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REPORT of the BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1975 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1976

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT
Hon. James A. Nielsen, Minister B. E. Marr, Deputy Minister
REPORT
of the
BRITISH COLUIMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31
1975
Printed by K. M. MacDonald,
Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1976
  March 22, 1976.
To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources and Department of Environment for the year ended December 31, 1975.
JAMES A. NIELSEN
Minister of Environment
 March 22, 1976.
The Honourable James A. Nielsen,
Minister of Environment.
Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Water Resources Service for the 12 months ended December 31, 1975.
B. E. MARR
Deputy Minister
 BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Department of Environment
December 31, 1975
B. E. Marr, Deputy Minister
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister
Water Rights Branch
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
Water Investigations Branch
P. M. Brady, Director
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Director
Pollution Control Branch
W. N. Venables, Director
R. H. Ferguson, Assistant Director
H. P. Klassen, Assistant Director
Environmental Laboratory
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
Inspector of Dykes
K. J. Chisholm, Inspector of Dykes
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes
Accounting Division*
K. R. MacKay, Departmental Comptroller
Personnel Office*
R. C. Webber, Director of Personnel
Mail and File RooMf
D. S. Preston, in Charge
Public Information Officer
J. McCrossan
* Service shared with Lands Service.
t Service shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
 December 1975 saw serious flooding in the Lower Fraser Valley. Major trouble-spot was
the break in the B.C. Electric Railway embankment in the Yarrow-Vedder area. These
pictures were taken during a helicopter flight December 4th, the day after flooding
peaked.
 British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Report of the Deputy Minister	
CONTENTS
Page
Water Rights Branch—
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights  15
Administrative Division  16
Regional Engineers Division  17
Power and Special Projects Division  19
Community Water Supply Division  27
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Director  35
Flood Damage Prevention  3 5
Environmental Preservation  45
Water Resource Utilization  51
Pollution Control Board  59
Pollution Control Branch—
Report of the Director  63
Municipal Division  65
Industrial Division  66
Regional Division  69
Environmental Laboratory  73
Inspector of Dykes  81
Personnel Services  8 5
Accounting Division  89
  BRITISH COLUMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
B. E. Marr, P.Eng.
Deputy Minister
This is the thirteenth and last separate report of the Water Resources
Service. In future, the activities of the Service will be incorporated in
the Annual Report of the new Department of Environment.
The water supply situation was generally good in 1975 with about
average snow-pack conditions and the spring-summer runoff pattern produced few flooding problems. Weather conditions were not so favourable
later in the year when a combination of heavy rainstorms and snowmelt
from rapidly rising freezing levels caused severe local flooding in the October to December period, resulting in a number of areas being declared
eligible for assistance under the Provincial Major Disaster Fund.
To reduce flood risk and flood damage potential requires a combination of structural and nonstructural solutions. Included in the latter is
the floodplain survey program to define flood-prone areas for planning
purposes and a number of regional districts and municipalities have adopted
flood zoning regulations in their building by-laws to complement Provincial legislation which applies to new subdivisions. The single largest flood
control program covers the Lower Fraser Valley, where dykes, river-bank
protection, and drainage works are being constructed under the Canada-
British Columbia Fraser River Flood Control Agreement. Federal financial
restraints limited the funding available under this cost-sharing program
and total expenditures of $12,000,000 in 1975 were somewhat less than
anticipated.
Organizational changes were made in the Water Rights Branch during
the year, with the amalgamation of the Improvement Districts Division and
Water Utilities Division into a new Community Water Supply Division to
provide an expanded and more efficient service in the water supply field.
The increased work load in the Branch and the greater involvement of staff
in resource management problems has caused a backlog in the handling
of water licence applications, and this problem must be addressed in the
near future.
Annual rental rates were reviewed and increases proposed and adopted
for power purposes. This is the first increase in the rates for this purpose
since 1961, and the new rates are reflected in the financial statement for
1975, with total revenue of $11,168,181 as compared to $6,287,142 in
1974.
 V 10 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
A major accomplishment in 1975 was the adoption and issuance, by
the Pollution Control Board, of the Pollution Control Objectives for the
Food-processing, Agriculturally Oriented, and Other Miscellaneous Industries and for Municipal Type Waste Discharges. This completes the program initiated in 1970 to adopt pollution control objectives for all major
activities within the Province. Previously, objectives had been issued for
the Forest Products Industry, the Mine, Mine-Milling, and Smelting Industry, and for the Chemical and Petroleum Industry.
The Pollution Control Branch continued to concentrate on the issuance
of permits during 1975, with a high level of production only exceeded by
1974. The informal meetings being arranged in the field between parties
involved in an application appears to be having some success in reducing
conflicts and satisfying objectors. However, greater emphasis may have
to be placed on the monitoring and policing functions of the Branch in the
future.
Tertiary treatment of municipal effluents is being considered at a number of locations throughout the Province, particularly in the dry Interior,
with land disposal as a possible option. Of interest in this connection is a
report entitled Health Aspects of Sewage Effluent Irrigation, released in
1975. Also of interest in the municipal field is the report on Alternative
Methods for Treatment and Disposal of Community Wastewaters, which has
been widely distributed to local authorities, consulting engineers, and other
interested parties.
The quality of lake waters and, particularly, the question of eutrophi-
cation has generated considerable public interest in recent years. The Environmental Studies Division of the Water Investigations Branch has initiated
a number of studies in this area, including weed problems in the Okanagan
lakes, the effect of urbanization on lakes in the Cariboo, the effects of recreational use and residential development on water supply lakes on Salt-
spring Island, and means of rehabilitating Kathlyn Lake near Smithers.
In addition, the Branch is involved in water management studies for the
Coquitlam River and the Salmon River tributary to Shuswap Lake, and
continues the major air and water quality environmental baseline study for
the Kootenays.
The Chemistry Laboratory was renamed the Environmental Laboratory to better reflect the wide range of testing now undertaken for the various branches of the Service as well as other Government agencies. The
first year of full operation of the laboratory's computer system has reduced
reporting-time and increased the efficiency of processing data.
Special note is made of the retirement of two long-service employees—
F. C. Bett of the Water Utilities Division after 27 years' service with the
Provincial Government, and Mrs. Pauline Dranfield after 22 years' service
with the Water Rights Branch.
We are indebted to other departments of the Provincial Government
and to the universities for their co-operation and assistance during the year.
Detailed reports on the activities of the various branches and divisions
of the Service are given in the body of this Report.
 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
PROVINCIAL MAJOR DISASTER FUND
V 11
Severe rainstorms in November and December caused a mud slide at
Port Alice and flooding at a number of locations on northern Vancouver
Island, Squamish, and in the Fraser Valley. Port Alice, Alert Bay, Sayward-
Kelsey Bay, Squamish, Tofino, and Port Alberni were designated by the
Province as being eligible for financial assistance from the Provincial
Major Disaster Fund.
Port Alice experienced a mud slide of similar proportions to that
which occurred in 1973. The extremely adverse weather conditions at
the time led local officials to be concerned for the village, and an evacuation
was ordered. Residents were moved to temporary accommodation in Port
Hardy and Port McNeill, returning within a few days as local conditions
and severed roads improved or were repaired.
Shortly thereafter, assistance was also approved for the areas in the
municipalities of Chilliwhack and Abbotsford which experienced flooding
when dykes and a railway embankment gave way on the Vedder River in
mid-December. The low-lying lands in the old Sumas Lake bottom filled
rapidly to depths of 2 feet and more, necessitating the evacuating of livestock in some areas. Assistance was also approved for Hatzic Prairie when
runoff caused flooding from Hatzic Lake.
Claims for assistance from the Provincial Major Disaster Fund totalling
445 in number were appraised by representatives from the Canadian Independent Adjusters Conference and forwarded for approval. Settlements
will extend in 1976 and final assessment is expected to be in excess of
$700,000.
In addition, evacuation costs and expenditures made by municipalities
for emergency actions will also be accommodated from the Fund. Totals
for these items were not complete at year-end.
  WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time
in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the
Right of the Province. The common law principle of riparian water rights has
been abolished.
(2) Prospective users of water must file applications for water licences. There is a
procedure for notifying the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture and Recreation
and Conservation and all those whose rights may be affected, all of whom have
a right of objection to water applications.
(3) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water A ct.
(5) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(6) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if a voluntary agreement cannot
be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire
a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist
in the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the
Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, and several other purposes. An
improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees.
The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture issues.
A third major function was assigned to the Water Rights Branch on July 15, 1973, when
the Comptroller of Water Rights assumed responsibility for the administration of Water
Utilities under the provisions of the Water Utilities Act and the Energy Act.
The administration of the Water Act and the Water Utilities Act is carried out by the
Comptroller of Water Rights and his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria
and district offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and New Westminster.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand. Much of the vast industrial
expansion of recent years in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water.
13
 V 14
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The organization chart for the Water Rights Branch shown on the page opposite incorporates changes made in the organizational structure of the Branch in
November 1975. The major change is the formation of a new division called
"Community Water Supply Division" by the amalgamation of the former Improvement Districts Division and the Water Utilities Division. This was done to create
a more flexible organization capable of dealing with the full range of water supply
problems, and reflects a recognition of the growing need and public demand for
assistance from the Provincial Government in planning and financing public water
supplies, particularly in small communities.
The Power and Special Projects Division results from a change of name for
the Power and Major Licences Division and represents a recognition of an evolutionary change in the responsibilities of this division. The Division remains responsible for providing the staff support to the Comptroller in connection with all
aspects of major water licences for hydro-electric power, including approval of
plans, inspection of works during construction, review of environmental studies,
determining annual rentals, and operation of reservoirs for flood control and other
nonpower benefits. In addition, a comprehensive program of dam inspections is
carried out in consultation with the regional offices, as well as a wide range of
water-related studies, particularly those involving several departments. The former
Water Licensing Division has been renamed the Administrative Division. Although the administration of the sections of the Water Act dealing with water
licensing is still its major duty, it has assumed an increasingly important role in
carrying out general administrative duties for the Water Rights Branch as a whole.
The Regional Engineers Division comprises regional engineers and their
staffs at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, New Westminster, Prince George, and Victoria. The function of this division is to provide on-the-spot investigation and
determination which has been a guiding principle in the administration of the
Water Act for many years. In accordance with a general Government program
of regionalization of resources management, increased emphasis has been given
to the involvement of regional office staff in some phases of the work in all divisions
of Water Rights Branch and Water Investigations Branch. Of particular importance is regional liaison with other Government departments through regional
resource management committees and other personal contacts.
With increased public participation in the processes of resource management,
work of this nature has required an increasing proportion of staff time in the regional offices, and this is to a considerable extent responsible for the serious backlog in water licensing work, particularly that relating to applications for water
licences.   The number of licence applications awaiting investigation and adjudica-
15
 V 16
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
tion reached a new high of 3,530. The present water licensing system covers only
surface waters, but the need to extend this system to include groundwater has become increasingly apparent. A committee was set up to review this need and the
best means by which it could be met. The review included discussions with officials
responsible for water administration in the other three western provinces and several
western states. The conclusion reached was that a need for groundwater licensing
was emerging, but that a very substantial staff establishment would be required to
obtain any effective control of groundwater use.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1975 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the individual divisions of the Branch in the pages following.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
Water licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining, industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few
exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or Government
agency uses water from any surface water source.
As of November 30, 1975, the number of water licences in effect totalled
29,212, each of which authorizes the use of water for one or more purposes. There
were 17,304 licences authorizing the use of water for domestic purposes, 1,201
for waterworks, 11,521 for irrigation, 295 for power, and 1,727 for storage purposes.
Applications for approvals under section 7 of the Water Act, either for the
use of water for a period not exceeding six months or to authorize changes in and
about a stream, increased to 211 from 126 in 1974. Applications for the amendment of existing licences by apportionment, transfer of appurtenancy, or changes
of works or purpose have increased over last year's total and there are how 562
amendment applications pending. There are 96 water-users communities incorporated under the Water Act, compared with 95 in 1974.
The following tables show the staff establishments for the Licensing Division
and the principal activities of the General and Draughting offices in the 12-month
period ended November 30, 1975, together with the activity data for the five
preceding years:
Staff, November 30, 1975
Administrative Officer 3: one
General    Draughting
Office Office
Administrative Officer 1__ 1
Clerk 6 :  2
Clerk 5 ._ _
Clerk 4  3
Clerk 3 ,  3
Clerk 2  2
Clerk 1  2
Clerk-Stenographer 3 __ 1
Clerk-Stenographer 2
Clerk-Typist 2 -,
Technician 2	
Draughtsman 4 __Z___!_
Draughtsman 3	
Draughtsman 2	
Draughtsman 1 	
General  Draughting
Office Office
1
1
2
4
2
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
V 17
REGIONAL ENGINEERS DIVISION
For administrative purposes the Province is divided into 27 water districts.
These are administered from six regional offices located at principal Provincial
centres. The location, Regional Engineer in charge, and water districts administered are listed below for the six regional offices:
Kamloops: D. E. Smuin, P.Eng.
Kamloops
Ashcroft
Nicola
Cariboo
Kelowna: E. D. Anthony, P.Eng.
Revelstoke
Vernon
Princeton
Grand Forks
Fairview
Nelson: T. H. Oxland, P.Eng.
Nelson
Kaslo
Cranbrook
Golden
Fernie
New Westminster: E. G. Harrison, P.Eng.
Vancouver
New Westminster
Prince George: C. E. Wilson, P.Eng.
Prince George
Quesnel
Fort Fraser
Hazelton
Prince Rupert
Peace River
Liard
Atlin
Victoria: P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng.
Victoria
Nanaimo
Alberni
table:
Staffing of the regional offices as at year's end is indicated in the following
Regional Offices
Kamloops
Kelowna
Nelson
New Westminster
Prince
George
Victoria
Totals
Engineer 5	
Engineer 4	
Engineer 3—	
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
ll
li
....
3
2
-
2
-
1
1
1
2+n
i
i
i
1
1
2+11
li
1
1
....
1
::::
i
i
4
6
5
4
1
Technician 1	
16
8
5
7
Clerk _	
1
J3
12
11
9
8
4
57
i Indicates regular positions not filled at time of report.
Preparatory to establishing a separate "Skeena" Regional Office at some time
in the future, a satellite or suboffice of the Prince George office under the charge
of a Technician was established at Smithers during the year and proved efficient in
giving immediate attention to problems of a local nature and in attending to routine
duties associated with water licence administration for the area. A similar satellite
or suboffice of the Kelowna Regional Office in the charge of an Engineering
Assistant was established in Oliver to assist in administration of water licences and
 V 18
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
related duties in the South Okanagan area. This has also proved successful and
has appreciably reduced the amount of travel formerly required from the Kelowna
office.
Duties of regional office staff include the administration of the Water Act
within the water districts assigned; supervision of diversion and use of water under
water licences granted under the Water Act; investigating and recommending on
applications for new water licences; approvals under section 7 of the Water Act,
and applications for amendment of existing licences; review of works constructed
and use of water developed under conditional water licences and recommending
on the conversion of these licences to final water licences; inspection of plans for
water storage dams and other hydraulic structures and review of existing structures
to ensure that no hazard to life or property has developed; participate in Task
Force studies initiated by Environment and Land Use Committee; attend and provide input related to water use on Technical Planning Committee of Regional
Districts, Inter-departmental Resource Management Committees, Resource Folio
system; provide administrative and technical assistance where requested, to other
divisions of Water Resources Service or branches of Government.
Routine work related to the administration of water licences and handling of
applications for new licences for the 12-month period December 1, 1974, to November 30, 1975, is summarized in the following table:
Regional Offices
Total
Kamloops
Kelowna
Nelson
NewWest-
mir.ster
Prince
George
Victoria
Applications for water licences—■
601
361
274
84
604
22
96
40
24
31
11
4
314
106
172
308
268
26
186
16
54
23
33
21
9
0
177
26
672
363
319
36
680
39
162
38
39
39
8
22
205
76
128
166
120
17
157
20
107
14
13
23
9
1
206
101
299
217
182
45
289
26
41
2
3
6
0
7
126
49
79
233
194
10
108
22
111
16
20
12
45
2
152
109
1,951
Received during the year 	
1,648
1,357
218
On hand, November 30, 1975
Applications for approval under Water
Act (sec. 7) reported on 	
2,024
145
571
Water licence amendment reports—
133
132
132
82
Other  	
36
1,180
New final water licences -	
467
The following summarizes the numbers of water licence applications handled
by the Division over the preceding 10 years:
Year
Applications
Received
Reports
Submitted
Cancelled or
Abandoned
Total, Year-end
1966	
1,275
1,266
1,385
1,424
1,562
1,597
1,376
1,719
1,807
1,648
1,013
1,013
1,334
1,013
1,279
1,549
1,393
1,217
1,279
1,357
117
96
112
184
125
145
114
185
256
218
948
1967	
1,105
1968	
1,049
1969	
1,281
1970	
1,439
1971 	
1,493
1972 	
1973 -	
1,362
1,679
1974	
1,951
1975	
2,024
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
V 19
The water supply situation was generally good within all regions during 1975
and resulted in few instances of conflict arising from water shortage. Extreme
snow-packs in some areas of the Okanagan Lake and Kettle River watersheds
caused concern in the Kelowna Regional office with the possibility of floods. Moderate spring weather, however, permitted an orderly runoff with no major flooding,
although Kalamalka Lake reached a level of 1,285.5 feet, 0.57 foot above normal
maximum level. Vancouver Island experienced more than normal instances of
localized flooding from heavy rains, particularly at Port Alberni, Port Alice, Comox,
and Duncan. October was especially wet, registering a record of 9.16 inches of
rainfall for the month at the City of Victoria, and many complaints of inadequate
culverts, overflowing creeks, and flooded yards and basements were answered by
the Victoria Regional Office.
All offices experienced an increase in demands for time required for review of
applications referred to them for pollution control permits and land use or land lease
permits, and input to the Resource Folio system. Interest in mining continued with
special emphasis on water requirements for placer mining for gold in the Cariboo,
Quesnel, and Prince George Water Districts. Use has been made of the Comptroller's authority to issue approvals under section 7 of the Water Act to cover a
six-month period of use of water where this has appeared compatible with proposed placer operations, and this has eliminated the relatively long period otherwise required to obtain a water licence.
A number of engineering reports were prepared at the regional offices during
the year dealing with various aspects of water supply systems and sources.
POWER AND SPECIAL PROJECTS DIVISION
Power Licence Administration
Applications
No applications for development of hydro power were received during 1975.
Around a dozen applications to build small power plants for individual use were
received and considered.
Mica Project
Mica Dam project is the last of the Columbia River water projects still under
construction. Excavation for Mica powerhouse is complete and the emphasis is
now being given to concrete placement, mechanical installations, and general
clean-up work. The project completion date is September 1977. The dam,
declared operational March 1973, is one of the largest of its type in the world.
Kootenay Canal Plant
At the Kootenay Canal project on the Kootenay River near Nelson, construction has been completed on the canal, intake structure, penstocks, and powerhouse
intake headworks. Mechanical and electrical installations are being carried out to
meet a completion date of late 1976.
The project consists of a 3-mile-long canal with its intake at Corra Linn Dam
supplying water to a power plant just downstream from South Slocan Dam.
The power plant will contain four units, each of 125 MW. Installation of
the first two units has been completed, while the remaining two are scheduled for
late 1976.
 V 20
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Site One
The Site One project has begun with the construction of access roads and a
cofferdam. Several suitable aggregate deposits have also been located. Powerhouse excavation is now complete with all contracts progressing on schedule.
The Site One plant will be near Hudson's Hope on the Peace River, about
12 miles downstream from Bennett Dam and will incorporate a concrete gravity
dam with power plant on the left side and spillway on the right, approximately
1,000 feet long with a maximum height of 165 feet. The crest elevation will be
1,665.
The power plant will be 550 feet long, including service area, and will contain four units each rated at 175 MW. These units will be served by a 32-foot-
diameter steel penstocks from the upstream face of the dam.
Owing to the relatively little volume of storage available behind the dam, run-
of-river operation is intended and little or no draughting is anticipated.
Seven Mile Project
At the Seven Mile project on the Pend-d'Oreille River the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority requested permission to construct the main access road
to the project along the lower border of an important deer winter range. Permission was granted, following a public hearing at which it was demonstrated that
there was no economically feasible alternative. The Order of Approval contained
the proviso that the Hydro Authority make available to the Department of Recreation and Conservation the sum of $1.8 million to establish a wildlife management
program for the Pend-d'Oreille Valley as compensation for possible wildlife losses.
The decision by the Comptroller of Water Rights, and a subsequent decision
allowing improvements to be made on an existing road to the site, were appealed to
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council by the Department of Recreation and Conservation in accordance with the provisions of the Water Act. Both appeals were
disallowed by a Cabinet tribunal.
Approval of Plans
In addition to the major projects described above, several smaller projects
were visited by Division staff to ensure approved construction practices were carried
out for new projects as well as all reconstruction and rehabilitation developments.
Power Licence Rentals
On April 10, 1975, the Annual Rental Rates for Power Purpose were increased under the authority of an Order in Council. The new rates are, for plant
under construction, 5 cents per kilowatt of capacity; for plant in operation, 50
cents per kilowatt of capacity, plus 25 cents per megawatt-hour of output.
The previous rates had been unchanged since 1961.
In 1975, rental statements totalling $10,281,892 were issued to major power
licensees. In addition to power rentals, this figure includes $24,266 for reservoir
storage licences, $526,458 for flooding of Crown land, and $1,568 for other uses
of Crown land.
Flood Control
Snow-packs in the Province were generally average or below average in 1975.
As a result, reservoir flood control operations did not have to be initiated. The
runoff was in some cases so low that several major reservoirs failed to fill.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
V 21
As part of the Coquitlam River Water Management Study, a study was
initiated investigating the possibility of altering current operating procedures and
modifying hydraulic control structures at Coquitlam Lake Dam with a view toward
providing additional flood control benefits for downstream communities.
Kootenay Lake Board of Control
As a member of the Kootenay Lake Board of Control, the Divisional Chief
participated in the joint submission of the Board's Annual Report for the calendar
year 1974 to the International Joint Commission. Lake operation in that year
conformed to prescribed limits except for minor violations in January and in March
when the lake rose 0.8 foot and 0.1 foot respectively over the rule curve. Storage
at Libby upstream greatly reduced the inflow to Kootenay Lake during the storage
filling periods of drawdown. The area was inspected once by the Board during the
report period.
Ice Studies
The Town of Peace River in the Province of Alberta frequently has experienced ice jams at the end of the winter season. A Joint Task Force representing
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and the Governments of Alberta
and British Columbia was established during 1974. Members of this Joint Task
Force met in March 1975 and agreed that their representatives would participate
in the 1975 ice break-up program for the Town of Peace River. Field staff of
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority recorded and analysed meteorological and hydrometric data at intervals from freeze-up till break-up. The Government of British Columbia underwrote the cost of air photographic coverage during
the break-up period. The 1975 break-up was relatively uneventful and the ice
rotted in place, slowly deteriorating under the combined influence of solar radiation
and the river water flowing beneath it.
These studies will be continued during the winter of 1975/76.
Environmental Studies, Arrow Reservoir Study Group
This new study group has been formed jointly by several Provincial Government agencies and British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to determine if,
in view of increasing public use of the Arrow Reservoir, its operation and regulation could be modified for improved recreational, fishery and wildlife management,
navigation, and environmental enjoyment purposes. The group has held three
meetings under the chairmanship of the Chief of this Division and is engaged in a
number of subsidiary studies in line with its objectives.
Transmission-lines
Proposed transmission-line routes are now subject to approval by resource
agencies and local authorities affected by such lines. This Division is responsible
for co-ordinating Water Resources Service inputs with a view to avoiding or
mitigating adverse effects on water use.
Nicola/Cranbrook Line
This proposed pair of lines will link the generating stations of the Nelson/
Trail area with the remainder of the Province. In the future it will most probably
form part of a trans-Canada power grid.   Initial route selection procedures defined
 V 22 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
a broad bank within which the route should lie. The Water Resources Service
provided input at the second stage whereby options were narrowed down initially
to corridors of 5 miles and subsequently 2 miles in width. The ultimate route of
the line will be about 120 metres (400 ft.) wide and will most probably lie within
the selected 2-mile corridor. The final selection has yet to be made as certain
portions of the route are still under scrutiny.
Other Lines
A number of other transmission-line proposals have been or are being studied.
Certain specific areas are receiving attention in view of their potential for damage
to local water supply systems. These include lines near Revelstoke, Golden, and
Prince George.
Williston Reservoir
This study was initiated in March 1974 under the chairmanship of the Secretariat to the ELUC to identify and assess resource potentials in and around Williston
Reservoir. Water Resources Service input included a study by this Division in
co-operation with British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, or reservoir
operation to maximize power output yet ensure control of flood flows downstream.
The G. M. Shrum power plant currently supplies 60 per cent of the Provincial
power demand and will continue to be a major source of power through the 1970's.
It is estimated that by 1977/78 there is only a 77-per-cent chance that the reservoir
will rise above 2,190, which is 15 feet below full pool; therefore, operation of the
reservoir will have significant impacts on access, fisheries, management, and reservoir clearing.    Future studies will undoubtedly clarify these interrelated matters.
Kootenay River (Canal Flats) Diversion
Under the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has the right as of September 1984
or thereafter to divert approximately 70 per cent of the average annual flow in the
Kootenay at Canal Flats into the Columbia River for increased power generation by
hydro-electric plants downstream on the Columbia.
Environmental and social impact studies, scheduled for 1975 and 1976 under
joint supervision of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority and the
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, will concentrate on the effects
of increased Columbia Valley flooding on wildfowl nesting and staging areas, the
effect of reduced dilution of the already polluted Kootenay River downstream of
the diversion site, and the effect of increased water levels on lakeside properties in
the Windermere and other areas. Terms of reference of these studies were reviewed
and potential problem areas visited prior to the awarding of an assignment to
specialist consultants.
Electrical Generation and Load Growth
Each year at the end of July the Water Resources Service prepares and distributes a pamphlet entitled Power in British Columbia—Annual Review, as an
interim report. The results of a quick year-end survey (see below) indicate that the
consumption of electrical energy in the Province during 1975 dropped by 3.8 per
cent from the figure for 1974. This relatively static growth is due to the considerable labour unrest experienced during the last two years. Lengthy strikes have
curtailed electrical usage by several segments of industry, including mining, smelt-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
V 23
ing, and wood products. It will be noted, however, that the "Utilities Thermal"
component has increased due to the fact that hydro supplies were deficient during
1975.
The major power plant addition during 1975 was the placing on line of the
first two units of the Kootenay Canal Plant, bringing the total Provincial installed
capacity up to 7,226 megawatts at year-end.
Electrical Generation and Load During 1975 and Comparison With Preceding Year
1974
1975
Change
Generation by utilities—
Hydro    	
GWh
23,646
357
GWh
21,655
1,906
Per Cent
-8.42
+433.89
Subtotals   	
24,003
23,561
— 1.84
Generation by industries—
10,202
1,463
9,414
990
—7.72
Thermal	
— 32.33
Subtotals	
11,665
10,404
— 10.81
35,668
2,263
33,965
1,839
—4.77
Exports (net) _.    	
33,405
32,126
— 3.83
The above figures are subject to revision and more accurate and up-to-date
information will appear in the next edition of Power in British Columbia.
Long-term Growth
The two graphs, one entitled "Peak and Average Energy Requirements" and
the other "Total Installed Capacity," demonstrate the long-term growth in use of
electricity in the Province. Over the 45-year period since 1930 the annual energy
consumption has risen at an average rate of 7.28 per cent compounded, while
installed capacity has risen at the slightly slower rate of 6.58 per cent compounded.
Over the past 10 years the growth rates have been 5.42 per cent compounded for
energy consumption, and 7.17 per cent compounded for installation.
Columbia River Treaty
Mica Reservoir
McNaughton Lake has almost completed its third year of operation under the
Columbia River Treaty and, in the fall of 1976, will provide regulation for first
power generation at Mica powerhouse. To accomplish this, 8 million acre-feet of
dead storage is presently being accumulated toward a total ultimate storage of 20
million acre-feet. At the end of the 1975 refill period, just under one quarter of
this initial amount remained to be impounded. Since that time, further impoundment has been effected by generating replacement energy at the Burrard Thermal
Plant.
Benefits in Canada
The Treaty storages provide a considerable measure of flood protection within
Canada.  However, conditions during 1975 were such that there was no flood threat.
Since the completion of Duncan Dam, extra energy has been available at
Cominco's Kootenay River plants, and this energy has been shared with the Canadian Entity (British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority).   Effective from the
 V 24 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
date upon which the Kootenay Canal Plan on the Kootenay River near Nelson
commenced operation, the operation of this plant and those of the Cominco System
is being co-ordinated to produce the optimum over-all benefit. Under this plan
Cominco receives a guaranteed amount of firm power determined on the basis of
that previously available, while the Hydro Authority retains the balance, which is
largely made available as a result of the storage provided by Duncan and Libby
Dams constructed under the Columbia River Treaty.
Libby Reservoir
The construction of the Libby Dam on the Kootenai River in Montana is the
last major work to be authorized under the Columbia River Treaty. The Water
Resources Service of British Columbia was assigned the role of co-ordinating
agency for preparing the Canadian portion of the reservoir.
Storage of water to refill Lake Koocanusa commenced early in May 1975 and
the reservoir reached its maximum elevation for the year (2,455.5 feet) on September 9, 1975, slightly below the normal full pool elevation of 2,459 feet.
All but five property owners have settled amicably with Government negotiators. Arbitration proceedings have now been initiated for these remaining
properties.
The Fish and Wildlife Branch installed fish screens in Linklater and Plumbob
Creeks as a contribution to the United States fish-tagging program for the reservoir.
The Parks Branch is currently proceeding with development of waterfront parks
and recreational facilities at Kikomun Creek and Wardner, and is studying the
possibility of other recreational areas around the perimeter of the reservoir.
Permanent Engineering Board
The Chief of the Division is the designated alternate to the Deputy Minister
on the Permanent Engineering Board (PEB) established under the terms of the
Columbia River Treaty. The PEB reports annually to the United States and Canadian Governments on progress achieved under the Treaty. Board activities during
the year included two meetings, a joint meeting with the Entity representatives,
attendance at the dedication ceremonies for Libby Dam, and visits to Arrow,
Kootenay Canal, and Mica projects. The Board's technical committee reviewed
and commented upon a number of Entity reports that were presented to the PEB.
Dam Inspection
Many changes in the scope and magnitude of the dam inspection program
were made in 1975. Classification of all large dams according to size, condition,
and disaster potential was undertaken. Inspection procedures and record sheets
were prepared and distributed to Regional Engineers to ensure uniformity in
inspection reporting throughout the Province.
Twenty major dams and 35 smaller structures were inspected as part of the
continuing program to ensure that adequate maintenance was being carried out and
that no adverse conditions had developed in the four years interim since previous
inspection. The inspections included underwater investigations if such appeared
necessary. On those dams which were found to be in poor condition a consultant's
report was requested from the owner preparatory to rehabilitation or removal.
Several major dams under construction were also visited during the year to ensure
compliance with previously approved plans.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Dam Instrumentation
V 25
A dam instrumentation program was introduced in 1975. With the cooperation of the Greater Victoria Water District, Sooke Lake Dam was instrumented
and a triangulation network installed to measure surface deformation movements.
In addition, several members of the Division attended a course on the instrumentation and reading of subsurface instruments, including inclinometers and pneumatic
piezometers. A program to provide adequate instrumentation on new structures is
now under review.   Other investigations on aspects of dam safety were undertaken
Power and Special Projects Division is responsible for the inspection of all major dams
in the Province. Here, a field staff member checks for deformation movement on Sooke
Lake Dam, near Victoria.
Failure of a small dam on Vancouver Island due to lack of armour protection at the
entrance to its concrete spillway.
 V 26 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
during the year; these included dam stability studies, flood handling capability, and
reservoir bank stability.
Other Projects
Steel Mill
A joint study by the Provincial Government and Nippon Kokan Kabushiki
Kaisha of Japan was undertaken to determine the feasibility of an integrated steel
mill located at either Prince George or Kitimat. Staff of the Division considered
the physical feasibility and economics of supplying water to either site, and prepared
reports on these aspects. The steel mill would require 42 c.f.s. of good-quality
water for the production of 4 million tons of steel per annum.
For the Kitimat site, untreated water from Jesse Lake could be used. This
would involve construction of approximately 18 miles of 39-inch-diameter pipeline.
At Prince George, Fraser River water could be used but would require treatment.
Hat Creek: Gasification
The B.C. Energy Commission initiated a study of the economic feasibility of
a coal gasification plant using the Hat Creek coal reserves. The Power and Special
Projects Division prepared a report on the availability and cost of water supply for
such a plant.
For the operation of a gasification plant, a continuous water supply of 16.7
c.f.s. would be required. This water could either be supplied from the Bonaparte
River using upstream storage or by pumping from the Thompson River.
Thermal Generation
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority is investigating a proposed
thermal generating station using Hat Creek coal. Initially, the plant would generate
2,000 mw, which might subsequently be increased to 4,800 mw. Water required
for the cooling towers and other operations would be in the order of 25,000 g.p.m.
for a 2,000-mw station. Such a large quantity of water could only be supplied
either by the Thompson River or the Fraser River. While the Thompson River
water could be used directly, the Fraser River water would require pre-treatment
due to its heavy silt content.
Metric Conversion
It is anticipated that, subject to Government approval, metric conversion of
the Water Rights Branch will take place on January 1, 1977. This date is essential
so as to coincide with the billings of 1977 annual rentals. The physical quantities
already authorized under water licences will not be affected by the change of units
as an accurate conversion will be made for these. New licences will, of course, be
issued in the new units from the above date. Preparatory changes will take place
during 1976.
The units that the Branch will use for licensing (i.e., as quantities allowed
under a licence or permit) are as follows:
Rate of diversion cubic metres per second
or cubic metres per day
or cubic metres per annum
Volume stored cubic metres per annum
or cubic hectometres per annum
Area square hectometres
Length kilometres
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
V 27
Heber Creek Diversion
An economic analysis of the Heber River Diversion was initiated comparing
energy benefits to the Campbell River Generating System with estimated losses to
the sports fishery resource resulting from reduction of natural river flows.
British Columbia Petroleum Corporation
This Division has investigated water supply required for a possible oil refinery
complex in either the Merritt or Clinton areas. The plant at Merritt would take
water from the Nicola River, while the Clinton plant would draw from the Bonaparte River. The anticipated water demand is 300 g.p.m. Both river systems
should have sufficient water, although the Bonaparte River is already heavily
licensed and upstream storage would be necessary.
COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY DIVISION
Late in 1975 the staffs of the Improvement Districts Division and the Water
Utilities Division were amalgamated and reorganized to form a single entity named
the Community Water Supply Division, the object being to eliminate duplication
of staff duties and to create an organization capable of dealing with a wider range
of community water supply problems. Staff available to the Comptroller of Water
Rights in the administration of the Water Utilities Act, the Energy Act, and the
Water Act with regard to both privately owned and publicly owned water supply
systems was thus brought together.
The Community Water Supply Division consists of four sections—Administration, Accounting and Financial, Engineering, and Research and Planning.
Because the new Division has been in existence for only a short period of time
prior to year-end, this report is based on the activities of the two former Divisions.
Improvement Districts—Activities
There are now 267 improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act
and administered by the Comptroller of Water Rights. During 1975 the following
districts were incorporated and dissolved:
Districts Incorporated
Beddis Waterworks District.
Clayoquot Sound Waterworks District.
Cormorant Island Improvement District.
Florence Lake Improvement District.
Louis Creek Improvement District.
Parkdale Improvement District.
South Lake Erroch Improvement
District.
Williams Spring Waterworks District.
Districts Dissolved
Arden Improvement District.
Brent-Davis Irrigation District.
Headquarters Road Irrigation District.
Little  River Improvement District.
Port Clements Improvement District.
Radium Sewerage District.
South Westminster Dyking District.
Willow River Forest Improvement
District.
The Letters Patent of 39 other improvement districts were amended in 1975,
most changes being boundary amendments.
There are now $14,102,900 of improvement districts' debentures guaranteed
by the Province under the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, of which
$2,871,900 are serial debentures and $11,231,000 term debentures.   Sinking funds
 V 28
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
for redemption of the term debentures are held by the Province in the amount
of approximately $1,205,370. During 1975, debentures of $2,388,000 were
guaranteed.
Engineering Services
During the year, engineering and administrative staff of the Division met
frequently with consulting engineers, district trustees, municipal officials, organizing
committees, and land developers. About 140 visits were made to 90 districts
regarding technical and administrative problems.
Reports Prepared and Under Preparation
Community
Status of Report
at End of Year
Anmore, Belcarra, and Bedwell Bay	
Bamfield _ ____	
Crooked River Waterworks District -
Decker Lake _. - _	
Deep Cove Waterworks District 	
Dewdney Area Dyking District 	
East Princeton Waterworks District.—	
Lantzville Improvement District	
Lardeau __ _ __	
Lund Waterworks District 	
Mesachie Lake Specified Area	
Mill Bay Waterworks District	
Okanagan Mission Irrigation District	
Olalla Improvement District	
Ootischenia Improvement District....	
Piers Island Improvement District	
Proposed Old Highway Waterworks District..
Rolla....___	
South Vernon Irrigation District	
Stillwater Waterworks District _
Town of Ladysmith, Saltair Waterworks
District, and Diamond Improvement District
Vananda Waterworks District __	
Village of Cumberland  _ ____	
Village of New Denver	
Village of Tofino	
Village of Zeballos ....	
Williams Spring Waterworks District	
Cost of proposed domestic-water distribution
system
Updated proposal for domestic-water system	
Review of domestic-water system 	
Proposed domestic-water system  	
Cost of alternate well-sites __ ____.	
Appeal re tax assessment-	
Cost of proposed modifications to domestic-
water system
Bulk water supply agreement	
Domestic-water system __ .___ _	
Revised proposal for rehabilitation of domestic-
water system
Proposed rehabilitation of domestic-water system
Possible new sources of water _.	
Appeal re tax assessment _	
Condition of 24-inch A.C. main as installed	
Defective drain	
Appeal for irrigation service. — -
Proposed joint development of new water
system with Castlegar Golf Club
Appeal for domestic service _..	
Cost of proposed seasonal storage ___ ____	
Proposed domestic-water system  	
Updated proposal for domestic-water system.	
Complaint re low pressures _
Domestic-water system "as-built"	
Water supply_____ __ __	
Revised proposal for rehabilitation of domestic-
water systefn
Unauthorized connections to supply main of
Royston Improvement District
Updated proposal for rehabilitation of domestic-
water system
Flood damage to water system 	
Proposed renovation of domestic-water system....
Cost of proposed domestic-water system 	
Completed.
Study continuing.
Study continuing.
Study continuing.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Study continuing.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Design and Engineering Services
Community
Project
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Deep Cove Waterworks.,..	
Geotechnical investigations  for  ground-
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
$
1,800
Supervision of well drilling	
Supervision of repairs to pump and pipe....
Design   for   modifications   of   pressure-
7,600
1,000
Edgewater Improvement _.	
1,000
-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH V 29
Water Suppily, Sewerage, and Other Proposals Reviewed
Community
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Athalmer Improvement District	
Barriere Improvement District—	
$
173,650
New river intake and pump station-
Under consideration.
100,000
5,000
Blue Water Park Improvement District
Extension of domestic-water system
Construction imminent.
6,000
Canal Flats Improvement District	
Clearwater Improvement District	
80,000
Extension of domestic-water system
Construction completed.
277,200
186,000
35,000
39,500
Florence Lake Improvement District —
Domestic-water distribution system .
Under construction.
13,000
Greater Campbell River Water District
1,745,000
water system
Lighthouse Point Waterworks District
Pumping plant ...__	
Construction imminent.
2,300
North Cedar Waterworks District	
Extension of domestic-water system
New pump and main
Construction completed.
13,000
North Salt Spring Waterworks District
Extension of domestic-water system
to Southey Point
Construction completed.
142,000
Pumped supply from Maxwell Lake-
Preliminary planning.
100,000
Extension of domestic-water system
Planning stage.
60,000
to Cottonwood subdivision
Okanagan Mission Irrigation District __
Breaks in 24-inch supply main.  Re
Reconstruction com
95,000
placement of 24-inch supply main
pleted.
Orde Creek Improvement District ....
Upgrading water supply system	
Preliminary planning.
,
Qualicum   Bay-Horne   Lake   Water
New   pumping   station   and  exten
Planning stage.
80,000
works District
sion of domestic-water system
Radium Waterworks District 	
Upgrading and extension of sewer
system
Preliminary planning.
657,000
20,000
Ridgewood Improvement District	
Rehabilitation   of   domestic   water
system
Planning stage.
60,000
Saltair Waterworks District 	
254,000
8,000
Sutherland Creek Waterworks District
Intake,   sedimentation   tank,   pipeline, and chlorinator
Under construction.
24,000
Traders Cove Waterworks District 	
Interim water system 	
10,000
Village of Fort Nelson  ....    .
Renovation   and   extension   of  do
mestic-water system
Under construction.
2,862,900
Willow Point Waterworks District
Extension of domestic-water supply
system    and    booster    pumping
(Stage 1)
Preliminary planning.
400,000
Wynndel Irrigation District 	
Preliminary planning.
250,000
ARDA Projects Supervision
In the Federal-Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement
under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act, the
Province has responsibility for ensuring the proper operation and maintenance of
all works constructed under ARDA programs. Where improvement districts are
concerned, Water Rights Branch personnel of the Community Water Supply Division carry out the routine inspection of completed ARDA projects, and offer advice
and assistance on technical and administrative problems.
Improvement Districts Involved in ARDA Program
Districts
Completion Date
of Original
ARDA Projects
Remarks
Glenmore Irrigation ....
Vernon Irrigation	
Scotty Creek Irrigation
Ellison Irrigation-	
1964/72
1964/65/73
1964/69
1964/70
Supplementary project in hand.
Supplementary project in hand.
Supplementary project in hand.
Supplementary project in hand.
 V 30
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Improvement Districts Involved in ARDA Program—Continued
Districts
Completion Date
of Original
ARDA Projects
Remarks
Heffiey Irrigation	
1964
1965
1965
1965/71
1965/71
1966
1966/73
1966/73
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969/73
1970
1970
1970
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1972/73
1972/73
1972
1973
1973
1973
1974
1974
South End Kelowna Irrigation	
Grandview Waterworks	
Supplementary project in hand.
Westbank Irrigation  	
Meadow Valley Irrigation - '	
Lakeview Irrigation	
West Bench Irrigation                	
Boundary Line Irrigation  	
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation	
Slocan Park Improvement	
Supplementary project in hand.
Black Mountain Irrigation	
Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation          	
Supplementary project in hand.
Project in hand.
Continuing development and the need to relate water services to land use
planning are creating major problems for those water supply agencies whose basic
system consists of works installed under the ARDA program the purpose of which
was to provide water supply for seasonal irrigation and farm use. The limited staff
carrying out the ARDA supervisory function have found that the water services
planning aspects involved are, of necessity, taking precedence over the more local
and detailed problems in the respect of which assistance from Water Rights Branch
personnel has been traditionally available. This fact, together with administrative
restrictions imposed upon staff during the year, has curtailed progress on some of
the assignments, but those having urgent priority are receiving supplementary staff
input from the Kelowna Regional Office.
The following studies are in hand:
District Study
Okanagan Falls Irrigation Proposed rehabilitation of water
system in townsite area.
Appraisal of existing water system
capacity.x
Kaleden Irrigation Design of supplementary works to
serve residential development.
Oyama Irrigation.-
_Appraisal of status of ARDA project.
i Completed.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH V 31
The following studies are in hand:
District Study
Wood Lake Improvement...-Intake and sedimentation basin
performance.
Community planning (water services).
Sion Improvement Appraisal of water system capacity.
Keremeos Irrigation Investigation of additional sources
of water supply.
Vernon Irrigation Area Water Management proposal.
Lakeview Irrigation Community planning (water services).
Winfield and Okanagan        Community planning (water ser-
Centre Irrigation vices).
West Bench Irrigation Appraisal  of  system  operating
characteristics.
Westbank Irrigation Appraisal  of  system  operating
characteristics.
Community planning (water services).
South East Kelowna Community planning.
Irrigation
Black Mountain Irrigation.^ Area water management.
Grandview Waterworks Ancient subdivisions and land use
planning.
Peachland Irrigation Reappraisal of ARDA project.
Community planning (water services).
Larkin Waterworks Supervision of Crozier extension
ARDA project.
i Completed.
Water Utilities—Activities
At the end of 1975 there were a total of 261 utilities subject to the supervision
of the Comptroller of Water Rights under the Water Utilities Act and the Energy
Act. Of these, 222 were privately owned waterworks systems and 39 were owned by
municipalities supplying water outside their boundaries. There were 89 applications at the end of the year for certificate of public convenience and necessity to
create new utilities or to extend the service areas of existing systems.
The policy of requiring all new utilities to establish maintenance reserve funds
was continued during the year. These funds are held indefinitely to and for the
sole discretion of the Comptroller of Water Rights against any unforeseen operating
 V 32 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
contingency. The total amount on deposit in the various funds now exceeds $1.8
million and may be released in whole or in part by the Comptroller if and when the
systems become self-supporting.
A number of public hearings were held by the Comptroller of Water Rights
during the year dealing largely with applications for approval of rate increases.
Statistical data relating to the work of the former Water Utilities Division
are as follows:
Applications for certificates of public convenience and necessity authorizing new utilities to commence service:
(a) Investigated and granted  21
(b) Under investigation at year-end  53
Applications for certificates of public convenience and necessity authorizing existing utilities to extend their service areas:
(a) Investigated and granted  36
(b) Under investigation at year-end  36
Applications to file tariffs and amendments to tariffs:
(a) Investigated and accepted for filing  61
(b) Under investigation at year-end  30
Orders requiring maintenance reserve funds and other special funds
to be created  41
Orders approving transfer and sale of water utilities to new owners  10
Complaints dealt with regarding rates and adequacy of service  22
 WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Director, are
the evaluation, control, planning, and management of water resources of the Province where
these do not directly come under the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967. These functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations
Branch, are briefly summarized below.
(1) Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt runoff forecasting to facilitate flood prevention
measures and to guide judicious utilization of water supply.
(b) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydro-
meteorological data for use in planning, engineering studies, and related purposes.
(c) Hydrologic studies as components of interdisciplinary studies pertaining to
multi-resource planning and management and environmental protection.
(d) Collection of existing groundwater data and investigation and evaluation of
groundwater potential to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of this
source of water supply.
(2) Planning and Surveys Division:
(a) Development of floodplain and flood-hazard maps in concert with management planning and control of floodplain development.
(h) Surveys and mapping in connection with water resource planning, investigations, and construction.
(c) Data collection in connection with water quality, water quantity, and reservoir storage-site investigations.
(3) Environmental Studies Division:
(a) To undertake environmental and management studies for purposes of preserving the quality of the water resource and ensuring its judicious usage.
(/>) To carry out limnological and ecological surveys and studies directed toward
resolving existing problems and facilitating water resource planning.
(4) Engineering Division:
(a) Processing of water project proposals made under the Agricultural and
Rural Development Act, and investigations, design, and supervision of projects.
(b) Irrigation and domestic-water supply investigations to assist and advise in
the development, planning, and management of water supply projects.
(c) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
advice and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(d) Implementation of projects under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser River
Flood Control Agreement.
(5) The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Typing Pool as well
as a Records Compilation and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better use of the
water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic and social
development of the Province.
33
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B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
P. M. Brady, P.Eng.
Director
The Water Investigations Branch is responsible for planning and development
programs pertaining to utilization, preservation, and control of the Provincial water
resource.
The Branch is organized as illustrated on the adjacent chart and comprises
140 permanent staff members. Responsibilities and activities are such that there is
a significant proportion of staff with specialized training in a variety of technical
and scientific fields.
Each of the four divisions contains experts in the appropriate disciplines and
each division is responsible for the management of specific assigned programs and
the associated tasks. The divisions do not function independently of each other but
wherever necessary one supports the other by providing the needed expertise from
its own team of specialists.
In turn each division receives significant technical support from the Draughting
Office. The accounting and operational services so necessary for successful operation are provided by the Administrative Officer and the Records Compilation Section
which he manages.   The Typing Pool handles overloads from the divisions.
For the purposes of this Report the division lines have been ignored and the
activities described under three major program headings entitled Flood Damage
Prevention, Environmental Preservation, and Water Resource Utilization.
In addition to the activities and services described under the three major
headings, the Branch provides consulting and technical services to other Government agencies and has staff representing it on more than 60 interagency and intergovernmental boards, committees, and task forces.
FLOOD DAMAGE PREVENTION
Introduction
Considerable development in the floodplains of British Columbia has taken
place as a result of the topography and geology of the Province. The continual
expansion of the population and economy, particularly outside the Greater Vancouver and Victoria areas, tends to propagate further development in flood-prone
areas. As a result of this, high water levels will cause substantial flood damages
and social disruption at an increasing rate unless preventive measures are undertaken. The necessary structural and nonstructural measures are being implemented
under a comprehensive flood damage prevention program. They include flood
forecasting, planning and control of floodplain development, regulation of flood
flows, channel clearing, and construction of flood and erosion protection works.
Details of these activities are given in this Report.
General Flood Situation During Year
Snow-pack conditons were such that high spring runoff under normal melt
conditions was not anticipated except in the Okanagan, Kettle, and Similkameen
35
 V 36
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
watersheds.    High flows in the Kamloops area resulted from heavy rain during
the latter part of the melt period.
Heavy rains accompanied by snowmelt as a result of sharply raised freezing
levels occurred periodically from October to December and caused high runoff
in the south coastal area. Flooding and erosion damage occurred in many areas
but was heaviest in the lower Squamish River Basin, the lower Bella Coola Valley,
the lower Fraser River valley area, particularly along the Vedder River, and on
Vancouver Island along the Somass, Zeballos, Salmon, and Oyster Rivers. Heavy
runoff caused damaging mud slides and flooding at Alert Bay and Port Alice.
Streamflow Forecasting
Streamflow forecasting is the responsibility of the Surface Water Section of
the Hydrology Division, which operates the Provincial snow survey network. A
total of 1,142 snow surveys was made at 240 snow courses during 1975 by Hydrology Division personnel, co-operating agencies, and part-time local employees. The
results were immediately relayed to Victoria, via Telex, telegraph, and telephone,
where the snow survey data were compiled and together with meteorological and
runoff data, analysed utilizing statistical methods and computer programs to produce seasonal volume forecasts for key locations throughout the Province. Snow
survey data and runoff forecasts were published in the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin, which was issued on the first day of each month from February to
June inclusive, with a mid-month edition published in May.
Five new snow courses were
established and four deleted during
1975. The number of snow pillow
installations remained unchanged at
eight. The first station to use a satellite relay system became operational in
the Mission Creek watershed in the
Okanagan Basin. This will provide
daily information on snow-pack, temperature, precipitation, and groundwater levels at a key indicator site in
the basin.
In the year 1975, field work activities included snow surveys, the
training of observers, and maintenance
and installation of equipment. Two
hundred and fifty-three man-days were
spent on this field work, and the Division's technicians travelled 21,340
miles by vehicle, 630 miles by helicopter, and 256 miles by oversnow
machine.
Office work required to convert
the snow survey data collection and
compilation to the metric system was
undertaken with metric units to be used
in the 1976 bulletins.
During the snowbelt season a careful watch is kept on river stages throughout
the Province, particularly on the Fraser and Thompson Rivers where flows are largely
uncontrolled and where large sections of the floodplain have been developed. Daily
Boston Bar Creek snow pillow station in
co-operation with the Design and Surveys
Branch, Department of Highways.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 37
meteorological and streamflow data are analysed by the Modelling Subsection of the
Hydrology Division to produce forecast flows and stages at key points throughout the
Fraser River basin for up to five days in advance. Considerable use is made of
hydrologic models to assist in the short-term forecasting process, and these computer programs are constantly reviewed and updated as time permits and the science
of hydrology advances. This section also develops and operates specialized short-
term forecasting models of areas such as Osoyoos Lake where high flows in the
Similkameen can cause flooding.
FLOorr-LAiN Development Control
1. General—The main activities in the control of floodplain development are
floodplain surveys, hydrological analysis, and computation of flood profiles, flood-
plain mapping, input to local planning as related to flooding, including review and
recommendation on zoning by-laws, and land use contracts, and consent for
approval of subdivisions located in flood-prone areas.
2. Floodplain surveys—Floodplain surveys were undertaken by the Surveys
Section of the Planning and Surveys Division. Some 8,730 man-hours were spent
on topographic, bathometric, and control surveys in 10 river valleys during 1975.
Surveys were undertaken for approximately 385 square miles of floodplain containing approximately 267 miles of river and 20 miles of lakeshore.
Establishing Water Resources Service reference monument for floodplain mapping
in Shuswap River valley.
3. Hydrologic analysis and computation of flood profiles—Hydrologic analysis to determine the magnitude and frequency of flood flows is undertaken within
the Modelling Subsection of the Hydrology Division. During the year this section
considerably revised and expanded the existing computer program to meet the
frequency analysis requirements of the Branch. The resulting program is a sophisticated package which analyses data according to four different distributions and
gives both figures and graphical outputs.   The frequencies of flood flows and lake
 V 38 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
levels were determined for a total of 37 rivers and lakes during the year. The basic
flow data are obtained from records published by the Water Survey of Canada.
These records are obtained through a Province-wide hydrometric network operated
under the terms of a Federal-Provincial agreement which came into effect at the
beginning of 1975.
Where streamflow or lake data are not available, estimates of flood flows or
lake levels are made by personnel of the Surface Water Section. This is done by
utilizing available data such as rainfall records and by correlation techniques from
nearby catchments. A regionalization procedure was developed for the south
coastal portion of British Columbia which provides estimates of extreme flows for
ungauged watersheds.
The Planning Section of the Planning and Surveys Division utilizes the flood
flows to determine the flood profile, using a computer program designed for this
purpose.
4. Floodplain mapping—Orthophoto mapping with spot heights and contours
is undertaken by the Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Lands Service, using air
photographs provided by its Field Operations Division and the survey control information provided by the Planning and Surveys Division. Some 62 mapping
sheets were prepared during 1975 covering approximately 60 square miles.
The Planning and Surveys Division determines flood lines and adds these to
the mapping along with other information to produce the final floodplain maps
which are provided to other agencies and planning authorities.
The status of the floodplain mapping program at the year-end and documentation of associated tasks are summarized in Table 1.
5. Planning and control of floodplain development—The Planning Section
of the Planning and Surveys Division assists in the plannnig and control of development within floodplains, assesses all subdivisions in areas that could be flooded
and, where appropriate, prepares requirements that must be met as a condition of
subdivision approval.
Planning and technical advice is given to local authorities to enable the flooding potential to be considered in the preparation of community plans. Control of
development of land that is already subdivided takes place through review of all
zoning by-laws covering floodplain areas in cases where the Department of Municipal Affairs must grant by-law approval. The Planning Section recommends appropriate clauses be incorporated in the by-laws or agrees with those proposed, and
the Department of Municipal Affairs ensures that the final form of by-law is
acceptable prior to granting approval. Land use contracts for areas subject to
flooding are also referred to the Planning Section and recommendations pertaining
to flood prevention requirements are provided to the Department of Municipal
Affairs for inclusion in such contracts prior to approval. During 1975, approximately 210 zoning by-laws and 42 land use contracts were reviewed within the
Planning Section. This compares with some 90 and 44 respectively for 1974.
Zoning by-laws usually contain a clause which affords the opportunity for appeal
to the Deputy Minister of Water Resources for reduction in or relief from the flood
prevention requirements on a case-by-case basis. Some 55 appeals were processed
during 1975.
The Land Registry Amendment Act, 1974 requires that all approving officers
refer proposed subdivisions in areas that could be subject to flooding to the Deputy
Minister of Water Resources for consent, be it conditional or otherwise. The
Planning Section reviews these proposed subdivisions and recommends consent,
refusal, or provides requirements that must be met as conditions of consent. Some
388 proposed subdivisions were processed during 1975 compared with 50 in 1974.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 39
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Runoff Regulation
1. Okanagan Flood Control system—Operation of the Okanagan Flood Control system, which consists of the control structures at the outlet of Okanagan
Lake and on the Okanagan River downstream to Osoyoos Lake, is directed by
the Hydrology Division. Seasonal inflow volume forecasts to Okanagan Lake are
prepared by the Surface Water Section, with the system operated by the Modelling
Subsection, using mathematical computer models as aids. The objectives are to
prevent flooding during the snowmelt season and to store sufficient water to satisfy
domestic irrigation and other water users during the summer. In anticipation of
an unusually high runoff, Okanagan Lake was drawn down during the late winter
and spring of 1975 to just below its normal lower operating limit. The resultant
inflow was 22 per cent greater than average and the lake was filled to within 0.3
feet of its normal upper operating limit.
Due to the fact that the peak flow in the Similkameen River was less than
20,000 cfs, there were no problems with flooding around Osoyoos Lake with the
maximum water level of 911.5 feet being below the flood damage level.
Work continued on refinement of the computer models with a view to ensuring
optimum regulation of the important water resource contained in the Okanagan
Valley system of lakes.
It was anticipated that efforts would be made during 1975 to improve the
existing flood control system under the terms of a Federal-Provincial Implementation Agreement covering recommendations contained in the completed Okanagan
Basin Report. Agreement in principle was given by the Federal Government;
however, the Agreement remained unsigned at year-end.
2. Upstream storage—Fraser River Basin—Good progress was made toward
completion of the upstream storage study under the terms of the 1968 Federal-
Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement. The study is co-ordinated by
a steering committee appointed under the Fraser River Joint Advisory Board and
comprises two representatives from the Federal Government and two from the
Water Investigations Branch.
The object of this study is to develop an integrated plan for further flood protection, utilization, and control of the water resources of the Fraser River Basin.
The study involves principally an examination of the projects comprising System
E as contained in the 1963 report of the Fraser River Board, including flood control, hydro-electric power, ecological, economic, and other impacts thereof.
The environmental ramifications of developing upstream storage is a significant part of this study. The Director of the Branch chaired a committee established
for these purposes which contains representation of Provincial resource agencies
and the Federal Fisheries Service. The results of studies undertaken by all the
agencies that participated were summarized by the Branch, and the summary report was submitted in the fall.
It is anticipated that this study will culminate around the middle of 1976 when
the Fraser River Joint Advisory Board issues the final report.
Flood Control Program—Structural
Flood control program involving structural solutions to protect existing development are undertaken under the direction of the River Section of the Engineering Division.   These programs can be categorized as follows:
(a) Implementation of design and construction under the 1968 Federal-
Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 41
(b) Investigation and construction of other flood and erosion protection works under agreements with local authorities outside the
Fraser Valley and individuals throughout the Province. Projects
are implemented under the River Protection Assistance Program.
(c) Channel clearing program.
(d) Drainage projects.
1. Fraser River Flood Control Program—This program provides for flood
and erosion control and drainage improvements in the Lower Mainland areas in
and adjacent to the Fraser Valley and in the Kamloops area. Project costs are
shared equally by Federal and Provincial Governments. Activity was high during
1975; however, it was necessary to slow down the program in the latter half of the
year because of limited available Federal funds. Drainage improvements, other
than those forming a part of the dyking system and those already under way, also
were postponed as a result of Federal limitations on annual funding in both 1975
and future years. The reduced target expenditure for fiscal year 1975/76 was $12
million and the amount actually spent is anticipated to be some $11,997 million.
Program expenditures projected to the end of the current fiscal year are given in
Table 2.
Table 2—Fraser River Program Fiscal Expenditures
Expenditure
Design
Construction
Upstream
Storage Studies
Total
1968/69          -	
$
5,160
658,870
769,660
592,110
650,880
867,540
1,173,700
1,115,260
$
120,400
$
$
125,560
1969/70—             	
105,460
1,164,380
1,214,640
1,456,470
5,167,870
8,849,310
10,833,460
764,330
1970/71  -             ._     	
3,410
492,530
295,620
64,990
92,060
47,730
1,937,450
1971/72 -     „
2,299,280
1972/73 	
2,402,970
1973/74                                       	
6,100,400
1974/75  -	
1975/76 (estimated)...-	
10,115,070
11,996,450
Total expenditure to March 31, 1976	
5,833,180
28.911.990     1          996.340
35,741,510
The status of active projects, including projected expenditures to the end of
the current fiscal year, are in Table 3.
Table 3—Fraser River Program Project Status
Date of
Application
Design
per Cent
Completed
at Year-end
Construction
During
Fiscal Year
Construction to
End of Fiscal Year
Amount
Per Cent
Completed
Kent.    ...     	
Mar. 5, 1969
Mar. 3, 1969
Mar. 3, 1969
May 15, 1969
Aug. 1, 1969
Aug. 1, 1969
Aug. 4, 1969
May 6, 1969
May 6, 1969
Dec. 10, 1970
Apr. 30, 1970
Oct. 28, 1973
100
44
78
100
100
75
98
100
32
80
94
100
$
10,000
$
2,515,000
100
0
5,200,000
18,100
1,078,000
4,250,000
7,437,000
3,289,400
6,098,000
6,395,000
52
100
95
Delta 	
45
0
Surrey—■
37,000
1,176,300
100
0
0
0
....     ...
Coquitlam  	
	
	
Oak Hills -	
40,300
100,000
100,000
i ma son
430,000
556,800    |
Totals . -	
10,833,400
?s9i?nnn   I
 V 42
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Corporation of Delta reconstructed dyke along Boundary Bay—Fraser River
Flood Control Program.
Corporation of Delta reconstruction of Green Slough Pump Station,
Fraser River Flood Control Program.
2. River Protection Assistance Program—Under the River Protection Assistance Program the Provincial Government assists local authorities outside the Fraser
Valley and individuals throughout the Province in the construction of dyking and
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 43
bank protection works. Upon receipt of a request for assistance staff from the
Engineering Division and, in some instances, a Regional Office of the Water Rights
Branch undertakes a site investigation. A report is subsequently prepared and the
proposed project placed on a priority list. Offers of assistance within the limits of
available funding are based on this list. Projects are implemented under written
agreement between the applicant and the Branch under which the applicant receives
technical and financial assistance and in turn contributes to the project, constructs
the works, and undertakes maintenance responsibilities.
During 1975, projects were investigated or constructed in the lower Squamish
Valley, Bella Coola Valley, Port Alice, Alice Arm, Slocan Valley-Lemon Creek,
Duhamel Creek, Chase Creek, Oyster River, Quesnel, Grand Forks, Cowichan
River, Mission Creek, Creston, lower Vernon Creek, Coldstream Creek, and for
112 individuals. Table 4 provides a summary of this year's activities and a comparison with 1974.
Table 4—Minor Flooding and Erosion Projects
Year
Requests for
Assistance
Site
Inspections
Reports
Completed
Projects Implemented
Number
Amount
1974
115
93
62
104
34
87
54
24
$
520,000
1,179,000
1975 --  	
Bank protection project along Fraser River at Quesnel.
3. Channel-clearing Program—Many channel-clearing projects were undertaken during 1975. The work did not involve construction of works that are permanent in nature but rather the removal of log jams and gravel bars deposited in
 V 44
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
watercourses during the high runoff in 1974. Projects were initiated and undertaken by the Regional Engineers of the Water Rights Branch, in some cases with
assistance from the Engineering Division. During 1975, 38 projects costing
$54,000 were completed compared with 31 and $115,000 in 1974.
4. Drainage schemes—Investigations and construction relating to drainage
projects were carried out during the year by the Water Supply Section of the Engineering Division.   These projects are described in Table 5.
Table 5—Drainage Projects
Project
Description
Township of Chilliwack—Castleman Road
Construction of this drainage project near Chilliwack, under
ARDA project 89050, is about 60 per cent complete. Expenditures during the year were $80,436 of an estimated $200,000 project cost.
McCoy Lake.... -	
continued during the year of the Nicomekl and Serpentine River
basins in Surrey, where several proposals are being investigated
to alleviate flooding, and provide irrigation water.   In June 1975
a task force was formed under the Environment and Land Use
Committee Secretariat to co-ordinate input, including that from
agricultural and fish and wildlife interests.
A preliminary study was completed on proposed channel improvements to relieve flooding on McCoy Lake near Alberni.
problems on Osoyoos West Bench.
the   Tugulnuit   Lake   Improvement   District.     Construction   is
scheduled for completion before the 1976 freshet.
A study has been 10 per cent completed for a drainage scheme at
Ptarmigan Flats, near Enderby.
Castleman Road drainage scheme.   Grassway drain prior to final grading and seeding.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 45
ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION
Introduction
Activities relating to the economic and social development within the Province
to a greater or lesser extent are reflected in the environment of our water resources.
The Environmental Preservation Program is directed toward preservation of the
water resource in areas where degradation potential is considered to be significant.
The program also looks to the future with a view to facilitating environmental
planning.
Program activities include resource inventory and monitoring, water and air
conservation preservation planning studies, investigations and remedial programs
for specific water quality problems, and protection of watersheds. The major part
of this program is undertaken by personnel from the Environmental Studies Division; however, activities related to the protection of the water resource against
possible adverse effects of development within watersheds are undertaken by the
Hydrology Division and the Planning and Surveys Division.
Resource Inventory and Monitoring
This program involves sampling and monitoring of 10 widely scattered lakes
which have diverse conditions and locations. Studies are undertaken to evaluate
various methods of sampling, data analysis, and the use of different organisms
for water quality monitoring purposes. During 1975, some 95 samples were
collected and analysed. The program was curtailed to some extent due to staff
limitations.
Water and Air Conservation and Preservation Planning Studies
Environmental impact, water management, and environmental assessment are
the three major categories of conservation and preservation planning studies.
1. Environmental impact studies—Environmental impact studies are site
specific studies to assess the impact proposed developments will have on the air
and water resources of the Province, and to propose means of mitigating or reducing
adverse effects. Activities include preparation of study guidelines and terms of
reference for use by other agencies and industry, input to preparation of terms of
reference related to water and air resources for studies to be undertaken by others,
monitoring of studies by others, and undertaking the implementation and co-ordination of specific studies. The environmental impact studies that were active or
completed during 1975 are listed in Table 6.
Six reports were completed during 1975.
2. Water management studies—Water management studies come under the
direction of the Head of the Water Management Studies Section and involve assessment of basin management strategies to facilitate prudent use, preservation, and
control of the water resource, and the preparation of a report recommending specific
courses of action. Environmental concerns and flood control are also fully assessed
as part of major studies in this category. This results in input from all divisions in
the Branch. Studies are undertaken on a priority basis in basins that have existing
and (or) potential problems related to multiple use of the water resource. Management studies active or completed during the year are described in Table 7.
 V 46                                      B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Table 6—Environmental Impact Studies
Project
Description
British Columbia-Nippon Kokan Kabushiki
Kaisha steel mill feasibility study
British   Columbia   Petroleum   Corporation
refinery proposal and study
Fort Nelson-Fort Simpson Highway	
Hat Creek thermal plant (British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority)
Proposed    McGregor    River    diversion   to
Parsnip  River   (British Columbia Hydro
and Power Authority)
Mohawk oil refinery proposal and study	
North Cowichan water supply	
Revelstoke  Dam  proposal  (British  Columbia Hydro and Power Authority)
Sage Creek Coal Study (Rio Algom Mines)
Provided information and data to ELUC Secretariat,1 the Department of Economic Development and their consultants on water-
based environmental aspects.   Continuing.
Provided initial participation to ELUC Secretariat1 on water-based
aspects.
Prepared report for ELUC1 on literature review and water-based
impacts of the construction and use of the Fort Nelson-Fort
Simpson Highway.   Task report completed September 1975.
Assistance to ELUC1 in Provincial, multi-agency review of proposal and allied studies to develop a coal-fired thermal plant in
the Hat Creek area.    Continuing.
Review and comments prepared on preliminary consultant report
for B.C. Hydro and Power Authority.
Provided information to ELUC1 on water and air-based environ-
mental aspects.
Provided co-ordination as lead agency for the environmental aspects of an engineering feasibility study of alternative water
supplies. Task reports of participating agencies and summary
report completed December 1975.
Assistance to ELUC1 in a Provincial, multi-agency review of the
engineering proposal and environmental studies.   Continuing.
Co-ordination of Water Resources Service inputs to ELUC1. Multi-
agency Provincial evaluation of a development proposal and
allied reports for pit mining in the Flathead area (Cabin Creek)
of southeast British Columbia.    Continuing.
i ELUC=Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat.
Table 7—Water Management Studies
Project
Description
vide flood control, assure minimum river flow for fisheries and
outdoor recreational pursuits with due respect being given to the
rights of existing water users.   A study outline was designed and
most areas of study were well under way in 1975.    A report is
scheduled for completion in 1977.
fisheries  requirements,  and  groundwater-surface  water  relationship to facilitate water allocation decisions.
The Branch is also responsible for the implementation of certain recommendations contained in study reports.   For example, when the Federal-Provincial agreement for the implementation of certain recommendations contained in the Okanagan Basin Study report is signed, the Branch will undertake the implementation
of certain recommendations pertaining to flood control and water quality monitoring.
3. Environmental assessment studies—Environmental assessment studies are
nonsite specific studies directed toward environmental planning and control within an
area or region.   The studies include compilation and analyses of all available environmental data to define existing problem areas and to determine where data gaps
exist, establishment of needed additional air and water quality monitoring stations,
collection and analysis of data, and preparation of a report that provides a framework for environmental management.   Resulting from this, the planning of future
developments can be undertaken with an understanding of the sensitivity of the
environment in various locations, and with some knowledge of ambient and (or)
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 47
existing conditions.   This will facilitate more meaningful site specific environmental
impact studies and assessment of impact following development.
A major environmental assessment study, directed and co-ordinated by the
Head of the Environmental Assessment Studies Section within the Environmental
Studies Division, is under way for the Kootenay region.
The area under study comprises the Regional Districts of Kootenay Boundary,
Central Kootenay, and East Kootenay. The study will describe the present state of
air, land, and water in the area, with a view to improving waste management and
helping to plan future development. The study will take about two and one-half
years and is being carried out in two phases.
Phase I is an evaluation of existing information to 1974. A large amount of
air and water quality data has been collected over the years and is being interpreted as part of the Phase I study. The Phase I reports will include a description
of discharge sources, an evaluation of all data collected and recommendations for
corrective action or future monitoring as required. These reports are scheduled
for completion next year.
In the spring of 1975, Phase II of the study was initiated. It comprises a data
collection program lasting one and one-half years and is designed to fill gaps in our
information as revealed by Phase I. The water and effluent sampling program has
set up use in the order of 100 sites which are sampled on a regular basis. Sampling
of aquatic biology is also carried out at a selected number of sites. In the air
monitoring program, 10 stations have been established for comprehensive monitoring of ambient air quality and meteorological parameters. Numerous other stations
exist to measure selected ambient air quality parameters at suitable locations.
Study resources are divided approximately equally between the water and air field
programs. The programs will terminate in .1976 and the data collected will be
evaluated and presented with final recommendations in Phase II reports to be
issued in 1977.
Weed growth in Okanagan Lake at Kelowna.
 V 48
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Specific Water Quality Problems
Where a water quality problem exists or there is concern that a problem may
be developing, specific studies are undertaken in localized areas. Assessments are
made of the aquatic environment, the problem, or its potential. Research and
studies are undertaken, and a report is prepared proposing remedial measures or
controls over development in certain drainage areas. In certain cases the Branch
undertakes implementation of remedial measures.
Activities during 1975 are described in Table 8.
Table S—Specific Water Quality Problems
Area
Description
108 Mile Lake (Cariboo)	
Williams Lake (Cariboo)	
McNaughton Reservoir (Columbia River)
Tie Lake (Kootenay Valley)	
Aquatic weeds, Okanagan Valley lakes	
Chain, Link, and Osprey Lakes (Okanagan
area)
Naramata Watershed (near Penticton) _.
St. Mary, Cusheon, and Weston Lakes (Salt-
spring Island)
Kathlyn Lake (near Smithers),.
Gillies Bay water supply (Texada Island)..
Thompson River study  	
Langford Lake (near Victoria) 	
A continuing investigation of the response of a small Cariboo
plateau lake to residential development of the shoreline.
A continuing study of the effect of increasing urbanization upon
the water quality of a representative Cariboo region lake.
A small-scale, continuing investigation of changes in water quality
in the reservoir in the first years following impoundment behind
Mica Dam.
Investigation of the causes of periodic fish kills.   Report completed.
Continuing studies on the ecology and management of aquatic
weeds. These include an interagency experiment on herbicidal
control of plants at Kelowna, a joint project with the Okanagan
Basin Water Board to test benefits and disbenefits of hydraulic
dredging near Vernon, evaluation of rototilling, hydraulic washing and bottom barriers, documentation and mapping weed beds
in all six Okanagan mainstem lakes and Mara Lake, detailed
studies on hydrosoil and habitat characteristics related to Eurasian water milfoil were initiated.
A continuing investigation of the effectiveness of artificial increase
of the flushing rate of a lake in the control of cultural eutrophi-
cation.    Data report for the period 1973 to 1975 in draft form.
Detailed follow-up to a 1971 study by the Pollution Control Branch.
Determination of the effects of livestock and the livestock
control measures implemented by the Forest Service. Project
completed, report in final draft.
Continuing sampling to monitor the effects of recreational use
and residential development of the watersheds upon water
quality in these three lakes which supply domestic water to
much of the population of Saltspring Island. Data reports for
first year completed.
Investigation of the condition of Kathlyn Lake and alternative
means for rehabilitation and aquatic weed control. Incomplete;
preliminary report in draft.
A brief field inspection and water quality analysis was performed
for Water Rights Branch.    Report completed.
An investigation of complaints regarding deterioration of water
quality in the Thompson River, carried out by a Federal-Provincial multi-agency task force. Task force report, Summary
Report on Sources and Effects of Algal Growth, Colour, Foaming, and Fish Tainting in the Thompson River System was completed in December 1975.
Investigation of reported high heavy metals content in fish,
pleted.
Com-
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 49
Weed dredging in Okanagan Lake near Vernon.
 V 50
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Miscellaneous Studies
At the request of other branches and agencies, the Branch undertook a number
of research and site specific studies during 1975 that do not fall into any major
category. Except where otherwise indicated in Table 9, these studies were undertaken within the Environmental Studies Division.
Table 9—Miscellaneous Studies
Description
Alum treatment of Wood Lake..
Canadian Cellulose Co. effluent evaluation,
Prince Rupert Harbour
Health  aspects of land disposal of sewage
and sludge
Kelowna sewage treatment plant optimization
Smithers area study-
Water quality in Hatzic Lake..
Williston Reservoir Potentials Study..
The recent Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Water Management
Study identified alum treatment as a potential method for removal of algze-stimulating phosphorus from Wood Lake (near
Kelowna). Bench-scale experiments were carried out by consultants in preparation for a pilot scale experiment to be done
in situ in early spring of 1976.
A study of the effects of pulp-mill effluent on the marine-receiving
waters, including the bottom and intertidal zones, continued with
the collection and analysis of field samples.
An interagency study with the Department of Health and the
Department of Agriculture.    Completed.    Report published.
A joint investigation on the operation of the Kelowna sewage-
treatment plant was carried out by staff of the Pollution Control
Branch and Water Investigations Branch in co-operation with
the Kelowna Engineering Department.    Report completed.
Input provided by the Hydrology Division, related to runoff and
flow regime of main rivers in the Smithers area. Part of ELUC1
study for northwest British Columbia.
The available information on water quality in Hatzic Lake was
reviewed and interpreted to assist the Dewdney-Alouette Regional
District in planning land use in the general area. Recommendations were offered on land use policies to control eutrophication
and avoid waste-disposal problems.
The Hydrology Division completed its input to the Williston Reservoir Potential Study (co-ordinated by the ELUC1) with the
publication of the assessments of runoff, climate, and snow-pack
conditions and recommendations for improving the hydrological
data base.
t ELUC=Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat.
Protection of Watersheds
The program for protection of watersheds is directed toward ensuring that
land clearing, land use, and forestry activities are undertaken in such a way that
individual and community water supplies are adequately protected and significant
increases in downstream flooding, erosion, and deposition are avoided. This program requires the expertise of engineers, forestry hydrologists, watershed planners,
and environmental experts. All divisions within the Branch are involved to some
extent; however, the bulk of the tasks are undertaken by the Hydrology and the
Planning and Surveys Divisions. A major activity within the Hydrology Division
is the collection of data from all divisions and the establishment of guidelines as
input to the B.C. Forest Service resource folio system. The Planning and Surveys
Division is responsible for activities related to the preservation of community
watersheds.   Studies and activities during 1975 are described in Table 10.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Table 10—Watershed Protection Program
V 51
Study or Activity
Description
B.C. Forest Service resource folio input	
Community watersheds, general 	
Community watershed, referrals .._ ...
Kamloops District watershed study proposal
Nahmint watershed study	
Salmon Arm burn study  	
Trout Creek ecological overview	
Complete water resources data provided for 12 watersheds; partial
input for 12 additional watersheds.
Background information was provided for specific watershed areas
where multi-use problems necessitated discussions by interested
individuals, local authorities, and organizations. A program to
classify the community watersheds in the Province was continued, using available information.
Reviewed and commented on approximately 180 land lease proposals referred by the Lands Service and 70 timber sale proposals referred by the Forest Service.
To quantify the effects of forest harvesting on streamflow.
Continuance of hydrometric program and completion of preliminary report. Estuarine biology aspects were undertaken by the
Environmental Studies Division.
Collection of hydrometric meteorological and water-quality data
continuing.
Completed joint overview at Trout Creek watershed in conjunction
with the Department of Recreation and Conservation. This
overview included an assessment of watershed resources and of
the Perpetual Slide.
WATER RESOURCE UTILIZATION
Introduction
The purpose of the water utilization program is to assist the citizens of this
Province in obtaining a water supply which is adequate for their needs. This service function is provided through inventory programs, feasibility studies including
the preparation of associated reports, detailed designs of water supply systems, and
technical assistance in the construction of works.
Resource Inventory
1. General—An understanding of water resource potential is obtained
through inventory of groundwater, surface water, and storage reservoir sites.
2. Groundwater inventory—The Groundwater Section of the Hydrology Division collects and compiles data obtained during well-drilling activities throughout
the Province. The information is collected by Section staff or mailed in by private
well-drillers and incorporated into a data system which in turn facilitates provision
of information useful in determining location of future well-sites, drilling logistics,
and the potential for success.
In the year under review, 2,383 well logs were collected and 2,200 compiled.
Steps were taken toward computerizing the data recording and retrieval system.
Water-well maps and water chemistry are also of assistance in groundwater
development. During 1975 some 264 water samples were collected and analysed.
A computerized system for storage and retrieval of water chemistry data was
adopted during 1975 and all past data converted to computer-readable form.
Some 250 requests for groundwater information were handled during the past
year.
A groundwater observation well network is maintained to monitor water-level
fluctuations and water chemistry in areas of high interest or potential conflict.  The
 V 52
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
network operated during 1975 comprised 58 continuous installations and 79 short-
term special project installations. Progress was made toward storing the water-
level information in a computer system.
Compilation of 40 flowing artesian well location maps and accompanying
manuscript was completed.
3. Surface water inventory—Surface water inventory is obtained through a
Province-wide hydrometric network operated by the Water Survey of Canada and
through a much smaller network operated by the Water Investigations Branch.
The construction and operating costs of the network operated by the Water
Survey of Canada is cost-shared by the Province under the terms of Federal-
Provincial agreement which came into effect in 1975. The Hydrology Division
receives requests for hydrometric stations from all Provincial agencies, continually
reviews over-all network requirements, and decides on network changes. During
the year the number of stations cost-shared equally with the Federal Government
and paid for fully by the Province was 90 and 179 respectively.
The emphasis of the Branch-operated network is on small streams and lakes
where data are required for operational or special studies purposes. Station
requirements and compilation of data are the responsibility of the Surface Water
Section. Field operations are undertaken by the Surveys Section of the Planning
and Surveys Division. Sixty-one stations were operational during 1975 as compared with 75 last year.
Surveys Section staff metering the Ashnola River.
4. Storage reservoir inventory—Inventory of storage reservoirs is the responsibility of the Surveys Section and includes inventory of potential storage reservoir
sites and the capacity of existing reservoirs. During 1975, field reconnaissance of
potential sites and associated surveys were concentrated in the Similkameen River
Basin where 14 sites were investigated. The program of inventory for existing
storage reservoirs saw the completion of six surveys and preparation of inventory
plans for 25 storages.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
V 53
Water Supply Studies
Water supply studies are undertaken to assess the feasibility of the implementation of projects by small communities or, in the case of areas with significant
agricultural content, of proceeding with a project under the Agricultural and Rural
Development Act.
Comprehensive studies are undertaken within the Water Supply Section of
the Engineering Division. Specific support studies or independent studies related
to water resource availability are undertaken within either the Surface Water
Section or the Groundwater Section of the Hydrology Division. The proving up
of groundwater availability usually involves the well drilling and testing, followed
by office analysis.
The studies active during 1975 are described in Table 11.
Table 11—Active Water Supply Studies
Area
Description
North Cowichan ......	
A study was 85 per cent completed during the year on alternative
water supply sources for the Municipality of North Cowichan.
Deadman Creek         	
Alert Bay	
irrigation from Oregon Jack and Upper Hat Creek.
Preliminary design has been 10 per cent completed on a proposed
storage  dam on Snohoosh Lake for the  Deadman  Creek  Improvement District near Savona.
pumping system  to  supply  domestic  water  for  the Village  of
Alert Bay.   Wells were drilled and tested during the year.
A feasibility study was completed on a proposed irrigation system
for the Vinsulla Irrigation District.
A preliminary feasibility report was completed on construction of
an additional storage dam for the Chinook Cove Water-users'
Community.
ment to  supply irrigation  water to  the  Salmon  River Water-
users' Community.
30,000 acres of benchland in the Kootenay Valley south of the
Elk River.
Implementation of Water Supply Projects
Implementation of water supply projects includes both final design and construction supervision. With few exceptions, implementation activities during the
year were limited to qualifying projects under the Agricultural and Rural Development Act. The Groundwater Section undertook the supervision of well testing and
drilling. The final engineering design and construction supervision was undertaken
by staff of the Water Supply Section of the Engineering Division, except in a few
instances where consultants or specialists were employed, in which case the Water
Supply Section assumed management responsibilities,
The status of projects that were active during 1975 is described in Table 12.
 V 54
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Glenmore Irrigation District ARDA Project, laying main line.
Municipality of Summerland ARDA Project, construction of main intake at
Trout Creek reservoir.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Table 12—Status of Water Supply Projects at Year-end
V 55
Project Description
Design
per Cent
Complete
at Year-end
Construction
During
Year
To
Year-end
Per Cent
Complete
at Year-end
ARDA Project 89043 (Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation
District)—Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and
domestic water	
ARDA Projects 89044 and 89057 (Corporation of the District
of Summerland)—Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and domestic water	
ARDA Project 89066 (Ellison Irrigation District)—Modification to system to supply domestic water	
ARDA Project 89049 (Black Mountain Irrigation District) —
Modifications to intake works	
ARDA Project 89065 (Scotty Creek Irrigation District)—Modifications to system to supply domestic water _	
ARDA Project 89031 (Southeast Kelowna Irrigation District)
—Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and domestic
water _	
ARDA Project 89039 (Chase Irrigation District)—Partial rehabilitation  of irrigation  system. _ _	
ARDA Project 89055 (Larkin Waterworks District)—Extension
of farm domestic-water system to Crozier area 	
ARDA Project 89051 (Vernon Irrigation District)—Construction of storage dams at Grizzly Swamp  	
ARDA Project 89058 (Fairview Heights Irrigation District)—Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and domestic water
ARDA Project 89046 (Glenmore Irrigation District)—Rehabilitation of main line and intake works for irrigation and
domestic water system -  .... ...
ARDA Project 89042 (Black Mountain Irrigation District) —
Rehabilitation of Belgo and Graystoke storage reservoirs.-	
ARDA Project 89054 (Peachland Irrigation District)—Modification to intake works 	
ARDA Project 89048 (Meadow Valley Irrigation District) —
Partial rehabilitation of storage works	
100
50
100
100
100
100
100
100
80
20
90
100
100
100
96,532
1,088,405
15,949
78,580
3,517,897
1,088,405
15,949 j
78,580
13,144 |       13,144
260,338
72,135
117,513
76,949
553,130
456,162
25,235
2,972
4,675,937
112,461
117,513
76,949
570,019
1,195,950
25,235
2,972
100
40
10
60
100
75
100
10
75
100
100
100
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
57
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
B. E. Marr, Chairman
The Pollution Control Board, as set up under section 3 of the Pollution Control
Act, consists of a Chairman and eight members representing Government, university, and private interests.
B. E. Marr, Chairman,
Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
B. D. Caine,
Assistant Director of Environmental Engineering,
Department of Health, Victoria.
Howard English,
Retired farmer and conservationist, Victoria.
Dr. C. J. G. Mackenzie,
Head, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology,
Faculty of Medicine,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Dr. J. E. McInerney,
Director of Bamfield Marine Station, Bamfield.
R. J. Miller,
Director, Special Services,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
J. W. Peck,
Chief Inspector of Mines,
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes,
Deputy Minister of Forests, Victoria.
E. H. Vernon,
Associate Deputy Minister,
Department of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria.
The main functions of the Board are to act in an advisory capacity to the
Government, to set standards for controlling pollution, to act as an appeal tribunal
when an order of the Director of the Pollution Control Branch is appealed. The
Pollution Control Board also hears appeals from the decision of the Director of
Pollution Control (Air) of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. This agency
assumed responsibility in 1972 for issuance of air emission permits within the
boundaries of the Greater Vancouver Regional District.
Five appeals were heard by the Pollution Control Board in 1975; this is a
significant drop from the 12 appeals heard in 1974.
59
 V 60
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Two appeals were withdrawn on the Board's suggestion that further discussion
with Pollution Control Branch officials could probably resolve the question in
dispute.
One appeal is unsettled pending applicability of recently adopted Municipal
Objectives.
Two decisions of the Pollution Control Board were appealed to the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council; one was subsequently withdrawn, and the second has been
heard and is now awaiting a ruling. An appeal to the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council in 1974 concluded in a judgment supporting the Pollution Control Board.
Recommended pollution control objectives for the agriculture and food-
processing industry, and for municipal-type wastes, were carefully reviewed and
adopted by the Board. This culminates a five-year program initiated by the Board
in 1970 to establish pollution control guidelines for the major industries of British
Columbia. During these five years the Pollution Control Branch conducted hearings throughout the Province to determine these requirements for the forest products
industry, the chemical and petroleum industry, the mining industry, the agriculture
and food-processing industry, and for municipal-type wastes. On the bases of these
hearings, recommendations were prepared and submitted to the Pollution Control
Board for review, and, where necessary, revision and, finally, ratification. These
objectives will be reviewed every five years, starting next year with the forest products industry.
 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
61
 V 62
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
W. N. Venables, P.Eng.
Director
DIRECTOR'S REPORT
In 1975 the first round in the establishment of pollution control objectives for
major waste discharges in British Columbia was completed when the Pollution
Control Board adopted as policy, with amendments, the Director's recommendations resulting from the public inquiries into waste management practices of the
Food Processing, Agriculturally Orientated, and other Miscellaneous Industries,
and also into municipal-type waste discharges. Pollution Control Objectives, as
established through the public inquiry process, also exist for waste discharges from
the Forest Products Industry, the Mining, Mine-Milling, and Smelting Industry,
and for the Chemical and Petroleum Industry.
The anticipated review, at five-year intervals, of the existing objectives began
when the Pollution Control Board appointed the Director to conduct an inquiry
into the Pollution Control Objectives for the Forest Products Industry. The inquiry
will take place in March 1976, and eight individuals and organizations have indicated that they will participate.
Project SAM, the program directed toward the reclamation of derelict automobiles, crushed approximately 10,000 hulks during 1975. In mid-1975, delivery
of crushed hulks to the metal-shredding plant in Vancouver was suspended pending
resolution of certain terms of the agreement with the shredding company. Agreement in principle was reached in the latter part of the year and delivery of stockpiled
material resumed immediately with approximately 8,000 tons of material being
delivered by year-end.
The day-to-day administration of the Litter Act consisted primarily of providing information to the public and following up on complaints regarding the
return of beverage containers. As most complaints were found to be based on a
misunderstanding of the legal requirements on the part of retailers, corrective
measures were in the nature of warnings. No legal actions on beverage container
returns have been necessary to date.
Field enforcement of the other provisions of the Litter Act is shared with a
number of other authorities (peace officers, conservation officers, etc.) and no
statistics are readily available regarding the number of charges laid; however, there
are indications that they are considerable. In the year under review, 12 Branch
staff members were assigned additional duties as enforcement officers under the
Litter Act.
The number of waste discharges brought under control in the Province during
1975 rose to 3,226 with the issuance of 305 permits covering 745 points of discharge. In addition, 115 amendments were made to existing permits. Several of
the permits that were issued in 1975 were very significant from the point of view of
63
 V 64
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
complexity and magnitude of the operations covered. The following graph illustrates the cumulative increase in controlled points of discharge that are being
administered by the Pollution Control Branch on a continuing basis:
3500
3000
2500
S
UJ2000
2
1500
<
x
o
55 1000
500
o
Q.
t
196?
1968 1969 1970 1971 1972
(POINTS  REPRESENT   YEAR - END   TOTALS)
1973
1974
1975
The Branch is also responsible for the issuance of certificates for the construction of sewerage works and extensions thereto; 401 certificates for such facilities
were issued in 1975.
Seven orders of the Director were appealed to the Pollution Control Board,
five by the recipients of the orders and two by concerned third parties. Two of
the appeals were allowed in total, one was allowed in part, one allowed conditionally, and two were withdrawn by the appellant. The seventh appeal has yet to
be heard by the Board.
During the year a procedure of utilizing informal meetings involving concerned
parties to applications was undertaken. Through this process a better understanding
of positions was established among the parties involved through direct exchange
and examination of information and facts. This process appears to have worked
exceptionally well in achieving understanding-of problems and general acceptance
of solutions.
The report on the "Health Aspects of Sewage Effluent Irrigation," a multi-
disciplinary, multi-agency review of the risks to public health associated with effluent irrigation, was completed and released. Considerable interest is being shown
in sewage irrigation schemes by a number of municipal authorities in British
Columbia.
Efforts by Branch staff continued to develop further the Environmental Quality
Information System (EQUIS) data storage and retrieval program to include storage
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH V 65
of taxonomic data. This system is considered to be the most sophisticated environmental information system in North America and it is currently being used by other
agencies of the Province.
MUNICIPAL DIVISION
The principal activity of the Municipal Division continued to be permit application processing, and in this regard efforts were particularly directed toward resolving the more difficult waste disposal problems being experienced by municipalities.
The Services Section further established itself in its role of providing assistance
to municipal authorities in the operation of sewage-treatment facilities and in assisting other Branch staff in activities related to a wide variety of Branch work.
The mobile effluent sampling laboratory was commissioned this summer and
carried out effluent sampling programs at Penticton, Kelowna, Armstrong, Vernon,
Logan Lake, and Manning Park. These studies were related to either improving
plant operation or assessing proposed upgrading programs.
In its capacity as co-ordinator, the Services Section was involved in seven new
task groups on the following subjects: Assessing design of treatment plants, operations for the discharge of refuse on land, operating treatment works, environmental
assessment studies, operations for the discharge of effluent on land, operations for
sludge disposal to land, assessing design of refuse incinerators.
Four studies carried out at Regional Office request were completed this year,
including the Phosphorus Reduction Study at Penticton, Alternative Methods for
Upgrading Merritt S.T.P., Optimization of Kelowna S.T.P. performance, and a
Preliminary Report on the Pearson College S.T.P.
Staff members are involved with the Federal Environment Protection Service
on a new study for a national inventory of solid wastes and with the International
Nitrogen Task Group's ongoing study on the effect on fish of nitrogen supersatura-
tion below power dams.
Some other significant municipal undertakings which involved Branch staff in
1975 follow.
Construction of new sewage collection and treatment facilities at Greenwood
and Castlegar will replace existing septic tank facilities. A new activated sludge
plant under construction at Kent will replace an existing raw-sewage discharge.
A permit issued to the Regional District of Fraser-Cheam enables them to
proceed with a regional sewage collection and treatment system for the Town of
Hope, Kawkawa Lake, and Silverhope Creek areas.
Following issuance of a permit in August, a new secondary sewage treatment
plant is at present under construction to serve both the City and Township of
Chilliwack.
Existing sewage-treatment facilities are being upgraded and expanded at Cranbrook, Vernon, Fruitvale, and Squamish. The proposals at Vernon and Cranbrook
involve spray irrigation of large quantities of sewage effluent in conjunction with
agricultural enterprises.
As a result of findings of the Okanagan Study, several municipalities are
studying the need for nutrient reduction in sewage effluent by means of tertiary
treatment. In some cases, land disposal of the effluent is being considered as an
alternative to tertiary treatment.
Acceptable methods for disposing of septic tank sludge are still being studied
and an experimental scheme has received approval for a site near Kelowna operated
by the Regional District of North Okanagan.
 V 66 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
New primary sewage-treatment facilities have been constructed at Nanaimo
and Annacis Island and are now operational. The Nanaimo plant serves the Greater
Nanaimo area and replaces raw-sewage discharges to the harbour. The Annacis
Island plant is the last of four major plants intended to serve the Greater Vancouver
Sewerage and Drainage District.
Permits were issued to the District of Powell River for two secondary treatment
plants intended to enable consolidation of existing discharges from the Powell River
and Westview communities.   Construction is scheduled for 1980.
A permit was issued for the discharge from a proposed multi-million-dollar
hotel and marina facility between Nanaimo and Parksville.
At present under consideration is a proposal for a sewage collection and
secondary treatment plant to serve the Parksville and Qualicum areas. It is intended that this system would replace existing septic tanks.
Approval in principle has been given allowing the District of Surrey to put to
referendum a proposal for a sewage-collection system serving the Bridgeview and
Port Kells areas. It is expected that these works will cost about $36 million over
five years.
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
While the bulk of the permits issued covered small- or medium-sized plants,
a large part of the work of the Division in 1975 was directed toward the resolution
of pollution control problems in major industry where prolonged assessment of the
existing and proposed works are normally required. Notable among the major
industries were Kaiser Resources, Cominco Kimberley, the Cominco Trail Smelter,
the petroleum complex at Taylor, Alcan Aluminum, and many of the major pulp-
mills.
Labour problems, primarily in the forest products industry, had a serious
effect on the installation of pollution control works at the pulp-mills, as a large
part of the prime construction period was lost. In some cases the committed
programs have been set back by nearly a year. In effect, practically all construction schedules will have to be renegotiated. This problem was compounded
by price increases and shortages of materials and parts.
With concern over the availability of petroleum products and energy, the coal
industry has been very active. During 1974, members of the Branch attended
meetings at which seven different companies outlined plans for bringing coal
properties into production. These included four companies in the East Kootenays
and three in the east central area. It is expected that production will start in 1978
to 1979. In addition, B.C. Hydro outlined plans for the construction of a 2,000-
MW thermal electric generating plant located near the Hat Creek coal deposit.
Each of the proposed projects will require the installation of major pollution
control works.
During the year the Mining Section has been in contact with Tech Corporation Ltd. regarding their proposed copper smelter for Afton Mines Ltd. at
Kamloops.
As part of the continuing steel plant feasibility study, the Industrial Division
developed guidelines and objectives for pollution control measures to be incorporated into the steel plant design and the base requirements would be common to
any site chosen in the Province.
Industrial Division staff participated in task forces convened by the Federal
Government to establish guidelines and (or) regulations for waste discharges in a
number of industries. These included air emissions from asbestos mines, the
natural gas processing industry, the petroleum refining industry, chlor-alkali plants,
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
V 67
A view of the RAC Staksampler in place for sampling during an air emission survey
conducted by staff of the Okanagan Region on July 8, 1975.
Summer student Don May monitoring the operation of the RAC Staksampler.
 V 68
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Technician Calvin Price operating the Staksampler module.
pulp-mills, and emissions from thermal generating plants, as well as effluent from
chlor-alkali plants, pulp-mills, base metal and aluminum smelters, and effluent
from base metal, uranium, and iron mines.
Division staff actively participated in eight studies with  other Provincial
agencies or with industry.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
V 69
Since 1972, staff within Air Section has established approximately 200
monitoring stations in the Province to provide data for permit enforcement, to
record ambient air quality in a number of communities, and provide data for
baseline studies.
These stations consist of one or more dustfall canisters, sulphation plates,
high-volume samplers, or tape samplers.
In addition, mobile air quality laboratories are located at Abbotsford, Quesnel, and Victoria. Continuous analysers are located at Fort St. John, Kamloops,
Port Alice, Kimberley, Quesnel, Prince George, and Squamish.
Two stations are operated as part of the National Air Pollution Surveillance
Network, with equipment provided by the Federal Government.
REGIONAL DIVISION
The Regional Division is the expanding part of the Branch due to decentralization efforts and increasing work load, and it consists of six regions as follows:
Coast Region (Victoria).   Field office, Courtenay.
Kootenay Region (Nelson).   Field office, Cranbrook.
Lower Mainland Region (New Westminster).
North Region (Prince George). Field offices, Fort St. John and Terrace.
Okanagan Region (Vernon).   Field offices, Penticton and Revelstoke.
South Central Region (Kamloops).   Field office, Williams Lake.
The Regional Division is responsible for the administration of all permits and
approvals issued by the Director of Pollution Control authorizing the discharge of
liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes to the environment with the exception of permits
and approvals issued by the Greater Vancouver Regional District for discharges of
air contaminants within their regional district. During 1975 the Regional staff
were assigned the additional responsibility of assisting in administration and enforcement of the Litter Act.
As part of their responsibilities the Regional Division carries out ambient
environmental monitoring and waste discharge surveillance programs to provide
the necessary data for waste management and the protection of the environmental
resources. Regional staff also obtain site information for the Municipal and
Industrial Divisions to aid them in their assessment of major permit applications.
With the commencement of 1975 the regions assumed responsibilities for
processing certain permit applications considered to be within the competence and
capacity of their staff. By year-end the regions had cumulatively processed 60
permits covering 89 points of discharge.
The procedure of holding meetings with objectors to pollution control permit
applications to ensure complete understanding of positions and information by the
various parties involved is the primary responsibility of Regional staff. Eleven
such meetings were held at various locations throughout the Province during 1975.
From the response of individuals involved, the efforts of the Branch in undertaking
these meetings has been well received.
In addition to the new function of processing permits, the regions are also
responsible for investigating and reporting on requests for short-term discharges,
and their efforts in this regard led to the issuance of 82 approvals under the
Pollution Control Act, 1967. The majority of such approvals were issued for
transient-type operations such as asphalt plants for highway construction.
 V 70
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
One of the primary responsibilities of Regional Division is enforcement of
the requirements of permits. Enforcement efforts normally commence with persuasion through oral and (or) written communications which, in most cases, have
been adequate to resolve problems. Additional enforcement measures involving
the use of orders were found necessary in 24 situations and a total of 17 legal
prosecutions were initiated by Regional staff in 1975.
During 1975, greater emphasis was given to Regional staff involvement in
local resource management and planning groups and in the processing of major
permit applications.
Regional staff were also involved in investigation and resolution of numerous
complaints and they responded to emergency spill situations by either directing
clean-up operations or providing advice and assistance to Provincial Emergency
Programme staff in such matters.
 ENVIRONMENTAL
LABORATORY
71
 V 72
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 ENVIRONMENTAL
LABORATORY
A. J. Lynch, B.Sc, M.P.H.
Chief Chemist
The Environmental Laboratory of the Water Resources Service is a modern
analytical laboratory equipped to perform many of the tests required for environmental monitoring programs. The functions of the Environmental Laboratory
are to
(1) provide analytical support to the Pollution Control and Water
Investigations Branches in enforcement of the Pollution Control
Act, 1967 and related environmental studies;
(2) provide service to any Provincial Government department requiring
environmental analyses;
(3) provide service directly to the general public for the chemical
analysis of private water supplies;
(4) operate an instrumentation maintenance and calibration service for
environmental monitoring equipment;
(5) provide a quality control service (standard reference samples) for
non-Government laboratories to assist in the evaluation of methods
and monitoring data;
(6) operate a methods development program to investigate new procedures and aid in solving analytical problems.
In 1975, approximately 224,000 tests were performed, an increase of 31 per
cent over the 171,000 tests completed in 1974. The number of tests performed
for each submitting agency is given in Table 1. The average work-load increase
has been approximately 30 per cent per year, as shown in Figure 1.
Planning for new laboratory facilities continued in 1975 with the completion
of a functional program design by a consulting firm and the commencement of
architectural design by the Department of Public Works. Approval in principle
was received from the University of British Columbia for construction of laboratory
facilities on university land adjacent to the B.C. Research building.
The year 1975 was the first full year of operation of the laboratory computer
system (LABMAN). This system, consisting of a laboratory terminal interfaced
with the Victoria computer facilities of the Department of Transport and Communications, is used for complete laboratory results recordkeeping and reporting
functions. The system has been instrumental in reducing reporting-time, increasing
efficiency, and providing valuable laboratory management data.
WATER QUALITY
In 1975 the Water Quality Division performed 211,000 routine chemical tests
on water, wastewater, sediment, and biological tissue samples. In addition to the
chemical analyses service, a small biological subsection was established for tax-
onomic identification of aquatic macro-invertebrates and algae.
73
 V 74
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
 ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY
V 75
To meet the increasing demand for taxonomic services, two of the Water
Quality staff members have enrolled in specialized taxonomy courses offered at the
University of British Columbia to develop further their skills in this field.
Since the installation of the computer terminal at the laboratory in December
1974, necessary changes and addition quality control checks have been implemented to facilitate the prompt reporting of results.
A quality control service was introduced for non-Government laboratories to
assist in the evaluation of methods and the monitoring of water quality data.
Arrangements have been made for the distribution of synthetic and authentic
samples for Study No. 1 BOD analyses to 20 participating laboratories.
Projects completed in 1975 are the following:
(1) Participation in the feasibility study for the introduction of a small
computer-based data capture system for the instruments in the
Atomic Absorption Section.
Participation in lecturing and laboratory instruction on Atomic
Absorption for the Trace Analysis Instrumentation course sponsored by Douglas College.
Implementation of additional parameters for sediment analyses.
Representation  on  the  Pulp  and  Paper  Task  Force  Analytical
Methods Sub-Committee.
Reports entitled
(a) The Deterioration of Dilute Mercury Solutions During
Storage.
(b) An Investigation for the Preservation of Trace Metals in
Aqueous Solutions.
In order to accommodate the peak summer work-load period, a second shift
was established for the months of June to September to fully utilize the available
instrumentation and laboratory facilities.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
AIR QUALITY
The Air Quality Division of the Environmental Laboratory is responsible for
performing laboratory air quality analyses for the Pollution Control and Water
Investigations Branches. The number of air quality stations in the Province increased from 170 in 1974 to 212 in 1975. The number of environmental tests
performed during 1975 was approximately 13,000. In addition, projects completed
included the following:
(1) Revision of methods for the second edition of the air quality manual.
(2) Introduction of the analysis of fluoride in the ambient air by fluoridation plate.
(3) Modification of a sampling method for mercury in the ambient air.
(4) Provision of calibration services for the standard gases such as
oxides of nitrogen and ozone to the Regional District of Greater
Vancouver.
(5) Representation of the Environmental Laboratory at the joint
Federal-Provincial task force for the chloro-alkali industry.
(6) Participation in the organization of the Pacific Northwest International Section of the Air Pollution Control Association conference
held in November in Vancouver.
 V 76 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
INSTRUMENTATION SERVICES
In 1975 the Instrumentation Services Section continued to carry out servicing
and related testing on environmental instruments for Government agencies. The
section completed 500 work requisitions for the Environmental Laboratory, Pollution Control Branch, and a number of other Government departments; this is an
increase of 15 per cent in work requisitions over 1974.
During the year a calibration laboratory was constructed in the Instrumentation Section in which extensive testing will be undertaken for the production of
high-reliability gaseous standards. The section has also set up an inventory of spare
parts for the maintenance of Pollution Control Branch air and water monitoring
systems throughout the Province.
FIELD AND REGIONAL LABORATORY SERVICES
In 1975 the handling of samples has increased by 20 per cent over 1974, with
a resultant increase in services provided to submitting agencies; also, 12,900 water
and 3,500 air samples were received, logged, and transferred to the analytical
sections. During the year, shipments of chemicals and supplies were made to
submitting agencies.
Services to Government agencies outside of Water Resources Service have
increased significantly. The laboratory has co-operated with the Fish and Wildlife
Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation, in producing a sampling kit
for field use. The finished kits provide bottles, preservation chemicals, and instructions for preparation of all water samples for the laboratory and they will be
distributed throughout the Fish and Wildlife Branch in 1976.
Water Resources Regional Laboratories have operated very successfully
through 1975, and
(1) 2,600 water samples were processed and tested for a total of 14,000
analyses;
(2) new quarters were occupied in Vernon by Okanagan Regional
Laboratory;
(3) renovation of a new area within Water Resources headquarters in
Kamloops for South Central Regional Laboratory have been drawn
and are awaiting approval; North Regional Laboratory renovation
plans have been temporarily halted until suitable space is found.
The Water Resources Regional Laboratories have become well established
with a stable work-load pattern.
METHODS DEVELOPMENT
The Methods Development Section has been concerned with three major areas
of interest in the field of environmental monitoring—gas chromatographic analyses,
optical air particulate analyses, and review of methods for the analysis of air pollutants. The capabilities of the gas chromatographs have been extended into testing
for pentachlorophenol, gasoline and related hydrocarbons, and frothing agents in
use in the mining industry. Two studies were carried out to monitor the presence
of organic materials in groundwater and their subsequent appearance in well waters
and natural streams. A "Microvideomat" electronic particle-size analyser has been
used for monitoring coal and burned-wood particles in general air particulate
samples from various sources.
 ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY
V 77
ENVIRONMENTAL   LABORATORY   WORK   LOAD
1970 TO   1975
225,000
200,000
175,000
150,000
tn
uj 125,000
oz
£ 100,000
2
3
Z
75,000
50,000 -
25,000
71
r
^d
1970 1971 1972 1973
Figure 1
1974 1975
 V 78
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In co-operation with the Air Quality Section, all the test methods for the
analyses of air pollutants have been reviewed and collected into the second edition
of A Laboratory Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Ambient Air, Emissions,
Soils and Vegetation. In particular, studies have been undertaken for the analysis
of fluoride in soils, vegetation, and air particulates using an alkali fusion technique,
or in the atmosphere using solid absorbent.
Work completed in the Methods Development Section has been the subject of
three published papers. Two of the projects were completed last year but published
in 1975. A project involving the analysis of coal in suspended particulate matter
was completed in 1975 and resulted in the publication, I. M. Salomon, An Optical
Analysis for Coal, Proc. Micr. Soc. Can., 77, 22 (1975).
Table 1—Environmental Laboratory Tests Performed by Sampling Agency
Agency
Number o£
Tests
Per Cent of
Annual
Work Load
Water Resources Service—
159,415
27,651
442
12,369
11,550
2,944
851
256
8.089
71.3
12.4
0.2
5.5
5.2
1.3
0.4
Department of Public Works - -	
Other                                    	
0.1
3.6
223,567
100.0
 INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
79
  INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
K. J. Chisholm, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
During the year the process of consolidation and transfer continued with the
following changes in management or operation of dyking areas:
(a) Albion Dyking District assumed responsibility for its own administration on January 14.
(b) Dewdney Area Improvement District assumed responsibility for its
own administration on January 13.
(c) Nicomen Island Improvement District assumed responsibility for
its own administration on January 13.
(d) Trethewey-Edge Dyking District assumed responsibility for its own
administration on January 14.
(e) South Westminster Dyking District was dissolved on April 10 and
its operation, assets, and liabilities were assumed by the District of
Surrey.
(/) Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District was dissolved
on May 1 and its assets and liabilities transferred to the municipalities of Chilliwhack and Abbotsford. The operation of the former
dyking district was assumed by the District of Abbotsford.
Negotiations continued with the municipalities concerned for the transfer of
the Coquitlam Dyking District to municipal control. It is expected that the District
of Coquitlam and the City of Port Coquitlam will reach agreement on future
operation of the dyking district in early 1976 and negotiations can be finalized
which will effect the dissolution of the Coquitlam Dyking District.
During 1975 the following statistical data were recorded:
(a) Dyking certificates issued 	
Title searches made 	
Tax notices issued	
Tax receipts issued 	
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(/)
(g)
Tax roll amendments made 	
Court of revision notices sent
247
253
1,623
738
166
2,251
Maps indexed   1,485
81
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
AND
ACCOUNTING
DIVISIONS
83
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
R. C. Webber
Director
This office provides personnel services to the Lands Service and the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat as well as to the Water Resources Service.
Activity during the year continued at a rapid pace despite a downswing in
recruiting activity over previous years. It is felt that the main reason for this was
the continuing high demand from union negotiations and classification plus an
increase in union grievances and contract interpretations as a result of the new
contracts, as well as an increase in statistical reports required due to Treasury
Board's cutback in hiring.
Organization of the Personnel Services Office
Director
R. C. J. Webber
Personnel Adviser
K. H. Knight
Office Manager
H. A. Cote
Personnel Adviser
R. M. Renaud
Clerk
C. I. Dye
Stenographer
M. A. Sledz
Clerk/Typist
C. Wong
SUMMARY OF PERSONNEL SERVICES ACTIVITIES,  1975
Recruitment of Continuous Staff'
In early 1975 the Government placed restrictions on the number of vacant
positions that could be filled, resulting in a decrease in recruiting activity from the
previous year.
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
10
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Seasonal and Short-term Appointments
Short-term hiring was down slightly in 1975 in comparison with 1974.    The
main reason for this was a reduction in the funds made available to the Service
85
 V 86
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
by the Department of Labour under the summer Work in Government Program
(W.I.G.). Another reason for the decrease was the increased salaries which
meant that fewer students could be hired with the funding available.
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Reclassification
The completion and implementation of a much needed review of Pollution
Control Branch Engineering Technicians contributed to the increase in reclassification activity for 1975.
60 1
40   |p
20   R
55    11
40
45 m
42   ll
54
10 pf
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Labour Relations
The Government signed its first contract with the British Columbia Government Professional Employees' Association on June 20, 1975. As this contract
covers a high percentage of the Service's employees, much of the Director's time
was spent in providing management input for these negotiations. Separate component negotiations covering salaries for engineers, geologists, senior accountants,
and agriculturists also occupied the time of our staff. As of the year-end we had
not reached agreement with the senior accountants or the agriculturists.
The' second master contract with the British Columbia Government Employees' Union, the union representing the majority of our employees, was signed
on November 14, 1975. Only a limited amount of this office's time was devoted
to this contract, but we have become very much involved in developing greater
Departmental involvement, at the line level, in component negotiations.
Reorganizations
A major reorganization change occurred in the Water Rights Branch during
1975 with the amalgamation of the Water Utilities and the Improvement Districts
 PERSONNEL SERVICES AND ACCOUNTING DIVISION
V 87
Divisions into the Community Water Supply Division.    J. Simpson has been
appointed head of the new division.
Principal Promotions, Appointments, and Transfers Within the
Water Resources Service During 1975
R. J. O'Regan, appointed as Economist.
J. H. Doughty-Davies, promoted to Head, Planning Section, Planning and
Surveys Division, Water Investigations Branch.
J. Wester, promoted to Head, Rivers Section, Engineering Division, Water
Investigations Branch.
J. B. Brodie, promoted to Head, Mining Section, Industrial Division, Pollution Control Branch.
F. P. Hodgson, promoted to Chief, Industrial Division, Pollution Control
Branch.
H. P. Klassen, promoted to Assistant Director, Pollution Control Branch.
Establishment at December 31, 1975
Number of established positions, 505.
Number of vacant established positions, 57.
Number of temporary employees on staff, 93.
Total number of employees on staff, 541.
Turnover
It is suspected that the higher wages brought about through collective bargaining and the relatively high levels of unemployment in the country had a
significant effect upon the reduction in staff turnover in 1975.
  Government-wide (figures not available).
  Water Resources Service.
1972
1973
1974
1975
 V 88
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Staff Training
Executive Development Training Plan 1975 graduates:
J. H. Morley, Engineer, Water Investigations Branch.
G. G. Soellner, Technician, Pollution Control Branch.
Additionally, employees received financial assistance on 53 courses that would
assist them in developing their skills and increase their potential within the British
Columbia Government.
Sick Leave
One significant reason that might account for the drop in sick leave in 1975
was the inclusion of a clause, in the master contract signed in the summer of 1974,
which provides for the payment of a portion of the unused sick benefits on
retirement.
  Government-wide (1975 figures not available).
  Water Resources Service.
8%
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Retirements
The following employees retired in 1975:
Francis C. Bett, Administrative Officer, Water Utilities Division, after 27
years' service.
Pauline Dranfield, Clerk-Stenographer, Water Rights Branch, after 22
years' service.
 ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
K. R. MacKay
Departmental Comptroller
This Division provides accounting services for the Lands Service and the
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat as well as the Water Resources
Service. These services include assistance with the preparation of estimates, budgetary control, the preparation and distribution of payroll data, the processing of
accounts payable and purchase requisitions, the billing and collection of Water
Rights, Lands Branch, and Surveys and Mapping revenue, and the preparation of
various reports and summaries for other Provincial and Federal Government
departments.
Because of staff turnover, increased expenditure, and numerous complexities
and adjustments arising from the collective bargaining process, it has been a very
hectic year for the Payroll and Accounts Payable Sections. Serious delays in payments which occurred during the year were somewhat alleviated in October when
we were permitted to add one temporary employee to each section. The staff
additions also made it possible to focus more attention on expenditure control.
During the year the Division lost to the Emergency Health Services Commission its Comptroller, Bruce Maclean, who had been with us for 22 years, and Ron
Bowes, from the Accounts Payable Section, who had been with the Division for
10 years.
Water Rights revenue increased by $4,881,039 in 1975 and this was due
mainly to an increase in charges for power usage.
Division staff members assisted Water Rights staff and the Data Centre in the
design of new forms, ledger cards, billing statements, and envelopes which are
required to meet new postal and metric requirements.
Following is a statement of Water Rights revenue for 1975 by major purpose
and also a statement of comparative revenue for the past 10-year period:
$
Domestic, incidental use, and fees        625,280
Waterworks         193,385
Irrigation  22,905
Power    10,274,077
Funds received on application  52,534
11,168,181
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1966-75, Inclusive
$ $
1966  2,285,932 1971     4,076,598
1967  2,431,010 1972     4,923,346
1968  2,749,848 1973     5,404,106
1969  3,364,577 1974     6,287,142
1970  3,716,932 1975  11,168,181
89
   Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1976
IXi
2030-476-7217

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