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REPORT of the BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT of AGRICULTURE FOR THE YEAR NINETEEN SEVENTY-FIVE British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1976

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 ;,:
REPORT
of the
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT
of
AGRICULTURE
FOR THE YEAR NINETEEN SEVENTY-FIVE
  To Colonel the Honourable
Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province
of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your
consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture
for the year 1975.
DONALD M. PHILLIPS
Minister of Agriculture
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C.
  Report of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture
The Honourable Don Phillips,
Minister of Agriculture.
Dear Sir: It is my pleasure to present
the Seventieth Annual Report of
the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture for the 12 months ending
December 31,1975.
The Report highlights the Department's
progress in implementing and managing
the wide range of policies and
programs under its jurisdiction.   I
commend your attention to the various
branch reports for detailed information
on Department activities.
In a broad sense the primary objective
of the Department of Agriculture is
to encourage and assist the people
engaged in the agriculture and food
industry to achieve their economic and
social goals consistent with the
preservation of agricultural resources.
Aiming at this objective, Department
staff continually work with farmers and
the food industry to increase food
production in an efficient manner so that
the Province may supply an increasing
proportion of its food needs.   The
achievements of the Department are
accomplished through the dedication and
resourcefulness of staff working as
a team.
The significance of this work takes
on added meaning with the knowledge
that the Province's farmers produce
only about 50 per cent of the food
consumed in the Province.   We are in a
net export position with aJfew
commodities such as apples, raspberries,
rapeseed, and fescue seed, and nearly
self-sufficient in several others such
as fluid milk, poultry and eggs, and some
vegetable crops.   But by contrast
we are notably deficient in a number of
commodities such as beef, pork, mutton
and lamb, dairy products, forage, feed
grain, and several other fruits and
vegetables.
The Department's Executive
Committee, consisting of your Deputy
Minister, the Associate Deputy Minister,
and the Directors, met weekly
throughout the year to advance
implementation and administration of
Department policies and programs.
The Executive Committee met with many
agricultural organizations during the
year for the purpose of co-operatively
resolving problems and reducing
constraints to progress.
On the national scene, a number of
meetings were held with officials from the
Federal Government and other
provinces with a view to harmonizing
the development of income stabilization
and farm income assurance programs
across the country.   I look forward
to a renewed thrust in 1976 with a hope
that more comprehensive income
security measures on a national basis
may be implemented under the recently
amended Federal Agricultural
Stabilization Act.
Economic forecasts for 1976 indicate
that production costs for farmers will
continue to rise more rapidly than most
farm product prices.   Nevertheless as the
Provincial economy picks up new
momentum and local markets improve,
I am confident the Province's agriculture
industry can look forward over the longer
term to continued orderly expansion on
a number of fronts.
Respectfully submitted,
S.  B.  PETERSON
Deputy Minister
_
 Report of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture
REVIEW
Economic Performance
British Columbia farm cash receipts
increased by $29 million or 7.8 per cent
to a record $395 million in 1975.
The increase was consistent with trends
in other parts of Canada.   In contrast
to the three previous years when
increasing farm cash receipts were due
mainly to increasing farm commodity
prices, the increase in 1975 reflected a
higher level of physical output associated
with more moderate farm commodity
price increases.   Chart I illustrates the
distribution of farm cash receipts
according to the major commodity areas.
Although grain and rapeseed prices
were generally lower, unusually
favourable weather contributed to
excellent crops.    Forage output was
also above normal and quality
high in all areas except the central
Interior.    Fescue seed production was
steady but prices sharply lower.
Cool summer weather combined
with heavier precipitation during harvest
reduced the output of several
vegetable crops, although production
was higher for others such as wax beans,
broccoli, celery, corn, and potatoes.
Mushroom production was also higher.
Vegetable prices were generally higher
with the exception of potatoes which
continued low reflecting the large
1974 North American potato crop.
Although the growing season was late
starting, tree fruit production was at or
near record levels.   Quality was high
CHART
Distribution of Farm Cash Receipts, British Columbia, 1975
 department of agriculture
N 5
except for sweet cherries, and prices
were generally lower, especially apples,
reflecting a large crop in the Pacific
Northwest.   Both production and prices
were higher for grapes with some
production in excess of winery
requirements.   Berry production was
above normal but prices lower than
production costs.   Efforts were initiated
to expand fresh market sales.
Honey production continued to
increase although prices were lower than
the previous year.   Production and
prices for flower and particularly
nursery crops continued to show strength
in 1975.
Prices continued at low levels for
cattle and calves although slaughterings
were up sharply reflecting extensive
culling of herds.   Hog and sheep
populations were higher as were prices
particularly for hogs.
With higher returns in the dairy sector,
milk production continued to increase
in 1975.   Although fluid milk sales
levelled off, sales of milk for processing
increased sharply with some producers
reaching their Federal market
share quota.
Some softening in poultry and egg
prices was associated with slightly
reduced production.   Large poultry
inventories at the beginning of the year
were reduced to more normal levels by
the end of the year.
Farm operating costs increased at a
more rapid rate than farm cash
receipts, although the rate of increase
in costs in 1975 was lower than the
previous year.   The year was marked by
a return to the traditional cost-price
squeeze at the farm level, although some
of the pressures were eased by the
Department's financial programs.   The
Farm Input Price Index for Western
Canada averaged 208.1 (1961 = 100)
in 1975—9.1 per cent higher than
the 1974 average.   At the same time the
240
CHART II
Economic Trends Since 1961
Index of Avg. Weekly
Earnings—Industry
Consumer Price Index—
Food Component—Vane
67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75
Source: Statistics Canada
 N 6
BRITISH COLUMBIA
w
Index of Farm Prices of Agricultural
Products for British Columbia
average 205.8 (1961 = 100) in 1975—
2.0 per cent above the average for 1974.
As in the previous year, inflationary
pressures continued to filter through
the economy during 1975 affecting both
consumer prices and earnings.   The
retail price of food as reflected in the
Food Component of the Consumer
Price Index for Vancouver averaged
220.4 (1961=100) in 1975—13.1 per
cent higher than the 1974 average
(see Chart II).
The Index of Annual Average Weekly
Earnings Industrial Composite for
British Columbia averaged 267.6
(1961 = 100) in 1975—13.4 per cent
higher than the average for 1974.   In
contrast to 1974, when the rate of
increase in average earnings lagged
behind the rate of increase in food prices,
the rate of increase in average earnings
during 1975 moved slightly ahead
of the rate of increase in food prices
With only a slight increase in
agricultural commodity prices at the
farm level, food price increases at the
retail level during 1975 were due mainly
to increased costs beyond the farm
gate.    With earnings keeping pace with
increasing retail food prices, the
proportion of personal disposable income
spent on food remained steady at about
17.5 per cent in 1975.   The cost of
food in Canada relative to personal
disposable income continued to be
among the lowest in the world, second
only to the United States.
Legislation
While there were no major legislative
changes affecting agriculture during
1975, minor amendments were made to
several Acts.   The Acts amended
included the Bee Act, the Farmers' and
Women's Institutes Act, the Domestic
Animal Protection Act, the Farm Income
Assurance Act, the Farm Products
Industry Improvement Act, the
Grasshopper-control Act, the Milk
Industry Act, the Stock Brands Act, and
the Weed Control Act.
Program Highlights
The activity level under all
Department programs continued at a
brisk pace during 1975.   A sample of
program highlights included the following:
• The Farm Products Finance Program
evaluated 70 project proposals.
Financial assistance in the form of
loan guarantees, direct loans, and share
acquisitions was approved for nine
projects.
• The Farm Vacation Program was well
received with 280 people hosted an
average of five days on operating farms
and ranches.
• The Program to Demonstrate Applied
Technology and Economics supported
37 projects during the year, including
detailed mapping of frost zones in
the Okanagan, assessment of range
land reseeding techniques in the
Interior, publication of Decision Aids
for Farm Planning and Taxation
Planning, and evaluation of
overwintering techniques for bees.
• The Entomology Program continued to
regulate the use of pesticides and carry
out pest-control activities.    During
the year,  agreement was reached
between the Department, Agriculture
Canada, fruit growers, and the Regional
District of Okanagan-Similkameen
for a three-year biological codling
moth control program.
• The Youth Development Program in
addition to continuing 4-H activities
assumed responsibility for co-ordination
of the International Agricultural
Exchange Association of British
Columbia enabling exchange visits
by British Columbia youths with other
countries.
• The Agricultural Credit Program
guaranteed 81 loans and paid partial
reimbursement of interest to 3,774
farmers.   In the Bulkley-Nechako area,
53 farmers participated in special
loans for feed purchase and 100 farmers
in the Peace River area participated
in special loans for the purchase of
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 7
breeding stock to increase livestock
production.   A total of 548 contracts
were approved under the Agricultural
Land Development Act.
• The Income Assurance Program
introduced four new plans covering
greenhouse vegetables, beef, broiler
hatching eggs and commercial eggs.
Total participants in income assurance
plans increased from 2,900 to 5,400.
• The Agriculture and Rural
Development Program saw a new
agreement signed between the Province
and the Federal Department of
Regional Economic Expansion
extending the program to March 31,
1977.   During 1975, 22 projects were
approved under General ARDA.
• The Crop Insurance Program continued
to operate plans for berries, grain,
grapes, and tree fruits and added a
new plan for alfalfa.   All plans
completed the crop year in a surplus
position.
• The Engineering Program continued to
provide technical assistance to farmers
on a wide range of engineering
matters including drainage and
irrigation assistance, farm structures,
waste disposal, and farm mechanization.
The staff played a leading role in
evacuating cattle during the Sumas
Prairie flood.
• The Soils Program conducted more
than 150 on-site soil inspections in
support of the B.C. Land Commission,
analysed 1,400 soil samples, and
provided drainage recommendations on
tile spacing for 25 farms covering
2,002 acres.   During the year an
agreement was signed to transfer the
Soil Inventory function to the
Environment and Land Use Committee
Secretariat.
• The Veterinary Program experienced a
sharp increase in brand inspections,
carcass inspections, and inspections at
public saleyards associated with a
sharp increase in cattle movements,
sales, and slaughterings.   A long-term
measure to increase fees more in line
with the costs of providing services
was implemented during 1975.
• The Allotment Garden Program, which
began in 1974 with 378 plots on four
sites, was expanded during 1975 to
1,354 plots on six sites in Victoria and
Vancouver.
• The Extension Program continued
to see increased administrative
responsibilities in connection with
various Department programs in
addition to provision of technical
advice and information in co-operation
with the commodity branches.   Staff
became more heavily involved in
work of the various planning and
technical committees associated with
the establishment of resource
management regions.
• The Farm Economics Program saw an
increase in enrolment on record-keeping
systems with enrolments in Canfarm
reaching a new high of 293 participants.
The program continued to become
more heavily involved in farm
management, planning, and production
economics activities.
• The Field Crops Program initiated
additional forage, fertilizer, alfalfa,
corn silage, and range improvement
demonstrations and trials in a
number of locations aimed at increasing
the over-all level of forage production
in the Province.
• The Livestock Program continued to
be heavily involved in performance
testing and livestock quality activities,
including dairy herd improvement,
hog quality production, beef record of
performance, and sheep record of
performance.
• The Marketing Program was active
in the support of marketing board
activities, including those involved
in national marketing plans.   Food
Promotion concentrated efforts to
promote British Columbia food
products on recipe sheets, mobile
demonstration units, television cooking
demonstrations, radio and newspaper
advertisements, consumer information,
and the PNE Country Fair.
^
 N 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXECUTIVE OFFICER
The Executive Officer is responsible for
the administration of fairs and
exhibitions, pound districts, and
Farmers' and Women's Institutes.   The
number of fairs/exhibitions totalled
52, and there were 274 pounds and 89
Farmers' Institutes registered in 1975.
A total of 145 Orders in Council were
processed, of which 68 pertained to
the Land Commission. 111111—
A number of agricultural Acts were
amended during 1975.   They are
noted in a previous section of this Report
under Legislation.
The Executive Officer sat on many
committees, functioning as Secretary for
the B.C. Fairs' Association, B.C.
Farmers' Institute Advisory Board,
Senior Staff Meetings, B.C. Food
Advisory Council, and BCASCC.
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 GENERAL
SERVICES
Agriculture and Rural Development Programs
GENERAL ARDA AND
SPECIAL ARDA
The main thrust of General ARDA
programs throughout the year continue
to be in the areas of irrigation systems,
drainage, and community pastures
including range improvement.
Of major importance was the signing
in July of a revised Rural Development
Agreement between British Columbia
and the Federal Department of Regional
Economic Expansion.   The new
agreement extends the ARDA program
to March 31, 1977.    Changes of
particular importance are
(1) raising of shareable percentage
on land acquisition costs from
50 per cent to 100 per cent
shareable;
(2) raising the agreed maximum
shareable dollar figures for land
acquisition and for land
development;
(3) raise the shareable amount for
irrigation projects from 66% per
cent to 75 per cent;
(4) removal of the dollar limitation
of annual Federal contribution
and total Federal contribution
over the length of the agreement;
(5) expansion of the Designated
Rural Development Region to
include all of British Columbia
except the four municipalities
which make up Greater Victoria
(i.e., Victoria, Oak Bay,
Saanich, and Esquimalt), and
the four built-up areas of
Greater Vancouver (i.e.,
Vancouver, Burnaby, Port
Moody, and New Westminster).
As a result of this enlarged area now
eligible for ARDA assistance to industry,
a set of guidelines were developed
for the application of the Alternate
Income and Employment Opportunities
Section of the ARDA Agreement and
agreed to by ARDA and DREE.
An Interdepartmental Committee
consisting of officials from the following
resource departments—Forestry, Fish
and Wildlife, Water Resources,
Economic Development, Human
Resources, and ELUC, has been struck.
This committee meets once a month to
discuss potential ARDA programs
and adjudicates on the wide variety of
interdisciplinary requests for ARDA
assistance.
During the year, also, an extended
Special ARDA Agreement was negotiated
and signed with DREE in July, applicable
to March 31, 1977.   This Special Rural
Development Agreement provides for
special programs for people of native
origin and was essentially of the same
form as the previous agreement.
During 1975, under General ARDA,
there were 22 projects approved with
a total cost of $14.3 million.   The
Provincial share will be $3.5 million.
Summary of Approved Projects, General
ARDA, January 1 to December 31,1975
■   ■
Number of
Projects
Total Cost
3
401.000
Land use and farm adjustment-
Rural development	
S        |    3,404,000
2               698,000:
2            6,015,000
10        |    3,822,000
Irrigation, drainage, and farm
water supply 	
Total	
11       I  14.340.000
 ■' :;r::-.::-   : ::'
Agricultural Credit
The Agricultural Credit Act provides
benefits to farmers as follows:
(a) Guaranteed loans through
chartered banks and credit unions
to make additional credit
available.
(b) Partial reimbursement of interest
to reduce interest costs.
(c) Incentives through special interest
and (or) principal reimbursement
provisions to encourage farmers
to participate in special programs
proclaimed and encouraged by
the Province.
In 1975, 81 loans were guaranteed
representing $6,251,261, thereby
increasing the total loans guaranteed
since inception of the program in July
1974 to in excess of $8 million.
Partial reimbursement of interest paid
by 3,774 farmers to approved lenders
for the period July 1 to December 31,
1974, was made in 1975.  This
represented reimbursement of interest
totalling $1,825,629 on loans made by
farmers through chartered banks, crlait
unions, Farm Credit Corporation, the
Federal Business Development Bank
(IDB), and the Director of the Veterans'
Land Act.   Loans not guaranteed by
the Province were reimbursed to an
effective rate of approximately 8 per cent,
and those with a guarantee under the
Agricultural Credit Act, to approximately
8Vi per cent.   Reimbursement of a
portion of the interest paid in 1975 to
the levels established for the previous
year will be made early in 1976.
Assistance to 53 farmers of the
Bulkley-Nechako area of the Province
was provided in 1975 to meet the costs
of necessary feed supplies.   Loans
received totalled $213,619 and were
eligible for a special reimbursement of
interest to reduce the net interest costs
to 4 per cent in 1975.  These farmers
were also eligible for a reimbursement
of principal of 10 per cent of the loan,
providing the loan was paid in full by
December 31, 1975.
In 1975, 100 individual farmers
participated in the Peace River Livestock
Incentive Program, whereby $637,636
in loans were provided to encourage
greater diversification from grain
production to livestock.   Special
reimbursement of interest provisions has
been made available to these participants
whereby their net interest cost is to be
reduced to approximately 4 to 4V2
per cent for the fiscal years 1975-78,
inclusive.
In 1975, 548 contracts totalling
$3,392,434 were issued for primary and
secondary land development under the
provisions of the Agricultural Land
Development Act.
Crop Insurance
The function of the Crop Insurance
Branch is to administer the British
Columbia Crop Insurance Act and to
promote the maximum participation by
eligible farmers in the crop insurance
programs that are offered.
Until this is achieved, we cannot claim
to be fully meeting the Provincial crop
insurance objectives of providing joint
participation in protection against
climatic disasters, and through this a
measure of stability to producers by
guaranteeing a minimum level of
production.
The Branch now administers five crop
programs.   A new plan for alfalfa
10
growers was added in 1975 to the
long-established berry, grain, grape, and
tree-fruit plans.
For the third successive year the
premium income has exceeded the
amount paid out in indemnities.
The 1975 crop year was the first year
in which all programs had a surplus
for the year and the tree-fruit and grape
programs are now in an overall surplus
position since the commencement of
the program.
Favourable weather during the more
vulnerable times of the year is felt to
be the main cause for this positive
balance.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N  11
The success of the various programs,
however, rests heavily on the personal
approach by all Branch staff members
as they provide the direct link between
the farmer and the program.
The entirely new alfalfa program
eventually got under way after a
number of delays.   Last-minute changes
in the premium rates required by Ottawa
required a rewrite and reprinting of the
information brochure.  This brought the
mailing of applications too close to the
onset of the mail strike for comfort.
Market prices for all berry crops have
been disappointing. This, coupled with
the failure of processors to take all
fruit offered, has created an environment
of doubt and uncertainty.   Against this
background of uncertainty, growers are
reluctant to commit themselves to the
additional costs of an insurance program.
Crop losses were mainly confined to
raspberries, where primary bud failure
on some plantings gave rise to a few
claims. ▼
Grain crops were adversely affected
by a prolonged drought.   Rapeseed
crops in particular suffered where weed
control had not been too effective, the
weeds becoming established more rapidly
than the rapeseed crop, resulting in
sharply reduced crop yields.
Farm Income
In 1975 the number of farm income
assurance programs increased to eight
from four and the number of participants
increased to over 5,400 from 2,900.
Programs for dairy, swine, tree fruits,
and field tomatoes were in place in 1974
and prior, while greenhouse vegetables,
broiler-hatching eggs, beef, and
commercial egg programs were
implemented during 1975.   Programs
for sheep and blueberries currently are
in an advanced stage of development.
Programs for seven other commodities
are being considered.
Several other provinces and the
Federal Government have shown interest
in British Columbia farm income
assurance programs.   A committee of
senior staff from the provinces and
Federal Government are working toward
Favourable weather during the harvest
period enabled farmers to complete
their harvesting in good time and kept
late losses to a minimum.
Grain claims were lighter than
expected, but included some sizeable
payments to rapeseed-growers.
The grape program had another
favourable year, with no crop loss
payable and only minor vine loss
indemnities to be met.
Participation this year was a record
59 grape-growers.  This has been
exceeded for the 1976 crop year with 68
applications received and a considerable
increase in acreage covered.  The new
plan for 1976 marks the introduction
of the "loss experience ratio table"
and an increase in coverage levels to a
maximum of 80 per cent of average
production.   Both of these presumably
contributing to the increase in
participation.
The normal winter conditions were
followed by favourable spring weather so
that most fruit crops set well and crops
were heavy throughout the Okanagan.
The only exception to this were pears,
where, following a series of full crops,
yields were below normal.   The
majority of claims were related to this
crop.
Assurance
mutual agreement on agricultural
stabilization.
All the programs have built-in
incentives to encourage efficient
production and are based on costs and
returns of a well-run efficient farm unit
model.   Indemnities are paid to producers
when market returns fall below a
calculated basic cost of production.  The
participating producers pay one-third
of the premiums and the British Columbia
Government pays two-thirds.   Although
all commodity programs are based
within a similar framework, each has
its own specialized operational
characteristics related to the individual
crop concerned.
Over the long run, the programs
should provide an equitable return for
producers while supplying consumers
with quality foodstuffs.
 Farm Products Finance
r
The Farm Products Finance Branch
was established April 1, 1974, to
administer the Farm Products Industry
Improvement Act.  The purpose of this
Act, which was passed in the fall of
1973, is to encourage and assist in the
continued development and expansion
of the agricultural industry of the
Province.
During 1975, 70 proposals were
evaluated.    Nine projects representing
approximately $26 million in loan
guarantees, direct loans, and share
acquisitions were approved for financial
assistance.   Projects approved included
food processing, poultry products
processing, alfalfa dehy production,
tree-fruit packing and storage, fruit and
vegetable processing, and fertilizer
production.
Other proposals were rejected due
either to a lack of indicated financial
viability within a reasonable time or to
an inability to show that the proposal
would have a significant beneficial impact
on the agricultural industry of the
Province.
Financial assistance was provided for a
market study concerning the possible
establishment of a beef-processing plant
in the southern Okanagan.   As well,
assistance was provided for a financial
feasibility study on the expansion of an
apple and grape juice plant also located
in the Okanagan.   Financial assistance
is to be provided also for the promotion
and use of dehy products as feed by
the livestock and dairy industry.
Information Services
A transition of objectives took place
in 1975 within the Information Branch;
that of concentrating efforts to service
the Department's primary audience-^
British Columbia farmers versus the
predominantly consumer-oriented
programs of years past.   The majority of
projects either carried out or initiated in
1975 by the Branch were designed to
assist Department staff in their
professional duties of providing farmers
with technical, financial, management,
and (or) cultural services.   Much of the
benefit of this transitional groundwork
laid in 1975 will be realized in one or
two years hence and programs expanded
further when appropriate.
A total of 78 printed information
pieces was produced in 1975 or prepared
for printing in early 1976.  These
included technical agricultural
publications, information brochures on
new programs, and factsheets to update
farmers on current situations, recent
technical advances, or new management
practices.   The increasingly popular
factsheets are mailed to producers in the
commodity enterprise concerned.
Ninety news releases dealing with new
legislation, progress of existing programs,
appointments, and Ministerial statements
were issued during 1975.  They were
mailed to approximately 1,200 print
and electronic media, agribusiness,
Governments, and Government agencies
across Canada.   Sixteen news releases
dealt specifically with new programs and
policies as well as modifications or
progress on existing programs.
The Branch placed over 30 institutional
advertisements in various agricultural
media to publicize Departmental services,
announce new programs, and create
producer awareness of agricultural
events.   Assistance also was given to
individual branches in placing numerous
operational advertisements dealing with
specific Branch projects.
Under the series name of "Grassroots,"
eleven 30-minute films produced in 1974
were broadcast weekly on the CBC-TV
network beginning in July 1975 and
ending in mid-September.   The films
featured all aspects of British Columbia
agriculture and were of particular interest
to the nonagriculturist sector of the
community in creating among them a
12
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 13
greater awareness of agriculture.
Although most of the filming completed
during 1975 focused on producer
education presentations, four general
interest films also were prepared and are
scheduled for completion in early 1976.
Preparation of extension presentations
for producers took precedence during
1975, most notably in the audio-visual
medium.  In addition to the long-standing
horticultural chautauqua television
seminar held each spring, a similar beef
chautauqua television seminar was
produced in 1975 for initial broadcast in
February 1976 in British Columbia's
beef-producing areas.   This use of
television as an educational medium is
expected to continue.   Concentrated
effort was put into an expanded still-slide
library for future slide-tape audio-visual
presentations used by specialist field staff
in their extension duties.
Branch personnel entered an
agricultural display in four agricultural
community fairs throughout the Province
There was strong public demand for
consumer and agricultural publications
produced by the Department.
Property Management
The first year's operation of the
Property Management Branch has now
been completed and the pattern of
activities is more obvious.
A strong liaison is being maintained
with the British Columbia Land
Commission in supplying both technical
data and management advice on
properties purchased by the Commission
and managed by this Branch.
Many anomalies exist in the economic
structure of some properties previously
acquired.   But, as existing leases expire,
new leases are negotiated at a more
realistic value.   Improvements are being
made to the majority of the properties
on a priority basis within budget controls
and tenants are being encouraged to
upgrade their properties to improve
productivity.
In addition to the normal month-to-
month rental administration function, the
Branch has formed advisory committees
for the larger ranches purchased by
the Land Commission.  These advisory
committees provide an input from all
resource departments in the area to assist
in formulating management policies for
the particular ranch.   This method is
proving a very worth-while procedure
and is avoiding unilateral decisions being
made by one agency to the possible
detriment of another department.
Another successful year can be
reported from the institutional farms.
The planned renovations to Colony
Farm have nearly been completed.
The new union agreements affecting
working schedules were a major concern
in the operation of the farms.   It
appeared that very little consideration
was given to farm operations while union
agreements were being considered.
High productivity from the farms can
be reported again and the statistics are
available upon request.
  PRODUCTION
and
MARKETING
SERVICES
  PRODUCTION
and
MARKETING
SERVICES
Apiary
Once again cool, wet weather has
resulted in a reduced honey crop.  Honey
production in the fireweed areas of
Vancouver Island and in the Peace River
district was 50 to 60 per cent below
normal.
Active beekeepers in the Province
number 3,965, a gain of 893 new
producers since 1974.   Number of
colonies increased from 41,175 in 1974
to 45,855 in 1975.   This is the third
consecutive year during which numbers
of colonies and producers have shown a
substantial increase.
The total honey crop during 1975 was
4,033,905 pounds (1,829,767 kg.),
760,000 pounds more than the 1974
crop of 3,339,660 pounds (1,514,860
kg.).   Cold weather during August again
resulted in at least a 2,000,000-pound
(907,194 kg.) reduction of the total
honey crop.
The wholesale market for honey was
only fair, whereas retail sales continued
generally good.   Local markets were
disrupted, however, when some Alberta
producers brought in and sold large
volumes of their honey at well below
market prices.
The price of No. 1 white honey in
bulk 660-pound (299-kg.) barrels ranged
between 40 cents and 43 cents per pound
f.o.b.  The on-farm price for honey has
ranged as high as 90 cents per pound,
with an average of 75 cents per pound.
Although the price of sugar for feeding
bees has decreased since 1974, the
present price of between $28 and $30
per 100 pounds represents a costly
expenditure.
Bee diseases were slightly lower in
1975 compared with 1974.
Colonies inspected numbered 12,213
compared with 9,666 during 1974.   A
total of 55,149 brood combs was
inspected in the warehouse.  The
incidence of American Foulbrood and
European Foulbrood was less in 1975
than during 1974, whereas Nosema and
Chalkbrood diseases increased.  The
increase and spread of Chalkbrood
throughout western Canada is causing
concern among honey producers.
Producers of tree fruits, small fruits,
White Dutch clover, and vegetable seeds
continue to use honeybees for pollination.
The use of honeybees for planned
pollination is of much greater importance
to agriculture than for the production
of honey.
DATE funds were again allocated to
continue studies on wintering colonies of
honeybees in a controlled environment.
The spiralling costs of package bees and
queens increases the need for and value
of this program.
Two demonstration apiaries were
established, one at Vernon and one at
Cloverdale.  These apiaries are being
used to test equipment, disease-control
procedures, and methods of management.
Tests were carried out using Ethylene
Oxide (Oxyfume) to fumigate diseased
brood combs.  The present practice of
burning infected equipment is costly and
15
 N 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
wastes expensive equipment.   Results
to date are very encouraging.  Tests will
continue during 1976.
Extensive tests and demonstrations
were undertaken to help reduce bear
damage to beehives.   Electric fences,
screened pallets, emetic inducing
compounds, and other devices were
tested.  The results of this work will
enable the Department to recommend the
best methods of protection against
marauding bears.
Many beekeeping courses were
conducted throughout the Province as a
result of the increasing public interest
in beekeeping.   Over 2,500 information
packages were sent to persons requesting
advice.
Development and Extension
In 1975 the Development and
Extension Branch was involved in a wide
range of programs and projects which
provided assistance and service to
the agricultural industry.   District
Agriculturists, located in 17 district
offices throughout the Province,
responded to a large number of inquiries
and initiated both regional and district
extension programs.   Many inquiries
dealt with the Beef Income Assurance
Program, special incentive programs
under the Agricultural Credit Act, land
clearing, and information on production,
marketing, and farm economics.   Branch
staff responded to serious emergency
situations such as the flooding of the
Vedder area in the Lower Fraser Valley
in early December and surveys of crop
loss due to adverse weather at Grand
Forks, Quesnel, and the Tatla-Anahim
area.
Regional extension programs were
established for dairy and beef cattle
producers dealing with forage crop
production, marketing of dehydrated
alfalfa products as livestock feed and
community pasture usage and
administration.
Meetings and field days were held in
all regions of the Province to provide
producers with information on a wide
range of subjects, including forage
production, range management, farm
business management, manure handling,
dairy, beef, and sheep management, and
agricultural engineering.   Demonstration
work in forage and cereal varieties, soil
fertility, beef feeding, range and wetland
development, and Christmas trees
provided the focal point for many
producer field days.
The Branch has been heavily involved
in co-ordinated resource management
planning with other agencies.   Field
staff have been assigned to regional
committees to represent the agricultural
interest in resource management.  These
interagency committees have included
Regional Resource Management
Committees, Regional Predator
Management Committees, Land
Management Committees, and Technical
Planning Committees.
The Branch provided field service to a
number of Departmental programs.  The
Farm Business Management program
has received priority attention, and
producer interest in the program is
expanding.   The district agriculturists
were involved in interpretation of farm
records from the CANFARM and
AJOHN programs and collection of cost
of production information from various
crops.
The Federal-Provincial Small Farm
Development Program is administered
by the Branch.   Five Farm Business
Management Consultants are located
throughout the Province.  The consultants
work closely with the district field staff
on farm economics but give priority
to providing in-depth counselling to
small and emerging commercial farmers.
The general response to the program
has been very positive.
 rarm economics
The Farm Economics Branch plays an
important role in advising and assisting
farmers when making their management
decisions.   Farm records and their
analysis is the key upon which the
Branch provides this service to farm
managers.
The Farm Economics Branch offers
the B.C. Farm Account Book and the
CANFARM record system to British
Columbia farmers.   During 1975
enrolment on the Canfarm system
increased substantially, while use of
the B.C. Farm Account Book Program
declined as managers were transferred to
CANFARM.   A long-term comparison
of enrolment is shown in Figure 1.
A comparison of enrolment for 1975
compared to 1974 is shown in Table 1.
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
Farm Account Book j
Canfarm
Programs Combined   I
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Figure 1. Comparison of Enrolment' on British Columbia Farm Account Book and CANFARM
Program, 1968 to 1975, Inclusive
Table 1—Comparison of 1974 and 1975
Enrolment on British Columbia Farm
Account Book and Canfarm
Record System
1974
Enroll
inert
1975
Enrolment
Change as
as per cent
of 1974
B.C. Farm Account Book	
Canfarm (V2 and V3) _	
72
212
52
293
—28
+38
Total  -...
284
345
+21
During 1975 two comparative analysis
reports were published for use by farm
managers.   These were the 1974 B.C.
Farm Business Analysis Report and
1974 B.C. Dairy Farm Business Analysis
Report.
A number of booklets were produced
as education resource materials in
1975 to provide district staff advisers
17
 N 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and farmers with guidance on farm
business planning.  They are:
Taxation and the B.C. Farmer
Sources of Farm Credit in British
Columbia
Your Home Business Centre
British Columbia Farm Business
Management Data Handbook (for
release in 1976)
In 1975 the use of the portable
computer terminal and computerized
decision aids was being tested.   Decision
aids currently offered to clients include
(1) loan calculator program, (2) feed
formulation program, (3) cash flow
forecaster, (4) machinery replacement
planning program, (5) machinery buy
vs. custom hire program.
During 1975 the costs of production
were studied for several commodities
with the following reports being released:
CDS 188—Silage, hay, and pasture,
Robson Valley.
CDS 189—Creeping red fescue seed,
B.C. Peace River.
CDS 190—Grape establishment,
Kelowna.
CDS 191—Alfalfa hay, Salmon Arm.
CDS 192—Corn silage, Salmon Arm.
CDS 193—Hay production, Prince
George.
The joint Alberta-British Columbia
study on creeping red fescue was
completed in 1975 with the Farm
Economics Branch compiling the costs
and returns section of the report in
co-operation with the Market Intelligence
Division of the Alberta Department of
Agriculture.
During 1975 a study of computer needs
of the British Columbia Department
of Agriculture was compiled, resulting
in the development of new computer
systems and programs for (1) prediction
of egg production in British Columbia,
(2) calculation of cost data study results,
(3) statistical analysis related to dog
licensing requirements under the
Domestic Animal Protection Act, (4)
calculation of interest reimbursement
claims under the Agricultural Credit Act.
Ongoing projects completed during
1975 included work on 4-H statistics,
calf-loss study, grain quality study, and
the B.C. Farm Account Book project.
Four staff-training sessions, to ensure
that Departmental staff are up to date
on farm business management concepts
and tools.were conducted throughout
the year by Branch personnel.
During 1975 the Farm Economics
Branch represented the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture on several
Provincial, regional, and national
committees relating to the work area.
One of particular note was the
organization and hosting of the first
Western Canada Farm Business
Management workshop held at
Vancouver in late 1975.
Field Crops
The 1975 growing season was
characterized basically by a very wet,
cold, delayed spring; a moderate
mid-summer; a very wet, cool August;
an open, early fall, and a very wet, late
fall.   Forage yields were above average
in most parts of the Province except
in the Peace River where yields were
reduced due to summer moisture
deficiency.   Field losses of forage were
heavy in central British Columbia and in
the Cariboo-Chilcotin due to rain
damage.
The South Peace Dehy Products Plant
at Dawson Creek, which produces
dehydrated livestock feed from alfalfa,
operated at less than capacity because
of dry conditions which reduced
yields to 1.1 tons per acre.   By contrast,
irrigated alfalfa yields in the southern
interior averaged 5 tons per acre
and the new Kootenay Dehydrators
Plant at Creston, although it opened late
in the season, was able to process a
substantial tonnage.
In the Peace River area, very
favourable harvesting conditions
prevailed, resulting in a complete harvest
of grain and oilseed crops of greatly
improved quality.   Barley and rapeseed
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N  19
acreages increased substantially in
1975.   Rapeseed, at 82,000 acres, now
ranks second to barley in terms of
acreage of annual crops in British
Columbia.
Co-operative trials with cereals
included an extensive variety trial at
Dawson Creek and a fertilizer trial at
Fort St. John.   In the latter trial the
fertilizer application based on soil tests
resulted in the highest yield of barley
and the best return per dollar of fertilizer
invested.   An extensive grain quality
study, now in its third year, was
also conducted.   The Earth Resources
Technology Satellite (Canada, U.S.
Groundtruthing) Project was again
conducted on a 20-square-miIe site at
Dawson Creek.
Yields of forage seed crops were
relatively good in the Peace River area.
Because of increased yields, total fescue
production was considerably higher
than in 1974.   In many districts,
fescue is well established as part of a
regular rotation, and even though the
market has become very depressed,
the plough-down acreage was not as
great as anticipated.
The Field Crops Branch co-operated
with the Alberta Department of
Agriculture and BCDA Farm Economics
Branch in a comprehensive study on
the production and marketing of
creeping red fescue seed.   This report
was released in April 1975.
In central British Columbia and the
Cariboo where there are now
approximately 377,000 acres of improved
land, mostly in forage crop production,
the Branch has initiated a greatly
stepped-up program of forage and
fertilizer demonstrations and trials
involving approximately 20 locations.
Large-scale alfalfa grass variety trials on
a number of alfalfa varieties grown in
pure stand and cross sown with grass
varieties have been established at
Alexis Creek, Lac la Hache, Quesnel,
and McBride.    Economics of fertilizer
application were demonstrated on a
number of sites including the Punchaw
area.   A considerable input was
also required on a consultive basis on
Community Pasture Development in
central British Columbia and the Peace
River.
In the southern Interior, a co-operative
alfalfa production committee was set
up to conduct alfalfa production and
management demonstrations at Creston,
Lillooet, and Vernon.
Corn silage production increased to
20,000 acres in 1975, 14,000 of which
were in the Fraser Valley.   In
co-operation with district agriculturists,
variety trials and demonstrations were
conducted on 18 farms throughout
the corn-growing areas.   In addition,
fertility trials involving different rates of
nitrogen and phosphorous were
conducted on three farms in the Fraser
Valley.   An extensive corn management
survey involving all aspects of corn
production management was also
conducted.
Range improvement projects in the
Cariboo-Chilcotin, Kamloops, and East
Kootenays included four DATE
projects involving grazing management,
range ^development, range renovation,
and a range renovation equipment
project.   All were conducted in
co-operation with other agencies,
including the British Columbia Forest
Service, Agriculture Canada, and BCDA
Engineering Branch.    Two range
specialists were appointed to integrated
resource management study committees
which have been instrumental in
bringing together people from various
resource departments.   This resulted in a
noticeable decline in the amount of
criticism of range management
appearing in the news media.   In 1975,
crested wheatgrass seeded in 1970/71
on the Semlin Ranch at Cache Creek
yielded in excess of 200 per cent
over unseeded range.   At Alexis Creek,
plots of crested wheatgrass fertilized
92 pounds of nitrogen three years ago,
still showed increases of 50 per cent
over nonfertilized plots in the third year
of production following application.
Weed control received greatly
increased attention in 1975.   A major
Provincial program on the control of
diffuse knapweed in range land areas is
 N 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
now under way.   More than 1,500 acres
of infestation were sprayed with
Tordon in 1975.   Advisory Weed
Control Committees have been
established in the Okanagan-Similkameen,
Thompson-Nicola, Kootenay-Boundary,
Central Kootenay, and North
Okanagan Regional Districts.   North
and Central Okanagan are in the
process of forming committees.
Control of weeds other than knapweed
was also stepped up substantially.   Two
weed inspectors were again employed
in the Peace River area.   In addition to
normal inspection duties, a program
of roadside weed mapping was initiated
to enable the Department of Highways to
maintain control of problem sites.
In the North Okanagan, a program
designed to contain Hoary Cress was
activated in co-operation with the
Municipality of Spallumcheen.   In the
Lower Mainland, the municipalities of
Kent, Matsqui, and Abbotsford applied
for and received grants for weed control.
The Branch conducted more than
50 weed-control demonstrations and test
trials on a wide range of field and
horticultural crops in 1975.   More than
40 of these were summarized and
forwarded to the Canada Weed
Committee for inclusion in the reports.
Monitoring was carried out on four
industrial spray projects.
Potato acreage increased to 10,400
acres in 1975 including the 1,500
acres grown at Creston.   Movement of
British Columbia potatoes to the
Vancouver market increased to 66 per
cent in 1975 from 57 per cent of the total
fresh market in 1974.   Movement from
Alberta and Washington dropped
due to lower acreages in those areas.
Two part-time inspectors kept a close
check on all potatoes coming into
Vancouver and Victoria from Alberta
and the United States as part of a
program designed to keep out Bacterial
Ring Rot.   These inspections have
reesulted in a significant improvement in
the general quality of potatoes shipped
to British Columbia.
Regional variety trials involving 17
varieties were conducted at four locations.
These varieties are being evaluated
for french fry and Saratoga chip qualities
as well as for table quality.
Extensive fertility trials with potatoes
were conducted at Creston and Grand
Forks.
The Soil, Feed, and Tissue Testing
Laboratory at Kelowna processed
9,780 soil samples with nine routine
determinations per sample plus a
number of special tests for a total of
91,255 determinations.   In addition,
3,748 feed and tissue samples involving
20,257 determinations were processed.
Total revenue was $27,831, a 30
per cent increase over 1974.
Co-operative projects involving the
laboratory included a corn and forage
fertility study in the Fraser Valley, corn
fertility trials in the Okanagan, forage
crop nutrient and fertility study at Prince
George, meadow soil research at
Kamloops, Peace River grain quality
study, tree-fruit leaf critical level survey
and survey of nutrient values of native
vegetation on range and forest land.
There was a very light movement of
lime in the areas eligible for subsidy.
The Creston-Wynndel Feed Grain
Freight Assistance Policy was terminated
inAprill975.   A total of $15,334 was
paid to 27 claimants on 2,735 tons
during the 1974/75 fiscal year.
As in past years, the staff of the Field
Crops Branch has been heavily
involved in extension programs, field-
days, seminars, and planning sessions, as
well as inter-resource meetings.
 Horticulture
The Horticultural Branch has had a
busy year because of the record volumes
of crop in many areas.   Each
horticulturist found his specialty in
strong demand throughout the year,
from the start of growth until the end of
the marketing period.
Climatic and cultural practices
combined to produce the first full crop
of apples since 1963, the largest peach
crop since 1964, and the largest
cherry crop on record.   A continuation
of the upward trend on grapes occured
with another record crop.   Crops
of mushrooms, nursery stock, greenhouse
vegetables, and flowers were all
increasing.
There are problems in the berry and
vegetable industries, especially those
destined for processing.   There was
great uncertainty as to whether labour
negotiations in the processing plants
would be settled in time to plant
the crops.    The settlement came so late
at one processing plant that 2,000
acres of peas were not planted.
The strawberry and raspberry
growers had a disappointing year.
Lower-priced imports of fresh processing
berries and processed products
undermined the price structure so badly
that the industry is now in danger of
being lost.   The position of the
blueberries has improved over the last
year but still has a ways to go on returns
to meet the cost of production.   A
number of other berry crops have
problems including cranberries,
loganberries, and blackberries.
Economic problems are of special
concern to many producers of
horticultural crops.   Imports from
countries with lower standards are
increasing and no effective check on this
movement appears to be possible.
Consequently, unless growers have at
least the assistance of the Income
Assurance Program, they will fail.    Of
course, a national program of price
stabilization would be of great assistance
to the horticultural industry of British
Columbia.
The raspberry industry had a new
innovation in dealing with their problems.
They had four of the younger growers'
wives offer their services to put forward
their situation and elicit help from
all available sources.   Briefs were
prepared and presented, resulting in a
grant from the Province for promotion
and direct assistance by various
Provincial agencies and departments.
A member of the raspberry industry was
included in a trade mission to Europe
and trade inquiries were made in Japan.
Raspberries were promoted in many
ways and the result was a much
greater awareness of the importance of
raspberries in this Province.
The Allotment Garden Program
started in 1974 with 378 plots on four
sites and has expanded to 1,354 plots
on six sites.   These are set up in Victoria
and Vancouver to service those living
primarily in multiple-unit dwellings
having no access to land for vegetable
production.   Allotment gardens of 1,000
square feet will produce more than
an estimated $375 worth of vegetables
and a few flowers as well.   The general
public has been most appreciative
of this program.
The Plant Protection Advisory Council
has been active in examining regulatory
activities in the area of plant pest
control.    A considerable amount of
time has been spent at meetings and
doing investigative work or in drawing
up regulations as a result of the
council's decisions.
The council has made slow but
worth-while progress in the area of pests
such as balsam wooly aphid, pear
trellis rust, European pine shoot moth,
and golden nematode, to name only a
few of the subjects discussed during
the course of the year.   This council is
the only adequate forum for the views
of growers and all levels of Government
to be aired and presented in concert
when changes in legislative programs
are needed.   As such, the council
performs a vital role.
21
 N 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In April 1975, Horticultural Branch
offices were opened at the Summerland
Research Station, after many months
of planning.  The horticultural supervisor
for the Interior, A. W. Watt, now is
located there along with the district
horticulturist for the area and the
horticulturist in charge of the apple
program.   This first step in close liaison
with Agriculture Canada has worked
well.   A similar move was made in the
Victoria area in September when the
district horticulturist for Vancouver
Island was located at the Sidney
Research Station along with the allotment
garden supervisor.
Livestock
The dairy and hog industries continued
to enjoy a favourable year with respect
to returns.   Income assurance
programs have been in place long
enough to have a stabilizing effect on
both industries.
The beef industry made a historical
step during the year in a decision to adopt
a Beef Income Assurance Program.
Impact of the program was only
beginning to be felt near the year-end.
Prices received during the heavy
marketing period during this fall ^|
indicated all but very uniform lots of
steer feeder calves were heavily
discounted.   American buyers were in
evidence at sales during the latter part of
the year.
The sheep industry, according to
Statistics Canada, increased its numbers
in the Province slightly during the year.
The major thrust of producer
organizational effort has been in
connection with an attempt to organize a
Sheep Commission and an Income
Assurance Program.
While the Livestock Branch was
represented at three national meetings
of the now renamed Canadian Milk
Recording Board, only limited progress
has been made toward implementation of
the national milk recording standards.
Additional resources are needed to go
further with these.   The Dairy Herd
Improvement Division carried out its
work for the majority of 1975 with less
than normal staff requirements.
Some progress has been made in
developing an improved Dairy
Feeding Recommendation Service.
Commencement of pilot work on this new
model is dependent upon provision of
an adequate computer terminal under
the CANFARM Program.
The Hog Quality Production
competition sponsored by the Livestock
Branch indicates some interesting facts.
It is of note that patterns for 1974
have indicated similarities in production
as related to volume, as between
1974 and 1972.   In both years, there
were 26 producers who produced 400
hogs or more per year, which were
slaughtered and graded in British
Columbia.   However?the number of hogs
marketed by 26 producers was 24,103
in 1972 and 37,391 in 1974.
Resources to commence a Swine
Record of Performance Program were
not available during the year.
Patterns for production during 1975
will not be available until 1976.
Enrolment in the Beef Record of
Performance Program continues to
grow with 9,201 cattle on test in 240
herds during the year.    There is only
limited evidence to suggest that breeders
use the data from the program for
selection purposes.   British Columbia
hosted a very successful annual
National Beef Record of Performance
Advisory Committee meeting during
June.   This is the first time the group has
met in British Columbia.
Plans by Agriculture Canada to
develop a national Sheep Record of
Performance Program did not materialize
during the year; consequently, the
performance program initiated by the
Livestock Branch during 1970 was
continued.   A total of 18 flocks were
enrolled, involving 1,165 lambs during
1975, up four flocks from the previous
year.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 23
Enforcement work under the
Domestic Animal Protection Act could
not be expanded during the year due
to lack of personnel.   Headquarters
administration work has continued to
increase.
The Livestock Branch has been
actively involved in studies associated
with production of animal feed from
wood waste.   Further efforts in this
direction will be made in 1976.
Marketing
The proclamation in February of the
revised Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act introduced a
new dimension into the regulated
marketing structure of the Province.   In
the main, this took the form of
increased intervention by Government
into that part of the total marketing
process occupied by those products
currently under regulation by the 10
commodity marketing boards established
under the Act.
Among the changes effected by this
new legislation, the most obvious
was the reorganization of the British
Columbia Marketing Board and the
expansion of its supervisory role.
Whereas the original Provincial Board
comprised three public servants, the
newly constituted body has five members,
all appointed by government from
the private sector, and reimbursed on a
per diem basis for their services.
The extension of the Board's powers
now include the authority to hear appeals
from persons who may feel they
have been aggrieved or injured by any
action of a commodity marketing board,
and during 1975 two such appeals
were heard.    In addition the Board
carefully reviewed all marketing boards
orders to ensure that these were drawn
in the best interests of all concerned,
and recommended changes where such
were considered necessary.
For the greater part, the Board's
attention was focussed on the poultry
industry, and on activities of the egg and
turkey marketing boards in particular.
These two marketing boards are now
each directly involved in national
marketing plans under Federal legislation.
As signatories, along with the
Government of British Columbia, the
boards are now committed to the
terms of their respective national plans.
An integral feature of the latter is the
development of supply management
programs which, among other things,
have resulted in production rollbacks
to bring supply and demand into balance.
At the Provincial level, a guidelines
policy was devised by the Department to
stimulate a process of decentralization
in the egg industry.   This had been
deemed advisable because of a heavy
concentration of production facilities
in the Lower Mainland and a presumed
shortage in outlying areas.   During
the year, there was a steady flow
of marketing quota allocation outward
from the Lower Mainland, virtually
all of which accrued to producers already
established in the less-populated
regions.   The transfer of actual
production units which had been
anticipated under the guidelines did not
materialize, instead one of only
two tangible results was the increase in
size of existing units in the Interior
and on Vancouver Island, the other was
the appearance of surpluses of eggs
in these areas.
In other regulated commodities there
were a number of problem areas in
1975, most of which came about from
developments beyond the control of the
primary producer.    A series of strikes
early in 1975 effectively tied up
substantial stocks of turkeys in
cold-storage facilities, adding to the
difficulties attached to efforts at reducing
an unusually heavy inventory.   With
some financial assistance from the
Government of British Columbia these
stocks were substantially reduced to
manageable proportions.
 N 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Elsewhere on the farm front the tree
fruits and vegetable industries
encountered a few marketing problems,
but these were largely of a temporary
nature.   The Government's price
freeze, for example, hampered somewhat
the movement of late vegetables and
potatoes but did not create undue
hardship.
Among the berry crops, blueberries
were still difficult to move at other
than distress prices during most of the
year, but by late autumn there were
indications of a firmer market tone.
Strawberry and raspberry sales to the
processing industry were reduced
to the point where the growers, with
Government assistance, turned to Ottawa
for some measure of relief from the
inroads of lower-priced competing
product from other sources.    When no
material aid was seen to be forthcoming
from the Federal authorities, many
growers elected, again with Government
assistance, to sell direct to consumers
on a "U-pick" basis.
The mushroom industry continued to
face stiff competition from Asian
sources of the canned product, but by
means of a consistent marketing
promotion campaign were able to
increase sales of a steadily increasing
production on the fresh market.
Grape-growers met with strong buyer
resistance from domestic wine
manufacturers in 1975 and were obliged
to accept somewhat lower returns,
particularly for the Bath variety.
This situation pointed to the need for
a reappraisal of the production pattern in
the years ahead, with greater emphasis
on production of those varieties best
suited to wine manufacture.
Elsewhere, 1975 proved to be a
reasonably profitable year in the
regulated sector but, as in all parts of the
economy, primary producers became
increasingly aware of the eroding effects
of monetary inflation.   On the one
hand they again felt the impact of rising
costs of virtually all input items, on
the other, a growing resistance by
consumers to higher prices at the retail
level, coupled in many instances with
the availability of competing products
from lower-cost sources.
FOOD PROMOTION PROGRAM
The Food Promotion Division of the
Marketing Branch has as its main
function, to promote the consumption of
British Columbia agricultural products.
This is done with the co-operation of
commodity associations in such activities
as direct media advertising, food
preparation demonstrations, recipe
sheets, printed circulars, point-of-sale
promotion, informational audio-visual
kits in educational institutions, and by
personal contact.
Over 2.5 million recipe sheets were
printed during the year and distributed
through food retail outlets to consumers.
The series was expanded to cover
22 individual British Columbia
food products.    The release of many
of the sheets coincided with the product
being available on the fresh market.
In the three-year existence of the
program, response to the recipe sheets
was greatest during 1975.
During the year, two mobile
demonstration units operated from May
14, 1975, to September 15, 1975,
inclusive.    A total of 142 days of
demonstrations were conducted, of which
24 were at fairs and exhibitions and
another 118 at retail stores.   Five fairs
and 58 stores were visited, making
a total of 63 separate areas of operation
during that time period.
Various media were used throughout
the year in the promotion of British
Columbia food products.    Every
Thursday morning on the CTV network,
Mona Brun, a well-known Vancouver
television personality, presented a
15-minute cooking demonstration using
British Columbia-grown foodstuffs
on the Jean Cannem Show.    Recipe
sheets were promoted on the show
relating to the particular food topic being
discussed.
Radio and newspaper advertisements
were placed on a Province-wide
and regional level as deemed necessary.
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 25
A special ad promoting the mobile
demonstration trailers was placed in
43 individual newspapers.   Also, newly
designed queen-size exterior bus
signs, representative of many of the
products of British Columbia agriculture,
were displayed prominently on the
exterior of 50 buses in Vancouver
and Victoria.
Direct consumer communication
played a vital part in the over-all
promotion program.   As in previous
years and in addition to the trailer and
television work, the Branch took part
in several store/mall food demonstrations
in the Vancouver area where British
Columbia fresh products were displayed,
sampled, and recipes distributed.
During the year, an average of 250
requests per week were received for
information and material about food.
These inquiries came by telephone,
mail, and personal visits.   Every
request is answered as fully and promptly
as possible. ▼
The "Country Fair Stage Show"
at the Pacific National Exhibition was
continued for a second year and was
well attended, generating a strong interest
in British Columbia food products.
Close communication with the
agricultural industry was maintained.   A
monthly newsletter to over 500
producers, processors, retailers, and
Government agencies, itemized activities
of the Marketing Branch in reference
to food promotion.  However, personal
contact with these groups was the
vital key to the success of the year's work.
A number of new programs were
introduced to create additional
consumer awareness of British
Columbia-grown food products.   A new
advertising theme entitled "Do Yourself
a Flavour" was initiated in April
1975.    A touring display booth entitled
"More Than Trees Grow in B.C."
received recognition at numerous
locations.    Placemats were printed and
distributed to British Columbia
restaurants.   Nine slide presentations
on various selected agricultural crops
were produced to acquaint consumers
with the aspects of raising that
crop, processing it, and preparing it
for the table.
The Branch has begun groundwork
on a co-operative advertising system
whereby agricultural commodity groups
would promote their products in a
co-ordinated effort and realize savings
in promotional costs.   Statistics are
being compiled, also as a necessary
base, on which to plan effective
advertising campaigns and evaluate
current prices and product inventories.
These new projects will continue to
be developed in 1976.
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
MARKETING BOARD
Following proclamation of the
amended Natural Products Marketing
(British Columbia) Act late in 1975
the British Columbia Marketing Board
was reconstituted in February with
the appointment of five members.   These
were George R. Winter, Department
of Agricultural Economics, University
of British Columbia; George J. Okulitch,
retired, Vancouver; Barbara B.
Wallace, housewife, Ladysmith; Russell
C. Freeze, farmer, Falkland; and David
W. Mossop, barrister, Vancouver.
All were appointed for a period of
one year, effective February 11, 1975.
Dr. Winter was named chairman
and Mr. Okulitch, vice-chairman, the
latter assuming the chairmanship in June
when Dr. Winter tendered his
resignation.   Barbara Wallace was then
named vice-chairman.
In its supervisory function the Board
reviewed orders of each commodity
marketing board to ensure not only that
none exceeded the legal powers granted
to it, but to satisfy itself as well,
that all such measures were framed
within the bounds of fair play for all
concerned.
As a part of its orientation program,
the Board visited nine of the 10
commodity marketing boards established
under the Act, thereby gaining a
valuable insight into the workings of
 N 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
each.   Plans to visit the tenth, the
British Columbia Tree Fruit Marketing
Board, were postponed to a later date
when other matters intervened.
The first of these arose in May with
the refusalby the Province's poultry
processors to accept turkeys from
growers in the face of an alarming
build-up of storage stocks.   In a series
of meetings with both the processors and
the British Columbia Turkey Marketing
Board a compromise solution was
devised by the Provincial Board,
and the regular flow of birds to market
resumed.   This was achieved by the
development of an inventory reduction
program, with assistance from the
Department, and the introduction of a
quality control system embracing
penalties for the production of
undergrade birds.   By the year's end
the stocks on hand had been sharply
reduced to manageable proportions and
the general quality of product
substantially improved.
Under provisions of the amended Act,
any person who feels injured or
aggrieved by action of any marketing
board may file an appeal with the
Provincial Board, and the first of these
took place in August when an
Abbotsford farmer protested a ruling
of the British Columbia Egg Marketing
Board.
The case involved the sale and transfer
of a substantial egg marketing quota
from premises about to be dismantled
in Delta to a proposed new location
in the Abbotsford area.   The appellant's
application to the Egg Board for
approval of a licence to him as the
transferee had been refused.
At this point the Board engaged
Vancouver barrister D. A. Sutton as
counsel in appeal cases.
This first appeal was heard in Matsqui
early in October, with the chairman,
Mr. Freeze, and Mr. Mossop presiding.
The Board found in favour of the
appellant, following which the proposed
transfer was concluded.
A second appeal was lodged on
behalf of five central British Columbia
egg producers whose application
for exemption from all regulations of
the Egg Board had been rejected by
the latter.    The two-day hearing took
place in Prince George late in October,
with the chairman, vice-chairman,
and Mr. Mossop presiding.
In this instance the action of the Egg
Board was upheld, whereupon the
appellants launched reappeal proceedings
as provided in the covering legislation.
Since this legislation also provides
that those Board members who sat on
the original appeal may not take part in
any subsequent reappeal, and since a
minimum of three members are required
in reappeal hearings, it became
necessary to appoint additional members
to the Board to satify this need.   When
this had not been accomplished by
the end of the year the reappeal hearing
was postponed to a later date.
Following her election to the
Legislature in December, Mrs. Wallace
submitted her resignation, thus reducing
the Board membership to three.   Also
in December, as required, the Board
approved the designation by a
number of commodity marketing boards
of their respective agencies.
Altogether, the Provincial Board
convened on a total of 48 days during
the period from its establishment until
December 31.   In that relatively brief
span it has earned a reputation for
both firmness and fairness in the field
of regulated marketing in British
Columbia.
STATISTICS
The Statistics Program operated
under Policy Development and Planning
during the past year.   A statistician was
appointed in May and work has
focused on liaison and communication
with Statistics Canada and Agriculture
Canada toward co-operative improvement
of the agricultural statistics system.
A set of agricultural reporting regions
was established which are compatible
with the geographic composition of
British Columbia agriculture, census
subdivisions, and Provincial resource
management regions.    Such regions will
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 27
facilitate over time a move to
collection and reporting of agricultural
statistics by Federal and Provincial
agencies on a sub-Provincial basis.
Substantial progress was made during
the year toward assembly of existing
historical statistics on British Columbia
agriculture into a handbook format.
Statistics on resource use, commodities,
and farm finances are being
assembled as a ready reference for
those interested in the agricultural
industry.
Research was undertaken into the
quality of data secured under several field
crop and livestock surveys and
discussions are under way with Statistics
Canada to determine the feasibility
improving the reliability.
An analysis of prepared feed and feed
ingredient prices in British Columbia
was conducted and a Feed Grain
Supply Security Study in co-operation
with the Canadian Livestock Feed
Board is in progress.
:      :      -      II:
/
;
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Poultry
The problems and difficulties
experienced by the poultry industry in
1975 were mainly in the area of
marketing and were due primarily to
sections of the industry attempting to
instil smooth operation of the national
marketing schemes.   The Canadian
Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA)
continued to have problems which
brought it close to abandonment.
However, a new agreement drawn in
April 1975 and agreed to by all parties,
restructured the Agency and at year-end
seemed to be overcoming most
difficulties.   The Canadian Turkey
Marketing Agency appeared to have
little difficulty in 1975 and, although
a Canadian Chicken Marketing Agency
has been discussed, there has been
no formal agreement reached.
Cost of production of eggs, chicken,
and turkey continued to increase;
however, feed costs, a major item,
remained at about the same level as in
1974.   Average prices paid to
producers for these products increased
slightly for chicken and turkey but
declined for eggs.
The staff of the Poultry Branch
planned and supervised a broad range of
projects in all areas of poultry
production at the Poultry Test Station
to demonstrate and obtain information
pertinent to poultry production in
British Columbia.   The Poultry Test
Station has proved to be an extremely
valuable asset to the extension staff of the
Branch.   It provides a means of
problem-solving and demonstration of
techniques to the industry without
excessive cost to Government.    The test
station in the period December 1, 1974,
to November 30, 1975, returned
$92,275.91 to Provincial revenues
from the sale of poultry produce.
The Poultry Branch staff members
worked closely with the Farm Income
Assurance Branch to develop the models
used and the terms of Farm Income
Assurance for two products in the
poultry field.   These were programs
for the egg-production industry and the
broiler-breeder industry, both of
which were implemented in 1975.
Disease problems of poultry are
always a major production factor in
British Columbia largely because of the
high concentration of poultry in the
Lower Mainland.   The Poultry Branch
staff works closely with producers and
with the Veterinary Laboratory in
monitoring poultry diseases and
establishing programs to control
outbreaks.
The Poultry Branch staff is composed
of specialists in the fields of egg
production, chicken meat production,
turkey meat production, and disease
of poultry.   As such, they work closely
 ;;;:|ipf:;S:C!::J! ■■,;!]!!!
N 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
with the poultry production community
of British Columbia to disseminate
information derived from
experimental projects and research.
To accomplish their aims, the staff not
only makes direct producer visits, but
also attends meetings of producer
groups and organizations and maintain a
liaison with the various marketing
boards.
 SPECIAL
  SPECIAL
SERVICES
Engineering
Engineering advisory service expanded
in 1975 through an increase in staff
in the Okanagan and the opening of a
new field office in Prince George.   The
advisory service covered most aspects
of on-farm engineering needs—drainage,
irrigation, farm buildings, waste
management, farm mechanization,
and land development.
Farm drainage system design
continued to be in strong demand with
planning assistance being provided
on nearly 5,000 acres.   Much of the
funding was provided under the
Agricultural Land Development Act
(ALDA).   Cost-benefit data was
collected on the ARDA Drainage
Research Project, a project designed to
illustrate the benefits of improved water
control.
Irrigation feasibility studies were
carried out for 73 farms and 112 plans,
prepared by commercial designers under
the ALDA program, and were
checked for adequacy.    Irrigation
seminars involving 149 farmers were
held across the Province to promote
the basic principles of adequate irrigation.
Farmers attending these seminars
represented approximately 8,626 acres
at a potential equipment expenditure
of $2 million.
The farm structures service included
the provision of individual building
plans to farmers who remodelled or
built new livestock housing facilities in
1975.   There were 245 of these requests
at a potential expenditure of over
$4 million.
The Branch was active in developing
guidelines and technical information
on the management of agricultural
wastes.   Advice was provided to upgrade
waste handling systems.
To ensure that the agricultural
exemption under the Pollution Control
Act is maintained, a regulatory program,
effective in all areas of the Province,
was developed whereby the poultry,
swine, dairy, and beef producers
police their own pollution problems
through a system of sanitation
committees.
With the addition of another engineer,
the Farm Mechanization Program was
expanded and now covers the
development of a wide range of items,
including range renovation equipment
and machine combinations for harvesting,
storing, and feeding forage.
To assist in answering design and
production problems, a number of
applied research and demonstration
projects were carried out by the Branch.
Notable among these were the projects
associated with providing a solution to
milk production losses due to tingle
voltages in milking parlours and the
development of a range seeder.
Branch personnel, in conjunction with
other Department staff, were instrumental
in the emergency evacuation of livestock
during the heavy flooding of the Sumas
Prairie near Chilliwack in early December
1975.   About 1,800 animals were
moved to safer areas from 25 farms
covering 6,500 acres of flooded farm
land.
Several special assignments were
handled in 1975, including detailed
drainage, irrigation, and farm building
plans for the Property Management
Branch; preliminary plans for B.C.
Livestock Co-op's $1 million cattle sales
29
 N 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
facility; and cattle handling facilities for
community pastures.   Others included
feasibility or assessment reports on topics
such as "Utilization of Waste Heat
from Hat Creek Power Generating
Plant" and "Waste Handling and
Treatment Implications of Proposed
Okanagan Poultry Processing Plant."
Dairy
Milk production surged to
1,086,000,000 pounds for a 6.5-per-cent
increase over 1974.   The Provincial
dairy herd increased by 7,000 cows to a
total of 90,000 head.  The number of
approved dairy farms levelled at 1,339,
a decline of 26 compared to a decrease
of 44 during 1974.  The rate at which
producers are leaving the industry
has slowed considerably since the
Six-year Production/Fluid Utilization
development of the Dairy Income
Assurance Program.
Fluid milk sales declined for the first
time in recent years.   The reduction
in actual sales amounted to 1 per cent
for the year, but registered a 6-per-cent
decline for the month of November.
Increased supplies of milk for industrial
purposes resulted in a butter production
increase of 61 per cent and a cheddar
cheese increase of 24 per cent.
Summary for Milk Board Areas
Year
Approximate Millions of Pounds
Per Cent of
Production
Per Cent of
Quota
Production
(Qualifying
.     Milk)
Quota Milk
Fluid Sales
1970... '  	
1                    1
752                563        j        489
773        |        595                507
789        |       605        J        528
795        |        618        |        550
824       j       656        |        575
873        I        673        i        571
65.0
65.6
66.9
69.1
69.7
65.4
86.8
85.3
87.4
88.9
87.6
84.8
1971 _        ........	
1972	
1973 _ _	
1974   •    .
1975   _ _	
Farm cash receipts from dairying
are estimated to be in excess of
$105,000,000, up from $92,154,000
in 1974.   A portion of this increase is
from Federal subsidy payments on milk
for industrial purposes under the
comprehensive Milk Market Share
Program; 1974, $4,937,000; 1975,
$8,000,000 (estimated).  The impact of
the reduction in the Milk Market Share
Program, a Federal program that
provided $2.66 per cwt. to eligible
farmers for industrial milk, was evident
in November statistics, as the
comparative monthly production figures
indicated that the increase had levelled
off to 2.8 per cent for that month.
Amalgamation of the Fraser Valley,
Okanagan-Kootenay, and Cariboo-
Central areas of production into the
British Columbia Mainland area of
production provided for more equitable
sharing of the fluid milk market by
Mainland farmers.
The levy paid by producers into the
Dairy Products Promotional Fund was
increased to 3 cents per cwt. to allow
for more input to dairy-product
advertising.
Dairy farm and plant inspections,
aided by the analytical services of the
Dairy Laboratory, continued to ensure
the consumer of a high-quality product.
 DATE Program
The DATE Program, "Demonstration
of Agricultural Technology and
Economics," continued to support
staff-supervised projects aimed at
increasing net farm income.
A large-scale insect biological control
project was activated to minimize the
number of sprays required for insect
control in the Cawston-Keremeos area.
The project is based on the production
and distribution of sterile male codling
moths. The males are released in the
orchards to mate with the females, which
only mate once in their life cycle; thus
the codling moth population is reduced,
as is the need for chemical sprays.
Growers are providing operational
funds, with the Department and ARDA
providing the codling moth rearing
facilities.  Agriculture Canada is involved
in a significant technical input as the
technique was perfected at the
Summerland Research Station.
Another study of substantial interest
to Okanagan farmers involved detailed
mapping of frost zones.  The maps
can be used in conjunction with frost-
control techniques developed in an
earlier DATE project.
Projects related to the improvement of
range land in British Columbia continued,
primarily, in the area of developing
and assessing equipment for range
seeding.   Seven different sites in the
Southern Interior were planted with
crested wheatgrass to compare fall and
spring seeding techniques.  These projects
are aimed at making more efficient use
of the 2V% million acres of range land
in the Province.
Computerized decision aids to assist
farm managers were made available at
several locations, along with a publication
titled Taxation and the B.C. Farmer.
The decision aids allow a farmer to
utilize computer programs, stored in
Ontario and accessible by telephone, to
select optimum feed rations, to determine
interest on long-term loans, etc.  The
publication is designed to acquaint
farmers with the fine points of financial
planning related to estate taxes and
succession duties.
A rapid system for Little Cherry
detection is now being investigated in
one DATE project.   If the presence of
Little Cherry can be detected more rapidly
than is now the case, the infected trees
can be removed earlier to contain the
spread of the disease.    Little Cherry
has the potential to wipe out the cherry
industry in the Okanagan.
In order to reduce the need for
importation of bees into the Province
to replace those killed over the winter, a
specially designed building has been
erected in the Fraser Valley.  The
environment in this structure is totally
controlled to allow for the overwintering
of bees.  These bees will be removed
in the spring and used to start new
colonies.
In total, some 37 projects have been
supported by the DATE program.
Entomology
The Branch continued to provide
services in the area of insect and pest
control and to enforce policies designed
to curtail any irresponsible sale or
application of pesticides.
In 1975, agreement was reached
between the B.C. Department of
Agriculture, Agriculture Canada
(Research Branch, Summerland),
Agriculture Canada (ARDA), Regional
District of Okanagan-Similkameen, and
fruit-growers of Cawston-Keremeos to
construct and operate additional facilities
for the rearing and release of sterile
codling moths, and to oversee this
biological control project for three years.
The spray program required prior to
release of the moths was pursued in 1975
and construction of the rearing facility
started.   Moth release will begin in
Cawston-Keremeos in the spring of 1976.
31
 N 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Several Okanagan orchards were
involved in a closely monitored pear
pest-management program.   The
populations of four species of insects and
three species of mites were monitored to
establish economic parameters and to
determine the effects of the spraying
program.   Results indicated that a similar
program based on monitoring of pest
populations, is likely to be feasible on
a commercial basis.   At least another
year is needed to refine techniques.
The study of mites on strawberries in
the Fraser Valley continued for the
second year.  This latter study indicated
that earlier pre-harvest treatment would
result in greater control.
The inspection and certification
program of nurseries for pine shoot moth
continued in Coastal areas.  Testing of
control chemicals resulted in locating a
more effective material for control
of pine shoot moth.
More emphasis was placed on starling
and mouse control in the Okanagan.
Some 24,450 birds were trapped and
destroyed.   Projects were initiated on
bird marking, roosting areas, bait testing,
and chemical repellants.   Several new
chemicals were tried as mouse baits.
All proposed aerial spraying for
mosquito control required an investigation
of population levels prior to assessing
the necessity of aerial treatment.  Several
new possible biological control agents
such as nematodes, growth retardants,
and predators are being tested, together
with chemicals for larval egg control.
The B.C. Interdepartmental Pesticide
Committee reviewed approximately 190
proposed pesticide (mainly herbicide)
projects and either allowed them (1) to
proceed under certain basic requirements,
(2) proceed with amendments or change
in materials or treatment methods but
still adhering to other requirements,
(3) rejection.   Monitoring of certain of
these projects was carried out by
Agriculture, Fish and Wildlife Branch,
and (or) Environment Canada.
The Pesticide Laboratory completed
915 analyses for pesticide residues.
Of these, 118 were for Agriculture, 300
for Fish and Wildlife, eight for B.C.
Forestry, 134 for B.C. Pollution Control
Board, 319 for Environment Canada,
two for B.C. Health/and 34 for private
vendors.
Hundreds of insects were identified
and controls recommended.   Extension
programs and grower meetings continued
to constitute a major portion of Branch
activity.
Many courses were presented
throughout the Province for those
engaged in the sale and use of pesticides.
Farm Vacation Program
The British Columbia Farm Vacation
Program, administered by the Youth
Development Branch, makes available a
listing of farm families that are prepared
to host vacationers.  The intent of this
program is to encourage a closer view
of food production techniques by urban
residents and to provide another avenue
of income for farmers.
In 1975 over 280 people took
vacations on British Columbia farms and
ranches.  Vacations averaged five days
for a total of 1,395 vacation-days taken.
The program was very well received,
both by the vacationing public and by
the farm and ranch hosts.   It was
promoted on television, through the
press, radio, tourist information booths,
community centres, and libraries.   An
increase in farm vacationers and farm
hosts is anticipated in 1976.
 Plant Pathology
In 1975 the Plant Pathology Branch
provided advisory and regulatory services
to control plant diseases.
Disease diagnostic services, available
at Victoria, Cloverdale, and Kelowna,
handled in excess of 1,000 specimens.
Agricultural education and extension
is provided to the public.   Staff
participated at meetings, conferences,
field-days, and seminars, as well as
preparing publications containing detailed
descriptions of the more serious diseases
together with control recommendations.
Plant disease surveys were carried out
where serious diseases occurred.   In
ihe Okanagan, the survey for little cherry
disease was continued.   At the Coast,
disease surveys were conducted for pear
trellis rust, green and bulb onion
diseases, and juniper dieback.
Soil inventory work traditionally
conducted by the Branch proved to be
of great value in mapping the Agricultural
Land Reserves.  Without this data, the
B.C. Land Commission Act could not
have been implemented so quickly and
effectively.
It has now been recognized that many
of the soil inventory needs of agriculture
have been satisfied, whereas the demand
for soil advisory services is increasing.
In order to respond to this demand,
the Branch began to concentrate more
attention to advisory services in 1975.
Along these lines, an agreement was
signed to transfer the soil inventory
function to the Environment and Land
Use Committee (ELUC) Secretariat.
In response to requests from resource
departments, reconnaissance surveys
were undertaken in Prince Rupert,
Terrace-Kitimat, Morice Lake-Ootsa
Lake, East Kootenay, Central Vancouver
Island, Nass River, and Kluskus.   Initial
field mapping is essentially complete.
In 1975 a total of 14,655,000 acres was
mapped (soil-landform).   Agriculture
and forestry capability ratings were
determined for 10,355,000 acres.
Special emphasis was placed on
distributing and presenting the survey
Soils
Applied research projects during 1975
included fungicide trials for control of
onion neck rot, onion white rot, onion
smut, mummyberry of highbush
blueberry, cottonball disease in cranberry,
pear trellis rust, downy mildew of onion,
apple scab, and powdery mildew of
grape.
An Onion White Rot Regulation was
implemented to reduce the rate of
spread of this serious soil pathogen.
Under the Little Cherry Regulation, 300
additional Okanagan cherry trees were
removed in 1975 in the hope of
eliminating the source of the disease.
The Branch worked closely with other
crop-oriented branches and Agriculture
Canada on joint regulatory matters
such as golden nematode control.
information in a manner that allowed for
resource planning and management.
Several of the mapping projects were
done in co-operation with Agriculture
Canada and Environment Canada.
Approximately 1,400 samples
(entailing about 20,000 separate chemical
analyses and 1,000 physical analyses)
were analysed by the soil characterization
laboratory at Kelowna.
Advisory services were provided in
the South Interior area and the
Lower Mainland area.   Drainage
recommendations on tile spacing were
provided on 25 farms covering 2,002
acres, up approximately 600 acres from
1974.
Irrigation advisory services were
provided to growers.   Irrigation water-
storage capacities were determined
for more than  1,100 soil samples
emanating from irrigation workshops.
Growers were advised on a variety
of other soil problems.
Technical service was provided to the
B.C. Land Commission in the form of
on-site inspections and reports on
properties under appeal to the
Commission.   Three staff conducted
more than 150 such inspections.
33
 Veterinary
The general incidence of disease
continued low in the livestock population
of British Columbia.
The Veterinary Laboratory fulfilled its
two roles of diagnostic veterinary
medicine and disease investigation.
Persistent death or production losses
were investigated in co-operation with
staff of other branches.   In total, the
diagnostic caseload amounted to 5,600
submissions, down from 5,800 in 1974
due to a reduction in calf submissions.
The Virology Section has continued
to develop in order to provide a more
useful service through improved virus
detection techniques.
The Branch administers the Provincial
Meat Inspection Program, which is
designed to ensure wholesome meat from
abattoirs in designated meat-inspection
areas.   At the present time, this program
is active in the Lower Fraser Valley
and Victoria vicinity. The seven abattoirs
in these areas experienced a 66-per-cent
increase in the number of cattle
slaughtered in 1975.   The per unit charge
for inspecting carcasses was increased
from $1 to $2 to offset rising operational
costs.
Under the Saleyard Inspection
Program, field veterinarians and
agricultural officers inspected animals at
12 of the 18 public saleyards operating
in the Province, with the result that a
total of 204,353 animals received
inspection.   This amounts to 84 per cent
coverage of all cattle sold through
saleyards in British Columbia.
Businesses selling veterinary drugs or
medicated feeds were required to have
a trained person on the premises.   A
veterinary drug dispensing licence was
introduced as a requirement during the
year to establish the necessary level
of training.   A total of 217 persons wrote
the licensing examination.
Several meetings were held with the
British Columbia Cattlemen's Association
to streamline the inspection service for
minimizing livestock rustling in the
Province.   Changes will be implemented
in 1976 and will result in a lesser
dependence on consolidated revenue for
brand inspection support.   Brand
inspection fees were increased from 15
cents to 30 cents per head.
The number of cattle moved in 1975
amounted to 236,451 as compared to
172,620 in 1974.  The most significant
increase was in the Williams Lake
area, where stock shipments increased
from 12,502 in 1974 to 41,328 in 1975.
Also, stock shipments more than doubled
in the Cranbrook area, from 5,373 to
11,500.
The Stock Brands Act was amended to
provide for the compulsory identification
of abandoned horses in areas of the
Province designated by regulation.  This
amendment was in response to an
SPCA request to provide a means of
identifying abandoned horses in the
northern regions of the Province.
Youth Development
4-H is an informal educational and
recreational program which has as
its over-all objective the personal
development of young people.
Membership is open to young people
from 9 to 19 years of age.   Clubs are
formed around a wide variety of projects
with leadership provided by volunteer
adults.  The Youth Development Branch
enrolled 4,428 and 843 leaders in 284
clubs in 1975.
Members participated in a wide variety
of travel and exchange programs and
experienced an increased awareness of
Canada and the Federal Government,
the Canadian legal system, and 4-H
on a national and international level.
The second annual Provincial 4-H
Leaders Conference was held at
Naramata in 1975.  Twenty-seven 4-H
leaders from throughout the Province
took part.   This conference gives
34
 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
N 35
volunteer leaders the opportunity to
exchange ideas on 4-H and to benefit
from discussions on developing leadership
skills, working with young people, and
many others.
Through activities such as camps,
conferences, activities at fairs, travel
programs, and club and project work, the
4-H program is helping to develop
young people with positive attitudes
and definite goals.
In 1975 the Youth Development
Branch assumed responsibility for the
co-ordination and development of the
International Agricultural Exchange
Association (IAEA) in British Columbia.
This program enables young people to
travel to many different countries where
they can work on farms or ranches for
up to six months.  The IAEA combines
the opportunity to learn about agriculture
and homemaking in a different country
while living with a host family.
•T'"^
t mjm.
■mOm.
,
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1976
2,030-376-6155
 

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