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Ministry of Labour Annual Report For the year ended December 31, 1977 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1980]

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 Province of British Columbia
Ministry of Labour
Annual Report
For the year ended
December 31, 1977
HON. ALLAN WILLIAMS, Minister
JAMES G. MATKIN, Deputy Minister
Printed by Authority
of The Legislative Assembly
 Allan Williams
To Colonel the Honourable
Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of
British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the
Ministry of Labour of the Province for
the year 1977 is herewith respectfully
submitted.
ALLAN WILLIAMS
Minister of Labour
Office of the Minister of Labour,
December 31, 1977.
 dames G. Matkin
The Honourable Allan Williams,
Minister of Labour.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit herewith
the 60th Annual Report on the work of
the Ministry of Labour up to
December 31, 1977
JAMES G. MATKIN
Deputy Minister of Labour
Ministry of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., December 31, 1977
 Ministry of Labour
Boards and Commissions
Labour Relations Board
Board of Industrial Relations
Human Rights Commission
Workers' Compensation Board
Workers' Compensation Boards of Review
Finance & Administration
R.J. McManaman
Personnel Services
W.H. Bell
Information Services
J.E. Nugent
Research & Planning
A.H. Portigal
Compensation Advisory
Services
M. Giardini
V
Assistant Deputy Minister
(Administration)
F.A. Rhodes
Executive Director
Manpower Planning
& Policy Development
R.S. Plecas
Employment Opportunity
Programs
V. Burkhardt
Apprenticeship Training
Programs
S.W. Simpson
Manpower Training and
Development
J. Melville
 MINISTER
Hon. Allan Williams
Co-ordinator, Native Indian Programs
R. Exell
Deputy Minister
James G. Matkin
Consultant
Manpower Advisory
Services
R.S. Azad
Executive Director
Labour Relations &
Employment Standards
J.R. Edgett
Labour Standards
W.J.D. Hoskyn
Arbitration &
Special Services
G.D. Bishop
Occupational
Environment
K. Martin
Elevating Devices
A. Moser
  tontents
'ersonnel Directory     8
ieview of Major Developments
abour Market Information	
abour Dispute Statistics  	
13
14
26
Administration Division	
:inance and Administration 	
'ersonnel Services	
iformation Services	
Research and Planning	
)ompensation Advisory Services
41
42
42
43
44
45
ob Training and Employment Opportunities Division
ttroduction	
ipprenticeship Training Programs 	
imployment Opportunity Programs 	
rade- schools Regulation 	
lanpower and Training Development 	
)ccupational Environment	
levating Devices	
46
47
47
50
51
51
52
53
ldustrial Relations Division
ltroduction	
abour Standards	
lediation Services	
rbitration & Special Services .
luman Rights	
55
56
56
57
58
59
oards and Commissions
oard of Industrial Relations ,
oards of Review	
63
64
64
tatistics    66
 Personnel Director
/
MINISTRY OF LABOUR
Minister of Labour	
... HON. L. ALLAN WILLIAMS ..
... 387-607
Deputy Minister	
... JAMES G. MATKIN 	
... 387-326
Assistant Deputy Minister — Administration 	
... FRANK A. RHODES	
... 387-561
Assistant Deputy Minister
— Labour Relations &
Employment Standards
(4211 Kingsway, Burnaby)	
Cc ordinator — Native Indian Programs 	
Construction Industry Co-ordinator 	
... DOUGLAS CAMERON	
... 434-576
... ROBERT EXELL  	
... 387-62S
... CLAUDE HEYWOOD 	
... 387-60S
Director, Human Rights Branch	
...KATHLEEN RUFF 	
... 387-686
Director, Finance and
Administration Branch 	
... RAY J. McMANAMAN	
...387-161
Director, Personnel Services Branch  	
... WILLIAM H. ^ELL 	
. ..387-156
Compensation Advisory Services
— Compensation Consultant 	
— Employers' Adviser 	
(5255 Heather St., Vancouver)
... MARIA GIARDINI	
... 266-021
... ED ZURWICK	
... 266-021
Director, Research & Planning Branch	
... ALAN H. PORTIGAL	
... 387-344
Director, Information Services Branch  	
... JACK E. NUGENT	
... 387-657
Labour Relations and Employment Standards
Executive Director	
...JAMES R. EDGETT	
... 387-326
Director, Labour Standards Branch	
... WILLIAM J. HOSKYN 	
...387-136
Director, Mediation Services Branch
(4211 Kingsway, Burnaby) 	
... GUS G. LEONIDAS	
... 434-576
Director, Labour Education Programs Branch	
... RONALD M. TWEEDIE	
... 387-54E
Director, Arbitration and Special Services Branch ..
... GEORGE D. BISHOP	
... 387-576
Director, Elevating Devices Branch
(4240 Manor St., Burnaby) 	
Director, Occupational Environment Branch
(4211 Kingsway, Burnaby) 	
Job Training and Employment Opportunities Divi
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby
...ALFRED MOSER	
... 438-53^
... KENNETH MARTIN	
... 434-576
sion
Consultant Manpower Advisory Services	
... RANJIT S. AZAD	
... 434-576
Executive Director, Manpower Planning
and Policy Development
(880 Douglas St., Victoria) 	
Director, Manpower Training and Development
Branch, Trades Schools Regulation 	
... ROBERT PLECAS	
... 387-545
...JOHN MELVILLE	
... 434-576
Director, Apprenticeship Training
Programs Branch 	
... SAMUEL W. SIMPSON   	
... 434-576
Director, Employment Opportunity
Programs Branch (808 Douglas St., Victoria) ....
...VERN A. BURKHARDT  	
387-336
 3oards and Commissions
toard of Industrial Relations
Human Rights Commission
'arliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman  JAMES G. MATKIN
Chairman 	
. M.S. STRONGITHARM
'ice-Chairman
Members	
JT SMITH
Secretary  J.R. EDGETT
S.S. GILL
Members C. MURDOCH
L. CHECOV
MRS. EMILY OSTAPCHUK
J. KATZ
R.K. GERVIN
H. CROSBY
A. MACDONALD
M. GOTTFRIEDSON
T.G. PEARCE
D. MOWAT
rovincial Apprenticeship Committee
211 Kingsway, Burnaby
T.N. VANT
R. JEFFELS
Ihairman  JOHN MELVILLE
W.S. ENG
lembers B.H. CAMPBELL
i    a      t~\r*i a\/
J.A. GRAY
E.H. McCAFFERY
Labour Relations Board
A.E. SMITH
1620 West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver
C. STAIRS
Chairman 	
. D.R. MUNROE
S.W. SIMPSON
Vice-Chairman anc
1
T.W. TRINEER
Chief Adminis
trative Officer ..
. E.R. PECK
Vice-Chairmen ...
. J.A. MOORE
oards of Review
R.F. BONE
Vorkers' Compensation Act)
J. BAIGENT
20, 5021 Kingsway, Burnaby
R.L GERMAINE
dministrative
B. VAN DER WOERD
Chairman             PAUL DEVINE
Members	
A. MACDONALD
lhairmen  W.I. AUERBACH
A.J. SMITH
F.C.J. NEYLAN
J.M. BILLINGS
B. BLUMAN
J. BROWN
J.LT. JENSEN
H.L. FRITZ
lembers W.I. BEEBY
M.L KRAMER
J.S. DON
G.D.M. LESLIE
D.C. FRASER
K.R. MARTIN
D. HAGGARTY
P. CAMERON
H.HUEBNER
J. McAVOY
N. MILLS
CJ. ALCOTT
S.J. SQUIRE
R. GAUTHIER
W.N. PEAIN
A. SAUNDERS
L. CAMPBELL
C. LOYST
M. SALTER
orkers' Compensation Board
255 Heather Street, Vancouver
hairman  DR. A. LITTLE
ice-Chairman J.B. PARADIS
ommissioners ... D. DAVIS
S. BROWN
Dard Counsel
and Executive
Officer J.P. BERRY
xecutive Director,
Legal Services .. I.E. TUFTS
xecutive Director,
Administration
and Finance .... J.A. TAYLOR
xecutive Director,
Medical
Services  Dr. J. GIBBINGS
xecutive Director,
Prevention
Services  J.D. PATON
xecutive Director,
Compensation
Services  A.H. MULLAN
 Principal Office
Victoria: 880 Douglas Street
Regional Office
Locations
Burnaby: 4211 Kingsway,
4240 Manor Street
Chilliwack: 24 Victoria Avenue West
Cranbrook: Room 101, 117 South 10th Avenue
Dawson Creek: 1201 - 103 Avenue
Kamloops: 220, 546 St. Paul Street
Kelowna: 1913 Kent Road
Nanaimo: 238 Franklin Street
Nelson: 310 Ward Street
Prince George: Room 222, 1488 Fourth Avenui
Terrace: 4548 Lakelse Avenue
Williams Lake: 307 - 35 Second Avenue South
 977 in Review
flajor Developments in 1977
abour Market Information
abour Dispute Statistics
  ,
inistry of Labour
Review of
^/lajor Developments in 1977
major improvement in the labour
!ations climate in British Columbia,
t derate but steady expansion in
our force and employment provided,
i a significant legislative program
arked the operation of the Ministry of
ibour in 1977.
377 was a record year for industrial
sace in the Province. There were 67
bour disputes, involving 31,865
orkers for a total of 448,460
an-days of work stoppage. In the
wincial jurisdiction 142,910
n-days were recorded, the lowest
al since 1965 when 104,430
an-days were registered. As a result,
ediation activity by the Ministry was
little lower than in 1976, with 188
Elements obtained. In total, 687
>llective agreements were negotiated
. oehalf of 342,451 employees.
ie year showed a continuation of
bour market trends exhibited in 1976:
oderate but steady expansion in both
bour force and employment, with
intinuing high levels of unemploy-
ent (8.5 per cent of the provincial
bour force). Unemployment
as particularly heavy among young
;ople, with persons under 25 years of
je representing 45 per cent of those
(employed.
arly in 1977, the Goard Commission
i Vocational, Technical and Trades
aining, after receiving briefs from
;ross the Province, presented its
port. Building on this report, the
inisters of Labour and Education
intly established the Occupational
aining Council to allocate funds
r training throughout the Province,
id the Legislature enacted the
Dprenticeship and Training
svelopment Act to improve the
jlivery of apprenticeship and
ade-school training.
In the field of labour relations, the
Ministry took several legislative
initiatives. The Labour Code of B.C.
Amendment Act increased the degree
of representation required by a trade
union for a certification vote from 35
per cent of the bargaining unit to 45 per
cent, while increasing from 45 to 55 per
cent the representation required for
certification without a vote. The
amendment also created a new unfair
labour practice — namely, refusal by
an employer to bargain and agree to a
union's security provisions in a first
collective agreement.
A further major initiative was the
enactment of the Essential Services
Disputes Act, which protects the public
interest by giving the Government the
scope and authority to act when
essential services are threatened,
while at the same time preserving the
principle of collective bargaining in the
public sector. This legislation is based
on the proposal developed by the
Canadian Task Force on Labour
Relations (1968), established by the
Federal Government but never
adopted by that Government.
There were 13,512 apprentices in
training in 1977, and 3,272
apprenticeships were completed during
the year. The Apprenticeship Training
Programs Branch continued its
development work on curriculum and
examinations.
During the summer of 1977 the
Ministry provided employment
opportunities for young people. This
represented a broadening of the
student employment programs
previously offered. The program provided a total of 15,381 jobs at a cost
of $22.5 million.
Personnel changes in 1977 included
the appointment of Douglas H.
Cameron as Assistant Deputy Minister,
 >
Labour Relations and Employment
Development; Alfred J. Moser as
Standards; James R. Edgett as
Director, Elevating Devices; and Mari;
Executive Director, Labour Relations
Giardini as Compensation Consultant
and Employment Standards; Robert
Kenneth A. Smith retired from the
S. Plecas as Executive Director,
position of Associate Deputy Minister,
Manpower Planning and Policy
Labour Relations.
Labour Market Information
British Columbia's population reached
Population
an estimated 2,497,000 persons in
June, for a 12-month increase of 1.3
The population of British Columbia wa
per cent. This was the lowest increase
estimated at 2,497,600 as of June 1,
since a 1.2 per cent population change
1977. Although this is an increase of
in the period 1935-36. The provincial
1.3 per cent from June 1, 1976, it
labour force, however, continued to
represents a substantially reduced ral
grow while population growth rate was
of population increase from the 2.5 pc
declining, with a 2.5 per cent change
cent rate averaged over the previous
increasing the average number of
five years.
labour market participants to 1,163,000
Last year's increase in population wa;
persons during 1977.
composed of a natural increase of
An average of 1,065,000 persons were
20,800 persons, an increase of 17,20
individuals through immigration, and a
estimated net out-migration loss to
working last year, an increase of 2.6
per cent over 1976. The similarity of
the growth in the labour force and
other provinces of 7,000 persons.
employment meant virtually no change
in the high level of unemployment
experienced in British Columbia.
There were 67 labour-management
disputes during 1977, considerably
fewer than the 97 occurring in 1976.
A total of 448,460 man-days were lost
because of these disputes, less than
one third of the comparable figure for
the previous year.
Settlements reported during the year
numbered 335 and covered 175,421
workers. The average annual increase
reported in these settlements was 6.4
per cent, or 49 cents an hour. This
annual settlement is less than two
thirds of the previous year's average of
10.7 per cent, which in turn was only
two thirds of the 1975 peak of 16.3 per
cent.
British Columbia continued to enjoy the
highest level of weekly earnings across
Canada, with an industrial composite
average of $284.25 a week. In terms of
real purchasing power, this was 1.4 per
cent higher than the 1976 average.
 nnual Population Growth by Component
75-
1968
1969
1970      1971
1972
1973
1974
1976
Source: Statistics Canada, "Canadian Statistical Review," Ottawa Cat. 11-003.
Note: Interprovincial Migration negative in 1976 and 1977.
'opulation 1968-1977
Year
British Columbia
Population (1)
Population Growth (per cent)
Canada
British Columbia
B68  2,003,000
969  2,060,000
970  2,128,000
971 (2)  2,184,000
972  2,247,000
973  2,315,000
974  2,395,000
975  2,457,000
976 (2)  2,494,000
977  2,497,600
1.6
1.5
3.0
3.2
3.0
2.7
2.9
3.0
3.5
2.6
1.5
1.3
As of June 1 of each year.        (2) Census counts.
urce: Statistics Canada, Canadian Statistical Review, Ottawa, Cat. 11 -003 (monthly).
.abour Force
iritish Columbia's labour force
veraged 1,163,000 persons during
977, an expansion of 28,000
idividuals, or 2.5 per cent over the
revious year. Although still a
ignificant increase, this year's growth
ras below the national average of 3.0
er cent, the first time in recent years
lat this has occurred. The growth rate
in British Columbia was also below
past growth rates for this Province.
In the five-year period prior to 1977,
average labour force growth was
4.7 per cent.
The labour force remained below last
year's average during the first quarter
of the year, but than expanded rapidly
during the late spring to reach its peak
 Both
Sexes
Men
Women
1975	
    1103
693
709
725
410
1976	
    1135
426
1977	
    1163
438
of 1,221,000 persons in July. After this
point, the return of many students to
school, together with persons otherwise out of the labour market, led to
a fall in the total number of persons
in the labour force. By the fourth
quarter the average labour force had
declined to 1,158,000 persons.
Labour Force, by Sex, 1976-77
(thousands) (1)
1975	
1976	
1977	
(1) Unless otherwise stated, all data in this section and the
following two sections are from Statistics Canada. The Labour
Force Survey, Ottawa, Cat. 71 -001 (monthly).
The growth in the 1977 labour force
was composed of an almost identical
number of each sex, 14,000 men
and 12,000 women, although these
increases represented a 2.8 per cent
increase in the number of women in
the labour market and a 2.0 per cent
increase in the number of men. The
426,000 women in the labour force
represented 37.7 per cent of the 1977
total. Age group breakdowns show that
the increases were mainly felt in the
middle age groups. The 20-24 age
group expanded by 6,000 workers over
the previous year, or 3.6 per cent,
while the 45-64 component increased
by 8,000 workers, or 2.7 per cent. The
25-44 age group, which contains
46 per cent of the total labour force,
increased by 11,000 persons,
although because of its large size this
represented only a 2.1 per cent
increase. In the youngest (15-19) and
oldest (65-and-over) age groups,
virtually no change was recorded in
the average number of labour force
participants during 1977.
Seasonal changes in the numbers of
persons in the labour market primarily
affected the younger age groups.
The number of workers aged 15-24
averaged 303,000 persons in 1977,
but participation varied significantly
throughout the year. In January
278,000 young people were in the
labour market, but by July, the period
of school vacations, this had expanded
to 355,000 persons, a mainly seasonal
increase of 28 Der cent. Bv December
this component had declined to an
estimated 291,000 persons.
Laboui
' Force, by Age Group
(thousands
Age
1976
Avg.
1977
Group
Avg.
i
II
ill
IV
15-19
129
130
115
129
151
125
20-24
167
173
167
177
180
168
25-44
524
535
527
539
540
537
45-64
299
307
297
308
313
310
65 +
17
18
19
19
19
17
Total:
1135
1163
1122
1170
1203
1158
A total of 61.8 per cent of the
working-age population participated in
the labour market this year, a margin?
increase over 1976 when the participation rate was 61.5 per cent. This
1977 average was lower than that
existing in Alberta (66.5 per cent) and
Ontario (64.4 per cent), but was abov
those in other parts of the country.
As the accompanying table shows,
the participation rate this year has
increased among both men and
women; 78.0 per cent of men
participated this year, up from 77.7 pe
cent during 1976, while 45.9 per cent
of women participated, up 0.2 per
cent over the previous year. The
insignificant increase in female
participation no doubt reflects the
severe tightening of job opportunities
and the higher unemployment rates
that this group has felt in the last few
years.
Participation Rates by Sex
(per cent)
Both
Sexes
Men    Wome
1975	
    61.3
77.6 45.2
77.7 45.7
78.0    45.9
1976	
    61.5
1977	
    61.8
Age group information shows all
groups except the 15-19 with higher
participation rates in 1977 than in
1976. Greatest increase was in the
20-24 age group, in which average
participation increased from 75.9 per
cent last year to 78.2 per cent in 1977
This large increase reflects, in part, the
larger numbers of school students whi
entered the labour market durinn the
 summer period, but also reflects the
general ageing and entry into the
labour market of that large population
born after World War II and during the
early 1950s.
First- and fourth-quarter participation
rates for this group were approximately
the same, 75.6 per cent and 75.7 per
cent, but the average for the middle
quarters was a substantially higher
81.0 per cent. Participation rates for
the 15-19 age group also showed
marked seasonal variation, with a
high of 64.1 per cent of this group
participating in the third quarter,
compared with the yearly average of
55.3 per cent, down slightly from last
year's 55.6 per cent.
All other age groups experienced
slight participation increases this year.
Participation in the 45-64 age group
rose to 62.7 per cent from last year's
average of 62.2 per cent, the 25-44
group increased 0.1 per cent to 76.6
per cent, and the 65-and-over group
was 7.6 per cent compared with 7.3
percent in 1976.
The continued growth in the number of
persons in the labour force, especially
in the middle age groups, has had a
gradual but important impact on the
general educational level of labour
market participants.
The adjacent table shows the
distribution of the labour force by level
of educational attainment. Probably the
most significant feature of this table is
the increase in the percentage of the
work force that has at least some
post-secondary education, 34.9 per
cent this year compared with 34.5 per
cent last year. Although this increase is
relatively small (16,000 individuals)
compared to the total size of the labour
force, it is still a relatively large
increase for one year.
 Educational Attainment of the
Labour Force
(thousands)
1977 1976
Number  Per Cent  Number  Per Cent
0-8 years of
school      124      10.7      134      11.8
Some high
school      633      54.4      612      53.9
Some post-
secondary    151      13.0      136     12.0
Post-secondary
diploma    132      11.4      140     12.3
University
degree    122      10.5      113     10.0
Total 1163    100.0    1135   100.0
Comparison with the 1971 census
provides a clearer picture of the
educational upgrading of the B.C.
labour force. Although the census does
not provide comparable information for
all categories, it does show that more
people today have a university degree,
and fewer have only 0-8 years of
education. In 1977, 10.5 per cent of the
labour force had a university degree,
and 10.7 per cent had less than Grade
9 education. In 1971, 6.7 per cent of
the labour force had a university
degree, and 18.7 per cent had less
than Grade 9.
During 1977 an average 1,163,000
persons participated in the labour
market, whereas an additional 720,000
persons of working age (15 years and
over) did not. Going to school, keeping
house, retirement and illness are the
commonest reasons why an individual
might not be in the labour force.
Women, and especially those over
the age of 24, make up the bulk of
those not in the labour force, a group
numbering 515,000 persons, or 71 per
cent of the total. An additional 141,000
persons not in the labour force (20 per
cent of the total) were men 25 years
and over. Another 63,000 (9 per cent)
were younger men.
Estimates of the occupational structure
of the labour force show that the
majority of workers have what might be
called "white-collar" skills. Managerial,
administrative and professional
occupations remain the largest single
group, with 234,000 persons, or one
fifth of the total labour force, followed
by clerical and service groups, with
192,000 and 166,000. Another 145,000
persons, or one eighth of the labour
force, were sales people.
These aforementioned categories are
also the ones showing the largest
annual increases. The number of sales
people increased by 12,000 (9 per
cent) in 1977; the number of persons
with clerical skills increased by 9,000
(4.9 per cent).
During 1977, approximately 36 per
cent of the labour force could be
classified as working in blue-collar
occupations, a total of 420,000
persons. The largest components of
this group were the 161,000 persons in
processing occupations and the 96,00C
in construction trades. The former
component showed the same total
number of people as during 1976,
whereas the latter showed a loss of
5,000 individuals (possibly to construction projects in Alberta).
The number of persons in primary
occupations (forestry, mining, fishing oi
agriculture) increased by 6,000 in 1977
to an average of 61,000 persons, and e
further 102,000 were in transportation
occupations, material handling and
other crafts.
The female labour force remains
heavily concentrated in white-collar
occupations. Over one third of women
were classified in the clerical group
alone, and 90.6 per cent were in the
four white-collar categories. Significantly, this is a slightly higher
concentration than existed even two
years earlier, when 90.2 per cent of
women were in these four categories.
 Labour Market Age Distribution, 1977
1.5 1.7
Note: All figures
are expressed
in percentages.
Unemployment
Employment
Employment in British Columbia
iveraged 1,065,000 persons during
977, an increase of 27,000 (2.6 per
:ent) over the previous year. The
(lumber and percentage increase in
ersons employed during the year was
pproximately the same as labour
orce growth, and thus did not have a
tieasurable impact on the Province's
nemployment situation.
Employment levels in the Province
('ere fairly depressed during the early
lonths of the year, when a number
f industries suffered slowdowns and
ayoffs. January employment totalled
1,004,000 persons.
Considerable seasonal improvement
vas registered in the late spring, and
his continued through the summer as
otal employment peaked at 1,117,000
)ersons during July.
Employment by Sex
(thousands)
Both
Sexes
Men
Women
1975	
1009
1038
1065
638
656
672
372
1976	
381
1977	
392
The number of men employed
during the year averaged 672,000, an
increase of 16,000 (2.4 per cent) over
1976. Employment growth among
males followed the same pattern as
total employment, except that growth
was slower than average during the
first part of the year, and did not show
quite the same degree of seasonal
decline during the latter half.
Employment among women averaged
392,000 persons during 1977, an
increase of 11,000 persons (2.8 per
cent) over 1976. Women thus made up
36.8 per cent of all employed persons
last year, a figure relatively unchanged
from 1976 but considerably higher than
the 31.9 per cent figure of 10 years
earlier.
 Employment by Age Group
(thousands)
Age
1972
Avg.
105
1977
Group
Avg
i
II
III
IV
15-19
106
92
105
124
102
20-24
146
152
142
157
161
147
25-44
489
501
489
506
505
504
45-64
282
289
276
288
297
294
65+
16
18
17
17
19
17
Total:
1038
1065
1015
1073
1106
1064
Employment growth for last year was
most significant in the 20-24 age group
— a 4.1 per cent increase over 1976
— and to a lesser extent in the 25-44
and 45-64 age groups, which both
increased by 2.5 per cent. In the
65-and-over group, employment was
up 2,000 persons; in the youngest
group (15-19 years) it was up 1.0 per
cent.
As expected, seasonal employment
patterns were most evident among
younger workers and were almost
non-existent in the 25-and-over work
force. In the 15-19 group, the peak
employment month of July saw
employment at 136,000 persons, a
figure 28.0 per cent above the yearly
average. For the 20-24 age bracket,
peak employment of 165,000 persons
in June and July was 9.0 per cent
above this group's yearly average.
Full-time and Part-time Employment
(thousands)
Full        Part
Total        Time      Time
Both Sexes
1976   1038 899 138
1977  1065 918 146
Men
1976  656 615 41
1977  672 632 41
Women
1976  381  284  97
1977  392  287  105
NOTE: Full-time employed are those who usually work more than
30 hours a week, or those persons working less than 30 hours
who consider their employment as full time.
Part-time employment continued to
increase as a percentage of total
employment during 1977, with 146,000
jobs (13.7 per cent of all jobs) being so
classified. The comparable figure for
1976 was 138,000 part-time jobs, or
13.3 per cent of all iobs.
Part-time employment was particularly
prevalent among women and young
people. A total of 105,000 women (27.C
per cent of all female employment),
and 63,000 young people aged
15-24 years (24.0 per cent of total
employment in that age group) were
employed on a part-time basis.
Reasons given by individuals for
working part time are provided in
the accompanying table. Individual
choice rather than lack of full-time
opportunities appears to be the major
reason why people work part time.
An estimated 41.8 per cent of
individuals working part time said they
did not want to work full time, and an
additional 28.1 per cent said that
school was the major reason for
working only part time. A further 16.4
per cent of these workers stated that
part-time work was all they could find.
Family responsibilities accounted for
an additional 10.3 per cent of reasons.
Compared with 1976 figures, there
have been increases in the numbers
and percentages of part-time workers
who said they preferred part-time work
and those that said they could only find
part-time work, although the change
was only significant for the former
group. The number of students working
part time remained unchanged this
year at an average 41,000 individuals.
Estimates of employment by industry
show this year's employment growth
to be dominated by expansion in the
service sector. Employment growth
was 3.0 per cent in this sector
compared with only 1.9 per cent in
the goods-producing sector. In the
goods sector, agriculture was the only
industry showing significant
employment expansion, with an
average employment of 21,000, or
3,000 individuals higher than during
1976. In the other primary industries
classification, and in manufacturing,
employment expansion was encouraging during the summer period,
but fell off later in the year to yield
averages virtually unchanged from
1976 (manufacturing employment up
3,000 persons, or 1.7 per cent).
In construction, employment averaged
81,000 persons during 1977, up only
1,000 from 1976. Lack of activity and
poor weather during the latter part of
 le year severely affected this industry.
the service sector, total employment
xpanded by 22,000 persons to
iverage 724,000 during 1977. This
ector also continued to expand as a
ier cent of total industry employment,
?r 70 per cent of all workers during
977 were employed in service-sector
idustries. This was about the same as
ie 69.7 per cent who worked in this
ector during 1976.
Vithin the service sector, employment
irowth was greatest in the community,
usiness, and personal service
idustry, where 1977 employment of
03,000 was up 13,000 persons (4.5
er cent) over 1976, and in the
public administration group, where
employment averaged 75,000, up
6,000 persons (8.7 per cent). Increases
in this latter group came mainly in
the summer, and no doubt partially
reflected the large number of students
hired under various government
programs.
In other service-sector industries,
2,000-person increases were recorded
in both the trade and finance-insurance
groups, and a 1,000-person employment decline was felt in transportation,
communications and other utilities.
Average 1977 employment in these
three industries was 197,000 persons,
62,000 persons, and 109,000 persons.
stimates of Employment by Industry
lousands)
Employment by Industry
1976 1977
Average    Average I II III IV
Goods  313 319 307 323 335 311
Agriculture  18 21 16 21 25 22
Other primary products  45 44 38 42 50 43
Manufacturing  170 173 171 177 176 169
Construction    80 81 82 83 83 77
Service  724 746 707 750 772 754
Trade     195 197 189 194 197 206
Transport, communication, other utilities  110 109 104 112 114 104
Finance, insurance, real estate  60 62 55 58 70 68
Community, business, personal service  290 303 287 307 311 306
Public Administration  69 75 72 78 79 70
Inemployment
imilar growth rates in total
mployment and the Province's labour
>rce resulted in virtually no change in
le average level and rate of unem-
loyment. An average of 99,000
ersons were without work during
977, 8.5 per cent of the total
rovincial labour force. This included
3,000 men, the same total as during
976, and 46,000 women, an increase
f 1,000 persons over the previous
sar.
he rate of unemployment among
romen averaged 10.4 per cent last
aar, compared with 10.5 per cent in
976. Among men, 7.3 per cent of the
ibour force were not working last year,
own slightly from 7.4 per cent in 1976.
Although British Columbia's high level
of unemployment in 1977 remained
virtually unchanged from 1976, the
situation in the rest of the country has
deteriorated drastically. A major reason
for this situation may be that British
Columbia, with its dependence on
export-oriented industries, was affected
earlier by depressed world economic
conditions (and depressed markets)
that only in the past year have
registered their total impact on other
parts of the country. Nationally,
862,000 Canadians were without work
in 1977, a figure 17.1 per cent above
the 1976 average. The national rate of
unemployment, an average 8.1 per
cent during 1977, still remained below
the 8.5 per cent average prevailing in
this Province.
 Unemployment and Unemployment Rates by Sex
Unemployment (thousands)
Both Sexes               Men
Women
Unemployment Rate (per cent)
Both Sexes               Men                  Women
1975 	
          93
55
53
53
38
45
46
8.4
8.6
8.5
7.9
7.4
7.3
9.3
10.5
10.4
1976 	
          98
1977	
          99
The hardest hit areas of the country
have been Quebec and the Atlantic
Provinces. Quebec's unemployment
rate averaged 10.3 per cent during
1977, up from an 8.7 per cent average
during 1976. The average rate of
unemployment in the Atlantic region
also jumped significantly and was
over 10 per cent in each province.
Newfoundland remained the Province
with the highest unemployment rate,
15.9 per cent. In Ontario, the unemployment rate rose to 7.0 per cent
of the work force last year, compared
with 6.2 per cent during 1976. Similar
sized jumps were recorded in the
Prairies. Alberta registered the lowest
unemployment rate in the country,
4.4 per cent.
Provincial Unemployment Rates
(per cent)
1977 1976 1975
Canada     8.1 7.1 6.9
British Columbia      8.5 8.6 8.5
Alberta     4.4 3.9 4.1
Saskatchewan     4.5 4.0 2.9
Manitoba     5.9 4.7 4.6
Ontario        7.0 6.2 6.3
Quebec  10.3 8.7 8.1
New Brunswick   13.4 11.1 9.9
Nova Scotia  10.7 9.6 7.7
Prince Edward Island  10.0 9.8 8.2
Newfoundland   15.9 13.6 14.2
In this Province, unemployment was
particularly heavy during the first part
of the year, first-quarter unemployment
averaging 107,000 persons, or 9.5 per
cent of the work force. A jump in
employment during May helped reduce
unemployment to 89,000 persons in
that month (the second lowest monthly
figure during the entire year), but this
was short-lived, as a large seasonal
inflow of students seeking summer
jobs again boosted the numbers of
unemployed to 104,000 persons in
Julv.    	
The return to school in September of
most of these students caused a
decline in the numbers of unemployed
that was only partially offset by
seasonal declines in employment
during the last part of 1977. During the
fourth quarter, an average 94,000
persons (8.1 per cent of the work force
were without work.
The accompanying estimates of
unemployment by age show that
younger workers continue to have a
greater tendency to be unemployed.
During 1977, an average of 45,000
persons aged 15-24 were without jobs
This represents 45 per cent of all
unemployed persons, even though
these particular age groups contributec
only 26 per cent of this year's total
labour force. Surprisingly, the summer
months, when the numbers of persons
in these age groups are swelled by the
influx of students, were the period of
lowest unemployment.
During the third quarter, the number oi
unemployed in these two age groups
dropped to 36,000 persons, 11.3 per
cent of the 15-19 age group, and 10.6
per cent of the 20-24 age group.
Highest unemployment was during the
first quarter of 1977, when 23,000
15-19-year-olds and 24,000 20-24-
year-olds were without work.
One explanation for higher rates of
unemployment in winter months is
that government expenditures for job
creation (primarily directed at students)
are much heavier in the summer. In
the winter, reduced job creation by
government and seasonally lower
private-sector employment combine to
severely affect young people who often
have lower levels of experience and
job skills.
Among other age groups, little
seasonality appears to exist. In the
25-44 age group, an average of 34,000
individuals, or 6.4 per cent of the work
force, were without work durina 1977.
 Unemployment and Unemployment Rate by Age Group
Age
Group
Unemployment (thousands)
1976                                     1977
Average   Average       I             II            III
IV
Unemployment Rate (per cent)
1976                                      1977
Average   Average       I             II            III
IV
15-19
20-24
25-44
45-64
Total
9      25
24
21
34
18
99
23
24
37
21
107
24
20
33
20
96
17
19
34
16
97
23
21
33
16
94
19.0
12.2
6.6
5.8
8.6
18.7
12.3
6.4
6.0
8.5
20.0
14.4
7.0
7.1
9.5
18.6
11.3
6.1
6.5
8.3
11.3
10.6
6.3
5.1
8.1
1R4
4      20
125
1      35
61
\      17
5?
      98
8.1
This figure was only 1,000 persons
)elow 1976. In the fourth quarter, the
ate of unemployment among this
jroup was 6.1 per cent. In the 45-64
ige group, an average of 18,000
)ersons, or 6.0 per cent of the age
jroup, were without work during 1977.
This was up from the 1976 average of
>.8 per cent and the 1975 average of
5.5 per cent.
n addition to examining the levels and
ates of unemployment, it is important
o know the reasons why individuals
vere without work, how long they have
>een without work, and what types of
smployment were being sought. As the
iccompanying table shows, the major
eason for unemployment affecting
nore than half of those without work
vas that they had been laid off or had
!ist their jobs.
easons for Unemployment, 1977
housands)
Average     Per Cent
Number       of Total
Iness  4 4.0
'ersonal responsibilities  6 6.1
ichool    6 6.1
aid off or lost job   51 51.5
Jther  28 28.3
lever worked   4 4.0
btal       99        100.00
Other reasons" affected a further
!8,000 unemployed persons, and
icluded new immigrants, in-migrants
rom other provinces, and intra-
irovincial movers who had not yet
Dund work, as well as school leavers
/ho previously had obtained at least
ome labour market experience.
:actors covering illness, personal
esponsibilities and school were the
najor initial reasons why an additional
6,000 persons were without work. A
further 4,000 persons were new to the
labour market and had had no previous
work experience.
Of the 99,000 unemployed (during
1977), an average of 32,000 had been
without work for 14 weeks or longer;
and 17,000 men and 15,000 women
were long-term unemployed.
The average duration of unemployment
during 1977 was 13.4 weeks, a figure
only marginally (0.1 weeks) lower than
during 1976. The average national
duration of unemployment was 14.5
weeks during 1977, up from 14.0
weeks in 1976.
Full-time permanent work was the
type of employment sought by an
average 67,000 persons during 1977,
slightly more than two thirds of the
unemployed. In addition, a further
7,000 individuals sought full-time work
on a temporary basis, and 14,000
persons were seeking part-time work.
A total of 11,000 of those counted as
unemployed were on layoffs, awaiting
call-back, and therefore had not looked
for work.
Organized Labour Force
As of January 1, 1977, a total of
439,730 workers in British Columbia
were members of trade unions. This
represents an increase of 13,007 (or
3.0 per cent) over the previous total
of 426,723 reported for the same date
in 1976. Union members in 1977
composed 45.1 per cent of the estimated total number of paid workers
in the Province. Historical comparisons
are provided in the accompanying
diagram and table.
The union with the largest membership
in British Columbia was again the
International Woodworkers of America
(IWA) with 47,474 members. Rounding
 out the list of the five largest unions in
the Province were: second, the B.C.
Government Employees' Union, with
31,294 members; third, the B.C.
Teachers' Federation, with 28,818;
fourth, the Canadian Union of Public
Employees, 24,204; and fifth, the
Teamsters, with 20,382 members.
Altogether, 22 provincial unions each
claimed membership exceeding 5,000
as indicated in the accompanying
table.
Union membership among women
grew by 4,548 (3.7 per cent) over the
previous year, representing a slightly
larger percentage increase than the
3.0 per cent growth in total union
membership during the same period
last year. Female union members
totalled 126,665 as of January 1, 1977
and composed 35.1 per cent of the
estimated 361,000 female paid workers
in the Province. A little more than half
of the male paid workers in the Province — 313,065 or 50.9 per cent —
belonged to unions as of the same
date.
Twenty unions in the Province had
membership comprising more than
1,000 females, led by the B.C.
Teachers' Federation with 15,562, and
followed by the Hospital Employees
Union, 14,416, the Registered Nurses
Association of B.C., 12,920, and the
B.C. Government Employees' Union,
12,444.
Membership is most heavily
concentrated in the miscellaneous
services industry, which includes a
substantial proportion of government
employees. This category contains
110,405 members, or 25.1 per cent
of total union membership in the
Province. The second largest
concentration of union members is in
the wood and paper products category,
which has 64,072 members, 14.6 per
cent of the total union membership.
The third highest concentration is in
construction, where 52,895 workers
are unionized, 12.0 per cent of the
Province's total unionized work force.
(See adjoining table for industry
breakdowns.)
During 1977, local union affiliation
with national congresses and
confederations did not change
substantially in percentage terms.
 Union Membership as a Percentage of Paid Workers
A
^
fA
1945
1965
1970
About three fourths of all union CLC, 193,168 are in international
members in British Columbia belong to unions, also affiliated with AFL-CIO/
unions affiliated with national and/or CLC, and 121,539 are in national
international congresses or unions affiliated only with the CLC.
confederations of unions.
The majority of union members are Most of the remaining workers
in unions aligned with the Canadian belonging to affiliated unions are in
Labour Congress (CLC), which unions aligned with the Confederation
represents 314,707 workers, or 71.6 of Canadian Unions (CCU) — 15,954
per cent of all union members in the union members, or 3.6 per cent of the
Province. Of the total number of total union membership in the
workers in unions affiliated with the Province.
Union Membership in British Columbia, 1945-1977
Percentage Organized Labour
Total Change From Total Paid as a Percentage of
Year Membership Previous Year Workers (1) Total Paid Workers
1945   110,045 — 283,000 38.9
1950   146,259 — 335,000 43.6
1955   186,951 — 381,000 49.1
1960   215,437 — 430,000 50.1
1965   237,864 4.9 550,000 43.2
1966   256,241 7.7 588,000 43.6
1967   273,946 6.9 626,000 43.8
1968   287,502 5.0 654,000 44.0
1969   292,842 1.9 706,000 41.5
1970   310,222 5.9 713,000 43.5
1971   316,587 2.1 743,000 42.6
1972   332,091 4.9 784,000 42.4
1973   350,175 5.5 850,000 41.2
1974   395,846 13.0 895,000 44.2
1975   401,608 1.5 919,000 43.7
1976   426,723 6.3 950,000 44.9
1977   439,730 3.0 974,000 45.1
(1) Includes agricultural workers in 1976. Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, Ottawa, Cat. 71-001 (monthly)
 Unions with a British Columbia Membership Greater than 5,000,1977
Membership Relative
January Position
Union 1977 1977
International Woodworkers of America       47,474 1
B.C. Government Employees' Union       31,294 2
B.C. Teachers' Federation       28,818 3
Canadian Union of Public Employees       24,204 4
Teamsters       20,382 5
Hospital Employees' Union      18,147 6
Carpenters      15,255 7
Registered Nurses Association of B.C      13,000 (2) 8
Public Service Alliance of Canada       12,293 9
Operating Engineers       11,725 10
Hotel & Restaurant Employees      11,043 11
United Steelworkers of America       10,847 12
I B E W (Electrical Workers)       10,056 13
Telecommunications Workers Union         9,780 14
Labourers' International Union        9,755 15
International Association of Machinists         8,747 16
Canadian Paperworkers' Union        8,661 17
Office and Technical Employees' Union         8,074 18
Retail Clerks International Association        8,025 19
Pulp Paper and Woodworkers of Canada        6,574 20
United Fishermen and Allied Workers        6,184 21
Plumbers         5,176 22
(1) As of January 1, 1977.
(2) Does not include 3,331 who are in the Association but are not covered by collective bargaining.
Labour Dispute Statistics
Relative
Position
1976 (1)
1
2
3
4
5
7
8
6
9
10
11
12
13
15
14
17
16
18
19
20
21
22
Preliminary statistics indicate that 67
labour disputes in the Province in 1977
involved 31,865 workers for a total of
448,460 man-days of work stoppage,
142,910 man-days in the provincial
jurisdiction and 305,550 man-days in
the federal jurisdiction. The 1977
man-days total recorded in the
provincial jurisdiction was the lowest
since 1965, when work stoppages
totalling 104,430 man-days were
recorded.
Despite their relatively low frequency,
disputes in industries under federal
jurisdiction dominated the year's
activities. Accounting for only 13 per
cent of the disputes, they involved
34 per cent of the workers, and were
responsible for 68 per cent of the
man-days lost in provincial dispute
activity during 1977. This is in sharp
contrast to 1976, when such disputes
involved only 4 per cent of the workers,
and accounted for only 1 per cent of
the Province's man-days lost. One
dispute in the telecommunications
industry had an extreme effect on the
year's activity, accounting for over two
thirds of the total man-days recorded.
Th» imnar-t nf HiQnntoc nnrl^r nrnwinrial      titati\/f» measure" of the> e>Yte>nt tn
jurisdiction decreased by over 90 per
cent compared with 1976. The longest
dispute in this jurisdiction was one in
the steel industry that lasted almost
six weeks, and accounted for 31,651
man-days, 22 per cent of the total in
the provincial jurisdiction. Two disputes
in the glass and hotel industries
accounted for a further 25,790 man-
days between them. Together with
a copper mining dispute, these
were the only other disputes in the
Province recording more than 10,000
man-days lost each.
Slightly over half of the disputes,
including 53 per cent of the workers
involved, occurred in goods-producing
industries, but these disputes combined to produce less than one
quarter of lost man-days recorded in
the Province.
Definitions
The British Columbia Ministry of
Labour has been collecting and reporting labour dispute statistics since
1918. The series has been developed
for the purpose of providing a quan-
 Analysis of Disputes, 1956-1977	
Estimated
Time-loss as a
Estimated Percentage of
Number of                  Estimated Total
Total Paid         Number of                Workers                    Man-days         Working-time of Wage
Year Workers (1)       Disputes (2) Affected Lost and Salary Earners
1956  414,000 35 3,197 39,211 —
1957  430,000 35 3,914 225,869 0.2
1958  422,000 29 11,709 325,211 0.3
1959  438,000 34 33,443 1,423,268 1.3
1960  430,000 14 999 35,848 —
1961  438,000 17 1,638 34,659 —
1962  461,000 33 1,982 32,987 —
1963  488,000 23 824 24,056 —
1964  519,000 29 9,503 181,784 0.2
1965  550,000 40 6,755 104,430 0.1
1966  588,000 39 24,748 272,922 0.2
1967  626,000 54 11,371 327,272 0.2
1968  654,000 66 12,179 406,729 0.2
1969  706,000 85 17,916 406,645 0.2
1970  713,000 82 46,642 1,683,261 0.9
1971  743,000 113 52,358 276,999 0.1
1972  784,000 101 106,399 2,120,848 1.1
1973  850,000 142 96,078 705,525 0.3
1974  895,000 139 86,932 1,609,431 0.7
1975  919,000 173 67,502 1,864,596 0.8
1976  950,000 97 84,565 1,470,757 0.6
1977  974,000 67 31,865 448,460 0.2
(1) Does not include persons who operated their own businesses, farms, or professions, or persons who worked without pay on a farm or
business owned or operated by a member of the household to whom they were related. Totals include agricultural workers for the first time
in 1976. Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force.
(2) Statistics for the years prior to 1970 exclude disputes that did not fall within the scope of the Mediation Commission Act or its
predecessors. Also, definitional changes made for 1976 make earlier dispute totals non-comparable (revisions forthcoming). See March
1976 Labour Research Bulletin, p. 27, for details.
Disputes by Industry, 19771
Number of
Disputes
Workers
Directly Involved
Percentage
Number                  of Total
Estimated Duration
in Man-days
Percentage
Number                     of Total
Jurisdictional Classification
Provincial    58
Federal   9
Industrial Classification
Goods Producing  37
Agriculture  —
Forestry  —
Fishing  1
Mines  7
Manufacturing    26
Construction  3
Service Producing  30
Transport  16
Trade  5
Finance  —
Service    5
Public Administration    4
Totals for All Industries   67
1 Figures subject to revision.
21,257
10,608
17,041
66.4
33.6
53.2
142,910
305,550
110,639
31.9
68.1
24.7
350
1.1
350
0.1
3,067
9.7
21,743
4.8
13,606
42.3
87,482
19.5
18
0.1
1,064
0.2
14,824
46.8
337,821
75.3
13,648
43.1
314,159
70.1
272
0.9
10,056
2.2
796
2.5
13,398
3.0
108
0.3
208
0.1
31,865
100.0
448,460
100.0
which disagreements between labour
and management result in disputes.
Information about possible disputes is
collected from a variety of sources,
such as the news media, Ministerial
information sources, and other government and private publications.
Specific details for each dispute are
then verified by direct contact with
the parties involved.
 Dispute
The major criterion used in
the collection of dispute statistics is the
concept of work stoppage. All
stoppages, whether or not authorized
by the union, legal or illegal, are
included, with no attempt at categorization. Consequently, labour
dispute statistics for 1975 are
composed of strikes, lockouts and
jurisdictional disputes, as well as the
occasional sympathy or protest strike.
Small disputes of less than 10
man-days duration, however, may
occasionally be omitted. There is
some reservation as to whether such
disputes should be included because
of the difficulties involved in defining,
identifying and securing information on
disputes that last for only a few hours
or less.
Duration
The duration of a labour dispute is
calculated in terms of working days
from the commencement date of the
dispute to the termination date. The
commencement date is the first day on
which normal operations were affected
by the work stoppage.
The termination date is the day on
which work was resumed. If normal
operations could not be resumed after
the settlement of a dispute, the day or
which the workers were available for
work is regarded as the termination
date. The days counted as "working"
are those on which the establishment
involved would normally be in
operation.
Duration in Man-days
Duration in man-days is calculated
by multiplying the duration in working
days by the number of workers directly
involved. For work stoppages involving
establishments in which the number of
weekly working days exceeds the work
week of individual employees, the
duration in man-days is so weighted.
As far as information permits,
variations in the number of workers
directly involved in the course of a
labour dispute are also taken into
account in the calculation of man-days.
Workers Involved
Only those workers directly involved
in a dispute are reported. Workers
indirectly affected by disputes, such as
those involved in layoffs resulting from
lack of materials, or those respecting
picket lines, are not included in the
number of workers directly involved. If
the number of workers involved varies
during the course of the stoppage, the
maximum number is shown.
Labour Disputes, by Month, 19771
Disi
putes
Duration in
Man-days
January
Agriculture   —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   1
Manufacturing  3
Construction    1
Transportation (4)  1
Trade   1
Finance  —
Service (5)  —
Public
Administration  —
Provincial  7
Federal  —
Totals   7
February
Agriculture   —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   1
Mines (3)   —
Manufacturing  3
Construction    1
Transportation (4)  1
Trade   —
Finance  —
Service (5)  —
Public
Administration  —
Provincial  6
Federal  —
Totals  6
458
173
7
5
14
657
657
5,496
173
147
105
56
5,977
5,977
173
7
5
535
535
350
3,160
140
100
3,750
3,750
 Labour Disputes,
by Month, 19771 _ Continued
srfMfe*
Disputes       Workers
2,061
248
2,309
Duration in
Man-days
1,907
3,503
1,907
3,503
-
-
700
2,800
1,224
24,144
13
164
March
Agriculture  — — —
Forestry (2)   — — —
Fishing  — — —
Mines (3)   1 602 1,204
Manufacturing  2 1,293 2,023
Construction    1 7 161
Transportation (4)  1 5 115
Trade    — — —
Finance  — — —
Service (5)  — — —
Public
Administration  — — —
Provincial  5
Federal  —
Totals  5
April
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   1
Manufacturing  2
Construction    2
Transportation (4)  —
Trade   — — —
Finance  — — —
Service (5)  — — —
Public
Administration  — — —
Provincial  5 1,937 27,107
Federal  — — —
Totals   5 1,937 27,107
May
Agriculture  — — —
Forestry (2)   — — —
Fishing   — — —
Mines (3)   — — —
Manufacturing  4 1,488 6,404
Construction    1 7 147
Transportation  2 5,048 11,719
Trade    — — —
Finance  — — —
Service (5)  — — —
Public
Administration  — — —
Provincial  5
Federal  2
Totals  7
June
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   1
Manufacturing  4
Construction    1
Transportation (4)  3
Trade   —
Finance  —
Service (5)  1
Public
Administration  —
Provincial  8
Federal  2
Totals  10
July
Agriculture  — — —
Forestry (2)   — — —
Fishing   — — —
Mines (3)   — — —
Manufacturing  3 480 730
Construction    1 5 100
Transportation (4)  3 143 575
Trade    1 50 50
Finance  — — —
Service (5)  2 725 5,000
Public
Administration  2 8 8
1,495
6,551
5,048
11,719
6,543
18,270
740
740
835
2,835
5
65
254
1,274
11.258
1,256
12,514
          9
1,268
143
1,411
5,888
Totals 	
3
         12
575
6,463
■
 Labour Disputes,
by Month, 19771 — Continued
 Disputes
August
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   1
Manufacturing  3
Construction    1
Transportation (4)  5
Trade   1
Finance  —
Service (5)  —
Public
Administration  1
Provincial  7
Federal  3
Totals   12
September
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   2
Manufacturing  7
Construction    1
Transportation (4)  4
Trade   1
Finance  —
Service (5)  —
Public
Administration  1
Provincial  14
Federal  2
Totals   16
October
Agriculture   —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   2
Manufacturing  3
Construction    —
Transportation (4)  4
Trade   2
Finance  —
Service (5)  3
Public
Administration  —
Provincial  12
Federal  2
Totals   14
November
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   —
Manufacturing  4
Construction    —
Tranpsortation (4)  2
Trade   2
Finance  —
Service (5)  2
Public
Administration  —
Provincial  8
Federal  2
Totals   10
December
Agriculture  —
Forestry (2)   —
Fishing   —
Mines (3)   —
Manufacturing  2
Construction    —
Transportation (4)  5
Trade   1
Finance  —
Service (5)  2
Public
Administration  2
Provincial  7
Federal  5
Totals   1 ?
(1) Figures are subject to revision.
(2) Primarily logging.	
Duration in
Workers        Man-days
340
7,300
5
884
14
7,848
695
8,543
387
3,295
5
737
14
227
330
4,318
194
3,645
1,495
5,140
10,095
194
15
734
10,095
10,829
10,124
180
6,800
17,618
110
4,702
182
25,422
3,990
29,412
3,975
14,925
30
3,457
154
3,743
19,271
695
3,270
4,438
22,541
728
5,235
16,005
2,080
15,576
8,655
24,231
74,135
3,934
315
11,344
74,135
85,479
201,972
3,600
100
200
513
7,262
10,231
201,950
10.744
209,212
 Wages and Salaries
Average weekly earnings in British
Columbia continued to be the highest
in Canada during 1977. The year's
industrial composite average was
$284.25 a week, 9.5 per cent above
the 1976 average of $259.52 a week.
By comparison, the average earnings
across Canada were $250.05 a week
during 1977, a 9.7 per cent increase
over 1976.
Alberta was the only other Province
to realize weekly earnings above the
Canadian average. Average earnings
of $261.77 a week in that Province
were 5.0 per cent above the national
figure. Prince Edward Island and Nova
Scotia, with $188.16 a week and
$211.99 a week, experienced the
lowest provincial earnings during 1977.
The fastest rate of increase during the
year was in Alberta, where average
weekly earnings rose 10.5 per cent,
followed by a 10.1 per cent increase in
New Brunswick and Quebec. Lowest
increases were in Manitoba, 8.6 per
cent, and Ontario, 9.1 per cent.
Average weekly earnings information
is examined in terms of current values,
and therefore does not take into
consideration the impact that inflation
can have on the purchasing power of
weekly earnings. The real purchasing
value (or constant dollar value) is
simply a process by which average
weekly earnings are deflated by the
consumer price index (CPI) and
expressed in terms of dollars of equal
purchasing power.
In the table on page 33, average
weekly earnings for Canada and British
Columbia are presented for the past
few years in current dollar terms
(column 1), and in constant dollar
terms (column 4). Column 2 shows that
the increases in average weekly
earnings have been roughly comparable in Canada as a whole and in
British Columbia during the past few
years, the peak increase in both areas
coming in 1975.
During 1977 the 9.5 per cent increase
in British Columbia was slightly below
the 9.7 per cent increase in current
dollar earnings in Canada as a whole.
In constant dollar terms, the real value
of average weekly earnings in both
jurisdictions has been reduced quite
considerably by the impact of inflation.
Average Weekly Earnings by Province (Industrial Composite)
1974 1975 1976
Canada   178.09 203.34 228.03
Newfoundland    168.48 196.44 221.63
Prince Edward Island   126.92 149.84 170.88
Nova Scotia   149.98 172.40 193.21
New Brunswick   154.58 182.40 202.56
Quebec   172.89 199.22 222.41
Ontario  181.43 204.85 228.78
Manitoba  170.49 197.25 208.55
Saskatchewan   162.71 186.10 214.87
Alberta  178.72 207.38 236.89
British Columbia    200.55 229.97 259.52
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings and Hours, Ottawa, Cat. 62-002 (monthly)
Province as
Percentage
of Canada
1977
Average
250.05
100
242.78
97
188.16
75
211.99
85
223.42
89
244.87
98
249.58
100
226.38
91
235.89
94
261.77
105
284.25
114
In British Columbia, 1977 average
weekly earnings were worth $176.77 a
week in 1971 dollar terms, an increase
of only 1.4 per cent in one year. Constant 1971 dollar earnings in
Canada as a whole were $155.50 a
week in 1971, an increase of 1.5 per
cent over 1976.
First estimates of average weekly
earnings by major industrial categories
for the Province show increases for all
groups during 1977.
Industrial composite weekly earnings
show an average of $284.25 a week,
an increase of $24.73 or 9.5 per cent
when compared with 1976.
Workers in the construction industry
continued to show the highest
earnings, $422.73 a week on average
during 1977, followed by an average
$358.09 a week earned by employees
in the mining and milling industry.
 Earnings in these two industries were
49.0 per cent and 26 per cent above
the industrial composite average.
Earnings in the Province's manufacturing sector averaged $315.06 a
week in 1977, an increase of 9.3 per
cent over 1976.
The industrial sectors exhibiting the
lowest average earnings during 1977
were: service, $182.07 a week; trade,
$230.97; and finance, insurance and
real estate, $283.03. In these three
industries, average earnings were up
7.5 per cent, 8.6 per cent and 8.8 per
cent over 1976. Despite these fairly
significant percentage increases, the
dollar difference between earnings in
these lower paid sectors and the
provincial average continued to
expand.
In the service industry, average
earnings were $102.18 a week below
the provincial average in 1977, $90.18
a week below it in 1976, and $35.77 a
week below it in 1967.
Although the preponderance of
part-time employees (and therefore
shorter average weekly hours) is
partially responsible for lower earnings
in some industries (e.g., service and
trade), it is unlikely that this factor can
account for much more than one third
of the dollar difference between
high-and low-earning industries. Skills,
productivity, and differences in the
competitive positions of industries
account for some of the differences in
average industrial earnings.
Readers should be reminded that the
source of most of the information used
in this section is Statistics Canada's
Employment, Earnings and Hours
Survey (Cat. 72-002, monthly). This
survey covers only establishments
employing 20 or more persons, and
this can affect the reliability of the
information in industries in which a
great deal of employment is
concentrated in smaller firms.
Estimated percentage coverage
ranges from a high of 82 per cent of
employees in the transportation,
communications and utilities industry,
to 43 per cent in trade, and 20 per cent
in the service industry.
During last year, 4,989 establishments
in British Columbia employing an
average of 450,000 persons were
 included in the survey. This represented almost two fifths of the
total provincial labour force. Certain
industries — agriculture, fishing and
trapping, education and related
services, health and welfare services,
religious organizations, defence and
ublic administration, for example —
:
are not covered by the survey.
The earnings data cited refer to gross
pay, and they include straight-time
wages, piece work, bonuses, overtime
earnings, and commissions, before
deductions for taxes, unemployment
insurance, and Canada Pension Plan
contributions.
Average Earnings, Canada and British Columbia 1971-1977
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Average Annual CPI Constant
Weekly Change in Canada Dollar Earnings
Year                                            Earnings Earnings (1971 = 100) (Col. 1) + (Col. 3)
CANADA                                         $s PerCent $s
1971   137.64 — 100 137.64
1972   149.22 8.4 104.5 142.79
1973   160.46 7.5 112.7 142.38
1974   178.09 11.0 125.0 142.47
1975   203.34 14.2 138.5 146.82
1976   228.03 12.1 148.9 153.14
1977   250.05 9J 160.8 155.50
BRITIbH COLUMBIA
1971   152.50 — 100 152.50
1972   165.08 8.2 104.5 157.97
1973   178.29 8.0 112.7 158.20
1974   200.31 12.4 125.0 160.25
1975   230.01 14.8 138.5 166.07
1976   259.52 12.8 148.9 174.29
1977   284.25 9.5 160.8 176.77
Changes in
Constant
Dollar
Earnings
Per Cent
3.7
0.3
0.1
3.1
4.3
1.5
3.6
0.1
1.3
3.6
4.9
1.4
Average Weekly Earnings in Major Industries	
Transportation
MANUFACTURING                     Communi- Finance
Forestry     Mining                                          Con-        cations Insurance
Industrial     (Mainly        and                          Wood        struc-          and and Real
Year                                  Composite Logging)     Milling        Total      Products       tion         Utilities Trade Estate Service
1967       114.40        138.57        142.97         119.76         114.66        165.24         123.55 88.55 97.19 78.63
1968      120.76       150.82       152.43       128.44       123.54       162.11        131.74 96.63 105.11 83.02
1969      129.20        158.07        160.23        137.78        130.76        178.65        140.15 106.15 113.89 89.99
1970      137.80        162.31        177.37        146.97        138.62        196.37        153.75 113.15 118.12 94.17
1971        152.50        178.01        191.10        162.67        156.56       224.68        169.00 123.06 127.60 102.80
1972      164.75        196.76       206.00        178.82        177.64       246.71        183.69 132.36 139.12 107.42
1973      178.22       225.05       226.67        193.28        189.73       246.43        194.24 148.04 150.95 119.26
1974      200.55       246.71        262.37       217.87        195.26       282.64       218.18 166.96 172.51 132.70
1975       229.97       278.13       297.50        252.77       249.05       344.41        251.64 190.08 198.18 149.72
1976      259.52       328.52       330.00        288.20       290.67       378.53       287.06 212.21 219.18 169.34
1       249.07       314.48       318.52        276.97       278.83       363.56        275.74 201.73 211.42 162.79
2     258.30       334.79       333.51        283.96       282.98       375.76       284.28 213.99 221.58 168.42
3    264.82       334.36       328.91        293.28       296.65       392.46       292.29 216.50 221.18 172.66
4     266.01        320.44       339.05        298.58       304.24       382.33        295.94 216.62 222.56 173.49
1977(1)      284.25       350.20       358.09        315.06       316.19       422.73       313.92 230.97 238.03 182.07
1       275.66       350.92       349.09        307.78       311.66       393.97       301.02 224.63 229.75 176.06
2     283.24       361.96       354.63       312.45       312.20       421.42        309.71 229.81 239.41 181.35
3     288.59       358.39       358.52       314.10       309.64       452.29        318.79 234.42 241.57 184.74
4(1)     289.51        329.54       370.12        325.92       331.28       437.77       326.15 233.02 241.37 186.13
Estimated
Per Cent of
Coverage (2)       42             64                              74                              25             82 43 54 20
(1) Preliminary
(2) Calculated using average large-firm employment as a percentage of Labour Force Survey results; 1977 averages.
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings, and Hours, Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly)
Consumer Price Changes
1977 experienced a relatively high
rate of consumer price increase when
compared with 1976. The Canada
all-items index advanced to 167.2
(1971 = 100) in December, for a
9.5 per cent 12-month increase,
considerably above the 5.8 per cent
advance during 1976, and the same
 increase as the 9.5 per cent jump
registered between December 1974
and December 1975.
In 1977 the average monthly
Consumer Price Index increase was
in the order of 0.7 per cent to 0.8 per
cent, with advances in excess of 0.5
per cent being registered in 11 out of
12 months.
In terms of its purchasing power, the
Canadian dollar continued to shrink
as a result of higher price levels. The
adjoining table shows that a 1971
dollar would have been worth 80 cents
in 1974 and only 62 cents in 1977. This
means that the dollar's purchasing
value has dropped 38 per cent during
this six-year period.
Purchasing Power of the
1971 Consumer Dollar
Consumer
Per cent
Dollar
Price Index
Change from
Purchasing
(1971 = 100)
Last Year
Power
1971
100.0
2.9
1.00
1972
104.5
4.8
.95
1973
112.7
7.5
.89
1974
125.0
10.9
.80
1975
138.5
10.8
.72
1976
148.9
7.5
.67
1977
160.8
8.0
.62
Canada's price performance during
1977 must be considered poor when
compared with those of her chief
trading partners. Of the major industrial
countries, West Germany showed the
greatest success in controlling inflation.
That country's prices rose only 3.5 per
cent in the December 1976-December
1977 period. Japan held price increases for this period to 5.1 per cent,
while the United States, Canada's most
important trading partner, held it to 6.8
per cent.
Among Canada's other trading
partners, the recorded percentage
price increases were as follows:
Holland, 5.5; France, 9.0; Australia,
9.5; Britain, 12.1; Sweden, 12.5; and
Italy, 15.0.
Increasing domestic price levels
adversely affect foreign trade by
making domestic products relatively
more expensive than substitute
products from other countries.
Shrinking foreign markets and in-
rroacoH imnnrtc alcn nut nroccuroc
on employment, levels of foreign
currency reserves, and exchange
rates.
In Canada, a country in which roughly
25 per cent of gross national product is
generated by foreign trade, one result
of these pressures has been significant
devaluation of the Canadian dollar
against other world currencies. From
December 1976 to December 1977,
the Canadian dollar fell in value 7.7 per
cent against the American dollar, 19.4
per cent against the German mark,
27.1 per cent against the Swiss franc,
and 31.7 per cent against the
Japanese yen.
Although the long-term effect of
devaluation may be to increase
Canada's exports and reduce the
volume of imports, the short-term effect
has tended to be inflationary. The main
reason for this is that, despite higher
prices for imported goods, there has
not as yet been a significant decrease
in import demand.
Lack of substitutes for such products
as winter fruits and vegetables, and
machinery not manufactured in
Canada, and consumer preferences for
other imported items like television sets
and automobiles, have made it difficult
to reduce the volume of imports. The
result has been a further round of
domestic price increases that may be
expected to continue in coming
months.
Because approximately 70 per cent
of Canadian imports come from the
United States, the drop in our currency
against the U.S. dollar is particularly
significant. It has been estimated that
every three-cent fall in our currency
against the American dollar adds one
per cent to the domestic inflation rate
in Canada.
More than two fifths of 1977's
December-to-December jump in the
all-items CPI was attributable to an
advance in the food index. During this
period the food index rose 15.4 per
cent, a marked increase from the
period December 1975 to December
1976, when the virtual stability of this
index was a significant factor in that
period's lower CPI advance.
In the 12-month period ending
December 1977, retail prices for
fri lit anr\ x/onotahloc  rnco AO f\ no
fresh
<r nant
 nd 44.7 per cent, beef products rose
31.4 per cent, and coffee and tea were
jp 73.9 per cent and 72.4 per cent.
During this period, a 3.4 per cent drop
n egg prices was the only notable
lecrease registered.
The housing index continued to be a
najor factor in the total CPI advance,
as it rose 8.6 per cent and contributed
approximately 30 per cent of the total
hange during the December 1976 to
December 1977 period.
Dver a comparable period 12 months
sarlier, this index advanced 10 per
;ent and contributed 55 per cent of the
otal CPI increase. Increased shelter
charges for both owned and rented
accommodation were responsible
!or about half of this component's
nerease, but higher charges for
domestic gas ( + 16.6 per cent) and
slectricity (+17.1 per cent) were also
mportant factors.
Of the other major components of
the Canada, all-items CPI, higher
transportation charges and clothing
orices had the greatest impact,
contributing 9 per cent and 7 per cent
to the total increase. The transportation
index rose 5.7 per cent from December
1976 to December 1977, and the
clothing index increased 7.5 per cent.
Twelve-month changes and
contributions for the other components
are provided in the accompanying
table.
Movement in All-items Indexes
(1971=100)
Change in Consumer Price Indexes
for Regional Cities, December
1976-December 1977
(per cent)
Canada Index
Vancouver Index
Per Cent
Per Cent
1976
1977
Change
1976
1977
Change
Jan
145.1
154.0
6.1
143.8
156.3
8.7
Feb
145.6
155.4
6.7
144.3
157.4
9.1
Mar
146.2
157.0
7.4
147.7
158.4
7.2
Apr
146.8
157.9
7.6
149.8
159.6
6.5
May
148.0
159.2
7.6
151.0
160.4
6.2
June
148.7
160.3
7.8
151.4
161.3
6.5
July
149.3
161.8
8.4
151.7
162.4
7.1
Aug
150.0
162.5
8.3
152.5
163.1
7.0
Sept
150.7
163.4
8.4
154.4
163.9
6.2
Oct
151.7
165.0
8.8
155.4
165.3
6.4
Nov
152.2
166.1
9.1
155.1
166.1
7.1
Dec
152.7
167.2
9.5
155.2
167.2
7.7
Annual
Averages
148.9
160.8
8.0
151.0
161.8
7.2
All-Items
Food
Housing
St. John's
Halifax
Saint John
8.1
9.2
8.5
11.6
12.6
11.3
8.6
10.8
9.7
Quebec
Montreal
9.1
9.6
12.9
13.8
8.2
8.7
Ottawa
Toronto
Thunder Bay
9.3
9.5
10.0
14.0
15.7
14.9
8.2
8.7
8.9
Winnipeg
Saskatoon
Regina
Edmonton
Calgary
9.1
9.8
10.8
10.4
9.3
14.2
12.9
14.9
18.4
14.7
8.6
9.3
10.1
10.2
9.0
Vancouver
7.7
11.2
8.6
For the second consecutive year,
Vancouver experienced the lowest rate
of price increase of all regional cities
across Canada. From December 1976
to December 1977, the Vancouver
all-items index rose 7.7 per cent.
Vancouver was also the only regional
city to experience a reduced rate of
price increase during this period, its
CPI having advanced 8.6 per cent in
the period December 1975 to
December 1976.
Regina and Edmonton were the two
cities that experienced the most rapid
rate of price increase during the
1976-1977 period, 10.8 per cent and
10.4 per cent. Next to Vancouver, St.
John's (8.1 per cent) and Saint John,
New Brunswick (8.5 per cent) showed
the smallest rise in prices. The adjoining table compares the change in
all-items indices across the country,
and the change in food and housing
indices, the two components that
tended to contribute most to the past
year's inflation.
Higher prices for food was one of the
main contributors to higher prices in
Vancouver. From December 1976 to
December 1977, this index rose 11.2
per cent and contributed 37 per cent of
the total all-items CPI change.
Food for home consumption was most
severely affected, the price of fruits and
vegetables increasing 26.9 per cent,
frozen foods 18.6 per cent, fats and
oils 14.8 per cent, and beverages 49.4
per cent.
 Composition of Vancouver CPI Increases1
J   Food
Housing
Transportation
(1) Pie represents total CPI increases (on a December-December
attributable to various comDonents.
Other (includes: Health and
Personal Care; Recreation,
Reading and Education; Tobacco
and Alcohol)
basis), and the figures within the pie are estimated percentages
The Vancouver housing index
advanced 8.6 per cent in the
December 1976 to December 1977
period, as both shelter charges for
owner and rented accommodation (up
7.9 per cent) and the cost of operating
a household (up 9.6 per cent) rose
sharply. Higher utility charges for such
items as electricity and telephone were
a significant factor in the operation
component increase.
Among other major components of the
Vancouver CPI to rise last year were:
tobacco-alcohol index (7.2 per cent),
clothing index (6.1 per cent), health
and personal care (6.9 per cent), and
recreation, education and reading (5.9
per cent). The transportation index
advanced 2.9 per cent for the smallest
increase of any major index. This was
in marked contrast to the previous
12-month period when the transportation index rose 18.6 per cent and
provided more than one third of the
total all-items advance.
Although it is difficult to foretell at this
point what will happen to prices during
1978, it is likely that Canada will again
experience inflation in the 8-10 per
cent range. Recent devaluation and
pressures on the Canadian dollar have
not yet been fully felt at the retail price
level.
The coming months should see higher
prices for a whole range of consumer
durable products such as automobiles
and household appliances. It is also
likely that a continued increase in food
prices will be experienced in 1978,
although increases for some items
(fruits and vegetables, and beverages)
will not be nearly as great as that
experienced in 1977.
Wage Settlements*
Reported settlements during 1977
numbered 335 and covered 175,421
workers. The average annual increase
in these reported settlements was 6.4
per cent, or 49 cents an hour.
As has been common during past
years, the average increase of 6.7 per
cent for unskilled workers slightly
exceeded the 6.0 per cent for skilled
•Technical notes on the calculation of wage settlement data can
be obtained from page 22 of the February 1977 edition of the
Labour Research Bulletin, or from the Ministry's Research and
Planning Branch.
 workers, although the actual payout for
that the CPI increase has exceeded
skilled workers is naturally higher,
the average wage settlement (as
given the wage disparity between
measured by the settlement program).
groups.
This suggests that, if the downward
trend in settlements continues, a
Wage Settlements, 1971-1977
probable erosion of real income will
(per cent)
occur for the unionized segment of
the B.C. work force.
Contract                                                  CPI
Year                  Average          Skilled         Unskilled      Change
The industrial distribution of the past
year's contract settlements is shown in
1971                9.4           9.8           9.3          3.3
1972               8.2           8.1            8.6          4.8
the next table. More than 80 per cent of
1973 10.3          10.2          11.3          7.5
1974 16.2          17.2         15.3        10.9
1975 16.3          15.5         17.2        10.8
the agreements settled in 1977 and
reported to the Ministry of Labour were
1976             10.7         10.3         11.4          7.5
in either the trade and service or
1977               6.4           6.0           6.7          7.2
manufacturing categories, as were a
like proportion of employees covered
The accompanying table shows
by agreements. This is because of two
the large drop in average wage
large sets of negotiations, the FIR/IWA
settlements in the last two years. The
pact, and the GERB/BCGEU agree
6.4 per cent settlement average in
ment covering Provincial Government
1977 is less than two thirds of the 1976
employees.
average of 10.7 per cent, which in turn
The all-industry average settlement
is only two thirds of the 1975 peak of
in 1977 was 6.4 per cent in all sectors
16.3 per cent.
except the other-industries category,
Settlements affecting unskilled workers
which was slightly above that figure.
have exceeded those for skilled in
The 5.3 per cent average settlement in
each of the last three years. As noted
that sector reflects the generally
earlier, however, actual payouts to
depressed conditions facing the
skilled workers have exceeded those of
Province's mining industry, in which the
the unskilled during the same period.
eight settlements reported averaged
The table also shows the average
only 3.2 per cent in wage increases.
Vancouver Consumer Price Index
Larger first-year increases in the
changes between 1971 and 1977. The
settlements reflect the existence of AIB
figure for 1977 represents the first time
guidelines. The 7.2 per cent average
Wage Settlements by Quarter, 1977
Average Annual Increase
Number of                 Employees
Cents
Contracts                    Covered
Percentage
Per Hour
First Quarter, 1977
Contract average (1).
           61                   31,023
7.4
46
Skilled classes	
7.0
56
Unskilled classes ....
7.4
35
Second Quarter, 1977
Contract average ....
         106                   37,028
5.8
52
Skilled classes	
5.7
54
Unskilled classes ....
5.4
39
Third Quarter, 1977
Contract average ....
         107                   66,109
7.2
55
Skilled classes	
6.2
8.0
56
Unskilled classes ....
54
Fourth Quarter, 1977
Contract average ....
           61                   41,261
4.9
40
Skilled classes	
5.0
5.0
51
Unskilled classes ....
37
Average for Four Quarters
Contract average ....
         335                 175,421
6.4
49
Skilled classes	
6.0
55
Unskilled classes ....
6.7
44
(1) As represented by the aritmetic average of the modal skilled and modal unskilled pay rates. Footnote refers to all contract
averages.
 B.C. Wage Settlements by Industry, January 1 to December 31,1977
Contract Average
Skilled
Unskilled
Average
Annual Increase
First Year
Increase
Average Average
Annual Increase Annual Increa
Number of Employees
Industry Contracts Covered
All    335 175,421
Manufacturing  133 64,187
Food and beverage  30 10,312
Wood and paper
products  29 43,576
Metals  16 3,384
Machinery et al (1)  27 2,546
Miscellaneous
manufacturing  31 4,369
Construction    25 20,915
Trade and service   144 78,044
Trade   14 2,333
Education  39 8,024
Municipal services   36 4,730
Miscellaneous
services   55 62,957
Other industries   33 12,275
Mining  8 5,895
Transportation  21 5,589
Communications and
utilities  4 791
(1) Machinery, transportation equipment, and electrical products.
increase has a much larger sectoral
variation, with the other-industries
figure of 8.4 per cent leading the way.
This is the result when a large (11.9
per cent) average first-year increase in
agreements in the transportation sector
is offset by very small increases in
mining agreements. First-year dollar
payouts ranged from a low of 46 cents
an hour in the trade and service sector
to a high of 69 cents an hour in construction. The overall average of 54
cents an hour was slightly above the
contract average payout of 49 cents
an hour.
Major Settlements Reported, 1977
During the first quarter of the year,
three major settlements (1,000 or more
employees covered) were reported,
all in the public sector. These were
between the Health Labour Relations
Association and the Hospital
Employees' Union (18,147 employees),
Workers' Compensation Board and
WCB Employees' Union (1,200
employees), and the Government of
Canada and the Public Service
Alliance (clerical component, 4,062
employees).
The second quarter of 1977 was
characterized by much more activity in
terms of major agreements. These
included settlements between
members of the B.C. Road Builders
AeenHatinn anri tho I flhni irorc
Cents Cents Cents Cen
Percen-     Per     Percen-     Per     Percen-     Per     Percen-     Pei
tage      Hour      tage      Hour      tage      Hour      tage      HoJ
6.4
7.2
54
6.0
55
6.7
44
6.8
55
7.6
59
6.2
57
7.6
53
7.3
49
8.1
52
7.2
54
7.8
46
6.8
58
7.5
62
6.0
58
7.8
58
6.1
51
7.8
62
6.0
54
6.4
47
6.3
44
6.8
47
6.1
48
6.3
40
6.6
48
7.2
51
6.4
57
6.5
38
6.6
67
6.8
69
6.6
70
6.4
58
6.2
42
6.9
46
5.8
50
6.2
33
5.7
42
5.9
42
6.0
50
5.4
36
5.1
39
5.2
40
5.3
47
5.3
33
6.4
45
7.0
49
6.2
49
6.8
41
6.3
42
7.2
47
5.8
51
6.3
35
5.3
38
8.4
55
4.7
38
5.5
35
3.2
23
5.2
37
3.0
24
3.4
22
7.2
52
11.9
75
6.6
54
7.7
47
Operating Engineers and Teamsters
Unions (covering a total of 6,000
employees); the University of British
Columbia and CUPE (1,470 employees); Cominco and the Steel-
workers (3,950 employees); ICBC
and the Office and Technical
Employees' Union (2,300 employees);
Construction Labour Relations (CLRA)
and a number of the building trade
unions (approximately 35,000 employees, some of which were settled
in the third quarter); the City of
Vancouver and CUPE (1,300
employees), and Municipal and
Regional Employees (1,700 employees); the District of Burnaby
and CUPE (1,300 employees); and
White Spot Retailers and the Food
and Associated Services Union (1,250
employees).
In the third quarter of 1977, major
settlements were concluded in the
Province's forest sector. These
included agreements between
Forest Industrial Relations and the
International Woodworkers of America
(IWA) (28,000 employees), and
between the IWA and Interior and
North Cariboo employees (10,000
employees).
Other major settlements in the third
quarter were between the B.C.
Fisheries Association and the Native
RrnthorhnrwH t~\  C\C\C\ omnlnuoocV tho
 United Fishermen & Allied Workers
Union (4,000 employees) and the
Fisheries Association; the Okanagan
Federated Shippers Association and
the Fruit and Vegetable Workers
(1,800 employees); CP Air and the
Machinists Union (1,360 employees);
and UBC and the Association of
University and College Employees
(1,300 employees).
The final quarter of the year was also
an active period. Agreements were
reached between the Government
of British Columbia and various
components of the BCGEU (32,000
employees); Pulp and Paper Industrial
Relations Bureau and the Pulp, Paper
& Woodworkers (5,500 employees);
the B.C. Maritime Employers'
Association and the Longshoremen
(4,000 employees); B.C. Hydro and the
International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers (IBEW) (2,900 employees);
Alcan and Canadian Association of
Smelter & Allied Workers (1,988
employees); CLRA and IBEW (2,450
employees); and between the
Independent Forest Companies and
the IWA (2,500 employees).
Expiring Collective Agreements,
1978
Collective bargaining activity in British
Columbia for 1978, measured by the
expiration of existing collective
agreements, is somewhat reduced
from 1976 and 1977. The number of
employees covered by expiring
agreements is greatly reduced,
although the actual number of expiries
is smaller by only one fifth.
This has occurred because some of
the larger bargaining units reached
multi-year agreements in 1977 that are
not scheduled to expire until 1979.
Such agreements include the IWA
pacts with the forest industry, the
PPWC and CPU agreements with the
pulp companies, and the BCGEU
contract with the Provincial
Government.
Scheduled for renegotiation in 1978
are at least 380 major collective
agreements providing coverage for
130,813 employees within provincial
boundaries. The totals for 1977 were
687 expiries and 342,451 workers.
A listing has been provided of the 15
largest collective agreements in the
Province that are due to expire in 1978.
The largest of these is the series of
CLRA pacts with the Building Trades
Unions that cover 35,000 workers.
Another is a set of negotiations
conducted outside the auspices of the
Labour Code, between the B.C. School
Trustees Association and the B.C.
Teachers' Federation. The B.C. Tel/
TWU bargaining unit, and several
units affecting the Health Labour
Relations Association, could
conceivably be significant additions to
that list, depending on the outcome of
their current negotiations.
The month in 1978 containing the
greatest number of expiring contracts
is April, when 104 individual
agreements are due to be renegotiated. April is also the month in
which expiring agreements cover the
largest number of employees. This
picture could change if early-1978
bargaining produces more December
expiries.
The fewest expiries will occur in the
months of November (4 agreements)
and October (7). Expiries covering
the fewest employees will occur in
November (520 employees) and
August (1,509 employees). The
accompanying table provides the
monthly totals of expiries and the
number of workers covered.
The industries with the greatest
number of expiries during 1978 are:
food and beverage manufacturing (52),
construction (47), and miscellaneous
manufacturing (46). Expiries involving
the largest numbers of employees are
in construction (37,347 employees),
educational services (29,134), and
miscellaneous manufacturing (20,208).
Collective Agreements Expiring in
1978, by Month	
Employees
Agreements        Covered
January  27 3,576
February  31 5,862
March     68 14,966
April  104 60,008
May   31 3,655
June  29 5,540
July    17 2,243
August  12 1,509
September   31 5,739
October  7 1,015
November  4 520
December  19 26,180
Totals       380 130,813
 Collective Agreements Expiring in
1978, by Industry	
bmployees
Agreements        Covered
All industry	
Manufacturing	
Food and beverage	
Wood products	
Metals	
Machinery, transportation
equipment and electrical
products	
Miscellaneous
manufacturing	
Construction 	
Trade and service 	
Trade 	
Education	
Municipal services	
Miscellaneous services	
Other industries 	
Mining	
Transportation	
Communications and other
utilities  	
170
52
10
23
46
47
121
26
28
18
49
42
17
22
130,813
26,378
12,186
523
3,709
4,218
37,347
58,413
7,443
29,134
1,628
20,208
8,675
4,987
3,389
299
15 Largest Expiries During 1978
Employer
Union
Employees
Covered
Date of
Expiry
B.C. Food Industry
Labour Relations Association
B.C. Hotels Association
(excluding Vancouver)
B.C. Hotels Association (Vancouver)
B.C. Railway
B.C. School Trustees Association
Construction Labour Relations Association
Eaton's (Victoria)
Fisheries Association of B.C. (Cannery)
Fisheries Association of B.C. (Cannery)
Fisheries Association of B.C.
(Fresh Fish and Cold Storage)
Fraser Valley Milk Producers Association
Insurance Corporation of B.C.
Maintenance Contractors
Metal Industries Association
(Mainland Companies)
University of British Columbia
Retail Clerks, Local 1518
Hotel Employees, Local 40
Hotel Employees, Local 40
Canadian Union of Transportation
Employees, Local 1
Teachers
Building Trades Unions
Eaton's Employees Association
Native Brotherhood of B.C.
United Fishermen
United Fishermen
Teamsters, Local 464
O.T.E.U., Local 378
Service Employees, Local 244
Machinists, Lodge 692
C.U.P.E., Local 116
7,000
30 Apr
3,000
865
30 Apr
31 July
23,500
31 Dec
35,000
30 Apr
800
31 Jan
1,000
15 Apr
3,000
15 Apr
1,000
15 Apr
1,100
31 Mar
2,300
30 Sept
1,200
30 June
1,459
31 Mar
 Administration
Division
Finance and Administration
Personnel Services
Information Services
Research and Planning
Compensation Advisory Services
 Finance and Administration
The Finance and Administration
Branch of the Ministry is responsible
for the financial management of the
Ministry and the related administrative
programs.
Throughout 1977 the Branch undertook
to improve financial management in
the various programs offered by the
Ministry. This step took the form of a
continuing review and evaluation of
new methods and techniques, and the
development of improved reporting
systems to facilitate effective decision
making.
Among the services provided by the
Branch is budget administration and
co-ordination. The following schedule
shows the financial resources allotted
to the Ministry for the fiscal year ended
March 31, 1977.
Details of Estimates of Expenditure,
Ministry of Labour — Fiscal Year Ended March 31,1977
Vote Purpose Amount
$
123 — Minister's Office          99,581
124 — Ministerial Administration and
Support Services     1,358,260
125 — Manpower Training and Development 12,836,693
126 — Employment Programs       137,384
127 — Occupational Environment and
Compensation Advisory Services    1,079,800
128 — Services to Collective Bargaining    3,254,404
129 — Labour Relations Board      1,114,935
19,881,057
Less: Staff Reduction Salary Savings       906,822
18,974,235
Special Provincial Employment
Programs Fund    8,203,044
Section 112 Labour Code  2,500
Bill 58         30,000
During 1977 the Branch continued to
restructure Ministry estimates for the
fiscal year 1977-78, to broaden the
definition of activities, and to improve
the financial management and
administration of programs.
The general administration
responsibilities of the Branch involve
the co-ordination and provision of office
accommodation and telecommunication services for all Ministry
staff and several related boards
and commissions. Throughout 1977,
programs to upgrade accommodation and its utilization, and
to improve telecommunication equipment and services were continued.
Ray J. McManaman was appointed
Director of the Branch, replacing Frank
A. Rhodes, who was appointed
Assistant Deputy Minister of
Administration.
Personnel Services
It is the responsibility of Personnel
Services Branch to determine the staff
requirements of each Branch in the
Ministry, to supply the personnel
required, and to deal with those
requirements of Ministry employees
that are beyond the capability of the
individual Branches to provide.
The Ministry's approved work force
establishment in early 1977 consisted
of 383 oositions. Treasury Board
restrictions, normal turnover, and
reorganization activity resulted in the
Ministry's operating at approximately
5 per cent below the full establishment
level throughout the year.
Statistically, the activity of the Branch
for 1977 breaks down as follows: There
were 56 appointments, 42 resignations,
9 retirements, 12 in-service transfers,
and 19 promotions and
reclassifications. The Ministry also
 employed 61 auxiliary employees, 57
students under the
Work-in-Government 1977 program,
and an additional 100 auxiliaries for the
administration of the Youth
Employment Program.
Many employees received financial
training assistance during the year to
take such diverse courses as
shorthand, supervisory skills,
management psychology, oral
communication, public speaking, and
instructional techniques. Several
in-house seminars were conducted on
time management, contract
administration, handling of grievances,
and supervisory skills.
P.J. Thomas, Factory Inspector, and
G.W. Biggs, Apprenticeship
Counsellor, enrolled in the Executive
Development Training Course. K.P.
Waldman and D.R. Bell, Factory
Inspectors, J.T. Lumley,
Apprenticeship Counsellor, and N.
Sampson, Industrial Relations Officer,
enrolled in the Correspondence Course
in Public Administration.
The Branch was strengthened by the
addition of Anthony Raymond,
Personnel Officer. Kenneth A. Smith
retired from the position of Associate
Deputy Minister, Labour Relations, and
was succeeded by Douglas H.
Cameron, a former industrial relations
consultant with the Mediation and
Conciliation Services of the Federal
Department of Labour. Frank A.
Rhodes was appointed Assistant
Deputy Minister of Administration, and
Ray McManaman succeeded him as
Director of Finance and Administration
Branch. Alfred J. Moser was appointed
Director, Elevating Devices Branch,
and Maria Giardini became
Compensation Consultant.
Information Services
Information Services Branch is
responsible for communicating the
activities and services of the Ministry to
labour and management
representatives and organizations,
academic institutions and the general
public. The Branch provides public
information programs explaining the
functions of the various branches of the
Ministry, and how their services are
made available to residents of British
Columbia.
During 1977, in co-operation with five
Branches of the Ministry —
Apprenticeship Training, Employment
Opportunity, Occupational
Environment, Elevating Devices, and
Research and Planning — Information
Services embarked on a variety of
projects intended to promote greater
public awareness of the services
provided by the Ministry.
Foremost of these projects was a
15-minute colour film, titled "The
Apprentice", produced for
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Branch. The film deals with the
advantages and options of a career in
the skilled trades, and is directed at
young persons of school age. The film
was scheduled for release early in
1978.
Study guides, additional trade training
flyers, and a pamphlet dealing with
Tradesmen's Qualification Certification
were also produced during 1977, and
initial plans were laid for an
employer-oriented advertising
campaign aimed at accelerating the
hiring of apprentices in industry. The
Branch also co-ordinated design and
production of conference portfolios for
Trade Advisory Committees.
For Employment Opportunity
Programs, the Branch co-ordinated
production of the charts, pamphlets
and posters used to introduce the 1977
student Summer Employment
campaign.
In co-operation with Occupational
Environment, the Branch produced a
public information pamphlet dealing
with the functions, services and
advantages provided by OEB. It
has been scheduled for release early
in 1978.
For Elevating Devices Branch, two
pamphlets — "Elevator Safety" and
"Escalators are safe if..." — were
produced on the subject of proper use
and maintenance of elevators and
escalators. These were scheduled for
distribution in the new year.
Also readied for circulation early in
 1978 was a pamphlet produced for
Human Rights Branch. Titled "Human
Rights — Working for You", the
pamphlet was designed to explain
specific rights as set out in the
Province's Human Rights Code.
In conjunction with Research and
Planning Branch personnel,
Information Services produced new
cover formats for the Calendar of
Expiring Collective Agreements and
the Branch's Special Reports. The
Labour Directory was completely
redesigned, its content committed to
computer tape to speed up changes of
address and relieve Research and
Planning staff of time-consuming work.
In addition, substantial progress was
made during the year on conversion of
the total format of Research and
Planning's Labour Research Bulletin.
Scheduled to appear for the first time in
May 1978, the new bulletin will
incorporate modern designs for cover
and layout, and the content will be
typeset and illustrated.
The Branch also co-ordinated
production of the Ministry's 1976
Annual Report, prepared speech notes
and messages for the Minister and
Deputy Minister, rewrote the Ministry's
segment of the Public Service
Commission's organization manual,
produced a program directory of
Ministry services for the offices of the
Premier and Ministers, and wrote
articles for publication in The
Columbian and the PSC's staff
periodical, Contact.
Another 1977 Branch project was the
proposed layman's guide to the Labour
Code. Tentative plans call for its
introduction in late 1978. During the
year, the Branch also became the
Ministry's distribution centre for
literature concerning the Government's
new Visual Identity Program.
Finally, in a plan to encourage broader
consideration of the potential value of
film in promoting public awareness of
the services offered by various
Ministries of Government, the Branch
sponsored an afternoon meeting and
question period for information
personnel and representatives of the
B.C. film industry. Highlight of the
session was the screening of a national
award-winning PR film, followed by an
exchange of views with the film's
producers.
Research and Planning
The function of Research and Planning
Branch is to apply the techniques and
methodology of social science to
problems in the fields of labour
relations, labour standards, human
rights, safety and manpower.
Research and Planning Branch is
primarily a service unit, providing
advice and information to the Minister
and senior officials, as well as support
for the various program areas of
the Ministry.
The Branch also engages in joint
activities with other ministries, assists
various boards and commissions,
distributes information to the public
through the collection of statistics and
the production of publications, and
provides answers to inquiries on labour
and manpower matters.
During 1977, the Branch completed a
wide variety of projects, including
significant assistance to a number of
task forces and interministerial
committees, as outlined below.
The Branch's regular publications
included 1977 editions of the Labour
Directory, the Calendar of Expiring
Collective Agreements, and Negotiated
Working Conditions.
The format of the Labour Research
Bulletin was considerably improved,
and it was published monthly through
the year. A special human rights issue
was produced, and feature articles
during the year included "Right to Work
Laws", "Private Pension Plans", and
"The Consumer Price Index"?
Branch research support was provided
for a number of committees and task
forces, including the Building
Regulation Investigation and Activity
Committee, the Manpower Subcommittee of the North East Coal
Committee, the task force on the Alcan
pipeline, the Premier's Task Force on
the National Economic Program, and
an inter-departmental Committee on
 Income Maintenance.
Special studies, legislative reviews,
detailed reports and analyses were
prepared on such subjects as construction wage rates, low-wage
earners, construction labour relations,
labour standards, workers' compensation, and the Alberta Labour
Amendment Act. Considerable
progress was made toward production
of a publication tentatively titled "a
layman's guide to the B.C. Labour
Code".
An extensive comparison of manpower
training agreements between the
Federal Government and the various
provinces was also produced. Special
manpower studies were made of
refrigeration technologists, and
manpower in the hospital industry.
Studies of linemen and cablemen, and
automotive mechanics were worked on
extensively in 1977.
With the co-operation of Statistics
Canada and the Ministry of Economic
Development, a new format and
procedures for reporting to the Minister
and senior officials on labour force
developments was initiated in 1977.
A number of activities were undertaken
on behalf of the Canadian Association
of Administrators of Labour Legislation.
These included papers on the effects
of the economics controls program on
collective bargaining, a comparative
study of wages in Canada and the
U.S., and a paper on measurement of
strike activity. The Branch also
participated in a technical subcommittee on the coding of
collective agreements.
The Branch provided commentary
on a number of Federal Government
documents and legislation. These
included "Living Together", the Federal
Department of Labour's "fourteen
points", and a commentary on federal
direct-employment programs. It also
made research contributions to an
evaluation of the 1977 Youth Employment Program and the Women's
Pre-apprenticeship Program.
Compensation Advisory Services
Under the provisions of Section 77 of
the Workers' Compensation Act, a
Compensation Consultant and
Employers' Adviser are appointed by
the Province of British Columbia to
provide independent advice to both
workers and employers concerning
problems arising out of the Workers'
Compensation Act.
The Compensation Consultant and
staff assist any worker or dependent
having a claim under the Workers'
Compensation Act. They communicate
with or appear before the Workers'
Compensation Board, boards of
review, or any other tribunal
established under the Workers'
Compensation Act on behalf of
workers or dependents whose claims
are of such complexity or importance
that, in their opinion, assistance is
required. They also advise workers and
dependents with regard to interpretation and administration of the Act,
and of any regulations or decisions
connected with the Act.
The Employers' Adviser performs
similar functions on behalf of
employers, and assists them with
claims, policies, and procedures
related to the Act.
Officers of the Compensation Services
Branch have complete access to claim
files at the Workers' Compensation
Board.
During 1977, the Branch processed
778 claims and inquiries from
employees, and 625 from employers.
(See Tables 1 and 1(a), page 67.)
 Job Training and
Employment
Opportunities
Division
Introduction
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Employment Opportunity Programs
Trade-schools Regulation
Manpower Training and Development
Occupational Environment
Elevating Devices
 Introduction
Job Training and Employment
Opportunities Division has continued
during the past year to improve service
throughout the Province through better
co-ordination of existing resources.
Restructuring and reorganization were
continued in an effort to improve
response to the complex and changing
employment and training requirements
developing around the Province.
Early in 1977 the Commission on
Vocational, Technical and Trades
Training presented its report. This
document was subsequently tabled in
the Legislature, and more than 4,000
copies were distributed in response to
inquiries from interested members of
the public. As its primary
recommendation, the Commission
called for establishment of an
industry-based occupational training
council to allocate funds for training
throughout the Province.
In conjunction with the Ministry of
Education, legislation was developed
to reorganize post-secondary
education and training, and to establish
the occupational training council. The
Council, established in the Colleges
and Provincial Institutes Act, and
under the general responsibility of the
Minister of Education, clearly links with
the Ministry of Labour through the
proposed new Apprenticeship and
Training and Development Act.
The Act modernizes the existing
apprenticeship and trade school
legislation and, for the first time,
combines into one Act all other
legislative instruments that deal with
employment and training.
The Manpower Needs Committee, a
joint federal-provincial agency,
continued to benefit both levels of
government through more effective
co-ordination of programs. Meetings of
provincial Ministers and with the
federal Minister continued, together
with meetings of senior officials, to
maintain the dialogue established over
the last few years.
The Ministry established a planning
and policy development department in
the manpower area. Through the
Manpower Needs Committee, this
unique section co-ordinates provincial
policies with those of the Federal
Government. The unit also presents
policy options concerning employment
and training for consideration by the
Government.
Apprenticeship Training Programs
In British Columbia as elsehwere, the
need for highly skilled trained
tradesmen is great. To meet this need,
the Apprenticeship Training Programs
Branch works with industry, trade
unions, and other government
agencies to fulfill its responsibilities for
the promotion and operation of
apprenticeship training throughout the
Province, and for the certification of
tradesmen.
The Apprenticeship Training Programs
Branch supervises the on-the-job
experience of apprentices, assigns
their in-school technical training, and
prepares and conducts examinations to
certify the competence of apprentices
and tradesmen. It is also responsible
for the operation of an extensive
pre-apprentice trades training program
for young men and women seeking
employment.
During 1977 the number of apprentices
registered remained relatively high. As
of December 31, the Branch listed
13,512 apprentices on its records,
down 1,087 from last year.
The Branch works closely with
vocational schools, colleges, school
boards, the Ministry of Education, and
the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission in the
development of all training programs.
The responsibilities associated with
conducting pre-apprenticeship,
apprenticeship and journeymen
certification programs are many:
supervision of on-the-job work
experience, assignment of technical
training, preparation and supervision of
examinations, development of class
schedules, course outline
development, and enrollment of
classes. In addition to these duties, the
 Apprenticeship Training Counsellors
must investigate requests for training
under the Canada Manpower Industrial
Training Program.
The administrative duties connected
with a program dealing with 13,512
apprentices, 1,886 pre-apprentices,
and the certification of tradesmen are
many and varied. The decentralization
of operations, the computerization
program, and the data processing of all
apprentice records neared completion
by year's end.
Apprenticeship Training
The Branch is responsible for the
scheduling of apprenticeship technical
training classes for the designated
trades and apprenticeable trades, and
the assigning of indentured apprentices
to the classes.
The technical training classes are
basically day-school programs, varying
from two weeks to eight weeks
duration, depending on the trade.
Apprentices are assigned on the basis
of one term of training for each year of
their term of apprenticeship.
Vocational training is conducted in a
number of facilities in the Province:
Pacific Vocational Institute, Burnaby
Campus and Haney Campus;
Camosun College, Victoria; Malaspina
College, Nanaimo; Cariboo College,
Kamloops; Okanagan College,
Kelowna; College of New Caledonia,
Prince George; Selkirk College,
Nelson; Northern Lights Community
College, Dawson Creek; and
Northwest Community College,
Terrace.
The Branch also arranges for evening
classes in trades for which there are
insufficient numbers of apprentices to
operate a viable day-school program.
Extra training for interested apprentices
is also provided through the upgrading
courses offered at various centres.
In 1977, 10,803 apprentices were
assigned to day-school classes, 793
classes were scheduled in the day
program, 172 apprentices were
assigned to scheduled evening
classes, and 559 attended upgrading
classes. Technical training for
apprentices was scheduled in 47
trades, but training was discontinued in
two trades, lathina and olasterina.
Three new programs were introduced
for electrical appliance repair, moulding
(foundry work), and embalming.
Pre-Apprenticeship Training
Pre-apprenticeship trade training is
designed to prepare persons for entry
into the skilled labour force by
providing basic skills and technical
knowledge in a particular trade. The
courses are from four to six months
duration, depending on the trade, and
are offered at various times during the
year. Students enrolled in
pre-apprenticeship classes have all
tuition costs paid by the Apprenticeship
Training Programs Branch, and also
receive subsistence and travel
allowances.
Under the pre-apprenticeship program,
training was offered in 25 trades for
1,886 students in 119 classes.
Graduates of this program are
employed as apprentices in industry,
and in a variety of craft areas.
Two pre-apprenticeship programs, sign
painting and tile setting, were
discontinued during the year on the
recommendations of the industries. A
new boat-building/shipwright
pre-apprenticeship program was begun
in 1977.
A number of pre-apprenticeship
programs have been instituted in the
secondary school system throughout
the Province. These programs are the
outcome of pilot programs that were
started in 1975 in the Langley School
District, and are being monitored in
co-operation with the Ministry of
Education.
A special pre-apprenticeship carpentry
class was arranged for the Musqueam
Band Native Indians and the Squamish
Band Native Indians to provide a
number of their reserve members with
the basic training needed for their
building programs.
Advisory Committees
Seven regular meetings of the
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
were held in 1977 to consider and
approve new contracts of
apprenticeship, cancel apprenticeship
contracts, transfer apprentices
between employers, extend
apprenticeship contracts, issue
aoorenticeshiD certificates to
 apprentices who had successfully
completed training, and to approve
applications for pre-apprenticeship
training.
Provincial Trade Advisory Committees
are established to ensure that
manpower training programs are being
conducted in accordance with existing
trade requirements, and to plan for the
appearance of new technology within
the various trades. During the year,
118 Trade Advisory Committee
meetings were held, seven of them in
locations other than Branch
headquarters.
The Provincial Trade Advisory
Committees represent 56 different
occupations. During 1977, discussions
were held with representatives of the
tool rental, repair and maintenance
industry concerning the possibility of
establishing a training and
apprenticeship program for the trade.
Federal-Provincial Co-operation
British Columbia, with the participation
of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the
Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and
the Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission, arranged to
enroll out-of-province apprentices in
B.C. apprenticeship technical training
programs. Some British Columbia
partsman apprentices were trained in
the Province of Alberta. This
opportunity for special training was
made possible by financing from the
Canada Employment and Immigration
Commission, and provides for
aximum use of training facilities.
Under the terms of the Adult
Occupational Training Act, procedures
have been established whereby, under
the aegis of the Interprovincial
Standards Co-ordinating Committee,
directors of apprenticeship and
examination co-ordinators from the
various provinces and territories meet
with the representatives of the Canada
Employment and Immigration
Commission.
These meetings are held to discuss
inter-provincial examinations, course
outlines, new testing procedures, trade
analyses and other topics related to
apprenticeship training, tradesmen's
upgrading, and the certification of
pprentices and tradesmen.
m
ap
Industrial Training
British Columbia and the Canada
Employment and Immigration
Commission jointly administer the
Canada Manpower Industrial Training
Program. Staff of the Apprenticeship
Training Programs Branch investigate,
report on, and recommend or reject
industrial training contracts that are
directly related to skill training and
apprenticeship.
During 1977 the Branch collaborated
with Canada Employment and
Immigration Commission officials to
process 4,689 applications for training
in industry. In all, 8,160 trainees were
placed, 1,936 of them in apprenticeable areas. The program
has been instrumental in providing job
opportunities for many persons who
might not otherwise have obtained
employment, and has aided employers
during the low-productivity period
experienced by new trainees.
In addition, a pilot project, the Youth
Apprenticeship Training Program, was
instituted this year. Under this program,
some 80 new apprenticeships were
started in four preselected trades, with
an increased wage subsidy (75 per
cent) for a lengthened period of 30
weeks.
Program Development Section
The Program Development Section
of the Branch reviewed, revised and
developed program curricula and
examination materials for pre-
apprenticeship vocational training,
indentured apprenticeship, journeyman upgrading, and tradesmen's
certification.
Technical Training course outlines and
study guides, on-the-job training guides
and log books, apprenticeship term
examinations, journeyman certification
examinations, and interprovincial
standards examinations were reevaluated by Program Development
Officers working with resource people
from industry, instructors of training
institutions, and the Branch counselling
staff. This evaluation process is a
continuing function.
Canadian Interprovincial Standards
Examinations are developed jointly by
the provinces, territories, and the
Government of Canada through the
 Interprovincial Standards Examination
Committee, composed of examination
program officers of the various
jurisdictions. In addition to participating
in the revision of several interprovincial
examinations, British Columbia
produced, for the sprinkler fitter trade,
one that was added to the interprovincial schedule during the year.
In the area of training improvement
projects, special funding by the
Government of Canada was used to
complete a training manual for the
plumbing trade. This manual, for use
by apprentices and journeymen in the
field, was developed in conjunction
with the Canadian Armed Forces
School of Military Engineering at
Chilliwack, and the piping trades
industry.
Similar funding was used in two other
projects to produce training literature
for the drywall finishing and heavy-duty
mechanic trades. The industries and
training institutions concerned have
been co-operating on these projects.
Another co-operative venture currently
underway is Branch-industry
development of training material for
construction electrician apprentices.
During 1977, Program Development
revised and developed program
material for course outlines in 25
trades, apprenticeship examinations in
5, interprovincial examinations in 6,
tradesmen's qualification examinations
in 11, study guides and log books in
28, and national trade analyses in 6
trades.
Legislation
In 1977, the Goard Commission was
established to formulate a plan to
foster and control vocational education
in British Columbia. To provide the
public with an opportunity to voice
opinions concerning academic,
vocational and career programs, the
Commission held hearings in various
cities in the Province.
The Commission's estimate report
made many recommendations related
to training in colleges and institutes,
and resulted in the creation of
approved new legislation concerning
apprenticeship training, tradesmen's
certification, and trades-school
administration. Titled the Apprenticeship and Training Development
Act, the legislation is expected to be
proclaimed in 1978, after the
development of regulations and orders.
(See Tables 2 and 3 on pages 67 to 70
Employment Opportunity Programs
Employment Opportunity Programs
Branch is responsible for the
administration of provincial job-creation
programs under the authority of the
Special Provincial Employment Act
(1974).
The objective of Employment
Programs Branch is to reduce the
disproportionately high unemployment
rates among youth in British Columbia
by providing employment opportunities
that will enable them to acquire the job
skills and related work experience
required for full-time participation in the
labour force. To attain this objective,
the Branch has established and
administered the Provincial Youth
Employment Program.
In 1977 this program provided a total of
15,381 jobs for youth at a cost of $22.5
million. In all, 717 jobs were created
with municipal and regional district
governments, 1,191 with public school
boards and hospital boards, 928 with
universities, 426 with colleges and
institutes, 2,420 with Provincial
Government ministries, 6,322 with
farms and businesses, and 1,344 with
non-profit organizations.
While providing the Province's youth
with experience and training in job
skills, the program also benefits
employers and communities through
the creation of productive work.
The Branch continued to operate the
computerized Youth Referral Service.
This service provides a centralized
agency for the hiring of youth for
summer jobs with the Provincial
Government. The service provides
young people with equal access to jobs
in government ministries. A youth need
complete only one job application form
to be considered for all available jobs.
 This service also reduces the time
formerly spent by individual ministries
in recruitment and selection. In
addition, it facilitates local hiring of
youth for government jobs available in
communities throughout the Province.
T,
he Youth Referral Service operates
by collecting applications from
candidates in universities, colleges and
secondary schools throughout British
Columbia, and uses a computer
program to refer young people to jobs
available on the basis of education,
skills, and work experience. During the
year, the service made 45,000 referrals
of youth to 4,585 summer jobs from a
file of 35,000 applicants.
Trade-schools Regulation
s
u
Trade-schools Regulation Branch
supervises the operation and
certification of private trade-schools.
upervision of these schools includes
pproval of: premises and equipment;
health, sanitary and safety conditions;
ours of operation; courses offered;
fees charged; form of contract; teacher
qualifications; performance bond;
cancellation provisions; advertising
copy; and any other procedures that
erve to protect the public and exclude
unscrupulous practitioners. The issuing
of a Certificate of Registration
authorizes an institution to operate a
trade-school, and provides the public
with the assurance that Ministry
standards have been met.
During 1977, administrative officers of
the Trade-schools Regulation Branch
held 15 meetings, out of which came
recommendations to the Minister
concerning registration, re-registration,
requests for changes in tuition fees,
requests for approval of new courses,
the general conduct of private
trade-schools, and other matters
related to administration of the Act.
As of December 31, 1977, 102 schools
offering correspondence and practical
courses, or combined correspondence
and practical training, were registered
under the Act. Ninety-one schools
were re-registrations from the year
1976, and 17 new schools were
considered and recommended to the
Minister and approved for Certificate of
Registration during the year. Six
schools discontinued operation.
In addition to the inspections conducted in each school at least twice
a year, special visits were made to
schools to resolve specific problems
and complaints. Students wishing to
discontinue training, and who had
prepaid tuition fees owing to them,
were granted refunds. Students
enrolled in private trade-schools were,
in several cases, approved for student
loans by the Student Services Branch
of the Ministry of Education, which
provides financial assistance for
students to reach their educational
objectives.
During the year, the administrative
officers held meetings with representatives of the Private Career
Training Association to consider
regulations of the trade-schools section
of the new Apprenticeship and
Training Development Act, which
has been passed into law but not yet
proclaimed. Regulations in other
jurisdictions were also examined. One
of these, which may require special
regulations, is the occupation of
cosmetology.
Manpower
Training and Development
The efforts of the Manpower Training
and Development Branch are directed
toward supporting industrial development throughout the Province,
expanding employment opportunities
for unemployed and underemployed
workers, alleviating persistent skill
shortages, preventing the layoff of
workers through technological or
economic change, and encouraging
employers to establish training
programs and improve the quality of
 training within industry in order to
increase productivity and economic
growth.
Under the aegis of Manpower Training
and Development Branch, the Mining
and Smelting Manpower Committee,
composed of representatives of
management, labour, and government,
serves in an advisory capacity to the
Ministry of Labour in the provision
and maintenance of an adequate,
well-trained labour force for the mining
and smelting industry.
Four meetings were held during 1977.
The main focus of activities was on: (a)
developing a profile of the work force in
terms of numbers, skills, age and
geographic location; (b) developing a
manpower forecasting capability; (c)
commissioning a study of turnover in
the industry; and (d) studying the
various acts and regulations that
appear difficult to administer because of overlapping jurisdictional
responsibilities.
During 1977, the members of the
Committee met on one occasion with
the Minister of Labour, who urged their
to add consideration of the quality of
working life in the industry to their
agenda of activities.
The Construction Industry Advisory
Council, which has the responsibility o
advising the Minister, the Government
and the construction industry on
matters pertaining to the supply
and training of personnel for the
construction industry, met on four
occasions during the year.
Since the inception of the Council, foui
trades have been studied: mechanical,
plumbing and pipefitting; carpentry anc
floor layers; sheetmetal and roofing;
and lineman trade. All trades studied
are to be updated periodically.
Occupational Environment
The primary responsibility of the
Occupational Environment Branch is to
ensure that factories, stores and offices
provide environmental conditions that
are conducive to the health, safety and
comfort of employees. This is accomplished through the application
and enforcement of the Factories Act
1966 and Occupational Environment
Regulations, which set out various
standards and requirements aimed at
maintaining at least a minimum
acceptable physical working
environment.
Of first priority in providing service to
the working public is the Occupational
Environment Branch program of field
inspections, which ensure that
acceptable working conditions are
being maintained in existing industrial
establishments. Advice is provided on
the technical means required to
achieve at least minimum standards,
and adequate time is allowed for
completion of corrective measures.
The number of individual visits to work
places throughout the Province totalled
10,087 during the year, and 4,543
separate items were brought to the
attention of employers for
improvement.
Branch Inspectors examine, test
and assess the adequacy of lighting
systems, heating systems, exhaust and
make-up air systems, and
air-contaminant controls to ensure that
acceptable minimum environmental
standards are being maintained.
Building maintenance related to
sanitation, interior finishes, and
housekeeping are priority items,
together with employee amenities
connected with comfort and personal
hygiene, such as washrooms,
lunchrooms, shower facilities, clothing
lockers and seating provisions.
In the case of new factory construction,
or additions and alterations to existing
buildings, the Act requires that
architectural and engineering plans
and specifications be submitted to an
inspector for examination and approval
prior to the start of construction. This is
to ensure that all requirements of the
Act and Regulations will be met, and to
avoid costly changes to achieve
compliance after completion. Plans
and specifications for 870 proposed
projects were approved by the Branch
during 1977.
Throughout the year, the Branch
continued to provide consultative
 sen/ices to employers, architects,
consulting engineers and construction
companies concerning design and
performance standards for building
systems and services. The purpose of
this program is to assist employers in
providing working environments suited
to the number of employees, and to the
industrial process and the materials
being used. These consultative
services will be expanded in the future
to provide basic instruction and guidance in upgrading and maintaining
environmental systems.
Where possible, employees are
encouraged to make suggestions
that will assist in the maintenance of
acceptable working conditions, and
to participate in discussions that will
promote development of a co-operative
solution to problems related to the
working environment.
The Branch has continued to provide
service throughout the Province from
its main office in Burnaby and seven
regional offices located in Victoria,
Nanaimo, Chilliwack, Kamloops,
Kelowna, Nelson and Prince George.
^ second inspector has been located in
the Kelowna office, and replacements
have been made at Nelson and Prince
George.
Elevating Devices
Elevating Devices Branch is
esponsible for the inspection of
elevating devices and midway rides,
comprising passenger and freight
elevators, escalators, dumbwaiters,
noving walks, workers construction
loists, and amusement devices to
ensure safe transportation. These
'esponsibilities are met through initial
and periodic safety inspections
designed to obtain compliance with
existing legislation and regulations.
3efore any elevating device or midway
•ide is put into service, inspectors of
:he Elevating Devices Branch conduct full-scale acceptance tests.
Subsequent to acceptance, all
nstallations are inspected periodically
:o confirm that safety standards are
Deing maintained, and improved as
changes occur.
The Branch also provides a
consultative service to the general
The Branch's summer student
employment plan for 1977 involved a
project conducted by two graduate
university students who researched the
progress being made, both here and
abroad, in the fields of quality of work
life and industrial democracy. A report
was completed for the Ministry for
reference purposes.
Two advisory committees were set up
this year to advise the Branch on areas
of inadequacy in the Occupational
Environment Regulations. The
committees were representative of
labour, management and professionals
in related fields. Two areas they
examined, from the standpoint of
restrictions imposed by energy costs
and conservation policies, were
minimum lighting standards and
minimum heating and ventilation
requirements. Both committees
are at present preparing final
recommendations prior to adjournment.
Expectations for 1978 are that
Branch programs will provide labour,
management, and persons involved in
building-system design with expanded
service in the areas of energy conservation, consultation, and training.
public, building owners, management,
industry, and government agencies.
Safety legislation is under constant
review. Advancing technology is
recognized, public needs identified,
and recommendations for legislative
and policy changes submitted
periodically to the Minister.
During 1977 the Branch conducted a
total of 9,046 inspections throughout
the Province. These inspections
resulted in 142 shutdowns and the
issuance of 10,971 directions requiring
repairs or alterations to ensure that
equipment was in safe operating
condition. In addition, 359 engineering
plans and specifications were
registered for new installations and
major modernization of existing
equipment.
Despite an increasing workload, staff
complement during the year was held
at last year's level by the introduction
 of new systems and more effective
utilization of available resources. As
elevator technology is of a highly
complex nature, and sophisticated
new equipment is continually being
introduced, great emphasis was placed
on staff training.
During 1977 the Branch's
arrangements with the Federal
Government were redrafted. All
elevating devices in buildings under
federal jurisdiction throughout the
Province were inspected. The elevating
devices on British Columbia ferries
were also inspected, and improved
service was achieved.
Other ministries of the Government
used consultative services provided
by the Branch during the past year.
Consequently, Branch personnel
conferred with the federal Department
of Public Works, the B.C. Hospital
Insurance Services, the B.C. Hydro
and Power Authority, and provincial
and municipal fire departments on
projects at both the planning and
implementation stages. The Workers'
Compensation Board also participated
in resolving mutual problems.
Among the innovations introduced in
1977 was an effective accident and
complaint reporting system. The result
was that accident investigations were
conducted more swiftly and thoroughly,
and follow-up service was provided in
all cases. The public, too, was
encouraged to report unsafe equipment or poor performance, and all
complaints were investigated. To
promote this venture, and to reduce th
number of accidents, a vigorous safet
campaign was'launched. It attracted
widespread interest in many quarters.
Branch representatives attended
several CSA working committee
meetings and the annual convention (
the Canadian Standards Association
Code Committee. The latter Committee's responsibility is to ensure
that the safety standards of all
elevating devices throughout Canada
are thoroughly examined and regular!
updated. Among the delegates were
representatives from all of the
provincial inspection authorities, and
from elevator and hoist manufacturer;
in Canada, the United States and     ,
Europe.
Accomplishments within the Branch
during 1977 included reorganization,
introduction of a new central filing
system, initiation of a staff training
course in public relations, a new data
reporting system, publication of new
rules for existing elevating devices,
initiation of a new contractor
registration procedure and form,
preparation of new amusement device
legislation and inspection procedures,
preparation for automatic data
processing systems, introduction of a
certificate-of-competence examination
preparation of a safety education
program, including pamphlets and
posters, and introduction of new B.C
identification plates.
 Industrial Relations
Division
Introduction
Labour Standards
Mediation Services
Arbitration and Special Services
Human Rights
'^^^^
 Introduction
During 1977, the Ministry of Labour
continued to affirm its basic confidence
in the collective bargaining process,
and at the same time sought to better
protect the public interest. To meet
these objectives, the Government
introduced the Labour Code of B.C.
Amendment Act and the Essential
Sen/ices Disputes Act. The Labour
Code of B.C. Amendment Act was
introduced to clarify the law as it
currently exists in the Province, and to
codify some of the practices that have
developed in the industrial relations
community. The amendments are
aimed at adequately representing the
public interest in addition to, rather
than solely, the interests of the parties
directly involved.
The Essential Services Disputes Act
protects the public interest by providing
the parties with a variety of options
designed to assist them in achieving
settlement in disputes that threaten
essential services.
The Act also establishes a new
independent agency, the Essential
Services Commission, to look into the
causes of public interest disputes and
to provide an assessment of the impact
of any disruption of essential services,
and whether there is a danger or threat
of danger to health, life, safety or the
economy of the Province and the
welfare of its citizens. The legislation
applies to employees of the Provincial
Government and Crown Corporations
and agencies, as well as municipal
employees in police work, firefighting
and health care services.
During 1977, a total of 687 collective
agreements were renegotiated on
behalf of 342,451 employees (80 per
cent of the organized labour force).
Despite the large number of contracts
expiring, there were only 62 labour
disputes affecting approximately
31,640 workers (447,598 man-days
Labour Standards
Labour Standards Program Branch
administers a large number of statutes,
orders and regulations affecting the
nualitw  r\i the* \hir\r\s  nlaro  anrl  tho
lost), and most of these days lost were
the result of disputes in federal
jurisdiction. This represents less than
one third of the time lost in 1976.
The major dispute recorded during
1977 was in the federal jurisdiction, a
work stoppage that accounted for
300,000 man-days, or approximately
two thirds of the year's total dispute
activity. Disputes within provincial
jurisdiction decreased to 142,048
man-days, affecting approximately
21,032 workers and representing less
than one third of total dispute activity.
In every industrial sector, collective
agreements covering thousands of
employees were negotiated and
concluded without a work stoppage.
Some of the larger agreements
successfully negotiated during
1977 were in construction (36,500
employees), forest industry (28,000),
pulp and paper (12,700), public service
(37,135), steel (46,000), and fisheries
(6,000 employees).
Throughout the year, the Ministry
provided speakers and panelists for
trade unions, employer organizations
and educational establishments.
Officials of the Ministry, together with
representatives of the Alcohol and
Drug Commission of the Ministry of
Health, met with employers and trade
unions to encourage the adoption of
programs to deal with alcoholism.
Officers of the Ministry met for both
formal and informal exchanges with
labour officials from other jurisdictions.
Representatives from the Ministry
attended the Annual Conference of the
Canadian Association of Administrators
of Labour Legislation (Saskatoon), the
26th Annual Conference of the
Association of Labour-Management
Agencies (Miami), and the 63rd
Session of the International Labour
Organization Conference (Geneva).
conditions of employment of most
employees. Inspections and investigations are conducted by Branch
inrhiotrial  rolatinnc nffinorc whn alcn
 jursue educational duties and help to
administer compliance with the Labour
Dode and the Human Rights Code.
The diversity of the work of the Labour
Standards Program Branch is indicated
cy the variety of statutes affecting
abour in British Columbia. These
nclude the Payment of Wages Act,
Winimum Wage Act, Maternity Pro-
ection Act, Employment Agencies Act,
Control of Employment of Children Act,
and Annual and General Holidays Act.
The major thrust of the Branch is
oward obtaining voluntary compliance
vith these statutes through education
and persuasion. Only in extreme cases
does the Branch resort to litigation to
)btain compliance.
Thus, the Branch continued, in
977, to place major emphasis on its
jducational program for employees,
employers and unions. Branch
ndustrial relations officers (IROs)
iddressed a variety of seminars,
schools, business associations and
rade unions.
furing 1977, the Branch received
total of 7,328 complaints from
ndividual employees for alleged
violations of the legislation. Branch
ndustrial relations officers made a total
)f 61,116 calls and investigations in
onnection with enforcement of labour
standards legislation. Adjustments
otalling $2,037,116.13 were made on
jehalf of 11,640 employees by 4,388
mployers.
Jnder the Payment of Wages Act, the
nain vehicle for wage recovery, the
Joard of Industrial Relations issued
)05 certificates. In addition, 620
lemand notices were issued to
>ersons and institutions owing money
o employers who in turn owed unpaid
vages to employees. The majority of
payments were the direct result of the
inability of employers to meet payroll
commitments because of financial
instability. Recoveries effected
represented an increase of 16 per cent
over 1976. Although the trend in the
number and total of adjustments under
the Minimum Wage Act continues to
decrease, the average adjustment per
employee and employer increased by
17 per cent over 1976.
In addition to enforcing the above-
mentioned legislation, industrial
relations officers are directly concerned with the administration of the
requirements of the Province's Labour
Code and Human Rights Code. In fact,
they perform unique and important
functions in sensitive areas of industrial
relations.
In other areas, registrations of $50
were issued to 104 employment
agencies after investigation to
determine the extent of compliance
with the provisions of the Employment
Agencies Act.
There were 216 permits issued under
the Employment of Children Act,
authorizing the employment of children
under the terms and conditions of the
permit. In every case, applications
were thoroughly investigated to ensure
that the proposed employment would
not be injurious to the employees, or
adversely affect their scholastic and
educational standards.
Statistical data on a number of the
Branch's activities during 1977 appear
in Tables 4 to 6 on pages 70 and 71.
Offices of the Branch are located in
Victoria, Vancouver/Burnaby,
Chilliwack, Williams Lake, Prince
George, Terrace, Dawson Creek,
Kamloops, Nelson and Cranbrook.
Mediation Services
The Mediation Services Branch has as
ts prime objective the settling of labour
disputes within the Province. To this
;nd, the Branch provides assistance to
)oth management and trade unions
during negotiations for a first collective
agreement, or for renewal of an
existing agreement.
During 1977, Branch mediation
officers were involved in a total of 303
disputes, 227 to which they were
appointed. The remaining 76 were
carried over from the previous year. In
addition, the officers were involved in
11 disputes on a continuing basis,
subsequent to the report of an officer,
 and in 12 in which no official
appointment was made. Of the 214
cases completed during 1977,
mediation assistance resulted in 188
settlements.
Trade unions and employers, either
separately or jointly, may apply to the
Mediation Services Branch for the
assistance of a mediator by making
application under the Labour Code of
British Columbia to the Director,
Mediation Services Branch, 7th Floor,
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby, B.C.
The assistance of a mediator is also
available on an unofficial or informal
basis if a labour-management dispute
has resulted in a strike or lockout.
Mediation assistance is also provided
to government employees under the
Public Service Labour Relations Act,
and to teachers under the Public
Schools Act.
Upon receipt of the report of the
mediation officer from the Minister, the
parties to a dispute are free to initiate
strike or lockout action, but the officer
remains available to assist the parties
in concluding a collective agreement.
The report to the Minister simply
indicates the status of negotiations
between the parties at that time; it does
not relieve the officer from further
participation.
The Branch maintains files of copies of
collective agreements and certifications
that are available for scrutiny by trade
unions and employers.
Communications were maintained with
a variety of conciliation and mediation
services in Canada and the United
States for the purpose of exchanging
information on matters of administration, legislation, trends, and
problems of mutual interest and
concern.
(See Table 7 on page 71.)
Arbitration and Special Services
Arbitration and Special Services Branch is concerned with
developments in the areas of
arbitration and labour legislation. It
maintains a file of persons available to
handle arbitration assignments; it also
publishes announcements of awards
stemming from grievance actions. In
addition, the Branch keeps a close
watch on the international labour
scene, staying abreast of developments in the field of labour legislation, representing the Ministry at
national and international conferences,
and providing information about job
opportunities abroad.
The Arbitration and Special Services
Branch maintains a register of
arbitrators, correlates the results of
arbitration awards, and makes the
details of these awards available to
persons interested in decisions
concerning grievances that arise
out of collective agreements.
Award summaries are published
monthly in the Ministry's Labour
Research Bulletin, and copies are
forwarded for publication in Labour
Arbitration Cases and Western Labour
A fhiVKntmn    Ponrt c
The Branch assists the Minister in
selecting persons to chair arbitration
boards. It also maintains a constant
surveillance of International Labour
Organization activities, determines
the extent of compliance with ILO
Conventions and Recommendations,
and weighs the implications for the
labour force of British Columbia.
Arbitration Awards
During 1977 there was again an
increase in the use of arbitration to
settle labour-management disputes
arising out of the terms of collective
agreements. In all, 351 arbitration
awards were filed with the Minister,
19 per cent more than the 295 filed
in 1976. Of the 351 awards, 181 were
the decisions of arbitration boards, and
170 were the decisions of single
arbitrators.
Most arbitration boards are selected by
the parties to a collective agreement.
The Labour Code of British Columbia,
however, states that if there is a failure
to appoint or constitute an arbitration
board under a collective agreement,
the Minister shall, at the request of
 is are necessary to constitute a board.
l 1977, the Minister made 29 such
ippointments, 10 of which were for
hairmen of arbitration boards, and
9 for single arbitrators.
iighty-five of the awards handed down
n 1977 dealt with the discharge of
smployees. In discharge cases
overed by the Labour Code, the
tverage elapsed time between the
late of the alleged violation of the
ollective agreement and the date
if the award was 171.6 days. The
;hortest length of time required by
in arbitration board to deal with a
lischarge case was 49 days; the
engest was 776 days. The shortest
ength of time required by a single
trbitrator to deal with a discharge case
vas 5 days; the longest was 560 days.
Vrbitration awards deal with a variety
if matters as extensive as those
overed by collective agreements. The
requency of occurrence of issues in
:ases reported in 1977 is outlined in
Table 8 on page 72. Table 9 on
>age 72 indicates the average number
>f days to complete arbitration cases
luring 1977.
Copies of awards may be viewed at the
iff ice of the Director of Arbitration and
special Services, 880 Douglas Street,
/ictoria, B.C., or may be obtained at a
:harge of 25 cents a page (maximum,
J2.50). Cheques or money orders
ihould be made payable to the Minister
>f Finance.
he Branch regularly prepares material
nat enables the Ministry to respond to
ndustrial relations issues of concern to
ne Province that are raised by other
lational and international bodies like
ne Canadian Association of
administrators of Labour Legislation,
ne Organization for Economic Co-
peration and Development, and
ne International Association of
Governmental Labour Officials.
Early in 1977, the Branch hosted
t seminar on the subject of ILO
instruments and their implications for
law and practice in Canada and British
Columbia in the fields of labour,
industrial relations and human rights.
Mr. John Mainwaring, Director General,
International and Provincial Affairs
Branch of Labour Canada, and Ms.
Lucille Caron, Acting Director of that
Branch, attended the seminar and
spoke with Labour Ministry officials
on current ILO issues and the degrees
of compliance with ILO Conventions
and Recommendations.
In June, 1977, George Bishop,
Director of Arbitration and Special
Services, was selected as Provincial
Representative Accompanying the
Delegation of Canada to attend the
63rd Session of the International
Labour Organization Conference held
in Geneva, Switzerland. Mr. Bishop
attended technical committee sessions
related to ILO instruments on "Working
Environment: Atmospheric Pollution,
Noise and Vibration", "Employment
and Conditions of Work and Life of
Nursing Personnel", and "Freedom
of Association and Procedures for
Determining Conditions of Work in
the Public Service".
The Special Services Section of the
Branch continues to provide the
International and Provincial Affairs
Branch of Labour Canada with British
Columbia's response for the preparation of the Canadian position
on ILO questions. As an offshoot of
these efforts, the Branch is often able
to initiate action directed toward the
improvement of provincial legislation.
The Branch also continues to circulate
ILO descriptions of job vacancies in
foreign countries. These positions call
for expert help in vocational training,
manpower and employment planning,
and related labour fields. Tenure
generally ranges between six months
and two years. Further details may be
obtained from the Branch. (See
Tables 8 and 9 on page 72.)
1
uman Rights
he Human Rights Code is based on
he principle that all persons are free
tnd equal in dignity and rights. Under
he legislation, every person has the
right to equal opportunity and equal
access to employment, tenancy and
public services, regardless of race,
colour, ancestry, place of origin,
 religion, sex or marital status. It is the
role of the Human Rights Branch to
administer the Code.
The Human Rights Branch is responsible for investigating complaints
of discrimination, and endeavouring to
bring about settlements acceptable to
all sides. In 1977, 692 formal
complaints were handled by the
Branch, of which 422 were new complaints and 270 were cases carried
over from 1976.
During the year, 421 cases were
closed. Of these, 44 per cent resulted
in the disclosure of evidence of
discrimination, and settlement of these
complaints was achieved. In 29 per
cent of the cases, investigation did not
reveal evidence of discrimination.
Another 9 per cent of the complaints
filed were withdrawn, and 15 per cent
were not pursued owing to a lack of
interest by the complainant. One per
cent of the complaints did not come
within the jurisdiction of the Code. Only
2 per cent of the total number of cases
handled by the Branch were left unsettled, and had to be referred to the
Minister.
When the Branch is unable to bring
about a settlement of a complaint, the
case is submitted to the Minister of
Labour, who may call for a Board of
Inquiry to hear the matter and bring
down a decision.
In addition to handling formal
complaints, the Branch is involved
in educational programs aimed at
promoting the principles of the Human
Rights Code. It also conducts
educational programs for schools,
employers, unions and community
organizations, and provides resource
persons to speak at seminars and
conferences.
During 1977, the Branch received over
4,100 calls and inquiries. A significant
number of these were from employers
seeking information and advice about
the provisions and application of the
Code. Often, policies and practices
that might have led to a complaint
under the Code were precluded
through consultation of this kind. Many
calls made to the Branch involved
problems outside the jurisdiction of
the Code. Persons who encountered
Droblems. or instances of what thev
considered to be injustice, came to
the Branch for assistance.
The Branch also has the responsibility
of referring complainants with a
problem to the agency or person who
can best assist. The problems brought
to the Branch are varied, and cover
such areas as unjust dismissal; legal
problems related to marriage
breakdown; problems with government
departments, housing and welfare;
mental and emotional problems; and
conflict with neighbors or co-workers.
Some 70 per cent of complaints
investigated under the Human Rights
Code deal with job discrimination. The
next largest category, 18 per cent, is
related to public services; and 9 per
cent fall in the area of tenancy.
Settlements
The following are examples of settlements worked out by the Human
Rights Branch in 1977:
A qualified technician, aged 44, was
denied employment because the
company wanted a younger man. The
settlement awarded him $1,025, an
amount equivalent to one month's
wages, and the company agreed to
abide by the provisions of the Human
Rights Code.
A cafe in the north discriminated
against native Indians by making them
wait extended lengths of time for
service. The settlement included a
$150 donation by the manager to the
local Native Friendship Centre, letters
of apology, and a special dinner to
which the complainants were all
invited.
A hotel owner refused to grant a job
interview to a woman because he did
not want a female working the night
shift. The case was referred to a Board
of Inquiry, but was settled prior to the
hearing date with payment of $500 to
the woman, an apology printed in the
local newspaper, and adoption by the
hotel of a new nondiscriminatory policy.
A woman who had been paid less than
a man performing the same work,
received a settlement of $3,747 in back
wages, and was sponsored by the
company in a re-training program, in
which previously only male employees
had been placed.
A cnmnlaint nf rpfnctal tn re>nt liwinn
 uarters to a couple because of their
larital status was settled when the
mdlord offered them an apartment
fd agreed to abide by the Code.
i employee who had been dis-
lissed from her job because she was
regnant was rehired and given a cash
ettlement of $500.
I complaint by a man who was refused
job because the position was con-
dered by the company as more
jitable for women was settled when
le employer changed the policy and
lade a donation of $100 to a charity of
le complainant's choice.
oards of Inquiry
>f the 11 cases scheduled for a Board
f Inquiry in 1977, four were settled
rior to a hearing. Boards of Inquiry
eard seven cases, and a number
f significant legal precedents were
stablished. The following were among
lem:
) Protection of Code extended in the
area of age.
he Human Rights Code protects
ersons between the ages of 45 and
5, but it also protects other age
roups, if there is not reasonable
ause for the discrimination. In one
jch case, the Board of Inquiry ruled
lat the Code protects persons under
5 years of age and over 65 years of
ge from unreasonable discrimination,
his extension of the protection of the
ode was upheld by the Supreme
ourt of British Columbia.
!) Insurance industry covered by the
Human Rights Code.
Board of Inquiry ruled that the
surance industry is not exempt from
le Human Rights Code. The decision
as upheld by the Supreme Court of
ritish Columbia, which stated that "to
Did that the Code does not apply to
surers would be to hold that it
Des not apply to all kinds of other
usinesses which may be the subject
f special statute. The Code would be
masculated". An insurance company
now appealing this decision to the
.C. Court of Appeal.
I) Ruling on person with criminal
charge unrelated to the job.
woman charged with a marijuana
ffense was dismissed from her job as
n advertising salesperson with a news
publication. The Board ruled that the
dismissal constituted discrimination
without reasonable cause and awarded
her $400 in lost salary.
(4) Even though job classifications
differ, women must be given equal
pay if doing substantially similar
work.
Three women working as police clerks
alleged that they were doing work
substantially similar to that of male
guard dispatchers. The Board ruled
that the women were in fact performing
substantially similar work in terms of
skill, effort and responsibility, and must
therefore receive equal pay. The
complainants were awarded a total of
$2,213.39 in back wages.
(5) Refusal to rent to a native Indian
couple constituted damage to
self-respect.
The Board ruled that refusal of rental
to persons because of their race
constitutes humiliation, and damage to
self-respect. The Board awarded the
complainants $150.
Handicap and
Health Condition Cases
A Board of Inquiry decision placed
handicapped persons within the
jurisdiction of the Code. Specifically,
the Code protects handicapped
persons and persons with health
conditions from discrimination "without
reasonable cause" in the areas of
public services and employment.
The Branch has dealt with complaints
from persons with diabetes, heart
condition, epilepsy, skin conditions,
visual handicap, and persons who are
amputees, or who have had psychiatric
counselling. In the majority of these
cases, it was found that the person
was refused a job or was fired, not
because he or she lacked job ability,
but because of the handicap or health
condition.
In an effort to win support and cooperation in achieving equal
opportunities for the handicapped, the
Branch has initiated meetings with the
Employers' Council of B.C. and the
B.C. Federation of Labour, as well as
organizations representing the
handicapped.
Among the handicap and health cases
settled under the Human Rights Code
 in 1977 were the following:
A young boy in a wheelchair was
denied access to a public bus. Terms
of the settlement included letters of
apology from the driver and the line
manager, and an agreement to abide
by the Code.
A woman had been denied employment on the basis of a medical condition that was not job-related. After
a period of conciliation, the company
offered the woman a permanent
position.
Two blind men were refused service ir
a hotel beverage room because they
were not accompanied by a sighted
person. After discussions with a humar
rights officer, the hotel owner gave
assurances that blind persons would
henceforth receive equal treatment.
A man was denied employment as a
labourer because he had received
medical treatment for periodic
depression. The medical evidence and
his work references indicated that this
depression did not interfere with his
work. The man had found other
employment, but the company
provided written assurance that his
health problems would not be
considered should he apply for a job in
the future.
Publicity and Advertising
The Branch received a number
of complaints from individuals and
organizations, such as the B.C.
Teachers Federation, regarding the
exclusion of racial minorities from
corporate advertising and the
stereotyped way in which men and
women are portrayed. As part of its
educational mandate, the Branch has
met with major companies and
advertising agencies to discuss
these issues. The response has been
positive, and the discussions are
continuing. (See Tables 10 to 12 on
pages 72 and 73.)
 xx
HB
****¥
Boards and
Commissions
Board of Industrial Relations
Boards of Review,
Workers' Compensation Act
* The annual reports of the Labour
Relations Board, the Workers'
Compensation Board, and the Human
Rights Commission are submitted
separately to the Legislature through
the Minister of Labour.
 Board of Industrial Relations
The Board of Industrial Relations is a
quasi-judicial body, appointed under
the Minimum Wage Act. Its responsibilities include the making of
regulations and orders establishing
conditions of labour and employment,
reviewing and recommending changes
to minimum wages, establishing
hours-of-work regulations, issuing
overtime permits and variance in hours
of work, establishing orders regulating
the observance of, and pay for, general
holidays, and the issuing and enforcing
of certificates for the recovery of
unpaid wages.
Pursuant to the Minimum Wage Act,
the Board of Industrial Relations
established four regulations during
1977 exempting certain employees
from the Act. They were:
Regulation 58 (1977), for summer
assistant instructor trainees
employed by Burnaby Family
YMCA, Burnaby, B.C.
Regulation 59 (1977), for
handicapped persons employed
at the Surrey Rehabilitation
Workshop and the Surrey
Work Activity Project of the
Surrey Rehabilitation Society,
Surrey, B.C.
Boards of Review
The boards of review were established
in their present form under Section 76A
of the Workers' Compensation Act in
1974. They are appellate bodies
established to act independently of the
Workers' Compensation Board. Their
purpose is to review decisions of the
adjudicators of the Board concerning
workers' injuries and disabilities.
Appeals from these decisions may
be made by workers, dependents of
deceased workers, or employers.
The boards of review consist of four
panels. Each panel comprises a
chairman, who is a lawyer, and two
members, one with a management
background, and one with a union
background. The chairman provides
legal and policy advice related to the
appeal in question, and the members
contribute their knowledge of the work
Regulation 60 (1977), for special
service workers employed by the
Cowichan Family Life Association
Regulation 61 (1977), for the Board
Home Resident Manager and
Relief Workers employed by the
Canadian Mental Health
Association at the Group Living
Home, 1225 Hillside Avenue,
Victoria, B.C.
The Board considered numerous
applications for overtime permits,
and when the requirements of the
legislation were satisfied, permits were
issued. The Board also considered anc
granted many requests for scheduling
and varying hours and overtime rates
to accommodate short-week, flextime,
and other working arrangements.
The Board confirmed many certificates
for wages owing under the Payment o
Wages Act. (For details, see Labour
Standards Table 4 on page 70.) Several requests for exemption from Section 15A of the Act were also dealt wit
During the year, the Board held 48
regular meetings and 54 hearings
throughout the Province.
place gained from experience. A decision of a panel of a board of review
on an appeal must be rendered by a
majority of that panel.
Appeals may be taken from any
decision of any department of the
Workers' Compensation Board, as lone
as that decision relates to a worker. An
appellant may request a meeting with i
board of review, or ask that the appea
be considered without a meeting. If a
meeting is requested, it will be held at
the office of the boards of review in
Burnaby, British Columbia, or by a
travelling board of review near one of
the major population centres
throughout the Province.
If a meeting is requested, both the
worker and the employer are entitled
to be present and to be represented
Because the boards of review operate
id
ate
 n the inquiry system rather than the
dversary system, such representation
s not essential. A record is taken of a
neeting by a transcriber in the main
)ffice of the boards of review, or by a
ape recorder when the meeting is held
)utside the main office of the boards of
eview.
The decision of a board of review on
in appeal is based upon a review of
he Workers' Compensation Board
:laim file, together with any evidence
submitted in support of the appeal,
ncluding oral evidence given at a
neeting. In addition, the boards of
eview have power to obtain such
urther evidence as they feel is
ippropriate to the appeal, including
tiedical evidence. An information letter
utlining the procedure in meetings
>efore the boards of review is prepared
md sent out prior to the meeting. A
.imilar letter for employers is planned.
V decision of a board of review is not
>inding on the Workers' Compensation
Joard if it does not confirm the
lecision of the Board. In those cases,
he decision is reconsidered by the
Joard. In practice, the Workers'
Compensation Board will implement a
lecision of a board of review, unless
hat decision is, in the opinion of the
Joard, against law or policy, or against
he "overwhelming weight of the
ividence". It is the prerogative of the
Vorkers' Compensation Board to
ireate policy consistent with the
Vorkers' Compensation Act, and the
loards of review consider the
lecisions of the Workers' Compen-
;ation Board in light of that policy. A
lecision of a board of review must be
written, and it must contain the reasons
ipon which the decision is based.
n 1977 a fourth board of review was
ippointed, reflecting the steady growth
if appeals since the inception of the
oards of review in 1974. There were
1,018 appeals in 1974, 1,617 in 1975,
,905 in 1976 and 1,864 in 1977. The
gures for the years 1976 and 1977
/ould appear to indicate a levelling
iff of the previous trend of an annual
irowth in appeals.
o accommodate the recently
ppointed fourth board of review, the
oards of review moved in July, 1977
to new premises at Suite 220, 5021
Kingsway in Burnaby. Since moving to
new premises, the boards of review
have demonstrated that they are more
than capable of coping with the present
flow of appeals. A backlog of appeals
had built up over the past years,
however, and new procedures have
been implemented to deal with that
backlog, commencing in January 1978.
To assist in reducing the current
backlog to an acceptable level,
appointment of a sixth chairman is
being contemplated for a one-year
period.
The number of cases left unad-
judicated at the end of 1974 was
220, rising to 416 in 1975. In 1976,
only two of the three boards of review
were fully operational, and the
unadjudicated appeals rose to 1,125
cases pending. This continued into
1977 until appointments were made for
a fourth board, and a chairman was
appointed for the third board.
The cases left unadjudicated at the
end of 1977 were 1,498. The latter
figure is down from a high of 1,573
unadjudicated cases, and reflects a
downward trend that is expected to
continue in 1978. Boards of review
adjudicated 798 cases in 1974, 1,421
in 1975, 1,196 in 1976, and 1,513 in
1977.
During 1977, 584 meetings were held
in Vancouver, and 420 outside the city.
No meetings were held in Vancouver in
June or outside of Vancouver in July,
owing to the move to new premises.
Of the appeals filed in 1977, 918
requested a meeting; 476 asked that
the appeal be reviewed without a
meeting. In 119 cases, a letter was
sent to the appellant requesting
verification of whether or not a meeting
was required prior to consideration of
the appeal.
The bulk of the appeals considered in
1977 were workers' appeals. Seventy
employers' appeals were considered,
the balance of 1,443 appeals considered having been initiated by
workers.
(Statistical information concerning the
nature of the cases considered by the
boards of review in 1977 appears in
Tables 13 to 17 on pages 73 to 75.)
  ompensation Advisory Services
Table 1 — Compensation Claim Referrals to Employers' Adviser
)rigin Number
Hearing Loss        11
-V.C.B. Commissioners	
i/ledical Review Panel  	
Boards of Review  	
ndustrial Diseases 	
Total	
40
12
39
JO
112
view claimants assisted in 1977    588
\lew claims reviewed in 1977    625
Table 1a — Date of Origination of Claims
Date of
Origination
920s 	
930s 	
940s 	
950s 	
970 	
971 	
Number of
Date of
Claims
Origination
Nil
1972
2
1973
6
1974
1
1975
4
1976
4
1977
\pprenticeship and Industrial Training
able 2 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Number of
Claims
9
13
22
50
155
350
Trade or Occupation
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren
in
tices in
1976
Training
1
1
1
2
95
37
350
62
43
6
3
1
3
2
19
2
7
1
—
28
10
9
2
1
2
1,095
285
4
—
34
4
22
7
1,104
266
7
—
35
b1
102
30
24
6
20
4
0
—
10
1
24
6
5
2
67
6
103
5
5
1
39
9
16
2
74
30
rcraft —
Maintenance mechanic	
Painter 	
nvilman  	
utomotive —
Auto parts, warehousing,
and merchandising	
Body repair 	
Diesel-engine machinist 	
Diesel-engine repair	
Diesel fuel injection 	
Electrical	
Electrical and tune-up	
Farm machinery mechanic	
Forklift mechanic 	
Front-end alignment and
brake service	
Front-end alignment and
frame straightening 	
Glass installation  	
Heavy-duty mechanic 	
Hydraulic servicing	
Machinist 	
Marine-engine mechanic	
Mechanical repair	
Motorcycle repair 	
Painting and refinishing	
Partsman 	
Radiator manufacturing
and repair	
Small-engine repair	
Springmaker 	
Tire repair 	
Transmission repair	
Trimming 	
Truck-body building	
aking	
arbering	
acksmith	
oatbuilding	
Dilermaking      3&4
liiermaking (erection)      3&4
Dilerr
28
88
15
3
269
1
6
3
260
5
9
43
11
6
3
6
1
30
33
4
26
43
75
1
1
309
9
295
18
32
12
6
1
22
70
1
10
1
27
24
82
1
15
3
230
5
250
2
7
27
1
3
1
12
7
14
105
12
2
287
3
12
5
299
 Table 2 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades — Continued
Trade or Occupation
Term
Years
First
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Second
Third
Total
Number
of
Apprentices in
Training
Co
plet
ir
19
Bricklaying  4
Carman  4
Carpentry  4
Cement mason  3
Cladding  2
Cook  3
Dental mechanic  4
Dental technician   4
Draughtsman (hull)  5
Dressmaking and
Dress designing   2
Drywall finisher  3
Drywall installer  2
Electrical work —
Appliance repair  3
Armature winder  4
Cableman  3
Construction section    4
Domestic radio and
TV servicing  4
Industrial  4
Lineman  4
Marine section  4
Meterman  3
Motoring  3
Neon section  4
Operator  3Vfc
Shop section  4&5
Electronics —
Community antenna TV   4
Electronics  4
Industrial  5
Instrument repair
and calibration  5
Marine  4
Panels and controls  4
Radio communication   4
Technician  4
Telecommunications   4
Telecontrol technician  4
Electroplating  4
Floorcovering  3
Florist  2
Funeral directing	
and embalming  2
Gas fitter   4
Glazier   4
Graphic arts
Bookbinding I    4
Bookbinding II  2
Collator  4
Compositor    5
Letterpressman  4
Lithography  5&6
Artist  5
Camera  5
Platemaking  5
Preparation   5
Press Feeder  2
Pressman  4
Stripping and assembly  5
Multilith operator  4
Printer  5&6
Printing
Flexographic  2
Hairdressing    2
Heat and frost
insulation   4
Inboard outboard
mechanical repair  4
Industrial instrumentation  5
Industrial warehousing  3
Ironwork 3
Jewellery engraver (machine)   4
Jewellery manufacture
and repair  4
Joinery (benchwork)  4
Lathing  4
Leadburner   4
Lumber manufacturing industry —
43
50
54
77
7
13
2
8
342
444
488
6
595
12
12
	
36
36
17
—
4
11
3
7
15
22
18
2
26
1
39
22
34
-
54
46
—
—
9
8
4
	
9
3
217
2
1
—
294
296
352
10
4
9
9
80
120
129
187
50
37
47
33
3
2
2
2
7
4
2
—
2
2
1
2
8
2
6
—
11
8
16
11
2
5
15
17
2
2
4
—
—
2
—
1
2
1
1
3
3
5
1
—
5
1
9
—
—
2
1
33
1
39
1
47
2
10
3
7
1
47
58
45
3
5
2
7
8
—
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
4
3
1
2
1
2
5
1
1
3
—
7
1
24
1
13
2
12
17
3
539
22
58
—
5
34
19
19
4
3
16
15
17
13
8
7
83
91
3
62
11
8
4
32
54
39
1
50
3
1
14
3
1
17
2
27
9
48
224
30
1,869
7
24
89
25
81
2
1
95
100
21
12
4
1,159
32
516
167
9
13
1
7
16
46
0
2
0
4
16
9
15
5
119
2
12
12
200
22
15
1
8
6
1
5
14
4
10
4
58
7
1
73
3
697
79
28
88
28
236
3
32
173
0
5
35
1
1
2
1
32
 ible 2 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades — Continued
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Trade or Occupation
Years
Second
Third
Total
Number
Com
of
pleted
Appren
in
tices in
Training
1976
17
20
33
30
104
15
7
—
279
52
8
—
2
4
2
	
82
8
653
202
17
6
2
—
19
5
9
2
208
22
6
—
32
17
10
3
10
—
625
148
2
—
47
9
122
18
92
15
3
1
2
3
403
103
3
—
9
5
29
5
23
11
80
5
268
50
190
18
33
4
9
—
24
4
4
2
52
21
3enchman  1
Saw filer  1
Saw fitter  2
Steamfitting/pipefitting  4
tchinist  4
tchinist fitter  4
lintenance mechanic  4
lintenance mechanic, pipeline  4
irking and stamping
levice technician   5
satcutting   3
Iwright   4
lUlding 4
tulding and coremaking  4
ice-machine mechanic  4
-burner mechanic  4
inting and decorating    3
tternmaking  5
3-driver and bridgemen  3
istering  4
istic and rubber fabrication    4
istic sign-making   4
imbing   4
wer-saw repair  2
ictical horticulture   4
frigeration   4&5
ofing, damp and
vaterproofing  3
il making   4
a/making and filing  4
set-metal work  4
ip and boatbuilding   4
Ip's plater  4
pwright   4
n painting  4
ersmithing and plating  5
inkier fitting   4
mdard transmission repair  3
amfitting and pipefitting  4
el fabrication   4
j setting  3
)l and die maker  5
Eolstery  4
ch repairing  5
ding     3
17
—
—
—
33
—
—
—
26
78
—
—
1
2
—
4
71
49
56
103
1
1
4
2
1
2
36
1
26
1
20
-
121
172
147
213
3
1
6
7
8
3
4
4
3
4
1
1
84
56
68
—
2
—
1
3
3
12
17
—
2
2
4
2
—
6
4
111
2
14
163
186
165
8
15
10
21
19
17
40
23
38
1
31
1
1
78
2
112
81
132
3
1
—
5
5
5
9
10
2
6
5
10
16
9
28
27
50
53
80
85
41
23
51
75
9
19
5
—
4
1
3
1
12
2
12
5
3
4
21
19
	
 Table 3 — Tradesmen's Qualification Certificates and Exemptions Issued in 19'
Certificates Exemptions
Trade Issued in 1977                Issued in 197
Automotive body repair   8
Automotive mechanical repair  521
Boilermaker (erection)   34
Bricklaying    37
Carpentry   571
Cook   34
Heavy-duty mechanic  416
Industrial electrical    253
Industrial instrumentation  32
Ironwork    59
Joinery (benchwork)   48
Lumber Manufacturing Industry —
Benchman  24
Circular saw filer  44
Saw fitter  35
Machinist  112
Millwright  496
Oil-burner mechanic  12
Painting and decorating  67
Plumbing  277                    37
Radio and T.V., domestic   10
Refrigeration	
Roofing, damp and waterproofing 	
Sheet metal 	
Sprinkler fitting	
Steamfitting and pipefitting 	
Totals  3,520                     79
Labour Standards
Table 4 — Payment of Wages Act
1976 1977
Certificates made under section 5(1 )(c)   725 905
Certificates confirmed under section 5(2)(a)   641 727
Certificates cancelled under section 5(2)(b)(ii)   17 34
Certificates cancelled and remade under section
5(2)(b)(i)   22 45
Certificates paid before confirmation  61 77
Certificates paid before filed in court  50 55
Certificates confirmed under section 5(2)(b)(i)
filed with Registrar of:
County Court   574 711
Supreme Court   60 13
Appeals under section 5(4)  6 3
Demands made under section 6(1)  520 620
64
3
54
6
146
4
23
1
143
28
 able 5 — Comparison of Investigations and Wage Adjustments, 1976 and 1977
1976 1977
spections and investigations  61,074 61,116
nnual and General Holidays Act —
Firms involved  880 1,004
Employees affected  1,401 1,340
Arrears paid  $122,782.94 $135,859.65
(inimum Wage Act —
Firms involved  307 234
Employees affected  492 378
Arrears paid  $ 66,148.92 $ 59,479.96
ayment of Wages Act —
Firms involved  3,311 3,150
Employees affected  8,573 9,922
Arrears paid  $1,752,233.99 $1,901,197.01
Total Adjustments  $1,941,165.85 $2,037,116.13
ble 6   — Summary of Permits Issued, 1977
ider Control of Employment of Children Act
DISTRICT
lusement  15    —    —    —    —    —    —    —      1     — — 1     17
tomobile service-stations    5    —    —    —     2    —      1    —    —    — 1 —     9
tering   28      7    19      1     19      3      6    —      7      7 7 10  114
nstruction    2    —    —    —    —      1       1       1      3    — — —      8
sctricity   —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    — — —    —
jndry, cleaning, dyeing      2    —    —    —      1     —    —    —    —    — — —      3
gging —    —    —    —    —      6    —      1     —      1 — —      8
inufacturing     5      1     —    —      1      2      3    —      2      2 — —    16
rcantile    8      1      2—      2      1____ 1 —    15
oe-shine stands  —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    — — —    —
ip-building   —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    — — —    —
cellaneous     2    —    —      3      1     —    —    —    16    — — —    22
nsportation     —       1       1     —     —     —     —     —     —     — — —      2
ice     4     —    —    —    —    —    —    —    —    — — —      4
Totals 71     10    22      4    26    13    11       2    29    10 9 11   218
sdiation Services
ble 7 — Analysis of Mediation Services for 1977 (January 1 to December 31, 1977)
Corresponding
period 1976
ipointments continued from previous year            76 81
ipointments made (January 1 to December 31, 1977)..        227 258
) official appointment           12 3
Total  315 342
ipointments rescinded  6 2
ipointments continuing   95 76
Total appointments completed January 1 to
December 31, 1977   214 264
ittlements:
During term of Officer's appointment  165 190
Following report of the Officer   11 13
No official appointment  12 3
Total settled   188 206
imber of employers involved  866 698
imber of bargaining units involved  881 696
imber of employees involved   79,758             63,495
 Arbitration and Special Services
Table 8 — Frequency of Occurrence of Issues Reported in 1977
Issue
Allowances	
Annual vacation  	
Annual vacation pay  .
Arbitrability	
Benefits  	
Contracting out	
Damages 	
Demotion 	
Discharge	
Disciplinary action  ...
Emergency shutdown
Estoppel	
Hours of work	
Interpretation	
Job classification  	
Job posting  	
Job security	
Job training 	
Jurisdictional dispute .
Layoff 	
Leave of absence	
Lockout	
Management rights  ..
Frequency
of
Occurrence
1
4
2
16
15
5
5
8
85
11
1
1
3
36
5
10
1
1
1
30
6
1
3
Issue
Overtime	
Performance evaluation
Probationary employee
Promotion	
Recall 	
Resignation 	
Retroactive pay	
Re-evaluation and
reclassification	
Scheduling Hours	
Seniority	
Severence pay 	
Sick leave	
Statutory holiday pay ..
Suspension  	
Technological change .
Termination 	
Terms of agreement...
Timeliness 	
Transfer 	
Union security	
Wages	
Work assignment 	
Work stoppage 	
Frequency
of
Occurrence1
10
1
8
8
1
1
2
35
3
27
1
2
11
26
2
6
16
2
3
2
34
8
1
1 These figures do not correspond to the number of awards received, as some awards deal with more than one issue.
Table 9 — Average Number of Days to Complete Arbitration Cases in 1977
Date of dispute to date of award	
Date of discharge to date of award	
Date of appointment by Minister to date of award
Date of hearing to date of award	
Single
Arbitrators
209
171.8
81.6
29
Arbitrat
Boarc
227
171.
109.
47
Human Rights
Table 10 — Number of Complaints Investigated Under the Human Rights Cod
by Nature of Complaint (January 1 to December 31,1977)
Race and colour  55-90 10-23 9-24 1-1 21-33 5-3 0-0 9-6 145
Sex   108-167 42-37 12-18 3-0 30-95 11-7 0-2 10-8 275
Sex and marital status  11-19 3-9 1-1 0-0            3-8 1-0 0-0 3-1 30
Marital status  17-26 2-11 4-3 0-0            5-10 2-0 0-0 4-2 43
Religion           3-12 1-3 0-2 0-0              2-7 0-0 0-0 0-0 15
Place of origin  13-5 3-0 6-3 1-0            1-1 1-0 0-1 1-0 18
Ancestry       0-1 0-0 0-0 0-0            0-1 0-0 0-0 0-0 1
Age  11-31 3-5 3-16 0-0              3-6 1-4 0-0 1-0 42
Political belief        2-2 1-0 0-0 0-0            1-2 0-0 0-0 0-0 4
Criminal conviction       7-4 0-0 2-0 1-0            1-4 0-0 0-0 3-0 11
Without reasonable cause   42-62 15-18 8-10 1-0            8-27 1-1 0-1 9-5 104
Retaliation        1-3 0-0 0-0 0-0            0-2 1-1 0-0 0-0 4
Totals   270-422 80-106 45-77 7-1 75-196 23-16 0-4 40-22 692
 Table 11 — Number of Complaints Investigated, by Section of the Human
Rights Code (January 1 to December 31, 1977)
Section
E
o
O
■a fr
co
"q.01
E *"„
o -o
O o
31
O    TO
f X
Discriminatory publication  1-2            1-0
Discriminatory public facility  38-78           9-19
Discriminatory property purchase .... 2-1             0-0
Discriminatory tenancy   24-39          3-21
Discriminatory wages  14-18          3-3
Discrimination in employment
advertising  5-35           3-11
Discrimination in employment   184-238      61-50
Discrimination by trade unions
and occupational associations  1-8
Retaliation   1-3
Totals  270-422
2-0
6-4
1-5
0-3
30-58
0-1
0-0
80-106       45-77
0-2
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-0
1-0
1-0
1-0
4-1
0-0
0-0
7-1
0-1 0-0
18-44 1-1
0-1 0-0
4-10 3-2
7-9 1-0
1-19
44-105
1-5
0-2
75-196
0-2
17-10
0-0
1-1
23-16
0-0
0-3
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-0
0-1
0-0
0-0
0-4
0-1 3
4-5 116
0-0 3
7-2 63
1-1 32
0-0
28-13
0-0
0-0
40-22
40
422
4
692
NOTE — Figures in left-hand column indicate 1976 complaints handled during 1977
Figures in right-hand column indicate complaints opened in 1977
able 12 — Boards of Inquiry
1975
Total
umber of cases referred to Board
of Inquiry by Minister of Labour  23
umber of hearings scheduled1    16
umber of cases settled prior
to hearing  5
umber of hearings held    11
umber of cases upheld2  9
umber of cases dismissed  2
his includes cases brought over from the previous year.
l the case of Russell Burns against Piping Industry Apprenticeship Board and United Association of Journeymen of the Plumbing and
ipefitting Industry, Local 170, the Board upheld the complaint but ruled that it could not make an order against the respondent
ecause of reasons of jurisdiction.
11
8
42
11
11
39
4
4
13
7
7
25
5
5
19
2
2
6
oards of Review Annual Report
ppendix — Statistics 1977
able 13 — 3-Year Comparison of Total Appeals
1975
ppeals received    1,617
ppeals adjudicated  1,421
ppeals pending at year end       416
1976
1,905
1,196
1,125
1977
1,864
1,516
1,498
able 14 — 2-Year Comparison of Appeal Results
1976
/orkers' appeals allowed   390
/orkers' appedls Disallowed   570
mployers' appeals allowed   23
mployers' appeals disallowed  45
liscellaneous dispositions (appeal suspended,
no appealable issue, no extension of
appeal period, etc.)  168
1,196
1977
689
579
8
59
174
1,509
 Boards of Review Annual Report
Appendix — Statistics 1977
Table 15 — Meetings Held in 1977
Vancouver    Elsewhere
Cancellation
January	
20
36
1
February	
59
35
3
March 	
52
34
7
35
0
2
May 	
51
77
3
June	
1
37
0
July 	
50
0
2
August	
71
41
3
September	
66
42
2
October	
54
43
4
November	
73
47
2
December	
...     52
29
3
Totals  	
584
421
32
Table 16 — Issues Dealt With On Appeal
(1)       Claimants' Appeal
(a) disallow
902
(b) refusal to reopen
710
(c) completed prematurely
446
(d) time-loss benefits refused
113
(e) permanent partial disability
award refused
113
(f) permanent partial disability
insufficient
271
(g) medical aid refused
44
(h) surgery refused
53
(i) repairs or replacements refused
75
(j) rate of compensation
18
(k) commutation
24
(I) other
94
(2)        Widow/Widower/Dependents
(a) death in the course of
employment
6
(b) death from industrial accident
or complications thereof
6
(c) discontinued benefits
1
(d) other
3
(3)       Employers' Protest
(a) not within scope of employment
91
(b) not in industry (Part I)
1
(c) cost allocation (affecting
claimant)
4
(d) no injury
33
(e) other
29
(Some appeals involve more than one issue; therefore the above totais exceed the total number of appeals referred to in
1)
Table D, Par
 ards of Review Annual Report
>pendix — Statistics 1977
ble 17 — Classification of Injuries
>domen
ergies .
ikies ...
ms	
ithma ..
  17
  6
  65
  76
  5
ick   1,048
  8
  4
  37
  6
  12
  59
  51
  17
  13
  60
  48
  63
  28
  90
  64
  74
  0
  3
  2
  65
  44
irns  	
ittocks	
lest  	
irmatitis ...
irs	
30WS  	
res 	
ice 	
ital 	
iet	
igers	
asses  	
oin	
inds	
!ad	
saring Loss
;morrhoids
art	
jpatitis	
jrnia	
s	
P
Inhalation   8
Knees   254
Legs    159
Mental Stress    1
Multiple  186
Neck   91
Paraplegic   0
Pelvis    7
Poisoning  2
Respiratory
Problems   7
Ribs  20
Shoulders  158
Sides  14
Silicosis  5
Sinus  0
Staph Infection    0
Stomach  3
Tailbone  3
Teeth  5
Throat  2
Thumb  24
Toes    2
Tuberculosis    1
Undetermined   12
Whiplash  2
Wrists   84
Mononucleosis    0
ts Administered by the Ministry of Labour
$
\nnual and General Holidays Act (R.S. 1960)  25
apprenticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification Act (R.S. 1960)   25
Control of Employment of Children Act (R.S. 1960) 25
)epartment of Labour Act (R.S. 1960) 25
llevator Construction Industry Labour Disputes Act (1974) 25
Imployment Agencies Act (R.S. 1960) 25
issential Services Continuation Act (1974) 25
:actories Act (1966)     .30
iours of Work Act (R.S. 1960) 25
luman Rights Code of British Columbia 25
.abour Code of British Columbia (1973)  50
daternity Protection Act (1966)  25
/linimum Wage Act (R.S. 1960) 25
'ayment of Wages Act (1962) 25
'ublic Construction Fair Wages Act (1976) 25
Railway and Ferries Bargaining Assistance Act (1976) 25
Special Provincial Employment Programmes Act (1974)  25
rade-schools Regulation Act (R.S. 1960) 25
ruck Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Vorkers' Compensation Act (1968) 80
 Other Statutes Affecting Employees
Barbers Act (R.S. 1960)	
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act	
Coal Mines Regulation Act (1969)  1.2
* Deceived Workmen Act (R.S. 1960) 2
Fire Departments Hours of Labour Act (1960) 	
Fire Departments Two-platoon Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Hairdressers Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Hospital Services Collective Agreement Act (1976)	
Labour Regulation Act (R.S. 1960) 	
* Master and Servant Act (R.S. 1960)	
Mechanics' Lien Act (R.S. 1960) 	
Mines Regulation Act (1967)	
Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act (R.S. 1960)	
	
Copies of these Acts are available, at the prices indicated, from: Queen's Printei
Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4. Please make your cheque payab
to the Minister of Finance.
* Plans are underway to consolidate these Acts in a single Labour Standards statute.
t These Acts will be repealed upon proclamation of the new Apprenticeship and Training Development Act.
 Ministry Memberships
and Affiliations
The British Columbia Ministry of Labour
is an active member of, or variously
affiliated with, the following organizations:
Canadian Association of Administrators
of Labour Legislation
International Association of Government
Labour Organizations
Association of Labour Mediations Agencies
International Labour Organization
Canadian Association of Statutory
Human Rights Agencies
Social Planning and Review Council
Canadian Standards Association
Association of Professional Engineers
Illuminating Engineers Society
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air Conditioning Engineers
Professional Engineers Association of B.C.
Occupational Safety and Health Committee
B.C. Safety Council
Standards Advisory Council
Interprovincial Standards Co-ordinating
Committee
Interprovincial Standards Examination
Committee
Manpower Training Needs Committee
Power Engineers Review Board
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
Canadian Vocational Association
Pacific Association for Continuing Education
Vocational Counselling Services of B.C.
Welding Review Committee
   

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