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ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76 British Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1977

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT 1975-76
tritish Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation
HON. GRACE M.  MCCARTHY, Minister—LLOYD BROOKS, Deputy Minister
ED VERNON and BOB AHRENS, Associate Deputy Ministers
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
OUTDOOR RECREATION BRANCH
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH
FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31,  1976
 H 2 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
H 3
The Honourable Grace M. McCarthy,
Minister of Recreation and Travel Industry.
To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended March 31, 1976.
grace m. McCarthy
Minister of Recreation and Travel Industry
Victoria, B.C., October 1976.
To the Honourable Grace M. McCarthy,
Minister of Recreation and Travel Industry.
Madam : I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended March 31, 1976.
Victoria,
B.C.
October
Deputy
1976.
Mi
LLOYD BROOKS
nister of Recreation and Conservation
 H 4 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
H 5
g. McCarthy
Minister
L. BROOKS
Deputy Minister
E.H. VERNON and R.H. AHRENS
Associate Deputy Ministers
PERSONNEL
L.G. Underwood
GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
G.Levy
INFORMATION
& EDUCATION
BRANCH
R.Cameron
Director
OUTDOOR
RECREATION
BRANCH
M. Matheson
Acting Director
FISH & WILDLIFE
BRANCH
Dr. J. Hatter
Director
PARKS BRANCH
T.Lee
Director
PROVINCIAL
MUSEUM
R.Y. Edwards
Acting Director
a«
MARINE
RESOURCES
BRANCH
G. Halsey
Director
  GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
H 7
Lloyd Brooks,
Deputy Minister.
The Department of Recreation and Conservation, during the time of this
Report, consisted of the Fish and Wildlife Branch, Parks Branch, Museum Branch,
Marine Resources Branch, Outdoor Recreation Branch, and Information and
Education Branch. It has an over-all responsiblity for living, recreational, and
cultural resources in British Columbia. As such the Department complements and
works closely with other departments of Government which have a primary responsibility for the commercial and industrial uses of natural resources, assuring
an approach to integrated resources management where optimum benefits to the
people of British Columbia are the objective.
Although the results of this Department's efforts and expenditures are not
always measurable in monetary terms, nevertheless a substantial direct and indirect
dollar return to the people of British Columbia is evident. However, the primary
contribution of the Department of Recreation and Conservation must surely be to
guarantee that this and future generations will always have abundant fish and wildlife populations and superb recreational and cultural resources to enhance their
lives, even in the face of expanding population and necessary industrial and resources development.
This Report spells out how the Department is accomplishing the primary objective. It shows that all branches have been extremely active during the year in
response to Governmental policies and varied public demands. There have been
some substantial advances and accomplishments, such as the establishment of a
new Outdoor Recreation Branch, a new Information and Education Branch, effective involvement of both Marine Resources Branch and Fish and Wildlife Branch
with Federal fisheries in planning a major Salmonid Enhancement Program, significant accomplishment in preparation of vital resource folios in co-operation with
other departments, opening of the major new Cypress Bowl Park, establishment of
the 1.6-million-acre Spatsizi Wilderness Park, the maiden voyage of the Provincial
Museum Train, and many other worth-while accomplishments.
The enthusiasm of the Department was dampened by the restraints on vitally
needed staffing and mid-year reduction in funding reflecting the turn-down in the
British Columbia economy. Negotiated union agreements further seriously reduced Departmental capability to provide the level of public service deemed necessary. On the positive side these set-backs served as a challenge to sharpen our
performance and I am pleased to say the Department as a whole responded well.
 H 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
E. H. (Ed) Vernon,
Associate Deputy Minister.
R. H. (Bob) Ahrens,
Associate Deputy Minister.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
H 9
General Administration
The general administration group consists of the Deputy Minister's office and
those of the Associate Deputy Ministers, the Accounts office, and the Personnel
Section. At the most senior level, that of the Deputy and Associate Deputy Ministers, this function is responsible for creating an administrative and policy bridge
between the Minister's office and the senior staff of all branches of the Department.
As an executive group, this office creates Departmental policy and guidelines, acts
as senior Departmental liaison on broad Governmental and interdepartmental issues, and provides guidance to branches in major policy, budgeting, and administrative matters. The Accounts office provides central accounting and fiscal control
services, including those of payroll, and Departmental budgeting. The Personnel
Section provides broad personnel services, including those of recruitment, classifications, and advice on functional organization systems and union-management
relations.
ACCOUNTS AND PAYROLL
This Division provides a central co-ordinating system involving policy and
executive directions for all Departmental financial support services, which includes
accounts payable, accounts receivable, and payroll functions.
This Division also provides a systems design group capable of developing
manual and computer-based information systems for all branches of the Department, budget preparation and control, and training seminars relating to accounting
procedures.
During the year 1975 the Payroll Section processed pay for a minimum of
1,184 Departmental staff, both regular and seasonal, and a maximum staff of
3,073. There was considerable additional work involved in payroll during 1975
due to many pay adjustments which occurred as a result of union negotiations;
however, these were properly processed to meet all staff requirements.
In the Accounts Payable Section, we established a new system enabling this
section to process all accounts payable without undue delay, and we feel we have
one of the most efficient systems in the Government.
In summary, during the 1975/76 fiscal year, we were able to maintain close
liaison with all branches of the Department to assist with many accounting and
expenditure problems and we feel that we have implemented guidelines to meet
the Government's policy requirements plus assisting in maintaining the branches'
expenditures with the allotted budget.
PERSONNEL
Administratively, a number of improvements were made. A comprehensive
system for establishment control was completed. Extensive work in the development of job descriptions and organizational charts was undertaken.
  GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
H 11
Decentralization of some personnel functions has resulted in the documentation of new staff being handled by branch headquarters or field offices. In addition,
sick and holiday leave records are now completely maintained at the branch level.
Treasury Board restrictions reduced recruitment activity to some degree.
The following appointments of major importance took place within the Department:
Branch
Appointed
Date
Previous Director
R. Cameron
Y. Edwards
T. E. Lee
G. Halsey
Nov. 15/74
Apr. 1/75
July 7/75
Sept. 5/75
Director, Provincial Museum	
Dr. B. Foster
The Careers '75 Program provided an opportunity for experimentation with
new programs while giving meaningful summer employment to approximately 800
students.
Group or organizations reviews have been the outstanding feature of the classification program in 1975/76. This was reflected in a continuing emphasis on considering the "total effect" of organizational changes rather than pursuing individual
position reviews.
Major reviews completed include:
Regional Office Managers, Fish and Wildlife Branch;
Accounts Office, General Administration;
Construction Staff;
Technical Assistant Series.
Labour Relations had a busy year with renegotiation of the BCGEU Master
Agreement, the completion of negotiations for the Licensed Professionals Master
Agreement, and numerous component negotiations.
Perhaps the key highlight in Labour Relations during this past year was the
establishment of two Departmental bargaining committees—one for the Environment, Resources, and Conservation Component and one for the Educational and
Scientific Component. Two members of each committee will represent the Department at the bargaining sessions with management members of other departments.
This is important as we now have input for the individual needs of our Department.
A Departmental Staff Training Committee was established in 1975, which
functioned effectively by analysing some of the current training programs as well
as sponsoring several training programs. To assist in analysing the staff training
needs of the Department, the committee sent a questionnaire to all staff. Some
activities included a seminar on Orientation of New Employees, two seminars on
Occupational Health, and a senior management seminar on Management of Time.
The following employees were admitted to the Executive Development Training Program and Correspondence Course in Public Administration:
D. M. Rogers, Parks Branch—Executive Development;
M. Krause, General Administration—Public Administration;
P. Morberg, Marine Resources—Public Administration.
L. G. Underwood, the Director of Personnel Services, received his diploma
for the three-year Executive Development Training Program.
 H 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
An Accident Prevention Program was initiated within the Department in 1975.
A Departmental committee was formed and initial provisions for funds and staff
proposed. The Department of Recreation and Conservation won the Premier's
Safety Award for Safety Achievement (given to the department with the best percentage improvement in its safety record compared with the preceding year),
which marks the third time we have won the award, the other years being 1971
and 1973. In addition, the Fish and Wildlife Branch won a Premier's Safety Award
for a major operating unit with the best improvement.
The following employees received continuous service awards in 1975:
Gordon L. Levy, Departmental Comptroller (35 years);
Charles M. Darkis, Parks Branch (25 years);
Ray Lowrey, Parks Branch (25 years);
John V. Mackill, Fish and Wildlife Branch (25 years);
Ernest H. Samann, Fish and Wildlife Branch (25 years).
 ,
Fish & Wildlife Branch
'
The Fish and Wildlife Branch is responsible
for the protection and management of
Provincial fish and wildlife resources to
ensure sustained benefits from these
resources for the people of British
Columbia. To accomplish this, the Branch
engages in research and inventory, the
protection of land and water environments
required by fish and wildlife, and the
establishment and enforcement of
regulations for the orderly use of these
resources. Public benefits from fish and
wildlife resources take the form of
recreational opportunities as well as
monetary returns through licensing and for
this reason, programs are also developed to
enhance fish-and wildlife-based recreation
and the quality of the environment in which
these activities take place..
 H 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Information and
Education
G. Ferguson
Director
Dr. J. Hatter
Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Authority
Supervisor: D.D. Moore
Assistant Director
Management and Development
Fish, Wildlife, Recreation
D.J. Robinson
Wildlife Co-ordinator
D.R. Haliaday
Fisheries Co-ordinator
R.C. Thomas
:^v-.
Assistant Director
Planning, Administration,
Research: Dr. P.J. Bandy
Administrative Services
Coordinator
7^;J,A. McLellan
Planning and Evaluation
CH. Thomas
Bird Management
W.T. Munro
Fur Management
B. Saunders
Land-Use
J. Dick
Biometrics
P. Haley
Urban Recreation
C.J.H. Dodd
Big Game Biologist
Vacant
Problem Wildlife
F. Tompa
Fisheries Biologist
LA. Sunde
Habitat Improvement
G.D.Taylor
Engineering Services
<    D.R. Hjorth
Fish Culture
R.A.H. Sparrow
Hatcheries Supervisor
Vacant	
Fish Health
T.A. Shortt
Inventory
i.D.Smith
Anadromous Fish
Biologist
D.W. Narver
*«§s«
Facilitating Services
S.J. Fairbairn
Licences and Permits
P.J. Kirby
Regulations and Guides
J.P. Gibault
Land Administrator
R J. Walker
Research and Technical
Services
Fisheries — T.G. Halsey
Wildlife - D.S. Eastman
regions
Regional Director
 I	
Regional
Protection Officer
District
Conservation
Officers
Regional
Wildlife Biologist
KMIKI
Regional
Fisheries Biologist
Regional Wildlife, Fisheries
Habitat Protection Technicians
Regional Habitat
Protection Biologist
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
fish & wildlife branch
Assistant Director
Enforcement and Habitat
Protection
D.B. Hum
Enforcement
Evaluation
W.R. Hazledine
Enforcement
Officer
W. Crystal
Enforcement
Co-ordinator
C.E. Estlin
Habitat Protection
Co-ordinator
J.H.C. Walker
Pollutions
CP. Newcombe
Pesticides
R.L. Morley
Impoundments
Vacant
Estuaries and Strip
Mining
B.A. Pendergast
Highways and Development
A. Edie
Referral Systems
C. von Sarloewen
The management responsibilities of the
Fish and Wildlife Branch are divided into
five main areas. The fisheries management
group are responsible for the management
and enhancement of the Provincial freshwater
sport fishery. The wildlife management
group have an equivalent role in the management of Provincial-wildlife resources. Habitat protection is a separate section which
works closely with the Fish and Wildlife
Management functions and other land and
water-use agencies to ensure the protection
of fish and wildlife habitat requirements. The
Enforcement Section, through field conservation officers, enforces both fishing and hunting regulations and those concerned with
habitat protection. The Information and
Education Section is responsible for the development of programs to increase public
awareness of Fish and Wildlife values, management, and opportunities.
The organization of the Fish and Wildlife
Branch is a highly regionalized one; as a
result the various described functions are
reflected in both the regional offices, through
regional management specialists, and in the
headquarters office, through Provincial level
co-ordinators. For this reason, each function
is reported here at both Provincial and individual regional levels. In addition, the head
quarters office provides special management
services such as research, inventory, and
administrative services.
Forester
A.D. Fry
Administrative
Support Staff
 1
Information
and Education
Officer
REGION
REGIONAL OFFICE
REGIONAL DIRECTORS
Vancouver Island
Nanaimo
J.C. Lyons
Lower Mainland
Burnaby
G.A. West
Thompson-Okanagan
Kamloops
G.E. Stringer
Kootenay
Nelson
G.F. Hartman
Cariboo
Williams Lake
I.L. Witfiler
Skeena
Smithers
D.J. Spalding
Omineca-Peace
Prince George
R. Goodlad
59 District Offices
  FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 17
1975/76  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE  FISH  AND WILDLIFE  BRANCH
• A Federal-Provincial Memorandum of Understanding was signed to initiate a
program designed to provide a substantial increase in the salmon and sea-run
trout fisheries of coastal British Columbia. This initiative is referred to as S.E.P.
or Salmonid Enhancement Program.
• Thirty-three Resource Folios were completed compared to 12 in 1974/75.
• A co-ordinated range use program in the East Kootenay was directed at solving
long-standing conflicts in range use between cattle and big game.
• Over 4,500 acres of land were acquired for wildlife protection and management,
bringing the total area under reserve for conservation purposes to 2,040,015
acres.
• The Fish and Wildlife Branch became the British Columbia agency responsible,
under a newly ratified International Convention, for the protection of wildlife
endangered or threatened by commerce.
• A completely new and innovative hunting regulations booklet was introduced.
• The Province was divided into 217 geographical wildlife management units to
facilitate the application of localized seasons.
• New legislation was passed to further humane or low-stress trapping of fur-
bearers.
• Special Licence Hunting Areas in the Lower Mainland increased from five to
nine as a result of co-operative arrangements with several municipalities.
• Construction of the new Abbotsford Trout Hatchery began early in the year.
• An additional 290 Canada geese were released between Port Coquitlam and
Hope, bringing the flock total to about 2,000 birds.
• A research study undertaken by the University of Victoria showed that physical
fitness gains from hunting are maintained for about 13 weeks after the season.
• Wind-operated "pondmills" were installed and operated with good initial success
to prevent winter kill of trout in the Merritt and Kamloops area.
• A record 9,231 students graduated from the Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education (CORE) Program.
• The Summer Outdoor Recreation and Fishing Program accommodated 488
underprivileged children, an increase of 165 over 1974.
• The Information and Education Section experienced its heaviest year with 200
news releases and 31,000 letters received. Of the latter, 16,000 dealt with the
leg-hold trap.
• About 7,000 visitors to the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area enjoyed
a full program of outdoor activities such as nature walks and canoe trips.
 H 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
J. Hatter,
Director.
Fish & Wildlife Branch
The allocation of funds to the Fish and Wildlife Branch reached a record
$9,030,078, exceeding the 1974 figure by $1,951,456. A comparison of revenue,
however, reveals that income was down about a quarter of a million dollars. Revenue from resident hunters, anglers, and nonresident fishermen showed a small
increase over the preceding year. Nonresident hunting revenue, on the other hand,
declined significantly as a result of a 27-per-cent decline in nonresidents.
In 1975/76 the Fish and Wildlife Branch experienced new challenges and
made some significant advances. An exciting new area of involvement has been
our participation in early stage planning of the Federal-Provincial Salmonid Enhancement Program. It has been most gratifying to see the way our fisheries staff
have reacted to the potential impact of massive salmon enhancement upon
anadromous trout species. At the same time, the enthusiasm for applying enhancement principles to anadromous trout clearly indicates support for the goal of improving sport fishing in our coastal rivers.
On a less positive side, the Branch is experiencing increased difficulties in
habitat protection work, especially in resource folio planning. It now appears
that our involvement in folios must be modified considerably due to less than adequate capability in the inventory and data gathering function. Notwithstanding
this, in excess of 30 resource folios were completed, compared to only 12 in 1974.
In addition, regional staff remain active on Regional Resource Management Committees.
A new program of co-ordinated range use was introduced in the East Kootenay
and expanded to other areas. This initiative holds great promise for solving longstanding conflicts with cattle and other uses of lands upon which game animals
depend.
Again this year the Branch was active in the acquisition and development
planning of lands acquired for wildlife protection and management. Over 4,500
acres were acquired, bringing the total acreage held under various tenures to
2,046,000.
 H 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The hunting regulations synopsis was radically changed this year. A completely new format, using maps and a minimum of textual presentation, marked
something completely new in setting forth regulations governing the harvest of
game species. This major change, which had to be implemented totally within
one year, met with only slight criticism even though there were a number of technical imperfections due to difficulties encountered in changing the style of presentation. Almost three years of planning went into the delineation of the 218 management units which replaced the former 28 management areas. The new units
now make it possible to devise hunting regulations better suited to local conditions
of game abundance, access, and hunting pressure. This benefits the hunter by contributing to the goal of improving opportunities for public use and enjoyment of
our wildlife resources.
Another significant advance has been the Branch's involvement in the broad
area of humane trap development, low-stress trapping methods, and trapper education. The appointment of a fur management co-ordinator has made it possible, at
long last, to give the proper attention due our fur resources.
After several years of planning and pre-construction studies, the Abbotsford
Trout Hatchery is almost a reality. When operational, it will contribute significantly to public enjoyment of sport fishing, not only in our coastal lakes but in the
Interior as well.
Further progress was made in the development of intensive management and
hunting opportunities in the Lower Fraser Valley. Five more municipalities agreed
to hunting by special licence, further testifying to the fact that carefully controlled
hunting is compatible with other uses of farm lands in the Fraser Valley. This
program will realize added benefits in the future as the expanding introduced population of Canada geese will be controlled by carefully planned hunting.
The level of law observance appeared to change little during the past year.
The increase in prosecutions was believed to be the result of improved enforcement
capability involving radios, auxiliary staff, and increases in permanent Conservation Officers.    (Revenue from fines increased by about $10,000.)
Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education Program (CORE) graduated
in excess of 9,000 students, setting a new record for the reporting period. Opportunities for outdoor recreation and education on the lands of the Creston Valley
Wildlife Management Area are becoming recognized and appreciated. Some
7,000 visitors enjoyed a full program of outdoor activities, including nature walks
and canoe trips.
In summary, 1975/76 was a year of intense activity in the Fish and Wildlife
Branch. In its many endeavours, the improved capability of the Branch was
directed at meeting its obligations to the people and to the fish and wildlife resources of the Province.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
FISHERIES  MANAGEMENT
British Columbia enjoys a bountiful natural endowment of freshwater sport
fishery resources in terms of both abundance and variety. These resources are a
gift of nature in the sense that society has had to pay few if any initial costs of
creation or development. However, utilizing and maintaining these resources
becomes increasingly costly, both directly and indirectly. Direct costs result from
the development and enforcement of regulations, production of hatchery fish,
improvement and protection of fish habitat, and the continuing need for a more
complete inventory of the fishery resource. Indirect costs are associated, with
activities of other resource users such as hydro development, agriculture, and mining, where the developers are asked to incur extra costs to avoid or reduce detrimental effects on fish and their habitat. These indirect costs have been rising
rapidly.
During the reporting period (15 months) it is estimated that approximately
5 million days of sport fishing were enjoyed by over 400,000 anglers. About 88 per
cent of this represents activity of British Columbia residents, the balance about
equally divided between visiting anglers from other parts of Canada, the United
States, and elsewhere.
ANADROMOUS FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Steelhead Harvest Analysis
Information for the 1974/75 Steelhead Harvest Analysis was obtained from
a postcard questionnaire survey of anglers who purchased steelhead licences.
Of 24,399 steelhead licensees in 1974/75, 16,321 were mailed questionnaires
and 7,677 responded. An estimated 16,469 (68.8 per cent) of the 24,399 licensed
steelhead anglers actually fished; and of those who fished, an estimated 7,296
(46.5 per cent) caught one or more steelhead.
A Summary of the 1974/75 Steelhead Angling Effort and Catch Rate
Angling Area
Vancouver Island	
Lower Mainland	
Kamloops	
Cariboo-Central Coast..
North Coast	
Queen Charlotte Islands
Provincial total
Angler
Units
Days
Fished
Kill/
Day
11,073
10,222
1,412
2,312
6,898
587
32,721
58,239
76,079
7,258
11,339
39,580
3,061
196,751
11,144
5,635
1,052
2,988
5,921
925
Catch/
Dayi
27,807
9,622
0.19
I   4,559
0.07
304
0.15
|   3,699
0.28
1   5,138
0.15
422
0.29
|  23,845
0.14
0.36
0.14
0.19
0.72
0.29
0.43
~0.28~
1 Kill plus release.
It is of particular interest that of an estimated 51,652 steelhead caught in
British Columbia, 23,845 or 46.2 per cent were released. On a Province-wide
basis it took 3.8 days of angling to catch one steelhead. Among those who fished
at least once, an average of six days were spent angling for steelhead. In total,
196,751 days were spent angling for steelhead.
 H 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Estimated Catches for the Most Productive Rivers in Each Angling Area
Angling Area
River
Catch
Catch/Day
Gold River
2,776
1,604
1,236
4,608
869
686
1,336
3,736
1,851
518
1,775
1,464
1,350
869
194
0.63
Cowichan 	
Stamp 	
Vedder 	
0.20
0.35
0.15
0.14
0.21
Thompson 	
Dean — _	
Bella Coola
0.19
1.18
0.54
North Coast .	
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Atnarko 	
Bulkley 	
Zymoetz (Copper)	
Kitimat 	
Yakoun 	
Tlell
0.52
0.26
0.29
0.23
0.53
0.30
The three top steelhead rivers in British Columbia in terms of total catch were
the Vedder, Dean, and Gold. The Dean was the only river in the Province where
the catch was more than one fish per day. However, the Gold, Bella Coola,
Atnarko, and Yakoun showed an average catch rate of one fish in less than two
days' fishing.
A traditional characteristic of the steelhead fishery is that the great majority
of anglers catch few fish while a small number of expert and persistent anglers land
the bulk of the catch. In 1974/75, an estimated 58.5 per cent (9,952) of the
anglers who fished at least once were unsuccessful and 32.5 per cent (5,158) of
the anglers caught one to five steelhead. The anglers who caught more than 10
steelhead in 1974/75 comprised only 3.4 per cent (614) of all the licensed steelhead anglers who fished. These 614 anglers caught 10,250 steelhead, which is 36.9
per cent of the total kill of 27,807. In addition, it is likely that this group of
anglers accounts for a substantial portion of all the fish released.
Steelhead Licensees and Estimates of Numbers of Anglers, Successful Anglers,
Total Steelhead Catch, and Numbers of Angling Days From 1966/67 to 1974/75
Year
No. of
Anglers
No. of
Success.
Anglers
Total Catch
Released
Total Days
Angling
1966/67-
1967/68..
1968/69.
1969/70..
1970/71-
1971/72-
1972/73..
1973/74..
1974/75-
37,0001
39,388
39,775
45,824
43,750    [
26,2532 |
28,992    j
31,315    |
24,3993 j
27,1251
22,289
19,789
24,515
23,533
18,270
19,489
20,291
16,469
11,1211
8,167
66,
48,509
41,672
37,319
33,977
36,733
35,939
32,720
27,807
3731
7,834
8,339
8,128
7,934
8,165
8,282
7,296
19,939
24,724
25,670
26,213
23,845
224,300
189,300
249,452
232,664
184,978
203,393
203,105
196,751
i Estimated on the basis of incomplete licensing data.
2 Steelhead licence fee increased from 25 cents to $2.
3 Steelhead licence fee increased from $2 to $3.
SALMONID ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM
On November 7, 1975, a memorandum of understanding was signed by the
Minister of State for Fisheries (Canada) and the Minister of Recreation and Conservation (British Columbia) to develop plans and programs for a comprehensive
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 23
Salmonid Enhancement Program. It was agreed that planning costs will be met
by each government on a basis which reflects their respective interests in specific
study activities, and that technical staff are to collaborate in both the planning and
undertaking of the studies.
The main task of Federal and Provincial fisheries managers is to develop a
comprehensive enhancement plan by March 1977. The proposal may call for a
10 to 15-year program, and may involve $250 to $300 million.
A two-year, pre-enhancement study and planning program has been developed
jointly by Federal and Provincial fisheries staffs. Fish and Wildlife Branch fisheries
personnel in headquarters and in most regions have been working intensely since
early fall of 1975. Most of 1976 will also be characterized by emphasis on enhancement planning and preliminary field investigations. This co-operative
approach to salmonid enhancement activities has resulted in much improved communication and understanding between management staff of the two levels of
government. No longer will salmon be considered in isolation from anadromous
gamefish such as steelhead, cutthroat trout, and Dolly Varden char.
FISH HABITAT IMPROVEMENT
Advice and services in a wide variety of activities were provided to Department staff, other Government agencies, industry, universities, schools, and the
general public. Twenty field reconnaissance reports were prepared on habitat
restoration and enhancement opportunities. Nine major reviews were requested
of the section covering such topics as fish and habitat inventory, salmonid ecology,
lake rehabilitation, and fish passage. Seven lectures were given on habitat improvement, including "do's and don'ts of stream improvement," "up and down
culverts," "enhanced stream production for kokanee, rainbow, and cutthroat trout
in British Columbia," "cutthroat trout enhancement," and "use of toxaphene and
rotenone in chemical rehabilitation of lakes for gamefish production."
No chemical rehabilitation of lakes took place in 1975 due to problems of
cost and availability of approved fish toxicants. Continued testing and refining
of requirements for registered toxicants were conducted during the year. Efforts
were continued in evaluation of a promising selective toxicant for squawfish, a
major predator of gamefish. Also, completion of a two-year study on the effects
of rotenone treatment of Courtney and Corbett Lakes near Merritt revealed negligible effects on fish-food oganisms resulted from chemical rehabilitation programs.
Limited field evaluation continued on installation features and fish passage in
a modified section of Alaska Steep-pass Fishway. Chronic fish entrance problems
to a "permanent" fishway on Mission Creek Dam near Kelowna was alleviated
temporarily in 1975 with the installation of a portable steep-pass fishway. Installed
and operated under adverse river flow conditions, the 16-foot device allowed about
500 rainbow trout to gain access to upstream spawning areas.
INVENTORY
Although it was not possible to complete staffing and development of an integrated inventory program involving the wildlife, fisheries, and habitat protection
functions, considerable progress was made during the year in development of a
balanced program at both regional and Provincial levels.
Inventory personnel were actively involved in the continued development of
the Computer Assisted Resource Planning Program of the Forest Service.    Con-
 H 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
siderable assistance in this work was received from the Canadian Forest Service and
The University of British Columbia.
Considerable effort was also directed to development of standardized fish and
wildlife inventory systems suitable for use by industry in development of resource
use folios. Similar involvement with the aquatic inventory section of the ELUC
Secretariat resulted in general agreement on more standardized methods of collecting and reporting fisheries inventory information.
Lake Inventory
A two-person survey crew completed inventory of 54 lakes during the field
season. Numbers of lakes surveyed by region were: Vancouver Island, 4; Mainland Coast, 5; Thompson-Okanagan, 9; Kootenay, 5; Cariboo-Coast, 1; Skeena,
15; Omineca-Peace, 15. Reports were completed on all lakes surveyed in 1975
as well as a number from 1974.
Stream Inventory
A four-person survey crew completed studies of five river systems encompassing approximately 4,000 square miles. The majority of this work took place in the
two northern regions with some inventory also completed in the Kootenay Region.
The imminent development of major coal deposits in the northeast part of the
Province resulted in the development of a co-ordinated inventory plan for both
fish and wildlife by Branch and Secretariat staff.
FISH CULTURE
Construction of the new Fraser Valley Hatchery at Abbotsford commenced
in June 1975 and was well under way in March of 1976. Completion of this
facility is scheduled for early fall 1976 and when operational will greatly increase
fish production capability for the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island Regions.
Approximately 5 million fish, a total of 54,000 pounds, were produced by the
three major hatcheries (Wardner, Summerland, and Abbotsford) and distributed
to 418 lakes in 1975.
Number and Weight of Fish Released From Hatcheries in 1975
Species Number Pounds
Brook trout  283,000 1,900
Cutthroat trout—
Yellowstone  39,000 10
Coastal   3,000 100
Rainbow  4,700,000 50,000
Steelhead   23,000 1,500
Total  5,048,000 54,310
After extensive modifications, construction, and experimentation, settled organic solids are now routinely vacuumed from the fish ponds at Summerland
Hatchery as was earlier recommended by a consultant to the Ministers of Health
and Recreation.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH H 25
Fourteen million eggs were collected in 1975 from trout and kokanee. About
8 million of the total eggs collected were from native rainbow trout. A native
coastal cutthroat brood stock, established in 1973, produced the first eggs in 1976.
Distributions of significant numbers of cutthroat should occur in 1976 and 1977.
A further 2.8 million kokanee eggs were planted in the Inonoaklin River above
the falls. This planting brings the total to 7 million eggs during the first three years
of a four-year program to establish a spawning run.
Due to declining spawning runs in recent years in tributary streams of Swal-
well and Dee Lakes in the Okanagan Valley, an experiment was started in 1975
to evaluate survival of hatchery released fish and to measure the degree to which
spawners stray between release sites. These streams are principal egg-collection
sites for rainbow trout.
In November 1975, T. A. Shortt was appointed as the Fish Health Biologist
and in this capacity is responsible for diagnostic services to all Government hatcheries. Pathological examinations will assist fish culturists in producing healthy fish
for release into the public waters of the Province as well as providing information
on diseases which occur in natural populations of fish.
Preliminary evaluation continued in 1975 for selection of a site for a hatchery
to supply additional fish for the Okanagan Basin as recommended by the Okanagan
Basin Study Report.
Considerable emphasis was placed on documenting the history of fish culture
in British Columbia. All freshwater fish introductions, except salmon, are being
recorded and a descriptive and photographic historical summary is being prepared
to supplement numerical documentation.
Extremely high water in the Veddar River during the winter of 1975/76
seriously curtailed the operation and evaluation of a steelhead-rearing pond. Principally due to unstable water conditions, this project has not proven successful so
far as a reliable source of adult steelhead and eggs for hatchery production.
Assistance was provided to Kootenay regional staff in establishing and operating gravel egg-incubation boxes and fish-rearing ponds for the production of
rainbow trout (Duncan River origin) for release into Meadow Creek, a tributary
of Kootenay Lake.
URBAN RECREATION—FISHERIES
The Urban Recreation Section has been largely involved over the past two
years in problems concerning hunting and the discharge of firearms near urban
centres. However, as these problems were resolved, effort was gradually shifted
toward Urban Fisheries.
Problems concerning access to recreational fishing opportunities have increased, particularly in the Lower Mainland, and this has required a review of the
land status and access problems on all major rivers in the Fraser Valley. So far
these surveys have included the Alouette, Coquitlam, and Seymour Rivers, and
Mosquito Creek and Lynn Creek.
Also in the Lower Mainland, a disadvantaged children's fishery was operated
during the past two summers with the aid of university students. Each year some
300 children were taken on day trips to various fishing areas where fishing tackle
was provided for the duration of the outing. Initial organizational problems were
overcome with the assistance of social workers and teachers who helped to enhance
the outdoor experience for the children to such an extent that all trips were over-
 H 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 subscribed. In fact the program was so well received by inner-core city families
that the parents of the children themselves, with no angling experience, often asked
to be taken along.
The Public Conservation Assistance Fund provided a total of $15,734 to six
clubs and other outdoor organizations for fisheries enhancement projects. These
projects involved such activities as steelhead tagging, fish pass construction, stream
clean-up, incubation box construction, and salmon-fry feeding.
In conjunction with the Fisheries and Marine Service, Department of Environment, in Vancouver, several angler and recreational studies were carried out
or are in progress. These include surveys of fishermen using the Capilano, Chilliwack, and Vedder Rivers and a study of recreational alternatives on Vancouver
Island.
ENGINEERING SERVICES
The Engineering Section provided a wide variety of services to other sections
of the Branch, ranging from draughting to reconnaissance, major construction and
design activities. Topographical maps, engineering drawings, and bathymetric
maps used for lake surveys were prepared as well as illustrations used in scientific
publications. In the field, this section conducted a number of engineering feasibility surveys of importance to the protection and enhancement of habitat for fish
and wildlife. Construction projects included the installation of fishways, the
development of water supplies for incubation boxes and rearing ponds, and the
construction of fish fences.
In the area of design, the section developed a unique fish fence which was
installed on the Keough River on northern Vancouver Island. This fence was
built as a floating structure which was later submerged to block the river and block
up and down river migrants. The fence incorporates a horizontal rotating screen
which facilitates cleaning and the passage of extremely high water levels. Design modifications for egg incubation systems improved both production and survival of fish. The section also designed and constructed a new and effective type
of helical steep-pass fishway for upstream migrants.
PRIVATE AND COMMERCIAL FISH FARMING
Fifty-four fish farming licences and 89 private fish pond licences were issued
in 1975/76. Of the fish farming operations, 48, most of which were located in
the Lower Mainland Region, produced trout while others produced salmon (four)
and carp (two). Private fish pond operations were also most abundant on the
Lower Mainland (22), but were also numerous on Vancouver Island and in the
Prince George Region.
About 38 per cent of the commercial trout farmers operate U-Catch-Em
operations, 13 per cent produce substantial quantities of trout for the food-fish
market, and 6 per cent are restaurants that hold licences to display live fish. The
remaining 43 per cent are relatively inactive, but most maintain some trout. The
estimated production of market-size trout in 1975 was 92,000 pounds (about
164,000 fish).   No production statistics are available for private fish ponds.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
In 1975, hunting regulations were designed using a new 218 Management
Unit system throughout the Province. This necessitated the development of a
totally new format for the synopsis of hunting regulations, changing it from a 16 to
 H 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 29
a 48-page booklet-brochure, with regulations displayed on a pictorial basis. This
new approach greatly simplified interpretation of regulations and for the first time
provided the public with an opportunity to understand clearly what areas are
covered under special firearms and hunting regulations. Attention was also given
to the preparation of Provincial wildlife species policies and five-year planning
statements.
SPECIAL HUNTING SEASONS
In addition to the limited entry hunting seasons on grizzly bear (Toba and
Butte Inlets), mountain goat (near Terrace), and mountain sheep (near Keremeos)
established in 1974, the Fish and Wildlife Branch initiated special seasons on moose
(near Kamloops and in Wells Gray Park), and on white-tailed deer (near Creston)
in 1975 and early 1976. All limited entry hunting seasons required special licences
and remain available only to residents of British Columbia.
PROBLEM WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The Provincial and Regional Predator Advisory Committees established in
1974 became functional throughout the Province. These committees are fulfilling
their role by advising the Branch on matters of wildlife and human interaction and
by assisting in the development of functional wildlife management programs. These
committees have played as significant role in developing an understanding of the
complexities of solving problem wildlife management difficulties.
Most regions acquired permanent technical staff to carry out Branch policy
in problem wildlife management. Control programs largely directed toward individual problem animals are part of wildlife management under the direction of
Regional Wildlife Biologists. A computerized system for recording problem wildlife information was developed to help determine problem areas. Some Conservation Officers have received special training in the use of chemical control techniques
and are now licensed to use these techniques where and when conditions warrant
them.
Through the Federal-Provincial task force on vertebrate pest damage to agriculture, the Branch became an active participant in developing research proposals
to study the complex problems of black bears in conflict with people. These studies
when completed will directly address the problems of black bears at garbage dumps.
In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture, a program was initiated
through the Predator Management Advisory Committee to educate the public about
various preventive management practices which will reduce wildlife damage. The
Fish and Wildlife Branch continued to develop positive ties with various agricultural producer organizations such as the B.C. Honey Producers Association and
the Organization of B.C. Sheep Breeders.
WATERFOWL, UPLAND GAME BIRDS, RAPTORIAL BIRDS, AND
ENDANGERED SPECIES
An analysis of all waterfowl banding in British Columbia since banding began
in the 1920's was completed. Based on this analysis the Branch was able to
identify populations which are available for harvest and others which are subject
to excessive mortality on or near their breeding grounds. This information will be
used as a basis for Provincial and regional waterfowl management plans.
 H 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The "International Convention on Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora" was ratified in Canada in 1975. The aim of the convention is to
control the over-exploitation for commercial gain of certain wild species. The Fish
and Wildlife Branch is responsible for the issuance of export permits before any of
the species listed in the convention can leave British Columbia. No permits were
issued for native fauna or flora in the Province during this reporting period.
FUR MANAGEMENT
Several advances were made in the fur management program in 1975. Barry
Saunders, formerly of the Ontario Ministry of Resources, was appointed as the
biologist in charge of fur management.
A trapper education course for voluntary instructors and Branch staff was held
in Prince George during March of 1976. In addition, several local trapper education courses were presented in northern British Columbia by the British Columbia
Registered Trappers Association.
British Columbia became a member of the Federal-Provincial Committee for
Humane Trapping in 1975. The Branch now also represents Western Canada on
the United States based International Committee for Coordinating Fur Resources
and has continued to develop close liaison with the Canadian Association for
Humane Trapping in an attempt to benefit from their knowledge in the area of trap
testing and humane trapping systems.
Fish and Wildlife Branch increased its effort to find low-stress (humane) trap
devices and, to that end, has modified trapping regulations to require more humane
practices.
BIOMETRICS
Questionnaires and Surveys
The 1975 Cache Creek game check operated from September to November.
The analysis of reported hunter effort and harvest was completed. The 1974 hunter
sample survey and report have been completed. The 1975 hunter sample survey is
completed and the analysis and report are in final stages. Considerable additional
effort was required in the preparation and operation of this survey during 1975.
The change of regional resource boundaries and the conversion from 28 management areas to 218 management units necessitated extensive revision of existing
codes for locating hunter effort and harvest. The 1974/75 Steelhead Questionnaire
was completed. The 1975/76 Steelhead Questionnaire is in progress.
The Biometric Section participated with the Environment Canada, Fisheries
and Marine Branch, in a pilot survey of sports fishing in British Columbia. This
survey was undertaken in conjunction with all other provinces. The objective of the
survey was to provide initial baseline catch, effort, social, and economic data for
sports fishing in Canada and also to test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive survey.
The Fish and Wildlife Branch, together with the Canadian Wildlife Service and
other provincial Fish and Wildlife management agencies in western Canada, developed a co-operative migratory bird data storage and retrieval system which became
operative in March of 1976. Two special short-term surveys were undertaken to
determine hunting effort, success, and some attitudes of archers and cougar hunters.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
In 1974 and 1975, questionnaires were mailed to successful applicants for
limited entry hunting permits to determine hunter effort, success, and some preference data.
Branch Biometric Support
Significant progress was made in the development of a system to provide
reference analysis of existing hunter effort and harvest data. This system will allow
a more in-depth knowledge of hunter pressure and success trends than was previously available. This section also undertook an analysis of nonresident hunter
effort and harvest data from 1965 to 1974 for the Prince George and Kootenay
Regions.
A new process of enforcement reporting and evaluation was instituted on an
experimental basis on Vancouver Island. This system, which will be implemented
Province-wide in 1977, will help regional Conservation Officers in planning and
evaluating their activities. Progress in the computerization of all available historical information concerning past hunting seasons and regulations in the Province
was also achieved.
Continued progress was made in developing a data base storage and retrieval
system for all Fish and Wildlife Branch inventory information. This system, which
will be completed and put into operation by the fall of 1978, will be fully compatible with the new Provincial system.
URBAN RECREATION PROGRAM
The Public Conservation Assistance Fund
Twenty-nine projects involving requests for $147,502 were reviewed. Of
these, 12 were given approval for a total of $41,370. A brochure describing the
fund and application procedures was prepared for publication.
With Urban Recreation programs involving hunting on farmlands in the
Fraser Valley being carried out by regional staff, attention was turned to developing
similar opportunities in the Okanagan area and the heavily urbanized southeast
portion of Vancouver Island. These projects will continue to be developed through
co-operation with regional districts and municipalities during 1976, with the
expectation they will provide new recreational opportunities in 1977.
LAND MANAGEMENT
Land Acquisition
The following areas of critical fish and wildlife habitat were acquired by the
Branch for conservation and management during 1975:
(a) Buttertub Marsh near Nanaimo—This property was purchased by
the National Second Century Fund and was leased to the Branch
for 99 years. The area will be used as an outdoor classroom for
local schools and Malaspina College.
(b) Boothman green belt property, Grand Forks—This historical homestead, comprising approximately 1,500 acres, was purchased out
of the Green Belt Fund by the B.C. Land Commission. The Land
Commission consigned management authority for the property to
the Branch late in 1975.   The Boothman property forms part of a
 H 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
larger area known locally as the Grand Forks Environmental Management Area, which consists of Crown rangelands and a 475-acre
parcel purchased in 1974 by the National Second Century Fund.
The area is a very important white-tailed deer and mule deer winter
range which will be managed by a committee comprising the Fish
and Wildlife Branch, the Range Division of the B.C. Forest Service,
and the Department of Agriculture.
(c) Osoyoos Lake—Thirty acres of marshland at the north end of
Osoyoos Lake were purchased by the Branch from the Okanagan-
Similkameen Park Society. This property is a key component in
an interagency proposal for the management of unique arid and
wetland environments in the Osoyoos vicinity.
(d) Pitt-Polder green belt property—Approximately 2,940 acres of
marshland at the south end of Pitt Lake, purchased under the Green
Belt Fund in 1972, were consigned to the Branch in 1975 by the
B.C. Land Commission for waterfowl management. In combination with the existing public shooting area to the north, this forms
a wildlife management area of approximately 3,500 acres.
During 1975, progress was made on a number of aspects of the management
of lands controlled by the Branch. For the first time, comprehensive records of
the establishment and status of each wildlife management area were compiled and
accurate maps prepared. Acreage calculations based on these maps reveal that as
of March 31, 1976, the Branch has approximately 2,040,015 acres under some
form of tenure for conservation purposes. These include reserves of Crown land,
consignments of management authority on green belt lands, leases from Crown
corporations, leases from the National Second Century Fund, and lands purchased
by the Branch or received as gifts. A breakdown of the acreage of wildlife management areas by resource region into wetland areas (primarily for waterfowl, fish,
and aquatic mammals) and upland areas (primarily for ungulates, upland birds,
and associated predators) is shown in the following table:
Number of Reserves and A creage by Land Type
Region
Wetland Areas
Number Acres
Upland Areas
Total
Vancouver Island	
Lower Mainland	
Thompson/Okanagan
Kootenay	
Cariboo	
Skeena	
Omineca/Peace	
Totals	
7
12
8
15
3
6
4
15,395
77,740
1,760
43,140
11,005
6,935
14,235
170,210
1
9
18
3
2
9
42
Number Acres Number Ac
700
75,820
1,195,750
41,550
15,785
540,200
1,869,805
12
17
33
6
8
13
97 '
16,095
77,740
77,580
1,238,890
52,555
22,720
554,435
2^)40,015
The planning process for Branch lands will involve participation of citizen's
groups and Government agencies in the formulation of management objectives and
policies. Once this step is completed a management plan will be prepared by a
management group usually involving the Branch and other Government agencies.
 FISH  AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
WILDLIFE INVENTORY
Computer-assisted Resource Planning
This program is carried out in co-operation with the B.C. Forest Service of the
Department of the Environment with assistance of the personnel from the Canadian
Forest Service and The University of British Columbia. The program involves
three facets:
(a) Modelling research on black-tailed deer and grizzly bears through
contract with the personnel at The University of British Columbia.
(b) The development of appropriate computer systems to allow for the
assessment of impact of forest harvesting practices upon wildlife.
This work is being carried out by the Canadian Forest Service.
(c) The baseline data requirements for the computer system resource
planning are being formulated.
Inventory Services
A filing system for wildlife inventory information was developed in 1975, this
system will be expanded to cover regional inventory information in 1976.
The first comprehensive inventory of large falcons was conducted throughout
the southern Interior of British Columbia.
Work was initiated on the development of standardized wildlife observation
forms and a standardized form for reporting hunter road check results.
HABITAT PROTECTION
Continuing involvement in routine referral systems from other Government
agencies, the evolution of the folio system, and an accelerated program of energy
generation placed increasing demands on the Habitat Protection Section during
1975. These, and other demands on the resource base, prompted a more fundamental approach to environmental problems with emphasis on generic issues rather
than the traditional site-specific response. This section continued to work closely
with other Government agencies, both Provincial and Federal, in committees, cooperative studies, and task forces on a variety of major environmental issues. Increased efforts were made to inform and involve the public in issues concerning
potential adverse environmental effects. Major problems were addressed by a
task-force approach involving both regional and headquarters staff as well as
expertise from other sections of the Branch.
Forestry-resource Interactions
An important brief was prepared and presented to the Pearse Royal Commission. The brief identified conflicts between forest practices and the fish and
wildlife resource and recommended some solutions.
A professional forester was engaged in 1975 to conduct a comprehensive
assessment of the resource folio system in co-operation with Resource Planning
Division of the B.C. Forest Service. The Branch also supplied advice regarding
industrial involvement in the folio system and specific planning techniques and
produced guidelines for both Government and industry.
Pollution
The Branch continued its active involvement in the pollution control referral
system and was supplied information on several thousand applications for industrial
 H 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
and urban development proposals. Several major pollution-orientated studies,
notably the NKK Steel Mill Study and the Hat Creek Thermal development proposal, were also completed.
Stream diversion, channelization, and impoundment again posed the problem
of inadequate residual flows for fish. Research on the development of a better
method for determining minimum acceptable flows in fish-bearing streams was
continued.
A sampling kit designed to provide Branch field staff with the capability to
detect adequately a variety of chemical pollutants will be completed this spring
and should enable staff to investigate potential pollutions more readily.
Biocides and Heavy Metals
In early May 1975 the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Use of Pesticides
and Herbicides completed their final report. The general recommendations of the
report, if implemented, should assist in providing better protection for fish and
wildlife resources. A review was also undertaken of the proposed new pesticide
legislation and modifications were suggested which should result in better control
of pesticides as they affect fish and wildlife.
Mortalities from the indiscriminate use of biocides continued in 1975, including extensive duck kills on the Fraser Delta and in Victoria. As a result of investigations by the Fish and Wildlife Branch and other agencies, the chemical responsible, Carbofuran 10g, was withdrawn from the market. Fish mortalities resulting
from aerial adulticiding for mosquito control were also investigated and recommendations were made to reduce the impact of mosquito control programs on fish
life.
Numerous biocide applications were monitored and investigations of these
treatments resulted in two Branch publications, Aquatic Weed Control in Vernon
Arm, Okanagan Lake and Monitoring of an Aerial Herbicide Treatment at Toba
Inlet, B.C. Another publication, Biocides—Fish and Wildlife Concerns, was produced co-operatively by the Branch and Environment Canada.
An active role was maintained on various interagency committees such as the
Aquatic Weed Control Committee, the Interdepartmental Pesticide Committee, and
the Forest Pest Review Committee.
Participation on the Federal Provincial Committee to study Mercury Pollution in B.C. allowed additional effort to be directed toward the investigation of
heavy metal pollution. A report entitled Mercury Contamination of Fish in Pinchi
Lake, B.C. was completed.
Energy Generation and Coal Development
An access road to the Seven Mile power project was a major concern in 1975
which resulted in a public hearing and a Cabinet appeal. As a result Cabinet decided to build the road through the critical winter range on the north side of the
Pend-d'Oreille River, as requested by B.C. Hydro. Hydro was instructed by the
Water Comptroller to make $1.8 million available to the Fish and Wildlife Branch
for the development of a deer management unit, as partial compensation for loss
of valuable winter range.
An assessment of the effect of the proposed dam at Revelstoke was started in
late September after receipt of funds from B.C. Hydro. This project will provide
information of use to public hearings which will be held at Revelstoke in the late
spring of 1976 and will form the basis of recommendations designed to mitigate
fishery losses.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 35
 H 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A regional headquarters committee was formed to review the thermal generation project at Hat Creek and to identfy possible areas for mitigation should the
development proceed.
With the announcement of the North East Coal Block proposal, a co-operative study funded by the Department of Economic Development was developed
between the Fish and Wildlife Branch and the ELUC Secretariat to inventory the
fish and wildlife resources of the affected areas. This work will result in an assessment of the possible effects of the development and the manner in which environmental damage can be mitigated.
An investigation of the effects of the proposed Kemano II development was
completed during the summer. The report, scheduled for completion in 1976,
will identify fish and wildlife resources that will be affected by the proposed development in the Nanika-Kidprice Lakes area.
Other Resource Impacts
The Fish and Wildlife Branch, in conjunction with Marine Resources, Lands
Branch, and Federal Fisheries and Marine Service, began a biogeo-physical inventory of coastal areas along Vancouver Island as a first step toward assessing the
suitability of such areas for intensive industrial and recreational use and their relative capability as habitat for various species.
Interaction of bears and people on garbage dumps continued to pose a major
problem during 1975. At present, the section is developing a set of guidelines in
co-operation with the Wildlife Section to attempt to minimize potentially adverse
bear-human interactions at such sites.
A review of existing environmental legislation in both Canada and the United
States was started in an attempt to identify major resource problems which could
be addressed through a broader legislative base. This review will establish the
types of legal framework available for the protection of fish and wildlife resources.
While many types of pressure or impact en the natural environment are
addressed by the Branch, the regions of the Province, by virtue of their resource
characteristics, social and industrial history are faced with environmental stresses
which are geographically unique. Thus in the Omineca-Peace Region, the effects
of the still expanding oil and gas industry present special problems to wildlife,
forestry, and agricultural managers alike. In the Skeena Region, the lightly explored and largely unexploited natural resources are being exposed and prepared
for extraction through a whole new network of transportation corridors involving
both highways and railroads. The Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland Regions,
which share much of the coastal areas of the Province and the heavy rainfall forests,
are developing special management expertise in coastal and estuarial land use
planning and are addressing special problems posed to wildlife and fisheries by
coastal forest practices. In the Kootenays, Hydro generation and coal mine developments seriously affect fish and wildlife resources, thereby committing resource
managers to new and untried protective practices.
In the Cariboo and Thompson-Okanagan Regions, traditional land and resource patterns are being affected by development of mineral resources and the
inevitable competitive frictions which intrusive industries such as metallurgy or
intensive recreation impose on stable resource pictures. Of special note, historic
patterns of land use and occupations by native Indian peoples are being threatened
by social and industrial expansions into the Chilcotin plateau west of Williams
Lake, while in the Lower Fraser Valley the large human population and diminishing land and water resources perpetually overtax natural resources.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 37
WILDLIFE LAW ENFORCEMENT
Following the increase of District Conservation Officer staff in 1973 and 1974,
activity in wildlife law enforcement continued to expand. The restructuring of the
Province into management units, coupled with the development of limited entry
hunting and fishing opportunities, impressed new enforcement duties on District
Enforcement staff. The significant reduction in productive capability brought about
by collective bargaining in the Public Service in the face of fiscal cautions exercised
by the Branch was partially offset by the added efficiency of multi-person district
staffing, better radio communications, and tighter operational planning. Even
though the number of licensed anglers and hunters declined slightly, the number
of prosecutions for regulatory infractions was higher than in previous years and
this was reflected in a notable increase in fines paid to the Provincial Treasury in
the calendar year of 1975. Even though direct enforcement of hunting and fishing
regulations constitutes only 40 per cent of the activities of District Conservation
Officer staff, an upswing in monitoring of environmental conditions for detection of
violations under the Fisheries Act of Canada, Migratory Bird Convention Act, and
Litter Act was reflected in the increase in court proceedings in environmental
matters.
The activities of hunters, fishermen, and other outdoor recreationists has
spread as access into wildlands continues to be developed as a by-product of industrial expansion (forestry, mining, power generation, etc.). This phenomenon has
dictated the development of new enforcement techniques which provide better field
coverage and sustain a high level of contact with resource users. The adoption of
plainsclothes operations and blitz-force saturation enforcement tactics have proven
highly effective enforcement methods in trouble spot areas or seasons. Intercommunication with other Branch offices and the RCMP by modern VHF radio has
done much to increase effectiveness, particularly in the north. Also, the use of aircraft for surveillance with air-to-ground radio linkage has provided greater efficiency into field operations.
Special patrols were conducted in chronically sensitive areas. As the harvest
by live capture of Peregrine falcons was disallowed in 1975, special patrols and
all-point surveillance were mounted on the Queen Charlotte Islands and approaches
with, we believe, complete protection success. Border patrols in areas adjacent to
the Alaska and Yukon borders, the southern Rocky Mountains, and the Ashnola
area were sustained with beneficial and socially noted effects.
Continuing dislocations in relationships occurred between Provincial and Federal agencies and the native Indian peoples in many parts of British Columbia.
Even though there were few incidents involving infractions of fish and wildlife
regulations, hostilities based on proclaimed aboriginal rights of free access to fish
and wildlife resources were regrettably numerous and difficult.
An educational approach to public understanding and appreciation of wildlife
law enforcement was extremely well received by the public. The Omineca-Peace
Region mounted such a multi-media approach in the community of Prince George
with very favourable response. At the same time, educational counselling through
newspapers and radio in the West Kootenay resulted in a reduction in black bear
complaints in the West Kootenay communities.
 H 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
INFORMATION AND  EDUCATION
The Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education (CORE) course
graduated 9,231 students in 1975/76. Since its inception in 1969, nearly 24,000
students have successfully completed this program. Hunting fatalities have dropped
from an average of eight per year in the 1960's to only one in 1974 and, for the
first time, none in 1975. Although the course is directed primarily toward hunter
safety, many nonhunters enrol for general outdoor recreational training, such as
bird and animal identification, outdoor survival, and basic first aid. It was estimated that 25 per cent of CORE students in 1975 were nonhunters. The following
table indicates the growth of the program:
Conservation and Outdoor Recreation and Education Students Graduated
Each Year
Year
Number
of Graduates
1969      319
1970  1,242
1971   1,540
1972  3,869
Year
Number
of Graduates
1973  2,890
1974  4,781
1975  7,551
1976 (three months)._  1,680
Seminars were held throughout the Province to qualify or upgrade CORE
instructors. By the end of March 1976, a total of 1,296 was qualified to act as
instructors in the CORE program.
In addition to their major involvement in the CORE program, regional I and
E officers throughout the Province participated in a wide variety of television and
radio programs designed to increase public awareness and knowledge of fish and
wildlife conservation and to explain management practices, such as the new management unit system. They presented film and slide programs and talks at schools,
clubs, and professional associations, represented the Branch at major exhibitions,
such as the annual Boat Show in Vancouver and the Jaycees Fair in Victoria. In
the field, they erected roadside signs and display shelters for the purpose of interpreting and explaining management projects, publicizing specific regulations, and
indicating points of interest. I and E staff also participated in a variety of special
recreation projects, including a freshwater fishing course at Selkirk College which
stressed the recreational aspect of the fish and wildlife resources. They also coped
with specific regional problems, such as a 15-minute video tape which was prepared
to assist in the resolution of a bear/garbage problem in Region 6. As always, these
activities helped inform the public on the accomplishments and goals of the Branch.
Our regional and headquarters staff contacted thousands of British Columbians last
year, many of them youngsters whose world will be directly affected by the attitudes
they are forming now toward their environment.
Over 200 news releases (including those issued regionally) were distributed to
newspapers and radio and television stations to inform the public of Branch activities and to promote sound ecological practices.
The Information Section also answered more than 17,000 letters requesting
fishing, hunting, and general wildlife information. More than in previous years,
and as a reflection of the increasing sophistication and complexity of fishing and
hunting regulations, many of these letters requested assistance in interpreting new
regulations and in understanding the new management unit system. With few
exceptions, these letters were sympathetic to and even warmly appreciative of the
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH H 39
Branch's efforts to protect the fish and wildlife resource in the Province by means
of regulatory controls. The section also processed over 16,000 letters and petitions
concerning trapping methods at present in use in British Columbia. In addition,
many personal and telephone inquiries received the attention of not only I and E
officers but also of all other Branch staff.
The design of public displays in the new Fraser Valley Hatchery complex
received a lot of planning and preparatory attention. Students were hired last
summer to conduct tours of the Summerland and Kootenay hatcheries and provide
information about fish culture. In addition, renovations of the Summerland Hatchery provided more presentable and informative services to visitors.
The Information Section presented several "orientation" lectures throughout
the Province as a means of providing new staff with a better understanding of the
structure of the Department and the activities of the Branch. All employees seemed
most appreciative of this service, which will be continued. Similar information was
provided through seminars to more than 100 Travel Counsellors from the Department of Travel Industry to assist them in their work.
The section published four editions of the Branch newsletter, a publication
that provides staff with a sense of Branch identity and adds a personal touch to
Branch activities. The section also collected and rewrote information used for the
purpose of briefing the Minister and senior staff of important activities throughout
the Province.
ADMINISTRATION
REVENUE
With the change in the annual reporting to a fiscal year (April 1 to March
31) from a calendar year we are able to provide more up-to-date statistics on
revenue and licence sales. This year, 1975/76, is included as well as the two
previous years in order to reflect the major increase in revenue ($2,291,871 or
66 per cent) in 1974/75 caused by a change in licence fees followed by a decrease
of $221,109 or 4 per cent in 1975/76.
These changes are reflected in the following tables and the most significant
are:
Resident hunters declined by 21,628 in 1974/75. This decline continued in
1975/76, but the total number of hunters, 143,652, was reduced from the previous
year by only 3,709. A new licence at a reduced fee was initiated in 1974/75 for
senior citizens and 5,841 were issued that year. This number increased by 765
in 1975/76 to a total of 6,606. The number of species licences issued in 1974/75
declined by 281,347. This was not only caused by reduced numbers of hunters
and the increased fees but by hunters beings more selective in purchasing licences.
This was most noticeable with deer licences where sales went from 172,512 in
1973/74 to 118,749 in 1974/75, a reduction of 53,763 or 31 per cent. The sale
of species licences declined by a further 7 per cent (10,719) in 1975/76. Minor
increases occurred in sales of black bear, cougar, grizzly bear, and mountain sheep
licences.
Resident anglers declined by 28,830 in 1974/75 to a total of 269,643, but
increased in 1975/76 by 11,195 to a total of 280,838. A similar trend took place
with those anglers who purchased steelhead licences. Past experience indicates
it is normal for licence sales to decrease in a year of fee increases and then show
a recovery in subsequent years.
 H 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Nonresident hunters were the hardest hit by the licence structure change and
fee increases in 1974/75. A new series of species licences was introduced in
1974/75 and the trophy fee system based on payment only for animals taken was
discontinued. The new system which incorporates the trophy fee into a species
licence has deterred nonresident hunters from opportunistic-type hunting because
of the higher cost involved and the need to prepay for all hunting opportunities.
The number of nonresident hunters decreased from 7,602 in 1973/74 to 4,911
in 1974/75, a decrease of 35 per cent. A further reduction of 953 or 19 per cent
occurred in 1975/76, bringing the total down to 3,958. Although the fee increase
and the prepayment requirement may have contributed to the decline in nonresident
hunters, the international economic recession also had an adverse impact.
Total revenue, mainly from hunting and fishing, decreased from approximately
$5.7 million in 1974/75 to more than $5.5 million in 1975/76. The decrease of
only $221,109 or 4 per cent is largely attributable to a reduction of $214,248 in
the sale of hunting and species licences to nonresident hunters.
Sale of species licences decreased by 6,230 or 43 per cent from 1973/74 to
a total of 8,229 in 1974/75. This decline continued in 1975/76 when a total of
6,816 was sold; a decrease of 1,413 or 17 per cent.
Nonresident angler licence sales decreased by 31,214 or 25 per cent in
1974/75. This can be attributed in part by the discontinuance of a licence for
nonresidents under 16 years of age. However, the decline in the number of anglers
continued in 1975/76 when there were 2,639 or 3 per cent fewer licences sold.
Special lakes and special rivers licences were introduced in 1974/75 when 1,205
and 1,028 respectively were issued. In 1975/76 an increase of 591 or 49 per cent
occurred in the sale of special lakes licences. A less significant increase of 107
occurred in the sale of special rivers licences, bringing the 1975/76 total to 1,135.
No significant changes occurred in other miscellaneous revenue derived from
trappers, fur traders, and guides licences, fur royalties, and fines, etc.
Gross Revenue by Major Activity
1973/74
1974/75
1975/76
Hunting 	
Angling	
Other 	
$
1.921,990
1,369,199
182,554
Per Cent
55
39
6
$           j Per Cent
3,498,562     |         61
2,091,515     |        36
175,537    |          3
1
$           | Per Cent
3,209,785     |         58
2,147,416    |        39
187,304    j          3
3,473,743
5,765,614    |
1
5,544,505
Gross Revenue From Resident and Nonresident Hunting and Angling
1973/74
1974/75
1975,-
76
Resident hunting	
Resident angling 	
$
1.367.777
819,815
Per Cent
63
37
%            | P<
2,238,918    |
1,340,799    J
r Cent
63
37
$
2,164,389
1,403,325
Per Cent
61
39
2,187,592
554,213
549,384
50
50
3,579,717    |
1,259,644
750,716    |
63
37
3,567,714
1,045,396
744,091
58
Nonresident angling	
42
1,103,597
2,010,360    |
1
1,789,487
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 41
Resident Hunting Licence Sales
1973/74
1974/75
1975/76
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
$
5,841
($1)
141,520
($7)
9,652
($4)
3,623
($10)
420
($10)
118,749
($4)
7,421
($10)
588
($35)
50,262
($10)
2,069
($15)
903
($25)
$
5,841
989,773
38,639
36,335
4,203
474,789
74,249
20,588
502,846
31,041
22,539
6,606
($1)
137,046
($7)
10,999
($4)
3,017
($10)
480
($10)
110,211
($4)
6,890
($10)
663
($35)
47,572
($10)
2,066
($15)
1,070
($25)
$
6,606
B.C. resident 	
168,989
($4)
20,562
(50*)
6,119
($5)
534
($5)
172,512
($1)
10,081
($5)
1,427
($10)
63,839
($6)
4,495
($2)
1,778
($5)
675,957
10,280
30,595
2,670
172,447
50,405
14,270
383,032
8,990
8,890
959,322
43,996
30,170
4,800
440,844
Elk   	
68,900
23,205
Moose  - —
475,720
30,900
26,750
450,336
1,357,536
341,048
2,200,843
326,620
2,111,213
Firearms	
10,241
($1)
10,241
15,572
($0
1,016
($3)
3,512
($5)
113
($5)
266
($5)
15,572
3,048
17,560
565
1,330
18,940
($1)
1,132
($3)
5,427
($5)
483
($5)
210
($5+$25)
18,940
3,396
Special Areas
27,135
2,415
1,290
Subtotals 	
10,241
460,577
10,241
1,367,777
20,479
38,075
26,192
53,176
Totals-	
361,527
2,238,918
352,812
2,164,389
 H 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Nonresident Hunting Licence Sales
1973/74
I
Number   I       Value
1974/75
Number
Canadian resident (non-B.C.)
Nonresident -	
Nonresident game bird.	
Black bear-	
Caribou	
Cougar....	
Deer	
Elk	
Grizzly bear 	
Moose	
Mountain goat	
Mountain sheep.—	
Wolf	
Trophy fees 	
Totals	
244
($15)
7,358
($25)
2,824
(50(0
1,629
($5)
63
($5)
739
($5)
1,439
($10)
5,341
($6)
1,302
($2)
1,129
($5)
22,068
3,660
183,950
1,532
8,145
315
3,545
14,440
32,046
2,595
5,600
298,385
554,213
403
($7)
4,239
($75)
269
($25)
892
($40)
1,052
($100)
38
($100)
477
($50)
416
($100)
485
($300)
3,244
($100)
732
($100)
653
($250)
240
($75)
Value
2,810
315,595
6,725
35,680
105,202
3,800
23,854
41,602
145,506
324,412
73,202
163,254
18,002
1975/76
Number
13,140
1,259,644
368
($7)
3,358
($75)
232
($25)
805
($40)
837
($100)
50
($100)
330
($50)
337
($100)
423
($300)
2,488
($100)
724
($100)
596
($250)
226
($75)
10,774
Value
2,576
251,850
5,800
32,220
83,700
5,000
16,500
33,700
126,900
248,800
72,400
149,000
16,950
1,045,396
Resident Angling Licence Sales
1973/74
1974/75
1975/76
1
Number   !
1
Value
Number
Value
1
Number   I
Value
B.C. resident 	
284,567    |
($3)     |
13,913    j
($1)     1
29,972    |
($2)     |
$
745,778
13,913
60,124
250,208
($5)
19,435
($1)
23,619
($3)
$
1,250,633
19,435
70,731
260,599
($5)
20,239
($1)
26,697
($3)
$
1,302,995
20,239
80,091
Steelhead  	
328,452    |
1
819,815
293,262
1,340,799
307,535
1,403,325
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 43
Nonresident Angling Licence Sales
1973/74
1974/75
1975/76
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Canadian resident (non-B.C.)
Nonresident (annual) 	
32,986
($3)
26,148
($10)
46,038
($3.50)
2,100
($5)
$
98,960
261,426
161,067
10,605
39,138
($5)
20.064
($15)
32,182
($6)
2,014
($10)
1,205
($15)
1,028
($25)
$
195,680
298,218
192,995
20,067
18,079
25,677
38,712
($5)
19,452
($15)
30,481
($6)
2,055
($10)
1,796
($15)
1,135
($25)
$
193,560
291,780
182,886
Canadian resident (non-B.C.) and
20,550
26,940
28,375
17,326
($1)
17,326
Totals  	
124,598
549,384
95,631
750,716
93,631
744,091
Other Revenue (Sources Other Than Hunting or Angling)
1973/74
1974/75
1975/76
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
2,664
($5)
$
13,322
27,250
2,402
35,879
87,477
16,224
1        $
2,596   j     12,980
($5)   |
    1     25.462
2,493
($5)
$
12,465
24,530
Fur traders licence 	
81
51
1,800
28,039
92,861
14,395
60
2,027
24,038
	
103,842
	
20,402
...
182,554
175,537
187,304
	
EXPENDITURES
Estimated expenditures for 1975/76 were $10.3 million. Our ability to
effectively expend the estimated amount was curtailed by internal Government
policies to decrease expenditures and in some cases by restricted activities due to
union contracts. The actual expenditure (unaudited) was $8.6 million. The
1975/76 expenditure exceeded 1974/75 by $1.5 million.
The expenditure control system was redesigned for 1975/76 and allowed the
Branch to determine expenditures for six major programs.
 H 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Expenditure by Major Program
$
Wildlife  1,461,636
Fisheries   1,891,527
Habitat Protection  687,828
Information and Education  601,849
Enforcement  2,235,441
Administration  1,719,570
Per Cent
17
22
8
7
26
20
8,597,851
WORKING IN GOVERNMENT (WIG 75)
In 1975, the Working in Government Program was provided with supplementary funding for projects which were additive to and supportive of Branch
objectives. A total of 173 students was employed on 109 separate projects at a
total cost of $600,500. The students were employed on projects that related
generally to investigation and inventory of fish and wildlife resources. The projects
included research to estimate primary productivity of major plant species, evaluation of incubation boxes for the productivity of rainbow trout, evaluation of the
effects of logging on creeks and streams, and operation of an outdoor recreational
program for disadvantaged children.
The benefits of the program were two-fold. Students were provided with
opportunities to gain technical field experience related to their academic courses as
well as financial assistance. Secondly, the Branch was able to undertake projects
that would not normally have been possible because of the additional staffing and
fiscal resources required.
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
A computerized reporting system for expenditure control was instituted on a
trial basis and proved reasonably successful. With a few modifications the system
is now operational and is being used. The process for estimating expenditure and
budgeting was redesigned and is now compatible with expenditure control procedures. It is expected this will result in greatly improved efficiency in the management of resources.
Plans were developed to revise the records management system and implementation is scheduled for 1976. The Departmental Mechanical/Equipment Section
continued to improve services and greatly assisted in the efficient maintenance of
mobile and stationary equipment. Our efforts to provide housing for staff in
remote areas were unsuccessful; however, some progress was made and as a result
some housing will be acquired.
PERSONNEL
Through transfers to the Information and Education and Outdoor Recreation
Branches, the established positions in this Branch were reduced from 348 to 341.
The remaining positions are distributed throughout the major programs as follows:
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
Number
Program of Staff
Wildlife   45
Fisheries  62
Habitat Protection  34
Information and Education  8
Enforcement  110
Administration   82
341
Of the 341 established positions there were 29 vacant at the end of the fiscal
year. Sixteen temporary employees were hired to assist in maintaining essential
administrative services. In addition, 140 seasonal employees continued to provide
services for planned Branch activities.
With the establishment of the new Administrative Resource Boundaries the
following districts were transferred:
(1) Grand Forks District from Thompson/Okanagan to the Kootenay
Region.
(2) Lillooet District from Lower Mainland to the Thompson/Okanagan
Region.
(3) Burns Lake District from Omineca/Peace to the Skeena Region.
Other adjustments involved the transfer of a Conservation Officer from
Kelowna to Lillooet, and an Animal Control Officer from Penticton to Kamloops.
A Fisheries Biologist was transferred from Terrace to Smithers. The relocating of
these staff members was made in an effort to improve Branch operational capability.
GUIDING INDUSTRY
The guiding industry was not excluded from the adverse impact of the current
international economic recession. This was reflected by a decline of 17 per cent in
nonresidents participating in the harvest of big game. Moose hunters are the largest
group of nonresidents who came to British Columbia to hunt. Hunters from this
group, mostly from the United States, declined by 24 per cent. There were 3,358
nonresident non-Canadian hunters compared to 4,239 in 1974. Nonresidents who
hunt mountain sheep also declined in numbers by 10 per cent.
The decrease in nonresident hunters was not isolated to British Columbia, as
similar decreases were noted by other fish and wildlife agencies throughout Canada
and Alaska.
The guide outfitters, the people who supply the guiding services for wildlife in
the Province, are reorienting their operations. They know that it is no longer
possible for them to rely on hunters alone to maintain a viable operation. Currently they are expanding their services to include people who are only interested
in wilderness experiences.
The sudden decline in nonresident hunters in British Columbia has removed
19 guide outfitters from the active scene, leaving 369 to provide services during the
year.
The guide outfitters' task in providing an enjoyable hunt or trip into the hinterland under the most trying conditions is commendable, especially when considering
 H 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
their clientele represents individuals from all walks of life, often unconditioned for
the hunt or travel into rugged mountainous country. Many are complimentary of
the services which provided the enjoyable trip experience. Less than one half of
1 per cent of people guided complained about unsatisfactory service. Most of the
guides are endeavouring to maintain efficient and high quality services and are
performing well.
Since August 21, 1970, when the first guide outfitter's certificate was issued,
176 certificates have now been granted. These certificates have considerable substance in a guiding operation by granting exclusive rights in a designated territory
for certain big game species during a determined period.
REGULATIONS
In the interest of improving fish and wildlife management in British Columbia,
the Government enacted considerable legislation during the year to provide the
necessary rules and climate to promote and safeguard intensive management plans.
Some of the changes in regulations are as follows:
(1) Divided the Province into smaller management units by rescinding
the 28 management area legislation and creating 218 management
units.
(2) The bison or American buffalo of the bison species was designated
as "wildlife" because of their existence on Crown lands in the
Province.
(3) Provided regulations to control the keeping of killer whales in
captivity.
(4) Restricted the registration of traplines to Canadian citizens 18 years
of age or over.
(5) Restricted the issuance of a trapping licence to
(a) the holder of a previous licence to trap; or
(b) to a person who will serve one full trapping season as an
authorized assistant to a licensed trapper; or
(c) to a person who has completed or is in the process of
completing an approved Trapper Education Course.
(6) Prohibited the use of certain inhumane methods of trapping.
(7) Provided for the safety of the public from those discharging firearms
the following "No Shooting" areas were created:
(a) Alaska Highway,  Stane Mountain,  Muncho  Lake,   and
Liard River, Hotsprings Park;
(b) Nanaimo (extended);
(c) Cowichan Lake;
(d) Okanagan Landing;
(e) Kaiser, reduced in size (Sparwood area);
(/)   Reflection Lake (Golden area).
LAND ADMINISTRATION
An Assistant to the Land Administrator was appointed in early 1975. This
appointment enabled the Branch to increase the number of land status reviews,
facilitated land acquisition projects, and established an improved land data recording system for Branch use.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 47
The Land Administration Section, working in close co-operation with other
Branch personnel, played a major role in gathering data for a number of project
areas across the Province. Status reports were prepared for numerous Vancouver
Island estuary areas. Similar studies on major areas reserved for conservation
purposes were also initiated. This service is used to augment the existing service
of the Land Management Branch and is designed to meet specific Branch needs
with greater efficiency.
Negotiations with property owners, Crown agencies, and other interested
parties enabled the purchase of land or established with respect to possibilities for
future purchases. During this report period, 4,555.53 acres of land were acquired
through outright purchase by the Branch and through transfer of administration
and control for management of fee-simple land from other Crown agencies. Additional acreage is at present under negotiation for acquisition on a long-term lease
basis. The total acreage administered by or under reserve for the Branch is
2,046,035. In addition the Branch owns 14 patrol cabins and seven administrative
sites as well as 75 water licences.
A summary of the number of acres of land administered by, or under reserve,
for the Fish and Wildlife Branch follows:
Area
Purpose (Acres)
Wildlife management reserves   2,040,015
Fisheries management reserves ,— 5,600
Fish hatchery operations  265
Egg collection/spawning channel sites  155
Total  2,046,035
PLANNING AND EVALUATION
In 1975 the Planning Section concentrated on improving the design of the
Fish and Wildlife Branch Program Planning and Budgeting System. This required
the development of more effective procedures for the formulation of program and
project objectives and cost estimates which form the annual budget. The improved
design is capable of providing the senior staff with a Management Information
System (MIS) for rapid analysis of Branch operations and policies.
The section also initiated a study of the intensity of use of the fish and wildlife
resources on a regional basis. This is a long-term undertaking that is dependent on
data collected annually by the Branch. Determination of resource use by regional
units will further improve organizational effectiveness in terms of the allocation of
manpower and resources. To this end a survey was undertaken of sportsmen who
hunted in the Pemberton area during the 1975 season. The Planning Section,
together with the Biometrics Section, provided assistance in the design of the
questionnaire and assisted the Lower Mainland Region in all other aspects of this
project. The survey was designed to assess levels of satisfaction among hunters in
relation to such regulations as opening dates, season length, and bag limits. Similar assistance was also provided for the design of a survey conducted by the
Kamloops Regional Office designed to determine some hunter preferences.
Assistance was also given the Fisheries Section in creel census work pertaining
to Elk and Beaver Lakes near Victoria. This involved reviewing procedures and
methods as well as design of the census.
 H 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A series of seminars was organized by the section, which provided opportunities for both Branch staff and specialists from other organizations, such as
universities, to lead discussions or present findings of work done in the field of
resources management. This well-attended series, because of its significant educational value, has become a permanent activity of the section.
The section was also responsible throughout the year for the organization of
conferences dealing with a wide variety of administrative and planning topics.
Branch planning meetings were held both in Victoria as well as other centres
throughout the Province for purposes of reviewing and redefining 'organizational
objectives and programs.
Section staff have initiated the development of work for the development of a
Program Evaluation System which should permit the determination of program
effectiveness and cost efficiencies.
In co-operation with regional staff, significant progress was made in developing
regional management plans and setting of objectives compatible with the goals of
the Branch. A continuation of this work will enable all staff to operate more
responsively to the needs of the public and the fish and wildlife resources.
Three major reports were completed by planning staff. One was a detailed
survey of summer students employed by the Fish and Wildlife Branch recording an
evaluation of their attitudes and benefits which they derived from this experience.
This survey, when combined with a review of accomplishments by the Summer
Employment Program, forms a comprehensive evaluation of the Working in Government (WIG) Program. The second report consists of an annotated bibliography
of departmental literature pertaining to the social and economic values of recreation resources. A report identifying critical wildlife habitat in the Lower Mainland
municipalities was also prepared in co-operation with the Wildlife Management
Section, as their input into the GVRD environmental planning.
FISHERIES RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
The Fisheries Research and Technical Services Section maintains a professional staff of three biologists and four technicians whose responsibilities include
research and development of information and techniques relevant to regional fisheries management and habitat protection, technical services for regional personnel,
and co-ordination and participation in interagency programs (including univer-'
sities) which relate to the fisheries resources of the Province.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Loon Lake Rainbow Trout Studies
Studies of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) production dynamics, utilization
of these stocks by anglers, evaluation of the impact of intensified agriculture as well
as increased cottage lot development, and an assessment of two protection and
enhancement techniques reached their final stages of data collection and analysis
this year. Several aspects of the life history of the Loon Lake populations were
documented, including, growth, age of maturation, survival, and distribution in
lakes and streams.
Studies of the effects of intensified agricultural activities and cottage lot development provided preliminary estimates of severity as well as an evaluation of
various techniques useful in describing the degree of eutrophication in lake systems.
Nutrient budgets provided equivocal results, but techniques utilizing micro-fossils
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 49
 H 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
in sediment cores appeared more reliable. Cattle manure was potentially of most
importance, while chemical fertilizers and septic tank effluents contributed relatively
small amounts of nutrients.
Incubation boxes of the type used for pink and chum salmon production were
modified and evaluated for rainbow trout production. Their simplicity and minimal
maintenance requirements make them well suited for local enhancement projects
where hatchery stocking is either not feasible or desirable. Survival rates of
"green" eggs of 85-95 per cent demonstrated the potential effectiveness of this
technique. A newly designed screen for irrigation ditches proved effective in preventing fish losses.
Duncan-Meadow Creek Trophy Rainbows
The Duncan-Meadow Creek project is a co-operative project with the Kootenay Region designed to re-establish the trophy-sized Duncan River stock in
Meadow Creek, a tributary of the Duncan-Lardeau system. Incubation boxes and
rearing facilities developed on site were used in an attempt to "imprint" the Duncan
stock on the Meadow Creek system. The first year's production of 5,000 fish was
released during September 1975.
Stocking Evaluation Studies
Stocking of lakes with hatchery-reared rainbow trout form the basis for British Columbia's renowned Kamloops area trout fishery. Earlier studies conducted
in co-operation with the Kamloops region were assembled in preparation for publications, and include data on optimal size of release, survival, growth, age of
maturity in lakes of different productivity, and histories of stocking. The data
provide useful guidelines for efficient stocking practices.
Slim-Tumuch Watershed
The Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Federal Fisheries and Marine Service,
in co-operation with B.C. Forest Service and a Prince George forest products company, completed the stream and lake phases of a four-year study to determine the
effectiveness of fisheries protection measures employed in an upper Fraser River
watershed. The study was based on simultaneous comparisons of similar logged
and unlogged stream reaches and lakes. The study documents the critical importance of using soil inventory in determining road locations, cutting units, and erosion
control measures. Relationships between suspended sediment levels, sediment
deposition, and salmonid egg to fry survival in simulated stream channels were also
established. These will prove useful for assessing the severity of sediment releases
into salmonid streams.
Keogh River Anadromous Gamefish Studies
In April 1975 a research program was initiated on a coastal anadromous
gamefish river. These studies involve the use of this 20-mile river as an experimental system for developing and testing stock assessment techniques and inventory
systems for steelhead capability analyses, identifying critical limiting factors to
steelhead production and to test appropriate habitat improvement techniques as
alternatives to hatchery transplanting programs, and to provide baseline life-history
characteristics on anadromous gamefish species. During the first year of operation,
two fish-trapping facilities and a field camp were installed.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
A larger trap, located at the river mouth, was designed and installed with the
assistance of the Engineering Services Section. Enumeration and measurements of
out-migrating smolts was initiated in May and completed in July. In-migrating
adult Dolly Varden enumerations were conducted in August and September; the
run estimated at 1,500 fish with some up to 5 pounds. Work on adult steelhead
began in November and was comprised of enumerating, tagging, sampling scales,
and measuring migrants in addition to assessing angler catches and returns of
tagged fish to determine harvest rate by the sport fishery.
TECHNICAL SERVICES
Several requests for technical support from Fisheries Management and Habitat
Protection were processed, including preparation and aging fish scales, computer
programming, analysis of fish data, literature searches, and aquatic invertebrate
identification.   Personnel also assisted with research projects in the field.
Research staff also acted as technical witnesses for a successful court action
under section 33 (2) of the Fisheries Act, provided technical advice and guidelines
for evidence collection on sediment cases, and helped in the design and analysis of
data for regional programs.
INTERAGENCY PROGRAMS
Salmonid Enhancement Program
The Head of the Research Section represents the Fish and Wildlife Branch on
the joint Federal-Provincial Biological Working Group of the Salmonid Enhancement Program (SEP), whose responsibilities include the design of a research program to facilitate doubling salmonid production on the Pacific Coast. A significant
effort by section biologists was directed to identifying research requirements and
planning projects to be conducted under this program.
Three annotated bibliographies were completed, summarizing published and
unpublished information on steelhead trout; sea-run cutthroat and Dolly Varden
char; and salmonid marking, enumeration, and trapping techniques. A review of
existing information on instream and fish cultural enhancement of steelhead and
cutthroat trout was completed to assist in planning regional projects. In addition,
a computerized data retrieval system was evaluated for steelhead streams on Vancouver Island. Most of the existing data for 500 streams were incorporated into
this system.
Williston Reservoir Study
Lake and stream studies on Williston Reservoir co-ordinated by the ELUC
Secretariat and funded by B.C. Hydro were completed this year. The study incorporated an evaluation of 50 streams for the production of gamefish and an assessment of the reservoir's potential support of these populations. Data on age, growth,
and distribution of several species of fish within three basins of the reservoir were
obtained and an analysis of the effects of impoundment on resident stocks was
undertaken. The baseline data will aid in the management of the reservoir and
provide a comparative framework for long-term assessment of the effects of
impoundments on fisheries.
 H 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Co-operative Research (UBC)
Each year the section undertakes to support a small number of worth-while
graduate student projects in association with the Institute of Animal Resource
Ecology at UBC. This support consists of a grant to the institute and assistance in
the design and execution of projects.   Four studies were supported:
(1) An assessment of the effects of coastal clearcut logging on the residential cutthroat population of a small stream.
(2) Feeding habits, residence time, distribution, and migration of Ger-
rard juvenile rainbow trout.
(3) Structure and dynamics of zooplankton communities in eutrophic
lakes of the Kamloops region.
(4) Interactive ecology of cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden.
WILDLIFE
Research and technical service projects were organized into the following
seven program areas:
Impact of Resource Development
The goal of this program is to provide predictive guidelines for assessing
impacts of resource exploitation on wildlife species and, where possible, for integrating the needs of these species. The program is oriented toward relationships
between animals and their habitat.
Habitat requirements of moose in sub-boreal forests in the Prince George
region were investigated. The first phase involved studies of winter habits and habitats in logged and unlogged forests. The second phase was a site-specific, intensive
baseline sampling of an area scheduled to be logged over the next decade. The
average winter density of moose was estimated at 1.0-1.5 per square mile over the
study area, but moose were found primarily in creek bottoms and partially logged
stands rather than occurring randomly over the study area. Amounts of available
and utilized browse were estimated and the major plant communities characterized
with respect to species composition and biomass.
A study of the effects of logging on blacktailed deer in the Nimpkish River
valley on northern Vancouver Island was continued. This project is being conducted by Dr. Fred Bunnell and students of The University of British Columbia,
through a grant from the Research Section.   Four studies are currently in progress:
(1) Digestible energy and nutritive quality of forage and litterfall in
logged and unlogged habitats. Work in 1975 concentrated on
completion of chemical analyses and preparation of the final report
(Ph.D. thesis).
(2) Dispersal patterns of black-tailed deer in response to forage and
shelter. Daily and seasonal movements were studied intensively
through the use of radio telemetry.
(3) Influences of forest canopy on natural browse productivity, biomass,
and chemical composition. This included field orientation, plot
selection, detailed field sampling, and the nutrient analysis of collected samples.
(4) Factors influencing the distribution and abundance of lichens, a
new study that will improve our understanding of the supply of
this important winter forage.
 FISH  AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
The effectiveness of reclamation practices for rehabilitating strip mines for
wildlife was studied for a second year. Vegetative cover tended to be patchy and
yields variable. Deer and elk used reclaimed areas at slightly higher levels than
1974, but still at levels below those of the surrounding undisturbed vegetation.
Effects of exploration were examined in a pilot study. Exploration roads disturb
approximately 11 acres/mile on south and west-facing subalpine slopes that exceed 30° (ungulate winter range). On gentler slopes or in treed areas, approximately 6 acres/mile are destroyed. Tunnel sites occupy from 0.3 to 0.5 acre, and
drill sites, 0.1 acre.
The foreshore of the Fraser River delta, a vital area for waterfowl and shore-
birds, was the subject of two studies which received support in 1975. This research was done by Dr. V. C. Brink and his students at The University of British
Columbia. One study on the primary productivity of foreshore vegetation was
completed. Dry matter yield averaged approximately 2 tons/acre. Production
and species diversity was greatest near the dykes and decreased seaward. Soil
organic matter followed a similar pattern. The second study was directed toward
the winter ecology of lesser snow geese, and important species on the foreshore.
Diet, foraging behaviour, and feeding areas were documented for both day- and
night-time periods.   The nutritive value of foods eaten was also measured.
Wildlife Enhancement
The goal of this program is to develop ways of improving production of wildlife. We provided a grant to Dr. J. Bendell and his students, University of Toronto,
to study the effects of nitrogen fertilization on blue grouse production on Vancouver Island. In the spring of 1975, 16 tons of urea were applied at a rate of 350
pounds of 40 per cent urea per acre on ten 6-acre plots in a 150-acre experimental
area. Herbaceous vegetation responded spectacularly, especially pearly everlasting,
hare's ear, trailing blackberry, huckleberry, and willow. All are important deer
foods, and except for the first species, important for blue grouse. More yearling
blue grouse seem to occur in the fertilized areas than on the control areas. Studies
of vegetation and small mammals were also conducted.
Factors affecting the productivity of black-tailed deer are also being studied
through a grant to Dr. R. M. Sadlier and his students at Simon Fraser University.
The productivity of captive deer fed on two planes of nutrition was monitored in
terms of fawns and milk production. Maternal behaviour or chemicals in milk or
both may affect the maturation of fawns.
Plans for two new projects were developed in 1975. One study is designed -to
assess the effects and feasibility of prescribed burning as a habitat management
technique. This project will involve co-operation with the B.C. Forest Service and
the Canadian Forestry Service. Preliminary field work and a literature review were
initiated. The second study is a comprehensive investigation of factors affecting
the production of bighorn sheep under controlled conditions. The influence of
vegetation, behaviour, nutrition, and genetics on an enclosed herd of bighorns will
be included.
Dynamics of Exploited Populations
The response of wildlife populations to harvesting is the prime focus of this
program. The long-term study of regulation of blue grouse numbers on Vancouver
Island is being supported through a grant to Dr. F. Zwickel and his students from
the University of Alberta. Results so far suggest that hunting has little if any effect
on grouse densities.
 H 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The value and application of simulation modelling as a research and management technique also received attention. Most of this work was co-ordinated by
the Inventory Section, but the Wildlife Research Section was also closely involved.
Population models were prepared for grizzly bear and black-tailed deer through
a grant to Dr. F. Bunnell.
Social and Economic Research
The Branch supported two studies in this program. One examined changes
in physical fitness attributable to hunting activities. Pre-season fitness levels of
hunters were significantly below the recorded means for active males. By half
way through the hunting season, the fitness of both hunter and control groups improved significantly. In fact, hunters showed greater gains than the nonhunters.
Thirteen weeks after the end of the hunting season, hunter fitness declined while
that of the control group did not. Hunters should undertake a pre-season fitness
program to develop their oxygen transport system to cope with the stress of hunting
activity. A post-season fitness regime should also be adopted to retain the positive
training effects derived from hunting; otherwise, hunting season gains are lost.
This project was done by Dr. D. Docherty and his associates at the University of
Victoria.
The second study examined ways of increasing nonconsumptive use of black-
tailed deer by residents of Vancouver and vicinity. Through a system of trails,
blinds, special crop plantings, and informational signs at the UBC Haney Research
Forest, attempts were made to increase the chances of seeing deer. Surplus deer
from the reproductive study were also released to increase deer densities. Public
response was monitored through a questionnaire survey and a report is expected in
1976.
Technical Services
This program provides specialized scientific and technical services to management. These included food habit analyses, identification of parasites and diseases,
preparation of figures and illustrations, and the identification of plant specimens.
In 1975, two new activities were initiated. The first was to explore methods
of species identification of tissues as an aid to enforcement. Paper chromotography
proved unreliable and as a result attention was turned to other techniques such as
electrophoresis and serology. Close contact is being maintained with other provincial and state agencies to minimize duplication of effort. The second activity involved development of expertise in aging harvested animals by histological examinations of tooth annulations. Conventional grinding methods are not applicable to
some species such as grizzly bear and cougar, and so other methods must be used.
Cougar may require a completely new approach since their teeth may not exhibit
annulations.
VANCOUVER  ISLAND  REGION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Anadromous fisheries management activities centred on the Big Qualicum,
Campbell, Quinsam, and Gold Rivers. Intensive creel census programs were
initiated during the 1975/76 winter steelhead season. Angler co-operation was
encouraging and it is expected that the derived catch and effort data will provide
 FISH  AND WILDLIFE  BRANCH
a firm base for future management policy. Snorkel and wet suit counts of summer
steelhead in select river systems and the results of a mark-recovery experiment
indicated that reliable estimates of stock size and angler exploitation could be made.
Emphasis was placed on studies of the benefits of hatchery steelhead production
at the Big Qualicum and Quinsam Rivers to anglers.
A three-year lake-stocking evaluation of Elk-Beaver Lake near Victoria was
completed in 1975. Rainbow trout stocked at 40 fish per pound (approximately
4 inches in length) provided the highest return to the creek (48 per cent of the total
number stocked) and also achieved better growth than those stocked at 500 and
five fish per pound. Data obtained from this study will be used for a lake stocking
plan for Southern Vancouver Island.
The Sayward Forest lakes represent one of the most popular recreational areas
on Vancouver Island. Fishing pressure on these lakes is steadily increasing. In
view of this, angler harvest, lake productivity, stock status, and enhancement potential were evaluated on Mohun, Brewster, Boot, Merrill, Beavertail, Gooseneck,
Upper Quinsam, Patterson, Roberts, Echo, McCreight, and Pye Lakes. This baseline work will lead to the enhancement of the Sayward Lakes fish populations.
The Cowichan River is the single most important recreational fishing river
on Vancouver Island. During the past two years, anglers have become increasingly
concerned over a reported decline in brown and steelhead trout populations. In
1975 a program with the objective of maintaining the present recreational quality
of the river and enhancing the sport fish populations was carried out.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Many traditional wildlife management procedures were carried out in Region I
during the past year. Spring carryover counts for deer indicated normal levels of
winter mortality while autumn hunter checks indicated an over-all daily success
rate of 14 per cent. Mandatory checks for cougar appeared successful, but those
for mountain goats appeared uncertain at this point.
Emphasis was placed on the development of a framework for data collection
and handling for species management programs. The basic prerequisites for such
a system include inventory, the storage and retrieval of data and interpretation,
and management prescriptions. Computerization of questionnaire information
(harvest and its distribution, sex and age structure, hunter distribution) greatly
enhanced analysis and interpretation on a management unit basis. Currently, the
management unit system is being restructured to incorporate 225 subunits.
Ultimately, species management will be assisted by simulation modelling
techniques encompassing population dynamics, habitat, and climate.    Continua- -
tion of the Northwest Bay work is the first step in co-ordination of data upon which
to base such a system.
Roosevelt elk management was greatly intensified. Radio telemetry, animal
condition, reproductive status, population features, and quantitative habitat biology
are being evaluated as a basis for more refined management plans.
The cougar research and management program was continued and similar
attention was paid to the increasing Vancouver Island wolf population. More
intensive programs for Coastal Mainland species (grizzly bear, mountain goat,
moose) are currently under way.
 H 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
LOWER MAINLAND  REGION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Fisheries Inventory
Inventory continues to be a top priority. Habitats, fish populations, and
angler use were investigated and described in a number of selected drainages. A
creel census program on the Serpentine, Nicomekl, Little Campbell, and Salmon
Rivers (Surrey area) yielded important data on angler use and catch success.
These data will help form the base for future management decisions within these
drainages.
Adult steelhead populations were studied on several rivers in the Chilliwack-
Hope area. A co-operative tagging program (Steelhead Society/Fish and Wildlife Branch) on the Vedder River produced valuable insights into fish movement
and spawning area preferences. Float counts by skin divers were done on the
Vedder as well as the Coquihalla, Silverhope, and North Alouette Rivers. Adult
steelhead populations in some of these streams had never been studied as closely
before. In addition, fish and habitat were investigated in other parts of the region,
notably Harrison Lake, as well as the Squamish and Skwawka River systems.
Fisheries Habitat Protection
Fisheries management continued to play an active role in habitat protection.
During 1975, fisheries staff, through referral systems, provided recommendations
notably on flood control and dyking, forest harvesting, subdivisions, pollution control permits, pesticide and herbicide applications, highway location and construction, water use, land clearing, and stream relocation.
Special Fisheries
By regulation, Browning Lake (Squamish area), Como Lake (Coquitlam),
Upper Grey Creek (Sechelt area), and Boston Bar Creek (Hope area) were designated as special fisheries for children under 15 years and the elderly over 65 years.
In co-operation with Abbotsford Trout Hatchery and the municipality of Sardis, a
children-only fishery for large rainbow trout was established in Sardis Park Pond.
Plans for a children-only fishery for black crappie (sunfish/bass family) in
an isolated portion of Bell Slough (Chilliwack area) and for a special "no kill"
fishery for summer-run steelhead in the Coquihalla River (Hope area) were developed in 1975. These fisheries are consistent with the management objective of
providing people with a variety of angling opportunities.
Fish Culture—Lake Stocking
A rearing pond for summer-run steelhead was operated at Watercress Creek
on the Coquihalla River and a small number of Coquihalla adult steelhead was
captured to provide offspring for restocking the pond. By augmenting the number
of steelhead smolts in the Coquihalla system with pond-reared fish, the returning
runs of adult fish should be increased significantly over current low numbers.
Commercial and Private Fish Ponds
Requests for permits to raise trout and other fish are increasing rapidly in the
Lower Mainland. There is concern that natural fish-bearing streams, which have
many ponds adjacent to them, may be adversely affected by the ponds through
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 57
elevated temperatures and nurtient loading. In 1975 a moratorium was placed
on the issuance of pond licences where effluent water enters a stream. A study
of the effects of fish ponds on streams is planned for the summer of 1976 by Federal Fisheries and Marine Service.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Because the Lower Mainland Region encompasses the largest waterfowl wintering ground in British Columbia, emphasis was placed on waterfowl management
within the region. Long-term management plans for the enhancement of existing
waterfowl habitat and for the expansion of certain waterfowl species within the
Lower Fraser Valley were developed.
Engineering feasibility studies were completed for the Pitt Lake Wildlife
Management Area waterfowl enhancement project. Construction funded by
Ducks Unlimited (Canada) is scheduled to begin in the summer of 1976 and is
expected to continue seasonally until 1978. In addition to providing additional
habitat for nesting, migrating, and wintering waterfowl, the Pitt Lake Management
Area will be used for a number of outdoor-oriented educational and recreational
activities, including nature observation, nature interpretation, canoeing, and controlled waterfowl hunting.
In co-operation with Ducks Unlimited (Canada), construction was started
to improve waterfowl habitat on the Serpentine Fen Wildlife Management Area.
A series of dykes and water impoundments are being developed on the site to increase the capability of the area for waterfowl resting, propagation, and observation. Nature interpretation and education programs directed toward grade school
students were carried out on the area in co-operation with Douglas College, Surrey,
B.C. The Branch proposes to expand this program as additional facilities are developed.
The Canada goose propagation flock established within the Lower Fraser
Valley in 1973 is reproducing well and has increased to two to three thousand birds.
Although the original program goal was to establish and maintain a population of
up to 20,000 Canada geese within the Fraser Valley, crop depredation problems are
beginning to occur. This necessitated restricting over-all goose numbers to a level
acceptable to the land owner and the public. It is anticipated that intensive management of local wildlife refuge areas and the initiation of a compensation program
for crop losses within the Fraser Valley will alleviate existing and potential problems. One of the program goals for this project has already been realized in that
local people are beginning to observe Canada geese in the Lower Fraser Valley.
The wood duck propagation program started in 1973 within the Lower Fraser
Valley was completed in 1975. In conjunction with the Canadian Wildlife Service,
Ducks Unlimited (Canada), and a number of local rod and gun clubs, several
hundred wood duck nest boxes were established throughout the Lower Fraser
Valley during the project. Wood duck populations have increased significantly as*
a result and have now reached habitat saturation densities in some portions of the
valley.
A study to determine ungulate utilization of forest cover types within selected
portions of the Chilliwack Valley has been completed, although monitoring of a
species of permanent sample plots established within the study area must be
continued to realize long-term study goals. The information gathered during the
project will be invaluable in assessing the impact of future logging development
on wildlife populations within the valley and will provide excellent baseline data
for the development of land use plans for similar watersheds.
 H 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
THOMPSON-OKANAGAN  REGION
Consolidation of Region III consistent with new administrative boundaries
was finally completed with the transfer of all functions in the Kettle watershed to
Region IV. Some readjustments saw a second Conservation Officer located in
Lillooet and an Animal Control Officer in Kamloops. These moves were designed
to balance more equitably the work load.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Lake aeration activities were continued with windmills and pondmills being
tested as an alternative to the standard compressor still used on Yellow Lake.
Other programs included the transfer of Mysis shrimp from Okanagan to Missezula
Lake, improvement of spawning potential in Okanagan River oxbows, emunera-
tion of Mission Creek spawning rainbow run by trapping at upstream end of a
fishway, and the control of downstream losses over some irrigation dams.
Involvement in the Federal-Provincial study of Thompson River finally came
to an end with the preparation of a report. Other co-operative interagency studies
include Bonaparte Plateau moratorium and the Adams River spawning area.
Neither has been completed at this time.
Management plans on a lake specific basis were developed. They included
recommendations covering shoreline development, special regulations, and fish
management objectives. Their purpose is to avoid ad hoc response to a myriad of
special interest considerations. A treatise on lake rehabilitation in the region over
the past 30 years was completed.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Management staff and Conservation Officers monitored moose and deer populations to determine productivity of sample herds. Moose surveys showed continued low productivity and declining populations in management units where the
main winter ranges are old burns that now have less winter forage. Other management units in the Bonaparte Plateau showed high productivity and increased numbers, now that logging is restoring productivity. Surveys showed that deer numbers
remained low and that juveniles made up only 21 per cent of April populations
compared to a normal 30 per cent or more. This drop in productivity was attributed to winter conditions which at Kamloops were the second most severe in 18
years.
The Regional Predator Management Committee took several approaches to
the management of predators, including the complete removal of wolves from
designated areas and the use of lithium chloride for aversion baiting to reduce
conflicts between wolves and cattle.
An aerial census of caribou in Wells Gray Park showed a marked drop from
308 observed in 1970 to 123 in 1975. Weather at the time of the flights was
believed responsible for this low count, but destruction of caribou winter ranges by
logging may have resulted in an actual decline in numbers.
Hunting regulations were modified on the basis of a resource use study to
reduce conflicts between hunters and other users. A second study of hunters provided additional information used to further modify regulations in order to supply
hunter demands for reduced crowding, reduced bag limits for grouse, and later
opening dates.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 59
A spring burn on the Lower Dewdrop of 120 acres in the ponderosa pine and
Douglas fir was done as part of the program of range improvement. Similar burns
were completed in the Ashnola and at Westside near Kelowna. Six intensive
management areas in the Okanagan were selected to collect data on deer food
preferences and the effects of habitat modifications such as logging, burning, weed
clearing, and shrub planting.
Spring counts were made of deer in many locations throughout the Okanagan.
Whitetailed deer are increasing generally along with mule deer in Vernon-Monashee
and Princeton areas. Elsewhere, mule deer continue to decline. Inventory surveys of the "Six Mile" deer winter range and most of the key ranges on Skull
Mountain and Monte Lake were completed. The information gathered is of prime
importance for management decision practices.
KOOTENAY  REGION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Heavy industrial development, hydro-electric reservoir flooding, forest overcommitment, utility development, grazing conflicts, and settlement expansion are
the key components of the resource picture of the Kootenays. As a result, both
Fisheries and Wildlife staff are now involved in total land use plans with the other
Government agencies and the public sector. This has lead to the development of
better logging and grazing plans resulting in improved range conditions and fish
habitat protection.
Fisheries management activities in 1975 were reduced due to increased
demand for input into habitat protection. A lot of time was spent relative to coal
mining proposals in the Flathead and Elk Valleys. In addition, fisheries personnel
spent a lot of time on a regional submission to the Pearse Royal Commission on the
Forest Industry.
The Fisheries Section has started to develop a new run of rainbows to replace
those lost to the Duncan Dam and have set up monitoring and assessment programs
for the Arrow Lakes in an attempt to save the rainbow, kokanee, and Dolly Varden
fishery which has been seriously affected by the Mica Dam. Restoration of kokanee
and rainbow trout production in the Arrow and Kootenay Lakes received considerable attention. In addition, plans were started on an over-all stream management program for the East Kootenay.
Rainbow trout production was started at the Meadow Creek spawning channel, which produced a record 12 million kokanee fry. In addition, gravel placement at Gerrard resulted in expanded spawning habitat for the trophy Gerrard
rainbow trout.
Nonresident anglers generally accepted the special lakes licence on Kootenay
Lake where there was a definite shift toward a high-quality trophy-type fishery.
LAND USE
Habitat protection issues continue to dominate wildlife management activities
in this region. A proliferation of developments require that management staff (fisheries and wildlife) play an increasing role in protection activities.   Coal mining in
 H 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
the Elk and Flathead Valleys, proposed subdivision of B.C. Hydro lands in the
Arrow Basin, the Pend-d'Oreille (7 Mile) and proposed High Revelstoke and
Kootenay Diversion hydro-electric projects, and a 500-kv transmission-line through
the southern portion of the region required attention. Fish and wildlife resources
will be adversely affected in all instances and the best that can be expected is to
minimize losses.
A large burn was planned and executed by the Forest Service and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch on the Bull River winter range. Over 600 acres were successfully burned and a six-year burning plan was subsequently prepared.
The intensive resource inventory of the 500-square-mile Springbrook project
area was completed by the Secretariat. A total of 28 maps was prepared as the
inventory base to facilitate intensive co-ordinated resource management planning.
Meetings were held with the Forest Service to develop an access plan and a
fire management plan for the region. Access plans will be developed on a PSYU
basis using the same approach as that used for co-ordinated planning.
INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING
A new approach to renewable resource management was launched in the East
Kootenay, aided by a $1.5 million ARDA project. Under the direction of the
Acting Director of the Range Division, a task group comprised of representatives
of the Fish and Wildlife Branch, Forest Service, Range Division, Lands Management Branch, and Department of Agriculture, and the forest and range users
involved, developed integrated plans on three range units. The planning process
is designed to reduce or resolve conflicts, thereby allowing the efforts of managers
and users to be directed into positive resource activities. The Cranbrook-Fort
Steele, Wildhorse-Lewis, and St. Mary's Prairie plans were completed (approximately 50,000 acres total) and a start was made on a plan for the Luckhurst unit
(Premier Ridge area) (approximately 75,000 acres).
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
A Wildlife Management Biologist added to the Kootenay Region assumed
responsibility for the West Kootenay and specific habitat protection matters common to both the East and West Kootenays.
Game checks, late winter aerial game counts, and spring carry-over counts
were conducted. The elk feeding project was continued on a reduced number of
sites in the East Kootenay. Calf components of fed elk herds reached near record
levels in 1975. Elk feeding will be phased-out when the ranges are able to produce
sufficient natural forage. The Creston deer feeding project and permit hunt reduced
orchard damage and deer highway losses. The pheasant feeding program in the
vicinity of Creston minimized potentially severe winter losses and contributed to
another successful pheasant hunting season.
Problem Wildlife
Interactions between black bear and people were again severe in the West
Kootenay. Improper garbage disposal practices in municipalities and regional districts continued to attract bears to a convenient, guaranteed food source. Bears
from these dumps wander into adjacent urban areas to raid garbage cans, compost
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
H 61
heaps, and fruit trees. Lack of funds for proper sanitary garbage disposal and lack
of a suitable approach has allowed improper and illegal dumps to perpetuate the
nuisance bear problem.
CARIBOO  REGION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
A lake capability study emphasizing recreational potentials, water quality,
foreshore development, and user preferences was undertaken in 12 Cariboo lakes
during the summer of 1975. The Planning Section of the Cariboo Regional District
participated in the study. The information obtained will be used in setting development restrictions, regulations of power craft, and in the development of recreation
facilities on these lakes.
A creel census program and general surveillance activities were undertaken at
Dean River; a coastal river which provides world-famous fishing for summer steelhead. Severe overcrowding occurs at popular fishing sites. Plans are being developed to implement a "limited entry" system to alleviate this situation.
A large freshwater shrimp (Mysis), which in other lakes forms an important
part of the food chain for kokanee, was introduced in Lac la Hache. This introduction should, in a few years, significantly enhance the kokanee and trout fishery
of this lake.
Rail Lake, rehabilitated with antimycin in 1974, was found to be clear of this
fish toxin and was stocked with rainbow trout. It will provide an excellent fishery
in future years. The opening day for fishing, slated for spring of 1976, will be
restricted to fishing by youngsters and the elderly.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The development of the Junction Wildlife Management Area, a protected unit
of grassland in the Chilcotin which supports about 300 California Bighorn Sheep,
was one of the most important activities. Grazing by cattle was eliminated by the
construction of exclosure fencing. As a result, natural forage grasses used by sheep
are showing good recovery from their previously over-grazed condition. The popularity of the area as a range demonstration site and as a sheep-viewing site has
grown to the extent that it is now necessary to retain a patrolman on site during
the summer and fall months.
The introduction of a co-ordinated land use planning process to the region
in 1975 provides a promising opportunity to integrate the uses of all resources. The
first integrated resource use plan by the (Cariboo) Grazing Task Force was completed on a range unit in Chilcotin. This planning system permits optimization of
all local resources with the active involvement and agreement of resident landowners and leaseholders.
SKEENA REGION
In 1975 the Burns Lake District was transferred from the Omineca-Peace
to the Skeena Region in line with Province-wide adjustments to administrative
boundaries.
 H 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Inventory continued as one of the major thrusts during 1975 and was greatly
aided by Headquarters, Parks Branch, and Secretariat crews as well as Regional
Habitat Protection staff. On the Queen Charlotte Islands the Yakoun, Hanna,
and Denna Rivers were surveyed. In the Skeena system, the Kitimat, Zymoetz,
Kitsequecla, Suskwa, Morice, Telka, and Sustut were examined, as well as the
Dala, Kildala, and Kinskutch Rivers. Lakes inventoried were Johnson, Round,
Tyee, Seymour, Ross, Mose, Onerka, Sicintine, Gunanoot, Haul, Tahloe, and
Burnie.
Steelhead research and management took a significant proportion of time,
with emphasis on the Kispiox River. In addition to fecundity and population studies
on the Kispiox, 218 steelhead fishermen were contacted and 250 scale samples
were collected. Necessary restrictions on the steelhead fishery have resulted in
reduced catch and possession limits, shorter seasons, and closures to protect wintering and spawning fish. '
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Summer surveys of the Queen Charlotte Islands established that mink have
not colonized the Charlottes. Elk have spread from Tlell and are now in the Ren-
nell Sound and possibly in the Naden Harbour area. They have also moved south
from Graham Island to Moresby Island. An important ancient murrelet nesting
colony was located on Lyell Island. In addition, approximately 60 occupied peregrine falcon nests were found during a complete inventory of the Queen Charlotte
Islands.
Inventory surveys were also carried out in the middle Skeena-Kispiox River
area and in the proposed Kemano II development area. Both grizzly bear and
moose will be adversely affected if flooding for Kemano II goes ahead.
Winter flights and hunting season road checks indicated the need for more
restrictive seasons to protect cow and calf moose in those portions of the Kispiox,
Bulkley, and Babine areas which have received heavy hunting pressure. The
limited entry hunt for goat in the Nass Range was a partial success. Out of a
possible 100 permits, 65 were issued and 11 goats taken. More hunters may be
encouraged to apply by a longer season.
A pilot study to examine winter requirements, movements, and population
dynamics of mountain goat was initiated in the Babine Range near Blunt Creek.
The nuisance animal control program is clearly satisfactory, with stock losses
minimized and positive comments coming from some ranchers.
OMINECA-PEACE  REGION
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
An intensive inventory program was carried out to establish a basis on which
to plan watershed management and projects of importance to recreational fisheries.
Extensive inventories of all streams tributary to Takla Lake, the entire Driftwood
River system, the Sakeniche River system, and all streams tributary to Trembleur
Lake were completed in 1975.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH H 63
Carp Lake Project
This project was designed to measure the fish production and rearing capabilities of a large lake in a new high-use Provincial park, with the objective of maintaining a high-quality sports fishery. Stream surveys of the extensive tributary
systems to the lake were completed, a creel survey was continued, plankton and
aquatic insect and benthic samples were collected and identified, and burbot
samples were taken. Portable fences, which greatly aided the program of tagging
rainbow trout, were designed and installed on several influent creeks.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Because of major differences in geography, latitude, wildlife species, and many
other features, wildlife management is reported separately for the two subregions
of the Omineca-Peace region.
Omineca Subregion (Prince George)
Routine classified big game counts were conducted on major winter ranges
throughout several management units in the Omineca subregion. Game was not
as concentrated in lowland habitats as in the previous winter because snow conditions permitted animals to disperse over more of the available range. Animals
were in healthy condition and production (fawn/calf crops)  was near normal.
A study of pine marten ecology, based on live trapping, was started in 1974,
continued in 1975, and is now in its final year. Species distribution and habitat
use appear to be functions of food supply which consist mainly of mice.
Plans were developed for a co-operative study of mountain caribou which
will be cosponsored by the Fish and Wildlife Branch and Northwood Pulp and
Timber Company Ltd. The study will be conducted 50 miles east of Prince George
under the direction of Dr. R. J. Hudson, Department of Animal Science, University
of Alberta.
WILLISTON RESERVOIR STUDIES
A study of the recreational potential of Williston Reservoir was completed in
the fall of 1975. The report assesses the recreational opportunities of the reservoir and the associated endemic wildlife; identifies some of the habitat limitations
controlling wildlife distribution and abundance; indicates the capability of land
to support wildlife populations; and, more importantly, addresses several management options to improve these values within the confines of the reservoir.
TRAPPING AND HUNTING ANALYSIS
Computer analysis of annual trapline data and nonresident guided hunts was
completed during the year. Historical data were stored and analysed. . Print-outs
indicated fur marketing trends and the cyclical nature of certain populations of
furbearers.
A survey of northern guides and outfitters was completed during the year.
All information gathered in the previous two years was collated and mapped.
Preliminary attempts to develop an inventory atlas were undertaken and four map
folios were made depicting species distribution and traditional range affinities.
 H 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
NUISANCE ANIMAL CONTROL
In January 1975 a subregional Predator Advisory Committee was formed to
investigate the nature of wildlife/livestock problems and various management/
husbandry options to reduce conflicts to acceptable levels. A questionnaire was
distributed to members of the agricultural community (farmers and ranchers) in
order to determine the types, history, and magnitude of predatory and nuisance
wildlife problems. Two broad zones of the subregion were defined for preventive
wildlife control measures.
Peace Subregion (Fort St. John)
The deterioration of wildlife habitat through plant succession, overgrazing,
cultivation, and mineral development continued to present the most serious threats
to wildlife. A lot of effort was required to minimize the effects of these forces.
Most successful in this regard was the preservation of many small tracts of land
critical for wildlife survival.
The first of four projects involving moose considered productivity of several
accessible moose ranges (Murray, Beatton, Pine, and Peace) in terms of both
primary (browse) and secondary productivity (moose). A second project involved an analysis of hunter activity and moose kill to obtain useful information
in addition to the data obtained from the single Provincial check station at Cache
Creek Junction, and to explore differences in hunting between local and nonlocal
individuals. A third project involved was classified counts of the major moose
populations in the Peace River drainage. This project provided an estimate of
annual recruitment and information for establishing relative cow-to-bull harvest
seasons. The fourtlr project involved evaluation of population dispersions in order
to identify critical areas for habitat protection.
The north slope of the Rocky Mountains has some of the most superb alpine
ungulate populations (caribou, sheep, and goat) in British Columbia and, although
isolation has provided security, they are faced with increasing threat from human
development of the area and from increased hunting. To minimize the deterioriza-
tion of these populations, a field program was started to gather baseline population data (population sizes, composition, natality, and mortality as well as ranges)
and to examine interactive features of their ecology (dispersion, range quality, and
predation).
NUISANCE ANIMAL CONTROL
Management of predators affecting livestock required a lot of regional management effort. However, a good program was developed by the Regional Predator Management Advisory Committee. This program encountered some difficulty
in becoming functional, but, as ranchers and the Branch became more familiar with
each other's role and responsibilities, significant progress was made.
CRESTON  VALLEY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA
Habitat management activities have encouraged increased wildlife utilization
of the management area. More deer and elk are being seen; elk calves were born
in the Six Mile Slough Unit this spring. Several species of waterfowl, previously
rare on the management area, are showing substantial increases; 1975 brood studies
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH H 65
also indicate small increases in waterfowl production despite drawdowns in two
large units for construction.
Another unit, Six Mile Slough Unit, has been divided into manageable compartments. Construction of dykes and water control structures by Ducks Unlimited (Canada) is nearing completion. The Management Authority has installed
a power-line to supply the eight electric pumps which will control water levels in
the unit.
All staff positions at the new Creston Valley Wildlife Centre have been filled.
A full program of summer naturalist activities included slide presentations in Summit Creek Campground every evening, regular nature walks, and the very popular
canoe trips at Duck Lake. Displays in the centre are being completed in anticipation of a public opening in early summer 1976.
Summit Creek Campground showed an increased occupancy rate, from 22.7
parties per day in 1974 to 30.4 in 1975. The WIG '75 Program provided funds
for hiring campground attendants.
Two new publications were made available to the public by the Management
Authority. The brochure Living Marshes provides information about the management area and its activities. A waterfowl identification pamphlet was purchased
for distribution.
The wildlife management area received a lot of publicity through the Reader's
Digest of Canada's book Scenic Wonders of Canada, published in February 1976.
Also, the spring issue of Beautiful British Columbia included a story about the
wildlife centre.
A co-operative waterfowling workshop sponsored by the B.C. Fish and Wildlife Branch office at Creston, the Canadian Wildlife Service, the Creston Valley
Wildlife Centre, and the Management Authority, was well attended. It is planned
to conduct a similar seminar annually.
Recommendations by the public and the Technical Advisory Committees provided valuable assistance to the Management Authority in formulating decisions
concerning the proposed crossings of a natural gas pipeline and a 500-kv transmission-line through the management area.
PUBLICATIONS
Barrett, D. T., T. G. Halsey, and B. L. Fuhr, 1975. Fisheries Resources and
Resource Potential of Williston Reservoir, Vol. I (in prep.).
Bruce, P. G., and P. J, Starr, 1975. Fisheries Resources and Resource Potential
of Williston Reservoir, Vol. II (in prep.).
Bryan, R. C, 1975. A Survey of Customer Values, Perceptions and Future Management Options as they Related to the Capilano River Sport Fishery.
Demarchi, R. A., 1975. Report of the California Bighorn Workshop in: Tre-
fethen, J., 1975. Editor. The Wildlife Mountain Sheep in Modern North
America.  Winchester Press (New York).   302 pp.
Eastman, D. S., 1974. Procedural aspects of moose rumen analysis. Can. Field-
Nat., 88:331-335.
Meyer, P. A., 1975.   Perceptions on Recreation and Sport Fisheries of the Chilli-
wack/Vedder River.
Munro, W. T., R. Wayne Campbell, 1975.    Programs and authorities of the
Province of British Columbia related to marine bird convention.   A paper
presented to the International Symposium "Conservation of Marine Birds in
Northern North America".   Seattle, May 1975.
 H 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Schmidt, N., J. M. Saville, L. Friis, and P. L. Stovell, 1976. Trichinosis in
British Columbia Wildlife.   Can. J. Pub. Health, 67(i) :21-24.
Tautz, A. F., and C. Groot, 1975. Spawning behavior of chum salmon (Oncor-
hynchus Keta) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Jour. Fish. Res. Bd.
Can., Vol. 32(5):633-642.
REPORTS AND CIRCULARS
Barchello, N. L., 1975.    Habitat selection of blacktailed deer in the Tsitika
watershed of Vancouver Island.    B.Sc.F. thesis, UBC, Vancouver.    111 pp.
Bonar, R., R. Smith, and D. S. Eastman, 1975.  The Salmon River moose project; 1974 progress report on the habitat utilization by moose of an unlogged
sub-boreal forest.   Fish and Wildl. Br., Victoria.   73 pp.
Docherty, D., J. Eckerson, M. Collis, and J. Hayward, 1975.    Changes in
fitness level attributable to hunting activity.   Job completion rept.    Fish and
Wildl. Br., Victoria.    13 pp.
Ellis, R., 1974.    Habitat selection of ungulates on Vancouver Island.    B.Sc.F.
thesis, UBC, Vancouver.   32 pp.
Jones, G., 1975. Aspects of winter ecology of blacktailed deer (Odocoileus hemi-
onus columbianus)   on northern  Vancouver  Island.     M.Sc.   thesis,   UBC.
78 pp.
Larkin, P. A., and J. W. Cartwright, 1975.   Effects of Rotenone Treatment on
Courtney and Corbett Lakes (Merritt, B.C.).   22 pp.
Leggett, J. M., and W. T. Westover, 1975.    Survey of the 1974 Dean River
steelhead fishery.    Fish and Wildl. Br., Victoria, Fish. Techn. Circ. No. 19.
33 pp.
Morley, R. L., and D. S. Reid, 1975. Monitoring of an Aerial Herbicide Treatment at Toba Inlet, B.C.   30 pp.
Oguss, E., A. F. Tautz, M. E. Anderson, and S. M. Steele, 1975. Design and
implementation of a stream data retrieval system for Vancouver Island using
ASAP. 2.0.   Fish. Tech. Circ. No. 15.
Oguss, E., A. F. Tautz, M. E. Anderson, and S. M. Steele, 1975. A partial
compendium of stream data for Vancouver Island.   Fish. Tech. Circ. No. 16.
Parkinson, E. A., and P. A. Slaney, 1975. A review of enhancement techniques
applicable to anadromous gamefishes.    Fish. Manag. Rept. No. 66.    100 pp.
Reid, D. S., 1975. Aquatic Weed Control in Vernon Arm, Okanagan Lake. Hab.
Prot. Sect. Fish and Wildl. Br., Victoria.   28 pp.
Reid, D. S., 1975. Mercury Contamination of Fish from Pinchi Lake, B.C. Fish
and Wildl. Br., Victoria.    18 pp.
Russell, L. R., 1975. An annotated bibliography on steelhead trout and general
salmonid ecology.   Fish. Tech. Circ. No. 14.   66 pp.
Russell, L. R., 1975. An annotated bibliography on the ecology of anadromous
cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden char.   Fish. Tech. Circ. No. 17.    115 pp.
Russell, L. R., 1975. An annotated bibliography on salmonid marking, enumeration and trapping techniques.   Fish. Tech. Circ. No. 18.    194 pp.
Slaney, P. A., 1975. Impacts of forest harvesting on streams in the Slim Creek
watershed in the Central Interior of British Columbia. Presented at Forest
Soils and Stream Ecology, a program sponsored by Association of B.C. Pro-
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
fessional Foresters, Faculty of Forestry, UBC, and Centre for Continuing
Education, UBC, Vancouver, May 1975.   34 pp.
Stanlake, E. A., and M. A. Stanlake, 1975.    Ungulate use of some reclaimed
strip mines in southeastern British Columbia; progress reports for 1975.   Fish
and Wildl. Br., Victoria.   40 pp.
Stringer, G. E., 1976.   History of Lake Rehabilitation in Thompson/Okanagan
Region from 1947-1975.   Fish and Wildl. Br., Victoria.    31pp.
Taylor, B., and C. Hayward, 1975.    Ungulate use of reclaimed strip mines in
southeastern British Columbia: progress report for 1974.    Fish and Wildl.
Br., Victoria.   88 pp.
van Drimmelen, B.,  1974.    Ecology of Roosevelt elk on Vancouver Island.
B.Sc.F. thesis, UBC, Vancouver.   56 pp.
Wightman, J.  C,   1975.    Enumeration of Rainbow Trout At the  Smithson-
Alphonse Dam on Mission Creek, near Kelowna, With Reference to Passage
through an Alaskan Steep-Pass Fishway.    Fish  and Wildl.  Br.,  Victoria.
78 pp.
Wightman, J. C, 1975. Preliminary Inventory of Fish and Habitat Resources of
Fry-Carney Drainage, a Tributary to Kootenay Lake and Some Management
Considerations.   Fish and Wildl. Br., Victoria.    215 pp.
Yamanaka, K., 1975. Primary productivity of the Fraser River delta foreshore;
yield estimates of emergent vegetation. M.Sc. thesis, UBC, Vancouver.
134 pp.
  1974. Habitat uses by moose of burns, cutovers and forests in north-
central British Columbia. Presented to Tenth N. American Moose Conference and Workshop, Duluth, Minn.    18 pp.
 H 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 Provincial Parks Branch
The Provincial Parks Branch functions within the
context of two basic objectives. The first of these
is the preservation and management of representative elements of the natural and historical heritage of British Columbia. Activities included
within this objective are the planning and selection
of new park and recreation areas, the management of facilities for visitor use, the provision of
educational and interpretive programs for visitor
enjoyment and understanding, and the management of the varied land, water and historical
resources to ensure their existence in perpetuity
for the benefits of residents and visitors to the
Province.
The second objective of the Branch is to provide
3 diverse set of outdoor recreation opportunities
equitably distributed and accessible to all residents of British Columbia. These opportunities
relate to viewing and sightseeing; wilderness
experience and travel; water sports and picnicking;
walking and hiking, boating and canoeing; camping
and accommodation services; winter sports and
fishing and hunting. This objective requires cooperation with various agencies and organizations
providing services outside Provincial Parks.
  PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H 71
1975/76  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE  PROVINCIAL PARKS  BRANCH
• Recreation Research
Visitor use surveys completed for Bowron Lake, Golden Ears, Mount
Robson, Cape Scott, Garibaldi, Mount Assiniboine, and Wells Gray Parks.
The park Attendance Data Collection System was computerized, providing
managers with invaluable data.
• Long-range Planning
Work was initiated in the following areas: Review and development of
Branch goals and objectives, development and co-ordination of recreational
corridor policies, study of revisions to classification and zoning mechanisms for
parks, completion of report to the Royal Commission on Forest Resources.
9 Master Planning and Site Planning
Work was completed on the development of short policy statements on the
objectives of management for 70 per cent of the parks in the Province.
Study reports were completed on numerous areas throughout the Province,
including the Adams River-Shuswap Lake area, the Monkman Pass in northwest
British Columbia, and Boundary Bay on the Lower Mainland.
• Facility Development
Approximately $8 million was spent on some 140 projects involving 75
parks throughout the Province. In addition to upgrading of existing facilities,
this expenditure permitted the establishment of additional campgrounds,
beaches, and picnic areas in some 15 parks.
• Historic Parks and Sites
In addition to the operation of existing parks, continued initiative was
shown on the research and restoration of historic trails, the most outstanding
achievement being the Fur Brigade Trail east of Hope, a co-operative program
with the Forest Service.
© Parks Operations
The Branch's efforts to complete the development of administrative headquarters for each of the Province's seven resource management regions was cut
short through a required reduction in staff.
• Resource Management
Individual wildlife reports were received for Atlin, Mount Edziza, and
Spatsizi Parks.
• Interpretation and Education
Twenty-three parks in six regions offered interpretative programs to over
210,000 people during the summer months.
• Youth Crew Program
This program now covers all regions of the Province (24 camps) and
during this past year included 303 males and 45 females in a variety of work,
recreational, and educational programs.
• Acquisition of New Parkland
Eight major land acquisitions were successfully negotiated. Of particular
interest were Conkle Lake, 400 feet of sandy lakeshore; Desolation Sound,
9,500 feet of ocean frontage; and Clements Lake, 4,700 feet of lake frontage.
 H 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Executive
Committee
Assistant Director
i/c Park Operations
G. Trachuk
Thompson
Okanagan
Divisional Chief
K.Joy
Wildlife
Management
Divisional Chief
R. Lowrey
Park Security &
Ranger Program
H.Jordan
Park Operations
Service
Regional Manager
Vacant
Region
Regional Manager
Quesnel District
Bella Coola District
Chilcotin District
Lac La Macho District
Kootenay
Region
Okanagan District
Shuswap District
Lillooet District
Wells Gray District
Thompson River District
Omineca-Peace
Region
Regional Manager
M. Goddard
Regional Manager
J. Mosselina
Kokanee District
Wasa District
Hamber District
Skeena
Region
Bear Lake District
Peace River District
Mount Robson District
Fraser Lake District
Liard District
Regional Manager
R. Norrish
Lakelse District
Vancouver Island
Region
Babine District
Atlin District
Regional Manager
J. Giliings
Lower Mainland
Region
Malahat District
Arrowsmith District
Regional Manager
J. Lemon
Mount Seymour District
Sechelt District
Garibaldi District
Culms District
Manning District
Alouette District
Administrative
Division
Executive Office
D.M. Rogers
Headquarters
Services
C. Heggie
Land Acquisitior
Section
J. Miller
Public Informaltoi
Office
J. Waiter
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H 73
Assistant Director
i/c Park Systems Dew,
CJ. Velay
Planning
Division
Engineering
Division
Historic Parks I
Sites Division
Divisional Chief
G. Macnab
Divisional Chief
D. Shaw
Divisional Chief
R. Broadland
Co-Ordination
Section
CC. Hammond
Const Section
G.A. Fairhurst
Senior Design
Engineer
G.A. Dery
Senior Project
Engineer
I.F. Klima
Research and
Interpretation Sect it
Design Section
Central Section
J.D. Anderson
Design & Project
Engineers
Barkerville
■ I w
orthern Section
R.F.B. Price
Contracts and
Structures
Harrison Mills
Long Range
Planning
T. Frechette
Waterworks and
Sewerage
m <
Eesearch Section
C. Campbell
Drafting and
Records
Workshop
Surveys and
Development
Mechanical
Services
 H 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H 75
Tom Lee
Director
Provincial Parks Branch
Parks Branch was organizationally modified this year, with the creation of
another branch, the Outdoor Recreation Branch, within the Department of Recreation and Travel Industry. Functions formerly within Parks Branch now located
within the new branch include liaison with regional districts and municipalities,
administration of the Community Recreation Facilities Fund and the Recreational
Land Green Belt Encouragement Act, and administration of Class C Parks. As
part of this Departmental reorganization, it is planned that the Parks Branch will
be relieved of the increasing responsibility for co-ordination of the many forms
of nonpark recreation.
A major undertaking of the Parks Branch during this past year was a review
of our policies as they relate to the management of the some 346 parks and recreation areas within the Provincial system. Initially, this took the form of the development of individual policy statements for the more significant parks within the
system. These policy statements consist of a stated set of objectives, zoning and
management guidelines, and priorities for action for each park and were completed
for approximately 70 per cent of the parks within the system. These statements
are intended to provide interim guidelines to managers within the Branch, pending
completion of master plans which will more accurately chart the ultimate course
of each park. The review of policy continued in a broader sense to include wildlife and fisheries programs, education and interpretation, recreation areas, user
permits, and related issues of a Provincial scale. This emphasis upon policy review
must be seen as a reflection of the increased complexities of management issues
facing the agency as a result of increased visitor use, expansion of the number of
parks, and the growth which has occurred in park facilities. It is anticipated that
this review will be completed within the coming fiscal year.
The establishment this past year of the Outdoor Recreation Council of British
Columbia promises new directions in public participation in parks and outdoor
recreation programs across the Province. The establishment of the Council may
be viewed as a direct result of the Manning Park Conference on outdoor recreation,
sponsored by the Parks Branch, and the subsequent conference on the Recreational
 H 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Use of Wildlands, sponsored by recreational user groups. The Council operates
as an agent independent of Government and has the expressed intent of providing
a public forum for user interest groups and a mechanism for making significant
public voices known to Government. The Branch welcomes the availability of the
Council as an agent for review and development of appropriate public policies.
T. Lee, Director
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
PARK MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS
REGIONAL ORGANIZATION
This was the first full year of operation under the revised regional boundaries
created by the Environment and Land Use Committee. Six regions were staffed
at preliminary levels before Government constraints on staff were applied. No
staff have been allocated to the Cariboo Regional office.
YOUTH CREWS
New Youth Crew camps were established in Tweedsmuir, Strathcona, Wells
Gray, Newcastle Island, and Muncho Lake Parks. Girls' crews were increased
from one in 1974 to three in 1975. Plans for the 1976 season anticipate having
nine girls' crews in six different locations, and 18 boys' crews in 14 different locations. Young men/women equalization of crews in relation to applications received will then be achieved. New camps are being planned for Cape Scott Park
on Vancouver Island and Naikoon Park in the Queen Charlottes. All six regions
now are engaged in Youth Crew programs.
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Work continued on the development of a rationale policy to handle the existing 768 remaining mineral claims in Provincial parks.
In accordance with the policy of phasing out nonconforming uses in nature
conservancy areas, it is anticipated that commercial guiding and trapping will be
removed from the Murtle Lake Conservancy Area in Wells Gray and Eutsuk and
Rainbow Conservancy Areas in Tweedsmuir in 1976.
Revised policy and procedures were completed for the park use permit system
and an assessment of the fee structure of permits was initiated.
A co-operative program was initiated in conjunction with Fish and Wildlife
Branch to develop a comprehensive policy respecting fish and wildlife management
in Provincial parks.
SECURITY
There was no increase in the security establishment over last year, with patrolmen employed in 23 parks, seven of which have gatehouse control.
Enforcement was strict, with 33 prosecutions being initiated by park staff.
Of these, 16 were for vandalism with penalties as high as 30 days' imprisonment
and $300 restitution being obtained. Other charges dealt with thefts and other
assaults under the Park Act and other Provincial Statutes.
At Cultus Lake the alternative community service program organized by the
Justice Development Commission was used successfully, over and above the regular
Courts. In all, 27 adults and five juveniles performed a total of 278 hours of
work for offences committed in the park.
Complaints from the public regarding rowdyism and vandalism were minimal,
only 15 being received all year.
ACCIDENT PREVENTION
An improvement was made over last year; with the Department of Recreation
and Conservation again winning the Premier's award for percentage reduction.
 H 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
This is no doubt attributable in large part to increased awareness on the part of the
work force, and the presence of active accident prevention committees in all areas.
INTERPRETATION
Thirty-eight naturalists introduced 210,000 visitors to the diversified natural
history found in 23 Provincial parks. The Community Naturalist Program was
once again very well received by the public. Assessment and Wildlife field and
office staff completed 28 reports on the status of flora and fauna in six regions.
Work continues on planning input for 38 additional study areas. The Display
Studio was kept very busy in planning and producing displays for the new nature
houses at Goldstream and Kokanee.
A three-day training course at the University of Victoria launched the 1975
Naturalist Program in British Columbia. Popular and accessible parks with nature
houses continued to attract many visitors. Manning's naturalists welcomed 37,700
inquiries; Miracle Beach, 42,800; Bowron, 12,200; Mount Robson, 18,600. Shuswap, with 47,340 inquiries, was the highest of any park in 1975.
Community Naturalists operated their popular programs of walks, talks, and
slide shows from Victoria, Vancouver, and Nelson. More than 36,000 children
and adults were involved in these programs.
Resource analyses and preliminary or conceptual interpretation plans were
completed for the following parks and recreation areas: Skagit River, Kalamalka
Lake, Driftwood Canyon, Cape Scott, Naikoon, Herald, and Kitsumkalum. Field
work was carried out for Ross Lake, Maclure Lake, and Hudson Bay Mountain.
In addition to these interpretation assessments, environmental quality control input
was provided for park plans proposed for Mabel Lake, Ruckle, Rathtrevor, Ross
Lake, Stuart Lake, and others.
Special environmental studies for 1975 were the major ecological study of
Liard River Hotsprings Park (field work complete), vegetation study of the Tseax
River Park proposal (Aiyansh Lava Flow), marine communities study and compilation of information on the physical features of Mud Bay, as part of the Boundary Bay Recreation Study. Co-operative funding with the Provincial Museum
was provided to university students doing vegetation and other resource analysis
studies in the Akamina Valley area. Planning and assessment continued for the
following: Little Qualicum, Rathtrevor Beach, Naikoon, Driftwood Canyon,
Tweedsmuir, Wells Gray, Liard River Hotsprings, Whiskers Point, Lakelse Lake,
Tseax River (proposal), Trout Lake, Kokanee Creek, Kokanee Glacier, Mount
Assiniboine, Stagleap, Champion Lakes, Nancy Greene, Golden Ears, Cypress,
MacMillan, Carp Lake, Anthony Island, Sproat Lake, Petroglyph, Goldstream,
Newcastle Island Marine Park, Conkle Lake, Manning (Blackwall area).
The first season of a three-year combined wildlife and fisheries inventory in
Tweedsmuir Park was accomplished. Individual wildlife surveys of Atlin, Mount
Edziza, and Spatsizi Parks were completed and are available.
Monitoring of the Elk River in Strathcona Provincial Park, and of the Roosevelt elk themselves, continued after the major cleanup along the river in 1974.
The last of the new displays for Manning Provincial Park Nature House were
completed, together with a partial revision of the Bowron Lake Nature House displays. The new nature houses at Goldstream and Kokanee Parks are scheduled to
open with new displays in time for the 1976 visitor season.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH H 79
ADMINISTRATIVE  DIVISION
PARKS AND OUTDOOR RECREATION SYSTEM
1. New parks and recreation areas established— Acres
Cypress  5,200.0
Green Lake  280.0
Herald   162.0
Kalamalka Lake  2,200.0
Niskonlith Lake Recreation Area  593.0
Sunnybrae Recreation Area  61.3
Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness  1,668,020.0
2. Additions to existing parks and recreation areas—
Burges and James Gadsden  320.0
Cathedral        64,000.0
3. Deletions from parks and recreation areas—
China Creek  '2.5
Marl Creek  11.0
4. Change of status—
Pennask Lake Park reclassified to recreation area 604.0
5. Land acquisition—Provincial parks—Eight major land acquisitions were
successfully negotiated. Of particular interest were Conkle Lake, 25 acres, 400
feet of sandy lakeshore; Desolation Sound, 161 acres, 9,500 feet of ocean frontage;
Clements Lake, 86 acres, 4,700 feet of lake frontage and 120 acres in Cape Scott
with considerable ocean frontage. A 2.8-acre parcel with frontage on the Sooke
River was purchased and the last three inholdings within the restoration area of
Fort Steele were acquired.
The following groups of mineral claims were purchased by the Parks Branch
in order to protect park values:
(a) Order in Council 77—Wells Gray Provincial Park.
(b) Order in Council 872—Wells Gray Provincial Park.
(c) Order in Council 78—Golden Ears Provincial Park.
There are approximately 768 valid mineral claims remaining within Provincial
parks held by 52 owners.
In line with the policy to phase out private cabins within Mount Seymour
Provincial Park, the Parks Branch purchased six cabins, also one park use permit
was cancelled. There are currently 47 valid cabin sites remaining within Mount
Seymour Park.
Parks acquired through Greenbelt Funding included Cosens Bay-Kalamalka
Lake, 2,200 acres in conjunction with the Second Century Fund and the Nature
Conservancy of Canada; Osoyoos Lake, 27.4 acres, 750-foot frontage; Herald
Park-Shuswap Lake, 162 acres, 4,400-foot frontage.
6. Pacific Rim National Park—In the Phase I area, 250 parcels have been
acquired, seven parcels are under negotiation and four have not been dealt with.
In the Phase II area, eight parcels have been acquired and the remaining two are
under negotiation.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
7. Summary of parks, recreation areas, and wilderness conservancies to April
1, 1976-
Number
Class A  253
Class B       6
Class C     66
Total parks  325
Recreation areas     20
Wilderness conservancies       1
Total parks, recreation areas,
and wilderness conservancies   346
Acres
6,958,147
3,321,163
37,721
10,307,031
562,613
325,000
11,193,990
Staffing
A comprehensive establishment control system was initiated to provide a
mechanism for assessing and directing organization structure. As directed by
Government policy, the Branch set out to achieve a 15-per-cent reduction in year-
around employees and by April 1, 1976, had reduced its manpower resources by
about 10 per cent.
Procedures
Standard policies and procedures were adapted for recording and controlling
physical inventories. An estimated $4 million of equipment is now under inventory
control.
Departmental Library
Use of the library increased with one staff member working nearly full-time
on the lending of materials, the displaying of new journals on racks throughout the
Department, and the copying of articles and papers for staff remote from the
library.
The Librarian visited regional office libraries and published our first duplicate
exchange list, providing for regional office collections.
In January 1976 The Library: A Manual was produced and distributed to all
Departmental offices to increase understanding of library services.
Information Services
The demand for more diversified types of publications increased, and new
folders describing Mount Edziza Provincial Park and Recreation Area, Cathedral
Provincial Park, and Naikoon Provincial Park, and a completely revised edition of
the Parks List using a new format were prepared and distributed during the year.
In addition, draft copies of publications describing Wasa, Kokanee Creek, Champion Lakes, Lakelse Lake, and Carp Lake Provincial Parks, and Provincial parks
along the Alaska Highway, were completed by year-end and will be available for
distribution early in 1976. In keeping with the metrication of Canada, all publications have undergone change to the metric system of measurement.
Contact with the general public was maintained through the news media and
through interested groups and organizations. Special presentations were given to
Travel Counsellors' schools in Vancouver, Radium Hot Springs, Dawson Creek,
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
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BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
and Naramata. In co-operation with other branches of the Department of Recreation and Conservation, the Branch was represented at outdoor shows on Vancouver Island and the Mainland. In June, the Information Officer attended the
annual conference of the American Association for Conservation Information at
Portland, Oregon. The monthly report was restructured and named "Park-S-
Scope."
ENGINEERING DIVISION
In co-operation with field offices, other divisions, Government agencies, and
contractors, Engineering provided technical support for the capital development
and major maintenance works in parks.
The major engineering effort of the Division was applied toward the co-ordination of contracts for the building of Cypress Provincial Park and the upgrading
and completion of electrical, water, and sewerage systems at a variety of locations
throughout the Province.
Mechanical and survey functions were decentralized to the field offices, with
headquarters assigned the responsibilities for Province-wide direction and coordination.
The workshop at Langford produced a large quantity of park equipment such
as tables, boats, signs, and toilets. Several new products were designed and distributed to Parks and Fish and Wildlife personnel, such as the new beartraps. In
addition, the workshop operated the headquarters vehicle pool, transported finished
products, and handled several off-yard jobs.
HISTORIC  PARKS AND SITES  DIVISION
During 1975, through participation at conferences, meetings, and seminars,
the Historic Parks and Sites Division maintained and enlarged its valuable contacts with the numerous institutions, associations, and Government agencies in
Canada and the United-States concerned with the preservation of historic resources.
In October an important meeting and workshop was held in Victoria, attended by
staff from Barkerville, Fort Steele, Kilby Museum, and Headquarters.
Barkerville Historic Park—While no major development projects were undertaken during 1975, progress was made on restoration of several buildings. Two
new operating exhibits, the blacksmith-wheelwright shop and the cabinetmaker's
shop, were opened and proved very popular with the visitors. A record 3,257
students in organized groups toured the park in May and June. Revenue from
special events and souvenir sales increased significantly over 1974 to a total of
more than $230,000.
Columbia River Historic Park—Considerable progress was made toward completion of plans for a picnic area-interpretation centre for the park.
Cottonwood House Historic Park—Visitation to this park was up to over
28,000 in 1975. Work continued on preparation of a small interpretation centre
in one of the existing log buildings.
Fort McLeod Historic Park—Foundation restoration and other minor repairs
were completed on the log buildings at the site.
Fort Steele Historic Park—In his first full year at the park, the curator made
considerable progress in cataloguing, researching, and presenting the collection.
A special exhibit was prepared for International Women's Year featuring the clothing and personal effects and outlining the contributions of specific pioneer women.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH H 83
At Fort Steele and Barkerville a major user survey was conducted by the staff of
the Parks Branch Research Section. Revenue from the Wild Horse Theatre, railway, stagecoach, and souvenir sales increased in 1975.
Kilby Museum Historic Park—The slow process of cataloguing the collection
continued during 1975. A 10,000-gallon water-storage tank was installed as the
second phase of the project water supply and fire-protection system. An old log
building from the Mission area was acquired, dismantled, and moved to the Park
for re-erection as housing for the water-storage tank and electric pump.
Heritage structures—The Fort Steele Guide Book was continued during the
year and is scheduled for completion in the early summer of 1976. Several proposals were prepared for a new Theatre Royal at Barkerville. Historical and
architectural authentication was provided for various structures of concern to the
Division, to the Provincial Historic Sites Advisory Board, and to the Victoria Heritage Advisory Committee.
PARK HISTORY
During 1975 and into 1976, research and advisory input was provided to
both Planning and Interpretation Divisions concerning several established and
proposed parks. Summer staff undertook an inventory of the historic resources
within Lower Mainland Region parks, recreation areas, and reserves. An assessment of the human history features within established Provincial parks was begun
in order to provide a Divisional contribution to the process of preparing concept
statements and master plans for parks.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
A study was undertaken and preliminary plans drafted for required alterations
to the Barkerville Museum. Also, for Barkerville, several sets of plans were prepared on the proposed reconstruction of the Theatre Royal. Preliminary drawings
were begun on a proposed building for Fort Steele which would combine an interpretation centre, souvenir shop, restaurant, and post office.
HISTORIC TRAILS
The clearing of the Hope to Tulameen section of the 1849 Hudson's Bay
Company Brigade Trail is now half completed. Restoration of the Dewdney Trail
between Christina Lake and Paterson is almost finished and a brochure was produced on this section of the famous trail. There was some consultation with Parks
Canada on a proposal for joint development of the Alexander Mackenzie-Grease
Trail as a national historic trail under the ARC (Agreements for Recreation and
Conservation) Program.
HISTORIC SITES ADVISORY BOARD
Fewer reports were prepared by the Division for the Board in 1975 than the
previous year. Among those submitted were reports and proposals on the Skook-
umchuck Church and Barkerville's Theatre Royal. Divisional contact with the
Board is also maintained through representation on the subcommittee on markers,
which reviews proposed texts for Stop-of-Interest markers.
 H 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
PLANNING  DIVISION
Planning Division made significant progress this year with a strong contribution to interagency studies in the field of outdoor recreation assessment, recreation
inventory, visual and ecological impact studies, and the production of specific park
plans.
LONG-RANGE PLANNING
The Planning Division has been instrumental in the technical preparation of
policy papers and direction for the Branch, through the Long-range Policy Section.
Work in this section includes the critical analysis of papers produced elsewhere.
During 1975/76, this section prepared a concept for a system of recreational
corridors, including draft legislation. This concept was presented for discussion
with other agencies and public groups during the year. Alternative actions arising
from these discussions are now under discussion.
Papers produced by this section to focus internal Branch policy discussion
on a number of subjects included
Policy for Recreation Areas.
A Proposal for Park Classification and Zoning.
A Proposed Snowmobile Policy for Parks.
A Draft of Parks Branch Goals, Objectives, and Policies.
A Redraft of the Squamish-Lillooet Outdoor Recreation Study.
A Branch Submission to the Royal Commission on Forest Resources.
A recreational land purchase program.
RESEARCH
Park Surveys
During 1974 a series of surveys was conducted in specific parks to obtain an
improved understanding of the background, behaviour, and attitudes of park users.
All data from these surveys are now stored on computer files and the following
reports were produced in 1975:
Report No.
16. Bowron Lake Park Visitor Use Study.
24. Golden Ears Park Visitor Use Study.
36. Mount Robson Visitor Use Study.
37. Cape Scott Park User Survey.
39. Garibaldi Park Visitor Use Study.
41. Mount Assiniboine Visitor Use Study.
42. Wells Gray Park Visitor Use Study.
44. Mount Assiniboine Visitor Use Study.
In addition, a report was completed which compared destination camper use
in two public and two private campgrounds in the Okanagan-(31. An Analysis
and Comparison of Okanagan Public and Private Campground Markets). Other
user surveys were completed on winter use in selected parks in the Lower Mainland and the first draft of a report has been prepared.
This year we moved away from individual park user surveys and a regional
survey was completed at ferry terminals to and from the southern Gulf Islands.
Passengers were interviewed to identify their preferences for recreational development, and a report is being prepared.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS  BRANCH H  85
B.C. Parks Graphic Atlas
To broaden perspectives on the total park system, a report was completed in
January of 1975 (1. British Columbia's Park System: A Graphic Presentation)
which graphically distils pertinent data. Maps for each of the park regions display
monthly camping occupancy levels, origins of visitors, relationship between campground size and occupancy. In addition, Provincial maps show the number of
camp-sites provided per thousand residents within 100 miles of major population
centres and other materials that assist in the development of long-range objectives.
Environmental and Social Impact Study
With our increasing concern to assure use without abuse, we carried out two
detailed environmental impact studies. These consultant studies are being used
in the formulation of master plans for Mount Robson and Mount Assiniboine
Parks.
As part of our participation in the work of the Canadian Outdoor Recreation
Research Committee, a paper was prepared (19. Assessing the Social Impact of
Recreation Developments) which outlined some of the factors which should be
considered in evaluating the social benefits or drawbacks which will accrue from
investment in different kinds of recreational provision.
Recreation Facility Inventory
At present, there is no complete inventory of recreation facilities in British
Columbia. To attempt to rectify this situation, we developed an inventory format,
in close co-operation with the Department of Travel Industry. The concept behind this system was to make it simple and to develop effective mechanisms to
provide yearly updates. The initial objective, which will be achieved by May 1976,
is to produce an inventory of all camp-sites in the Province. The next phase will
be to expand input into the system of a wide range of additional recreation facilities.
Relevant Provincial departments have agreed to work with this system.
Attendance Data
Perhaps the most significant innovation in 1975 was the complete computerization of the park Attendance Data Collection System. One of the outputs from
improvements is the park campground profile. This profile permits planners and
managers to obtain a much better idea of campground markets. With little additional effort or cost, we now have a clear idea of the origins and length of stay of
campground visitors. Managers have also found that the "loading" graph is extremely useful in determining seasonal staff requirements. This capability represents a national breakthrough in recreation data collection procedures and means
that we can obtain relevant information at the cheapest possible cost.
Program Evaluation
In 1975 a detailed study was conducted in Barkerville and Fort Steele Historic Sites. Management and research staffs have worked co-operatively to evaluate public response to existing programs. In a similar vein of program evaluation,
the Community Recreation Facility Impact Study interviewed recipients of grants
from the $42 million fund. Information was sought on assessment of the impacts
of the facility, problems in obtaining supplementary and maintenance funding, costs
of facility operation, design problems or problems associated with running the
facility, estimated future fund requests, etc.    This study was conducted at the re-f
 H 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
quest of the Recreational Facilities and Regional Parks Division of the Outdoor
Recreation Branch. It is anticipated that a summary report will be produced by
mid-1976.
Committees
Members of the Research Section played a major role in several committees.
It provided representation on committees such as the ELUC Data Service Committee, the Canadian Outdoor Recreation Research Committee, and the Olenick
Committee on Recreation Training Programs in B.C. It supplied a chairperson
for the North Fraser Recreation Study which was completed this year and provided
guidelines for recreational planning for the Fraser River from New Westminster
to the University Endowment Lands. A chairperson was also provided for the
Outdoor Recreation Co-ordinating Committee which was established in 1975 and
is attempting to improve co-ordination at the Provincial level between 10 agencies
involved in recreation facility provision.
CENTRAL SECTION
Park System Development
New auto-oriented parks were created at Kalamalka Lake, Green Lake, Nis-
konlith Lake, and Sunnybrae and Herald Parks on Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake.
A major study resulted in expansion of Cathedral Lake Park from 18,000 to
82,000 acres to provide a large natural area representing southern Okanagan.
The second year of a major fieldwork program to determine a park proposal
representative of the Chilcotin natural region was completed. Over the winter of
1975/76, our proposals have been subject to interagency review.
Field work for a possible new park in Valhallas above Slocan Lake was completed. A review of park status will begin during 1976. Also in the Kootenays,
possible park proposals adjacent to Mica reservoir were examined.
Park facilities were designed for several locations, including Bull Canyon,
Trout Lake, Downing Park on Kelly Lake, Sunnybrae on Shuswap Lake, Conkle
Lake, Mabel Lake, and Loon Lake. Development of all but the latter two also
commenced.
Park Planning Process
During 1975 the Branch commenced its first full-scale program to provide
for public involvement in preparing plans for a park. The purchase by the Province of 2,000 acres of the Coldstream Ranch on Kalamalka Lake provided initial
impetus to the process. Public participation through personal contacts, public
meetings, and publication of reports was met with considerable interest by residents
of Vernon and area.   A plan should be finalized early 1976.
An experimental program was initiated with the co-operation of the Outdoor
Recreation Council to provide public input into the study of park potentials in
the Chilcotin region.
Interagency Studies
Given a Provincial policy to encourage integrated resource management,
several interagency study teams were set up to study matters of resource allocation,
including park proposals. These study areas included Adams River, Stein River
Basin, Bonaparte-Tranquille Plateau, and Chilcotin Ranges.    Other study teams
 H 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
considered resolution of matters relating to mineral development and energy generation and transmission. Included here were Arrow reservoir, proposed Revelstoke Dam, Pend-d'Oreille Reservoir, Libby Reservoir, Coalblock proposals, major
Hydro transmission-lines.
COASTAL SECTION
Park System Development
Assessment work was done to determine park opportunities in the following
areas: Cape Scott, Howe Sound, Indian Arm, Jones (Wahleach) Lake, Blue Mountain, Stave Lake, Nimpkish Valley, Quatsino Sound, Kyuquot, and the Artlish
River Caves. Rugged Point, near the entrance to Kyuquot Channel, has considerable park potential. A proposal to extend Cape Scott Park boundary eastward
has been prepared.
Concept plans for the Black Tusk Area of Garibaldi Provincial Park and the
road and trail system for Mount Seymour Provincial Park received approval. Work
continued on the conceptual plans for Cypress, Manning, Davis Lake, Silver Lake,
and Golden Ears.
Design plans were completed for a viewing platform, day-use area, and campground at Brandywine Falls, relocation of camp-sites at Garibaldi Lake, design
of the Cultus Lake Portal, a shelter at Diamond Head, a shelter in Golden Ears,
and the ski trail system for Cypress. Work continued on summer and winter
proposals at Cypress, a day-use area at Davis Lake, a campground at the Skagit-
Sumallo junction in Manning Park, and a day-use area in Golden Ears.
A concept and a site plan was approved for the day-use area of Ruckle Park.
The development will be completed by the spring of 1976. Site plans were also
drawn up for the reconstruction of the day-use area at Rathtrevor Beach, picnic
table shelters at Newcastle Island, gatehouse at Miracle Beach, and for developments at Smelt Bay and Filongly Parks.
Interagency Studies
An interagency study, initiated by the Parks Branch, is being undertaken to
assess effects of naturally occurring processes and man's activities on the forest
cover of MacMillan Park and to devise methods of protecting its recreational
integrity. An interagency review was also undertaken on the Strathcona Park
boundary in order to make the park more viable for recreation and management
by proposing the addition of key access points and altering straight-line boundaries
to natural boundaries. The next phase of the study will be to compile a resource
inventory of the affected areas. Input was made into the interagency study of the
impact of a proposed water storage reservoir on recreational uses of the Silver-
Holyoak Lakes area, southwest of Ladysmith.
NORTHERN SECTION
Park System Development
Proposals were prepared to establish new parks at Monkman and One Island
Lake.   Spatsizi Provincial Park, containing 1.8 million acres, was established.
Plans for Mount Robson Park included facility design for redevelopment of
the Mount Fitzwilliam picnic-site; a proposal for a signing and a master plan.
 PROVINCIAL  PARKS  BRANCH H  89
Facility design plans were prepared for a campground at Stuart Lake, expansion of the day-use area at McLure Lake, Ross Lake, and Lakelse Lake Park and
a replacement development for Topley Landing Park, including both day-use and
camping facilities.
Areas adjacent to Stone Mountain Park and Muncho Lake Park were reviewed
for possible addition to these parks. Plans have been prepared for day-use and
camping facilities at Boya Lake Park.
An interim development plan has been prepared for Naikoon Park and a
review conducted of the recreational potential of Rainbow and Diana Lakes near
Prince Rupert.
Interagency Studies
Field work in the Skeena Region was concentrated on the major integrated
resource study being co-ordinated by the ELUC Secretariat. Meetings were
attended at Smithers, concerning theory and possible application of an integrated
resource management policy, with specfic reference to the Babine Range area.
A review of the potential alignment of the Fort Nelson-Fort Simpson Highway was undertaken to determine possible parks along the route.
Ongoing liaison was maintained with interagency groups in relation to resource
studies on the Williston Clearing Project and Recreation Survey.
Assistance was given to educational programs at Malaspina College and the
Green Timbers Forest Service School.
SKEENA REGION
The Skeena Park Region consists of three Park Districts—Lakelse, Atlin, and
Babine. In addition, Bella Coola District is being administered by Skeena as the
Cariboo Region is not yet functioning. There are 19 Class A and B Parks in the
Skeena Region with a total of 3,519,232 acres (40 per cent of the Provincial total).
In addition there are some 10 Class C Parks accounting for 1,119 acres. Finally,
three recreation areas exist in the region covering 347,800 acres or 62 per cent of
the Provincial total.
Several staff appointments were made to the Skeena Park Region during 1975.
A Planner for the Skeena Park Region was assigned to the Smithers office in June
1975. In addition, three Technician 1 positions were filled in Skeena, including a
Technician 1 for Lakelse Lake Park, Technician 1 for Babine District, and a
Technician 1 for Atlin District.
The year 1975 saw some important planning and management reconnaissance
projects involving Naikoon Park, Mount Edziza Park, Boya Lake Park, and
Tweedsmuir Park. A management plan for Tweedsmuir Park was completed in
early 1975 and phases recommended within this management plan were implemented. In addition a four-year management plan program was compiled by the
Skeena Park Region for Atlin District. This management plan proposed a series
of objectives to be implemented over the next four years concerning the administration and management of the park and recreation area resource in Atlin District.
Capital Works Projects
The Bella Coola District saw major work inputs along the Atnarko River in
Tweedsmuir Park. Improvements were carried out to the Parks Branch headquarters and residence at Atnarko camp. Three wells were drilled along the Highway Corridor and improvements to the Atnarko headquarters water system were
 BRITISH  COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
carried out.   A highway pulloff was constructed at the base of the "Hill" section
coming into the Atnarko River valley.
Babine District
At Maclure Lake the new beach extension was begun with clearing of trees
and piling of sand for spreading on the winter ice. A small project was completed
at Driftwood Canyon Park where a parking-lot, a foot bridge, and toilet facilities
were provided. Topley Landing Park received improvements to the parking and
recreational facilities. Negotiations for land purchase to provide a headquarters
and workshop service yard at Houston continued during 1975.
Lakelse District
Work continued on the electrical contract for Furlong Bay. A new 22 campsite loop at Furlong Bay campground was completed. Work began on a water
reservoir for the Furlong Bay Camp-site. Also an extension to the present workshop at Lakelse Lake Park was begun to provide office accommodation for staff.
Renovations to the Dunes Lodge in Naikoon Park were begun to accommodate a
Youth Crew in 1976.
Atlin District
A mobile home to function as an office and residence for park staff was purchased and located at Dease Lake in 1975. In addition, clearing of an access road
was provided at Dease Lake for the Park headquarters.
Working in Government Program
The Babine District had some 25 people working within this program. Emphasis was placed on the hiring of native Indian people in the Babine District and
some 20 people were hired under this directive. The projects the WIG personnel
in the Babine District were hired on included Capital Works Projects such as Driftwood Canyon and Topley Landing as well as projects at Maclure Lake, including
firewood and concrete construction. Similarly in the Lakelse District 17 people
were hired under the Working in Government Program. This included 12 native
Indian people from the Terrace-Kitimat area. Projects included table plank finishing, completion of the new 22-unit camp-site loop at Furlong Bay, and some
regular maintenance programs.
Interpretation
For the second consecutive year a naturalist's program was held at Lakelse
Lake Park during the spring and summer seasons. Again outdoor naturalist classes
with school-children in the Kitimat-Terrace area were held in May and June.
Weather unfortunately kept numbers attending the interpretation talks at the park
during the summer to smaller levels than the previous year. Emphasis in the
naturalists' talks was placed on bears and humans' relationship to bears, particularly
in Lakelse Lake Park.
Special Programs in the Skeena Region
1. An intensive wildlife inventory was carried out by a team of wildlife specialists in Tweedsmuir Provincial Park in 1975. Smaller wildlife inventories were
carried out also in Mount Edziza Provincial and Atlin Provincial Parks.
2. The Parks Branch was also involved in a study of the Spatsizi Plateau some
200 miles north of Smithers.   A number of Government agencies were involved in
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
this study, including the Department of Mines, B.C. Forest Service, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, and the Provincial
Parks Branch. Recommendations on park status for the Spatsizi Plateau were
sent forward to ELUC Secretariat. In November 1975 a 1,660,060-acre park
was established over the Spatsizi Plateau.
THOMPSON-OKANAGAN REGION
The only addition to regional staff during 1975 was that of a Planning Officer.
Statistics indicate that the campgrounds of the Thompson-Okanagan Region
produced 27 per cent of the total camp-site revenue for the Province. This means
more use over a longer period for many of our campgrounds. A significant capital
works program which concentrated on the completion of old projects and made
provision for the construction of new facilities was capably handled by regional
staff in co-operation with the districts. The most important addition to facilities
in the regional system of parks occurred in the Lac la Hache and Shuswap Districts,
where new facilities were installed in areas that previously had few sites available
for public use. Considerable progress was made toward the completion of longstanding projects in the Okanagan, Thompson-River, and Wells Gray Districts.
Okanagan District
A landslide severed road access to Okanagan Lake Park and necessitated the
reallocation of capital funds.   Work continued toward the completion of a high-
 H 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
density campground and day-use area within Okanagan Lake Park, and significant
refinements were made to the water storage and distribution system.
While use in many areas of the Province are expected to show a decline, it is
anticipated that public use of developed facilities within the Okanagan District will
show an increase.
Shuswap District
With the assistance of both Engineering and Planning Divisions, a rather
innovative development project was brought closer to completion at Cinnemousun
Narrows on Shuswap Lake. This work entailed the construction of a somewhat
different type of camp-site for use by boaters and it is destined to form the nucleus
of a system of marine parks for Shuswap Lake. Other capital works were undertaken at Sunnybrae, a small area on Shuswap Lake, and refinements to the water-
storage facilities in Yard Creek Park.
Public use remained at levels similar to those of previous years, most facilities
being taxed to their utmost during July and August.
Thompson River District
The program of capital works planned and executed within this district was
aimed at the completion of developments started as long ago as 1965. Additional
works were undertaken toward the completion of landscaping and beach improvement in the day-use area at Paul Lake Park. The water system was extended to
provide irrigation, and the main peripheral camp-site road was paved. Minor
works were undertaken in Monck, Lac la Jeune, and Skihist Parks. These works
included landscaping, irrigation systems, and the enlargement and improvement
of water-storage capacity.
It is anticipated that the continuing improvement of facilities and opportunities
within this district has produced an increase in public visitation and appreciation
of this portion of the park system.
Lac la Hache District
The capital program formulated for this district concentrated on the development of new facilities in an area that was deficit from the point of view of park
development. Green Lake Park was completed and opened for public use, and the
former Downing property on Kelly Lake was developed in a simple and less expensive form of development that can accommodate both day and overnight use.
The third new development was undertaken in the Bull Canyon Recreational Reserve, fronting on the Chilcotin River near Alexis Creek. Here, again, a somewhat
different approach to the normal format was used and a very welcome addition to
this district park system was brought close to completion. Other capital works
included improvements to the Lac la Hache water system, minor landscaping, and
an extension of the garage workshop-office complex.
Despite inclement weather and a heavy construction schedule, public use of
available facilities was heavy and indicated an increase over previous years.
Wells Gray District
Much of the capital funding allocated to this district was expended on further
refinements to the Clearwater Lake road, the boat-launching and parking facilities
at the road terminus, and general preventive maintenance throughout the park.
Minor works were undertaken within the Hemp Creek service area to stabilize the
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
domestic water supply and distribution, and a work program was undertaken to
continue with the construction or improvement to the marine facilities on Clearwater and Azure Lakes.
Continued road and facility improvement, and the ever-growing popularity
of Wells Gray Park, combined to produce an increase in visitation to this district.
OMINECA-PEACE PARK REGION
In step with name changes for many other resource administrative offices in
the Province, the Prince George Park District became the Omineca-Peace Park
Region while the areas previously denoted as regions became known as park districts. A regional service yard was established for material and equipment storage
and distribution to the park projects in the region. It will serve also as the park
furniture refinishing depot for the region.
Peace-Liard District
For the second year in a row flash floods along the Alaska Highway portion
of this district caused serious damage to park facilities and resulted in decreased
park visitation. The floods completely devastated the facilities in Racing River
Park and eroded a significant area out of Kledo Creek Park.
The three permanent district staff received office facilities in the basement of
the old Government building in Fort St. John. This was a welcome improvement
from the district workshop in Charlie Lake Park where the administration of the
18 Provincial parks within this district had previously taken place.
Summer maintenance staff were supplemented with student labour and a Youth
Crew Program (12 boys) was initiated in Muncho Lake Provincial Park. A pilot
project centralizing garbage at campground wood corrals successfully proved to
be economically expedient. It will be applied in all the Provincial parks throughout
the region in 1976.
A number of minor capital projects was completed in 1975.
Bear Lake District
This park district is administered by a regular staff of four which is an increase
of one over 1974.
Inclement weather during the latter part of July and the entire month of
August discouraged park visitation noticeably.
Carp Lake Park—Rustic campgrounds throughout this park were furnished
with picnic tables and fire pits and a start was made on the provision of log toilet
buildings.
Crooked River Park—An unprecedented plague of black bears was experienced. In July, 19 bears were live-trapped, marked, and released some distance
from the park. None returned and little damage and no personal injury was experienced. A very successful Youth Crew Program was undertaken in the park.
Four miles of new hiking trails were constructed. At the year's end the trail system
in the park was groomed for cross-country ski-ing and a skating-rink and toboggan
slope were developed as a pilot project to assess public desire in this park for an
annual winter recreational program.
Purden Lake Park—Located 45 miles east of Prince George on the Yellowhead Highway, the park was officially opened by the Honourable the Minister of
Northern Affairs.   Facilities consist of a 78-unit campground; a double-width boat
 H 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
launch; one-quarter mile of developed sand beach area, and 4 miles of woodland
trail. The latter was developed by an effective Labour Department sponsored
student work project. Unfortunately, the heavy rains in August caused serious
erosion damage to the sand beach and parking-lots. A severe windstorm in mid-
November devastated the park with extensive forest blowdown.
Stuart Lake Park—Development plans for a lakeside-oriented campground
and major boat-launch facility were completed.
Beaumont Park—Insufficient funds were available for the completion of the
heavily used beach developments. The popularity of this park as a beach area and
highway-oriented campground was very evident in 1975.
Ten Mile Lake Park—Improvements to beach developments and the addition
of a playfield were completed in response to the increasing demand in this park
for beach-oriented recreational activities. A 75-unit high-density campground designed for tourism was nearly completed.
Bowron Lake District
Visitor use of the canoe circuit has levelled off at approximately 4,000. The
park interpretation program was augmented on an experimental basis with an
education program in outdoor recreational skills and wilderness ethics development.
This proved very successful and was long overdue as noted from the results of a
visitor study of the park in 1975 which indicated that 60 per cent of the canoeists
travelling the 75-mile wilderness canoe circuit through the park are totally inexperienced in canoeing and wilderness camping. Unfortunately, the first drowning
on the canoe circuit took place since the establishment of this wilderness park in
1961.
Capital developments were concentrated on the construction of a new administrative centre. This will be completed in 1976. An extraordinary windstorm in
mid-November caused a 1,000-acre blowdown across the first portage on the canoe
circuit.
Mount Robson District
The permanent staff in this half-million-acre park was increased by one to a
total of three in 1975. A host of small capital and maintenance projects were
undertaken. Two all-girl Youth Crews (30 girls) were employed very successfully. This required a major reorganization and some additional facilities in a
traditionally all-male operation.
Agreement was reached with the Department of Highways to erect rustic
interpretative signs along 45 miles of the Yellowhead Highway located in the park,
and many signs were put in place. A significant start was made to control random
camping along the highway through the park. A radio communications system
for the park was also started with the cordial assistance of the B.C. Forest Service.
Increased public demand to utilize more of the wilderness backcountry of this
second oldest park in the Province has resulted in the drafting of a master plan
that will guide the future development and management of this park. Completion
of this plan is anticipated in late 1976 or early 1977.
KOOTENAY REGION
This season saw a greater emphasis on planning with the appointment of a
Regional Planner.   The preparation of interim policy statements for most of the
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH H 95
parks in the region have been co-ordinated by the Regional Planning staff with
much participation from all management personnel.
The Regional Resource Management Committees containing representatives
from all Provincial Government agencies reviewed submissions relating to the establishment of Provincial parks at Whiteswan Lake, Cartwright Lake, and at Gerrard
and Trout Lakes. Recreation inventories have been completed for the Duncan
Valley, Libby Reservoir, and Valhalla Mountains.
The region established a Wilderness Committee to assemble information on
management techniques and to recommend guidelines for wilderness management
in the Province. This emphasis follows the implementation and funding of a Back
Country Ranger Program initiated by the Branch in 1974.
A Youth Crew Program continued in the Kootenays with a girls' crew headquartered at Kokanee Creek Park and a boys' crew located at Champion Lakes,
Kettle River, Wasa Lake, and Mount Assiniboine Parks.
The community naturalist program was initiated in October and continued
throughout the winter with classroom and outdoor presentations being given to
many classes in the Nelson School District. This program also included sessions
with students and teachers from Notre Dame University and Selkirk College and
numerous public groups such as girl guides, senior citizens, Naturalist Society, etc.
Kokanee District
The Capital Works Program provided the funding necessary for construction
of an Interpretation Education Centre at Kokanee Creek Park. It is scheduled
for completion in April 1976 and to be open for public use in July 1976.
A 21-unit campground was started at Conkle Lake Park and should be completed for use in June 1976.
Campground renovations continued at Champion Lakes Park and improvements to the water system were completed.
Improvements were made to the sanitary facilities and staff quarters at Kettle
River Park.   The cattleguards at King George VI Park were reconstructed.
The trail around Gibson Lake in Kokanee Glacier Park was completed. Also
much of the log debris in this lake was piled and burned to ready the site for a
small dam to stabilize water levels. The parking-lot, toilets, and new picnic-sites
were completed.
A 13-unit campground with day-use facilities was completed at Gerrard on the
south end of Trout Lake.
Approximately 3 miles of difficult trail construction were undertaken in the
Fry Creek Canyon now contained with the Fry Creek Recreation Area.
Wasa District
The Water Resources Branch of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources continued to fund the development of Kikomun Creek Park. Works
included the construction of an equipment shed, a start on a sani-station, extensions
and improvements to the water system, landscaping, general clean-up, and the
placement of anchors for the debris boom.
Works continued on the reconstruction of the old Rod and Gun Club development in Premier Lake Park. Revisions are now complete on the boat ramp,
parking-lot, campground, and day-use facilities.
 H 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The erection of a fence and the installation of a cattleguard in Peckhams Lake
Park will prevent cattle from conflicting with public use and also prevent damage
to landscaped picnic-sites, road edges, and transplanted trees.
Minor repairs and improvements to the Moyie boat ramp were completed to
prevent future erosion of the driving surface.
LOWER MAINLAND REGION
Region
Use continues to increase in all districts. New supervisory staff arrived as
staff changes were experienced at Mount Seymour, Cypress, Cultus Lake, and
Manning Park Lodge.
Mount Seymour District
Cypress Park was opened to the public at Christmas 1975, offering two double
chairlifts, one rope tow, and almost 30 km of cross-country ski trails. Additional
areas for tobagganing and snow play were also welcomed by the public.
Skiers on Mount Seymour were served by a new high-capacity twin-rope tow
which replaced the original Enquist rope tow.
Throughout the winter, thousands of park visitors enjoyed nature walks and
talks conducted by the winter Naturalist at Mount Seymour.
Cultus District
Use at Cultus Lake Park has continued to escalate, as over 1,160,000 visitors,
including 84,000 campers, were recorded during 1975.
A new water system replaced the old Clear Creek system which was beginning
to fail.
Extensive damage was sustained in Cultus Lake Park by flooding during
heavy rainfalls in December 1975.
Alouette District
The new, 139-unit addition to camping facilities at Golden Ears Park completed and has proved very popular with visitors.
Other construction works completed included paving, the Youth Crew camp,
a gatehouse, and the installation of a hikers' shelter on Panorama Ridge.
Garibaldi District
Construction of a new, 30-man shelter at Diamond Head has received immediate acclaim by both hikers and skiers.
Preliminary construction was undertaken this year for additional day-shelters
and some camp-sites in the Black Tusk Area.
Peace Arch Park
The Peace Arch Portal was the object Of a major renovation in a project
undertaken jointly by Washington State Parks and the B.C. Parks Branch.
Continued high use reflects the consistent popularity of Peace Arch Park.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H97
Sechelt District
A new water-storage facility has greatly improved fire protection capability at
Porpoise Bay Park.
Visitation to Marine Parks in Plumper Cove, Desolation Sound, Princess
Louisa Inlet, and Copeland Islands has increased considerably.
Manning District
A new road system was introduced at Pinewoods as the Hope-Princeton Highway becomes widened to four lanes.
There was a continued increase in the number of recreational vehicles using
the Gibson Pass facilities this winter. In addition, a number of highly successful
winter camping and cross-country ski-ing programs had over 18,000 participants.
Renovations were made to the Gibson Pass water system, and a comprehensive water, heating, and building maintenance program was introduced at Manning
Park Lodge.
The new 45-unit Silver Tip Campground in the Skagit Recreation Area was
welcomed by the numerous visitors there. Forest fires were kept to a minimum
through co-operation with the B.C. Forest Service, and only 15 were reported.
The volunteer fire and ambulance service attended 55 accidents and transported 84 injured people to hospital in 1975.
Manning Park Lodge
The reservation system has proved highly satisfactory in dealing fairly with
the great volume of requests for accommodation during peak periods.
Several dozen school and recreation groups used the lodge facilities as a base
from which to go hiking or ski-ing. There has been a steady, marked increase in
group visits during winter mid-week periods.
Innovations in the restaurant that proved very successful were the hotdog
and cold drink sales area in the lobby to accommodate summer crowds, and the
Saturday buffet dinners during the ski season.
For the first time, accurate use figures were recorded that became the basis for
a detailed operational report on Manning Park Lodge completed in April of 1976.
VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION
The 1975 operating-year for the Vancouver Island Region was highlighted by
the hiring of a Regional Planner and a Regional Construction Superintendent.
Public usage throughout the region was up over the previous year, but all
districts were able to keep pace. A number of students were employed by the
districts through the availability of specially allocated Working in Government
Funds.  The numerous programs set up to handle these students were successful.
The Youth Crew Program for the region expanded from one camp to three.
Additional camps were placed at Newcastle Island, Malahat District, and at Strathcona Park, Strathcona District.   Programs in all districts were successful.
Malahat District
Activity centred around the conversion of the old Victoria Fish and Game
Association Club house on Goldstream flats into a Visitor Information/Nature
Interpretative centre.   On Saltspring Island the major project was the partial devel-
 H 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
opment of Ruckles Park. This first phase concentrated on the provision of centralized parking facilities, provision of walk-in camp-sites, extension of trails, and
provision of day-use facilities.
Other capital development projects within the district included the construction of three picnic shelters on Newcastle Island, as well as repairs to the floats on
Sidney Island and a renovation of the campground.
Strathcona District
The water system at Miracle Beach was improved with the drilling of a deep
well and the replacement of most of the distribution system. Campground control
and regulation was improved with the redesign of the campground entrance and
the construction of a new gatehouse.
In Strathcona Park, improvements to the parks headquarters electrical system
were completed, as was the renovation of boat-launching facilities at Ralph River.
In the Gulf Islands, day-use facilities at Rebecca Spit were completed and a well
and toilet facilities provided for Smelt Bay.
In conjunction with the Fish and Wildlife Branch, the Parks Branch is continuing a study on the elk population in Strathcona Park.
Arrowsmith District
The main emphasis was placed on the seasonal operation of the district, one
of the heaviest used districts in the Province. Improvements within the district
included the renovation of the day-use area at Englishman River, provision of additional toilet facilities and picnic shelter improvements at Little Qualicum Falls Park.
Change-house facilities for Rathtrevor Beach are also under construction.
 - ,                                                                                                                                                          '1
'   .
Provincial Museum
3
The Provincial Museum Branch is
responsible for the collection and
preservation of specimens and artifacts
which represent the national and cultural
heritage of the Province. It is also
responsible for research and study of these
collections and for making the results of
these studies available to the people of
British Columbia through displays and
publications. Programs of the Museum are
designed to provide not only the best
possible understanding of this heritage but
also the most appropriate and innovative
means of relating this knowledge to the
public.
■                                  ■ . ■                 i
-
 H 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
provincial museum branch
Director
R.Y. Edwards
Assistant
Director
Ethnology
P.L MacNair
Archaeology
D.N. Abbott
History
D.T. Gallacher
Linguistics
B.E. Efrat
Conservation
P.R. Ward
Birds & Mammals
CJ. Guiguet
Botany
T.C. Brayshaw
Marine Biology
A.E. Peden
Museum Advisor
J.E. Kyte
Entomology
R.H.Caroasson
Education
S.A. Cuthbertson
Display
J.J. Andre
 Partially completed totem pole display in the new Ethnology gallery.
 H 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Museum train climbing out of Kitsilano (Vancouver) en route to opening-day
ceremonies in Burnaby.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
H  103
R. Yorke Edwards
Director
Provincial Museum
For the Provincial Museum this was a year with sufficient monetary restraint
to curtail several activities. Still, the year was hardly uneventful. Reduced Provincial funding, together with Federal project funds being unavailable after March,
resulted in a challenging year of maintaining public services on limited resources.
Dr. Bristol Foster resigned late in 1974 after five years as Director, during
which he skilfully guided the Museum through the most dramatic period of growth
it had experienced in its 88 years of service. During his tenure the staff more than
doubled, and the Museum became firmly established as the largest in western Canada. Early, in 1975, R. Yorke Edwards, Assistant Director, was appointed the
Museum's fifth Director.
A second major loss of senior staff took place in the summer, when Dr. Adam
Szczawinski, Curator of Botany and Provincial Botanist, retired after long and
productive service to the science of botany in British Columbia.
The Anthropology Gallery, scheduled to open in July and thereby to complete
the permanent exhibits on the third floor, received no attention from Display staff
through most of the year. Unavoidably, the Display staff bore much of the
Museum's program reduction through the year, and is to be congratulated on
carrying its disappointment well.
The Provincial Museum Train rolled on its maiden voyage, drawing crowds
from Vancouver to Dawson Creek on the British Columbia Railway, and later
visiting major centres from Courtenay to Victoria on Vancouver Island. In all,
83,000 people saw the train and the exhibits it carried, telling the story of steam
power in British Columbia.
The Provincial Museum's first major travelling exhibition for national audiences, "The Legacy," began its national tour early in the year in Edmonton. The
high quality of its objects on display, and of its design, were widely recognized.
Unfortunately, its eastward progression across Canada could not be funded past
Winnipeg, and "The Legacy" was recalled with the tour just nicely begun. The
Museum plans to complete the tour later.
The Division of Archaeology continued its work at Hesquiat in co-operation
with the people there, and moved within sight of completing a remarkable joint
 H 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
endeavour in recovering Indian culture. Another year will complete field work.
Laboratory analyses and detailed reports will follow.
During the year the Museum added to its reputation for an impressive array
of practical and attractive publications. A new handbook, printed with many photographs in full colour, has the theme Food Plants of British Columbia Indians. This
is the first part of a two-part series. It features the coastal peoples. The Manual
series, designed to help smaller museums and others on how to do things, added
a title on "Planning Docent Programs," which offered guidance for small museums
on how to organize volunteers (docents) to help museums with visiting classes of
school-children.
A museum can be only as good as the support it receives. Once again the
Friends of the Provincial Museum and the Heritage Court Society added strength to
the Museum's services, and gave generous gifts of equipment to improve the
Museum's research and communications to the public. Each society is served faithfully and well by an impressive number of dedicated volunteers which make the
work of their organizations possible.
The Museum is blessed in addition by many docents or volunteer teachers who
help the Museum staff meet and communicate with the hundreds of children that
frequently crowd into the Museum from their school buses. The Museum received
almost 32,000 such children during the year, a figure made possible by the generous
and hard-working people who dedicate many hours to children, and to opening
their minds to British Columbia in the Provincial Museum.
It was a year of survival, and of moving forward on some fronts as well. Some
years will always be leaner than others, but this institution of several hundred
people (some paid, some not), doing thousands of interesting and often unusual
tasks, will, lean years or otherwise, always be a place of surprises and the
unexpected.
Out front in the exhibit halls it is unfortunate that most visitors can glimpse
only part of the Museum's activity and excitement. Behind the scenes there is
much more going on than one person could ever keep track of. But there is a lot
of action in the exhibit galleries, too, as the more than 1,300,000 visitors to the
Museum discovered in 1975.
ARCHEOLOGY
Donald N. Abbott, Curator
A major reorganization of space within the Archaeology Division was made
possible this year by the removal of Archaeological Sites Advisory Board and Historic Sites Advisory Board personnel to the St. Ann's Academy building and by
the acquisition of new compact "Fullspace" storage units donated by the Friends
of the Provincial Museum. Our Systems Section occupied the former ASAB-HSAB
space while the Bioarchaeology Section now has offices, storage areas, and faunal
and soils laboratories in the rest of the sixth floor mezzanine of the Curatorial
Building.
Despite severe funding problems resulting in the loss of trained personnel,
the Systems Section made great strides in bringing order to the collection and accessibility of archaeological data within the museum, provincially and nationally. New
terminals connected with the National Inventory's Ottawa computer came into use
and 80 per cent of the first, most basic, file—archaeological sites—was available
"on line" by the end of the year.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
With the assistance of summer students a good start was also made in describing artifacts in National Inventory format and entering them into the computer.
Some 8,000 specimens, including all of the prehistoric artifacts from Hesquiat,
were processed during the summer. At a national meeting on the inventory it
was decided that, in view of our progress, processing of British Columbia collections
shall now have higher effective priority for Federal contributions than all other
regions of the country.
A major concern during the year has been the establishment of consistent
minimum standards for operations in several areas and at various levels. The
National Advisory Task Force for Archaeology adopted standard entry formats
for the National Inventory and recommended our documentation procedures for
implementation as the national standard. Our developments in this area during
the year have included preparation for publication early in 1976 of a third, revised,
and enlarged edition of the Guide and Dictionary and the development of a complete integrated suite of field recording forms, and guidelines for their use, to promote in-field recording standards consistent with the National Inventory.
The new Bioarchaeology Section also made excellent progress in 1975.
Again with the assistance of summer students, and with the co-operation of other
divisions and institutions, the development of a sizeable faunal comparative collection proceeded rapidly. This was put to use in the continuing analysis of faunal remains recovered by the Hesquiat and Maple Bank Indian cultural recovery projects.
Other developments related to this section included the training of two staff
members in the techniques of preparing pollen samples for identification by Dr.
Glen Rouse at The University of British Columbia; the manufacture of a specialized
saw for our dendrochronology program; and the construction of equipment for the
sectioning of mollusc shells to determine their season of collection.
Our co-operation with the Hesquiat and Songhees Indian Bands in their major
cultu-al recovery projects continued during 1975 with field work carried out during
the summer and major programs of analysis during the winter, funded by LIP
grants to the Bands.
The Division continued its program to obtain a permanent record of all rock-
art sites in the Province. Thirteen petroglyph sites have now been completely
moulded and another 13 partially moulded. Fibreglass casts were made for each
of the Indian bands whose traditional territory is involved.
A number of "inside" research projects were also carried out or continued
during 1975. Several were related to the display program. Others included
ongoing analysis of earlier fieldwork, continued work on a list of radiocarbon dates
with tree-ring corrections for British Columbia, research and illustration of native
Indian house architecture, numerous illustrations for reports, a report on rock-art
sites of national importance, and others to Parks Branch recommending measures
for the protection of petroglyph sites under their jurisdiction.
Extension activities and other services to the public continued to occupy much
staff time. These included answering requests for information, sometimes involving considerable research, assistance to Indian bands and local museums on
archaeological matters, presentation of numerous lectures to school classes and to
various organizations, participation in training seminars, and conducting tours for
classes and special-interest groups.
 H 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A volunteer summer student preparing a specimen ot a bald eagle for the
Museum collections.
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
Charles J. Guiguet, Curator
The Birds and Mammals Division houses and administers the Provincial collections of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This involves the collection,
preparation, and maintenance of these collections for scientific study, display, education, and extension.
This year the four-month Working In Government Program provided 10
students and their supporting finances, which assisted greatly in carrying out the
above functions. These students, in conjunction with 10 permanent staff members
also carried out mammal inventories and collections on the Gulf Islands, sea bird
nesting inventories of all known colonies around Vancouver Island, a nesting survey of barn owls on the Lower Mainland, and a number of short collecting sorties
for coast forest and marine displays now in preparation.
Collections from these activities included 537 mammals, 182 birds, and seven
specimen lots of four species of amphibians and reptiles. The Provincial collections now total about 15,300 specimens of birds, 9,300 of mammals, 1,350 of amphibians and reptiles, and 1,800 clutches of bird eggs. Of these specimens 451
were out on temporary loan to eight institutions in the United States, Great Britain,
and Canada during the year.
Several large mammals were prepared in the taxidermy laboratory for permanent display, as well as scientific study. These included grizzly bears, sea lions,
seals, cougars, wolves, coyotes, and a number of smaller birds and mammals.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Some of these specimens were provided by the Fish and Wildlife Branch through
their enforcement and predator control establishments.
Four continuing major "paper" projects progressed favourably during the
year. The British Columbia Nest Records Scheme, involving card-indexing, filing,
and mapping, was carried out by staff members, students, and volunteer help.
Some 40,000 cards have been processed since the project began at The University
of British Columbia in 1958. Similarly the Photo Duplicate File (PDF) was
carried on; six new Canadian records for birds were added in 1975, bringing to 30
the number of new records for the Province since the inception of the PDF in 197.1.
The Sight Record Project for higher vertebrates was also continued during the
year. A total of 150,000 cards has been processed since its inception in 1974.
This work has been carried out largely by volunteer and student help. The fourth
project, a Published Record File, instituted two years ago, is proceeding as planned.
This project involves the Xeroxing, filing, and cross-indexing, by species, of all
pertinent published material dealing with British Columbia birds, amphibians, and
reptiles. Nearly 1,500 papers have been processed, bringing this file up to date.
A backlog of literature on mammals is expected to be completed in 1976.
The Assistant Curator took part in 12 public lectures, including radio and
television shows dealing with British Columbia birds. He also attended an international symposium on The Conservation of Marine Birds in North America, held
in Seattle.
The Division co-operated with the Archaeology Division in providing osteo-
logical specimens and instruction and preparation facilities for a new osteological
reference collection being assembled by that division.
A comprehensive distribution map of sea-bird nesting colonies around Vancouver Island, prepared by the Assistant Curator from data collected in 1975,
awaits publication.
The Display Curator, in co-operation with the Director and the Natural History Exhibit Committee, was active in a thorough revision of present and projected
natural history exhibits. This work, the preparation of scale models and specimens,
plus collecting, utilized his time completely during the year.
The technician in charge of herpetology has completely reorganized those
collections and instituted data retrieval systems.
Staff members were kept busy throughout the year answering queries regarding
higher vertebrates in British Columbia. Other inquiries from the general public,
Government agencies, and educational institutions were handled by correspondence
and telephone.
BOTANY
T. Christopher Brayshaw, Acting Curator
The Botany Division has four main functions—to maintain a herbarium, to
conduct research, to provide information, and to advise on botanical displays. The
herbarium is a filing system for a reference collection of British Columbian plants
which is accessible for researchers, both on-staff and visiting, and from which loans
and exchanges are made with other institutions. Research is carried out by the
curators with the floristics of the Province being the main theme. Research is also
carried on under contract, and by volunteer researchers not on staff, for whom
space and facilities are provided. Publications, lectures, and direct replies to
inquiries from the public or other elements of the Public Service are the principal
media through which the Division's information responsibilities are carried out.
 H 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
An E. S. Curtis print of a Clayoquot berry picker, circa 1915, the basis for the cover
illustration on the Museum's Handbook, No. 34, Food Plants of British Columbia
Indians, by Nancy J. Turner.
Photo—Provincial Archives, Victoria.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
The Curators also assist and advise on the botanical aspects of displays being
planned or built.
The Division sadly said farewell to Dr. Adam F. Szczawinski, who retired at
the end of July after 20 years as Curator. He is deeply missed, and remembered
for many activities, especially as one of the originators of the Ecological Reserve
Program in this Province.
The vascular plant collection now contains 80,000 specimens. A new Crypto-
gamic Herbarium has been started. This collection already contains 1,500 specimens of mosses, liverworts, and lichens.
The Assistant Curator's research on the flora of Mount Robson Provincial
Park, and on the bryophyte flora of the Province continued and a check-list of 650
species native to Mount Robson Park has been prepared. Dr. T. M. C. Taylor has
completed his work on the Sedge, Pink, and Crucifer Families of the Province, and
manuscripts are in preparation. Dr. and Mrs. G. Douglas continue their research
on the Composite Family toward a publication on this large family. Dr. Nancy J.
Turner completed research on the food plants of the coastal native Indian peoples,
and has produced a handbook on the subject. Work on the food plants of the
Interior peoples has been started.
Eighteen plant species new to our records of the Province's flora have been
identified from collections made mainly this year and in 1974.
The Assistant Curator wound up a two-year field program on the flora of
Mount Robson Provincial Park, a joint project with the Provincial Parks Branch.
The Associate Curator, with the assistance of Chris Carrigan, continued the botanical inventory of the northern border areas of the Province, sampling the Swan Lake-
northern Cassiar Range area, Lake Tagish, and the Alsek Valley. Extensive assistance in accommodation and in air transport was provided by the Inventory Division
of the B.C. Forest Service, and is greatly appreciated. Brief side trips were also
made to assess ecological reserve proposals near Port Renfrew, Vernon, and Lumby.
David Polster was supported in a field program of study of alpine vegetation
communities in the Rocky Mountains of extreme southeastern British Columbia,
and is contributing a plant collection from that area. This work is toward a
master's degree thesis on the subject.
Sizeable collections have been received from the following: Harvey Janszen,
Saturna Island, plants of Saturna and adjacent Islands; Miss K. Kromm, Victoria,
plants of Aiyansh district; Ron Long, Burnaby, plants of southern British Columbia and Alberta; Dr. J. Pojar, Victoria, vascular and cryptogamic plants from
Gladys Lake Ecological Reserve; David F. Polster, Victoria, plants of southern
Canadian Rockies; Mrs. R. Rosie, Watson Lake, Y.T., plants of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and northern British Columbia; Dr. A. K. Skvortsov, Moscow,
U.S.S.R., plants of Soviet Union; and Golden Stanley, Powell River, plants of
Powell River district.
A number of plants were sent from field parties for the Native Plant Garden
and have been cared for by V. W. Ahier in preparation for moving to the garden.
The garden itself has suffered severely from drought at a time when an acute shortage of gardeners has made watering and other maintenance almost impossible.
ENTOMOLOGY
Robert H. Carcasson, Curator
The Entomology Division had a highly productive year, due in large part to
the acquisition of a technician in the fall of 1974. This enabled us to clear up a
large backlog of mite material that had been awaiting preparation for microscopic
 H 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A model of a pre-contact Kutenai camp, part of the new Ethnology gallery.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
H  111
study. Several thousand specimens were treated and incorporated into the ongoing
systematic study of the urpodine mite fauna of North America.
During the year, more than 100 extractions were made from soil and leaf-litter
samples, each producing residues of several hundred anthropods. Most of these
collections were made in Goldstream Provincial Park, where a number of selected
sites were sampled fortnightly between December 1974 and December 1975. The
study successfully demonstrated seasonal fluctuations in the biology of a number
of species of uropine mites and suggested the possibility of parthenogenesis in
two undescribed species of the genus Trachytes, a hitherto unknown phenomenon
in these mites.
Additional collections of soil fauna, as well as of butterflies, moths, and
beetles, were made in the Okanagan and Kootenays. These revealed the presence
of a new species of mite of the genus Polyaspinus, soon to be described.
A number of trips to other institutions were made. Among these were visits to
the United States National Museum in Washington, D.C., the Institute of Acar-
ology in Columbus, Ohio, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, 111.,
and the University of California in Riverside, Calif. All of these visits were highly
productive, offering as they did opportunities to meet colleagues, exchange ideas,
and to arrange for the loan of acarine material for study. Subsequently, more
than 4,000 specimens were received on temporary loan.
The Division's collection of spiders has been sent to the Canadian National
Collection in Ottawa on temporary loan. It is being used as part of a revision of
the spider fauna of Canada.
The Division conferred with other members of the Museum staff on the design
of the new Natural History Gallery and a school exhibit involving spiders.
ETHNOLOGY
Peter L. Macnair, Curator
The focal point of the Ethnology Division is its collection of British Columbia
Indian cultural material. In the past year the Division has continued to maintain,
interpret, and study the ethnological specimens in its care. These efforts were
manifested in a variety of lectures, tours, exhibits, and services provided for the
public, enabling the Division to share its knowledge and collections widely.
Progress continued on the permanent Ethnology Galley, the opening of which
was regrettably delayed this year. However, the hiatus permitted staff to improve
a number of details which should provide an exhibit which is visually more exciting
and which contains more information than otherwise might have been possible.
A travelling exhibit was also designed and started on a tour of major Canadian centres. Entitled "The Legacy," this exhibit contains some 100 examples of
contemporary British Columbia Indian art. Masks, rattles, painted boxes, gold
and silver jewellery, argillite carvings, baskets, and blankets are all included in the
exhibit which is displayed in such a manner that every object is presented individually. During the calendar year, "The Legacy" was exhibited in Victoria, Edmonton, Regina, and Winnipeg. Next year it will continue across the country, allowing
viewers to study and appreciate what is probably the finest single yet comprehensive collection of contemporary British Columbia Indian art.
The Division continued to make progress recataloguing the ethnological collection. Archival and field research has added considerable information on a significant number of specimens. The large collection of ethnohistoric photographs
received similar attention, giving this resource far more scholarly potential than it
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BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Summer student Bernice Touchie transcribing tapes of Nitinat linguistic material.
had previously. The Division was fortunate in obtaining copies of some 600 slides
dating from 1950, showing a considerable variety of southern Kwakiutl artifacts
in use at potlatches.
Members of the Division continued a long-range program of recording southern Kwakiutl potlatches both on magnetic tape and on film. This service has
always been seen as mutually beneficial to both Museum and potlatch-giver. It
provides the potlatch-giver with a fairly detailed record of his event, one which
will be maintained in the Museum under adequate conditions, as well as providing
the ethnologist with an opportunity to view and study aspects of traditional Indian
culture.
The Division continues to be responsible for the operation of the Thunderbird
Park carving program. It was a great relief to all concerned when in the fall of
1975 a new carver's workshop was completed. The workshop now provides adequate facilities for carving smaller objects as well as massive totem poles. Externally, the workshop represents a southern Haida house and it was intended this way
so that yet another coastal Indian architectural style could be shown. This building provides the Museum visitor with an opportunity to compare Haida Indian
architecture with that of the Kwakiutl, because the house of the late Kwakiutl chief
Mungo Martin stands beside it in Thunderbird Park.
As usual, during the year, the Division provided a number of services to the
public. These included tours of the collection for students and scholars, filling requests for ethnohistoric photographs and lectures, slide and movie presentations,
for a variety of school, college, university, and public organizations.
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The Ethnology Division was fortunate in that it was able to add a number of
significant specimens to its permanent collection in 1975. These included several
argillite carvings, some of which dated back to about 1835, two Kwakiutl frontlets,
and a Chilkat blanket. A very important Kwakiutl Tsonoqua mask and Kwakiutl
echo mask were also purchased. Ethnology Division staff were surprised and
delighted to receive an unexpected gift from the estate of Janet Duff Wilson. The
gift was a circular plate 14 inches in diameter, carved of argillite, ca. 1885, and
decorated with semi-relief carvings of bears and eagles.
LINGUISTICS
Barbara Efrat, Curator
The Linguistics Division was established in 1973 to aid in the preservation
of the native Indian language heritage of British Columbia, to encourage research
to this end by professional linguists and the native people concerned, and to provide information on these languages to the public through talks, publications, and
displays.
To implement these goals during the year, the Division concentrated on establishing the following new programs as well as expanding projects initiated in 1974:
Preservation of materials—To collect a representative sampling of native
language data from throughout the Province a program of small grants for field
work was initiated. Thus, in addition to materials gathered by its staff in the field,
the Division contracts with professional linguists to collect specified taped and
written language data. Such a program will not only help preserve the most immediately imperilled languages but it will also aid independent research.
Two grants were awarded during the year, one to Prof. John Dunn, University of Oregon, for research in Coast Tsimshian, and the other to Lawrence Morgan,
University of British Columbia for work in Kutenai. The implications of this
work are very exciting for the future alignment of the British Columbia native
language families.
Plans have also been drawn up for a set of basic reference grammars in selected
British Columbia languages to be published in Syesis. The Division has contracted
with the following scholars to produce volumes for this series: Prof. Eung-Do Cook,
University of Calgary, for a grammar of either Chilcotin or Carrier (Athapaskan
language family); Prof. Bruce Rigsby, University of Queensland, Australia, for a
grammar of Tsimshian; Prof. Laurence Thompson, University of Hawaii, for a
grammar of Thompson (Interior Salish); Prof. Wayne Suttles, Portland State University, for a grammar of Halkomelem (Coast Salish).
Service to native communities—The Division expanded its collection of curriculum materials of native languages from Canada and the United States. Many
native visitors from both countries made use of this collection, which should
serve as a model for them to develop similar materials for their own cultural groups.
Both curators participated in the preparation of practical materials with native
groups. As the linguistic consultant to the Hesquiat Band, the Curator worked
with elders and two young artists from the Band to produce calendars and colouring books, all incorporating language data from the Hesquiat dialect of Nootkan.
The Associate Curator prepared a set of language lessons for the Skidegate dialect
of Haida and held a workshop for Haida people on teaching this dialect.
During the summer the Division was fortunate to hire as summer students
three linguistically trained native people from the Nootkan area of Vancouver
 H 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Island. Aided by the artwork supplied by two Hesquiat Band members, these
consultants worked on several projects, including simple native language curriculum material in their own dialects.
Involvement with scholarly community—During the year the Associate Curator participated in the Native Language Diploma Program at the University of
Victoria where he helped devise lessons in Southern Kwakiutl. He presented a
paper titled "Evidential and Old Information in Skidegate Haida" at the Tenth
International Conference of Salish Languages in August. Both curators gave
lectures to linguistics and anthropology seminars at The Universities of British
Columbia and Washington.
In September, Prof. Eung-Do Cook, one of the foremost Canadian Athapaskan experts, began work as a visiting scholar in the Division.
Service to the community—Work progressed on the permanent linguistics
display, as well as on a small temporary exhibit to appear during summer 1976.
Information on the status of native languages was brought to the public through
interviews on the media, participation in a YM-YWCA course on the city's resources, and through the wide distribution of a map showing the language situation
in the Province.
MARINE BIOLOGY
Alex E. Peden, Curator
The Marine Biology Division, being the only Museum division responsible
for a habitat, namely, the sea, rather than a type of organism or artifact, has the
rather unenviable task of answering to the public on a greater diversity of subjects,
for example, all the organisms of the sea. Given the usual limitations of staff and
funds, this formidable challenge can only be met by concentrating on specific tasks
with limited objectives and completing them before turning to new ones.
In this regard, during the year, the Marine Biology Division became the
repository for the invertebrate collection of The University of British Columbia,
making our collection now one of the largest in the Pacific Northwest. A spin-off
of this welcome acquisition was the task of cataloguing and reorganizing it under a
new taxon coding system for collections. The Division also supported work on
Reptant decapods (crabs) and opisthobranchs (sea slugs) which will result in
handbooks on these important marine animals.
During the year the Division's research vessel Nesika was used largely in a
survey of potential marine habitats for eventual use in exhibits. The Division also
assisted the Education and Extension Services Division in the revision and preparation of a new Marine Biology Kit for schools. Field trips were also conducted
for the Canadian Nature Federation during that organization's 5th Annual Convention held in Victoria in June, for the YMCA, and for the Museum's Education
and Extension Services Division.
The Division was fortunate to obtain some ship time aboard Environment
Canada's Institute of Ocean Services research vessel Parizeau, which resulted in
valuable mid-water collections of fishes from Juan de Fuca Strait in January and
Johnstone Strait in December.
Several research projects were pursued by the curators of the Division during
the year, among them a study of large collections of asteroids (starfish) in preparation for a scientific paper and a Museum handbook on the group, a study of fish
distribution in northern British Columbia which resulted in a major paper, and an
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
H 115
The brooding anemone (Epiactus prolifera).
ongoing study of the genus Lycodapus (a type of eelpout) toward a paper on the
subject expected to be completed in 1976.
The year was not without tragedy in the untimely death of Katherine D.
Hobson, whose volunteer work, and collections of polychaetes, were an invaluable
asset to the Division and the Museum.
MODERN  HISTORY
Daniel T. Gallacher, Curator
The Modern History Division collects, preserves, researches, interprets, and
exhibits materials significant to British Columbia's human experience for the period
between the 1740's and the 1970's.
This was a demanding year for the Division. In addition to its regular routines of cataloguing, research, and exhibit work, the staff planned, prepared, and
operated the Province's first Museum Train.
Major accessions included the Avis Walton collection of historical costumes
(1860's-1950's), a significant portion of Gerald Wellburn's antique toy and household accessories collection (1870's-1940's), photographs and blueprints depicting
colliery equipment (1889-1936) from R. E. Swanson, and the Dr. Fraser Buckham
 H 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
collection of books and documents pertaining to Vancouver Island's coal industry
(1860's-1960's). Of special note, too, was the Division's direct involvement in the
negotiations and transport required to repatriate three British Columbia Electric
Railway interurban streetcars from the United States on behalf of the National
Museum of Science and Technology and the British Columbia Transportation
Museum.
Exhibit work in the main building was confined to upgrading and maintaining
the Modern History Galleries, together with considerable assistance given to the
Status of Women Action Group in the preparation of their display "Our Hidden
Heritage."
Extension activities other than the Museum Train were confined mainly to
research for community museums. Among those assisted were Mission and District
Historical Society, Atlin Historical Society, Alberni Valley Museum, British Columbia Museum of Mining, Fort Steele Historic Park, and Teslin Historical and Museum Society. The Curator presented papers at both the Canadian Museum's
Association annual meeting in Winnipeg and a conference of history curators in
Ottawa.
Research was directed chiefly toward colonial road-building methods and
equipment; the machines, vessels, vehicles, and structures using steam in British
Columbia; styles and materials for clothing manufacture since the 1850's; historical
objects symbolic of women's activities; and coal mining as it occurred in this
Province.
Cataloguing and its related activities—identifying, photographing, repairs,
storage—continued at a brisk pace throughout the year. The Division still has a
large backlog of objects inherited from the Provincial Archives and other Government agencies between 1967 and 1975 that remain to be accessioned. At least
four staff members work regularly at this task, which is approximately half
completed.
The Museum Train, however, was the Division's most significant accomplishment in 1975. Planned as a major historical restoration capable of transporting
Museum exhibits throughout British Columbia, it appears to have fulfilled this aim
and more. The rolling stock consisted of two steam locomotives (CPR 3716 and
MacMillan Bloedel & Powell River Co. 1077) as the main and backup engines, a
water car, two flatcars with live steam exhibits, a power car, two display coaches,
a theatre coach, and a crew coach. Actual restoration of the rolling stock was
performed by CPR Vancouver under the direction of Robert E. Swanson, while the
exhibits were prepared by the Museum's Modern History Division and installed in
their respective coaches at the E & N Railway roundhouse, Victoria.
Fully one third of the Province was travelled by the train between July 1 and
September 15 over routes that covered southern Vancouver Island, Greater Vancouver, and the central Interior from North Vancouver to Fort St. John and
Dawson Creek. A total of 22 communities was visited with upwards of 83,000
people in attendance. Community museums participated directly in the project,
first by making local arrangements in preparation for the train's visit, and second
by operating the information and sales desk located in the theatre coach.
The Museum Train exhibit theme was "Steampower and British Columbia,
1830's-1950's." A combination of artifacts, photomurals, diagrams, models, dioramas, films, and handout literature was used to convey a distinct impression of
the nature and impact of steam power on the Province's industries, transport,
domestic life, and recreation. It is intended to operate the train with essentially
the same exhibits in both 1976 and 1977.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
H  117
Part of the House Beautiful display, an exhibition of household items which showed
the influence of art nouveau and international arts and crafts in British Columbia.
 H 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
CONSERVATION
Philip R. Ward, Chief Conservator
The most fundamental of a museum's responsibilities is the preservation of its
collection, and the relatively new museum discipline of conservation embodies the
technology by which that is achieved. The British Columbia Provincial Museum
was the first Provincial museum to recognize the importance of preservation by
creating a Conservation Division. Founded in 1966, it is still the most active
conservation facility in Western Canada and the largest outside the Federal
Government.
During the year the Division's development was completed by the appointment of its ninth staff member, Mrs. Kay Allan. Mrs. Allan is a micrographer of
international repute who will provide the scientific support demanded by the
increasing complexity of conservation techniques and the growing need for original
research.
With the increasing recognition of the necessity for a sound scientific foundation for all conservation practices, the delay in the completion of the anthropology
display, so unfortunate for other reasons, allowed several members of the Conservation Division to develop and modernize their skills. Courses in microscopy
and textiles conservation, and major technical conferences on general and archaeological conservation, were attended and a grant from the Secretary of State's Consultative Committee on National Museum policy enabled one technician to undertake a two-month internship at the Royal Ontario Museum.
At the same time the Division's staff shared their experience with others.
More than 40 lectures were given to university students, to art and historical societies, and to the staffs of other British Columbia museums. In addition a series
of lectures was given, at the request of the American Association of Museums, to
museum employees from every corner of the United States at a conservation seminar at Portland, Ore.
Despite these extramural activities, productivity in the Division's routine duties
increased substantially. More than 350 objects from the Museum's collections
received major treatment this year, as against 285 during the previous year. Also
the Division's advisory and research functions in connection with the preparation
of permanent displays were increasingly in demand. The Division continued to
play a major part in the travelling exhibition program. Packaging was designed
and constructed for "Images, Stone, B.C." and for "The Legacy," and their initial
packing was done by Division personnel, who also assisted at the first assembly of
"The Legacy" at Edmonton. The Division's staff supervised the packing and
unpacking of every travelling exhibit which entered or left the Museum and each
object was examined and a detailed condition report prepared. Many were also
fumigated, and a number were repaired at the request of their owners.
Services were provided to other branches of the Government, notably the Provincial Archives, for which several paintings and documents were treated; the
Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, for which artifacts were treated, on-site conservation service provided for excavations, and several surveys made of petroglyphs.
Other services to the Department of the Provincial Secretary included repairs to
clocks from Helmcken House and paintings from Craigflower Manor.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM H 119
A brief reconnaissance was made of the Ninstints' site on Anthony Island by
the Conservator of Archaeology, and on-site conservation service was provided
during excavations at Owikeno, Deception Island, Maple Bank, and Little Qualicum River. The Conservator of Textiles worked at Fort Steele for two months at
the request of Historic Sites and Parks. Advisory visits were made to the Anthropology Museum at UBC, the B.C. Transportation Museum in Vancouver, and to
the B.C. Forest Museum at Duncan.
Several promising and important research projects were initiated. These
included experiments with methods of consolidating waterlogged wood, the microscopic identification of native copper in artifacts, and the establishment of microscopic references for pigments, wood, and fibres.
DISPLAY
Jean Jacques Andre, Chief
Despite the disappointment resulting from budget cuts which prevented the
completion of the Division's most challenging endeavour during the year—the new
Archaeology and Ethnology exhibits—a considerable amount of progress still was
made on them. Most of the display cases were built, the totem poles were erected
and put in position, even the carpet was installed on schedule. Most of the labelling
and copy panels for the Ethnology Gallery were silkscreened and mounted.
Moulds, taken in 1974, of 144 petroglyph sites were combined into two composite
wall panels each 45 feet long and 8 feet high. The fibreglass Cave of the Animals
was completed and is ready for the floor. The model of the Skedans village, a five-
year construction effort of John Smyly, was put in place. The Kootenay Encampment model was also completed and installed. Field trips were made to complete
the research for the underwater diorama of fishing techniques in the Food Gathering exhibit of the Ethnology Gallery.
During the year a carpenter was loaned to the Modern History Division to
assist in the preparation of the Museum Train exhibit and a number of display
technicians pitched in for the final touches to the exhibit. One stayed with the
train through the summer to maintain the exhibits and to assist local museums in
arranging their temporary displays for the train.
A major step was taken this year toward a completely integrated sound and
visual control in the Display Gallerys with the arrival of four Bin Loop, 14-track,
control consoles. One is now in operation providing the background sounds for
the Modern History exhibits. The others will eventually support the Ethnology and
Natural History exhibits. No other museum in Canada has such a sophisticated
system.
One of the unsung heroes of the year was Richard Hunt, who adzed all the
bases for the totem poles, the cave entrance, and showcase bases and panelling.
In conjunction with the History Division and The Maltwood Museum, an
amended version of the successful art nouveau exhibit was produced for the summer. Graphic and design technicians prepared the lay-out for eight new penny
folders for the Modern History Division as well as for two new Museum Manuals.
Early in the year our plastic curing oven was started up and during the summer
a large freeze dryer, built by us, started producing freeze-dried specimens. Both
units will be valuable assets when the Natural History exhibit program gets into full
swing.
 H 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
EDUCATION AND  EXTENSION  SERVICES
Shirley Cuthbertson, Chief
There are two major operational areas in this Division—Education, which
includes volunteer recruitment and training, school programs, and teacher training;
and Extension, which includes the co-ordination of in-house temporary exhibits,
travelling exhibits, and public information programs.
Each year, many more people work with this Division than are actually on
staff. There are docents, the Museum-trained volunteers who teach the special
programs for school classes; "work-experience" students who volunteer as office
and program assistants; and many other individuals and groups, such as the University Women's Club, assist in compiling program notes and gathering materials.
It it difficult to estimate the value of such community support to the Museum, but
the docent group alone contributed 4,915 hours during the year.
Each year, from May through August the staff is also augmented by students.
This year there were eight tour guides, four teachers, and one research-assistant.
The teachers' family programs, Pioneer Kitchen and Neptune's Doorstep, were the
hit of the summer programs. Altogether, 715 children and adults participated in
15 programs, which ran from two hours to three days in length.
Three Museum teachers planned, prepared, and helped the docents teach
some 15,303 students using the exhibits and Museum collections. The collection
material, purchased or especially donated for the purpose, is selected so that
children may touch, handle, or use it. Altogether, 31,893 students visited the
Museum during the year.
One of the Museum teachers, Mrs. Emma Hunt, travelled to elementary
schools in Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Hope, and Agassiz school districts, with her
program "Son of Raven, Son of Deer," based on George Clutesi's book. After the
program teachers wrote saying that not only the children but the adults, too, discovered a new and warm appreciation of native Indian culture. Two other travelling exhibit-kits, "Journey Through Time" and the "Marine Biology Kit" circulated
throughout the Prince George, Cranbrook, and Castlegar school districts. This
pilot project ended in June, as funds for further circulation were curtailed in May.
A total of 4,997 students participated in the travelling programs from January to
June.
The Educational Research Institute of British Columbia evaluated and reported on these kits. In their words: "This evaluation study has demonstrated the
need, demand, and value of duplicating the present kits, in revised form, and the
desire on the part of teachers, children, and parents for further development of
other kits with similar purpose and methodology." The Head of the Programs
Section at the National Museum of Natural Sciences asked for a duplicate of the
Marine Biology Kit for circulation in Ontario, and as a model for exchange on a
national scale. The duplicate kit was delivered to Ottawa in August.
Teacher groups continued to request the Museum's workshop for teachers.
There are 27,000 teachers in the Province, and only about 25 Museum staff who
plan school programs, so teacher education in the use of museums as a curriculum
resource is considered an essential function of this Division. Teacher use of museums is increasing rapidly throughout the Province. Other groups, such as service
and community clubs, request talks "about the Museum." These are given once or
twice a month by the Division head. Adult programs were given to 2,606 people
during the year.
As a service to communities, three travelling exhibits were shown in three
community museums between January and June.  Again, because funds were cur-
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM H 121
tailed, these were returned to storage for the remainder of the year. This also
brought the cross-Canada tour of "The Legacy" to a halt at Winnipeg, after it had
visited provincial museums at Edmonton and Regina. One of the Museum's travelling exhibits, "Sternwheelers," was planned with the help of the Curator of the
Kelowna Centennial Museum. "Our Hidden Heritage" was developed by a Victoria community group for International Women's Year, with the help of Museum
staff. Highlight of the evening lecture program at the Museum was the "Heritage
Court Presents" series related to the "Challenger" exhibit from the Nova Scotia
Museum. Programs related to "Alternate Energy," a B.C. Hydro exhibit, were
also very successful. Other highlights of the year were two ethnic group presentations in the Newcombe Auditorium, a noon-hour series of films from the National
Film Board, the "Music in the Museum" series, and the presentation by visiting
lecturer Emmanuel Amati on the recording and preservation of a major petroglyph
site in Italy.
MUSEUMS ADVISER
John E. Kyte, Museums Adviser
With a mandate to provide assistance and advice to a hundred or more community museums throughout the Province, the Museums Adviser Division endeavoured to achieve its objectives through programs geared to the varying needs of
individual museums. However, the noticeable acceleration of museum development over the past three years substantially increased demands for assistance and
this year proved no exception. The Division concentrated on two distinct areas of
operation in 1975—Advisory Services and the Museum Training Programs, both
of which were supplemented to a large degree with resource personnel from the
B.C. Provincial Museum as well as from the museum community itself.
The Advisory Services Section of the Division continued to handle an increased number of requests for assistance from the smaller community museums
which, as a group, includes more than 60 per cent of the museums in the Province.
The Training Program continued its use of the two-day seminar which has
been adopted as a basic museum training unit and which has the flexibility of being
easily scheduled into outlying areas of the Province. One-day "mini" workshops
provided training where the larger training seminars were considered impractical.
Programming called for a slate of eight basic seminars plus two with content for
advanced levels. Instruction in all phases of museum operation and management
was provided for approximately 150 museum workers.
Throughout the year a liaison was maintained with most of the culturally
oriented organizations and more particularly with those where direct benefits could
accrue to the museum field. Of these, the B.C. Museums Association, the Canadian
Museums Associations, the Canadian Conservation Institute, and the West Coast
Art Association were the most prominent.
Lack of adequate museum funding still constitutes the major obstacle in the
development and efficient operation of cultural institutions in the Province. Despite
this, however, some capital assistance, made available through the Community
Recreational Facilities Fund and the National Museums of Canada, resulted in the
construction of two National Exhibition Centres and the opening of several smaller
community museums.
A significant factor in the growth and development of museums in British
Columbia has been the sudden upsurge of municipal interest and support in their
 H 122
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
local community museums. This trend could result in a network of intermediate
museums being created and an increasing degree of operational professionalism.
The outlook generally indicates continued improvement in all areas of cultural
development and increased use of the services provided by this Division.
FRIENDS OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
The Friends of the Provincial Museum (the Friends) is a nonprofit society
which helps support special programs of the Provincial Museum. It was formed
in 1972 and is now made up of more than 400 individual members and 14 affiliated
societies, two of which—the Heritage Court Society and the Docents' Association of
the Provincial Museum—provide important direct services to the Museum. The
Heritage Court Society operates the Gift Shop in the Museum (the proceeds of
which go to the Friends for Museum projects) and the Docents' Association provides volunteers who present the school programs in the Museum.
This year the Friends agreed to act as co-ordinators for the National Museum
of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, and handle the finances required for the construction
of a marine biology travelling exhibit. The exhibit was designed and its preparation supervised by the Education and Extension Services Division with $21,000
toward its cost being received from the National Museum.
Donations for the benefit of the Provincial Museum fell off sharply during the
year with no large donations received from the public.   In all, $3,930 was received.
Rediscovering the gold rush on a class visit to the Provincial Museum.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM H 123
Expenditures on behalf of the Museum, from the donations of previous years,
totalled $20,700; $14,400 of which went toward the purchase of 20 important
ethnographic specimens.
For the Heritage Court Society, this was a successful year. Under the able
direction of Mrs. E. Ross, who supervises the staff of volunteer workers who run
the Gift Shop, this facility showed an increase of 38 per cent in sales during the
year and a profit of more than $31,000 over 1974.
The nonprofit status of the Society created some difficulties in transferring
these funds to the Friends for the benefit of the Provincial Museum. However, the
money that was transferred helped to support 16 projects at a total cost of $19,559.
In the past four years more than $83,000 has been expended on 57 Museum
projects. This remarkable accomplishment would not have been possible without
the dedicated help of many volunteer workers. They deserve our sincerest appreciation.
PUBLICATIONS
Abbott, D. N. "British Columbia's Cultures." Friends of the Prov. Mus. Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 1975.   pp. 4-5.
Campbell, R. W. Hunting tactics of a peregrine falcon on black turnstones.
Condor, 77(4) :485.
 Seabird colonies in Skidegate Inlet, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia.    Syesis, 8:355-361.
 Golden-crowned Sparrow breeding on Vancouver Island. Canadian Field-
Nat., 89(2):175-176.
 and L. A. Gibbard.   British Columbia Nest Records Scheme,   Twentieth
Annual Report, 1974.   B.C. Fed. of Nat. Newsletter, 13(1): 3-5.
 , J. D. Ward and M. G. Shepard.   A new Common Murre colony in British Columbia.   Can. Field-Nat., 89:244-248.
  Marginal habitat used by Glaucous-winged Gulls for nesting.    Syesis,
8:393.
 Longevity record of a Glaucous-winged Gull.   Bird-banding, 46(2): 166.
Efrat, B. B.C. Indian Languages Today. In Write On: A Source Book for
Teachers of Indian Languages and Writing Systems, and English for Indian
Students.   Fish Lake Cultural Education Centre, Williams Lake, B.C.
  Review: Gambling Music of the Coast Salish Indians by Wendy Bross
Stuart.   B.C. Studies 26 (Summer) :73-75.
Gallacher, Daniel T. The Museum Train is Coming. Wildlife Review, Spring
VII, 5:12-14.
 Perspectives: Margaret Jean Clay.    PNLA Quarterly, 38:3:26-27.
 Museum Train: An Insight. Friends of the Prov. Mus. Newsletter. September, 4-5.
Gee, M.   Kits in Motion.   Science and Children, 12(5) :31.
Hatler, D. F., and R. W. Campbell. 1975. Notes on the spring migration,
including sex segreation, of some western Savannah Sparrows.   Syesis, 8:398.
Laforet, Andrea.   Oldtimers in a Canadian Village.   Nat. Mus. of Man, Mercury
Series, Canad. Ethnol. Service Paper 28: 133-149.
 H 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Lambert, P.   Delicate beauties of the North Pacific.   Pacific Diver.   April 1975.
Parker, David N.    Shipbuilding in British Columbia,  1870's-1970's.    BCPM,
Gallery Leaflet.
 , History of C.P.R. Coast Service Chronicled—a review of the Princess
Story: A Century and a Half of West Coast Shipping by Norman R. Hacking
and W. Kay Lamb (Mitchell) Daily Colonist, April 27:6.
Book Brings Plane of 'few' to Life Again, a review of Hurricane at War
by Chaz Bowyer (Methuen).   Daily Colonist, May 18:18.
 "He was Churchill's Pilot", a review of The Man Who Flew Churchill by
Bruce West (McGraw-Hill).    Daily Colonist, December 28:14.
and R. Turner.    Steampower and British  Columbia,  1830's-1960's.
BCPM, Gallery Leaflet.
Peden, A.   Review: A Guide to the Freshwater Sport Fishes of Canada, by D. E.
McAllister and E. J. Crossman.    Transactions of the American Fisheries
Society.    1975(1): 167-168.
 Differences in copulatory behaviour as partial isolating mechanisms in the
pceciliid fish Gambusia.   Can. Jour. Zool., 53(9): 1290-1296.
 Sea Life of Canada's Western Shores.   Nature Canada, 4(2):3-10.
Russell, Christopher A. A Conservator in Stockholm. Friends of the Prov.
Mus. Newsletter, July 1975.
Trenholme,N., and R. W. Campbell. Survey of nesting Bald Eagles in the
southern Gulf Islands, British Columbia.    Syesis, 8:109-111.
Turner, Nancy J. Food Plants of the British Columbia Indians, Part 1, Coast
Peoples.   BCPM Handbook No. 34.
Turner, Robert D. Need Filled Poorly, a review of Canadian Pacific Railway
by Patrick C. Dorin (Superior-Hancock).   Daily Colonist, Jan. 5:28.
 Nonsuch sails again, a review of The Nonsuch by Liard Rankin (Clarke,
Irwin).   Daily Colonist, Jan. 5:28.
 He was a giant in all but size, a review of George Dawson, the Little Giant
by J. C. Barkhouse (Clarke, Irwin).   Daily Colonist, Mar. 23:6.
 Rail Link to the Bay a story of politics, a review of The Battle of the Bay
by Grant MacEwan (Western Producer Book Service). Daily Colonist, April
13:23.
 Loggers woven into B.C. history, review of Logging—British Columbia's
Logging History by Ed Gould (Hancock).   Daily Colonist, Dec. 14:26.
 Commercial Fishing history of disputes, a review of Fishing—British Columbia's Commercial Fishing History by J. E. and A. E. Forrester (Hancock).
Daily Colonist, Dec. 28:14.
 Train Number One is late due to snow   ....   Pacific News. 15(11) :3.
Ward, Philip R.   Happy New Year! (The President's Page).   Museum Round-Up,
January, 57:5-6.
 A Museum Is.   .    .   .   Museum Round-Up, January, 57:25-27.
  Flights, Fancies, and Philosophies.    (The President's Page).    Museum
Round-Up, April, 58:3-4.
 Control of Environment.   Museum Round-Up, April 58:29-31.
 The President's Page.   Museum Round-Up, July, 59:2-5.
  Conservation for Curators:  an attempt to deal with causes.    Gazette
(quarterly of the Can. Mus. Assoc.) Fall, 8(4):8-9.
 The President's Page.   Museum Round-Up, October, 60:1-2.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM II 125
Wardrop, James.   Agriculture, 1870-1920.   BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
 Forestry in British Columbia, 1850-1930.    BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
 Fur Trading Rivalries and Equipment, 1790-1860.  BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
 Gold Rush Era, 1849-1900.   BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
 Mining in British Columbia, 1830-1930.   BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
Wood, Wilma, and S. C. Cuthbertson. Planning Docent Programs: BCPM,
Museum Methods Manual 2.
Wright, Monte.   The Birney Car, 1921-1948.   BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
 Street Railways in Victoria, 1888-1948.   BCPM Gallery Leaflet.
UNPUBLISHED REPORTS
Brand, R., and D. M. Lundy. "Report on the 1974 British Columbia Provincial
Museum Petroglyph Casting Project." (Submitted to Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board), 40 pp.
Condrashoff, N. I. "A Report on the Prehistory of the Clearwater Area." (Prepared for Clearwater Historical Association), 3 pp.
Crozier, N. "Report on the Hesquiat Archaeological Project Summer, 1975."
(Submitted to Archaeological Sites Advisory Board), 2 pp.
Cuthbertson, S. C. "The Education Services of the British Columbia Provincial
Museum," includes bibliography on Museum Education.
 "Staff Activities, National Museums Program."
—— "Extension Program 1973-75."
Haggarty, J. C, and N. Crozier. "A Report on Archaeological Investigations at
Hesquiat, B.C. Summer, 1974." (Submitted to Archaeological Sites Advisory
Board). 9 pp.
Loy, T. H.   "Attempts at Cultural Reconstruction from a Survey of Siberian and
Northwestern Canadian Archaeological Sources."   27 pp.
 "A Cultural-Ecological Study of Five Northern Hunting and Gathering
Societies."   75 pp.
Lundy, D. M., and A. McMurdo. "The Protection Island Project." (Submitted
to Archaeological Sites Advisory Board), 19 pp.
Renshaw-Beauchamp, R., R. Brand, and D. M. Lundy. "The Thorsen Creek
Petroglyph Site—Recommendations for Conservation." (Submitted to Archaeological Sites Advisory Board), 2 pp.
Renshaw-Beauchamp, R. J. Cornford, and D. M. Lundy. "Petroglyph Park—
Recommendations for Conservation." (Submitted to Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board), 2 pp.
Turner, Robert, and Eric Davies.   A Recreational Corridor System for British
Columbia.    Prov. Parks Br., Victoria.    18 pp.
 — "Wildlife as a Natural History Objective in Parks Planning."   Background
paper for the 1974 Natural-Provincial Parks Conference.    Prov. Parks Br.,
Victoria.
Wardrop, James.   "A Study of Metropolitan Theory as it applies to the Modern
History galleries," unpublished docent notes.
  "A Study of the Development of Magistrates in Great Britain Prior to
their Appointments in Colonial British Columbia."   Unpublished term paper,
University of Victoria.
  Marine Resources Branch
(formerly Commercial Fisheries Branch)
The Marine Resources Branch under the auspices of the Fisheries and Fish Inspection Acts,
is responsible for the inspection and licensing
of fish, shellfish and marine plant processing
operations. As an economic development
agency the Branch serves as manager in some
cases and in others as provincial spokesman
for renewable marine resources and endeavours
to ensure that the optimum sustainable utilization of those resources provide maximum
benefits to British Columbians. To this end the
Branch conducts research and development
of its own and often jointly with private industry and federal agencies in management,
planning and environmental protection of commercial and sport fisheries, commercial and
recreational shellfish and marine plant resources.
Through this cooperative approach, the Marine
Resources Branch has developed an important
liaison role with federal fisheries and with
provincial land and water management agencies.
The Branch represents provincial policies and
perspectives on international fisheries agreements which are negotiated by the federal
government.
 H 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Fin Fish
T.R. Andrews
marine resources branch
Director
T.G. Halsey
Licensing and
Enforcement
J.F. Kemp
D.S. McCaw
Shellfish
D.W. Smith
Vacant
Marine Plants
L.M. Coon
Administration
P.O. Morberg
M.E. Hills
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 129
1975/76  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE MARINE  RESOURCES  BRANCH
• A significant increase in the number of independent fish-processing plants resulted in the highest annual revenue of any post-war year.
• Marine Resources Branch inspectors, in co-operation with the Federal Fish
Inspection Branch, have brought about very significant improvements in the
processing standards of almost every plant in British Columbia.
• Co-operation with the Federal Department of Consumer and Corporate Affairs
has provided 24 ex-officio inspectors of retail fish outlets for Marine Resources
Branch.
• Provision for floating processing plants, through changes in the British Columbia
Fisheries Act, will provide further opportunities for expansion and diversification of the processing industry.
• Feasibility and planning studies for the proposed joint Federal-Provincial Salmonid Enhancement Program will result in significant increases for the British
Columbia salmon fisheries. (This joint program is dependent on an agreement
between the two Governments in 1977).
• British Columbia commercial fisheries and processing industries stand to gain
considerable benefits through international negotiations currently in progress
at the Law of the Sea Conference—some implications of the proposed Canadian
coastal 200-mile economic control zone.
• A joint Federal-Provincial cost-sharing project developed a herring sorting and
sexing machine which has greatly increased processing efficiency. (Female
herring, because of their roe, have a very much higher market value than the
male, but the sexes are indistinguishable to the naked eye.)
• A cost-shared exploratory fisheries project discovered new prawn stocks near
Klemtu and Kitimat and are estimated to produce 75,000 pounds annually at
$1 per pound landed value.
• A joint initiative from Marine Resources Branch and other Provincial resource
agencies has resulted in the first pilot-planning attempt at an integrated coastal
zone management strategy for British Columbia's 17,000 miles of coastline.
• The 1975 oyster spatfall (seed setting) was extremely successful and a good
commercial "set" was obtained. At current prices the landed value of this set,
at maturity in 1978/79, will be worth $1.2 million.
• New markets for British Columbia oysters and clams were established in California and the demand for British Columbia shellfish products in that area
exceeds supply.
• Plans were concluded this year for the construction of an oyster-processing plant
at Fanny Bay (Vancouver Island); this facility will provide an improved profit
margin for shellfish producers and diversify the market potential.
• Ten recreational oyster reserves were established and stocked periodically with
oysters for the exclusive use of the recreationist.
• Joint Federal-Provincial support of professional management assistance to the
British Columbia oyster industry has resulted in improved marketing, improved
quality control, product diversification, and increased production.
 H 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
• Kelp resources totalling 66,390 harvestable metric tonnes were located in beds
covering 2,166 hectares in Nootka Sound, on the west coast of Vancouver
Island.
• Investigations of kelp growth population dynamics and the association between
kelp and kelp bed fishes were initiated to provide the data base for the regulation of harvesting.
• Mariculture technological development programs were initiated for the carra-
geenan-containing alga Iridiea and the agar-containing alga Gracilaria.
• Seaweed harvesting regulations were completely rewritten to give better control
over harvest area and quotas and the method and manner of harvest.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 131
T. Gordon Halsey
Director
Marine Resources Branch
INTRODUCTION
In mid-1975, R. G. McMynn resigned his position as Director of the Branch
to assume duties at Law of the Sea Conference. T. G. Halsey was appointed to the
position of Director in the autumn of 1975.
The new Provincial capability for the management and development of British
Columbia's renewable marine resources has continued to evolve during 1975 and
early 1976. A core of effective professional capability has developed a wide diversity of in-house and joint Federal-Provincial programs for the development of
marine resource industries and for some recreational pursuits.
In light of the highly successful operation of foreign factory ships, the Provincial Fishery Act was changed to allow British Columbia entrepreneurs an opportunity to develop the same kind of operation. Some interest has been expressed by
the industry, but no plants of this kind have been licensed to date.
Persistent efforts and effective Provincial-Federal co-operation on inspection
of fish-processing plants has produced significant upgrading of sanitary conditions.
Considerable growth in markets for British Columbia oysters, a wide-spread
interest in mariculture generally, and progressing development and use of British
Columbia's coastline is placing ever-increasing demands for services on the resources of the Maritime Resources Branch. Established and developing primary
marine resource industries are provided the bulk of the Branch's time and effort.
These areas are assisted with direct services and through programs for industrial
product and gear development and management assistance which are jointly funded
with the Federal Government. Principal among these is the proposed Federal-
Provincial Salmonid Enhancement Program. Increased referals from other Provincial resource management agencies on matters affecting the marine environment
and the resources reflect an improved approach to integrated resource management.
The public, too, continues to increase its interest, awareness, and use of marine
resources and demands for information bulletins and pamphlets continue to
accelerate.
 H 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Provincial renewable marine resource concerns for the anticipated 200-mile
economic control zone are represented by a delegate to the Law of the Sea Conferences. Other international fisheries negotiations conducted by the Federal
Government continue to receive inputs by regular representation from the Marine
Resources Branch.
INDUSTRY  LICENSING AND  INSPECTION
Objectives—(1) To monitor through licensing the fish-processing and wholesale buying sectors of the British Columbia fishing industry; (2) to provide consumer protection and improved industry performance by upgrading the quality of
all fish products through enforcement of the Fish Inspection Act.
FISHING INDUSTRY PRODUCTION
Preliminary figures available at time of writing show that the total landed
value of all the fisheries fell from $101 million in 1974 to $77 million in 1975.
Landed value of salmon declined from $74 million in 1974 to just over $44 million
in 1975. The decline in value was largely because of lower quantities of fish landed,
which was partly due to a strike during the salmon season.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
SALMON CANNING
Commercial Production
The canned salmon pack for 1975 was 508,766 48-pound cases, which was
918,648 cases fewer than the 1974 pack of 1,427,414 cases. Salmon landings
were the lowest since 1960. Pink salmon was the only species to show an increase
in landed value although actual landings dropped by 2.1 million pounds. The
sockeye catch was greatly decreased over 1974 and fell by just over 75 per cent
from 47 million pounds in 1974 to 11.5 million poounds in 1975.
Eighteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1975. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River-Prince Rupert area, five; Central area, one; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River-Lower Mainland, nine.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1974 1975
Sockeye   707,662 162,467
Chinook      20,453 13,608
Steelhead       1,557 536
Blueback       2,727 395
Coho  157,312 59,109
Pink    307,040 236,934
Chum   230,663 35,717
SPORT FISH CANNERIES
Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught fish operated during
1975. They were located at Brentwood, Cowichan Bay, Nanaimo, and Quadra
Island. The Cowichan Bay operation started late in the year and its production
was so small that it has not been included in the totals. Production to the end of
December 1975 was 211,255 cans, down 4,363 cans from the previous year's total.
A total of 5,175 sportsmen used these facilities, of whom 4,159 were residents and
1,016 nonresidents. The following number and species of fish were canned: Chinook, 10,398; coho, 11,523; pink, 860; chum, 116; sockeye, 998; steelhead, 77;
and trout, 205.
HALIBUT FISHERY
Halibut landings in 1975 by the combined Canadian and American fleets increased by 6 million pounds, the average price paid was 89.5 cents a pound—the
highest price on record. In 1974 the price was 72.9 cents a pound. In a recent
statement the International Pacific Halibut Commission warned that "abundance
of halibut remains low and the North American fishery still is in a precarious state,
but the long-term prospects for recovery have improved. Last year after many
years of continuous decline there was a slight rate of increase in the catch of adult
halibut."
Canadian halibut fishermen landed 7.8 million pounds of halibut worth $7.1
million at Canadian ports and they delivered an additional 3.5 million pounds
valued at $3.1 million to United States ports.
 H 134 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
HERRING FISHERY
The 1975 catch (65,740 tons) of herring for roe and food purposes was worth
$13.3 million to fishermen. This was 16,501 tons and $1.2 million greater than
in 1974. A total of 1,451 boats (1,219 gillnetters and 232 seiners), was licensed
in the 1975 herring fishery, 1,103 of these reported landings.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRY
STATISTICS FOR 1974
General
The total wholesale value of all British Columbia fish products marketed
reached a total of $220.5 million, the second highest on record.
As marketed wholesale, the principal species was salmon, with a value of
$165.8 million, herring valued at $29.8 million, and halibut with a value of $6.9
million.
The herring catch for roe and other food purposes was 98.5 million pounds.
Herring roe accounted for 83 per cent of the total wholesale value and food herring
7 per cent.
North Pacific halibut production in 1974 was the lowest in over 60 years.
Only 21 million pounds were landed by the combined Canadian-American fleet.
In 1974 the total wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $5.3 million. The
value of the clam production was $795,000; oyster production, $1.1 million; and
crab and shrimp production, $3.5 million.
Tuna landings of 2,675,000 pounds valued at $871,000 were 124,000 pounds
and $353,000 less than 1973.
Fishing Vessels
During 1974 the fishing fleet of British Columbia was comprised of drum
seiners, 304; table seiners, 6; gillnetters, 2,391; trailers, 1,451; trawlers, 13; and
longliners, 36.
Salmon Canning
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1974. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River-Prince Rupert area, five; Central area, one; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River-Lower Mainland area, six.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canneries licensed to operate in 1974 amounted
to 1,428,882 cases, down 121,232 cases from the 1973 pack of 1,550,114 cases.
Sockeye salmon—The 1974 sockeye pack was 709,180 cases. This was an
increase of 66,579 over 1973's total of 642,601.
Sockeye landings were 46.9 million pounds worth $29.8 million, a decrease of
397,000 pounds in weight but worth $3.3 million more compared with 1973 value.
Pink salmon—Pink salmon landings declined from 29.3 million pounds in
1973 to 24.7 million pounds in 1974. Average price per pound dropped from
26.9 cents per pound to 23.4 cents per pound. The combination of lower landings
and price per pound lowered the wholesale value by over $5.0 million from the
previous year. The canned pack of 307,192 cases was down by 48,503 cases from
the 1973 pack of 335,695.
Chum salmon—Landings of 27.5 million pounds with a landed value of $10.7
million meant a loss to the fishermen of 44.6 million pounds (61.9 per cent) and
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 135
$22 million (67.3 per cent) compared to 1973. The canned pack of 230,634
cases was down 192,730 cases from 1973.
Coho salmon—Coho, along with chinooks, were the only species to show an
increase over the previous year's pack. Coho, with a pack of 160,051 cases, were
up 43,854 cases over 1973's pack of 116,197 cases.
Chinook salmon—As stated, chinooks showed an increase over the previous
year's pack, up 9,021 cases to 20,279 cases from 11,258 in 1§73.
Steelhead—The 1974 pack amounted to 1,546 cases. Although steelhead
are not salmon, some are canned each year, principally those caught incidental to
fishing other species.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Other Canneries and Processors
Shellfish and specialty products—In 1974, six shellfish canneries were licensed
to operate in British Columbia and produced the following packs: Fish spreads,
159,594 cases; creamed salmon, 20,797 cases; creamed tuna, 8,069 cases; oyster
stew, 5,354 cases; salmon chowder, 8,169 cases; clam chowder, 14,597 cases;
shrimp, 3,600 cases and 10,280/5-pound cans; crabs, 185 cases; oyster soup, 115
cases; pickled oysters, 2,306/6-ounce jars; sea urchin roe, 15,702/22 gram-plates.
Fish-curing—Twenty-seven smokehouses processed the following: Salmon,
953,000 pounds; cod, 740,692 pounds; mackerel, 12,000 pounds; eels, 400 pounds;
sturgeon, 1,900 pounds; steelhead, 7,045 pounds; bass, 1,800 pounds; trout, 42
pounds; oysters, 26/48-pound cases and 2,302/6-ounce jars; herring fillets, 36,800
pounds.
Pickled herring—Pickled herring production in 1974 amounted to 27,631
cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 784 cases of 16-ounce jars; 7,556 cases of 12/32-ounce
jars; 2,215 cases of 6/56-ounce jars; 1,043 cases of 4/128 ounce jars; 1,525/20-
pound pails; 594/25-pound pails; 61/50-pound pails.
Miscellaneous production—Herring roe, 9,249,000 pounds; mild-cured salmon, 489,000 pounds; salmon roe, 4,715,000 pounds; frozen food herring,
8,340,000 pounds; herring-oil, 501,538 pounds; herring meal, 4,695 tons.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 137
SUMMARY TABLES, 1970-74
Table I—Total Landings and Effort
Landed Value of Fish
and Fish Products
$
1970     56,909,000
1971     55,664,000
1972     70,817,000
1973  130,400,000
1974  101,000,000
Wholesale Value of Fish
and Fish Products
$
1970  123,280,000
1971  120,100,000
1972  159,132,000
1973  285,000,000
1974  220,500,000
Number of Licensed Boats
1970-
1971..
1972.
1973_
1974_
6,975
6,698
6,670
6,589
7,084
Number of Licensed
Fishermen
1970  11,647
1971  11,015
1972  9,902
1973  11,717
1974  11,906
Table II—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1971—75, Inclusive
Licence
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery  	
Herring cannery	
14
3
23
63
6
1
5
200
2
3
51
131
250
$
5,600
15
1
2
3
27
67
7
2
4
324
2
3
25
94
153
$
6,000
25
800
300
3,825
2,900
700
200
200
15
1
2
3
30
91
7
2
4
1
352
2
4
27
2
1
85
149
$
6,000
25
800
300
4,075
5,300
700
200
200
25
17,600
50
100
1,350
200
100
25
850
3,371
15
1
3
3
38
117
6
1
5
1
407
2
4
11
	
2
92
388
$
6,000
25
1,200
300
4,975
8,090
600
100
250
25
20,350
50
100
550
18
7
3
51
122
5
1
7
365
3
4
1
2
2
117
271
$
7,200
25
2,800
300
3,550
2,500
600
100
250
25
15,000
50
75
2,550
300
6,525
Fish-processing	
Shellfish cannery	
8,780
500
100
350
Herring dry-saltery _	
16,200
50
75
1,250
18,250
75
Sport-caught fish cannery-
Aquatic plant harvesting..
Aquatic plant processing...
100
50
400
100
25
920
2,787
100
Oyster-picking permits
Province of B.C. receipts...
1,310
3,014
940
1,751
1,170
2,590
Totals	
853
34,924
729
35,216
779
41,271
1,097
46,447
980
49,315
 H 138           BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND
CONSERVATION
Table III—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1970-74, Inclusive
1970           j          1971
1972
1973
1974
Salmon	
Herring	
Halibut	
1
$                          $
99,597,000    [      96,926,000
682,000    1        2,256,000
14,025,000    j      11,367,000
1,775,000    |        1,303,000
1,038,000    |         1,003,000
$
114,349,000
,12,612,000
16,904,000
1,730,000
981,000
$
221,642,000
34,641,000
12,963,000
2,920,000
1,266,000
3,128,000
1,081,000
1,796,000
896,000
393,000
1,618,000
2,653,000
S
165,841,000
29,856,000
6,996,000
3,472,000
1,766,000
752,000    |         1,299,000    [
3,428,000
4,531,000
Oysters	
Sole 	
590,000    |            575,000
1,819,000    |         1,829,000
226,000    j            219,000
457,000    |            503,000
984,000    |        1,499,000
1,335,000    |        1,310,000
798,000
1,504,000
806,000
759,000
3,088,000
2,173,000
1,064,000
2,192,000
492,000
795,000
1,356,000
2,091,000
CI ams	
Tuna 	
Other species	
Totals 	
123,280,000    I    120,089,000
!
159,132,000
284,997,000
220,452,000
Table IV—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1970-
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases)
1970
74, Inclusive,
;cies
Area
Sp
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
Sockeye  	
279,009!/2
826
4,966
2,205!/2
225
2,881
62,489
212,996
100,411
666,009
116,5961/2
348
1,037
6411/2
306
395,606
1,174
6,003
2,847
Steelhead   	
531
2,881
Coho  	
49,185
447,781
1        141.9781/
111,674
Pink  	
660,777
Chum   	
242.3891/.
757,8731/2     |     1,423,8821/2
1                             1
1971
439,031
521 Vi
5,571
2,802>/2
727
5,608
174,640
359,041 Vi
2A,20TA
129,725
5061/2
l,630i/2
62P/2
574
41,215
143.282!/2
568,756
1,028
7,201i/2
2,424
Steelhead   	
1,301
Blueback:  	
5,608
Coho  	
215,855
Pink    .
502.324
74,3001/2    |         98,508
1,012,150
391,8551/2
1,404,0051/2
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 139
Table IV—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1970-74, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
(48-pound cases)
1972
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
199,8901/2
927
4,292
3,024i/2
3931/2
113,0161/2
8741/2
2,047i/2
4421/2
4731/2
312,907%,
1,801V$*
6,339!/2
3,467
867
Coho 	
Pink
52,8781/2
225,502
187,415
30,877
259,662
91,036
83,755V2
485,164
278,451
Totals  	
674,323
498,4291/2
l,172,752!/2
1973
470,960
367
4,783i/2
3,551
7881/2
705
98,610!/2
280,047V2
305,732
171,6401/2
548
l,656i/2
3511/2
2101/2
642,6001/2
915
6,440
3,9031/4
Steelhead 	
999
705
Coho 	
16,8811/2
75.647V4
117,6311/2
115,492
Pink                   	
335,695
423,3631/2
Totals                                      	
1,165,546
384,5671/2
l,550,113!/2
1974
Sockeye   —	
488,6991/2
1,297V2
7,1871/2
7,1771/2
6241/2
2,726
128,377
161,8051/2
92,067
220,481
1,370
2,324!/2
922
921V2
709,180!/2
2,667!/2
Pink spring  „ -	
9,512
8,099 Vi
1,546
2,726
Coho                                                	
28,948
145,386
138,566!/2
157,325
Pink                	
307,1911/i
230,633i/i
Totals     	
889,962
538,919!/2
1,428,8811/2
 H 140 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
FIN  FISH SECTION
Objectives—(1) To serve as technical support for provincial input to international fisheries negotiations; (2) to interface with industry, other Provincial
agencies, and Federal agencies on policy and research matters relating to British
Columbia marine fisheries resources; (3) to provide some technical input to the
Salmonid Enhancement Program.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH H 141
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES NEGOTIATIONS
Although no formal negotiations were held in 1975 with the United States on
problems centred around the interception of each other's salmon, several informal
and advisory meetings were held to discuss possible solutions. The bases for formal negotiations were informally agreed to by the two countries and formal negotiations will recommence in mid-1976.
Bilateral fisheries agreements with several foreign countries (i.e. Poland) that
wish to fish in what will be British Columbia's 200-mile offshore economic zone
were negotiated by the Federal Government; these agreements were reviewed at
various stages to ensure that the Provincial interests were safeguarded.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Impact of Log Dumping and Booming on Benthic Marine Habitat
This project was initiated to analyse the impacts of log dumping and booming
on a shallow sand bottom marine animal community. The study area encompasses
2 500 m of coastline in Saanich Inlet, 3 km south of Mill Bay on lower Vancouver
Island. Bark and wood debris has been deposited on the underlying sand sediments
along 1 500 m of the study area.
In 1975 a sediment coring survey was instituted to map the distribution and
thickness of the bark layer and to determine the nature of the underlying sediment.
Water analyses showed no impairment to quality within the water column or
at the bark-water interface. However, dramatic alterations were noted in the burrowing invertebrates community. Species such as sedentary polychsetes and bivalves were reduced in numbers and diversity in the bark deposit to near exclusion
in areas where bark was being actively deposited. No trend toward a return of
sand-dwelling fauna was apparent in a log dump area abandoned 20 years ago.
FISHERIES RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT—SALMONID
ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM
A primary goal of this Federal-Provincial program, if it receives joint Government approval, is to double the present catch of salmon in British Columbia by
implementing a broad range of enhancement projects over the next 10 to 15 years.
As 1975 was the first full year of a two-year planning and program development
phase, the efforts of this section were expended in conducting research designed to
broaden the base upon which the 10-15 year program rationale can be developed.
Incidental Exploitation of Steelhead Trout by Commercial Fisheries
With the assistance of WIG '75 funding, a project was undertaken to assess the
effect of the incidental catch of steelhead trout in the commercial salmon fishery.
When enhancement of salmon stocks occurs, the increased fishing effort necessary
to harvest these stocks may result in over-exploitation of steelhead which are
harvested incidentally in a particular salmon fishery. Thus, it is vital to the preservation of steelhead stocks that this incidental exploitation be understood and that
remedial action be taken where necessary.
From 1963-74 an annual average of 18,000 steelhead was reported caught
in commercial salmon fisheries. This compares to an annual average catch of
35,000 steelhead taken in recreational sport fisheries. Of the steelhead taken in
commercial fisheries, nearly 40 per cent of the total is derived from the Skeena
 H 142 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
River stocks. A further 10 per cent is taken in each of the three areas—Johnstone
Strait, the Fraser River area, and the Bella Coola-Dean River area. In virtually
every case the identity of steelhead stocks exploited is unknown.
In an effort to clarify the identity of stocks of steelhead which are commercially
exploited, further studies have been planned in early 1976 which will be implemented during the 1976 commercial salmon fishing season. This study will be
integrated with other freshwater steelhead studies within the Salmonid Enhancement
Program.
Estuarine Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids
A preliminary investigation of the estuarine ecology of juvenile salmonids
was conducted in the Quatse River estuary near Port Hardy. The objective of this
project was to determine the temporal and spatial distribution, growth, feeding, and
migration of juvenile salmonids in the estuary. The information derived from this
study was to used to provide an insight into enhancement possibilities in the estuarine environment and to provide a basis for present and future management of
estuarine fisheries for anadromous gamefishes such as cutthroat trout. Although considerable preliminary data were collected in 1975, reassignment of research priorities within the Salmonid Enhancement Program will not permit the completion of
this study at present.
Exploratory Fisheries and Gear Development
Efficiency of operation and a significant reduction of costs of processing herring has been achieved through a joint Federal-Provincial project that developed
the herring sorting and sexing machine (female herring because of their roe have
a very high market value compared to the males, but the sexes are not distinguishable to the eye). Five machines were built under this project and placed into operation with very high efficiency rates. Testing is continuing throughout this herring
season; a final report will be made at the end of the season.
Exploratory fisheries for new prawn stocks were conducted under a joint
Federal-Provincial cost-sharing project. During September to December 1975 an
area in Laredo Sound near Klemtu and in Gardener Channel near Kitimat were
discovered and estimated to be capable of producing 75,000 pounds annually at
$1 per pound landed value. A similar survey in 1974 located an area in Queen
Charlotte Sound subsequently yielded 50-60 thousand pounds of prawns—the
value of the catch exceeded the cost of the survey.
Coastal Zone Management Planning
In recent years the pressing need for integrative shoreland classifications has
become increasingly apparent in British Columbia. This need is especially acute
in responding to proposals for shoreland development for industrial, residential,
and recreational purposes. At present such proposals are dealt with on an ad hoc,
individual agency-by-agency basis. Such an approach, necessitated by the lack
of good background information of shoreland capability, has often resulted in the
irreversible alienation of valuable fisheries and wildlife habitat for industrial or
other purposes. Until integrative shoreland classification information is available
in a useful and retrievable form, such alienation can be expected to continue at an
accelerating rate.
To reverse this trend a joint Federal-Provincial planning activity has been
initiated to consider methodologies and implementations of this methodology to
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH H 143
assess, in an integrative manner, the biophysical capability of the shorelands of
British Columbia for shellfish, fish, waterfowl, and marine plants. This section,
Fish and Wildlife Branch, Federal Fisheries and Marine Service, and the Provincial
Lands Branch are jointly participating.
SHELLFISH  SECTION
Objectives—To manage and develop the British Columbia oyster resources
and industry and to participate in joint Federal-Provincial management of other
shellfish.
In 1975 the role of the Shellfish Section continued to evolve in response to
changes in the oyster industry and the recognition of resource developmental
potentials.
An increase in effort was placed on the Industry Extension and Liaison Program to meet the demands of the expanding public interest and investments in
oyster farming throughout British Columbia. Emphasis was placed on on-site
assistance to industry in the form of biological and technical direction of commercial spat collection techniques, operational planning, and managerial input in all
aspects of oyster culture.
The main emphasis in shellfish management continued to be the development
of the shellfisheries, particularly the oyster industry. The main activities of this
program were the administration of the oyster lease areas in the Province, management of commercial harvesting of oyster shellstock from vacant Crown foreshore,
assessment of new areas to determine suitability for oyster culture, and providing
resource folio information on shellfish habitat referrals for other Government
agencies.
Shellfish development during the past year has been directed in the area of
oyster culture demonstrations. Projects conducted under this program are designed
to investigate some of the immediate problems confronting the shellfish industry,
particularly the oyster industry.
Projects on the tray culture of Pacific oysters, and the evaluation of veneer
cultch methods for oyster culture were completed this year. The first year of a
two-year joint Federal-Provincial project was initiated to evaluate exposed areas
for spat collection ability, develop floatation and moorage systems that will withstand exposure, and assess new "cultch" collection methods.
The recreational shellfish program was continued in 1975 to provide educational and general interest information that will aid in developing public awareness
and understanding of British Columbia's marine resources. Activities such as the
preparation of brochures and pamphlets describing the biology and utilization of
the more common shellfish species and the establishment and enhancement of recreational shellfish reserves have proven very popular with the recreationist and
have served well as an information and education medium.
INDUSTRY EXTENSION AND LIAISON PROGRAM
A. Spatfall Prediction Service
In British Columbia the spawning of the Pacific oyster and subsequent spatting
is extremely uncertain in most areas.
Three areas in the Strait of Georgia—Pendrell Sound, Hotham Sound, and
Ladysmith Harbour—historically have been areas where successful setting occurs
with relative frequency.    Oyster spawning is usually very sudden, the spatting
 H 144
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
erratic, so prediction of time and intensity of spatfalls is necessary for the industry
and, therefore, collection of seed has come to be based almost entirely on spatfall
forecasting.
Spatfall forecasting is based on monitoring the number of plankton, the distribution of oyster larva?, and trends in water temperature and salinity.
Pendrell Sound
In 1975, favourable water temperatures and salinities in Pendrell Sound were
recorded as early as late June as the weather was clear and hot during this period.
Mean surface water temperatures of 20 °C or higher were recorded from July 1 to
August 1. Surface salinities remained near the optimum (16%0) for oyster larva;
development from July 7 to August 1. A commercial spatfall was predicted at this
time. A light spawning first occurred in late June with a few larvae developing to
the "eyed" stage. Extensive spawning occurred July 4 or 5 with large numbers
of straight-hinge larva? being found in plankton tows in July 7. Growth and survival of larvae from this spawning was excellent and a commercial set was predicted
to peak on July 20. Spawning continued on a regular basis into the first week of
August with straight-hinge larvae occurring in all the daily plankton tows.
Spatfall was monitored at seven locations in Pendrell Sound—Stations 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 10. Initial settlement occurred July 11; maximum setting on July 22
and light spatting continued to August 25. All experimental cultch was removed
September 17 and the mean spat counts and lengths were recorded (Tables 1 and 2).
Table 1—Ranges and Mean Counts/Shell of Live and Dead Spat, and Starfish on
Cultch Exposed on July 14 and Removed on September 17, 1975, in Pendrell
Sound
Live Spat (No./Shell)
Dead Spat (No./Shell)
Starfish (No./Shell)
Range
Mean
Range                Mean
Range
Mean
1	
2	
3	
4     	
27-196
4-234
71-207
40-533
2^(26
0-174
57-300
101.6
156.5
126.3
320.2
138.2
81.3
205.1
0-8                        3.7
0-7                        2.8
0-10                      2.4
5-104                   40.0
0-81                    21.9
0-15                        5.2
1-37          |           12.0
1-8
0-1
0-1
0-7
0-3
0-15
0-20
2.5
0.1
0.1
2 1
5	
0.5
6	
1.8
10	
5.3
Table 2—Means and Ranges of Spat Lengths on Cultch Exposed July 14 and
Removed September 17, 1975, in Pendrell Sound
Station Mean (mm) Range (mm)
1  5.8 1.0-10.0
2 ,  8.6 5.0-13.0
3  7.4 5.0-12.5
4  4.3 0.5- 7.5
5  4.0 1.0- 8.0
6 7.9 0.5-25.0
10  5.5 2.0-11.0
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 145
Heaviest spatfalls were observed at stations 2, 4, and 10 with station 4 recording the highest spatfall. The length of spat on September 17 at the seven stations
ranged from 0.5 to 30 mm with a mean of 7.7 mm (Table 2).
The oyster industry exposed 25,000 strings of Pacific oyster cultch, 22,000
strings of Phillipine oyster cultch, and 1,500 bundles of cement-coated veneer with
a commercial set of 20-25 spat per shell being collected. The oyster seed produced
in Pendrell Sound for 1975 was valued at $127,500.
Hotham Sound
Suitable water conditions for Pacific oyster breeding were recorded in Hotham
Sound during the month of July. Extensive spawning took place during the first
part of July and a commercial spatfall was observed which peaked around July 27.
There was no commercial or experimental cultch exposed, but bleach cultch was
examined for spat, and the range was found to be 0-12 spat per shell with a mean
spat count of 3.5 per shell.   No commercial cultch was exposed.
Ladysmith Harbour
Marginal water conditions for Pacific oyster-breeding were recorded in Ladysmith Harbour from July 14 to August 8. A light spatfall (Table 3) was observed
and the failure to obtain a commercial set was largely attributed to the water temperatures not obtaining sustained adequate levels required for extensive spawning
and larval development.
Table 3—Mean Spat Counts per Shell on Cultch Recorded Weekly
at Six Stations in Ladysmith Harbour
Stations
2
3
4
5
6
July 6-12	
0
0
.4
.5
0
0
.7
0
0
0
.3
.33
0
0
.36
0
0
0
.5
.25
o
•4
o
0
0
.33
.1
0
.1
0
0
July 13-19	
_
July 20-26   	
_
July 27-August 2	
.22
.2
August 10-16	
_
0
August 24 30 	
.1
0
No commercial cultch was exposed in Ladysmith Harbour in 1975.
Pacific Oyster Breeding Newsletter
The newsletter which informs the British Columbia oyster industry of Pacific
oyster-breeding in the Province and assists with seed collection operations was
continued in 1975; 12 weekly editions were issued.
B. Shellfish Culture Advisory Management Assistance
The Shellfish Section maintained close contact with the oyster culture industry
during the past year, with considerable effort being concentrated on providing
biological and technical assistance, especially to new culturists who have just become established in the industry.
  MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 147
Figure: 1
veneer
a) single panel
(25" X 15")
b) bundle
e) panels In place
 H 148 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Examples of the types of assistance provided include information of the economics and methodology of culture techniques, monitoring of oyster-growing areas
to provide data of seasonal growth rate, and conditioning and fouling to assist the
grower in developing his operational procedures, and assessment of new lease
applications to determine suitability for oyster culture.
Marketing
Management assistance to industry was provided by Federal and Provincial
fisheries agencies retaining the services of a secretary-manager to assist in marketing, quality control, and product diversifications.
Considerable effort has been placed on obtaining new markets for British
Columbia shellfish products. Brokerage outlets have been established in Northern
California, and initial market reaction has been most encouraging. It is expected
that export shipments to this area during the coming year will value over $200,000
for shucked oysters and over $100,000 for clams. This new market outlet should
realize an increase of approximately 20 per cent in British Columbia's landed value
for oysters during 1976.
Test marketing for. the Los Angeles area and Hawaii are at present being conducted, and preliminary results appear most favourable.
Proposed Shellfish Processing Plant
The need for a processing plant to handle shellfish products is recognized by
both the Gulf of Georgia Oyster Cooperative and Marine Resources Branch if
the industry is to remain a strong and viable entity. New efforts to establish a
plant in the Fanny Bay area have begun, and the major stumbling blocks of financing and land acquisition have been resolved. Plant size and design are now being
formulated to comply with its present needs and the financing available. Present
plans call for construction to begin in the late summer or early fall.
The managerial assistance projects to the oyster industry has been most encouraging in other aspects of oyster culture industry. The organization of a cooperative oyster seed collection program has proven most successful in providing
the British Columbia industry with its yearly seed requirements at a cost well below
the West Coast market value. The establishment of new market areas and an
organized continuity of supply to the market place has played a large role in
securing a sizeable portion of the market in the face of large competing Korean
imports.
Resource Management Program
Assessments—The oyster industry in British Columbia during the past year
has experienced a tremendous growth in the amount of new ground being requested
for oyster culture. Thirty applications for oyster leases were processed, with 26
being recommended for approval. This additional ground will bring the amount
of area at present under lease for oyster culture to approximately 2,156 acres, an
increase of approximately 10 per cent. Twenty-nine and one-half acres of this
new area will be utilized for raft culture.
Production—During 1975, 117 permits were issued to harvest oysters from
vacant Crown foreshore, an increase of 27 over the previous reporting period.
These permits realized a production of 852 tons of shellstock, a decline of 293
tons over 1975. The tonnage harvested by permit from Crown foreshore represented 25.5 per cent of the oyster production for shucking for British Columbia,
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 149
which totalled 3,342 tons of shellstock for 83,541 U.S. gallons of shucked meats.
This represents a total decrease of 730 tons or 18,347 gallons of shucked meats
compared to 1974. Production of half-shell oysters increased from 22,467 dozen
for 1974 to 35,031 dozen in 1975, an increase of 36 per cent. The total landed
value for oyster production was $937,029, a decline of $1,654 over the previous
year (Table 4).
Table 4—Summary of British Columbia Oyster Production
January....
February..
March	
April	
May	
June	
July-
August	
September-
October
November-
December „
Totals.
1974 Revised Shellstock
Gallons
Dozens
$ X 1000
Value
9,062
9,734
10,754
8,599
9,260
8,454
7,012
6,049
5,772
8,704
8,860
9,537
2,821
2,291
1,944
1,278
2,201
2,603
2,013
1,838
2,403
3,076
77
74
79
87
81
76
69
64
61
84
86
100
101,796    |    22,467
938,683
1975 Revised Shellstock
Gallons
7,155
6,848
8,778
7,657
7,724
7,245
5,519
3,227
4,891
6,919
7,359
10,220
83,541
Dozens
1,824
5,505"
2,294
9,281
1,775
1,544
1,240
754
1,762
3,388
1,487
4,178
$ X 1000
Value
70
71
88
92
86
77
66
36
76
75
85
114
35,031 | 937,029
I
The decline in total production for shucked meats is attributed to the following:
(1) Softening of market demand for table-grade oysters for the period
of January to August 1975.
(2) Slow "fattening" of oysters during the fall season, resulting in a
significant gallonage decline per ton of shellstock.
(3) Almost total loss in traditional markets for soup-grade oysters to
imported Korean oysters.
SHELLFISH DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
A. Oyster Tray Culture Project
A joint Federal-Provincial pilot commercial project on the tray culture of
Pacific oysters for the "half-shell" trade has been completed by the contractor and
Sabine Seafoods. The objectives of this project were to construct a tray-suspension system to support 3,000 grow-out trays; to conduct empirical studies on
growth, mortality, fouling, etc.; description of cultural procedures evaluated; cost
analysis of the operation; and the market reaction and potential of the product.
Summary of Results for Suspension Systems
Two tray-suspension systems were evaluated—cedar log floats and steel drum
floats—and each with its own advantages and disadvantages for suitability, stability,
and carrying capacity, etc. The significant difference was in construction costs of
cedar logs evaluated at $1.70 per linear foot on a three-year life expectancy and the
steel drum floats at $1 per linear foot on a five-year life expectancy.
 H 150
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Suitability of Seed Sources
Seed acquisition—Of the several varieties of seed available to growers in British Columbia, four types were evaluated—seed on cultch shells, seed on plywood
panels, seed on cement chips, and hatchery seed from the United States (Table 5).
Table 5—Summary of Seed Suitability for Tray Culture
Type
Basic
Cost/1,000
Comments
Sources
$0.25 	
Unacceptable due to loss and labour  	
Acceptable.    Initial labour high.    Mortality initially 20-30%.
Acceptable.   Initial labour medium to low; mortality low (5 per cent).
Acceptable.    Initial  labour  low;   mortality  low
(5 per cent).
Panel seed.	
Diamond chip.
Hatchery—
(a)	
(ft)	
$3   (plus   about   $5/
1,000 labour)
$10	
$10 for 5 mm or less —.
$20   for   seed   larger
than 10 mm	
Wes Parry,
White Rock, B.C.
Ken Lawrence,
Prince George, B.C.
Dennis Wilson,
Bay Center,
Washington, U.S.A.
Economics—The economic viability of culturing oysters for the "half-shell"
trade appears most favourable. Production, harvesting, and packaging (marketing) costs for 10,000 dozen oysters are shown in Table 6.
Table 6—Production Costs for 10,000 Dozen Oysters—Two-year Growing Cycle.
Year One
Subtotal
Year Two
Total
Seed      	
Panel type
(Other types)
720 X $0.50
335 X $3.00
180 X $1.67
$
750
(1,500)
360
1,005
300
50
$
1,440
6,120
1,200
200
$
750
(1,500)
Travs -—-	
2,880 X $0.50
2,040 X $3.00
720 X $1.67
1,800
7,125
Floatation __	
1,500
Materials  ___	
250
2,465
(3,215)
8,960
	
11,425
(If other
	
(12,175)
Marketability—Market reaction has been most favourable, as the tray-grown
Pacific oyster is said to be superior to the famous "Blue points" from the Eastern
United States. Market potential for the Pacific half-shell appears "unlimited"
at the present time, but definitely will outstrip production capability in the immediate future.
If quality can be maintained, and if production can be increased, there will
be a large market for West Coast tray-cultured oysters, at a price that will make
the production of them economic on a large scale.
B. Oyster-seed Development Project
Roughly 200 million seed oysters are required each year to sustain a three-
year rotation on oyster leases in British Columbia. Local oyster shell is readily
available and is used by the oyster industry as a collecting medium for spat. This
shell is heavy and costly to suspend in seed collecting areas; also, the strong bond
between the young oysters and the mother shell causes mortalities of up to 25 per
cent when clusters are broken up as yearlings.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
Cement-coated wood veneer has proven superior to shell cultch when tested
under research conditions. The purpose of this project was the further testing of
veneer cultch on a semi-commercial scale. Veneer cultch bearing about 8 million
seed oysters was purchased with Federal-Provincial funds and has been cultured
to define problems associated with nursery culture of oyster seed.
Culture Methods
Methods used, problems encountered, and size-range of oysters after one year
of culture in various sites are briefly summarized in Table 7.
Table 7—Summary of Comments on Veneer Cultch in May 1975
Test
Locality
Size
Range
Baynes Sound ~
Baynes Sound-
Baynes Sound—
Wave action displacement of panels -.
Damage to fence by floating logs	
Minor silting   .r	
Wave    action—20%    predation   by
1-1.5
Cultch held on low fence at 5-foot tide level
Cultch secured to line between 4 and 5-foot
tide levels.    Moved to sheltered ground in
Up to 1.5
1.5-3
Ladysmith
Cultch held on a fence 3 feet off the ground —
1-3.5
Heavy   predation   (60%)   by   crabs
Cultch hung on wire strung between stakes,
panels resting on the ground
Cultch   panels   were   wired   in   pairs   and
placed   tent-fashion   over   poly   rope   supported by stakes (Fig. !)____ .___	
.25-1.25
Cortes Island...
Ice laying on panels, seastar preda-
.5-2
Ladysmith
Oyster drill and seastar predation.
.5-1.5
1-3
Duke Lagoon...
Used as over-winter shelter for  Sooke cu!-
Seastar predation (5%).
Recreational Shellfish Program
The recreational shellfish program was continued in 1975/76 with the. existing
reserves being inspected during the summer and some areas restocked in the winter.
In addition, general information on common shellfish species has been made available to the public through brochures and pamphlets.
To this date there are 10 established recreational reserves. The reserves
located at Patricia Bay, Boulder Point, Yellow Point, Nanoose Bay, Francisco
Point, and Heriot Bay had map reserves placed over them in 1975 under the direction of the Marine Resources Branch. The four established reserves at Mill Bay,
Pipers Lagoon, Union Bay, and Kye Bay were reserved by other Government
agencies in previous years for the use and enjoyment of the public.
Restocking of the existing reserves was carried out during the winter with a
total of 14.5 tons of shellstock or 1,775 recreational limits (25 oysters per person
per day) being relayed to the various areas.
A brochure on the Pacific oyster was prepared and distributed through the
Marine Resources Branch and other agencies of the Department of Recreation and
Travel Industry. This brochure will be distributed again this year.
Oyster-farming has attracted considerable interest in recent years in British
Columbia. In response, a handbook which has been prepared to provide a guide
to the methodology, economics, and other aspects of oyster culture will be of interest to prospective growers, small growers who wish to increase their present production, and as a source of information to the general public. The handbooks, entitled
A Guide to Oyster Farming, will be available to the public at the beginning of the
new fiscal year.
 H 152
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
MARINE PLANT SECTION
Objectives—To undertake and co-ordinate basic research and development
work, in co-operation with the Federal Government, that will provide the rational
basis for development of a British Columbia marine plant industry; to conduct
inventories of the resource and to develop harvesting and culture strategies.
The second year in the existence of the Marine Plant Section can best be
described as dynamic. Significant advances were made in defining marine plant
resource development policy, in updating legislation, and in broadening the scope
of research and development projects needed to achieve our resource management
objectives.
RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
Large-scale commercial developments in the marine plant industry remain a
prospect for the future, perhaps the near future. Any major development would be
premature until accurate stock estimates are in hand and the restraints of informed
resource management have been defined. Provision of this information is therefore the prime objective of this section.
As with any industry, the market will determine the type, quality, and quantity
of products which could profitably be produced from seaweed and will, in the end,
control the development of the seaweed industry in British Columbia. Our research
and development projects have therefore been designed to provide basic biological
and technical data pertaining to those species which we believe are sources of
products having greatest market demand.
We continue to encourage small enterprises and provide as much biotechnical
assistance as possible to these individuals or small groups of prospective harvesters.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H153
One partnership was licensed to harvest and dry Porhyra (purple laver), Ulva (sea
lettuce), and Rhodymenid (dulse), all edible and highly nutritious seaweeds.
REGULATIONS
A Federal-Provincial working group was struck to draft seaweed harvesting
regulations under the Fisheries Act (Canada). A final draft was completed early
in 1975 but has not been promulgated. The question ot jurisdiction and ownership
of marine plant resources has not been ratified to the satisfaction of either Government, yet the proposed Federal regulations clearly delegate management responsibility to the Province.
Provincial regulations under the Fisheries Act (British Columbia) were rewritten and promulgated by Order in Council. These new regulations give the
resource managers control over the quantities of each species which may be harvested in any defined area, the manner in which harvesting may be conducted, and
the type of harvesting apparatus that may be employed. Harvesting can be ordered
suspended in any given area for any given period of time should it become necessary for conservation of the species being harvested or for the associated flora or
fauna. Harvesting licences are now based on groups of special similar biologically
and (or) on the basis of their industrial product potential.
Firms that produce seaweed-based products using imported, semi-refined seaweed material are now required to have a marine plant processing licence. This
provision will allow the Branch a more complete picture of the activity and volume
of production of the processing sector.
PROJECTS
Nootka Sound Kelp Inventory
The KIM-1 inventory method developed last year was applied to assess the
kelp stocks in Nootka Sound in a project partially funded by the Federal Fisheries
and Marine Service and jointly conducted with Canadian Benthic Limited of Bam-
field, B.C. Three monthly field trips were made td assess seasonal change in the
biomass of kelp. Infra-red black and white aerial photographs of the Nootka
Sound beds were taken in early September. The KIM-1 method allows accurate
estimation of the biomass (in tons) and area (in hectares) of Nereocystis (bull
kelp), Macrocystis (giant kelp), and mixed beds of both high and low-density
using mean water level (MWL = sea-level) as a reference point. Estimates are
also given for harvestable yields in metre increments above and below MWL. A
total of 66,390 metric tonnes of kelp was located in beds covering an area of
2,166 hectares (Table 1).
Table 1—Summary of Nootka Sound Kelp Biomass Estimates for Three Sampling
Periods, and Bed Area at MWL on September 9, 1975
Bed Type
Biomass (Metric Tonnes)
Bed Area
July-Aug.
End Aug.
End Sept.
(ha),
Sept. 9
28,255
2,861
4,400
13,249
2,452
4,319
35,327
2.465
36,426
3.007
862
226
Hesquiat Peninsula	
Mixed	
Nereocystis	
Macrocystis _	
5,005                  5,367
16,567        j        17,081
2,113                  2,577
4,913        |          5,269
168
513
210
187
Totals       	
55,536
66,390
69,727
2,166
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Nereocystis Ecology and Population Dynamics
The goal of this four-year-long project is to complete a harvesting strategy
model for bull kelp through a comprehensive series of studies of the life-cycle
stages, with emphasis on reproductive phenology. The objectives of the first year's
work were to examine sporophyte development and energy portioning, the timing
and quality of reproductive output, and gametophyte and sporophyte development
and survival. Much of this work is incomplete and requires observations over
several years. However, bed density changes over time have been monitored and a
sporophyte mortality rate curve has been developed. It has become patently
obvious that Nereocystis beds in different geographical areas behave quite differently in such aspects as the timing of initial sporophyte development, growth rate,
and reproductive output. The reasons for such differences are being investigated.
This project is being conducted under contract by a University of British Columbia
team under Dr. R. E. Foreman.
Kelp Bed Ichthyofauna
A University of British Columbia graduate student, Bruce Leaman, was
awarded a grant to assess the nature of the relationship between bull kelp beds and
resident fishes commonly found associated with Nereocystis and to determine the
effects on the association caused by experimental kelp harvesting.
Benthic (bottom) fishes appeared to be adversely affected by removal of the
Nereocystis canopy in the middle parts of the bed, but not at the edges. The
diversity of benthic fishes increases toward the middle of the kelp bed. Benthic
fishes utilize crustaceans, primarily amphipods, as food items.   v
Fishes, such as the black rockfish and tubesnout, appear to be adversely
affected by canopy removal at the edges of kelp beds, but appear to gain an advantage by an increase in the amount of "edge habitat" when the mid-bed canopy is
removed. The black rockfish, Sebastes melinops, utilized herring as a prime food
item; the tubesnout was found to be a planktivore.
Macrocystis (Giant Kelp) Growth Strategy
The development of a harvesting strategy for Macrocystis requires understanding of the pattern of growth of this kelp and how the growth strategy is influenced by removal of the upper portions of the plant. Chris Lobban, a Simon
Fraser University doctoral candidate, was awarded a grant to study this growth/
harvesting interaction. Frond growth rates and frond and blade initiation rates
were determined at three sites in Barkley Sound. A frond growth curve was developed which could be divided into a phase of very slow growth (while the parent
fronds enters exponential growth), a phase of more rapid growth while the stipe
is 0.25 to 0.50 m long, a phase of exponential growth, and a phase of slow growth
and senescence.
An unusually heavy settlement of bryozoans, hydroids, and tube worms
resulted in an erratic pattern in the translocation of photosynthates and, concom-
mitantly, a depression in frond growth rates. Removal of the frond apex resulted
in a strong but temporary "sink" for photosynthates at the wounded surface. Experiments showed that both the apical scimitar and the immature blades are sinks
for photosynthates produced by mature blades, and that each is capable of attracting
photosynthates in the absence of the other. Immature fronds continued to elongate
for some time after removal of the apex, but older fronds did not.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
Irid^a Spore Ecology and Cultivation Technology Development
The shared-cost project is being conducted by Dr. A. Austin and Robert
Adams of the University of Victoria. The growth of Iridcea on artificial substrates
is being investigated as a culture technique. Iridcea density per linear metre of rope
seeded by placement in a natural bed increased from 0.16 kg after one year to 0.84
kg after two years. Growth rate as affected by current velocity and the orientation
of ropes relative to currents is being evaluated.
 H 156 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Studies on spore dispersal, attachment, and germination and the survival of
sporelings were initiated in the hope of developing means of enhancing the density
of native Irida:a beds.
A second cultivation technique, the growth of unattached Iridcea fronds inside netted enclosures, is being evaluated by observing frond growth rate and reproductive conditions. Enclosures are located in several locales in northern Georgia
Strait.
Gracilaria Population Dynamics, Harvesting, and Cultivation
Gracilaria is our prime source of the valuable industrial colloid agar. This
jointly funded study, conducted by Canadian Benthic Limited of Bamfield, B.C.,
was the first investigation of an agarophyte on this coast and was very comprehensive in scope.
Harvest/regrowth studies are incomplete, but preliminary data suggest that
it would be unprofitable to harvest subtidal beds due to their low density. Inter-
tidal beds of the fragment mat type could be harvested in strips; but the width of
the harvest and "leave" strips is critical to preservation of the bed.
Gracilaria is a widespread algae and exhibits a number of growth forms. Preliminary agar analysis indicates that both the quantity and quality of the agar extract vary significantly between the different growth forms.
The seeding of oyster shells with Gracilaria spores, followed by outplanting
to suitable growth sites, was tested as a method of enhancing the density of wild
Gracilaria stocks. Creating new free-floating populations inside netted enclosures
(using material transferred from an existing bed) was also tested as a means of
enhancing Gracilaria abundance. Both techniques proved to be technically simple,
but require economic evaluation.
PUBLICATIONS
FIN FISH SECTION
Andrews, T. R., and H. M. McSheffrey, 1976. Commercial Interception of
Steelhead Trout Stocks in British Columbia.   A preliminary Report.    31 p.
SHELLFISH SECTION
Quayle, D. B., and D. W. Smith (in press). A Guide to Oyster Farming in British Columbia.   60 p.
MARINE PLANT SECTION
Coon, L. M., and E. J. Field, 1976. Nootka Sound Kelp Inventory, 1975. Fisheries Management Report 2 (in prep.).
Lobban, C. S., 1976. Growth, Translocation and Harvesting Interactions in
Macrocystis integrifolia. Final Report to the Marine Resources Branch, February 1976.   88 pp.
Saunders, R. B., 1976. Growth and Reproductive Phenology of Gracilaria verrucosa. Report to the Marine Resources Branch and the Industrial Development Branch, Fisheries and Marine Service.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
H 157
Austin, A. /^, and R. Adams, 1976. Methodology for Exploration of Cultivation
and of Enhancement of Natural Populations in the Red Seaweed Iridaza cor-
data.   Program for May 1, 1975, to March 31, 1976.    15 pp.
Leaman, B. M., 1976. The Ecology of Fishes in British Columbia Kelp Beds.
Barkley Sound Nereocystis beds. Report to the Marine Resources Branch,
March 1976.   108 pp.
Foreman, R. E., 1976. Ecology and Population Dynamics of Nereocystis luet-
keana. Annual Report, April 1, 1975 to March 31, 1976. Submitted to
Marine Resources Branch.   BERP Report 76-2 (in press).
 H 158 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
..',.-""       .   **■*■**"" ^*8HP^
 Outdoor Recreation Branch
This Branch is responsible for the administration
of the Community Recreation Facilities Fund
Act, the Recreational Land Green Belt Encouragement Act, the Regional Park Act, the All-terrain
Vehicles Act, Small Vessel Regulations, the Outdoor Recreation Safety and Survival Program,
and to act as co-ordinator between outdoor
recreation users and the Provincial Government.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
outdoor recreation branch
Acting Director
M.C.M. Matheson
utaoor
Safety & Survival
Paul Presidente
in charge
Community
Recreational
Facilities Fund
John Thompson
in charge
Recreational Land
Green Belt
Encouragement Act
George Cooper
in charge
 OUTDOOR RECREATION BRANCH
H 161
Murray Matheson
Acting Director
Outdoor Recreation Branch
The Outdoor Recreation Branch was initially funded for the fiscal year 1975/
76 and slowly evolved throughout the year as existing functions were assembled into
one unit and gradually separated from the parent branches—Parks Branch and
Fish and Wildlife Branch. A real sense of unity was achieved when all staff were
moved to new quarters on the third floor of the Weiler Building, 609 Broughton
Street, in November 1975.
The Outdoor Recreation Branch is responsible for administration of the
Regional Park Act, the Recreational Land Green Belt Encouragement Act, the
Community Recreational Facilities Fund Act, and the All-terrain Vehicles Act,
and certain aspects of Small Vessel Regulations. With the assistance and cooperation of the Parks Branch, the Outdoor Recreation Branch, on behalf of the
Parks Branch, administers that portion of the Park Act pertaining to Class "C"
Provincial parks.
In addition, responsibility for the following key functions has been assigned:
(1) Conducting study of, and research into, public outdoor recreation
activity and needs, recreational resource-user conflicts involving outdoor recreation, and desirable outdoor recreation program priorities
in relation to available funding, for policy planning guidance as
required by Government:
(2) Assisting, in a co-ordinating capacity, existing Government agencies
which operate facilities and programs for outdoor recreation:
(3) Serving as a focal point of contact for the public, for Governmental
agencies, and for commercial nonurban recreation enterprises on
matters pertaining to outdoor recreation not within the purview of
existing agencies:
(4) Assisting in the development of operational saiety standards for
commercial outdoor recreation enterprises, and regulations for these
activities:
(5) Organizing public safety training programs in outdoor recreation:
 H 162
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
(6) Co-ordinating the assembly of, and public access to, a complete
Provincial inventory of recreation resource capabilities, features, and
facilities:
(7) Assisting communication between recreation-user groups and resource management agencies at the Provincial and resource management region levels:
(8) Ensuring co-ordination between recreation space provision and
facility development at the Provincial level with that at regional and
community levels:
(9) Preparing recommendations to Government on policies for the-
administration of outdoor recreation in British Columbia.
The principal spheres of Branch activity have been the Community Recreational Facilities Fund, Regional and Class "C" park administration, the Recreational Land Green Belt Encouragement Act, and the Outdoor Recreational Safety
and Survival.
 OUTDOOR RECREATION BRANCH
OUTDOOR RECREATION SAFETY AND SURVIVAL
During the past year this section has participated in 55 programs on wilderness survival. Approximately 1,200 people took an active part in the various
programs which were of 1, 3, 5, or 12 days' duration. Courses ranged from
elementary survival to training instructors in wilderness survival techniques.
The Co-ordinator also took part in numerous meetings with a variety of
safety and recreational organizations as well as with the B.C. Safety Council, the
B.C. Mountain Trail Committee, and the YMCA.
Brochures on Hypothermia and the A.B.Cs of Survival were produced in
co-operation with the Provincial Emergency Programme and a wilderness survival
booklet was prepared for publication in co-operation with the Forest Service.
EXTENSION LIAISON
This section is responsible for administration of the Regional Park Act, liaison
with regional districts through their Technical Planning Committees, and providing
guidance to Class "C" Park Boards concerning their administration of Class "C"
Provincial parks.
The purpose of the Regional Park Act is to assist the development of regional
recreation opportunities through the provision of Provincial assistance in the
acquisition and development of regional parks. It involves the administration of
acquisition and development grants, assistance to regional district staffs in the
planning of regional park systems as well as park plans, and liaison between the
Department and the districts in the preparation of by-laws under the Regional Park
Act.
The Technical Planning Committee function is to provide co-ordination and
liaison between the Department and regional districts in all planning matters such
as regional plans, by-laws, land use contracts, and any matters referred to the committee by the Regional Board.
Class "C" parks are established under the Provincial Park Act but in fact fulfil
a municipal or regional park function in areas where local levels of government are
not organized or do not have the park function. Increasing awareness of the scope
and application of the Regional Park Act is gradually eroding the need for Class
"C" parks.
Escalating land values will probably result in applications for regional park
grants exceeding the budget allocation of $1.3 million. It is expected that demands
during the next fiscal year will be even greater.
Sixteen of the 28 regional districts have the park function and several others
are currently considering adopting it. Increasing use of the Regional Park Act has
indicated a possible need for the passing of formal regulations. In particular the
leasing of regional park areas for specialized developments such as ski-ing should
be closely examined by the Department. It is also becoming evident that official
regional park plans should be subjected to the same scrutiny as official regional
plans. Greater public awareness of the Regional Park Act and its function would
lead to an all around better system of regional parks.
RECREATIONAL LAND GREEN BELT ENCOURAGEMENT ACT
The above Act was intended to encourage the retention of privately held
recreational land and ensure public access to such land by the initiation of a tax
rebate system.  The need for such assistance arose out of the 1973 amendment to
 H 164 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
'OFFICi;     '         ( I ENED
T. L.BENNETT
J.      FRANCIS
CA. MACKIE
AN
A, J. SE1GO*
J. D. STOUT
K.'W, T. WRIGHT
 OUTDOOR RECREATION BRANCH
H 165
the Assessment Equalization Act which removed the limitations on assessment
increases in certain land uses.
The rather indefinite wording of the Act has, despite the efforts of the Advisory Committee and staff, resulted in something of an impasse. More than 80
applications have been received to date, including 23 golf clubs, 10 ski clubs, and
21 fish and game clubs, and all are partially processed. Although two applications
are ready for final approval, they are being held in abeyance pending completion
of a full review by Government of the Act and its implications.
It is apparent that, unless changes are made in the legislation and regulations,
the Act will be almost impossible to control.
COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FUND
Since establishment in 1973, a total of 827 grants has been given to 227 communities in the Province. Total allocation of funds is $43,360,944.99. During
1975, 550 applications resulted in 320 grants totalling $11,611,139.81. Awarding
of the above grants resulted in an over-allocation of funds to the extent of
$2,861,671.42.
By April 1 a further 149 applications were on hand but, because of the
unresolved financial situation, no grants were made at that time.
The Advisory Committee to the fund was restructured during 1975. Four
members had completed a two-year term and a fifth, Roger Adolph, withdrew
because of pressure of other work. Mrs. E. Dawson and E. Broom, N. Olenick,
and D. Russell retired and were replaced by Ms. Y. Kennedy, Mrs. N. Sealey, D.
Basham, and W. Young.   Mr. Adolph was replaced by Simon Moses of Kamloops.
Apart from more intensive screening of applications, staff involvement has
increased through an attempt to provide better service and information to applicants and potential applicants. Greater assistance has been given to applicants in
the preparation of submissions and attempts have been made to locate better
sources of information on facility planning and design as well as maintenance and
operation procedures and costs.
The need for intensive screening of applications and responding to routine
inquiries makes it virtually impossible to expand the above service with the current
staffing level.
The stated objective of the fund is the provision of sufficient recreation facilities to allow adequate opportunities for participation by interested residents.
Because increased leisure time and mobility are producing an expanding demand for
recreational facilities, it is evident that attainment of the objective can only be
achieved through an established long-range program.
  Information & Education Branch
■
•
This program consists of information, education,
and promotional activities to develop public
appreciation and understanding of the living,
recreational, and historical resources of British
Columbia and of their management by the
Department of Recreation and Conservation.
 H 168 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
information & education branch
Chief, Information
B. Kelsey
Parks
Information
J.Walter
Fish & Wildlife
Information
G. Ferguson
Media Services
J. Booth
Chief, Support
R.Wright
■UHBH|
Display
R.Wells
Photography
M. Naga
Chief, Education
Vacant
 INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH
H 169
Information & Education Branch
A major factor in the success of resource management programs is the understanding and support of a well-informed public. With this in mind, the Department of Recreation and Conservation in 1974 laid down plans for a Branch of
Information and Education. The major responsibilities of this Branch were for
the development of both broad educational and more specific information programs
to foster public appreciation of living and recreational resources, and of their
management by the Department of Recreation and Conservation. The new Branch
became operative in early 1975 and has to date just completed its first year of
operation.
This Department is unique among Government agencies in its requirements
for Information and Education programs. Unlike other resource departments
which are primarily associated with a large industry in the private sector, we relate
directly to the interests of a wide variety of public client groups. Furthermore,
we are largely involved with two areas that have attracted enormous attention in
recent years—outdoor recreation and environmental protection. Both of these
have important public education implications; the latter in terms of developing an
understanding of management policies and processes and the former in terms of
developing recreational skills, safety, and access. In some cases we have a statutory
responsibility for public education; in all cases, we deal with enormous public demand. As a result, both regular public contact and the development of public
understanding and even skills are integral requirements of our management programs.
A recognition of these requirements has resulted in the development of many
Information and Education programs to meet specific Branch requirements. In
view of these existing programs, the role of the Information and Education Branch
was seen to be at two levels. The first of these, as already indicated, was to assume
responsibility for broad Departmental programming and to represent Departmental
interests at a Government level. The second was to co-ordinate and support existing activities to realize optimum public impact and eliminate duplication in these
programs. The extent of the latter role depended entirely on the level of staffing
in the Information and Education Branch as the provision of services could only
 H 170
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
be undertaken where appropriate staff were available. As staffing levels remained
extremely low throughout 1975, the servicing and co-ordinating function saw very
little development.
As the remainder of this report will indicate, activities for 1975 primarily involved preparation for this eventual role through the development of working relations with other Government agencies, public groups, educational institutions, and
the news media. Much of this preparation took the form of experimental programs,
the development of systems for dealing with client groups, and the accumulation
and organization of resources and facilities basic to the production of program
materials.
This work was carried out against the backdrop of heavy demands for publications, press services, and general public inquiry. However, several special projects were successfully completed in 1975 which demonstrated the potential for
competitive Information and Education programs. It is our expectation that anticipated staff additions will take these activities out of the "special project" category
and make them instead the expected output of a fully functional Information and
Education Branch.
 INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH H 171
INFORMATION SERVICES
The Information Services Section provides general public information and
media relations services to all branches of the Department. These services range
from responding to public inquiry to the development and operation of promotional
programs for major Departmental projects.
The development of this section began in mid-1975 with the appointment of
Barry Kelsey as Section Chief. While most structural changes took the form of
simply reorganizing existing staff, several new systems were introduced to expand
methods of media contact and anticipate issues of public concern. The result of
these changes was the beginning of a move from public information based on response to public inquiry to a more aggressive system where problems are anticipated and preparatory material is distributed in a timely and competitive manner.
The completion of this transition is our primary objective for 1976/77.
Operations were located in office space at 512 Fort Street secured during this
same period. These offices provided easy access to other parts of the Department
and, through a "store-front" entry, to the interested public. Plans are now being
developed for the creation of an information centre in this area to deal with direct
public inquiry and act as an outlet for Departmental publications and program
materials.
Activities
During this reporting period, 180 press releases were made. These releases
covered a variety of topics ranging from Departmental announcements to public
service messages and were handled through a system of direct mailing operated by
the Information Services Section. These direct mailings ensure total coverage of
the Province and easy access to announcements for all levels of local media; the
180 press releases indicated, for example, represent over 200,000 such individual
mailings. These releases generated over 3,100 newspaper articles and Departmental activities, as monitored by section staff.
As a means of providing more detailed background information for complex or
long-term developments, 29 news kits and background briefing papers were prepared in this same period. These kits were distributed on a more restricted basis,
generally, to media or public specialists who were identified as having special interest in a particular project.
In order to involve other media in coverage of Departmental activities, audiovisual materials were produced to accompany a number of information announcements. These materials included photo kits, film clips, and radio tapes; the result
was an estimated 160 radio and 34 television items on Departmental concerns.
In addition, a series of public service announcements was initiated to cover broader
issues on a more repetitive basis.
During 1975, 16 news conference and (or) opening ceremonies were organized
and conducted by the Information Services section. In addition, the Chief of
Information Services was in charge of promotion and media relations throughout
the Province for the Provincial Museum Train project.
An estimated 151,000 items of public inquiry were serviced by Departmental
information staff in the 1975/76 period. This function, which is often not well
recognized, is a direct result of the enormous public interest in Department activities and responsibilities. The volume of inquiry is far beyond that of any other
area of Government, and since many inquiries demand a complex and researched
response, proper attention can only be given with a substantial investment of time
by information staff.
 H 172 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH
H173
During this same period a further five issues of the quarterly Departmental
magazine Wildlife Review were produced. This publication, produced continuously
since 1954, has over 22,000 paid subscribers and a total circulation of 36,000.
Revenue from the magazine is approximately $35,000 annually.
In recognition of the need for public opinion feedback to Departmental managers, the Information Services Section monitors press information on topics of
Departmental interest and abstracts these to form a summary entitled New Briefs.
All articles indicated in this summary are available to interested staff from the Information Services office.
SUPPORT SERVICES
The Support Services Section provides technical, design, graphic, and audiovisual services to both the Information and Education Branch and the Department
as a whole. It is responsible for the, and production of, Departmental publications,
photographic, film, and video tape production and the creation and programming
of regulatory and interpretative signs, displays, and exhibits.
Operations of the Support Services Section were based in offices at 1264 West
Pender Street in Vancouver. This location provided easy and direct access to both
suppliers of required services and materials, to the media, and educational and
commercial organizations who were the recipients of much of the output of this
group.
Activities
The accumulation of background photographic and film material on the
activities of the Department and the areas and resources for which it is responsible
occupied a great deal of time and energy in 1975. This material is basic to the
production of films, audio-visual material, and publications of all types. The result
was an extensive film, photo, and video tape file which serves both the Department
and the public, through a photo, film, and video lending library.
Film clips were produced to accompany press announcements, and a short
promotional film on the Provincial Museum Train project was completed based
largely on film material used originally for news announcements. This film will be
used to introduce the Museum Train to communities that the train will be visiting
on future tours.
During 1975, 19 publications were designed, written, and produced. These
ranged from brochures on parks and wildlife species to major publications and
educational program texts.   Publications now in circulation include:
The B.C. Recreational Atlas covers the entire Province in 150 pages at a
scale of 1:600,000. Produced in co-operation with the Surveys and
Mapping Branch, the atlas is the definitive guide to wildlife management units, as well as indicating many general recreational features
of the Province.
Hunting, Fishing, and Trapping Regulations were produced to completely
redesigned formats. These changes required extensive design and
organizational alterations, but will pave the way for the inclusion of
new management developments for many years to come.
Fish and Wildlife—The Recreational ResourceTs a 96-page book on the
recreational enjoyment of fish and wildlife resources. It is a basic
text for the CORE program and to date has been either sold or
distributed through the CORE program to a level of some 80,000
editions.
 H 174 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH
A new distribution system for publications was established with a British
Columbia publishing house. Under this arrangement, broad distribution is achieved
through bookstores and other commercial outlets, and revenues generated are
expected to reach $42,800 in 1976.
Television programming was based on the production of program series on
Departmental management activities. These programs were aired on major network
TV and video tapes produced for reuse through other outlets such as cable, educational, and in-service training.
Over 600 management unit signs were constructed and erected on highways
throughout the Province. These signs indicate boundaries for resource regions and
wildlife management units. In addition, approximately 80 project or interpretative
signs and 30 regulatory signs were designed, constructed, and placed. These signs
are all produced in accord with a sign format system.
Displays for 20 fish, wildlife, and natural history interpretation shelters were
completed and installed at sites throughout the Province. In addition, 21 portable
displays were used by regional staff at more than 30 local events. Finally, seven
major exhibits were built and programmed for events ranging from the Pacific
Science Congress to the B.C. Outdoor show.
Education Programs
Staff restrictions during the 1975/76 period meant that there were no full-time
staff to work specifically on education programming. However, the Information
and Education Branch puts a high priority on education programs as it is these
programs which meet the long-term needs of management for a public understanding of living and outdoor recreational resources and an appreciation of their
management and use. As a result, educational program development has proceeded
on a task-force basis with contributing staff drawn from other parts of the Information and Education Branch. In this way, several major education projects were
accomplished.
ENCORE, a program of environment studies, was completed in early 1976
and evaluation begun prior to its general release. This program is an outdoor
activity program designed to illustrate basic principles in the operation of natural
systems. Its major advantages are that it relates activities to general site types,
rather than to specific locations, and that it provides a cataloguing of usable field
trip sites within various areas of the Province. In this way, meaningful outdoor
study sessions can be organized and conducted with very little research or preparation by leaders. In addition, the need for a highly developed field trip site is greatly
reduced. The hopeful result will be a greater involvement of teachers and outdoor
leaders in outdoor studies, and a better understanding by students of how natural
systems work.
The Wilderness Leadership program is a college level program sponsored by
this Department and at present operating at Capilano Junior College. The program
is designed to provide training in outdoor safety and skills for recreation leaders,
and is a reflection of the growing public interest in outdoor and wilderness activities.
A set of course manuals for component courses was initiated in 1975, with projected completion for 1976. These manuals will establish program standards and
allow the program to be "exported" to other colleges and institutions. Some components of the program are already recognized by various Provincial Government
and educational agencies as the standard for competence.
The Wilderness Adventure '75 Program was an extension of the Wilderness
Leadership Program to the public.   Program graduates, under WIG funding, con-
 H 176 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 INFORMATION AND EDUCATION BRANCH
ducted safety and skills seminars throughout the summer with groups ranging from
retarded adults through senior citizens and Provincial park visitors. Graduates
were able in this way to involve themselves directly in program development, while
providing valuable public safety instruction. At the same time, systems for the
conduct of such sessions were established and tested. Finally, some important
measures of public demand for this type of training were made. The results of the
program, from procedures to evaluation, were compiled in a program manual which
will serve as a guide for future programs.
In more general terms, the Information and Education Branch continues to
provide support for educational programs throughout the Province through the
production and distribution of educational material on our living and outdoor
recreation resources. Branch staff also work with educator groups, including the
new Association of Outdoor Educators and, through the Interdepartmental Environmental Education Committee, with other Government departments interested
in outdoor education. Information and Education staff also continue to provide
support materials for the Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education Program
(CORE) which ranges from hunter safety training to general outdoor recreation
education in programs throughout the Province.
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1977
3,430-1276-4554
 

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