots prospecting continued
throughout the year. However, the marked increase in drilling indicates that
mature programs are also increasing.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977 29
Pattern
Location of major new claim-blocks indicate the orientation of new exploration programs. These areas in 1977 were broadly distributed in central and eastern
belts of British Columbia with an over-all noticeable shift eastward compared to
former years. The shift is related to intensive prospecting for uranium, shale-
hosted lead-zinc deposits, and massive sulphide deposits in older rock sequences.
Activity in the Chilko-Endako and Gataga River areas was particularly noticeable
as these had not previously been subject to intensive prospecting.
The pattern of exploration for metals on properties indicates more mature
programs. This pattern is grossly similar to former years but with observable
differences. Exploration was up greatly in intensity in the southeast and particularly in the East Okanagan, Adams Plateau, and East Kootenays. The main objective of much of this work was uranium but also massive sulphides in the Adams
Plateau and Goldstream areas, precious metals in the Slocan, and lead and zinc
in the Kootenays. Activity continued relatively high in the Nicola belt from Kamloops to Princeton and was also up in the north in the Atlin area for uranium and
tungsten, the Queen Charlotte Islands for gold, and the Gataga River area for
shale-hosted lead-zinc. Activity on Vancouver Island 'was up as a result of freeing
of lands in the east and north railway lands. General decreases occurred in central
British Columbia.
Major Exploration Activity
Major exploration activity at properties not in production, defined as programs
of greater than 3 000 metres of drilling or 300 metres of underground development,
occurred at eight properties, up slightly from the previous two years, but the total
drilling in programs classified as major was up about 20 per cent. Only one major
underground program occurred.
The following programs exceeded the criteria:
Kettle (Tyee Lake Resources Ltd. and Noranda Exploration Company,
Limited), 82E/14E—a basal-type uranium deposit in Tertiary sedimentary rocks, 6 945 metres of drilling.
Iron Mask, DM, Etc. (Canadian Superior Exploration Limited), 921/9W—
Iron Mask batholith near Kamloops and the Afton mine, syenitic porphyry copper prospects, 6 368 metres of drilling.
Idaho (Carolin Mines Ltd.), 92H/11W—a disseminated gold deposit near
Hope, 337 metres of underground development.
Nu, Elk (Denak Mines Ltd. and Canex Placer Limited), 93K/3E—west
end of Endako molybdenum porphyry deposit, 7 572 metres.
Nik (BP Minerals Limited), 94D/9E—a porphyry-like deposit in volcanic
and basic intrusive rocks, near Johanson Lake, 3 700 metres of drilling.
Jeff, Bow, Kris, Py (Imperial Oil Limited), 104I/1W—Kutcho Creek, 130
kilometres east of Dease Lake, bedded, massive copper-zinc sulphide
prospect, 4 335 metres of drilling.
SMRB (Sumac Mines Ltd.), 104I/1W—Kutcho Creek, 130 kilometres east
of Dease Lake and adjacent to Jeff, Bow, Kris, Py, 3 522 metres of
drilling.
Jennie (Nu-Energy Development Corp. Ltd. and Erickson Gold Mining
Corp.), 104P/4E—gold vein deposit near Cassiar, 3 235 metres.
 30
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Development and Feasibility Studies
Development during 1977 was limited to the Afton mine which completed
preparation of the pit and stockpiled ore until the start up of the concentrator in
December 1977. This is the first large mine to come on stream since Lornex in
October 1972.
No new feasibility studies were initiated during the year but several studies
were continued or decisions were delayed, notably the Sam Goosly silver-copper
deposit, Chappelle gold vein deposit, Rexspar uranium deposit.
Non-metallic Commodities
Exploration related to non-metallic commodities expanded in 1977 by about
20 per cent over the previous year, measured by the number of properties explored. Considerable grassroots prospecting is also known to have taken place
for a wide variety of minerals. The major activity was in the southeastern part
of the Province-related to phosphates, magnesite, limestone, gypsum, and silica.
A modest amount of prospecting also occurred in the southwest related to jade,
talc, and stone. Central British Columbia received some prospecting for perlite
and opal. In the north, activity was limited to asbestos and jade. Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Limited reactiviated exploration on their Letain Lake property
in the Kutcho Creek area, and drilled six holes totalling 1 123 metres, the largest
non-metallic program for the year.
COAL
Distribution of Coalfields
The principal coal resources of the Province occur in comparatively narrow
linear belts within the Intermontane basins of the East Kootenay area (the Crows-
nest Coalfield) and the Inner Foothills region or northeastern British Columbia
(the Peace River Coalfield). These deposits of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous
age contain major reserves of medium to low-volatile bituminous coal, generally
suitable for the production of metallurgical coke.
In addition to the above-described mountain coals, local deposits of lignite,
sub-bituminous, high-volatile bituminous, and semi-anthracite coals, of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age, occur in widely scattered areas of British Columbia. Size
and economic potential of most of these, including possible reserves in the former
coal-mining areas of Vancouver Island, are comparatively small, although they are
of potential value for power development as energy costs continue to increase. An
exception to the foregoing is the Hat Creek property, which is a Tertiary lignite
of limited areal extent but of remarkable thickness.
Coal Exploration
Exploration for coal continued to increase, up 50 per cent to $19 539 213 in
1977. This occurred as a result of greatly expanded programs in the Peace River
and in the Interior basins while those in the Crowsnest decreased sharply owing to
the completion of drilling, prior to feasibility studies. Meanwhile, environmental
studies and search for markets went on. More emphasis on thermal coals was
indicated by the increase in activity in the Interior basins and Vancouver Island.
Exploration programs, in the Peace River in particular, were stimulated by infusion of new capital from diverse sources but notably oil companies and foreign
trading companies. They were also stimulated by the intention to use existing
infrastructure to go into small-scale production and establish markets rather than
.        .
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
31
waiting for major new infrastructure. Also the policy on issuance of coal licences
was modified to permit present licence-holders and freeholders to acquire, for good
reason, coal land adjacent to their present licences. This resulted in 48 new
licences being issued. At the end of the year the total number of licences held was
1 067 covering an area of 243 116 hectares, together with two leases covering
3 257 hectares.
The following major programs were carried out in 1977:
Crowsnest Coalfield
1. Sage Creek Coal Limited carried out 3 000 metres of fill-in drilling on its
properties.
2. Kaiser Resources Ltd. drilled more than 30 holes at Michel Head.
3. Elco Mining Ltd. completed a winter program of about 18 holes.
Peace River Coalfield (from south to north)
4. Saxon Project (Denison Coal Limited), 7 500 metres of drilling.
5. Monkman (Pacific Petroleums Limited), eight drill holes.
6. Duke Mountain (Pacific Petroleums Limited), minor programs.
7. Quintette Project (Denison Coal Limited), 7 500 metres of drilling.
8. Mount Spieker (Nichimen Resources Limited), 1 800 metres of drilling.
9. Bullmoose Creek (Teck Corporation Ltd.), 57 drill holes.
10. Sukunka-Bullmoose (BP Minerals Limited), 15 000 metres of drilling.
11. Burnt River (Teck Corporation Ltd.), three drill holes.
12. East Mount Gething (Utah Mines Ltd.), four drill holes.
In the.remainder of the Province there were major programs at the following:
13. Bowron River (Norco Resources Ltd.), 7 500 metres of drilling.
14. Hat Creek Project (British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority),
extensive bulk sampling and test pitting.
15. Comox (Weldwood of Canada Limited), 7 500 metres of drilling.
16. Tulameen (Cyprus Anvil Mining Corporation), 15 drill holes.
 -n   p
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 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
33
THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY IN  1977
By A. G. T. Weaver and W. L. Ingram
Recovery in the drilling activity in the Province, evident in 1976, continued at
a greatly increased rate during 1977. Total footage drilled reached an all-time
annual high of 1 620 274 feet, exceeding the previous high in 1962 when the large
Boundary Lake oil field was under active development.
Oil production declined 7 per cent compared to 1976 as production from new
oil wells was insufficient to offset natural decline from existing fields. Gas production recorded a moderate gain of 2 per cent due to new production from field
extensions exceeding natural decline. No new fields were tied into the main gas
pipeline system during the year.
DRILLING
Over-all footage drilled, but particularly of the development and exploratory-
outpost type, increased by 74 per cent over 1976 while the number of wells spudded
was up 83 per cent from 178 to 326. Compared to previous years, the increase in
activity was very pronounced after the month of June, as operators were successful
in spreading the drilling operations throughout the year and not just confining their
drilling operations to the winter months. This activity would have been even greater
except for the shortage of available drilling rigs in the Province.
The number of oil wells made the greatest gain, 192 per cent over 1976, while
gas wells and abandonments were up 74 and 66 per cent respectively. All of this
activity, limited to the northeastern corner of the Province, was accomplished by
65 individual drilling rigs that were owned by 27 drilling contractor firms and were
employed by 66 different oil companies.
In 1977, two incidents occurred at drilling sites. The derrick on Baltic Rig 14
collapsed while pulling the drill pipe after a drill stem test. The derrick man
fortunately sustained only minor injuries after riding the derrick down to the ground.
A new derrick was installed and the well was completed without further incident.
The second incident was at a well in a-3-H/94-B-8. Here, while tripping out
the hole, the well was swabbed in and blowout conditions were imminent. While
attempting to control the well a minor fire resulted. However, it was quickly
extinguished and the well was eventually brought under control. During the period
required to control the well, Provincial Government personnel continually monitored events at the well site.
Throughout 1977, industry was reminded of the changes to the Drilling and
Production Regulations, which became effective January 1, 1977. General acceptance and compliance with these changes to the regulations had taken place during
the year. However, due to the large volume of new drilling rigs entering the
Province, some sections of the Blowout Prevention Regulations, such as trip tanks
and mud level indicators, were slow to be attained. By year-end conditions were
generally satisfactory both in drilling and production standards.
During the year, three major oil spills occurred; two on the Westcoast
Petroleum's main line, some 60 miles upstream on the Pine River from Taylor.
Both of these breaks were attributable to landslides which put severe stress on the
line. After the second break, Westcoast Petroleum rerouted this section of the line
around the slide area. The Branch field office was involved through the oil spill
co-operative in some of the contact work and clean-up operations.
 34 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
The third major spill occurred on the Blueberry Taylor pipeline, just downstream of the well, Pacific Blueberry b-24-D/94-A-13. Production accounting
indicated the spill magnitude to be in the order of 3 200 barrels crude oil. Due to
the danger of the oil migrating into various streams and rivers, salvage was not
attempted, and the oil was burned.   Clean-up operations were generally satisfactory.
PRODUCTION
Annual oil production, which recorded an increase in 1976 because of the
comparison to the low year of 1975, was down by 7 per cent and returned to the
steady decline rate of previous years. The 1977 production was 13 839488 barrels
with a daily rate below 40 000 barrels after the month of March.
The largest oil-producing fields were: Boundary Lake, 6 697 245 barrels;
Peejay, 1 472 994 barrels; Inga, 1 495 067 barrels; and Weasel, 823 376 barrels.
Weasel became the fourth largest producer in the Province in 1977, surpassing
Milligan Creek. The Eagle field, 341 990 barrels, made a significant increase and
was the most active area for oil development.
Gas production showed a slight gain over 1976. The nonassociated raw gas
production was 379 599 825 MCF, compared to 372 565 267 MCF in 1976, giving
a daily average of 1 039 999 MCF. This increase was due to the fact that additional
off-take from field extension wells exceeded the regular annual decline experienced
since 1973.
Production from the Yoyo field exceeded that from Clarke Lake and became
the Province's greatest gas producer with 67 217 310 MCF. Clarke Lake produced
58 809 094 MCF followed by Sierra, 35 848 450 MCF and Laprise Creek, 26-
214 476 MCF. The Helmet field nearly doubled the 1976 production to 21 959 106
MCF while other increases of importance were reported from Rigel, Jedney, Fire-
weed, and Roger.
Two operational procedures involving water continued throughout the year.
Waterflood operations, to aid the efficiency of oil recovery, were used in 10 producing pools in the Province. A total of 30 654 945 barrels, including both fresh and
formation water, was injected into 132 water-injection wells. Disposal of salt water
produced with petroleum and natural gas was accomplished by injection into
subsurface formations, preferably the formation from which the 'water originated.
During 1977, there were 9 348 474 barrels injected into 38 disposal wells and 46 990
barrels put into evaporation pits. Two applications to convert wells to salt-water
disposal service were approved in the Clarke Lake and Wolf fields.
Seven applications for Good Engineering Practice were received. Five of these
were approved for the following pools: Eagle 6-34-84-18, Fort St. John Charlie
Lake Unit No. 1, Kotcho Lake East Bluesky B Pool, West Milligan d-28-G/94-H-2,
and Osprey Halfway Pacific Project. One application was rejected and one from
the Sierra Pine Point A and B pools was under consideration at year-end. All
approvals involving oil pools were conditional on conservation of gas production
except where such a scheme was already in place.
Two applications for concurrent production of oil and gas were received.
One for the Nettle Gething oil pool was approved conditional on conservation of
gas production. The application for the Buick Doig pool was held up pending
completion of an offsetting well. In the same vein, an application to reclassify
the Cecil Lake North Pine A pool from oil to gas in order that the gas cap could
be produced as a gas field was rejected by the Branch when the operator in the oil
leg objected.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
35
Based on concepts of good conservation, an application for determining the
GOR on a net basis by crediting gas gathered and sold against gas production was
rejected by the Branch; net GOR's are only acceptable when reservoir voidage
caused by excess gas production is replaced by the injection of gas, water, or other
fluid. Similarly, an application for an annual oil allowable for a well, and permission to produce during the winter months only due to accessibility problems, was
rejected as the pool was not delineated.
EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
An aggressive exploratory and development drilling activity, started in 1976,
registered a significant increase with a total of 304 wells compared to 173 wells
drilled in the previous corresponding period. The over-all drilling program was
slightly weighted in favour of development over exploratory activity with 167 and
137 assigned to each classification respectively.
Exploratory drilling carried out in all areas of the northeastern sector of the
Province, with exception of the Liard Plateau, resulted in 11 New Pool oil discoveries inclusive of one recompletion and 51 New Pool gas discoveries, for an
over-all success ratio of 45 per cent. The significance of these discoveries in terms
of new reserves cannot be appraised fully at this time for reasons of confidentiality
and the pending results of subsequent development drilling.
Approximately 80 per cent of all New Pool discoveries were made in the
Mesozoic and Paleozoic rock sequences of the Forst St. John area. The predominance of activity in this area is based on accessibility, multiple oil and gas
objectives, and the proximity of available and proposed transmission facilities.
A considerable amount of exploratory drilling activity was carried out during
the year to the west of Fort St. John, as a result of the 1976 Belloy oil discovery
made by the Scurry CEGO Eagle 6-36-84-19 well. This discovery, which has
developed a considerable reserve, is the largest single oil find since the discovery
of the Inga oil pool in 1967. In addition to the Eagle West play the drill was
successful in discovering 11 New Oil pools, most of which appear to be insignificant
in terms of new reserve potential.
For the most part, New Pool gas discoveries were confined to relatively small
stratigraphic sand developments of the Lower Cretaceous and Triassic rock
sequences within the Fort St. John area. Several gas accumulations encountered
in the Triassic and Mississippian structural Foothills Belt to the west of Fort St.
Oil Discoveries, 1977
WeU
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Location
Total
Depth
(Feet)
Productive
Horizon
2814
3921
3975
3980
Woods W Stoddart 11-7-86-20 -	
Petromark Canhunter E Osbom d-51-J— 	
Pacific Prov Fox d-60-D     -	
11-7-86-20 	
d-51-J/94-A-9
d-60-D/94-A-16 ..
d-17-E/94-A-14	
10-32-83-17	
7-21-87-20	
6 690
5 105
4 060
4 720
5 136
6431
4 457
6 004
5 060
5 115
5 535
Belloy.
Gething.
Baldonnel.
3997
4008
Huber W Stoddart 7-21-87-20 	
4009
Woods et al Wilder 6-22-83-20	
lpex et al N Pine 6-22-85-18  	
6-22-83-20	
4013
4063
6-22-85-18 	
C-56-J/94-A-11	
6-34-81-14	
b-66-D/94-H-»	
Confidential.
4087
4105
Imp et al Mica 6-34-81-14  	
Confidential.
 36
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
John would appear to offer a more extensive type of reserve with additional follow-
up drilling. Exploratory drilling to the south of Fort Nelson within the Klua Shale
Embayment as well as along established Middle Devonian reefal trends resulted
in a minor amount of success.
Development drilling activity resulted in 98 completions out of a total 167
wells drilled, for a success ratio of 59 per cent. Most of the development drilling
took place within the general Fort St. John area with successful oil and gas extensions to a number of established pools. The most significant development activity
centred around the Scurry CEGO Eagle 6-36-84-19 Belloy oil discovery of 1976.
The limits of the oil pool substantially extended in areal extent are as yet undefined
in two directions.
Gas Discoveries, 1977
WeU
Authorization
No.
Total
Depth
(Feet)
Productive
Horizon
3476
3759
3766
3830
3837
3844
3858
3860
3874
3878
3883
3884
3888
3892
3894
3897
3898
3903
3905
3914
3916
3919
3930
3931
3933
3955
3962
3964
3965
3977
3980
3983
3997
4007
4025
4030
4032
4053
4957
4079
4080
4083
4084
4090
4097
4098
4112
4125
4137
4145
4180
CZAR et al Birch b-64-I	
ATAPCO et al Janis d-98-G_
Pacific Norcen Horn a-26-A ..
Cdn Res et al Tenaka b-86-K
Gulf Trutch b-65-J.
Chevron N Cabin d-74-F_
Mobil Sahtaneh a-45-I..
Exalta Canhunter N Dahl a-21-H.
SOC et al Graham c-32-D	
Canhunter Dogrib b-22-L	
AEG et al Strip b-82-D	
Chaut Dunbar Ft St John 6-13-84-19
CDCOG Union Mel c-57-J	
ATAPCO Klua d-51-F.	
Quintana Klua d-74-C	
Cdn Res Suhm b-45-A-
Dome et al Velma d-93-A
Quasar Union Klowee d-19-E	
Pacific Kestrel d-31-K	
AEG et al Niteal a-23-I    	
Canhunter GIM Prespatou a-63-B.
Pacific et al Suhm d-15-D..
HB Fina PanCanadian July b-7-A
Pembina PickeU c-94-J_
Chevron Amoco Ekwan b-6-I	
Canhunter et al S Julienne D-A82-L _
Canhunter et al W Kobes b-30-A	
Canso BP Silver b-6-D	
Cdn Res et al Hoss a-23-J   	
Ashland et al Buick b-10-L	
Coseka Wescent W Buick d-17-E	
Canhunter et al N Townsend a-Al-J_
Focus et al Airport 10-32-83-17	
Pacific WP Airport 6-34-83-17	
Canhunter Townsend c-20-H   	
Canhunter Bernadet 11-31-87-24	
Pangaea et al Maple c-18-E	
Gulf et al Parkland 10-35-81-15	
Canhunter Cutbank d-93-A	
CZAR et al Flatrock 6-21-85-15	
Canhunter S Julienne d-33-L	
Coseka et al W Gundy b-13-B	
Murphy Dede b-86-J  	
Coseka et al E Nig d-78-L
Sabre Canhunter Sojer a-47-D_
CZAR et al Birch c-14-I.
Petrorep W Stoddart A10-28-86-20 .
CZAR et al Birch b-66-I.
Turbo Ranger Gopher b-25-85-16-
Canhunter et al Nig b-30-A	
Focus et al Boundary 16-5-84-13	
D-64-I/94-A-13 _
d-98-G/94-J-9	
a-26-A/94-G-9.._
D-86-K/94-J-2	
b-65-J/94-O-10_
d-74-F/94-P-5	
a-45-I/94-I-12	
a-21-H/94-H-10-
C-32-D/94-B-9	
b-22-L/94-G-l	
b-82-D/94-I-6	
6-13-84-19-
c-57-J/94-P-4._
d-51-F/94-J-9	
d-74-C/94-J-9	
b-45-A/94-P-14_
d-93-A/94-H-7	
d-19-E/94-J-10	
d-31-K/94-A-15_
a-23-I794-I-4	
a-63-B/94-H-3—
d-15-D/94-P-15_
b-7-A/94-P-15	
C-94-J/94-H-3	
O-6-L/94-I-10	
b-82-L/94-B-16 _
b-30-A/94-B-9	
b*-D/94-H-U_
a-23-J/94-P-14_
b-10-L/94-A-14_
d-17-E/94-A-14_
a-U/94-B-9	
10-32-83-17	
6-34-83-17.	
C-20-H/94-B-9—
11-31-87-24	
C-18-E/94-A-15-
10-35-81-15	
d-93-A/93-P-8	
6-21-85-15...	
d-33-L/94-B-16_
D-13-B/94-B-16-
b-86-J/94-A-15_
d-78-L/94-A-14_
a-47-D/94-H-5_
c-14-I/94-A-13_
10-28-86-20	
b-66-I/94-A-13_
b-25-85-16	
b-30-A/94-H-4_
16-5-84-13	
5 020
Confidential.
8 512
Pine Point.
11282
Confidential.
8 255
Pine Point.
6000
Debolt.
7346
Slave Point.
6 702
Slave Point.
3 150
Bluesky.
3400
Dunlevy.
5 878
Dunlevy.
5 272
Jean Marie.
6 353
Mississippian.
8090
Confidential.
7 587
Debolt.
6 765
Slave Point.
6089
Slave Point.
3 773
Gething.
7 230
Confidential.
3 435
Bluesky.
5 430
Debolt.
2900
Notikewin.
1419
Mississippian.
6900
Pine Point.
4167
Halfway.
5 899
Slave Point.
7 905
Confidential.
8 650
Confidential.
3 700
Halfway.
6 615
Slave Point.
4 146
Baldonnel.
4 720
Bluesky.
7 910
Coplin.
5 136
Dunlevy.
3 296
Bluesky.
5 120
Confidential.
5 778
Confidential.
4 273
Confidential.
12 420
Confidential.
8 022
Confidential.
4 828
Confidential.
8 776
Confidential.
6 915
Confidential.
4 025
Confidential.
6220
Confidential.
5 024
Confidential.
4225
Confidential.
4 596
Confidential.
4 930
Confidential.
6 053
Confidential.
4 305
| Confidential.
4 540
j Confidential.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1977
37
Successful extensions to established gas reserves were made to the Monias
Halfway and the Bulhnoose Triassic gas pools located south of the Peace River.
In addition, successful development drilling was carried out in shallow gas pools
at Silver, Dahl, and Vehna in anticipation of the completion in 1978 of a proposed
pipeline.
The volume of geophysical field activity in 1977 was the highest recorded over
the past 10 years. Crews equally concentrated their efforts in the Plains Area of
Fort Nelson and Fort St. John, as well as the structural Foothills Belt both to the
north and to the south of the Peace River. A total of 168 projects was approved
during the year.
LAND DISPOSITIONS
The continuing increase in activity and interest shown by industry during
1977 resulted in revenue to the Crown for fees, rents, and bonuses of $141 448 919.
This represents an increase of 147 per cent over the figure of $57 426 007 for 1976.
The major portion of this increase is due to a 191-per-cent rise in Crown reserve
disposition bonuses amounting to $125 467 725 paid to explore and develop
petroleum resources during 1977.
 iH
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ra'NsSSl
ur,
iS**"'
  ■ :\
 Activity of the Ministry
CONTENTS
Chapter 2—Activity of the Ministry	
CHAPTER 2
PAGE
. 39
History and Formation-
Legislation	
Organization	
Appointments and Retirements-
Branch Activity	
Mineral Resources Branch-
Inspection and Engineering Division-
Staff	
Staff Changes-
Geological Division-
Objectives and Organization-
Staff	
Staff Changes-
Review of Work in 1977-
Project Geology	
Applied Geology-
Resource Data	
Publications	
Analytical Laboratory-
Wet Chemical Laboratory	
Emission Spectrographic Laboratory-
X-ray Diffraction Laboratory	
Sample Comminution	
Mineral Separation	
Titles Division-
Staff	
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver).
Mineral and Placer Title Maps	
Coal	
Economics and Planning Division-
Objectives	
StaflE	
Review of Activities in 1977-
41
41
42
42
44
44
44
44
45
46
46
46
47
47
47
48
48
49
50
50
50
50
50
50
52
52
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
39
 40
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Petroleum Resources Branch-
Organization
Engineering Division.
Geological Division	
Titles Division	
Staff	
Legislation-
Publications-
Mediation and Arbitration Board-
Engineering Division-
Development Engineering-
Drilling and Production Engineering-
Reservoir Engineering	
Geological Division.
  55
  55
 55
  57
  57
  57
Highlights of Petroleum Resources Branch Activities  58
: 58
  59
  59
  59
  59
  60
  61
  62
 62
 62
 . 63
 63
  65
 66
 66
  66
  68
  68
  68
 69
  69
  70
  70
 70
Economic Geology-
Geophysical	
Reservoir Geology-
Titles Division	
Mineral Revenue Division-
Coal Royalty Regulations under the Coal Act	
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements under the Mineral Act-
Mineral Land Tax Act	
Mineral Royalties Act	
Mineral Resource Tax Act-
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties-
Administrative Services Division .	
Personnel	
Accounts Section-
Library	
Publications Section-
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN   1977 41
HISTORY AND FORMATION
The Department of Mines was created in 1874. Before that time, mining
laws were administered by the Provincial Secretary's Department, to a great extent
through Gold Commissioners, the first of whom was appointed in 1858. As the
Province grew and mining increased in importance and diversity, the Bureau of
Mines was formed as a technical division within the Department. Composed of
professional men under the direction of a Provincial Mineralogist, the Bureau
lasted from 1896 to 1934, when it was succeeded by the Mineralogical Branch.
In 1953, the Department took over administration of the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act and the Coal Act from the Department of Lands. The Department of
Mines became the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in 1960, and
the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources in October 1976.
The Ministry administers the laws and regulations governing the entire mineral
and petroleum industries, second only to the forest industry in terms of gross value.
The value of production was over $1.8 billion, while that of the forest industry
was $5.2 billion.
The Ministry provides technical services that aid in the orderly development
of the Province's natural resources of metals, minerals, coal, petroleum, and natural
gas. These services include geological mapping and related research; aid to prospectors; financial aid in the construction of mining roads; advice to small operators;
information to the public; identification of rocks and minerals; promotion of
safety in all operations; general betterment of working conditions; encouragement
of exploration, development, and conservation; and maintenance of records. These
services are provided in order that new deposits and fields may be found to maintain the industry and in order that the known deposits and fields may be worked
to the best advantage of the Province.
LEGISLATION
During 1977, four Acts were passed at the Session of the Legislature that
directly affect the mineral industry.
Bill 15, the Copper Smelting and Refining Incentive Act, provides for payments of up to 5 cents per kilogram (2.27 cents per pound) for blister or refined
copper produced in a smelter or refinery within the Province. Such payments are
made under agreements approved by Cabinet between the Minister and the producer and are limited to 10 years and to a maximum of $500 000 in any one year.
The objective of the bill is to encourage present and future Provincial copper producers to develop a more integrated industry, ultimately involving smelting, refining,
and fabricating.
Bill 38 amends the Department of Mines and Petroleum Act to clarify the
role and authority of the Ministry and contains two important changes. Section 7
of the former Act which gave authority to the Minister to enter into the business
of mining and petroleum resource development is repealed. The bill also reinstates
a former program for the certification of assayers.
Bill 73, the Mineral Act, replaces the former Act which underwent many
changes in recent years. The new Act makes a few important changes in principle
of a technical nature, eliminates certain aspects of the former Legislation and clarifies the meaning of old or obscure sections.
 	
42
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Section 17 is a new section to allow for any forfeited claim, within the boundaries of a modified grid claim, to be included as part of the modified grid claim,
provided the ownership is the same. This is designed to prevent unnecessary staking and to maintain secure title for the present owner.
Section 22 removes rental from mineral claims and is replaced by a "fee"
to record work. When implemented, this will eliminate any question of forfeiture
of mineral claims where work is recorded in advance.
Section 41 provides for "limited" production on a mineral claim without the
requirement for the former "limited production permit" and allows for "full production" after legal survey has been performed.
Certain technical reports formerly required to be submitted to the Chief Gold
Commissioner are to be submitted to the Chief Inspector of Mines as the Mineral
Act is now solely concerned with title to mineral rights and former controls over
mining operations have been transferred to the Mines Regulation Act.
Section 45 allows a free miner other than a company to locate up to eight
"2-post" claims in a calendar year. This is designed primarily for prospectors
who might prefer to use the 2-post method on a limited basis.
Section 60 is a new section which sets out the requirements for advertising
mining property for sale and has been designed to prevent any implication that
mining property being sold can be advertised for other than mining purposes,
such as for home-sites.
Bill 84, the Mineral Land Tax Amendment Act, 1977 received Royal Assent
on September 1, 1977. Under this bill ambiguities in certain definitions and their
applications were corrected retroactively and a new procedure for the classification
of agricultural land was introduced.
No new Acts were introduced directly affecting the petroleum industry.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Ministry was not changed significantly during 1977.
The accompanying chart shows the organization applicable at the end of the year.
A comparison with 1976 would show the following differences.
During 1977, E. R. Macgregor was appointed as Assistant Deputy Minister
of the Mineral Resources Branch. In addition, Inspection and Engineering Division underwent an internal reorganization. Finally, Personnel was taken out of
Administrative Services Division to report directly to the Deputy Minister as shown.
APPOINTMENTS AND RETIREMENTS
E. R. Macgregor, P.Eng., was appointed Assistant Deputy Minister on March
1, 1977. Mr. Macgregor received B.A.Sc. and M.A.Sc. in metallurgical engineering from The University of British Columbia, worked in numerous capacities with
Union Carbide Canada Limited, including six years as plant manager at Wetland,
Ontario, and with the Ministry of Economic Development in Victoria. While in
the latter role, he became Chairman of the Coal Task Force.
In the Inspection and Engineering Division, J. W. Peck retired as Chief Inspector of Mines after 31 years with the Division. A. R. C. James, Senior Coal
Inspector retired after 27 years of service, and J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, retired after 23 years of service. Over the years, all these engineers had given devoted service of high technical quality to the Ministry and the
Province.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
43
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 44 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
In September, W. C. Robinson, P.Eng., who had been with the Division for 18
years, was appointed as Chief Inspector of Mines. Mr. Robinson is a graduate of
The University of British Columbia in mining engineering and had worked at many
of the mines and other engineering works prior to joining the Ministry. Since joining the Ministry, he had been Resident Engineer at Prince Rupert, Vancouver, and
Nanaimo.
V. E. Dawson, P.Eng., Senior Inspector, Mechanical-Electrical, was appointed
Chief Inspector for Coal and Special Services. Mr. Dawson is a graduate of the
University of London and had worked with the National Coal Board .of Great
Britain and as an Inspector of Mines in Quebec before joining the Ministry. He
had been with the Division for 11 years before his present appointment.
Miss D. Burton retired in December after approximately 43 years in the Public Service of the Province, the last 32 years as Secretary to the Deputy Minister.
BRANCH ACTIVITY
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
The Mineral Resources Branch, under the direction of Assistant Deputy
Minister, Edwin R. Macgregor, consists of four divisions—Inspection and Engineering, Geological, Titles, and Economics and Planning.
Inspection and Engineering Division
Inspectors stationed at the following listed locations inspected coal mines,
metal mines, and quarries. They also examined prospects, mining properties,
roads and trails, and carried out special investigations under the Mineral Act.
The Environmental Control Inspectors, supervised by S. Elias, conducted dust,
ventilation, and noise surveys at all mines and quarries and, where necessary, made
recommendations to improve environmental conditions. P. E. Olson supervised
the roads and trails program. J. D. McDonald administered the reclamation sections of the Coal Mines Regulation Act and the Mines Regulation Act. A. R. C.
James, Senior Inspector, Coal, had additional duties as mining adviser to the
Securities Commission. Mine-rescue training is completed under the direction of
the Co-ordinators, Rescue Training, for the areas in which their stations are located.
Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector of Mines .
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines	
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector of Mines; Aid to Securities	
V. E. Dawson, Senior Inspector of Mines, Electrical-Mechanical
J. Cartwright, Inspector of Mines, Electrical	
P. E. Olson, Senior Inspector, Mining Roads	
J. D. McDonald, Senior Inspector, Reclamation	
J. D. Errington, Inspector, Reclamation (Agriculturist)
D. M. Galbraith, Inspector, Reclamation
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control
D. J. Murray, Inspector, Environmental Control
N. D. Birkenhead, Technician, Environmental Control
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer	
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
 Victoria
-Vancouver
-Vancouver
-Vancouver
-Vancouver
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
Inspectors and Resident Enginers—Continued
W. H. Childress, Inspector, Technician	
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer	
H. A. Armour, Inspector, Technician	
B. Varkonyi, Inspector, Technician
J. F. Hutter, Inspector and Resident Engineer .
S. J. North, Inspector, Technician
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer .
L. H. Kocich, Inspector and Resident Engineer	
J. J. Sutherland, Inspector, Technician	
B. E. Warner, Technician, Reclamation	
K. G. Hughes, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical	
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector and Resident Engineer
D. Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer .
E. S. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer	
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer	
R. H. Heistad, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical
J. A. Thomson, Inspector, Technician
J. B. C. Lang, Inspector and Resident Engineer
A. L. O'Bryan, Technician, Reclamation	
-Vancouver
__Nanaimo
Nanaimo
-Prince Rupert
 Smithers
-Smithers
-Prince George
-Prince George
-Prince George
-Prince George
-Prince George
 Fernie
-Kamloops
-Kamloops
-Kamloops
-Kamloops
-Kamloops
-Nelson
.Nelson
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Training
G. E. Lee, Senior Co-ordinator	
R. F. Brow  I	
J. E. A. Lovestrom .
R. J. Stevenson	
B. A. McConachie .
E. C. Ingham 	
A. Littler 	
—Victoria
Nanaimo
—Smithers
-Prince George
: Kamloops
—  Nelson
 Fernie
Staff Changes
In March, N. D. Birkenhead resigned from the staff of the Environmental Control Section, and L. H. Kocich resigned from the Inspection staff in May.
During the year, there were three retirements in the Inspection and Engineering Division. J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector of Mines retired in April after 31 years
of service with the Ministry; A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector of Mines retired in
June, after 27 years of service; and J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector retired in
September, after 23 years of service.
W. C. Robinson was appointed Chief Inspector of Mines in September. V. E.
Dawson was appointed Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, Coal and Special Services.
Other appointments are pending for early in 1978.
T. H. Robertson retired in April, after 20 years of service as Co-ordinator,
Mine-rescue Training in Nanaimo. In February of this year, he was replaced by
R. F. Brow.
J. C. Errington joined the Ministry as Inspector, Reclamation (Agriculturist)
in the Victoria office in April.
D. J. Murray joined the Ministry as Inspector, Environmental Control in the
Vancouver office in July.
 46 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Geological Division
Objectives and Organization
The objectives of the Geological Division are to provide accurate and current
information on the quantity and distribution of mineral and coal deposits of the
Province for Government and industry, to provide maps and other data, ideas, and
interpretations useful in the search for these deposits, and to assist in the orderly
exploration, development, and use of these resources. To carry out these objectives,
the Division is organized into four sections—Project Geology, Applied Geology,
Resource Data, and Analytical Laboratory.
Staff
The professional staff of the Division on December 31, 1977 were as follows:
A. Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief Geologist
Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir Assistant Editor
Project Geology
N. C. Carter, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
P. A. Christopher, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., PJEng Geologist
R. D. Gilchrist, B.Sc.  Geologist
T. Hoy, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. Panteleyev, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
D. E. Pearson, Ph.D., P.Eng. Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., PJEng Geologist
J. L. Armitage Chief Draughtsman
R. E. Player Lapidary and Photographer
Applied Geology
E. W. Grove, Ph.D., PJEng Senior Geologist
A. F. Shepherd, B.A.Sc., P.Eng. Geologist
G. G. Addie, M.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
G. H. Klein, B.A.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist
T. G. Schroeter, M.Sc District Geologist
G. P. E. White, B.Sc, P.Eng. District Geologist
Mrs. W. Proudlock, B.Sc Coal Technician
Resource Data
J. A. Garnett, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
Z. D. Hora, M.Sc : Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
G. L. James Systems Analyst
J. E. Forester, B.A., M.A Research Officer
A. Matheson, B.Sc Research Officer
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
47
W. M. Johnson, Ph.D..
P. F. Ralph, L.R.I.C.-
B. Bhagwanani, B.Sc.
Analytical Laboratory
R. J. Hibberson, B.Sc	
Y. T. J. Kwong, M.Sc	
Miss V. V. Vilkos, Ph.D..
M. A. Chaudhry	
F. F. Karpick	
L. E. Sheppard	
 Chief Analyst
-Deputy Chief Analyst
 Laboratory Scientist
-Laboratory Scientist
.Laboratory Scientist
-Laboratory Scientist
-Laboratory Technician
 Assayer
-Laboratory Technician
Staff Changes
During 1977, N. G. Colvin retired after 38 years of service in the Analytical
Laboratory. Dr. W. D. McCartney died after a short illness. The following
appointments took place: A. Matheson became Research Officer in charge of Coal
Inventory and J. E. Forester became a Research Officer in the Mineral Inventory.
Z. D. Hora was appointed at the end of the year to fill the vacant position of non-
metallic specialist. Y. T. J. Kwong was appointed to take over X-ray Diffraction
and related work. Dr. K. E. Northcote 'was appointed geologist responsible for
Special Projects, which includes land use and mineral potential studies; Mrs. Wendy
Proudlock was appointed as Coal Technician at Charlie Lake.
Review of Work in 1977
The geological mapping program, the core of the Division's work, continued
unabated during 1977. The program is aimed at providing superior geological
maps, information, and interpretations in response to an articulated need from industry to aid exploration for metals and coal resources. The total field costs were of
the order of $400000 which supported over 20 projects, 11 project geologists,
4 district geologists, 20 summer-student geologists, and 6 graduate geologists on
grant for Ministry-related projects. The preliminary results were published in the
booklet, Geological Fieldwork, 1977, and major mapping projects carried out by
the Project Geology Section, included the following:
P. A. Christopher completed studies of basal-type uranium deposits in the East
Okanagan area.
B. N. Church studied Tertiary stratigraphy and its relation to uranium deposits
in south central British Columbia.
G. E. P. Eastwood continued to study metallic prospects and started studying
the coal deposits near Quinsam Lake.
W. J. McMillan continued the Nicola project by mapping south of Nicola
Lake and the Promontory Hills.
K. E. Northcote completed the study of the Iron Mask batholith and related
copper deposits.
V. A. Preto studied the Rexspar Uranium deposits as a prelude to mapping the
Barriere Lakes area.
A. Panteleyev mapped the Granite Mountain pluton in the Cariboo District
and the Gnat Pass porphyry deposit and the Kutcho Creek areas in northern British
Columbia.
 48 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Coal Program
R. D. Gilchrist mapped the Mountain Spieker area of the Peace River
Coalfield.
D. E. Pearson continued to map the Fernie basin of the Crowsnest Coalfield.
Prof. P. McL. D. Duff, under contract to the Ministry, continued correlation
studies in the Peace River Coalfield.
In addition, the following thesis studies of direct interest to the Division were
supported:
R. Conn—Genesis of magnetite deposits in the Iron Mask batholith.
T. Duncan—Structural geology of the Big Ledge area.
S. H. Evans—Tulameen Coal Basin.
/. H. Ladd—Cache Creek-Nicola Group contact in the Ashcroft area.
M. E. McMechan—Geology of the Purcell SuperGroup between Wildhorse
and Bull Rivers.
/. H. Miller—Geology of the Callaghan Creek roof pendant near Warman
mine (Northair Mines Ltd.).
Additional field projects were conducted in co-operation with the Geological
Survey of Canada, The University of British Columbia, and other agencies, including regional geochemical surveys (URP), aeromagnetic surveys, and offshore surveys. The Uranium Reconnaissance Program, conducted with the GSC, surveyed
the Nelson area (82F), Lardeau (82K), and Atlin (104N). In May 1977, survey data of 1976 surveys of Okanagan Lake (82E), Vernon (82L), and Shuswap
Lake (82M) were released. This greatly stimulated exploration causing an immediate large increase in claim location in May. The Federal/Provincial aeromagnetic survey agreement was extended to fly Cry Lake area (1041) in 1977.
Offshore surveys were partly funded by the Ministry to sample sedimentary rocks
for metals in geothermal areas within the 200-mile limit. The surveys were conducted by The University of British Columbia and in co-operation with various
Federal agencies.
Applied Geology—This section carried out the fundamental programs of field
mapping and monitoring of exploration reported in part in Geological Fieldwork,
1977. In addition, the section conducted extensive prospector training, administration, and monitoring of Prospectors' Assistance Grants, and conducted the first
two-week long field school for advanced prospectors in Castlegar. They also continued the program, begun in the fall of 1976, of collecting, curating, and storing
of drill cores from die Peace River Coalfield. During the year and late 1976, they
recovered most of the 170 000 feet drilled prior to 1977 and received 120 000 feet
drilled in 1977. Some 40 per cent of the core has been reboxed, curated, and
stored in the warehouse at Charlie Lake, where it will form the basis of studies by
industry and the Ministry for future coal mines. Three temporary and two summer
students helped in this work.
Resource Data—This section carried out its normal programs focused principally in producing the publication, Exploration, 1976, a comprehensive record
of the industry. In addition, between November 1976 and February 1978 all
reports received for assessment credit, since that program started 20 years ago,
have been microfilmed and reader/printers are available at Ministry offices in Vancouver as well as in Victoria.
A system of Portable Assessment Credits was developed and is being administered by the Section in response to a request from industry for an equitable
credit system for assessment work.    The Section helped greatly in preparing the
 ACTIVrrY OF THE MINISTRY 49
Ministry Brief to the Royal Commission on the British Columbia Railway, of
which a principal part was the Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps produced over the
last five years by the Section.   Eight summer students helped in all this work.
Publications—This section continued to be administered by the Geological
Division during the year. In addition to the publications described following, the
Annual Reports 1975 and 1976, Geology 1975, and many other publications and
maps were produced or were at the Queen's Printers at the end of the year. Division staff 'were also actively participating in technical societies, publishing papers
in outside journals, and talking to the public on subjects of geology and mineral
resources.
Most of the work of the Division is made available to the interested public
through a series of publications, maps, and also through open files. The most
important publications include the following:
(1) Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia is the major
yearly publication that summarizes and collates all known exploration and mining activity each year as well as reports on properties
by Division geologists and by Mine Inspection Engineers. Since
1975 the publication is issued as three separate parts.
(2) Geological Fieldwork is a smaller yearly publication that describes
the work of project and district geologists in a preliminary manner
as soon as possible after the completion of the field season and
within the same calendar year.
(3) Bulletins are produced at irregular intervals, usually one or two per
year, and generally describe details of the geology and mineral deposits of various areas of mineral potential mapped by Division
geologists. At the end of 1977, Bulletin No. 65, Surficial Geology
and Sand and Gravel Deposits of Sunshine Coast, Powell River,
and Campbell River Areas, by J. W. McCammon was released.
(4) Preliminary Maps, issued as ozalid prints. In 1977, the following
were issued:
Map 24—Geology of Crowsnest Coafield, Northwest Part, by
D. E. Pearson, F. B. Gigliotti, D. A. Grieve with N. C. Ollerenshaw
of the Geological Survey of Canada (NTS 82G/10 in part; scale—
1:10 000; approximately 60 square kilometres).
Map 25—Geology of the Goldstream River-Downie Creek
Area, Southeastern British Columbia, by R. L. Brown, T. Hoy, and
L. Lane (parts of NTS 82M/8 and 9; scale—1:50 000; approximately 670 square kilometres).
Map 26—Geology of the Iron Mask Batholith, by K. E. Northcote (parts of NTS 92I/9W and 10E; scale—4 inches to 1 mile or
1:15 840; approximately 140 square kilometres).
(5) Mineral Inventory Maps, issued as ozalid prints, show locations
and commodities of all known mineral deposits. These maps are
regularly updated.
(6) Mineral Deposit/Land Use Maps are interpretive maps that portray
the varying mineral potential of terrain in a simple five-fold classification. In 1977, three new maps (931 and P, 94A) and four revised maps (93J and O, 94B and C) were issued at a scale of
1:250 000.
 50 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
(7) Aeromagnetic Maps—none were issued in 1977.
(8) Assessment Report Index Maps are available which show the location and number of reports accepted for assessment credit by the
Ministry. These maps, at various scales, cover the mineralized
terrain of the Province.    They are regularly updated.
(9) Open File Reports—these unpublished reports will be made available where possible at user's expense. In 1977, two of a new numbered sequence were made available:
Open File 1—Stratigraphy of the Placers in the Atlin Placer
Mining Camp, British Columbia, by P. J. and W. M. Proudlock
(1976).
Open File 2—Atlin Placer Camp, by J. M. Black (1953).
During the year, the Division Lapidary and Photographer recorded many
aspects of the Work of the Ministry and die industry.
Analytical Laboratory—The Analytical Laboratory had a productive year in
1977, both in terms of method development and output.
Method Development—The method of trace element determinations in rock
samples was refined and the U-Th method was developed, and is being used
routinely for determinations of U and Th from concentrations of 3 ppm and 7 ppm
respectively up to ore grade levels. The method was developed jointly by John
Davies, here on contract for four months (January to April, inclusive), and P. F.
Ralph and W. M. Johnson.
Output—Wet Chemical Laboratory: There were 256 results reported on 100
samples submitted by general prospectors, 3 782 results on 1 019 samples from
Prospectors' Assistance Grantees, and 16 643 results on 2 641 samples from the
Ministry and other Governmental personnel. This represents a total of 20 681
results on 3 760 samples. These include trace analytical results on rock, soil, and
silt samples, base metal results on general ore samples, whole rock analysis on
nearly 300 samples, as well as numerous special analyses.
Emission Spectrograph^ Laboratory: There were 33 120 semi-quantitative
determinations made on 1 107 samples and 5 138 results on 1 069 samples during
1977.
X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: There were 258 mineral diffractions reported,
23 quartz determinations, and extensive work done on 150 samples in a study of
British Columbia coals subsequent to low temperature plasma ashing. This latter
work was done in co-operation with Dr. D. E. Pearson.
Sample Comminution: A total of 2 273 samples was received, recorded, and
prepared for subsequent analytical work.
Mineral Separation: A total of 26 mineral separations was made in preparation for age-dating purposes.
A two-day workshop on trace element analysis, held under the auspices of the
Spectroscopy Society of Canada and the University of Victoria, was organized by
W. M. Johnson in February.
The examination for the certification of assayers was reinstituted and examinations were held in July and December.
A paper describing the U-Th method was given by W. M. Johnson to the
annual meeting of the Spectroscopy Society of Canada held in Ottawa, October
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
51
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18
 52
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
1977. P. F. Ralph attended the same meeting to deliver a paper on the long-term
evaluation of the atomic absorption method used in this laboratory for major
element analysis. A paper co-authored by L. E. Sheppard and W. M. Johnson, and
D. Beaton of the Ministry of Highways and Public 'Works, describing the down-
draught fume hood used for mineral separations, appeared in the October 1977
issue of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.
TTn.ES Division
Staff
Bowles_
E. J.
R. Rutherford.
D. Doyle	
 Chief Gold Commissioner
-Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
 Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
The Titles Division of the Mineral Resources Branch is under the administration of the Provincial laws relating to the acquisition of minerals and coal.
Gold Commissioners and Sub-recorders are appointed for the 24 Mining
Divisions throughout the Province and their duties are specified in writing by the
Chief Gold Commissioner.
The recording of locations and of work on mineral claims as required pursuant
to the provisions of the Mineral Act, and the recording of work on placer leases as
required under the Placer Mining Act, must be made at the office of the Gold
Commissioner for the Mining Division in which the claim or lease is located.
Table 2-2—List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders
Mining Division
Location of
Office
Gold
Commissioner
Mining Recorder
Port Alberni
Atlin
W. G. Mundell
H   F   Hall
W. G. Mundell.
Atlin
R. E. Hall.
S. W. Minifie
W. R. Anderson	
W. L. Draper
I. Olson
S. W. Minifie.
F^rt Steele
Oanhroofc
W. L. Draper.
J. Olson.
fvnlHMl
fri-antf Fnrlrn
S. Matsno
1ST. R. Rlalce
N. R. Blake.
Virtnria
E. A. H. MitcheU	
M. Sakakibara
E. A. H. Mitchell.
I .illnnnt
R. H. Archibald	
H. S. Tatchell
R. H. Archibald.
Nelson
New Westminster	
H. S. Tatchell.
F. E. Hughes
T.. P. Lean
A. W. Milton_
T. D. Sands
A W Milton
Ppntirton
I. D. Sands.
D. G. B. Roberts	
W. L. Marshall T __.
T. H. W. Harding	
T. P. McKinnon
D. G. B. Roberts.
W. L. Marshall
T. H. W. Harding.
T. P. McKinnon.
Klnran
Trail CVeelr
A. Sherwood—
D. Doyle
Van ctyynit?r
D. Doyle.
N. A. Nelson
E. A. H. Mitchell	
E. A. H Mitchell
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
53
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver)
Copies of records of mineral claims and 2-post claims recorded in the offices
of the Gold Commissioners are forwarded daily to the office of the Chief Gold
Commissioner, while transcripts of all other recording in the offices of the Gold
Commissioners are sent twice monthly and serve to update the records held in the
Central Records offices.
Information concerning claims and leases and the ownership and standing of
claims and leases in any Mining Division may be obtained from the Gold Commissioner for the Mining Division in which the property is situated or from the
Ministry's offices, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria, and 800 Hornby Street,
Vancouver, the office of the Gold Commissioner.
The records and maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims
held by record and of placer leases, may be viewed by the public during regular
office hours in Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner in Vancouver.
The position of mineral claims held by record and of placer leases is plotted from
details supplied by the locators. Prints of mineral and placer titles reference maps
at a scale of 1:50000 may be obtained from the Victoria and Vancouver offices.
Appointed officials in the office of the Gold Commissioner at Victoria and the
Gold Commissioner at Vancouver act as Sub-Recorders for all Mining Divisions.
Mineral and Placer Title Maps
The initial program of redrawing mineral titles reference maps which are
produced for the public on a scale of 1:50 000 was completed in 1977 and maps of
the entire Province are now available at this scale. A new mapping program on the
same scale using superior Ottawa base maps has been commenced. These maps
will show contours and should be of great assistance to the prospector.
During 1977, 299 new mineral titles reference maps were drawn. Three
hundred and sixty-seven applications were received for placer leases under a new
system, established in 1975 with the proclamation of a new Placer Mining Act,
of only accepting applications for leases in designated placer areas.
Mineral Claims Inspectors are based at Kamloops, Smithers, Vancouver, and
Quesnel. Their duties include checking the locations of mineral claims to correlate
them with the plotted position of the claims, determining the* validity of the staking
under the Mineral Act and Placer Mining Act and regulations, investigation of
possible misuse of mineral claims, and investigations of disputes. In order to
fulfil the objectives of providing claim holders with firm titles and maintaining
accurate and up-to-date records, the activities of the inspectors have increased with
the use of the modified grid system.
During 1977, as a result of 18 complaints under section 80 of the Mineral Act,
17 mineral claims were cancelled.  Three complaints were dismissed.
The Gold Commissioner's office in Vancouver is now equipped with a microfilm reader/printer which will allow the general public to view and reproduce technical reports at a nominal cost. The Vancouver office should thus become a greater
source of information for the mining community than previously.
Coal
The Coal Administrator is responsible to the Chief Gold Commissioner for
the daily administration of the Coal Act. This involves reviewing applications for
coal licences and leases and maintenance of records of title.
Maps showing the location of coal licences under the Coal Act may be seen
at the Tides Division, Mineral Resources Branch, Room 411, Douglas Building,
 54
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Victoria.   An index of coal reference maps is obtainable from the Chief Gold
Commissioner at the above address.
During 1977, 48 licences were issued involving three applicants. As at
December 31, 1977, a total of 1 090 coal licences, amounting to 248 987 hectares,
was held in good standing.
Table 2-3-
Zoal Revenue From Licences
1976
Fees  __
Rentals
$
$
8 830
6 950
560 546
687 814
Economics and Planning Division
Objectives
The Economics and Planning Division collects, analyses, and disseminates
statistical information to the mining industry, Government, and the general public;
provides economic and policy planning services to other areas of the Ministry and
the Government.
Staff
The Divisional professional staff as at December 31, 1977 were as follows:
J. S. Poyen Director
F. C. Basham Assistant Director
J. F. Clancy _
W. P. Wilson.
G. M. Limo _
-Economist
-Statistician
-Mineral Economist
There were two staff changes during the year. G. M. Limo was hired to fill the
position of Mineral Economist in the Division: J. Rohwedder, Analyst, resigned
from his position after three years with the Ministry.
Review of Activities in 1977
In 1977 the Report on Coal Resource Evaluation for the Northeast Coal
Study was published. In addition, the computerized Coal Cost Model that was
developed in conjunction with these studies 'was finalized and the Documentation
and User Manual was published. Fieldwork continued during 1977 in expanding
and updating the work begun in the earlier years of this study.
The Division participated in analytical evaluations of certain aspects of coal
policy, most notably those areas of land tenure and taxation, and in manpower-
related studies. In addition, the Division continued analyses in commodity studies,
mineral and coal price forecasting, mineral resource taxation, mineral policy review, studies and queries wider the Foreign Investment Review Act, and in the
development of portions of the Guidelines for Benefit-Cost Analysis produced in
June 1978. The Division was actively involved through representation on the
Steering Committee concerning the Guidelines for Coal Development, the Committee on Linear Development, and the Alcan Gas Project.
The ongoing statistical work included the Annual Census of Mining, mail out,
compilation, and organization of mineral statistics for the Annual Report, and
monthly mineral statistics for intergovernmental use (under review).    The section
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY 55
is currently involved in a number of committees relevant to mineral statistics, including Mines Ministers' Subcommittee on Mineral Statistics, Consultative Council
for Mineral Statistics, Coal Statistics, and Statistics Canada, and represents the
Government of British Columbia on such committees. The Task Force on Mineral
Valuation established at the Mines Ministers' Conference and charged with evaluating and, if necessary, redesigning the statistical forms currently in use throughout
Canada, has worked to this end, and significant progress has been made. In 1977,
an internal project was initiated which ultimately will computerize all the data received from the Monthly and Annual Survey of Mines.
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
Organization
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the general direction of Assistant
Deputy Minister J. D. Lineham, Chief of the Branch, administers the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling
and Production Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the Drilling Reservation
Regulations, and the Development Road Regulations. It also administers the
Underground Storage Act, 1964. Therefore, the Branch is responsible for all
matters related to the disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and natural gas rights
as well as the regulation of the exploration, development, and production phases
of the oil and gas industry.
The Branch is divided into three Divisions, namely, the Engineering Division,
the Geological Division, and the Titles Division.
Engineering Division
The Engineering Division, under the direction of Chief Engineer A. G. T.
Weaver, is responsible for all engineering activities of the Petroleum Resources
Branch.
There are three main functions:
'■     (1)  Enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, together with provision of advice
to the Minister with respect to applications made by industry under
the Act.
(2) Collection, filing for Branch and public use, and publication of
drilling and production statistics, production and disposition data,
reservoir and pool performance data.
(3) Reservoir analysis of all oil and gas pools in the Province, including
maintenance of current production rate forecasts together with data
concerning reserves discovered to date and estimates of potential
reserves growth.
The Development Engineering Section, under the supervision of Senior Development Engineer W. L. Ingram, licenses drilling and service rigs, issues well
authorizations, and maintains detailed records pertaining to all drilling and production operations.
The Reservoir Engineering Section, under the Senior Reservoir Engineer
B. T. Barber, is concerned with all reservoir engineering aspects of the Division's
activities. The Section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production
characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation
of reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production data.   These para-
 -mm
...   ,:■■■■ .irtiA^
ft'HE
  N
,,..
 ACnVTTY OF THE MINISTRY
57
meters are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from oil and gas accumulations in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes will be produced.
Oil and gas allowable rates are set by the Section, and recommendations concerning
proposed improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made.
The Drilling and Production Engineering Section, under the supervision of
District Engineer D. L. Johnson, is located at the field office at Charlie Lake and
is primarily responsible for enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations
in the field. It also collects reservoir and other data as required, acts in a liaison
capacity with industry at the field level, and maintains core and drill sample storage
and examination facilities.
Geological Division
The Geological Division, under the direction of Chief Geologist W. M. Young,
consists of three Sections and is responsible for all geological and geophysical activities of the Petroleum Resources Branch.
Data resulting from the drilling of wells, geophysical surveys, and other related sources in the Province in the search for and development of accumulations
of oil and gas are supplied to the Branch. These data are used by staff geologists
and geophysicists as a basis for reports on, and maps and cross-sections of, the
economically important sedimentary rocks of the Province. The Division is responsible for providing data and opinions to attract, assist, and encourage the exploration and development of the petroleum resources of the Province. The Division also directs and provides all draughting services required by the Geological
and Engineering Divisions.
The Economic_Geology Section, under J. A. Hudson, is primarily concerned
with those matters related to exploration and economic geology.
The Reservoir Geology Section, under R. Stewart, is primarily concerned
with the detailed knowledge of the geology of oil and gas wells and reservoirs.
This is required to assist in reserve estimations and in the framing of procedures
that ensures the best returns from the reservoirs.
Titles Division
The Titles Division consists of two Sections, under the direction of Commissioner R. E. Moss, and is responsible for administering those parts of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, relating to and affecting tide to Crown petroleum and natural
gas rights.
The Division administers the disposition of Crown petroleum and natural gas
rights and, in consultation with the Engineering and Geological Divisions, approves
and selects parcels for posting, and accepts or rejects the tenders received.
The Titles Section is responsible for all transactions involving petroleum and
natural gas permits, all leases, natural gas licences, drilling reservations, geophysical licences, notices of commencement of exploratory work, affidavits of work,
unit agreements, and miscellaneous recordings.
The Revenue Section, under W. J. Quinn, is responsible for the collection of
all petroleum and natural gas revenue, except royalty, payable to the Crown under
the provisions of the Act.
Staff
On December 31, 1977, the professional and senior staff included the following:
Assistant Deputy Minister, J. D. Lineham, P.Eng. Chief of Branch
 58
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Engineering Division
A. G. T. Weaver, P.Eng.
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng	
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T.
B. T. Barber, P.Eng	
P. S. Attariwala, PJEng. _
L. Pepperdine, P.Eng.	
P. K. Huus	
J. H. Burt	
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng. .
D. A. Selby	
G. T. Mohler	
J. L. Withers	
B. Baraniski '.	
G. L. Holland
G. German	
-Chief Engineer
-Senior Development Engineer
 Development Technician
 Senior Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Engineer
-Reservoir Technician
-Reservoir Technician
 District Engineer
 Field Technician
 Field Technician
 Field Technician
 Field Technician
Field Technician
-Geophysical Technician
Geological Division
W. M. Young, PJEng.
R. Stewart, PJEng.	
T. B. Ramsay, PJEng.
K. A. McAdam	
J. A. Hudson, PJEng.
D. W. Dewar	
-Chief Geologist
-Senior Reservoir Geologist
 Reservoir Geologist
 Reservoir Geologist
-Senior Economic Geologist
 Economic Geologist
Titles Division
R. E. Moss _
W. J. Quinn
 Commissioner
-Assistant Commissioner
Highlights of Petroleum Resources Branch Activities
This section describes both the technical and administrative work carried out
by the various parts of the Branch during 1977.
Legislation
No amendment 'was made to either the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, or the
Underground Storage Act, 1964 during 1977. However, proposals for updating
both of these Acts were drafted in preparation for the 1978 session of the Legislature.
Amendments of a housekeeping nature to the Drilling and Production Regulations were approved by Order in Council. These included revisions of the definition of an oil well and a gas well and clarification of the regulations pertaining
to "good engineering practice" in oil and gas pools and to oil well spacing. In
addition, a Procedural Handbook was issued to accompany the regulations. This
has proved to be of considerable help to industry in their dealings with the Branch.
An important Order in Council, presented by Mineral Revenue Division, was
approved to amend oil and gas royalty schedules.    The two main features were
J
 ACTTVrTY OF THE MINISTRY 59
the elimination of the "credit" system as part of the oil royalty schedule and the
provision for applying the "new" oil royalty schedule to additional oil produced
because of new or upgraded secondary recovery schemes. The latter feature is
intended as an economic incentive for industry to improve the recovery efficiency
of oil from existing and new oil fields. In addition, gas royalty schedules were
modified to bring them into line with the equivalent royalty rates collected by the
British Columbia Petroleum Corporation.
Publications
An important new publication was made available to industry during 1977.
This is the Geological and Engineering Reference Book, which is a compilation
of technical data for all oil and gas pools in the Province as interpreted by this
Branch. The book contains reservoir parameters and pool maps used in estimating
reserves for publication in the Annual Reserve Report. Updated pages will be
issued to all subscribers from time to time.
Mediation and Arbitration Board
Chairman: Glen B. Pomeroy
Vice-Chairman: Cecil Ruddell
Member: John Martin
The Mediation and Arbitration Board, established under the authority of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, grants rights of entry to oil and gas companies
over alienated lands, and determines conditions of entry and compensation therefore. The Act now provides for a process of mediation by the Chairman of the
Board. Failing satisfactory agreement between the parties upon mediation, the
Act provides for final disposition by the Board of entry conditions and compensation. The Board is also charged with the responsibility to review and set compensation on leases and previous Board orders of more than five years' duration,
and to terminate rights of entry when an operator has ceased to use occupied lands.
In 1977, 33 field inspections were carried out by the Board. The Board made
28 entry orders, and held four arbitration hearings to set compensation. The
Board met 82 times during the year to deal with general Board matters and specific
concerns of the public.
Engineering Division
In addition to its more routine functions described under Branch Organization, the Engineering Division also continued to provide an important technical
and administrative service for other Crown agencies. This involved numerous
meetings and attendance at hearings before the British Columbia Energy Commission, the British Columbia Rail Inquiry, and the National Energy Board.
Important objectives for 1977 achieved by the Division included the encouragement of drilling outside the winter season, a study of water-driven gas field
performance, provision of incentives to industry for increasing recovery from oil
fields, and the publication of an Engineering and Geological Reference Book.
These are described more fully elsewhere in this report.
Highlights of the work carried out by the three sections in the Division are
summarized below.
Development Engineering—The Development Engineering Section is responsible for the administration of all matters related to the location, drilling, completion, and abandonment of wells in the Province.   This involves the assurance that
 60 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
operators of all wells located, drilled, and produced conform with the Drilling and
Production Regulations and submit the required applications, reports, and information to the Branch.
Approval of well authorizations to drill proposed well locations is granted by
the Section after review and reference to the Titles and Geological Divisions. In
1977 there were 376 well authorizations issued, an increase of 93 per cent over
1976. Throughout the life of a well, the status, well name, and classification may
be changed as circumstances require. During the year statuses were changed on
137 occasions, well names on 253, and well classifications on 35.
In addition to comprehensive well data records, all geological and geophysical reports submitted for work credits as well as the Branch correspondence files
are maintained by the Section. In 1977, all files previously retained by the Titles
Division were transferred to this Section so that all Branch files are now located
in the Branch File Room. A program was initiated to film all significant full-sized
documents for security purposes and to establish a library in microfiche format.
This scheme will be employed for records a few years old but the later documents
will be retained in the full size as submitted from industry.
Further preparations were made for the conversion of measurement units to
the metric system. Legislation has been prepared and all Ministry forms related
to the drilling operations are scheduled for metric conversion on July 1, 1978,
while production operations and related functions will be converted on January
1, 1979. Arrangements were under study for conversion of the computer applications that are used in compiling production data.
Each drilling and service rig operating in the Province must have a valid
Rig Licence. During 1977, 73 licences were renewed while 32 new ones were
issued.
Drilling and Production Engineering—During 1977, over 136 000 miles were
driven by field staff of this Section in the course of enforcement at the field level
of the Drilling and Production Regulations made under the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act. This figure is reduced from 1976; however, it is worthy of comment
that this reduction was due to the fact that the Section was two men short for
eight months of the year and three men below staff for another 1.5 months of the
year. At year-end 1977 the field inspectional staff totalled seven men, which
includes one auxiliary employee.
During the year oil production facilities were inspected on about 200 occasions, and 18 oil production tests were witnessed. Gas production was monitored
throughout the year, with fast meter checks being made on gas installations on
600 different occasions and 495 complete gas meter checks were done. To augment data received by our Victoria Reservoir Engineering Section, 136 static pressure gradients were run, and 29 gas well flow tests were witnessed. To further
ensure the reliability of data received, 1 212 pressure bomb elements were calibrated. Some 64 man-days were spent on geophysical inspections ensuring adherence to the Geophysical Regulations.
Drilling activity increased considerably during 1977 over previous years,
with a total of 326 wells spudded during the year. This high level of activity may
be partially attributed to a series of maps which this section developed, indicating
areas of northeastern British Columbia which are accessible for summer drilling
operations. In any case, due to the concentrated drilling, inspections were performed at 619 active drilling sites, and on 2 450 different occasions, inspections
were made on production and abandoned well sites. Also, inspections of salt-water
disposal systems and witnessing of segregation tests were again emphasized during
1977.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
61
During 1977, this Section continued its involvement with the British Columbia
Oil Spill Contingency Plan, taking an active role in all its meetings and training
exercises.
Reservoir Engineering—Table 4-2 is a summary of the hydrocarbon and byproducts reserves in the Province at December 31,1977, and indicates the following:
Oil, established    166 810MSTB
Natural gas, established—
Raw 	
Residue	
Residue (1 OOO Btu/SCF)
Natural gas liquids—
Propane	
Butanes	
Pentanes plus
Sulphur	
8 270 BSCF
7 073 BSCF
7 352 BSCF
7 891 MSTB
11956MSTB
23 038 MSTB
7 256 MLT
It may be observed from Table 4-2 that the oil reserves have increased 11.8
MMSTB from last year. Additions due to drilling were 26.1 MMSTB. Revisions
and production reduced the reserves by 0.5 and 13.8 MMSTB respectively. Raw
gas reserves at the end of 1977 have decreased 0.25 TSCF from last year. Additions
due to drilling were 0.65 TSCF. Revisions and production reduced the reserves
by 0.5 TSCF and 0.4 TSCF respectively.
The Branch is planning to publish the December 31, 1978, Reserve Report in
SI units and has been working with the British Columbia Services Corporation to
achieve this objective. It is hoped that in June 1979 the Engineering and Geological
Reference Book will also be available in SI units.
A submission which showed the effect on reserves and deliverability of drilling
from May 1974 to April 1975, from May 1975 to April 1976, and from May 1976
to April 1977 was prepared and presented to the British Columbia Energy Commission at a hearing in Vancouver commencing on June 20, 1977. An estimate
of oil, gas, and by-products reserves and production rates based on known pools
and future discoveries was also presented. In summary, based on an annual
discovery rate of 340 BSCF of raw gas, the annual production rate was forecast
to rise from 370 BSCF in 1977 to about 450 BSCF in 1982; from 1982 to 1995
the annual rate would remain essentially constant in the 430 to 440 BSCF range;
and after 1995 the rate would decline rapidly to 370 BSCF in 2001. Oil production
was forecast to decline from 34 MSTBD in 1977 to 4 MSTBD in 2001. Also a
forecast of sulphur production was included in a Ministry submission to the hearing
on the British Columbia Railway in Vancouver on June 27.
During the year a reservoir simulation study was performed on a portion of
the Clarke Lake gas reservoir in order to gain insight into the producing mechanism
and to investigate the effect, if any, of rate of production on ultimate recovery.
The Branch has drawn the following conclusions from its analysis of the results of
this study:
(1) Although water is coned into the wells, the major cause of the water
production is the general rise of the 'water table.
(2) Recovery of gas from a water-drive reservoir is lower than from a
volumetric reservoir due to the residual gas trapped at high pressure
in the pore space invaded by water.
 62 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
(3) Higher gas recovery is obtained when high gas production rates are
in effect because a greater depletion effect is generated. However,
this results in a decrease in the volume of the reservoir swept by
water and, consequently, less gas production due to water drive.
Nevertheless, the overall result is higher recovery.
(4) The sweep efficiency can be improved by infill drilling and reservoir
modelling can be of assistance in locating infill locations if adequate
rock property data are available and production history can be
properly matched.
It should be emphasized that these conclusions are based on the modelling of
a thick (350-foot) porous section and it is possible that results from a thinner
porous section would modify the conclusions.
During the review of the simulation study results, the Branch developed a
method of estimating ultimate recovery from water-driven gas reservoirs involving
only two assumptions, and this will be included in a paper The Recognition and
Evaluation of Water Driven Gas Reservoirs, to be presented at the Canadian
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy meeting, June 13 to 16, 1978, in Calgary.
Geological Division
Economic Geology—A number of regional subsurface mapping projects which
had been planned for the year could not be initiated because of the transfer of
experienced personnel to the Reservoir Geology Section in order to handle the
results of a marked increase in drilling activity.
All of the published subsurface mapping series of the northeastern sedimentary
area 'were updated and revised to include available released information as of
April 30, 1977. This subsurface coverage which includes most of the major producing horizons is available on both a 1:100 000 and 1:250000 mapping scale.
The latter scale is a composite of eight map sheets and therefore provides a broad
regional perspective of the mapped horizon.
A new 1:100 000 base for the drillstem test and penetration compilation map
series was initiated although not completed. These maps, which have been updated
as of April 30, 1977, show for all wells outside designated field boundaries the
deepest geological formation penetrated, all formation drillstem tests, and the
zone(s) in which gas and oil wells are completed. In addition to the latter information and within the designated field limit the penetration map will show drillstem
tests in horizons other than that productive in the field as well as the formation at
total depth for wells which have penetrated below the lowest productive horizon
within the field.
The Section was relatively active in assisting other Divisions and Ministries of
the Government and Crown agencies in matters concerning petroleum geology.
Frequent meetings were held with various industry representatives to discuss various
aspects of geology, geophysics, and the exploration for oil and natural gas.
Geophysical—The procedure of integrating released, usable geophysical data
into the regional subsurface mapping series was continued with the year's updating
program. The data received by the Ministry in support of applications to record
geophysical work are converted to depth and integrated into the appropriate
regional subsurface map. This work continues to provide significant control at the
Middle Devonian level within the Plains area and at the Mississippian and Triassic
levels within the structural Foothills Belt.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY 63
Reservoir Geology—Throughout a most active year the reservoir geology
group continued with its vigorous program of assessment and mapping in detail all
oil and gas accumulations encountered by the drill. Structural, stratigraphic, and
reservoir geologic data made available through drilling were used as the basis for
new and revision-type map work, reservoir studies, evaluation of reserves, and the
control of remedial work, cycling, repressuring, and secondary recovery projects.
Significant map changes resulted from new drilling and studies in the following
pools and corresponding hydrocarbon-bearing rock unit(s): Airport—Bluesky,
Buick Creek—Doig, Buick Creek North—Bluesky and Dunlevy, Bullmoose—
Baldonnel, Cache Creek—Coplin and Halfway, Drake—A Marker and Halfway,
Fireweed—Dunlevy, Eagle West—Belloy, Helmet—Slave Point, Inga—Dunlevy,
Monias—Halfway, Mica—Charlie Lake, Nettle—Gething, Nig Creek—Baldonnel,
North Pine—North Pine, Osprey—Bluesky and Halfway, Tsea—Slave Point, and
Two Rivers—Halfway.
In conjunction with the above work the Branch typewritten pool listings were
changed to plat form. Appropriate pool plats were initiated and revised as required
on a quarterly basis and made available to public and industry subscribers through
publications.
The most significant change as a result of development drilling took place in
the Eagle West Belloy oil pool. This pool, discovered late in 1976, was primarily
extended in two directions to include an approximate areal extent of 6,400 acres.
Other significant extensions involved the Bullmoose Baldonnel gas pool and the
Monias Halfway gas pool.
A considerable amount of time was expended in assessing the reserve potential
of gas wells as a means of determining unadjusted daily gas allowables. This work,
in co-ordination with the reservoir engineering group, is a replacement of the
previous system used in calculating daily allowables based on a fixed percentage
of open flow potential.
The Section initiated and completed special studies concerned with the possible
communication of Dunlevy and overlying Gething stratigraphic sand reservoirs
within the Rigel field; a concurrent gas and oil production scheme at Nettle; apparent small discrete oil accumulations in the southeast sector of the Nig Creek
Baldonnel gas pool; the apparent lateral communication between two Parkland
Belloy gas pools across associated normal faulting; and a pronounced change in
level of the gas/water interface of the Sierra Pine Point gas pool.
Routine assistance was provided in advising other Branch Divisions with
geological evaluations and assessments of Crown lands posted for disposal of
petroleum and natural gas rights; the reclassification of wells for the purpose of
confidentiality of information and discovery status; maintaining current oil and gas
pool boundary designations and related geological appraisals concerning industry
production schemes; and the disposal of water production.
Titles Division
There were five dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum and natural gas rights
held during 1977. These resulted in tender bonus bids amounting to a record total
of $125 467 725.50, an increase of $82 241 283.57 from the previous year. The
total bonus figure for each sale was higher than any previous comparative sale with
the August sale totalling $54 192 014.47. A total of 786 parcels was offered, an
increase of 353 over 1976, with bids acceptable on 607 parcels, an increase of 303
over 1976, covering 2 336 194 acres, a decrease of 89 608 acres.
 64
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
The average price per acre was $54.70, which is an increase of $35.89 per
acre over 1976. The average bonus price per acre was respectively: permits, $38.23,
an increase of $24.42; leases, $124.25, an increase of $34.22; and drilling reservations, $63, an increase of $44.04. Total revenue collected by the Division in 1977
was $141 513 501.79.
During the year, 22 geophysical licences were issued or renewed, a decrease of
six from 1976.   Four unit agreements were approved.
A total of 164 notices of commencement of exploratory work was recorded,
an increase of 50 from the previous year. These notices are required prior to the
commencement of any geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum and
natural gas.
During the year the Mapping Section continued with the ongoing program of
updating and converting base maps to 1:50000 scale. Of particular interest are
the seismic road and trail maps -which are updated on a daily basis using a base
with the topography screened so these maps become very useful in the field when
determining the location of lines for new seismic programs.
In addition to its normal activities the Division spent considerable time assisting
in special projects with other ministries in matters relating to petroleum tenure
rights and lands. Very frequent meetings were held with various industry representatives concerning tenure to petroleum and natural gas rights, Crown sales, and
their administration under the terms of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, and
regulations.
As of December 31, 1977, 21 Oil 134 acres of approximately 32 830 square
miles, an increase of 820 170 acres over the 1976 total of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, were held in
good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to major
international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage of
each case were as follows:
Form of Title
Permits	
Natural gas licences
Drilling reservations
Leases (all types) —
Number
Acreage
426
12 929 825
l
36 374
89
836 870
4 155
7 208 065
Total.
21 011 134
During 1977 the following transactions were completed:
1. Permits—
Issued .	
Renewed	
Converted to lease.
Cancelled 	
Transferred (assigned)
2. Drilling Reservations—
Issued	
Renewed 	
Converted to lease
Cancelled 	
Transferred (assigned)
63
288
49
55
92
57
17
18
22
14
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
65
3.
Leases—
Issued
Annual rental paid _
Renewed for 10-year term
Extended under penalty
Extended not under penalty
Cancelled . -
Transferred (assigned)
4. Natural Gas Licences—
Issued	
Renewed	
Converted to lease .
Cancelled  .	
Transferred  (assigned)
Crown Sales—
Permits 	
Drilling reservations
Leases	
Number
Advertised
_ 69
_ 66
_ 651
Total
786
738
3 094
37
139
249
95
339
1
Nil
1
1
Nil
Number
Sold
62
57
488
607
6. Geophysical Licences—Issued 	
7. Notice of Commencement of Exploratory Work-
Approved	
8. Affidavits of Work—Approved
Permits 	
Leases	
22
164
100
13
715
4
9. Miscellaneous Recordings (mergers, grouping notices,
etc.)—Approved	
10. Unit Agreements—Approved	
MINERAL REVENUE DIVISION
TheVMineral Revenue Division, under the direction of W. W. Ross, is responsible for the assessment and collection of mineral and petroleum resource taxes
and royalties imposed under the Coal Act, Mineral Land Tax Act, Mineral Resource Tax Act, Mineral Royalties Act (which was repealed effective January 1,
1977), Iron Ore Royalty Agreements, and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
To fulfil its responsibilities, the Division has a staff of 21, which is organized into
four functional sections. The Mineral and Petroleum Accounting sections which
are responsible for the revenue collection and accounting processes are under the
direct supervision of B. A. Garrison, the Assistant Director. The Mineral Titles
Section, which is responsible for determining the ownership of mineral rights, is
under the direct supervision of N. D. Smith, the Chief Titles Officer. The External
Audit Section, which is responsible for the auditing of corporate records for purposes of verifying tax and royalty assessments, is under the direct supervision of
A. R. Lockwood. Most of the Division's staff is located in the headquarters office
in Victoria, but district titles offices are maintained at New Westminster, Nelson,
and Kamloops to facilitate searches of land registry records in those districts.
A synopsis of the Division's work during the past year follows by way of
statutory and regulatory responsibilities.
3
 66
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Coal Royalty Regulations Under the Coal Act
The Coal Act and royalty regulations apply to the production of coal, the
rights to which are vested in the Province. Coal is classified as either metallurgical
or thermal and is subject to a royalty of $1.50 per long wet ton of metallurgical
coal, or 75 cents per long wet ton of thermal coal shipped from the mine. During
1977, 2 231 697.92 long tons of metallurgical coal were reported as shipped with
a royalty value of $3 347 551.80.
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements Under the Mineral Act
Under these agreements, the producers of iron ore are subject to a royalty
of $1 per long dry ton of contained iron in the iron concentrate produced and sold.
Iron concentrates are deemed to have a 50-per-cent iron content, and royalty can
be reduced by 50 per cent through the application of exploration credits. This
results in an effective royalty of 25 cents per long dry ton of iron concentrate
shipped and sold. During 1977, two producers reported shipments of 506 613.133
long dry tons of iron concentrate which yielded a royalty payment of $126 653.28.
Mineral Land Tax Act
Mineral rights held in freehold are subject to taxation under the provisions of
the Mineral Land Tax Act, which has a three-tier tax structure consisting of a
basic acreage tax on undesignated mineral lands, a basic acreage tax on mineral
lands designated as production areas, or tracts, and a mill rate assessment on the
assessed value of a production tract. The basic acreage tax on undesignated
mineral lands ranges from 25 cents per acre to $1 per acre dependent upon the
total acreage held by an owner. The basic acreage tax on any designated production area or tract is $2 per acre, which is in lieu of the acreage tax on undesignated
mineral lands. The assessed values of production tracts are determined annually
in accordance with Assessment Regulations, and are basically a function of revenue
and production from the preceding year. The mill rate applicable during 1977 was
121/4 mills.
Under current policy, production tracts are only established for the designated
mineral coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Also, if any mineral land other than a
"Crown Granted Mineral Claim" is used solely for agricultural purposes, then such
land is exempt from the payment of mineral land tax.
Mineral Land Tax Assessment Notices for 1977 were issued on May 1, covering a total of 1 229 362.83 acres of mineral land under 4 912 tax folios. This
represents a net increase of 1 653 folios and 190 259.16 acres over the 1976 mineral land tax assessment roll. A summary of the 1977 mineral land tax assessment roll and the related tax assessments and collections are reflected in the following table:
Table 2-4-—Mineral Land Tax Assessment Roll
Classification of
Mineral Land
Number
of Folios
Acreage
Tax
Assessed
Taxes
Forgiven on
Agricultural
Land
Tax
Collected
4 863
45
34
1 188 032.50
33 781.33
7 549.00
$
392 972.05
67 562.66
7 805 639.75
6 496.90
72 286.22
$
67 911.78
$
(1)
4 942
1 229 362.83
8 344 957.58
67 911.78
i Interest and deliquent tax collections included in tax collected for each classification.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
67
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 68 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Much of the administrative effort under the Mineral Land Tax Act involves
roll maintenance and embraces the forfeiture and surrender provisions of the Act
together with procedures under the Escheats Act. During 1977 the Mineral Titles
Section carried out 40 843 title searches, which resulted in 1 647 parcels covering
180 546.31 acres being added to the roll, and processed 12 surrenders covering
18 268.857 acres. Also, after considerable delay due to technical reasons, the
surrenders covering mineral rights to a substantial portion of the Esquimau and
Nanaimo Railway Belt lands were registered with the Victoria Land Registry
Office Under Charge F60387 against Title 7434a. The Division also processed
forfeitures on 127 folios covering 341 lots for a total of 19 817.86 acres, and
escheatments on 20 folios covering 105 lots for a total of 4 462.45 acres.
The External Audit Section completed five audits of companies subject to the
Mineral Land Tax Act during the year, which resulted in revised mineral land tax
assessments of $2 157 577.67 compared to the original assessment of $2 219 302.46
giving rise to a net tax credit of $61 724.79.
Eight companies filed appeals with the Mineral Land Tax Review Board, but
due to the lack of a full-board for much of 1977, only one appeal was heard by the
Board. Gordon H. McDougall and Norman G. Randall resigned from the Board,
and were replaced by Prof. John Bedford Evans, the new Chairman, and William
Sek Fong Eng. Because of a consolidated action in the Supreme Court involving
points of law with respect to the Mineral Land Tax Act, only one appeal has been
scheduled for hearing in 1978, with the others being held in abeyance until the
results of the court action are known.
Mineral Royalties Act
The Mineral Royalties Act, which imposed a royalty on minerals produced
from Crown lands, was repealed as of January 1, 1977; however, the provisions of
the Act were still in effect with respect to liabilities incurred prior to January 1,
1977. Annual returns for 1976, and audit of company records, yielded revenues
totalling $2 507 896.90 during 1977. Fourteen audits were completed in the year,
which resulted in revised assessments of $8 956 230.99 compared to the original
returns of $8 423 997.35 giving rise to an additional charge of $532 233.64.
Mineral Resource Tax Act
Under this Act, the profits of individual mines which produce minerals as defined under the Mineral Act, are subject to a 17Vi-per-cent tax on mining income.
The determination of income generally follows the rules applicable for Federal
Income Tax purposes, with modification regarding to capital cost allowances, exploration and development expenditures, earned depletion, and processing allowances. As there were no monthly instalments payable for the 1976 fiscal year, the
revenues of $9 655 342.29 collected during 1977 represent the tax payable for the
1976 corporate fiscal year plus instalments for the 1977 fiscal year.
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties
Production of petroleum and natural gas, together with associated byproducts
which are produced from Crown lands held under the terms of the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, is subject to the payment of royalty as provided for under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalty Regulations. The regulations specifically
exempt any gas sold to the British Columbia Petroleum Corporation from the imposition of royalty. Petroleum is classified as either old oil or new oil, with each
class being subject to a different royalty-rate schedule as reflected in the 1976
report.   Revenue collections for the year from the source were as follows:
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
69
Natural gas royalties	
Crude petroleum royalties 	
Natural gas byproduct royalties
Penalties .	
Total
180 951.50
41 015 470.45
887 907.66
890.00
42 085 219.61
The royalty regulations also provide for the establishment of one oil credit
for each barrel of old oil produced as an incentive for increased exploration and
development of petroleum and natural gas resources within the Province. Each
credit carries a value of 75 cents, and may be redeemed through the performance
of $l's worth of satisfactory work. Oil credit transactions for the year are reflected
in the following statements:
Balance brought forward from 1976
Credit established during the year	
Credits redeemed during the year	
Credits expired during the year	
Balance remaining as at December 31
Credit
Units
12 928 875
13 087 764
(16 317 547)
9 699 092
Value
$
9 696 655.98
9 815 823.27
(12 238 160.25)
7 274 319.00
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
This Division was not fully implemented during 1977 as a Director was not
appointed. The Personnel and Accounts Sections reported directly to the Deputy
Minister, or to him through a committee in the case of Publications Section, or
through the Assistant Deputy for Mineral Resources in the case of the Library.
Personnel
Neil K. Gillespie became the Ministry Personnel Officer in 1977, taking over
from R. E. Moss, who had held the position simultaneously with his responsibilities
as Chief Petroleum Commissioner over the past five years. Cathie Green became
Personnel Clerk, replacing Pennie Hepworth, who became Executive Secretary to
the Assistant Deputy Minister, Mineral Resources.
Ministry personnel statistics for 1977 are as follows:
Permanent employees	
Appointments . .
Resignations	
Retirements  :	
In-service transfers	
Promotions and reclassifications
Temporary employees
Temporary employees under WIG 1977	
Temporary employees under summer field program .
255
31
16
6
6
19
18
12
43
The Personnel Office was also involved in commencing a new Management
Compensation and Classification Plan (Hay Plan) in the fall of 1977.
 70
MINES AND PETROLEUM  RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Accounts Section
This Section was under the control of Mrs. Sharon Bone until her resignation
in September, at which time Mrs. Maureen Lundquist assumed temporary responsibility of the Section. The several functions of this Section are the preparation and
control of Ministry estimates, payroll administration, the costing and facilitating of
Ministry purchases, and the acquisition and maintenance of motor-vehicles and
equipment.
Library
The Ministry Library, located at Room 430, Douglas Building, Victoria, is
administered by the Assistant Deputy Minister for Mineral Resources and is supervised by Sharon Ferris. The Library provides geological and technical information
for the staff, other ministries, the mining industry, and the public.
The Library is the depository for all publications of the Ministry. Other
holdings include reports of the geological surveys and mines' branches of Canada,
the United States, and other foreign nations. There are approximately 15 000
geological and other Governmental reports and maps. Texts and reference books
total over 1 700 in number. Special collections consists of proceedings and guidebooks from international geological congresses, annual reports of the British
Columbia mining and petroleum companies.
It is estimated that the Library dealt with over 2 000 requests for information
during 1977. The Library reorganization and cleaning of material was completed
during the year and an indexing of Government serial publications was begun.
Publications Section »
Publications Section includes publication preparation and dispatch and consists of Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir, Assistant Editor, and three assistants. The Section
personnel are technically part of the Geological Division, which originates most of
the manuscripts for publication. Chairman of the Publication Committee is Dr. A.
Sutherland Brown.
Separate lists of publications for both the Branches of the Ministry are available on request to the Publications Section, Ministry of Mines and Petroleum
Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria V8V 1X4.
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum Resources in Victoria and from the Geological Survey of Canada, 100
West Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may also be obtained from
the Gold Commissioner's office, British Columbia Building, 800 Hornby Street,
Vancouver V6Z 2C5.
Publications are available for reference use in the Ministry Library, Room 430,
Douglas Building, Victoria; in the reading room of the Geological Survey of
Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver; in the offices of the Inspector of
Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert; as well as in some public libraries.
Rock and mineral sets are available for sale in small numbers for schools or
prospecting courses. Information regarding these may be obtained from the Publications Section, Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building,
Victoria V8V 1X4.
    -iiii.-isi—-.-■■:•.■....-.. j'...'i^^i=Si^i,.:;.     iKa
 Mineral Resource Statistics
CONTENTS
Chapter 3—Mineral Resource Statistics..
Introduction .	
Methods of Computing Production-
Metals	
Average Prices-
Gross and Net Content..
Value of Production	
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials..
Coal	
Petroleum and Natural Gas~.
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables.
CHAPTER 3
Pace
73
74
74
74
74
75
75
76
76
76
76
86
Figure 3-1—Value of Mineral Production, 1887-1977	
Figure 3-2—Production Quantities of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, 1893-1977	
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year	
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1977	
Table 3-3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years, 1968-1977	
Table 3-4—Comparison  of Total  Quantity  and  Value  of Production,  and
Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines	
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974-1977	
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver,  Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1977 .	
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1976 and 1977, and
Total to Date_	
Table 3-7B—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc, by
Mining Divisions, 1976 and 1977, and Total to Date	
Table 3-7C—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1976
and 1977, and Total to Date. .	
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions,   1976
and 1977, and Total to Date	
Table 3-713—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions,  1976
and 1977, and Total to Date	
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1977	
Table 3-8B—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1977_	
Table 3-9—Principle Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes . .	
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1977.	
Table 3-11—Employment at Major Metal and Coal Mines, 1977	
Table 3-12—Metal Production, 1977	
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1977_
73
87
89
90
92
94
95
96
98
100
102
106
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
117
 74
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Economics and Planning Division of the Mineral Resources
Branch.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning
with the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial ministries have
co-operated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production
published by the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses
average prices considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the
British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British
Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production, being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
The statistics of the petroleum industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Petroleum Resources Branch.
METHODS OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors became known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by the producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For petroleum, natural gas, and liquid by-products,
production figures supplied by the Petroleum Resources Branch of the Ministry
of Mines and Petroleum Resources are compiled from the monthly disposition
reports and the Crown royalty statement filed with the Ministry by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds.    Metric weights are used throughout.
Average Prices
METALS
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page 88.
Prior to 1974 the price of gold used was the average Canadian Mint buying-
price for fine gold.
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold. Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and until 1973
the average price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total
amount received. Starting in 1974 the price used for the valuation of gold, lode
and placer, is the amount received by the producer.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
75
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average prices at the markets indicated in the table on page 88, converted into
Canadian funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New
York; Lon.—London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.—United States.
Starting in 1949 the price of silver, copper, lead, and zinc were average United
States prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices were supplied
by Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it was the New York price; for lead it was the New
York price; for zinc it was the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper
it was the United States export refinery price. Commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers and
since 1974 this applies also to gold, silver, lead, zinc, and cadmium.
For antimony and bismuth the average producers' price to consumers is used.
For nickel the price used is the Canadian price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Limited. The value per tonne of the iron ore used in making pig
iron at Kimberley was an arbitrary figure, being the average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
the metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents are
the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross contents
less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents, particularism the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another.
The method established in 1963 is outlined in the following table. For example,
the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross content,
of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content.etc. Commencing in 1974 the quantities represent the actual net quantities or metals paid for.
Lead
Concentrates
Zinc
Concentrates
Ccpper
Concentrates
Copper-Nickel
Concentrates
Copper
Matte
Per Cent
98
Less 26 lb./ton
98
SO
Per Cent
98
SO
90
70
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
Per Cent
is
88
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
I_ad
SO
KTieto.1
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate, mercury, molybdenum, rhenium, and tin the
value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production was calculated from the assay
content of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an
average price per unit of weight. The 1974 values represent the settlement values
received by the producers for the respective metals.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
 76 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per
cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on
page 88.
For 1925 to 1973 the values had been calculated by using the true average
price (see page 88) and the net metal contents in accordance with the procedures
adopted by Statistics Canada and the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Since 1974 the total quantity and value of metal production include the quantities paid for to the mines, and the smelter and refinery production that can be
attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity and value paid for to the
mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
COAL
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per tonne which is
the weighted average of the f .o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES   OF PRODUCTS  LISTED  IN THE  TABIJES
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a
by-product of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined
in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then
other out-of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lar-
deau, Slocan, Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 3-7C the antimony
assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to
foreign smelters; the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter
from various ores received there.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Arsenious oxide—Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Asbestos — British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the
Cassiar mine was opened. All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile
from the Cassiar mine near the Yukon boundary. This deposit is noted for its
high percentage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre.
The original claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped
two years later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar and now most is shipped
by truck to Stewart. From 1953 to 1961 the fibre was valued at the shipping point
in North Vancouver, but beginning in 1962 it has been valued at the mine, and
values for the preceding years have been recalculated on that basis. See Tables
3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
77
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
has been mined from lode deposits and the rest recovered from the mill-tailings
ponds of the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines. See
Table 3-7D.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.    See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Bricks—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 3-7C the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated
recovery at the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7C.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are British Columbia Cement Company
Limited, with a 490 000 tonnes-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement
Lafarge Ltd., with a 476 000 tonnes-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 191 000
tonnes-per-year plant at Kamloops.    See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 608 tonnes from Cascade in 1918 and 114 tonnes from Scottie Creek in 1929.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Clay and shale products — These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery,
lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in
plants at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant at Quesnel makes
pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of Quesnel. Several hobby and art
potteries and a sanitary-ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported
raw materials and their production is not included in the tables. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7E.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island
in 1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that
of placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for
the next 30 years.
 78 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
First production, by mining divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicole, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains
coking-coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building.
Mining started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and
on the Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the
last large mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The
colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the
large mine at Tsable River in 1966, and the last small one, near Wellington in 1968,
marked the end of continuous production from the important Vancouver Island
deposits. Recent exploration indicates the possibility of renewed coal mining on
the island.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British Columbia,
the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and Sage Creek basin southeast of Fernie.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created intense exploration in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of large contracts
with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several deposits in the
East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities at North
Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, 3-8A, and 3-8B.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
From 1971 to 1973, cobalt was shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at Hope.
See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 3-1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 3-9, but this table has
been discontinued.    The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 3-8B.
Condensate—(a) Field—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing. (6) Plant—
Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from natural gas at gas-
processing plants.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
Copper—Most of the copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese, Eastern
Canadian, and American smelters because no copper smelter has operated in British
Columbia since 1935. Small amounts of gold and silver are commonly present and
add value to the ore. Most of the smelting in British Columbia in early years was
done on ore shipped directly from the mines without concentration, but modern
practice is to concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver King
mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at Grand
Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).    Later,
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
79
small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and Texada
Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper-smelting ceased in
the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935. British
Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and since 1961
have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Ross-
land, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During the 1960*s, exploration for copper became intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley
(Bethlehem) in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda)
in 1970, Stewart (Granduc) and near Port Hardy (Island Copper) in 1971, near
Babine Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lornex),
Princeton (Ingerbelle) in 1972, and near Kamloops (Afton) in 1977. See Table
3-12 for a complete list of copper producers.
Some of these mines produce molybdenum as a by-product, for example,
Brenda, Lornex, Gibraltar, and Island Copper. Copper is also produced as a
by-product of iron mining at Tasu Sound, Queen Charlotte Islands (Wesfrob), and
with ores containing zinc, gold, silver, and lead at Buttle Lake (Lynx and Myra,
Western Mines).
Copper has been the most valuable single commodity of the industry since
1966 until 1977 when it was surpassed marginally by natural gas. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the oil
pipeline was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans
Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company pipeline near Kamloops. In 1977, oil was
produced from 35 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan
Creek, Inga, and Weasel fields were the most productive.
In Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, but since 1962 the field and plant condensates are listed
separately. Table 4-16 incorporates all revisions since the commencement of
production.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928.  A plant to process the material is located in Quesnel.   See Table 3-7D.
Fluorite (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the Rock
Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery. From 1958 to
1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica quarry.
See Table 3-7D.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and from a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past, silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
Today, silica from near Kamloops and limestone, chiefly from Texada Island, are
produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See Tables 3-1, 3-3,
and 3-7D.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province.
The first discovery of lode gold was on Morseby Island in 1852, when some gold
 80 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
was recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras (primitive grmdmg-mills) were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short-lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. By
1900 the value of gold production was second only to that of coal. At the start of
World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly value of more than $22 million,
but since the war it has dwindled until developments in the 1970's.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores- of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal, gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland
Canal, Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River
closed.
With the closing of the Bralorne mine, most of the lode gold is produced as a
by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver, and other base metal mining. Because
of the volume of this production the amount of gold produced is still at a fairly high
level, and with the significant rise in the price of gold in the 1970's the value of
production has exceeded the peaks reached during the era of gold mines in the
1930's. See Table 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B. See Table 3-12 for a complete list of
current producers.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer-miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream from
Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery of the placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the
discovery of placer gold in the Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1885. A high
level of production ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak
output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort
Steele, Rock Creek, Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike
was made on Cedar Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in
1927 and on Wheaton Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War n, placer-mining declined under conditions
of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold but is showing signs of revival in
response to a freely floating gold price since 1972. Since 1858, more than 163 114-
000 grams valued at $98.1 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kamloops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold in the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
J
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
81
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7A.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco,
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby and near Grand Forks, Sirdar, Vananda, and
Armstrong.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956, more than 907 000 tonnes were shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956,
nearly all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.   Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipment. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Morseby Island. At Texada Island copper was
a by-product of iron-mining, and in the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is
that of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is
produced as a by-product.
From January 1961 to August 1972, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings
of the Sullivan mine was used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This was the first
manufacture of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and
pyrite in the lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead
and zinc minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron
sulphides are separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile has been
built containing a reserve of about 18 million tonnes of iron ore.
The sulphur was removed in making pig iron and was converted to sulphuric
acid, which was used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converted the
pig iron to steel, and a fabricating plant was acquired in Vancouver. The iron
smelter at Kimberley closed in August 1972. The entire production, credited to the
Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 3-7C, is of calcine. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7C.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its
tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika,
and Wheaton Creeks.    See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
by molybdenum in 1969, and in total production by zinc in 1966.    Lead and zinc
 82 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
usually occur together in nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single
deposit. Zinc is the more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable
than zinc ore because it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British
Columbia produced almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces about 28 per
cent of the total. Most of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at
Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of
the Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about 87 per cent
of the Province's lead and has produced about 86 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works
at Trail. Other mines are at Pend-d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
southwestern British Columbia, and Vancouver Island. In northwestern British
Columbia less important parts of the total output have come from Tulsequah, the
Premier mine, and several small mines in the general region of Hazelton. See Table
3-12 for the current lead producers.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines in British Columbia owned
by Cominco Ltd. goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines
goes to American smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to approximately 7.8 million tonnes.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magncsite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920, manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test
shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then
small amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River
district. The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi
Lake and Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine
reopened and continued in operation until 1975 when it closed because of market
situations.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961, small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined
near Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7D.
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade
molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
83
point that molybdenum now ranks second in importance in annual value of metals
produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine
recovered by-product molybdenum from 1964 and 1966. In 1965 the Endako
and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia
Molybdenum mine in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. The Boss Mountain mine closed in 1971 and reopened late in 1973. The
Coxey and British Columbia Molybdenum mines closed in 1971 and 1972 respectively. In 1970 the Brenda Mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer,
started operating, and Island Copper in 1971, and Lornex in 1972, while Gibraltar
ceased molybdenum production in 1975 but re-commenced in 1977. See Tables
3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7C.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 363 tonnes of natro-alunite were mined
from a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent
production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. In 1957 the gas plant at Taylor and the pipeline
to serve British Columbia and the northwestern United States was completed. The
daily average volume of production in 1975 was 1.14 billion cubic feet. In 1976
there were 73 gas-fields producing both associated and non-associated gas, of which
the Yoyo, Clarke Lake, and Sierra were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16, is the total amount
sold of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the
gas-gathering system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line.
The quantity is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas
used or lost in the" cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as millions of cubic
metres at standard conditions (99.2 kPa, (kilopascals) pressure, 15°C temperature,
up to and including the year 1960, and thereafter 101.3 kPa pressure, 15°C temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in the tables in chapter 4.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. From 1960 to 1974, bulk
copper and nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan and Alberta respectively for smelting. The mine closed in August 1974. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and
3-7C.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a byproduct of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1 009 tonnes was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.   There has been no further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3 485
tonnes of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for
commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964, but there has been no
commercial production.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
 84 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery
is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from
the Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
Rhenium—Rhenium occurs in significant quantities only with molybdenite
associated with porphyry copper deposits. It was first produced in 1972 by the
Island Copper Mine and is extracted as rhenium oxide from fumes produced during
roasting of the molybdenite concentrate.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work.
The output varies from year to year according to the level of activity in the construction industry.    See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 332 kilograms, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, and some is exported in concentrated ores of copper,
lead, and zinc to American and Japanese smelters. Silver bullion was produced by
the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores, if mined in quantity, produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold-ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, mostpf the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters. Today the greatest
single source of silver is the Sullivan mine, which has been in production since 1900.
By 1974 the Sullivan mine has accounted for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total amount is contributed by the Lynx,
Lornex, Warman, Island Copper, Horn Silver, Silmonac and Granduc mines. Table
3-12 details the current silver production. The only steady producer that is strictiy
a silver mine is the Highland Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A
former important mine, the Premier near Stewart, produced more than 1.3 million
kilograms of silver between 1918 and 1968.    See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Stone (see Building-stone)—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from
rock produced at quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of
the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Structural materials—In Table 3-7E the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886—1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions, and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 3-2 that includes unclas-
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
85
sified structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular
years. The figure $3,180,828 in Table 3-7E under "Other Clay Products" is the
value in the period 1886—1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products
or assigned to mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-7A, and 3-7E.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Canadian Occidental Petroleum
Ltd. plant at Taylor has been included.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7G.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. Tin is also produced in a lead-tin alloy at the Trail smelter.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced
from 1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the
Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton
and the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald
in 1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas where demand was high. In 1970, production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo, which closed in 1973.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 3-1,3-3, and 3-7C.
Volcanic ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 27 tonnes from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.    See Table 3-7D.
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of copper production exceeded that of zinc.
In 1977 the production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper, molybdenum, asbestos,
coal, crude oil, and natural gas. Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most
ores are mined for their combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for then-
zinc content alone. Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated with copper at Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate
the zinc mineral (sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most of the zinc
concentrates go to the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are converted
electronically to refined metal. Usually some concentrates are shipped to American
or Japanese smelters.
About 85 per cent of the zinc that has been mined in British Columbia has
originated in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines
near Ainsworfh, Invermere, Moyie Lake, Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillima-
cheen. Other production has come from mines at Portland Canal and Tulsequah
and is coming from Buttle Lake and Callaghan Creek. The greatest zinc mine is
the Sullivan, which has contributed about 73 per cent of the total zinc production
of the Province.   See Table 3-12 for details of current zinc producers.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 17 096 tonnes
of zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1918, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
 86
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
87
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 88
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Prices'1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Gold,
Fine
Silver.
Fine
Copper
Lead
Zinc
S/g
$/g
$/kg
$/kg
S/kg
0.66457
0.01801 N.Y.
.01593    „
.01633    „
0.355 N.Y.
.258    „
.292    „
0.057 N.Y.
-081    „
.084    „
"
.01716    „
.01650    „
.02040    „
.01995    „
.01615    „
.01573    „
.01634    „
.283    „
.344    „
.425    „
.441    „
.291    „
.286    „
.281    „
.086    „
.094    „
.106    „
-106    „
.083    „
■085    „
.088    „
0.101 E.St.L.
„
.01628    „
.273    „
.088    ,.
.108      ,.
„
.01858    ,.
.360    „
.089     „
.130      "
.01826    „
.337    „
.087    „
.106      „
.01675    „
.300    „
-077    „
.097      „
.01518    „
.381    „
-092    „
.248      „
..
.02006    „
.600    „
.136    „
.240      „
.02487    „
.599    „
.174    „
-167      „
.02956    ,.
.543    „
.147    „
.153       „
.03394    „
.412    .,
.114    „
.138    :.
#,
.O308O     „
-385    „
.158    „
.144      „
»*
.01914    .,
.276    „
.090    „
.087
„
.02062    ..
.295    „
-114    „
-107
.01981    „
.318    „
.144    „
.124      ..
.02040    „
.287    „
.161    „
.119      „
I*
.02221    „
.310    „
.173 Lond.
.174 Lond.
„
.01997    „
_04    „
.149     „
-163     ,,
*.
.01812    „
.285    „
-116     „
.137     "
,t
.01870    „
-321    „
.101      „
.121     „
1.
.01704    „
_99    „
-111      ..
.119     „
»s
.01227    „
.286    „
-087     „
.079     „
.00923    „
-179    „
.060     „
.056     „
.75459
.01018    ..
.141 Lond.
■047     „
.053     ..
.91953
.01216    ,.
.164     „
■053      „
.071     „
1.10922
.01526    „
.164     „
-054     „
•067     „
1.13140
.02083    „
.172     „
.069     „
•068     „
1.12626
.01451     „
.209     „
.086     „
.073     „
1.12497
.01443    „
.288     „
.113     „
.108     „
1.13108
.01398    ..
.220     „
■074     „
.068     „
1.16195
.01302    ,.
.223     „
.070     „
.068     „
1.23782
.01230    ..
.222     ,,
-074     „
.075      '
1.23782
.01230    ..
.222     „
-074     „
.075     „
1.23782
.01324    ..
.222     „
-074     „
.075     „
1.23782
.01455    ..
■259     „
.083     „
-088     „
1.23782
.01383    ..
-265     ,.
.099     „
-095     „
1.23782
.01511    ..
.277     „
.110     „
.142     ,,
1.18156
.02689    „
.282     „
.149     „
.172     ,t
1.12529
.02315    ..
.450     ..
.301      „
.248     „
1.12529
.02411 Mont.
.493 U.S.
.398     ..
•307     „
1.15744
.02387 U.S.
.440    „
.348 U.S.
.292 U.S.
17.2335
.02593     „
-517    „
.319    „
•332    „
1.18477
.03040    „
.611    „
.406    „
.439    „
1.10182
.02674    „
•685    „
-55    „
•350    „
1.10665
.02693     ..
-669    „
.292    .,
.235    "
1.09539
.07668     „
-642    „
-302    „
•230    „
1.10986
-C825    „
.844    „
.329    „
.267    „
1.10729
.02873    .,
.877    „
•347    „
.293    „
1.07867
.02799    ..
-574    „
.310    „
.246    ..
1.09250
.02779    .,
.516    „
-259    „
.221    "
1.07932
.02812    ..
-611    „
•257    „
.242    „
1.09153
.02850    .,
-639    .,
-256    „
-277    „
1.14008
.<"012    „
.620    „
-243     „
.258    „
1.20278
.03730    ,.
.672    „
.227    „
.274    „
1.21371
.04436    ,.
.676    „
.265    „
.290    „
1.21371
.04484    ..
.737    „
.323    „
.323    „
1.21307
.04481      „
-846    ..
.380    „
•345    „
1.21242
.04479     „
1.176    „
.359    „
-344    „
1.21403
.05373    „
1-125    „
333    „
•329     ,
1.21242
.07429    „
1.195    „
•321    ,.
r-312    „
1.21178
.OKI 96    „
1.470    „
•354    „
•347    „
1.17545
.05946    ..
1.2942
.360    ,.
•353    „
1.13622
.O5014    „
1.0302
.308    ..
•359    „
1.84934
.05348    „
.9892
.328    „
-388    „
3.13185
.08251     ,.
1.8352
.359    „
-455    „
5.348682
.15<=532
1.8842
.42->2
.7672
5.204662
.155602
1.2832
.3462
.8082
4.035142
.135712
1.438=
.3842
.6152
5-29972
.757072
7.3982
.5472
-59J2
1901_
1902-
1903_
1904-
1905_
1906-
1907_
1908_
1909_
1910_
1911_
1912-
1913_
1914-
1915_
1916-
1917_
1918_
1919_
1920_
1921_
1922_
1923-
1924_
1925-
1926 _
1927_
1928_
1929-
1930-
1931_
1932-
1933-
1934._
1935_
1936-
1937-
1938_
1939.-
1940_
1941_
1942-
1943_
1944_
1945-
1946..
1947-
1948-
1949.
1950-
1951_
1952.
1953_
1954-
1955-
1956-
1957-
1958-
1959-
1960
1961_
1962..
1963.-
1964.
1965_
1966-
1967-
1968
1969 .
1970.
1971
1972
1973.
1974
1975-
i See page 74 for detailed explanation.
2 See page 75 for explanation.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS 89
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year
Products1
Total Quantity to Date2
Total Value
to Date
Quantity,
1976
Value,
1976
Quantity,
1977
Value,
1977
Metals
Antimony kg
Bismuth                                 . kg
Cadmium kg
26 680 193
3 233 079
20 228 782
722
114 484
3 673 755 747
163 144 188
562 930 415
32 481539
7 754 868 350
92 819
1564
1 891 974
147 123 656
23 337 783
23 296
43 762
332
16 643 414 639
9 156 739
9090002
7 326 579 634
$
25,240,422
15,833,233
85,803,905
32,295
376,661
3,672,412,883
98,169,877
636,855,059
331,581,018
1,564,922,386
88,184
32,668
10,447,358
704,628,422
51,698,754
30,462
135,008
1,389
525,668,696
21,668,095
48,068,016
1,816323,919
57,688,222
447 001
20 261
356 422
$
1,636,871
226,462
1,530,800
596 207
18 540
320 711
$
2,519,739
187,612
1,720,051
Copper —kg
Gold-
placer  — g
lode, fine g
Iron concentrates 1
Lead                  ....                 kg
263 618 197
26 064
5 393 477
1255 277
85 407 582
378,984,941
115,613
21,761,502
14,760,526
32,796,533
275 224115
46 170
5 906 336
445 317
78 172 646
384,736,661
289,075
31301,931
7362345
42,316,293
Molybdenum   kg
14 088 686
94,109,138
15 521 970
142,057,947
	
Silver                                            g
Tin                                             kg
Tungsten  (WO3)                 kg
239 720 882
102 262
32.S32.836
712,912
241 503 007
187 478
37,934,098
1,912300
Ttnr
106 498 987
65,499,108
2,083,161
103 780 228
61301,001
397,654
	
9,667,706,932
646,750,403 |  	
714,036,707
Industrial Minerals
9 986 428
1 440 838
718
- 3 910452
570 711
6 786 488
2044
16 427
1 391 494
12 604
5 815 954
474
1009
3 485
9 518
8 370 082
984
273,201
414,910,728
16,858
8,349,544
12,772,836
27,513372
27,536
155,050
4,063317
254,352
185,818
9398
11,120
16,894
118,983
121,151,453
34,871
9,755,489
40,727,296
97 033
70 433
69,729,205
Rpnmnitf                                                 f
11378
31476
556 134
33,263
1,219,884
4,434,471
28 624
29 551
653 126
95,461
1,238,485
2357,488
Hydromagnesite                          t
Iron oxide and ochre        .. t
483 796
1,535,030
266 621
825,523
Magnesium sulphate            t
NaTrn-alimite                                    t
Perlite                                          t
Phosphate   rOCk                      . t
	
Sodium earhnnatn                     »
231704
4,296,189
248 892
3,873,206
Talr                                                               »
Others
671,009
1,067,277
Totals
	
599,620,820
52,917,142
79,186,645
Structural Materials
Cement                                            t
Clav products
17 806 479
416,577,045
119,641,440
83,854,353
88,728,618
525,618347
9,333,020
5,972,171
846 548
2 173 831
2485 215
36 073 618
657
34,973,746
6,995,917
5,610,063
5,205,973
48,138,635
14,314
909 522
2 231 166
2 464 503
53 994 528
4 535
42,705,320
4,909,799
5,861,614
Lime and limestone t
Rubble, riprap, crushed
Tor-                                                    *
7,309,536
Sand and gravel                     t
54,809,121
Buildinp-stnne.                            t
Not assigned
1 057 772
55,602
Totals
1,249,724,994
100.938.648   |
115,650,992
Coal
Coal—sold and used t
Petroleum and Natural Gas
180 799 139
46 332 056
193 296
2 948 410
117 674 443
1 439 079
1 137 636
1,935,327,745
995,544,542
5,523,980
30,908,013
1,348,244,478
14,774,825
11,837,475
7 537 695
2 367 450
18 309
167 576
8 799 508
109 781
88 195
298,683,679
116,595,050
901,711
7,198,957
287,997,059
4,591,832
3,688,955
8 424 181
2200 303
24465
180 267
8 895 663
111 357
91297
328,846,883
132,859,085
Field condensate „m3
Plant condensate                 w3
Natural gas to pipeline 103m 3
Butane.                                         ma
Propane.                                      m3
1,477,248
9,751,058
396,601,354
5358,167
4,392,944
        | 2.406,833,313
420,973,564
550,439,856
Grand totals	
._ —  115,859,213,804
— -	
1,520,263,436
  -	
1,788,161,083
1 See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages 76 to 85.
- See page 12 for conversion table to old system.
3 From 1968, excludes production which is confidential.
 90 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1977
Year
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1836-86-
1887-
1888-
1889_
1890-
1891-
1892-
1893-
1894-
1895-
1897_
1898.
1899-
1900_
1901_
1902-
1903-
1904_
1905-
1906-
1907-
1908-
1909-
1910-
1911-
1912-
1913-
1914-
1915_
1916-
1917_
1918-
1919-
1920-
1921_
1922-
1923_
1924-
1925-
1926-
1927_
1928-
1929-
1930-
1931_
1932-
1933-
1934-
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939-
1940-
1941_
1942_
1943_
1944_
1945-
1946-
1947-
1948_
1949-
1950-
52,808,750
729381
745.794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7.575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
11360,546
14,258.455
12.163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449.602
17,101305
15,227,991
14,668.141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17.701,432
15.790.727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,93*
27.957302
20,0584517
19,687,532
13,160.417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41.785,380
23,530.469
20,129,869
25.777,723
35,177^24
42,006.618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673.592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
2,400
46,345
17,500
46,446
51.810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330.503
251.922
140,409
116.932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807402
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253.561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497,720
1.783,010
2,275,972
2,358.877
2,500,799
2,462,340
S
43,650
22,168
46,432
77417
75,201
79,475
129,234
726.323
150.000
150,000
200.000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525.000
575.000
660.800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436.222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247.912
1,097,900
783,280
980.790
1,962.824
1,808.392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3.335.885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025.586
1.018.719
1,238,718
1,796.677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2434,840
2.845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5.199363
5.896,803
8,968,222
9.955.790
10,246,939
$
10,758.565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479.005
2,934.882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3382,595
4,126.803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4.332.297
4,953,024
5.511,861
5,548,044
7,637.713
7356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745.847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8.484.343
12,833.994
11,975,671
13,450.169
12,836,013
12,880.060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11.650.180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256.260
9.435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5.725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5.565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660.000
8,237.172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9.765.395
10,549.924
10,119,303
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502319
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434312
16355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17.497380
18.955.179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513384
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26.382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056,284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207350
41330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67.077,605
60,720,313
65.227,002
68,689,839
55,763360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133,485
74,438,675
64.416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76.471329
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,43(1
139,995,418
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS 91
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1977—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
$
153.598,411
147.857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125353,920
104,251,112
105,076.530
130.304373
128365,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865318
250,912,026
294,881,114
309,981.470
301,059,951
372,032,770
795,617,596
764,599,451
586,622368
646,750,403
714,036,707
$
2,493.840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13.762,102
12,948.308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20.409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020359
21,909,767
25,764,120
27,969,664
33,676,214
48,667,602
52,917,142
79,186,645
$
10,606,048
11,596.961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20373,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19.025,209
18,829,989
19,878.921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55.441,528
46,104,071
59,940,333
66,745,698
73,720,831
78,088,393
90,928,011
100,938,648
115,650,992
$
10.169.617
9,729.739
9328.279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472.064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6327.678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7388,989
6.817,155
19359.669
45,801,936
66,030.210
87,976,105
154,593,643
317,111,744
298,683,679
328,846,883
$
$
176,867,916
1<K»
1«4
6.545
18,610
319,465
1,197381
4,806,233
5,967,128
9,226,646
11,612,184
27.939.726
36379,636
36,466,753
44,101,662
54,274,187
67,096.286
75,281,215
86.756,009
90,974.467
99,251,158
105,644,978
124,104,445
233,275,505
320,719,474
152,894,663
io«
173,853,360
io«
188,853,652
170,992,829
144,953349
147,651,217
177,365333
179,807321
229,371,484
255,863387
267,139,168
280,652348
335,780,005
383,382,498
iovj
10«
1<KQ
t<xn
io«i
iot.1.
tarn
IO<_
10«
10C7
Iflfflt
405,028,488
464388,749
488,640,036
527,963,145
1<KO
ioto
1971
1«77
636,217,776
1,109,388,641
1,264,233,206
1,364,049,199
1971
1074
1Q7S
107K
1977
550,439,856 |  1,788,161,083
9,667,706,932
599,620,820
1,249,724,994
1,935327,745
	
 92
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
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 94
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Quantity and Value of Production,
and Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines
1977
Total Production
Quantity
1977
Production Paid for to Mines
Quantity
Antimony .
Bismuth _
Cadmium
Copper
-kg
-kg
-kg
Gold—placer 	
lode, fine —
Iron Concentrates -
Lead ,
Molybdenum
Silver 	
Tin	
Zinc	
Others	
596 207
18 540
320 711
275 224 115
46 170
5 906 336
445 317
78 172 646
15 521 970
241 503 007
187 478
103 780 228
1,
384,
31,
7,
42.
142
37;
1.
61
$
519,739
187,612
720,051
,736,661
289,075
301,931
,362345
,316,293
,057,947
.934,098
,912,300
,301,001
397,654
70 540
274 943 822
46 170
5 837 723
423 554
75 032 015
15 521 970
212 101 839
177 009
90 226 070
714,036,707
248,684
262,762303
289,075
23,082,157
7,070,302
31,949,182
140,979,668
25,900,843
1,702,740
38,677,945
63,686
532,726,585
Note—For metals, the total quantity and value of production include the quantities paid for to the mines,
and the smelter and refining production that can be attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity
and value paid for to the mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties
and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974—1977
95
Physical
Work
and Surveys
Administration.
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
Construction,
Machinery and
Equipment,
Other Capital
Costs
Totals
A. Exploration on Undeclared Mines
Metal mines—
$
18,773,326
16,366,152
20,437,180
19,097,099
3,450,746
9,955.S07
9,234,269
14,741,425
42,706
90,025
73,453
327,113
22,266,778
26,411,684
29,744,902
34,165,637
2,652,243
2.792378
8,3S9,413
2,988,366
488.308
1,000,000
665.000
5,978,043
4,236
36,242
214,081
106,896
3,144,787
3.828,620
9.238.494
9,073,305
1,280,513
512,197
380,419
320,098
1,425,312
1,725,484
23,242
$
6325,878
5,298,367
6,365,331
6,974,231
884,849
3,057,843
3,678,893
4,797,788
11,134
35,679
47,760
9,860
7,421,861
8,391,889
10,091,984
11,781,879
762,224
3,090,135
83,304
2,020,259
104,259
$
128,144
442,327
381,416
106,059
18,958
$
25,427348
22,106,846
27,183,927
1977
Coal mines—
26,177,389
4,354,553
13,013,350
12,913,162
19339,213
Others—
53,840
125,704
1976
1977
Totals—
1974..                                                          .        	
1Q7*
222/J92
147,102
442,327
318,416
328,151     1
278,500
121,213
559,065
29,835,741
35,245,900
107/;
40,218,302
1077
46,275,667
B. Exploration on Declared or Operating Mines
Metal mines—
10-M
3,692,967
5,882313
8,442,717
1077
5,008,625
Coal mines—
1974
592,567
107«
1,000,000
28,000
25,115,000
2,700
■      30,000
403,300
866,483
3,092,835
141,304
27,538,559
1,028,199
57,166
974,985
1,132,316
256,055
583304
247,313
37,988
3,155
708
1,322,242
57,166
1,561,444
1,380,337
1,722,680
5,804,924
404,226
1,722,479
693.000
1077
31,093,043
Others—
to7_
4,236
38,942
244,081
1077
510,196
Totals—
1074
278,500
4,289,770
1075
6,921,455
9379,798
1077
36,611,864
C. Development on Declared Mines
Metal mines—
1074
1,985,000
840,344
12,447,569
33,672,153
111,500
4,293,712
107*
897,510
107«
13,934,751
107T
Coal mines—
to-M
687,653
2,008,616
1977
Others—
1974
2,883,584
1,972,797
2,944,814
107*
1076
64J689
1,623,853
1,937,509
2,170,592
20,933,501
9,013375
6,937,229
14,491,378
9,027,818
3,300,000
16,043,383
30,466,894
6,198,552
17350,175
58.980
432,731
36,159,871
29,663,550
23,039,592
45.391,003
18,001,500
40,000
4,980,084
840,344
30,449,069
33,712,153
46,732,326
24,548,602
41,881.126
45,859,006
16,607,506
59,000,000
20,767,397
25,943,377
16,606,229
18,077,384
1,389,956
931.S21
79,946,061
101,625,986
64,038,479
72,733,904
18,004,655
1977
105,397
Totals—
1074
7,926,179
107*                                          >
897,510
1076
33,948,022
1077
37,263,082
D. Development of Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974
1975
1976
1977
Coal mines—
1074
69,388307
39,366,901
49,222,581
62,072,863
25,635,324
107*
55377
62,300,000
36,866,157
1077
Others—
107_
146,182
124,860
79,300
108,500
1,868,862
5,929,784
538,903
1.830,979
1975
1976
1077
35,552,419
1,528,236
Totals—
107_
117,974,794
107*
I07A
1977                      	
119,955.886
 96
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1977
Gold (Placer)
Gold (Fine)
Silver
Copper
Year
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
g
$
g
$
g
$
kg
$
1858-90—
1891-1900
100 978 533
55,192,163
6 876 531
214,152
11 703 748
6,397,183
19 682 165
12,858,353
700 977 829
13,561,194
16064375
4.365,210
1901-1910.
15 787 261
8,628,660
72 224 836
47,998,179
971 114 910
16,973,507
172 344 737
56,384,783
1911 .
779 441
426,000
7 110 675
4,725.512
58 858 198
958,293
16 750 016
4.571,644
1912—
1016446
933 090
555,500
510,000
8 008 898
8 467 916
5,322,442
5,627,595
97 417 955
107 798 519
1,810,045
1,968,606
23 340 171
21 073 930
8,408,513
1913	
7,094,489
1914
1 033 864
1 408 655
565,000
770,000
7 687 729
7 776 403
5,109,008
5,167,934
112 038 60S
104 708 436
1,876,736
1,588,991
20 415 949
25 817 619
6,121,319
1915	
9,835.500
1916	
1 062 167
580,500
6 902 751
4,587,333
102 699 711
2,059,739
29 655 426
17.784.494
1917	
907 585
496,000
3 562 009
2,367,191
91 107 405
2,265,749
26 765 241
16.038.2S6
1918	
585 358
320,000
5 121 855
3,403,811
108 803 644
3,215,870
27 888 416
15,143,449
1919
524 086
405 583
286.500
221,600
4 740 906
3 733 853
3,150,644
2,481,392
105 847 210
105 061 237
3392,673
3,235,980
19 259 132
20 360 601
7,939,896
1920- —
7,832,899
1921 . -
426 733
233,200
4 222 699
2,804,197
83 150 418
1,591,201
17 706 790
4.879.624
1077
674 624
768 555
368,800
420.000
6 153 915
5 575 057
4,089,684
3,704,994
220 872 076
187 643 964
4,554,781
3,718,129
14 678 125
26 181 346
4329,754
1923	
8323,266
1924 _
769 799
420,750
7 704 711
5.120,535
259 454 010
5,292.184
29 413 222
8,442.870
1075
512 453
650 426
280,092
355,503
6 522 890
6 264 984
4335.069
4,163,859
238 088 613
334 312 337
5,286,818
6,675,606
32 797 475
40 523 625
10,153.269
1926	
12,324.421
1927 -
285 868
156,247
5 536 365
3,679,601
325 654 164
5,902,043
40 461 530
11,525,011
1928 -
262 012
143,208
5 619 130
3,734,609
330 536 775
6,182,461
44 410 233
14,265.242
1929 -—
217 192
118,711
4 516 871
3,002,020
309 791 230
5,278,194
46 626 180
18.612.850
1930 —
278 527
152,235
5 002 482
3,324,975
352 342 964
4,322,185
41 894 588
11,990,466
1931	
534225
291,992
4 545 175
3.020,837
234 837 945
2,254,979
29 090 879
5,365,690
1932	
634 501
395,542
5 649 891
4,263,389
222406 822
2,264.729
22 955 299
3,228.892
1933 —
744 233
562,787
6 954 289
6394,645
218 397 615
2,656,526
19 572 164
3,216,701
1934	
783 205
714.431
9 244 309
10,253.952
267 920 527
4,088,280
22 521 530
3,683.662
1935	
961985
895,058
11 363 263
12,856,419
288 323 068
6,005.996
17 884 241
3,073,428
1936	
1 349 528
1,249,940
12 583 590
14,172,367
296 944 198
4,308,330
9 830 071
2.053,828
1937	
1 684 321
1,558.245
14 331671
16,122,767
351 630 830
5,073,962
20 891 260
6,023.411
1938	
1 796 478
1,671,015
17 340 607
19,613.624
337 827 661
4,722,288
29 832 572
6,558375
1939	
1 547 250
1,478,492
18 267 912
21,226.957
336 577 786
4,381365
33 227 590
7392.862
1940	
1 215 101
1,236.928
18 149 347
22,461,516
383 436 042
4.715.315
35 371 049
7,865.085
1941	
1 361 534
1,385,962
17 760 622
21,984,501
378 700 797
4,658,545
30 134 516
6,700,693
1942	
1 023 413
1,041,772
13 825 843
17,113,943
3O1011 133
4,080,775
22 723 823
5,052,856
1943	
454 104
462,270
6 979 607
8,639.516
265 193 820
3,858.496
19 190 263
4,971,132
1944	
355 601
391 556
361,977
398,591
5 804 815
5 454 626
7,185,332
6,751,860
177 453 003
191 510 720
2,453,293
2,893,934
16 465 584
11 726 375
4,356,070
1945 —
3,244.472
1946	
489 219
475,361
3 658 086
4322,241
197 994 264
5,324,959
7 938 069
2^40,070
1947	
216 757
200,585
7 566 800
8,514,870
177 550 262
4,110,092
18 952 769
8,519.741
1948	
632 386
585,200
8 902 612
10,018,050
209 016 328
5,040,101
19 515 886
9,616,174
1949	
556 308
529,524
8 969 981
10.382,256
237 559 178
5,671.082
24 882 500
10,956.550
1950	
595 125
598,717
8 832 723
10,805,553
295 772 610
7.667.950
19 147 O01
9.889.458
1°*1
736 861
545 982
717,911
494,756
8 126 405
7 955 805
9.627.947
8,765,889
255 632 882
274 042 530
7,770,983
7,326,803
19 617 612
19 053 280
11,980.155
1952 __-_
13,054,893
1953	
443 062
403,230
7 886 228
8,727,294
260 606 407
7,019,272
22 235 441
14,869,544
1954	
270 098
238,967
8 036 642
8,803,279
305 630 613
8.154,145
22 747 578
14399,693
1955	
238 436
217,614
7 541 762
8,370306
245 811 643
6.942,995
20 065 928
16.932.549
1956	
120 213
109.45O
5 963 782
6.603.628
261 423 017
7,511.866
19 667 923
17.251.872
105.7
91  318
175 732
80,990
157.871
6 948 504
6 044 992
7,495,170
6,604,149
252 847 111
218 998 027
7,077,166
6.086.854
14 237 029
5 741 837
8,170,465
1958	
2,964.529
1959	
235 450
208,973
5 385 360
5.812,511
192 779 535
5.421.417
7j!63 374
4.497.991
1960	
119 653
107,418
6 394 155
6,979,441
231 612 937
6,600.183
14 997 694
9.583.724
1961	
106 248
99.884
4 970 913
5.667,253
229 353 429
6.909.140
14 375 361
8.965.149
1962	
103 106
96,697
4 940 712
5,942,101
192 521 474
7,181.907
49 431 850
33.209.215
1963	
143 696
135.411
4 820 312
5,850.458
199 764 616
8.861.050
53 635 704
36.238.007
1964	
57 292
55,191
4 307 361
5,227,884
163 901 675
7,348,938
52414 456
38,609,136
1965	
26935
25.053
3 642 908
4,419,089
154 646 729
6,929.793
38 644 540
32,696,081
1966	
47 743
44.632
3 717 057
4306,646
172 594 622
7,729,939
47 990 080
56.438,255
1967
27 713
20 839
25.632
19.571
3 923 861
3 853 537
4,763.688
4.672,242
192 239 525
221 791 325
10.328.695
16.475,795
78 352 932
73 024 968
88.135,172
1968	
87,284,148
1969	
12 410
11.720
3 654 012
4.427.506
179 169 889
11.100,491
75 937 956
111,592.416
1970	
15 272
14,185
3 135 462
3.685.476
202 521 462
12.041.181
96 329 694
124.657.958
1971	
5 505
4.647
2 668 046
3.031.844
238 670 301
11.968.046
127 286 040
131,037.918
1972	
21492
26.905
3 782 871
6.995,448
215 420 498
11,519.660
211 832 288
209.403.822
1973	
119 156
311324
5 784 723
18,117,268
236 987 318
19.552.997
317 603 055
582,803.251
1974	
45 162
232.512
5 001 082
26.749,083
18.1 695 950
28,440365
287 547 048
541.644.913
1975	
43 744
232.204
4 819 241
25.082.494
196 305 885
30.545.947
258 497 599
331.693.850
1976	
26064
115,613
5 393 477
21.761,502
239 720 882
32.532.836
263 618 197
378,984,941
1977	
46 170
289 075
5 906 336
31.301.931
241 503 007
37.934.098
275 224 115
384.736.661
Totals—
163 144 188198,169.877
1                         1
562930 415
636,855,059
16 643 414 6391525,668,696
1
3 673 755 74713,672,412,883
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
97
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858—1977—Continued
Year
1858-90	
1891-1900
1901-1910
1911	
1912	
Quantity
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929
1930.
1931	
1932 _.
1933	
1934	
1935 _
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946.	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956 	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960	
1961 .
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966 _	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
1972	
1973	
1974	
1975	
1976
1977	
Totals
kg
473 729]
93 002 804
184 989 0891
12 189 051
20 353 243
25 112 864
22 963 016
21 093 563
22 102 314
16 922 293
19 912447
13 370 0O4i
17 840 247
18 779 6641
30 593 731
43 845 4391
77 284 6971
107 9O8 698
119 305 027
128 364 3471
138 408 812
139 705 336
145 966 9521
118 796 2321
114 308 115
123 235 512
157 562 183
156 156 723
171 444 146
190 107 9021
187 323 2271
171 794 338
211 758 089
207 218 262
230 060 714
199.196 6041
132 866 8931
152 849 1561
156 879 8531
142 306 1921
145 165 8211
120 373 2151
128 830 6831
124 037 1811
129 250 1971
135 004 1291
150 807 0881
137 241 6561
128 691 6811
127 732 4621
133 615 4391
130 372 3601
151 321 5701
174 307 617[
152 080 8061
142 869 1971
121 896 6441
113 480 7941
95 929 798'
94 406 546
1O5 063 971
95 286 815
97 448 607
112 865 5751
88 109 663
84 890 9241
55 252 6921
70 603 483
85 407 5821
78 172 646
Quantity
$
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805.627
2,175,832
1,771.877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2.951,O20
2,928,107
1,526,855
2,816,115
1,693.354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
18,670.329'
17.757.535
14,874,292
13,961,412
15,555.189
12.638,198
7,097.812
5.326.432
6.497.719
8.461.859
10,785,930
14,790.028
21,417.049
13.810.024
12,002.390
15.695.467
15,358.976
17.052.054
16.485,902
13.181.530
16.848.823
23345.731
42.887.313
57.734.770
41 929.866
41.052.905
50.316.015
45.936.692
39.481.244
45.482.505
45.161.245
44.702.619
39.568.086
34.627.075
33.542.306
38.661.912
42.313.5'i9
34.537.454
37.834.714
39.402.293
43.149.171
34.436.934
31.432.079
32.782.257
33,693,539
35.096.021
34.711.408
28,896,566
30,477.936
23333,016
24.450.158
32.796.533
42.316.293
7 754 868 350(1,564,922.386
kg
5 753 423
1 195 003
2 430 462
3 065 710
3 568 151
5 888 705
16 859 478
18 982 067
18 947 777
25 735 631
21 413 198
22 416 133
25 921 103
26 464 465
35 893 017
44 568 438
64 807 554
65 872 809
82 445 946
78 061 406
113 614 910
91 657 703
87 143 7521
88 887 198
113 013 038
116 227 650
115 475 574
132 081 905
135 395 388
126 283 585
141 529 456
166 861 962
175 646 590
152 474 485
126 126 765
133 714 538
124 406 109
114 761068
122 610 0O1
130 736 145
131 697 238
153 091 761
169 130 8821
173 407 8481
151 555 5591
194 680 1771
201 327 2841
203 787 4621
195 952 1461
182 498 693>
182 977 8971
175 970 780
187 528 0841
182 734 698
181 797 313
141 179 547
138 401 395
119 217 4721
135 803 151
134 565 199
125 005 208
138 549 629
121 719 968
137 380 768
77 733 7321
99 668 2301
106 498 9R7I
103 780 2281
Molybdenum
Quantity
894,169
129,092
316.13S
324,421
346.I2J
1,460 ,S2i
4,043,985
3,166,255
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,975
l,952.06f
2,777,322
3,278,903
4,266,741
7.754.45C
10386.610
8,996,135
9,984.613
9,268,797
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,41f
7.584.199
7.940,860
8.439,373
14.274,245
9.172.82-
8,544.375
10,643,026
12348,031
13.208.636
13,446.018
11,956,725
18,984.581
21,420.484
28.412,59-
37.654,21'
38,181,21-'
43.769.392
67.164.754
59,189.65'
40,810.618
34.805,755
52,048.909
58,934.801
50.206.681
43.234.839
44.169,198
50.656.726
45,370,891
51356,376
S3.069.163
58.648.561
48,666,933
47,666340
39,248,539
43,550,181
46.639,024
44.111.055
49,745.789
47,172.894
62,564.751
59.582.753
80,572.872
65.499,108
61.301.001
kg
7 326 579 63411,816323.919
901
1 641
5 598
3 1671
436
662
2,000
20,560
11.636
1,840
Iron Concentrates
Quantity
27 097,
11 8201
17 7381
907
1 116!
1 3351
9161
1 089
2201
12
3306
7 754
7 945
8 980
12064
14 186
9 926
12 719
13 785
13 789
13 026
14 088
15 521
147 123 6561704,628.422
 !	
$
70,879
45.6U2
68.436
5.O0O
6,150
7,360
5.05O
3,600
1,337
6161
4 9641
102
816
899
486
554
335
324
571
770
1052
1 211
1627
1 869
1 816
1964
1952
1954
1 900
1 882
1 704
1 750
1 139
1420
1 306
1 299
1 255
445
997
898
240
0181
223.
6161
174
7691
421
651
147!
342
0091
684!
4101
074
468
311
2661
6501
7381
698
160
930
215
277
317
3.735
27,579
79b;6oo
.474.924
,763.105
.733.891
.228.756
190.847
,200.637
193.442
.363.848
,292.847
,082,540
326.911
,746.424
.419.487
,498.581
.778.934
,820.765
,437,569
,787,845
,391.883
153,612
,642,379
,906.063
,742.227
,245,902
,760326
.362.345
32 481 5391331.581.018
 !	
 98
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1977
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Quantity
Value
1076
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
-    1976
1977
To Date
1976
1877
To Date
1976
1877
To Date
1076
1977
To Date
1076
1877
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
197G
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1076
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1976
1977
To Date
1076
1977
To Date
1076
1977
To Date
e
8
8
22,842.047
22.384,704
257.807,252
68,694
*
*
50 294
8 367
28 039
22 080 642
14 058
10 776
81 254 800
33.253
39,381
188,278
17,911.986
62.162
88,818
54.422,621
9,398
6.831.545
22,281
38.171,207
42,521,291
86,880,426
450,063,847
20.3-5
182.159
49,696
938,638
367,961
7,808303
46.712.656
302,525
1322,916
316 349
243.069
848,377
73.762,106
88,408,263
2.684,758,536
1,596,901
162.427
1.138.853
1,113,988
25,894,878
4,434.471
2,367,488
25.376,499
BOO
2,328,797
6,106.075
639 241
472.087
13,517,418
235,703
4.681,879
14 587
11,268
66.248.001
9.440,384
7,433,120
241,659,262
137.311.394
138,399,441
866.7G7.898
157 817
115,662
3,515,900
10,138,452
12,186344
72.742.720
1.G50.0-4
2,026388
20,863.939
_iard
858 287
187
604.785
763
6.540,538
42.875,208
71,131374
436,460,477
1 564 712
1,253,403
19,156.498
1 884
2 893 348
8.007
1,937,853
268,442
4,095,507
7.054.301
7301,641
101,272,577
1,108.418
1,344.182
12,239.303
19.086.386
18332398
270.992.579
229.815
340,793
2,939,679
1.268.235
1,228.688
17.962.704
753.952
838346
6.851.147
223.673
148.167,256
86,005.838
81,888,046
697,956,925
7,004,795
7,020.924
404.991.676
473.O05
143,783
208,108
2,782,000
1,058.002
1.099,488
6.927,617
Velson
26 935
19,300
111 535
89,926
Nicola
975 387
596,902
63.751.805
29.575.017
26,668341
378.376,166
79.361.774
124.687,817
776.109,872
51,451.067
62,327,887
300,877.980
3.432
1.611.025
7 278
4,764
10.050
226.580
118,096
1.512,131
14.212
26,677
6.760.014
Osoyoos	
1 755 665
1,500,400
7 465
5,466
235 823
104.477
15.500.414
38,891.222
32,653,806
200.188,226
38,839,143
29,839,818
642,558,731
2,314,000
	
4,354.052
350.424
860,292
5,669,165
1.467.349
2397302
27.201.182
509.496
2G0.5B7
Skeena
1 415 404
878.204
18,558
	
143 167
105,569
1,240.215
11 384
9,307
284,307,915
89,631
132,717
90,904,641
3,359,121
8,889,796
309,906,920
32,395
145.381
299,462
26 469
24,260
15.652.054
20,828,614
211,272,179
2.841.135
2,883,186
17,485,962
25,562.105
27,802,812
322.663,549
5.581.246
3,484,714
61,970,801
5 661
5.306
7.066,064
35.760
85 058
73,340
371.554
225.341
19 533
3 452
6 472
47 587 347
15,680
13.307
23,572
17,665.790
24,800.343
22.064,632
19,288,018
416.276.645
190,651
2.808,024
3.086,883
73.070,492
1976
1877
To Date
26 064
48170
163 144 188
115.613
289,075
08,169,877
646.634,790
713,747,832
9.569.537,055
52,917.142
79.188,846
599.620.820
100,938,648
115,860,892
1,249.724.994
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
99
Divisions,
1976 and 1977, and Total to Date
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipeline
Butane and
Propane
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
111 3
$
10 3m 3
«
mS
*        1
9
23,559,627
111.350
211359
56,471,479
47.503.747
1,106
392.525
1,322,916
7.359,948
298,679.369
328,841,783
1,598,527,863
147.449.84G
147,595,285
59.765
2 553 335
2 405 03S
49 473 762
124.695.718
144,087,391
1,031.976,535
8 799 r,08
8 895 663
117 674 443
287.997.059
396,601 ,354
1,348,244,478
197 976
202 664
2 576 715
8.280.787
9,751,111
26,612.300
131 923
1,515,507
2,886,083.137
301,144,744
«,
9,171.215
11,080,836
4,310
5,1 OO
3,439,081
5,6-08
33,404,097
19.553.725
116
25.562.105
568.983,818
7 537 695
8 424 181
ISO 799 139
298,683.679
328,846,883
1,935.327.745
2 553 3351     124.695.718
2 405 0351    144,087,391
49 473 702'1,031,976.535
1
8 799 5081    287.997.059
8 895 6631    396,601,364
117 674 44311.348,244.478
1
197 976
202 654
2 576 715
8.280,787
9.761,111
26,612.300
1.520.263,436
1,788,161.083
15,859.213,804
 100
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
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 106
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Period
Asbestos
Baritel
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1077
To date
1976
1977
To date
1970
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
197C
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
107C
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1970
1977
To date
J 976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
t
¥
t
$
t
*
t
*
t
$
2 737
1 239
22 582
182.159
49 .BOB
795,158
44
.
7
80
398 388
4.489.227
2 95G
12.612
Greenwood.	
41
800
1 624 308
1.540.819
Kamloops	
567
12.230
_ iird
70 433
97 033
1 440 838
40.727.296
69.729,205
414.910.728
11 378
28 624
999 783
33.263
OB.461
2.004.941
2 856
2 733
31 506
26 720
25 838
110,641
777,149
Velson
1.058.002
"
1.099.481
6 895
8.174
99 490
V*eola
* *
18
24
103
576
917
193 422
1,390
1.872
8.061
14.212
25,577
728 113
3.099.031
Similkameen.
545 232
1.050.722
26 936
1 306
418,600
1	
35.760
2 903!       30.400
7 210
202
3.345
8 713
Not assigned.
Totals-
1976
1977
To date
70 4331   40.727-296
	
2 737
1 239
22 582
182.159
49.50B
795,158
11 3781       33.203
31 470
1,219.884
1 440 838
414.910.728
398 395
4.489,307
3 910 452
8.349.544
570 711
12.772.836
i From 1972, excludes production which is confidential.
Other: See notes on individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages 76 to 85.
2 Natro-alunite.
3 Hydromagnesite.
4 Volcanic ash.
s Magnesium sulphate.
' Sodium carbonate.
f Phosphate rock.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Mining Divisions, 1976 and 1977, and Total to Date
107
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
lte
$
t
$
t
$
$
8
9,3982
9.398
20.3253
20.325
182.159
49,595
4 542 160
143.012
3004
938.638
G.236
156.1913 G G
04 978
74 582
1 406 070
1,138,853
1,113,986
25.579.080
1.138.853
1,113,988
298.824
4.434.471
16.8947
25,894.878
5 S49 706
20.873.384
1,2768 0
25.376.499
900
783.57810
2.328.797
6.323,178
192 640
2.075
203.0555 6
6.540.538
364 278
228 337
617 015
1.309.840
711,300
2,102.741
34 405
3B8BO
959 290
838,162
42.875.298
19.447.008
436.460.477
253 391
467.960
5,1299
—
1.058.002
1,099,488
55,9018
6.927.617
10.050
119 518
38 284
521 088
114,223
1.492.610
110.09B
1.512.131
11,46011 12
26,577
6.760.014
720 004
306.5335 IO 11
227
1,700
16.85813
287 689
10.815
37 701
178.678
623 773
6.550.969
97.3898
7.066.964
 	
72 801
3.978
225,341
 1	
	
 1	
30,2269
488.850
1,017,882
3.674.774
190,651
 I   J.	
132 321
138 380
5 352 182
2.319,174
2,068.151
69.395.718
3,085,833
 1	
231 704
248 892
8 370 082
4.296.189
3.873,206
121,151,453
488.850
1,017,082
5,389.287
52.917.142
70,180.645
599.020.820
6 786 488
127.513.372
1
11 391 494
1
14.063,317
1
5 815 954
185,818
s Iron oxide and ochre.
9 Talc.
io Fluorspar.
n Arsenious oxide.
12 Periite.
i^ Bentonite.
 108 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1976 and 1977
and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1976
1077
To date
1976
1077
To date
1976
1077
To date
1076
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1970
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1979
1977
To date
1970
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
1976
1977
To date
8
8
*
*
8
717.580
528,778
6.484.886
3,275
22,281
264.400
2.476.542
5,318,108
33,702,595
392.525
1,319,010
4,229.945
770.086
1,431,994
10,430,375
285.114
235,703
4.245.957
182,679
433,332
2,912.563
1.945,772
1,801,024
20.817.896
1.650.024
1,988,368
18.700.131
7.474
11,770
2.346.759
2.732.508
3,023357
21.046.810
555,924
673,280
8.142,803
11.282,332
12,693,532
139,952,640
229.815
340,793
2.743.685
S
8
*
717,580
346.659
6.831,545
1,108
577.452
557,035
3,205.311
102,453
1.084.141
1,733,900
9,472,293
867,961
4.738.135
7,608309
332,457
3.90S
1.870,130
770,686
- 43.873
71.941
2.955.311
15.918
13.517.418
l.OOO
50.840
255.923
128.159
4.681,879
42.560
161,020
278,474
906.620
2,187,475
15.675.896
121,283
3.515.900
7.286.060
8,130,746
36,131.691
25.067
19.800
72.379
	
72.742,729
1.650.024
36.0O0
2.163,808
2,595
216.139
246,677
623,930
3.860.294
4,282,416
69.694.132
549.724
070,022
3.047.817
67.000
69.80C
3,594,71f
2,000
1.122.818
461.499
595,568
5.901.908
2.770
7.O54.301
7,901.541
101.272.577
-
3.450.735
Kelson
437.138
589.571
741.137
1359,397
24,971.659
21.974
6.995.917
12.239.803
19.086,386
18.932,491
20,974
102,452,590
8,000
341
eo
471
187.994
112.O01
42,285
2.945,063
2.939,679
1,268,235
1.228,561
17.962.704
753,952
830,646
6.851,147
3.991
3,091
32,951
14,978.945
753.952
839346
6,419,006
209.923
372,114
3.530.479
350.424
850,292
4.897,398
1.304.120
1,875,401
2O.393.3S0
509.49G
260,557
2,922.850
145.381
299.4S2
3.718.681
6,102.510
0,242,901
76,175.349
2,533.995
2,641,904
16.428.276
7.392.430
7387387
51,014.988
4.452.246
2,745,440
49.117.532
5,274
43.774
33.018
11,750
14,250
49.420
355.349
2,000
10,000
773.153
396,361
1,000
8SO.M2
10,500
11.571
24.000
712,341
163.229
722.001
5.005.247
13.355
1.467.349
2.597.402
1.645.3O0
144.000
13.249
1,000
115.143
157.323
3.196,322
29S.4EZ
32.500
82.520
381.303
9.549.544
14.58S.S23
15,652,054
121,272,997
40.885
304.917
4.012.560
2.223
41.292
141.367
8.681.796
1.088.592
211.272.17!
2.841.135
2,683,196
17.485.962
351.416
39.546
31,978
1.098.950
403.649
981
161.2541	
18.138.142
10,083,052
259,161,857
55
532,563
1.129.000
739,274
2.879,844
10,855.136
5 581,246
3,484.71*
61.970.891
315.498
505.018
3.180.828
8.972.171
1976
1977
To date
34.978.746
42,706,320
416.577,045
5.610.063
5301,814
83,854,353
14.314
55,902
9.333.020
5.205.973
1   7,300,530
188.728.618
I
48.138.635
54309,121
525.618,347
6,995.917
4,909,799
110,641,440
116.950.99J
5,972.171
11.249.724,994
1
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1977
109
Year
Quantity!
Value
Year
Quantity!
Value
1836-59
tonnes
37 985
14 475
13 995
18 409
21687
29 091
33 345
25 518
31740
44 711
36 376
30 322
50 310
50 310
50 311
82 856
111912
141425
156 525
173 587
245 172
271889
232 020
286 666
216 721
400 391
371461
331 875
419 992
497 150
589 133
_689 020
1 045 607
839 591
993 988
1029 204
954 727
909 237
906 610
1 146 015
1 302 088
1 615 688
1 718 692
1667 960
1 473 933
1 712 739
1 855 121
1929 540
2 255 214
2 143 22S
2 439 109
3 007 074
2 305 778
2 913 778
2 461665
2 029 400
1883 851
2 343 671
2 209 982
2 336 238
$
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85380
115328
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417376
462,156
522338
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3382395
4,126,803
4,744330
5,016398
4,832,257
4332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5348,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8374,884
11,108.335
8,071,747
10,786.812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
1919
1920
tonnes
2 207 659
2 587 763
2422 455
2473 692
2 391 998
1 839 619
2 305 337
2 182 760
2 316 408
2 431794
2 154 607
1809 364
1601600
1464 759
1249 347
1297 306
1 159 721
1226 780
1 312 003
1259 626
1 416 184
1 507 758
1 673 516
1 810 731
1682 591
1752626
1381 654
1 305 516
1 538 895
1 455 552
1 470 782
1 427 907
1427 513
1272 150
1255 662
1 186 849
1209 157
1285 664
984 886
722 490
625 964
715 45S
833 827
748 731
771 594
826 737
862 513
771848
824 436
870 180
773 226
2 398 635
4 141 496
5 466 846
6 924 733
7 757 440
8 924 816
7 537 695
8 424 181
$
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,678,548
1925
1926             	
1927
1928
1929
12,168,905
11,650.180
12,269,135
12,633,510
1931                           ..
7,684,155
1938
1939
1941                     	
7,742,030
io_*
9,765395
1040
10,119303
9,729,739
1956
10*7
7340339
5,937,860
1963
torn
iom
6,196,219
1910
1970    ....                 	
1912    ....
1913
1972    .   ..                     	
1973.   ,
1974
1975
10.7K
1977
66,030,210
298,683.679
1918
180,799,139
1,935,327,745
* Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
 110
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
111
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining.
Exploration and development.
Coal—
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production)-
Industrial minerals-.
Structural-materials industry-.
Totals, 1977	
1976 _
1975_
1974-
1973-
1972-
1970_
1969-
1968-
1967-
1966 _
1965-
1964-
1963-
1962-
1960-
1959-
1958-
1957-
1956-
1954-
1953-
1932-
1949-
1948-
1947-
1946-
1945-
1944-
1942_
1941-
1940-
1939-
1938-
1937-
1936-
1935-
140,680,466
89,119,504
55,184,287
9,128,723
15,104,459
28,164,710
337,382,149
277,736,828
246,953,568
272,945,078
221,877395
199,351,449
179,175.692
172,958,282
123,450327
113,459,219
94323,495
93,409328
74,938,736
63.624359
57,939,294
55322,171
50,887,275
52,694.818
49,961,996
48,933,560
56,409,056
S7.266.026
51,890.246
48,702,746
55343,490
62,256.631
52,607.171
42,738,035
41,023,786
38,813306
32,160,338
26,190,200
22.620,975
23,131,874
26,051,467
26,913,160
26,050,491
23391330
22357,035
22,765.711
21,349,690
17,887,619
16,753367
4,589,590
15,874,298
71,149,313
59,220.204
49.104,838
42,381.258
36.750,711
31,115.621
23.166.904
19,116,672
14354,123
13,818326
13390.759
12.283.477
11304343
10.205.861
10346.806
9305359
8,907,034
7,834.728
7,677321
8,080.989
8.937367
9.762.777
9.144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8357.845
7,283,051
6,775.998
7.206,637
6.139,470
5319,470
5,427,458
7.239.726
5.788.671
7.432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066311
2,724,144
2,619,639
17,536,996
2,931,220
13.570,857
192,025,357
170,075,616
154,476,238
140.002,685
103,840,649
77,092,955
68314,944
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34368.856
28.120.179
30390.631
27.629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787.127
21.496.912
17371.638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21.131372
19.654,724
20,979.411
27.024,500
24.724.101
17300,663
17,884,408
11332,121
13,068348
8367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6372317
6,863,398
7,260.441
6.962,162
6.714,347
6344300
6.845330
4,434301
4352,730-
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962, lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964, some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include "process, operating maintenance and repair supplies ... used in the mine/mill
operations} that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. ... not charged to Fixed
Assets Account ... provisions and supplies sold in any company-operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 112
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
Table 3-10—Employment in
the Mineral Industry, 1901-1977
—
—
Metals
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
13
1-
•a <s
1-
11
it
73
s
« _
•a—G
s__
III
liSS
111
Year
Mines
—
1
i
8
o
§
•a
i2
•8
e
s
o
_>
<
■a
■2
3_
—
I
5
—
s
o
3
2.736
2.219
1.662
2.143
2.479
2,680
2,704
2.567
2.184
2.472
2.435
2.472
2.773
2,741
2.709
3.357
3.290
2.626
2.513
2.074
1,355
1.510
2,102
1.212
1.126
1.088
1.163
1.240
1,303
1.239
1,127
1.070
1.237
1.159-
1.364
1.505
1.433
1.435
2.036
2.198
1.764
1,746
3,948
3.345
2.750
3.3O0
3.710
3.983
3.943
3,694
3,254
3.709
3,594
3.836
4.278
4.174
4.144
5.393
5.488
4.390
4,259
3.679
2,330
2.749
3.618
4.033
5.138
7.610
8.283
8.835
8.892
7,605
6,035
4.833
6.088
8.046
7.915
8.197
9.616
10.192
10,138
10,019
9.821
8,939
7,819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10.724
10.832
12,831
13.730
11,006
9,412
9,512
9.846
9,006
7.434
7.324
7.423
7.111
7,958
7,814
7.909
8,265
8.970
8.887
8,547
8,831
10.396
10.125
10.383
11,493
10.867
10.435
10.591
10,780
3,041
3,101
3.137
3,278
3.127
3,415
2,862
4,432
4.713
5.903
5.212
5.275
4.950
4.267
3.708
3,694
3.760
3.658
4.145
4,191
933
919
1,127
1,175
1,289
1,390
907
1,641
1.705
1.855
1.661
1,855
1.721
1.465
1,283
1.366
1.410
1.709
1,821
2,158
3,974
4.011
4.264
4,453
4.407
4.805
3.769
6.073
6,418
7.758
6.873
7.130
6.671
5.732
4.991
5,060
5.170
5.427
5.966
6.349
6,885
6.644
6,149
5,418
5.443
5.322
5.225
5,334
5,028
4.645
4.082
3.608
3,094
2.893
2,971
2.814
3.153
2,962
2,976
2.874
2,723
2,360
2,851
2.839
2.430
2.305
2.425
2.466
2.306
2.261
1.925
1.681
1,550
1.434
1.478
1,366
1.380
1.086
1.056
1.182
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
S53
700
7,922
	
	
7.350
-	
____
	
ZEE
EE~
—
~""-"
7,712
9,672
—
11,467
	
	
	
	
	
—
—
	
	
	
	
	
—
—
	
	
1917	
	
	
'.'."'."...
".."'.'.'.
____
z~~~:
EE:
1921	
975
1,239
1,516
1,680
	
	
9,215
4.712|1.932
1924	
3.894
3.828
3.757
3.646
3,814
3.675
3.389
2,957
2,628
2,241
2.050
2.145
2.015
2.280
2.088
2.167
2.175
2.229
1.892
2.240
2,150
1,927
1,773
1.694
1,594
1,761
1.745
1.462
1.280
1,154
1.076
1,100
968
1.020
826
765
894
705
548
SOI
446
405
347
260
195
245
24J
444
1,524
1,615
1,565
1.579
1.520
1.353
1.256
1,125
980
853
843
826
799
867
874
809
699
494
468
611
689
593
532
731
872
545
516
463
401
396
358
378
398
360
260
291
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
358
455
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
990
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1.591
2,120
1.916
1.783
1.530
1.909
1.861
1.646
1.598
1.705
1.483
1.357
1.704
1.828
1.523
909
1.293
1.079
1.269
1,309
1,207
1.097
740
846
1.116
898
895
826
931
1.380
"~324
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
657
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
508
481
460
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
794
800
802
782
725
080
I 626
*~124
122
120
268
176
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
'626
660
491
529
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
582
567
627
666
527
667
646
705
670
766
::::::::::
~Iz~
9,451
2.298
2.606
2.671
2.707
2.926
2.316
1,463
1,355
1.786
2.796
2.740
2.959
3.603
3.849
3.905
3,923
3.901
2,920
2.394
1.896
1.933
1.918
3.024
3,143
3,034
3,399
3.785
4,171
3.145
2,644
2.564
2,637
2.393
1.919
1.937
1.782
1.785
1,677
1.713
1.839
1,752
2.006
1,928
2.840
1.735
1,916
2.469
2,052
1.260
834
900
1.335
1,729
1.497
1.840
1.818
2.266
2.050
2.104
1,823
1.504
1,699
1.825
1.750
1.817
2.238
2,429
2.724
2.415
3.695
3.923
2,589
2.520
2.553
2.827
2.447
1,809
1.761
1.659
1.582
1.976
2,012
1.967
2.019
2.296
2.532
""SoS
854
911
966
832
581
542
531
631
907
720
1,168
919
996
1.048
1,025
960
891
849
822
672
960
1.126
1.203
1.259
1.307
1.516
1.371
1.129
1.091
1.043
838
625
618
648
626
949
850
822
965
1.014
992
1.072
1.099
1.331
1.B1S
2.461
2.842
2.748
2.948
3,197
3.157
2,036
2,436
2,890
2.771
2.678
3.027
3,158
3.187
2.944
3.072
3.555
2,835
2.981
2.834
2.813
3.461
3.884
3.763
3,759
4,044
4,120
3.901
3.119
3.304
3.339
3.328
3.081
3.008
3.034
3.118
3.356
3.239
3,281
3.529
3,654
3.435
3.283
3.468
3.738
10,581
14.172
14.830
15,424
299
415
355
341
425
688
874
1.134
1.122
1.291
1.124
1.371
1.393
1.252
1.004
939
489
212
255
209
347
360
348
303
327
205
230
132
199
103
105
67
75
99
86
74
35
43
5
2
2
	
—
12,985
13.737
14.179
:~:-~
-—
15.705
15.084
	
—
12.448
12.314
1947	
	
—
	
—
16,612
17,863
18.257
15.790
14.128
14.102
14,539
	
~-~~
	
1956	
 .1..
—
13.257
11.201
10.779
11,541
11.034
11.560
10.952
11.645
12.288
14.202
13.380
15.659
16,437
19.086
18,423
19.470
19.922
19.069
18.903
19.095
20.457
1959	
~~.~.~~
—_.
1961	
270
450
772
786
1.894
1.264
3.990
4,270
4.964
4.940
4.201
3.392
2.848
2.931
3.101
3.537
—
1963	
441
478
507
400
416
437
495
458
454
509
518
495
490
7
1.794 2.470
2.16013,167
2.0733,058
1.83313.463
1.704 4.005
1,509'4,239
1,01311,457
1.734|3.353
2.394 3.390
2.35212.767
1973	
1974	
___!_
265 '1.031'2.216
26712.25512.522
1976	
1977	
	
1.268
1,208
3.733
13,768
2.048
2.224
13.542
'3,590
327
312
12,300
12,566
'2.627
12.868
1 Commencing with 1967, does not include employment in by-product plants.
Nottb—These figures refer only to company employees and do not include the many employees of contracting firms.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
113
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 114
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Copper concentrates, 86701; Lead concentrates, 64661; zinc concentrates,
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Molybdenite concentrates, 2035 t containing 992 588 kg of molybdenum
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^
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1977
117
_ea_
Zinc
Copper
Iron
t
121 665
t
185 737
t
t
73 054
54212
775 766
84159
60940
United States
2489
10727
33 862
10936
124 154
2O7 40O
987 191
 <> ■ '
  ■:'-:-' -''•'■ ■'.-',' . . „ •-•
 Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics
CHAPTER 4
CONTENTS
Statistical Tables
Table 4-1—Acreage of Crown Petroleum and Natural Gas Rights Held,
1968-1977	
Table 4-2—Established Hydrocarbon and By-Product Reserves, Decem
ber 31, 1977-
Table 4-3—Wells Drilled and Drilling, 1977	
Table 4-4—Summary of Drilling and Production Statistics, 1977	
Table 4-5—Monthly Crude-oil and Condensate Production by Fields and
Pools,   1977	
Table 4-6—Monthly Nonassociated and Associated Gas Production by
Fields and Pools, 1977 	
Table 4-7—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil/Pentanes Plus,
1977	
Table 4-8—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Natural Gas, 1977	
Table 4-9—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Propane, 1977_	
Table 4-10—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Butane, 1977-
Table 4-11—Crude-oil Pipelines, 1977	
Table 4-12—Crude-oil Refineries, 1977	
Table 4-13—Natural Gas Pipelines, 1977	
Table 4-14—Gas-processing Plants, 1977	
Table 4-15—Sulphur Plants, 1977	
Table 4-16—Petroleum and Natural Gas, 1954-1977-
(as at December 31, 1978)
Figures
4-1-
-Footage Drilled in British Columbia, 1947-1977.
121
122
123
132
133
136
142
144
146
147
148
149
150
153
153
154
155
4-2—Petroleum and Natural Gas Fields in British Columbia, December
31,1977  156
4-3—Oil Production in British Columbia, 1955-1977	
4-4—Gas Production in British Columbia, 1955-1977	
4-5—Petroleum and Natural Gas Pipelines in British Columbia..
157
158
159
Chapter 4 is a series of tables and figures providing important information on
the petroleum industry operations in 1977. It complements the review of the
industry in Chapter 1 and the work of the Ministry reported in Chapter 2.
119
 120
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
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 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS STATISTICS
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 150
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 156
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
FIGURE  4-2  -  PETROLEUM  AND  NATURAL  GAS  FIELDS  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
DECEMBER  31, 1977
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS STATISTICS
157
"
. PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS STATISTICS
159
 160
MINES AND  PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,   1977
Directory
(as at November 30,1978)
Hon. J. R. Chabot (Minister).
 Room 326, Parliament Buildings	
 387-3576/77
 Room 406, Douglas Building  387-4262
 . 102, 1016 Langley Street  387-5680
C. B. Eraut (Executive Assistant)   Room 327, Parliament Buildings—
  387-3576/77
Dr. James T. Fyles (Deputy Minister).
P. D. Meyers (Solicitor for Ministry)—
PERSONNEL
 Room 428, Douglas Building
N. K. Gillespie (Director)	
Cathie Green (Personnel Clerk)   Room 429, Douglas Building-
_ 387-5765
_ 387-5765
FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION DIVISION
R. R. Davy (Director) _
Rosalyn J. Moir (Assistant Editor).
Sharon Ferris (Library)	
.Room 434, Douglas Building	
  387-6243, 5651
-Room 422, Douglas Building  387-5975
-Room 430, Douglas Building 387-6407
MINERAL REVENUE DIVISION
W. W. M. Ross (Director)	
B. A. Garrison (Assistant Director).
.Room 442, Douglas Building-
Room 442, Douglas Building..
387-6991
387-6991
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
E. R. Macgregor (Assistant Deputy Minister) Room 409, Douglas Building..
387-5489
Victoria Office:
INSPECTION AND  ENGINEERING DIVISION
W. C. Robinson (Chief Inspector)	
V. E. Dawson (Deputy Chief Inspector)-
Coal .	
A. J. Richardson (Deputy Chief Inspector)-
Metal	
H. Dennis (Senior Coal Inspector)	
.1837 Fort Street..
.1837 Fort Street..
.1837 Fort Street..
.1837 Fort Street.
.1837 Fort Street-
.1837 Fort Street .
T. Carter (Senior Mechanical-Electrical Inspector)  	
J. Cartwright (Electrical Inspector)	
G. J. Lee (Senior Mine Rescue Co-ordinator)   1837 Fort Street.
J. D. McDonald (Senior Reclamation Inspector)    . 1837 Fort Street.
D. M. Galbraith (Reclamation Inspector) 1837 Fort Street..
J. C. Errington (Reclamation Inspector) 1837 Fort Street..
P. E. Olson (Engineer)—Mining Roads 1837 Fort Street..
387-3781
387-3782
387-
387-
387-
387-
387-
387-
387-
387-
387-
■3782
3179
•3781
•3781
6254
-3179
3630
-3630
•6254
Vancouver Office:
B. M. Dudas (Inspector).
.2747 East Hastings Street,
V5K 1Z8 	
S. Elias (Inspector, Environmental Control)...2747 East Hastings Street,
V5K 1Z8 	
254-7171/72
254-7171/72
 DIRECTORY
161
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION—Continued
Kamloops Office:
D. Smith (Inspector) 101, 2985 Airport Drive,
V2B 7W8 376-7201
E. Sadar (Inspector)—. 101, 2985 Airport Drive,
V2B 7W8 376-7201
J. MacCulloch (Inspector).
.101, 2985 Airport Drive,
V2B 7W8	
Nelson Office: J. B. C. Lang (Inspector).
.310 Ward Street V1L 5S4_
Fernie Office: D. I. R. Henderson (Inspector).
Nanaimo Office: J. W. Robinson (Inspector)	
.Box 1290, V0B 1M0..
.2226 Brotherstone Road,
V9S 3M8	
Prince Rupert Office: S. J. Hunter (Inspector) Box 758, V8J 3S1-
Smithers Office: J. F. Hutter (Inspector).
Prince George Office:
A. D. Tidsbury (Inspector)	
-Box 877, V0J 2N0_
 376-7201
  352-2211
ext. 213/342
  423-6222
T. Vaughan-Thomas (Inspector).
  758-2342
  624-3245
ext. 202
  847-4411
ext. 237/245
.1652 Quinn Street, V2N 1X3  562-8131
ext. 322/323
.1652 Quinn Street, V2N 1X3  562-8131
ext. 322/323
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
Dr. A. Sutherland Brown (Chief Geologist) Room 418, Douglas Building
Analytical Laboratory
Dr. W. M. Johnson (Chief Analyst).
P. F. Ralph (Deputy Chief Analyst).
-541 Superior Street-
.541 Superior Street.
Dr. N. C. Carter (Senior Geologist).
Project Geology
 Room 418,
387-5975
387-6249
387-6249
Douglas Building  387-5975
R. D. Gilchrist
Dr. T. Hoy	
D. G. Mclntyre	
Dr. W. J. McMillan-
Dr. V. A. Preto__	
Geologists
 626 Superior Street-
 626 Superior Street..
Dr. P. A. Christopher—
Dr. B. N. Church	
Dr. G. E. P. Eastwood-
Dr. D. E. Pearson	
 626 Superior Street..
 626 Superior Street..
 626 Superior Stieet_
.630 Superior Street-
-630 Superior Street..
.630 Superior Street..
.630 Superior Street-
Dr. J. A. Garnett (Senior Geologist)-.
Special Projects: Dr. K. E. Northcote..
Industrial Minerals: Z. D. Hora	
Mineral Inventory:
E. V. Jackson	
I. E. Forester	
Resource Data
 Room 418, Douglas Building
Geologists
-Room 416, Douglas Building..
.630 Superior Street	
Coal Inventory: A. Matheson	
Co-ordinator, Data Processing: G. L. James..
-Room 427, Douglas Building..
-Room 421, Douglas Building
.625 Superior Street .	
.Room 432, Douglas Building.
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5068
387-5975
387-5975
387-5068
387-5975
387-5975
387-6588
385-5600
 162 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1977
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION—Continued
Applied Geology and Prospectors" Assistance
Dr. E. W. Grove (Senior Geologist) Room 30, Douglas Building 387-5579
A. F. Shepherd (Geologist) Room 30, Douglas Building. 387-5538
District Geologists
Fernie: D. A. Grieve . . __Box 1290, VOB 1M0 . 423-6222
Fort St. John: R. H. Karst Box 7438, V1J 4M9 785-6906
Kamloops: G. P. E. White 101, 2985 Airport Drive,
V2B 7W8 . 376-7201
Nelson: G. G. Addie . 310 Ward Street, V1L 5S4  352-2211
(Local 213)
Prince George: G. H. Klein .._1652 Quinn Street, V2N 1X4  562-8131
(Local 322, 323)
Smithers: T. G. Schroeter. Box 877, VOJ 2N0 847-4411
(Local 277)
TITLES DIVISION
E. J. Bowles (Chief Gold Commissioner) Room 409, Douglas Building 387-6245
R. Rutherford (Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner) Room 433, Douglas Building  387-5517
D. I. Doyle (Gold Commissioner, Vancouver) 800 Hornby Street, V6Z 2C5 668-2672
E. A. H. Mitchell (Gold Commissioner) Room 411, Douglas Building	
 387-6255,6246
A. R. Corner (Coal Administrator) Room 411, Douglas Building  387-5687
Mineral Claims Inspectors
Vancouver: F. A. Reyes 800 Hornby Street, V6Z 2C5  668-2672
Kamloops: H. Turner. 212, 2985 Airport Drive,
V2B 7W8 554-1445
Quesnel:  D. Lieutard . 401, 350 Barlow Avenue, V2J 2C1 7751-260
Smithers: R. Morgan Box 877, VOJ 2N0. 776-278
ECONOMICS AND PLANNING DIVISION
J. S. Poyen (Director) Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street  387-3787
F. C. Basham (Deputy Director) Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street  387-3787
W. P. Wilson (Statistician). Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street  387-3787
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
J. D. Lineham (Assistant Deputy Minister, Chief    Rooms 404, 405, Douglas Building
of Branch)   387-3485, 387-6256
ENGINEERING DIVISION
A. G. T. Weaver (Chief Engineer) Room 436a, Douglas Building  387-5993
B. T. Barber (Senior Reservoir Engineer) Room 436, Douglas Building  387-5993
P. K. Huus (Reservoir Engineering Technician) Room 403, Douglas Building 387-5993
W. L. Ingram (Senior Development Engineer) Room 401, Douglas Building. 387-5993
M. B. Hamersley (Development Engineering Technician)   Room 401, Douglas Building 387-5993
D. L. Johnson (District Engineer) Box 6880, Fort St. John, V1J 4M9 758-6906
 DIRECTORY
163
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
W. M. Young (Chief Geologist) Room 402a, Douglas Building  387-5993
R. Stewart (Senior Reservoir Geologist) Room 440, Douglas Building  387-5993
I. A. Hudson (Senior Economic Geologist) Room 442, Douglas Building  387-5993
R. E. Moss (Commissioner)	
W. J. Quinn (Assistant Commissioner).
TITLES DIVISION
 Room 446, Douglas Building  387-3333
 Room 445, Douglas Building 387-3334
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1978
3,730-978-3879

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