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Department of Labour ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1975 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1976

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Labour
ANNUAL REPORT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31
1975
Hon. Allan Williams, Minister
James G. Matkin, Deputy Minister
PRINTED BY AUTHORITY
OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  To Colonel the Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Department of Labour of the Province for the year
1975 is herewith respectfully submitted.
ALLAN WILLIAMS
Minister of Labour
Office oj the Minister of Labour,
December 31, 1975.
  The Honourable Allan Williams,
Minister of Labour.
Sir: I have the honour to submit herewith the Fifty-eighth Annual Report on
the work of the Department of Labour up to December 31, 1975.
JAMES G. MATKIN
Deputy Minister of Labour
Department of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., December 31, 1975.
  CONTENTS
Personnel Directory_
Page
.   11
General Administration
Major Developments in 1975  17
Labour Market Information  19
Labour Dispute Statistics  26
Research and Planning  39
Information Services  40
Special Services  41
Manpower Division
Introduction  45
Apprenticeship and Industrial Training  46
Employment Programs  49
Women's Employment  51
Occupational Environment  52
Elevating Devices  54
Compensation Services  55
Trade-schools Regulation  56
Industrial Relations Division
Introduction  59
Labour Standards  60
Arbitration  61
Mediation Services  62
Human Rights  62
Independent Boards
Board of Industrial Relations  67
Boards of Review, Workers' Compensation Act   68
Statistics
Tables 1 and 2—Appenticeship and Industrial Training  73
Tables 3 to 5—Compensation Consultant  76
Tables 6 to 9—Labour Standards  78
Tables 10 and 11—Arbitration  79
Table 12—Mediation   80
Tables 13 and 14—Human Rights  80
Legislation Affecting Employees, 1975  8.2
  PERSONNEL  DIRECTORY
DEPARTMENT  OF   LABOUR
Minister of Labour Hon. L. Allan Williams .__.      387-6070
Executive Assistant Robert E. Exell  _ 387-3336
Deputy Minister..  Iames G. Matkin   387-3282
Associate Deputy Minister (Industrial Relations) Kenneth A. Smith   387-5611
Associate Deputy Minister (Manpower) Ranjit S. Azad    434-5761
General Administration
880 Douglas Street, Victoria
Deputy Minister  Iames G. Matkin  387-3282
Director, Finance and Administration Frank A. Rhodes  387-1615
Director, Personnel   William H. Bell  387-3301
Director of Legislation   Iames R. Edoett  387-3286
Director, Research and Planning   Alan H. Portigal   387-3445
Director of Special Services George D. Bishop „_   387-5482
Director, Information Services Iack E. Nugent  387-1616
Industrial Relations Division
880 Douglas Street, Victoria
Associate Deputy Minister  ..Kenneth A. Smith  387-5611
Director, Human Rights..   ..Kathleen Ruff  387-6861
Director, Labour Standards William J. D. Hoskyn  387-3284
General Inquiries  3 87-3290
Supervisor,   Labour   Standards   (4211    Kingsway,
Burnaby) Jack A. Laffling   434-5761
Director, Labour Education Ronald M. Tweedie  387-5496
Director of Arbitration  ...Gerald H. O'Neill  387-5753
Acting Director, Mediation Gus C. Leonidas  434-5761
Manpower Division
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby
Associate Deputy Minister.  Ranjit S. Azad  434-5761
Executive Director, Manpower Division (Acting) Robert Plecas   434-5761
Director, Women's Employment  .....Mrs. Christine Waddell   434-5761
Director of Manpower Training and Development John Melville   434-5761
Director, Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Samuel W. Simpson   434-5761
Director, Occupational Environment James D. Forrest  434-5761
Elevating  Devices Inspection  Bureau   (4240 Manor
Street, Burnaby)    434-5344
Acting Director, Employment Programs (1006 Fort
Street, Victoria)   Vern A. Burkhardt 387-1631
11
  BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS
Board of Industrial Relations
Parliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman James G. Matkin
Vice-Chairman and
Secretary J. R. Edgett
Members C. Murdoch
A. Macdonald
Mrs. Emily Ostapchuk
R. K. Gervin
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby
Chairman
Members...
John Melville
B. H. Campbell
J. A. Gray
J. O. Hastings
E. H. McCaffery
C. Stairs
S. W. Simpson
T. W. Trineer
Boards of Review
(Workers' Compensation Act)
350, 2025 West 42nd Avenue, Vancouver
Administrative
Chairman [Vacant]
Chairmen W. I. Auerbach
R. W. Standerwick
Members W. I. Beeby
J. S. Don
D. C. Fraser
J. Mackenzie
N. Mills
S. J. Squire
W. N. Peain
Human Rights Commission
Parliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman Bishop Remi J. De Roo
Members Larry Ryan
William Black
Gene Errington
Rose Charlie
Workers' Compensation Board
5255 Heather Street, Vancouver
Vice-Chairman
(Acting) J. P. Berry
Commissioners T. R. Watt
G. Kowbel
Executive Director...R. Caldecott
Board Counsel and
Executive Officer.. J. P. Berry
Director, Legal
Services  I. E. Tufts
Labour Relations Board
1620 West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver
Chairman Paul C. Weiler
Vice-Chairman and
Chief Administrative Officer E. R. Peck
Vice-Chairpersons ... J. A. Moore
Nancy Morrison
Ronald Bone
John Baigent
Members.   Angus Macdonald
Arnold J. Smith
John M. Billings
Herbert L. Fritz
Mike L. Kramer
Graham D. M. Leslie
Ken R. Martin
J. McAvoy
B. van der Woerd
John Brown
Clarence Alcott
Peter Cameron
Burnaby: 4211 Kingsway, Burnaby Centre.
4240 Manor Street.
Chilliwack: 24 Victoria Avenue West.
Cranbrook: Room 226, Courthouse, 102 South
11th Avenue.
Dawson Creek: 1201—103rd Avenue.
Kamloops: 220, 546 St. Paul Street.
REGIONAL OFFICE  LOCATIONS
Kelowna: 1913 Kent Road.
Nanaimo: 190 Wallace Street.
Nelson: Box 60, 310 Ward Street.
Prince   George:    Room   222,    1488   Fourth
Avenue.
Terrace: 4926 Highway 16 West.
Williams Lake: 307—35 Second Avenue South.
13
  GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
* Major Development's in 1975
* Labour Market Information
* Labour Dispute Statistics
* Research and Planning
* Information Services
* Special Services
  GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
MAJOR  DEVELOPMENTS  IN   1975
The labour sector of British Columbia remained in an unsettled condition
throughout 1975. Generally poor economic conditions plagued the Province
throughout the year, as world markets
for British Columbia products failed
to recover as fully as had been .expected. Unemployment levels passed
the 100,000 mark early in the year,
and then remained high for the balance
of 1975. Labour-management disputes
were  also  pronounced  during   1975.
The services of the Minister of
Labour and of the Department were
required to assist in the resolution of
a number of labour-management disputes during the year. A somewhat
discouraging trend toward increased
third-party intervention was evident.
The Minister appointed nine Industrial Inquiry Commissions, six Special
Officers, one Special Mediator, and one
Interest Disputes Arbitrator in 1975.
The Minister also appointed a
special Industry Advisory Committee
to advise the Minister, the Government, and the construction industry on
matters pertaining to the supply and
training of personnel for the industry.
Major legislation introduced in 1975
included Bill 84 amendments to the
Labour Code of British Columbia, the
Collective Bargaining Continuation
Act, and the Labour Education Centre
of British Columbia Act.
The Labour Code amendments continued the original themes of the Code
by buttressing the remedial authority
of the Labour Relations Board through
an expanded section 28, by revision of
the arbitration law so as to integrate it
with the collective bargaining law by
facilitating access to the basic rights
of the Code, and by introducing a
cooling-off provision and a power to
designate life-supporting services in
public interest disputes.
Labour-management disputes
reached a peak of activity during August and September, when more than
400,000 man-days of work stoppage
were recorded in both months. This
situation culminated early in October
in the Collective Bargaining Continuation Act, which was enacted to force
a cooling-off period in several key industries.
The Collective Bargaining Continuation Act ordered a 90-day halt to all
strikes and lockouts, and an immediate
resumption of work in the forest, pulp
and paper, railway, propane and butane distribution, and food-merchandising industries. The Lieutenant-
Governor in Council was empowered
to extend the force of the Act, if
necessary, by an additional 14 days,
which was done when the initial 90
days expired.
During the year as a whole, there
were 173 disputes involving 67,496
workers for a work-stoppage total of
1,864,596 man-days—the second highest such figure in Provincial history.
Despite the increase in dispute
activity, labour income continued to
grow during 1975. Wages and salaries
stood at $9,452 million for 1975, up
14.4 per cent from the 1974 level of
$8,264 million. Average weekly earnings rose to just over $229 from a revised 1974 level of $200.50, and remained almost $25 a week above the
Canadian average.
Wage settlement analysis conducted
by the Department revealed that wage
increases averaging 16.3 per cent were
provided for in larger negotiated settlements. This figure remained almost
identical to the previous year's level
of 16.2 per cent.
Estimates of British Columbia's
population for 1975 showed an increase, as of June 1, of 62,000 persons
17
 FF  18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
over the corresponding June 1974
level. This represented a 2.6-per-cent
growth rate, slightly less than in previous years, but still well above the
Canadian average of 1.6 per cent. The
effects of the depressed economic climate were revealed in reduced levels of
in-migration and immigration to the
Province. Immigration slowed appreciably and accounted for less than 19
per cent of the population increase.
The Province's labour force continued to grow during 1975, and at a
rate that again surpassed population
growth. A persistent unemployment
problem developed during the year,
however, as job growth failed to keep
pace with the labour force growth of
4.8 per cent. Average employment of
1,009,000 persons was only 2.2 per
cent above the 1974 level of 987,000.
Unemployment thus grew to an average
level of 94,000 persons during 1975,
including a high of 102,000 recorded
in both February and November.
Careers '75, the summer student employment program of Employment
Programs Branch, produced jobs for
approximately 11,000 students, many
of whom found work in a variety of
occupations related to their career plan.
Vancouver consumer price rises
moderated in 1975 to an annual rate
of 8.8 per cent by December. Large
increases earlier in the year, however,
created average price index increases
of 11.1 per cent for 1975, down only
slightly from the 1974 average of 11.6
per cent.
An education campaign to heighten
public awareness of the services provided by the Human Rights Branch
and the anti-discrimination protection
afforded under the Human Rights Code
resulted in a dramatic increase in the
number of complaints received by the
Branch—714 versus 241 in 1974, a
jump of almost 300 per cent.
Human Rights Boards of Inquiry
held during the year reached precedent-
setting decisions with Canada-wide impact. Among them were the inclusion
of homosexuals under the protection of
the Code, and a ruling that pregnancy
was not reasonable cause for termination of employment and was therefore
discrimination based upon sex. For
the first time in the Province's history,
cash compensation was awarded to a
Native Indian who had suffered from
racial discrimination.
The Department represented British
Columbia at the second Federal-Provincial conference of ministers responsible for human rights, held at Ottawa
in December.
Personnel and Organization
Changes
During 1975, Ronald Bone and
John Baigent were appointed as vice-
chairmen of the Labour Relations
Board.
Kenneth A. Smith was appointed
Associate Deputy Minister of the Department's Industrial Relations Division. Mr. Smith brought to the
Department a wealth of background
experience in the field of labour-
management relations.
Robert S. Plecas, formerly Director
of Employment Programs Branch, was
appointed Acting Executive Director
of the Manpower Division.
Alan H. Portigal, formerly in an
executive research position with the
Federal Department of Labour, was
appointed Director of the Research
and Planning Branch.
In a move to improve both the
organizational and financial administration of the Department in terms of
internal management and interdepartmental relationships, a Finance and
Administration Branch was structured
{see organization chart, page 10).
Frank A. Rhodes, Executive Officer
with the Department for the past two
years, was appointed Director of the
new Branch.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF  19
William H. Bell, former Departmental Personnel Officer, was appointed Director of Personnel Services.
Kenneth R. Martin was appointed
Assistant Director of the newly formed
Occupational Environment Branch.
LABOUR MARKET  INFORMATION
A Review of the Labour Sector of the Provincial Economy
During 1975 the labour sector of
the Provincial economy generally continued to expand and grow, but at
slower rates than those of previous
years. Although this year's rate was
the lowest in the last decade, British
Columbia's population still grew at a
rate considerably above the national
average.
Population increases were reflected
in the 1975 labour forces estimates,
which revealed that the labour force
grew by 4.8 per cent from 1974 to
total 1,102,800 workers. Similarly the
total number employed also increased
throughout 1975, while unemployment
climbed to an average of 8.5 per cent,
which was 2.3 per cent higher than the
average rate in 1974.
British Columbia continued to enjoy
the highest average weekly wages of all
the Canadian provinces. Owing to the
rapid rise in inflation during the year,
however, real wage gains were limited
to the national average of 2.6 per cent.
Wage settlement statistics indicated
that 1975 was another active bargaining-year, with almost 300 major col
lective agreements reported, covering
almost 120,000 employees. These
settlements were reached without incurring substantial losses of working-
time through labour-management dispute. The total working-time lost in
1975 because of disputes averaged just
above 0.8 per cent of the total time
worked by all wage-earners and salaried employees.
Population
The Provincial population expanded
at its slowest rate in 13 years during
1975, year-end estimates showing the
British Columbia population to have
climbed to 2,481,000 persons. This
represents an increase of only 40,000
persons over the previous year, compared with increases averaging 71,000
persons over each of the past three
years. Average growth rate for the
year was 2.6 per cent which, despite
being low in relation to past Provincial
growth, was still well above the 1.6
per cent experienced for the country
as a whole.
Population
,1964-75
Year
British Columbia
Population 1
Yearly Population Growth
(Per Cent)
Canada
British
Columbia
1964   	
1,745,000
1,797,000
1,874,000
1,945,000
2,003,000
2,060,000
2,128,000
2,184,000
2,247,000
2,315,000
2,395,000
2,457,000
2.7
3.0
4.3
3.8
3.0
3.2
3.0
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.5
2.6
1.9
1965 	
1.9
19662......    	
1.9
1967   	
1.8
1968  	
1.6
1969	
1.5
1970 	
1.4
19712   	
1.3
1972            	
1.2
1973.
1.2
1974 :   	
1.6
1975	
1.6
1 As of June 1 of each year.
- Census counts.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Statistical Review, Ottawa, July 1976.
 FF 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
An examination of the three major
components of population growth—
natural increase, immigration, and
interprovincial migration—has traditionally shown a large segment of any
increase to have come from the latter
cause. This was not the case during
1975, as net migration estimates
showed 6,000 people leaving the Province during the year. Slight inflows
during the first and fourth quarters
were more than counterbalanced by
large outflows in the second and third
quarters.
The level of natural increase was
somewhat larger than in each of the
past two years. Vital statistics show a
net increase of births over deaths,
amounting to 16,670 persons during
1975.
Counts of immigrants intending
British Columbia as their final destination were slightly below 1974 levels,
but still amounted to 29,000 persons.
Thus, immigrant counts and natural
increase taken together amounted to
almost 46,000 persons.
Quarterly   Population Growth  by Component
total population
growth
1973 1974 1975
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Statistical Review, Ottawa; Cat. 11-003.
Estimated Annual Flows of Interprovincial M
grants to British Columbia
Average Annual
Inflow
Average Annual
Outflow
Average Net
Change
1956-61        	
51,734
64,829
86,247
86,247
44,908
43,956
56,685
56,685
6,826
1961
-66	
20,873
1966
-71 	
29,562
1971
-75...	
19,5001
p. 50.
1 Estimated.
Source:   Statistics Canada, Population Projections for Canada and the Provinces, 1972-2001, Ottawa 1974;
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 21
The most notable feature of the year
was the reversal of migration flows.
The period 1961-74 has shown annual
increases attributable to net migration
gains averaging well in excess of
20,000 persons per annum. It seems
likely that the relatively buoyant Alberta economy has served to redirect
many prospective migrants, while
exerting a pull on the existing British
Columbia population.
Labour Force
Aggregate labour force growth was
consistently strong throughout 1975,
with a yearly average of 1,102,800
participants, 4.8 per cent above 1974
figures. Labour force growth had
begun to accelerate in the last two
quarters of 1974, and this trend continued into 1975. The first and second
quarter totals were 6.6 and 6.3 per
cent above corresponding 1974 estimates.  Labour force participation was
particularly large in the second quarter
with the labour force increasing by 3.2
per cent in May alone. Rises in the
third-quarter statistics displayed the
traditional increases in participation
caused by the influx of students into
the work force during the summer.
Seasonal fluctuations were more apparent in the male component of the
labour force, which peaked at 711,000
workers in the third quarter of 1975.
The female component demonstrated
a much stronger and consistent growth
pattern, which may have masked any
inherent seasonal fluctuations. The
female labour force expanded by an
average of 10.2 per cent in 1975. An
examination of monthly changes shows
that the female component rose dramatically between April and June,
levelling off throughout the remainder
of the year. The number of men in the
labour force increased rapidly between
May and August, and then, beginning
Labour Force,   Employment  and   Unemployment,   1970-1975
1100
1000   .
900
800
700
600
500   .
400   .
300
200
100
I    |   Employment       __ LABOUR   FORCE
f-^TJr^   Unemployment
1973
1974
1975
 FF 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
in September, gradually decreased  to
its year-end level.
The participation rate continued to
move upward during 1975, averaging
61.3, a strong 2.0 points higher than
in 1974. British Columbia's participation rate is 1.0 points higher than the
national average, very close to that of
the Prairies and Quebec, and just
below that of Ontario.
Participation Rates by Sex
SEASONALLY ADJUSTED
Source: Statistics Canada, Revised Labour Force Survey, Historical Series, Ottawa.
Labour Force by Sex (Quarterly)
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Both sexes 	
61.3
61.4
61.7 | 61.4
62.4
61.4
60.6
61.1
61.6
61.1
61.2
61.1
Men .. 	
7S.1
77.9
78.2 | 77.6
79.1
77.7
76.7
77.3
78.7
77.4
77.1
77.1
Women 	
44.7
45.1
45.5 | 45.4
j
46.1
45.3
44.7
45.1
44.7
45.2
45.6
45.4
ACTUAL
Both sexes	
60.2
59.9
!
61.0 | 61.1  [ 62.8
62.5
63.2
62.4
60.5
61.0
60.7
60.0
Men 	
76.1
76.2
76.8 | 77.0 | 79.6
79.3
80.8
80.0
77.2
76.8
76.2
75.5
Women 	
44.4
43.9
45.4 j 45.5 | 46.4
46.0
45.8
45.1
44.2
45.4
45.4
44.9
Total
Men
Women
1974—
I                                 	
1,005
1.048
1,088
1,065
1,072
1,114
1,122
1,104
658
680
703
677
673
699
711
689
347
II    	
Ill                                       	
368
385
IV   	
388
1975—
399
II         	
111                           	
415
411
IV                   	
415
Source: Revised Labour Force Survey, Historical Scries, Statistics Canada.
As in past years, the upward drift
in the aggregate participation rate was
caused by the increased participation
of women in the labour force. The
rate for men in British Columbia has
not changed appreciably during the
past 20 years, whereas the rate for
women has almost doubled in that
same period.
Employment
The pattern of employment growth
exhibited throughout 1975 mimicked
that  displayed  by  the  labour   force.
The effects of the current economic
slowdown were apparent in the supporting statistical data, particularly in
the male component of the work force
where employment decreased in spite
of increasing labour force participation.
Seasonal fluctuations were more
evident in the employment statistics,
the male employment totals depicting
a more erratic behaviour. Declines in
fourth-quarter employment totals were
completely at the expense of male
workers, as male employment fell by
3.5 per cent while female employment
rose by 0.8 per cent.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Employment by Industry (Quarterly)
FF 23
I
II
111
IV
Average
Annual
Increase
(PerCent)
Total      	
976
279
18
40
156
65
697
108
185
52
283
69
1,043
326
27
45
170
83
717
102
186
56
307
67
1,063
335
35
45
170
86
728
99
199
60
304
64
1,026
303
24
39
164
76
723
105
202
60
289
67
3.2
Goods....             	
-4.6
	
Other primary products     	
Manufacturing     	
-10.4
-8.3
-2.6
Service     	
Transportation     	
Trade     	
7.1
8.3
3.2
14.0
11.7
3.1
Source:   Statistics Canada,  Detailed Provincial Labour Force Data, Revised Labour Force Survey, Ottawa.
An examination of the monthly figures shows that male employment increased between June and August, then
declined steadily thereafter. In contrast, female employment grew consistently throughout the year, with a
momentary downturn in August. A
strong showing in the last three quarters accounted for a 9.1-per-cent increase in employment for women in
1975. Over the same span, male
employment declined by 0.5 per cent.
Employment-by-industry estimates
clearly reveal the manner in which the
Provincial economy has expanded.
Average employment grew substantially in the service sector but declined
in the goods sector. Within the service
sector, there has been a wide disparity
in employment growth. Compared
with last year's figures, real estate and
personal service registered large employment gains of 14.0 and 11.7 per
cent, while trade and public administration at 3.2 and 3.1 per cent were
well below the 7.1-per-cent sector
average.
The goods-producing sector seems
to have borne the major burden of the
downturn in the Provincial economy in
1975. In contrast to 1974, when employment growth in this sector was 4.5
per cent, well above the Canadian
average,  this year's  employment has
done a complete reversal, falling by
4.6 per cent. Manufacturing ( — 10.4
per cent) and other primary product
( — 8.3 per cent) industries recorded
the largest employment decreases during the year.
On a seasonal basis, employment in
the goods sector rose in the second and
third quarters and declined by 9.6 per
cent in the fourth quarter. This was
quite evident in the other primary
products industry, where employment
decreased 13.3 per cent in the fourth
quarter. Conversely, the service sector
experienced virtually a constant growth
in employment throughout 1975, with
only a small downturn in the last quarter. Strong performances by trade and
real estate forestalled any serious
downturn in the fourth quarter.
Unemployment
The average level of unemployment
in British Columbia rose sharply during 1975. Unemployment averaged
8.5 per cent over the year, an increase
of 2.3 per cent above the average rate
in 1974. Slight increases in employment for women and net decreases for
men, combined with reasonably large
increases in the labour force, caused
the unemployment rate to rise. The
aggregate rate of 8.5 per cent for the
year is a weighted average of the 8.0
 FF 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Employment
Total
Men
Women
1974	
987
943
989
1,023
991
1,009
973
1,026
1,029
1,009
641
620
648
666
629
638
614
650
655
632
345
I 	
323
ir                                  	
340
in                 	
357
IV  	
1975                                                        	
361
372
I                                                          	
359
II..                                                     	
376
Ill 	
IV   	
374
377
Source: Statistics Canada, Revised Labour Force Survey, Historical Series, Ottawa.
Unemployment Rates (Quarterly)
15-24
Age-group
25 Years
and Over
Total
1974 average   	
14.4
15.2
14.2
13.3
12.5
6.4
6.1
6.0
6.0
7.4
6.2
8.5
I     	
II                       	
9.4
7.9
III     	
8.3
IV   	
8.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Revised Labour Force Survey, Historical Series, Ottawa.
and 9.4-per-cent female unemployment
rates.
The monthly average of 93,700 labour force participants without jobs was
comprised of an average of 55,000
men and 38,700 women. Compared
with 1974 statistics, these figures represent a 4.1-per-cent increase in male
unemployment and a 4.4-per-cent increase in female unemployment.
Seasonal unemployment trends during 1975 were similar for both sexes.
The level of women's unemployment
fluctuated from a high of 44,000 in
March to a low of 32,000 in December. The number of unemployed men
ranged between a high of 63,000 in
January and February and a low of
50,000 in December.
With an average unemployment rate
of 14.4 per cent, the 15-24 age-group
were the hardest hit by the downturn
in economic activity. In a more optimistic vein, the unemployment rate for
15-24 decreased continually through
1975, and may foreshadow better con
ditions in the future. The 25-years-
and-over unemployment rate remained
constant for the first three quarters of
the period, rising to 7.4 per cent in the
fourth quarter.
Organized Labour Force
As of January 1, 1975, there were
in British Columbia a total of 401,608
workers who were members of trade
unions. This represented a growth of
5,762 (or 1.5 per cent) over the total
of 395,846 union members in 1974.
Because the total number of paid
workers grew at a somewhat faster
pace than did the increase in union
membership, however, a slight decline
resulted in "organized labour as a percentage of total paid workers." Thus
the unionized portion of the labour
force dropped to 43.7 per cent in
January 1975 from 44.2 per cent in
January 1974.
Twenty-one of the largest unions in
the Province had memberships of more
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 25
than 5,000 workers. These 21 unions
comprised a total membership of 298,-
742 (or 74.4 per cent) of the entire
union membership in the Province.
The International Woodworkers of
America remained British Columbia's
largest union, with 37,976 members,
followed by the B.C. Government
Employees' Union (BCGEU), with
27,640, and the B.C. Teachers' Federation, with 27,326.
Union membership among women
grew by 11,148 from 94,899 in January 1974 to 106,047 in January 1975.
Over this same period, male membership declined 5,386 from 300,947 in
January 1974 to 295,561 in January
1975. As a result, men comprised 73.6
per cent of the total union membership
in the Province, and women 26.4 per
cent.
The trade and service industry had
the largest proportion of union members, followed by manufacturing. At
the sub-industry level, miscellaneous
services (including the organized Federal and Provincial Government employees) comprised the largest category
(25.4 per cent), followed by wood
products (12.2 per cent), transportation (11.2 per cent), and education
(9.6 per cent).
Union Membership in British Columbia, 1940—75
Year
Total
Membership
Percentage
Change From
Previous Year
Non-agricultural
Total Paid
Workers!
Organized
Labour as a
Percentage of
Total Paid
Workers
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947.
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953.
1954.
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
44
50.
61.
91
107
110
108
119
135
142
146
157
170
174.
178
186
191
216
233
219
215
221
216
222
226
2.17
256
273
287
292
310
316.
332
350
395
401
867
360
292
,618
,402
,045
125
258
,326
,989
259
,287
,036
,894
,533
,951
,952
,070
,972
,279
437
,946
.685
138
,690
,864
.241
,946
,502
842
.222
587
,091
,175
,846
,608
12.24
21.71
49.47
17.22
2.46
— 1.75
10.30
13.47
5.66
2.29
7.54
8.10
2.86
2.08
4.72
2.68
12.56
8.28
—6.30
— 1.75
3.02
—2.37
2.52
2.05
4.93
7.73
6.91
4.95
1.86
5.93
2.05
4.90
5.45
13.04
1.46
213,000
231,000
266,000
283,000
322,000
334,000
338,000
340,000
335,000
342,000
362,000
360,000
363,000
381,000
414,000
430,000
422,000
435,000
430,000
438,000
461,000
488,000
514,000
550,000
588,000
626,000
654,000
706,000
713,000
743,000
754,000
850,000
895,0002
919,0003
28.8
39.7
40.4
38.9
33.6
35.7
40.0
42.0
43.6
46.0
47.0
48.6
49.2
49.1
46.4
50.2
55.4
50.1
50.1
50.7
47.0
45.5
43.7
43.2
43.6
43.5
44.0
41.5
43.5
42.6
42.4
41.2
44.2
43.7
i Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, Information Canada, Ottawa; Cat. 71-001 (monthly);
December 1975.
- Revised since 1974 publication of B.C. Labour Directory.
3 Estimated by the Research and Planning Branch because November and December labour force figures
for 1975 were not available at the time of publication.
 FF 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Unions With a British Columbia Membership Greater Than 5,000, 19751
Membership
January
1975
Relative
Position
19751
Relative
Position
1974
1
37,976                  1
27,640                  2
27.326                    3
1
B.C. Government Employees' Union (CLC)— 1'   	
2
3
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America  (Ind.)  •.-.   	
Canadian Union of Public Employees (CLC)  	
20,189                   4                    5
19,212                   5                    4
15,1452                  6                   6
United   Brotherhood   of   Carpenters   and   Joiners   of   America   (AFL-
CIO/CLC)      	
15,069                    7                    7
Hospital Employees' Union (Ind.)   	
Public Service Alliance of Canada (CLC)            	
United Steelworkers of America (AFL-CIO/CLC)	
14,323                    8                  10
12,645                    9                   9
11,726                  10                    8
Hotel  and  Restaurant Employees' and Bartenders' International Union
(AFL-CIO/CLC)    	
i
11,107                  11                  14
10,941                  12                  11
Labourers' International Union of North America (AFL-CIO/CLC)	
9,991                  13        |         12
9,490                  14                  15
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (AFL-CIO/CLC)	
9,076                  15                  17
Canadian Paperworkers' Union (CLC)   	
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (AFL-
CIO/CLC)      .... ...    	
8,981                  16                  13
i                     1
8,747                  17                  16
Retail Clerks' International Union (AFL-CIO/CLC)
7,500                  18                  18
United Fishermen and Allied Workers' Union (CLC)        .—
7,009                19                19
6,206                 20                  20
Office and Technical Employees" Union (AFL-CIO/CLC)                  	
5.443                  21         i       (3)
1 As of January 1.
2 Only 12,000 members are employed where working conditions are subject to collective bargaining.
:- Newly included union.
LABOUR  DISPUTE STATISTICS
In 1975 there were 173 labour disputes involving 67,502 workers for a
total of 1,864,596 man-days lost.
These figures indicate that improvement in total man-days lost continued
through 1975, as time lost reached its
highest in 1972 at 2.1 million man-
days. Total working time lost in disputes averaged just over 0.8 per cent
of total time worked by all wage-
earners and salaried employees.
Examination of disputes by number
of workers involved shows that there
were 78 disputes involving less than
100 workers per dispute, 69 disputes
involving between 100 and 500 employees, and 26 disputes involving over
500 employees.   The only individual
sector experiencing no known disputes
in 1975 was agriculture, a sector in
which employees are virtually unorganized. The manufacturing sector,
however, was the most troubled industrial sector, with 1,105,197 man-days,
fully 59.3 per cent of the yearly total.
A large portion of the time lost can
be attributed to a three-month shutdown in the pulp industry that accounted for 761,478 man-days, or 40.8
per cent of the annual total. The
Collective Bargaining Continuation
Act legislation proclaimed in early
October was a significant event in 1975
Provincial industrial relations. Under
the Act, propane, food, railway, and
pulp workers returned to the job.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Analysis of Time-loss by Industry, 1975 '
FF 27
Jurisdictional Classification
Provincial  	
Federal    	
Industrial Classification
Agriculture   : 	
Forestry (primarily logging)  	
Fishing and trapping	
Mines, quarries, and oil wells	
Manufacturing i   	
Construction    	
Transportation and communication	
Trade    	
Finance, insurance, and real estate	
Business and personal service	
Public administration 	
Totals for all industries	
Workers Directly
Involved
Number of
Disputes
157
16
3
3
6
81
14
26
3
1
23
13
173
Number
40,072
27,430
261
10,094
2,315
23,978
1,608
13,729
105
1,989
5,265
8,158
Percentage
of Total
57.6
42.4
0.4
15.0
3.4
35.5
2.4
20.3
0.2
3.0
7.8
12.1
Estimated Duration
in Man-days
Number
67,502
100.0
1,516,010
348,586
251
178,442
23,135
1,105,197
28,746
121,949
3,388
143,208
44,803
215,477
Percentage
of Total
81.3
18.7
0.0
9.6
1.2
59.3
1.5
6.5
0.2
7.7
2.4
11.6
1,864,596    [      100.0
1 Figures are subject to revision.
Analysis of Labour Disputes, 1954-75
Year
Total Non-
agricultural
Paid Workers 1
Number of
Disputes-
Estimated
Number of
Workers
Affected
Estimated
Man-days
Lost
Estimated Time-loss
as a Percentage of
Total Working-time
of Wage and Salary
Earners
1954  -	
370,000
390,000
421,000
439,000
434,000
452,000
448,000
455,000
477,000
501,000
529,000
561,000
597,000
636,000
663,000
714,000
722,000
753,000
793,000
858,000
904,000
930,000
24
25
35
35
29
34
14
17
33
23
29
40
39
54
66
85
82
113
101
142
139
173
12,622
3.367
3,197
8,914
11,709
33,443
999
1,638
1,982
824
9,503
6,755
24,748
11,371
12,179
17,916
46,642
52,358
106,399
96,078
86,932
67,502
140,958
27,588
39,211
225,869
325,211
1,423,268
35,848
34,659
32,987
24,056
181,784
104,430
272,922
327,272
406,729
406,645
1,683,261
276,999
2,120,848
705,525
1,609,431
1,864,596
0.154
1955 	
1956	
0.029
0.038
1957 	
0.208
1958..........	
0.306
1959	
1.304
1960        	
0.033
1961 	
1962    	
1963 -	
0.035
0.032
0.022
1964
0.156
1965 	
1966 	
1967  	
1968...  ... 	
1969  	
1970   	
1971    -.-
1972     - 	
0.084
0.206
0.232
0.247
0.229
0.937
0.148
1.073
1973	
1974   	
0.329
0.714
1975
0.805
1 Does not include persons who operated their own business, farms, or professions, or persons who worked
without pay on a farm or business owned or operated by a member of the household to whom they were related.
Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, Cat. 71-001 (monthly); December 1975.
- Statistics for years prior to 1970 exclude disputes not within the scope of the Mediation Commission Act.
 FF 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Labour Disputes by Month, 19751
Number
of
Disputes
Number of
Workers
Directly
Involved
Duration
in
Man-days
Number
of
Disputes
Number of
Workers
Directly
Involved
Duration
in
Man-days
January
_
10
3
4
1
5
2
May
Agriculture	
Forestry?	
Fishing  	
~1
17
4
4
1
1
2
7
Forestry-    	
45
40
500
2,648
392
45
22
1,989
520
1,954
2,500
Manufacturing _	
1,149
409
2,130
15
10,621
3,766
11,110
330
2,046
1,435
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade 	
Finance	
Communication
Public
Administration
Totals	
Federal 	
Provincial	
June
Agriculture 	
Forestry? 	
Fishing 	
Mines3	
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade 	
Finance 	
Communication
Public
Administration
Totals	
Federal	
Provincial	
July
Agriculture 	
Forestry?	
22,602
8,147
556
Trade _„. *___.	
264
17,901
Communication
Public
Administration	
378
315
2,920
5,611
Totals -	
26
1
25
4,441
300
4,141
29,348
900
28,448
37
2
35
8,070
32
8,038
60,501
150
60,351
February
1
1
2
7
2
2
1
2
7
12
4
3
3
1
60
1,924
275
601
147
54
15
55
25,012
1,275
9,719
560
450
300
Manufacturing	
1,234
457
26
21,193
6,747
546
Finance   ...
1,989
381
18
41,769
Communication _	
Public
Administration	
298
2,800
1,790
27,352
1,925
378
Totals
25
4
21
6,174
2,833
3,341
66,513
29,784
36,729
24
1
23
4,105
200
3,905
72,558
3,574
68,984
Provincial 	
March
Agriculture	
1
1
1
10
2
5
3
5
7
37
5
5
1
5
2
156
3,904
250
948
241
5,099
105
156
27,430
1,250
13,667
842
74,150
786
Fishing 	
Fishing 	
Mines3	
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade 	
7,000
35,000
Manufacturing	
13,528
539
5,576
178,869
2,252
8,572
Transportation	
Finance	
Finance	
Communication	
Public
Administration
Totals	
Federal	
Provincial	
August
Agriculture 	
Forestry? 	
Fishing 	
Mines3..  	
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade 	
1,989
160
58
43,758
Communication	
Public
Administration	
703
2,395
9,803
41,294
1,519
184
Totals
Federal	
Provincial	
35
6
29
13,801
8,638
5,163
169,378
104,369
65,009
56
4
52
28,850
12,735
16,115
270,154
45,727
224,427
A pril
12
5
3
3
6
7
1
44
1
10
1
5
1
Forestry2 .____	
7,000
91,000
Manufacturing	
Construction	
1,104
398
31
105
13,102
5,569
647
1,708
3,241
43,922
18,338
V
532
272,686
140
5,887
Trade           	
Finance	
Communication	
Public
Administration
Totals	
1,989
1,554
40
39,780
12,500
800
Communication
Public
Administration	
1,403
3,759
Totals
36
2
34
6,800
1,837
4,963
68,189
1,926
66,263
63
3
60
29,460
7,235
22,225
422,793
92,915
329,878
i- Figures are subject to revision.
- Primarily logging
3 Includes quarries and oil wells.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 29
Number
of
Disputes
Number of
Workers
Directly
Involved
Duration
in
Man-days
Number
of
Disputes
Number of
Workers
Directly
Involved
Duration
in
Man-days
September
Agriculture 	
Forestry?	
Fishing 	
1
44
1
13
1
5
2
November
Agriculture	
Forestry?	
Fishing	
Mines3 	
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade 	
Finance	
Communication
Public
Administration
Totals	
Federal  	
Provincial	
December
2
7
1
4
3
2
890
18,723
7
633
3,560
389,394
147
10,373
650
809
7
126
7,550
9,433
133
Transportation	
2,394
1,989
132
340
Communication .
Public
Administration .....
740
6,760
16
2,719
171
50,830
Totals
67
67
22,714
410,974
19
1
18
4,327
2,419
1,908
70,511
45,130
Provincial 	
22,714
410,974
25,381
October
Agriculture 	
1
42
2
13
4
2
2
6
2
4
4
Forestry?	
Fishing	
Mines3	
Manufacturing	
Fishing 	
Mines3  ~
Manufacturing	
250
18,872
57
744
2,500
152,016
254
5,034
650
795
9
126
4,500
11,895
189
Transportation	
Transportation	
Trade	
2,230
Finance  	
Communication
Public
Administration
Totals	
Communication
Public
93
2,719
607
28,343
1,303
7,541
Administration .....
2
20
1
19
2,568
5,461
2,268
3,193
8,568
Totals
64
2
62
22,735
2,519
20,216
188,754
21,843
166,911
34,923
2,268
Provincial 	
Totals for all industries  	
32,655
173
67,502
1,864,596
Definitions
The British Columbia Department
of Labour has been collecting and
reporting labour dispute statistics since
1918. The series has been developed
for the purpose of providing a quantitative measure of the extent to which
disagreements between labour and
management result in disputes. Information about possible disputes is collected from a variety of sources such
as the news media, Departmental information sources, and other Government and (or) private publications.
Specific details for each dispute are
then verified by direct contact with the
involved parties.
Dispute
The major criterion used in the collection of dispute statistics is the con
cept of work stoppage. All stoppages,
whether or not authorized by the
union, legal or illegal, are included,
with no attempt at categorization.
Consequently, labour dispute statistics
for 1975 are composed of strikes,
lockouts, and jurisdictional disputes,
as well as the occasional sympathy or
protest strike.
Small disputes involving less than
10 man-days' duration, however, may
occasionally be omitted. There is some
reservation as to whether such disputes
should be included because of the difficulties involved in defining, identifying,
and securing information on disputes
that last for only a few hours or less.
Workers Involved
Only those workers directly involved
in  a dispute are reported.   Workers
 FF 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Total   Time-loss   Due  to  Work Stoppages,   1970-1975
-o
c
D
2200
2000
1800 _
1600 _
1400
1200 _
1000   _
800   _
600
400   .
200
1683
276
1864
1609
1970
1971 1972
1973
1974 1975
indirectly affected by disputes, such as
those involved in layoffs resulting from
lack of materials or those respecting
picket lines are not included in the
number of workers directly involved.
If the number of workers involved
varies during the course of the stoppage, the maximum number is shown.
Duration
The duration of a labour dispute is
calculated in terms of working-days
from the commencement date of the
dispute to the termination date. The
commencement date is the first day on
which normal operations were affected
by the work stoppage.
The termination date is the day on
which work was resumed. Where normal operations could not be resumed
after the settlement of a dispute, the
day on which the workers were available for work is regarded as the termination date.   The days counted as
working are those on which the establishment involved would normally be
in operation.
Duration in Man-days
Duration in man-days is calculated
by multiplying the duration in working-days by the number of workers
directly involved. For work stoppages
involving establishments in which the
number of weekly working-days exceeds the work week of individual
employees, the duration in man-days
is so weighted. As far as information
permits, variations in the number of
workers directly involved in the course
of a labour dispute are also taken into
account in the calculation of man-
days.
Wages and Salaries
British Columbia again attained the
highest average level of weekly earnings in Canada during 1975, according
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 31
to the Employment, Earnings, and
Hours survey conducted by Statistics
Canada. The annual average for
weekly wages and salaries in British
Columbia was $229.08 in 1975, up
14.4 per cent from its 1974 level of
$200.30.
The comparable  1975  average for
Canada was $203.14 a week, up 14.1
per cent from the 1974 figure. In fact,
with the exception of Ontario, increases in all provinces exceeded the
national average by more than did the
increase in British Columbia. The
British Columbia figure, however,
maintained its relative position of the
past five years at between 10 and 12
per cent above the national average.
Average Weekly Earnings by Province
(INDUSTRIAL COMPOSITE)
1975
1974
Per Cent
Change
Newfoundland _     ....
$
196.00
149.93
172.49
181.97
198.86
204.73
186.28
187.90
207.31
229.08
203.14
$
168.48
126.91
149.98
154.58
172.89
181.43
162.70
160.93
178.72
200.31
178.09
|
1
16.3
18.1
Nova Scotia                                 	
New Brunswick                                      	
15.0
17.7
15.0
12.8
14.5
Saskatchewan _._   _     	
16.8
16.0
British Columbia       ....
14.4
14.1
British Columbia relative to Canada                  	
112.8%
112.5%
1
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings, and Hours; Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
The increased purchasing power of
wage and salary improvements was
limited to a considerable degree by the
rapid rate of inflation experienced in
1975. An estimate of real wages, i.e.,
purchasing power, can be derived by
deflating the actual money earnings by
the respective consumer price index
(CPI) for each year. The national
CPI has been used to deflate the national earnings data, and the Vancouver index to deflate the Provincial data.
Real Wages, Canada and British Columbia, 1971—75
CANADA
(1)
Average
Weekly
Earnings
(2)
Annual
Change in
Earnings
(3)
CPI
(1971 = 100)
(4)
Real Wages
(D-(3)
(5)
Annual
Change in
Real Wages
1971    	
1972 	
1973
$             |      Per Cent
137.64
149.22                       8.4
160.46                       7.5
178.09                      11.0
203.14                        14.1
$             j     Per Cent
100.0                      137.64
104.5                      142.79                       3:7
112.7                      142.38                    —0.3
1974 	
125.0                     142.47                      0.1
1975    .               .	
138.5                      146.67                       2.9
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1971	
152.50
165.08
178.29
200.31
229.08
8.2
8.0
12.4
14.4
100.0
104.0
111.0
123.9
137.7
152.50
158.73
160.62
161.67
166.36
1972
4.1
1973
1.2
1974                      	
0.7
1975                                 	
2.9
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings, and Hours; Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
 FF 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The resulting real wages are listed in
column 4; the percentage change in
these wages (or purchasing power) is
contained in column 5. These data
show that during 1975, real wages rose
by 2.9 per cent in both British Columbia and Canada as a whole. British
Columbia workers have seen their real
wages rise by 9.1 per cent since 1971,
while workers in the country as a
whole have experienced real increases
of 6.6 per cent during the same period.
Within British Columbia, average
weekly earnings figures are available
for four major cities — Kamloops,
Prince George, Vancouver, and Victoria. Prince George retained its position of having the highest average
weekly earnings among major cities in
British Columbia ($233.34 a week);
Vancouver again had the second highest ($223.02 a week). Following them
was Kamloops ($202.40 a week); and
the lowest among the four major cities
was Victoria ($193.46 a week).
The industrial breakdown for the
Province reveals recurring patterns of
industries with relatively high and low
average earnings. Construction again
led all industries with average weekly
earnings of $340.05. Paper and allied
products followed with $306.02 a
week, mining and milling, $297.25,
forestry, $278.89, and primary metals,
$273.52 a week. The largest gain in
average weekly earnings between 1974
and 1975 was a 20.5-per-cent increase
in construction earnings amounting to
$58.03 a week.
The industries recording the lowest
average weekly earnings in the Province during 1975 were service at
$149.58 a week, trade at $189.12,
and finance, insurance, and real estate
at $197.58 a week. The latter industries, especially service, include a larger
proportion of small firms that are
omitted from the survey, thereby reducing the reliability of their figures.
A group of selected industries are
plotted in Chart 1, which shows that
there has been little noticeable change
in the relative position of industry
average earnings in the Province over
the last decade.
Average Weekly Earnings for Major Cities, 1971—75
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Kamloops	
Prince George 	
Vancouver 	
Victoria    -.	
S
133.38
153.93
148.46
128.39
$
154.40
170.73
161.10
136.84
$
162.11
181.82
171.47
148.75
$
180.52
203.35
194.35
167.46
$
202.40
233.34
223.02
193.46
The earnings data cited throughout
refer to gross pay before deductions
for such items as taxes and unemployment insurance contributions. These
data are based on a monthly survey of
employers with 20 or more employees.
The most recent year in which the size
of the sample surveyed was compared
to the estimate of total employed in
the Province was 1972. When annual
averages of both the size of the sample
and the total employed were used, it
was found that the survey covered 69.6
per cent of the employed in British
Columbia. In other words, 30.4 per
cent of workers in the Province were
employed in establishments too small
for inclusion in the survey. The extent
of representation thus varies from industry to industry.
The 1972 percentage figures by industry indicate that the total number
of workers covered by the survey was
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 33
Chart 1 Average  Weekly   Wages  and  Salaries   in   British Columbia
Selected   Industries,   I966-I975
375.
350.
325.
300.
O
275.
250.
c
c
D
UJ
225.
200.
>s
u
T
175.
V
150.
125
100
75
50 .
25
Construction
Indus trial
Composite
Trade
Service
I I l l I l l l I l
1966        1967       1968        1969       1970       1971 1972        1973       1974       1975
Average Weekly Wages and Salaries,1 British Columbia
(BY INDUSTRY)
Industry-
1975
1974
Per Cent
Change
All industries (Provincial average) 	
$
229.08
278.89
297.25
252.59
222.80
249.43
306.02
236.10
273.52
259.71
260.89
243.05
340.67
249.88
189.12
197.58
149.41
$
200.31
246.71
262.37
217.87
191.96
212.05
266.06
206.52
234.28
220.96
219.47
208.25
282.64
218.18
166.96
172.51
132.70
14.4
13.0
Mining and milling __ __    	
Manufacturing __   ___  	
Food and beverages  ___._    	
13.3
15.9
16.1
17.6
15.0
14.3
Primary metals     	
16.7
17.5
18.9
16.7
20.5
14 5
Trade                                    .  	
13.3
14.5
12.6
i In industrial establishments employing 20 persons or more.
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings, and Hours, Ottawa; Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
 FF 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
as follows: Mining and milling, 81.1
per cent; manufacturing, 89.8; transportation, communication, and other
utilities, 89.9; trade, 60; finance, insurance, and real estate, 70.7; and service,
22.5 per cent. In addition, the following industries are omitted from the
survey: Agriculture, fishing and trapping, education and related services,
health and welfare services, religious
organizations, private households, and
public administration and defence.
Wage Settlements
Final wage settlement analysis statistics for 1975 reveal that 296 agreements covering 118,126 workers were
brought to the attention of the Research and Planning Branch.   These
negotiated settlements provided for an
average wage-rate increase of 16.3 per
cent, or 97 cents an hour, as measured
by the Branch's method. Those agreements affecting skilled employees provided for an average 15.5-per-cent
increase that also realized, on average,
$1.06 in monetary terms. Agreements
affecting unskilled workers had wage
provisions averaging 17.2 per cent, or
87 cents an hour.
The number of agreements reported
to the Branch was undoubtedly reduced by the anti-inflation legislation
enacted by the Federal Government in
October. Returns were down 4 per
cent during the year, despite an increase of 10 per cent in the number
of expiries.
Wage Settlements, by Quarter, 1975
Number of
Contracts
Employees
Covered
Percentage
Cents per
Hour
First Quarter—
67
97
—
80
------
52
296
19,618
19.0
18.2
20.1
18.2
17.8
18.8
19.2
18.8
19.5
11.9
10.4
13.8
16.3
15.5
17.2
110
117
97
Second Quarter—
36,317
103
119
89
Third Quarter—-
Contract average*  	
20,644
113
121
100
Fourth Quarter—
Contract average1  -..._	
Skilled classes  	
41,547
78
81
Unskilled classes 	
77
Average Four Quarters-
Contract average  —  	
118,126
97
106
Unskilled classes  	
87
i As represented by the arithmetic average of the modal skilled and modal unskilled pay rates.
The contract average increase of
16.3 per cent was only marginally
above the 16.2 per cent recorded as a
final figure for 1974, but still well
above the 10.6-per-cent mark of 1973.
Settlements affecting skilled workers
actually provided smaller increases
(15.5 per cent versus 17.2 per cent)
than the year previously, but were
counterbalanced by larger increases
(17.2 per cent versus 15.3 per cent)
for the unskilled category. In monetary terms the average 1975 contract
settlement was worth 97 cents an hour,
whereas in 1974 that same settlement
had been worth 86 cents.
The level of negotiated settlements
fell dramatically during the fourth
quarter of 1975 after hovering at the
18 to 19-per-cent mark for the first
nine months of the year. It should be
noted   that   this   figure   reflected   the
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 35
negotiated settlements, rather than the
final agreement reviewed by the Anti-
Inflation Board. The settlements affecting skilled workers suffered a
greater decline—falling from 18.8 per
cent in the third quarter to 10.4 per
cent in the fourth—than did the unskilled, which fell from 19.5 per cent
in the third quarter to 13.8 per cent in
the fourth.
The small difference between the
level of contract settlements in 1974
and 1975 probably reflects a correspondingly small change in the rate of
price increases between the two years.
The rate of inflation in the Vancouver
Consumer Price Index fell to 11.1 per
cent in 1975, down a mere five points
from the 1974 figure of 11.6 per cent.
Wage settlements reflected both a continued high rate of inflation and an
element of "catch-up" over previous
settlements.
The industrial breakdown of the
settlement analysis revealed divergent
trends in various sectors. The educational services sector, for example, led
all others with an average contract
settlement of 22.2 per cent, worth an
average of $1.21 an hour to those
affected. Close behind was the food
and beverage manufacturing sector
with an average settlement of 20.7 per
cent, worth $1.14 an hour. The average money increase in the construction
industry, at $1.33 an hour, was the
highest. The woods product manufacturing sector had the lowest average
settlement, at 11.5 per cent, but this
was still worth 79 cents an hour on
average. In monetary terms, the miscellaneous manufacturing average of
13.8 per cent was worth an average
increase of only 67 cents an hour.
The major sectors of the Provincial
economy in 1975 showed settlement
patterns that differed from those in
1974. As a group, manufacturing
settlements at 13.4 per cent were the
lowest in 1975, whereas in 1974 they
had been the highest, averaging 18.1
per cent. Construction settlements
were second highest during both years,
albeit rising from 15.8 per cent in 1974
to 18.3 per cent in 1975. The trade
and service sector rose from third highest, 15.7 per cent, in 1974 to highest,
19.6 per cent, in 1975.
Major Settlements Reported, 1975
Key collective agreement settlements
in the first quarter of 1975 were Government of British Columbia and the
BCGEU (several components), Registered Psychiatric Nurses, and the Registered Nurses Association, several
agreements (10,350 workers); and
Hotel Vancouver and CBRT, Local
275 (500 employees).
Large collective agreements settled
in the second quarter of the year were
Fraser Valley Milk Producers and
Teamsters Local 464 (1,100 employees); metal industries and Iron Workers Local 712 and Patternmakers
(1,200 employees); Hudson's Bay
(Victoria) and Retail Clerks Local
1518 (500 employees); Vancouver car
dealers and Machinists Lodge 1857
(650 employees); Simon Fraser University and AUCE Local 2 (650 employees); University of British Columbia and CUPE Local 116 (1,500
employees); Municipality of Surrey
and CUPE Local 402 (750 employees); City of Vancouver and CUPE
Local 1004 and Municipal and Regulatory Employees Local 15 (3,300
employees); Government of British
Columbia and B.C. Government Employees' Union (three components)
(4,820 employees); and Canadian Security Services and Labour Local 105
(600 employees). Major collective
agreements settled in the third quarter
of the year were Fisheries Association of B.C. and United Fishermen
(UFAWU) (3,575 employees); Canadian Forest Products with Weld-
wood of Canada and IWA Local
1-424 (1,070 employees); Health Labour Relations Association and Health
 FF 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sciences Association (2,300 employees); White Spot and Food Workers
(1,450 employees); B.C. Hydro and
Amalgamated Transit Union, Locals
101-134 and 109 (2,500 employees);
and B.C. Rail and Shopcraft Unions
(536 employees). Key collective
agreements settled in the fourth quarter
of 1975 were Forest Industrial Relations (Coast Master) and International
Woodworkers of America (28,000
workers); North Cariboo Forest Labour Relations and International Woodworkers of America (2,210 workers);
Finning Tractor and Machinists Lodge
692 (900 employees); University of
British Columbia and AUCE Local 1
(1,300 workers); and B.C. Hydro
(Gas) and International Brotherhood
of Electrical Workers Local 312 (611
workers).
Expiring Collective Agreements
in 1976
Scheduled to be renegotiated during
1976 are at least 424 collective agreements (each affecting 25 or more employees) covering a total of 147,783
employees. This number of employees,
which is 86,137 fewer than the 233,-
920 employees covered by agreements
expiring in 1975, represents just over
one third of the total unionized work
force in British Columbia.
The months of 1976 with the greatest number of expiries are April with
96 (covering 53,883 employees) and
December with 74 (covering 51,798).
The fewest expiries will occur in November (five contracts covering 1,057
employees), October (11 covering
1,340), and July (14 covering 1,151).
The industrial breakdown of expiries
indicates that the trade and service
sector, as measured both by the number of expiries (170) and number of
employees involved (62,258), contains the most expiries. Manufacturing
also has a substantial number of expiries (166), but the number of employees
covered (27,578) is considerably less
than in trade and service. While construction has the fewest expiries with
39, the 34,442 employees in this industry are affected by important agreements between the building trade
unions and the Construction Labour
Relations Association (CLRA), the
employer bargaining association. The
highlights of specific expiries, generally
involving 500 or more employees, are
listed below by industry:
Manufacturing—In the food and
beverage industry, four large agreements in fishing are due to expire in
1976. In three—involving (1) Canadian Fishing Co. et al, (2) Fisheries
Association of B.C. (cannery), and
(3) Fisheries Association of B.C.
(tendermen)—the employees are rep^
resented by the United Fishermen and
Allied Workers' Union. The fourth is
the Prince Rupert Fishermen's Co-op,
and the Shoreworkers' and Clerks'
Union. Other notable expiries in the
food and beverage industry are the
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association Agreement with the Teamsters,
Local 464, and the Okanagan Federated Shippers' Agreement with the
Fruit and Vegetable Workers, Local
1572.
In other manufacturing subcategories the Metal Industrial Association
(Belting Co's.) agreement with the
Machinists, Lodge 692 (metals), and
the Burrard and Yarrows agreements
each with 12 unions (transportation
equipment) are due to expire in 1976.
In the miscellaneous manufacturing
category, the Lafarge Cement et al.
and the Teamsters, Local 213, agreement is of significant size.
Construction—Expiries during the
year in construction include most of
the major agreements between the employer bargaining association, Construction Labour Relations Association, and the major building trades,
among them being the Boilermakers,
Bricklayers,   Carpenters,   Electrical
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 37
Workers, Ironworkers, Labourers,
Operating Engineers, Painters, Plasterers, Plumbers, Sheet Metal Workers,
and Teamsters.
Trade and service—In the trade
sector, the Kelly, Douglas Co. and
Kelly, Douglas Employees' Association
agreement is the largest expiry. In
education there are three main agreements expiring—(1) UBC and CUPE,
Local 116; (2) B.C. School Trustees
and the B.C. Teachers' Federation;
and (3) School District 39 (Vancouver) and the Vancouver Municipal and
Regional Employees.
In the miscellaneous service category, 16 agreements of the B.C. Hotels'
Association are scheduled to expire,
among the larger being Hotel Employees, Local 835 (Lower Mainland);
Hotel Employees, Local 16 (Vancouver and Lower Mainland); Service
Employees, Local 244 (Vancouver);
and Service Employees, Local 244
(Vancouver, licensed premises). Other
significant expiries include the Maintenance Contractors' Association
(Master) agreement with the Service
Employees, Local 244; ICBC with the
Office and Technical Employees, Local
378; and the B.C. Assessment Authority with CUPE, Local 1767.
Other industries—There are six
notable expiries in mining—(1) Co-
minco (Fording operations) with the
Steelworkers, Local 7884; (2) Gibraltar Mines with CAIMAW; (3) Utah
Mines with the Operating Engineers,
Local 115; (4) Granduc Operating and
five unions; (5) Lornex Mining and
the Steelworkers, Local 7619; and (6)
Canex Placer (Endako Mines) and
CAIMAW, Local 1.
In the communications and other
utilities category, the B.C. Hydro
Agreement with OTEU, Local 378,
expires in 1976 as does the B.C. Telephone agreement with the Federation
of Telephone Workers.
Some of the larger expiries affecting
British Columbia employees in the
Federal jurisdiction involve the B.C.
Maritime Employers' agreement with
the Longshoremen and three Government of Canada contracts—(1) PS AC
(Secretarial, Steno, and Typing); (2)
PSAC (Engineering and Scientific Support); and   (3)   Dock Yard Trades.
Collective Agreements Expiring in 1976, by Month
Agreements Employees Covered
January  23 3,140
February  25 3,013
March  49 9,789
April  96 53,883
May  30 3,889
June  49 8,542
July  14 1,151
August  31 6,374
September  17 3,807
October  11 1,340
November        5 1,057
December  74 51,798
Totals  424 147,783
 FF 38
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Collective Agreements Expiring in 1976, by Industry
Agreements Employees Covered
All industries  424 147,783
Manufacturing  166 27,578
Food and beverage    46 13,813
Wood products     13 874
Metals     17 3,055
Machinery, transportation equipment,
and electrical products     38 4,905
Miscellaneous manufacturing     52 4,931
Construction     39 34,442
Trade and service  170 62,258
Trade     25 2,525
Education    42 31,424
Municipal services    41 8,806
Miscellaneous services     62 19,503
Other industries     49 23,505
Mining     20 5,517
Transportation    24 5,583
Communication and other utilities       5 12,405
20 Largest Expiries During 1976
Employer
Union
Expiry
Date
Employees
Covered
Construction Labour Relations Association ....
B.C. School Trustees 	
B.C. Telephone   	
B.C. Hydro     	
B.C. Maritime Employers' Association.-.	
Fisheries' Association (cannery)  	
B.C. Hotels' Association (Lower Mainland)..
B.C Hotels' Association (Vancouver and
Lower Mainland)   	
ICBC  	
City of Vancouver (inside workers)	
Okanagan Federated Shippers 	
Canadian Fishing Co. et al 	
City of Vancouver  	
University of British Columbia 	
Metal Industries Association (Belting Co.)....
LaFarge Cement et al.  	
Maintenance Contractors Association (Master)           	
Fraser Valley Milk Producers 	
B.C. Hotels (Vancouver).... 	
Government of Canada  	
Various building trades	
B.C. Teachers'  Federation	
Telephone Workers	
Office and Technical, Local 378 	
Longshoremen 	
United Fishermen 	
Hotel Employees, Local 835 	
Hotel Employees, Local 16  	
Office and Technical, Local 378  	
Municipal and Regional Employees	
Fruit and Vegetable Workers, Local 1572
United Fishermen  	
CUPE, Local 1004 	
CUPE, Local 116  	
Machinists, Lodge 692  	
Teamsters, Local 213   	
Service Employees, Local 244 	
Teamsters, Local 464  	
Service Employees, Local 244	
PSAC  (Secretarial, Steno, and Typing)
Apr. 30
Dec. 31
Dec. 31
Mar. 31
Dec. 31
Apr. 15
Apr. 30
Apr. 30
Sept. 30
Dec. 31
Aug. 31
Apr. 15
Dec. 31
Mar. 31
Apr. 30
Dec. 31
June 30
Mar. 31
Apr. 30
Jan. 11
32,8601
23,500
8,715
3,100
3,000
3,000
2,000
2,000
1,989
1,800
1,800
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,459
1,300
1,200
1,100
1,000
9812
i The  various   building   trades  are   lumped   as   one   expiry  because  of  a   common   expiry   date   and   past
bargaining practice.
- Includes only employees in British Columbia.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 39
RESEARCH AND PLANNING
The Research and Planning Branch
is responsible for providing a research
backup for the Minister, Deputy Ministers, and line branches of the Department in the areas of labour relations,
labour standards, human rights, and
manpower.
The Branch regularly collects and
compiles statistics concerning the
labour sector of the economy, and disseminates this data to labour, management, and the general public via the
monthly Labour Research Bulletin and
three annual publications—Negotiated
Working Conditions, the B.C. Labour
Directory, and the Calendar of Expiring Collective Agreements.
The Labour Research Bulletin continued in 1975, but in an improved
format. A new section, "Human Rights
Boards of Inquiry," was added, and
special articles appeared dealing with
arbitration of rights and interests
disputes, price indices, dental plans,
minimum wages, women in the British
Columbia labour force, cost-of-living
allowance clauses, and the compressed
work week. In addition to serving as
a vehicle for the Branch's research
output, the Bulletin provides current
data on wage settlements, labour-
management disputes, new contract
provisions, consumer price movements,
and Provincial labour force activity.
The publication Negotiated Working
Conditions analyses the non-wage conditions and benefits in major Provincial
collective agreements on an annual
basis, and examines the frequency of
various types of clauses in major contract areas. The B.C. Labour Directory
surveys union membership and provides information concerning the size,
structure, and officers of collective bargaining organizations in the Province.
The last of these annual publications,
the Calendar of Expiring Collective
Agreements, compiles and categorizes
those major agreements due to expire
during the forthcoming year.
The Branch regularly compiles its
own data on wage settlement trends,
labour dispute activity, and other trends
in collective bargaining settlements.
Manpower researchers also document
markets for specific occupational
groups on a regular basis, collecting
data on wages, salaries, employment
prospects, and training requirements.
Statistics Canada information concerning Provincial labour market activity is
regularly analysed and co-ordinated
with other data sources.
Other responsibilities of the Branch
include preparation of reports concerning minimum wages and other labour
standards in the Province, and research
and evaluation of programs both within
the Department and in other jurisdictions. Various special studies of certain industries, particularly construction, have been compiled to aid in the
projection of future manpower requirements for the Province.
Following on the expansion that
took place in 1974, 1975 was a year of
consolidation for the Branch. A new
Director was hired, and considerable
effort was expended in providing research support for the expanding manpower activities of the Department.
Staff resources were deployed on a
number of special projects, two of
which were a field study to determine
the feasibility of establishing a large,
integrated steel mill in northern British
Columbia, and an inquiry into labour
relations in the construction industry.
New Activities
As mentioned earlier, the Branch
participated in a steel mill feasibility
study with outside consultants, officials
of the Department of Economic Development, and officials of the Japanese firm of Nippon Kokan Kaishu
(NKK). Branch members were required to spend substantial periods of
time  in  Prince  George   and  Kitimat
 FF 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
studying the manpower problems and
planning needs attendant upon introduction of an integrated steel mill into
these centres. In addition, staff personnel devoted considerable time to
liaison with the members of the NKK
team who were conducting economic
and engineering studies.
Early last summer, James Kinnaird,
a former Associate Deputy Minister
with the Department, was appointed a
Commission of Inquiry into the state
of labour-management relations in
the Province's construction industry.
Lome Collingwood, Assistant Director
of the Branch, was seconded to provide
research support for Mr. Kinnaird.
Other members of the Branch assisted
the inquiry at various times by means
of specific research projects and the
preparation of reports.
In the fall of 1975 a survey of low-
income earners in British Columbia
was undertaken, using data from the
files of nine Canada Manpower Centres
across the Province. Another member
of the Branch, acting on behalf of the
Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation, accepted
the responsibility of editing a report
on minimum wage research. Also, a
review of the minimum wage level in
British Columbia was prepared for the
Board of Industrial Relations.
During the year the Branch provided
major research on the Province's projected training requirements in support
of the 1976/77 budget submission of
the Manpower Needs Committee.
Further work in the manpower area
included reports forecasting supply
and demand for plumbers, pipefitters,
and carpenters.
The advent of the Federal Government's anti-inflation program in October created the requirement for study
and analysis of that program by a
number of Branch personnel.
Conferences
The Branch continued its co-operative program in labour research with
other labour jurisdictions in Canada.
Staff members attended the Federal-
Provincial Conference on Labour
Statistics. They also contributed to the
Statistics and Research Committee of
the Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation, presenting research papers on cost-of-living
clauses and the minimum wage.
Throughout the year, representatives
attended the Research Subcommittee
meetings of the Federal-Provincial
Manpower Needs Committee. Branch
members also attended the meeting of
western Departments of Labour in
Winnipeg.
INFORMATION  SERVICES
The Information Services Branch is
primarily concerned with communicating the activities and services of the
Department to the general public and
to the various labour, management,
and academic communities throughout
the Province.
Toward this end, the Branch, in its
first year of operation, mounted a
number of public education projects
for various areas of the Department.
Chief of these was an anti-discrimination campaign for the Human Rights
Branch, intended to acquaint the Brit
ish Columbia public with the Human
Rights Code and the guarantees it affords the individual in the areas of
employment, tenancy, property ownership, public services, and membership
in unions and employers' associations.
Augmenting the Human Rights
campaign was the preparation and distribution of brochures, in 13 languages,
to acquaint foreign-born residents of
the Province with their on-the-job
rights under protective legislation administered by the Department's Labour
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FF 41
Standards and Occupational Environment Branches.
The Branch also assisted in the
preparation of 63 press releases for
the Minister's office;.a variety of addresses, articles, and reports for presentation by senior officials of the
Department; a proposed white paper
on manpower policy for the Province;
and a scroll of merit for presentation
by the Minister to individuals with a
distinguished record of service in industrial relations.
Among other projects completed by
the Branch were a round-up of the
questions most frequently directed to
the Department by the public, the Department's section of the manual of
organization published by the Public
Service Commission, an information
kit for presentation at conferences
sponsored by the Department, and the
Department's annual report for 1974.
The Branch also made a public
information contribution to the B.C./
NKK steel mill study, and to press
packages prepared for Careers '75 and
the committee on the Japanese market
for British Columbia wood products.
The Branch was represented on the
Department's delegation to the first
meeting of Federal, Provincial, and
Territorial Ministers for manpower
policies and development, convened
at Montreal in May and at the labour
seminar held at Trail, B.C., in September, and the regular weekly meetings
of the Committee of Ministers' Information Officers. In addition, the
Branch represented the Department
regularly at meetings of the Interdepartmental Committee of Access to
the Arts.
Projects initiated by the Branch in
1975, and not yet complete, include
rewriting of the Apprenticeship and
Industrial Training Branch's 46 pre-
apprenticeship and apprenticeship
training brochures, preparation of a
detailed booklet dealing with apprenticeship training, and a new pamphlet
outlining the services provided to the
public by all branches of the Department.
SPECIAL SERVICES
The Special Services Branch is
charged with the responsibility of preparing material that will enable the Department to respond to issues of concern to the Province that are raised by
national and international bodies working in the area of labour. These include
OECD, CAALL, IAGLO, and the
ILO.
In particular the Branch maintains a
constant surveillance of ILO activities,
determining the extent of compliance
with ILO conventions and recommendations, and weighing the implications
of such instruments for the British Columbia labour force. Special Services
provides the International and Provincial Affairs Branch of Labour Canada
with British Columbia's response in the
preparation of the Canadian position
on ILO questions.
As an outgrowth of these efforts, the
Branch is often able to initiate action
directed toward the improvement of
Provincial legislation. In 1975, for example, in response to ILO Convention
139, the Branch co-ordinated efforts to
review regulations concerning occupational cancer. Convention 139 was
the Occupational Cancer Convention
adopted at the 1974 ILO conference.
Special Services consulted the relevant
Provincial authorities and formed a
committee — comprised of members
from the Department of Labour's Occupational Environment Branch, the
Workers' Compensation Board, the
Department of Health, and the Department of Mines—to investigate existing
legislation and to make recommendations for new and improved regulations
 FF 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and further compliance with ILO
standards.
The Branch also provides the Associate Deputy Minister (Industrial Relations) with a research capability in
the labour relations area, and is in a
position to investigate a variety of
problems of concern to both labour and
management and to promote early consultation between the parties on contentious issues in order to relieve the
pressures preceding negotiations.
Generally, the role of the Branch is
to assist union and management when
specific problems arise during the life
of an agreement, and when the parties
propose that a Government adviser
might be of assistance. Expectations
are that such aid will frequently take
the form of objective research or statistical data that are largely informational in nature. Problems of potential
concern to both labour and management would include technological
change, intercraft and interindustry
wage differentials, job evaluations, and
scheduling of hours.
Special Studies
The Branch is further required to
undertake special studies for the
Deputy Minister, Associate Deputy
Ministers, and the Board of Industrial
Relations with a view to identifying
new directions and initiatives for indus
trial relations policies. In this connection, Branch study of overtime in the
pulp and paper industry of British Columbia was presented to the Board of
Industrial Relations in 1975.
The Branch was involved during the
year in a study of the future directions
and concerns of labour standards legislation for the CAALL's western
subcommittee on labour standards.
Currently it is preparing further information concerning the protection of
wages for the 1976 conference of this
subcommittee. It has also started a
project to examine the broad subject
of hours of work and the impact of
legislation in this area.
The Branch continues to circulate
ILO descriptions of job vacancies in
foreign countries. These positions call
for expert help in vocational training,
manpower and employment planning,
and related labour fields. The tenure
of these positions ranges generally between six months and two years. Further details are available from the
Branch.
In the area of research, the Branch
is responsible for the co-ordination of
work, including policy research, performed for the Department by consultants. It is responsible also for liaison
with university personnel in the Province who are engaged in research or
other assignments for the Department.
 MANPOWER
DIVISION
* Introduction
* Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
* Employment Programs
* Women's Employment
* Occupational Environment
* Elevating Devices
* Compensation Services
* Trade-schools Regulation
  MANPOWER DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
RANJIT S. AZAD
Associate Deputy Minister
The restructuring of the Manpower
Division entered its second phase in
fiscal year 1975/76. Initiated in 1973,
the first complete fiscal year, 1974/75,
was used to acquire and train new staff
to meet the increased responsibilities
of the various branches. The Employment Programs Section of the Division
was given a broader mandate to deal
with special-needs clients and was
elevated to branch status. The manpower research component based in
Vancouver was also enlarged through
staff additions.
Recognition of the importance that
apprenticeship training plays in the
growth of British Columbia's economy
led to the strengthening of the Provincial Apprenticeship Committee.
Senior representatives of union, management, and various training institutions were asked to review the
apprenticeship area with a view to
recommending policy changes to the
Minister. Representatives include J.
Melville, Director of Manpower Training and Development; B. H. Campbell,
Director, Western Joint Electrical
Training Society; J. A. Gray, Director,
Personnel Administrative Services, Co-
minco; E. H. McCaffery, Vice-President of the Mechanical Contractors
Association; S. W. Simpson, Director,
Apprenticeship and Industrial Training; Cy Stairs, President of the B.C.
and Yukon Building Trades Council;
T. W. Trineer, Secretary-Treasurer,
Western Canadian Regional Council
1, I.W.A.; and Dr. Jane O. Hastings,
Consulting Psychologist.
Broadening industry representation
in the area of Provincial training programs remains a primary goal of the
Manpower Division. In addition to
those specific Trade Advisory Committees that began the process of reviewing and recommending new terms
of reference, a new Electrical Manpower Committee was established to
represent all branches of the industry.
First phase in the implementation of
industrial sector advisory committees
on training was achieved with the
establishment of the Construction Industry Advisory Council Manpower
Committee.
New management, administrative,
and planning practices were introduced
into the Division this year. The Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Branch began the process of changing
over its manual record-keeping system
to an automated, computerized system
that will provide more effective service.
New administrative procedures
adopted by the Occupational Environment Branch and the Elevating Devices
Inspection Bureau have made it possible to extend the services of these
branches throughout almost the entire
Province. The Elevating Devices Inspection Bureau played host for the
annual Canadian Codes Standards
meetings in Vancouver this year, and
these profitable meetings led to important changes in the codes governing the safety of elevating devices.
The Manpower Division is charged
with the responsibility of co-ordinating
Provincial Manpower policy, and this
entails   solving   problems   connected
45
 FF 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
with immigration, training, and employment. To this end, discussions
with the Federal Government, particularly the Department of Manpower
and Immigration, took place regularly
during the year.
Division staff members served as the
co-ordinating agency for the Inter-
Provincial Task Force on Manpower
Issues. This national committee was
chaired by the Province of British Columbia, which prepared materials for
meetings  of  Provincial  Ministers  of
Manpower, and for Federal-Provincial
conferences of Ministers responsible
for manpower. The Division continues
to have excellent working relations
with all of the provinces, but particularly with the four western provinces.
Although still far from its objective
of providing high-quality services to
all areas of the Province, the Division
in 1975 extended assistance to regions
hitherto neglected, and this endeavour
will be expanded during the coming
year.
APPRENTICESHIP AND  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
The Apprenticeship and Industrial
Training Branch is responsible for the
promotion and operation of apprenticeship and industrial training throughout the Province, and for the certification of tradesmen.
The Branch supervises the on-the-
job work experience of apprentices,
assigns their in-school technical training, and prepares and conducts examinations to certify the competence of
apprentices and tradesmen. It is responsible also for operating an extensive, pre-apprentice, trades training
program for young men and women
seeking employment as apprentices.
The Branch works closely with vocational schools, colleges, school boards,
the Department of Education, and
Canada Manpower in the development
of all training programs. Secondary
schools are also visited periodically for
the purpose of disseminating information about pre-apprenticeship and apprenticeship programs.
A down-turn in the economy of the
Province during 1975 was not reflected
in the number of apprentices registered,
which remained relatively high. As
of December 31, the Apprenticeship
and Industrial Training Branch listed
13,139 apprentices on its records, up
174 from the same date last year. The
need for highly skilled, trained tradesmen is obviously as great as ever, and,
to meet this need, the Branch continues
to work with industry, trade unions,
and government agencies to fulfil its
responsibilities for the promotion and
operation of apprenticeship training
throughout the Province, and for the
certification of tradesmen.
The responsibilities associated with
conducting pre-apprenticeship, apprenticeship, and journeymen certification
programs are many—supervision of
on-the-job work experience, assignment
of technical training, preparation and
conducting of examinations, development of class schedules, course outline
development, and enrolment of classes.
In addition to performing these duties,
the Apprenticeship and Industrial
Training Counsellors spent many hours
investigating requests for training under
the Canada Manpower Industrial Training Program.
The administrative duties connected
with a program dealing with 13,139
apprentices, 2,207 pre-apprentices, and
the certification of tradesmen are many
and varied. To cope more effectively
and efficiently with its attendant work
load, and provide better service, the
Branch's operation has been divided
into an administrative section and an
operations section. Decentralization
of operations has also been initiated,
and preliminary planning was instituted
for computerization and data processing of all records.
 MANPOWER DIVISION
FF 47
Apprenticeship Training
The Branch is responsible for providing technical training for indentured
apprentices in apprenticeable trades.
A program of day-school training
classes, of from four to eight weeks
duration for each year of apprenticeship, provides for technical training.
These technical training classes are
conducted at B.C. Vocational School,
Burnaby; Malaspina College, Nanaimo;
Camosun College, Victoria; Okanagan
College, Kelowna; Cariboo College,
Kamloops; College of New Caledonia,
Prince George; and Selkirk College,
Nelson. Apprenticeship training has
also been arranged for Northwest Community College, Terrace, to provide a
facility for apprentices who are employed in the northern area of the
Province.
For those situations in which there
are insufficient numbers of apprentices in a trade to economically operate
day-school training, the Branch continues to offer evening classes. Also,
apprentices requesting extra training
are assigned to evening classes if the
Branch considers that additional upgrading training will be beneficial.
During the year, 10,858 apprentices
were assigned to day-school classes,
and 681 to evening classes. Technical
training for indentured apprentices was
conducted in 47 trades. (For a breakdown of the number of apprentices in
each trade or occupation, see Table 1
on pages 73 and 74.)
Pre-apprenticeship Training
Pre-apprenticeship trade training
courses are designed to prepare individuals for entry into the skilled labour
force by providing students with basic
trade skills and technical knowledge.
The courses are from four to six months
duration, depending on the trade. Tuition costs are paid by the Branch, and
the students also receive a subsistence
and travel allowance.
Under this program, training was
provided in 24 trades for 2,207 students
in 147 classes during 1975. In all,
4,927 applications for training were
processed during the year. Graduates
of the program are employed as apprentices in industry and in a variety
of craft areas.
In conjunction with other educational organizations, the Branch inaugurated a variety of new courses during
1975. The Piping Industry Joint Apprenticeship Committee requested three
special courses for their industry, and
these were approved by the Branch in
1975. Graduates of the courses were
subsequently placed in employment
within the piping industry.
By special arrangement with the
Langley School District, a pilot course
in pre-apprenticeship training for the
trades of carpentry and automotive mechanics was established at the Langley
Senior Secondary School. This new
venture is being monitored jointly by
the Branch and the Department of
Education, and it is expected to be the
forerunner of other similar programs.
A pre-apprenticeship technical training program was also established for
the tilesetting trade. This 10-week
course, which was requested by the employers and the union, was offered at
the B.C. Vocational School in Burnaby.
Another, a special pre-apprenticeship
heavy-duty mechanics course, was instituted at Northwest Community College at Terrace to assist residents of the
Burns Lake area to obtain training that
would prepare them for employment
with Babine Forest Products.
The basic training course for setting
chokers, operated at Malaspina College in Nanaimo, was reorganized from
a six-week to a two-week course. This
was done in co-operation with the logging industry, and appears to be meeting the requirements of the trade.
Finally, in co-operation with the
Federal Department of Manpower and
Immigration, a special pre-apprenticeship carpentry course was made avail-
 FF 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
able, so that the Musqueam Indians
could be taught the skills they needed
to construct their own housing.
Advisory Committees
The Provincial Apprenticeship Committee was reorganized during 1975,
and several new members were appointed.
A public hearing was held in Vancouver by the committee for the
purpose of considering submissions
concerning compulsory tradesmen's
qualification certification throughout
the Province for the trade of roofing,
damp and waterproofing.
Provincial Trade Advisory Committees are established to ensure that manpower training programs are conducted
to meet the existing trade requirements
and to plan for new technologies within
the respective trades. During the year,
97 Trade Advisory Committee meetings were held, 26 of which were conducted away from the main office of the
Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Branch.
The number of Trade Advisory
Committees was increased to 58 in
1975, with the introduction of four new
committees—electrical work, shop section (motor winding); oil and chemical
industries; oil-burner mechanics; and
the inboard-outboard marine industry.
Discussions were held with representatives of the mining, aircraft, and optical
industries concerning the possibility of
apprenticeship training in those industries.
In keeping with the provisions of
the Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's
Qualification Act, the committees'
terms of reference were completely redrafted to incorporate specific guidelines concerning the duties of each
committee.
Designation of Trades
Recommendations made by the
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
to the Minister resulted in the passing
of Order in Council 3603, which decreed that, except for those excluded
by regulation, all persons in the Province engaged in the trade of roofing,
damp and waterproofing must hold a
certificate of proficiency on and after
July 2, 1976.
Other regulations amended the
length of apprenticeship and the number of years of experience required to
qualify for tradesmen's qualification
examination from 6,000 to 3,300
hours.
Federal-Provincial Co-operation
British Columbia, with the participation of Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
the Yukon, the Northwest Territories,
and Canada Manpower, arranged for
the enrolling of out-of-province apprentices in B.C. Apprentice Technical
Training Programs. This opportunity
for special training was made possible
through financing from Canada Manpower, and it provides for the maximum use of training facilities.
Under the terms of the Adult Occupational Training Act (Canada),
procedures have been established
whereby, under the aegis of the Interprovincial Standards Co-ordinating
Committee, directors of apprenticeship
and examination co-ordinators from
the various provinces and territories
meet with representatives of the
Department of Manpower and Immigration to discuss interprovincial
examinations, course outlines, new
testing procedures, trade analyses, and
other topics related to apprenticeship
training, tradesmen's upgrading, and
the certification of apprentices and
tradesmen.
Industrial Training
British Columbia and the Department of Manpower and Immigration
jointly administer the Canada Manpower Industrial Training Program.
Staff of the Apprenticeship  and In-
 MANPOWER DIVISION
FF 49
dustrial Training Branch investigate,
report on, and recommend or reject
industrial training contracts that are
directly related to skill training and
apprenticeship.
During 1975 the Branch collaborated with Manpower officials to
process 8,608 applications for training
in industry. In all, 9,469 trainees
were placed, 1,202 of them in apprenticeable areas. The program has
been instrumental in providing job
opportunities for many persons who
might not otherwise have obtained
employment, and it has also aided
employers during the low-productivity
period of new trainees. As Federal
funding of the program has been increased, greater activity and more job
opportunities are expected.
Examination Development
The Branch's Program Development
Section participated during the year
with other provincial and territorial
jurisdictions and the Government of
Canada in the revision of six of the 16
Canadian Interprovincial Standards
Examinations.
These examinations are used by all
government apprenticeship programs
in Canada to achieve reasonably uniform minimum standards of achievement, and to facilitate the mobility of
Canadian workers in the skilled trades.
They are used in British Columbia as
completion examinations for the apprenticeship program, and are administered to all graduating apprentices.
Thus, every apprentice who is certificated in these trades has an interprovincial status that is recognized
throughout Canada.
Provincial tradesmen's qualification
certification is also available in 26
trades, through examination, to persons who have experience that was
not necessarily achieved through apprenticeship training {see Table 2,
page 75). Ten of the 26 examinations
were revised this year by representatives from industry, in collaboration
with the Branch's program development officers. These examinations are
distinct from the interprovincial examinations and are produced to suit
British Columbia's requirements, as
recommended by advisory committees
from industry.
During the year, two program development officers were added to the
section to increase its capability. In a
move to add curriculum development
to the section's responsibilities, two
apprenticeship course outline projects
were undertaken, and three trade
training manual development projects
were started.
EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS
The Employment Programs Branch
is responsible for the administration of
employment programs as an instrument of Provincial manpower policy.
One of the primary objectives of the
Branch is to provide maximum opportunity for British Columbians to
acquire skills and related work experience, and thereby facilitate their
participation in the labour force to
their fullest work potential.
A second objective is to reduce the
disproportionately high rates of unemployment experienced by some seg
ments of the work force. A third
objective is to reduce the barriers to
employment faced by individuals who
are experiencing difficulty in entering,
remaining, or progressing to their full
potential within the labour force.
To attain these objectives, the
Branch establishes and promotes employment programs aimed at assisting
specific groups, such as the physically
disabled, the mentally handicapped,
the socially disadvantaged, Native
Indians, and students, to find gainful
employment.
 FF 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Funds for the administration of
Provincial employment programs are
provided, under the authority of the
Special Provincial Employment Programmes Act (1974), to Government
departments, regional districts, municipalities, improvement districts, universities, corporations, societies, and
other employers for the employment of
students and disadvantaged persons.
In 1975 the Branch operated, with
Federal Government cost-sharing assistance, a pilot work activity project
in the forest industry in the Lake
Cowichan area. This project provided
62 youths, who were receiving welfare
assistance, with the social and work
skills required to enter and successfully participate in the labour force.
A follow-up survey has indicated that
the program was instrumental in moving 74 per cent of the participants into
permanent employment.
During 1975 the Branch also funded
nine pilot projects for the employment
of the physically and mentally disadvantaged. These projects included the
design and testing of special gardening
equipment for use by persons confined
to a wheel-chair; a press clipping
service; studies of accessibility to public buildings in Victoria, Kimberley,
and Cranbrook; compilation of a
directory of societies in British Columbia that provides services to the handicapped; a survey of recreational
facilities available to the handicapped
across the Province; an innovative approach to developing co-ordinated
body movement among the blind; an
examination of the problems faced by
physically handicapped persons in
finding suitable housing in rural and
urban British Columbia; and the monitoring of television, radio, and newspaper advertisements to check their
conformity with the Human Rights
Code.
Since 1974 the Branch has funded
more than 25,000 summer jobs for
students and disadvantaged youth in
the Province under the Careers '74
and Careers '75 student summer employment programs. These programs
had two major objectives—to employ
as many students as possible for an
equitable salary within a realistic budgetary framework, and to provide
students with work experience, employer contacts, and references to better equip them for their eventual
full-time participation in the labour
force.
In an independent evaluation of the
Careers '74 program, these objectives
were found to have been met. In
addition, 95 per cent of participating
employers considered the students to
be good workers who knew how to
use their skills and abilities. Approximately two thirds of the students
stated that they had been able to save
a substantial amount of money to
further their education. Both the
Careers '74 and Careers '75 programs
substantially reduced the student unemployment rate in the Province.
With operating budgets of $30 million for Careers '74 and $25 million
for Careers '75, the programs employed a total of 14,594 students in
Provincial Government departments,
2,515 in regional districts, and 3,123
in municipalities. Small businesses
and farms employed 3,575 students,
universities employed 934, and Native
Indian bands provided employment
for 501 Native Indian students through
funds provided by the Branch.
In addition to providing the students
with vocational experience and the
funds to continue their education, the
summer employment programs yielded
productive work for employers and
communities throughout the Province.
 MANPOWER DIVISION
FF 51
WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT
The prime objective of the Women's
Employment Bureau is to increase
equal employment opportunities for
women by promoting their integration
into industry, and by encouraging the
establishment of training and upgrading programs to further their fuller
participation in the economy. To
facilitate these endeavours, newsletters
were mailed to employers, unions, information centres, resource boards,
and women's organizations to make
them aware of the services offered by
the Bureau. The newsletters also
emphasized the opportunities available
to women through apprenticeship
training.
Requests for information and services provided by the Bureau rose
substantially during the year, owing to
the publicity accruing from its participation in special programs arranged
for International Women's Year by
women's centres, community colleges,
and universities. The Director accepted invitations to contribute to
these events as speaker and panelist.
Several of the lectures, dealing with
the theme of "non-sexist careers for
women," were taped for later presentation and broadcast.
The Aluminum Company of Canada
Ltd. invited the Director to study the
integration of women into non-traditional jobs at its Kitimat plant. The
study included conversations with women who were taking an experimental
two-week orientation course, and
others who had been working in the
plant for several months. The experiment had proved successful, the
women indicating satisfaction, and
management agreeing that it was good
for the company to hire women.
The production rate had increased,
general morale was up, and there was
less absenteeism and staff turnover.
Quite a number of the women were
related to men already working in the
plant, so the need to locate additional
housing was reduced. The women's
ages, ethnic background, education,
and work experience were varied.
With the exception of the introductory
course, the women were entitled to the
same benefits and opportunities as the
men. Other employers who have hired
individual women in the non-traditional occupations, but have not
provided them with an orientation
program, have expressed themselves as
pleased with the results.
Under the sponsorship of the British
Columbia Department of Labour and
the Employers' Council of B.C., the
Western Conference Committee—Opportunities for Women held a consultation with executive officers of various
large companies in Vancouver on
October 9.
The volume of inquiries directed to
the Bureau by both mail and telephone
point up the continuing keen interest in
all matters related to women, not just
training and employment opportunities.
In addition to researching source material in order to answer these inquiries,
the Director continues to serve on the
Tourist Service Training Advisory
Committee, the Advisory Council for
Educational Programs in Aging, and as
a Trade School administrative officer.
More and more women are applying
for pre-apprenticeship training, but it is
difficult for them to compete on an
equal basis with men for selection for
such training because of the fact that
men traditionally enjoy greater access
to the industrial arts programs that logically lead to selection for apprenticeship training and ultimate employment
in a skilled trade.
This inequity may soon be resolved,
however. In the latter part of 1975,
the Women's Employment Bureau embarked on a plan to offer a special
pilot program that will give women the
opportunity to learn the advantages of
 FF 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
apprenticeship, together with the basic
skills employers expect from apprentices.
This program will get under way
early in 1976, and the Bureau believes
that catch-up training of this nature
will continue to be necessary until an
equitable male-female percentage ratio
is established in all segments of the
work force.
OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
The primary responsibility of the
inspectorate of the Occupational Environment Branch, under the Factories
Act, 1966 and regulations, is to ensure
that workers employed in factories,
stores, and offices have been provided
a working environment conducive to
their health, comfort, and well-being.
The Branch administers the Act and
the regulations pursuant to the Act.
The legislation sets out the various
standards and requirements, thereby
having the effect of maintaining at least
a minimum acceptable occupational
environment. The legislation applies
to work places designated as "factories,
stores, and offices."
To ensure that acceptable minimum
standards are being observed in such
industries, the Branch's inspectors must
assess the adequacy of illumination
systems, heating, make-up air and exhaust systems, air-contamination controls, sanitation, and interior painting.
Employee amenities related to comfort
and personal hygiene, such as lunchrooms, washrooms, shower rooms,
locker rooms, and seating provision,
also receive priority.
In the case of new factory construction, or additions and alterations to existing buildings, the Act and regulations
require that engineering plans and specifications be submitted to an inspector,
who determines to what extent they
conform to established standards.
Another key function of the Occupational Environment Branch is a
continuing program of reinspection.
Long-term maintenance of acceptable
standards within the occupational environment makes periodic reinspection a
mandatory requirement. Indeed, after
an  initial  inspection  has  been   con
ducted, and directives issued to an
employer, reinspection automatically
follows, in order for the Branch to confirm that the directives have been carried out according to the standards
specified. Of the 9,626 inspections
conducted during the past year, 6,047
were initial inspections, and 3,579 were
reinspections.
After occupying offices at 411 Dunsmuir Street in downtown Vancouver
for 23 years, the Branch moved to new
offices in the Burnaby Centre at Burnaby. The only new regional office to
be opened during the year is the one
located at Chilliwack, which services
the upper Fraser Valley area.
Decentralization
The decentralization program established by the Department several years
ago has now progressed to the point
where more effective services are being
offered through regional inspectors
based at Nelson, Kelowna, Kamloops,
Prince George, Chilliwack, and Victoria. The sizable increase in the number of inspections conducted in 1975
resulted partly because of this program,
and partly because new staff became
fully operational. A second inspector
was assigned to the Victoria regional
office in 1975.
Establishment of regional offices at
Nanaimo, Terrace, and Cranbrook is
yet to be undertaken. Indications are
that the next stage of the decentralization program will be the acquisition of
additional inspectors for most regional
offices in order to cope with projected
work loads. If uniformity in the application of the legislation throughout the
Province is to be attained, however, the
 MANPOWER DIVISION
FF 53
immediate priority is establishment of
the three regional offices.
Ultimate objective of the program is
the setting-up of an inspectional cycle
covering approximately 50,000 factories and an equal number of offices
and stores.
Inspection
Despite the demands of priorities
established the previous year, 1975 was
a time of improved performance for the
Branch. Inspection of all pulp and
paper plants in the Province was completed, and the majority of plants had
made substantial progress toward meeting the requirement of directives issued
last year and this year. If the excellent
co-operation being offered by most
plants in the industry continues, this
major undertaking should be completed
in 1976.
Another significant achievement was
the extensive modernization of the
smelting industry at Trail, in conformity with Branch requirements. This industry has already completed many of
the modifications and alterations requested, but completion of the task will
take considerable time.
Inspection of factories in the garment industry was another assigned
priority of the Department, and the
Branch responded by completing the
inspection of all work places, and issuing the necessary directives. As many
of the employees in this industry are
immigrants, with incomplete knowledge of their responsibilities and rights,
the Branch's inspection program was
paralleled by publication of pamphlets
on these subjects in 13 languages.
Co-operation
Wherever possible, Branch inspectors sought the involvement of both
management and union personnel in
meaningful discussions during and
subsequent to plant inspections. Efforts were made to fully inform every
one concerned with the purposes of
the inspection of areas of mutual concern, and the methods used in determining proper conformity with the
required occupational environment
standards. This procedure eliminates
misconception, allays suspicion, and
creates mutual confidence and understanding, particularly at the time of
initial inspections.
Throughout the year the Branch
adopted a more co-operative approach
with management and organized
labour by meeting with various associations, and attending conferences
and seminars at various locations in
the Province. It is anticipated that
these contacts will increase as the decentralization program expands to all
parts of the Province.
Federal Employees
Under an agreement between the
Provincial and Federal Departments
of Labour, the Occupational Environment Branch continued to conduct
health and safety inspections for the
protection of Federal employees occupying various offices, and industrial
employees of firms under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government.
The enterprises include pipeline pump-
ing-stations, docks, railroad terminals
and round houses, and airport terminals, including hangars and various
airline service buildings.
In the course of the year, 1,061 inspections were conducted for the
Federal Department of Labour, compared with 746 in 1974. Because of
the similarity between Federal and
Provincial legislation, thousands of
British Columbia citizens are assured
protection equivalent to that provided
under the Factories Act, and regulations pursuant to the Act. This is the
sixth year the Branch has acted in the
 FF 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
enforcing of Federal legislation for the
Canada Department of Labour.
Inspections and Approvals
The Branch performed 9,626 inspections of factories, stores, and
offices in 1975; and 7,669 directives,
requiring conformity with the legislation, were issued to owners and employers.    In addition, 934 plans and
specifications   for   construction   were
approved.
The work of the Branch was
furthered by the co-operation and
assistance of management, unions, employees in industry and commerce,
architects, engineers, construction
firms, building inspectors-, other departments of the Government, and the
municipalities of the Province.
ELEVATING DEVICES
The Elevating Devices Inspection
Bureau is responsible for the inspection
of all forms of vertical transportation—
passenger and freight elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters, moving walks, and
workers' construction hoists—to ensure
safe operating conditions. These responsibilities are met through licensing
and periodic safety inspections designed
to ensure that both legislation and implementing regulations are complied
with.
Before any such vertical transportation devices are put into service, inspectors of the Bureau must conduct
full-scale acceptance tests. Subsequent
to acceptance, all installations are inspected periodically to ensure that the
initial safety standards are maintained.
The Bureau also provides a consultative engineering service to unions, management, building owners, and the general public, as well as to Government
departments. Safety legislation itself is
constantly under review as technology
advances, and recommendations for
change are made periodically to the
Minister.
Organizational Changes
The Bureau moved its headquarters
from 411 Dunsmuir Street to 4240
Manor Street, Burnaby, in February
1975. The new premises provide better
office accommodation and administrative facilities.
Three inspectors were posted to
Prince George, Kelowna, and Victoria,
and this move has provided improved
services in these areas. Staff levels were
maintained, but some internal reorganization and reallocation of responsibilities took place.
Liaison and Teamwork
During 1975 the Bureau's commitments to the Federal Government were
fulfilled, in that all elevating devices
in buildings under Federal jurisdiction
throughout the Province were inspected.
The elevating devices on British Columbia ferries were also inspected, and
foreign ocean-going vessels continued
to avail themselves of the Bureau's
services.
Other departments of Government
sought advice through the Bureau's
consultative services during 1975.
Consequently, Bureau personnel were
involved with the engineering sections
of the Department of Public Works,
the B.C. Hospital Insurance Services,
and the B.C. Hydro and Power
Authority in both the planning and
progress stages of a variety of projects.
The Code Committee of the Canadian Standards Association held its
annual convention in Vancouver, September 22-26. The purposes of the
convention were facilitated by the B.C.
Government's co-operation via planning provided by the Bureau. It is the
Committee's responsibility to ensure
that the safety standards of all elevating devices are thoroughly examined
 MANPOWER DIVISION
FF 55
and updated across Canada. Included
among the delegates were representatives from inspection services in all of
the provinces, and from elevator and
hoist companies in Canada, the United
States, Britain, and Sweden.
Inspections and Approvals
During the year the Bureau conducted a total of 7,107 inspections
throughout the Province.    These in
spections resulted in the issuing of
8,002 directives requiring repairs to
ensure that elevating devices were in
safe operating condition. This figure
represents an increase of more than 20
per cent over the number of inspections
made in 1974.
In addition, 432 engineering plans
and specifications were approved for
new installations and extensive modernization of existing equipment.
COMPENSATION  SERVICES
The Compensation Services Branch
of the Department provides both workers and employers with independent
advice concerning problems that come
under the Workers' Compensation Act.
Advice for workers with claims problems is available from both the Compensation Consultant and his assistant,
the Compensation Counsellor. Advice
for employers with claim problems is
provided by an Employers' Adviser.
The need for the Compensation Services Branch arises largely from a provision in the Act that prohibits the
Workers' Compensation Board staff
from divulging any information obtained by them in the course of administering compensation claims. Because the Board's claims files are not
open to either a worker or an employer
or their agents for review, it is essential
that an independent body be given access to those files to ensure that the
Board is complying with the law, and
with its own policies governing claims
administration.
This watchdog function is performed
by the Branch, its freedom of access
to files of the Board having been ensured by provisions in the Act. Officers of the Branch also represent both
workers and employers in appeals
under the Act when circumstances justify such representation.
Compensation Consultant
The year 1975 was heavy for appeals
made under the Workers' Compensa
tion Act, and this led to delays in the
rendering of decisions, and a consequent backlog of cases to be dealt with
by the independent boards of review
appointed under the Act (see Tables 3
and 3a on page 76).
During the year the Hearing Branch
of the Workers' Compensation Board
was opened, and new legislation under
section 7a of the Act established a
schedule of pensions for noise-induced
hearing loss. The legislation became
effective on December 1, 1975.
The Act and its regulations were
also amended to provide protective
coverage for fishermen. The new
amendments will not become totally
effective until January 1, 1976, but
commercial fishermen working the
coastal waters of British Columbia,
pursuant to the amendments, were to
be afforded coverage for the 1976 fishing season.
Compensation Counsellor
Much of the Branch's time is taken
up reading board of review cases and
studying the files of injured workers at
the offices of the Workers' Compensation Board. Personal interviews with
claimants are usually arranged to suit
their convenience, and workers are also
given help in preparing their cases for
presentation before boards of review.
This service requires travelling to board
offices, and to outside points within the
Province when out-of-town hearings
are scheduled.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Employers' Adviser
In addition to acting on the employer's behalf with respect to specific
claims, the Employers' Adviser also
addresses interested employer groups
on matters related to WCB practices
and administrative procedures, the
appeal process, and the means by
which an employer can assist in preventing payment of improper claims
(see Tables 4, 4a, and 5 on page 77).
TRADE-SCHOOLS REGULATION
The Trade-schools Regulation Administration Office is responsible for
the registration and supervision of private trade schools, both practical and
correspondence.
A "trade school" is any school or
place wherein a trade is taught, and
"trade" means the skill and knowledge
requisite for, or intended for use in,
any business, trade, occupation, calling, or vocation designated as a trade
by the regulations.
Administrative officers appointed by
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
are responsible for implementing the
provisions of the Trade-schools Regulation Act. Under this legislation,
trade schools are required to register
annually, and pay the required registration fee.
Supervision of the operation of registered trade schools includes the approval of premises and equipment,
health, sanitary and safety conditions,
hours of operation, courses to be
offered, form of contract, fees to be
charged, teacher qualification, performance bond, cancellation provisions, and advertising copy.
During 1975 the Trade-schools Administrative Officers held 12 meetings,
and made recommendations to the
Minister of Labour regarding registration, re-registration, requests for
changes in tuition fees, requests for
approval of new courses, the general
conduct of private trade schools, and
other matters related to administration
of the Act.
As of the end of December, 94
schools offering correspondence and
practical courses, or combined correspondence and practical training, were
registered in accordance with the Act.
Eighty-one schools were re-registrations from 1974, and 13 new schools
were considered and recommended to
the Minister and approved for Certificate of Registration during the year.
Nine schools discontinued operations
in British Columbia in 1975.
In addition to the inspections conducted by Administrative Officers in
each school at least twice a year, special visits are made to resolve specific
problems and complaints. Students
wishing to discontinue training, and
who have moneys owing to them by
way of prepaid tuition fees, are granted
refunds in accordance with the regulations.
 INDUSTRIAL
RELATIONS
DIVISION
* Introduction
* Labour Standards
* Arbitration
* Mediation Services
* Human Rights
  INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS  DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
KENNETH A. SMITH
Associate Deputy Minister
In labour relations, 1975 would
appear to have been a year of turmoil,
but no records were set in man-days
lost due to strikes. What is interesting
about the year is that the machinery
for settling disputes was in place well
before the strikes began—ready and
available for use by the parties in
dispute.
In the case of the forest industry,
the majority of strikes were settled on
the basis of the report of Mr. Justice
Hutcheon. The food industry strike-
lockout was settled on the basis of the
recommendations of an Industrial Inquiry Commission.
Regrettably, a number of strikes
took place before the parties had even
gone through the process of mediation;
yet they were settled with the assistance of a Mediation Officer. The
Mediation Services Branch itself set
what must be considered an excellent
track record. It handled disputes involving 123,115 workers, and was
successful in bringing about settlements in the majority of them. Close
to 1,000 companies and bargaining
units were involved in these disputes.
The efforts of the Labour Standards
Branch and its 54 Industrial Relations
Officers were equally rewarding.
The experience of the Department
has been that, when an application for
the appointment of an Industrial Inquiry Commission has been received
or offered, one side is prepared to
accept, the other to reject. No doubt
the advocates of compulsion would
suggest that, under these circumstances, the parties should be compelled to use the machinery available
to them under the Labour Code. This
device, however, would provoke a
negative response. One or other of
the parties would simply go through
the procedural motions in order to get
to the ultimate stage of bargaining—
lockout or strike. Freedom of choice
is a hallmark of democracy, and the
parties in any dispute must be free to
choose whether or not they wish to use
the facilities of the Department of
Labour, and free to decide at what
point in the dispute they may elect to
use them.
Complicating the bargaining process
in the latter part of 1975 was the introduction by the Federal Government of
wage and price controls. The machinery for implementing these controls
was not in place by year-end, but the
Department had begun to experience
their effects on normal collective bargaining.
The legislation also made the task of
the Mediation Services Branch more
difficult, for although its officers were
at no time considered to be enforcing
agents of the legislation, the freedom
of activity they require to effect settlements was substantially curtailed.
A marked increase was seen in 1975
in the use of arbitration procedures to
settle disputes that arise during the
life of an agreement. This is illustrated
by the fact that 231 arbitration awards
were filed with the Minister. Most
arbitration boards are selected by the
parties, but the Minister was called
upon to make 30 appointments during
the year.    Copies of the awards are
59
 FF 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
available to any person from the Director of Arbitration.
Special Services Branch continued
to operate in the four areas for which
it was originally designed—national
and international labour affairs, union-
management consultation, special
studies, and co-ordination of research.
At year-end the Department had
moved closer to implementing the services of the Labour Education Branch.
The intention is to provide better training for those concerned with labour-
management negotiation, arbitration,
and other industrial relations functions.
One innovation embarked on during
the year was the convening of a labour
relations seminar in Trail, at which all
of the Department's functions for which
the Minister is responsible were explained and discussed with the public.
Attendance by union and management spokesmen in the area was most
encouraging, and the general reaction
indicated that going out to the public
in this manner was an ideal method of
improving communications and encouraging understanding of the Department's functions and services. The
seminar afforded the Minister and staff
an excellent opportunity to correct misunderstandings concerning labour
legislation, and to hear proposals for
improving that legislation. The response would appear to justify the
holding of additional seminars of a
similar type in other areas of the Province.
LABOUR STANDARDS
The Labour Standards Branch
administers a large number of statutes
and regulations affecting the welfare
of employees. These encompass such
areas as hours of work, overtime payments, minimum wages, payment of
wages, maternity protection, employment agencies, employment of children, and annual and general holidays.
In addition to the responsibility of
enforcing labour standards legislation,
Industrial Relations Officers employed
by the Branch perform services related
to requirements of the Province's
Labour Code and Human Rights Code.
Officers of the Branch are stationed in
Victoria, Vancouver, Burnaby, Nanaimo, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Prince
George, Williams Lake, Terrace, Kelowna, Cranbrook, and Dawson Creek.
During the year the Branch emphasized the importance of educating employers and employees in the requirements of the legislation. To this end,
Branch officers addressed a variety of
organizations, seminars, and schools.
Their efforts were assisted by a public
education campaign intended to advise
ethnic groups of the services provided
by  the  Department.     Supported  by
advertising on radio and in ethnic
newspapers throughout the Province,
the program featured the distribution
of pamphlets in 13 languages.
Industrial Relations Officers made a
total of 60,560 calls and investigations
during the year in the enforcement of
labour standards legislation. Adjustments totalling $1,638,340.67 were
made to 13,131 employees by 4,565
employers. These adjustments were
primarily collections made on behalf
of employees who were unable to
obtain payment of wages because of
the financial difficulties of employers.
Adjustments were down slightly from
the 1974 figure, but continue to represent a significant amount of money.
The Branch required the assistance
of the Board of Industrial Relations to
collect the sums owing employees.
This assistance required the issuing of
668 certificates under the authority of
the Payment of Wages Act. In addition, 488 demand notices and related
documents were issued to persons indebted to the employers.
Registrations were issued to 144
employment agencies on receipt of a
fee of $50 and a report by a Branch
 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS DIVISION
FF 61
officer confirming that the agency was
operating as required by the Employment Agencies Act.
Two hundred and seventy-eight permits were issued under the provisions
of the Control of Employment of Children Act.  In every case the application
was investigated to ensure that employment would not adversely affect the
child's health or schooling.
Statistical data on a number of the
Branch's activities during 1975 appear
in Tables 6, 7, 8, and 9 on pages 78
and 79.
ARBITRATION
The principal function and responsibility of the Arbitration Branch,
which came into being early in 1974,
is to maintain a register of arbitrators,
correlate arbitration awards, and make
these awards available to persons interested in decisions concerning grievances that arise out of collective agreements.
The Branch also assists the Minister
in selecting persons to act as chairmen
of arbitration boards.
The year under review was characterized by a marked increase in the
use of arbitration proceedings to settle
disputes arising between parties to collective agreements. In all, 231 arbitration awards were filed with the Minister
of Labour during 1975, in accordance
with the requirement of section 105 of
the Labour Code. By contrast, 141
awards were filed with the Minister in
1974, in compliance with this statutory
requirement.
Copies of all arbitration awards are
available for perusal in the Office of
the Director of Arbitration, and persons who are interested in obtaining a
copy of a specific award may request it
from the Director. A summary of each
award appears in the Department's
monthly Labour Research Bulletin.
Copies of the awards are forwarded
for publication in Labour Arbitration
Cases and Western Labour Arbitration
Cases, together with arbitration decisions received from other jurisdictions.
Most arbitration boards are selected
by the parties that have entered into a
collective agreement. The Labour
Code, however, states that where there
is failure to appoint or constitute an
arbitration board under a collective
agreement, the Minister of Labour may,
at the request of either party, make
such appointments as are necessary to
constitute a board. In 1975 the Minister made 30 such appointments; 11 of
them were for chairmen of arbitration
boards, and 19 were for the appointment of single arbitrators.
Sixty-nine of the awards handed
down in 1975 dealt with the discharge
of employees from their employment.
In cases covered by the Labour Code,
the average elapsed time between the
date of the alleged violation of the
collective agreement and the date of
the award was 147.49 days. The
shortest length of time required by an
arbitration board to deal with a discharge case was 27 days; the longest
was 580 days. In the latter case, considerable time had elapsed between the
discharge and the establishment of
a board. The decision was actually
handed down within 19 days of the
first hearing held by the arbitration
board.
Arbitration awards deal with a variety of matters as extensive as those
covered by collective agreements. The
frequency of occurrence of issues in
cases reported in 1975 is set out in
Table 10, page 79. Of the awards received, 94 were decisions of arbitration
boards, and 137 were awards of single
arbitrators.
Table 11 on page 80 shows the
average number of days necessary to
complete arbitration cases during 1975.
It will be noted that the time required
by single arbitrators to render a decision is considerably less than that re-
 FF 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
quired by arbitration boards. This fact
tends to confirm the opinion of many
persons involved in matters related to
arbitration  proceedings  that  the  ap
pointment of a single arbitrator is to
be preferred when the parties are
anxious to obtain an early settlement
of their dispute.
MEDIATION  SERVICES
The Mediation Services Branch provides the assistance of Mediation Officers to employers and trade unions in
labour-management disputes arising
out of negotiations for the renewal of
collective agreements or for initial collective agreements.
Under the Labour Code of British
Columbia, trade unions and employers, individually or jointly, may apply
for such assistance by writing to the
Director, Mediation Services Branch,
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby, B.C. The
application forms used to request the
appointment of a Mediation Officer
may be obtained from the Branch's
offices or any office of the Department
of Labour throughout the Province.
The Branch may also voluntarily provide mediation services in labour-
management disputes that have resulted in strikes or lockouts.
The mediator's function is to advance the principles of free, responsible collective bargaining. He is there
to make both procedural and substantive suggestions, and to propose whatever alternatives are likely to assist the
contending parties in reaching a collective agreement. The success of mediation  in  British  Columbia  has  been
affirmed by the large majority of collective agreements that are negotiated
without resort to strikes or lockouts.
At its Burnaby offices, the Branch
maintains an up-to-date file of collective agreements for use by trade unions
and employers.
Mediation Officers were involved in
431 disputes during the year; 342 of
them were completed at year's end,
and 81 were carried forward into
1976. The comparable figures for
1974 were 356, 265, and 80. Although
the number of employers and bargaining units involved in disputes during
the year dropped, the number of employees involved increased approximately 16 per cent over last year. Of
the 342 settlements completed by the
end of the year, 239 were resolved
with the assistance of Mediation Officers (see Table 12, page 80).
The Branch continued to provide
guest speakers for meetings and seminars, when requested to do so by trade
union and employer organizations and
educational institutions. It also processed a great number of inquiries
from all parts of the Province concerning collective bargaining legislation and procedures.
HUMAN   RIGHTS
The role of the Human Rights
Branch is to promote equal opportunity for every person in the Province,
without regard to race, religion, colour,
sex, marital status, ancestry, or place
of origin. The Branch also administers
the Human Rights Code, which prohibits discrimination in the areas of
employment, tenancy, arid public services.
The year 1975 marked the first full
year of operation for British Colum
bia's new Human Rights Code. The
Code now offers coverage in areas that
have never been included before in
Human Rights legislation across
Canada.
A new section of the Code, which
states that employment and services
customarily available to the public
cannot be denied without reasonable
cause, has been used to protect* the
rights of the handicapped, welfare
recipients,  homosexuals,  persons  fol-
 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS DIVISION
FF 63
lowing different life-styles, and persons
suffering from specified health problems. This section of the Code has
also served to extend broader protection for the more traditional complaints of race, religion, sex, ancestry,
marital status, place of origin, and
discrimination in employment and
tenancy.
Over 700 complaints of discrimination were investigated in 1975, compared with 241 the previous year
(see Tables 13 and 14 on pages 80 and
81, which indicate the number and
nature of complaints filed with the
Human Rights Branch in 1975). This
dramatic increase in cases can be attributed to a number of factors, not the
least of which was an active Human
Rights public education campaign to
inform people of their rights and responsibilities under the Code.
Before the campaign ended, almost
250,000 pamphlets were distributed
through community, health, doctors,
and Government agent offices in every
community in the Province. Their
availability was thoroughly advertised
in daily, weekly, and ethnic newspapers, on radio, and on public buses.
For the ethnic papers, advertisements
were translated into the appropriate
languages.
The second important development
was the opening of regional offices
in Terrace, Kamloops, Prince George,
and Nelson. These regional offices are
able to respond to local issues at the
community level, and to defuse prejudice before it develops. Their presence
is effective, because they come to know
the unique social composition of their
respective regions. Complaints may
be investigated quickly by a Human
Rights Officer in or near the community. As well as investigating complaints, the regional Human Rights
Officers play an important educational
role by encouraging public interest in,
and support for, human rights.
Investigations of contraventions of
the Code are designed to bring about,
without litigation, amicable settlements
of cases, the majority of which are
resolved successfully. There have
been instances, however, in which a
Board of Inquiry has been convened
by the Minister of Labour in order
that a hearing may take place. For
the first time in British Columbia's history, these Boards are comprised of
laypersons from every walk of life.
Another important innovation under
the new legislation is that the decisions
of Boards of Inquiry are now presented in writing, and are available to
the public.
Some of the decisions rendered in
1975 have dealt with the refusal by a
beer parlour to serve members of the
counter culture, the refusal by a hotel
to provide a Native Indian woman with
a room, the refusal by a newspaper to
provide advertising space to a homosexual group, and discrimination
against a woman in a mining camp
over adequate accommodation. These
decisions and others are available on
request through the Victoria office of
the Human Rights Branch.
Conferences, workshops, and public
meetings, in which representatives of
the Branch participated, helped the
Department to promote widespread
understanding and acceptance of Human Rights legislation. In addition,
the Director and staff members spoke
at meetings around the Province and
elsewhere in Canada.
The Branch also had the services of
a full-time consultant on the rights of
the handicapped. Among achievements in this area were the opening of
personal files by the Canadian National Institute of the Blind to the
individuals concerned, and the establishment of improved voting conditions
for the handicapped.
The arrival of a full-time Information and Education Officer has resulted
in more public access to the Branch.
In response to this stimulus, audiovisual education kits were developed
for  schools   and   community   groups,
 FF 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and distributed throughout the Province. Recent negotiations with senior
members of the Department of Education have resulted in the first steps
toward production of a Human Rights
curriculum for classroom situations.
A resource library was added to the
Branch in 1975, and books, documents, and other informative materials
dealing with ethnic groups, court cases,
and women's issues were acquired.
In all, the year was one of growth.
Now possessed of a staff of 17, the
Branch is able to provide expanded
services to the entire Province, thereby
ensuring that one of the strongest Human Rights codes in Canada will be
properly enforced. Although not perfect, the British Columbia Human
Rights Code is regularly opening doors
for persons previously disadvantaged
by prejudice and discrimination.
 INDEPENDENT
BOARDS
* Board of Industrial Relations
• Boards of Review
  INDEPENDENT BOARDS
BOARD OF  INDUSTRIAL  RELATIONS
The Board of Industrial Relations is
a quasi-judicial body, appointed under
the Minimum Wage Act. Its responsibilities include establishment of minimum wage orders and regulations;
establishment of hours-of-work regulations; issuing of overtime permits and
variance in hours of work; establishment of orders regulating the observance, and pay, for general holidays;
and the issuing and enforcing of certificates for the recovery of unpaid
wages.
Two orders were made pursuant
to the Minimum Wage Act in 1975.
General Minimum Wage Order 1
(1975), which became effective on
December 1, 1975, established a minimum wage of $2.75 an hour for employees 18 years of age and over, and
$2.35 an hour for employees 17 years
of age and under, effective December
1, 1975, rising to $3.00 and $2.60 an
hour respectively, effective June 1,
1976.
The order provides for overtime at
time and a half after eight hours a day
and 40 hours a week, and double time
after 11 hours a day and 48 nours a
week, excluding overtime on a daily
basis. A half-hour eating period is
also provided.
The order supersedes and incorporates the following 15 orders: 1
(1972), General Minimum Wage
Order; 3 (1969), Cost and Upkeep of
Uniforms; 4 (1972), Occupations of
Ambulance Driver and Attendant; 5
(1972), Occupation of Bus Operator;
6 (1972), Cook and Bunkhouse Occupation (in unorganized territory); 7
(1972), Occupation of First Aid Attendant; 9 (1972), Funeral Service Business; 10 (1972), Geophysical Exploration and Oil Well Drilling and Service
Industries; 11 (1949) and 11a (1950),
Rest Periods; 12 (1972), Mining Industry; 13 (1955), Employees in More
Than One Occupation; 15 (1972),
Occupation of Taxicab Driver; 16
(1972), Occupations of Truck Driver
and Motor-cycle Operator and Their
Swampers and Helpers and Certain
Warehousemen; and 17 (1972), Overtime Variance.
Minimum Wage Order 2 (1975),
Occupation of Resident Caretaker,
supersedes Order 14 (1974) and establishes a minimum wage scale for resident caretakers in apartment buildings
of $165 a month, plus $6.60 a month
for each residential suite in apartment
buildings containing more than four
and less than 61 residential suites, and
$561 a month in apartment buildings
containing more than four and less
than 61 residential suites. These mini-
mums increase to $180 a month, $7.20
a month, and $612 a month respectively on June 1, 1976.
As a result of the foregoing revisions, only two minimum wage orders
are now in effect.
Pursuant to the Minimum Wage Act,
six regulations exempted certain employees from the Act.   They were:
Regulation 45 (1975) for mentally
handicapped persons employed by
the rehabilitation program of the
Artaban Training Centre of the
Powell River Association for the
Mentally Handicapped;
Regulation 46 (1975) for Resident
Managers employed by the Concord Homes Society;
Regulation 47 (1975) for trainees
in the occupational program of
the Bevan Lodge Association who
are registered with the Department of Human Resources as
handicapped persons and receive
a monthly allowance;
Regulation 48 (1975) for Counsellors/Instructors employed by the
Salvation Army Miracle Valley
Ranch Youth Centre;
Regulation 49 (1975) for Counsellors and cooking staff employed
by the Dunbar Evangelical Lutheran Church at Camp Luther; and
67
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Regulation  50   (1975)   for unemployed persons  enrolled in  the
Salesmanship Upgrading Course
of Cariboo College from September 20 to October 10, 1975.
Pursuant to the Hours of Work Act,
Regulations  13A,   17,  23a,  and 23b
were rescinded, and replaced by a new
Regulation 23, which allows truck
drivers and motor-cycle operators and
their swampers and helpers to work
such hours in addition to the working-
hours limited by section 3 of the Act
as shall be necessary for the transportation of materials, goods, and services.
The Board considered numerous applications for overtime permits and,
where the requirements of the legislation were satisfied, permits were issued.
The Board also considered and granted
many requests for scheduling and varying hours and overtime rates to accommodate short week, flextime, and other
working arrangements.
The Board confirmed many certificates for wages owing under the Payment of Wages Act. (For details, see
the report of the Labour Standards
Branch on p. 60.) Several requests
for exemption from section 15a of the
Act were also dealt with.
BOARDS OF  REVIEW
Boards of review were established
under section 76a of the Workers'
Compensation Act in 1974. During
1975 there were three fully functioning
boards of review, each comprised of
a chairman and two other persons.
All chairmen are lawyers and members of the Law Society of British
Columbia
Membership of each board consists
of one person selected for service by
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
after consultation with one or more
organized groups of employers, and
one person selected after consultation
with one or more organized groups of
workers in the Province.
One of the chairmen is designated
as administrative chairman. Under the
regulations dealing with boards of review, the administrative chairman is
responsible for the day-to-day operations and administration of all boards
of review.
Boards of review are appellate
bodies, set up independent of the
Workers' Compensation Board, whose
purpose is to handle appeals by workers, dependants of deceased workers,
and employers against decisions of the
Board concerning workers.
The function of boards of review in
adjudicating appeals is not necessarily
to establish new policy directions for
the Workers' Compensation Board,
but to determine whether or not decisions made by the Board are in
accordance with the facts of the case
and the terms of the legislation. Decisions of a board of review are not
binding on the Board, but if a board
of review makes a decision that does
not confirm the original decision of the
Board, that decision, under the legislation, will be reconsidered by the Board.
Every decision made by a board of
review, together with the reasons
therefore, is sent to both the employer
and claimant involved in each case, to
the Workers' Compensation Board,
and to any representatives of the
parties.
The boards of review have a central
office in Vancouver, separate and apart
from the offices of the Workers' Compensation Board. Files are obtained,
as required, from the Workers' Compensation Board, so that when an appeal is being adjudicated, the relevant
documentation is before the board
dealing with the appeal.
The boards are empowered by the
legislation and regulations to travel
throughout the Province of British
Columbia, and they do so on a frequent basis. The purpose of the travel-
 INDEPENDENT BOARDS
FF 69
ling is to meet with employers and
claimants on specific appeals in the
home location of such persons. This
eliminates the need for people to travel
to Vancouver to have an appeal heard.
The boards of review have meeting
facilities in Vancouver, so all appeals
from the Lower Mainland are conducted there.
The regulations provide that a
claimant, dependant, or employer is
entitled to meet with a board of review, as long as the board has determined that there is an appealable issue.
If no meeting is required by the parties
involved, the board of review is then
empowered to make a decision on the
appeal, on the basis of information
contained on the Workers' Compensation Board file, and on the basis of
any further information that the board
may require in order to render a fair
decision.
As is inherent in any appellate system, the basic problem facing boards
of review is delay in dealing with appeals. One of the objectives of any
appellate system should be to deal with
cases before it as soon as is practicably
possible, and in a manner that is just
and equitable, having due regard for
all factors and circumstances.
The volume of appeals makes it impossible to meet quickly with every
appellant requesting a meeting. Until
a few months ago, the delay in setting
meetings was almost 12 weeks, but this
has been reduced to approximately
seven weeks by increasing the number
of meetings conducted daily. This is
seen as at least a short-term, partial
solution.
On either medical or non-medical
issues, an appellant who is unsatisfied
with the decision of a board of review
has a further right to appeal to the
Commissioners of the Workers' Compensation Board. If the decision of
the board has been a unanimous one,
the appellant, depending upon whether
he or she is an employer or a worker,
must have an organized group of employers or an organized group of
workers launch the further appeal on
his or her behalf. If the decision of
the board was not unanimous, the appellant has a right of appeal to the
Commissioners, subject to the time
limits prescribed by the Workers'
Compensation Act. On a strictly
medical issue, one has the right, under
section 55 of the Workers' Compensation Act, to appeal further to a medical
review panel.
During 1975 the boards of review
were compelled to operate at less than
100 per cent capacity, owing to the
prolonged illness of one member, and
the absence of one chairman for two
and a half months.
Of the many issues considered by
the boards, the most common, 294,
involved the decision by the Workers'
Compensation Board not to reopen an
existing claim. Other issues frequently
raised concerned whether or not (1)
a disallowed claim occurred within the
scope of employment, (2) there was
in fact any injury, (3) a claim was
ended prematurely, and (4) a permanent partial disability award granted
was sufficient.
The majority of employers' appeals
dealt with whether or not an injury
had occurred within the course or
scope of employment. A second issue
that often arose concerned whether or
not there had been a compensable injury. The great majority of appeals,
488, involved injuries to the back.
Next in frequency were 102 appeals
dealing with injuries to the knees.
On December 31, 1974, there was
a balance of 220 appeals that had been
received during that calendar year, but
had not yet been adjudicated. During
the 1975 calendar year, 1,583 new
appeals were received, and 1,229 of
these were adjudicated. Of those adjudicated, 1,114 were submitted by
claimants or dependants, 115 by employers.    An  additional   121   appeals
 FF 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
were suspended, that is, returned to
the Workers' Compensation Board
without a decision.
Appeals are suspended if a claimant, an employer, a physician, or any
other person from whom information
has been requested, neglects or refuses
to provide that information. On occasion, an appeal can be adjudicated
without it; but if a board of review
believes that the information is necessary for a fair adjudication of an appeal, the appeal is suspended and the
file returned to the Workers' Compensation Board. Should the requested
information ultimately be received, the
file is returned to the board of review
and the adjudication is completed.
During the 1975 calendar year, 71
claims were returned to the Workers'
Compensation Board when it was decided that there was no appealable
issue, or that there was no appeal to
consider. On December 31, there
were 382 appeals pending.
The increase in the number of appeals received during the year was in
excess of 50 per cent more than the
comparable figure for 1974. The increase in the number of appeals adjudicated was also in excess of 50 per
cent. Nevertheless, the number of appeals pending on December 31, 1975,
was up from 220 in 1974 to 382.
Boards of review conducted 487
meetings in Vancouver during the
year, and 346 elsewhere in the Province, an increase of approximately 50
per cent and 25 per cent respectively
over 1974. The number of days on
which meetings were conducted outside Vancouver totalled 113.
Of the appeals adjudicated, 515
claimants' appeals were allowed, 599
disallowed; 26 employers' appeals
were allowed, 89 disallowed. The corresponding figures for 1974 were 356
claimants' appeals allowed, 306 disallowed, 15 employers' appeals allowed, 119 disallowed.
Over 50 per cent of the cases before
the boards of review were decided
within two and a half months of the
date the files reached the boards. Approximately 30 per cent were decided
within a further month and a half, and
the balance (up to 98 per cent of the
total) were decided within eight
months. Approximately 17 per cent
of the decisions took longer than four
and a half months from the date the
files reached the boards of review.
Of the claims processed during the
year, 50 occasioned requests from
boards of review for examination by a
Workers' Compensation Board doctor.
The boards of review requested 35
examinations by outside specialists,
and 94 opinions or additional information from a Workers' Compensation
Board doctor. On 19 occasions, the
boards sought opinions or further information from an outside doctor
through a Board doctor.
The meetings outside Vancouver
were held in Victoria (54), Kelowna
(42), Castlegar (39), Kamloops (33),
and Nanaimo (32). Although there
was an average delay of approximately
three months before a claimant obtained a meeting in Vancouver during
the summer and early fall of 1975,
this delay has now been reduced to
from six to eight weeks, owing to the
doubling of the number of meetings
held in Vancouver.
 STATISTICS
  STATISTICS FF 73
APPRENTICESHIP AND  INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
Table 1—Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Term
in
Years
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Total
Number of
Apprentices in
Training
Completed
in
1975
Trade or Occupation
First
Second
Third
Fourth      Fifth
Automotive—
Transmission repair	
Body repair  _	
Electrical  	
Electrical and tune-up „
Glass installation  	
Machinist 	
4
4
3
3
3
4
4
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
3
3
2
4
3
2
4
4
3,4
4
4
4
3
3
3
4
5
3
2
4
3
4
4
3
3
3'/2
4
4
4,5
4
4
4
5
5
4
4
4
4
4
4
3
2
2
4
4
5
134
2
4
3
7
326
42
2
12
2
7
7
11
6
23
14
48
5
10
11
17
68
8
537
5
20
31
1
32
51
6
7
5
72
47
........
5
114
3
7
8
13
22
2
2
6
5
3
64
4
12
2
51
2
129
4
1
15
297
39
5
1
9
1
3
14
6
7
24
65
5
1
8
94
8
3
33
62
11
616
9
19
15
34
30
91
5
9
133
67
4
7
254
2
12
4
7
11
4
2
2
4
41
3
6
1
34
4
108
4
3
2
7
387
6
1
13
2
2
5
7
2
20
12
3
19
	
24
57
6
424
7
5
22
24
3
10
133
48
2
269
2
13
2
3
21
4
1
1
18
3
74
1
34
4
90
1
11
352
1
14
2
3
4
6
24
1
349
28
4
16
105
276
3
19
1
4
10
7
1
1
8
6
1
32
1
....
15
461
7
11
6
40
1,362
81
13
3
48
6
10
18
25
19
36
58
125
10
1
21
94
44
3
74
211
26
1,926
21
19
40
115
1
86
142
10
15
40
443
162
6
12
913
10
51
15
27
64
1
2
17
3
2
17
29
10
179
7
18
5
151
3
47
3
3
3
201
Painting and refinishing  	
Radiator manufacture and repair—.
Trimming    	
21
2
2
13
4
1
Front-end   alignment   and   frame
straightening	
Front-end   alignment   and   brake
6
Marine-engine mechanic 	
5
4
Partsman  	
Auto    parts,    warehousing,    and
merchandising	
31
4
Baking  	
Barbering	
Boatbuilding.— ._  	
Blacksmith ....  	
6
18
3
31
Bricklaying  —	
18
7
Carpentry         	
Cement mason 	
208
3
Cook	
Dental technician   	
Draughtsman 	
12
18
1
17
43
Electroplating -   	
Electrical work—
Appliance repair ._	
Domestic radio and TV service.
Industrial—  —	
Lineman.—    	
Meterman.....—  	
4
94
20
2
182
1
13
1
14
1
2
1
1
2
5
Telecontrol technician   ...
57
Florist 	
Funeral directing and embalming
14
10
 FF 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 1—Summary of Apprentices in Trades—Continued
Term
in
Years
Ye.
r of Apprenticeship Being Served
Total
Number of
Apprentices in
Training
Completed
in
1975
Trade or Occupation
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Fifth
2-5
2
4
4
4
5
3
4
4
4
4
4
1
2
1
4
4
3
4
4
4
4
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
4
5
4
105
155
14
207
3
8
37
5
38
3
3
13
15
29
121
11
24
76
3
11
4
44
5
23
9
7
166
29
56
31
1
81
	
6
4
37
70
48
4
14
2
31
36
283
20
269
........
22
26
9
35
2
6
42
	
103
7
12
194
6
7
6
48
6
362
3
23
63
5
43
4
42
7
238
438
59
1,124
6
95
126
26
140
12
3
14
13
57
29
331
45
39
700
21
27
17
129
5
23
17
11
607
55
146
65
4
424
11
27
19
79
272
214
6
22
4
52
41
Hairdressing —	
19
286
11
7
24
3
31
....
94
10
194
21
Ironwork  	
Jewellery manufacture and repair
57
4
18
Lathing...  	
Leadburner —	
Lumber manufacturing industry—
Construction millwright 	
4
1
8
--
65
64
12
3
228
7
7
2
........    1      ....
15
Machinist 	
Maintenance mechanic, pipeline	
Meatcutting .. 	
Millwright            	
Moulding   —	
43
15
202
5
2
5
94
3
20
2
74
1
7
6
17
19
25
3
1
28
11
14
1
2
50
6
8
64
4
5
1
40
45
33
Patternmaking .... ..	
6
3
181
17
33
19
1
131
5
9
4
17
111
59
5
19
2
1
138
6
26
15
138
5
5
5
8
58
82
1
1
Plastering  	
Plastic and rubber fabrication —	
Plumbing  	
112
10
Refrigeration  — ._„ ,
Roofing ..   	
Sailmaking  	
18
12
71
Ships plater 	
Shipwright	
Sign painting	
Sprinklerfitting...	
Steamfitting and pipefitting	
Steel fabrication 	
1
6
40
96
16
Upholstery..   	
Watch repairs  	
Welding       ...
2
14
Totals 	
3,472
4,018
3,234
2,320
95
13,139
2,263
 STATISTICS
FF 75
Table 2—Certificates and Exemptions Issued in T975
Trade - Certificates Exemptions
Automotive body repair   60 	
Automotive mechanical repair   423 ___L
Boilermaker (erection)   191 	
Bricklaying  37 	
Carpentry   334 	
Cook  -  48
Heavy-duty mechanic  j 283 	
Industrial, electrical  . 167 	
Industrial, instrumentation  44 	
Ironwork   62 	
Joinery (benchwork)   21 	
Lumber manufacturing industry—
Benchman  ■_  23 	
Circular-saw filer   29 	
Saw fitter  78
Construction millwright  „„ 2 	
Machinist   70 	
Millwright   343
Oil-burner mechanic  19 	
Painting and decorating  72 	
Plumbing  221
Radio and TV, domestic   10
Refrigeration   88
Roofing, damp and waterproofing  116 	
Sheet-metal work  .  126 1
Sprinklerfitting   61 13
Steamfitting and pipefitting  194 185
326
118
9
Totals r  3,122
 FF 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
COMPENSATION  CONSULTANT
Table 3—Compensation Claim Referrals to Consultant and Counsellor
Origin Number
Referrals—
Criminal injuries   7
Hearing loss  6
WCB Commissioners   39
Medical review panel  35
Boards of review   367
Union representatives   71
Legal Aid  19
Pensions   113
Industrial diseases .  18
Rehabilitation consultants  49
Counselling—widows and children   24
Out-of-Province claims   9
Canada Manpower  8
St. John Ambulance   7
Disability Rights Association of B.C.   5
Third-party cases   9
Miscellaneous   24
Inquiries—
Lawyers   31
CBC program "Ombudsman"   4
Total   845
New claimants assisted in 1975: 756.
New claims reviewed in 1975: 833.
Table 3a—Date of Origination of Claims
Date of
Origination
Number
of Claims
Date of
Origination
Number
of Claims
1920-29 ft
  nil
     5
  19
  38
1971 -   	
     36
1930-39 -ftftft
1972       	
     52
1940-49 -ft-
1973 ft   	
  133
1950-59 	
1974 	
  255
1960-69 	
  98
1975 	
  178
1970 	
  19
 STATISTICS FF 77
Table 4—Compensation Claim Referrals to Employers' Adviser
Origin Number
Referrals—
Hearing loss  2
WCB Commissioners  16
Medical review panel  8
Boards of review  55
Industrial diseases   1
Inquiry—
Lawyers      1
Total   83
New claimants assisted in 1975: 368.
New claims reviewed in 1975: 398.
Table 4a—Date of Origination of Claims
Date of
Origination
1920-29
Number
of Claims
  nil
     1
  nil
     5
  18
     5
Date of
Origination
1971 ft   	
Number
of Claims
     14
1930-39
1972 _
     14
1940-49
1973 ft   	
     40
1950-59
1974 _
90
1960-69
1975 --    -   _
  211
1970 	
Table 5—Basic Employers Represented
Name Number
B.C. Forest Products   37
B.C. Hydro   9
B.C. and Yukon Post Office  5
Canadian Forest Products   15
Canadian Pacific (all branches)   16
Crown Zellerbach   9
MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.   35
Rayonier Mills  12
Schlage Lock Co. of Canada  5
Weldwood of Canada Limited   14
Crestbrook Forest Products  8
Those with less than five inquiries account for 198.
 FF 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LABOUR STANDARDS
Table 6—Payment of Wages Act
1974
Certificates made under section 5 (1) (c)  667
Certificates confirmed under section 5 (2) (a) 552
Certificates cancelled under section 5 (2) (b)
(ii)     14
Certificates cancelled and remade under section 5 (2) (b) (i)     23
Certificates paid before confirmation     45
Certificates paid before being filed in court     16
Certificates confirmed under section 5 (2) (b)
(i) filed with Registrar of
County Court  435
Supreme Court     43
Appeals under section 5(4)  	
Demands made under section 6(1)  491
1975
668
537
22
20
71
24
436
32
488
Table 7—Comparison of Investigations and Wage Adjustments,
1974 and 1975
1974 1975
Inspections   and   investigations   52,298 60,560
Annual and General Holidays Act—
Firms involved  1,227 1,012
Employees affected __ 2,053 1,414
Arrears paid      $145,831.40 $122,705.35
Minimum Wage Act—
Firms involved  405 349
Employees affected  909 763
Arrears paid        $60,257.72 $99,477.25
Payment of Wages Act—
Firms involved  3,385 3,204
Employees affected..___ 9,950 10,954
Arrears paid  $1,450,950.84       $1,416,157.77
Total adjustments $1,657,039.96       $1,638,340.37
Table 8—Court Cases, 1975
Name of Act
Number of
Employers
Charges
Convictions
Dismissals
Payment of Wages Act    .	
Minimum Wage Act —     ...    .  .
Hours of Work Act..-	
5
5
5
 STATISTICS
FF 19
Table 9—Summary of Permits Issued, 1975, Under Control of
Employment of Children Act
District
a
V
s
bO
M
ts
M
o
o
(3
c
o
to
a
o
o
rt
C
0
S
c
O
QJ
0
a.
«
u
.3
1-1
E
Q
™
is
a
O
c
in
ti
^
*J
~~
«
m
0
ft.
o
0
*
Z
z
0-
i>
a
0
5
4
60
3
2
'4
4
3
3
4
8
13
1
2
12
2
4
4
1
1
1
3
I
4
1
19
i
6
19
24
Catering.   	
132
2
1
2
3
....
8
Electricity  	
3
3
1
7
8
1
5
3
1
1
3
2
1
25
25
3
2
7
3
5
2
2
2
9
3
63
Shipbuilding  	
Transportation... 	
•-
Totals         -	
107
4
13
9
39
24
16
4
7
12
32
11
278
ARBITRATION
Table 10—Frequency of Occurrence of Issues in Cases Reported in 1975
Issue
Frequency
of
Occurrence1
Allowances   4
Annual holidays   2
Annual vacation pay  1
Arbitrability  4
Benefits  6
Call-in  1
Call-time pay  1
Damages  1
Demotion  4
Discharge  69
Disciplinary action  7
Hours of work  1
Interpretation  7
Job classification  20
Job content  1
Job evaluation  12
Job posting  7
Job vacancy  1
Laches   1
Issue
Frequency
of
Occurrence1
Layoff  10
Leave of absence  1
Management rights  4
Overtime  7
Promotion   3
Scheduling hours   6
Seniority   30
Severance pay  2
Statutory holiday  3
Statutory holiday pay  6
Supervision   1
Suspension    14
Technological change  1
Temporary employee  1
Termination  3
Terms of agreement  13
Transfer  1
Wages  35
Work assignment  6
1 These figures do not correspond to number of awards received, as some awards deal with more than one
 FF 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 11—Average Number of Days to Complete Arbitration Cases in 1975
Single Arbitration
Events in the Span Arbitrators Boards
Date of discharge to date of award  141.20 182.08
Date of appointment by Minister to date of award    52.80 63.60
Date of hearing to date of award     24.33 30.17
MEDIATION
Table 12—Analysis of Mediation Services
Appointments continued from previous year	
Appointments made, January 1 to December 31
No official appointment	
Totals 	
Appointments rescinded	
Appointments continuing 	
Total appointments completed, January
1 to December 31   342
Settlements—
During term of officer's appointment  201
Following officer's report   24
No official appointment  14
Total settlements   239
Number of employers involved  967
Number of bargaining units involved  992
Number of employees involved  123,115
1975
1974
80
58
337
292
14
6
431
356
8
11
81
80
265
160
18
184
1,048
1,110
106,179
HUMAN  RIGHTS
Table 13—Number of Complaints Investigated, by Section of the Human
Rights Code (Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1975)
Section
Total
Complaints
Settled
by
Officers
Without
Merit
Referred
to
Board
of
Inquiry
Held
Over to
1976
Withdrawn
2. Discriminatory publication  	
3. Discrimination in public facilities 	
4. Discrimination in purchase of property.	
5. Discrimination in tenancy premises 	
6. Discrimination in wages  	
7. Discrimination in employment advertising .
8. Discrimination in respect of employment...
9. Discrimination by trade unions 	
10. Protection of complainant 	
Totals   	
3
--      1
3
106
27
14      |
4
54
7
114
—
39
19
2
42
12
28
1        4
3
1
18
2
8
7
1
442
114
73
7
220
28
12
4
1
2
5
1
------
-----      1
1
714
195
110
251
344
49
i Nine of the 25 complaints referred to Boards of Inquiry originated in 1974.
 STATISTICS
FF 81
Table 14—Number of Complaints Investigated Under Human Rights Code
by Nature of Complaint (Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1975)
Nature of Complaint
Total
Complaints
Settled
by
Officers
Without
Merit
Referred
to
Board
of
Inquiry
Held
Over to
1976
Withdrawn
Race    	
Sex      -	
135
244
12
61
3
28
1
54
10
23
136
7
28
81
7
27
1
6
12
2
4
26
1
33
20
1
7
7
13
1
3
23
2
3
6
1
3
1
2
......
66
123
2
19
2
11
1
25
7
14
73
4
8
14
1
8
Religion	
1
Age     	
7
1
9
Colour   ...     	
714
195
110
251
351
49
1 Nine of the 25 complaints referred to Boards of Inquiry originated in 1974.
 FF 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LEGISLATION  AFFECTING  EMPLOYEES,  1975
Annual and General Holidays Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 11, consolidated)   ....._  $0.25
Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 13,
consolidated)  .25
Barbers Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 24)  .25
Coal Mines Regulation Act (1969, chap. 3)  1.20
Control of Employment of Children Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 75)  .25
Deceived Workmen Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 96)   .25
Department of Labour Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 105)  .25
Elevator Construction Industry Labour Disputes Act (1974, chap. 107)  .25
Employment Agencies Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 127)  .25
Essential Services Continuation Act (1974, chap. 108)  .25
Factories Act, 1966 (1966, chap. 14)  .30
Fire Departments Hours of Labour Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 146)  .25
Fire Departments Two-platoon Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 147)  .25
Hairdressers Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 169, consolidated)  .25
Hours of Work Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 182, consolidated)  .25
Human Rights Code of British Columbia  .25
Labour Code of British Columbia  .50
Labour Regulation Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 204)  .25
Master and Servant Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 234)  .25
Maternity Protection Act, 1966 (1966, chap. 25)  .25
Mechanics' Lien Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 238, consolidated)  .30
Mines Regulation Act (1967, chap. 25, consolidated)  .75
Minimum Wage Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 230)  .25
Payment of Wages Act (1962, chap. 45, consolidated)  .25
Public Works Fair Employment Act (R.S. 1973, chap. 75)  .25
Special Provincial Employment Programmes Act  .25
Trade-schools Regulation Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 383, consolidated)  .25
Truck Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 388) „  .25
Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act (R.S. 1960, chap. 411, consolidated)  .25
Workers' Compensation Act, 1968 (1968, chap. 59, and amendments)  .80
(Copies are obtainable from the Queen's Printer, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V 4R6, at the prices quoted.)
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1976

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