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Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources Annual Report 1978 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1980

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 Minister of Energy,
Mines and
Petroleum Resources
Annual Report
1978
ISSN 0365-9356
  To the Honourable Henry P. Bell-Irving, D.S.O., O.B.E., E.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources
is herewith respectfully submitted.
JAMES J. HEWITT
Minister oj Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources
Office oj the Minister oj Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources
November 1979
 Layout and compilation
A. Sutherland Brown
Rosalyn J. Moir
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword-.
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1978      9
Chapter 2—Activity of the Ministry     37
Chapter 3—Mineral Resources Statistics     83
Chapter 4—Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics  131
Appendix—Directory  177
PLATES
Loading explosives, Afton mine	
Natural gas refinery and sulphur storage, Taylor..
Sand and gravel pit, Coquitlam River	
Imperial Oil Limited gas plant, Boundary Lake..
_Cover and 2
Collecting silt and water samples, Regional Geochemical Reconnaissance, near
Alice Arm	
Training in use of jackleg drill, Rossland School of Mines	
Coal petrographic laboratory, Geological Division, Mineral Resources Branch,
Victoria	
Core examination facility, Charlie Lake-
Control room, Lornex concentrator	
Workover operation with portable rig, Scurry Cego Eagle 16-6-85-18 W6,
Belloy oil field	
16
30
36
46
52
64
82
130
All photographs by R E. Player except plate on page 36 by G, Nordin.
  FOREWORD
The Annual Report of the Ministry for 1978 follows the format of the 1976
Report. Annual Reports have been published since 1874, from that date to 1959
as the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, and subsequently as the Annual
Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources until this report. In
December 1978 the Ministry was enlarged and a reorganization started so that the
report is now that of the Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources.
In 1969 geological and technical reports previously published as part of the
Annual Report were published separately as Geology, Exploration and Mining in
British Columbia. Starting in 1975, this technical volume has been divided into
separate reports that are issued as they are prepared, and eventually bound together.
Detailed information on mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences, etc.,
was included in the Annual Report until 1973, for 1974 was issued separately, and
subsequently forms part of the separate volume Mining in British Columbia.
The Annual Report for 1978 contains four chapters—a general review of the
mineral and petroleum industries, a chapter on the activities of the Ministry, one
on the statistics of the mineral industry, and one on the performance of the
petroleum industry.
The change in mandate of the Ministry occurred so late in the year that no
substantial changes occurred within the calendar year, hence energy aspects except
those traditionally part of the Ministry are not reflected in the report.
  The Mining: and Petroleum Industries in 1978
lg
CHAPTER 1
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1978       9
Introduction     11
Revenue to the Crown     15
The Mining Industry in 1978	
Metals	
Coal	
Industrial Minerals-
Structural Materials.
Provincial Revenue from Mining Companies-
Expenditures by Mining Companies	
Mining and Treatment-
Metal Mines	
Concentrating..
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates..
Non-metallic Mines	
Coal Mines	
Exploration-
Metallic Minerals-
Government Programs to Encourage Exploration-
Major Exploration Activity	
Development and Feasibility Studies.
Non-metallic Minerals	
Coal	
Distribution of Coalfields-
Coal Exploration	
The Petroleum Industry in 1978_
Drilling	
Production-
Operation Problems in the Field-
Exploration and Development.—
Land Disposition	
17
17
19
19
19
19
20
21
21
22
22
23
23
24
25
26
27
27
28
28
28
28
31
31
32
32
33
35
 10 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
FIGURES
Page
1-1    Major mineral commodities produced in 1978 by value     13
1-2    Growth of the mineral industry in total value in actual dollars and
deflated dollars     14
1-3    Percentage value of mineral industry sectors     14
1-4    Direct revenue to the Provincial Government from mining and petroleum
industries, 1978     15
1-5    Quantities of major metals produced, 1885-1978     18
1-6    Major mines, 1978 (greater than 1 000 tonnes of ore produced) facing 21
TABLES
1-1    Mineral production of British Columbia, 1977 and 1978  12
1-2    Direct Revenue to the Provincial Government from the Mineral and
Petroleum Industries, 1978  15
1-3    Revenue from Mineral Resources, 1978  20
1-4    Expenditure (Mining Companies), 1978  20
1-5    Indices of Metal Exploration  25
1-6    Value of Production of Petroleum Industry, 1978  31
1-7    Provincial Revenue from Petroleum Industry, 1978  31
1-8    Oil Discoveries, 1978  34
1-9    Gas Discoveries, 1978  34
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1978
11
INTRODUCTION
By A. Sutherland Brown
The value of mineral production in British Columbia nearly reached $2 billion,
continuing a real growth above the inflation rate. Production was $1,986 billion
or an increase of 11.1 per cent over 1977. However, much of the growth was the
result of better commodity prices and exchange rates rather than increased
production.
The top 10 commodities in 1978 in order of value were copper, natural gas,
coal, molybdenum, crude oil, sand and gravel, cement, zinc, lead, and lode gold.
Changes in relative position among these commodities are minor. Copper again
assumed the top place that it generally has occupied since displacing zinc in 1966.
Asbestos dropped out of the top 10 because of the long strike at Cassiar. Structural
material commodities—sand and gravel, and cement—each moved two places
forward, relegating zinc to eighth place. Gold occupied tenth place, the first time
for many years. British Columbia is Canada's leading producer of copper, molybdenum, and coal, and a major contributor to Canada's production of natural gas, lead,
zinc, asbestos, cement, gold, and silver. The mineral production of 1978 is shown
in detail in Table 1-1 compared to 1977, and the production in 1978 is diagrammed
on Figure 1-1.
All major sectors of the mining and petroleum industries experienced growth
except industrial minerals. The latter showed a significant decrease because of the
drop in asbestos production. Structural materials showed the greatest growth. The
total value and percentage change for the various sectors are as follows:
1978 Value Change
$ per cent
Metals   891778 518        +14.8
Petroleum and natural gas  582 969 834 +5.9
Coal  381 895 241        +16.1
Structural materials  142 341 826        +23.1
Industrial minerals      59 471 361        —24.9
Actually 15 of the listed commodities were subject to some decrease in the
quantity of material produced but only eight showed a decrease in value. In major
commodities, copper, molybdenum, zinc, sand and gravel, asbestos, crude oil, and
natural gas all showed some decrease in quantity produced, while gold, iron concentrate, gypsum, jade, sulphur, cement, and coal showed significant increases.
The growth of mineral industry and the changing proportion contributed by
the various sectors is illustrated by two diagrams. Figure 1-2 shows the growth in
total value in actual dollars and in deflated dollars. Figure 1-3 shows the relative
proportion contributed by the various sectors. In both diagrams these trends are
shown in five-year increments to 1970 and yearly thereafter. Figure 1-2 shows
that growth has been fairly steady, with an average increase of about $80 million
per year since 1965. Comparison of the figures reveals major shifts in trends and
allows growth comparisons of specific commodity sectors. The important changes
illustrated are as follows:
(1) A dominance of metals throughout the whole period, but a fairly
constant decrease in importance since 1935.
(2) The collapse of the coal industry between 1945 and 1970, related
significantly to the conversion of railways to oil.
(3) Compensating rapid growth of petroleum and natural gas between
1955 and 1965.
 12             ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 1-1—Mineral Production of British Columbia, 1977 and 1978
1977
1978
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Metals
Units
Antimony   kg
Bismuth            kg
Cadmium                               kg
Copper                     kg
596 207
18 540
320 711
275 224 115
46 170
5 906 336
445 317
78 172 646
15 521 970
241 503 007
187 478
103 780 228
$
2 519 739
187 612
1720 051
384 736 661
289 075
31 301 931
7 362 345
42 316 293
142 057 947
37 934 098
1 912 300
61 301 001
397 654
459 521
28 172
253 803
273 692 676
36 515
6 542 332
615 569
81 064 539
13 055 203
227 271 890
261 863
95 618 111
$
2 083 895
166 452
1 186 320
431 694 395
295 001
47 951 880
11597 462
51 640 564
167 714 272
45 071 509
3 675 508
52 048 701
4 652 559
Gold-
placer            g
lode, fine               g
Iron concentrates   t
Lead                                                    kg
Molybdenum    kg
Silver                                    g
Tin kg
Zinc                         kg
Others 	
Subtotals 	
714 036 707
819 778 518
47 066 170
59 346
56 894
1 186 160
3 110 695
1 422 018
5 647 993
922 085
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos                                                  t
Diatomite ,                                                 t
Fluxes  .                                                       t
Granules   ,                                                   t
Gypsum and gypsite   t
Jade                                 kg
Sulphur                                    t
Others 	
97 033
1239
28 624
29 551
653 126
266 621
248 892
69 729 205
49 595
95 461
1 238 485
2 357 488
825 523
3 871 660
1 017 682
68 766
2 184
22 475
26 849
733 080
488 759
322 181
	
Subtotals .....
79 185 099
59 471 361
56 140 564
6 282 560
7 263 312
8 410 065
64 227 295
18 030
Structural Materials
Cement    , .                                                 t
909 522
42 705 320
4 909 799
5 861 614
7 309 536
54 809 121
55 602
	
1 020 065
Lime and limestone     t
Rubble, riprap, and crushed rock  t
Sand and gravel        t
Building-stone  t
2 231 166
2 464 503
52 994 528
4 535
2 512 867
2 841 920
38 315 952
405
Subtotals    	
115 650 992
328 846 883
	
142 341 826
381 895 241
Coal
Coal—sold and used   t
8 424 181
9 463 920
1 237 719 681
1 403 486 946
145 005 524
1 836 217
10 269 861
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Crude oil                                  m3
2 200 303
24 465
180 267
132 859 085
1 477 248
9 751 058
2 004 699
25 386
155 503
Field condensate m3
Plant condensate   m3
Subtotals 	
144 087 391
396 601 354
5 358 167
4 392 944
157 111 602
401 373 236
13 360 454
11 124 542
Natural gas to pipeline  103m3
Butane —._ m3
Propane  m3
8 895 663
111 357
91 297
8 003 029
106 580
85 732
406 352 465
	
425 858 232
Total petroleum and natural gas _
550 439 856
582 969 834
	
1 788 159 537
1 986 456 780
	
Metric
CONVERSION
Symbol
  t H- .91
TABLE
)718=:short tons.
>359=pounds.
.103=troy ounces.
.9=barrels.
 kg -r .4
 g -^ 31
 m3 x 6.:
     103m3 x 35
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
13
41.3 %
Figure 1-1—Major mineral commodities produced in 1978 by value.
(4) Regeneration of significant coal production related to growth of
export markets from metallurgical coals in the early 1970's.
(5) Surge in value of metals related to copper and molybdenum production in 1972 and 1973 when the major porphyry-deposit open-pit
mines came on stream.
(6) The increase in value of natural gas in 1975 and 1976.
(7) The relative decrease in importance of metals, dropping below 50 per
cent of the total for the first time in 1975.
(8) The major changes in proportion starting in 1973 levelled out in
1976 and the proportions have remained stable through 1978.
The value of the production of the various sectors is shown throughout their
history of production on a log graph, Figure 3-1.
 14
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
70 71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78  79 1980
Figure 1-2—Growth of the mineral industry in total value in actual dollars
and deflated dollars.
I   I   ;   I
i   I   i
1900 05  10  15  20  25  30  35  40  45  50  55  60 65 70 71  72  73  74  75  76
Figure 1-3—Percentage value of mineral industry sectors.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
REVENUE TO THE CROWN
15
Direct revenue to the Provincial Government in 1978 from the mining and
petroleum industries is as shown on Figure 1-4.
Figure 1-4—Direct revenue to the Provincial Government from the mineral
and petroleum industries, 1978.
Table 1-2—Direct Revenue to the Provincial Government From the
Mineral and Petroleum Industries, 1978
$
Petroleum Industry—
Crown reserves—disposition   177 459 648
Rentals and fees     19 048 999
Crown royalties      43 339 456
British Columbia Petroleum Corporation—
Net revenue from sales  159 400 000
Mining Industry—
Claims, fees, and rentals   2 842 497
Royalties  5 851 562
Mineral taxes   30 391 018
Land Service—
Rentals and royalties on structural materials  636 360
Total  438 969 540
  THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1978 17
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN 1978
By A. Sutherland Brown and W. P. Wilson
The total value of solid minerals set another new record, $1.4 billion, up
13.4 per cent from 1977. This was achieved in the face of slight declines in output
of most major metals, industrial minerals, and structural materials. Increased
commodity prices, favourable currency exchange rates, and a 12.3-per-cent increase
in coal production more than made up the difference.
Table 1-1 and Figure 1-1 show the quantity and value of solid minerals
produced in 1978 and the table compares these with production in 1977. The
ratios of the various sectors of the mining industry are as follows: Metals, 58.5 per
cent; coal, 27.2 per cent; structural materials, 10.1 per cent; and industrial minerals,
4.2 per cent. The only significant change from 1977 was a nearly 2-per-cent drop
in the proportion shared by industrial minerals caused by the drop in asbestos
production.
Metals
The growth and long-term trends of the quantities of major base metals
produced are shown on Figure 1-5 on a linear graph. These, plus gold and silver,
are shown on a log graph on Figure 3-2.
Lead and zinc production advanced sharply in the period 1920 to 1943,
thereafter starting a slow decline, a feature dependent principally on the production
history of the Sullivan mine. In contrast, copper production remained at a modest
level until the onset of major porphyry copper production in the late sixties.
Molybdenum production also started its growth in this period, related principally
to mining of porphyry deposits. Precious metals are not shown on Figure 1-5 but
are on Figure 3-2. Their history since the decline in the forties increasingly has
been related to by-product origin related to production of base metals at massive
sulphide and porphyry deposits. The graphs of these principal metals show all are
down slightly in quantity except lead and gold.
In 1978 conditions for copper producers improved significantly for the first
time for many years. Copper price, having been low since the sharp peak of 1974,
advanced significantly during the year. Favourable currency exchange rates and
a lowering of world copper stocks also added to the improved market and the
increased value of production. Copper, at $431.7 million, contributed 52.7 per
cent of the value of metals produced and 30.8 per cent of the value of all minerals.
The quantity of production was down because of the closure of the Granduc mine
in mid-year and a prolonged strike at the Gibraltar mine that started May 26 and
continued beyond the year-end. However the Afton, which started up late in 1977,
had a full year's production and the smelter started producing blister copper early
in 1978.
Molybdenum markets continued to be very strong, and the value of production
in British Columbia rose 18.1 per cent to $167.7 million, more than three times the
value of zinc, the third most valuable metal. The quantity produced, however, was
down 2.5 million kilograms or 15.9 per cent.
Zinc production was also down 7.9 per cent, and the value at $52 million was
down 15.1 per cent due to continuing difficult market conditions and the lowest
prices since the beginning of 1975.
Lead remained in fourth position, with a value of $51.6 million, nearly equal
to zinc.   Unlike the other major metals, production quantity was up 3.7 per cent
 18
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 I960 1970 1980
Figure 1-5—Quantities of major metals produced, 1885-1978.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978 19
and, with markets continuing fairly strong from the preceding year and with the
price rising, the value was up 22 per cent.
Gold (lode) surpassed silver in value for the first time since 1960, to become
the fifth most valuable metal. Production was up 10.6 per cent to 6 542 332 grams
with a value of $47.9 million. This resulted largely from the sizeable new production from Afton mine. In addition the price of gold advanced from $173.18 (U.S.)
per ounce in January to $207.85 (U.S.) in December with the result that the value
of production was up 53.3 per cent to $47.9 million.
Silver value was up 19.0 per cent to $45.1 million although production was
down 6 per cent. This resulted from the significant price increases during the year
from $4.39 (U.S.) per ounce in January to $5.92 (U.S.) in December.
Iron concentrate production was up 38.2 per cent over 1977. This was a
significant portion of the production of former years, although now almost entirely
the product of one mine, Tasu (Wesfrob). The value of production was $11.6
million.
Of the minor metals, tin was up significantly for the second straight year
(39.7 per cent above 1977) to 261 863 kilograms with a value of $3.7 million;
bismuth production was up but both antimony and cadmium were down.
Coal
Coal ranked third in value after copper and natural gas. Production was up
12.3 per cent to 9.5 million tonnes and value was up 16.1 per cent to $381.9 million.
Industrial Minerals
Production value of industrial minerals dropped 24.9 per cent to $59.5 million
because the most valuable commodity, asbestos, produced in British Columbia only
at the Cassiar mine, was subject to a strike from September 15 to beyond the end
of 1978. Only 68 760 tonnes of asbestos was produced, compared to 79 033
tonnes in 1977.
Other important industrial minerals had increased production and value in
1978 but in aggregate were only a small part of the drop in value of the values of
the asbestos production. Gypsum, jade, and sulphur production quantities were
all up with an aggregate value of more than $10 million in 1978.
Structural Materials
Production and value of all structural materials were up significantly for the
tenth year in a row, and the value of $142.3 million was up 23.1 per cent over
1977. All commodities were up except building stone. Sand and gravel at $64.2
million and cement at $56.1 million, the two most important structural materials,
were both up significantly. They advanced to become respectively sixth and seventh
most valuable commodities in the Province, following crude oil and leading zinc
for the first time.
PROVINCIAL REVENUE FROM MINING COMPANIES
Direct revenue to the Provincial Government in 1978, derived from the mining
sector of the mineral industry, is shown in Table 1-3. The amount for mineral
royalties shown is the amount collected after adjustments for 1977. For coal
licences and rentals, the amount shown includes cash paid in lieu of work, some of
which may be refundable. The rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and
structural materials were collected by the Lands Service of the Ministry of Environment.  The total revenue is about $40 million, approximately the same as 1977.
 20 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Table 1-3—Revenue From Mineral Resources, 1978
$
Claims   1 705 924.52
Coal licence fees and rentals collected  1 136 572.00
Coal royalties   5 030 739.19
Iron ore royalties  121 506.53
Mineral land taxes  8 162 797.44
Mineral resource taxes   8 922 897.92
Mineral royalties  699 316.19
Mining taxes   13 305 323.01
Rental and royalties on industrial minerals and structural
materials (Lands Service)  636 360.07
Total   39 721 436.87
EXPENDITURES BY MINING COMPANIES
Major expenditures in 1978 by companies involved in exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal are shown in Table 1-4. No major
new plants were in process of major expenditure in 1978 so that the expenditures
represent ongoing projects or early stages of new projects.
Table 1-4—Expenditures (Mining Companies), 1978
$ $
Capital expenditures     36 122 284
Exploration and development   104 721 116
  140 843 400
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   453 928 938
Mining operations (structural materials)   63 079 924
Repair expenditures  123 818 077
Total  781 670 339
 Metal Mines
Geological Class
Coal Mines
BRITISH     COLUMBIA
SO 100        130        UO
0      B      ?g     *P     »0     tp_ 100    130    HO     WO    BO    300
MAJOR   MINES. 1978
<T^oV
PORPHYRY Cu, Mo
•
V*J
SKARN  Cu, Fe
X
<Sh
MASS/VE  SULPHIDE Zn.Cu.Pb
+
$■>
STRATIFORM Pb, Zn, Ag
■
Q
OTHER
A
@
ndustrial Mineral Mines
ASBESTOS
0
GYPSUM
(\>
BARITE
a
0
WH5
Figure 7-6
sum
'3/endaH
Highland N1.:^
^-Sullivan  ,
J
CraicjoaoAt
82'
7i    O
IHP'
S Similkameen
n
phoenix.
Byron
Co|eman
...."ft. 1 ^S'^
-yvtcrc^v?*
125*
12/
Mines in British Columbia Which Produced More Than 1 000 Tonnes of Ore in 1978
Rated Capacity
Name of Mine
Products
NTS
Location
of Mill/Cleaning
Plant
(Tonnes/Day)
Mine!
Type
Name of Company
Company Address
Mine Address
Metal Mines
Phoenix 	
Cu, Au, Ag
82E/2E
2 500
O
Grcnby Mining Corp	
15th Floor, 1066 W. Hastings
St., Box 12524, Vancouver
V6E3X1
Box490, Grand Forks
(Mining ended in
1976).
Horn Silver _	
Ag, Pb. Zn,
Cu
82E/4E
140
u
Dankoe Mines Limited	
2002,   1177  W.  Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2K3
Box 190, Keremeos.
Highland Bell   ..	
Ag, Zn, Pb,
Au. Cd
82E/6E
110
u
Teck Corp. Ltd	
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2K5
Beaverdell VOH 1A0.
HB                	
Zn, Pb, Ag,
Cd
82F/3E
1 090
u
Cominco Ltd. (HB mine)....
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C 2R2
Salmo.
Silmonr.c              „
Zn, Pb, Ag,
82F/14
140
u
Kam-Kotia Mines Ltd. and
420,  475   Howe   St.,   Vancou
Box  189, New Den
Cd
Silmonac Mines Ltd.
ver V6C 2B3
ver.
Sullivan	
Zn, Pb. Ag,
82G/12W
9 500
u
Cominco    Ltd.     (Sullivan
200   Granville   Square,   Van
Box 2000, Kimberley
Cd
mine)
couver V6C 2R2
VIA 2G3.
Lynx, Myra
Zn, Cu, Ag,
Pb, Au, Cd
92F/12E
900
o
Western Mines Ltd....
Room 1103, Box 49066, 595
Burrard St., Vancouver
V7X 1C4
Box 8000, Campbell
River.
Similkameen .             	
Cu, Ag, Au
92H/7E
13 600
o
Similkameen   Mining   Co.
Ltd.
14th Floor, 750 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 520, Princeton
VOX 1W0.
Brenda	
Cu, Mo, Ag
92H/16E
22 000
o
Brenda Mines Ltd	
Box 420, Peachland VOH 1X0
Box 420. Peachland
VOH 1X0.
Craigmont           	
Cu
92I/2W
4 860
u
Craigmont Mines Ltd	
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Box 3000, Merritt.
Lornex...              	
Cu, Mo, Ag,
Au
92I/6E
40 900
o
Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd.
510, 580 Granville St., Vancouver V6C 1W8
Box 1500, Logan
Lake V0K 1W0,
Bethlehem          	
Cu, Ag, Au
92I/7W
16 800
o
Bethlehem Copper Corp.   .
2100, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2H8
Box 520, Ashcroft.
Afton ;.
Cu
92I/10E
6 350
o
Afton Mines Ltd. ..
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2K5
Box 937, Kamloops.
Warman .    .   	
Au, Ag
92J/3E
426
u
Northair Mines Ltd	
333, 885 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver V6C 1N5
Squamish.
Island Copper    	
Cu, Mo, Ag,
Au
92L/11W
34 500
o
Utah Mines Ltd	
1600, 1050 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 3S7
Box 370, Port Hardy
VON 2P0.
Boss Mountain    	
Mo
93A/2W
1590
u
Noranda Mines Ltd. (Boss
Mt. Div.)
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
Hendrix Lake.
Gibraltar               	
Cu, Mo, Ag,
93B/9W
36 330
o
Gibraltar Mines Ltd	
700. 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Box 130. McLeese
Lake VOL 1P0.
Endako                  	
Mo
93K/3E
24 500
o
Placer  Development  Ltd.
(Endako Div.)
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Endako.
Granisle               	
Cu, Ag, Au
93L/16E
12 260
o
Granisle Copper Ltd	
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6E 2H7
Box 1000, Granisle.
Bell (Newman)
Cu, Au
93M, IE
11 800
o
Noranda Mines Ltd,  (Bell
Copper Div.)
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
Box   2000,   Granisle.
Tasu ..  	
Fe, Cu
103C/16E
7 300
o
Wesfrob Mines Ltd. (Tasu)
500, 1H2 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 2S5
Tasu.
Granduc	
Cu, Ag, Au
104B/1W
7 270
u
Granduc Operating Co	
520. 890 W. Pender St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 69, Stewart.
hutusj^iil Mineral Open Pits
and Quarry
Torrent	
Barite
82G/13W
u
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta _
Box 603, Invermere.;.
Western Gypsum   	
Gypsum
82J/5W
2 450
o
Westroc Industries Ltd	
Box 5638, Postal Station A,
Calgary, Alta. T2H 1Y1
Box 217. Invermere
V0A 1K0.
Mineral King         	
Barite
82K/8W
Small
o
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Box  700,  Lethbridge,  Alta. ....
Box 603,  Invermere.
Brisco               	
Barite
82K/16W
u
Mountain Minerals Ltd.    ...
Box  700.   Lethbridge.   Alta.
Box 603,   Invermere.
Parsons	
Barite
82N/2E
u
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta _
Box 603, Invermere.
Cassiar 1         $"•£?&£	
Asbestos
104P/5W
3 630
o
Cassiar Asbestos Corp. Ltd.
2000, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 3V3
Cassiar V0C 1E0.
Coal Mines
Byron Creek (Corbin)	
Coal
82G/10E
1 700
o
Byron Creek Collieries Ltd.
Box 270,  Blairmore, Alta	
Box 270,  Blairmore,
Kaiser (Harmer Ridge; Balnier
North and Hydraulic)
Coal
82G/10, 15
28 000
o, u
Kaiser Resources Ltd	
2600. 1177 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2L1
Alta.
Box 2000, Sparwood.
Fording    (Clodc    Creek    and
Coal
82J/2W
17 000
o
Fording Coal Ltd	
200,   205    Ninth    Ave.    S.E.,
Box     100.     Elkford
Greenhill)
Calgary, Alta. T2G 0R4
V0B 1H0
Coleman (Tent Mountain)   	
Coal
82G/10W
o
Coleman Collieries Ltd	
Box 640,  Coleman,  Alta.	
Tent Mountain
T0K 0M0.
O—Open pit.   U—Underground.
1
Figure 1-6—Major mines, 1978 (greater than 1 000 tonnes of ore).
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
21
MINING AND TREATMENT
Metal Mines
Metal mining prospered more in 1978 than for a considerable period previously
because world stockpiles were reduced, over capacity was largely eliminated so that
prices rose as a result. In addition, Canada's relative position was enhanced by
favourable currency exchange with our metal trading partners. Almost all metals
except zinc participated in the strengthening of markets. However, a number of
factors held production of many metals to about what they were in 1977. Nevertheless, the dollar value of metals produced rose 14.8 per cent during the year to a
new record of $819.8 million.
In 1978, 42 mines produced an aggregate of 87 724 973 tonnes of ore which
was concentrated or shipped directly to a smelter (see Tables 3-12 and 3-13). This
contrasts with 41 mines in 1977 which produced 90 287 570 tonnes of ore. Thus
aggregate tonnage was reduced by 2.8 per cent in 1978. Of the 42 mines, 22
produced more than 1 000 tonnes and these are shown on Figure 1-6 classified as
to product, geological type, and whether open pit or underground.
In 1978, 12 mines produced more than 1 million tonnes. These large mines
produced an aggregate of 84 668 967 tonnes or 96.5 per cent of the ore mined.
Ten of the large mines are open-pit operations, including in order of output, Lornex,
Island Copper, Endako, Brenda, Similkameen, Bethlehem, Gibraltar, Bell, Granisle,
and Afton. The two others, Sullivan and Craigmont, are underground mines. In
aggregate these produced about 4 million tonnes or 4.6 per cent of the total tonnage.
In regard to geological type, all 10 large open-pit mines are porphyry deposits of
copper and/or molybdenum. Of the large underground mines, the Sullivan is a
silver-lead-zinc mine of stratiform type whereas Craigmont is a copper-iron skarn
deposit.
Some changes occurred in the list of large mines since 1977. Afton appeared
on the list for the first time as it reached rated capacity. Production at Tasu and
Granduc dropped just below 1 million tonnes in 1978 so are not included. Granduc
produced only until June when it was closed and later sold.
Six intermediate mines operated in 1978, each of which produced between
100 000 and 1 000 000 tonnes. Besides Granduc and Tasu, these include the
Lynx and Myra, Boss Mountain, Phoenix, and HB. Strictly speaking, Phoenix
closed as a mine but continued producing from the low-grade stockpile. All operating medium mines are underground mines. Granduc and Lynx and Myra are
massive sulphide deposits, Tasu and Phoenix skarn deposits, Boss Mountain a
porphyry molybdenum deposit, and HB a stratiform lead-zinc deposit. The
aggregate tonnage of medium mines was 2 881 231 tonnes or 3.3 per cent of the
total.
There were four small mines with production between 1 000 and 100 000
tonnes a year. These are all underground mines producing from vein deposits
whose principal values are in silver or gold and silver with by-product base metals.
The mines in order of production tonnage are the Warman (Northair), Highland
Bell, Horn Silver, and Silmonac.
Changes during 1978 did not include opening of any new major mines but two
mines closed, one it appears temporarily. The HB mine near Salmo exhausted its
reserves and closed in August after mining about 6.7 million tonnes mainly between
1955 and 1966 and again from 1973 to 1978. The Granduc mine near Stewart
ceased operations in June but was under investigation with regard to purchase by
Esso Minerals before the end of the year.  Among small mines the Astra (Van
 22
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Silver) closed but the Scranton, Bluebird, and Ottawa, all of which produced more
than 1 000 tonnes in 1977, produced less in 1978.
Concentrating
In 1978, 29 concentrators operated (see Table 3-12). Six treated copper ore,
five copper-molybdenum, 13 lead-zinc-(silver-gold), two molybdenum, two copper-
iron, and one copper-lead-zinc ores. Bethlehem started operating a new molybdenum circuit during the year reflecting the increased price of this metal. The old
circuit operated in 1964-66. Many of the lead-zinc-silver concentrators are old
ones in the Slocan with a small throughput. The Phoenix mill continued producing
from low-grade stockpile but closed finally in October 1978. The HB concentrator
was closed and moth-balled for possible custom work in the future.
Smelting, Refining, and Destination oj Concentrates
Most of the lead-zinc concentrates produced in the Province are smelted and
refined here as well as some from outside the Province, but, for the first time since
the closure of the Anyox smelter in 1933, copper was smelted within British Columbia. The Afton rotary top-blown converter started continuous operations in
March 1978, producing 5 995 tonnes of blister copper. This unique smelter near
Kamloops is operated by Teck Corporation in conjunction with the Afton porphyry
copper mine which produces low sulphur concentrates. The Trail lead-zinc smelter
and refinery of Cominco Ltd. was continued with its modernization to improve
environmental aspects and productivity. Molybdenum concentrates are also processed at Endako where both molybdic trioxide and ferromolybdenum are both
produced.
The smelter at Trail received concentrates and scrap from a number of
sources—principally company mines within the Province (Sullivan and HB), the
Pine Point in the Northwest Territories, and custom sources both inside and outside
the Province. The smelter received 138 170 tonnes of lead concentrates and
134 980 tonnes of zinc concentrates from the Sullivan and HB mines, and 10 760
tonnes of lead concentrates and 5 210 tonnes of zinc concentrates from other
British Columbia mines. The total value of concentrates, including by-product
metal from British Columbia treated at Trail, was $130 177 040 or 15.9 per cent
of metal production of the Province in 1978.
Endako shipped products containing 6 030 967 kilograms of molybdenum.
Of this, 10 176 tonnes was molybdic trioxide, and 200 tonnes was ferromolybdenum.
The proportions of the total value of metal production going to the various
destinations are not known accurately but are approximately as follows: Smelted
or treated in British Columbia, $134.2 million (16.4 per cent); shipped to other
parts of Canada, $58.0 million (7.1 per cent); exported to Japan, $420.1 million
(51.2 per cent); exported to the United States, $68.0 million (8.3 per cent);
exported to Europe, $128.4 million (15.7 per cent); other or unattributed, $11.1
million (1.3 per cent).
The destination of concentrates of the major metals is as discussed following
and shown in Table 3-13.
Copper concentrates produced in British Columbia were shipped to the following destinations: Eastern Canada, 80 622 tonnes; the United States, 26 972
tonnes; Japan, 770 684 tonnes; Germany, 36 733 tonnes; elsewhere, 59 916 tonnes.
Details of the disposition of molybdenum (13 055 203 kilograms valued at
$167 714 272) are not precisely ascertainable but from known sales, almost 44 per
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
23
cent of the total was shipped to Europe and about 28 per cent to Japan.   The
balance was disposed of to many other countries and eastern Canada.
Zinc concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
30 918 tonnes, of which 27 551 tonnes were shipped to the United States and 3 367
tonnes shipped to Japan.
Iron concentrates produced in British Columbia were sold to the following
markets: Japan, 371711 tonnes; the United States, 152 602 tonnes; Australia,
30 668 tonnes; Canada, 61 088 tonnes.
Lead concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
598 tonnes and were shipped to the United States.
Non-metallic Mines
Industrial minerals in British Columbia with production value greater than
$1 million include asbestos, sulphur, gypsum, jade, and granules (see Table 1-1).
Asbestos is by far the most important, its production value of $47.1 million representing 79 per cent of the total for all industrial mineral production. Asbestos
production is entirely from the Cassiar mine which was on strike from September
15, 1978, until January 15, 1979. Sulphur is produced entirely as a by-product,
chiefly from Cominco Ltd.'s roasting operations, but also from sour gas production
in the Peace River. Gypsum is produced chiefly at the Windermere quarry at
Westroc Industries Limited (733 080 tonnes). Granules are produced in many
small quantities but production was dominated by the International Marble & Stone
Company Ltd. with a plant at Sirdar near Creston. In 1978 production of jade
again exceeded $1 million. Production came from many sources but the main
mines are working in situ nephrite at Mount Ogden (Continental Jade Ltd.), east
of Dease Lake (Cry Lake Minerals Ltd. and Nephro-Jade Canada Ltd.), and at
the Cassiar asbestos mine.
Barite, an important industrial mineral, not specifically listed in Table 1-1,
was produced by Mountain Minerals Limited from three small underground mines
near Brisco, Parson, and Torrent and tailings from the Mineral King mine at Toby
Creek, all in the East Kootenays.
The dominant structural materials produced are sand and gravel, cement,
limestone, clay products, and riprap, crushed rock, and building stone. Individual
mines and quarries are not shown on Figure 1-6. Many of these products are
produced at a large number of small quarries, some of which have very intermittent
production. Limestone production is dominated by four mines (Ideal, Imperial,
Vananda, and Domtar) on Texada Island. The Cobble Hill quarry (British Columbia Cement Company Limited) on Vancouver Island is being phased out.
Significant operations are also located at Harper Ranch near Kamloops (Canada
Cement Lafarge Ltd.), Ptarmigan Creek near Quesnel (Quesnel Redi-Mix Cement
Co. Ltd.), and Pavilion Lake (Steel Brothers Canada Limited).
Clay and shale production in British Columbia is dominated by Clayburn
Industries Ltd.'s pit and plant near Abbotsford, with lesser production by Haney
Brick and Tile Limited, east of Haney.
Coal
Coal is the third most valuable mineral commodity to British Columbia,
following copper and natural gas, and improved its position vis-a-vis these products
in 1978. Although coal is widely distributed in the Province, the major producing
mines are at present concentrated in the Crowsnest Coalfield of southeast British
 24 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Columbia. They are represented by five symbols on Figure 1-6 for (1) Fording
Coal Limited's two open pits, (2) Kaiser Resources Ltd.'s open-pit complex
(Harmer Ridge), (3) Kaiser's two underground mines (Balmer North and
Hydraulic), (4) Coleman Collieries Limited's Tent Mountain open-pit mine, and
(5) Byron Creek Collieries Limited's open pit. The only other producing coal
mine is Bulkley Valley Collieries Limited's mine at Telkwa which was a very minor
producer of thermal coal. The Sukunka colliery of BP Minerals Limited near
Chetwynd operated to test mining methods during part of the year. Production
for Kaiser's and Fording's mines are consolidated in Table 3-8B so that only five
operations are shown. Kaiser Resources Ltd. and Fording Coal Limited produced
94 per cent of the coal mined in the Province in 1978.
Some salient facts about coal production in 1978 are as follows:
(1) Coal production was up significantly to 9 463 920 tonnes, a new
record, 6 per cent above the previous record in 1975.
(2) Clean coal output was up 6 per cent to 9 093 048 tonnes.
(3) The value of coal sold and used was $381 895 241, up 16.1 per
cent to a new record.
(4) About 93.4 per cent of raw coal produced in 1978 comes from
surface mining operations, virtually unchanged since 1977.
(5) About 89 per cent of raw coal produced was metallurgical coal.
(6) The percentage of clean to raw coal remained at 74 per cent.
The diversification of markets started in 1977 continued in 1978. Although
coal sales to Japan increased to over 7 million tonnes, up 2.2 per cent, they now
represent only 74.2 per cent of total production. Shipments to many countries
were up and Spain, Italy, Sweden, and Taiwan were new recipients. Major shipments were as follows:
Tonnes
Korea  471 368
Denmark   284 408
Romania   241 706
Brazil    190 792
Belgium   132 351
Spain   123 886
Italy     93 304
Sweden       52 159
Mexico     41 822
Taiwan        26 756
Argentina     18 389
United States       3 791
Shipments in Canada were up 61.6 per cent, with 344 722 tonnes to Ontario
Hydro, 56 956 tonnes to Manitoba, and 120 tonnes to Nova Scotia. Use in British
Columbia was up also with 292 005 tonnes used for coke, an increase of 93.4 per
cent but other uses dropped about 3 per cent to 62 437 tonnes.
EXPLORATION
Exploration during 1978 showed a significant increase over the previous year,
the third year in sequence this has occurred. All the indices used by the Ministry
to measure exploration effort were up in 1978, except total geophysics. Programs
were generally at more mature stages than in 1977 so expenditures, especially in
metals exploration, increased significantly.   Exploration for uranium in particular
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
25
progressed to the stage where extensive drilling occurred. In contrast coal
exploration was only up slightly and that for industrial minerals and structural
materials was down from the very high figure of 1977.
Table 1-5—Indices oj Metal Exploration
1975
1976
1977
1978
Exploration expenditure	
$
22 100 000
$
27 183 927
$
26 177 389
37 151*
39 711
7 566
520
564
110 303.6
14 623.5
$
29 475 341
11 751*
39 403
8 484
28 970*
36 729
7 826
37 242*
Certificates of work	
65 705
Free miners certificates—
Individual  	
9 444
Companies 	
562    I               555
409    j               433
92 802    |          97 277
4 835     1               4 267
531
Number of properties —	
647
Total drilling (metres)	
154 177
Total geophysical surveys (kilometres 1	
9 135.5
* Unit modified grid system.
Metallic Minerals
The indices of metal exploration are indicated in Table 1-5 compared to the
three previous years. All indices are up except kilometres of geophysical surveys.
Total expenditure was up 12.6 per cent; claims recorded, +0.2 per cent; certificates
of work, +65 per cent; individual free miners certificates, -|-25 per cent; and
companies, +2 per cent; number of properties receiving work, +18 per cent;
total drilling, +40 per cent; and total geophysical surveys, —37.5 per cent. The
last index although down from 1977 was more than double the previous two years.
This slight decrease plus the large increase in drilling indicates maturing of exploration programs and principally those related to uranium. The number of free
miners' certificates extant has been decreasing steadily for the last five years until
the significant reversal of this trend in 1978.
The metals most sought in 1978 appeared to be molybdenum, uranium,
tungsten, and tin. A notable feature of the 1978 exploration scene was the relatively low level of porphyry copper investigations, a reflection of depressed world
copper prices over the past three years. However, exploration and development
of massive sulphide deposits containing copper, zinc, gold, and silver increased over
1977.
The most active metal exploration areas in the Province included, from north
to south: The Surprise Lake-Atlin area (uranium, tungsten/tin), Kechika-Gataga
Rivers of the northern Rocky Mountains (stratiform lead/zinc), Fraser Lake-
Vanderhoof and Central Interior (uranium), Barkerville area (placer gold), North
Thompson River area (stratiform copper), Highland Valley-Aspen Grove area
(porphyry molybdenum/copper), and the southeast Okanagan-Boundary area
(uranium).
Massive sulphide prospects explored in 1978 included two in the Coast Range:
the Nifty near Bella Coola, drilled by Pan Ocean, and Maggie Mines' property near
Howe Sound north of Vancouver, drilled by Canex Placer. Regional exploration
was conducted in the Omineca area northwest of Prince George and near Barriere
Lakes north of Kamloops where several prospects in Paleozoic rocks were drilled.
One of these programs disclosed interesting copper mineralization in acid volcanic
rocks on the Chu Chua property, owned by the Vestor group of companies and
under option to Craigmont.
 26 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Lead/zinc deposits explored in southeast British Columbia included the Vine
deposit at Moyie Lake, drilled by Cominco, and the Cottonbelt Shuswap-type
deposit, drilled by Metallgesellschaft.
Significant lead/zinc/barite deposits in Upper Devonian/Mississippian black
shale sequences in the Kechika River area of northeast British Columbia attracted
considerable attention. Gataga Joint Venture conducted a major drilling program
at Driftpile Creek and Cyprus Anvil drilled a similar deposit to the southeast. Also
in northern British Columbia, exploration drilling continued on the Suzie property
where galena and sphalerite occur in dolomitized limestone.
One of the most active exploration areas in the Province was in the Atlin-
Jennings River-Cassiar area where considerable effort was directed to the search
for tungsten and tin. Three types of tin occurrences are known in the part of
northwest British Columbia and adjacent Yukon. Cassiterite occurs in the gold
placer creeks east of Atlin which drain the Surprise Lake batholith which hosts
quartz/wolframite veins with tin as a minor constituent. Minor tin is associated
with scheelite at the Adanac molybdenum property, and in skarns in the general
area.
At Trout Lake, 56 kilometres southeast of Revelstoke, drilling of a significant
molybdenum discovery by Newmont and Esso Minerals is continuing to further
define a reported 275-metre intersection of 0.40 per cent MoS2. An underground
exploration program is under consideration for 1979.
Exploration programs for gold and silver included Tournigan Mining's drilling
and underground work at Big Missouri north of Stewart, and projects by several
companies on gold mineralization on Porcher and Banks Islands south of Prince
Rupert and on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Government Programs to Encourage Exploration
Ongoing geological programs include regional mapping in areas of mineral
potential and studies directed to the better understanding of ore deposits. Related
programs include reconnaissance geochemical surveys in selected areas, principally
through the three-year Federal/Provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program
(URP) which was completed in 1978. This program involved the collection of
stream sediments and waters at a sample site density of one per 13 square kilometres. Waters are analysed for fluorine and uranium and sediments for uranium
and up to 11 other elements. To the end of 1978, six 1:250 000 map sheets have
been published, including five in southeastern British Columbia and the Atlin sheet
in the northwestern part of the Province. The 1978 sampling program included the
Jennings River-McDame map-area east of Atlin, and survey results were made
available in the spring of 1979 (see Fig. 2-2).
The 1978 Accelerated Mineral Development Program, funded by $5 million
made available through Bill 5, Revenue Surplus oj 1976-77 Appropriation Act,
1978, included an Accelerated Geochemical Survey of two map-areas in west-
central British Columbia. This program is modelled after the Uranium Reconnaissance Program except that sample site density was one per 8 square kilometres.
Data from this program were to be released in the late spring of 1979.
The Accelerated Mineral Development Program also expanded existing Ministry programs including Prospectors' Assistance, funds for mineral roads, and mine
sites reclamation. In addition, funds were made available to assist with labour
costs for underground mine development and property exploration, and for the
Mineral Exploration Incentive Program which reimbursed junior mining companies
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978
27
and prospectors for one third of field expenditures up to a maximum of $50 000.
Details of the Accelerated Mineral Development Program are given in Chapter 2
(pp. 43-45).
Major Exploration Activity
Nine properties were reported as completing programs exceeding more than
3 000 metres of drilling or 300 metres of underground development. These non-
producing properties, defined as conducting major exploration by the above criteria,
are listed below.
Bank, Waller (Hecate Gold Corporation), 103G/8E—a replacement gold
deposit in shear zones on the west coast of Banks Island, a 427-metre
decline.
Jeff (Imperial Oil Limited), 104I/1W—a bedded, massive copper/zinc
sulphide deposit at the head of Kutcho Creek, 130 kilometres east of
Dease Lake, 8 933 metres of diamond drilling.
Nu, Elk (Placer Development Limited), 93K/3E—west end of Endako
molybdenum porphyry deposit, 10 797 metres of percussion drilling and
5 053 metres of diamond drilling.
Idaho (Carolin Mines Ltd.), 92H/11W—a disseminated gold deposit near
Hope, 6 155 metres of underground diamond drilling.
Sullivan Mine Area (Cominco Ltd.), 82F/9E; 82G/12W—stratabound
iron/lead/zinc sulphide lens at Kimberley, 4 865.9 metres of surface
diamond drilling and 1 000 metres of underground diamond drilling.
Blizzard (Norcen Energy Resources Limited), 82E/10W—uranium in loosely
consolidated sediments underlying Tertiary plateau basalt at Lassie Lake,
Beaverdell area, 294 diamond-drill holes, 15 000 metres and 47 rotary
holes, 2 000 metres.
Trout Lake (Newmont Exploration of Canada Limited), 82K/12E—molybdenum porphyry deposit 4 kilometres west of Trout Lake village, five
diamond-drill holes, 4 298 metres.
PR (Gold Fields Mining Corporation), 39A/12W—copper porphyry, 8 kilometres west of Quesnel Forks, percussion drilling, 4 063 metres and
diamond drilling, 1 596 metres.
Ned (Granges Exploration Aktiebolag), 93F/6—a zinc/lead/silver/gold
deposit in rhyolite at the east end of Capoose Lake, 63 percussion drill
holes, 3 688.1 metres.
Development and Feasibility Studies
Development of previously explored deposits increased significantly in 1978.
The Sam Goosly copper/silver deposit south of Smithers was optioned from
Equity Mining/Kennco by Canex Placer in mid-year. Additional development
drilling and metallurgical studies are under way pending a production decision. Esso
Minerals continued drilling the significant Kutcho massive sulphide deposit in northwest British Columbia, part of which is held by Sumitomo who have reported at
least 9 million tonnes of good grade copper/zinc mineralization.
Underground development and mill construction went on at the Nu-Energy
gold deposit near Cassiar where production and mill tune-up started in December
1978. Feasibility studies continued at the Carolin gold property near Hope. A
major drilling program was continued by Amax on Logtung, a significant stockwork
tungsten/molybdenum property on the British Columbia/Yukon border.
 28 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Two potentially economic types of uranium deposit have been identified in
British Columbia. Rexspar is a volcanogenic deposit in which uranium minerals
and fluorite occur in Paleozoic trachytic volcanic rocks. The Blizzard, southeast
of Kelowna, is a basal or paleo-stream channel deposit in which secondary uranium
minerals are contained in poorly consolidated Tertiary sediments preserved beneath
a Pliocene basalt cap. Continued drilling of this deposit, owned by Lacana and
under option to Norcen, has indicated the presence of 1.9 million tonnes of 0.17 per
cent U3Os.
Non-metallic Minerals
Costs of exploration and development for industrial minerals, structural
materials, and placer in 1978 decreased from $559 065 to $459 280. However,
the 1977 figure was abnormally high due to major capital costs that year, and the
1978 figure still represents a dramatic increase over expenditures of previous years.
The following major projects took place in 1978. Barite exploration was
concentrated in the northeastern Rockies and the East Kootenays. The Letain
asbestos prospect near Kutcho Creek was explored by 4 500 metres of diamond
drilling. Exploration for gypsum near Canal Flats, limestone near Terrace and at
Holberg Inlet, talc near Hope, and phosphate near Fernie continued on a small
scale. Laboratory testing, feasibility studies, and development work on a mica
property near Valemount, perlite prospects near the Empire Valley and at Uncha
Lake, and on a silica property near Golden were indicative of renewed interest in
these commodities.
Coal
Distribution oj Coalfields
The principal coal resources of the Province occur in comparatively narrow
linear belts within the Intermontane basins of the East Kootenay area (the Crows-
nest Coalfield) and the Inner Foothills region of northeastern British Columbia (the
Peace River Coalfield). These deposits of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age
contain major reserves of medium to low-volatile bituminous coal, generally suitable for the production of metallurgical coke.
In addition to the above-described mountain coals, local deposits of lignite,
sub-bituminous, high-volatile bituminous, and semi-anthracite coals, of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age, occur in widely scattered areas of British Columbia.
Size and economic potential of most of these, including reserves in the former coalmining areas of Vancouver Island, are comparatively small, although they are of
potential value for power development as energy costs continue to increase. An
exception of the foregoing is the Hat Creek property, which is a Tertiary lignite of
limited areal extent but of remarkable thickness, and possibly the coals of the
Groundhog Coalfield of north-central British Columbia.
Coal Exploration
On February 10, 1978, the moritorium on the issuance of coal licences ended,
resulting in the granting of 1 036 coal licences, totalling 257 960 hectares in the
Province, bringing the total to 501 076 hectares comprising 2 103 coal licences,
thus doubling the area of coal lands held. In addition, there were a further 525
coal licence applications, totalling 95 510 hectares, being considered at the end of
the year. There were no coal licences surrendered. Unfortunately most of the
coal licences were issued well on in the field season, thus allowing little time for
exploration generated from acquisition in 1978. Nevertheless, coal exploration
was up marginally in 1978 with a total of $19 800 923.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1978 29
Activity in the Peace River again was very intensive and greater than in the
Crowsnest. Other significant activity occurred at Hat Creek, Comox, Similkameen,
and Telkwa Coalfields.
Programs with greater than 3 000 metres of total drilling took place at the
following properties, from south to north:
Crowsnest Coalfield
Michel (Kaiser Resources Ltd.)—71 rotary drill holes, 9 550 metres; seven
adits.
Line Creek (Shell Canada Resources Limited)—19 diamond-drill holes,
4 747 metres; 12 rotary drill holes, 3 079 metres; four adits.
Greenhills (Kaiser Resources Ltd.)—two diamond-drill holes, 560 metres;
19 rotary drill holes, 2 850 metres; two adits.
Hat Creek Coalfield
Hat Creek (British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority)—28 diamond-
drill holes, 7 323 metres; seven rotary drill holes, 882 metres.
Peace River Coalfield
Saxon (Denison Coal Limited)—nine diamond-drill holes, 3 474 metres;
14 rotary drill holes, 929 metres.
Belcourt (Denison Coal Limited)—16 diamond-drill holes, 5 332 metres.
Monkman-Belcourt   (Pacific Petroleum Ltd.)—30  diamond-drill  holes,
9 647 metres: 22 rotary drill holes, 2 292 metres.
Mount  Spieker  [Ranger  Oil   (Canada)   Ltd.]—18  diamond-drill  holes,
12 988 metres.
Sukunka [BP Exploration (Canada) Ltd.]—10 diamond-drill holes, 2 551
metres; 20 rotary drill holes, 5 050 metres.
 I  •
:• ■■>■"> : ■]
..  .....■■■ :
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1978 31
THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY IN 1978
By the Staff of the Petroleum Resources Branch
Drilling activity continued to increase during 1978 with the number of wells
up 30 per cent over 1977 and up 390 per cent over 1975. Production of oil and
gas, however, was down 9 and 10 per cent respectively due mainly to reasons other
than decreased productivity, as described below. Industry's interest in Crown
land acquisition remained high during the year with proceeds from sales amounting
to $177.5 million compared to $125.5 million in 1977. The following are tabulations of the petroleum industry fiscal data for 1978:
Table 1-6—Value oj Production oj Petroleum Industry, 1978
$
Crude oil   145 005 524
Field condensate        1836 217
Marketable natural gas   401 373 236
Gas plant liquids      34 754 856
Total  582 969 834
Table 1-7—Provincial Revenue From Petroleum Industry, 1978
$
Rentals and fees     19 048 999
Crown reserve dispositions   177 459 648
Royalties (oil, gas, and products)      43 339 456
Gas revenue from B.C. Petroleum Corporation  159 400 000
Total  399 248 103
DRILLING
Growth in annual drilling operations and the length of the drilling season
significantly increased for the third successive year. The total wells drilled was
30 per cent greater than in 1977. The footage of wells drilled as step-outs to
established production was 71 per cent higher than in 1977. Wildcat footage, at
locations far removed from the established pools, was up 31 per cent while development drilling within producing fields gained 6 per cent. Again, an increase in the
amount of drilling during the summer months was evident as operations increased
rapidly in June and continued at a high level until year-end. A shortage of available
drilling rigs, especially during the winter months, imposed a constraint on the level
of activity,
The total number of wells drilled was 393. Footage drilled was 2 110 948
(643 428.1 metres), an increase of over 30 per cent from the previous year. All
categories of wells recorded increases over 1977. There were 202 gas wells, 71 oil
wells, and 129 abandonments—up 22, 84, and 9 per cent. In addition four wells
were completed as service wells and two were assigned standing status. As in
previous compilations, if more than one zone is completed in a well, each productive zone is counted as one well. Fifteen multiple zone completions were made in
1978 making the total number of wells recorded as 408. Included in the count
are five wells that had been drilled in previous years which were re-entered and
deepened.
All of the activity, limited to the northeastern corner of the Province, was
accomplished by 71 individual drilling rigs that were owned by 34 drilling contractor firms and employed by 87 different oil companies.
 32 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
On July 1, 1978, all drilling operations were converted to SI. This caused
considerable confusion in field operations which continued until acceptance and
experience of the system improved. At year-end only minor problems could be
attributed to the conversion.
PRODUCTION
Oil production for 1978 was 12 609 176 barrels, down 9 per cent from 1977.
Several incidents contributed to this decrease. A major fire in the Boundary Lake
field caused a significant disruption to production as did an oil pipeline break.
Another factor that adversely affected the oil production was a decrease in demand
for asphaltic-type crude from Boundary Lake during the first part of the year.
However, after August 1978, oil production was slightly higher than for the same
period in 1977 at nearly 40 000 barrels per day.
The concentrated developments in the Eagle area moved the field into prominence and to fourth largest-producing oil field in the Province. The largest-
producing oil fields during the year were Boundary Lake, 5 618 791 barrels; Inga,
1 349 943 barrels; Peejay, 1 123 542 barrels; and Eagle, 1 014 944 barrels.
Gas production for 1978 also decreased compared to 1977. The nonasso-
ciated raw gas production was 341 051 255 MCF compared to 379 599 825 MCF
in 1977. Although additional gas was available from the newly connected areas of
Grizzly, Velma, and Dahl, the over-all production was down 10 per cent. The use
of natural gas by the domestic market was a slight 2 per cent higher while the
volume delivered to export was 11 per cent down. The demand by the export
market continually decreased since May and presented a problem in the marketing
of the gas supply producible in the Province.
Yoyo was again the largest gas-producing field reporting 65 162 982 MCF.
It was followed by Clarke Lake, 49 684 731 MCF, Sierra, 28 650 148 MCF, and
Laprise Creek, 28 811 243 MCF.
In order to maintain or improve production, applications by industry to convert wells to salt-water disposal service were approved in the Dahl, Grizzly, Siphon,
Velma, and Yoyo fields and in the Klua (2) and South Julienne areas.
Two applications by Union Oil Company for approval of modifications to the
waterflood schemes in the Crush and Wildmint fields were approved. In addition,
it was agreed that additional oil recovered as a result of the modifications would
only be subject to new oil royalty rates.
Applications for Good Engineering Practice and the concurrent production of
oil and gas were approved for the Altares Bluesky pool, Fort St. John Nancy pool,
South Grizzly Unit Dunlevy pool, Pocketknife Debolt pool, Sierra Pine Point A
pool, Weasel Halfway F pool, Boundary Lake North Halfway C and D pools,
Buick Creek Doig pool, Fireweed b-26-D/94-A-14 Doig pool, Flatrock Halfway
C pool, North Pine 6-13-85-18 North Pine pool, Nettle Gething pool, and Nig
Creek d-53-A/94-H-4 Baldonnel pool. All approvals were conditional on conservation of gas production.
Following the issuance of an order by the Minister requiring conservation of
solution gas produced from wells in the Eagle Belloy oil pools, a number of oil
wells in the Belloy F pool were shut-in to await installation of recovery facilities.
OPERATION PROBLEMS IN THE FIELD
During 1978, no major oil spills occurred at field production facilities; however, one pipeline incident and one wellhead mishap are worthy of mention.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1978 33
The only major pipeline spill which this section monitored occurred when the
8-inch Norcen pipeline in the Wildmint field ruptured due to stress that had been
imposed on the pipe during road construction in the fall of 1977. The rupture
point was approximately 20 metres from the north side of the East Milligan Creek.
Oil spill equipment was installed at a control point on the main Milligan Creek,
and by using booms, skimmers, and associated equipment, the majority of the
estimated 2 100 barrels spilled was recovered.
The second incident of note occurred at the well GPD Eagle 6-22-84-18, in
the newly developed Eagle oil field. It appeared that the 100-barrel oil spill was
due to the fact that both the master valve and the wing valve on the wellhead had
been opened to about four turns of the valve wheel. The reason for these valves
being opened is not known, but appeared to be a deliberate act of vandalism. Due
to quick actions taken by both the landowner and by Norcen Energy Resources
Limited, a major oil spill was averted. Cleanup operations took place immediately and minimal damage was incurred.
During 1978 no major incidents occurred at drilling sites. One near accident
took place at Nuggett Drilling Rig No. 3 during September 1978 when, due to
instability of the lease surface, anchor lines were pulled out and the derrick toppled.
No damage was done to the blowout preventor system, and the well was safely shut
in. After removal of old rig debris, another rig was moved on and drilling operations were concluded.
A fire occurred during August 1978 at Texaco Boundary Lake A battery.
The cause of the fire, which totally destroyed the header house and separator
building, was attributed to sparks igniting the flow of oil and gas when the cast top
blew off a check valve on one of the group oil separators. Oil production at this
battery, which normally runs at 6 000 barrels of oil per day, was regained to about
90 per cent by the use of temporary field headers and by tieing in the field satellites
directly to the treaters.
EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Exploratory and development drilling activity for the 1978 calendar year set
a new record high with a total of 393 wells drilled and re-entered compared to 310
wells drilled and re-entered in the previous corresponding period (Fig. 4-20). The
over-all drilling program was slightly weighted in favour of exploratory over
development activity with 203 and 190 assigned to each classification respectively.
Approximately 75 per cent of this total activity took place within the general Fort
St. John area.
Exploratory drilling (wildcats and outsteps) carried out in all areas of the
northeastern sector of the Province, with exception of the Liard Plateau, resulted
in 21 oil completions and 97 gas completions, for an over-all success ratio of 58 per
cent. A further breakdown of this activity shows that 65 wells resulted in extensions
to established reserves, 5 in New Pool oil discoveries and 48 in New Pool gas
discoveries.
All of the oil and 28 of the New Pool gas discoveries were made in the
Mesozoic rock sequences of the Fort St. John area. The remaining 20 gas discoveries were completed in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the
general Fort Nelson and Foothills Belt areas. For the most part the Cretaceous
and Triassic horizons were the favoured objectives in the southern areas with the
Middle Devonian reefs the primary horizon of interest in the northern area.
 34
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
None of the successful exploratory wells completed in 1978 can be given
major gas discovery status. However, several of the Middle Devonian reef wells
drilled in the Sierra South area encountered substantial gas reserves. New Pool
discoveries in the Fort St. John area resulted in minimal additions to reserves while
those wells completed to the south along the Grizzly-Sukunka gas trend could offer
a greater volume of reserve with subsequent successful development drilling. In
the area drilling is expected to maintain the current rate of high activity as a result
of the completion in 1978 of the Grizzly-Chetwynd gas transmission facility.
Development drilling activity resulted in 142 completions out of a total 190
wells drilled, for a success ratio of 75 per cent. Most of the development drilling
took place within the general Fort St. John area with successful oil and gas infill
and extension wells to a number of established pools. The most active areas
included oil development in the Eagle and Stoddart West pools. Gas reserve
development was carried out in all areas although the greater part of this activity
centred in the Fort St. John area within close proximity of existing gas transmission
facilities.
Geophysical activity set a new record for the year with a slight increase in crew
weeks over the previous corresponding period (Fig. 4-21). This increase in geophysical effort would indicate a continuation of the current high drilling activity
for the coming year. Geophysical crews were active over most of the prospective
northeast sector of the Province, with the areas northeast of Fort Nelson and south
of the Peace River receiving most of the activity. Within the Foothills Belt area the
conventional type of geophysical survey was supplemented by portable crew and
helicopter support programs with encouraging results. A total of 243 projects was
approved during the year.
Table 1-8—Oil Discoveries, 1978
Well
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Location
Total
Depth
(Metres)
Productive
Horizon
4506
7 26-87-19   .
1 525.0
1 265.0
1 555.0
1 587.0
1 305.0
4508
OIL Wolf	
d-80-A/94-A-15
11-2-87-19
4509
4585
7-2-83-16 - ..
D-50-1/94-A-13
4616
Table 1-9—Gas Discoveries, 1978
Well
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Location
Total
Depth
(Metres)
Productive
Horizon
3915
Skelly Getty CS Commotion	
a-23-D/93-P-12
a-81-A/94-P-10
D-57-G/93-I-9
4 572.0
2 045.2
3 998.7
2 865.1
2 723.7
1 588.0
2 209.8
2 329.9
2 325.6
883.9
1 882.2
1 780.0
2 374.4
1 591.4
2 452.1
3924
3976
4029
d^8-I/93-14 .
C-31-K/93-P-5
4043
4138
b-84-C/94-H-4	
4182
4198
Mobil Sierra,  	
d-64-K/94-I-ll
d-29-L/94-I-ll.
a-51-L/94-I-ll
C-100-A/94-H-3
b-5-A/94-P-4	
Pine Point.
4202
4217
4227
Cdn Res Dome Cons Suhm 	
Chevron Amoco Ekwan 	
4230
d-65-E/94-I-10	
4232
d-59-I/94-B-9
Debolt.
4249
Pacific HBOG Boucher	
8-26-82-23    .
4252
Pacific Union Kelly 	
b-28-I/93-P-l	
Cadotte.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1978
35
Well
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Location
Total
Depth
(Metres)
Productive
Horizon
4263
b-22-A/94-H-6	
1 025.7
2 675.5
2 331.7
1 623.1
1 306.0
952.5
1 082.0
571.5
1 770.9
2 347.0
2 046.6
716.3
1 578.9
1 204.9
517.6
1 691.0
1 219.2
2 926.1
1 402.1
1 362.5
3 327.5
1 267.0
3 100.0
2 119.1
869.0
850.8
3 258.0
2 140.0
1 329.2
2 305.8
2 059.7
1 705.0
785.0
Gething.
Dunlevy.
4275
C-34-F/93-P-8   	
4276
ATAPCO PCP Klua
d-90-B/94-JT-9
4288
d-17-J/94-A-13
d-39-E/94-H-6
a-67-C/94-H-9
4309
GEOG et al Martin	
4316
Cdn Res et al Dahl	
4317
Cdn Res et al Dahl   	
a-9-C/94-H-9
Bluesky.
4325
C-94-J/94-I-1  .
4328
CZAR et al Goldenrod 	
b-88-C/94-A-13
d-98-B/94-I-14	
4331
Mobil et al Sierra	
4343
b-8-K/94-I-12
4345
a-71-B/94-P-2
Bluesky.
Halfway.
Bluesky.
Debolt.
4347
10-4-88-25
4348
C-92-K/94-A-15
b-56-E/94-I-10...	
a-49-B/94-G-15
d-59-L/94-H-8
4367
4372
Gulf Trutch           	
4393
4400
b-82-A/93-P-l
4402
10-14-86-17
4404
4430
Ashland Numac Jeans 	
BP et al W Doe  	
d-71-B/94-A-13
11-1-81-15
Confidential.
4436
Pacific et al Laprise  	
d-39-E/94-H-5	
4480
C-34-B/93-P-10
10-12-86-22
4488
4492
10-11-80-15
4493
11-9-80-15
4514
4526
Cdn Res Bougie    	
d-ll-F/94-G-15
6-34-84-20
Confidential.
4565
4571
Wainoco BCRIC Sojer  	
d-47-K/94-H-4.
C-A56-E/94-G-1
10-27-86-21	
Confidential.
4582
Westcoast GAO N Red	
4586
4604
Highfield et al Aspen  	
a-81-F/94-A-13	
10-33-79-16	
Confidential.
LAND DISPOSITION
There were seven dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum and natural gas
rights held during 1978. These resulted in tender bonus bids amounting to a record
total of $177 458 367.82, an increase of $51 990 642.32 from the previous year.
The total bonus figure of $67 293 219.34 for the January sale was a record high
for any such land sale in Canada. A total of 906 parcels was offered, an increase
of 120 over 1977, with bids acceptable on 739 parcels, an increase of 132 over
1977, covering 1727 588 acres (699 155 hectares), a decrease of 608 606 acres
(246 303 hectares). It is of interest while the total parcels purchased increased
substantially, the acreage purchased decreased substantially. This is a direct result
of fewer permit parcels being offered for purchase and more lease parcels being
offered and purchased.
  Activity of the Ministry
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 2—Activity of the Ministry  37
History and Development  39
New Mandate  __ 39
Legislation  39
Organization  40
Appointments and Retirements  40
Accelerated Mineral Development Program  43
Branch Activity  47
Mineral Resources Branch  47
Inspection and Engineering Division  47
Staff  47
Staff Changes  48
Mine Safety  48
Mine Rescue  49
Safety of Mechanical/Electrical Equipment  50
Reclamation  51
Mining and Petroleum Roads  53
Geological Division  5 3
Objectives and Organization .  53
Staff    53
Staff Changes  54
The Work of the Division  55
Project Geology  55
Applied Geology  5 6
Resource Data and Analysis Section  57
Analytical Laboratory  5 7
Publications  5 8
Titles Division  59
Staff  59
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver)  60
Mineral and Placer Title Maps  62
Coal  62
Economics and Planning Division  62
Objectives  62
Staff  63
Review of Activities  63
Petroleum Resources Branch  65
Organization  65
Engineering Division  65
Geological Division  66
Titles Division  66
Staff  66
Staff Changes  67
37
 38 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Page
Highlights of Petroleum Resources Branch Activities  67
Legislation  67
Mediation and Arbitration Board  68
Engineering Division  6 8
Development Engineering  69
Drilling and Production Engineering  69
Reservoir Engineering  70
Geological Division  72
Economic Geology  72
Reservoir Geology  72
Titles Division  7 3
Mineral Revenue Division  75
Coal Royalty Regulations Under the Coal Act  75
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements under the Mineral Act  75
Mineral Land Tax Act  76
Mineral Royalties Act  77
Mineral Resource Tax Act  77
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties  77
Mines Assessors' Conference  79
Finance and Administration Division  79
Accounts Section  79
Library  79
Publications :  80
Personnel  80
FIGURES
2-1    Organization chart, Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources,
November 1978  41
2-2    Organization, administration, and budget and expenditure of the Accelerated Mineral Development Program  44
2-3    Geological and geochemical project areas, district geologist offices, 1978 55
TABLES
2-1    Gold Commissioners and Claim Inspectors  60
2-2    Gold Commissioners' and Mining Recorders' Office Statistics, 1978  61
2-3    Statistics from Coal Licences, 1978  62
2-4    Mineral Land Tax Assessment Roll  76
2-5    Mineral Revenue Collections, 1978  78
2-6    Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue Collections, 1978  77
2-7    Oil Credits Transactions, 1978  79
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY 39
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
The Department of Mines was created in 1874. Before that time, mining
laws were administered by the Provincial Secretary's Department, to a great extent
through Gold Commissioners, the first of whom was appointed in 1858. As the
Province grew and mining increased in importance and diversity, the Bureau of
Mines was formed as a technical division within the Department. Composed of
professional men under the direction of a Provincial Mineralogist, the Bureau
lasted from 1896 to 1934, when it was succeeded by the Mineralogical Branch,
now the Geological Division of the Mineral Resources Branch. The Department
took over administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and the Coal Act
from the Department of Lands in 1953 and became the Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources in 1960. In a general name change in 1976 it became the
Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources. On December 4, 1978, the mandate
of the Ministry was enlarged to include responsibility for energy matters and it
became the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. This change
occurred so late in the year little action to implement it was possible, and it is
scarcely reflected in the remainder of this report.
Prior to December the Ministry's mandate was to administer the laws and
regulations governing the entire mineral and petroleum industries, second only to
the forest industry in terms of gross value. The Ministry provided major technical
services that aid in the orderly development of the Province's natural resources
contained in its crustal rocks: metals, minerals, coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Technical services include geological mapping and related research; guidance,
stimulation, and monitoring of exploration; training and aid for prospectors;
financial aid in the construction of mining roads; advice to small operators; information to the public; identification of rocks and minerals; promotion of safety in
all operations; general betterment of working conditions; encouragement of orderly
development and conservation; and maintenance and analyses of resource data.
These services are provided in order that new deposits and fields may be found to
maintain the industry in order that the known deposits and fields may be worked
to the best advantage of the Province.
NEW MANDATE
On December the 4th, Premier Bennett announced major changes in cabinet
responsibilities and extensive reorganizational changes within Ministries. The new
mandate for the enlarged Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources was
announced to be the development and management of an energy policy for the
Province of British Columbia and the management of the mineral resources of the
Province and conservation of the landscape associated with mining operations.
The new Ministry and its mandate meant that for the first time all energy-related
responsibilities will be placed under one roof. The new Minister appointed was
the Honourable James J. Hewitt, the former Minister of Agriculture. The former
minister, the Honourable James Chabot became Minister of Lands, Parks and
Housing at the same time.'
LEGISLATION
During 1978, four Acts were passed at the Session of the Legislature that
directly affect the mining and petroleum industries.
Bill 5, Revenue Surplus oj 1976-77 Appropriation Act, 1978, was designed
to create new employment.    Five million dollars of the total appropriation was
 40 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
allocated to mineral resources. The Accelerated Mineral Development Program
resulting from the appropriation is described on pages 43 to 45.
Bill 25, Mineral Act Clarification Act, amended sections 51 and 52 of the
Mineral Act (R.S.B.C. 1960) to make it clear that rent was payable for mineral
claims each year since January 1, 1974. This Act was made necessary by a decision
of the Justice Richard Anderson in the case of Morris versus the Queen who found
that there was no forfeiture for nonpayment of rentals on the plaintiff's mineral
claims. The precedent-setting verdict, unfavourable to the Crown, created an
extremely serious title problem for both the administration and the industry,
requiring clarification of the original intent of the Act. The provision for payment
of rent was discontinued by amendment to the Mineral Act proclaimed January 1,
1978.
Bill 27 amended the Coal Act. In addition to a number of amendments of a
housekeeping nature, this Bill
(a) increases the amount of the work requirements to extend the term
of a licence,
(b) allows for unlimited grouping of contiguous licences during first
three terms of a licence and grouping of not more than 15 contiguous
licences thereafter,
(c) changes the royalty to 3.5 per cent of the net minehead value of coal
sold,
(d) clarifies royalty collection procedures,
(e) increases rentals on licences and leases,
(/)   clarifies the issuance of leases and the issuance and renewal of holding leases, and
(g) converts measurements to metric.
Bill 29 amended the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.   In addition to a variety
of minor amendments of a housekeeping nature, this Bill
(a) converts all units of measure to the metric system (SI),
(b) implements policy changes respecting new conditions on the length
of time leases can be held and continued, and
(c) establishes new procedures respecting and pooling of locations for
drilling, and unit agreements for production.
Some details of the recommendations are described under Activity of the
Petroleum Resources Branch (pages 67 and 68).
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Ministry operational in 1978 was the same as in
1977 and as shown in the accompanying chart (Fig. 2-1). The only minor change
was that the Publications Section, which had operated as part of the Geological
Division, Mineral Resources Branch, became functional as part of the Finance
and Administration Division during the year.
APPOINTMENTS AND RETIREMENTS
The Honourable James J. Hewitt was appointed Minister of the enlarged
Ministry on December 4, 1978. He announced on December 14 that Mr. Roy
Ming would be Deputy Minister of the new Ministry and Dr. James T. Fyles
would be Senior Assistant Deputy Minister.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
41
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 42
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
A number of changes in staffing occurred in the Inspection and Engineering
Division of the Mineral Resources Branch, as described in the section denoted to
that Division. The principal change was that A. J. Richardson was appointed
Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, Metals. He had been 30 years with Cominco
Ltd. in various engineering capacities previous to accepting this appointment.
In addition, R. R. Davy, previously with the Ministry of Finance, was
appointed Director, Finance and Administration, on May 1, 1978.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
43
ACCELERATED MINERAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
On May 11 the Honourable James Chabot announced an Accelerated Mineral
Development Program under Bill 5, Revenue Surplus of 1976-77 Appropriation
Act, 1978. The objective was to create new employment which will be of lasting
benefit during and beyond the period of appropriation. Dr. W. R. Bacon, a well-
known consulting mining geologist, was appointed Co-ordinator of the program on
May 24,1978, and the details were quickly formulated. In essence, the Accelerated
Mineral Development Program consisted of eight sub-programs of which six had
relatively modest budgets but two were more than $1 000 000 each. The total
budget was $5 000 000. The programs, their administration, and the original
budgets are shown on Figure 2-2. Most programs either paid only labour costs of
projects created to avail themselves of the funding or were aimed at direct stimulation of exploration and development. The termination of the programs was to be
on March 31, 1979, so many were not completed in the calendar year.
The largest programs were the Accelerated Mine Development and Mineral
Exploration Programs, and the Mineral Road Assistance Program. It became
expedient to combine the first two. The following list of grants was made to pay
labour costs of new projects initiated under the Accelerated Mineral Development
Program:
Locality
Producers $
Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Limited Cassiar
Wesfrob Mines Limited  Tasu
Western Mines Limited Buttle Lake
Northair Mines Ltd.  Squamish
Dankoe Mines Ltd. Keremeos
Teck Corporation Ltd. Beaverdell
Silvana Mines Inc.  Sandon
Fording Coal Limited Elkford
McDame Lake
Developers
Erickson Gold Mining Corp. 	
Table Mountain Mines Limited McDame Lake
Mosquito Creek Gold Mining Company Limited Wells
Dungannon Explorations Ltd.  Slocan
Syber Mines Ltd. Slocan
Robert Mines Ltd.  Greenwood
Gold Belt Mines Inc.  Salmo
Explorers
Silver Standard Mines Limited East Kootenays
St. Eugene Mining Corporation Ltd. East Kootenays
Barrier Reef Resources Ltd. Black Dome Mtn.
JMT Services Corp. Queen Charlotte Islands
DuPont of Canada Exploration Limited	
 Queen Charlotte Islands
Total	
200 000
51 946
182 500
275 000
140 000
300 000
300 000
50 000
1 499 446
175 000
75 000
75 000
56 000
20 000
51 000
175 000
627 000
50 000
31 562
25 250
16 000
8 505
Miscellaneous
British Columbia Museum of Mining
131 317
2 257 763
10 000
 44
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
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 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
45
In total, these amounted to 45 per cent of the Accelerated Mineral Development Program.
The other large program was Mineral Road Assistance. This was the only
program with a major component directed toward the petroleum industry. Design
and site testing of a bridge across the Pine River was completed but the project was
not proceeded with because of escalating costs. The funds thus released were
applied to preparation of the Sierra-Yoyo access road east of Fort Nelson into the
Sierra gas field. The project was continuing at the calendar year-end. In addition,
the normal mining road program was augmented.
Three programs represent expansion of ones run by the Geological Division,
Mineral Resources Branch. These were an expanded grant program for Prospectors' Assistance, the Accelerated Geochemical Survey, and the Mineral Exploration Incentive Program.   These are described on pages 55 to 57.
The Enhanced Mine Site Reclamation Program was designed to revegetate
selected old mine tailings areas and clean up abandoned mine sites. Localities at
Princeton, Salmo, Phoenix, Hedley, and Jordan River were involved.
Finally, funds were provided to purchase equipment for a neutron activation
facility at TRIUMF. Other funding for this development came from the National
Research Council. The purpose was to create a viable commercial analysis facility
at the accelerator site to service needs of industry, university, and government in
western Canada. Positions for five full-time employees were created by the grant
and expansion is likely. Analysis of some of the samples from the Accelerated
Geochemical Survey was carried out at the facility.
  ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
BRANCH ACTIVITY
47
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
The Mineral Resources Branch, under the direction of Assistant Deputy Minister, Edwin R. Macgregor, consists of four divisions: Inspection and Engineering,
Geological, Titles, and Economics and Planning.
Inspection and Engineering Division
Coal mines, metal mines, and quarries were inspected during the year by
inspectors stationed at the following listed locations. The inspectors also examined
prospects, mining properties, roads and trails, and carried out special investigations
under the Mineral Act. Dust, ventilation, and noise surveys were carried out by
Environmental Control Inspectors under the supervision of S. Elias and, where
necessary, recommendations were made regarding improvement to the environmental conditions. The roads and trails program was supervised by P. E. Olson.
J. D. McDonald administered the reclamation sections of the Coal Mines Regulation
Act and the Mines Regulation Act. Mine-rescue training was completed under
the direction of the Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Training, for the areas in which
their stations were located.
Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
W. C. Robinson, Chief Inspector of Mines Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, Coal and Special Services Victoria
A. J. Richardson, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, Metals Victoria
H. Dennis, Senior Inspector of Coal Mines Victoria
T. G. Carter, Senior Inspector of Mines, Mechanical/Electrical Victoria
J. Cartwright, Inspector of Mines, Electrical Victoria
P. E. Olson, Senior Inspector of Mines, Mining Roads Victoria
J. D. McDonald, Senior Inspector of Mines, Reclamation Victoria
D. M. Galbraith, Inspector of Mines, Reclamation Victoria
J. E. Errington, Inspector of Mines, Reclamation (Agrologist)  Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector of Mines, Environmental Control Vancouver
D. J. Murray, Inspector of Mines, Environmental Control Vancouver
S. J. L. Miller, Inspector of Mines, Environmental Control Vancouver
J. C. Ferguson, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Environmental Control Vancouver
B. M. Dudas, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Vancouver
W. H. Childress, Inspector of Mines, Technician Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Nanaimo
H. A. Armour, Inspector of Mines, Technician Nanaimo
S. J. Hunter, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
B. Varkonyi, Inspector of Mines, Technician Prince Rupert
J. F. Hutter, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Smithers
S. J. North, Inspector of Mines, Technician Smithers
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Prince George
T. Vaughan-Thomas, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Prince George
J. J. Sutherland, Inspector of Mines, Technician Prince George
B. E. Warner, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Reclamation Prince George
K. G. Hughes, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Mechanical Prince George
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Fernie
D. Smith, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Kamloops
 48 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Inspectors and Resident Engineers—Continued
E. S. Sadar, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Kamloops
J. P. MacCulloch, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Kamloops
J. A. Thomson, Inspector of Mines, Technician  Kamloops
R. H. Heistad, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Mechanical Kamloops
J. B. C. Lang, Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer Nelson
A. L. O'Bryan, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Reclamation „ Nelson
E. J. Hall, Inspector of Mines, Technician, Reclamation Fort St. John
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Training
G. J. Lee, Senior Co-ordinator Victoria
R. F. Brow  Nanaimo
J. E. A. Lovestrom Smithers
R. J. Stevenson Prince George
B. A. McConachie Kamloops
E. C. Ingham  Nelson
P. J. Switzer Fernie
Staff Changes
In March, E. J. Hall joined the Ministry as Inspector-Technician, Reclamation,
in the Charlie Lake office.
S. J. L. Miller joined the Ministry as Inspector, Environmental Control, in the
Vancouver office in April. In the same month B. M. Dudas transferred from
Kamloops office to the Vancouver office, to replace J. W. Robinson, who moved
from there to the Nanaimo office. The vacancy created in Kamloops was filled by
J. P. MacCulloch who joined the Ministry as Inspector of Mines and Resident
Engineer in July.
A. J. Richardson was appointed Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines, Metals, in
May.
S. J. Hunter joined the Ministry in June as Inspector of Mines in Prince
Rupert.
A. Littler, Co-ordinator, Mine-rescue Training, in Fernie retired in July and
was replaced in August by P. J. Switzer.
In August, H. Dennis was appointed Senior Inspector of Coal Mines in the
Victoria office and T. Vaughan-Thomas joined the Ministry as Inspector of Mines
and Resident Engineer in the Prince George office.
T. Carter joined the Ministry in September as Senior Inspector of Mines,
Mechanical/Electrical, in the Victoria office.
In December, J. C. Ferguson joined the Ministry as Inspector-Technician,
Environmental Control, in the Vancouver office.
Mine Safety
The Inspection and Engineering Division has the responsibility of enforcing
the observance of the Mines Regulation Act and the Coal Mines Regulation Act
by all persons working at mines in British Columbia. Additional staff were recruited
to fill the posts vacated the previous year and some new posts were created and
filled. A good standard of co-operation existed at the mines and active safety
programs were in effect at the mines throughout 1978.
Certain supervisory grades at the mines are required to hold statutory certificates and for this purpose Boards of Examiners have been appointed from the
Inspection and Engineering Division.    It is the responsibility of these Boards to
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
49
conduct examinations of applicants for various certificates. These are first, second,
and third class certificates of competency and open-pit shiftboss certificates under
the Coal Mines Regulation Act and underground and open-pit shiftboss certificates
under the Mines Regulation Act. District Inspectors continued to examine for and
issue permanent miners', coal miners', and blasting certificates.
Investigations into environmental conditions at mines were continued, with
particular attention being paid to the monitoring of the conditions in respect of
ventilation, dust, and noise. Further efforts have been made in the industry to
reduce dust and noise produced at the mines and preparation plants.
Mine Rescue
Mine-rescue stations, under the supervision of co-ordinators who were qualified
instructors in first aid and rescue, were maintained at Fernie, Kamloops, Nanaimo,
Nelson, Prince George, and Smithers. Each station was fully equipped with
sufficient self-contained, oxygen-supplying, breathing apparatus to maintain at least
two rescue teams of six men each and other suitable rescue apparatus was also
held at the stations. Some of the equipment owned by the Ministry was loaned to
various mining companies to supplement their own equipment.
In 1978, the Ministry owned 59 Aerorlox three-hour liquid oxygen-breathing
machines, 43 Draeger BG-174 and 60 McCaa two-hour high-pressure gaseous
oxygen-breathing machines, and 64 Chemox one-hour chemical oxygen-producing
machines. The equipment owned by industry was 24 Aerorlox, 55 Draeger BG-174,
30 McCaa, and 92 Chemox machines. In addition, each station and most mines
had other auxiliary equipment, such as Type N gas masks, self-rescuers, gas detectors, oxygen therapy units, and first-aid equipment.
Periodic visits to mines were made by the district co-ordinators of rescue
training. During these visits they gave rescue and first-aid training to open-pit and
underground employees and checked the rescue equipment in order to ensure that
it was being maintained satisfactorily. In addition, training courses were given in
underground, surface, and gravel-pit rescue work and first aid at other centres
throughout the Province.
Instructors at the mines, trained by the Ministry co-ordinators, trained or
assisted in the training of 318 persons for St. John Ambulance first-aid certificates,
and 385 safety-oriented first-aid certificates. Training was also given to 98 men in
underground mine-rescue work, 337 men in surface mine rescue, 20 men in gravel-
pit rescue, 382 men in mine-rescue survival, and 21 in industrial first aid. Fifteen
men received Surface Mine Rescue Instructors' certificates. One hundred and
sixty men received advanced Mine Rescue certificates.
The four mine safety associations, sponsored by the Ministry of Energy, Mines
and Petroleum Resources and the Workers' Compensation Board, continued to
operate in different areas in the Province. They were aided by mining company
officials, safety supervisors, inspectors of mines, mine-rescue co-ordinators, and,
in some areas, local industry. The association promoted mine-rescue and first-aid
training, in addition to safety education in their various districts.
The Vancouver Island Mine Safety Association held their 64th annual mine-
rescue and first-aid competition in Nanaimo on May 27. The Western Mines' team,
captained by H. Uhrig, won the trophy in the underground mine-rescue event. The
Noranda Mines' Boss Mountain team, captained by B. Buys, was placed second
and represented the Central British Columbia Mine Safety Association area at the
Provincial meet.
 50 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
The West Kootenay Mine Safety Association held their 32nd annual competition in Nelson on June 3. The Cominco's Sullivan mine team from Kimberley,
captained by A. Bruemmer, won the underground mine-rescue event.
The East Kootenay Mine Safety Association held their 57th mine-rescue and
first-aid competition in Kimberley on June 10. The Kaiser Resources' team from
Fernie, captained by J. Peters, won the trophy.
On May 26, and June 3 and 10, the Central British Columbia Mine Safety
Association held their 30th annual mine-rescue and first-aid competition in Smithers, Ashcroft, and Princeton. The Gibraltar Mines' team, captained by P. Beaudoin,
won the surface mine-rescue trophy in Ashcroft; the Kaiser Resources' team, captained by A. Gallacher, won the trophy at Princeton; and the Cassiar Asbestos'
team, captained by G. Smith, placed first at Smithers.
On June 17, the Provincial Underground and Surface Mine Rescue Competition was held in Nanaimo. The trophy winners were: In the surface mine-rescue
event, Kaiser Resources' team from Sparwood, captained by A. Gallacher; and in
the underground mine-rescue event, Kaiser Resources' team from Fernie, captained
by J. Peters. The underground team represented British Columbia in the Canadian
meet, held in Glace Bay, Nova Scotia on June 24, 1978, where six provinces, namely
British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Nova
Scotia, competed.  The team from Alberta, captained by W. Kinnear, placed first.
The first Provincial Three-Persons' First-Aid event was held in Nanaimo on
June 17. This event was won by the Cominco's HB mine team, captained by R.
Lof strom.
Another milestone for 1978 was the Provincial Bench Competition, in which
the teams competing had to demonstrate their proficiency in the examination and
testing of their apparatus prior to use. This event was in memory of the late B.
Abbott, captain of the Cominco's HB mine-rescue team of 1976, and the winner
of the Canadian Mine Rescue Competition of the same year. The team from
Noranda Mines' Boss Mountain team, Hendrix Lake, captained by B. Buys, won
the trophy.
Safety of Mechanical/Electrical Equipment
An upward trend, albeit a slow one, was experienced in the total number of
underground pieces of equipment using fire-resistant hydraulic fluids. The legislation requiring the use of these fluids has now been in effect since January 1, 1975,
and it is felt that both manufacturers and users of equipment have had a liberal
amount of time allocated to them to comply with the regulation requiring their use.
It is therefore envisaged that in future it will only be under the most exceptional
circumstances that an exemption to the use of such fluids will be granted by the
Chief Inspector.
During the year, 831 trucks were reported to be in operation at open pits and
quarries. All trucks with a gross vehicular mass greater than 50 tonnes are required
by the Ministry to be tested annually for braking performance. Where deficiencies
exist, a program designed to improve braking capability is instituted. New trucks
being introduced into the Province have all shown excellent braking capability
during actual tests. The world's largest haulage truck, the Terex Titan, with a load-
carrying capacity well in excess of 300 tonnes, was tested during the year. This
truck, having a gross vehicular mass approaching 600 tonnes, was brought to a
complete stop in 102 metres from an initial speed of approximately 58 kilometres
per hour on a downgrade of 8.6 per cent.   Evaluation of the truck's dependability
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
51
in relation to other trucks and compatability to existing truck and shovel capacities
will probably determine future requirements for trucks of this size.
Meetings of the British Columbia Mobile Equipment Committee were attended
at monthly or bi-monthly intervals in an effort to evaluate the safety-related features
of new and existing mobile equipment in use in the Province. In addition, the
annual meeting of the Canadian Council Committee for Electrical Mechanical Mine
Safety at Sudbury, Ontario, was attended by a member of the staff.
Kaiser Resources Ltd. completed construction of the surface and underground
electrical installations for their new Panel 6 Hydraulic coal mine located at Michel.
Systematic electrical checks were performed in readiness for the anticipated production start-up of early 1979.
The Canadian Electrical Code, Part V, "Use of Electricity in Mines," is currently being revised and will be restructured to comprise four sections as follows:
General Requirements; Surface Mining; Underground Metal Mines; and Underground Coal Mines.
Reclamation
Reclamation is administered by the Inspection and Engineering Division, under
the authority of section 11 of the Mines Regulation Act, and section 8 of the Coal
Mines Regulation Act. Its objective is to restore lands used in mining, waste
disposal, and exploration to useful purpose, compatible with the surrounding
countryside.
During 1978, surface work permits were altered from a three or five-year
period and are now issued on a permanent basis. An annual reclamation report is
still required so that the permit can be revised at any time. A total of 47 new
surface work permits (4 metal, 6 coal, 2 mineral exploration, 13 placer, 18 sand
and gravel, and 4 quarries) was issued during 1978.
Reclamation progressed satisfactorily during 1978, with most of the disturbance and revegetation activity occurring in the coal-mining industry. The
34 active metal mines reported a total disturbance of 9 612 hectares, of which
315 hectares were revegetated during 1978. The three active coal operations
reported a total disturbance of 2 205.9 hectares, of which 193 hectares were
revegetated during 1978. The total amount revegetated since 1969 now stands at
1 072 hectares for metal mines and 775 hectares for coal mines.
The second annual Mine Reclamation Symposium was held in March 1978,
sponsored by the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources and the
Mining Association of British Columbia. One hundred and sixty-two participants
attended the three-day session and heard talks concerning the Ministry's reclamation
policy and activities, reclamation planning, site preparation, and other resource
problems and solutions.
During the symposium, the reclamation award for 1977 was presented to the
Reclamation Research Department of Cominco Ltd. for its outstanding contribution
to mine reclamation research in British Columbia. Citations were presented to
Elco Mining Ltd. and Kaiser Resources Ltd.
Under the Accelerated Mineral Development Program, funded under Bill 5,
the Revenue Surplus of 1976-77 Appropriation Act, 1978, the Reclamation Section
of the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources revegetated some of the
old mine-waste disposal areas formed prior to mine reclamation legislation. Four
areas were treated in the 1978/79 fiscal year: Princeton tailings, Salmo tailings,
Phoenix Copper tailings, and the Hedley tailings.
 ill
w"""*
1
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
53
The reclamation section has conducted or commissioned several research
studies and during 1978, the following reports were published:
Revegetation of Disturbances in the Northeast Coal Block, Current Activities
and State-of-the-Art, 1977.   Inspection and Engineering Division, Paper
1978-7.
Reclamation of Lands Disturbed by Mining.    Proceedings of the Second
Annual British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium.
Handbook of Environmental Protection and Reclamation in Coal Exploration
(Draft).
Mining and Petroleum Roads
The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources' road program was
continued during 1978 under authority of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum
Resources Act. The purpose of the program is to encourage and assist in the
development of mineral and petroleum resources in the Province.
During 1978, an expenditure of around $600 000 was made under Bill 5 to
provide all-weather access to gas exploration and production areas east of Fort
Nelson. This program is expected to continue for several years. Also under Bill 5,
about $300 000 was spent on engineering studies and designs to provide access
to a gas field between the Pine and Moberly Rivers.
In the order of $230 000 was spent during the year for the purpose of upgrading an airfield at Kutcho Creek and to build a new one in the Sturdee River area.
These airstrips greatly facilitate exploration and will become even more important
as mining in those areas progresses.
During the year, around $500 000 was spent to upgrade the Omineca road,
build new bridges, and improve the Takla Lake spur road. This expenditure
included the cost of roadside reclamation, environmental studies, and engineering
design related to the Omineca road.
About $200 000 was spent on approximately 25 smaller projects throughout
the Province in improving mineral exploration access roads.
Geological Division
Objectives and Organization
Metals, non-metallic minerals, and coal are non-renewable judged by the
scale of man's lifetime. The Province's needs for these commodities for our own
use and for export are fulfilled only by continuous exploration and discovery. The
fundamental role of the Geological Division is to facilitate the renewal process.
To do this the detailed objectives of the Geological Division are to provide accurate
and current information on the quantity and distribution of mineral and coal
deposits of the Province for Government and industry, to provide geological, geochemical, and geophysical maps and other data, ideas, and interpretations useful in
the search for these deposits, and to assist in the orderly exploration, development,
and use of these resources. To carry out these objectives, the Division is organized
into four sections: Project Geology, Applied Geology, Resource Data and Analysis,
and Analytical Laboratory.
Staff
The permanent staff on December 31, 1978, included 26 professional geo-
scientists, 6 chemists, 9 clerks, and 12 technicians.
 54 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
A. Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief Geologist
Project Geology
N. C. Carter, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
P. A. Christopher, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
R. D. Gilchrist, B.Sc.  Geologist
T. Hoy, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
A. Panteleyev, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
D. E. Pearson, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
J. L. Armitage Chief Draughtsman
R. E. Player Lapidary and Photographer
Applied Geology
E. W. Grove, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
A. F. Shepherd, B.A.Sc, P.Eng.  Geologist
G. G. Addie, M.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist
G. H. Klein, B.A.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist
T. G. Schroeter, M.Sc, P.Eng.  District Geologist
G. P. E. White, B.Sc, P.Eng.  District Geologist
R. H. Karst, B.Sc.  District Geologist
D. A. Grieve, M.Sc.  District Geologist
Resource Data and Analysis
J. A. Garnett, Ph.D., P.Eng. Senior Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
Z. D. Hora, M.Sc. Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc, P.Eng.  Geologist
G. L. James Systems Analyst
J. E. Forester, M.A.   Research Officer
A. Matheson, B.Sc.  Research Officer
Analytical Laboratory
W. M. Johnson, Ph.D Chief Analyst
R. F. Ralph, L.R.I.C. Deputy Chief Analyst
B. Bhagwanani, B.Sc. Laboratory Scientist
R. J. Hibberson, B.Sc. Laboratory Scientist
Y. T. J. Kwong, M.Sc. Laboratory Scientist
V. V. B. Vilkos, Ph.D Laboratory Scientist
M. A. Chaudhry Laboratory Technician
F. F. Karpick  Assayer
L. E. Sheppard Laboratory Technician
Staff Changes
During 1978, district coal geologists were appointed: In Charlie Lake, R. H.
Karst filled this new position and supervised the coal core storage facility there;
in Fernie, D. A. Grieve was appointed to a similar position.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
55
The Work oj the Division
The distribution in 1978 of major projects and of district offices is shown on
Figure 2-3.
Project Geology
The work of this section is devoted to geological mapping of areas important
for mineral resources and regional geochemical reconnaissance surveys useful for
both exploration and environmental base line studies. The section mounted 12 main
field projects at a total field cost of about $250 000 and two main geochemical
reconnaissance surveys at a cost of $470 000. One of the latter was a Federal/
Provincial cost-shared project, the other costing $350 000 was supported entirely
by Bill 5, the Revenue Surplus oj 1976-77 Appropriation Act, 1978. Salaries and
other costs of the section totalled about $400 000.
The geochemical projects are done by a series of separate contracts with only
planning, supervision, and control provided by the Division.
28° 12^ 12^ 122° 120°
Figure 2-3—Geological and Geochemical Project Areas, District Geologist Offices, 1978.
 56 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Projects carried out in 1978 include the following:
Project and Commodity Interest
Map
Publication
Scale
Principal
Investigator
Geological Surveys (Bedrock)
(1) North Okanagan Tertiary Stratigraphy (U, Au,
Ag)  	
(2) Okanagan Uranium Deposits  	
(3) Southeast British Columbia Lead/Zinc Deposits ...
(4) Barriere Lakes/Adams Plateau (Cu, Zn)	
(5) Nicola Volcanic Study (Cu, Zn, Mo)	
(6) Sicker Study (Zn, Cu, Au, Ag)	
(7) Tungsten/Uranium Deposits, Northwest British
Columbia.    	
(8) Cassiar Molybdenum/Tungsten Deposits  .
(9) Crowsnest and Elk River Coalfields. 	
(10) Quinsam Coalfield    	
(11) Peace River Coalfield _._
(12) Correlation Studies    	
Geochemical Surveys
(1) Jennings River/Cassiar (Federal/Provincial)    ....
(2) Terrace/Nass River (Bill 5).. .. _  ...
82E/2, 12, 13
82L/2, 3
82E/10, 11, 14
parts of
82G, L, M
82M/3.4, 5
92P/1.8
921/1, 2, 7
92B/13
I04N, O
104P/4, 5
82G/6, 7, 10,
11, 14, 15
92F/13, 14
931, P
931, P
104O, P
1031, J, P
1:50 000
1:50 000
1:10 000
1:50 000
1:10 000
1:25 000
1:25 000
1:50 000
B. N. Church
P. A. Christopher
T. Hoy
V. A. Preto
W. J. McMillan
G. E. P. Eastwood
1:10 000    | P. A. Christopher
1:25 000    j A. Panteleyev
1:10 000      D.E.Pearson
1:50 000
1:25 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
G. E. P. Eastwood
R. D. Gilchrist
P. McL. D. Duff
G. Nordin, N. C. Carter
T. Kalnins, N. C. Carter
In addition, the Division sponsored field projects by University of British Columbia staff and other universities and agencies. Many of these had Division staff
as co-investigators or the project was part of a larger Division study. In 1978,
these totalled about $75 000 not including the shared cost of the Federal/Provincial
geochemical program. Projects included: Study of uranium source rocks by T. K.
Sills at the University of Alberta, in co-operation with P. A. Christopher; geology of
Purcell Supergroup adjacent to T. Hoy's project area by M. E. McMechan at
Queen's University; geology of the Kamloops Group near Afton mine by T. Ewing,
University of British Columbia; geology of Callaghan Creek area including North-
air mine by J. H. L. Miller and A. J. Sinclair, University of British Columbia;
geology of Sam Goosly mine by D. G. Wetherall, A. J. Sinclair, and T. G. Schroeter;
geology of the Poplar porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit by P. M. Mesard,
C. I. Godwin, and N. C. Carter. In addition some funding was provided for offshore research by the University of British Columbia of metals in sediment.
The field work of the section is described yearly in January of the year following in Geological Fieldwork and later in greater detail by Geology in British
Columbia and a series of preliminary maps, papers, and authoritative bulletins.
Applied Geology
The work of the Applied Geology section, which was expanded in 1978,
includes aid in the field to exploration personnel and prospectors, monitoring of
exploration and geological developments at producing mines, coal core storage
and studies, prospector training, and control of incentive grants to exploration.
In 1978, district coal geologists were appointed to positions at Charlie Lake (Fort
St. John) and Fernie. These geologists will take an active part in 1979 in mapping
projects in the respective coalfields and will carry out correlation studies as well as
monitoring of activities. Coal core recovered from Peace River Coalfield since
1976 now amounts to 116 000 metres of which over 73 000 metres is fully housed
and curated. District geologists at Smithers, Prince George, Kamloops, and
Nelson will continue their property visits as well as other duties related to prospectors, public information, and integrated resource management.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
57
A considerable part of the effort of the section is devoted to prospectors and
small developers, and these programs were augmented in 1978 by funds from
Bill 5. Over 400 students in 22 centres were enrolled in basic prospecting courses
in 1978 and 34 prospectors graduated from the two-week-long advanced field school
held at Selkirk College, Castlegar. Two hundred and twenty-two prospectors
received grants under the Prospectors Assistance Act. In addition, a new program
(Mineral Exploration Incentive Program) with a budget of $500 000 was started
under Bill 5 to act as a fiscal bridge between prospecting and preliminary development. The Mineral Exploration Incentive Program provided grants up to one-third
of the receipted cost of approved programs to a maximum of $50 000. Forty
contracts were let in 1978.
The costs of these programs were approximately as follows: Core repository
and recovery, $99 000; prospector training, $20 000; Prospectors' Assistance
grants, $365 000 ($163 000 from Bill 5); field programs of district geologists,
$110 000; salaries and overhead, $260 000. The field studies of this section are
also reported in the publication Geological Fieldwork and elsewhere but much of
their work is service oriented.
Resource Data and Analysis Section
This section is responsible for the collection, compilation, interpretation, and
distribution of exploration and development data gathered from various sources.
Most of the information is readily available after requisite confidential periods,
normally one to three years. The major files are: MINFILE, a shallow computer
file of over 8 000 mineral occurrences; assessment report file, over 7 000 microfilmed reports available at reader/printers in Vancouver or Victoria; property files
of historic maps and data from producers and prospects recovered from many
sources and filed by NTS system; and industrial minerals reference files. In
addition, a computerized coal data file is being constructed under contract jointly
with the Geological Survey of Canada, and a computer file of statistics on producing
mines and major prospects is underway. The annual volume, Exploration in British
Columbia, is produced by the section coincident with its update of MINFILE.
In addition, the section administers the Portable Assessment Credit account,
produces map compilations and mineral potential evaluation studies related to
land-use conflicts, and advises on regulations. Field-oriented studies related to
industrial minerals and structural materials are also handled by this section.
The costs of this section were approximately as follows: Field studies,
$25 000; MINFILE and analyses, $65 000; coal file construction, $100 000;
salaries and overhead, $200 000.
Analytical Laboratory—The laboratory, under Dr. W. M. Johnson, is responsible for a complete range of analytical services for the Division geologists and
prospector grantees as well as some services to other government agencies. The
laboratory also runs control samples and handles the chemical data for the British
Columbia geochemical surveys. The Chief Analyst is also responsible for assayer
examinations for the Province. In 1978, the Chief Analyst was largely responsible
for the Ministry's funding under Bill 5 of a $170 000 grant to Novatrack Ltd. to
help create a neutron activation facility at the TRIUMF cyclotron at the University
of British Columbia.
The facilities include X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption and emission
spectrography, X-ray diffraction, gamma ray spectrometry, and mineral separation.
Capability in traditional wet analytical chemistry still exists. Instrument output is
fully computerized.
 58 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
The Analytical Laboratory had a productive year in 1978 in terms of both
output and method development.
Method Development—The hydride generation method for arsenic, tin,
selenium, tellurium, antimony, and other metals was investigated and used for
arsenic very successfully. Work was done on a standard reference uranium ore.
The Laboratory reported value was 7.07 per cent uranium as compared with the
consensus value of 7.09 per cent. Further work was done on the use of a mercury
amalgam as a means of concentrating gold for subsequent measurement by atomic
absorption spectrometry.
Output—Wet Chemical and X-ray Fluorescence Laboratory: There are 539
results on 179 samples submitted by prospectors, 3 348 results on 993 samples
from prospector grantees, and 12 276 results on 2 440 samples submitted by
Ministry personnel.  This represents a total of 16 728 results on 3 605 samples.
Emission Spectrographic Laboratory: There were 43 770 semi-quantitative
determinations on 1 459 samples of which 7 200 were reported. In addition, there
were 565 quantitative determinations.
X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: There were 533 mineral identifications made,
clay mineralogy studies were done on 311 samples, 100 quartz and R.I., and 116
semi-quantitative zeolite determinations were made. In addition, work was done
with both Dr. Pearson and Dr. McMillan on co-operative projects in coal and
zeolite metamorphism respectively.
Sample Comminution: There was a total of 3 370 samples received and
prepared for analytical work, 2 200 from geologists and 1 170 from prospectors
and prospector grantees.
Mineral Separation: There were 46 mineral separations made, one of which
required a separation into 20 fractions.
Two assayer examinations were held with a total of 13 examinees writing.
Three certificates of efficiency were awarded for the May examination and, at the
date of this writing, no decision has been made for the examinees for the December
examination.
Costs of the laboratory were: Materials and supplies, $62 000; salaries and
overhead, $200 000.
Publications
During 1978 supervision of the Ministry Publications Section was handed
over to Finance and Administration Division.   Publications prepared by the Division include the following:
Prepared yearly:
Geological Fieldwork—a preliminary account of work of the Division published as soon as possible after completion. Now published as
part of the paper series of the Ministry.
Geology in British Columbia—a fuller treatment augmented by
laboratory and office studies and usually a year or so after completion.
Exploration in British Columbia—a report that summarizes and
collates all known exploration in the Province based on reports filled out
jointly by the Division and industry personnel.
At irregular intervals:
Bulletins—these are generally the result of three or four years' work and
commonly of areas of significant mineral potential. In 1978 two were
published:
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
59
Bulletin 68—An Analysis oj Distribution oj Mineral Occurrences in
British Columbia by A. J. Sinclair, H. R. Wynne-Edwards, and A.
Sutherland Brown.
Bulletin 70—Geology and Mineral Occurrences of the Southern
Hogem Batholith, by J. A. Garnett.
Preliminary Maps, usually white prints issued as soon as compilations
are complete with brief accompanying notes. In 1978, the following four
were issued:
Map 27—Geology Map oj the Crowsnest Coalfield, West Part, by
D. E. Pearson and D. A. Grieve (part of NTS 82G; scale— 1:10 000).
Map 28—Geology Map oj the Estella-Kootenay King Area, by
Trygve Hoy (NTS 82G/12 and 13; scale—1:25 000; approximately
240 square kilometres).
Map 29—Geology oj the East Okanagan Uranium Area (Kelowna
to Beaverdell), South-Central British Columbia, by P. A. Christopher
(NTS 82F/10W, HE, 14E, and 15W; scale—1:50 000).
Map  30—Geology oj the Guichon  Creek Batholith,  by W.  J.
McMillan, (NTS 92I/2W, 6E, 7W, 10W, HE, and small areas of 14E
and 15W; scales—1:100 000 and 1:25 000).
Other map series issued included:
Joint Federal/Provincial geochemical reconnaissance maps from the
Uranium Reconnaissance Program of 82 F and K in the Kootenays and
104N Atlin.
Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps were issued of southeast British Columbia, that is, Victoria (92B/C), Vancouver (92G), Pemberton (92J),
and Bute Inlet (92K).
In addition, regularly updated maps in the following series are available:
Mineral Inventory Maps, issued as ozalid prints, show location and
commodities of all known mineral deposits.
Assessment Report Index Maps show the location and number of reports
accepted for assessment credit by the Ministry.
No open file reports nor aeromagnetic maps were issued during 1978.
The Division was involved in the publication of a booklet Minerals in British
Columbia, by Angus M. Gunn of the University of British Columbia.    This was
intended to inform the public about the metal and energy minerals industries.
Titles Division
The Titles Division of the Mineral Resources Branch is under the direction of
the Chief Gold Commissioner and is responsible for the administration of the
Provincial laws relating to the acquisition of minerals and coal.
Staff
E. J. Bowles —
R. Rutherford
D. Doyle	
 Chief Gold Commissioner
.Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
 Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
Gold Commissioners and Sub-recorders are appointed for the 24 Mining
Divisions throughout the Province and their duties are specified in writing by the
Chief Gold Commissioner.
 60 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Table 2-1—Gold Commissioners and Claim Inspectors
Mining Division
Phone
Location of Office
Name
723-3501
651-7577
992-5591
459-2268/69
489-2311
344-5221/22
442-8642
372-5233
387-6246/55
256-7548
754-2111
352-2211
525-0375
378-9944
847-4411
493-1719
837-3222
295-6957
624-2121
353-2338
362-7324
688-2208
545-2387
387-6246/55
4515 Elizabeth Street, Port Alberni V9Y 6L5
Box 100, Atlin VOW 1A0
102, 350 Barlow Avenue, Quesnel V2J 2C1
Box 70, Clinton V0K 1K0
102—11th Avenue South, Cranbrook VIC 2P2
Box 39, Golden V0A 1H0
Box 850, Grand Forks VOH 1H0
Court House, Kamloops V2C 1E5
411  Douglas Building, Parliament  Buildings,  Victoria
V8V 1X4
Box 70, Lillooet V0K 1V0
Courthouse, Nanaimo V9R 5J1
Box 730, Nelson V1L 5R4
100, 403 Sixth Street, New Westminster V3L 3B1
Box 339, Merritt V0K 2B0
Box 340, Smithers V0J 2N0
Courthouse, Penticton V2A 5A5
Box 380, Revelstoke V0E 2S0
Box 9, Princeton VOX 1W0
Courthouse, Prince Rupert V8J 1B7
Box 850, Kaslo V0G 1M0
Box 910, Rossland V0G 1Y0
800 Hornby Street, Vancouver V6Z 2C5
Courthouse, Vernon V1T 4W5
411  Douglas Building, Parliament Buildings,  Victoria
V8V 1X4
W. G. Mundell
R. Campbell
Greenwood	
S. Matsuo
N. R. Blake
E. A. H. Mitchell
M. Sakakibara
Nelson _..
New Westminster
Nicola..	
Omineca	
R. H. Archibald
H. S. Tatchell
T. P. McKinnon
L. P. Lean
A. W. Milton
L. D. Sands
D. G. B, Roberts
W. L. Marshall
Skeena.	
Slocan	
I. Williams
Mrs. J. James
A. D. Sherwood
D. Doyle
Vernon	
Victoria 	
N. A. Nelson
E. A. H. Mitchell
Claim Inspectors
D. Lieutard, 401, 350 Barlow Avenue, Quesnel V2J2C1.
R. T. Morgan, Box 877, Smithers V0J 2N0.
F. A. Reyes, 800 Hornby Street, Vancouver V6Z 2C5.
H. S. Turner, 212, 2985 Airport Drive, Kamloops V2B 7W8.
The recording of locations and of work on mineral claims as required pursuant
to the provisions of the Mineral Act, and the recording of work on placer leases as
required under the Placer Mining Act, must be made at the office of the Gold
Commissioner for the Mining Division in which the claim or lease is located. The
statistics for the Gold Commissioner's office are shown on Table 2-2.
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver)
Copies of records of mineral claims and 2-post claims recorded in the offices
of Gold Commissioners are forwarded to the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner
daily, while transcripts of all other recording in the offices of the Gold Commissioners are sent twice monthly.
Information concerning claims and leases and the ownership and standing of
claims and leases in any Mining Division may be obtained from the Gold Commissioner for the Mining Division in which the property is situated or from the
Ministry's offices, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria, and 800 Hornby Street,
Vancouver, the office of the Gold Commissioner.
The records and maps, showing the approximate positions of mineral claims
held by record and of placer leases, may be viewed by the public during regular
office hours in Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner in Vancouver.
The position of mineral claims held by record and of placer leases is plotted from
details supplied by the locators. Prints of mineral and placer titles reference maps
at a scale of 1:50 000 may be obtained from the Victoria and Vancouver offices.
Appointed officials in the office of the Gold Commissioner at Victoria and the
Gold Commissioner at Vancouver act as Sub-recorders for all Mining Divisions.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
61
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 62 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Mineral and Placer Title Maps
The initial program of redrawing mineral titles reference maps which are
produced for the public on a scale of 1:50 000 was completed in 1977 and the
entire Province is now available at this scale. A new mapping program on the
same scale using superior Ottawa base maps has been commenced. These maps
will show contours and should be of great assistance to the prospector.
During 1978, 15 new mineral titles reference maps were drawn.
Five hundred and four applications were received for placer leases under a
new system, established in 1975 with the proclamation of a new Placer Mining Act,
of only accepting applications for leases in designated placer areas.
Mineral Claims Inspectors are based at Kamloops, Smithers, Vancouver, and
Quesnel. Their duties include checking the locations of mineral claims to correlate
them with the plotted position of the claims, determining the validity of the staking
under the Mineral Act and the Placer Mining Act and regulations, investigation of
possible misuse of mineral claims, and investigations of disputes. In order to
fulfill the objectives of providing claim-holders with firm title and maintaining
accurate and up-to-date records, the activities of the inspectors have increased with
the use of the modified grid system.
During 1978 as a result of seven complaints under section 50 (formerly
section 80) of the Mineral Act, seven mineral claims were cancelled. Two complaints were dismissed.
The Gold Commissioner's office in Vancouver is now equipped with a microfilm reader which will allow the general public to view technical reports. The
Xerox machine will print these reports at a nominal cost. The Vancouver office
should now become a greater source of information for the mining community.
Coal
The Coal Administrator is responsible to the Chief Gold Commissioner for
the daily administration of the Coal Act. This involves reviewing applications for
coal licences and leases and maintenance of records of title.
The statistics related to coal licences for 1978 are shown in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3—Statistics jor Coal Licences, 1978
Number of coal licences issued  793
Approximate area of coal licences issued  205 000 hectares
Annual rental       $ 1 046 517.00
Application fees  6 190.00
Cash in lieu of work  77 460.00
Miscellaneous fees  6 405.00
Economics and Planning Division
Objectives
The Division provides economic and financial analyses pertaining to Provincial mineral sector policy, legislation, and planning and also collects, maintains, and
disseminates comprehensive statistical data in support of Ministry resource management responsibilities.
 activity of the ministry
63
Staff
The professional staff of the Division as at December 31, 1978, was as follows:
J. S. Poyen  Director
F. C. Basham  Assistant Director
J. F. Clancy Senior Research Officer
W. P. Wilson Mining Statistician
D. R. Ramage Financial Analyst
Review of Activities
The Division's mineral statistics service, in addition to its normal activities of
collection, analysis, and reporting of mineral statistical information, continued with
a project which will result in the computerization of most data now assembled on
a manual basis. A monthly metal mine data input program was mounted, and the
introduction of reporting and tabular output computer reports is scheduled for late
1979. Economic and financial analyses projects in 1978 included the initiation of
a project to develop a financial/economic analysis model (MINSIM) for metal
mining projects in the Province. This analytical tool will contribute to Government
benefit-cost evaluations of new mining projects.
Staff in the group also participated in a major analysis of mineral taxation
impacts on mining in the Province. This work led to the publication of a joint
Federal/Provincial report on mineral taxation which was endorsed by Mines and
Finance Ministers in November 1978.
The Division's responsibility for coal project economic appraisals was applied
to a number of potential developments in the northeast and southeast areas of the
Province. Such appraisals are required under the Guidelines jor Coal Development
in order to assist the Government in identifying the economic effects of such projects and in the evaluation of public sector infrastructure investments made in
support of mining projects. Staff in the group also proceeded on enhancements to
the computer model (COALMOD) used to conduct these evaluations.
Other major Division contributions included participation in a resource management study for sand and gravel, development of a computerized metal price data
base, and research and analysis of compensation/mitigation policy pertinent to the
mining sector.
The responsibility of the statistical section is, on a monthly and annual basis,
to mail out, collect, edit, compile, and organize mineral statistics as required for
the Annual Report and other intergovernmental uses. In order to reduce the
reporting burden on the industry, these surveys are done on behalf of Statistics
Canada and the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa. The section
is currently involved in a number of committees relevant to mineral statistics,
including Mines Ministers' Subcommittee on Mineral Statistics, Consultative Council for Mineral Statistics, Coal Statistics, and represents the Government of British
Columbia on such committees. The Task Force on Mineral Valuation has made
a thorough review of all major mineral surveys in use throughout Canada in a
continuing effort to obtain the most meaningful statistics available and at the same
time avoid duplication. An internal project is underway which ultimately will
computerize most of the data received from the Monthly and Annual Survey of
Mines.
  activity of the ministry
65
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
Organization
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the general direction of Assistant
Deputy Minister J. D. Lineham, Chief of the Branch, administers the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling
and Production Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the Drilling Reservation
Regulations, and the Development Road Regulations. It also administers the
Underground Storage Act, 1964. Therefore, the Branch is responsible for all
matters related to the disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and natural gas rights
as well as the regulation of the exploration, development, and production phases of
the oil and gas industry.
The Branch is divided into three Divisions, namely, the Engineering Division,
the Geological Division, and the Titles Division.
Engineering Division
The Engineering Division, under the direction of Chief Engineer A. G. T.
Weaver, is responsible for all engineering activities of the Petroleum Resources
Branch.
There are three main functions:
(1) Enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, together with provision of advice
to the Minister with respect to applications made by industry under
the Act.
(2) Collection, filing for Branch and public use, and publication of
drilling and production statistics, production and disposition data,
reservoir and pool performance data.
(3) Reservoir analysis of all oil and gas pools in the Province, including
maintenance of current production rate forecasts together with data
concerning reserves discovered to date and estimates of potential
reserves growth.
The Development Engineering Section, under the supervision of Senior Development Engineer W. L. Ingram, licenses drilling and service rigs, issues well
authorizations, and maintains detailed records pertaining to all drilling and production operations.
The Reservoir Engineering Section, under the Senior Reservoir Engineer
B. T. Barber, is concerned with all reservoir engineering aspects of the Division's
activities. The section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production
characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation of
reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production data. These parameters
are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from oil and gas accumulations
in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes will be produced. Oil and
gas allowable rates are set by the section, and recommendations concerning proposed improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made.
The Drilling and Production Engineering Section, under the supervision of
District Engineer D. L. Johnson, is located at the field office at Charlie Lake and
is primarily responsible for enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations
in the field. It also collects reservoir and other data as required, acts in a liaison
capacity with industry at the field level, and maintains core and drill sample storage
and examination facilities.
3
 66 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Geological Division
The Geological Division consists of two sections, under the direction of Chief
Geologist W. M. Young, and is responsible for all geological activities of the
Petroleum Resources Branch. The Division is accountable for the collection,
compilation, and assessment of geological and related information concerned with
the exploration for and development of petroleum resources within producing and
nonproducing areas of the Province; assisting in the framing of development procedures to ensure conservation and the best returns from these resources; estimating the remaining undiscovered petroleum resources used for the prediction in
forecasts of oil and gas production; and providing data and opinions to attract,
assist, and encourage industry in the development of the Province's petroleum
resources.
The Economic Geology Section, under the supervision of Senior Economic
Geologist J. A. Hudson, is responsible for the co-ordination and direction of projects
concerned with regional mapping and the assessment of undiscovered petroleum
resources.
The Reservoir Geology Section, under the supervision of Senior Reservoir
Geologist R. Stewart, is responsible for the co-ordination and direction of projects
concerned with the detailed mapping and assessment of discovered petroleum
resources.
Titles Division
The Titles Division consists of two sections, under the direction of Commissioner R. E. Moss, and is responsible for administering those parts of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act relating to and affecting title to Crown petroleum
and natural gas rights. The Division administers the disposition of Crown petroleum
and natural gas rights and, in consultation with the Engineering and Geological
Divisions, approves and selects parcels for posting, and accepts or rejects the tenders
received.
The Titles Section is responsible for all transactions involving petroleum and
natural gas permits, all leases, natural gas licences, drilling reservations, geophysical licences, notices of commencement of exploratory work, affidavits of work, unit
agreements, and miscellaneous recordings.
The Revenue Section, under W. J. Quinn, is responsible for the collection of
all petroleum and natural gas revenue, except royalty, payable to the Crown under
the provisions of the Act.
Staff
On December 31, 1978, the professional and senior staff included the
following:
Assistant Deputy Minister, J. D. Lineham, P.Eng. Chief of Branch
Engineering Division
A. G. T. Weaver, P.Eng. Chief Engineer
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng. Senior Development Engineer
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T.  Development Technician
W. Duncan  Administrative Supervisor
B. T. Barber, P.Eng. Senior Reservoir Engineer
P. S. Attariwala, P.Eng. Reservoir Engineer
L. Pepperdine, P.Eng.  Reservoir Engineer
P. K. Huus Reservoir Technician
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
67
J. H. Burt
^Reservoir Technician
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng. District Engineer
D. E. Krezanoski, P.Eng.  Field Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician
G. T. Mohler  Field Technician
J. L. Withers Field Technician
B. Baraniski Field Technician
G. L. Holland Field Technician
R. W. Nyffeler Field Technician
G. German Geophysical Technician
Geological Division
W. M. Young, P. Eng. Chief Geologist
R. Stewart, P.Eng. Senior Reservoir Geologist
T. B. Ramsay, P.Eng. Reservoir Geologist
J. J. English Reservoir Geologist
J. A. Hudson, P.Eng. Senior Economic Geologist
K. A. McAdam  Economic Geologist
Titles Division
R. E. Moss
W. J. Quinn
 Commissioner
.Assistant Commissioner
Staff Changes
In the Engineering Division, D. Krezanoski and R. Nyffeler joined the District
staff at Charlie Lake as Field Engineer and Field Technician respectively. W.
Duncan joined the Victoria staff as Administrative Supervisor.
In the Geological Division, D. Dewar, Economic Geologist, resigned to join
industry and J. J. English joined the Branch as a Reservoir Geologist.
Highlights of the Petroleum Resources Branch Activities
This section describes the highlights of both the technical and administrative
work carried out by the various parts of the Branch during 1978.
Legislation
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Act was amended, in part, to make minor
housekeeping changes, to convert all units of measure to the metric system (SI),
and to provide for the following:
(a) entry of land for the purposes of the Underground Storage Act,
1964 to be obtained by application to the Mediation and Arbitration
Board established under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act;
(b) greater flexibility in the approval for locations for drilling wells on
permits and subsequent leasing of locations;
(c) reduction of the term of leases from 10 to 5 years for designated
areas considered workable for most of the year;
(d) reversion to the Crown of rights to oil and gas in a lease below the
base of the deepest known commercial production. This strati-
graphic reversion is effective at the end of the initial term of a lease
or January 1, 1985;
(e) a lease, at the end of its initial term, may be continued only for
the spacing area on which a commercial well is located and for such
 68 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
other spacing areas as may be drained by the well.  The remainder
of the original lease converts to the Crown;
(/)   for continuation of a lease beyond its initial term when drilling is
being performed to the satisfaction of the Minister;
(g) continuation of a lease term under penalty reduced from four years
to five years with increased penalties;
(h) in the event of a dispute concerning pooling, the Branch may invite
submissions from interested parties rather than hold a hearing;
(0   the spacing, pooling, and licensing of all wells in the Province,
including any wells located on freehold lands, must comply with the
provisions of the Act and regulations;
(/')   the disposal of Crown reserve oil sand, oil sand products, oil shale,
and oil shale products under such terms and conditions as determined by the Minister;
(k) to prevent waste and for the approval of schemes to maximize production of oil and gas;
(/)   the Minister may order the unitization of an area provided that at
least two-thirds of the working interest owners in the area, who have
agreed in writing to a proposed plan of unit operations, have made
application for a unitization order.
In addition to the above, the Drilling and Production Regulations issued under
the Act were amended to convert all measurements and numerical data into SI
(metric) units.   For many months before this conversion, meetings had been held
with representatives from other oil-producing provinces in an attempt to develop
common petroleum industry operating standards for all jurisdictions.   Uniformity
was achieved except when special circumstances made this impractical.
Mediation and Arbitration Board
Chairman: Glen B. Pomeroy
Vice-Chairman : Cecil Ruddell
Member: John Martin
The Mediation and Arbitration Board, established under the authority of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, grants rights of entry to oil and gas companies
over alienated lands, and determines conditions of entry and compensation therefore. The Act provides for a process of mediation by a member of the Board
appointed by the Chairman. Failing satisfactory agreement between the parties
upon mediation, the Act provides for final disposition by the Board of entry conditions and compensation. The Board is also charged with the responsibility to review
and set compensation on leases and previous Board orders of more than five years'
duration, and to terminate rights of entry when an operator has ceased to use
occupied lands.
In 1978, 68 field inspections were carried out by the Board. The Board made
36 entry orders, and held eight arbitration hearings to set compensation. The
Board met 94 times during the year to deal with general Board matters and specific
concerns of the public.
Engineering Division
The high level of petroleum activity in 1978 imposed a heavy regulatory and
administrative work load on the Division. In addition to these more routine duties,
the Division also had many dealings with other Crown agencies and presented
 activity of the ministry
69
submissions to the British Columbia Energy Commission Hearings and to two
hearings held by the National Energy Board.
Important projects completed by the Division during the year included the
complete conversion of appropriate legislation to SI (metric) standards, the design
of engineering requirements for Government approval of underground gas storage
projects, participation with other jurisdictions and industry in the standardization
of reserves terminology, and the introduction of a procedure for Ministry participation in petroleum road maintenance and construction. These items are described
more fully in the following summaries of work carried out by the three sections of
the Engineering Division.
Development Engineering—The Development Engineering Section is responsible for the administration of all matters related to the location, drilling, completion,
and abandonment of wells in the Province. This involves the assurance that operators of all wells located, drilled, and produced conform with the Drilling and
Production Regulations and submit the required applications, reports, and information to the Branch.
Approval of well authorizations to drill proposed well locations is granted by
the section after review and reference to the Titles and Geological Divisions. In
1978 there were 466 well authorizations issued, an increase of 24 per cent over
1977. Throughout the life of a well, the status, well name, and classification may
be changed as circumstances require. During the year statuses were changed on
121 occasions, well names on 117, and well classifications on 35.
In addition to comprehensive well data records, all geological and geophysical
reports submitted for work credits as well as the Branch correspondence files of
the three Divisions are maintained by the section. The program to microfilm all
significant full-sized documents for security purposes and to establish a library in
microfiche format was continued. At the end of 1978 the first 3 500 well data files
were in this library with plans to have some of the technical staff use this format on
a trial basis. This scheme will be employed for records a few years old but the later
documents will be used in the full size until entered into the system. Two items
not included in this plan are the Daily Drilling Reports and the full-scale logs.
The changeover of measurements to SI for drilling operations was put into
effect on July 1, 1978 and at the beginning of 1979 all measurements related to
production and transportation will be converted. All Government-issued forms
were reprinted and distributed to the industry to meet these deadlines while conversion of the relevant computer programs was near completion at year-end.
Each drilling and service rig operating in the Province must have a valid Rig
Licence.   During 1978, 88 licences were renewed while 34 new ones were issued.
Drilling and Production Engineering—This section is located in the district
office at Charlie Lake in northeast British Columbia. During 1978, approximately
162,710 miles were driven by the field staff of this section to enforce at the field
level requirements of the Drilling and Production Regulations and the Geophysical
Regulations, both made pursuant to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.
The year began with six regular field technicians on staff but, due to the heavy
work load imposed by unusually high drilling and subsequent production operations,
the staff complement was increased by the addition of a field engineer and another
field technician. During the year increased emphasis was placed on inspections at
oil and gas production facilities to ensure compliance with gas conservation orders
and to attend to reduce needless flaring of oil and gas. Such inspections were
carried out on 609 different occasions at oil and gas battery facilities.
 70 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
To check the accuracy and reliability of gas measurement equipment, gas
production was monitored closely with fast meter checks being done on 631
occasions and complete meter checks being made on another 431 occasions.
To ensure the reliability and to augment data received by our Victoria
Reservoir Engineering Section, 145 static pressure gradients were run, 18 gas well
flow tests were witnessed, and six oil well production tests were witnessed. Further
in keeping with Branch policy that all surface pressure elements be calibrated to
the Provincial standard, which is maintained at the Charlie Lake office, 1 492 such
calibrations were performed during 1978.
Geophysical field activity increased greatly during 1978, with 176 seismic
field inspections being made compared to 64 during 1977.
The high level of drilling activity which had started in 1977 carried forward
throughout 1978, and as an indication of the activity there were, after a short spring
breakup during April and May, an average 33 active wells each month from June
to the end of October 1978.
During 1978, 403 wells were spudded and in the course of 781 inspections
on active drilling sites emphasis was placed on ensuring that the drilling rigs, both
those that had been previously working in the Province and those ones newly in,
were mechanically acceptable to Branch standards.
This section continued its involvement with the Northeastern British Columbia
Oil Spill Co-operative, taking an active part in all meetings and training exercises.
This involvement was recognized during 1978, when the Branch was asked to
become an associate member of the PROSCARAC (Prairie Regional Oil Spill
Containment and Recovery Advisory Committee) established under the auspices
of the Canadian Petroleum Association.
Reservoir Engineering—An important responsibility of the Reservoir Engineering Section is to estimate on a continuing basis the oil and gas reserves in British
Columbia. Estimates as of December 31, 1978 are shown in Table 4-3 and are
summarized below.
Oil, established  185 930 MSTB        29 546 103m3
Natural gas, established—
Raw        8 719 BSCF       245 635 106m3
Marketable        7 105 BSCF       200 173 106m3
Natural gas liquids—
Propane        8 289 MSTB 1316 103m3
Butane      12 535 MSTB 1 991 103m3
Pentanes plus      24 258 MSTB 3 855 103m3
Sulphur       7 558 MLT 7 679 103t
It may be observed from Table 4-3 that the oil reserves have increased
19.1 MMSTB (3.0 106m3) from last year. Additions due to drilling and revisions
were 16.7 MMSTB (2.6 106m3) and 15.0 MMSTB (2.4 106m3) respectively.
Production reduced the reserves by 12.6 MMSTB (2.0 106m3).
Raw gas reserves at the end of 1978 were 0.45 TSCF (12 600 106m3) higher
than last year. Additions due to drilling and revisions were 0.75 TSCF (21 100
106m3) and 0.05 TSCF (1400 106m3) respectively. Production reduced the
reserves by 0.35 TSCF (9 900 106m3).
The Branch has adopted a revised method for the determination of established
marketable gas reserves. This method consists of accumulating initial established
reserves of raw gas, cumulative production, and remaining established reserves by
plants (operating, planned, or anticipated) and applying to these volumes actual
shrinkage values from field production to marketable gas volumes at the tailgate
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
71
of the plant. These shrinkage values were derived by averaging data for the four
years, 1974 to 1977. In previous years volumes of raw gas were converted to
volumes of "residue" gas by allowing for theoretical volume reductions due to
removal of acid gases in processing plants and, also, removal of certain percentages
of liquid hydrocarbons in the Fort St. John plant. It should be noted, therefore,
that volumes of "residue" gas published in past years should not be directly compared to volume of marketable gas shown in Table 4-3.
British Columbia took part during the year in a task force on Uniform Reserve
Terminology consisting of representatives from the western producing provinces,
the National Energy Board, and industry. This task force was set up by the Interprovincial Advisory Committee on Energy (IPACE) to develop a set of terms
which could be acceptable to all sections of the petroleum business in Canada for
the reporting of reserve estimates. After a series of meetings unanimity was reached
by the task force on terms to be proposed for general application. These were
subsequently accepted by the Ministry and will be adopted by all British Columbia
Government agencies involved in the estimation of oil and gas reserves.
An estimate of established remaining reserves and producibility by years for
the period 1978 to 2002 of raw and residue natural gas and natural gas liquids,
together with estimates of future discoveries, was included in the Ministry's submission to the British Columbia Energy Commission's Oil and Gas Price Inquiry
in June 1978. Also included were estimates of established remaining reserves and
producibility by years for the period 1978 to 1995 of crude oil together with estimates of future discoveries, modifications to existing waterfloods, and tertiary
recovery.
An estimate of established remaining reserves and producibility by years for
the period 1978 to 1995 of crude oil and pentanes plus together with estimates of
future discoveries, modifications to existing waterfloods, and tertiary recovery was
prepared for inclusion in the Province's submission to the National Energy Board
at a hearing into "Canadian Oil Supply and Requirements" during May to June
1978. An estimate of established remaining reserves and producibility by years
for the period 1978 to 2000 of raw and marketable natural gas together with estimates of future discoveries was prepared for inclusion in the Province's submission
to the National Energy Board at a hearing into "Natural Gas Supply and Demand"
during October to November 1978.
The estimates presented to the National Energy Board indicate that daily oil
producibility from established reserves and future discoveries may decline from
37.3 MSTB in 1978 to 11.9 MSTB in 1995; daily producibility of pentanes plus
is expected to remain constant at about 3.3 MSTB through 1980 and then decline
to about 1.3 MSTB in 1995. Annual producibility of raw natural gas is predicted
to increase from 391 BSCF in 1978 to 496 BSCF in 1983 and remain essentially
constant in the 475- to 500-BSCF range through 2000.
A review of the literature dealing with underground storage was undertaken
for the purpose of establishing a procedural guide for industry when making application for approval of a scheme of underground hydrocarbon storage in an aquifer
under the Underground Storage Act, 1964. The information needed by the Branch
to enable it to evaluate an application and make recommendations to the Minister
has now been determined and these requirements will be published in the next
update of the Procedural Handbook.
 72 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
Geological Division
Economic Geology—The published subsurface mapping series of the northeastern sedimentary basin area was updated and revised to include released information as of April 30, 1978. This subsurface coverage, which includes most of the
major producing horizons, is available on both a 1:100 000 and 1:250 000 mapping
scale. The latter scale is a composite of eight map sheets and therefore provides a
broad regional perspective of the mapped horizon.
A new 1:100 000-scale drillstem test and penetration compilation map series
started in 1977 was completed during the year with released information posted as
of April 30, 1978. These maps show for all wells outside designated field boundaries
the deepest geological formation penetrated, all formation drillstem tests, and the
zone(s) in which gas and oil wells are completed. In addition to the latter information and within the designated field limit the penetration map will show drillstem
tests in horizons other than that productive in the field as well as the formation at
total depth for wells which have penetrated below the lowest productive horizon
within the field.
The section was very active in assisting other Divisions, Ministries, Crown
agencies, and the public in matters concerning regional geology and estimates of
the remaining undiscovered petroleum resources. Frequent meetings were held
with various industry representatives to discuss aspects of geology, geophysics, and
the petroleum resource potential of the northeastern producing area.
Reservoir Geology—As a result of a record year in drilling activity, the
Reservoir Geology Section carried out a demanding program of assessment and
mapping in detail all oil and gas accumulations encountered by the drill. Structural, stratigraphic, and reservoir geologic data made available through drilling
were used as the basis for new and revision-type map work, reservoir studies, evaluation of reserves, and the control of remedial work, cycling, repressuring. and
secondary recovery projects.
During the year substantial changes resulted from new drilling and studies in
the following pools and corresponding hydrocarbon-bearing rock unit(s): Boundary
Lake North—Halfway, Buick Creek—Dunlevy and Doig, Buick Creek North—■
Bluesky, Cabin—Slave Point, Cache Creek—Coplin and Halfway, Dahl—Bluesky,
Eagle West—Belloy, Fireweed—Dunlevy, Fort St. John—Charlie Lake, Kotcho
Lake East—Slave Point, Pocketknife—Debolt, Sierra—Pine Point, Silver—Bluesky, Stoddart—Cecil, Stoddard West—Belloy, and Wilder—Halfway.
The most significant change as a result of development drilling took place in
the Stoddart West-Belloy oil pool which was extended to include approximately
1 457 hectares of productive area. Other noteworthy extensive successes included
the Halfway and Baldonnel gas in the Sundown and Ojay areas respectively.
Several new fields encompassing previous single and double well pools were
designated as Altares, Birch, Goose, Gundy Creek West, and Klua as a replacement
of Clarke Lake South, Thetlaandoa North, and Wolverine. The outlines of all
designated fields and pools are revised on a quarterly basis.
A considerable amount of time was employed in assessing the volumetric oil
and gas reserves of wells as a basis in determining production allowables. Controversy with industry over assigned reservoir parameters was frequent with noteworthy examples in the Devonian carbonates where the operator was reluctant to
penetrate the complete gas-bearing interval. Other problem areas were encountered
at Eagle West and Stoddart West as a result of questionable rock lithology in wells
which did not have a complete core recovery over the whole of the productive zone.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY 73
As a result of the above problems, the section conducted special studies on
the Devonian reef distribution in the Yoyo, Sierra, Junior and Ekwan area, and
the Belloy rock lithology in the Eagle West and Stoddart West oil pools. The
inter-relationship of tight Devonian reef, porous reef, and shale deposits was
determined from structure, isopach, and cross-sectional displays. This mapping
was then used in conjunction with reservoir pressure depth plots as a means of
estimating the over-all gas-bearing interval in wells which did not penetrate the
gas/water interface. Belloy cored data from the Eagle West and Stoddart West
oil pools were used in constructing density plots, core porosity-log porosity cross-
plots, and porosity-permeability cross-plots for the purpose of assigning net oil pays
within sections containing variable rock lithologies.
Routine assistance was provided in advising other Divisions with geological
evaluations and assessments of Crown lands posted for disposal of petroleum and
natural gas rights; petroleum and natural gas lease extension renewals; the reclassification of wells for the purpose of confidentiality of information and new pool
discovery status; geological appraisal concerning industry production schemes; and
the disposal of water production.
Titles Division
One of the basic responsibilities of the Titles Division is to issue licences
permitting a company to carry out geophysical exploration. During the year 34
geophysical licences were issued or renewed, an increase of 12 from 1977. One
Unit Agreement was approved. A total of 258 notices of commencement of
exploratory work was recorded, an increase of 94 from the previous year. These
notices are required prior to the commencement of any geological and geophysical
exploration for petroleum and natural gas. With the exception of one program done
in the Queen Charlotte Islands and one in the Fraser Valley, all geophysical activity
was undertaken in the northeast corner of the Province. During the year 378
geophysical crew weeks were worked and approximately 13 744 kilometres of line
recorded resulting in an increase of 99 crew weeks and 5 389 kilometres of line
over that of 1977.
During the year the mapping section continued with the ongoing program of
updating and converting base maps to 1:50 000 scale. Of particular interest were
the seismic road and trail maps which are updated on a daily basis using a base
with the topography screened so these maps become very useful in the field when
determining the location of lines for new seismic programs.
In addition to its normal activities, the Division spent considerable time assisting in special projects with other Ministries in matters relating to petroleum tenure
rights and lands. Very frequent meetings were held with various industry representatives concerning tenure to petroleum and natural gas rights, Crown sales, and
their administration under the terms of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and
regulations.
One of the major projects of the Division was the selection, description, terms
of the licence agreement, and evaluation of the petroleum and natural gas rights
transferred to the British Columbia Resources Investment Corporation. By the
end of the year three permits had been issued to British Columbia Resources
Investment Corporation and one well had been drilled. In addition, several seismic
programs were in progress over licensed lands.
During the year two permits were issued for oil sand and oil shale exploration
in Graham Island.   By the end of the year drilling was in progress on these permits.
 74 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
The Division was involved in discussions and preparation of amendments to
the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act which became effective on July 1, 1978. Many
changes were of a housekeeping nature but substantial amendments were made
involving the tenure and continuation of a lease term.
By the end of the year, approval was given to add two clerical positions to the
staff of the Division to assist in processing the very heavy volume of work created
as a result of 1978 being the year of record-breaking interest in land acquisition,
exploration, and drilling. As of December 31, 1978, 21,873,776 acres (8 852 317
hectares) or approximately 34,178 square miles, an increase of 862,642 acres
(349 111 hectares) over the 1977 total of Crown petroleum and natural gas rights
issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act were held in good standing by
operators ranging from small independent companies to major international ones.
The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage of each case were as
follows:
Form of Title Number Acreage Hectares
Permits   421 12,496,271 5 057 241
Natural gas licences  2 18,678 7 559
Drilling reservations   107 1,052,921 426 117
Lease (all types)   5 056 8,305,906 3 361 400
Totals   21,873,776        8 852 317
During 1978 the following transactions were completed:
1. Permits—
Issued*   40
Renewed  304
Converted to lease   43
Cancelled  45
Transferred (assigned)   34
2. Drilling Reservations—
Issued   52
Renewed  50
Converted to lease  34
Cancelled   34
Transferred (assigned)   12
3. Leases—
Issued   939
Annual rental paid   3 260
Renewed for 10-year termt   39
Extended under penaltyf  86
Extended NOT under penaltyf   219
Cancelled  37
Transferred (assigned)   659
4. Natural Gas Licences*—
Issued  3
Renewed   Nil
Converted to lease  1
Cancelled   2
Transferred (assigned)   Nil
* Includes three BCRIC permits,
t From January 1, 1978 to June 30, 1978 only.
t From July 1, 1978 to December 31, 1978: Leases continued, 110; leases continued with penalty, 83.
 ACTIVITY of the ministry
75
5. Crown Sales-
Permits 	
Number
Advertised
     35
Drilling reservations      59
Leases   812
Number
Sold
35
52
652
Totals 	
6. Geophysical Licences—Issued
_ 906
739
34
7. Notice of Commencement of Exploratory Work—
Approved       25 8
8. Affidavits of Work—Approved
Permits         8 6
Leases        18
9. Miscellaneous Recordings (mergers, grouping notices,
etc.)—Approved§  2 400
10. Unit Agreements—Approved   1
§ Estimated.
MINERAL REVENUE DIVISION
The Mineral Revenue Division is responsible for the assessment and collection
of royalties and resource taxes imposed on metallic and non-metallic minerals, the
development of which is subject to the administrative jurisdiction of the Ministry of
Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. To execute its assigned responsibilities,
the Division has a staff of 21 permanent employees and one temporary employee.
Under the direction of W. W. Ross, it is organized into five functional areas as
follows: The Mineral and Petroleum Accounting sections, under B. A. Garrison,
Assistant Director; the Mineral Titles Section, under N. D. Smith, Chief Titles
Officer, who reports directly to Mr. Garrison; the External Audit Section, under
A. R. Lockwood; and the staff stenographic services, under Mrs. J. Skrypnick, both
of whom report to Mr. Ross. Primary responsibilities of the Division which have
not changed during the year are outlined in the 1977 Annual Report. This report
is confined to summarizing 1978 performance.
Coal Royalty Regulations Under the Coal Act
On June 29, 1978, the Coal Amendment Act, 1978, was given royal assent.
Under the Act, section 29 was amended to provide a royalty based on 3.5 per cent
of the minehead value of coal produced and sold, rather than the flat rate royalties
of $1.50 per ton for metallurgical coal, and 75 cents per ton for thermal coal.
B.C. Regulation 290/78 was approved and ordered on July 13, 1978, to initiate
the new provisions of section 29 of the Act.
During 1978, 2 805 225 tonnes of coal was reported as shipped and sold
which yielded royalty payments of $4 222 054.58; however, an audit of production
for the period 1974-1977 resulted in increased tonnages subject to the payment of
royalty, and accounted for an additional collection of $808 682.61 for total receipts
from Crown coal during the year of $5 030 737.19.
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements Under the Mineral Act
Two producers were subject to the payment of a royalty of $1.00 per long dry
ton of contained iron in iron concentrates produced and sold during 1978. The
royalty provisions deem a concentrate to have an iron content of 50 per cent, and
 76
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
allows a credit against royalty payments of 50 per cent of the royalty payable where
exploration work has been performed. During 1978, 486,026.057 long dry tons
of iron concentrates with a deemed iron content of 243,013.029 long dry tons was
reported as shipped and sold which yielded royalty payments of $121 506.53.
Mineral Land Tax Act
The Mineral Land Tax Act, which imposes a tax on the ownership of freehold
mineral rights, was converted to metric standards during the year. The basic tax
under the Act ranges from 62 cents per hectare to $2.47 per hectare with a minimum
assessment of $10.00 depending upon total area held by an owner. Where land is
designated as a "Production Area," the basic assessment becomes $4.94 per hectare,
and if the land is designated as a "Production Tract," a mill rate assessment, not
exceeding 25 mills is applied to the assessed value of the production tract in addition
to the basic charge of $4.94 per hectare. During 1978, the only designated production tracts subject to a mill rate assessment of 12.5 mills were those tracts which
produced coal, petroleum, oi natural gas during the year.
Mineral land tax assessment notices for 1978 were issued by May 1 on a total
of 521 647.42 hectares under 6 124 folios. This represents increases of 1 182 folios
or 24 per cent and 23 929.68 hectares or 5 per cent over the 1977 mineral land tax
assessment roll. A summary of the 1978 mineral land tax assessment roll and the
related taxes assessed and collected are reflected in the following table:
Table 2-4—Mineral Land Tax Assessment Roll
Classification
of Mineral Land
Number of
Folios
Hectares
Tax
Assessed
Taxes
Forgiven on
Agricultural
Land
Tax
Collected
Non-designated...
Production areas
Production tracts
Interest 	
Delinquent taxes.
Totals...
6 060 | 503 465.73
53 | 14 156.41
11 4 025.28
I
330 623.42
69 932.67
7 966 148.91
3 270.27
46 957.65
|    82 763.04    I
i ::::zz:
288 841.45
59 850.91
7 814 105.08
(!)
C1)
6 124      I    521647.42    I    8 416 932.92    I
I I !
82 763.04    |    8 162 797.44
 I	
1 Interest and delinquent tax collections included in tax collected for each classification.
During 1978, the Mineral Titles Section carried out 27 767 title searches
including 2 694 special search requests for the Water Resources Branch of the
former Ministry of the Environment. As a result of the searching activities, 2 024
parcels covering 93 024.04 hectares were added to the roll, and five surrenders
covering 124.71 hectares were processed. Preliminary searches were also completed to facilitate the surrender of mineral rights in the "lieu lands" of the
Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt located north of title 7434A. It is anticipated
that this surrender will be completed in 1979. The Division also processed forfeitures on 97 folios covering 167 lots for a total of 3 471.83 hectares.
Audits were completed on nine mines which resulted in a reduction of
$9 331 600 in assessed values, and a tax adjustment of $116 645.00.
Professor John Bedford Evans resigned as Chairman of the Mineral Land
Tax Review Board in December to take up a position in Australia. Fortunately,
actions before the Board have been adjourned sine die pending the final disposition
of an appeal on the Honourable Mr. Justice Berger's findings on specific questions
of law put to the Supreme Court of British Columbia by the Mineral Land Tax
Review Board. The rulings were sought as the result of an appeal before the
Board, and a consolidated action before the Supreme Court. On December 5,
1978, the Honourable Mr. Justice Berger pronounced his judgment finding that:
 ACTIVITY of the ministry
77
The effect of these reasons is to uphold the validity of the regulations
under which assessments have been made. The administrator has
the power now under the Act and regulations to make assessments
on production tracts, and these assessments may be retro-active.
But the assessment made against production tracts before the coming
into force of the Amending Act—I refer to the assessments in issue
in these proceedings—have no legal force and effect, and no tax
can be levied under them. All moneys paid by the companies under
these assessments must be returned.
An appeal has been initiated on the Honourable Mr. Justice Berger's decision,
but it is not likely that this will be dealt with until late 1979.
Mineral Royalties Act
This Act was repealed as of January 1, 1977; however, six audits remained at
the close of 1977, and these have now been completed with additional assessments
of $372 641. Also, the Crown was successful in its claim against Consolidated
Churchill Copper Corporation Ltd. for delinquent royalties, and collected $336
637.78 on that account. Total net revenue received during the year under this Act
was $699 316.19.
Mineral Resource Tax Act
The Mineral Resource Tax Act imposes a 17.5-per-cent tax on the profits
earned from the operation of a mine, within the Province, which produces minerals
as defined under the Mineral Act. A review of annual returns indicated that 38
returns were filed for fiscal years ending in 1977, and that net aggregate income
was $53 367 407.33 which resulted in a gross tax payable of $11 112 995.52 which,
after deduction of allowed royalty credits of $2 847 218.46, paid for the 1976
calendar year, yielded a net tax payable of $8 265 777.06. Actual revenue collections for the year under the Act were $8 922 987.92. The Audit section reviewed
25 of the annual returns submitted and issued 19 assessment notices for a net credit
adjustment of $114 826.26.
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties
Petroleum and natural gas production from Crown lands is subject to the
payment of a royalty under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalty Regulations,
with the proviso that any gas sold under contract to the British Columbia Petroleum
Corporation is exempt from the payment of royalty. The revenue collections for
the year are as follows:
Table 2-6—Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue Collection, 1978
Natural gas royalties  72 729.14
Crude petroleum royalties  42 191 349.49
Natural gas by-product royalties  1 074 867.41
Penalties   510.00
Total   43 339 456.04
The petroleum exploration incentive program was terminated in 1978; however, any established credits may be redeemed in accordance with the provisions as
previously specified. The transactions completed during the year for oil credits
are reflected in the following statement.
 78
ENERGY,
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
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 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY 79
Table 2-7—Oil Credits Transactions, 1978
Credits Value
$
Balance brought forward from 1977   9 699 092 7 274 319.00
Credits established during the year  1 800 261 1 350 195.75
Credits redeemed during the year  9 909 087 7 431 815.25
Credit expired during the year         	
1590 266        1192 699.50
Mines Assessors' Conference
On January 25 to 27, 1978, the Province hosted a conference of Provincial
mines assessors in Victoria. The meeting afforded the assessors an opportunity to
discuss administrative problems, and to compare the administrative procedures
employed within different Provincial jurisdictions. A transcript of the proceedings
was prepared, and copy was provided for each delegate. The assessors felt that
the conference was very successful, and should be held on a regular basis so that
they can be made fully aware of the implication for changes made in other
jurisdictions.
FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
The Director of Finance and Administration, Robert R. Davy, was appointed
May 1, 1978. Reporting to the Director are the Accounts Section, Publications,
Library, and Mailing Services. The Director reports directly to the Deputy
Minister.
Accounts Section
This section is under control of the Director. Mrs. Maureen Lundquist, who
had assumed temporary responsibility of the section until the Director was
appointed, won a competition with the Ministry of Finance and left in November.
During the year Mary-Ellen Tonge was appointed to head Accounts Payable. The
several functions of the section are the preparation of Ministry estimates, payroll
administration, administering payment of suppliers' accounts and travel claims,
costing and facilitating of purchases of the Ministry through the Purchasing Commission, and other administrative accounting responsibilities.
Library
The Ministry Library, located at Room 430, Douglas Building, Victoria, is
administered by the Director and supervised by Sharon Ferris. The Library provides
geological and technical information for the staff, other Ministries, industry, and the
public.
The Library is the depository for all publications of the Ministry. Other
holdings include reports of the geological surveys and mines' branches of Canada,
the United States, and other foreign nations. Government reports and maps total
approximately 16 000 in number. There are approximately 1 850 texts and reference books. Audio visual equipment is also stored in the Library for staff use.
Special collections comprising of proceedings and guidebooks from international
geological congresses, and annual reports of the mining and petroleum companies
are also held by the Library.
An estimated 2 100 requests for information were dealt with in 1978 and
115 inter-library loan requests were made for staff members. Indexing of government serial publications was continued.
 80 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Publications
The Publications section is administered by the Director and supervised by
Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir. Responsibilities include publication preparation for the
Ministry, maintaining indexes and publication lists, disseminating press releases,
and dispatch of the ever-increasing requests for information from other governmental agencies, universities, industry, and the public. Approximately 8 000
communiques were handled during the year.
The Publication Committee, composed of a representative from each Division,
is chaired by Dr. A. Sutherland Brown who administered the section until the
appointment of the Director on May 1. This Committee met at irregular intervals
throughout the year.
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Ministry, Room 414,
Douglas Building, Victoria, and from the Geological Survey of Canada, 100 West
Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may also be obtained from the
Gold Commissioner's office, 800 Hornby Street, Vancouver.
Publications are available for reference use in the Ministry Library, in the
Reading Room of the Geological Survey of Canada, in the offices of the Inspector
of Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert, as well as in certain libraries.
Separate lists of publications are available for the Mineral Resources Branch
and the Petroleum Resources Branch on request to the Publications Section, Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Room 414, Douglas Building,
Victoria V8V 1X4. Mailing lists are maintained for all those interested in receiving notification of the release of new publications.
PERSONNEL
There were no staff changes in the Personnel office during 1978.
The Management Classification and Compensation Plan was completed, and
Personnel continued input to an over-all Licensed Professional Officer Plan as well
as representing the Ministry on management negotiations.  Throughout 1978 more
than 26 staff were enrolled in training courses.
The Ministry Personnel statistics for 1978 are as follows:
Number of permanent employees  261
Number of appointments     30
Number of resignations        4
Number of retirements       3
Number of in-service transfers       3
Number of promotions and reclassifications     17
Number of temporary employees     43
Number of temporary employees under WIG 1978     15
Number of temporary employees under summer program    47
   Mineral Resource Statistics
CONTENTS
Chapter 3—Mineral Resource Statistics-
Introduction	
Methods of Computing Production-
Metals	
Average Prices	
Gross and Net Content	
Value of Production	
CHAPTER 3
Page
83
  84
  84
  84
  84
  85
  85
  86
  86
  86
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables  87
Figure 3-1—Value of Mineral Production, 1887-1978  98
Figure 3-2—Production Quantities of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, 1893-1978	
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year.
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials-
Coal	
Petroleum and Natural Gas	
99
101
102
104
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1978	
Table 3-3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years, 1969-1978	
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Quantity and Value of Production, and
Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines  106
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974-1978  106
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1978  108
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1977 and 1978, and
Total to Date  110
Table 3-7B—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc, by
Mining Divisions, 1977 and 1978, and Total to Date  112
Table 3-7C—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1977
and 1978, and Total to Date  114
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1977
and 1978, and Total to Date  118
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1977
and 1978, and Total to Date  120
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1978  121
Table 3-8B—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1978  122
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes  123
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1978  124
Table 3-11—Employment at Major Metal and Coal Mines, 1978  125
Table 3-12—Metal Production, 1978  126
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1978  129
83
 84 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Economics and Planning Division of the Mineral Resources
Branch.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning
with the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial Ministries have
co-operated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report oj the Minister oj Energy, Mines and
Petroleum Resources for British Columbia. Differences between the values of
production published by the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics
Canada uses average prices considered applicable to the total Canadian production,
whereas the British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable
to British Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production, being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
The statistics of the petroleum industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Petroleum Resources Branch.
METHODS OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors became known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by the producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For petroleum, natural gas, and liquid by-products,
production figures supplied by the Petroleum Resources Branch of the Ministry
of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources are compiled from the monthly disposition reports and the Crown royalty statement filed with the Ministry by the
producers.
Values are in Canadian funds.   Metric weights are used throughout.
METALS
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page 100.
Prior to 1974 the price of gold used was the average Canadian Mint buying-
price for fine gold.
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold. Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and until 1973
the average price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total
amount received. Starting in 1974 the price used for the valuation of gold, lode
and placer, is the amount received by the producer.
J
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
8?:
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average prices at the markets indicated in the table on page 102, converted into
Canadian funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New
York; Lon.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Starting in 1949 the price of silver, copper, lead, and zinc were average United
States prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices were supplied
by Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it was the New York price; for lead it was the New
York price; for zinc it was the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper
it was the United States export refinery price. Commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers and
since 1974 this applies also to gold, silver, lead, zinc, and cadmium.
For antimony and bismuth the average producers' price to consumers is used.
For nickel the price used is the Canadian price set by Inco Limited. The value per
tonne of the iron ore used in making pig iron at Kimberley was an arbitrary figure,
being the average of several ores of comparable giade at their points of export from
British Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
the metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents are
the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross contents
less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents, particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another.
The method established in 1963 is outlined in the following table. For example,
the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross content,
of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc. Commencing in 1974 the quantities represent the actual net quantities or metals paid for.
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Copper-Nickel
Copper
Concentrates
Concentrates
Concentrates
Concentrates
Matte
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Silver   	
98
98
98
98
Copper....   	
Less 26 lb./ton
Less 10 lb./ton
85
Less 10 lb./ton
Lead  _	
98
50
50
Zinc...   	
50
90
	
....
Cadmium  _ _
70
	
	
Nickel   	
....
—
—
88
—
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate, mercury, molybdenum, rhenium, and tin the
value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production was calculated from the assay
content of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an
average price per unit of weight. Since 1974 the values represent the settlement
values received by the producers for the respective metals.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
 86 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per
cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on
page 100.
For 1925 to 1973 the values had been calculated by using the true average
price (see page 100) and the net metal contents in accordance with the procedures
adopted by Statistics Canada and the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
Since 1974 the total quantity and value of metal production include the quantities paid for to the mines, and the smelter and refinery production that can be
attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity and value paid for to the
mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
COAL
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per tonne which is
the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well head.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
87
MINERAL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a
by-product of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined
in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then
other out-of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lar-
deau, Slocan, Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 3-7C the antimony
assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to
foreign smelters; the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter
from various ores received there.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Arsenious oxide—Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Asbestos — British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the
Cassiar mine was opened. All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile
from the Cassiar mine near the Yukon boundary. This deposit is noted for its
high percentage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre.
The original claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped
two years later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar and now most is shipped
by truck to Stewart. From 1953 to 1961 the fibre was valued at the shipping point
in North Vancouver, but beginning in 1962 it has been valued at the mine, and
values for the preceding years have been recalculated on that basis. See Tables
3-1, 3-3, and3-7D.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
has been mined from lode deposits and the rest recovered from the mill-tailings
ponds of the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines. See
Table 3-7D.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
 88 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 3-7C the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated
recovery at the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7C.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are Inland Cement Industries Ltd., with
a 907 180 tonnes-per-year plant on Tilbury Island, and a 490 000 tonnes-per-year
plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd., with a 476 000 tonnes-per-
year plant on Lulu Island and a 191 000 tonnes-per-year plant at Kamloops. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 608 tonnes from Cascade in 1918 and 114 tonnes from Scottie Creek in 1929.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Clay and shale products—These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery,
lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in
plants at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant at Quesnel makes
pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of Quesnel. Several hobby and art
potteries and a sanitary-ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported
raw materials and their production is not included in the tables. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7E.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island
in 1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that
of placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for
the next 30 years.
First production, by mining divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains
coking-coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building.
Mining started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and
on the Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the
last large mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The
colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the
large mine at Tsable River in 1966, and the last small one, near Wellington in 1968,
marked the end of continuous production from the important Vancouver Island
deposits. Recent exploration indicates the possibility of renewed coal mining on
the island.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
89
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north-central British Columbia,
the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and Sage Creek basin southeast of Fernie.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created intense exploration in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of large contracts
with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several deposits in the
East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities at North
Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, 3-8A, and 3-8B.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
From 1971 to 1973, cobalt was shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at Hope.
See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 3-1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report at Table 3-9, but this table has
been discontinued.   The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 3-8B.
Condensate—(a) Field—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing, (b) Plant
—Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from natural gas at gas-
processing plants.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
Copper—From 1935 to 1978 no copper smelter operated in British Columbia
and most of the copper concentrates were shipped to Japanese, eastern Canadian,
and American smelters. In 1978, Afton Mines Ltd. started producing blister copper from its own concentrates. Most of the smelting in British Columbia in early
years was done on ore shipped directly from the mines without concentration, but
modern practice is to concentrate the ore first. Small amounts of gold and silver
are commonly present and add value to the ore.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver King
mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at Grand
Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine). Later,
small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and Texada
Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper smelting ceased in
the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935. British
Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and since 1961
have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Ross-
land, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During the 1960's, exploration for copper became intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining.  This activity has resulted in the establish-
 90 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
ment of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley
(Bethlehem) in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda)
in 1970, Stewart (Granduc)—closed mid-1978, near Port Hardy (Island Copper)
in 1971, near Babine Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley
(Lornex), Princeton (Ingerbelle) in 1972, and near Kamloops (Afton) in 1977.
See Table 3-12 for a complete list of copper producers.
Some of these mines produce molybdenum as a by-product, for example,
Bethlehem, Brenda, Lornex, Gibraltar, and Island Copper. Copper is also produced as a by-product of iron mining at Tasu Sound, Queen Charlotte Islands
(Wesfrob), and with ores containing zinc, gold, silver, and lead at Buttle Lake
(Lynx and Myra, Western Mines).
Copper has been the most valuable single commodity of the industry since
1966 except in 1977 when it was surpassed marginally by natural gas. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Crude oil —Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the oil
pipeline was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans
Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company pipeline near Kamloops. In 1978, oil was
produced from 36 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Inga, Peejay, and
Eagle were the most productive.
In Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, but since 1962 the field and plant condensates are listed
separately. Table 4-16 incorporates all revisions since the commencement of
production.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. A plant to process the material is located in Quesnel. See Table 3-7D.
Fluorite (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the Rock
Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery. From 1958 to
1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica quarry.
See Table 3-7D.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and from a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past, silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
Today, silica from near Kamloops and limestone, chiefly from Texada Island, are
produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See Tables 3-1, 3-3,
and 3-7D.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province.
The first discovery of lode gold was on Morseby Island in 1852, when some gold
was recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras (primitive grinding-mills) were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short-lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. By
1900 the value of gold production was second only to that of coal. At the start of
World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly value of more than $22 million,
but since the war it has dwindled until developments in the 1970's.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
91
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland
Canal, Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine at Bridge River
closed.
With the closing of the Bralorne mine, most of the lode gold is produced as a
by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver, and other base metal mining. Because
of the volume of this production the amount of gold produced is still at a fairly high
level, and with the significant rise in the price of gold in the 1970's the value of
production has exceeded the peaks reached during the era of gold mines in the
1930's. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B. See Table 3-12 for a complete list of
current producers.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer-miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream from
Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery of the placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the
discovery of placer gold in the Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1885. A high
level of production ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak
output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort
Steele, Rock Creek, Omineca Riy.er, and Quesnel River. The last important strike
was made on Cedar Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in
1927 and on Wheaton Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II, placer-mining declined under conditions
of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold but is showing signs of revival in
response to a freely floating gold price since 1972. Since 1858, more than 161 181
000 grams valued at $98.5 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kamloops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was:
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold in the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7A.
Granules—Rock chips ujed for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, sfncco,
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
 92 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
1930.    Plants operate in Burnaby and near Grand Forks, Sirdar, Vananda, and
Armstrong.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956, more than 907 000 tonnes were shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956,
nearly all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.   Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipment. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Morseby Island. At Texada Island copper was
a by-product of iron-mining, and in the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is that
of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is produced
as a by-product.
From January 1961 to August 1972, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings
of the Sullivan mine was used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This was the first
manufacture of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and
pyrite in the lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead
and zinc minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron
sulphides are separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile has been
built containing a reserve of about 18 million tonnes of iron ore.
The sulphur was removed in making pig iron and was converted to sulphuric
acid, which was used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converted the
pig iron to steel, and a fabricating plant was acquired in Vancouver. The iron
smelter at Kimberley closed in August 1972. The entire production, credited to the
Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 3-7C, is of calcine. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7C.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its
tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika,
and Wheaton Creeks.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
by molybdenum in 1969, and in total production by zinc in 1966.   Lead and zinc
J
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
93
usually occur together in nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single
deposit. Zinc is the more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable
than zinc ore because it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British
Columbia produced almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces about 26 per
cent of the total. Most of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at
Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of
the Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about 99.9 per cent
of the Province's lead and has produced about 85.4 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works
at Trail. Other mines are at Pend-d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
southwestern British Columbia, and Vancouver Island. In northwestern British
Columbia less important parts of the total output have come from Tulsequah, the
Premier mine, and several small mines in the general region of Hazelton. See Table
3-12 for the current lead producers.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines in British Columbia owned
by Cominco Ltd. goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines
goes to American smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to approximately 7.8 million tonnes.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.    See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920, manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test
shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then
small amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River
district. The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi
Lake and Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine
reopened and continued in operation until 1975 when it closed because of market
situations.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961, small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined
near Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7D.
 94 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade
molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the
point that molybdenum now ranks second in importance in annual value of metals
produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine
recovered by-product molybdenum from 1964 to 1966, commencing again in 1978.
In 1965 the Endako and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and
British Columbia Molybdenum mine in 1967, all began operations as straight
molybdenum producers. The Boss Mountain mine closed in 1971 and reopened
late in 1973. The Coxey and British Columbia Molybdenum mines closed in 1971
and 1972 respectively. In 1970 the Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum
producer, started operating, and Island Copper in 1971, and Lornex in 1972, while
Gibraltar ceased molybdenum production in 1975 but re-commenced in 1977. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7C.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 363 tonnes of natro-alunite were mined
from a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent
production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. In 1957 the gas plant at Taylor and the pipeline
to serve British Columbia and the northwestern United States was completed. The
daily average volume of production in 1975 was 1.14 billion cubic feet. In 1978
there were 83 gas-fields producing both associated and non-associated gas, of which
the Yoyo, Clarke Lake, Sierra, and La Prise Creek, were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16. is the total amount
sold of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the
gas-gathering system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line.
The quantity is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas
used or lost in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as millions of cubic
metres at standard conditions [99.2 kPa (kilopascals) pressure, 15°C temperature, up to and including the year 1960, and thereafter 101.3 kPa pressure,
15°C temperature].
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in the tables in chapter 4.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. From 1960 to 1974, bulk
copper and nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan and Alberta respectively for smelting. The mine closed in August 1974. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and
3-7C.
Niobium—Niobium was produced from placer deposits on Vowell and Malloy
Creeks in the Bugaboo area in 1956. A test shipment of 8 187 tonnes of gravel
was shipped by St. Eugene Mining Corporation Limited to Quebec Metallurgical
Industries. The placer contained a variety of minerals, including pyrochlore and
uraninite. Recovery from the test shipment was as follows: 104.39 kilograms of
niobium and 146.29 kilograms of uranium and thorium.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a byproduct of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
95
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1 009 tonnes was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.  There has been no further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate Rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3 485
tonnes of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for
commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964, but there has been no
commercial production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery
is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from
the Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, and 4-16.
Rhenium—Rhenium occurs in significant quantities only with molybdenite
associated with porphyry copper deposits. It was first produced in 1972 by the
Island Copper mine and is extracted as rhenium oxide from fumes produced during
roasting of the molybdenite concentrate.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel is used as aggregate in concrete work. The
output varies from year to year according to the level of activity in the construction
industry.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 332 kilograms, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, and some is exported in concentrated ores of copper,
lead, and zinc to American and Japanese smelters. Silver bullion was produced by
the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Some silver is associated with galena, while other is recovered from gold and
copper ores, and although the silver in such ores is usually no more than a fraction
of an ounce per ton, even that amount is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters. Today the greatest
single source of silver is the Sullivan mine, which has been in production since 1900.
By 1978 the Sullivan mine has accounted for 46 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total amount is contributed by the Lynx,
Lornex, Warman, Island Copper, Horn Silver, Silmonac, and Granduc mines.
Table 3-12 details the current silver production.  The only steady producer that is
 96 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
strictly a silver mine is the Highland Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since
1922. A former important mine, the Premier near Stewart, produced more than
1.3 million kilograms of silver between 1918 and 1968. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Stone (see Building-stone)—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from
rock produced at quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of
the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Structural materials—-In Table 3-7E the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions, and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 3-2 that includes unclassified structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular
years. The figure $3,180,828 in Table 3-7E under "Other Clay Products" is the
value in the period 1886-1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products
or assigned to mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-7A, and 3-7E.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Elemental sulphur has been recovered from the Westcoast Transmission Co. Ltd.
plant at Taylor since 1958 and the Fort Nelson plant of Petrosul International Ltd.
since 1978.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Ja/c—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7G.
Thorium—See Niobium.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. Tin is also produced in a lead-tin alloy at the Trail smelter.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced
from 1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the
Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazel ton
and the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald
in 1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas where demand was high. In 1970, production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo, which closed in 1973.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Uranium—See Niobium.
Volcanic ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 27 tonnes from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.   See Table 3-7D.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
97
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of copper production exceeded that of zinc.
In 1977 the production of zinc was exceeded by that of copper, molybdenum,
asbestos, coal, crude oil, and natural gas. Zinc is invariably associated with lead,
and most ores are mined for their combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and
rarely for their zinc content alone. Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of
gold, and zinc is associated with copper at Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate the zinc mineral (sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena).
Most of the zinc concentrates go to the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted,
and are converted electronically to refined metal. Usually some concentrates are
shipped to American or Japanese smelters.
About 85 per cent of the zinc that has been mined in British Columbia has
originated in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines
near Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake, Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillima-
cheen. Other production has come from mines at Portland Canal and Tulsequah
and is coming from Buttle Lake and Callaghan Creek. The greatest zinc mine is
the Sullivan, which has contributed about 73 per cent of the total zinc production
of the Province.   See Table 3-12 for details of current zinc producers.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 17 096 tonnes
of zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1918, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
 98
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
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 100
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Prices1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Fine
Silver,
Fine
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Coal
$/g
$/g
$/kg
$/kg
$/kg
$/t
1901	
0.66457
0.01801 N.Y.
0.355 N.Y.
0.057 N.Y.
2.92
1902	
.01593    „
•258    „
.081    „
2.90
1903	
.01633    „
.01716   „
.01650    .,
.02040    „
•292    „
•283    „
•344    „
.425    „
•084    „
.086    „
.094    „
.106    „
2.94
1904	
2.89
1905	
2.98
1906	
2.88
1907	
.01995    „
.01615    „
.01573    „
.441    „
•291    „
.286    „
.106    „
.083    „
.085    „
3.38
1908	
3.43
1909.	
3.52
1910	
.01634    „
.281    „
.088    „
0.101 E.St.L.
3.69
1911	
.01628    „
■273    „
.088    „
.108      „
3.51
1912 	
.01858    „
.360    „
.089    „
.130     „
3.70
1913	
.01826    .,
.337    „
.087    „
.106     „
3.74
1914	
.01675    „
.300    „
•077    „
.097      „
3.69
1915	
.01518    „
.381    „
.092    „
•248      „
3.78
1916   ..             	
.02006   „
.02487    „
.600    „
•599    „
.136    „
.174    „
•240      „
.167      „
3.80
1917	
3.84
1918	
.02956    „
•543    „
.147    „
• 153      „
5.50
1919 -.
.03394    „
.412   „
.114    „
.138      „
5.42
1920 	
.03080   „
.385    „
.158    „
.144      „
5.20
197,1
.01914    „
■276    „
.090    „
.087      „
5.30
1922	
.02062    „
.295    „
.114    „
.107      „
5.20
1923 _	
.01981    „
•318    „
.144    „
.124     „
5.30
1924	
.02040    „
•287    „
.161    „
.119      „
5.39
1925	
.02221    „
.310    „
.173 Lond.
.174 Lond.
5.28
1926 	
.01997    „
.304    „
.149     „
.163     „
5.34
1927	
.01812    „
.285    „
.116     „
.137     „
5.30
1928	
.01870   „
.321    „
.101     „
.121     „
5.19
1929 	
.01704    „
■399    „
■ 111     „
.119     „
5.22
1930	
.01227    „
.286    „
.087     „
.079     „
5.21
1931	
.00923    „
.179    „
.060     „
.056     „
4.80
1932	
.75459
.01018    „
.141 Lond.
•047     „
.053     „
4.45
1933	
.91953
.01216    „
• 164     „
.053     „
•071     „
4.30
1934	
1.10922
.01526    „
.164     „
•054     „
.067     „
4.41
1935	
1.13140
.02083    „
.172     „
.069     „
.068     „
4.35
1936	
1.12626
.01451    „
•209     „
.086     „
.073     „
4.66
1937	
1.12497
.01443    „
.288     „
.113     „
.108     „
4.68
1938	
1.13108
.01398    „
.220     „
•074     „
.068     „
4.42
1939	
1.16195
.01302    „
•223     „
.070     „
.068     „
4.43
1940 _  -.
1.23782
.01230    „
.222     „
•074     „
.075     „
4.70
1941	
1.23782
.01230    „
.222     „
•074     „
■075     „
4.57
1942	
1.23782
.01324    „
.222     „
•074     „
■075     „
4.55
1943	
1.23782
.01455    „
.259
.083     „
.088
4.60
1944  .
1.23782
.01383    „
.265     „
.099     „
.095     „
4.68
1945	
1.23782
.01511    „
•277     „
.110     „
.142     „
4.67
1946 	
1.18156
.02689    „
.282     „
.149     „
.172     „
5.16
1947     	
1.12529
.02315    „
.450     „
.301     „
.248     „
5.64
1948	
1.12529
.02411 Mont.
.493 U.S.
.398     ,,
•307     „
6.71
1949	
1.15744
.02387 U.S.
.440    „
.348 U.S.
.292 U.S.
7.18
1950	
1.22335
.02593    „
.517    „
.319    „
■332    „
7.09
1951	
1.18477
.03040    „
.611
.406    „
439
7.12
1952	
1.10182
.02674    „
.685     '
.355    „
■350    „
7.65
1953	
1.10665
.02693    „
.669    „
.292    „
•235    „
7.58
1954	
1.09539
.02668    „
.642    „
■302    „
.230    „
7.72
1955 	
1.10986
.02825    „
.844    „
.329    „
•267    „
7.43
1956	
1.10729
.02873    „
• 877    „
•347    „
■293    „
7.26
1957 -	
1.07867
.02799    „
•574    „
.310    „
•246    „
7.45
1958	
1.09250
.02779    „
.516    „
.259    „
•221    „
8.21
1959  	
1.07932
.02812    „
•611    „
.257    „
•242    „
8.74
1960	
1.09153
.02850   „
.639    ,
.256    ,
277
7.32
1961  	
1.14008
.03012   „
.620    „
.243    „
.258    „
8.16
1962	
1.20278
.03730    „
.672    ,,
.227    „
•274    „
8.19
1963	
1.21371
.04436    „
.676    „
.265    „
.290    „
8.08
1964	
1.21371
.04484    „
.737    „
■323    „
.323    „
7.65
1965	
1.21307
.04481    „
.846    „
.380    „
.345    „
7.75
1966	
1.21242
.04479    „
1.176    „
• 359    „
.344    „
8.02
1967	
1.21403
.05373    „
1.125    „
•333    „
.329    „
8.54
1968 	
1.21242
.07429    „
1.195    „
•321    „
.312    „
8.72
1969	
1.21178
.06196    „
1.470    „
•354    „
.347    „
8.82
1970    	
1.17545
.05946    „
1.2942
.360    „
.353    „
8.16
1971 	
1.13622
.05014    „
1.0302
.308    „
•359    „
11.06
1972	
1.84934
.05348    „
.9892
.328    „
.388    ,,
12.08
1973 	
3.13185
.08251    „
1.8352
.359    „
•455    „
12.71
1974 	
5.348682
.156532
1.8842
.4222
.7672
19.93
1975	
5.204662
.155602
1.2832
.3462
,8082
35.53
1976             	
4 035142
135712
1.4382
.3842
6152
39 63
1977  -
5.299722
.157072
1.3982
.5412
.5912
39.04
1978	
7.329482
.198322
7.5772
.6572
.5442
40 35
1 See page 84 for detailed explanation.
2 See page 85 for explanation.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS 101
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year
Products!
Total Quantity to Date2
Total Value
to Date
Quantity,
1977
Value,
1977
Quantity,
1978
Value,
1978
Metals
Antimony      kg
Bismuth   _ kg
Cadmium    kg
Chromite      1
Cobalt    kg
Copper    kg
Gold-
placer       g
iode, fine   g
Iron  concentrates   t
Lead     _ kg
Magnesium   —kg
Manganese      1
Mercury      kg
Molybdenum      kg
Nickel    kg
Palladium     g
Platinum     g
Selenium    kg
Silver   _ _ g
Tin .-._ _ _....kg
Tungsten  (W03)   .— kg
Zinc    _ _ kg
Others  _ —
Totals  -	
Industrial Minerals
Arsenious oxide   kg
Asbestos   _  t
Bentonite   __  t
Fluxes   t
Granules     t
Gypsum and gypsite  t
Hydromagnesite   _.. t
Iron oxide and ochre  t
Jade   _ _ kg
Magnesium sulphate  1
Mica    kg
Natro-alunite   _ t
Perlite  _  t
_...t
 t
_....t
 t
Phosphate rock 	
Sodium carbonate ~.
Sulphur  	
Talc ...._ _ _
Others  _	
Totals ...
Structural Materials
Cement     —t
Clay products  — _.
Lime and limestone  1
Rubble, riprap, crushed
rock  _ —t
Sand and gravel   —. t
Building-stone    —t
Not assigned 	
Totals	
Coal
Coal—sold and used
27 139 714
3 261 251
20 482 585
722
114 484
3 947 448 423
163 180 703
569 472 747
33 103 733 j
7 835 932 889 |
92 819 |
1564 |
6 094 387 |
160 179 063 |
23 337 783 |
23 296 |
43 762 j
332 j
16 870 686 529 |
9 418 602 j
9 090 002 |
7 422 197 745 I
27,324,317
15,999,685
86,990,225
32,295
376,661
4,104,107,278
98,464,878
684,806,939
343,206,456
1,616,562,950
88,184
32,668
49,218,263
872,342,694
51,698,754
30,462
135,008
1,389
570,740,205
25,343,603
48,068,016
1,868,372,620
23,569,876
596 207
18 540
320 711
275 224 115
46 170
5 906 336
445 317
78 172 646
15 521 970
241 503 007
187 478
103 780 228
110,487,513,426
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Crude oil  _ m3
Field condensate  m3
Plant condensate  m3
Natural gas to pipeline 103m3
Butane     m3
Propane    m3
Totals  -	
Grand totals 	
9 987 789
1 509 114 |
718
3 932 927
597 560
7 519 568
2 044
16 427
1 880 253
12 604
5 815 954
474
1009
3 485
9 518
8 692 263
984
18 826 544
1 058 177
273,
461,976
16,
8,406,
13,958,
30,624,
27,
155,
5,485,
254,
185,
9,
11,
16,
118,
126,797,
34.
10,736,
201
,898
858
438
996
067
536
050
,335
,352
,818
,398
,120
,894
983
900
871
920
97 033
28 624
29 551
653 126
266 621
248 892
659,090,635
472,717,609
125,924,000
91,117,665
97,138,683
589,845,642
9,351,050
5,972,171
909 522
2 231 166
2 464 503
53 994 528
4 535
1,392,066,820 | .
190 263 059
48 336 755
218 682
3 103 913
125 677 472
1 545 659
1 223 368
2,317,222,986
1,140,550,066
7,360,197
41,177,874
1,749,617,714
28,135,279
22,962,017
2,989,803,147
|17,845,697,014
I	
8 424 181
2 200 303
24 465
180 267
8 895 663
111 357
91297
2,519,739
187,612
1,720,051
459 521
28 172
253 803
384,736,661
289,075
31,301,931
7,362,345
42,316,293
273 692 676
36 515
6 542 332
615 569
81 064 539
142,057,947
13 055 203
37,934,098
1,912,300
227 271 890
261 863
61,301,001  95 618 111
397,654 |  	
2,083,895
166,452
1,186,320
431,694,395
295,001
47,951,880
11,597,462
51,640,564
167,714,272
45,071,509
3,675,508
52,048,701
4,652,559
714,036,707
819,778,518
69,729,205
95,461
1,238,485
2,357,488
68 266
22 475
26 849
733 080
825,523 |  488 759
3,871,660
1,067,277
322 181
47,066,170
56,894
1,186,160
3,110,695
1,422,018
5,647,993
981,431
79,185,099
59,471,361
I
42,705,320 | 1020 065
4,909,799 | _	
5,861,614 | 2 512 867
7,309,536
54,809,121
55,602
2 841 920
38 315 952
405
56,140,564
6,282,560
7,263,312
8,410,065
64,227,295
18,030
115,650,992 |-
142,341,826
328,846,883
132,859,085
1,477,248
9,751,058
396,601,354
5,358,167
4,392,944
9 463 920
2 004 699
25 386
155 503
8 003 029
106 580
85 732
381,895,241
145,005,524
1,836,217
10,269,861
401,373,236
13,360,454
11,124,542
550,439,856 |.  | 582,969,834
1,788,159,537 |   11,986,456,780
i See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages 87 to 97.
2 See page 12 for conversion table to old system.
 102 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1978
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1836-86
$
52,808,750
729,381
745,794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7,575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
11,360,546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673,592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
$
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
$
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
$
$
63,610,965
1887
1,991,629
1888
	
2,260,129
1R89
	
2,502,519
1890     -
2,682,505
1891
3,613,902
1892      	
3,119,314
1893
	
3,594,851
1894                        .    ...
4,230,587
1895 -              	
	
726,323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018,719
1,238,718
1,796,677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10,246,939
	
5,659,316
1896...              	
8,394,053
1897 .     .    ..
	
10,459,784
1898      	
	
10,909,465
1899	
12,434,312
1900
16,355,076
1901
	
19,674,853
1902       .          . ..    ...
17,445,818
1903
17,497,380
1904
2,400
18,955,179
1905
	
22,461,826
1906.    . -
	
24,980,546
1907..	
1908
	
25,888,418
23,784,857
1909
24,513,584
1910
26,377,066
1911
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497,720
1,783,010
2,275,972
2,358,877
2,500,799
2,462,340
23,499,071
1912
32,458,800
1911
30,194,943
1914
26,382,491
1915    -
29,521,739
191S
42,391,953
1917
37,056,284
1918—
41,855,707
1919
33,304,104
1920
35,609,126
1921   .
28,135,325
1922
35,207,350
1921
1924
	
41,330,560
48,752,446
1925
61,517,804
1926   .
67,077,605
1927
60,720,313
1928        ~-
65,227,002
1929
68,689,839
1930                       ...
55,763,360
1931
35,233,462
1932
28,806,716
1933	
1934
	
32,639,163
42,407,630
1935
48,837,783
1916
54,133,485
1937
74,438,675
1938
64,416,599
1910
65,711,189
1940
75,028,294
1941
77,566,453
1942
76,471,329
1943.
1944
1945
 	
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
1946
72,549,790
1947	
1948 .
1940
	
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,430
1950
	
139,995,418
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS 103
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836—1978—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1951          	
$
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865,318
250,912,026
294,881,114
309,981,470
301,059,951
372,032,770
795,617,596
764,599,451
586,650,344
646,750,403
714,036,707
819,778,518
$
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020,359
21,909,767
25,764,120
27,969,664
33,676,214
48,667,602
52,917,142
79,185,099
59,471,361
$
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,104,071
59,940,333
66,745,698
73,720,831
78,088,393
90,928,011
100,938,648
115,650,992
142,341,826
t
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
45,801,936
66,030,210
87,976,105
154,593,643
317,111,744
298,683,679
328,846,883
381,895,241
$
$
176,867,916
1952               	
171,365,687
1953
152,841,695
1954                       ...  .
6,545
18,610
319,465
1,197,581
4,806,233
5,967,128
9,226,646
11,612,184
27,939,726
36,379,636
36,466,753
44,101,662
54,274,187
67,096,286
75,281,215
86,756,009
90,974,467
99,251,158
105,644,978
124,104,445
233,275,505
320,719,474
420,973,564
550,439,856
582,969,834
152,894,663
1955	
1956
1957    .
173,853,360
188,853,652
170,992,829
1958         .
1959 .    --               .   .
144,953,549
147,651,217
1960
1061
177,365,333
179,807,321
1962 -   	
1963	
1964	
1965            	
1966.     .
1967	
229,371,484
255,863,587
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
1968         .
405,028,488
1969	
464,388,749
1970
1971.     ..                  .    .
488,640,036
527,963,145
1972  _-
1973    	
1974	
636,217,776
1,109,388,641
1,264,233,206
1975    	
1,364,077,175
1976	
1977 -	
1978 	
1,520,263,436
1,788,159,537
1,986,456,780
Totals	
10,487,513,426
659,090,635
1,392,066,820
2,317,222,986
2,989,803,147
17,845,697,014
 104
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
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 106
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-4—Comparison oj Total Quantity and Value oj Production,
and Quantity and Value oj Production Paid jor to Mines
Metals
1978
Total Production
1978
Production Paid for to Mines
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Antimony	
 kg
 kg
459 521
28 172
253 803
273 692 676
36 515
6 542 332
615 569
81 064 539
13 055 203
227 271 890
261 863
95 618 111
$
2,083,895
166,452
1,186,320
431,694,395
295,001
47,951,880
11,597,462
51,640,564
167,714,272
45,071,509
3,675,508
52,048,701
4,652,559
819,778,518
56 370
273 632 023
36 515
6 542 332
615 569
81 064 539
13 055 203
227 000 410
227 957
75 998 700
$
       kg
146,582
Copper   	
   kg
301,119,740
295,001
36,287,607
Iron concentrates   	
Lead     ....	
 t
  kg
  kg
11,597,462
46,547,809
166,617,307
Silver   	
36,409,036
Tin   --     	
 kg
3,135,822
Zinc   - 	
 kfi
26,257,729
Others      	
968,911
629,383,006
Note—For metals, the total quantity and value of production include the quantities paid for to the mines,
and the smelter and refining production that can be attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity
and value paid for to the mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties
and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974—1978
A. Exploration on Undeclared Mines
Metal mines—
1974 	
1975 	
1976 	
1977 	
1978   	
Coal mines—
1974    	
1975     	
1976      	
1977           -	
1978   	
Others—
1974 	
1975- 	
1976   -.  	
1977	
1978	
Totals—
1974. _	
1975	
1976 	
1977   	
1978   	
B. Exploration on Declared or Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974  	
1975.
1976.
1977..
1978.
Coal mines-
1974..
1975.
1976.
1977.
1978
Physical
Work
and Surveys
18,773,326
16,366,152
20,437,180
19,097,099
22,724,774
3,450,746
9,955,507
9,234,269
14,741,425
15,289,351
42,706
90,025
73,453
327,113
342,100
22,266,778
26,411,684
29,744,902
34,165,637
38,356,225
2,652,243
2,792,378
8,359,413
2,988,366
6,562,912
488,308
1,000,000
665,000
5,978,043
4,052,774
Administration,
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
6,525,878
5,298,367
6,365,331
6,974,231
5,715,214
884,849
3,057,843
3,678,893
4,797,788
4,511,572
11,134
35,679
47,760
9,860
117,180
7,421,861
8,391,889
10,091,984
11,781,879
10,343,966
762,224
3,090,135
83,304
2,020,259
1,729,402
104,259
28J000
25,115,000
510,612
Construction,
Machinery and
Equipment,
Other Capital
Costs
128,144
442,327
381,416
106,059
1,035,353
18,958
222,092
147,102
442,327
318,416
328,151
1,035,353
278,500
Totals
25,427,348
22,106,846
27,183,927
26,177,389
29,475,341
4,354,553
13,013,350
12,913,162
19,539,213
19,800,923
53,840
125,704
121,213
559,065
459,280
29,835,741
35,245,900
40,218,302
46,275,667
49,735,544
3,692,967
5,882,513
8,442,717
5,008,625
8,292,314
592,567
1,000,000
693,000
31,093,043
4,563,386
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS 107
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974-1978—Continued
Physical
Work
and Surveys
Administration,
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
Construction,
Machinery and
Equipment,
Other Capital
Costs
Totals
B. Exploration on Declared or Operating Mines
—Continued
Others—
1974   _ -	
1975 - ...  . 	
1976   - -- -	
1977 -
1978. _	
Totals—
1974 	
1975..
1976.
1977..
1978..
C. Development on Declared Mines
Metal mines—
1974	
1975 ..._	
1976 	
1977   _	
1978	
Coal mines—
1974 _ ..__.	
1975 _  ....
1976  	
1977	
1978 -  	
Others—
1974 	
1975  .......	
1976	
1977    	
1978         ...
Totals—
1974..
1975.
1976
1977..
1978.
D. Development of Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974 -  	
1975  	
1976	
1977  - -	
1978    	
Coal mines—
1974     	
1975 -	
1976 	
1977 _ - -	
1978 -   -    .-
Others—
1974  	
1975	
1976   	
1977	
1978    	
Totals—
1974	
1975..  	
1976 	
1977 -	
1978  .   	
4,236
36,242
214,081
106,896
12,025
3,144,787
3,828,620
9,238,494
9,073,305
10,693,030
1,280,513
"512^197
380,419
133,335
320,098
T,ii5^iri
1,725,484
30,957
23,242
64,689
7,045
1,623,853
T937.509
2,170,592
171,337
20,933,501
9,013,375
6,937,229
14,491,378
10,424,872
9,027,818
3,300,000
16,043,383
30,466,894
31,222,528
6,198,552
17,350,175
58,980
432,731
102,248
36,159,871
29,663,550
23,039,592
45,391,003
41,749,648
2,700
30,000
403,300
866,483
3,092,835
141,304
27,538,559
2,240,014
1,028,199
57,166
974,985
1,132,316
895,892
256,055
 583,304
247,313
38,910
37,988
 3455
708
2,159
1,322,242
57,166
1,561,444
1,380,337
936,961
1,722,680
5,804,924
404,226
1,722,479
575,164
55,377
146,182
124,860
79,300
108,500
9,579
1,868,862
5,929,784
538,903
1,830,979
584,743
36,604
278,500
1,985,000
840,344
12,447,569
33,672,153
111,500
2,883,584
18,001,500
40,000
10,000
4,980,084
840,344
30,449,069
33,712,153
10,000
46,732,326
24,548,602
41,881,126
45,859,006
17,908,816
16,607,506
59,000,000
20,767,397
25,943,377
15,621,757
16,606,229
18,077,384
1,389,956
931,521
1,220,265
79,946,061
101,625,986
64,038,479
72,733,904
35,076,931
4,236
38,942
244,081
510,196
48,629
4,289,770
6,921,455
9,379,798
36,611,864
12,867,725
4,293,712
897,510
13,934,751
35,184,888
1,029,227
687,653
2,008,616
1,972,797
69,867
2,944,814
WJOMJ6S5
105,397
19,204
7,926,179
897,510
33,948,022
37,263,082
1,118,298
69,388,507
39,366,901
49,222,581
62,072,863
28,908,852
25,635,324
62,300,000
36,866,157
56,410,271
46,844,285
22,950,963
35,552,419
1,528,236
1,472,752
1,332,092
117,974,794
137,219,320
87,616,974
119,955,886
77,121,833
 108
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-6—Production oj Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1978
Year
Gold (Placer)
Quantity        Value
Gold (Fine)
Quantity
Value
Silver
Quantity
Value
Copper
Quantity
Value
1858-90 ...
1891-1900
1901-1910.
1911	
1912	
1913 _
1914	
1915	
1916—	
1917	
1918	
1919._	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933 -
1934_	
1935... _
1936	
1937	
1938 -
1939	
1940 	
1941	
1942	
1943_	
1944	
1945	
1946...-	
1947	
1948 - _
1949 _	
1950	
1951 _
1952	
1953	
1954.. _.
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958™	
1959-	
1960	
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
1972	
1973	
1974	
1975	
1976	
1977	
1978	
Totals__
g
100 978 533
11 703 748
15 787 261
779 441
1 016 446
933 090
1 033 864
1 408 655
1 062 167
907 585
585 358
524 086
405 583
426 733
674 624
768 555
769 799
512 453
650 426
285 868
262 012
217 192
278 527
534 225
634 501
744 233
783 205
961 985
1 349 528
1 684 321
1 796 478
1 547 250
1 215 101
1 361 534
1 023 413
454 104
355 601
391 556
489 219
216 757
632 386
556 308
595 125
736 861
545 982
443 062
270 098
238 436
120 2131
91 3181
175 7321
235 4501
119 653
106 248
103 106
143 696
57 292
26 935
47 743
27 713
20 8391
12 4101
15 2721
5 5051
214921
1191561
45 1621
43 7441
26 0641
46 1701
36 5151
$
,192,163
,397,183
,628,660
426,000
555,500
510,000
565,000
770,000
580,500
496,000
320,000
286,500
221,600
233,200
368,800
420,000
420,750
280,092
355,503
156,247
143,208
118,711
152,235
291,992
395,542
562,787
714,431
895,058
249,940
558,245
,671,015
,478,492
,236,928
,385,962
,041,772
462,270
361,977
398,591
475,361
200,585
585,200
529,524
598,717
717.911
494,756
403,230
238,967
217,614
109,450
80,990
157,871
208,973
107,418
99,884
96,697
135,411
55,191
25,053
44,632
25,632
19,571
11.720
14,185
4.647
26,905
311.524
232.512
232.204
115.613
289 075
295,001
g
19 682
72 224
7 110
8 008
8 467
7 687
7 776
6 902
3 562
5 121
4 740
3 733
4 222
6 153
5 575
7 704
6 522
6264
5 536
5 619
4 516
5 002
4 545
5 649
6 954
9244
11363
12 583
14 331
17 340
18 267
18 149
17 760
13 825
6 979
5 804
5 454
3 658
7 566
8 902
8 969
8 832
8 126
7 955
7 886
8 036
7 541
5 963
6 948
6044
5 385
6 394
4 970
4 940
4 820
4 307
3 642
3 717
3 923
3 853
3 654
3 135
2 668
3 782
5 784
5 001
4 819
5 393
5906
6 542
165
836
675
898
916
729
403
751
009
855
906
853
699
915
057
711
890
984
365
130
871
482
175
891
289
309
263
590
671
607
912
347
622
843
607
815
626
086
800
612
981
723
405
805
228
642
762
782
504
992
360
155
913
712
312
361
908
057
861
537
012I
462I
046I
8711
7231 18
0821 26
2411 25
4771 21
3361 31
332| 47,
,858,353
,998,179
,725,512
,322,442
,627,595
,109,008
167,934
,587,333
,367,191
,403,811
,150,644
,481,392
,804,197
,089,684
,704,994
,120,535
335,069
,163,859
,679,601
,734,609
,002,020
,324,975
,020.837
,263,389
,394,645
,253,952
,856,419
,172,367
,122,767
,613,624
,226,957
,461,516
,984.501
,113,943
,639,516
,185,332
,751,860
,322.241
,514,870
,018,050
•,382.256
,805,553
,627,947
.765,889
,727,294
,803,279
,370,306
,603,628
,495,170
,604,149
,812,511
,979,441
,667,253
,942,101
.850,458
,227,884
,419,089
,506,646
,763,688
,672,242
,427.506
.685.476
.031.844
,995.448
.117.268
,749,083
.082.494
.761.502
.301.931
,951,880
g
6 876
700 977
971 114
58 858
97 417
107 798
112 038
104 708
102 699
91 107
108 803
105 847
105 061
83 150
220 872
187 643
259 454
238 088
334 312
325 654
330 536
309 791
352 342
234 837
222 406
218 397
267 920
288 323
296 944
351 630
337 827
336 577
383 436
378 700
301011
265 193
177 453
191 510
197 994
177 550
209 016
237 559
295 772
255 632
274 042
260 606
305 630
245 811
261 423
252 847
218 998
192 779
231 612
229 353
192 521
199 764
163 901
154 646
172 594
192 239
221791
179 169
202 521
238 670
215 420
236 987
181 695
196 305
239 720
241 503
227 271
531
829
910
198"
955
519
605
436
711
405
644
210
237
418
076
964
010
613
337
164
775
230
964
945
822
615
527
068
198
830
661
786
042
797
133
820
003
720
264
262
328
178
610
882
530
407
613
643
017
111
027
535
937
429
474
616
675
729
622
525
13
16
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
1
4,
3,
5
5
6
5
6
5
4
2.
2,
2,
4,
6.
4
5
4
4
4,
4
4,
3
2
2
5,
4,
5
5
7
7
7
7
8
6
7
7
6
5
6
6
7
8
7,
6
7
10
3251 16.
8891 11
4621 12,
3011 11
4981 11
3181 19
9501 28
8851 30,
8821 32
0071 37
8901 45
$
214,152
,561,194
,973,507
958,293
,810,045
,968,606
,876,736
,588,991
,059,739
,265,749
,215,870
,592,673
,235,980
,591,201
,554,781
,718,129
,292,184
,286,818
,675,606
,902,043
,182,461
,278,194
,322,185
,254,979
,264,729
,656,526
,088,280
,005,996
,308,330
,073,962
,722,288
,381,365
,715,315
,658,545
,080,775
,858,496
,453,293
,893,934
,324,959
,110,092
,040,101
,671,082
,667,950
,770,983
,326,803
,019,272
,154,145
,942,995
,511,866
,077,166
,086,854
,421,417
,600,183
,909,140
,181,907
861,050
,348,938
,929.793
,729,939
,328.695
,475,795
,100.491
,041,181
,968.046
,519.660
.552.997
,440.365
,545.947
.532.836
.934.098
.071.509
kg
16 064 375
172 344 737
16 750 016
23 340 171
21 073 930
20 415 949
25 817 619
29 655 426
26 765 241
27 888 416
19 259 132
20 360 601
17 706 790
14 678 125
26 181 346
29 413 222
32 797 475
40 523 625
40 461 530
44 410 233
46 626 180
41 894 588
29 090 879
22 955 299
19 572 164
22 521 530
17 884 241
9 830 071
20 891260
29 832 572
33 227 590
35 371 049
30 134 516
22 723 823
19 190 263
16 465 584
11726 375
7 938 069
18 952 769
19 515 886
24 882 500
19 147 001
19 617 612
19 053 280
22 235 441
22 747 578
20 065 928
19 667 923
14 237 029
5 741 837
7 363 374
14 997 694
14 375 361
49 431 850
53 635 704
52 414 456
38 644 540
47 990 080
78 352 932
73 024 968
75 937 956
96 329 694
127 286 040
211 832 288
317 603 0551
287 547 0481
258 497 5991
263 618 197!
275 2241151
273 692 676|
4,365,210
56,384,783
4,571,644
8,408,513
7,094,489
6,121,319
9,835,500
17,784,494
16,038,256
15,143,449
7,939,896
7,832,899
4,879,624
4,329,754
8,323,266
8,442,870
10,153,269
12,324,421
11,525,011
14,265,242
18,612,850
11,990,466
5,365,690
3,228,892
3,216,701
3,683,662
3,073,428
2,053,828
6,023,411
6,558,575
7,392,862
7,865,085
6,700,693
5,052,856
4,971,132
4,356,070
3,244,472
2.240,070
8,519,741
9,616,174
10,956,550
9,889.458
11,980,155
13,054,893
14,869,544
14,599,693
16,932,549
17,251.872
8,170,465
2,964.529
4,497,991
9.583,724
8,965,149
33,209,215
36,238,007
38,609.136
32,696,081
56,438,255
88.135,172
87,284,148
111,592.416
124,657,958
131,037.918
209,403.822
582,803.251
541,644.913
331,693.850
378,984,941
384.736.661
431,694,395
163 180 703198,464,878
569 472 7471684,806,939
16 870 686 5291570,740,205
3 947 448 42314,104,107,278
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
109
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1978—Continued
Year
Lead
1858-90	
1891-1900.
1901-1910.
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915 _
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939  _.
1940	
1941-	
1942 -
1943	
1944	
1945 	
1946	
1947 __
1948	
1949- —
1950	
1951 _
1952 _
1953 -	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960	
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965 _
1966	
1967 	
1968	
1969-	
1970- -
1971	
1972	
1973 _-
1974 _
1975 _.
1976	
1977	
1978	
Totals-
Quantity
kg
473 729
93 002 804
184 989 089
12 189 051
20 353 243
25 112 864
22 963 016
21 093 563
22 102 314
16 922 293
19 912 447
13 370 004
17 840 247
18 779 664
30 593 731
43 845 439
77 284 697
107 908 698
119 305 027
128 364 347
138 408 812
139 705 336
145 966 952
118 796 232
114 308 115
123 235 512
157 562 183
156 156 723
171 444 146
190 107 902
187 323 227
171 794 338
211 758 089
207 218 262
230 060 714
199 196 604
132 866 893
152 849 156
156 879 853
142 306 192
145 165 821
120 373 215
128 830 683
124 037 181
129 250 1971
135 004 129
150 807 088
137 241 656
128 691 681
127 732 462
133 615 439
130 372 360
151 321 570
174 307 617
152 080 806
142 869 197
121 896 644
113 480 794
95 929 798
94 406 5461
105 063 971
95 286 815]
97 448 6071
112 865 5751
88 109 6631
84 890 9241
55 252 692|
70603 4831
85 407 582!
78 172 6461
81 064 5391
Value
Zinc
Quantity
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2,175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1,526,855
2,816,115
1,693,354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
18,670,329
17,757,535
14,874,292
13,961,412
15,555,189
12,638,198
7,097,812
5,326,432
6,497,719
8,461,859
10,785,930
14,790,028
21,417,049
13,810,024
12,002,390
15,695,467
15,358,976
17,052,054
16,485,902
13,181,530
16,848,823
23,345,731
42,887,313
57,734,770
41 929,866
41,052,905
50,316,015
45,936,692
39,481,244
45.482,505
45,161,245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542.306
38.661,912
42.313,569
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402,293
43,149,171
34,436,934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693.539
35,096,021
34,711,408
28,896,566
30,477,936
23,333,016
24,450,158
32,796,533
42,316.293
51,640,564
7 835 932 88911,616,562,950
kg
5 753 423
1 195 003
2 430 462
3 065 710
3 568 15
5 888 705
16 859 478
18 982 067
18 947 777
25 735 631
21413 198
22 416 133
25 921 103
26 464 465
35 893 017
44 568 438
64 807 554
65 872 809
82 445 946
78 061 406
113 614 910
91 657 703
87 143 752
88 887 198
113 013 038
116 227 650
115 475 574
132 081905
135 395 388
126 283 585
141 529 456
166 861 962
175 646 590
152 474 485
126 126 765
133 714 538
124 406 109
114 761068
122 610 001
130 736 145
131697 238
153 091 761
169 130 882
173 407 848
151 555 559
194 680 177
201 327 284
203 787 462
195 952 1461
182 498 6931
182 977 8971
175 970 7801
187 528 084|
182 734 698
181 797 313
141 179 547
138 401 395
119 217 472
135 803 151
134 565 199
125 005 208
138 549 629
121 719 968
137 380 768
77 733 7321
99 668 230|
106 498 9871
103 780 2281
95 618 111|
Value
Molybdenum
894,169
129,092
316,139
324,421
346,125
1,460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
3,278,903
4,266,741
7,754,450
10,586,610
8,996,135
9,984,613
9,268,792
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,416
7,584,199
7,940,860
8,439,373
14,274,245
9,172,822
8,544.375
10,643,026
12,548,031
13,208,636
13,446,018
11,956,725
18,984,581
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654,211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
59,189,656
40,810,618
34,805,755
52,048,909
58,934,801
50,206,681
43,234,839
44,169,198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48,666,933
47.666,540
39,248,539
43,550,181
46,639,024
44,111,055
49,745,789
47,172,894
62,564,751
59,582,753
80,572,872
65,499,108
61.301,001
52,048,701
7 422 197 74511,868,372,620
Quantity        Value
kg
901
1641
5 598
3 371
435
Iron Concentrates
Quantity       Value
662
2,000
20,560
11,636
1,840
2 456
12
3 306
7 754
7 945
8 980
12 064
14 186
9 926
12 719
13 785
13 789
13 026
14 088
15 521
13 055
812
274
088
9,500
782| 31
988
350
706
694
391
264
825
627
6861 94
9701142
2031167,
47,063
,405,344
606,061
183,064
,552,722
,999,442
,561,796
954,846
,260,349
851,509
791,552
,201,391
109,138
,057,947
714,272
160 179 063|872,342,694
t
27 097
11 820
17 738
907
1 116
1335
916
1089
220
18
$
70,879
45,602
68,436
5,000
6,150
7,360
5,050
3,600
1,337
616
4 964
"102997
816 898
899 240
486018
554 223
335 616
324 174
571 769
770 421
1052 651
1211 147
1 627 342
1 869 009
1 816 684
1964 410
1 952 074
1 954 468
1900 311
1 882 266
1 704 6501
1 750 738
1 139 698
1420 160
1 306 930
1 305 840
1 255 277
445 317
615 569
3,735
27,579
79(j;0O0
,474,924
,763,105
i,733,891
,228,756
,190,847
,200,637
,193,442
,363,848
,292,847
,082,540
,326,911
,746,424
,419,487
,498,581
,778,934
,820,765
,437,569
.787,845
,391,883
,153.612
,642,379
,906,063
.742,227
,273,878
,760,526
,362,345
,597,462
33 103 7331343,206,456
I
 110 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Quantity
Value
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
g
$
$
22,364,704
24,988,615
282,795,867
$
%
528 778
1,016,069
50 294
28,039
3 328
22 983 970
10 775
9 611
81 264 411
33,253
189,278
26,880
17,938,866
66,818
78,621
54,501,242
9,398
7,847,614
22,281
         	
17,542
Cariboo	
38,171,207
66,680,425
41,934,799
491,998,646
20,325
49,595
59,346
997,984
385,503
7,608,803
4,665,794
51,378,450
1,322,916
1,775,423
316 349
243,069
848,377
86,408,253
102,876,534
2,787,635,070
162,427
1,113,986
1,531,236
27,426,114
2,357,488
3,110,695
28,487,194
900
23,339
2,352,136
7,881,498
1,431,994
854,961
639 241
472,087
14,372,379
235,703
36,541
66,284,632
7,433,120
3,621,966
245,281,228
135,399,441
179,822,859
1,046,590,757
99,744
14 587
11,268
4,781,623
433 332
249,802
Kamloops  _ —
157 817
115,662
3,765,702
12,195,844
13,310,737
858 287
604,785
6,540,538
71,131,574
50,028,356
486,488,833
86,053,466
2,025 368
591
1 565 303
1 884
4,750
1,258,153
9,407
19,156,498
25,405,736
258,442
106,590
148,273,846
81,969,046
102,917,596
800,873,941
7,020,924
4,195,459
409,187,135
310,803
2 893 348
1,937,853
	
473,095
206,109
56,894
2,838,984
1,099,488
1,139,304
8,066,921
4,406,310
7,901,541
10,592,097
26 935
19,300
111,864,674
1 344,182
1,694,028
111 535
89,026
13,933,331
18,932,498
31
975 418
250
597,152
22,012,397
63,751,805
25,566.841
41,065,672
419,470,394
124,587,817
139,006,311
953,887,088
62,327,867
74,146,136
465,033,625
1,611,625
293,004,976
.   .
163,101
7 278
4,764
	
10,050
116,095
48,689
1,560,820
25,577
22,1 00
6,782,114
3,102,780
1 228 568
Osoyoos    _ 	
342
1 756 007
2,750
1,509,150
1,027,152
18,989,856
7 465
5,466
7,353,017
396 364
235 823
164,477
15,500,414
32,553,805
40,878,260
340,006,486
29,939,818
37,248,519
679,807,250
3,216,040
2,604,889
286,912,804
132.717
82,734
90,987,375
8,860,795
8,815,561
318,722,490
4,623,591
1 415 404
878,204
18,558
6,016,679
1,725,272
28.926,454
143 167
105,569
1,240,215
93,820
3,290 142
11 384
9,397
299,452
26 469
24,260
5,953 413
	
20 828 514
28,366,072
239,638,251
2,683,196
1,788,720
Vernon  	
5 661
5,306
7,066,964
6,360
371,414
..   .
85 058
73,349
225,341
19,274,082
2,943
24.812,286
19,286,019
15,122,173
392,627.913
713,747,632
819,483,517
10,389,048,548
..
Not assigned     	
Totals 	
	
19 533
5 472
22 612
47 609 959
46 170
36 515
163 180 703
15,680
23,572
181,750
17,847,540
289,075
295,001
98,464,878
190.651
3,084,287
3,451,402
76,520,348
79,185,099
59,471,361
659,090,635
354,783,984
3,484.714
13,061,818
75,032,709
115,650,992
142,341,820
1,392,066,820
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS 111
Divisions, 1977 and 1978, and Total to Date
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipeline
Butane and
Propane
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
m3
$
103m3
$
m3
$
$
22,893,482
26,004,684
290,686,132
211,559
44,422
56,515,901
74,405,641
46,738,560
263
1,100
598,877,422
1,322,916
1,776,423
9,135,371
8 423 950
328,841,783
381.888.469
417,796,016
9 463 648
487,151,200
115 386 98411,980,416,332
4,810,321,982
2,593,191
3,246,980
99,564,717
 1	
7,867,352
3,896,107
251,514,728
147,595,285
193,133,596
13 6S7|               59,765
1,139,849,311
|             	
2 405 035
2 185 588
51 659 350
144,087,391
157,111,602
1,189,088,137
8 895 663
8 003 029
125 677 472
396,601,354
401,373,236
1,749,617,714
202 654
9.751.1 1 1
623,596 798
 1 	
192 312124.484.996
637,544,737
131 923
1,515,507
2 769 027
51,097,296
3,523,627,874
267,849
417,393
155,091,104
90,076,696
113,566,687
67 425 673
301,144,744
1,216,741,643
9,464,594
7,028,791
431,276,413
18,932,498
22,012,647
358,965,558
25,907,634
41,228,773
2 657 660
11,080,836
5.100
6.772
	
433,668,824
125.937,580
140,091,674
979,392,767
63,190,290
231
	
272
	
456 9671         3,445,853
	
|             	
[             	
74,670,106
 |	
479,179,230
|             	
 |	
396.364
	
269,539
|             	
20,288,482
33,404,097
	
41,225,774
4 188 8511       19,553,725
366,533,652
32,537,220
...
 1	
38,973,791
331                          116
710,079,604
3,476,597
2,698,709
290,212,343
432,169
1,818,053
96,965,048
 .1 	
29,689.309
1
37,181,633
565,433,011
 |	
2,683,196
 1	
1,798,080
 |	
19,944,786
 1	
27.602,612
 |	
32,123,378
 |	
379,802,601
 |	
25,878,592
 |	
31,817,143
 |	
562,028,510
8 424 1811    328,846,883
9 463 920|    381,895,241
190 263 05912,317,222,986
1
2 405 035
2 185 688
51 659 350
144,087.391
157,111,602
1,189,088,137
8 895 663
8 003 029
125 677 472
396,601,354
401,373,236
1,749,617,714
202 654[   9,751,111
192 312124,484,996
2 769 027151,097,296
1
1,788,159,537
1,986,456,780
17,845,697,014
 112
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
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 118 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Division
Period
Asbestos
Baritei
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1977
t
$
t      1        $
  .1  	
t
$
I
t        |        $
  I	
t
$
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
	
1977
1 239
2 184
24 766
49,595
59,346
854,504
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
	
44
168
Clinton	
Fort Steele .
7
80
Golden	
398 388
4,489,227
2 956
12,612
Greenwood
41
711
933
900
23,336
1 624 308
1,540,319
28,239
Kamloops...
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
	
567
12,230
T iard
97 033
68 266
1 509 114
69,729,205
47,066,170
461,976,898
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
28 624|      95,461
22 476        56,894
1 022 25812.061.835
2 733
110,648
31 506
25 836
25 327
227 825
777,149
Nelson	
1,099 488
1,139,304
8,002 846
6 895
8,174
New West-
99 490
1,611,625
Nicola 	
Omineca —
24
20
123
917
791
194 213
1,417
9,478
Osoyoos	
26,577
22,100
728 11313 699 031
2,750,612
Skeena	
545 232
1,050,722
 | 	
26 936
418 606
Vernon
 |     	
 |	
	
2 903]      30,400
 |	
7 2101       190.963
Victoria   _.
2621        3,345
8 713
157,080
Not assigned
 |	
....
Totals
97 033
68 266
1 509 114
69,729,205
47,066,170
461,976,898
1 239
2 184
24 766
49,595
69,346
854,504
28 6241      95,461
22 4751       KB.894
29 551
26 849
597 560
1,238,485
1,186,160
398 39514,489,307
1
3 932 927
8,406,438
13,958,996
1 From 1972, excludes production which is confidential.
Other: See notes on individual materials listed alphabetically on pages 87 to 97.
2 Natro-alunite.
3 Hydromagnesite.
* Volcanic ash.
5 Magnesium sulphate.
« Sodium carbonate.
7 Phosphate rock.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
Mining Divisions, 1977 and 1978, and Total to Date
119
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
kg
$
t
$
t
$
$
$
9,3982
9,398
20,3253
20,325
49,595
59,346
997,984
4 542 160
143,012
3004
792
6,236
156,1913 5 6
162,427
1,113.986
74 582
87 752
1 493 828
1,113,986
1,531,236
27,110,316
102 400
298.824
16,8947
27,426,114
2,357,488
3,110,695
28,487.194
653 126    2,357,488
733 0801   3,110,695
.. .......    	
6 282 786123.984.079
1,2768 9
23,339
2,352,136
783,57810
1 131 179
6,323,178
192 640
2,075
203,0555 6
6,540,538
71,131,574
228 337
451 908
1 068 923
711,300
1,374,746
3,477,487
35 950
89 480
1 039 770
691,069
1,687,440
21,034,448
486,488,838
253 391
467,966
5,1299
473,095
206,109
	
2,838,984
1,139,304
55,9018
8 066,921
1,611,625
2 184
10,050
10,050
38 284
36 851
557 939
114,223
47,272
1,539,882
116;095
48,689
11,46011 12
1,560,820
25,577
22,100
720 664
25,938
306,5335 10 11
6,782,114
227
1,700
16,85813
18,558
287 689
10,815
37 761
178,678
1,240,215
623,773
6,550,969
97,3898
7,066,964
72 801
3,978
225,341
30,2269
1,017,682
922,085
4,596,859
1,017,682
922,085
6,311,372
190,651
138 360
144 949
5 497 131
248 892
322 181
2,066,605
2,529,317
71,923,489
3,871,660
6,647,993
126,797,900
3,084,287
3,451,402
76,520,348
653 126
2,357,488
3,110,695
30,624,067
266 621
488 759
1 880 253
825,523
1,422,018
5,485,335
79,185,099
59,471,361
7 519 568
5 815 954|185,818
1
8 692 263
659.090,635
8 Iron oxide and ochre.
9 Talc.
io Fluorspar.
ll Arsenious oxide.
12 Perlite.
13 Bentonite.
 120
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1977 and 1978,
and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
1977
1978
To date
$
$
$
$
$
528,778
1,016,069
7,500,955
22,281
17,542
281,942
5,318,108
2,191,561
35,894,156
1,319,010
452,423
4,682,368
1,431,994
834,961
11,265,336
235,703
99,744
4,345,701
433,332
241,541
3,154,104
1,891,624
2,698,939
23,516,835
1,989,368
4,082,797
22,782,928
11,770
7,653
2,354,412
3,023,557
3,493,113
24,539,923
673,260
762,920
8,905,723
12,693,532
14,798,377
154,751,023
$
.
$
528,778
1,016,069
346,659
7,847,614
Atlin         	
22,281
17,542
1,108
557,035
469,780
3,675,091
102,453
1,733,660
2,004,463
11,476,746
3,906
1,323,000
3,199,130
385,503
7,608,803
4,665,794
332,457
51,378,450
1,322,916
1,775,423
7,881,498
1,431,994
20,000
2,975,311
854,961
43.873
71,941
15,918
14,372,379
235,703
99,744
1,000
50,840
255,923
128,159
4,781,623
433,332
8,261
50,821
249,802
161,020
278,474
2,167,475
1,544,504
17,220,400
36,000
459,000
2,622,808
121,283
3.765,702
Kamloops 	
8,136,745
8,067,294
45,198,985
12,195,844
13,310,787
25,067
19,800
72,379
86,053,466
2,025,368
4,541,797
25,405,736
246,672
303,150
927,080
4,282,416
5,419,687
75,113,819
670,922
929,653
3,977,470
69,800
86,172
3,680,882
258.442
310,803
2,000
1,122,818
595,568
1,679,297
7,581,205
4,406,310
7,901,541
10,592,097
3,450,735
1,178,992
111,864,674
1,344,182
1,455
591,026
1,259,367
845,288
25,816,947
1,694,028
437,138
21,974
4,909,799
6,282,560
13,933.331
18,932,498
22,012,397
20,974
1087735.150
293,004.976
340.79S
163,101
2,900,786
1,183,132
1,016,349
15,995,294
836,846
501,870
6,920,876
372,114
251,014
3,781,493
850,292
347,514
5,244,912
1,875.401
1,199,224
163,101
8,000
60
105
576
187,994
42,285
6,420
2,951,483
3.102.780
3,091
4,278
37,229
1.228,568
1,027,152
5,274
18,989,856
Osoyoos  	
836,846
501,870
43,774
33,018
14,250
17,925
67,345
355,349
10,000
600
773,753
7.353.01T
396,364
289.5S9
1,000
4,623,591
850.202
347,614
10,500
11,571
24,000
712,341
722,001
626,048
5,531,295
13,355
6,016.679
	
2,597,402
1,726,272
1,645.300
144,000
21,592,610
260,557
93,820
3,016,676
299,452
1,735,319
5,454,000
6,242,991
6,418,333
82,593,682
2,641,904
1,788,720
18,216,996
7,587,882
6,952,573
57,967,561
2,745.440
13,061,818
62,179,350
54,809,121
64,227,295
589,845,642
13,249
28,926.454
260,557
93,820
1,000
115,143
157,323
3,290,142
299,452
1,735,319
32,500
85,520
381,393
5,953,413
14,585,523
21,947,739
143,220,736
20,828,514
28,366,072
40,885
4,012,560
41,292
8,681,796
1,088,592
239,638,251
2,683,196
1,788,720
351,416
31,678
42,331
1,141,281
141,367
403,649
161,254
19,274,682
19,983,052
25,125,631
284,287,388
27,602,612
  1... 	
32,120,436
55
532,563
739,274
I
10,855,136
354,783,984
Not assigned ....
3,484,714
	
|
13,061,818
315.498
5,861,614
7,263,312
505,018
55,602
18,030
9,351,050
2,879,844
7,309,536
8,410,065
97,138,683
3,180,828
4,909,799
6,282,660
5,972,171
42,705,320
56,140,564
115,650,992
142,341,826
1,392,066,820
472,717,609
91,117,665
125,924,000
5,972,171
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1978
121
Year
Quantity1
Value
Year
Quantity1
Value
1836-59
tonnes
37 985
14 475
13 995
18 409
21687
29 091
33 345
25 518
31 740
44 711
36 376
30 322
50 310
50 310
50 311
82 856
111912
141 425
156 525
173 587
245 172
271 889
232 020
286 666
216 721
400 391
371461
331 875
419 992
497 150
589 133
689 020
1 045 607
839 591
993 988
1 029 204
954 727
909 237
906 610
1 146 015
1 302 088
1615 688
1 718 692
1 667 960
1 473 933
1 712 739
1 855 121
1 929 540
2 255 214
2 143 225
2 439 109
3 007 074
2 305 778
2 913 778
2 461665
2 029 400
1 883 851
2 343 671
2 209 982
2 336 238
$
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
1010
tonnes
2 207 659
2 587 763
2 422 455
2 473 692
2 391 998
1 839 619
2 305 337
2 182 760
2 316 408
2 431794
2 154 607
1 809 364
1601600
1 464 759
1 249 347
1 297 306
1 159 721
1 226 780
1312 003
1 259 626
1 416 184
1 507 758
1 673 516
1 810 731
1 682 591
1 752 626
1 381 654
1 305 516
1 538 895
1 455 552
1 470 782
1 427 907
1 427 513
1 272 150
1 255 662
1 186 849
1 209 157
1 285 664
984 886
722 490
625 964
715 455
833 827
748 731
771 594
826 737
862 513
771 848
824 436
870 180
773 226
2 398 635
4 141 496
5 466 846
6 924 733
7 757 440
8 924 816
7 537 695
8 424 181
9 463 920
$
11,975,671
I860..    	
19?n
13,450,169
1861 	
1071
12,836,013
1862   	
1922	
1923   	
1924	
1925 	
1926  	
1927	
1928 	
12,880,060
1863	
1864	
1865 	
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
1866    _
1867—	
1868	
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
1869   	
1929
11,256,260
1870 	
1930 	
9,435,650
1871	
1931	
1932 	
1933	
1934   .
1935   	
1936	
1937  ...	
1938	
7,684,155
1872 _
1873  ..  -   	
6,523,644
5,375,171
1874 	
5,725,133
1875	
5,048,864
1876 	
1877	
1878 	
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
1879    	
1939
6,280,956
1880 	
1940	
7,088,265
1881  _ „
1882 	
1883	
1941	
1942	
1943	
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
1884.	
1944	
8,217,966
1885 	
1945	
6,454,360
1886..	
1887 _
1946...	
1947	
6,732,470
8,680,440
1888
1948
9,765,395
10,549,924
1889     	
1949 	
1890	
1891	
1950..	
1951 _ _
1952	
1953	
10,119,303
10,169,617
1892...._   „
1893	
9,729,739
9,528,279
1894 	
1954	
1955	
1956. ... .
9,154,544
1895     .
8,986,501
1896   	
9,346,518
1897	
1898	
1957	
1958	
1959 	
7,340,339
5,937,860
1899	
5,472,064
1900	
1901. 	
I960..	
1961	
5,242,223
6,802,134
1902 _ .
1962	
6,133,986
1903
1963	
6,237,997
1904  _	
1964._	
1965	
6,327,678
1905-.      	
6,713,590
1906    . .. .
1966 __	
1967	
1968.. ..	
1969	
1970 	
6,196,219
1907	
1908	
7,045,341
7,588,989
1909 	
1910
6,817,155
19,559,669
1911
1971  	
1972  _ _
1973..	
1974	
1975   ...	
1976 	
45,801,936
1912    ...
1913.	
1914...    	
66,030,210
87,976,105
154,593,643
1915
317,111,744
1916
298,683,679
1917      	
1918
1977
1978	
Totals	
328,846,883
381,895,241
190 263 059
2,317,222,986
1 Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
For
 122            ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
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 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
123
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining...—	
Exploration and development.
Coal	
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production)..
Industrial minerals 	
Structural-materials industry   	
Totals, 1978 _ _ __	
1977	
1976	
1975...
1974	
1973..-
1972	
1971	
1970	
1969	
1968	
1967	
1966 .__
1965	
1964	
1963	
1962	
1961	
1960	
1959	
1958	
1957	
1956	
1955	
1954	
1953	
1952	
1951	
1950	
1949	
1948	
1947	
1946	
1945	
1944	
1943	
1942	
1941	
1940	
1939	
1938	
1937	
1936	
1935	
135,853,137
82,099,007
65,643,694
9,946,457
11,611,228
29,982,587
47,060,849
14,644,287
^3,750,361
19,329,629
159,461,138
14,083,909
1,820,335
13,767,708
335,136,110      I      84,785,126      |    189,133,090
337
277
246
272
221
199
179
172
123
113
94,
93,
74
63
57
55
50
52
49
48
56
57
51
48
55
62
52,
42
41
38
32
26
22.
23
26.
26
26
23
22
22
21
17
16,
,382
736.
,953
945
,877
351.
,175.
,958
,450
,459
,523
409.
,938
,624.
,939
,522
,887
,694
961
933
,409
,266,
,890.
702,
,543
,256
607,
738,
,023
813
,160
,190
620
,131
,051
,913
,050
,391.
,357.
,765,
,349
,887,
753,
,149
,828
568
078
,595
449
692
282
,327
219
,495
528
,736
,559
,294
,171
,275
18
,996
560
,056
,026
,246
746
,490
,631
,171
035
,786
506
338
,200
975
,874
,467
,160
,491
,330
,035
,711
,690
,619
,367
71,149,313
59,220,204
49,104,838
42,381,258
36,750,711
31,115,621
23,166,904
19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13,590,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
192,025,357
170,075,616
154,476,238
140,002,685
103,840,649
77,092,955
68,314,944
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962, lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964, some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include "process, operating maintenance and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company-operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 124 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1978
Year
Metals
Mines
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
is
ca
SrS
•2E
WQ
r* C c
uxu
■S«Q
- ST
5
1901-
1902-
1903-
1904..
1905..
1906-
1907-
1908-
1909-
1910-
1911-
1912-
1918-
1914-
1915-
1916-
1917-
1918-
1919-
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924-
1925-
1926..
1927-
1928-
1929-
1930-
1931-
1932-
1933-
1934-
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939-
1940-
1941-
1942-
1943-
1944-
1945-
1946-
194T-
1948-
1949-
1950-
1951-
1952-
1953-
1954-
1955-
1956...
1957...
1958-
1959-
1960-
1961...
1962-
1963-
1964..
1965..
1966..
1967..
1968-
1969-
1970-
1971..
1972..
1973-
1974..
1975...
1976-
1977..
1978-
2,736 1,212
2,219 1.126
1,662 1,088
2,143 1,163
2,470 1,240
2,680 1,303
2,704 1,239
2,567 1,127
2,184 1,070
2,472 1,237
2,435 1,159
2,472 1.364
299
415
355
341
425
688
874
1,134
1,122
1,291
1,124
1,371
1,303
1,252
1,004
939
489
212
255
209
347
360
348
303
327
205
230
132
199
103
105
67
75
99
86
74
35
43
5
2
2
2,773
2,741
2.709
357
,290
626
513
074
355
510
102
353
,298
,606
671
707
926
316
463
355
786
796
,740
959
603
849
,905
923
901
920
394
890
933
918
1,505
1,433
1.435
2,036
2,198
1,764
1,746
1,605
975
1,239
1,516
1,680
2,840
1,735
1,916
2,469
2,052
1,260
834
900
1,335
1,729
1,497
1,840
1,818
2,266
2,050
2,104
1,823
1,504
1,699
1,825
1.750
1,817
024 2.238
.143 2,429
,034 2,724
399 2,415
785 3,695
171 3,923
145 2,589
,644 2,520
,564 2,553
637 2,827
393 2,447
919 1,809
937 1
782 1
785 1
,677
,713
839
752
006
928
823
761
959
.582
1,976
2,012
1,967
2,019
2,296
2,532
2,369
794|2,470
3,167
3,058
. . 3,463
70414,005
i09|4,239
0013,619
J68|3,733
,20813,768
,009i3,874
60
73
,833
808
854
911
966
832
581
542
531
631
907
720
1,168
919
996
1,048
1,025
960
891
849
822
672
960
1,126
1,203
1,259
1,307
1,516
1,371
1,129
1,091
1,043
838
625
618
648
626
949
850
822
965
1,014
992
1,072
1,099
1,331
1,513
1,734
2,394
2,352|
1,9831
2,048
2,224
2,029
2,461
2,842
2,748
2,948
3,197
3,157
2,036
2,436
2,890
2,771
2,678
3,027
3,158
3,187
2,944
3,072
3,555
2,835
2,981
2,834
2,813
3,461
3,884
3,763
3,759
4,044
4,120
3,901
3.119
3,304
3,339
3,328
3,081
3,008
3,034
3,118
3,356
3,239
3,281
3,529
3,654
3,435
3,283
3,468
3,738
3.481
3,353
3,390
2,767
3,733
3,542
13,590
3,838
3,948
3,345
2,750
3,306
3,710
3,983
3,943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3,836
4,278
4,174
4,144
5.393
5,488
4,390
4,259
3,679
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
5,138
7.610
8,283
8,835
8,892
7,605
6,035
4,833
6,088
8,046
7,915
8,197
9,616
10,192
10,138
10,019
9,821
8,939
7,819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10,724
10,832
12,831
13,730
11,006
9,412
9,512
9,846
9,006
7,434
7,324
7,423
7,111
7,958
7,814
7,909
8,265
8,970
8,887
8,547
8,831
10,396
10,125
10,383
11,493
10,867
10,435
10,591
10,790
10,750
3,041
3,101
3,137
3,278
3,127
3,415
2,862
4,432
4.713
5,903
5,212
5,275
4.950
4,267
3,708
3,694
3,760
3,658
4,145
4,191
4,722
4,712
4,342
3,894
3,828
3,757
3.646
3.814
3,675
3.389
2,957
2,628
2,241
2.050
2,145
2.015
2,286
2,088
2,167
2.175
2,229
1.892
2,240
2,150
1,927
1,773
1,694
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
1,280
1,154
1,076
1,100
968
1,020
826
765
894
705
548
501
446
405
347
260
195
245
242
444
214
265
267|2
29912,
327|2,
312|2
377J2
933
910
,127
,175
280
390
907
641
,705
,855
661
855
721
465
,283
366
410
,769
,821
158
163
932
807
524
015
565
579
,520
,353
256
,125
980
853
843
826
799
867
874
809
699
494
4
611
689
503
532
731
872
545
616
463
401
396
358
378
398
360
260
291
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
358
455
033
013
771
951
,255
! 3.974
,,011
,264
,453
,407
.805
,769
1,073
1,418
.758
1.873
,130
,671
,732
,991
,060
i,170
i.427
1,966
i.349
1,885
1,644
1,149
i,418
,443
1,322
1,225
028
645
082
608
094
893
971
814
153
962
976
874
723
360
851
839
430
305
425
466
306
261
925
681
550
434
478
366
380
086
056
182
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
1,275
1,457
1,985
2,216
2,522
464|2,763
300|2,627
,55612,868
,606 2,983
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,861
1,646
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
909
1,293
1,079
1,269
1,309
1.207
1,097
740
846
1,116
898
895
826|
931|
1,380|
1,645|
324
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
508
481
460
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
794
800
802
782
725
680
626
491
124
122
120
268
170
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
491
529
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
582
567
627
666
527
667
646
705
670
766
618
270
450
772
786
1,894
1,264
3,990
4,270
4,964
4.040
4.201
3,392
2,848
2,931
3,101
3,537
3,232
441
478
607
400
416
437
495
458
454
509
518
495
490
496
7,922
7,356
7,014
7,759
8,117
8,788
7,712
9,767
9,672
11,467
10,467
10,966
10,949
9,906
9.135
10,453
10.658
9,817
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9,767
9.451
10.581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10,524
11,369
12,985
13,737
14,179
16,129
16,021
15,890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12.314
11,820
11,933
14.899
16,397
16,621
16,612
17,863
18.257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11.034
11,560
10,952
11,645
12,283
14,202
13,380
15,659
16,437
19,086
18,423
19.470
19,922
19,069
18,903
119,095
20,457
20,215
i Commencing with 1967, does not include employment in by-product plants.
Note—These figures refer only to company employees and do not include the many employees of contracting firms.
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
125
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 126
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1978
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Copper concentrates, 11 485 t; lead concentrates,  6 463   t;  zinc  concentrates,
32 400 t
Molybdenite concentrates, 1 384 t containing 764 516 kg of molybdenum
Copper concentrates, 74 705 t; molybdenite   concentrates,   238   t   containing
119 174 kg of molybdenum
Lead concentrates,  134 270 t; zinc concentrates, 119 716 t; tin concentrates,
561 t containing 236 339 kg of tin
Clean-up; lead concentrates, 20 t; zinc
concentrates, 42 t
Lead concentrates, 439 t; zinc concentrates, 403 t; jig concentrates, 121 t
Copper concentrates, 2 645 t	
Copper   concentrates,   18 176   t;   blister
copper, 5 995 t
Copper   concentrates,  41 580   t;   molybdenite concentrates,  269 t containing
133 777 kg of molybdenum
Copper concentrates, 208 799 t; molybdenite concentrates, 3 459 t containing
1 864 355 kg of molybdenum
Ore
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CO
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2 107 869
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2 456 757
6 490 726
15 927 064
Owner or Agent
Western Mines Ltd _ 	
Noranda  Mines   Ltd.   (Boss
Mountain Div.)
Gibraltar Mines Ltd 	
Cominco Ltd  	
Ruth Vermont Mines Ltd	
Teck Corporation Ltd	
Granby Mining Corp. (Phoenix Copper Div.)
Bethlehem Copper Corp	
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Lornex	
 MINERAL RESOURCES STATISTICS
127
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 128
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Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1978
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Iron
Trail
t
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t
140 190
t
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26 972
770 684
96 649
61 088
United States      	
598
27 551
3 367
152 602
Japan  	
Other foreign   	
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30 668
171 108
Totals  	
149 528
974 927
615 569
 IsisJ
 Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics
CHAPTER 4
CONTENTS
Page
Statistical Tables
Table 4-1—Acreage of Crown Petroleum and Natural Gas Rights Held,
1969-1978  133
Table 4-2—Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1947-1978  __„ 133
Table 4-3—Established Hydrocarbon and By-product Reserves, December 31, 1978  134
Table 4-4—Wells Drilled and Drilling, 1978  135
Table 4-5—Summary of Drilling and Production Statistics, 1978  146
Table 4-6—Monthly Crude-oil and Condensate Production by Fields and
Pools, 1978    147
Table 4-7—Monthly Nonassociated and Associated Gas Production by
Fields and Pools, 1978  150
Table 4-8—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil/Pentanes Plus,
1978  15 8
Table 4-9—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Natural Gas, 1978  160
Table 4-10—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Propane, 1978  162
Table 4-11—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Butane, 1978  163
Table 4-12—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Sulphur, 1978  163
Table 4-13—Crude-oil Pipelines, 1978  164
Table 4-14—Crude-oil Refineries, 1978  165
Table 4-15—Natural Gas Pipelines, 1978  166
Table 4-16—Gas-processing Plants, 1978  169
Table 4-17—Sulphur Plants, 1978  169
Figures
4-1—Footage Drilled in British Columbia, 1947-1978  170
4-2—Petroleum and Natural Gas Fields in British Columbia  171
4-3—Wells Drilled in British Columbia, 1966-1978  172
4-4—Geophysical Crew Weeks in British Columbia, 1966-1978  173
4-5—Oil Production in British Columbia, 1955-1978  174
4-6—Gas Production in British Columbia, 1955-1978  175
4-7—Pipelines of British Columbia  176
Chapter 4 is a series of tables and figures providing important information on
the petroleum industry operations in 1978. It complements the review of the
industry in Chapter 1 and the work of the Ministry reported in Chapter 2.
131
 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
  134
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 172
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P-
 DIRECTORY 177
Directory
(as at November 30, 1979)
Hon. R. H. McClelland (Minister) Room 310, Parliament Buildings
  387-5295
R. Illing (Deputy Minister)   Room 406, Douglas Building ...... 387-5445
Dr.  James  T.  Fyles   (Senior  Assistant  Deputy
Minister)       Room 409, Douglas Building ...... 387-6242
P. D. Meyers (Solicitor for Ministry)  .....609 Broughton Street   384-4434
PERSONNEL
N. K. Gillespie (Director)....   ..Room 442D, Douglas Building
Cathie Green (Personnel Clerk) Room 442D, Douglas Building
FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION DIVISION
R. R. Davy (Director).     Room 434, Douglas Building  .
Rosalyn J. Moir (Assistant Editor)  Room 422, Douglas Building
387-3776
387-3776
387-6243,
5651
387-5496,
5631
Sharon Ferris (Library)....  Room 430, Douglas Building   387-6407
MINERAL REVENUE DIVISION
W. W. M. Ross (Director)    525 Superior Street    387-6991
B. A. Garrison (Assistant Director) .....525 Superior Street     387-6991
ENERGY RESOURCES BRANCH
Dr. H. Swain (Assistant Deputy Minister)- 525 Superior Street   387-1916
T. France (Economist)—.   -—525 Superior Street   387-3787
D. Horswill (Director, Energy Policy Division) 525 Superior Street    387-6265
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
E. R. Macgregor (Assistant Deputy Minister) Room 409, Douglas Building     387-5489
525 Superior Street     387-3781
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION
Victoria Office:
W. C. Robinson (Chief Inspector) 	
V. E. Dawson (Deputy Chief Inspector—
Coal)    —.525 Superior Street  387-3781
A. J. Richardson (Deputy Chief Inspector—
Metal).    525 Superior Street    387-3781
H. Dennis (Senior Coal Inspector) 525 Superior Street  387-3781
T. Carter (Senior Mechanical/Electrical Inspector)   525 Superior Street  387-3781
J. Cartwright (Electrical Inspector)....  -525 Superior Street  387-3781
G. J. Lee (Senior Mine-rescue Co-ordinator) —525 Superior Street   387-3781
J. D. McDonald (Senior Reclamation Inspector)   525 Superior Street   387-3781
D. M. Galbraith (Reclamation Inspector) 525 Superior Street   387-3781
J. C. Errington (Reclamation Inspector) 525 Superior Street .  387-3781
P. E. Olson (Engineer)—Mining Roads 525 Superior Street   —   387-3781
 178 ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION  {Continued)
Vancouver Office:
B. M. Dudas (Inspector)  ..... 2747  East Hastings Street,  V5K
1Z8    254-7171 /72
S. Elias (Inspector, Environmental Control)-2747  East Hastings Street, V5K.
1Z8    254-7171/72
Kamloops Office:
D. Smith (Inspector)   ._.  .101,   2985   Airport   Drive,   V2B
7W8      376-7201
E. S. Sadar (Inspector)   ...101,   2985   Airport   Drive,   V2B
7W8      376-7201
J. MacCulloch (Inspector)—  101,   2985   Airport   Drive,   V2B
7W8    376-7201
Nelson Office: J. B. C. Lang (Inspector) 310 Ward Street, V1L5S4   352-2211
ext. 213/342
Fernie Office: D. I. R. Henderson (Inspector) Box 1290, V0B 1M0   423-6222
Nanaimo Office: J. W. Robinson (Inspector). .2226    Brotherstone    Road,    V9S
3M8      758-2342
Prince Rupert Office: [vacant] (Inspector)  Box 758, V8J 3S1   624-3245
ext. 202
Smithers Office: S. J. Hunter (Inspector)  Box 877, V0J 2N0  847-4411
ext. 237/245
Prince George Office: T. Vaughan-Thomas
(Inspector)  —1652 Quinn Street, V2N 1X3 _.. 562-8131
ext. 322/323
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
Dr. A. Sutherland Brown (Chief Geologist) Room 418, Douglas Building  387-5975
ANALYTICAL LABORATORY
Dr. W. M.Johnson (Chief Analyst) ...__ ..541 Superior Street   387-6249
P.F.Ralph (Deputy Chief Analyst) 541 Superior Street  -   387-6249
PROJECT GEOLOGY
Dr. N. C. Carter (Senior Geologist) Room 418, Douglas Building ...... 387-5975
Geologists
R. D. Gilchrist—     626 Superior Street  387-5068
Dr. T. Hoy   626 Superior Street  387-5068
D. G. Mclntyre   626 Superior Street    387-5068
Dr. W. J. McMillan   626 Superior Street   387-5068
Dr. V. A. Preto   626 Superior Street  387-5068
Dr. P. A. Christopher...-    630 Superior Street   387-5068
Dr. B. N. Church   630 Superior Street    387-5068
Dr. G. E. P. Eastwood  ...630 Superior Street  387-5068
Dr. D. E. Pearson     630 Superior Street   387-5068
RESOURCE DATA AND ANALYSIS
[vacant] (Senior Geologist)  -.Room 418, Douglas Building  387-5975
Geologists
Special Projects: Dr. K. E. Northcote.. ..Room 416, Douglas Building  387-5975
Industrial Minerals: Z. D. Hora    630 Superior Street    387-5068
 DIRECTORY
179
RESOURCE DATA AND ANALYSIS  (Continued)
Mineral Inventory:
T. Kalnins—       Room 427, Douglas Building  387-5975
J. E. Forester    ...Room 424, Douglas Building  387-5975
Coal Inventory: A. Malheson      -625 Superior Street    387-6588
Co-ordinator, Data Processing: G. L. James Room 432, Douglas Building  385-5600
APPLIED GEOLOGY AND PROSPECTORS' ASSISTANCE
Dr. E. W. Grove (Senior Geologist)  525 Superior Street  387-5538
A. F. Shepherd (Geologist)     ....525 Superior Street  387-5538
District Geologists
Fernie: D. A. Grieve.    Box 1290, VOB 1M0  423-6222
Fort St. John: R. H. Karst    Box 7438, V1J 4M9   785-6906
Kamloops: G. P. E.White  101,   2985   Airport   Drive,   V2B
7W8      376-7201
Nelson: G. G. Addie    310 Ward Street, V1L 5S4  352-2211
ext. 213
Prince George: G. H.Klein   1652 Quinn Street, V2N 1X4 ...... 562-8131
ext. 322/323
   847-4411
ext. 277
Smithers: T. G. Schroeter    .Box 877, V0J 2N0
TITLES DIVISION
E. J. Bowles (Chief Gold Commissioner)—  Room 417, Douglas Building -
R. Rutherford (Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner)- Room 433, Douglas Building .
D. I. Doyle (Gold Commissioner, Vancouver) 800 Hornby Street, V6Z 2C5
E. A. H. Mitchell (Gold Commissioner)   Room 411, Douglas Building
A. R. Corner (Coal Administrator)   ..Room 411, Douglas Building	
Mineral Claims Inspectors
Vancouver: F. A. Reyes  800 Hornby Street, V6Z 2C5 ___
Kamloops: H.Turner 212,   2985   Airport   Drive,   V2B
7W8     	
Quesnel: D. Lieutard...     401,   350   Barlow   Avenue,   V2J
2C1   	
Smithers: R. Morgan    Box 877, V0J 2N0
387-6245
387-5517
668-2672
387-6255,
6246
387-5687
.668-2672
554-1445
7751-260
776-278
ECONOMICS AND PLANNING DIVISION
F. C. Basham (Acting Director)  525 Superior Street    387-3787
W. P.Wilson (Statistician)  525 Superior Street    387-3787
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
J. D. Lineham (Assistant Deputy Minister,
Chief of Branch)	
Room 404, 405, Douglas Building
.    387-3485, 6256
ENGINEERING DIVISION
A. G. T. Weaver (Chief Engineer)    __. Room 436A, Douglas Building .... 387-5993
B. T. Barber (Senior Reservoir Engineer)     -Room 436, Douglas Building   387-5993
P. K. Huus (Reservoir Engineering Technician) Room 403, Douglas Building   387-5993
W. L. Ingram (Senior Development Engineer) Room 401, Douglas Building   387-5993
 180
ENERGY, MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1978
ENGINEERING DIVISION   (Continued)
M. B. Hamersley (Development Engineering
Technician)       Room 401, Douglas Building   387-5993
D. L. Johnson (District Engineer)   Box 6880, Fort St. John, VIJ 4M9 758-6906
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
W. M. Young (Chief Geologist)   -Room 402A, Douglas Building ...... 387-5993
R. Stewart (Senior Reservoir Geologist)   Room 440, Douglas Building  387-5993
J. A. Hudson (Senior Economic Geologist)    Room 442, Douglas Building  387-5993
W. J. Quinn (Commissioner) -
TITLES DIVISION
  Room, 446, Douglas Building  387-3333
Queen's Printer for British Columbia ©
Victoria, 1980
3,700-879-4722

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