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Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Annual Report British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1977

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 Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
Annual Report
'• ■♦'
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Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1977
  To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
herewith respectfully submitted.
T. M. WATERLAND
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Office of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
June 1976
 The Honourable James R. Chabot,
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Mines and Petroleum Resources for the 12 months ended December 31, 1975.
JAMES T. FYLES
Deputy Minister
_J
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1975.
Page
A 7
Chapter 2—Departmental Activity     A 25
Chapter 3—Mineral Resource Statistics     A 51
Chapter 4—Petroleum and Natural Gas     A 99
Appendix—Directory  A 221
PLATES
The Highland Valley porphyry district viewed south from Bethlehem Copper Corporation's Jersey pit, foreground, Huestis pit beyond, to the
Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd.'s plant in the valley and pit in middle
distance Cover
Helicopter-supported prospecting, Hogem Batholith, north-central British
Columbia facing    A 7
Chemical analysis at the Laboratory by atomic absorption spectrometry^
 facing A 25
Machinery at Brenda Mines Ltd.'s open pit, Peachland facing A 51
Picking up the kelly, Buick Creek facing A 99
A 5
  The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1975
CHAPTER  1
Pace
CONTENTS
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1975  A 7
Introduction  A 8
The Mining Industry in 1975  A 11
Solid Mineral Production in 1975  A 11
Metals  A 11
Coal  A 13
Nonmetallic Commodities  A 13
Provincial Revenue From Mining Companies  A 13
Expenditure by Mining Companies  A 13
Mining and Treatment  A 13
Metal Mines  A 14
Concentrating  A 15
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates  A 15
Industrial Mineral Mines  A 16
Coal Mines  A 16
Mine Safety  A 16
Reclamation  A 18
Exploration  A 19
Metals  A 19
Pattern  A 19
Major Exploration Activity  A 20
Development and Feasibility Studies  A 21
Nonmetallic Commodities  A 21
Coal  A 21
Distribution of Coalfields  A 21
Exploration  A 22
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry in 1975  A 23
A 7
 A 8 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
INTRODUCTION
A Government report on the mineral industry in the Province has been published annually since 1874. From 1874 to 1959 it was the Annual Report of the
Minister of Mines, and since 1960 it has been the Annual Report of the Minister
of Mines and Petroleum Resources. Because of the increasing size of this volume,
a new volume, Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia, was initiated
in 1969 to document geological and technical reports previously incorporated in the
Annual Report. Starting in 1975 this technical volume has been divided into three
separate reports that can be issued at the time they are prepared but eventually
bound together. Information on mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences, etc., that form part of the Chief Inspectors' Report were included in the
Annual Report until 1973; in 1974 this report was issued separately. In 1975 it
forms part of a separate report, Mining in British Columbia, 1975, but is not
included in the bound volume, Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia, 1975.
The Annual Report for 1975 therefore contains four chapters—an introduction with a general review of the mineral and petroleum industries, a chapter on the
activities of the Department, one on the statistics of the mineral industry, and one
on the performance of the petroleum industry.
The Annual Report can be seen from the above to be in a period of change
in regard to format and content. This change has occurred in conjunction with the
flux of change evident in Departmental organization and executive and administrative personnel. These changes, outlined in chapter 2, occurred mainly at the
beginning and the end of 1975.
In the year 1975 the mineral and petroleum industries, even more than the
Department, were in a period of considerable change. The industries were subject
to notable pressures from several interlinked forces beyond their control which
were related to the general economic recession, the developing energy crisis, and
the impact of conflicting Federal-Provincial policies. Most metals were priced
throughout the year at their lowest level in real value for many years which, combined with the ongoing dispute concerning apportionment of resource taxation
between the two senior levels of government, had a depressive effect on production
as well as exploration. The petroleum industry was in an even more complex
situation with exploration and production both declining. New regulations introduced in November 1975 defining separate schedules for 'new' and 'old' gas improved the situation. The saving aspect of the over-all industry in 1975 was coal,
where the effect of a full year of enhanced value for metallurgical coal increased
both exploration and production. Due mainly to the record high value of coal
production, the 1975 total for the combined industry was another new record,
$1,217 million, slightly higher than the 1974 total of $1,197 million.
The following list indicates the relative proportion of the total values of the
industry taken by the various sectors in 1975 compared to 1974:
1975 1974
Per Cent Per Cent
Metals   48 64
Industrial minerals      4 3
Structural materials      8 6
Coal  26 13
Petroleum and natural gas    14 14
Table 1-1 shows the quantity and value of solid minerals and petroleum and
natural gas by commodity in 1974 and 1975. Quantities shown are in metric (SI)
units for the first time, so that a conversion table is provided. Table of prices in
chapter 3 shows the prices used in calculation of value. Figure 1-1 illustrates the
percentage value of production in 1975 by major commodity.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1975 A 9
Table 1-1—Mineral Production, Quantity and Value, 1974 and 1975
1974
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1975 Production Paid for
to Mines
Quantity
Value
Metals
Antimony    kg
Bismuth    kg
Cadmium     kg
Copper _ kg
Gold—placer  __ kg
Gold—lode, fine  .kg
Iron concentrates t
Lead .  kg
Molybdenum _ kg
Nickel   kg
Silver   kg
Tin _ kg
Zinc   kg
Others  _.
Subtotals  	
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos  t
Diatomite _ t
Fluxes  t
Granules _    _.t
Gypsum and gypsite  t
Jade  kg
Sulphur t
Others ___ _
Subtotals   	
Structural Materials
Cement _  t
Clay products 	
Lime and limestone  t
Rubble, riprap, and
crushed rock _ _t
Sand and gravel _ t
Building stone   t
Subtotals  _
Coal
Coal—sold and used t
Total solid minerals _
Petroleum and
Natural Gas
Crude oil _ m3
Field condensate _ m3
Plant condensate _ m3
Subtotals    _
Natural gas to
pipeline   lOGm3
Butane   _ m3
Propane _ ....m3
Subtotals  _
Total petroleum and
natural gas	
Grand totals	
221 238
33 711
195 979
287 547 048
45
5 001
1 306 930
55 252 692
13 789 825
688 656
181 696
143 816
77 733 732
879,897
680,771
1,532,096
541,644,913
232,512
26,749,083
12,742,227
23,333,016
60,791,552
2,351,406
28,440,365
1,150,722
59,582,753
4,488,138
___ | 764,599,451
83 403
1593
34 451
31546
400 338
3 510
206 646
27,398,900
32,600
206,049
1,025,615
1,412,157
18,613
3,068,507
513,773
33,676,214
890 372
2 097 909
2 691 473
31440 908
452
25,828,823
6,615,128
4,297,547
5,715,219
35,611,346
20,330
78,088,393
7 757 440
154,593,643
 ._.. |1,030,957,701
3 012 553
16 561
178 534
3 207 648
1 042
105 426
89 373
195 841
103,335,328
568,075
924,549
104,827,952
128,018,726
232,085
196,742
128.447,553
223,275,505
1,264,233,206
364 045
19 163
320 923
258 497 599
44
4 819
1 299 215
70 603 483
13 026 627
196 306
32 511
99 668 230
1,467,928
261,931
1,971,035
331,693,850
232,204
25,082,494
15,245,902
24,450,158
71,201,391
30,545,947
200,669
80,572,872
3,695,987
| 586,622,368
76 771
5 847
39 589
33 316
474 387
110 437
246 079
37,849,743
229,483
174,824
1,144,968
1,751,799
414,123
5,738,134
1,364,528
48,667,602
915 293
1 976 415
4 103 452
28 945 523
53
31,681,722
6,593,189
4,349,800
8,723,448
39,575,457
4,395
   I  90,928,011
8 924 8
6
| 317,111,744
|1,043,329,725
2 261 987
16 094
185 275
2 463 356
928
106 429
81976
189 333
94,229,725
668,092
6,525,837
101,423,654
214,733,528
2,577,205
1,985,087
219,295,820
320,719,474
1,364,049,199
59 877
258 419 560
44
4 844
1 281 489
67 171 851
13 026 627
180 592
24 868
88 456 211
308,079
240,270,370
232,204
19,089,477
15,037,019
17,781,091
71,201,391
21,476,408
143,025
44,074,003
2,362,450
76 771 |
5 847
39 589
33 316
474 387
110 437
246 079
| 431,975,517
37,849,743
229,483
174,824
1,144,968
1,751,799
414,123
5,738,134
1,364,528
48,667,602
31,681,722
6,593,189
4,349,800
888,682,874
2 261 987
16 094
185 275
2 463 356
928
106 429
81 976
189 333
94,229,725
668,092
6,525,837
101,423,654
214,733,528
2,577,205
1,985,087
219,295,820
320,719,474
1,209,402,348
Metric
Tonnes	
Kilograms .....
Kilograms __.
Cubic metres
Conversion Table
Symbol
 t H- .90718 = short tons
 kg -=- .45359 = pounds
 kg -7- .031103 = troy ounce
.__ms X 6.29 = barrels
Millions cubic metres 10fim3 X 353 147 = thousand standard cubic feet
 A 10
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCTION —1975—$1,217,450,382
Industrial
Minerals        4.0/.
Structural
Materials
MAJOR MINERALS PRODUCED IN 1975
(By Value)
Molybdenum 5.8/i
Gold 2.1%      —
Silver 2.5/o   —-
Asbestos 3.1 A-"
Cement 2.6/o —-
Sand and Gravel-
3A'/o
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 11
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN 1975
By
A. Sutherland Brown, J. E. Merrett, and W. P. Wilson
SOLID MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1975
The value of solid minerals, that is, metals, industrial minerals, structural
materials, and coal, set a new record, slightly higher than 1974 and exceeding $1
billion for the second year (see Table 1-1). The continued increase in the value
of production in the face of extended recession and low metal prices is attributable
to further increase in production of coal, which now represents 30 per cent of the
total value of solid minerals, up from 15 per cent, and is now very nearly as great
as the value of copper production. In 1975 the total value of production was
$1,043,329,725. Metals represented 56.2 per cent of this total or $586.6 million;
coal represented 30.4 per cent or $317.1 million; structural materials represented
8.7 per cent or $90.9 million; and industrial minerals represented 4.6 per cent or
$48.7 million.
Metals
Figure 1-2 shows the production of major metals in tonnes or pounds from
1890 to 1975. The graph reveals the long-term trends of mining. Lead and zinc
production advanced sharply in the period 1920 to 1943, thereafter starting a slow
decline, a feature dependent principally on the production history of the Sullivan
mine. In contrast, copper production remained at a modest level until the onset
of major porphyry copper production in the late sixties. Molybdenum production
also started its growth in this period, related principally to mining of porphyry
deposits. Precious metals are not shown but their history in this period is principally
one of by-product origin related to the production of major base metals. Detailed
graphs of metal production are shown in chapter 3.
Copper continued in 1975 to be the most valuable metal, although the quantity
of production declined 10 per cent from 1974, the value of production declined 39
per cent, and the value to the mines declined 45 per cent. This value shown in
Table 1-1 is that paid to the mines for mineral products excluding outward transportation, smelting, and refining costs.
Molybdenum markets continued to be strong and the price rose almost 25 per
cent. Therefore, although production dropped 5 per cent, the value advanced 17
per cent. In value paid to mines, molybdenum continued in second place although
the total value of zinc production exceeded it again.
Zinc production was up mainly because the Cominco smelter operated for the
full year. Although the price of zinc increased marginally to a total value of more
than $80 million, the value paid to mines was only $44 million.
The value of silver and gold again exceeded the value of lead production,
although the precious metals were largely produced as by-products. Silver production was up 8 per cent and the price down marginally so that the total value was
up 7.4 per cent. The quantity and value of lode gold production was down marginally from 1974 and totalled $25 million in 1975.
Lead production was up significantly (28 per cent) for the same reason as was
zinc production, but the lead price declined so that the value of production was only
up by 5 per cent and totalled $24.5 million. The value paid for to mines was $17.8
million.
 A 12
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
-650
1880
1890
1900
1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 I960 1970 1980
Figure 1.2—Quantities of Metals Produced.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 13
Iron concentrate production was down marginally, but the value of production
at $15.2 million was up 20 per cent.
Coal
Coal advanced in all respects; production of clean coal sold and used was up
15 per cent to 8.9 million tonnes and the value of this production was $317 million,
an increase of 105 per cent. This large increase reflects nearly a full year's production at the enhanced price structures. In 1975 the value of coal production was
nearly equal to the total value of copper production and considerably more than the
value of copper paid to mines.
Nonmetallic Commodities
The value of industrial minerals was $48.7 million, up 45 per cent, chiefly as
a result of a 38 per cent increase in the value of asbestos production. The actual
production of asbestos declined, but the price advanced.
The value of structural materials totals $90.9 million, an advance of 16 per
cent over the previous year. Three quarters of the value of production of structural
materials is represented by sand and gravel and cement for the construction industry.
PROVINCIAL REVENUE FROM MINING COMPANIES
Direct revenue in 1975 to the Provincial Government derived from the mining
sector of the mineral industry is shown in Table 1-2. The amount for mineral
royalties shown is the amount collected after adjustments for 1974, etc. For coal
licences and rentals the amount shown includes cash paid in lieu of work, some of
which may be refundable.
Table 1-2—Revenue From Mineral Resources
Claim recording fees, lease rentals, and free miners' cer- $
tificates, etc     1,637,810.76
Coal licences and rentals collected     1,008,323.01
Coal royalties     3,644,267.91
Mineral land taxes  15,416,461.09
Mineral royalties collected on copper, molybdenum, iron,
gold, silver, lead, zinc, and cadmium     8,846,389.75
Mining taxes   17,785,959.00
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and structural materials         782,788.00
Total   49,121,999.52
EXPENDITURE BY MINING COMPANIES
Major expenditure in 1975 by companies involved in exploration, development,
and mining of metals, minerals, and coal were as shown in Table 1-3. A major
portion of mine development and exploration costs expended were in coal properties
in the Crowsnest and Peace River Coalfields.
_J
 A 14 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 1-3—Expenditure (Mining Companies)
$ $
Capital expenditures   102,908,657
Exploration and development     77,375,528 180,284,185
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   359,688,537
Mining operations (structural materials)      31,006,058
Repair expenditures   126,918,798
Total  697,897,578
MINING AND TREATMENT
The major mines of all sorts operating in 1975, except sand and gravel pits and
limestone quarries, are shown on a map of the Province as Figure 1-3. Major sand
and gravel operations and limestone quarries are mostly within a small area of the
southwestern part of the Province. On the figure mines are distinguished according
to main geological type and whether open pit or underground. The table on Figure
1-3 lists the mine, rated mill capacity, products, operating company and address,
and mine address.
Metal Mines
Metal mining was effected by the continuing depressed economy with generally
low metal prices and high costs, including taxes. The only encouragement was in
prices for molybdenum and zinc and possibly fewer days lost by strikes. As a
result, although production of some metals increased, over-all value declined
approximately 35 per cent from 1974.
In 1975, 66 mines produced an aggregate of 80 360 807 tonnes of ore which
was concentrated or shipped directly to a smelter. This contrasts with 54 mines
in 1974 producing 81 886 884 tonnes so that, although more small mines were in
production in 1975, gross tonnage decreased about 2 per cent. Of the 66 mines,
28 produced more than 1 000 tonnes (or the previous criterion of 1,000 tons).
The significant producing metal mines (>1 000 tonnes) are shown on Figure 1-3
classified as to geological type and whether open pit or underground. Thirteen
mines produced more than 1 million tonnes of ore in 1975 and in aggregate produced
more than 77 million tonnes or 96 per cent of the total. Of these 13 large mines,
only two (Sullivan and Granduc) were underground mines. In regard to geological
type, nine were mining porphyry deposits, two skarn deposits, one stratiform
deposit, and one massive sulphide deposit. There are 15 mines of intermediate size
producing between 1 million and 1 thousand tonnes per year of which only three
are open-pit mines. These intermediate-sized mines are of very diverse geological
nature; however, only one (Boss Mountain) is a porphyry deposit and most are
vein deposits.
During the year the only new mine to start production was the small open-pit
gold-silver mine of Dusty Mac. This ore was trucked to the Horn Silver mine for
milling while the latter mine was shut down for much of the year to carry out exploration. Two old mines, Scranton and Ruth Vermont, reopened during the year. The
Pinchi mercury mine closed in September 1975 because of poor markets and prices,
and the Magnum (Churchill) and Mineral King mines closed after briefly renewed
periods of production.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 15
Concentrating
In 1975, 30 concentrators at metal mines were in operation (see Table 3-12);
eight treated copper ore, three treated copper-iron ore, one treated zinc-copper-
silver-lead ore, eleven treated lead-zinc-silver ore, four treated copper-molybdenum
ore, two treated molybdenum ore, and one treated mercury ore.
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates
The only base-metal smelter in operation in the Province is the lead-zinc smelter
owned and operated by Cominco Ltd. in Trail. Concentrates of other metals are
mostly exported to smelters in diverse parts of the world, but mainly Japan and the
United States. However, molybdenum concentrates at Endako are roasted to form
molybdenum trioxide and are also processed to make ferromolybdenum. Cinnabar
concentrates are roasted at Pinchi mine to form mercury.
The smelter at Trail received concentrates and scrap from a number of
sources—company mines within the Province (Sullivan and HB), outside the Province (Pine Point), and custom sources both inside and outside the Province. The
smelter received 96 081 tonnes of lead concentrates and 174 561 tonnes of zinc
concentrates from the Sullivan and HB mines, and 9 112 tonnes of lead concentrates and 1 529 tonnes of zinc concentrates from other British Columbia mines.
The total value of concentrates, including by-product metal, from British Columbia
treated at Trail was $118,068,893 or 20 per cent of metal production of the Province
in 1975.
Endako shipped products containing 5 564 104 kilograms of molybdenum. Of
this, 1 488 tonnes was molybdenum, concentrates, 7 975 tonnes was molybdenum
trioxide, and 117 tonnes was ferromolybdenum.
The proportions of the total metal production going to the various destinations
are not known accurately but are approximately as follows: Smelted or treated in
British Columbia, $118.1 million (20.1 per cent); shipped to other parts of Canada,
$68.7 million (11.7 per cent); exported to Japan, $259.4 million (44.3 per cent);
exported to the United States, $56.3 million (9.6 per cent); exported to Germany,
$9.4 million (1.7 per cent); other plus unattributed, $73.8 million (12.6 per cent).
Three main changes have occurred in the destination of concentrates in 1975
compared to 1974: the percentage smelted in the Province returned to normal
(20.1 per cent from 10.9 per cent) after the long strike in 1974; the percentage
exported to Japan was down significantly because of force majeure declared by
Japanese buyers (44.3 per cent from 69.9 per cent); and the percentage shipped to
other parts of Canada increased significantly (11.7 per cent from 3.8 per cent).
The destination of concentrates of the major metals is shown in Table 3-13
and discussed following.
Copper concentrates produced in British Columbia were shipped to the following destinations: Eastern Canada, 187 556 tonnes; the United States, 86 163 tonnes;
Japan, 665 381 tonnes; Germany, 22 575 tonnes.
Details of the disposition of molybdenum (13 026 627 kilograms valued at
$71,201,391) are not always ascertainable but, from known sales, slightly over
one half of the total was shipped to Europe and about one third to Japan. The
balance was disposed of to a multitude of countries.
Zinc concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
32 254 tonnes and were shipped to the United States.
Iron concentrates produced in British Columbia were sold to the following
markets; Japan, 949 093 tonnes; the United States, 263 238 tonnes; Australia,
30 638 tonnes.
 A 16
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Lead concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled 273
tonnes and were shipped to the United States.
Industrial Mineral Mines
Industrial mineral production is dominantly the product of two mines, the
Cassiar asbestos mine at Cassiar in the north and Western Gypsum mine at Inver-
mere in the East Kootenay district. Both are open-pit mines of moderate size and
have a considerable history of production. In addition, two small mines in the
East Kootenays produced barite.
Most major limestone quarries are located on Texada Island, with one at
Cobble Hill on Vancouver Island. Quarries in the Interior of the Province are
generally smaller. A notable addition to the latter which started shipping in the
beginning of 1975 is the Pavilion Lake plant of Steel Brothers Canada Limited.
This quarry and plant are unique in several ways. The 275-tonne-per-day plant
produces calcined lime at the quarry site on Pavilion Indian Reserve 3, and most
of the employees are natives of the band.
Coal Mines    .
The producing coal mines are shown on Table 3-8 in chapter 3, and the list of
major mines on Figure 1-3. Six coal mines are shown on the former and three on
the latter, but both ignore the fact that Kaiser Resources Ltd. and Fording Coal
Limited produced from more than one mine. Kaiser produces chiefly from an
open-pit complex on Harmer Ridge and the South Balmer hydraulic mine. Fording
produces principally from the Clode Creek and Greenhills open pits. These two
operators produced 96 per cent of the clean coal output of the Province. An additional 3 per cent is produced from the Crowsnest Coalfield of the Kootenays at Coal
Mountain by Bryon Creek Collieries Limited and at Tent Mountain by Coleman
Collieries Limited. Coal produced by Coalition Mining Limited in the Peace River
Coalfield was basically for test purposes—about half of which was shipped to Great
Britain. A minor amount of coal was produced from the Telkwa Coalfield of
central British Columbia for local heating purposes.
The following salient facts of coal mine production are evident in Table 3-8B:
(1) Ninety-one per cent of raw coal production comes from surface
mining operations.
(2) Ninety-three per cent of the raw coal produced was metallurgical
coal.
(3) Clean coal output increased 24 per cent over 1974 to 9 579 802
tonnes. The percentage relative to raw coal dropped slightly from
76 per cent in 1974 to 74 per cent.
(4) The value of coal sold and used increased sharply to $317,111,744
from $154,593,643 in 1974, an increase of 105.1 per cent resulting
principally from increased average values of 78.27 per cent, but also
from the increase of 24 per cent in production.
(5) Coal sales to Japan accounted for 88 per cent of the total, a drop of
about 3 per cent, resulting largely from increased sale of coal to
Ontario (now 5 per cent). Domestic coke production remained
static and so dropped to our third largest market.
MINE SAFETY
Active safety programs were in effect at all mines throughout the Province
during 1975.   The control of mine safety is vested in management in the Mines
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MAJOR   MINES, 1975
(Greater Than 1000 Tonnes Ore)
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Mines in British Columbia Which Produced More Than 1 000 Tonnes of Ore in 1975
Rated Capacity
Name of Mine
Products
N.T.S.
Location
of Mill/Cleaning
Plant
(Tonnes/Day)
Mine1
Type
Name of Company
Company Address
Mine Address
Metal Mines
Phoenix _ \	
Cu, Au, Ag
82E/2E
2 500
O
Granby Mining Corp	
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6E 2H7
Box 490, Grand Forks.
(Mining ending 1976).
Denero Grande, Jewel	
Au, Ag, Pb,
Zn, Si02
82E/2E
	
u
Colt Resources Ltd 	
711, 475 Howe St., Vancouver V6E 2B3
(Shipments suspended
late 1975).
Horn Silver -J.—
Ag, Pb, Zn,
Cu
82E/4E
140
u
Dankoe Mines Ltd _
2002, 1177 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2K3
Box 190, Keremeos.
Susie	
Ag, Pb, Zn,
Cu, Au
Au, Ag
82E/4E
u
Hem Mines Ltd 	
Box 855, Oliver	
Box 855, Oliver.
Dusty Mac -	
82E/5E
o
Dusty Mac Mines Ltd	
433, 355 Burrard St., Van
Box   402,   Okanagan
couver
Falls.
Highland Bell	
Ag, Zn, Pb,
Au, Cd
82E/6E
110
u
Teck Corp. Ltd _.
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2K5
Beaverdell V0H 1A0.
H.B -	
Zn, Pb, Ag,
Cd
82F/3E
1090
u
Cominco Ltd. (H.B. mine).
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C2R2
Salmo.
Annex  i	
Zn, Pb, Ag
82F/3E
900
u
Reeves MacDonald Mines
Ltd.
105, 465 Ward St., Nelson
V1L 1S7
(Closed Mar. 1975).
Bluebird —~t	
Ag, Zn, Pb
Au
82F/4W
u
Standonray Mines Ltd	
3567 W. 27th Ave., Vancouver V6S 1P9
3567 W. 27th Ave.,
Vancouver V6S1P9.
Silmonac \	
Zn, Pb, Ag,
Cd
82F/14
140
u
Kam-Kotia Mines Ltd. and
Silmonac Mines Ltd.
420 475 Howe St., Vancouver V6C 2B3
Box 189, New Denver^.
Scranton J	
Au, Ag, Zn,
Pb
82F/14E
u
Silver Star Mines Ltd	
c/o Kirkstiuk, 1900 Guiness
Tower, 1055 W. Hastings,
Vancouver V6E 2E9
Kaslo.
Sullivan	
Zn, Pb, Ag,
82G/12W
9 500
u
Cominco   Ltd.   (Sullivan
200 Granville Square, Van
Box 2000,  Kimberley
Cd
mine)
couver V6C 2R2
V1A2G3.
Ruth Vermont  	
Ag, Pb, Zn
82K/15W
450
u
Consolidated Columbia
River Mines Ltd.
3rd Floor, 73 Water St.,
Vancouver V6B 1A1
Box 1649, Golden.
Texada	
Fe, Cu
92F/10E
4 500
u
Texada Mines Ltd	
Box 10, Gillies Bay, VON 1W0
Box 10, Gillies Bay
(Closing Dec. 1976).
Lynx, Myra 	
Zn, Cu, Ag,
Pb, Au, Cd
92F/12E
900
o
Western Mines Ltd	
Rm. 1103, Box 49066, 595
Burrard St., Vancouver
V7X 1C4
Box 8000, Campbell
River.
Similkameen  —_—
Cu, Ag, Au
92H/7E
13 600
o
Similkameen Mining Co.
Ltd.
14th Floor, 750 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 520, Princeton
VOX 1W0.
Brenda  —
Cu, Mo, Ag
92H/16E
22 000
o
Brenda Mines Ltd 	
Box 420, Peachland V0H 1X0
Box 420, Peachland,
V0H 1X0.
Craigmont	
Cu
921/2W
4 860
u
Craigmont Mines Ltd _
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Box 3000, Merritt.
Lomex	
Cu, Mo, Ag,
Au
921/6E
40 900
o
Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd._
202, 580 Granville St., Vancouver V6C 1W8
Box 1500, Logan Lake
V0K 1W0.
Bethlehem	
Cu, Ag, Au
921/7W
16 800
o
Bethlehem   Copper   Corp.
Ltd.
2100, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2H8
Box 520, Ashcroft.
Island Copper	
Cu, Mo, Ag,
Au
92L/11W
34 500
o
Utah Mines Ltd	
1600, 1050 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 3S7
Box 370, Port Hardy
VON 2P0.
Boss Mountain	
Mo
93A/2W
1590
u
Noranda Mines Ltd. (Boss
Mt. Div.)
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
Hendrix Lake.
Gibraltar —	
Cu, Mo, Ag
93B;/9W
36 330
o
Gibraltar Mines Ltd	
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Box 130, McLeese
Lake VOL 1P0.
Endako  	
Mo
93K/3E
24 500
o
Canex Placer Ltd. (Endako
Div.)
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
Endako.
Pinchi Lake  -	
Hg
93K/9W
730
u
Cominco Ltd. (Pinchi Lake
mine)
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C 2R2
(Mining suspended
late 1975).
Granisle 	
Cu, Ag, Au
93L/16E
12 260
o
Granisle Copper Ltd	
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6E 2H7
Box 1000, Granisle.
Bell (Newman)  	
Cu, Au
93M/1E
11800
o
Noranda Mines Ltd. (Bell
Copper Div.)
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
Box 2000, Granisle.
Magnum (Churchill)	
Cu
94K/11W
680
u
Consolidated Churchill Copper Corp.
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2K5
Closed Apr. 1975.
Tasu  	
Fe, Cu
103C/16E
7 300
o
Wesfrob Mines Ltd. (Tasu)
603, 1112 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 2S5
Tasu.
Granduc   	
Cu, Ag, Au
104B/1W
7 270
u
Granduc Operating Co _.
520, 890 W. Pender St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
Box 69, Stewart.
Industrial Mineral Open Pits
and Quarry
Western Gypsum	
Gypsum
82J/5W
2 450
o
Western Gypsum Ltd.	
Box 217, Invermere V0A1K0
Box 217, Invermere
VOA 1K0.
Mineral King _ 	
Barite
82K/8W
Small
o
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta....
Box 603, Invermere.
Brisco	
Barite
82K./16W
u
Mountain Minerals Ltd _
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta. ._
Box 603, Invermere.
Giant Mascot (Silver Giant)...	
Barite
82K/16W
91
o
Baroid of Canada Ltd	
600, 608 Seventh St., SW.,
Calgary, Alta. T2P 1Z2
Spillimacheen.
Cassiar  —	
Asbestos
104P/5W
3 630
o
Cassiar Asbestos Corp. Ltd.
2000, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 3V3
Cassiar V0C 1E0.
Coal Mines
Corbin (No. 3 Pit)	
Coal
82G/10E
1700
o
Byron Creek Collieries Ltd.
Box 270, Blairmore, Alta	
Box   270,   Blairmore
Alta.
Box 2000, Sparwood.
Harmer Ridge and N. and S. Bal-
Coal
82G/10, 15
28 000
o, u
Kaiser Resources Ltd	
2600 Board of Trade Tower,
mer
1177 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2L1
Clode Creek, Greenhills, Turnbull
Coal
82J/2W
17 000
o
Fording Coal Ltd	
206, 205 Ninth Ave., SE.,
Calgary, Alta. T2G 0R4
Box 100, Elkford
V0B 1H0.
O—Open pit.    U—Underground.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 17
Regulation Act and Coal Mines Regulation Act, and the Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources, through its Inspection and Engineering Division, is responsible
for the observance of the Acts by all persons working at the mines. The Inspection
and Engineering Division maintains a Province-wide system of districts staffed by
inspection and rescue personnel. Staffs of specialized personnel have also been
established. During the year, additional staff have been obtained to assist both
District Inspectors and specialists in their duties.
The Board of Examiners, a part of the Inspection and Engineering Division,
conducts examinations for the various certificates of competency required by certain
supervisors and managers of mines. Miners' certificates and coal miners' certificates
are now issued after examination by the District Inspectors.
During the year a number of amendments were introduced to improve mine
safety, such as the requirement that all persons working underground must be
instructed in survival rescue procedures. The regulation restricting the employment
of women in underground mines has been removed.
The Province continues to maintain leadership in promoting mine safety
because of the progressive efforts of the Department and the co-operative spirit
existing in the industry.
In underground mining, attention has been directed toward reducing fire
hazards and, to this end, the use of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids has become mandatory, and the installation of fire-suppression kits is also recommended as a defence
against fires from other origins. Some flame-proof, diesel-powered, load-haul-dump
vehicles were placed in service in coal mines. Roll-over protective structures are
now required on all new equipment and existing vehicles also, where practical.
Guidelines have been issued for the selection of electrical equipment for use in
underground coal mines.
The trend to mining on a large scale by open-pit methods using large equipment
has brought new challenges. The on-site testing of large truck brakes, which has
resulted in improved brake performance, has gained the Department world-wide
recognition. Failures of certain equipment components were under study during
the year and, as a result, nondestructive tests are now required of truck front-wheel
spindles to ensure safe operation. Attention has also been directed toward improving safety standards for electrical systems on open-pit shovels, and an improved
ground fault system for 600-volt cab tire cables has been developed.
Monitoring of dust and ventilation conditions at mines continued, and a number
of plants have improved their dust control systems during the year. A more stringent standard has been set for assessing conditions in the asbestos industry, and
corrective measures were implemented. Noise control surveys indicate that 89
per cent of all operations are now performing audiometric testing on employees.
Mine-rescue stations, manned by qualified staff and fully supplied with rescue
equipment, are maintained at Fernie, Kamloops, Nanaimo, Nelson, Prince George,
and Smithers. Each station has on hand sufficient self-contained oxygen-supplying
breathing apparatus to maintain at least two mine-rescue teams of six men each.
In addition, each station has auxiliary equipment such as Type N gas masks, gas
detectors, oxygen therapy units, and first aid equipment. The Department also has
some equipment on loan to some mining companies to supplement their own
equipment.
The mine-rescue staff also makes periodic visits to mines to give or assist in
survival rescue and first aid training, and to check rescue equipment to ensure that
it is well maintained and in good operating condition.
Four mine safety associations operate in different zones of the Province to
promote mine rescue and first aid training, as well as provide programs in safety
 A 18 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
education. Competitions are held annually in various centres during May and
June. These associations are sponsored by the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources and Workers' Compensation Board. They are aided by mining company
officials, safety supervisors, mine inspectors, mine-rescue co-ordinators, and, in
some instances, local industry. The Provincial Underground Mine Rescue Competition was held in Fernie on June 28. The Kaiser Resources' team, captained by
Peter Zeith, won the trophy and went on to compete in the 9th Canadian Underground Mine Rescue finals in Calgary, Alta., on July 5, 1975. The Provincial
Surface Mine Rescue Competition was also held in Fernie on June 28, and the team
from Similkameen Mining Company Limited, captained by L. Hornsby, won the
trophy.
Several trophies and awards have been provided by various organizations in
recognition of deeds of bravery, rescue work, and for safety. In the 1973 Annual
Report it was recorded that James Mellon, miner, received bravery awards from the
Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and the Workers' Compensation
Board for his actions in removing an injured workman from a heading in the
Silmonac mine when holes, loaded with explosives, were detonating. Mr. Mellon
has now received further honour from the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission, which
presented him with a bronze medal and a cash award.
The John T. Ryan Safety trophies were established in 1941 by the Mine
Safety Appliance Co. of Canada Ltd. to promote safety in coal and metal mines in
Canada. Three Canadian and six regional trophies were established and their
administration was given to the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In
1975 the British Columbia and Yukon Regional trophy for metal mines was won
by Granduc Operating Company, and the Western Region trophy for coal mines
was won by the underground operations of Kaiser Resources Ltd.
In 1951 the West Kootenay Mine Safety Association donated a trophy to
promote safety in small mines, and in 1975 this trophy was awarded to the Horn
Silver mine of Dankoe Mines Ltd.
In 1961 the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources organized a safety
competition for the open-pit and quarry industry, and provided two trophies. Since
that time three categories of competition have been established, based on amassed
man-hours, and trophies or certificates of achievement awarded to mines having
the least number of compensable accidents in their respective categories.
In 1975, four operations, the Britannia pit of Construction Aggregates Ltd.,
the Cobble Hill quarries of British Columbia Cement Company Limited, and the
Texada limestone quarries of both Domtar Chemicals Limited and Canada Cement
Lafarge Ltd., shared in winning the 'A' category trophy. The 'B' category trophy
was again won by the Phoenix mine of Granby Mining Corporation. Certificates
of achievement were won by Blackham's Construction Ltd., Dolan's Ltd., Langley
Division of Construction Aggregates Ltd., Surrey pit of Lafarge Concrete Ltd., and
Plateau Construction Ltd., operator of the Canada Cement Lafarge quarries near
Kamloops.
RECLAMATION
The objective of mine reclamation is to restore disturbed land surfaces and
waste-disposal areas to useful purposes compatible with the surrounding countryside.
Reclamation of areas affected by mining is administered by the Inspection
and Engineering Division of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources,
and permits are issued under authority of the Mines Regulation Act and Coal Mines
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 19
Regulation Act. The Chief Inspector is the Chairman of the Reclamation Committee, which is a committee of representatives of the various Government resource
ministries. The committee reviews all reclamation plans before permits are approved by Cabinet, and the permits are issued only after a performance bond has
been posted. In 1975, 71 new reclamation permits were issued and 11 permits
were approved for renewals, covering a total area of 13 600 hectares with a total
bonding of $3,174,700.
Reclamation guidelines for exploration were issued by the Department and
have improved reclamation procedures and reduced land disturbance, especially in
coal exploration.
Progress is continuing in reclamation techniques, both on test plots and on
reclaimed land. Kaiser Resources Ltd. has demonstrated that waste dumps can be
reclaimed with proper site preparation and seeding. Test plots indicate that vegetation can be established at elevations of 1 350 metres. Revegetation of tailings
ponds is an area of major concern and, although some success has been achieved,
more research is needed, and it is proposed that a research program funded by the
Department be established in 1976.
EXPLORATION
Metals
Exploration in metals was uniformly lower in 1975 compared to 1974, judged
by many of the indices shown in the following list. These include information from
Departmental records and from questionnaires. Most indices show a drop of 13
to 32 per cent.
1974 1975
Exploration expenditure  $25,400,000      $22,100,000
Claims recorded  16,971 11,751
Certificates of work  48,071 39,403
Free miners' certificates—
Individual  9,998 8,484
Companies  700 562
Total drilling (m)   92 802 192 935
Total geophysical surveys (line-
km)   6 989 4 835
Pattern
The pattern of distribution of metals exploration on properties is grossly
similar to former years. The changes from the pattern in 1974 can be summarized
as follows:
In the southeast, exploration became somewhat broader in distribution
although somewhat less intense. In particular, activity picked up in a band extending from the Arrow Lakes through Revelstoke to the southeastern Cariboo. In the
southwest, including Vancouver Island, exploration was generally more restricted
areally. In the Skeena Arch of Central British Columbia the same was true, more
restricted and less intense exploration. However, after a lapse of a year, activity
picked up again and was widely distributed in the Robb Lake (Halfway River)
area of the Rockies. In the north, exploration remained fragmented into isolated
areas with three areas prominent, around Kinaskan Lake, Kutcho Creek, and the
Tatshenshini River.
 A 20 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Reconnaissance exploration is not as easily monitored as exploration on properties, but was fairly active, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains for zinc,
Stikine and Tatshenshini areas for copper, and the East Kootenays for lead-zinc and
uranium.
Major Exploration Activity
Major activity at properties not in production, defined as programs of greater
than 3 000 metres of drilling or 300 metres of development, occurred at only seven
properties. Four of these were underground development, two of which were
preparing for production. These properties listed from southeast to northwest
were:
*Ruth Vermont mine (Columbia River mines), formerly active lead-
zinc vein deposit, 43 kilometres west of Spillimacheen.
Pat, Goldstream (Noranda), a newly discovered copper-zinc massive
sulphide deposit north of Revelstoke.
*OK (Alwin), a former producing copper lode deposit within the Highland Valley porphyry copper district.
*Warman (Northair), a gold-silver-lead-zinc vein deposit that is proceeding to production, 11 kilometres north of Brandywine Falls.
*Mosquito (Home Oil), a gold vein deposit adjacent to the former Cariboo Gold Quartz mine, 2.5 kilometres northwest of Wells.
Big Onion (Canadian Superior), a porphyry copper prospect, 17 kilometres east of Smithers.
Red, Chris, Windy, Sus (Texasgulf), a porphyry copper-gold prospect,
9 kilometres south of Eddontenajon Lake.
Four other programs were drilled over 2 000 metres, including
Aurum, Idaho, Pipestem (Carolin Mines), a disseminated gold deposit
near Hope.
Nu, Elk (Denak—Canex Placer), an extension of the Endako porphyry
molybdenum mine.
Poplar  (Utah), a porphyry copper deposit,  60 kilometres south of
Houston.
Chappelle (DuPont), a gold-silver vein deposit, 300 kilometres north
of Smithers.
Three other programs were important because of their implication for further
prospecting.
Fuki-Donen (PNC Japan), secondary uranium deposits between Beaver-
dell and Kelowna.
Kingfisher (Colby Mines), a deformed and metamorphosed zinc-lead
deposit in Shuswap gneisses, 20 kilometres southeast of Sicamous.
Jeff  (Imperial Oil) and SMRB (Sumac Mines), bedded copper-zinc
massive sulphide deposits, 100 kilometres east of Dease Lake.
* Underground development and drilling.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 21
Development and Feasibility Studies
During 1975, two properties were proceeding toward production, the Warman
and Afton deposits. The Warman gold-silver-lead-zinc vein deposit of Northair
Mines Ltd. carried out major underground development and construction of its 275-
tonne-per-day concentrator and surface plant. In early fall, Teck Corporation Ltd.
announced its decision to proceed to production with the Afton syenitic copper
porphyry deposit. This involved a small open-pit mine, a 6 350-tonne-per-day
concentrator, and a top-blown rotary converter smelter producing blister copper.
Work leading to feasibility studies was conducted at three properties—Boss
Mountain, Berg, and Sam Goosly. At Boss Mountain extensive drilling was carried
out to establish the feasibility of open-pit or underground mining of the extensive
low-grade stringer ore surrounding the breccia bodies currently mined. At Berg,
Canex Placer Limited proceeded with its program of drilling large-diameter core
for metallurgical testing of this porphyry copper-molybdenum property optioned
from Kennco Explorations, (Western) Limited. At Sam Goosly the only additional
study was the excavating of three trenches in the southern tail zone for bulk samples.
Nonmetallic Commodities
Exploration on deposits of industrial minerals and structural materials in 1975
was carried out at a fairly normal level. Some fluorite, jade, limestone, magnesite,
phosphate, and silica properties received extensive development work. Geophysical
and stripping programs occurred on several phosphate properties at the base of the
Fernie shale in the Elk River area. A test shipment of magnesite was made from
the Mount Brussilof deposit (ROK). Significant drill programs occurred on the
Eaglet fluorite property near Quesnel Lake, the Blue jade property northwest of
Lillooet, and the AN silica property in the Rocky Mountains, 50 kilometres east of
Fort McLeod.
Coal
Distribution of Coalfields
The principal coal resources of the Province occur in comparatively narrow
linear belts within the intermontane basins of the East Kootenay area (the Crowsnest
Coalfield) and the inner foothills region of northeastern British Columbia (the
Peace River Coalfield). These deposits of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age
contain major reserves of medium to low-volatile bituminous coal, generally suitable
for the production of metallurgical coke.
The Kootenay Formation which underlies the Fernie and Elk River basins contain 10 or more mineable seams, with an aggregate thickness in excess of 45 metres.
Of these, the Balmer and correlative seams which occur at the base of the sequence
may be up to 15 metres thick, and this factor, together with favourable strip ratios
in the currently developed mine areas, accounts for most of the reserves defined to
date. The Kootenay coals generally exhibit good coking characteristics and are low
in sulphur.
Regional potential of the Gething and Commotion Formations in the Peace
River area is less well defined. However, a combined total of at least seven mineable
seams of medium and low-volatile bituminous coking coal has been identified along
much of the foothills belt southeastward from Peace River to the Alberta border.
Prospective mine areas which have been most thoroughly investigated are situated
within broadly synclinal, structurally less deformed blocks which appear amenable
to underground mining. Other areas which appear to offer attractive open-pit
potential are situated along thickened fold limbs.
 A 22 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
In addition to the above-described mountain coals, local deposits of lignite,
sub-bituminous, high-volatile bituminous, and semi-anthracite coals, of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age, occur in widely scattered areas of British Columbia. Size
and economic potential of most of these, including possible reserves in the former
coal-mining areas of Vancouver Island, are comparatively small, although they are
of potential value for base-load power development as energy costs continue to
increase. An exception to the foregoing is the Hat Creek property, which is a
Tertiary lignite of limited areal extent but of considerable thickness.
Exploration
In early 1975, prices received for British Columbia coking coal were in the
order of $35.53 per tonne, up from approximately $19.93 per tonne a year previously. This dramatic rise in price of almost 80 per cent in a one-year period was
chiefly responsible for spurring on 1975 coal exploration to a new high of $7.3
million in work accepted for assessment credit or $13 million in total exploration
costs according to Economics and Statistics (Table 3-5).
Many of the properties in the Crowsnest Coalfield are in the prefeasibility stage
and hence the emphasis has been on office-related work rather than actual exploration in the field. Nevertheless, two properties had greater than 3 000 metres of
drilling—Sage Creek Coal Limited (Rio Tinto Canadian Exploration Limited) in
the Flathead Valley and Elco (Scurry-Rainbow Oil Limited) in the Upper Elk
Valley. In addition, more than 2 000 metres of drilling as well as other work was
carried out at Coal Mountain (Crows Nest Industries Limited) and at Hosmer
Wheeler and Greenhills (Kaiser Resources Ltd.).
In the Peace River Coalfield exploration was generally at an earlier stage with
12 properties carrying out significant programs. Seam tracing and mapping and
over 3 000 metres of drilling were carried out at Quintette (Denison Mines Limited)
and over 2 000 metres at Belcourt-Monkman (Canadian Superior Oil Ltd.), Carbon
Creek (Utah Mines Ltd.), and Pine Pass (Pan Ocean Oil Ltd.).
Although the bulk of exploration was concentrated on the metallurgical coal
properties in the Rocky Mountains described above, several thermal coal properties
in other parts of the Province saw work in 1975. The largest and most significant
of these is British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's drilling program on the
immense deposit of low-rank coal in the Tertiary Basin at Hat Creek where over
23 000 metres of drilling was carried out. In addition, the old Comox Coalfield of
Vancouver Island was explored by Weldwood of Canada Ltd. by a program of 52
holes totalling over 6 500 metres.
The policy of not issuing new licences over new coal land was continued
through 1975. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority was excepted from
this policy and applied for and was issued 24 new licences totalling 5 180 hectares
(12,799 acres) in the Hat Creek Coalfield. Ninety-nine licences were forfeited
during the year, totalling 21 633 hectares (53,456 acres).
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1975
A 23
THE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN  1975
By
A. G. T. Weaver and W. L. Ingram
Exploration and drilling activities in British Columbia related to petroleum and
natural gas continued to decline during 1975. The number of seismic crew-weeks
worked was only 41, down 80 per cent from 1974. Eighty-one wells and 421,547
feet were drilled in the year compared to 147 wells and 760,364 feet for 1974,
representing a decrease of about 44 per cent. Similarly, well authorizations issued
dropped from 144 in 1974 to 100 in 1975. Some significance was seen in the type
of drilling done. Development footage showed a greater reduction annually than
exploratory footage, indicating the lack of proven or potential areas for drilling
programs.
No major discoveries were made in 1975 although 31 gas wells and two oil
wells were completed. Exploratory new pool and new field discoveries accounted
for 17 successful completions out of a total of 50 exploratory wells drilled.
Two marginal oil pools were encountered in stratigraphic developments of the
Dunlevy Formation near the present limits of the Buick Creek Field. Gas well
completions were scattered throughout the productive area of the northeastern
corner of the Province although most of the discoveries were in the Middle Devonian reef area centred on Fort Nelson and the foothills belt. In the foothills encouraging results were obtained from exploratory wells drilled in the Tenaka and
Bullmoose areas, located south of Fort Nelson and Sukunka respectively.
Production of oil and gas decreased appreciably from the 1974 volumes.
Petroleum production was down 24 per cent to 14.3 million stock tank barrels
while natural gas declined 4 per cent to 389 billion cubic feet. The production from
several oilfields was curtailed due to adverse conditions of production experienced
through Provincial and Federal taxation rates. Improved oil royalty schedules and
increased gas prices, implemented near year-end, is expected to reduce these declining trends. Extension of the gas-gathering system to the Helmet area, under
construction at the close of the year, should be beneficial.
Provincial reserves at the end of 1975 were established at 105 million stock
tank barrels of proven oil and 6,927 billion cubic feet of, natural gas, some 12 and
15 per cent respectively lower than the 1974 year-end estimate. These decreases
were only partly due to the 1975 annual production, the principal reason being a
revision in the methods of calculation. Only 0.077 million stock tank barrels and
118 billion cubic feet were added as a result of the 1975 drilling programs, again
emphasizing the need for further discoveries.
An important legislative change took place in November 1975 when revised
royalty regulations for oil were approved by Order in Council 3481. In the new
regulations, separate schedules were set up for 'old' and 'new' oil, and in the case
of the former, provision was made for a royalty rebate in the form of a credit against
allowable expenditures in the Province.
Also in 1975 the British Columbia Petroleum Corporation published new
prices for 'old' and 'new' natural gas, which in the case of 'old' gas also included a
credit against allowable expenditures.
As a result of decreased activity and interest in exploration and development,
revenues to the Crown for fees, rents, and bonuses were down 27 per cent to
$25,517,036. The fees and rents were up slightly, but a major decrease of 44
per cent to $12,749,248 was recorded in the Crown reserve disposition bonuses
paid to explore and develop resources. Of particular note was the 57-per-cent drop
in bonuses paid for permits.
Acreage held under all forms of title decreased 16 per cent to 19,683,370 acres.
  Departmental Activity
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 2—Departmental Activity  A 26
Legislation, 1975  A
Organization  A
Appointments and Retirements  A
Organization and Function
Staff	
Staff Changes	
Review of Work in 1975	
Field projects	
Office studies	
26
27
29
29
Branch Activity  A
Mineral Resources Branch  A 29
Inspection and Engineering Division  A 29
Staff  A 31
Staff Changes  A 31
Geological Division  A 31
Objectives  A 31
  A
  A
  A
  A
  A
  A
Publications  A
Titles Division  A
Staff  A
31
32
33
33
33
34
35
37
37
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)  A 38
Maps Showing Mineral Claims and Placer Leases  A 38
Coal  A 39
Petroleum Resources Branch  A 39
Engineering Division  A 39
Geological Division  A 40
Titles Division  A
Staff  A
Mediation and Arbitration Board  A
41
41
42
Operations Branch...   A 42
Administrative Services Division  A 42
Accounts Section  A 43
Public Information  A 43
Personnel  A 43
Mineral Development Division  A 44
Mineral Revenue Division  A 45
Coal Royalty    A 45
Mineral Act Royalty  A 45
Mineral Land Tax  A 46
Mineral Royalties  A 46
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties  A 48
Publications  A 48
Rock and Mineral Sets  A 49
A 25
 A 26 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
The year 1975 was noted for change in organization and in executive and
administrative personnel of the Department in contrast to the previous year, which
was notable for change in legislation.
LEGISLATION,  1975
During the Session of the Legislature in 1975 three Acts directly affecting the
mineral and petroleum industries were amended. These were Bill 94, Coal Mines
Regulation Act; Bill 107, Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965; and Bill 125,
Mines Regulation Act. (In addition, Bill 75 has application that in cases where the
masculine gender is used in Acts it is to be interpreted as including the feminine.;
The Mines Regulation Act was amended in the following ways:
Section 1 is amended to authorize an Inspector to be able to order that a mine
be worked so as not to endanger the safety of employees.
Section 2 contains a requirement for the filing of a plan of the work system in
conformity with a similar requirement in the Coal Mines Regulation Act.
Section 3 (a) increases the amount of deposit as security to ensure performance
of reclamation programs for a mine from $500 to $1,000 per acre.
Section 3 (b) makes it an offence to carry out exploration without a permit.
Section 3 (c) provides the penalty of cancellation of a permit in addition to
other penalties provided under the Act for failure to comply with the provisions of
the Act and the orders of the Chief Inspector or an Inspector.
Setcion 3 (d) makes clear that placer mining operations are included within
the Chief Inspector's authority.
Section 4 requires survival rescue procedure training for all underground
workers.
The Coal Mines Regulation Act was amended in many respects similarly to the
Mines Regulation Act.   In addition the following amendments were included:
Section 1 includes a new definition to complete the safety provisions in section
6 of the Act.
Section 2 empowers an Inspector to order the preparation of an engineering
report respecting the safety of a mine.
Section 3 provides more detailed provisions than section 7 of the revised Act,
specifically in regard to the maximum recovery of the resource and the requirements
of approval for underground support plans.
Section 6 includes new safety provisions designed to prevent ignition caused
by light metals.
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 was amended to
1. Provide for the disposition of oil sand and oil shale and products derived
therefrom.
2. Reduce the qualification period from five years to four years before the
rental provisions of an order made by the Mediation and Arbitration Board can be
renegotiated.
3. Provide the Mediation and Arbitration Board with authority regarding
disposition of security deposits.
4. Require a licensee and permittee to submit a copy of their agreement to the
Commissioner before drilling is commenced in a unit adjoining the common boundary of a permit and a natural gas licence.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 27
5. Clarify that the boundaries of a gas licence selected from a permit do not
have to be separated by a unit where holders of adjoining permits agree to select
adjoining licences that have mutual boundaries.
6. Provide the Minister with authority to withdraw Crown reserves from disposition by public auction or public tender and to dispose of such withdrawn Crown
reserves in accordance with the terms and conditions and for the price or prices
approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
7. Include production facilities in the requirement for a person to obtain a
certificate of restoration before the site is deemed abandoned.
8. Require the submission of an application before normal producing operations are ceased and before producing operations are resumed.
9. Clarify that no equipment may be removed from a location without the
written permission of the Commissioner where a person has failed to comply with
the Act, regulations, a notice or order given under either, or a term, promise, or
condition of his permit, licence, lease, or drilling reservation. Formerly, reference
was made only to failure to comply with the Act.
10. Clarify that a disposition of petroleum and natural gas under the Act
shall not include petroleum and natural gas recoverable from oil sand or oil shale
unless the disposition states otherwise.
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalty Regulations administered by the
Mineral Revenue Division of the Department were also amended.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources was
modified in January 1975 when the two existing branches, Mineral Resources and
Petroleum Resources, were augmented by a new branch, Operations Branch, under
the direction of Hart Horn, Associate Deputy Minister. The structure of the existing branches was modified only slightly (see Organization Chart, page A 28), but
units previously reporting directly to the Deputy Minister were consolidated in
Operations Branch, which then consisted of Mineral Development, Administrative
Services, and Mineral Revenue Divisions. J. S. Poyen (Jr.) became director of
Mineral Development, which included Economics and Statistics and Evaluation
Sections. The latter section took over Prospectors' Assistance and Mining Road
programs from Inspection and Engineering Division W. W. Ross became director
of Mineral Revenue Division. A director of Administrative Services was never
appointed, and the division was supervised directly by H. Horn as Associate
Deputy Minister. It included Personnel, Accounts and Filing, and a Public Information, Library, and Publication Section. The library and publications had previously been directed by the Geological Division of Mineral Resources for historical
reasons and as the chief user of the facilities.
The changes of Minister and Deputy Minister in October 1975 followed by
the change of Government in December 1975 set in motion modifications to the
organization just described which culminated in January 1976 with the termination
of Operations Branch.
 A 28
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 29
APPOINTMENTS AND RETIREMENTS
During the year the changes of organization and of Government brought about
major change of executive and administrative personnel. The Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources reported to three Ministers during the year. The
Honourable Leo T. Nimsick was Minister until October 9, at which time he became
Minister of Travel Industry. The Honourable Gary I. Lauk was appointed Minister
at that time and continued until the change of Government in December. The
Honourable Tom Waterland was appointed Minister on December 22, 1975.
Parallel changes occurred in Deputy Minister. John E. McMynn resigned as
Deputy Minister effective October 9 and was replaced by A. L. Peel, Deputy Minister of Economic Development, who was appointed Acting Deputy Minister until
January 1976. Hart Horn, formerly Director of Mineral Revenue, was appointed
Associated Deputy Minister of Operations Branch in January 1975 and continued
until December when his resignation was accepted. J. S. Poyen (Jr.), formerly
Director of Economics and Planning Division, was appointed Director of Mineral
Development in conjunction with the reorganization of January 1975. W. W. Ross,
who had been Deputy Director of Mineral Revenue Division, was appointed Director
in March 1975. A. J. Dingley resigned as Chief Petroleum Engineer on July 4
and A. G. T. Weaver, formerly with Shell Canada, became Chief Petroleum Engineer
on October 1, 1975. A. Sutherland Brown, who had been Deputy Chief Geologist,
Mineral Resources Branch, was appointed Chief Geologist on January 8, 1975.
BRANCH ACTIVITY
The organization, function, and main activities of the major components of the
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources are reviewed in sequence: Mineral
Resources, Petroleum Resources, and Operations.
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
The Mineral Resources Branch, under the general direction of Dr. J. T. Fyles,
Associate Deputy Minister, administers the Mineral Act, Coal Act, Placer Mining
Act, Mines Regulation Act, and Coal Mines Regulation Act, and therefore most
matters related to the exploration and mining of solid minerals. The Branch,
through its Geological Division, is also involved in geological mapping and research
related to the mineral resources. The Branch is divided into three divisions: Inspection and Engineering, Geological, and Titles.
Inspection and Engineering Division
Inspectors stationed at the places listed below inspected coal mines, metal
mines, and quarries. They also examined prospects, mining properties, roads and
trails, and carried out special investigations under the Mineral Act. The Environment Control Inspectors conducted dust, ventilation, and noise surveys at all mines
and quarries and, where necessary, made recommendations to improve environmental conditions. P. E. Olson supervised the road and trails program and prospectors' grub-stakes. J. D. McDonald administered the reclamation sections of the
Coal Mines Regulation Act and Mines Regulation Act. A. R. C. James, Senior
Inspector, Coal, had additional duties as mining adviser to the Securities Commission. Mine-rescue training is completed under the direction of the Co-ordinators,
Rescue Training for the areas in which their stations are located.
 A 30 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck Chief Inspector of Mines Victoria
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines Victoria
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector of Mines; Aid to Securities .. Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Senior Inspector of Mines, Electrical-Mechanical Victoria
J. Cartwright, Inspector of Mines, Electrical Victoria
P. E. Olson, Senior Inspector, Mining Roads Victoria
J. D. McDonald, Senior Inspector, Reclamation ... Victoria
D. M. Galbraith, Inspector, Reclamation Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control Vancouver
G. V. Lewis, Inspector, Environmental Control Vancouver
N. D. Birkenhead, Technician, Environmental Control Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
W. H. Childress, Inspector, Technician  Vancouver
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nanaimo
H. A. Armour, Inspector, Technician Nanaimo
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
B. Varkonyi, Inspector, Technician Prince Rupert
J. F. Hutter, Inspector and Resident Engineer Smithers
S. J. North, Inspector, Technician Smithers
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
K. G. Hughes, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical Prince George
J. J. Sutherland, Inspector, Technician Prince George
B. E. Warner, Technician, Reclamation Prince George
D. Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
T. M. Waterland, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
E. S. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
R. H. Heistad, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical  Kamloops
J. A. Thomson, Inspector, Technician Kamloops
J. B. C. Lang, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nelson
A. L. O'Bryan, Technician, Reclamation  Nelson
R. W. Lewis, Inspector and Resident Engineer Fernie
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Training
G. J. Lee, Senior Co-ordinator r Victoria
T. H. Robertson   Nanaimo
J. E. A. Lovestrom Smithers
R. J. Stevenson Prince George
B. A. McConachie Kamloops
E. C. Ingham Nelson
A. Littler Fernie
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 31
Staff
In January, B. E. Warner joined the staff at Prince George office as Technician,
Reclamation for the examination of the many placer operations in the Cariboo area.
The following month, R. J. Stevenson also commenced duties in Prince George as
Co-ordinator, Rescue Training, replacing E. C. Ingham, who had transferred to
Nelson to fill the vacancy at that office. In March, N. D. Birkenhead joined the
Environmental Control staff at the Vancouver office as technician performing noise
surveys at the mines. On April 1, J. A. Thomson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training
(Kamloops) transferred to the inspection staff as an Inspector, Technician to assist
the engineer inspectors in their examinations of mines. During this same month
the following appointments were made in the same capacity: B. Varkonyi to the
Prince Rupert office; S. J. North to the Smithers office; J. J. Sutherland to the Prince
George office; and H. A. Armour to the Nanaimo office. In April, also, A. L.
O'Bryan was appointed to the Nelson office staff as Reclamation Technician, and in
June, D. M. Galbraith, P.Eng., joined the headquarters' staff in Victoria as Inspector,
Reclamation. In August, B. A. McConachie filled the Co-ordinator, Rescue Training vacancy in the Kamloops office and in October, K. G. Hughes was appointed
Inspector, Technician (Mechanical) to the Prince George office.
Geological Division
Objectives
The objectives of the Geological Division are to provide accurate and current
information on the quantity and distribution of mineral and coal deposits of the
Province for Government and industry, to provide maps and other data, ideas, and
interpretations useful in the search for these deposits, and to assist in the orderly
exploration, development, and use of these resources.
Organization and Function
To carry out these objectives, the Division is organized into four sections. The
Division is dominantly oriented to geological mapping and field studies but also
carries on significant office studies. The roles of the various sections are as follows:
Project Geology, under Dr. N. C. Carter, is a field-oriented section with 11
geologists concerned principally with geological mapping of areas of high and
moderate mineral and coal potential, and studies of the deposits in these areas.
Such projects in the past have contributed to increased exploration and the discovery of addition resources. The emphasis in the past has been on metal deposits,
but geologists in the section are currently making significant contributions in regard
to the coal program.
Applied Geology, under Dr. E. W. Grove, is a field-oriented section of five
geologists that is concerned with monitoring the activity of the exploration and
mining industry, evaluating mines and prospects for several purposes, and with
helping small operators, prospectors, and exploration geologists. The section was
therefore highly involved in the Prospectors' Assistance Program and related training of prospectors. The District Geologists, resident in Smithers, Prince George,
Kamloops, and Nelson, also represent the Department on many intergovernmental
committees.
Resource Data, under Dr. J. A. Garnett, is an office-oriented section of six
geologists concerned principally with the gathering, compilation, and computerization of data relating to the mineral resources of the Province, and also with interpretations of this data for various integrated land use studies and other special
projects.
 A 32 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Analytical Laboratory, under Dr. W. M. Johnson, has a professional and technical staff of nine. The laboratory provides a full service of analyses of rocks and
assays of metals in significant and trace amounts of samples submitted by Departmental geologists and engineers, prospectors under the Prospectors Assistance Act
and other prospectors, and by other departments of the Government.
Staff
The professional staff of the Division on December 31, 1975, was as follows:
A Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief Geologist
N. C. Carter, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
J. A. Garnett, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
E. W. Grove, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
W. M. Johnson, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief Analyst
P. F. Ralph, L.R.I.C Deputy Chief Analyst
P. A. Christopher, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
R. D. Gilchrist, B.Sc Geologist
T. Hoy, Ph.D Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc, P.Eng . Geologist
J. W. McCammon, M.A.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
W. D. McCartney, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. Panteleyev, M.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
D. E. Pearson, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. F. Bowman, M.Sc Geomathematician
G. G. Addie, M.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Nelson
G. H. Klein, B.A.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Prince George
T. G. Schroeter, M.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Smithers
G. P. E. White, B.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Kamloops
G. L. James Research Officer (Geology)
Judith Winsby, B.Sc Research Officer (Geology)
J. L. Armitage Chief Draughtsman
R. E. Player Lapidary and Photographer
N. G. Colvin Laboratory Scientist
R. J. Hibberson, B.Sc Laboratory Scientist
B. Bhagwanani, B.Sc Laboratory Scientist
M. A. Chaudhry Laboratory Technician
F. F. Karpick Assayer
L. E. Shepherd Laboratory Technician
Mrs. V. V. Vilkos, Ph.D Laboratory Scientist
The Department also has contracted for the services of A. H. Matheson, B.Sc,
to prepare Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 33
Staff Changes
Dr. A. Sutherland Brown was appointed Chief Geologist in January 1975.
Dr. J. A. Garnett was appointed Senior Geologist, Resource Data, in July 1975.
Dr. N. C. Carter and Dr. E. W. Grove, both Senior Geologists, in effect
switched positions, with Dr. Carter becoming head of Project Geology and Dr.
Grove head of Applied Geology.
Dr. W. D. McCartney, a graduate of the University of British Columbia and
Harvard, joined the staff in October 1975, after several years of consulting work for
the Department.
R. D. Gilchrist, a graduate of the University of Alberta, joined the staff as a
coal geologist in February 1975.
G. L. Bell, coal consultant for several years, left in March 1975.
In addition, the Library and Publication Sections that the Division formerly
administered for the Department, were transferred to the Operations Branch. With
these changes A. F. Shepherd, geologist in charge of the Library, and Mrs. R. J.
Moir, Assistant Editor, were transferred from the Division.
Review of Work in 1975
Field projects—The two highlights of the year were the unravelling of the
problems of structure and stratigraphy of the Rainbow Lake-Kutcho Creek area by
Panteleyev and Pearson, which has important implications to the exploration companies in the area; and the success of several aspects of our coal program, establishing the possibilities of correlation of Rocky Mountain coals by Duff and Pearson,
mapping of the Hat Creek basin by Church, and Princeton Basin by McMechan.
An outline of major field projects follows:
G. E. P. Eastwood completed mapping of the Carnation Creek watershed as
part of an integrated resource study co-ordinated by Environment Canada. Considerable work was done on the Reako iron-copper deposit near Port Renfrew,
including core logging and mapping. Further work is planned for 1976. A number
of prospects being worked by the Prospectors Assistance Act grantees were also
visited.
K. E. Northcote spent several days at Island Copper updating geological reserve
data and checked the Weldwood coal exploration program on several occasions.
The Cream Silver property in Strathcona Park was visited as part of the problem
of mineral claims in parks. At the same time, several other deposits near the south
boundary of the park were examined, and this should provide useful information
for the proposed changes in the boundaries of Strathcona Park. Drill core recovered by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority from the Suquash coal
deposit was also logged. Considerable time was devoted to prospectors under the
Prospectors Assistance Act.
V. A. Preto's field program in the Nicola volcanic belt north of Princeton
involved a detailed investigation of the Axe porphyry prospect. A belt of rhyolitic
volcanic rocks, not previously identified, was encountered in the western part of
the belt.
B. N. Church completed a detailed outcrop map of the Hat Creek coal basin.
Later work in the vicinity of Phoenix copper mine in the Greenwood area resulted
in a better understanding of the stratigraphic setting of this deposit.
A. Panteleyev completed mapping of a 250-square-mile area centred on the
Galore Creek copper deposit. This work resulted in a good picture of the relationships between Mesozoic volcanism, intrusive activity, and mineralization.    Two
 A 34 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
weeks were spent with D. E. Pearson sorting out stratigraphy and structure of an
area including the Sumac-Imperial Oil stratabound pyritic copper-zinc deposit at
Kutcho Creek.
D. E. Pearson, in conjunction with Prof. D. Duff, logged 20,000 feet of drill
core from the Upper Elk River valley and south of the Dominion Coal Block in an
attempt to demonstrate the usefulness of fossil contents as a basis for correlation
of coal seams.
P. A. Christopher completed an investigation of a 35-square-mile area near
Beaverdell which included Highland Bell mine and molybdenite deposits at Carmi
and Tuzo Creek. Uranium occurrences in the same area, under investigation by
Japanese interests, were also studied. The Caroline gold prospect near Hope was
mapped in detail and trenches were sampled. Several prospectors under the Prospectors Assistance Act were visited in the field.
Several field projects were done on a contract basis, including the following:
Prof. D. Duff submitted a report on this investigation at several coal-bearing
areas, including Upper Elk Valley-Fernie, Hat Creek, and Princeton.
R. D. McMechan completed field mapping of the Princeton basin in late
September. The work indicated that there is little prospect for coal occurrences
in the northern half of the basin. A gravity survey under contract to C. A. Agar at
the end of the year confirmed and added to the projections of field geology.
D. Bailey completed mapping a 200-square-mile area centred on the Cariboo
Bell copper deposit, and his work should present a better understanding of the
volcanic stratigraphy, coeval intrusive activity, and associated mineralization in
this area.
M. Vining completed mapping in the vicinity of Giant Mascot mine between
Emory and American Creeks, delimiting the boundaries of the ultramafic body host
to nickel-copper mineralization.
Susan Atkinson completed structural mapping at Toby Creek and in the
vicinity of Paradise mine.
In addition to supervising visits, some field studies were conducted by N. C.
Carter, E. W. Grove, J. A. Garnett, and A. Sutherland Brown.
A large portion of the district geologists' time during the year was taken up in
giving courses and help to prospectors under the Prospectors Assistance Act. In
addition, they were involved in keeping abreast of exploring activities, prospect
evaluations, and fieldwork related to current exploration.
Office studies—Office studies other than routine included major advances in
computerizing the mineral inventory, metal reserve studies, 80 per cent completion
of the Mineral Deposit/Land Use map series of the Province, and manuscript
preparation of a new geological map of the Province. During the year the work
at The University of British Columbia on the MINDEP program, funded in a major
way by this Department, and studies within the Division regarding development of
a producers' file, have advanced the Division's capability for providing a more
comprehensive mineral inventory.
During the year the Division was visited by geologists from a number of countries to study our methods, for co-operative projects, or to facilitate their own
research. Geologists spending more time than a day with us came from the USSR,
U.S.A., France, and New Zealand. In return, Dr. W. J. McMillan visited France
as a co-ordination of the co-operative program with the BRGM (Geological Survey) of France in regard to estimating the potential of granitic bodies to contain ore
deposits.   Dr. D. E. Pearson and R. D. Gilchrist spent two weeks with the Geo-
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 35
logical Survey of Illinois to study their methods, particularly in coal inventory, and
Dr. W. M. Johnson visited South Africa to study coal-treatment plants.
Many changes occurred in 1975 in the Laboratory, its instrumentation and
methods. Renovations, nearly completed at the year-end, caused notable disruptions, but production remained stable or increased. Preparation and research were
carried out to allay a number of current analytical problems; this should bear fruit
in 1976. The major element analytical scheme at atomic absorption was automated
for data acquisition and a sample changer has been designed and awaits construction. Initial work on extension of this scheme to some trace elements is in progress.
Advances in the trace analysis of gold were made and reported in a paper given by
M. A. Chaudhry in May. A Philips 1450 X-ray fluorescence automated spectrometer was delivered in February 1975. This equipment was still not functioning
perfectly satisfactorily at the year-end, although a large number of problems had
been resolved. There appears to have been difficulty in the supplier rectifying many
of these faults. A large suite of synthetic standards have been prepared for trace
analysis in rocks and diagnostic statistical evaluations made of these.
A time-sharing terminal for the Honeywell computer will be installed in the
Laboratory during 1976.
The Wet Laboratory reported 20,330 results on 2,466 samples to Departmental geologists and 1,511 results on 531 samples for Prospectors Assistance Act
appointees and prospectors. Continued assistance was given to other Government
departments where requested.
The X-ray Diffraction Laboratory reported 305 quartz determinations and 159
minerals were identified.
The Emission Spectrographic Laboratory reported semi-quantitative results on
1,173 samples and 1,958 quantitative results on 726 samples.
There were 47 mineral separations completed.
Publications
Most of the work of the Division is made available to the interested public
through a series of publications, and also through open files. The most important
publications include the following:
(1) Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia is our major
yearly publication that summarizes and collates all known exploration and mining activity each year as well as reports on properties
by Division geologists.
(2) Geological Fieldwork is a smaller yearly publication that describes
the work of project and district geologists in a preliminary manner
as soon as possible after the completion of the field season and
within the same calendar year.
(3) Bulletins are produced at irregular intervals, usually one or two a
year, and generally describe the geology and mineral deposits in
detail of various areas of mineral potential mapped by Division
geologists.   No bulletins were published in 1975.
(4) Preliminary geological maps are issued on ozalid paper as soon as
compilations are completed.    In 1975 the following were issued:
Preliminary Map No.  17, Geology of the Allison-Missezula
Lake Area, by V. A. Preto;
 A 36
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
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 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 37
Preliminary Map No. 18, Geology of the Central Part of the
Nicola Belt, by V. A. Preto;
Preliminary Map No. 19, Geology of Germansen Lake Area,
by H. D. Meade.
(5) Mineral inventory maps show the locations and commodities present
of all known mineral deposits. No revised maps were issued in
1975.
(6) Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps are interpretive maps that portray
the varying mineral potential of terrain in a simple five-fold classification.   In 1975, 15 maps at a scale of 1:250,000 were issued.
(7) Aeromagnetic maps are produced with the Federal Government as
an aid to prospecting and interpreting geological maps. In 1975,
14 aeromagnetic maps of the Fort Grahame area (94C/10E) were
issued at 1:5280 and nine maps were issued of the Liard Trough
(central and northern Rocky Mountains) at a scale of 1:250,000.
(8) Assessment Report Index maps were issued during the year that
show the location and numbers of reports accepted for assessment
credit by the Department. The maps, at various scales, cover the
mineralized terrain of the Province.
Titles Division
Staff
E. J. Bowles Chief Gold Commissioner
R Rutherford Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
D. Doyle Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders, whose
duties are laid down in the Mineral Act and the Placer Mining Act, administer these
Acts and other Acts relating to mining. Mining Recorders, in addition to their
own functions, may also exercise the powers conferred upon Gold Commissioners
with regard to mineral claims within the mining division for which they have been
appointed.
Recording of location and of work upon a mineral claim as required by the
Mineral Act and upon a placer mining lease by the Placer Mining Act must be
made at the office of the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which the
claim or lease is located. Information concerning claims and leases and concerning
the ownership and standing of the claims and leases in any mining division may be
obtained from the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which the property
is situated or from the Department's offices at Victoria and Room 320, 890 West
Pender Street, Vancouver. Officials in the offices of the Gold Commissioner at
Victoria and the Gold Commissioner in Vancouver act as Sub-Mining Recorders
for all mining divisions. Sub-Mining Recorders, who act as forwarding agents, are
appointed at various places throughout the Province. They are authorized to accept
documents and fees, and forward them to the office of the Mining Recorder for the
correct mining division. Officials and their offices in various parts of the Province
are listed in the following table:
 A 38 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 2-2—List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders
Mining Division
Location cf Office
Gold Commissioner
Mining Recorder
W. G. Mundell	
W. G. Mundell.
Atlin
Atlin	
Quesnel	
Clinton	
Cranbrook  	
R. E. Hall.
Cariboo 	
H. S. Tatchell 	
W. R. Anderson ____	
W. L. Draper 	
H. S. Tatchell.
Fort Steele  	
W. L. Draper.
J. Olson.
Kamloops	
Victoria 	
Lillooet 	
Nanaimo	
Nelson  	
N. R. Blake 	
N. R. Blake.
Liard 	
E. A. H. Mitchell	
E. A. H. Mitchell.
R. H. Archibald	
G. L. Brodie
R. H. Archibald.
G. L. Brodie.
F. E. Hughes 	
L. P. Lean 	
A. W. Milton	
Nicola 	
Merritt	
Smithers	
L. P. Lean.
A. W. Miltcn.
L. D. Sands.
D. G. B. Roberts	
W. L. Marshall	
T. H. W. Harding	
T. P. McKinnon 	
A. Sherwood	
D. Doyle   	
N. A. Nelson 	
E. A. H. Mitchell
D. G. B. Roberts.
W. L. Marshall.
Skeena ____ 	
Slocan 	
Prince Rupert	
Kaslo...	
Rossland	
Vancouver 	
Vernon  	
Victoria  	
T. H. W. Harding.
T. P. McKinnon.
Mrs. S. Jeannotte (Deputy).
N. A. Nelson.
E. A. H. Mitchell.
Vernon	
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)
Transcripts of all recordings in Mining Recorders' offices throughout the Province are sent to the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner in Victoria twice each
month. The records and maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims
held by record and of placer mining leases may be consulted by the public during
office hours at Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver,
Room 320, 890 West Pender Street. The approximate position of mineral claims
held by record and of placer mining leases is plotted from details supplied by
locators.
During 1975, two investigations were carried out pursuant to section 80 of the
Mineral Act. One investigation was made with regard to mineral claims having
been located or recorded otherwise than in accordance with the Mineral Act, which
resulted in mineral claim being cancelled.
Maps Showing Mineral Claims and Placer Leases
Maps showing the approximate locations of placer leases, leases issued under
the Mineral Act, and mineral claims held by record may be seen at the Division's
office, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria, and at Room 320, 890 West Pender
Street, Vancouver. The Titles Division is now engaged in redrawing and improving
the above-mentioned maps with maps based on the National Topographical System
of mapping. The new sheets cover 15 minutes of longitude and 15 minutes of
latitude. Prints are obtainable on request made to the Chief Gold Commissioner
at Victoria.   Requests should be accompanied by the proper sum.
Price
(per Sheet)
$
Claim maps redrawn to NTS series, VA inches=l mile (1:50,000) 0.50
Claim maps not yet redrawn to NTS series  1.50
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 39
Claim maps redrawn to National Topographic System (\XA inches = 1 mile;
1:50,000) are also available for purchase in the Vancouver office. Indexes to
these maps indicating the areas covered by the above-mentioned scales are available
on request to the Victoria and Vancouver offices.
Maps showing the location of coal licences issued under the Coal Act may be
seen at the Titles Division, Mineral Resources Branch, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria. An index of coal reference maps is obtainable from the Chief Gold
Commissioner at the above address.
It is advisable to order claim maps from an index, which will be supplied on
request.
Coal
Information concerning the ownership and standing of coal licences and coal
leases may be obtained upon application to the Chief Gold Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps showing location of coal
licences and coal leases are also available upon application and payment of the
required fee.
Coal Revenue, 1975
Licences— $
Fees     16,880.00
Rental  932,121.00
Cash paid in lieu of work     59,322.00*
* Refundable subject to section 22 of the Coal Act.
During 1975, 24 coal licences were issued. As of December 31, 1975, a total
of 1,088 coal licences, amounting to 612,311 acres, was held in good standing.
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the general direction of Associate
Deputy Minister J. D. Lineham, administers the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,
1965 and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling and Production
Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the Drilling Reservation Regulations, and
the Development Road Regulations. It also administers the Underground Storage
Act, 1964. Therefore, the Branch was responsible for all matters related to the
disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and natural gas rights as well as the regulation of the exploration, development, and production phases of the oil and gas
industry.
The Branch is divided into three divisions, namely, the Engineering Division,
the Geological Division, and the Titles Division.
Engineering Division
The Engineering Division, under the direction of Chief Engineer A. G. T.
Weaver, is responsible for all engineering activities of the Petroleum Resources
Branch.   There are three main functions:
(1) Enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, together with provision of
advice to the Minister with respect to applications made by industry
under the Act:
 A 40 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
(2) Collection, filing for Branch and public use, and publication of drilling and production statistics, production and disposition data, reservoir and pool performance data:
(3) Reservoir analysis of all oil and gas pools in the Province, including
maintenance of current production rate forecasts, together with data
concerning reserves discovered to date and estimates of potential
reserves growth.
The Development Engineering Section, under the supervision of Senior Development Engineer W. L. Ingram, licenses drilling and service rigs, issues well authorizations, and maintains detailed records pertaining to all drilling and production
operations.
The Reservoir Engineering Section, under the Senior Reservoir Engineer
B. T. Barber, is concerned with all reservoir engineering aspects of the Division's
activities. The section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production
characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation of
reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production data. These parameters are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from oil and gas accumulations in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes will be produced. Oil
and gas allowable rates are set by the section, and recommendations concerning
proposed improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made.
The Drilling and Production Engineering Section, under the supervision of
of District Engineer D. L. Johnson, is located at the Field Office at Charlie Lake
and is primarily responsible for enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations in the field. It also collects reservoir and other data as required, acts in a
liaison capacity with industry at the field level, and maintains core and drill sample
storage and examination facilities.
Geological Division
The Geological Division, under the direction of Chief Geologist W. M. Young,
consists of three sections and is responsible for all geological and geophysical
activities of the Petroleum Resources Branch.
Data resulting from the drilling of wells, geophysical surveys, and other related
sources in the Province in the search for and development of accumulations of oil
and gas are supplied to the Branch. These data are used by staff geologists and
geophysicists as a basis for reports on, and maps and cross-sections of, the economically important sedimentary rocks of the Province. The Division is responsible for
providing data and opinion to attract, assist, and encourage the exploration and
development of the petroleum resources of the Province. The Division directs and
provides all draughting services required by the Geological and Engineering Divisions and also directs, through the District Engineer, the work of the Core and
Sample Laboratory, located at Charlie Lake.
The Economic Geology Section, under G. R. Morgan, is primarily concerned
with those matters related to exploration and economic geology.
The Reservoir Geology Section, under R. Stewart, is primarily concerned with
the detailed knowledge of the geology of oil and gas reservoirs. Other divisions and
departments frequently make use of the knowledge possessed by the section geological staff to assist in the framing of development procedures that ensure the best
returns from these reservoirs.
The Geophysical Section, under J. A. Hudson, is concerned with exploration
and geophysical investigations related to the search for and development of oil and
gas reserves.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 41
Titles Division
The Titles Division consists of two sections, under the direction of Commissioner R. E. Moss, and is responsible for administering these parts of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965 relating to and affecting title to Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights.
The Division administers the disposition of Crown petroleum and natural gas
rights and, in consultation with the Engineering and Geological Divisions, approves
and selects parcels for posting, and accepts or rejects the tenders received.
The Titles Section is responsible for all transactions involving petroleum and
natural gas permits, all leases, natural gas licences, drilling reservations, geophysical
licences, notices of commencement of exploratory work, affidavits of work, unit
agreements, and miscellaneous recordings.
The Revenue Section, under W. J. Quinn, is responsible for the collection of
all petroleum and natural gas revenue, except royalty, payable to the Crown under
the provisions of the Act.
Staff
On December 31, 1975, the professional and technical staff included the
following:
Associate Deputy Minister
J. D. Lineham, P.Eng Chief of Branch
Engineering Division
A. G. T. Weaver, P.Eng..
.Chief Engineer
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng Senior Development Engineer
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T Development Technician
B. T. Barber, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Engineer
P. S. Attariwala, P.Eng Reservoir Technician
P. K. Huus Reservoir Technician
J. H. Burt Reservoir Technician
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng District Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician
G. T. Mohler Field Technician
W. B. Holland, C.E.T Field Technician
J. W. D. Kielo Field Technician
G. L. Holland Field Technician
J. L. Withers Geophysical Technician
Geological Division
W. M. Young, P.Eng Chief Geologist
R. Stewart, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Geologist
T. B. Ramsay, P.Eng Reservoir Geologist
K. A. McAdam Reservoir Geologist
 A 42 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
G. R. Morgan, P.Eng Senior Economic Geologist
S. S. Cosburn, P.Eng Economic Geologist
D. W. Dewar Economic Geologist
J. A. Hudson, P.Eng Senior Geophysicist
Titles Division
R. E. Moss   Commissioner
W. J. Quinn Assistant Commissioner
Mediation and Arbitration Board
Chairman: Patrick D. Walsh.
Vice-Chairman: Douglas Pomeroy.
Member: Cecil Ruddell.
The Mediation and Arbitration Board, established under the authority of the
1965 amendments to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, grants rights of
entry to oil and gas companies over alienated lands, and determines conditions of
entry and compensation therefore. The Act now provides for a process of mediation by the Chairman of the Board. Failing satisfactory agreement between the
parties upon mediation, the Act provides for final disposition by the Board of
entry conditions and compensation. The Board is also charged with responsibility
to review and set compensation on leases and previous Board orders of more than
five years' duration, and to terminate rights of entry when an operator has ceased
to use occupied lands.
In 1975, five field inspections were carried out by the Board; three mediation
hearings were held and as a result of the parties failing to reach agreement on
mediation, three Arbitration Board hearings were then held followed by Board
orders respecting each hearing; the Board met 56 times during the year to deal with
general Board matters and specific concerns of the public.
OPERATIONS BRANCH
Operations Branch came into being in January 1975 under the direction of
Hart Horn, Associate Deputy Minister. The Branch took over responsibility for
Administrative Services, Mineral Development, and Mineral Revenue Divisions
and thus administered the Mineral Royalties Act and the Prospectors Assistance
Act. It also organized the Departmental input into the Copper Task Force report
which was issued during the year and the work of the Coal Task Force which was
in preparation during the year. In addition, under the Mineral Development
Division, it controlled the Prospectors' Assistance and Roads and Trails Programs.
These programs were supervised, however, largely by personnel within other divisions. The grant to the B.C. Mining School at Rossland was also administered by
the Operations Branch.
Administrative Services Division
Administrative Services Division was organized into three sections—Accounts,
Personnel, and Public Information, Library, and Publications. The Division was
supervised by Hart Horn, Associate Deputy Minister, as no Director was appointed.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 43
Accounts Section
Accounts Section, under Mrs. Sharon G. Bone, was responsible for the preparation and control of Departmental estimates, payroll, the costing and facilitation
of Departmental purchases, the acquisition and maintenance of Departmental vehicles, equipment, and space throughout the Province, and maintenance of the central
filing system and mail services of the Department.
Public Information
Public Information, Library, and Publications were combined as one section
under the direction of Mrs. Pat Grove. Public information previously had been
handled in a diverse way by the divisions responsible, but in 1975 was combined
with direction of the library and the production of publications.
Personnel
The Personnel Officer, R. E. Moss, and the Personnel Clerk, Mrs. Sharon
Belfie, continued to be very active with the adjustment and change in administration and new procedures as a result of the Master Agreement with the British
Columbia Government Employees' Union and the Department's involvement with
five component agreements, namely,
Administrative Support—Clerks, Clerk-Typists, and Clerk Stenographers.
Administrative, Fiscal and Regulatory—Administrative Officers and
Audit Accountants.
Environment,   Resource,   and  Conservation—Laboratory   Technicians.
Educational and Scientific Services—Laboratory Scientists, Economists,
and Research Officers.
Engineering, Technical, and Inspectional—Technical Assistants, Technicians, Engineering Aides, Engineering Assistants, and Co-ordi-
nators (Rescue Training).
The following positions have been made as 'Management Excluded Group'
and are therefore excluded from any BCGEU or BCGPEA involvement:
Deputy Minister.
Associate Deputy Minister, Petroleum Resources Branch.
Associate Deputy Minister, Mineral Resources Branch.
Associate Deputy Minister, Operations Branch.
Chief Inspector, Mineral Resources Branch.
Chief Geologist, Mineral Resources Branch.
Chief Gold Commissioner, Mineral Resources Branch.
Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner, Mineral Resources Branch.
Chief Commissioner, Petroleum Resources Branch.
Deputy Chief Commissioner, Petroleum Resources Branch.
Chief Engineer, Petroleum Resources Branch.
Director of Mineral Revenue.
Assistant Director of Mineral Revenue.
Director of Mineral Development.
Assistant Director of Mineral Development.
 A 44 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Departmental Comptroller.
Secretary to Deputy Minister.
Secretary to Associate Deputy Minister (3).
Personnel Clerk.
The Personnel statistics for the Department for 1975 are:
Permanent employees  240
Appointments  5 3
Resignations   20
Retirements   1
In-service transfers  15
Promotions and reclassifications  16
Temporary employees  7
Temporary employees under WIG '75  14
Temporary employees under summer field program  13
Mineral Development Division
In 1975 the Mineral Development Division was conceived and included under
the new Operations Branch of the Department. The Director was J. S. Poyen and
the Assistant Director, prior to his resignation in July 1975, was L. E. Sivertson. It
was during the year that the name of the Division changed from Economics and
Planning to Mineral Development. The main significance of this change was that
the emphasis of the Division shifted from economic analysis for policy alternatives
to a more development-oriented concept of mineral evaluation.
As a result the Division added a Prospectors' Assistance Section to the existing
Economics and Statistics Section. This addition was designed to encourage basic
exploration in the mineral industry. In addition to this section's responsibilities
under the Prospectors Assistance Act, it also administered the Roads and Trails
Program.
These programs were supervised by the Director of Prospectors' Assistance,
P. E. Olson, who was charged with the implementation of these innovative concepts.
It should be noted that while the administration of these programs rested in this
Division, the Director was assisted by the staff members of the Inspection Division
and the Geological Division (and in particular the co-operation received in prospectors' training and field supervision by the District Geologists).
In addition to specific economic evaluations for development, the Economics
Section continued analysis in commodity studies, mineral and coal price forecasting,
higher value-added studies, resource taxation, recreation corridors, natural gas
pricing, mineral policy review, studies under the Foreign Investment Review Act,
the Anti-Inflation Guidelines, and the export levy. The work of the Economic
Section has been co-ordinated by John Clancy.
The ongoing statistical work, co-ordinated by W. P. Wilson, included the
Annual Census of Mining, mail out, compilation, and organization of mineral
statistics for the Annual Report, and monthly mineral statistics for intergovernmental
use (under review). The Section is currently involved in a number of committees
relevant to mineral statistics, including Mines Ministers' Subcommittee on Mineral
Statistics, Consultative Council for Mineral Statistics, Coal Statistics, and Statistics
Canada, and represents the Government of British Columbia on such committees.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 45
A Task Force on Mineral Valuation established at the Mines Ministers' Conference was charged with evaluating and, if necessary, redesigning the statistical
forms currently in use throughout Canada. A three-man working group (British
Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Statistics Canada, and
Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa) has worked to this end and
significant progress has been made.
Mineral Revenue Division
The Mineral Revenue Division was responsible for the assessment and collection of mineral royalties, mineral land taxes, and petroleum and natural gas royalties
imposed under the provisions of the Coal Act, Mineral Act, Mineral Land Tax Act,
Mineral Royalties Act, Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, and Placer Mining
Act. The efficient discharge of this responsibility was hampered considerably during
the year due to numerous staff changes so that the Division had less than a full-
operating complement for much of the year.
The Division had an authorized complement of 25 and, as of December 31,
21 of these positions were filled. The Division was organized into three operating
sections—Mineral Accounting, Petroleum Accounting, and Mineral Titles Search.
William W. Ross succeeded Hart Horn as Director of the Division on May 15, and
in November, Bruce Garrison assumed the position of Assistant Director, vacated
by W. W. Ross. With the promotion of Bruce Garrison, Alfred Lockwood assumed
the duties of Mineral Accountant in addition to his duties as Petroleum Accountant.
Supervision of the Mineral Titles Search Section was assumed by Norman Smith,
replacing David Conway who transferred to the Department of Municipal Affairs.
At the year-end staff vacancies existed in the Vancouver, Prince George, and Prince
Rupert offices of the Mineral Titles Search Section, and it is not anticipated that
these vacancies will be filled. Consequently, the work of these offices will be handled
by the other district offices and headquarters.
Due to the severe down-turn in world copper markets, considerable attention
was directed to the over-all impact of taxation on the profits of mining companies,
with special focus on copper producers. It became quite apparent that the net
smelter returns for low-grade copper producers was very close to the break-even
point, and that over-all operating losses would likely be experienced by some
producers.
Administrative particulars of royalty and tax provisions of statutes and regulations administered by this Division are as follows:
Coal Royalty
Coal royalties are assessed in accordance with the Coal Royalty Regulations
made under the provisions of the Coal Act. Under these regulations coal is classified as either metallurgical or thermal coal. Effective January 1, 1975, the rate of
royalty on metallurgical coal increased to $1.50 per long ton from $1 per long ton,
while the rate on thermal coal increased to 75 cents per long ton from 50 cents per
long ton. Coal royalty collections during the year were $3,644,268 on coal production of 2,560,342 long tons from three producers. Monthly revenue collections
are set out in Table 2-4.
Mineral Act Royalty
Iron ore royalty agreements affecting two producing mines are in effect under
the provisions of the Mineral Act.   During 1975, $185,284 was collected under
 A 46
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
these agreements on 741,134 long tons of iron concentrates having a deemed iron
content of 370,567 long tons. The monthly royalty collections are set out in Table
2-4.
Mineral Land Tax
Mineral land taxes are assessed under the provisions of the Mineral Land Tax
Act and related regulations on freehold mineral rights. The Act has a three-level
tax structure consisting of undesignated mineral lands, production areas, and production tracts. As a result of the 1974 title search operation, 703 parcels were added
to the 1975 tax roll. Many folios under the same ownership and in the same land
district were consolidated into parcels, thus reducing the 1975 tax roll from 6,358
folios to 3,029 folios covering 888,757.04 acres of mineral land. The 1975 tax roll
acreage was reduced from 1974 by a net of 155,767.95 acres which was due mainly
to the deletion of approximately 278,000 acres of mineral lands being surrendered
or in the process of surrender. Details of the 1975 mineral land tax roll assessment
is as follows:
Table 2-3—Mineral Land Tax Roll Assessment, 1975
Classification of
Mineral Land
Number of
Folios
Acreage,
May 1, 1975
Tax
Assessed
Tax
Collected
2,981
13
35
844,150.52
3,187.13
41,419.39
$
490,537.64
6,374.26
15,429,209.49
1,024.20
5,947.69
$
280,137.77
Production areas  	
4,516.64
15,131,806.68
f1)
C1)
3,029
888,757.04
15,933,093.28
15,416,461.09
1 Interest and delinquent tax collections included in tax collected under each classification.
Monthly revenue collections are set out in Table 2-4.
Under the Mineral Land Tax Act, an owner of mineral land may elect to surrender his mineral land rather than pay the taxes which may be assessed. During
1975, two surrenders were recorded covering 84,633 acres of mineral land. In
addition there are 18 surrenders in process covering approximately 2,645,359
acres of mineral land. Surrenders covering approximately 2,365,985 acres in
the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway belt of Vancouver Island have been in process
for the past two years and still have not been registered due to complexities in title
and Land Registry Office requirements.
When an owner of mineral land fails to pay mineral land taxes assessed by
August 1 of the year following the year in which the tax was assessed, the mineral
lands then become subject to forfeiture under the provisions of section 14 of the
Mineral Land Tax Act. During 1975, formal forfeiture proceedings were completed on 305 parcels of mineral land covering 11,357.84 acres of mineral land
which were subject to forfeiture in 1974. In addition, 318 parcels of mineral land
covering 40,726.14 acres were delinquent and preparation for forfeiture on these
parcels is proceeding.
Mineral Royalties
Mineral royalties are assessed under the provisions of the Mineral Royalties
Act and related regulations on designated minerals produced from a production
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY
A 47
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 A 48
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
instrument held under the provisions of the Mineral Act, Placer Mining Act, or
Coal Act. During 1975 the basic rate of royalty under the Mineral Royalties
Act was increased from 2.5 to 5 per cent, and basic values for designated minerals
were increased by 11.632 per cent. Gold, molybdenum, and iron were the only
designated minerals subject to a surcharge royalty during 1975. The total revenue
collected under the Act for the year was $5,016,838 as detailed in Table 2-4, while
the actual assessments for the calendar year were $10,814,168 as reflected in
Table 2-5. Audits of the 1974 royalty returns indicated that closing 1973 inventories of raw ore and concentrate had not, in many cases, been properly reported
for purposes of royalty calculations, consequently 1974 royalties were overstated
and adjustments will be required when inventories have been properly reconciled.
Table 2-5—Royalties Assessed for the 1975 Calendar Year Under the
Mineral Royalties Act
Copper   „ lb.
Gold ..oz.
Silver  oz.
Molybdenum  —lb,
Lead  „  lb.
Zinc    lb.
Cadmium lb.
Iron    „ ton
Quantity
Net Value
Basic
Royalty
398,777,777      160,354,030 |  6,413,334
93,911
1,401,817
24,003,400
2,160,405
8,012,671
29,393
43,837
11,035,306
4,588,441
52,764,216
268,314
1,259,136
11,433
939,759
| 231,220,635
428,465
219,487
2,337,128
9,382
61,314
457
46,988
9,516,555
Sur
Royalty
508,867
136,519
1,297,613
Total
6,413,334
1,080,692
219,487
2,845,995
9,382
61,314
457
183,507
Rate of
Royalty
Per Cent
4.00
9.79
4.78
5.39
3.50
4.87
4.00
19.53
Royalty
Per Unit
10,814,168
1.68
$
0.016
11.508
0.157
0.119
0.004
0.008
0.016
4.186
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties
Petroleum and natural gas royalties are assessed on all petroleum and natural
gas, including sulphur and natural gas liquids produced from Crown lands held
under the provisions of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965. Natural gas
and natural gas by-products produced and sold under contract with the British
Columbia Petroleum Corporation are exempt from payment of royalty. Regulations under the Act were amended effective November 10, 1975, which established
the classification of 'old' oil and 'new' oil, reduced the gross royalty rate, and established an exploration credit on 'old' oil which can be redeemed upon proof of
approved exploration work. Total revenue collected under the Act for the year
was $48,201,740, as detailed in Table 2-4.
PUBLICATIONS
A list of publications of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
available free on request to the Petroleum Resources Branch or the Chief Geologist,
Mineral Resources Branch, Douglas Building,'Victoria.
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria, and from the Geological
Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may
also be obtained from the Gold Commissioner's office, Room 320, 890 West Pender
Street, Vancouver.
 DEPARTMENTAL ACTIVITY A 49
Publications are available for reference use in the Departmental Library,
Room 430, Douglas Building, Victoria, in the reading-room of the Geological Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver, in the offices of the Inspector
of Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert, as well as in some public libraries.
ROCK AND MINERAL SETS
Sets of rocks and minerals are available for sale to prospectors, schools, and
residents of British Columbia. Information regarding them may be obtained from
the Chief Geologist, Mineral Resources Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria.
  Mineral Resource Statistics
CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 3—Mineral Resources Statistics  A 51
Introduction  A 52
Method of Computing Production  A 52
Metals  A 52
Average Prices  A 52
Gross and Net Content  A 53
Value of Production  A 53
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials  A 54
Coal  A 54
Petroleum and Natural Gas  A 54
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables  A 54
Figure 3-1—Value of Mineral Production, 1887-1975  A 64
Figure 3-2—Production Quantities of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, 1893-1975  A 65
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year., A 67
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1863-1975  A 68
Table 3-3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years, 1966-75  A 70
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Quantity and Value of Production, and
Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines  A 72
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974 and 1975  A 73
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1975  A 74
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1974 and 1975, and
Total to Date  A
Table 3-7B—Production of Lode Gold, Silver,. Copper, Lead, and Zinc by
Mining Divisions, 1974 and 1975, and Total to Date  A
Table 3-7C—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1974
and 1975, and Total to Date  A
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1974
and 1975, and Total to Date  A
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1974
and 1975, and Total to Date  A
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1975  A
Table 3-8B—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1975  A 88
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes  A 89
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-75  A 90
Table 3-11—Employment at Major Metal and Coal Mines, 1975  A 91
Table 3-12—Metal Production, 1975  A 92
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1975  A 97
76
78
80
84
86
87
A 51
 A 52 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this report by the Economics and Statistics Section of the Mineral Development
Division.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning
with the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial departments have
co-operated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production
published by the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses
average prices considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the
British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British
Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production, being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
The statistics of the petroleum industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Petroleum Resources Branch.
METHODS OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors became known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by the producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For petroleum, natural gas, and liquid by-products,
production figures supplied by the Petroleum Resources Branch of the Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources are compiled from the monthly disposition
reports and the Crown royalty statement filed with the Department by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds.   Metric weights are used throughout.
METALS
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page A 66.
Prior to 1974 the price of gold used was the average Canadian Mint buying-
price for fine gold.
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold.    Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 53
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and until 1973
the average price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total
amount received. Starting in 1974 the price used for the valuation of gold, lode
and placer, is the amount received by the producer.
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average prices at the markets indicated in the table on page A 66, converted into
Canadian funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New
York; Lon.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Starting in 1949 the prices of silver, copper, lead, and zinc were average United
States prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices were supplied
by Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it was the New York price; for lead it was the New
York price; for zinc it was the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper
it was the United States export refinery price. Commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers and
since 1974 this applies also to gold, silver, lead, zinc, and cadmium.
For antimony and bismuth the average producers' price to consumers is used.
For nickel the price used is the Canadian price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. The value per tonne of the iron ore used in making pig iron
at Kimberley was an arbitrary figure, being the average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
the metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents are
the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross contents
less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents, particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another.
The method established in 1963 is outlined in the following table. For example,
the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross content,
of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc. Commencing in 1974 the quantities represent the actual net quantities or metals paid for.
Lead
Concentrates
Zinc
Concentrates
Copper
Concentrates
Copper-Nickel
Concentrates
Copper
Matte
Silver 	
Per Cent
98
Less 26 lb./ton
98
50
Per Cent
98
50
90
70
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
Per Cent
85
88
Per Cent
98
Copper	
Lead    	
Zinc	
Cadmium	
Less 10 lb./ton
50
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate, mercury, molybdenum, rhenium, and tin the
value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production was calculated from the assay
content of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an
 A 54 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
average price per unit of weight. The 1974 values represent the settlement values
received by the producers for the respective metals.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per
cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on
page A 66.
For 1925 to 1973 the values had been calculated by using the true average
price (see page A 66) and the net metal contents in accordance with the procedures
adopted by Statistics Canada and the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
For 1974 the total volume and value of metal production include the quantities paid for to the mines, and the smelter and refinery production that can be
attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The volume and value paid for to the
mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point or origin.
Coal
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per tonne which is
the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
Petroleum and Natural Gas
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES  OF PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE TABLES
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a
by-product of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined
in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then
other out-of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lar-
deau, Slocan, Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 3-7C the antimony
assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to
foreign smelters; the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter
from various ores received there.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Arsenious oxide—Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Asbestos—British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the
Cassiar mine was opened.  All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 55
from the Cassiar mine near the Yukon boundary. This deposit is noted for its
high percentage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre.
The original claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped
two years later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar, shipped by truck to
Whitehorse, and then moved by rail to tidewater at Skagway. From 1953 to 1961
the fibre was valued at the shipping point in North Vancouver, but beginning in
1962 it has been valued at the mine, and values for the preceding years have been
recalculated on that basis.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
is mined from lode deposits and the rest is recovered from the mill-tailings ponds of
the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines.   See Table 3-7D.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Table 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 3-7C the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated
recovery at the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7C.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are British Columbia Cement Company
Limited, with a 490 000 tonnes-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement
Lafarge Ltd., with a 476 000 tonnes-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 191 000
tonnes-per-year plant at Kamloops.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 608 tonnes from Cascade in 1918 and 114 tonnes from Scottie Creek in 1929. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Clay and shale products—These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery,
lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in
plants at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant at Quesnel makes
pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of Quesnel.    Several hobby and art
 A 56 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,   1975
potteries and a sanitary-ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported
raw materials and their production is not included in the tables. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7E.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island
in 1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed
that of placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth
for the next 30 years.
First production, by mining divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains
coking-coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building.
Mining started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and
on the Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the
last large mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The
colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the
last large mine at Tsable River in 1966, and of the last small one, near Wellington
in 1968, marked the end of production from the once important Vancouver Island
deposits.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
north and south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British
Columbia, the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, basins on Graham Island, and
Sage Creek basin southeast of Fernie.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in lapan created great activity in
coal-prospecting in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of
large contracts with the lapanese resulted in preparations for production at several
deposits in the East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities
at North Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, 3-8A, and 3-8B.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
From 1971 to 1973, cobalt was shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at Hope.
See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 3-1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 3-9, but this table has
been discontinued.   The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 3-8B.
Condensate—(a) Field—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing, (b) Plant—
Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from natural gas at gas-
processing plants.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Copper—Most of the copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese, Eastern
Canadian, and American smelters because no copper smelter has operated in British
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 57
Columbia since 1935. Small amounts of gold and silver are commonly present
and add value to the ore, but some ores contain important amounts of gold (as at
Rossland), silver (Silver King mine), lead and zinc (Tulsequah), or zinc (Britannia
mine). Most of the smelting in British Columbia in early years was done on ore
shipped direct from the mines without concentration, but modern practice is to
concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver
King mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at
Grand Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).
Later, small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and
Texada Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper-smelting
ceased in the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935.
British Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and
since 1961 have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Rossland, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During recent years, exploration for copper has
been intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment
of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley (Bethlehem)
in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda) in 1970,
Stewart (Granduc) and near Port Hardy (Island Copper) in 1971, near Babine
Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lornex), and Princeton
(Ingerbelle) in 1972.    See Table 3-12 for a complete list of copper producers.
After a lapse of many years, copper has been produced comparatively recently
on Vancouver Island at Jordan River, Courtenay, Benson Lake, Quatsino, and also
at Buttle Lake, together with zinc and silver. At Tasu Harbour on Moresby Island
and at Texada Island copper is produced as a by-product of iron-mining.
Copper is now the most valuable single commodity of the industry. Production
in 1975 was 25 8.5 million kilograms.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the oil pipeline was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans Mountain
Oil Pipe Line Company pipeline near Kamloops. In 1975, oil was produced from
31 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan Creek, and Inga
fields were the most productive.
In Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, and from 1962 to 1965 include field and plant condensate
listed separately.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. A plant to process the material is located in Quesnel. See Table 3-7D.
Fluorite (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the Rock
Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery. From 1958 to
1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica quarry.
See Table 3-7D.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and form a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past, silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
 A 58 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Today, silica from near Oliver and Sheep Creek and limestone, chiefly from Texada
Island, are produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an imoprtant part in mining in the Province.
The first discovery of lode gold was on Moresby Island in 1852, when some gold
was recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras (primitive grinding-mills) were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short-lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. By
1900 the value of gold production was second only to that of coal. At the start of
World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly value of more than $22 million,
but since the war it has dwindled.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland
Canal, Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River
closed.
With the closing of the Bralorne mine, most of the lode gold is produced as a
by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver, and other base metal mining. See Tables
3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.   See Table 3-12 for a complete list of current producers.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer-miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream from
Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery of the placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the
discovery of placer gold in the Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1885. A high
level of production ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak
output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort
Steele, Rock Creek, Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike
was made on Cedar Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in
1927 and on Wheaton Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II, placer-mining declined under conditions
of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold but is showing signs of revival in
response to a freely floating gold price since 1972. Since 1858, more than 163 000
kilograms valued at $97.8 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kamloops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 59
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold in the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7A.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby and near Grand Forks, Sirdar, Vananda, and
Armstrong.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956, more than 907 000 tonnes were shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956,
all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.    Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipment. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Moresby Island. At Texada Island copper is a
by-product of iron-mining, and in the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is
that of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is
produced as a by-product.
From January 1961 to August 1972, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings
of the Sullivan mine was used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This was the first
manufacture of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and
pyrite in the lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead
and zinc minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron
sulphides are separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile has been
built containing a reserve of about 18 million tonnes of iron ore.
The sulphur was removed in making pig iron and was converted to sulphuric
acid, which was used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converted the
pig iron to steel, and a fabricating plant was acquired in Vancouver. The iron
smelter at Kimberley closed in August 1972. The entire production, credited to the
Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 3-7C, is of calcine. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7C.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its
tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika,
and Wheaton Creeks.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
 A 60 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
and in total production by zinc in 1966. Lead and zinc usually occur together in
nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single deposit. Zinc is the
more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable than zinc ore because
it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British Columbia produced
almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces about 18 per cent of the total. Most
of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American and Japanese smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of
the Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about 88 per cent
of the Province's lead and has produced about 86 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works
at Trail. Other mines are at Pend-d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
and southwest of Golden. In northwestern British Columbia less important parts
of the total output have come from Tulsequah, the Premier mine, and several small
mines in the general region of Hazelton. See Table 3-12 for the current lead
producers.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines in British Columbia owned
by Cominco Ltd. goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines
goes to American smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to approximately 7.6 million tonnes.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920, manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test
shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then
small amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River
district. The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi
Lake and Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine
reopened and continues in operation.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961, small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined
near Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7D.
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and  1918.    Recently, mining of large low-grade
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 61
molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the
point that molybdenum now ranks second in importance in annual value of metals
produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine
recovered by-product molybdenum from 1964 and 1966. In 1965 the Endako
and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia
Molybdenum mine in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. The Boss Mountain mine closed in 1971 and reopened late in 1973. In
1970 the Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer, started operating, and Island Copper in 1971. Large-scale combined metal deposits at Lornex
and Gibraltar mines were brought into production in 1972. See Tables 3-1, 3-3,
3-6, and 3-7C.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 363 tonnes of natro-alunite were mined
from a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent
production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. In 1957 the gas plant at Taylor and the pipeline
to serve British Columbia and the northwestern United States was completed. The
daily average volume of production in 1975 was 1.14 billion cubic feet. In 1974,
there were 58 producing gas-fields producing both associated and nonassociated
gas, of which the Clarke Lake, Yoyo, and Laprise Creek were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A is the total amount sold
of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the gas-
gathering system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line. The
quantity is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas used
or lost in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as millions of cubic metres
at standard conditions (99.2 kPa, (kilopascals) pressure, 15°C temperature, up to
and including the year 1960, and thereafter 101.3 kPa pressure, 15°C temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in the tables.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. From 1960 to 1974, bulk
copper and nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan and Alberta respectively for smelting. The mine closed in August 1974. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and
3-7C.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a byproduct of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1 009 tonnes was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake. There has been no further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3 485
tonnes of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for
commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964, but there has been no
commercial production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island.    Some
 A 62 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery
is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from
the Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Rhenium—Rhenium occurs in significant quantities only with molybdenite
associated with porphyry copper deposits. It was first produced in 1972 by the
Island Copper Mine and is extracted as rhenium oxide from fumes produced during
roasting of the molybdenite concentrate.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded
since 1909.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work.
The output varies from year to year according to the level of activity in the construction industry.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 332 kilograms, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, and some is exported in concentrated ores of copper,
lead, and zinc to American and Japanese smelters. Silver bullion was produced by
the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores, if mined in quantity, produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters. Today the greatest
single source of silver is the Sullivan mine, which has been in production since 1900.
By 1974 the Sullivan mine has accounted for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total amount is contributed by the Lynx,
Silmonac, Phoenix, Bethlehem, Granisle, Brenda, and Granduc mines. Table 3-12
details the current silver production. The only steady producer that is strictly a
silver mine is the Highland Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A
former important mine, the Premier near Stewart, produced more than 1.3 million
kilograms of silver between 1918 and 1968.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Stone (see Building-stone)—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from
rock produced at quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of
the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Structural materials—In Table 3-7E the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions, and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 3-2 that includes unclassified structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 63
years. The figure $3,180,828 in Table 3-7E under "Other Clay Products" is the
value in the period 1886-1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products
or asigned to mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-7A, and 3-7E.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Canadian Occidental Petroleum
Ltd. plant at Taylor has been included.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7G.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where is has been
produced since 1941. Tin is also produced in a lead-tin alloy at the Trail smelter.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced
from 1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the
Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton
and the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald
in 1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas where demand was high. In 1970, production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo, which closed in 1973.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Volcanic ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 27 tonnes from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.   See Table 3-7D.
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of zinc production exceeded that of lead.
In 1972 the annual production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper, coal, and crude
oil. Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most ores are mined for their
combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for their zinc content alone.
Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated with
copper at Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate the zinc
mineral (sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most of the zinc concentrates go to the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are converted electro-
lytically to refined metal. Usually some concentrates are shipped to American or
Japanese smelters.
About 86 per cent of the zinc that has been mined in British Columbia has
originated in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines near
Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake, Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillimacheen.
Other production has come from mines at Portland Canal and Tulsequah and is
coming from Buttle Lake. The greatest zinc mine is the Sullivan, which has contributed about 73 per cent of the total zinc production of the Province. See Table
3-12 for details of current zinc producers.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 17 096 tonnes
of zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1918, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
 A 64
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
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Figure 3-1—Value of Mineral Production, 1887-1975.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 65
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Figure 3-2—Production Quantities of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, 1893-1975.
 A 66                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Prices1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Fine
Silver,
Fine
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Coal
1901  	
$/kg
664.57
$/kg
18.01 N.Y
15.93 „
16.33 „
17.16    „
16.50 ,,
20.40    „
19.95 „
16.15 „
15.73 „
16.34 „
16.28 ,,
18.58    „
18.26 „
16.75    ,,
15.18    „
20.06    „
24.87    „
29.56    ,,
33.94 ,.
30.80 „
19.14 „
20.62    ,,
19.81 „
20.40    „
22.21    „
19.97 „
18.12    „
18.70    „
17.04    „
12.27 „
9.23    „
10.18    „
12.16 „
15.26    „
20.83    „
14.51 „
14.43    „
13.98 ,,
13.02 .,
1230    „
12.30    „
13.24 ,,
14.55    „
13.83 „
15.11     „
26.89    „
23.15 „
24.11 Mont.
23.87 U.S.
25.93    „
30.40    .,
26.74 „
26.93    .,
26.68    „
28.25 ,,
28.73    „
27.99 „
27.79    „
28.12 „
28.50 „
30.12    .,
37.30    „
44.36    „
44.84 „
44.81    „
44.79    „
53.73    „
74.29 „
61.96 „
59.46    ,,
50.14    .,
53.48    „
82.51 „
156.532
755.602
$/kg
0.355 N.Y.
■ 258    „
■ 292    „
.283    „
•344    „
■425    „
■441    „
291    ,,
.286    „
■281    „
.273    „
.360    „
.337    „
.300    „
.381     „
.600    „
.599    „
.543    „
.412    .,
.385    „
.276    ,,
.295    „
.318    „
.287    ,,
.310    „
.304    „
.285    „
.321    ,,
.399    „
.286    „
■ 179    „
.141 Lond.
.164     „
■ 164     „
.172     „
.209     „
.288     „
■ 220     „
•223     ,,
.222     „
.222     „
.222     ,,
.259     „
.265     „
.277     „
■282     „
.450     „
.493 U.S.
.440    „
•517    „
.611    „
.685    „
.669    .,
.642    „
• 844    „
• 877    „
.574    „
.516    „
.611     „
.639    „
.620    „
■672    „
.676    „
■737    „
.846    ,,
1.176    „
1.125    „
1.195    „
1.470    „
1.2942
1.0302
.9892
1.8352
1.8842
1.2832
$/kg
0.057 N.Y.
.081    „
.084    „
.086    „
.094    „
.106    „
.106    „
.083    „
.085    „
.088    „
.088    „
.089    „
.087    „
.077    „
.092    „
.136    „
.174    „
.147    „
.114    „
.158    „
.090    „
.114    „
.144    .,
.161    „
.173 Lond.
.149     „
.116     „
.101      „
■ 111      „
.087     „
.060     „
.047     „
.053      „
.054     „
.069     „
.086     ,,
.113     „
■074     „
.070     „
.074     „
.074     „
.074     „
.083     „
.099     „
.110     „
.149     „
.301     „
.398     ,.
.348 U.S.
.319    „
.406    „
.355    „
■292    „
.302    „
.329    ,,
.347    „
• 310    ,,
.259    „
.257    „
■ 256    „
.243    „
.227    „
.265    „
.323    „
.380    „
.359    „
.333    „
.321    „
.354    „
.360    .,
.308    „
.328    „
.359    „
.4222
J462
$/kg
$/t
2.92
2.90
2.94
2.89
2.98
2.88
3.38
3.43
3.52
3.69
3.51
3.70
3.74
3.69
3.78
3.80
3.84
5.50
5.42
5.20
5.30
5.20
5.30
5.39
5.28
5.34
5.30
5.19
5.22
5.21
4.80
4.45
4.30
4.41
4.35
4.66
4.68
4.42
4.43
4.70
4.57
4.55
4.60
4.68
4.67
5.16
5.64
6.71
7.18
7.09
7.12
7.65
7.58
7.72
7.43
7.26
7.45
8.21
8.74
7.32
8.16
8.19
8.08
7.65
7.75
8.02
8.54
8.72
8.82
8.16
11.06
12.08
12.71
19.93
35.53
1902	
1903.....	
•
1904  	
1905
1906  	
1907 	
1908  	
1909 	
1910    	
0.101 E.St.L.
.108      „
.130      „
.106      „
.097      „
.248      „
• 240
.167      „
.153
.138      „
.144
.087      „
.107      „
.124      „
.119      „
.174 Lond.
.163     „
.137     „
.121     „
.119     „
.079     „
.056     „
.053     „
■071     „
.067     „
.068     „
.073     „
.108     „
.068     „
.068     „
.075     „
.075     „
.075     „
.088     „
■095     „
.142     „
.172     „
.248     „
.307     „
.292 U.S.
.332    „
.439    „
.350    „
.235    „
.230    „
.267    „
■293    „
■246    „
■221     „
■242    „
.277    „
.258    „
.274    „
■290    „
.323    „
.345    „
.344    „
■ 329    „
.312    „
.347    „
.353    „
.359    „
.388    ,.
.455    „
.7672
.«0«2
1911
1912                 	
1913 	
1914..  	
1915                	
1916        	
1917      	
1918	
1919	
1920
1921    	
1922	
1923
1924	
1925            	
1926	
1927	
1928  	
1929            	
1930      	
1931 	
1932                   	
754.59
919.53
1,109.22
1,131.40
1,126.26
1,124.97
1,131.08
1,161.95
1,237.82
1,237.82
1,237.82
1,237.82
1,237.82
1,237.82
1,181.56
1,125.29
1,125.29
1,157.44
1,223.35
1,184.77
1,101.82
1,106.65
1,095.39
1,109.86
1,107.29
1,078.67
1.092.50
1,079.32
1,091.53
1,140.08
1,202.78
1,213.71
1,213.71
1,213.07
1,212.42
1,214.03
1.212.42
1,211.78
1,175.45
1,136.22
1,849.34
3,131.85
5.348.682
5,204.662
1933
1934    	
1935            	
1936
1937        	
1938               	
1939  ..
1940 	
1941            	
1942	
1943
1944       	
1945	
1946
1947
1948
1949    	
1950    	
1951
1952	
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957   	
1958
1959   	
1960            	
1961	
1962    	
1963    	
1964    	
1965    	
1966      	
1967
1968
1969
1970        .
1971
1972
1973
1974   	
1975     	
1 See page A 52 for c
2 See page A 53 for e
etailed explanation,
xplanation.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 67
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year
Products1
Total Quantity to Date 2
Total Value
to Date
Quantity,
19742
Value,
1974
Quantity,
19752
Value,
1975
Metals
kp
25 636 985
3 194 278
19 551 649
722
114 484
3 134 913 435
163 072
551 630
30 780 945
7 591 288 122
92 819
1 564
1 891 974
117 513 000
23 337 783
23
44
232
16 162 191
8 866 999
9 090 002
7 116 300 419
$
21,083,812
15,419,159
82,553,054
32.295
376,661
2,908,691,281
97,765,189
583,791,626
309,458,147
1,489,809,560
88,184
32,668
10,447,358
468,461,337
51,698,754
30,462
135,008
1,389
455,201,762
19,042,883
48,068,016
1,689,523,810
55,207,407
221 238
33 711
195 979
S
879,897
680,771
1,532,096
364 045
19 163
320 923
$
1,467,928
kp
261,931
kp
1,971,035
— t
Cobalt          	
kp
541,644,913
232,512
26,749,083
12,742,227
23,333,016
Copper	
Gold-
-kg
kp
287 547 048
45
5 001
1 306 930
55 252 692
258 497 599
44
4 819
1 299 215
70 603 483
331,693,850
232,204
kp
25,082,494
 t
15,245,902
Vp
24,450,158
Magnesium 	
..kg
....
Vf
kp
13 789 825
688 656
60,791,552
2,351,406
13 026 627
71,201,391
kp
kf
-kg
kf
28,440,365
1,150,722
.......     ....
59,582,753
4,488,138
764,599,451
Silver	
Tin 	
-kg
kp
181 696
143 816
196 306
32 511
30,545,947
200,669
Tungsten (WO3)
kg
Zinc 	
kp
77 733 732
99 668 230
80,572,872
Others  .„._	
3,695,987
Totals	
8,306,919,822
586,622,368
Industrial Minerals
kg
9 986 428
1 273 372
718
3 874 125
509 684
5 577 228
2 044
16 427
641 077
12 604
5 815 954
474
1 009
3 485
9518
7 889 486
984
273,201
304,454,227
16,858
8,220,820
10,314,467
20,721,413
27,536
155,050
1,702,764
254,352
185,818
9,398
11,120
16,894
118,983
112,982,058
34,871
8,017,203
27,398,900
  	
t
83 403
76 771
	
37,849,743
t
 t
34 451
31 546
400 338
206,049
1,025,615
1,412,157
35 914
33 316
474 387
	
174,824
t
1,144,968
Gypsum and gypsite
t
1,751,799
t
kp
■
18,613
3 510
110 437
414,123
Magnesium sulphate
t
kg
	
	
	
  |    |	
       1     !       	
3,068,507
 	
546,373
	
	
Sulphur  	
 t
206 646
246 079
	
5,738,134
Talc             	
.   t
	
Others  	
1,594,011
Totals  	
467,517,033
33,676,214
48,667,602
Structural Materials
Cement	
 t
16 050 409
	
338,897,979
107,735,724
72,382,676
76.213,109
422,670,591
9,263,104
5,972,171
890 372
25,828,823
6,615,128
4,297,547
5,715,219
35,611,346
20,330
915 293
31,681,722
6,593,189
t
	
2 097 909
2 691 473
31 440 908
452
1 976 415
4 103 452
28 945 523
53
4,349,800
8,723,448
Rubble, riprap, crushed
39,575,457
Building-stone     ..—
f
1057 115
4,395
	
Totals	
	
1,033,135,354
78,088,393
90,928,011
Coal
Coal—sold and used 	
t
las
164 837 263
41 752 651
150 523
2 600 567
10 440
1 217 941
958 145
1,307,797,183
7 757 440
154,593,643
8 924 816
317,111,744
Petroleum and Natural (
746,090,406
3,145,021
13,957,998
663,646,065
4,824,827
3,755,576
3 012 553
16 561
178 534
1 042
105 426
89 373
103,335,328
568,075
924.549
128,018,726
232.085
196,742
2 261 987
16 094
185 275
928
106 429
81 976
94,229,725
Field condensate	
..m3
668,092
Plant condensate  m3
Natural gas to pipeline 10(>m3
Butane m3
Propane  m3
6,525,837
214,733,528
2,577,205
1,985,087
Totals	
	
1,435,419,893
233,275,505
 	
320,719,474
12,550,789,285
1,264,233,206
	
1,364,049,199
	
1 See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages A 54 to A 63.
2 See page A 9 for conversion table to old system.
3 From 1968, excludes production which is confidential.
 A 68                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1975
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1836-86 ..          	
$
52,808,750
729,381
745,794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7,575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
11,360,546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55.005.394
$
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
$
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
1     10,549,924
10,119,303
$
$
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502,519
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8,394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434,312
16,355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17,497,380
18,955,179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513,584
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26,382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056,284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207,350
41,330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67,077,605
60,720,313
65,227,002
68,689,839
55,763,360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133,485
74,438,675
64,416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76,471,329
67,151,016
54,742.315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,43"
1887	
1888	
-
1889      	
1890    .
1891    	
1892       	
1893    	
1894
1895	
726,323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018,719
1,238,718
1,796,677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10,246,939
1896._	
1897	
1898
1899	
1900...
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
2,400
1905.
1906
1907	
1908    —
1909            	
1910	
1911	
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1.378.337
1912	
1913	
1914
1915    	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919
	
1920...
1921	
1922	
1923
1924
1925    ....	
1926...
1927	
1928   _
1929
1930
1931	
1932    .
1933
1934	
1935
1936    	
1937               	
1938
1939
1940 ..
1941	
1942
1943
1944...
42,095,013  j        1,419,248
50,673,592 j       1,497,720
58,834,747          1,783,010
95,729,867 j       2,275,972
124,091,753  1       2,358,877
110,219,917 1       2,500,799
117,166,836 |       2,462,340
1
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
'     139,995,418
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 69
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1975—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1951.	
$
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865,318
250,912,026
294,881,114
309,981,470
301,059,951
372,032,770
795,617,596
764,599,451
586,622,368
$
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020,359
21,909,767
25,764,120
27,969,664
33,676,214
48,667,602
$
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,104,071
59,940,333
66,745,698
73,720,831
78,088,393
90,928,011
$
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
45,801,936
66,030,210
87,976,105
154,593,643
317,111,744
$
$
176,867,916
1952   	
171,365,687
1953	
152,841,695
152,894,663
173,853,360
188,853,652
170,992,829
144,953,549
147,651,217
177,365,333
179,807,321
229,371,484
255,863,587
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
1954.	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959-	
1960
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
6,545
18,610
319,465
1,197,581
4,806,233
5,967,128
9,226,646
11,612,184
27,939,726
36,379,636
36,466,753
44,101,662
54,274,187
67,096,286
75,281,215
86,756,009
90,974,467
99,251,158
105,644,978
124,104,445
233,275,505
320,719,474
1968  .
1969 _	
1970 _	
1971	
405,028,488
464,388,749
488,640,036
527,963,145
1972 ..   ....   .
636,217,776
1973	
1974	
1,109,388,641
1,264,233,206
1975	
1,364,049,199
Totals	
8,306,919,822
467,517,033
1,033,135,354
1,307,797,183
1,435,419,893
12,550,789,285
 A 70
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
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 A 72
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Volume and Value of Production,
and Volume and Value of Production Paid for to Mines
Metals
1975
Total Production
Quantity
1975
Production Paid for to Mines
Quantity
Value
Antimony    kg
Bismuth   kg
Cadmium kg
Copper  ....—     kg
Gold—placer kg
lode, fine kg
Iron concentrates    t
Lead     kg
Molybdenum    kg
Nickel   kg
Silver   _ kg
Tin  ...kg
Zinc   kg
Others  	
Totals	
364 045
19 163
320 923
258 497 599
44
4 819
1 299 215
70 603 483
13 026 627
196 306
32511
99 668,230
1
1
331
25
15
24
71
467,928
261.931
971.035
693,850
232,204
082,494
245,902
450,158
201.391
30
80
3
~586.
545,947
200,669
572,872
695,987
622,368"
59 877
258 419 560
44
4 844
1 281 489
67 171 851
308,079
240,270,370
232,204
19,089,477
15,037,019
17,781,091
13 026 627    |      71,201,391
180 592
24 868
1456 211
I
21,476,408
143,025
44,074,003
2,362,450
|    431,975,517
Note—For metals, the total volume and value of production include the quantities paid for to the mines,
and the smelter and refinery production that can be attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The volume and
value paid for to the mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and
deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 73
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974 and 1975
Physical
Work
and Surveys
Administration,
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
Construction,
Machinery and
Equipment,
Other Capital
Costs
Totals
A.  Exploration on Undeclared Mines
Metal mines—■
1974                                                         	
$
18,773,326
16,366,152
3,450,746
9,955,507
42,706
90,025
22,266,778
26,411,684
2,652,243
2,792,378
488,308
1,000,000
4,236
36,242
3,144,787
3,828,620
1,280,513
$
6,525,878
5,298,367
884,849
3,057,843
11,134
35,679
7,421,861
8,391,889
762,224
3,090,135
104,259
$
128,144
442,327
18,958
$
25,427,348
1975
22,106,846
Coal mines—■
1974                                                         	
4,354,553
1975.	
13,013,350
Others—
1974 	
53,840
1975    ..	
125,704
Totals—
1974   	
147,102
442,327
278,500
29,835,741
1975..	
35,245,900
B. Exploration on Declared or Operating Mines
Metal mines—■
1974                                                         	
3,692,967
1975 	
5,882,513
Coal mines—■
1974-	
592,567
1975	
1,000,000
Others—
1974.	
4,236
1975	
2,700
866,483
3,092,835
1,028,199
57,166
256,055
38,942
Totals—
1974 	
278,500
4,289,770
1975.	
6,921,455
C. Development on Declared Mines
Metal mines—■
1974	
1,985,000
840,344
111,500
4,293,712
1975
897,510
687,653
Coal mines—
1974                                   	
320,098
1975	
Others—
1974    	
1975	
23,242
37,988
2,883,584
2,944,814
Totals—
1974	
1,623,853
1,322,242
57,166
1,722,680
5,804,924
4,980,084
840,344
46,732,326
24,548,602
16,607,506
59,000,000
16,606,229
18,077,384
79,946,061
101,625,986
7,926,179
1975	
897,510
69 188 507
D. Development of Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974	
20,933,501
9,013,375
9,027,818
3,300,000
6,198,552
17,350,175
36,159,871
29,663,550
1975  	
39,366,901
Coal mines—■
1974....	
25,635,324
1975     	
62,300,000
Others—
1974                             	
146,182
124,860
1,868,862
5,929,784
22 950 963
1975	
35 552 419
Totals—
1974    	
1975 	
117,974,794
137,219,320
 A 74                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858—1975
Gold (Placer)
Gold (Fine)
Silver
Copper
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
1
Value
1858-90...
1891-1900.
1901-10
1911
kg
100 978.533
11 703.748
15 787.261
779.441
1 016.446
933.090
1 033.864
1 408.655
1 062.167
907.585
585.358
524.086
405.583
426.733
674.624
768.555
769.799
512.453
650.426
285.868
262.012
217.192
278.527
534.225
634.501
744.233
783.205
961.985
1 349.528
1 684.321
1 796.478
1 547.250
1215.101
1 361.534
1023.413
454.104
355.601
391.556
489.219
216.757
632.386
556.308
595.125
736.861
545.982
443.062
270.098
238.436
120.213
91.318
175.732
235.450
119.653
106.248
103.106
143.696
57.292
26.935
47.743
27.713
20.839
12.410
15.272
5.505
21.492
119.156
45.162
43.744
$
55,192,163
6,397,183
8,628,660
426,000
555,500
510,000
565,000
770.0S0
580,500
496,000
320,000
286,500
221.600
233,200
368,800
420,000
420,750
280,092
355,503
156,247
143,208
118,711
152,235
291,992
395,542
562,787
714,431
895,058
1,249,940
1,558,245
1,671,015
1,478.492
1,236,928
1,385,962
1,041,772
462,270
361,977
398,591
475,361
200,585
585,200
529,524
598,717
717,911
494,756
403,230
238,967
217,614
109,450
80.990
157.871
208,973
107,418
99,884
96,697
135.411
55.191
25,053
44.632
25.632
19.571
11,720
14,185
4,647
26,905
311,524
232,512
232,204
~97~765,189
kg
$
kg
6 876.531
700 977.829
971 114.910
58 858.198
97 417.955
107 798.519
112 038.605
104 708.436
102 699.711
91 107.405
108 803.644
105 847.210
105 061.237
83 150.418
220 872.076
187 643.964
259 454.010
238 088.613
334 312.337
325 654.164
330 536.775
309 791.230
352 342.964
234 837.945
222 406.822
218 397.615
267 920.527
288 323.068
296 944.198
351 630.830
337 827.661
336 577.786
383 436.042
378 700.797
301 011.133
265 193.820
177 453.003
191 510.720
197 994.264
177 550.262
209 016.328
237 559.178
295 772.610
255 632.882
274 042.530
260 606.407
305 630.613
245 811.643
261 423.017
252 847.111
218 998.027
192 779.535
231 612.937
229 353.429
192 521.474
199 764.616
163 901.675
154 646.729
172 594.622
192 239.525
221 791.325
179 169.889
202 521.462
238 670.301
215 420.498
236 987.318
181 695.950
196 305.885
$
214,152
13,561,194
16,973,507
958,293
1,810,045
1,968,606
1,876,736
1,588,991
2,059,739
2,265,749
3,215.870
3.592,673
3,235,980
1,591.201
4,554,781
3,718,129
5.292,184
5,286,818
6,675,606
5,902,043
6,182,461
5.278,194
4,322,185
2,254.979
2,264,729
2,656,526
4,088,280
6,005.996
4,308,330
5,073,962
4,722,288
4,381,365
4,715,315
4,658,545
4,080,775
3,858,496
2,453,293
2,893,934
5,324,959
4.110,092
5,040,101
5,671,082
7,667,950
7,770,983
7,326,803
7,019,272
8,154,145
6,942,995
7,511,866
7,077,166
6,086.854
5,421,417
6,600,183
6.909.140
7,181,907
8,861.050
7,348,938
6.929,793
7,729.939
10,328,695
16,475,795
11.100,491
12,041.181
11,968.046
11,519.660
19,552,997
28,440,365
30,545,947
1
kg         |
16 064 375|
172 344 737
16 750 016
23 340 171 j
21 073 930]
20 415 949
25 817 619|
29 655 426[
26 765 2411
27 888 416
19 259 132[
20 360 601[
17 706 7901
14 678 125!
26 181 346J
29 413 222:
32 797 475 j
40 523 625|
40 461 530|
44 410 233|
46 626 180]
41 894 588
29 090 879 j
22 955 299|
19 572 164!
22 521 530]
17 884 241|
9 830 071|
20 891 260 [
29 832 572[
33 227 590|
35 371 049|
30 134 516
22 723 823
19 190 2631
16 465 584|
11 726 375[
7 938 069
18 952 769
19 515 886
24 882 5001
19 147 001 [
19 617 612
19 053 280]
22 235 441|
22 747 5781
20 065 9281
19 667 923
14 237 029[
5 741 837|
7 363 374[
14 997 694]
14 375 3611
49 431 8501
53 635 704 [
52 414 456|
38 644 540]
47 990 0801
78 352 932[
73 024 9681
75 937 956]
96 329 694
127 286 040]
211 832 288]
317 603 055!
287 547 048]
258 497 599]
4,365,210
56,384,783
4,571,644
8,408,513
7,094,489
6,121,319
9,835,500
17,784,494
16,038,256
15,143,449
7,939,896
7,832,899
4,879,624
4,329,754
8,323,266
8,442,870
10,153,269
12,324,421
11,525,011
14,265,242
18,612,850
11,990,465
5,365,690
3,228,892
3,216,701
3,683,662
3,073,428
2,053,828
6,023,411
6,558,575
7,392,862
7,865.085
6.700,693
5,052,856
4,971,132
4,356,070
3,244,472
2,240,070
8,519,741
9,616,174
10,956,550
9,889,458
11,980,155
13,054,893
14,869,544
14.599.693
16,932,549
17,251,872
8,170,465
2,964,529
4,497,991
9,583,724
8,965,149
33,209,215
36,238,007
38,609,136
32.696,081
56,438,255
88,135,172
87,284,148
111,592,416
124,657.958
131,037,918
209,403,822
582,803,251
541,644,913
331,693,850
	
19 682.165
72 2^4.836
7 110.675
8 008.898
8 467.916
7 687.729
7 776.403
6 902.751
3 562.009
5 121.855
4 740.906
3 733.853
4 222.699
6 153.915
5 575.057
7 704.711
6 522 890
6 264.984
5 536.365
5619.130
4 516.871
5 002.482
4 545.175
5 649.891
6 954.289
9 244.309
11 363.263
12 583.590
14 331.671
17 340.607
18 267.912
18 149.347
17 760.622
13 825.843
6 979.607
5 804.815
5 454.626
3 658.086
7 566.800
8 902.612
8 969.981
8 832.723
8 126.405
7 955.805
7 886.228
8 036.642
7 541.762
5 963.782
6 948.504
6 044.992
5 385.360
6 394.155
4 970.913
4 940.712
4 820.312
4 307.361
3 642.908
3 717.057
3 923.861
3 853.537
3 654.012
3 135.462
2 668.046
3 782.871
5 784.723
5 001.082
4 819.241
I5F630.602
12.858.353
47.998.17'
4,725,512
5.322.442
5,627,595
5,109,008
5,167.934
4,587,333
2,367,191
3,403,811
3,150,644
2,481,392
2,804,197
4,089,684
3,704,994
5,120,535
4.335 0W
4,163,859
3,679,601
3,734,609
3,002,020
3,324,975
3,020.837
4,263,389
6,394,645
10,253.952
12,856.419
14,172,367
16,122,767
19,613,624
21.226.957
22.461.516
21,984.501
17,113,943
8.639.516
7.185,332
6,751,860
4,322,241
8,514,870
10,018,050
10,382,256
10.805,553
9,627,947
8.765.889
8,727.294
8,803,279
8,370,306
6.603,628
7,495,170
6,604.149
5,812.511
6,979,441
5,667.253
]    5,942.101
5.850.458
5,227.884
4,419.089
4,505,646
4,763.688
4,672.242
4.427,506
3,685,476
3.031.844
6,995.448
18.117.268
26,749.083
25,082,494
5~837791^626
1
1912
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917 	
1918
1919	
1920	
1921
1922	
1923
1924
1925
1926	
1927
1928
1929 -
1930
1931
1932 .
1933	
1934
1935	
1936
1937	
1938	
1939
1940	
1941
1942
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947.
1948
1949
1950	
1951	
1952 ...
1953   	
1954     	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960.
1961	
1962
1963
1964
1965	
1966...
1967
1968	
1969    —
1970
1971	
1972	
1973
1974
1975	
Totals-
163 071.954
16 162 190.750
455,201,762
3 134 913 435[2,908,691,281
1
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 75
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1975—Continued
Year
1858-90...
1891-1900
1901-10....
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915...	
1916	
1917	
1918—	
1919—	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924...	
1925 -	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931...	
1932	
1933.	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938 ..
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942—	
1943	
1944 _
1945	
1946	
1947.	
1948	
1949	
1950-	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955..	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960	
1961-	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971—	
1972	
1973	
1974	
1975	
Totals..
Lead
Quantity
kg
473 729
93 002 804
184 989 089
12 189 051
20 353 243
25 112 864
22 963 016
21 093 563
22 102 314
16 922 293
19 912 447
13 370 004
17 840 247
18 779 664
30 593 731
43 845 439
77 284 697
107 908 698
119 305 027
128 364 347
138 408 812
139 705 336
145 966 952
118 796 232
114 308 115
123 235 512
157 562 183
156 156 723
171 444 146
190 107 902
187 323 227
171 794 338
211 758 089
207 218 262
230 060 714
199 196 604
132 866 893
152 849 156
156 879 853
142 306 192
145 165 821
120 373 215
128 830 683
124 037 181
129 250 197
135 004 129
150 807 088
137 241 656
128 691 681
127 732 462
133 615 439
130 372 360
151 321 570
174 307 617
152 080 806
142 869 197
121 896 644
113 480 794
95 929 798
94 406 546
105 063 971
95 286 815
97 448 607
112 865 575
88 109 663
84 890 924
55 252 692
70 603 483
Value
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2,175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1,526,855
2,816,115
1,693.354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
18,670,329
17,757,535
14,874,292
13,961,412
15,555,189
12,638,198
7,097,812
5,326,432
6,497,719
8,461,859
10,785,930
14,790,028
21,417,049
13,810,024
12,002,390
15,695,467
15,358,976
17,052,054
16,485,902
13,181,530
16,848,823
23,345,731
42,887,313
57,734,770
41,929,866
41,052,905
50,316,015
45,936,692
39,481,244
45,482,505
45,161.245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542,305
38,661,912
42,313,569
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402.293
43,149,171
34,436.934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693,539
35,096,021
34,711,408
28,896,566
30,477,936
23,333,016
24,450,158
Quantity
kg
7 591 288 122(1,489,809,560
Value
5 753 423
1 195 003
2 430 462
3 065 710
3 568 151
5 888 705
16 859 478
18 982 067
18 947 777
25 735 631
21 413 198
22 416 133
25 921 103
26 464 465
35 893 017
44 568 438
64 807 554]
65 872 809]
82 445 946
78 061 406'
113614910]
91 657 703]
87 143 752]
88 887 198]
113 013 038[
116 227 650
115 475 574
132 081 905
135 395 388
126 283 585
141 529 456
166 861 962
175 646 590
152 474 485
126 126 765
133 714 538
124 406 109
114 761 068
122 610 001
130 736 145
131 697 238
153 091 761
169 130 882
173 407 848
151 555 559
194 680 177
201 327 284
203 787 462
195 952 146
182 498 693
182 977 897
175 970 780
187 528 084
182 734 698
181 797 313
141 179 547
138 401 395
119217472
135 803 151
134 565 199
125 005 208
138 549 629
121 719 968
137 380 768
77 733 732
99 668 230
7 116 300419
894,169
129.092
316,139
324,421
346,125
1.460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
3,278.903
4,266,741
7.754,450
10.586,610
8,996,135
9.984,61/
9,268,792
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,416
7.584,199
7.940,860
8,439,373
14,274,245
9,172,822
8.544,375
10,643,026
12,548,031
13,208,636
13,446,018
11,956,725
18,984,581
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654.211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
59.189,656
40,810,618
34,805,755
52,048,909
58,934,801
50,206,681
43,234,839
44,169.198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48.666,933
47.666,540
39,248.539
43.550,181
46.639.024
44,111,055
49,745,789
47,172,894
62,564,751
59,582,753
80,572,872
T^689752378T0
Molybdenum
Quantity        Value
kg
901
1641
5 598
3 167
436
2 456
12
3 306
7 754
7 945
8 980
12 064
14 186
9 926
12 719
13 785
13 789
13 026
662
2,000
20,560
11,636
1,840
9,500
812
274J 12
088] 27.
782| 31
988| 32
350| 47
705| 52
694] 36
3911 43
264] 51
825] 60
627| 71
47.063
405,344
606,061
,183,064
,552,727
999,442
,561,79(
954,846
260,349
851,509
791,552
201,391
117 513 000]468,461,337
Iron  Concentrates
Quantity       Value
t
27 097
11 820
17 738
70,879
45,602
68,436
907
1 116
1 335
916
1 089
220
5,000
6,150
7,360
5,050
3,600
1,337
616
4 964
102 997
816 898
899 240
486 018
554 223
335 616
324 174
571769
770 421
1 052 651
1 211 147
1 627 342
1 869 009
1 816 684
1 964 410
1 952 074
1 954 468
1 900 311
1 882 266
1 704 650
1 750 738
1 139 698
1 420 160
1 306 930
1 299 215
3CT780945
3,735
27,579
790,000
5,474,924
6,763,105
3,733,891
3,228,756
2,190,847
2,200,637
4,193,442
6,363,848
10,292,847
12,082,540
18,326,911
20,746,424
20,419,487
21,498,581
20,778,934
20,820,765
21,437,569
19,787,845
17,391,883
18,153,612
11,642,379
12,906,063
12,742,227
15,245,902
309,458,147
 A 76 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Quantity
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Cariboo..
Clinton	
Fort Steele	
Golden	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Liard 	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster-
Nicola	
Omineca	
Osoyoos	
Itevelstoke	
Similkameen..
Skeena....	
Slocan	
Trail Creek....
Vancouver..
Vernon 	
Victoria	
Not assigned-
Totals
10 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To (late
1!)74
19T5
To date
1!)74
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
kg
50.204
37. 035
18.526
I   22 044.230]
7.185]
l 12.663i
SI 220.007]
33.253
104.102
98,205
17,083,327
30.50S
69,551
54,293,041
56
340
$
132,330
.542,622
000,501
7.437
47,869
102.513
440,970
667,716
802,131
9,398
$
420,410
600,288
i, 585,187
20,325
32,000
229,483
700,884
243,009
.665
030.2411
3,637
472,087
157.817
115,002
858.287
004,785
04
8
9
224
147
94
594
.169
1 504.5251
.342!
.222
2 801.404
757
1,252,040
1,752
1,006
1,028,440
848.377
025,441
,543,661
588.177
140.100
337,885
051,100
578,508
,798,823
770,758
508,550
830,324
05 7.003
020.050
102,42
830,02
1,992,228
23,642,030
1,412.157
1,751,799
18,584,540
148,107,250
04,728,003
76,699,019
529.892.04 1
11,119,041!
10,406,662
390.005,057
3,073,121
0,540,538
28.237.794
38,696,495
322,453,005
975.3S7
590,902
7.278
4,764
1 755.005
1
1,500.400
1
7.405|
 -
5.400
03
3 0
29
323
10
80
5 72
42
44
473,095
208,304
271,103
2,432,108
047,024
885,083
4,770.127
235.S23J
1
104,477
1
1 415.404]
878,204
  l„	
143.107]
105,560
26.460]
9,397
24,260
.in
5.6011
.300
,751,805
834,594
,353,271
23.3.408|
,042,5201
,754,439!
100,2811
,451.3071
,991,371 ]
,000,055
30.181
7,064
.400,082
,345,102
,897,382
.743.109]
,105,909
,797,725'
,770.7701
,318,380'
,604,330'
.777.800]
125.027]
209,600'
082,293!
565,708
170,722
087,0131
10,050
17,812
407,636
,100.450
73.581
59,984
1.720,225
1,240,21;
7,060.004
.085
85.0581
464
73.340
10.533!
15,080
10.770
47 578.423
— 45.162
43.744
[163 071.954]
54,872
17,028,911
232,512
232,204
97,705, ISO
339.150
3,955.255
82.565
24,800.343
12,235,930
19.647,114
374,925.904
71J4.F06.030
586,390,164
8.200.154.033
101,519
180,581
285
100,651
1,010,575
4,272,272
67,170,035!
4,164
342.405
3,166,865
4,230,037
34,365,718
137,548
412,036
4,300,634
510,688
1,087,969
11,314,738
172,470
279,350
4,101,062
310,246
249,071
2,899,889
7,300,243
8,648,363
50.408,433
1,553,474
2,514,306
17,188,547
78,440
195,839
3,610.857
5,457,071
7,278,604
86,316,735
715,104
871,500
9,786,703
18,900,700
20,394,370
232,073,005
183,784
140,487
2,360,071
830,020
1,002,877
15,405,001
253,290
786,229
5,200.340
357,663
159,337
3,734,015
20,930
118.609
4.468.440
1,801,043
2,532,935
23,136.431
138,283
29,976
2,426,260
38.018
86,116
T73.201
13,604,000
15,425,449
174,701,011
1,350.34 4
1,785,644
11,061,031
18,035,302
19,693,463
200,498,832
2,054,432
2,400,992
52,004,031
3,'
33,676,2141       78. OSS, 303
48,667,6021       90,928,011
407,517,033 [1,033,135,354
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 77
Divisions, 1974 and 1975, and Total to Date
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipeline
Butane and
Propane
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
ni3
$
1001113
8
m3
$
$
25,558,752
22,142,910
218,228,339
201,599
150,238
56,148,570
78,083,033
61,196,787
263
1,100
	
430,229,474
137,548
412,036
5,644,507
7 741 040
154,270,901
316,716,363
971,006,711
°°5 °52 11'*
8 909 438
402,343,858
89 961 905
3,531,023,752
1,730,823
2,369,034
87,408,060
8,888,814
10,047,894
230.120,200
154,814,793
103,478,687
13 687
50,765
300,000
390,116
1,515,507
651,670,584
16 057
15 060
131 923
3 207 04 8
2 608 236
44 503 741
104,827,052
101,423,654
763,103,425
1  04 2
928
10 440
128,018,726
214,733,528
063,646,005
104 709
188 405
2 170 080
428.S27
4,562,292
S, 580,403
271.205.S32
362.321,148
1,796,986,600
80,108
196,845
154,170,054
100,305,028
84,248,726
67 425 673
301,144,744
019,805,018
12,782.120
12,163,245
405 011,813
21,982,890
20,395,362
298,934 027
37,018,378
29,493,758
2 657 060
11,080,836
4,082
5,265
3,420,071
330,698,120
343
107,895,052
318
82,172,937
456 250
503,731,700
42,778,178
45,837,584
1 018
5,008
280,000,103
i
166,401
30,372.03S
21,015,991
252,002,135
4 188 851
19,553,725
	
70,966.952
33
110
598,202 101
1,456,072
1,634,306
281,213,535
103 645
295,716
94,470,814
22,230,707
16 596,171
479,550 894
1,350,344
1
1,887,627
12,563,720
21,990 842
19,776,028
294,514,506
16,800,943
26,375,250
512,030,471
7 757 440
8 924 816
104 837 203
154,503,643
317,111,744
1,307,797,183
3 207 048
2 608 236
44 503 741
104,827,052
101,423,654
763,103,425
1 042
928
10 440
128.018,720
214,733,528
063,040,065
104 700[    428,827]   1,264.233,200
188 40S 4,502,292    1,364,049,199
2 170 08018,580,403112,550,780,285
1                     1
 A 78
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1975
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1974
1975
To date
19 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
19 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
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 A 84                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Division
Period
Asbestos
Baritel
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
t
$
t
1
$         1      t
$
1
t        |        $
t
$
 1	
  1	
Cariboo	
1 593
5 847
32,600
229.483
18 6061563 404
44
168
1
Fort Steele....
	
7
80
Greenwood....
Kamloops	
398 388
4,489,227
2 956
12,612
1 624 30811.540.319
181
4,000
|
1
567
12,230
83 4031   27.398.900
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
1975    I      76 771|   37,849,743
To date   11   OT3 S721S04 454.227
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1074
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974    |
1975
To date
1974    |
1975
To date
1974
1976
To date
1974    |
1975
To date  |
1974 |
1975 ]
To date  j
1974 |
1975 |
To date  ]
 |	
34 435!    205,764|         117
35 914!    174,824|     2 325
950 78111.870.2171   25 917
2,600
96,279
555,981
947,024
885,083
4.706,052
	
 [	
 !	
27 271
23 394
149 94"
New Westminister
 1	
6 895!          8.174
!                     !
 L...                          1
 |	
99 490
1,611,625
 1	
 I	
Omineca	
i                 1
|
i                !
 t	
32
26
61
4 126
3 300
2,410
2,103
4,799
73,581
1
..    1
 1	
 [	
 !	
Similkameen.
 1	
728 11313,099,031
 |	
191   9291   2 088 723
 |	
 1	
 ]	
 |	
	
 1	
 |	
Vancouver
Vernon	
Victoria	
Not assigned.
Totals...
j
 !	
 1	
      1
545 232(1,050,722
 |	
i
 |	
 I	
 |	
|
4 271
5 904
101,519
155,203
2 9031       30,400
161             285
 |	
 !	
202|         3,345
8 713
157,080
 |	
 !	
 1	
1974 [       83 403j   27,398,900
1975 j       76 7711   37,849,743
To date   |1273 372|304,454,227
1 593|   32,000
5 847 229,483
18 606!563,404
1
34 451!    200.0491   315401   1,025,615
35 9141    174,824!   33 316,   1,144,968
3 870 450l8,220,8201509 084110,314,467
1                     1                 i
398 395
4,489,307|
1
1 From 1972, excludes production which is confidential.
Other: See notes on individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages A 54 to A 63.
2 Natro-alunite.                                     * Volcanic ash.                                     6 Sodium carbonate.
3 Hydromagnesite.                                  5 Magnesium sulphate.                           7 Phosphate rock.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 85
Mining Divisions, 1974 and 1975, and Total to Date
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t         |         $          |       kg
$
1              1
kg      ]    $      !      t
$
$
$
9,3982
9,398
               1	
20,3253
20,325
32,000
229,483
4 542 160
143,012
3004
706,884
6,236
156,1913 5 0
57 240
86 062
1 266 516
836,022
1,992,228
23,326,241
836,022
1,992,228
298,824
1,412,157
1,751,799
14,081,425
10,8947
23,042,039
1,412,157
1,751,799
1   2768 9
18 584 540
                  | .
	
783,57810
2,327,897
 ■ |
6,323,178
192 640|     2,075
 j
203,055.1 0
834
1 458
24 400
3,211
8,590
81,601
53 772
34 405
879 935
835,683
838,162
17,917,777
38,696,495
322,453,605
 1	
	
            ! .
253 391
467,960
208,364
271,103
55,9018
4 770 127
  !	
1,611,625
^
2 184
10,050
10,050
2 676
108 979
363 286
15,402
405,533
1,153,197
407,636
1,169,456
11,46011 12
59,984
720 064
25,938
306,5335 10 11
227
1,700
10,8ns 13
287 6891    10 815
37 761
178,678
	
023 773
6,550,969
97,3898
7,060,964
72 801
3.978
189,581
 I	
30,2269
513,773
1,364,528
2,108,242
190,651
95 634
125 612
1,390,802
4,272,272
07,176,635
5 081 501|   65,008,393
400 338|   1,412,157]         3 5101       18,613
206 040
246 079
7 889 486
3,068.507
5,738,134
112,982,058
513,773
1,364,528
3,882,755
474 3871   1.751.7991    110 4371    414.123
48,667,602
407,517,033
...,,.
20,721,413
041 077
1,702,764
5 815 954
185,818
8 Iron oxide and ochre.
9 Talc.
19 Fluorspar.
11 Arsenious oxide.
12 Perlite.
13 Bentonite.
 A 86
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1974 and 1975,
and Total to Date
Division
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
Alberni	
Atlin	
Cariboo	
Clinton	
Fort Steele 	
Golden _...	
Greenwood..	
Kamloops	
Liard	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster
Nicola	
Omineca	
Osoyoos	
Revelstoke  	
Similkameen	
Skeena _
Slocan  	
Trail Creek	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Victoria	
Not assigned	
Totals	
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
19 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
19 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
19 74
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
1974
1975
To date
..!..
....
■I 1
.| 489
-I 332
,| 2.070
.108
23
,564
824
 I 42,;
4,915,944]	
5,970,918|	
20,708,880| 25,'
 I	
-I-
161,019
161,119
I   3,359,771
|   3,302,182
161,551,422
I       345,546
459,986
1,827.171
70,000
63,000
3,457.910
,.| 4,700
5,121
25,869
.| 43,774
10,500] 11,571
] |   1,645,300
! I	
] | 32,500
]     7,162,302]	
10,328,746|	
|   97,137,930|         40,885
I I	
 ] 46,499
13,750,577| 22,287
15,382,058| 25,928
221,040,6631   1,030,720
 I	
315,498
1974 1   25,828,823]   4,297,547
1975 |   31,681,722!   4,349,800
To date |338,897,979I72,3S2,676
867
146
346,059
425,549
600,142
5,238,528
50,840
8,884
102,453
607.890
2,139,774
6,054,4921
5,247!
13,068
1,872,224J
144,5031
184,619]
2,955,311
10,260
255,923
278.474
1,241,695|
1,367,948
12,601,801
89,558
326,649
2,127.808
19,820
1,120,223
649,211
1,137,942
4,844,841
28,680
8,830
586,801
2,318,484
2,668,374
20,974)22,971,155
240
3,450,735!
2,926|
2001
437,138
-I
■-I
6
10
11
115
70|
70|
187.994!
121,7381
258,765
2,790,777
16,592
33,018!
8.520J
4,125]
23,420!
24,000!
355,340|
170,807
4,125
761,153
450
55,044
712,341
277,032]
524,259
4,120,017!
5,2631
•I
157,323|
 I
85,520]
-I
381,393|
19,522
2,681
8,681.796
9,245
403,649
2.1951
1,144
531,582
•'--
505,018]   1,011,570]   41
4
238
2,069
1,757
5,90
132
398
2,518
366
903
3,22
17
269
3,725
301
249
296
148
309
980
463
,187
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78
15
,327
.448
,838
,290
338
402
,913
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,976
183
140
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703
738
,643
236
786
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172
151.
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26
63
69 0,
524.
008,
213,
133.
29,
152,
38,
86,
2 73.
483,
094
829
350
785
252
689,
284,
034
654
400
919
1S4
844
738
699
,94 5
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968
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350
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090
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362
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604
497
500
916
657
739
446
000
51
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745
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807
782
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098
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442
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682
Oil
676
X65
020
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018
116
848
145
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848
099
644
377
587
333
070
432
992
840
20.3301   5,715.219|   35.611,340
4,395'   8,723,4481   39,575,457
9,263,104]70,213,109]422,670,591
1 I
332,457
128,15!
121,283
7SL379
1,178,99:
21.974
6,044,472
6,593,189
90,540,874|
13,35
161,254
570,656
10,855,136
""3,186,828
6,015,128
6,593,189
107,735,724
426,416
600,288
5,585,187
5,972,171]
4,164
342,405
3,166,865
4,230,037
34,365,718
137.548
412,036
4,390,634
510,688
1,087,969
11,314,738
172,470
279,350
4,161,062
310,246
249,071
2,899,889
7,306,243
8,648,363
50,408,433
1,553,474
2,514,306
17,188,547
78,446
195,839
3,610,857
5,457,971
7,278,604
86,316,735
715,164
871,500
9,786,703
18,909,769
20,394,370
232,973,695
183,784
140,487
2,369,071
830,029
1,002,877
15,465.901
253,290
786,229
5,260,349
357,663
159,337
3,734,015
26,936
118,609
4,468,449
1.801,043
2,532,935
23,130,431
138,283
29,976
2,426,269
38,018
86,116
3,773,261
13,664,969
15,425,449
174,791,611
1,359,344
1,785,644
11,961,631
18,035,302
19,693,463
269,498,832
2,654,432
2,400,992
52,904,931
5,972,171|1
78,088,393
90,928,011
,033,135,354
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1975
A 87
Year
Quantity1
Value
Year
Quantity1
Value
1836-59-	
1860
tonnes
37 985
14 475
13 995
18 409
21 687
29 091
33 345
25 518
31 740
44 711
36 376
30 322
50 310
50 310
50 311
82 856
111 912
141 425
156 525
173 587
245 172
271 889
232 020
286 666
216 721
400 391
371 461
331 875
419 992
497 150
589 133
689 020
1 045 607
839 591
993 988
1 029 204
954 727
909 237
906 610
1 146 015
1 302 088
1 615 688
1 718 692
1 667 960
1 473 933
1 712 739
1 855 121
1 929 540
2 255 214
2 143 225
2 439 109
3 007 074
2 305 778
2 913 778
•2 461665
2 029 400
1 883 851
2 343 671
2 209 982
$
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
1,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
tonnes
2 336 238
2 207 659
2 587 763
2 422 455
2 473 692
2 391 998
1 839 619
2 305 337
2 182 760
2 316 408
2 431 794
2 154 607
1 809 364
1 601 600
1 464 759
1 249 347
1 297 306
1 159 721
1 226 780
1 312 003
1 259 626
1 416 184
1 507 758
1 673 516
1 810 731
1 682 591
1 752 626
1 381 654
1305 516
1 538 895
1 455 552
1 47'0 782
1 427 907
1 427 513
1 272 150
1 255 662
1 186 849
1 209 157
1 285 664
984 886
722 490
625 964
715 455
833 827
748 731
771 594
826 737
862 513
771 848
824 436
870 180
773 226
2 398 635
4 141 496
5 466 846
6 924 733
7 757 440
8 924 816
$
12,833,994
11,975,671
1861
13,450,169
1862 	
12,836,013
1863
1922	
1923 	
1924.-	
1925	
1926-    .  	
12,880,060
1864 	
1865   	
12,678,548
9,911,935
1866 	
12,168,905
1867....
11,650,180
1868	
1927	
12,269,135
1869 	
1928	
12,633,510
1870—
1929
11,256,260
1871
1930
9,435,650
1872	
1931   .
1932 	
1933...	
7,684,155
1873	
6,523,644
1874    .... .
5,375,171
1875	
1934
5,725,133
1876....  	
1935	
5,048,864
1877 	
1936	
5,722.502
1878	
1879 	
1937 —	
1938	
6,139,920
5,565,069
1880  	
1939.	
1940 	
1941     	
6,280,956
1881	
7,088,265
1882 	
7,660,000
1883
1942	
8,237,172
1884......	
1943 	
7,742,030
1885       	
1944...      	
8,217,966
1886
1945 ,
6,454,360
1887	
1946	
1947..	
1948	
1949	
6,732,470
1888....	
8.680,440
1889-	
9,765,395
1890	
10,549,924
1891-.. - -
1950	
10,119,303
1892 - 	
1951	
1952	
1953	
10,169,617
1893  --	
9,729,739
1894
9,528,279
1895
1954        	
9,154,544
1896 	
1955 	
8,986,501
1897	
1956  ^	
1957	
1958	
9,346,518
1898
7,340,339
1899    	
5,937.860
1900	
1959 	
5,472,064
1901	
1960	
5,242,223
1902	
1961	
6,802,134
1903        	
1962	
6,133,986
1904
1963	
1964	
6,237,997
1905—.
6,327,678
1906	
1965	
1966 	
6,713,590
1907     	
6,196,219
1908	
1967	
7,045,341
1909-
1968	
7,588,989
1910
1969 	
6,817,155
1911 - --	
1970	
19,559,669
1912 .
1971 -
45,801,936
1913
; 1972 	
66.030,210
1914	
■ 1973.-..         .... .
87,976,105
1915	
1974 	
154,593,643
1916
1975 	
317,111,744
Totals	
1917    	
164 837 263
1,307,797,183
1 Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
For
 A 88
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1975
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 89
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of A11 Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining	
Exploration and development.
Coal  - 	
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production)..
Industrial minerals	
Structural-materials industry	
Totals, 1975	
Totals, 1974..
1973..
1972...
1971...
1970...
1969..
1968-.
1967-
1966 -
1965...
1964...
1963-
1962...
1961-
1960...
1959..
1958	
1957—
1956	
1955	
1954	
1953 -
1952	
1951	
1950	
1949—
1948	
1947	
1946	
1945 ...__
1944 ...
1943 -
1942	
1941	
1940 ..
1939	
1938	
1937	
1936	
1935	
111,416,678
52,027,724
48,974,098
7,812,325
12,618,827
14,103,916
246,953,568
272
221
199
179
172
123
113
94,
93
74
63
57
55
50
52
49
48
56
57
51
48
55
62
52
42
41
38
32
26
22,
23
26.
26
26
23
22
22
21
17
16
,945,078
,877,595
,351,449
175,692
,958,282
450,327
459,219
,523,495
,409,528
,938,736
,624,559
,939,294
,522,171
,887,275
694,818
,961,996
,933,560
,409,056
266,026
,890,246
,702,746
,543,490
256,631
,607,171
,738,035
,023,786
,813,506
,160,338
,190,200
,620.975
,131,874
,051,467
,913,160
,050,491
391,330
357,035
765,711
,349,690
,887,619
753,367
27,207,753
8,892,481
2,871,226
10,133,378
49,104,838
42,381,258
36,750,711
31,115,621
23,166,904
19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13,590,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
129,572,490
13,860,286
4,274,698
6,768,764
154,476,238
140,002,685
103,840,649
77,092,955
68,314,944
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962, lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964, some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include '"process, operating maintenance and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company-operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 A 90
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1975
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901—75
u
V
E
Metals
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
13.2
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o«Q
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13
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Year
Mines
oa
C
0
c
0
0
u
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0
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2
C
D
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0
.0
<
1901
2,730
2,219
1,002
2 143
1,212
1,126
1,088
1.163
3,948
3,345
2,750
3,306
3,710
3,983
3,943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3,836
4,278
4,174
4,144
5,393
5,488
4,390
4,259
3,079
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
5,138
7,010
8,283
8,835
8,892
7 005
3,041
3,101
3,137
3,278
3,127
3,415
2,862
4.432
933
910
1,127
1,175
1,280
1,390
907
3,974
4,011
4,204
4,453
4,407
4,805
3.709
7,922
7,356
7,014
7,759
8,117
8,788
7,712
9,072
11,407
10,467
10,906
10,949
9,906
9.135
10,453
2,470!1,240
2,08011,303
2,704|1,239
2,50711,127
2,184il,070
2,472!1,237
2,435 1,159
2,472|1,364
•> 77311  505
1.041 16.073
4,713)1,705
5,903 1,855
5,212 1,661
5.275 1  855
6,418
7,758
6,873
7,130
0,071
5,732
4,991
5,060
5,170
5,427
5,966
6.349
6,885
6,644
6,149
5,418
5,443
5,322
1911
4,950
4,207
3,708
3,694
3,760
3,058
4,145
4,191
4,722
4,712
4.34"
1,721
1,465
1,283
1,366
1,410
1,709
1,821
2,158
2,103
1,932
1 807
1914      	
2,741
2,709
3,357
3,290
2,020
2,513
2,074
1,355
1,510
2,102
2,353
1,433
1,435
2,030
2,108
1,764
1,746
1,605
975
1,239
1,516
1,680
2 840
10,058
9,817
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9,707
9,451
10,581
1922	
3,89411,524
3,828(1,615
3,757]1,505
3 64611   579
299
415
355
341
425
088
874
1,134
1,122
1,201
1,124
1,371
1,303
1,252
2,606|1,735
2,671 1,916
2,707|2,469
808
854
911
900
2,401
2,842
2,748
2 948
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,801
1,040
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
909
1,293
1,079
1,209
1,309
1,207
1,097
740
846
1,116
898
895
826
324
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
33 5
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
025
677
484
557
508
481
460
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
794
800
802
782
725
124
122
120
268
170
380
344
408
300
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
491
529
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
582
567
627
006
527
667
646
705
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10,524
11,309
12,985
13,737
14,179
10,129
16,021
15,890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12,314
11,820
11.933
14,899
10,397
16,621
3,81411,52015,334
3,675|l,35315,028
3,389 1,256 4,645
2,957]1,12514,082
2,628|    980|3,608
2,241|    85313,094
2.11501    84312 893
 I	
2,316
1,403
1,355
1,260
834
900
83213 197
581
542
531
631
907
720
1,108
919
3 157!   0 035
1
2,030
2,436
2,890
2,771
2,078
3,027
3,158
4,833
0,088
8,040
7,915
8,197
9,010
10,192
10,138
10,019
9,821
8,939
7,819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10,724
10,832
12 831
2,790|1,729
2,74011,497
2,959|1,840
3,00311,818
3,849|2,260
3,905 2,050
2,145)    826
2,015|    799
2,280|    807
2,088]    874
2,1671    809
2,175|    699
2.2291    494
2,971
2,814
3,153
2,962
2,976
2,874
2,723
2,360
2,851
2.839
1   04812.944
939!3,90111,823
489|2,920|1,504
212 2,394 1,699
255 l,89«ll,825
20911,933]1,750
1,025
960
891
849
822
072
960
1,120
1.203
3.072
3,555
2,83 5
2,981
2,834
2,813
3,401
3,884
3.703
1,892
2,240
2,150
1,927
1,773
1,094
1,594
1,761
1.745
408
611
689
	
503|2,430
53212,305
73112,425
87212,466
54512,300
51612.261
300
348
303
327
205
230
132
3,02412,238
3,14312,429
3,03412,724
3,399|2,418
3,78513,695
4,17113,923
3,145 2,589
1,25913,759
1   30714 044
16,612
1.4621     40311   925
17,863
1952	
1953	
1   51014 120113 730
1.2X0!     401
1,081
1,550
1,434
1,478
1,300
1 380
18,257
1,37113,901
1.12B 3.1 19
11,006
9,412
9,512
9,840
9,006
7.434
7,324
7,423
7,111
7,958
7,814
7.909
8,265
8,970
8,887
8,547
8,831
10,396
10,125
10,383
11,493
10,867
10.435
1.154
1,070
1,100
908
1,020
826
7 65
894
705
548
501
446
405
347
260
195
245
390
358
378
398
300
15,790
14,l->8
1.091
1,043
838
3,304
3,339
3 328
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11,034
11,560
105
07
75
2,637|2,827
2,39312,447
1,919 1,809
1958	
02513 0X1
200|1,086
291 11 050
618
648
626
949
850
822
965
1,014
992
1,072
1,099
1,331
1.513
3,008
3,034
3,118
3,350
3,239
3,281
3,529
3,054
3,435
3,283
3,468
3,738
3.481
80 1  7R2 1.959
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
358
1,182
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
1,275
1,457
1,985
2,210
2^763
74
35
43
5
2
1,78511,582
1,677|1,970
1,713 2,012
1,83911,967
1,75212,019
2,006(2,296
1,92812,532
1,82312,309
1,794'2,470
2,160 3,167
2,07313,058
1,83313,463
1,704|4,005
1,509|4,239
1,100]3,619
I
270
450
772
786
1903
10,952
11,045
12,283
14,202
13,380
15,659
16,437
19,086
18,423
19,470
19,922
19,009
1965	
441
1906
1,894!    478
1,2641    507
3,990|    400
4,270|    416
4,964'    437
4.040     495
19G7	
1908	
1969	
7
1970	
1971	
242 1,033
444|1,013
21411,771
265 1,951
26712,255
299 2,464
1972	
1973
1,734 3,353
2.39413.390
4.201
3,392
2,848
2,931
458
454
509
518
1974	
1975	
2,35 2
1,983
2.767
3.733
1
|
l Comm
Note—I
ing firms.
encing with 1967, does not include employment in by-product plants,
hese figures refer only to company employees and do not include
he many employees of contract-
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 91
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 A 92
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
c
u
a
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0
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m£
i
34 701
1 385
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kg
18 090 898
65
75 418 513
217 213
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68 047 946
210 279
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2 707 398
4
41 165 032
437 533
3 414
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cu
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35 977.151
.280
.373
313.518
5 391.611
2.805
73 570.507
1 110.066
2
0
kg
642.837
.435
.467
.607
1.061
5.132
.453
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Copper concentrates, 7 892 t; lead concentrates,   6 767   t;   zinc  concentrates.
30 597 t
a.
C
l
a,
c
q.
•c
s
£
Molybdenite concentrates,  1 927  t;  containing   1 094 002   kg  of  molybdenum
Copper concentrates,   155 736 t;  molybdenite concentrates, 470 t; containing
251 672 kg of molybdenum
Lead  concentrates,   91 131   t;  zinc  concentrates,  151 683 t;  tin concentrates,
49 t, containing 24 868 kg of tin
Lead  concentrates,   356 t;  zinc concentrates, 342 t
Ore
Shipped
or
Treated
t
260 717
7
7
137
545 496
10 388 118
43
2 002 916
10 258
&
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i
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q
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New Musketeer Gold Mine
Ltd.
New   Privateer   Gold   Mines
Ltd.
Noranda   Mines   Ltd.   (Boss
Mountain Div.)
3
a
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McLeese Lake
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Boss Mountain mine    	
Gibraltar mine	
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Dardenelle, Mother Lode
t
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A 93
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7 924
96 325
37 825
2 122
136 173
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808 665
47 514 467
1 635 716
49.235
108.643
11 131.172
3 657.215
3.017
301.606
4 206.432
130 042.545
.316
8 996.170
1 385.359
296.847
1 130.314
34.462
17.698
4.852
366.978
3.266
2.146
20.061
7.745
.439
1 705.595
45.597
	
CM         O
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Lead  concentrates,  704  t;  zinc  concentrates, 239 t; jig concentrates, 33 t
!
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Copper concentrates,   154 294 t;  molybdenite  concentrates,  2 608   t,  containing 1 406 082 kg of molybdenum
Copper concentrates, 2 887 t -	
Copper concentrates, 201 322 t; molybdenite concentrates, 1 485 t, containing 615 313 kg of molybdenum; rhenium shipments axe confidential
Iron concentrates, 296 250 t; copper concentrates, 7 426 t
Lead concentrates, 273 t; zinc concen-
centrates, 1 604 t
Lead concentrates, 4 950 t; zinc concentrates, 22 878 t
Siliceous ore, dump clean-up 	
786
1 859
34 898
985 875
176
434
5 864 500
11 696 413
424
12 075 145
906 730
32 211
411 084
484
c
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Granby Mining Corp., Phoenix Copper Div.
San Jacinto Explorations Ltd.
& s
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3   1
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|       £
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K.    Viney    Contracting   Co.
Ltd.
Consolidated Churchill Copper Corp. Ltd.i
Utah Mines Ltd __ 	
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Highland
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Highland
Valley
Adams
Plateau
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Rupert Inlet
Texada Island
C
c
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 A 94
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1975
3
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a
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25 102
11974
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4 352
4 867
2 612
1066
18 058
25 434
1 660
4>
ft
ft
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60
20 564 778
16 466 056
17 034 399
15 101 190
740
5 013
3 080
CN
r-
oo
SO
r-
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>
5a
to
2 061.227
4 982.701
189.386
45.597
212.185
7 872.511
4 293.240
8 120.682
779.752
55.177
2 551.006
3
o
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00
r*4
26.997
739.069
552.140
.218
.084
125.718
239.431
11.010
43.762
ro
CO
m
Product Shipped
Copper concenrates, 69 996 t; iron concentrates, 41 145 t
Copper concentrates, 63 283 t	
Molybdenite  concentrates,   1 488  t;  molybdenum    trioxide,    7 975    t;    ferromolybdenum,    117   t;   total   content,
5 564 104 kg of molybdenum
i v
be
u -a
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4)
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4,
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=
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Copper   concentrates,   52 314   t;   molybdenite concentrates, 6 511 t; molybdic
oxide, 725  t;  total content, 4 074 073
kg of molybdenum
CN
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Copper concentrates, 46 865 t      	
Ore
Shipped
or
Treated
-
1 774 731
4 335 049
8 543 821
4 475 103
133
40
60
9 115 839
39 940-
17 916
7 365
32
3 693 900
c
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Copper Div.)
Canex  Placer  Ltd.   (Endako
Mines Div.)
Granisle Copper Ltd	
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Bell mine (Newman).	
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Granisle mine  _	
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Henry....	
Similkameen Mining
Division
Similkameen mine
(Ingerbelle)
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
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MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 97
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1975
Lead
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t
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273
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176 090
32 254
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86 163
665 381
22 575
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263 238
949 093
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Totals
105 466
208 344
961 675
1 299 215
  Petroleum and Natural Gas
CHAPTER 4
CONTENTS
Petroleum Resources Branch
Organization—
Engineering Division  A
Geological Division  A
Titles Division  A
Staff  A
Page
101
102
102
102
Legislation .  A 103
Mediation and Arbitration Board  A 104
Branch Activity—
Engineering Division—
Development Engineering
Reservoir Engineering  A
Drilling and Production  A
Titles Division  A
Geological Division—
Economic Geology  A
Reservoir Geology  A
Geophysics  A
105
106
107
108
111
111
112
Statistical Tables
4-1—Exploratory and Development Wells Completed, 1975  A 113
4-2—Project and Individual Well MPR Data, December 31, 1975 „ A 114
4-3—Gas-well Test and Allowable Data, December 31, 1975  A 118
4-4—Hydrocarbon and By-products Reserves, December 31, 1975. A 146
4-5_Wells Drilled and Drilling, 1975  A 147
4-6—Oilfields and Gasfields Designated, December 31, 1975  A 150
4-7—Number of Capable and Operating Wells, December 31, 1975. A 158
4-8—Monthly Crude-oil Production by Fields and Pools, 1975  A 164
4-9—Monthly Nonassociated and Associated Gas Production by Fields
and Pools, 1975  A 166
4-10—Summary of Drilling and Production Statistics, 1975  A 170
4-11—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil/Pentanes Plus,
1975  A 172
4-12—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Natural Gas, 1975  A 173
4-13—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Butane, 1975  A 175
4-14—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Propane, 1975  A 176
4-15—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Sulphur, 1975  A 177
4-16—Monthly Gross Values to Producers of Crude Oil, Natural Gas,
Natural Gas Liquids, and Sulphur, 1975  A 178
4-17—Crude-oil Pipelines, 1975  A 179
4-18—Crude-oil Refineries, 1975  A 180
A 99
 A 100 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Page
4-19—Natural Gas Pipelines, 1975  A 181
4-20—Gas-processing Plants, 1975  A 184
4-21—Sulphur Plants, 1975  A 184
Illustrations
4-22—Footage Drilled in British Columbia, 1974-75  A 185
4-23—Petroleum and Natural Gas Fields, 1975  A 186
4-24—Oil Production in British Columbia, 1955-75  A 187
4-25—Gas Production in British Columbia, 1955-75  A 188
4-26—Petroleum and Natural Gas Pipelines, 1975  A 189
4-27—Union Oil Project, Gething Pool, Aitken Creek Field  A 190
4-28—Monsanto Project, North Pine Pool, Bear Flat Field  A 191
4-29—BP Oil Project, Halfway Pool, Beatton River Field  A 192
4-30—BP Oil Unit 1, Bluesky Pool, Beatton River West Field  A 192
4-31—Amoco Project, Nahanni Pool, Beaver River Field  A 193
4-32—Pacific Petroleums Project, Baldonnel Pool, Beg and Beg West
Fields  A 194
4-33—Pacific Petroleums Project, Halfway Pool, Beg Field  A 195
4-34—Pacific Petroleums Project, Debolt Pool, Blueberry Field  A 196
4-35—Boundary Lake Pool Projects, Boundary Lake Field  A 197
4-36—Union Oil Project, Baldonnel Pool, Bubbles Field  A 198
4-37—Union Oil Project, Halfway Pool, Bulrush Field  A 199
4-38—Pacific Petroleums Project, Slave Point Pool, Clarke Lake Field A 200
4-39—Union Oil Unit 1, Halfway Pool, Crush Field  A 201
4-40—Pacific Petroleums Unit 1, Halfway Pool, Currant Field  A 202
4-41—Pacific Petroleums Unit 1, Pingel Pool, Fort St. John Field  A 203
4-42—Inga Pool Units, Inga Field  A 204
4-43—Pacific Petroleums Projects, Baldonnel and Halfway Pools, Jedney
Field  A 205
4-44—ARCo Projects, Baldonnel and Halfway Pools, Julienne Field- A 206
4-45—Pacific Petroleums Project, Halfway Pool, Kobes-Townsend
Field   A 207
4-46—Pacific Petroleums Project, Slave Point Pool, Kotcho Lake Field A 208
4-47—Baldonnel Pool Project, Laprise Creek Field  A 209
4-48—Union Oil Units,Halfway Pool, Milligan Creek Field  A 210
4-49—Texaco Exploration Project, Baldonnel Pool, Nig Creek Field- A 211
4-50—Pacific Petroleums Project, Halfway Pool, Osprey Field  A 212
4-51—Pacific Petroleums Project, Wabamun Pool, Parkland Field  A 213
4-52—Halfway Pool Project, Peejay Field  A 214
4-53—Pacific Petroleums Project, Slave Point Pool, Petitot River Field A 215
4-54—Dunlevy Pool Project, Rigel Field  A 216
4-55—Monsanto Conservation Projects, Dunlevy Pool, Rigel Field.  A 217
4-56—Halfway Pool Units, Weasel Field  A 218
4-57—Wainoco Unit 1, Halfway and Belloy Pools, Wilder Field  A 219
4-58—Union Oil Projects, Halfway Pool, Wildmint Field  A 220
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 101
ORGANIZATION
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the general direction of Associate
Deputy Minister J. D. Lineham, administers the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,
1965 and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling and Production
Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the Drilling Reservation Regulations, and
the Development Road Regulations. It also administers the Underground Storage
Act, 1964. Therefore, the Branch was responsible for all matters related to the
disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and natural gas rights as well as the regulation of the exploration, development, and production phases of the oil and gas
industry.
The Branch is divided into three divisions, namely, the Engineering Division,
the Geological Division, and the Titles Division.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The Engineering Division, under the direction of Chief Engineer A. G. T.
Weaver, is responsible for all engineering activities of the Petroleum Resources
Branch.   There are three main functions:
(1) Enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, together with provision of
advice to the Minister with respect to applications made by industry
under the Act:
(2) Collection, filing for Branch and public use, and publication of drilling and production statistics, production and disposition data, reservoir and pool performance data:
(3) Reservoir analysis of all oil and gas pools in the Province, including
maintenance of current production rate forecasts, together with data
concerning reserves discovered to date and estimates of potential
reserves growth.
The Development Engineering Section, under the supervision of Senior Development Engineer W. L. Ingram, licenses drilling and service rigs, issues well authorizations, and maintains detailed records pertaining to all drilling and production
operations.
The Reservoir Engineering Section, under the Senior Reservoir Engineer
B. T. Barber, is concerned with all reservoir engineering aspects of the Division's
activities. The section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production
characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation of
reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production data. These parameters are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from oil and gas accumulations in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes will be produced. Oil
and gas allowable rates are set by the section, and recommendations concerning
proposed improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made.
The Drilling and Production Engineering Section, under the supervision of
District Engineer D. L. Johnson, is located at the Field Office at Charlie Lake
and is primarily responsible for enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations in the field. It also collects reservoir and other data as required, acts in a
liaison capacity with industry at the field level, and maintains core and drill sample
storage and examination facilities.
 A 102 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
The Geological Division, under the direction of Chief Geologist W. M. Young,
consists of three sections and is responsible for all geological and geophysical
activities of the Petroleum Resources Branch.
Data resulting from the drilling of wells, geophysical surveys, and other related
sources in the Province in the search for and development of accumulations of oil
and gas are supplied to the Branch. These data are used by staff geologists and
geophysicists as a basis for reports on, and maps and cross-sections of, the economically important sedimentary rocks of the Province. The Division is responsible for
providing data and opinion to attract, assist, and encourage the exploration and
development of the petroleum resources of the Province. The Division directs and
provides all draughting services required by the Geological and Engineering Divisions and also directs, through the District Engineer, the work of the Core and
Sample Laboratory, located at Charlie Lake.
The Economic Geology Section, under G. R. Morgan, is primarily concerned
with those matters related to exploration and economic geology.
The Reservoir Geology Section, under R. Stewart, is primarily concerned with
the detailed knowledge of the geology of oil and gas reservoirs. Other divisions and
departments frequently make use of the knowledge possessed by the section geological staff to assist in the framing of development procedures that ensure the best
returns from these reservoirs.
The Geophysical Section, under J. A. Hudson, is concerned with exploration
and geophysical investigations related to the search for and development of oil and
gas reserves.
TITLES DIVISION
The Titles Division consists of two sections, under the direction of Commissioner R. E. Moss, and is responsible for administering those parts of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965 relating to and affecting title to Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights.
The Division administers the disposition of Crown petroleum and natural gas
rights and, in consultation with the Engineering and Geological Divisions, approves
and selects parcels for posting, and accepts or rejects the tenders received.
The Titles Section is responsible for all transactions involving petroleum and
natural gas permits, all leases, natural gas licences, drilling reservations, geophysical
licences, notices of commencement of exploratory work, affidavits of work, unit
agreements, and miscellaneous recordings.
The Revenue Section, under W. J. Quinn, is responsible for the collection of
all petroleum and natural gas revenue, except royalty, payable to the Crown under
the provisions of the Act.
STAFF
On December 31, 1975, the professional and technical staff included the
following:
Associate Deputy Minister
J. D. Lineham, P.Eng Chief of Branch
Engineering Division
A. G. T. Weaver, P.Eng Chief Engineer
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng Senior Development Engineer
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T Development Technician
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 103
-Senior Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Technician
B. T. Barber, P.Eng	
P. S. Attariwala, P.Eng	
P. K. Huus  Reservoir Technician
J. H. Burl Reservoir Technician
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng District Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician
G. T. Mohler Field Technician
W. B. Holland, C.E.T Field Technician
J. W. D. Kielo Field Technician
G. L. Holland Field Technician
J. L. Withers Geophysical Technician
.Chief Geologist
Geological Division
W. M. Young, P.Eng	
R. Stewart, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Geologist
T. B. Ramsay, P.Eng Reservoir Geologist
K. A. McAdam Reservoir Geologist
G. R. Morgan, P.Eng Senior Economic Geologist
S. S. Cosburn, P.Eng Economic Geologist
D. W. Dewar Economic Geologist
J. A. Hudson, P.Eng Senior Geophysicist
Titles Division
R. E. Moss Commissioner
W. J. Quinn Assistant Commissioner
LEGISLATION
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 was amended during 1975 to
(1) provide for the disposition of oil sand and oil shale and products
derived therefrom;
(2) reduce the qualification period from five years to four years before
the rental provisions of an order made by the Mediation and Arbitration Board can be renegotiated;
(3) provide the Mediation and Arbitration Board with authority regarding disposition of security deposits;
(4) require a licensee and permittee to submit a copy of their agreement
to the Commissioner before drilling is commenced in a unit adjoining the common boundary of a permit and a natural gas licence;
(5) clarify that the boundaries of a gas licence selected from a permit
do not have to be separated by a unit where holders of adjoining
permits agree to select adjoining licences that have mutual boundaries;
 A  104 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
(6) provide the Minister with authority to withdraw Crown reserves
from disposition by public auction or public tender and to dispose
of such withdrawn Crown reserves in accordance with the terms and
conditions and for the price or prices approved by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council;
(7) include production facilities in the requirement for a person to
obtain a certificate of restoration before the site is deemed
abandoned;
(8) require the submission of an application before normal producing
operations are ceased and before producing operations are resumed;
(9) clarify that no equipment may be removed from a location without
the written permission of the Commissioner where a person has
failed to comply with the Act, regulations, a notice or order given
under either, or a term, promise, or condition of his permit, licence,
lease, or drilling reservation; formerly, reference was made only to
failure to comply with the Act;
(10) clarify that a disposition of petroleum and natural gas under the
Act shall not include petroleum and natural gas recoverable from oil
sand or oil shale unless the disposition states otherwise.
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalty Regulations administered by the
Mineral Revenue Division of the Department were also amended.
MEDIATION AND ARBITRATION BOARD
Chairman: Patrick D. Walsh.
Vice-Chairman: Douglas Pomeroy.
Member: Cecil Ruddell.
The Mediation and Arbitration Board, established under the authority of the
1965 amendments to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, grants rights of
entry to oil and gas companies over alienated lands, and determines conditions of
entry and compensation therefore. The Act now provides for a process of mediation by the Chairman of the Board. Failing satisfactory agreement between the
parties upon mediation, the Act provides for final disposition by the Board of
entry conditions and compensation. The Board is also charged with responsibility
to review and set compensation on leases and previous Board orders of more than
five years' duration, and to terminate rights of entry when an operator has ceased
to use occupied lands.
In 1975, five field inspections were carried out by the Board; three mediation
hearings were held and as a result of the parties failing to reach agreement on
mediation, three Arbitration Board hearings were then held followed by Board
orders respecting each hearing; the Board met 56 times during the year to deal with
general Board matters and specific concerns of the public.
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 105
BRANCH ACTIVITY
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Development Engineering
The Development Engineering Section is responsible for all matters related to
the location, drilling, completion, and abandonment of wells in the Province. This
involves the assurance that operators of all wells drilled conform to the requirements of the Drilling and Production Regulations, which includes the submission of
prescribed forms and information.
During 1975, 100 well authorizations were issued, while 11 were cancelled
where operators decided against drilling the locations. Also, the section approved
changes for 39 well names, 72 well statuses, and 3 well classifications.
Seven new fields were designated by the section in 1975 and field boundaries
were amended on 16 occasions. The new fields were at Clarke Lake South, Dilly,
Gote, Milligan Creek West, Silver, Silverberry, and Town. Field boundaries were
changed once during the year for 10 fields and twice for Dahl, Gundy Creek, and
Siphon East. At the end of 1975 there were 104 designated fields, which are listed
in Table 4-6 and shown in Figure 4-23.
Other major accomplishments by the section included a complete review of the
Drilling and Production Regulations. Revised legislation was prepared but not
promulgated as the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act was also being studied for
amendment. The changeover to the Branch filing system continued throughout
the year with a 'library-type' withdrawal method introduced. In preparation for
metrication, all petroleum-related legislation was identified and recommendations
for conversion prepared.
Drilling activities in the Province during 1975 reached the lowest level in
nearly 20 years. Not since 1956, when the petroleum industry was in its very
infancy, has the number of wells and footage drilled been so low. Eighty-one wells
and 421,547 feet were drilled in 1975, compared to 147 wells and 760,364 feet
in 1974. Only 31 gas wells and 2 oil wells were completed, while 44 abandonments
were drilled. Generally, all activities were decreased by about 45 per cent, the
third successive year when declines were recorded. No drilling ventures were undertaken outside of the northeastern corner of the Province.
At the end of 1975, one location was awaiting evaluation to determine a final
status and 18 locations were actively drilling. Two wells were completed for saltwater disposal purposes. Wells drilled and drilling are listed in Table 4-5 and
annual footage drilled since 1947 are shown graphically in Figure 4-22. The
drilling operations were accomplished by 38 oil companies employing 44 individual
drilling rigs which were owned by 15 different drilling contractors.
Production of crude oil from British Columbia oilfields during 1975 was
14,277,142 barrels, a decrease of 24 per cent in comparison to 1974. The largest
producing fields were Boundary Lake, 5,586,206 barrels; Peejay, 1,982,517 barrels;
Inga, 1,609,569 barrels; and Milligan Creek, 1,376,817 barrels. Gas production,
down 3 per cent, was 403,003,977 mcf. The Clarke Lake field produced the largest
volume, 97,900,513 mcf; which was followed by Yoyo, 66,839,606 mcf; Sierra,
34,968,624 mcf; and Laprise Creek, 25,994,959 mcf. Of the eight oil and gas
fields mentioned, only the Sierra gas field produced a greater volume than in 1974.
Monthly crude oil and natural gas production by fields and pools for 1975 is
given in Tables 4-8 and 4-9. Graphs of annual production since 1955 are shown
in Figures 4-24 and 4-25.
 A 106 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
Two operational procedures involving water continued throughout the year.
Waterflood operations to aid the efficiency of oil recovery were used in 10 producing pools in the Province. A total of 37,477,398 barrels, including both fresh and
formation water, was injected into 152 water-injection wells. Fields receiving the
largest volumes were Boundary Lake, 17,644,482 barrels; Peejay, 6,050,887 barrels; Milligan Creek, 3,384,269 barrels; and Inga, 2,699,458 barrels.
Disposal of salt water produced with petroleum and natural gas was accomplished by injection into subsurface formations, preferably the formation from
which the water originated. Storage of salt water is permitted in surface pits only
in emergency situations and for a limited period of time. During 1975, there were
9,043,975 barrels injected into 30 disposal wells and 25,789 barrels put into
evaporation pits.
General statistics showing well operation and production data are given in
Table 4-10, while the monthly dispositions of various petroleum products are shown
in Tables 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14, and 4-15 and monthly values to producers in
Table 4-16. Summaries of data compiled for the various processing and pipeline
facilities are given in Tables 4-17, 4-18, 4-19, 4-20, and 4-21.
Reservoir Engineering
During the year a number of forecasts of production were prepared and some
were presented at public hearings, as follows:
(a) A forecast of L.P.G. supply from natural gas production in British
Columbia was presented at a British Columbia Energy Commission
hearing in April on L.P.G. supply and demand in the Province.
(b) A forecast of crude oil and condensate production in British Columbia was presented at a National Energy Board hearing at Calgary
in April on crude oil and condensate supply and demand in Canada.
(c) A forecast of natural gas potential production in British Columbia
was presented at a British Columbia Energy Commission hearing in
May and June on the wellhead price of natural gas.
(d) An updated version of (c) revised to reflect actual production instead
of potential production was forwarded to British Columbia Energy
Commission staff in December.
The report entitled The Hydrocarbon and By-Product Reserves in British
Columbia at December 31, 1974 was published in September; a computer program
was employed for the first time to calculate the remaining reserves in each pool
and to print out ultimate recovery, cumulative production, and remaining reserve
in reproducible form. It is expected that a considerable saving in man-hours spent
in preparing this report will be effected and the report will be available sooner after
year-end than in previous years. It is planned, in addition, to publish a separate
loose-leaf edition of reservoir parameters and other information for each pool.
Provincial reserves of oil, natural gas, and by-products are summarized in
Table 4-4. Proven oil reserves are estimated at 105 million stock tank barrels, a
decrease of some 14 million barrels from December 31, 1974. This decrease was
due to production as drilling added only 71 thousand barrels and revisions 439
thousand. Established raw gas reserves are estimated at 7,993 billion cubic feet, a
decrease of 1,400 billion from December 31, 1974. Production accounted for some
400 billion, revisions mainly in Beaver River and Clarke Lake fields reduced the
estimates by some 1,145 billion, whereas drilling added only 139 billion cubic feet.
Natural gas liquids are estimated at 43 million stock tank barrels, a decrease of
some 1.5 million barrels from a year ago; production of 2.3 million barrels was
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 107
partly offset by 0.7 million barrels discovered. Reserves of sulphur were estimated
at 4.36 million long tons, an increase of 0.4 million from December 31, 1974. The
increase was due to drilling, which added 0.17 million, and revisions, which added
0.37 million to offset production of 0.13 million.
Applications by Pacific Petroleums Ltd. in Peejay Unit No. 1 and Union Oil
Company of Canada Limited in Peejay Unit No. 2 for approval of the conversion
of one well in each unit to water-injection were approved. An application by
Texaco Exploration Canada Ltd. in Inga Unit No. 4 to revert to a primary MPR
due to problems with the water-injection well was approved.
An application by Canadian Superior Oil Ltd. for an increase in gas allowable
from 10 to 15 MMSCF/D in Inga Unit No. 3 was made effective during the year
following enlargement of the unit.
An application by Union Oil Company of Canada Limited for approval of a
scheme for concurrent production from the Aitken Creek field was received. No
decision had been made by year-end.
An application by Dome Petroleum Limited for 320-acre spacing in the Laprise
Creek field was received; the application was opposed by Pacific Petroleums Ltd.
No decision had been made by year-end.
Various types of application from industry were handled as follows:
(1) Five applications for approval to convert wells to salt-water disposal
service were received; two were rejected, one for Kotcho East c-44-
H/94-I-14 was approved and the two others for Helmet d-96-F/94-
P-7 and Sierra d-92-D/94-I-14 were published in The British Columbia Gazette in December in case there were any objections from
interested parties. In addition, there were seven applications to
dispose of produced water in approved salt-water disposal wells;
these were approved.
(2) Thirty-four applications for approval to flare gas were received and
approved. Ten applications for a waiver of the requirement for an
AOFP test prior to production were received and approved.
(3) Six applications for Good Engineering Practice for single well
spacing areas were received; three were approved and three were
rejected.
(4) Two applications for approval to comingle gas production in the
wellbore, one in Buick Creek North d-55-F/94-A-14 and one in
Gundy Creek d-2-G/94-B-16, were approved.
(5) An application for approval to conduct biennial bottom-hole pressure surveys in Currant Unit No. 1 was approved.
Drilling and Production
During 1975, 196,000 miles were driven by field staff members in the course
of filling the section's primary responsibility of enforcing the Drilling and Production
Regulations in the field.   Inspectional duties included the following:
Number
Tests witnessed, oil  7
Tests witnessed, gas  49
Gas meters checked  1,165
Batteries inspections  557
Rig visits  555
Abandonment and lease inspections  5,017
Days, seismic inspection  62
Segregation tests witnessed  9
 A  108 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
In addition to inspectional work the field office staff carry out oilfield and
laboratory work for the benefit of both the Branch and industry. In 1975 this
included 100 static pressure gradients run in oil and gas wells, 726 calibrations of
pressure bombs, and 264 calibrations of positive displacement meters.
TITLES DIVISION
There were five dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum and natural gas
rights held during 1975. These resulted in tender bonus bids amounting to
$12,749,248.20, a decrease of $10,206,086.86 from the previous year. A total of
248 parcels were offered, with bids acceptable on 146 parcels covering 1,181,292
acres. The average price per acre was $10.79, which is a decrease of $0.53 per
acre over 1974. The average bonus price per acre was permits, $7.08; leases,
$62.27; and drilling reservations, $14.29.
During the year, 13 geophysical licences were issued or renewed, a decrease
of four over 1974.   One unit agreement was approved.
A total of 71 notices of commencement of exploratory work were recorded,
an increase of one from the previous year. These notices are required prior to the
commencement of any geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum and
natural gas.
As of December 31, 1975, 19,683,370 acres or approximately 30,755 square
miles, a decrease of 3,807,194 acres under the 1974 total of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, were
held in good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to
major international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage
of each case were as follows:
Form of Title Number Acreage
Permits      389 13,292,568
Natural gas licences          1 7,809
Drilling reservations        27 317,693
Leases (all types)   3,350 6,065,300
Total  19,683,370
During 1975 the following transactions were completed:
1. Permits—
Issued	
        32
Renewed  	
      298
Converted to lease -
_              50
Cancelled   .. .. .   .   .
55
Transferred (assigned) 	
2. Drilling reservations—
Issued        -
        15
        18
Renewed  	
          5
Converted to lease	
Cancelled	
        21
25
Transferred (assigned) 	
          2
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 109
Leases—
Issued  365
Annual rental paid  2,490
Renewed for 10-year term  36
Extended under penalty  92
Extended, not under penalty  205
Cancelled	
  690
  290
  1
  Nil
  1
  1
Transferred (assigned)   Nil
Crown sales—
Transferred (assigned)
4. Natural gas licences—
Issued 	
Renewed 	
Converted to lease _
Cancelled	
Number
Advertised
._    37
Permits	
Drilling reservations     33
Leases  178
Number
Sold
31
18
97
Totals   248
146
6. Geophysical licences issued	
7. Notices of commencement of exploratory work
approved 	
8. Affidavits of work approved—
Permits 	
Leases	
13
84
70
14
9. Miscellaneous recordings (mergers, grouping notices,
etc.) approved       390
10. Certificates prepared for Inspection Division, Min
eral Resources Branch      325
11. Unit agreements approved  1
 A  110
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
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 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 111
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
Economic Geology
The Economic Geology Section was responsible for initiating, organizing, and
carrying through to publication regional subsurface mapping projects within the
sedimentary basin of northeastern British Columbia. To this end the program of
regional mapping begun in 1974 was continued and the results made available to
industry and the public. Where possible, released seismic data from Branch files
has been integrated into the mapping program.
Regional Subsurface Mapping Projects Completed
Geologic Horizon
Map Type
Area (NTS)
Scale
1. Middle Devonian Carbonate	
2. Fort Simpson Middle Devonian Carbonate..
3. Mississippian ._ _	
4. Triassic _	
5. Bluesky-Gething..
6. All penetrated horizons... 	
7. All penetrated horizons 	
8. All penetrated horizons 	
9. Cretaceous Bluesky and Mississippian Report .
Structure
Isopach
Structure
Structure
Structure
Formation test
Formation test
Formation test
94-1, J, O, P
94-1, J, O, P
94-1, J, O, P
94-A, B, G, H
94-A, B, G, H
93-1, P
94-A, B,G,H
94-1, J, O, P
94-1, P
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
125,000
Special mapping and related projects were as follows:
Drillstem test and penetration maps—The compilation and publication of Drill-
stem test and penetration maps showing for all wells outside designated field boundaries the deepest formation penetrated, all formation tests, and the zone(s) in which
gas and oil wells are completed. The purposes of this compilation project were to
assist industry and individuals who might be interested in exploring for hydrocarbon
in the area and to assist in making an inventory of the petroleum and natural gas
resources remaining in the northeastern part of the Province.
Cretaceous Bluesky and Mississippian Debolt—A preliminary report entitled
"The Cretaceous Bluesky and Mississippian Debolt of N.T.S. Sheets 94-1 and 94-P"
was completed. This work was begun as a study of the gas-bearing potential of the
Mississippian subcrop in the area. Early in the work it was realized that, because
the so-called Bluesky sandstone exists on or close to the eroded Mississippian surface
and its distribution was affected by that surface, it would be relevant to consider it
also in the course of the work.
Ultimate petroleum resources in northeastern British Columbia—A completed
study in report form attempts to estimate the amount of hydrocarbon remaining
to be found in northeastern British Columbia. In this report, present reserves
discovered by present drilling densities are used to estimate the ultimate resource
which may be discovered by the optimum drilling density.
Structural cross-section project—The commencement of a project to make a
series of structural cross-sections across the foothills belt of the northeastern part
of the Province was initiated. These sections drawn to true scale, incorporate surface and subsurface geologic information and released seismic data.
Reservoir Geology
Activity by the reservoir geology group during the year was primarily confined
to constructing, revising, and maintaining geological maps or suites of geological
maps pertinent to the hydrocarbon reservoirs contained in 67 oil pools and 212 gas
pools.   In addition to this work the section was also responsible for providing hydro-
 A  112 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1975
carbon net pay data on approximately 220 single-well completions. Work assignments were carried out in close co-ordination with the Branch Reservoir Engineering
Group.
Pool subsurface mapping and related projects were:
Net oil and gas pay evaluations—A total of two oil and 31 gas zone intervals
penetrated by the drill were evaluated for their hydrocarbon potential.
Silver and Siphon East fields, Fort St. John area—Field status was designated
to both Silver and Siphon East on the basis of several successful Bluesky gas pool
well completions.
Helmet field, Fort Nelson area—The Helmet field originally designated as a
single Slave Point gas pool was extended to include three additional single-well
gas pools.
Peejay Halfway oil pool project—A comprehensive geological and engineering
revision study of the Peejay Halfway reservoir was completed. This re-evaluation
of the reservoir geometry was done as an aid to assessing the results of the current
enhanced secondary recovery operations.
Reservoir reference volume project—A reappraisal of the larger reservoirs
with the objective publication of a reference volume was initiated. Fields and their
attendant pools reviewed under this scheme included Aitken Creek, Beatton River,
Beatton River West, Peejay, Weasel, and Weasel East.
Geophysics
Geophysical work which was instituted in mid-year began with the examination
of a large amount of geophysical information which has been submitted by operators
in the Province since the start of petroleum exploration. The aim of this work was
to assess seismic quality and present usefulness. The released portion of the geophysical data was integrated with the subsurface geology to enhance the regional
mapping.
Geophysical quality control—In attempting to use reported data it became
obvious that some sort of quality control was required for the purpose of identification and correlation of seismic reflection events. To this end, the regulations covering geophysical operations were revised to include a section sampling of the final
seismic playback obtained during the course of the exploration program. These
section samples which show the seismic events used in preparing submitted maps
enable the Branch geophysicist to correlate data from area to area. These data,
as they are released from confidential status, provide the basis for a more realistic
input to the regional mapping program.
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 113
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