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Ministry of Labour Annual Report For the year ended December 31, 1976 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1977]

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Full Text

 Province of
British Columbia
Ministry of Labour
Annual Report
For the year ended
December 31, 1976
HON. ALLAN WILLIAMS, Minister
JAMES G. MATKIN, Deputy Minister
Printed by Authority
of The Legislative Assembly
 Allan Williams
To Colonel the Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LLD.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Ministry of Labour of the Province for the year 19'
is herewith respectfully submitted.
ALLAN WILLIAMS
Minister of Labour
Office of the Minister of Labour,
December 31,1976.
 dames G. Matkin
The Honourable Allan Williams,
Minister of Labour.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit herewith the Fifty-ninth Annual Report on the work
of the Ministry of Labour up to December 31,1976.
JAMES G. MATKIN
Deputy Minister of Labour
Ministry of Labour,
Victoria, B.C., December 31, 1976.
 Ministry of Labour
Associate Deputy Minister
(Job Training and Employment
Opportunities Division)
R.S. Azad
Executive Director
R.S. Plecas
Apprenticeship Training Programs
S.W. Simpson
Employment Opportunity Programs
V. Burkhardt
Manpower Training and Development
Trade-schools Regulation
J. Melville
Elevating Devices
A. Moser
Occupational Environment
K. Martin
 MINISTER
Hon. Allan Williams
Co-ordinator, Native Indian Programs
R. Exell
Assistant Deputy Minister
(Administration)
F.A. Rhodes
Finance and Administration
R.J. McManaman
Personnel Services
W.H. Bell
Compensation Advisory Services
M. Giardini, E. Zurwick
Research and Planning
A.H. Portigal
Information Services
J.E. Nugent
Associate Deputy Minister
(Labour Relations and
Employment Standards Division)
K.A. Smith
Arbitration and Special Services
G.D. Bishop
Labour Standards
W.J.D. Hoskyn
Mediation Services
G. Leonidas
Labour Education Programs
R.M. Tweedie
Boards and Commissions
Labour Relations Board
P.C. Weiler
Board of Industrial Relations
J.G. Matkin
Human Rights Commission
Bishop Remi De Roo
Workers' Compensation Board
Dr. A.S. Little
Workers' Compensation
Boards of Review
P. Devine
  Contents
Personnel Directory     8
Review of Major Developments, 1976  13
Labour Market Information  14
Labour Dispute Statistics 24
Administration Division  37
Finance and Administration  38
Personnel Services  38
Information Services  39
Research and Planning  40
Compensation Advisory Services  41
Job Training and Employment Opportunities Division 43
Introduction 44
Apprenticeship Training Programs 45
Employment Programs 48
Women's Employment 49
Trade-schools Regulation 50
Manpower Training and Development 51
Occupational Environment 52
Elevating Devices 53
Industrial Relations Division 55
Introduction 56
Labour Standards 57
Mediation Services 58
Arbitration and Special Services 59
Human Rights 60
Boards and Commissions 63
Board of Industrial Relations 64
Boards of Review, Workers' Compensation Act 65
Statistics 67
 Personnel Directory
MINISTRY OF LABOUR
Minister's Office
Minister of Labour   HON. ALLAN WILLIAMS.
Co-ordinator, Native Indian Programs   ROBERT E. EXELL	
. 387-61
. 387-3
Office of the Deputy Minister
Deputy Minister  JAMES G. MATKIN.
Director, Legislation  JAMES R. EDGETT.
Director, Human Rights  KATHLEEN RUFF..
. 387-3:
. 387-3:
. 387-61
Administration Division
Assistant Deputy Minister	
Director, Finance and Administration	
Director, Personnel	
Compensation Advisory Services —
Compensation Consultant	
Employers' Advisor (5255 Heather, Vancouver).
Director, Research and Planning	
Director, Information Services	
FRANK A. RHODES..
RAY J. McMANAMAN
WILLIAM H. BELL ...
MARIA GIARDINI . ..
EDZURWICK	
ALAN H. PORTIGAL.
JACKE. NUGENT. ..
. 387-51
.387-11
. 387-3:
. 434-5:
. 266-0:
. 387-3'
. 387-1 f
Labour Relations and Employment Standards
Associate Deputy Minister
(4211 Kingsway, Burnaby)  KENNETH A. SMITH . . .
Director, Labour Standards  WILLIAM J.D. HOSKYN .
Director, Mediation (4211 Kingsway, Burnaby)  GUS G. LEONIDAS	
Director, Labour Education  RONALD M. TWEEDIE. .
Director, Arbitration and Special Services  GEORGE D. BISHOP ...
. 434-5
.387-1:
. 434-5'
387-5.
387-5:
Job Training and Employment Opportunities Division
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby
Associate Deputy Minister  RANJIT S. AZAD	
Acting Executive Director, Job Training and
Employment Opportunity Programs  ROBERT PLECAS	
Director, Manpower Training and Development
Branch and Trade-schools Regulation  JOHN MELVILLE	
Director, Apprenticeship Training Programs  SAMUEL W. SIMPSON
Acting Director, Occupational Environment  KENNETH MARTIN .. .
Director, Elevating Devices (4240 Manor Street,
Burnaby)  ALFRED MOSER	
Acting Director, Employment Opportunity
Programs (808 Douglas Street, Victoria)   VERN A. BURKHARDT.
. 434-5
. 387-5.
. 434-5'
. 434-5'
. 434-5'
. 438-5:
.387-11
 Boards and Commissions
Board of Industria) Relations
Parliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman   JAMES G. MATKIN
Vice-Chairman
and Secretary .  J.R. EDGETT
Members  C. MURDOCH
A. MACDONALD
MRS. EMILY OSTAPCHUK
R.K. GERVIN
Provincial Apprenticeship Committee
4211 Kingsway, Burnaby
Workers' Compensation Board
5255 Heather Street, Vancouver
Chairman.
Members.
JOHN MELVILLE
B.H.CAMPBELL
J.A. GRAY
E.H. McCAFFERY
A.E.SMITH
C. STAIRS
S.W.SIMPSON
T.W. TRINEER
Boards of Review
(Workers' Compensation Act)
220, 5021 Kingsway, Burnaby
Administrative
Chairman     PAUL DEVINE
Chairmen  W.I. AUERBACH
R.W. STANDERWICK
F.C.J. NEYLAN
B. BLUMAN
J.LT. JENSEN
Members  W.I. BEEBY
J.S. DON
D.C. FRASER
D. HAGGARTY
H. HUEBNER
N. MILLS
S.J. SQUIRE
W.N. PEAIN
Chairman	
Vice-Chairman .
Commissioners
Administrative
Assistant to
Chairman....
Board Counsel
and Executive
Officer	
Executive Director
Legal Services
Executive Director.
Administration
and Finance
Executive Director.
Medical
Services	
Executive Director.
Preventive
Services..
Executive Director.
Rehabilitation
Services and
Claims .. .
DR. A.S. LITTLE
J.B. PARADIS
D. DAVIS
S. BROWN
R. CALDECOTT
J.P. BERRY
I.E. TUFTS
J.A. TAYLOR
DR. J. DICK
J.D. PATON
A.H. MULLAN
Human Rights Commission
Parliament Buildings, Victoria
Chairman    BISHOP REMI J. DE ROO
Members    LARRY RYAN
WILLIAM BLACK
GENEERRINGTON
ROSE CHARLIE
Labour Relations Board
1620 West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver
Chairman   PAUL C. WEILER
Vice-Chairman and
Chief Administrative Officer . ..   E.R. PECK
Vice-Chairmen . .  J.A. MOORE
D.R. MUNROE
R.S. BONE
J. BAIGENT
Members   A. MACDONALD
A.J. SMITH
J.M. BILLINGS
J. BROWN
H.L FRITZ
M.L. KRAMER
G.D.M. LESLIE
K.R. MARTIN
P.CAMERON
J. McAVOY
CJ. ALCOTT
B. VAN DERWOERD
 Principal Office
Victoria: 880 Douglas Street.
Regional Office Locations
Burnaby: 4211 Kingsway,
4240 Manor Street.
Chilliwack: 24 Victoria Avenue West.
Cranbrook: Room 226, 102 South 11th
Avenue.
Dawson Creek: 1201 - 103rd Avenue.
Kamloops: 220, 546 St. Paul Street.
Kelowna: 1913 Kent Road.
Nanaimo: 190 Wallace Street.
Nelson: 310 Ward Street.
Prince George: Room 222, 1488 Fourth
Avenue.
Terrace: 4548 Lakelse Avenue.
Williams Lake: 307, 35 Second Avenue South.
 1976 in Review
Major Developments in 1976
Labour Market Information
Labour Dispute Statistics
  Ministry of Labour
Review of
Major Developments in 1976
Improvements over 1975 were evident
in the labour relations of the Province
in 1976, although high levels of
unemployment persisted. There was a
very clear downward trend in wage
settlement figures for 1976. The
reliance on third-party intervention in
negotiation was still prevalent in the
early part of the year, but there were
signs of a new approach to settlements without Government intervention by the end of the year.
Employment growth continued at a
level higher than the national average,
at 2.8 per cent, and produced an average level of 1,038,000 persons. Unemployment reached 8.6 per cent, or
98,000 persons. The consequent lack
of buoyancy in the labour sector was
indicated by a 2.9 per cent increase
in the total labour force to an average level of 1,135,000 persons.
In terms of man-days lost, dispute
activity in 1976 showed a decline of
over 20 per cent from 1975 levels.
Smaller disputes were evident during
the year — 55 per cent of disputes
involved fewer than 100 workers, 28
per cent involved at least 100 but less
than 500, and 18 per cent involved 500
workers or more.
In the collective bargaining area,
settlements during 1976 numbered
229, involving 120,271 employees, and
provided for an average annual settlement of 10.7 per cent, or 73 cents an
hour.
Lack of certainty with respect to the
anti-inflation program, and generally
unsettled economic conditions
influenced the collective bargaining
climate during 1976. There was also a
trend toward contracts of shorter
duration, and a consequent loading
of the collective bargaining calendar
for the Province in 1977.
In the industrial and labour relations
fields, the year began with the provisions of the Collective Bargaining
Continuation Act due to expire, and
none of the disputes covered by the
legislation resolved. With the assistance of the Ministry early in the year,
major disputes were resolved in the
forest industry, pulp and paper, B.C
Railway, and the propane and food
industries.
Legislative action was required to
settle a dispute in the hospital industry, and the Railway and Ferries Bargaining Assistance Act was introduced to assist in the settlement of
disputes in the rail and ferry travel
industries.
Important steps were taken by the
Ministry in the field of apprenticeship and training. In July the Ministers of Labour and Education
appointed a Commission of Inquiry,
headed by Dean Goard, to study vocational, technical, and trade training.
Hearings were conducted across the
Province, and recommendations for
new institutional structures were
made to the Government.
The growth in apprenticeship training
increased substantially in 1976, with
registration 11 percent higher than in
1975. New programs were undertaken
by the Ministry in these areas, including pilot projects for women in
apprenticeship.
The Ministry again facilitated the employment of young people during the
summer months, creating almost
12,000 jobs through the various programs undertaken.
Personnel changes included the
appointment of Frank A. Rhodes,
formerly Director of the Finance and
Administration Branch, as Assistant
Deputy Minister, Administration.
 The Ministry marked the retirement in
1976 of Gerald H. O'Neill, Director,
Arbitration Branch, after 42 years'
service, and Roy A. MacDonald, Din
tor, Mediation Services Branch, afte
26 years.
Labour Market Information
British Columbia's population reached
an estimated 2,494,000 persons in
June, for a 12-month increase of 1.5
per cent, a considerably slower
growth rate than that experienced in
previous years. Throughout 1976 the
Provincial labour market experienced
high levels of unemployment, and
relatively low rates of employment
expansion.
Labour force growth was also considerably slower than in previous
years, a 2.9 per cent increase pushing
the total labour force to an average of
1,135,000 persons. Employment
growth was 2.8 per cent, and averaged 1,038,000 persons during the
year, while the number of unemployed climbed to 8.6 per cent of the
labour force, or 98,000 persons.
A total of 97 major disputes occurred
during 1976, and although slightly
more workers were involved, the total
of 1,470,757 man-days lost was 20 per
cent below the figure for 1975.
The number of settlements reported
during the year totalled 229 and
covered 120,271 employees.
British Columbia continued to enjoy
the highest average level of weekly
earnings across Canada, with an
industrial composite average of
$259.78 per week. In terms of real
purchasing power, this was 5.1 per
cent higher than the 1975 average.
Population
British Columbia's population continued to show substantial growth
during 1976, although the 1.1 percent
rate of increase was considerably
below the 3.0 per cent and 1.6 per
cent increases of 1974 and 1975. By
the end of 1976 an estimated
2,510,000 persons resided in the
Province (see Fig. 1, page 15).
For the first time in many years, the
natural increase, at 0.7 per cent of tt
total population, or slightly over
16.000 persons, provided the majorit
of the Province's new population. In
fact, 61.7 per cent of the total
increase came from this source. The
major reason for this turnaround,
which could have significant implies
tions for British Columbia's labour
market, was the Province's tradition
sources of population increase: imr
gration and net in-migration fell to
only 38.3 per cent of the total
increase. The comparable figures fo
1975 and 1974 were 58.4 per cent an
78.1 percent.
The most important reason for this
change was probably the high unerr
ployment rates in this Province, and
the effect of expansion and fairly lo\
unemployment in neighbouring
Alberta. These factors combined to
cause a net outflow of population
numbering an estimated 10,130 persons during the year. Intended imr
gration, numbering 20,484 persons
during 1976, was also significantly
lower than in the preceding two yeai
That decline has resulted either fron
a decrease in total immigration to
Canada or from the increased relativ
attractiveness of other areas such a;
Alberta.
The significance of the changing coi
position of population increases is
that it could soon lead to a declining
rate of labour force increase. Many c
the families or individuals migrating
from the Province are experienced o
skilled labour force participants,
whereas the natural growth provides
persons who will not be entering the
labour force for at least 15 years.
 Quarterly Population Growth by Component
total population growth
Note: Interprovincial Migration negative in quarters II & III, 1975 and throughout 1976.
Source: Statistics Canada, "Canadian Statistical Review", Ottawa Cat. 11-003.
Population, 1967-1976
British Columbia
Population(l)
Population Growth (per cent)
British Columbia
1967   1,945,000
1968   2,003,000
1969   2,060,000
1970   2,128,000
19712  2,184,000
1972   2,247,000
1973   2,315,000
1974   2,395,000
1975   2,457,000
19763  2,494,000
1.8
3.8
1.6
3.0
1.5
3.2
1.4
3.0
1.3
2.7
1.2
2.9
1.2
3.0
1.6
3.5
1.6
2.6
1.4
1.5
1 As of June 1 of each year.      2 Census counts.      3 Preliminary.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Statistical Review, Ottawa, Cat. 11-003 (monthly).
Labour Force
British Columbia's labour force continued to show significant expansion
during 1976. The yearly average of
1,135,000 participants was 2.9 per
cent higher than that of 1975. The
labour force grew rapidly during the
first half of the year, surpassed the
1975 average level in March, and
peaked at 1,191,000 persons in July.
Total growth continued to be led by
the increased involvement of women
in the labour market. During 1976 this
component of the labour force grew
by 16,000 persons, up 3.9 per cent
over the 1975 level. The male labour
force grew by an identical 16,000
persons, but at a significantly lower
rate, 2.3 per cent.
15
 Labour Force Growth, Canada and
Regions
(Thousands)!"!)
Growth
1975
1976
Rate
Average
Average
(per
cent)
Canada  10,060 10,308 2.5
British Columbia  1,103 1,135 2.9
Prairies  1,634 1,708 4.5
Ontario  3,857 3,931 1.9
Quebec  2,668 2,716 1.8
Atlantic  797 818 2.6
1  Unless otherwise stated, all data in this section and the
following two sections are from Statistics Canada, The
Labour Force Survey, Ottawa, Cat. 71-001 (monthly).
Labour Force, by Sex, 1975-1976
(thousands)
Total      Men    Women
1975 average  1,103
I 1,073
II  1,114
III  1,121
IV  1,102
1976 average  1,135
I 1,099
II 1,133
III  1,173
IV  1,135
Labour Force, by Age Group
(thousands)
693
410
674
399
699
415
711
411
687
415
709
426
686
414
704
428
732
441
713
423
1975
1976
Age
Aver
Aver
group
age
age
i
II
in
IV
15-19
130
129
116
126
153
123
20-24
164
167
158
168
175
166
25-44
500
524
510
524
530
530
45-64
292
299
299
299
299
300
65 +
17
18
17
16
16
18
The youngest component, 15-19,
averaged 129,000 persons during th(
year, but rose to 169,000 and 164,0C
persons in July and August, the pea
months of student participation. Thi
20-24 group averaged 167,000 persoi
over the year, but peaked at 180,000
during July.
The participation rate increased mar
ginally over the previous year. At
61.5 per cent of the labour force, it
had risen only 0.3 point over the 197
rate. The 1976 rate in British Columbia is lower than that of Ontario and
Alberta, but higher than that of all
other provinces.
The slight increase in this year's par
ticipation rate is accounted for by tf
continued increase in female parti
pation, which rose from an average
rate of 45.2 per cent in 1975 to 45.7
per cent in 1976. Although this
increase was lower than in previous
years, the generally tight labour
market and high unemployment
among women undoubtedly discoui
aged some women from entering th
labour market. Male participation
rates remained at their average 197E
level of 77.6 for 1976, although the
seasonably adjusted rate edged upward toward the year's end, perhaps
reflecting a slightly improved labour
market for these people.
Participation Rates by Sex
Both
Sexes
Men
1975 average  61.3 77.6
1976average  61.5 77.6
I  60.0 75.6
II  61.3 77.4
III  63.4 80.1
IV  61.1 77.6
An examination of the age components shows almost half the labour
force, or 524,000 persons, aged 25-44
in 1976. The older components, the
45-64 and 65-and-over groups, numbered an average of 299,000 and
18,000. These three groups showed
little seasonal variation, the maximum
difference between high and low
months in the 25-44 group being only
6 percent.
Seasonality in the other age groups
of the labour force was more marked.
Examination of age-group participation rates shows increases in rates
the prime working-age groups, 25-44
and 45-64, and decreases for the 15-
19, 20-24, and 65-and-over groups. Th
25-44 group had an average participation rate of 76.5 and also showed ,
gradual increase over the year. The
45-65 group's rate of 62.3 was up
marginally from 1975's average of
61.9. For the youngest age group,
15-19, participation rates declined to
55.6 from last year's average of 56.5.
 Seasonality was another important
factor with this group, as the summer
influx of students pushed July's rate
to 72.6, in contrast to seasonal lows
of 49.2 in January and 51.1 in December. The 20-24 group showed a declining participation rate from the previous year, with an annual average of
75.9, down 0.9 from 1975. Seasonality
was marked with this group, although
the 15.3 per cent low-high month
variation was not nearly as great as
that exhibited in the 15-19 group —
47.6 per cent. For the 65-and-over age
group, participation rates declined
from a 1975 average of 7.7 to 7.3 in
1976.
During 1976, 61.5 per cent of the
population aged 15 and over participated in the labour market, but the
remainder, numbering 710,000 persons, did not participate. The accompanying table lists some of the
reasons for non-participation as provided by the Labour Force Survey.
A total of 35.9 per cent of persons
stated they had not worked in the last
five years, and 22.7 per cent declared
they had never worked. Personal
responsibilities, retirement, and
school attendance were also significant factors in non-participation.
Although this table does not attempt
to distinguish between those who
were voluntary non-participants and
those who were discouraged from
entering the labour market, the 50,000
persons grouped under "lost job or
laid off" would likely be in the latter
categories — that is, "discouraged."
Most other persons are more likely
voluntary non-participants, although
a proportion of the people giving
school attendance or retirement as
reasons for non-participation may
also be discouraged workers.
Population Aged 15-and-over not in
the Labour Force, by Reason, 1976
(Thousands)
Per
Number     Cent
Total  710
Own illness  30
Personal Responsibilities .... 58
School  47
Lost job or laid off  50
Retired  53
Other reasons  56
Not worked in the last five
years  255
Never worked  161
Employment
Employment growth was up 2.8 per
cent during 1976 and averaged
1,038,000 persons, roughly paralleling
growth in the labour force at 2.9 per
cent. The slight lag of employment
behind labour force growth led to an
increase in unemployment over
100.0
4.2
8.2
6.6
7.0
7.5
7.9
35.9
22.7
 previous years. The number of men
employed during the year averaged
656,000, a marked sluggishness in the
early months of the year being
replaced by the usual seasonal expansion during July and August. During
these two months, total male employment numbered 691,000 and 697,000
persons.
The average number of women employed during the year averaged
382,000, an increase of 3.0 per cent
over the previous year. Although this
was a slightly greater increase than
for total employment growth, it was
still significantly less than in previous
years, when rates of employment
growth for women were almost twice
those for men. This could have been
caused by a lack of new opportunities
for women, suggested by the relatively small increase in service sector
employment. As with male employment, peak employment months were
July and August, although the seasonal increase for women was
smaller than for men, peak months
being only 3.4 per cent higher than
the annual average, compared with
6.3 per cent for men.
Employment by Sex (Quarterly)
(thousands)
Total      Men    Women
1975 average  1,009
1  973
II  1,026
III  1,029
IV  1,009
1976 average  1,038
1  993
II  1,030
III  1,078
IV  1,049
638
372
614
359
650
376
655
374
632
377
656
382
624
369
648
383
688
390
665
383
As expected, seasonal employmen
factors were most significant in th
younger age brackets, and almost
non-existent in the 25-and-over
groups. In the 15-19 group, there
were 140,000 persons working in th
peak employment month of August
number one third higher than the
yearly average for this group. For th
20-24 age bracket, July and August
peaks of 160,000 were 9.6 per cent
above the yearly average.
Full-time employment as a percenta
of total employment decreased slig
ly during 1976, as an estimated 86.7
per cent of all jobs were classified
"full-time," compared with 87.3 per
cent during 1975. Part-time employment was extremely high among
women. They occupied 97,000 posi
tions or over 70 per cent of all part-
time employment. Among men, 93.
per cent held full-time positions,
whereas only 41,000 or 6.3 per cent
worked part time.
Full-time and Part-time Employmc
B.C. 1975-1976
(thousands)
Full-
Total     time
Both sexes —
1975  1,009 881
1976  1,038 899
Men —
1975   638 601
1976   656 615
Women —
1975   372 279
1976   381 284
NOTE — Full-time employed are those who usually wor
more than 30 hours a week, or those persons working le
than 30 hours who consider their employment as full-tir
Average monthly employment totals
by age groups indicate substantial
employment growth in the 25-44
bracket (4.9 per cent over 1975) and
smaller increases in the 20-24 group
and 45-64 group, which were up 1.4
per cent and 2.5 per cent. In the other
age groups, the 65-and-over group
showed the same level of employment as in 1975, while the youth
group, 15-19, actually showed a 2,000-
person, or 1.9 per cent, decline in
employment.
Estimates of employment by indust
groups show that the goods sector
grew at a slightly faster rate than t
Canadian average, 2.9 per cent in
British Columbia versus 2.2 per cer
nationally, with a 9.0 per cent increase in manufacturing employm
leading the way. Manufacturing
employment growth occurred primarily during the summer, but was
also maintained into the fourth qua
ter. In the primary products group,
employment increased by 7.1 per c
 over 1975 and averaged 45,000
persons during the year. The construction industry, despite high levels
of employment during the last two
quarters of the year, was unchanged
from last year's average.
Average employment in the service
sector was up by only 1.1 per cent
over 1975, and tended to be concentrated in two industrial areas, transportation and finance. Average
employment in the transportation
group was 110,000 persons for the
year, a modest 2.8 per cent gain over
1975, and total employment in finance
increased 9.1 per cent. Among other
service industries, public administration showed a modest 1.5 per
cent increase in growth over 1975, the
trade group showed no increase, and
the communications group showed a
slight 0.3 per cent decline in average
employment during 1976.
An examination of employment estimates by occupational groups helps
to explain the relatively small expansion of employment among women
during the past year. In such male-
dominated occupational groups as
construction, primary occupations,
and processing, they showed the
largest gains during 1976 — 5.9 per
cent, 11.6 per cent, and 7.3 per cent.
An estimated 92.2 per cent of
average 1976 employment in those
occupations was male, whereas
68.8 per cent of all women employed
were in the service, clerical, and sales
occupational groups. Sales and service occupations grew 0.8 per cent
and 1.4 per cent, and the number of
clerical positions actually declined by
2.9 per cent from the 1975 level. The
management, administrative, and
professional group, the largest occupational group, with an average of
219,000 persons employed, expanded
by 3.3 per cent, and the smaller transportation and material handling
groups expanded by 4.0 per cent and
4.4. per cent.
Estimates of Employment by Industry and by Occupation
(thousands)
Employment by Industry
1975 1976
Average Average           I II III IV
Goods       294 313 293 308 333 319
Agriculture         16 18        17 18 19 18
Other primary products         42 45        45 46 47 43
Manufacturing       156 170 163 165 177 176
Construction         80 80 — — — —
Service       716 724 700 722 746 730
Trade       195 195 194 189 199 200
Transport, communication, other utilities       107 110 105 114 115 106
Finance, insurance, real estate         55 60        60 59 63 59
Community, business, personal service       291 290 279 290 295 296
Public administration         68 69        63 70 73 68
Employment by Occupation
Managerial, administrative, professional       212 219 212 223 222 219
Clerical       173 168 161 168 175 169
Sales       125 126 130 124 123 125
Service       143 145 134 137 157 151
Primary occupations         43 48        42 47 54 48
Processing       136 146 143 147 149 147
Construction         84 89        75 88 101 91
Material handling and other crafts         43 45        47 45 43 46
Totals    1,009 1,038 993 1,030   1,078 1,049
19
 Unemployment
Both levels and rates of unemployment were up slightly in British
Columbia during 1976. The monthly
level of unemployed averaged 98,000
persons — 53,000 men and 45,000
women, while the rate of unemployment averaged 8.6 per cent during the
year. When compared with average
levels in 1975, this represents a 3.6
per cent decline in male unemployment, and a 15.4 per cent increase, or
6,000 persons, in female unemployment.
The number of men unemployed was
at a fairly high level in January and
February of the year, but fell during
the summer months as employment
opportunties expanded, owing to
summer jobs and the general
improvement in the goods sector
during this period. Although male
unemployment again edged upward
in the latter months of the year, it di<]
not reach the high of the first quarte
The level of unemployment for
women was high in the early months
of the year, followed by even higher
levels in the summer months, and
slight improvement in the last quart(
of the year. This anomaly can be
explained by recalling the severe
shortage  of employment opportui
ties offered by the service sector
during the summer months, when th
influx of female students was
highest, and also the improvement ii
part-times sales opportunities in the
latter part of the year, as establishments geared up for Christmas sale;
Unemployment and Unemployment Rates, by Sex
Unemployment (Thousands)
Both Sexes
Unemployment Rates (per cent)
Wor
1975 average  95 55 39
1976 average  98 53 45
I  106 62 44
II  102 56 46
III  95 44 50
IV  87 47 39
The effect of increased unemployment levels was, of course, to
increase the over-all rates of unemployment, with the female rate
increasing the most. The actual rate
of unemployment rose to 8.6 per cent
of the labour force during 1976. For
men it was 7.4 per cent and for
women, 10.5 per cent. The unemployment rate for women remained above
10 per cent for all but the final three
months of 1976.
Quarterly Unemployment Rates by Age
Age
Group
1975
Average
Average
l
1976
II
Mi
15-19	
. ..    17.6
19.0
12.2
6.6
5.8
8.6
21.0
14.2
8.1
5.7
9.7
19.4
13.9
7.0
5.7
9.0
17.5
20-24	
...     12.2
10.3
25-44 . .
6.8
6.1
45-64	
5.5
5.6
Total	
. . .      8.5
8.1
 Age group unemployment rates continued to show a great deal of variation in 1976. The lowest aggregate
rates were experienced among people
aged 25-44 and 45-64, reflecting the
experience, seniority, and training
embodied in this section of the labour
force. The average 1976 rate for the
first group was 6.6 per cent, down 0.2
percentage points from the previous
year. In the second group, a 0.3 percentage point rise in the unemployment rate left the year's average at
5.8 per cent.
Unemployment rates remained dis-
couragingly high among the younger
components of the labour force. An
average of 19.0 per cent of persons
aged 15-19 were without work during
1976. Except for a slight decline in
the rates during June, August, and
September, extremely high rates
persisted all year, and there is not
much sign of improvement for the
forthcoming year. For the age group
20-24, 12.2 per cent of persons were
without work during the year.
Because unemployment was such an
important factor in the 1976 labour
market situation, a brief examination
of some of the reasons given by the
unemployed for their predicament,
coupled with some additional characteristics of these persons, might be
informative.
A summary of reasons is provided in
the accompanying table. It shows that
the bulk of people were unemployed
because of layoff or lost jobs, and
that these factors encompassed an
estimated 48,000 persons, or 59.0 per
cent of the total unemployed.
"Other reasons" affected another
25,000 persons, and could possibly
have included new immigrants, in-
migrants from other provinces, and
spouses of persons transferred within
this Province who had not been able
to find new employment, persons
who voluntarily left part-time or temporary positions to find full-time
employment, and recent school
graduates and dropouts who may
have had previous labour market
experience. Factors like own illness,
personal responsibilities, and school
affected another 18,000 persons.
Those who had never previously
worked, and who were at that time
Per Cenl
Average
of
Number
Total
98
—
5
5.1
7
7.1
6
6.1
48
59.0
25
25.5
4
4.1
looking for work, numbered an estimated 4,000 persons.
Unemployed by Reason, 1976
(thousands)
Total	
Own illness	
Personal responsibilities
School	
Lost job or laid off	
Other reasons	
Never worked	
The table dealing with "Estimates of
Labour Force, by Education" provides
some indication of the educational
attainment of the labour force in
general and the unemployed in particular. It would be more relevant, however, to have this information available by age group in order to separate
education/experience combinations.
Despite this limitation, indications
are that the majority of the unemployed fell in the "some high school
and no post-secondary school" grouping. Of the total unemployed, 62.2
per cent, or 61,000 persons, fell within
this classification. In the total labour
force, 53.9 per cent of people were so
classified. The relatively low unemployment rates of 6.5 per cent for
persons with a post-secondary diploma, and 4.1 per cent for those with
a university degree, clearly suggest a
correlation between levels of education and unemployment.
One apparent abnormality indicated
by this table is the increase in unemployment for persons with higher
education, and the decrease for the
lesser educated groups, when the
1975 and 1976 averages are compared. An explanation for this change
could lie with the employment expansion in some of the goods-producing
industries during 1976, which resulted
in the recall of some older, experienced workers, but did not affect the
difficulty of securing employment for
many new labour market entrants.
21
 Estimates of Labour Force, by
Education, B.C. 1975-1976 (000s)
(thousands)
Labour
Unem
Force
Unem
ployment
Total
ployment
Rate
0-8 years           (1975)
133
15
11.1
of education (1976)
134
13
9.9
Some high         (1975)
568
57
10.0
school and    (1976)
612
61
9.9
post secondary
Some post-        (1975)
128
10
8.2
secondary     (1976)
136
10
7.1
Post-secon-       (1975)
160
8(1)
5.3(1)
day diploma (1976)
140
9
6.5
University          (1975)
113
3(1)
2.7(1)
degree           (1976)
113
5
4.1
1 Residual estimates.
Organized Labour Force
As of January 1,1976, there was a
total of 426,723 workers in British
Columbia who were members of
trade unions. This represented an increase of 25,115, or 6.3 per cent, over
the previous total of 401,608 union
members reported for the same date
in 1975. These organized workers
comprised 44.9 per cent of the total
paid workers in the Province in 1976.
Again in 1976, the largest union in
British Columbia was the International
Woodworkers of America, with 41,875
members in the Province. Rounding
out the top five were B.C. Government
Employees' Union, 32,764; B.C.
Teachers' Federation, 28,415; Cana
dian Union of Public Employees,
23,105; and the Teamsters, 18,870. In
all, 22 unions in British Columbia
had memberships larger than 5,000.
Over the year, union membership
among women grew by 16,070, or
15.2 per cent, which represents more
than double the 6.3 per cent rate of
growth for the total union membership. Female union membership
stood at 122,117 as of January 1,
1976, and comprised 34.6 per cent of
the female paid workers. More than
half of male paid workers, 51.0 per
cent, belonged to unions as of the
same date. Twenty-one unions had
female memberships of more than
1,000, led by the Registered Nurses'
Association of B.C., with 17,914 mer
bers, and followed by the B.C.
Teachers' Federation, 15,355, the
Hospital Employees' Union Local 18(
13,251, and the B.C. Government
Employees' Union, 12,380.
Union membership by industry did
not shift appreciably over the 12-
month period from January 1,1975, t(
January 1,1976. Members in the trad'
and service sector comprised the
largest group, 187,089 employees,
with 43.8 per cent of the total union
membership in the Province. Manufacturing had 111,402 members, or
26.1 per cent of the total membershii
Growth of Paid Workers and Union Membership
1000
900
800
o
o
o
500.
400.
300
200
paid workers —y
union membership
1945
1950
I—I—I—1-
1955
1960
1965
 Union Membership in British Columbia, 1945-1976
Year
Total
Membership
Percentage
Change From
Previous Year
Total Paid
Workers(1)
Organized
Labour as a
Percentage of
Total Paid
Workers
1945  110,045
1950  146,259
1955  186,951
1960  215,437
1965  237,864
1966  256,241
1967  273,946
1968  287,502
1969  292,842
1970  310,222
1971  316,587
1972  332,091
1973  350,175
1974  395,846
1975  401,608
1976  426,723
4.9
7.7
6.9
5.0
1.9
5.9
2.1
4.9
5.5
13.0
1.5
6.3
283,000
335,000
381,000
430,000
550,000
588,000
626,000
654,000
706,000
713,000
743,000
784,000
850,000
895,000
919,000
950,000
38.9
43.6
49.1
50.1
43.2
43.6
43.8
44.0
41.5
43.5
42.6
42.4
41.2
44.2
43.7
44.9
Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force, Ottawa; Cat. 71-001 (Monthly).
1 Includes agricultural workers in 1976.
Unions with a British Columbia Membership Greater than 5,000,1976
International Woodworkers of America (AFL-CIO/CLC) .
B.C. Government Employees' Union (CLC)	
B.C. Teachers' Federation (Incl.)	
Canadian Union of Public Employees (CLC)	
International Brotherhood of Teamsters	
Registered Nurses Association of B.C	
Hospital Employees' Union, Local 180	
Carpenters	
Public Service Alliance of Canada	
Operating Engineers	
Hotel Employees	
United Steelworkers	
IBEW (Electrical Workers)	
Labourers' International Union	
Federation of Telephone Workers of B.C	
Canadian Paperworkers' Union	
Machinists	
Office and Technical Employees Union	
Retail Clerks International Association	
Pulp, Paper and Woodworkers of Canada	
United Fishermen and Allied Workers	
Plumbers	
1 As of January 1.
2 Did not have 5,000 members in 1975 survey.
Membership,
Relative
Relative
January
Position,
Position,
1976
1976
1975(1)
41,875
1
1
32,764
2
2
28,415
3
3
23,105
4
5
18,870
5
4
18,094
6
6
16,513
7
8
15,772
8
7
12,645
9
9
11,207
10
12
10,882
11
11
10,316
12
10
10,025
13
15
9,974
14
13
9,578
15
14
8,636
16
16
8,558
17
17
8,167
18
21
7,550
19
18
6,354
20
20
5,794
21
19
5,160
22
(2)
 Labour Dispute Statistics
The number of workers directly
involved in labour disputes in 1976
rose by more than a quarter over 1975
totals, largely because of two Province-wide construction disputes. The
usual measure of dispute activity
duration in man-days, however,
showed a decline of over 20 per cent
from 1975 levels. The 1,470,757 man-
days recorded is only the fifth highe
total during the past seven years.
When expressed as a percentage of
total time worked by wage and salary
earners in the Province, these
disputes are seen to account for only
0.6 per cent of estimated 1976 work
ing-time, down from 0.8 per cent in
1975.
Man-Days of Work Stoppage, 1970-1976
2200
2000
1800 -
1600
-5? 1400 -
o
o
B 1200
(0
^ 1000
|  800 -
600 -
400
200
2121
1683
277
Analysis of Time-loss by Industry, 19761
Jurisdictional Classification
Provincial	
Federal	
Industrial Classification
Agriculture	
Forestry (primarily logging)	
Fishing	
Mines, quarries, oil wells	
Manufacturing	
Construction	
Transportation	
Trade	
Finance	
Community, business, personal
service	
Public administration	
Totals for all industries	
Workers D
irectly Involved
Estimated Duration
in Man-days
Number of
Percentage
Percenta
Disputes
Number
of Total
Number              ofTota
83
81,358
96.2
1,452,646           98.8
14
3,207
3.8
18,111              1.2
1
225
0.3
225              0.0
1
350
0.4
350              0.0
8
4,580
5.4
215,844            14.7
18
5,902
7.0
125,385              8.5
9
54,702
64.7
840,840            57.2
35
10,232
12.1
189,681           12.9
1
7
0.0
21              0.0
21
6,297
7.4
91,041              6.2
3
2,270
2.7
7,370              0.5
97
84,565
100.0
1,470,757          100.0
1 Figures are subject to revision.
 Analysis of Disputes, 1955-1976
Estimated
Time-loss as a
Percentage of
Estimated
Total
Number of
Estimated
Working-time
Total Paid
Number of
Workers
Man-days
of Wage and
Workers(1)
Disputes(2)
Affected
Lost
Salary Earners
1956  414,000      35       3,197 39,211 —
1957  430,000      35       8 914 225,869 0.2
1958  422,000      29      11,709 325,211 0.3
1959  438,000      34      33,443 1,423,268 1.3
1960  430,000      14        999 35,848 —
1961  438,000      17       1,638 34,659 —
1962  461,000      33       1,982 32,987 —
1963  488,000      23        824 24,056 —
1964  519,000      29       9,503 181,784 0.2
1965  550,000      40       6,755 104,430 0.1
1966  588,000      39      24,748 272,922 0.2
1967  626,000      54      11,371 327,272 0.2
1968  654,000      66      12,179 406,729 0.2
1969  706,000      85      17,916 406,645 0.2
1970  713,000      82      46,642 1,683,261 0.9
1971  743,000     113      52,358 276,999 0.1
1972  784,000     101     106,399 2,120,848 1.1
1973  850,000     142      96,078 705,525 0.3
1974  895,000     139      86,932 1,609,431 0.7
1975  919,000     173      67,502 1,864,596 0.8
1976  950,000      97      84,565 1,470,757 0.6
1 Does not include persons who operated their own businesses, farms, or professions, or persons who worked without pay
on a farm or business owned or operated by a member of the household to whom they were related. Totals include agricultural workers for the first time in 1976. Source: Statistics Canada, The Labour Force.
2 Statistics for the years prior to 1970 exclude disputes that did not fall within the scope of the Mediation Commission Act
ot its predecessors. Also, definitional changes made for 1976 make earlier dispute totals non-comparable (revisions forthcoming). See March 1976 Labour Research Bulletin, p. 27, for details.
Dispute reductions were most evident
in industries within Federal jurisdiction. The 14 disputes affecting 3,207
workers for 18,111 man-days in 1976
represented only a fraction of the
348,586 days recorded by 27,430
workers during 1975. Despite an
increasing share of dispute activity,
man-days recorded in industries
within the Provincial jurisdiction also
fell in 1976, by 4.2 per cent, to a level
of 1,452,646.
An examination of the size of disputes according to number of workers
affected reveals that smaller disputes
were relatively more common in
1976. During the year, 55 per cent of
the disputes involved fewer than 100
workers, 28 per cent involved at least
100 but less than 500, and 18 per cent
involved 500 people or more. Comparable figures for 1975 were 45 per
cent, 40 per cent, and 15 per cent.
A separate estimate has been made
of the numbers of British Columbia
workers who participated in the
National Day of Protest. This is in
keeping with a declaratory opinion of
the Provincial Labour Relations
Board, published in the October 1976
edition of the Ministry's Labour Research Bulletin, which ruled that protesting employees could not be considered to be on strike against their
employer, within the meaning of the
Labour Code, unless their action
specifically contravened a collective
agreement, and that decisions in
such cases would have to be
rendered by an arbitrator.
In addition, the Day of Protest estimate has not been incorporated into
the regular dispute series in order to
preserve the continuity of that series
in its function as an indicator of
breakdowns in labour-management
relations. Participants in industries
within Federal jurisdiction have been
similarly counted to preserve the
consistency of the estimates.
The estimates showed that 139,150
British Columbia workers, approximately one third of all British
Columbia union members, participated in the Day of Protest. Of this
total, 13,200 were in industries within
25
 the Federal jurisdiction, and 125,950
in industries within the Provincial
jurisdiction.
Definitions
The British Columbia Ministry of
Labour has been collecting and
reporting labour dispute statistics
since 1918. The series has been
developed for the purpose of providing a quantitative measure of the
extent to which disagreements
between labour and management
result in disputes. Information about
possible disputes is collected from a
variety of sources, such as the news
media, Ministerial information sources, and other Government and
private publications. Specific details
for each dispute are then verified by
direct contact with the parties
involved.
Dispute
The major criterion used in the collection of dispute statistics is the
concept of work stoppage. All stoppages, whether or not authorized by
the union, legal or illegal, are
included, with no attempt at categorization. Consequently, labour
dispute statistics for 1975 are composed of strikes, lockouts, and jurisdictional disputes, as well as the
occasional sympathy or protest strike.
Small disputes involving less than
10 man-days duration, however, may
occasionally be omitted. There is
some reservation as to whether such
disputes should be included because
of the difficulties involved in defining, identifying, and securing information on disputes that last for only a
few hours or less.
Duration
The duration of a labour dispute is
calculated in terms of working-days
from the commencement date of the
dispute to the termination date. The
commencement date is the first day
on which normal operations were
affected by the work stoppage.
The termination date is the day on
which work was resumed. If normal
operations could not be resumed
after the settlement of a dispute, the
day on which the workers were
available for work is regarded as the
termination date. The days counted
as "working" are those on which the
establishment involved would
normally be in operation.
Duration in Man-days
Duration in man-days is calculated by
multiplying the duration in working-
days by the number of workers
directly involved. For work stoppages
involving establishments in which the
number of weekly working-days exceeds the work week of individual
employees, the duration in man-days
is so weighted. As far as information permits, variations in the number
of workers directly involved in the
course of a labour dispute are also
taken into account in the calculation
of man-days.
Workers Involved
Only those workers directly involved
in a dispute are reported. Workers
indirectly affected by disputes, such
as those involved in layoffs resulting
from lack of materials, or those
respecting picket lines, are not included in the number of workers
directly involved. If the number of
workers involved varies during the
course of the stoppage, the maximum
number is shown.
 Labour Disputes by Month, 1976
(2) (3) (4)
Disputes       Workers        Duration
(2)
Disputes
(3)
Workers
(4)
Duration
January
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  —
Manufacturing  6
Construction  2
Transportation  3
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  3
Public
Administration  1
Totals  15
Federal  —
Provincial  15
February
Agriculture  —
Forestry{2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)	
Manufacturing  7
Construction  2
Transportation  2
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  2
Public
Administration  —
Totals  14
Federal  1
Provincial  13
March
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  2
Manufacturing  4
Construction  3
Transportation  5
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  3
Public
Administration  —
Totals  17
Federal  1
Provincial  16
April
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  3
Manufacturing  3
Construction  3
Transportation  5
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  7
Public
Administration  —
Totals  21
Federal  1
Provincial  20
552
9
394
300
1,387
10,532
189
3,570
5,400
22,111
May
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  5
Manufacturing  4
Construction  1
Transportation  5
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  9
Public
Administration  —
Totals  24
Federal  1
Provincial  23
June
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  1
Mines(3)  6
Manufacturing  7
Construction  2
Transportation  9
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  4
Public
Administration  —
Totals  29
Federal  5
Provincial  24
July
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  6
Manufacturing  4
Construction  2
Transportation  1
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  1
Public
Administration  —
Totals  14
Federal  —
Provincial  14
August
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  4
Manufacturing  4
Construction  3
Transportation  4
Trade  1
Finance  —
Communication  1
Public
Administration  —
Totals  17
Federal  1
Provincial  16
2,900
321
7
2,132
6,049
11,409
100
11,309
40,640
5,418
140
19,112
123,565
100
123,465
180
1,067
9
350
123
1,729
250
1,479
2,700
14,295
146
2,250
21,911
250
21,661
350
3,257
3,290
7,207
2,619
17,728
523
17,205
350
64,854
35,442
9,854
23,754
140,343
1,923
138,420
580
872
17
4,587
6,222
318
5,904
7,740
10,396
220
34,330
2,762
55,448
1,658
53,790
3,257
1,076
26,507
533
31,488
31,388
49,597
18,150
430,647
4,244
502,698
502,698
1,210
292
17
4,099
6,678
38
6,640
13,440
5,862
217
44,323
82,648
152
82,496
1,357
1,735
26,707
1,483
7
31,298
14
31,284
27,423
17,480
83,747
23,363
21
152,043
14
152,029
1 Figures are subject to revision.
4 Duration in man-days.
2 Primarily logging.
3 Includes quarries and oil wells.
 Labour Disputes, by Month, 1976<1) — Continued
(2)
Disputes
(3)
Workers
(4)
Duration
(2) (3) (4)
Disputes       Workers        Duratio
September
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  3
Manufacturing  2
Construction  3
Transportation  7
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  1
Public
Administration  —
Totals  16
Federal  1
Provincial  15
October
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2) .. i  1
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  —
Manufacturing  4
Construction  3
Transportation  5
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  2
Public
Administration  1
Totals  16
Federal  4
Provincial  12
1,445
180
26,578
2,011
30,220
236
29,984
9,450
3,620
309,254
22,145
344,481
2,832
341,649
November
Agriculture  —
Forestry(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  —
Manufacturing  —
Construction  1
Transportation  4
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  1
Public
Administration  1
Totals  7
Federal  1
Provincial  6
December
Agriculture  —
Foresty(2)  —
Fishing  —
Mines(3)  —
Manufacturing  —
Construction  2
Transportation  2
Trade  —
Finance  —
Communication  —
Public
Administration  —
Totals  4
Federal  —
Provincial  4
7
382
12
147
5,461
72
270
671
5,950
236
4,484
435
1,466
225
470
90
1,070
1,700
3,591
1,964
1,627
4,190
1,332
5,924
36
1,700
13,407
6,698
6,709
1,607
70
1,677
1,677
4,947
1,205
6,142
6,142
Wages and Salaries
British Columbia continued to enjoy
the highest level of average weekly
earnings across the country during
1976. This year's industrial composite
average was $259.78 a week, an increase of 12.9 per cent over last
year's $230.01 (revised). By comparison, average weekly earnings in
Canada were $228.16 last year, for an
increase of 12.2 per cent over 1975.
Alberta, with earnings of $236.70 a
week, was the province with the
second highest average during 1976.
Prince Edward Island, with average
earnings of $171.63 a week, was the
lowest.
A comparison of provincial earnings
across the country during the past
four years, and the percentage
variation of 1976 provincial levels
from the Canadian average, is
provided in the accompanying table.
Average Weekly Earnings by Province (Industrial Composite)
Newfoundland  149.09
Prince Edward Island  111.17
Nova Scotia  134.43
New Brunswick  133.97
Quebec  154.30
Ontario  165.70
Manitoba  144.76
Saskatchewan  142.30
Alberta  161.12
British Columbia  178.29
Canada  160.46
Province a
Percentag
1974
1975
1976(1)
of Canadc
Average
168.48
196.44
222.14
97.4
126.92
149.84
171.63
75.2
149.98
172.40
193.17
84.7
154.58
182.40
204.24
89.5
172.89
199.22
222.35
97.5
181.43
204.85
228.85
100.3
170.49
197.26
208.46
91.4
162.71
186.10
215.19
94.3
173.72
207.38
236.70
103.7
200.30
230.01
259.78
113.9
178.09
203.34
228.16
100.0
1 Preliminary.
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings & Hours, Ottawa, Cat. 62-002 (monthly).
 Average weekly earnings data can be
expressed in terms of real purchasing
value, as well as current-dollar value.
The real purchasing value (or constant-dollar value) is simply a process
by which average weekly earnings are
deflated by the consumer price index
(CPI) and expressed in terms of
dollars of equal purchasing value.
Average weekly earnings for Canada
and British Columbia are presented
for the past few years, both in terms
of current dollars (Column 1) and in
terms of constant-dollar value
(Column 3). Column 2 shows that,
over the past six years, average
weekly earnings in British Columbia
have tended to increase at a slightly
faster rate than those in Canada as a
whole. This year's average weekly
earnings in British Columbia were
12.9 per cent above the 1975 average,
while in Canada as a whole, average
weekly earnings increased 12.2 per
cent over 1975.
Average Earnings, Canada and British Columbia 1971-1976
(4)
(1)
(2)
Constant
Changes in
Average
Annual
(3)
Dollar
Constant
Weekly
Change in
CPI
Earnings
Dollar
Year
Earnings
Earnings
(1971 = 100)
(1) + (3)
Earnings
CANADA
$
1971  137.64
1972  149.22
1973  160.46
1974  178.09
1975  203.34
1976  228.16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1971  152.50
1972  165.08
1973  178.29
1974  200.31
1975  230.01
1976  259.78
Per Cent
$
Per Cent
—
100
137.64
—
8.4
104.5
142.79
3.7
7.5
112.7
142.38
—0.3
11.0
125.0
142.47
0.1
14.2
138.5
146.82
3.1
12.2
148.9
153.23
4.4
100
152.50
8.2
104.5
157.97
3.6
8.0
112.7
158.20
0.1
12.4
125.0
160.25
1.3
14.8
138.5
166.07
3.6
12.9
148.9
174.47
5.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings & Hours: Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
In constant-dollar terms, the real value
of average weekly earnings has been
considerably reduced by the impact
of inflation. In terms of 1971 dollars,
average weekly earnings during 1976
were worth $174.47 in British
Columbia and $153.23 in Canada.
Despite inflation, real earnings
increased by 5.1 percent in British
Columbia and 4.4 per cent in Canada,
a significant increase over 1975.
Large-firm estimates of average
weekly earnings showed increases for
all major industrial groups in the
Province during 1976. Industrial composite weekly earnings averaged
$259.78 a week, an increase of $29.78,
or 12.9 per cent, over 1975.
Employees in the construction
industry continued to enjoy the highest average wages during the year at
$380.30 a week, 10.4 per cent higher
than in 1975. Mining, $331, and
forestry, $328.99, maintained their
relative positions as second and third
highest paid industries during the
year, exhibiting average weekly
increases of $33.50 and $50.86.
At the other end of the scale, the
service industry remained the lowest
paid major industry in the Province,
averaging $169.05 a week during 1976,
followed by trade at $212.43, and
finance, insurance, and real estate at
$219.15. In these three industries,
annual percentage increases of 12.9
per cent, 11.8 per cent, and 10.6 per
cent were recorded over the past
year. Despite these fairly significant
increases, earnings in all three
remained well below the Provincial
average. Service industry earnings
 were, in fact, only 65 per ceiMof
average earnings in the Province, and
only 44 per cent of the average
enjoyed in the construction industry,
and the actual dollar gap between
those industries continued to
increase.
The foregoing information, and the
accompanying tables, are from a
Statistics Canada survey covering
only firms employing 20 persons or
more. Coverage can vary considerabl
by industry, and this in turn can affec
the reliability of the information.
Average Weekly Earnings in Major Industries
Industrial   Forestry    Mining
Composite  (Mainly       and
Logging)   Milling
Manufacturing
Total Wood
Products
Transportation,
Construe-Communi-
tion cation,
and
Utilities
Finance,
Insurance,   3er^
and Heal
Estate
1967   114.40 138.57 142.97 119.76 114.66 165.24 123.55 88.55 97.19 78.
1968   120.76 150.82 152.43 128.44 123.54 162.11 131.74 96.63 105.11 83.
1969   129.20 158.07 160.23 137.78 130.76 178.65 140.15 106.15 113.89 89.
1970   137.80 162.31 177.37 146.97 138.62 196.37 153.75 113.15 118.12 94.
1971   152.50 178.01 191.10 162.67 156.56 224.68 169.00 123.06 127.60 102.
1972   164.75 196.76 206.00 178.82 177.64 246.71 183.69 132.36 139.12 107.
1973   178.22 225.05 226.67 193.28 189.73 246.43 194.24 148.04 150.95 119.
1974   200.31 246.71 262.37 217.87 195.26 282.64 218.18 166.96 172.51 132.
1975   230.00 278.13 297.50 252.77 249.05 344.41 251.64 190.08 198.18 149.
1   218.26 261.57 292.56 244.41 240.54 304.60 235.92 179.74 189.10 142.1
2   228.43 306.14 291.59 251.59 247.30 334.83 245.01 186.73 197.49 145.1
3   233.94 280.07 296.91 251.55 247.98 382.91 256.76 196.77 201.53 151.:
4   239.39 264.75 309.06 263.53 260.48 355.29 268.88 197.08 204.58 159.1
1976(1)  259.78 328.99 331.00 288.52 291.39 380.30 287.19 212.43 219.15 169.1
1   249.07 314.48 318.52 276.97 278.83 363.56 275.74 201.73 211.42 162..
2   258.30 334.79 333.51 283.96 282.98 375.76 284.28 213.99 221.58 168.J
3   264.82 344.36 328.91 293.28 296.65 392.46 292.29 216.50 221.18 172.4
4(1)  267.22 289.38 340.15 300.12 307.12 389.88 296.66 218.13 222.46 172 ,
Estimated per cent of
coverage(2)  42                                    64 74 25 82 43 54 20
1 Preliminary.
2 Monthly Employment & Earnings Survey employment as a percentage of Labour Force Survey results; 1976 averages.
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings & Hours, Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
Estimated industrial coverage by the
survey is provided at the bottom of
the Average Weekly Earnings table,
and varies from 20 per cent of employees in the service industry to 74
per cent in manufacturing and 82 per
cent in the transportation, communications, and public utilities
group. Certain industries — agriculture, fishing and trapping, education and related services, health and
welfare services, religious organizations, defence, and public administration — are not covered by the survey.
The earnings data cited throughout
refer to gross pay and include
straight-time wages, piece work,
bonuses, overtime earnings and
commissions, before deductions for
taxes, Unemployment Insurance, and
Canada Pension Plan contributions.
Industrial composite average weekly
earnings for the 10 regions of British
Columbia during 1976 are provided
in the adjacent table. Because the
information source continues to be
large firms, this can cause some
industrial sectors to be under-represented, especially in smaller population areas, and the average earnings
figures could be somewhat biased
toward earnings in large primary
industry and manufacturing
establishments.
The relatively high earnings in those
sectors could tend to provide regiona
earnings estimates somewhat higher
than the actual figures would be if
information for all employees were
available.
 Average Weekly Wages and Salaries, British Columbia, by Geographic Area
(Industrial Composite)
1976
1975
Average
Average
East Kootenays  251.81
West Kootenays  316.72
Okanagan   213.69
Lower Mainland   224.00
Vancouver Island  222.43
Southern Interior   214.02
Lower Coast   288.01
Central Interior  240.23
Northwest  275.02
Peace River   243.71
Provincial average  230.00
$
$
$
$
$
283.90
274.79
276.76
290.59
293.44
324.61
319.13
314.88
334.42
330.00
238.74
231.08
235.02
239.79
249.05
254.01
244.58
252.93
257.04
260.79
259.98
246.06
261.26
268.56
264.02
249.54
239.29
244.18
255.63
259.05
328.51
300.65
321.96
347.50
343.92
276.70
268.18
268.91
283.82
285.91
322.20
306.35
317.30
326.85
338.29
285.97
265.70
265.63
302.78
309.76
259.78
249.07
258.30
264.82
267.22
Source: Statistics Canada, Employment, Earnings & Hours, Ottawa, Cat. 72-002 (monthly).
During 1976 the Lower Coast region
exhibited the highest level of average
weekly earnings at $328.51, for an
increase over 1975 of 14.1 per cent, or
$40.50 a week. Last year's earnings
leader, the West Kootenays, dropped
to second highest in 1976, with
average earnings of $324.61 a week
for a moderate increase of 2.5 per
cent.
The Northwest region, with a 17.2
per cent increase over 1975, experienced average earnings this year of
$322.20 a week, and so remained in
third spot, followed by Peace River,
$285.97; East Kootenays, $283.90;
Central Interior, $276.70; Vancouver
Island, $259.98; and Lower Mainland, $254.01. Lowest average weekly
earnings in the Province continued to
be in the Okanagan, $238.74, and
Southern Interior, $249.54, where
average 1976 earnings levels were
11.7 per cent and 16.6 per cent ahead
of the 1975 averages.
Wage Settlements*
Reported settlements during 1976
numbered 229, and covered 120,271
employees. The average annual
increase for the reported settlements
over this 12-month period was 10.7
per cent or 73 cents an hour.
This contract average is about 2 per
cent more than the annual rate of
increase in the Vancouver Consumer
Price Index, which is running at 8.7
per cent on an annual basis. It should
be remembered, however, that AIB
rollbacks would have the effect of
reducing the contract average figure;
but it now appears that negotiated
settlements were keeping ahead of
the rate of increase of prices in Vancouver by several percentage points.
Wage settlement figures during the
same period are contained in the
table on page 32. The industries with
contracts containing the largest
annual percentage wage increases
during 1976 were transportation, 13.0
percent; municipal services, 12.8 per
cent; and miscellaneous manufacturing, 12.5 per cent. The industries
with contracts containing the
smallest percentage increases were
machinery, electrical products, and
transportation equipment, 8.0 per
cent; and mining, 8.6 per cent.
In terms of average cents-per-hour
increases, however, the largest were
in transportation, 88 cents; construction, 86 cents; wood products, 83
cents; metals, 82 cents; and municipal services, 82 cents. The smallest
average cents-per-hour increases
occurred in food and beverages, 57
cents; trade, 60 cents; mining, 61
cents; and miscellaneous services, 64
cents. As can be seen from the foregoing, some industries, such as
miscellaneous services, can have
relatively high percentage increases
that translate into one of the smaller
* Technical notes on the calculation of wage settlement
data can be found on page 20 of the February 1976 edition
of the Labour Research Bulletin, or by contacting the
Ministry's Research and Planning Branch.
31
 average cents-per-hour increases.
This occurs typically in industries that
are low-paying to begin with.
The table on page 33 also provides a
breakdown of settlements affecting
both skilled and unskilled jobs during
1976. The average annual increase
for those engaged in skilled jobs was
10.3 per cent, or 76 cents an hour;
for those in unskilled jobs, the percentage increase was larger, averaging 11.4 per cent, but the cents-per-
hour increase was smaller — 63
cents. As the skilled percentage
increases are computed on a larger
base figure generally, a smaller percentage increase can produce a larg
cents-per-hour increase.
Wage Settlements, by Quarter, 1976
Number of
Contracts
Employees
Covered
Percentage
Cer
per h
First Quarter —
Contract average(i)  38 9,555 11.9
Skilled classes  — — 11.5
Unskilled classes  — — 11.7
Second Quarter —
Contract average  69 27,482 10.8
Skilled classes  — — 10.1
Unskilled classes  — — 12.0
Third Quarter —
Contract average  83 58,207 9.7
Skilled classes  — — 9.2
Unskilled classes  — — 11.1
Fourth Quarter —
Contract average  39 25,027 12.6
Skilled classses  — — 12.3
Unskilled classes  — — 10.5
Average Four Quarters —
Contract average  229 120,271 10.7
Skilled classes  — — 10.3
Unskilled classes  — — 11.4
6C
8A
5£
7c
7i
7A
76
e<
75
1A
4£
7Z
76
6G
1  As represented by the arithmetic average of the modal skilled and modal unskilled pay rates. Footnote refers to all
contract averages.
 B.C. Wage Settlements by Industry, January 1 to December 31, 1976
Industry
Number of   Employees
Contracts      Covered
Contract Average
Annual Increase
First-year
Increase
Percen-   Cents    Percentage       HP^,       tage
Cents
per
Hour
Unskilled
Annual Increase    Annual Increase
Percen-    Cents      Percen-  Cents
tage
per
Hour
tage
All  229
Manufacturing  80
Food and beverage  27
Wood products  9
Metals  7
Machinery e(a/.(1)  18
Miscellaneous manufacturing 19
Construction  29
Trade and service  88
Trade  16
Education  29
Municipal services  9
Miscellaneous services  34
Other industries  32
Mining  16
Transportation  16
Communications and utilities —
120,271
37,080
16,408
13,020
2,681
3,955
1,197
30,080
40,682
2,311
5,630
839
31,902
10.7
10.5
9.5
12.0
12.1
8.0
12.5
9.1
11.8
9.5
10.0
12.8
12.3
12,248 11.7
3,598 8.6
8,650 13.0
73
69
57
83
82
58
79
65
60
70
82
64
80
61
11.5
11.1
9.7
12.2
16.4
9.1
13.6
13.2
10.2
10.0
12.9
14.0
13.2
10.3
14.4
76
71
58
80
1.06
64
84
70
64
71
81
70
86
71
92
10.3
9.5
8.4
10.2
12.4
8.0
11.0
11.8
9.4
10.0
12.6
12.3
11.0
72
59
83
94
64
79
72
71
80
93
70
83
68
11.4
12.0
10.9
14.5
11.5
8.0
14.9
10.1
10.5
9.7
10.8
13.2
10.4
12.3
8.3
14.1
63
67
56
83
70
52
81
46
51
62
72
41
77
54
87
1  Machinery, transportation equipment, and electrical products.
Major Settlements Reported, 1976
During the first quarter of the year the
major settlements reported were
between the Government of Canada
and PSAC, clerical and regulatory
group (3,876 employees); Alcan and
CASAW Local 1 (1,719 employees);
and the T. Eaton Corporation and
Eaton's Employees' Association (728
employees).
The second quarter was somewhat
busier, with major agreements being
signed by the Fisheries Association
of B.C. (cannery, fresh fish, and cold
storage and tendermen sections) and
the United Fishermen and Allied
Workers' Union (5,600 employees);
Lenkhurt Electric and IBEW Local
264 (675 employees); Pulp and Paper
Industrial Relations Bureau and CPU
(7,200 employees); Lornex Mining
Corporation and Steelworkers Local
7619 (585 employees); FVMPA, Palm,
and Silverwood Dairies and Milk
Sales Drivers and Dairy Employees,
Local 464 (1,100 employees); Vancouver Car Dealers Association and
IAMAW Lodge 1857 (750 employees);
School District 43 and CURE Local
561 (592 employees); and by the
Government of Canada and PSAC
public administration and welfare
components (2,800 employees).
In the third quarter of 1976, major
agreements were reached by the
Pulp and Paper Industrial Relations
Bureau and the Pulp, Paper and
Woodworkers of Canada (5,500
employees); Utah Mines and International Union of Operating Engineers Local 115 (600 employees);
Cassiar Asbestos Corporation and
United Steelworkers Locals 6536 and
8449 (545 employees); CNR and the
Non-Operating Engineers, United
Transportation Union, and seven shop
unions (2,630 employees); Fisheries
Association of B.C. and the Native
Brotherhood, cannery workers and
tendermen (1,200 employees); and by
the B.C. Hotels Association and
the Hotel and Restaurant Employees'
and Bartenders' Union Local 40(7,000
employees).
In the fourth quarter of the year, six
agreements, each covering more than
500 employees, were concluded.
These included an agreement among
Burrard Drydocks and Yarrows and
the Joint Shipyard Conference
(1,000 employees); the Okanagan
Federated Shippers and B.C. Interior
Fruit and Vegetable Workers Local
1572 (2,000 employees); UBC and
CUPE Local 116 (1,500 employees);
Finning Tractor and IAMAW Lodge
692 (1,000 employees); Hyatt Regency
 Hotel and Hotel and Restaurant
Employees Local 40 (500 employees);
and two agreements between Health
Labour Relations and the Registered
Nurses Association and the Health
Science Association (3,700
employees).
There has been a good deal of collective bargaining activity in British
Columbia during the past several
years, and indications are that the
schedule will be even heavier in 1977.
Waiting to be renegotiated are some
472 agreements covering 279,226
employees. Both figures are the
highest since 1974, when this information first began appearing in the
Ministry's then newly introduced
Labour Research Bulletin.
Collective Agreements Expiring in
1977, by Month
January	
February	
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September	
October	
November	
December	
Totals        472
Employees
Agreements
Covered
37
8,194
32
10,571
72
15,899
86
50,201
40
6,541
60
60,433
23
43,740
24
8,920
15
3,236
18
4,206
5
519
60
66,766
The months in 1977 with the greatest
number of expiries will be April, with
86; March, 72; and December and
June, each with 60. The months in
which the greatest number of employees will be involved should be
December, 66,766; June, 60,433; April
50,201; and July, 43,740. The least
number of expiries is expected to
occur in November.
The industries with the greatest
number of expiries are manufacturing, with 206, and trade and service,
with 125. The trade and service expiries, however, affect the largest
number of employees, 105,924, and
manufacturing follows with 89,856.
Collective Agreements Expiring in
1977, by Industry
Agreements
Employee
Covered
All Industry  472
Manufacturing  206
Food and beverage  50
Wood products  41
Metals  31
Machinery, transportation
eguipment, and electrical
products  20
Miscellaneous manufacturing   64
Construction  54
Trade and service  125
Trade  29
Education  33
Municipal services  22
Miscellaneous services .... 41
Other industries  87
Mining  18
Transportation  53
Communication and other
utilities  16
279,226
89,856
16,121
58,405
6,470
6,456
44,696
105,924
5,774
33,972
1,474
64,704
38,750
7,341
22,293
9,116
279,226
 20 Largest Expiries During 19771
Employer
Union
Date of
Expiry
Employees
Covered
B.C. Food Industry Labour Relations Council Bakery   Workers,   Food   and   Allied,   Retail
(3 units) Clerks
B.C. Roadbuilders  Labourers, Operating Engineers, Teamsters .
Cominco (Trail, Kimberley, Salmo)  Steelworkers	
CLRA  Building Trades	
Fisheries Association (5 units)  UFAWU, Native Brotherhood	
Forest   Industrial   Relations  (Coast  Master) IWA	
B.C. Government  BCGEU (master)	
Health Labour Relations Association (3 units) Health Sciences, Hospital Employees, Registered Nurses	
Pulp & Paper Industrial Relations Bureau (2
(2 master agreements)  CPU; PPWC	
Southern   Interior  Forest   Labour  Relations IWA	
Transport Labour Relations (Master Freight
and Cartage)  Teamsters	
Mar. 31
4,340
Feb. 23
6,000
Apr. 30
4,600
Apr. 30
36,500
Apr. 15
6,000
June 14
28,000
July 31
37,135
Dec. 31
20,300
June 30
12,700
June 30
6,000
4,500
1  Covering 4,000 or more employees.
  Administration Division
Finance and Administration
Personnel Services
Information Services
Research and Planning
Compensation Advisory Services
37
 Finance and Administration
The Finance and Administration
Branch of the Ministry is broadly
charged with responsibility for the
general financial management of the
Ministry and attendant administrative
programs.
Throughout 1976 the Branch undertook to improve financial management in various programs offered by
the Ministry. This process involved
ongoing evaluation and appraisal of
various initiatives, and development
of improved reporting systems to
facilitate more effective decisionmaking.
Among the major activities of the
Branch is budget administration. The
following table indicates the financial
resources available to the Ministry for
the Province's fiscal year ended
March 31,1976:
Details of Estimates of Expenditure,
Ministry of Labour — Fiscal Year Ended March 31,1976
Vote                                                                            Summary Estimate!
$
120 — Minister's Office  94,13:
121 — General Administration, Human Rights, Research  2,548,966
122 — Labour Standards, Mediation, Arbitration  1,869,16?
123 — Manpower Development  10,635,68?
124 — Labour Relations Board  989,17J
125 — Salary Contingencies  1,893,82^
Total  18,030,96(
During 1976 the Branch undertook
restructuring of Ministry estimates
for the fiscal year 1976/77, including
re-definition of activities to improve
financial evaluation, and management
of programs. The inclusion of Provincial job-creation funds for youth
employment programs also made a
significant impact on financial
management activities.
In the realm of general administration, the Branch is responsible for
accommodation requirements of all
Ministry staff and several related
boards and commissions. Throughout
1976, steps were taken to improve
accommodation and to encourage
more effective use of present facilities. New offices were occupied in
Nanaimo, and plans were made to
expand facilities in Cranbrook, Kamloops, Prince George and Terrace.
In the Ministry's major offices in
Burnaby and Victoria, redesign of
existing accommodation resulted in
improved utility and increased
staff efficiency.
Personnel Services
The Ministry's approved establishment consisted of 370 positions in
early 1976. Reorganization activity,
normal turnover, retirements, and
delays in the recruitment process
resulted in the Ministry's operating at
roughly 5 per cent below full establishment levels throughout the year.
There were 31 appointments, three
retirements, 37 resignations, five in-
service transfers, and 38 promotions
and reclassifications. The Ministry
also engaged the services of 45 temporary employees, 25 student employees under the "Work in Government 76" plan, and an additional 101
 temporary employees for administration of the Youth Employment
Program.
Many of the Ministry's employees
were granted financial assistance
during the year to enrol in a variety of
courses, including upgrading for
secretaries, business writing,
principles of supervision, testing and
measurement, oral communications
and public speaking, personnel practices, personnel management, and
computer components and uses.
In addition, a number of in-house
seminars dealing with staff development were conducted by Labour
Standards and Occupational Environment Branches. A number of officers
employed irUhese operations were
enrolled in courses in instructional
techniques.
A seminar on alcoholism was conducted by the Employee Development Service of Occupational Health
for management and supervisory
personnel in both Burnaby and
Victoria.
Staff of the Personnel Services
Branch attended courses in personnel
management, interviewing techniques, behavioural sciences aspects
of personnel management, and public
administration.
H.H. Cumming, Elevator Inspector
with the Elevating Devices Inspection
Bureau, enrolled in the Executive
Development Training Program, and
was also graduated from a correspondence course in public administration. P.J. Thomas, Factory Inspector with Occupational Environment
Branch, enrolled in the latter course.
Information Services
The Information Services Branch is
primarily concerned with communicating the activities and services of
the various branches of the Ministry
to the general public, labour and
management representatives and
organizations, and academic
institutions.
This objective is achieved through
the provision of public information
programs for the various branches of
the Ministry.
The main responsibility of the Information Services Branch in 1976 was
preparation of the Ministry's new
apprenticeship training manual. Titled
Apprenticeship Training: Doorway to
Opportunity, the manual is in the final
stages of development.
In other areas of public information,
the Branch produced the Ministry's
Annual Report, 1975, and assisted in
the preparation of some 50 pamphlets dealing wih courses in pre-
apprenticeship and apprenticeship
training. The pamphlets were distributed throughout the Province.
The Branch also co-ordinated production of two other pamphlets, one for
Occupational Environment Branch,
and one for Employment Programs
Branch. "Make where you work a
people place" outlined the services
offered by Occupational Environment
to business and industry. "Summer
Work in Government" advised young
people on the steps to be taken in
applying for summer employment
with the various ministries of
Government.
Information Services proposed and
co-ordinated production of a new
format for the monthly Labour Research Bulletin, published by Research and Planning Branch, and it
was scheduled to appear for the first
time in the January 1977 issue. Similar modifications were adopted for
other Branch publications to provide
a related visual identity.
During the year the Branch rewrote
the Ministry's segment of the manual
of organization published by the
Public Service Commission, updated
the Ministry's section in Welcome to
B.C. — Suggestions for Immigrants,
published by the Office of the Provincial Secretary, and assisted in the
preparation of an article on appren-
39
 ticeship training for the careers counselling edition of the Ministry of
Education's Education Today.
In other areas dealing with public
information, the Branch prepared
press releases and messages for the
Minister, produced newspaper advertisements concerning the services
offered by various branches, assisted
in the production of an audio-visual
presentation on apprenticeship training, arranged for the Province-wide
distribution of a brochure on
maternity benefits produced by the
Unemployment Insurance Commission, and investigated the value of
proposals made to the Ministry by
organizations in the private sector
interested in the Province's industrial
relations system.
Other projects engaging Branch
attention during the year included
completion of a report on the
Ministry's jointly sponsored Duncan
seminar on occupational alcholism;
editing of feature articles on alcoholism, and of reports from the Human
Rights Branch, for the Labour Research Bulletin; expansion of contacts with advertising and other outside agencies equipped to assist the
Ministry's public information program; and establishment of information links between Ottawa contacts
and the information services of other
British Columbia Government
ministries.
In the area of internal communications, the Branch evaluated, for the
Director of Personnel, a proposed
employee manual; circulated to the
various branches of the Ministry
copies of addresses delivered by the
Minister and senior officials; and
directed to the appropriate personnel
important magazine articles dealing
with industrial relations themes.
Research and Planning
The general purposes and objectives
of the Research and Planning Branch
are principally the application of
social science techniques and
methodology to problems in the
fields of Labour Relations, Labour
Standards, Human Rights, Health and
Safety, and Manpower.
The Branch is primarily a service unit,
providing advice and information to
the Minister and senior officials, and
support for the various program areas
of the Ministry. The Branch also engages in joint activities with other
ministries, assists various boards and
commissions, distributes information
to the public through the collection
of statistics and the issuing of publications, and provides answers to
inquiries on labour and manpower
matters.
During 1976 the Research and Planning Branch completed a substantial
body of work, including significant
assistance to a number of special
commissions and Government task
forces.
Publications produced by the Branch
included the 1976 Labour Directory,
the 1976 Calendar of Expiring Collective Agreements, and Negotiated
Working Conditions, 1975. The Labour
Research Bulletin was published
monthly throughout the year, and
presented a number of feature
articles, including "Women in the
Labour Force," "Pensions," the
"Meaning  of  Unemployment  Statistics," and "Profile of Low-Wage
Workers in B.C."
Branch research support was provided
for a number of boards and commissions, including the Kinnaird Commission on the Construction Industry, the Goard Commission on Vocational Training, the BC/NKK Steel Mill
Study, the Kinnaird Industrial Inquiry
Commission, the Community Employment Strategy Technical Committee
for Programs Evaluation, and the
Manpower Subcommittee of the
Northeast Coal Committee.
The Branch provided the B.C. Labour
Relations Board with regular statis-
 tical compilations and special
reports on section 8 of the Labour
Code of British Columbia and dependent contractor applications, as well
as continuing research on decertifications, first contracts, unfair labour
practices, and reinstatements.
Papers on job satisfaction, labour
dispute methodology, and pension
information resources were provided
for the annual meeting of the
Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation, Research and Statistics Committee.
There was also participation in
another subcommittee of CAALL to
develop a common national plan for
the coding of collective agreements.
The Branch continued to participate
in joint economic outlook studies for
the Manpower Needs Research Committee, and developed a Canada
Manpower Training Program and a
Training Aid Plan.
There was also participation in Trade
Advisory Committees and in the
Federal-Provincial Manpower Planning Committees. A number of other
studies were completed, in addition
to the major articles produced for the
Labour Research Bulletin.
Special manpower studies made by
the Branch included a study of the
training of industrial instrumentation
technicians, and supply-and-demand
studies for the mechanical construction and hospitality industries. In
addition, the first draft of an econometric
forecasting model for the supply of
tradesmen was completed. Other
manpower studies included an
evaluation of the 1976 Work-in-
Government Program, and a paper on
labour force survey methodology.
Labour relations studies produced
by the Branch dealt with worker-
directors at a forestry operation in the
Kootenays, right-to-work legislation,
legislation in different jurisdictions
affecting the construction industry,
first agreements imposed under
section 70 of the Labour Code of
British Columbia, and union raiding.
The Branch also provided commentary on various Federal Government
documents and legislation, including
changes in the Unemployment Insurance Act, the Federal Anti-Inflation
Program, and the White Paper, "The
Way Ahead." In addition, a paper was
prepared on the subject of manpower
issues in economic development.
Compensation
Advisory Services
Under the provisions of section 77 of
the Workers' Compensation Act, a
Compensation Consultant and Employers' Adviser are appointed by the
Province of British Columbia to provide independent advice to both
workers and employers concerning
problems arising out of the Workers'
Compensation Act {see Tables 1 and
2, page 68).
The Compensation Consultant and
staff assist any worker or dependent
having a claim under the Workers'
Compensation Act. They communicate with or appear before the Workers' Compensation Board, boards of
review, or any other tribunal established under the Workers' Compen
sation Act on behalf of workers or
dependents whose claims are of such
complexity or importance that, in
their opinion, assistance is required.
They also advise workers and dependents with regard to interpretation
and administration of the Act, and of
any regulations or decisions connected with the Act.
The Employers' Adviser performs
similar functions on behalf of employers, and assists them with claims,
policies, and procedures related to
the Act.
Officers of the Compensation Services Branch have complete access
to claim files at the Workers' Compensation Board.
41
  Job Training and
Employment Opportunities Division
Introduction
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Employment Programs
Women's Employment
Trade-schools Regulation
Manpower Training and Development
Occupational Environment
Elevating Devices
43
 The Job Training and Employment
Opportunities Division has consolidated the restructuring and growth
activities that have taken place over
the last several years, and 1976
served as a period of review and
planning for improvements in
various programs.
In July the Commission on Vocational, Technical, and Trade Training was appointed by the Ministers
of Education and Labour. Representatives on the Commission were
Dean Goard (Chairman), Ms. B.
McDonald, and A. Blakeney, M.
McCaffery, C. Stairs, and W.
Trineer. Public hearings were held
in 12 locations across the Province,
and over 200 briefs were heard. The
Commission expects to present a
report early in 1977 on the training
activities of the Ministry.
The Minister appointed the Mining
and Smelting Advisory Committee
to advise on manpower needs in
the Province, a function similar to
that performed by the Construction
Industry Advisory Council, which
was established in 1975. These
committees are the first of several
to be appointed to represent the
various industrial sectors in the
Province.
The growth in apprenticeship training throughout the Province continued to be strong, with an
increase in registration of 11 per
cent over the comparable figure for
1975. This growth has been accompanied by innovative approaches to
the field. For example, a pre-appren-
ticeship course was offered at the
Haney Vocational Centre to provide
trade orientation for women. The
success of the program is now
being evaluated, and this should
lead to further program adjustments next year.
The Ministry again facilitated the
employment of young people during
the summer, almost 12,000 jobs being
created in the process. The project
was aided by the introduction of a
computerized referral service that
provided one central referral agency
for Government jobs.
The Division continued to implement
its policy of decentralization during
the year. For example, the Occupational Environment Branch opened ar
office in Nanaimo to aid in the providing of services to this area of the
Province. Over 10,500 business and
industrial establishments were
inspected during 1976 in the Branch's
continuing efforts to ensure good
working conditions for employees.
Public information brochures and
other literature concerning health in
the work place were prepared and
distributed throughout the Province.
To provide more efficient service in
the Trade-schools Regulation Admini
stration, changes were made during
the year to various regulations concerning trade schools. At an interprovincial meeting held in Banff, and
attended by the Administration's
Director, national standards were discussed with a view to providing
greater consistency in licensing
practices.
Reorganization of the Elevating
Devices Branch was completed, and e
Director recruited. Productivity continued to increase, although staff
levels remained constant.
The Province continued to expand
relationships with the Federal Government in training and employment
creation programs. Policy and administrative actions of this Government
and the Federal Department of Manpower and Immigration were coordinated through co-chairmanship of
the Manpower Needs Committee.
Participation on interprovincial committees also remained strong. A
Federal-Provincial Manpower Ministers' conference in Toronto continued the dialogue established
during the last two years.
The Executive Director of the Division
was invited to represent Canada at
the Ninth Conference of the Training
and Retraining of Coal Miners, held at
ILO headquarters in Geneva. He was
elected chairman of the conference
 and participated in the preparation of
materials that were subsequently
published and distributed on a worldwide basis.
The Job Training and Employment
Opportunities Division continued
during 1976 with its plan to provide
service to all areas of the Province,
and is gradually realizing accomplishment of this objective.
Apprenticeship
Training Programs
The Apprenticeship and Industrial
Training Branch is responsible for the
promotion and operation of apprenticeship and industrial training
throughout the Province, and for the
certification of tradesmen.
The Branch supervises the on-the-job
work experience of apprentices,
assigns their in-school technical
training, and prepares and conducts
examinations to certify the competence of apprentices and tradesmen.
It is responsible also for operating an
extensive pre-apprentice, trades
training program for young men and
women seeking employment as
apprentices.
The Branch works closely with vocational schools, colleges, school
boards, the Ministry of Education,
and Canada Manpower in the
development of all training programs.
Branch personnel periodically visit
secondary schools to disseminate
information about pre-apprenticeship
and apprenticeship programs.
As of December 31, 1976, the
Apprenticeship Training Programs
Branch listed 14,599 apprentices on
its records, up 1,460 from the same
date last year. The need for highly
skilled, trained tradesmen is great,
and to meet this need, the Branch
continues to work with industry, trade
unions and Government agencies to
fulfil its responsibilities for the promotion and operation of apprenticeship training throughout the Province,
and for the certification of tradesmen.
The responsibilities associated with
conducting pre-apprenticeship,
apprenticeship, and journeymen
certification programs include supervision of on-the-job work experience,
assignment of technical training,
preparation and conducting of examinations, development of course outlines and class schedules, and enrollment of classes. In addition to performing these duties, Branch Training
Counsellors spent many hours investigating requests for training under the
Canada Manpower Industrial Training
Program.
Administration connected with the
training programs has been improved
by the decentralization of operations,
computerization, and the data processing of records. All of these aids
are expected to become fully operational by 1977.
Apprenticeship Training
The Branch is responsible for
arranging technical training for indentured apprentices in the Province.
The technical training classes range
from four to eight weeks duration,
depending on the trade, and apprentices attend annually during their term
of apprenticeship.
Training classes are located at the
B.C. Vocational School, Burnaby;
Camosun College, Victoria; Malaspina
College, Nanaimo; Okanagan College,
Kelowna; Cariboo College, Kamloops;
College of New Caledonia, Prince
George; Selkirk College, Nelson;
Northern Lights College, Dawson
Creek; and Northwest Community
College, Terrace.
The Haney Educational Centre is now
being used, and a number of apprenticeship and pre-apprenticeship
classes have been established.
Courses in tilesetting, drywall installer, and drywall finisher have been
moved from the Vocational School in
 Burnaby to Haney, where the accommodation is more spacious.
During the year, technical training
in 46 trades was offered to 10,461
apprentices in day-school classes and
586 in evening classes. The evening
classes are offered in locations where
day classes are unavailable. In addition, upgrading training is being provided to a considerable number of
apprentices seeking to acquire extra
skill and knowledge related to their
present trades. (For a breakdown of
apprentices by trade, see Table 3 on
pages 69 and 70.)
Pre-Apprenticeship Training
Pre-apprenticeship training courses
are designed to prepare individuals
for entry into the skilled labour force
by providing them with basic trade
skills and technical knowledge. The
training also ensures that industry
will have a supply of manpower from
which to draw its new apprentices.
The courses are from four to six
months duration, depending on the
trade, and are offered at various times
during the year. All tuition costs
of students enrolled in pre-apprenticeship classes are paid by the
Branch, and the students also receive
subsistence and travel allowances.
Pre-apprenticeship training in 25
trades was provided for 1,856
students in 116 classes during 1976.
Many of the courses offered attracted
such large numbers of applicants that
the Branch was obliged to add 22
additional classes in various vocational training institutions throughout
the Province. This extension of
facilities provided training for an additional 352 students. Graduates of the
program are employed as apprentices
in the various skilled trade areas.
Two new pre-apprenticeship courses,
refrigeration and inboard/outboard
marine repair, were introduced in
1976. Another innovation, a pre-train-
ing program, offered women assistance in exploring career possibilities
in the various trade areas. Known as
Women's Exploratory Apprenticeship
Training, the program began as an
eight-week pilot project. After the
successful completion of two training
sessions, and assessment, the pro
gram was expanded to provide 12-
week courses on an ongoing basis.
Advisory Committee
Members of the Provincial Apprenticeship Committee held six regular
meetings in 1976 to consider and
approve new contracts of apprenticeship, cancellation of apprenticeship
contracts, transfer of apprentices
between employers, extension of
apprenticeship contracts, issuing of
apprenticeship certificates to successful graduate apprentices, and
applications for pre-apprenticeship
training (see Table 4, page 71).
At a public hearing of the Committee
in Burnaby, members considered submissions concerning compulsory
certification of oil-burner mechanic
tradesmen.
A public hearing was also held for
the purpose of considering representations calling for the addition of the
trade of embalming and funeral
arranging to Schedule A of the
Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's
Qualification Act.
Provincial Trade Advisory Committees, which were established to
ensure that training programs provide
the manpower to meet existing trade
requirements, and to plan for new
technologies within the various
trades, convened 97 meetings during
the year. Five of these meetings were
held away from the Branch's main
offices.
With the addition of two new committees in 1976, for the trades of elevator
mechanic and optical technician, the
number of Trade Advisory Committees was increased to 60. Representatives of the optical and elevator
industries subsequently met with
their respective committees to
discuss the possibility of establishing apprenticeship training programs
for the two trades.
Federal-Provincial Co-operation
British Columbia, with the participation of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the
Yukon, Northwest Territories, and
Canada Manpower, continued to
enrol out-of-province apprentices in
British Columbia technical training
programs. The funding for this is
 made possible by Canada Manpower,
and it provides for maximum use of
training facilities.
Under the terms of the Adult Occupational Training Act, and the aegis of
the Interprovincial Standards Coordinating Committee, directors of
apprenticeship and examination coordinators from the various provinces
and territories met with representatives of the Department of Manpower
and Immigration to discuss interprovincial examinations, course outlines, new testing procedures, trade
analyses, and other topics related to
apprenticeship training, tradesmen's
upgrading, and the certification of
apprentices and tradesmen.
Notwithstanding the standardizing
effect of the Canadian Interprovincial
Standards Examinations for certification, the scope and organization of
training programs has differed considerably from province to province,
depending on local requirements and
preferences. Consequently, the four
western provinces have undertaken
the task of identifying the differences
and common features of their respective programs, with a view to establishing greater uniformity. When that
goal is reached, apprentices will be
able to move to and from these provinces without disrupting the continuity of their training.
Within the Province, Program Development Officers met with officials of
other Government ministries, Federal
agencies, and the Canadian Armed
Forces to discuss matters related to
training and certification.
Industrial Training
British Columbia and the Department
of Manpower and Immigration jointly
administer the Canada Manpower
Industrial Training Program. Staff of
the Apprenticeship and Industrial
Training Branch investigate, report
on, and recommend or reject industrial training contracts that are
directly related to skill training and
apprenticeship.
During 1976 the Branch collaborated
with Manpower officials to process
5,388 applications for training in
industry. In all, 13,308 trainees were
placed, 1,520 of them in apprentice-
able areas. The program has been
instrumental in providing job opportunities for many persons who might
not otherwise have obtained employment. It has also helped employers
over the periods of relatively low productivity that occur while trainees
are learning to adapt to a new environment. As the Federal funding of the
program rises, increased training
activity and more job opportunities
can be expected.
Program Development
The Program Development Section of
the Branch expanded operations
during the year with respect to
courses of instruction, examinations,
and trade analyses connected with
Provincial and interprovincial programs of apprenticeship and tradesmen's qualification.
National trade (or occupational)
analyses are prepared and published
by the Federal Government with the
participation of the provinces. These
documents provide the nucleus from
which training programs and examinations are developed. Program
Development Section participated in
the validation of nine such analyses
in 1976, and from these, pre-apprenticeship and indentured apprenticeship course outlines were developed
or revised for 16 trades.
A comprehensive training manual for
the steamfitting and pipefitting trade
was developed with the assistance of
the Federal Government. Published
in British Columbia, the manual was
made available to all provinces for
use in their training programs. A
similar publication for the plumbing
 trade is being prepared for printing,
and another for the boilermaking
trade is being developed.
The Province has also accepted the
responsibility of comparing the electrical trades curricula offered by the
four provinces, and the other three
western provinces are making similar
comparisons for the trades of carpentry, automotive mechanical repair, and
heavy-duty mechanic.
Examination Development
A number of examinations were
drawn up for use in the apprenticeship training classes. The progress of
heavy-duty mechanic trade apprentices was monitored by standardized
examinations in all of the training
institutions at each session of their
technical training. A similar series of
examinations was developed for the
automotive mechanical repair trade,
and for bookbinding. Examinations
for the millwright trade are being
prepared.
Interprovincial Standards Examinations for several trades were revised
in co-operation with other provinces
and the Government of Canada. The
trade of boilermaker was added to the
schedule of trades in the interprovincial program, and British Columbia
accepted the responsibility of
developing an appropriate
examination.
For tradesmen who have not had the
benefit of apprenticeship training, the
Branch conducts tradesmen's qualification examinations that lead to
certification in 26 trades. Revision of
these Provincial examinations is a
continuing process, and 10 of them
received attention this year, with
participation by representatives from
industry. Persons who obtain tradesmen's qualifications through these
examinations can become eligible
to obtain interprovincial endorsement
by completing the Canadian Interprovincial Standards Examinations in
those trades encompassed by the
interprovincial program.
Employment Programs
Employment Programs Branch is
responsible for the administration of
Provincial job-creation programs
under the authority of the Special
Provincial Employment Programmes
Act (1974).
The objective of the Branch is to reduce the disproportionately high
unemployment rates among youth
and the disadvantaged in British
Columbia by providing employment
opportunities that will enable these
groups to acquire the skills and
related work experience required for
full-time participation in the labour
force.
To attain this objective, the Branch
has established and promoted direct-
employment programs for specific
groups such as students, and
physically disabled, mentally disadvantaged, and socially disadvantaged
youth.
The Provincial Youth Employment
Program administered by the Employment Programs Branch provided a
total of 11,931 jobs for youth in 1976
— 2,274 through municipal and regional district governments, 653
through universities, 4,300 through
Provincial Government ministries,
2,680 through farms and businesses,
and 2,024 through non-profit
organizations.
The Provincial Youth Employment
Program, while providing the
Province's youth with work experience and the funds needed to continue their education, has also benefited employers and communities
through the productive work accomplished by the students.
A major innovation during the 1976
program was the introduction of a
computerized Youth Referral Service.
This Service was designed to provide
a centralized agency for Provincial
Government hiring of youth for
 summer jobs. The Service provides
young people with equal access to
jobs in Government ministries, and
reduces the time formerly spent by
individual ministries in recruitment
and selection. In addition, the Service
facilitated the hiring of youth from
local communities throughout the
Province for Government jobs in their
home areas.
The Youth Referral Service operated
by collecting applications from candidates in universities, colleges and
secondary schools throughout British
Columbia, and used a computer program to refer youths to jobs available on the basis of education, skills
and work experience.
During the year the Service made
43,000 referrals of youth to 4,209
summer jobs from a file of 22,000
applicants.
Women's
Employment Bureau
The prime objective of the Women's
Employment Bureau is to increase
equal employment opportunities for
women by promoting their integration
into industry, and by encouraging
the establishment of training and upgrading programs to further their
fuller participation in the economy.
To facilitate these endeavours, newsletters are mailed regularly to employers, unions, information centres,
resource boards, and women's organizations to make them aware of the
services offered by the Bureau. The
newsletters also emphasize the
opportunities available to women
through apprenticeship training.
Throughout 1976 the Women's Employment Bureau continued to stimulate research into various aspects of
women's employment, to disseminate
information concerning women in the
economy, and to encourage adequate
occupational preparation for women
so that they may participate more
effectively in the total labour force.
Many women believe that they could
function as efficiently as males in
certain occupations, but, until given
a chance to develop some expertise,
are hesitant to apply for such positions, even when encouraged to do
so by employers and unions. To
prepare them to investigate such
opportunities, the Bureau has established special pilot programs to train
women in the basics of 20 trades, all
formerly occupied almost exclusively
by men.
These pilot programs, known as
"Women's Exploratory Apprenticeship Training," were introduced for
the first time at the Haney Educational Centre early in 1976. Tuition
fees and training allowances were
paid by the Apprenticeship and
Industrial Training Branch, in accordance with the rates paid to all pre-
apprenticeship students.
Under section 11 of the Human
Rights Code of British Columbia,
special permission was granted by
the Human Rights Commission so
that the programs could be directed
to women who had never had the
opportunity of access to apprenticeship training, or who had been discouraged from attempting to enter
training for non-traditional occupations.
The training courses introduced have
been designed to help women explore various trade areas, and to
develop primary skills in the occupation of their choice. The curriculum
includes use of basic hand tools,
maintenance and use of power tools,
safety practices, the reading and
designing of simple drawings, and
selection and use of material appropriate for completion of specific
projects.
Performance evaluation of the pilot
project's initial graduates led to a
slight change in format. In the fall of
1976, the program was lengthened to
12 weeks, and a system of staggered
intake dates, three weeks apart, was
instituted.
 The women selected for training
came from throughout the Province,
and were widely divergent in age,
educational background, and work
experience. Graduates of the courses
have gone on to enrol in pre-apprenticeship classes in the trade of their
choice, or have made a direct entry to
employment. Others have opted for
non-traditional occupations outside
the purview of apprenticeship. Some
women enrolled in special upgrading
classes, particularly mathematics,
before continuing further training.
Information about the Women's
Exploratory Apprenticeship Training
Program carried by the media resultei
in an increase in the number of
women requesting counselling.
Women are anxious to know about
training programs that will enhance
their career aspirations in all aspects
of employment.
The exploratory nature of the training
enables trainees to make a realistic
determination of both their skills and
their suitability for a particular trade.
In addition, continuance of this training should effect a more equitable
male-female balance in the Province's
work force.
The Bureau's Director continued to
serve on committees dealing with
vocational advancement for women.
In addition, she accepted invitations
to speak, or serve as a resource person at conferences, work shops and
career days in the Province. She also
attended the convention of the
Canadian Association of Administrators of Labour Legislation in St.
John's, Newfoundland, in her
capacity as an executive member of
the Women's Policy Committee.
Trade-schools Regulation
Supervision of private trade-schools
includes approval of premises and
equipment; health, sanitary, and
safety conditions; hours of operation; courses offered; fees charged;
form of contract; teacher qualification; performance bond; cancellation
provisions; advertising copy; and any
other procedures that may serve to
protect the public and exclude would-
be practitioners.
The issuing of a certificate of registration authorizes an institution to
operate a trade-school, and provides
the public with the assurance that
certain standards have been met.
During 1976, Trade-schools Regulation personnel held 13 meetings, out
of which came recommendations to
the Minister of Labour concerning
registration, re-registration, requests
for changes in tuition fees, requests
for approval of new courses, the general conduct of private trade-schools,
and other matters related to administration of the Trade-schools Regulation Act.
As of December 31, 1976, 98 schools
offering correspondence and practical
courses, or combined correspondence and practical training, were
registered under the Act.
Eighty-five schools were re-registrations from the year 1975, and 13 new
schools were considered and recommended to the Minister and approved
for certificate of registration during
the year. Ten schools discontinued
operation in British Columbia in 1976.
In addition to the inspections conducted in each school at least twice a
 year, special visits were made to
schools to resolve specific problems
and complaints. Students wishing to
discontinue training, and who had
prepaid tuition fees owing them, were
granted refunds.
During the year, Branch Officers
reviewed the regulations made pursuant to the Trade-schools Regulation
Act, and proposed amendments to
Regulations 13 and 14 of the General
Regulations Governing Trade-schools,
and to Regulations 1 and 7 of the
Special Regulations Governing Hair-
dressing Schools. These recommendations were adopted as was the
proposal for a new regulation governing bonding in hairdressing schools.
Student Assistance
Two private trade-schools in British
Columbia were designated in 1976 as
eligible institutions under the B.C.
Student Assistance Program. This
program was introduced by the Ministry of Education to ensure that post-
secondary students would not be
denied the opportunity to reach their
educational objectives because of
financial problems.
During the year, an interprovincial
meeting of Private and Vocational and
Trade-schools Act Administrators was
held in Banff, Alta., for the exchange
of information, discussion of
common problems, and development
of nationally uniform concepts and
principles. The subjects debated
included reciprocal provincial accreditation, bonding, contract forms, fee
increases, and refunds.
Manpower
Training and Development
The efforts of the Manpower Training
and Development Branch are directed
toward supporting industrial development throughout the Province, expanding employment opportunities
for unemployed and underemployed
workers, alleviating persistent skill
shortages, preventing the layoff of
workers through technological or economic change, and encouraging employers to establish training programs
and improve the quality of training
within industry in order to increase
productivity and economic growth.
The Mining and Smelting Manpower
Committee, composed of representatives of management, labour, and
Government, was appointed by the
Minister in late 1976. This is the
second industry committee to be
appointed to assist the Government
in considering employment and
training needs.
The committee, which serves in an
advisory capacity to the Ministry of
Labour on the provision and maintenance of an adequate, well-trained
labour force for the mining and smelt
ing industry, held two meetings to
establish guidelines and identify
priorities for research and action
during 1977.
Research priorities will include development of a profile of the work
force in terms of numbers, skills and
geographic location; establishment
of a manpower forecasting capability; conducting of a study on turnover; and recommendations to
improve the manpower areas of the
legislative and regulatory framework
within which the industry operates.
The Construction Industry Advisory
Council on Manpower, which has the
responsibility of advising the Minister, the Government, and the construction industry on matters pertaining to the supply and training of
personnel for the construction industry, met frequently during the year.
The council submitted a report to the
Minister of Labour concerning the
responsibility for offering trade and
vocational training. The members
perceived a need to bring together all
interested parties to deal with, and
51
 make recommendations concerning,
matters affecting identification, projection, and planning of programs to
meet the future manpower needs of
the construction industry, and they
urged that an extensive review of
those needs be undertaken.
The major concerns of the council
were in the areas of (1) the role of the
regional colleges with trades and
technical training, (2) the quality of
counselling advice and assistance
being provided to young people in
secondary schools, and (3) the
administration and control of the
Province's major training facilities.
Subsequent to their review of the
council's report, the Ministers of
Labour and Education appointed a
six-person Commission, under the
chairmanship of Dean Goard, to conduct hearings throughout the Province and make recommendations
with respect to technical and
vocational training.
During the year, members of the
council formed part of a delegation
that visited Britain to examine and
evaluate British construction and
training methods and procedures.
Occupational
Environment Branch
The primary responsibility of the
Occupational Environment Branch,
under the Factories Act, 1966 and
regulations, is to ensure that workers
employed in factories, stores, and
offices have been provided a working
environment conducive to their
health, comfort, and well-being.
The Branch administers the Act and
the regulations pursuant to the Act.
The legislation sets out the various
standards and requirements, thereby
having the effect of maintaining at
least a minimum acceptable occupational environment.
To ensure that acceptable minimum
standards are being observed, the
Branch's Inspectors must assess the
adequacy of illumination systems,
heating, make-up and exhaust systems, air-contamination controls,
sanitation, and interior painting. Employee amenities related to comfort
and personal hygiene, such as lunchrooms, washrooms, shower rooms,
locker rooms, and seating provision,
also receive priority.
In the case of new factory construction, or additions and alterations to
existing buildings, the Act and regulations require that engineering plans
and specifications be submitted to an
Inspector, who determines to what
extent they conform to established
standards.
In 1976 the Occupational Environment Branch continued to provide
consultative services to employers,
architects, consulting engineers
and construction companies concerning performance standards for building services in proposed factories and
other work places. Plans and specifications for 803 proposed factories,
offices, and stores were approved by
the Branch. The purpose of this service is to assist employers in designing and providing working environ
ments suited to the number of
employees present, together with
systems adequate to maintain healthy
working conditions in relation to the
industrial processes and materials
being used.
The principal service provided by the
Branch is the program of field inspections used to ensure that reasonable
working conditions are being maintained in industrial establishments.
Advice is provided on the technical
means required to achieve at least
minimum standards, and adequate
time is allowed for completion of
improvement requests. The number
of individual visits to work places
totalled 10,557 during the year, and
4,830 separate items were brought to
the attention of employers for
improvement.
Where possible, employees are
 requested to make suggestions that
will lead to the maintenance of
reasonable working conditions, and
to participate in discussions that will
promote development of a co-operative approach in the provision of an
acceptable working environment.
Decentralization Program
Phase one of the Branch's decentralization program was completed in
1976 with the establishment of a
branch office at Nanaimo. Services
are now provided for all of Vancouver
Island.
The burgeoning of industrial and
commercial development experienced by the Province in recent years
dictated the need to locate inspectors
at branch offices within designated
regions. These are now functioning
within seven large geographical areas
from regional offices located at Victoria, Nanaimo, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson and Prince
George. Basic services are now provided throughout the Province.
Elevating Devices
The Elevating Devices Inspection
Bureau is responsible for the inspection of all forms of elevating devices
— passenger and freight elevators,
escalators, dumbwaiters, moving
walks, and workers' construction
hoists — to ensure safe operating
conditions. These responsibilities are
met through licensing and periodic
safety inspections designed to
ensure that both legislation and
implementing regulations are complied with.
Before any such vertical transportation devices are put into service,
inspectors of the Bureau conduct full-
scale acceptance tests. Subsequent
to acceptance, all installations are
inspected periodically to ensure that
the safety standards are being maintained and also improved as changes
occur.
The Bureau also provides a consultative engineering service to unions,
management, building owners and
the general public, as well as to
Government ministries. Safety legislation itself is constantly under review
as technology advances, and recommendations for change are made
periodically to the Minister.
The Bureau's headquarters at 4240
Manor Street, in Burnaby, are located
at the geographic centre of
operations for the Lower Mainland.
Field offices are located at Victoria,
Prince George and Kelowna.
During 1976 the Elevating Devices
Inspection Bureau conducted a total
of 7,379 inspections of vertical transportation equipment throughout the
Province. These inspections resulted
in the issuing of 8,167 directives
requiring repairs to ensure that the
equipment was in safe operating
condition.
In addition, 425 engineering plans and
specifications were approved for new
installations and extensive modernization of existing equipment.
Despite an increasing work load,
staff levels during the year were held
to the 1975 establishment by means
of a reorganizing of Bureau activities
and responsibilities, and the cooperation of staff members.
During 1976 the Bureau's co-operative
arrangements with the Federal
Government were discharged, and
elevating devices in buildings under
Federal jurisdiction throughout the
Province were inspected.
The elevating devices on British
Columbia ferries were also inspected,
and foreign ocean-going vessels continued to avail themselves of the
Bureau's services.
Other ministries of Government
resorted to use of the Bureau's consultative services during the year. As
a consequence, Bureau personnel
were involved with the engineering
sections of the Federal Department
 of Public Works, the B.C. Hospital
Insurance Services, and the B.C.
Hydro and Power Authority on projects at both the planning and implementation stages. The Workers'
Compensation Board also provided
co-operation in resolving mutual
problems.
Bureau representatives attended the
annual convention of the Canadian
Standards Association Code Committee in Quebec City from September
20 to 24. The Committee's responsi
bility is to ensure that the safety
standards of all elevating devices
throughout Canada are thoroughly
examined and regularly updated.
Included among the delegates were
representatives from inspection
services in all of the provinces, and
from elevator and hoist manufacturers in Canada, the United States,
Britain and Sweden.
 Industrial Relations Division
Introduction
Labour Standards
Mediation Services
Arbitration and Special -Services
Human Rights
55
 Introduction
1976 was a critical year in the field
of industrial relations, despite the
20 per cent reduction from 1975 in the
number of man-days lost owing to
strikes. The year began with the
provisions of the Collective Bargaining Continuation Act (Bill 146) due to
expire, and none of the disputes
covered by the legislation resolved.
A settlement was reached in the
forest industry dispute, leaving the
Minister to deal with other critical
disputes in the pulp and paper, rail,
propane, and food industries. Recognizing their responsibility to the community, and particularly to customers,
the disputants in the latter case
agreed to submit their dispute to
binding arbitration. In addition to the
foregoing, a number of equally
critical disputes developed.
Ironically, as common sense prevailed, some of the disputes that
could have been most detrimental to
the public gained very little attention.
They were either prevented from
reaching the stage of work stoppages, or settlements were reached
when stoppages of a very short duration occurred.
One of the most critical disputes
involved only 12 persons, but such
was the nature of the industry that
the emergency services organizations
were already talking in terms of
evacuating the entire town of Fort St.
John, and the Water Resources Board
was concerned about water pollution.
Diligent work on the part of the Ministry and the Industrial Inquiry Commissioner prevented an industrial dispute from cutting off the entire
natural gas supply for the Interior of
British Columbia.
The Ministry was not so fortunate in
the dispute that erupted in the health
care industry, causing a midsummer
strike that required the passing of
the Hospital Services Collective
Agreement Act.
The special legislation, titled the
Railway and Ferries Bargaining Assistance Act, was also introduced to
deal with labour relations problems
in these industries.
Disputes that resulted in strikes of
some three years duration at two
shingle mills ended, or were close to
settlement, in 1976.
An experiment in environmental control was introduced in 1976, following
a dispute in Cassiar in 1975. At the
request of the union and the corporation, an overview committee embracing all agencies having responsibility
in this field were brought together
under the chairmanship of the Deputy
Minister. The committee includes
representatives of the Ministry of
Mines and Petroleum Resources,
which has the major responsibility for
enforcement, the Workers' Compensation Board, the Ministry of Health's
Occupational Health Branch, the
Ministry of Labour's Occupational
Environment Branch, the corporation,
and the Steelworkers Union. It
appears that others are watching the
experiment closely.
Although the number of man-days
lost owing to strikes or lockouts in
1976 was down by 20 per cent from
1975, the number of workers involved
in disputes in the same period rose
by one quarter. Parties to disputes
during the term of collective bargaining agreements increasingly resorted
to the use of arbitrators or arbitration
boards for settlements.
Although the Labour Relations Board
reports separately, it is worth noting
that it was called upon to deal with 56
complaints of illegal strike action and
11 of alleged illegal lockouts. In all,
294 disputes were settled by arbitration, for which awards were filed with
the Minister.
Arbitration, however, as an accepted
procedure for settling disputes, is
causing concern because of its high
cost. This problem surfaced dramatically in teacher salary negotiations
when School District No. 11 in Trail
refused to waive the remuneration for
arbitrators of $40 a day provided
under the Arbitration Act.
 Labour Standards Branch personnel
recovered $1,752,233.99 on behalf of
10,466 employees whose employers
had not met statutory obligations.
What should not go unnoticed in this
report is the diplomacy demonstrated
by the men and women who pursue
these claims, and who experience all
the frustration of dealing with an em
ployer's bankruptcy on the one side,
and the inability of employees to
meet their commitments on the other.
Special mention is also deserved for
the contribution made to the industrial relations field by all those who
accepted responsibility as Industrial
Inquiry Commissioners, Special
Officers, and Arbitrators.
Labour Standards
The Labour Standards Branch administers a large number of statutes,
Orders, and Regulations affecting the
quality of the work place and the conditions of employment of most
employees.
The diversity of the program may be
gauged from the variety of statutes
affecting labour. Included are the Payment of Wages Act, Minimum Wage
Act, Maternity Protection Act, Employment Agencies Act, Control of
Employment of Children Act, and
Annual and General Holidays Act.
In addition to enforcing the foregoing
legislation, the Branch's Industrial
Relations officers are directly
involved with the administration of
the requirements of the Province's
Labour Code and Human Rights
Code. In fact, they perform a unique
and important function in sensitive
areas of industrial relations.
Offices of the Branch are located in
Victoria, Vancouver/Burnaby, Chilliwack, Williams Lake, Prince George,
Terrace, Dawson Creek, Kamloops,
Kelowna, Nelson and Cranbrook.
The Labour Standards Branch continued, in 1976, to place major
emphasis on its educational program
for employees, employers and
unions, and Industrial Relations Officers addressed a variety of seminars,
schools, business associations and
trade unions.
The IROs also made a total of 61,076
calls and investigations in connection
with enforcement of labour standards
legislation. Adjustments totalling
$1,752,233.99 were made on behalf of
10,466 employees by 4,498 employers.
The majority of payments were the
direct result of employer inability
to meet payroll commitments owing
to financial instability. Recoveries
effected represented an increase of
approximately 20 per cent over the
figure for 1975. There has been a
marked decrease in the number of
adjustments effected under the Minimum Wage Act, which may be indicative of a greater awareness and
acceptance by employers of the need
to comply with the legislation.
The main vehicle for wage recovery is
the Payment of Wages Act, and the
Board of Industrial Relations issued
725 certificates under this legislation.
Additionally, 520 Demand Notices
were issued to persons and institutions owing money to employers who
in turn owed unpaid wages to
employees.
Registrations at a fee of $50 were
issued to 97 employment agencies
after investigation to determine the
extent of compliance with the provisions of the Employment Agencies
Act.
There were 239 permits issued under
the Control of Employment of
Children Act, authorizing the employment of children under the terms and
conditions of the permit. In every
case, applications were thoroughly
investigated to ensure that the proposed employment would not be
injurious to the employees or
adversely affect their scholastic and
educational standards.
Statistical data on a number of the
Branch's activities during 1976 appear
in Tables 5 to 8 on pages 71 to 72.
57
 Mediation Services
Mediation Sen/ices Branch has as its
prime objective the settling of labour
disputes within the Province. To this
end, the Branch provides assistance
to management and trade unions
during negotiations concerning either
the renewal of a collective agreement
or an initial collective agreement.
Trade unions and employers, either
separately or jointly, may apply for the
assistance of a Mediator by making
application, under the Labour Code of
British Columbia, to the Director,
Mediation Services Branch, Seventh
Floor, 4211 Kingsway, Burnaby, B.C.
The appropriate application forms
may be obtained from the Branch
office or from any office of the Ministry of Labour in the Province.
The assistance of a Mediator is also
available, on an unofficial or informal
basis, if a labour-management dispute
results in a strike or lockout. Mediation assistance is also provided to
Government employees under the
Public Service Labour Relations Act,
and to teachers under the Public
Schools Act.
The Branch maintains files of collective agreements and certifications
that are available for scrutiny by trade
unions and employers.
During 1976, officers of Mediation
Services Branch were involved in a
total of 342 disputes — 264 of them
were completed at year-end, 76 were
carried forward into 1977, and two
appointments were rescinded. The
comparable figures for 1975 were
431, 342, 81, and eight (see Table 9,
page 73).
In addition, Mediation Officers were
involved on an ongoing basis in 13
disputes, subsequent to the report
of the officer, and in three disputes in
which no official appointment was
made. Of the 264 disputes completed
at year-end, 206 resulted in settlement
with the assistance of Mediation
Officers.
Upon request, the Branch provided
speakers, panelists and moderators
for trade union and employer organizations, as well as for such educational institutions as The University of
British Columbia, University of Victoria, BCIT and junior colleges.
Numerous inquiries were received
from many parts of the Province and
from other centres in Canada concerning legislation affecting collective
bargaining.
Representatives from the Branch
attended the CAALL and ALMA conferences, as well as a Federal
Government-sponsored seminar for
mediators in Montreal.
The Branch also continued its communications with various conciliation
and mediation services in Canada
and the United States, for the purpose
of exchanging information on matters
of administration, legislation, and
trends and problems of mutual
interest and concern.
 Arbitration
and Special Services
Arbitration and Special Services
Branch maintains a register of arbitrators, correlates arbitration awards,
and makes these awards available to
persons interested in decisions concerning grievances that arise out of
collective agreements. Copies of
awards may be viewed at the office of
the Director of Arbitration and Special
Services, 880 Douglas Street, Victoria, or may be obtained at a charge
of 25 cents a page (to a maximum of
$2.50). Cheques or money orders
should be made payable to the Minister of Finance.
Award summaries are published
monthly in the Ministry's Labour
Research Bulletin, and copies are
forwarded for publication in Labour
Arbitration Cases and Western
Labour Arbitration Cases.
The Branch also assists the Minister
in selecting persons to act as chairmen of arbitration boards.
In addition, the Branch maintains a
constant surveillance of ILO activities, determining the extent of compliance with ILO Conventions and
Recommendations, and weighing the
implications of such instruments for
the labour force of British Columbia.
The Branch regularly prepares
material that enables the Ministry to
respond to industrial relations issues
of concern to the Province that are
raised by other national and international bodies such as CAALL,
OECD, andlAGLO.
Two branches of the Ministry, Arbitration Services and Special Services,
were merged in 1976 to form a new
entity, the Arbitration and Special
Services Branch.
The Branch operation now encompasses both the functions and
responsibilities related to arbitration
procedures in the Province, and the
duties and obligations associated
with issues of concern to the Province that are raised by national and
international organizations connected
with industrial relations.
During the year, there was again an
increase in the use of arbitration to
settle labour-management disputes
arising out of the terms of collective
agreements. In all, 294 arbitration
awards were filed with the Minister,
27 per cent more than the 231 filed
in 1975. Of the 295,129 were the
decisions of arbitration boards, 166
the decisions of single arbitrators.
Most arbitration boards are selected
by the parties to a collective agreement. The Labour Code, however,
states that if there is failure to
appoint or constitute an arbitration
board under a collective agreement,
the Minister of Labour may, at the
request of either party, make such
appointments as are necesary to constitute a board. In 1976 the Minister
made 24 such appointments, of which
13 were for chairmen of arbitration
boards and 11 were for single
arbitrators.
Eighty-one of the awards handed
down in 1976 dealt with the discharge
of employees. In discharge cases
covered by the Labour Code, the average elapsed time between the date of
the alleged violation of the collective
agreement and the date of the award
was 166.4 days. The shortest length
of time required by an arbitration
board to deal with a discharge case
was 19 days; the longest was 504
days.
Arbitration awards deal with a variety
of matters as extensive as those
covered by collective agreements.
The frequency of occurrence of
issues in cases reported in 1976 is
outlined in Table 10 on page 73. Table
11 on page 73 indicates the average
number of days necessary to
complete arbitration cases during
1976.
The Special Services function of the
Branch continues to provide the International and Provincial Affairs Branch
of Labour Canada with British Columbia's response in the preparation of
the Canadian position on ILO
59
 questions. As an outgrowth of these
efforts, the Branch is often able to
initiate action directed toward the
improvement of Provincial legislation.
The Branch also continues to circulate ILO descriptions of job vacancies
in foreign countries. These positions
call for expert help in vocational training, manpower and employment planning, and related labour fields. Tenure
generally ranges between six months
and two years. Further details may be
obtained from the Branch.
The Branch continues to undertake
special studies for the Deputy Mini
ster, Associate Deputy Ministers, and
the Board of Industrial Relations, with
a view to identifying new directions
and initiatives for industrial relations
policies. One of these was a preliminary study on the subject of hours
of work and hours-of-work legislation.
Another was a report on the operations of employment agencies in
British Columbia.
A third study, conducted for the
Ministry's Labour Standards Branch,
examined the area of wage protection
and provided a survey of wage insurance schemes currently in use in
various European countries.
Human Rights Branch
The role of the Human Rights Branch
is to promote equal opportunity for all
persons in the Province, without
regard to race, religion, colour, sex,
marital status, ancestry, or place of
origin, and to prohibit discrimination
against any other category of persons
unless reasonable cause exists.
The Branch administers the Human
Rights Code of British Columbia,
which prohibits all forms of discrimination in the areas of employment,
tenancy, and public services. The
Code is based on the principle that
every individual shall be free and
equal in dignity.
Complaints are investigated by an
officer of the Branch, and every effort
is made to resolve the matter
amicably between the parties. If this
is not possible, the case may be
referred by the Minister of Labour to a
Board of Inquiry which, after holding
a hearing, brings down a written
decision.
The Branch conducts educational
programs for schools, employers,
unions, and community organizations
around the Province, and provides
resource persons to assist and speak
at seminars and conferences.
The Human Rights Branch processed
578 formal complaints and 3,500
informal complaints and inquiries in
1976. The largest number of complaints, 64 per cent, continued to fall
in the area of employment, followed
by 14 per cent related to public services, and 13 per cent to tenancy (see
Tables 12 to 14, page 74).
Boards of Inquiry heard 11 cases, and
a number of significant legal precedents were established. In one, a
Board of Inquiry ruled that handicapped persons are covered by the
Human Rights Code.
In another, discrimination on the
basis of pregnancy, against landed
immigrants, and on the basis of
homosexuality were ruled to be contraventions of the Human Rights
Code.
During the year the Branch participated in over 200 educational programs in communities around the
Province, and another 7,000 copies of
the leaflet, Your Rights, were distributed.
In other areas, the Branch worked
with a committee of personnel practitioners brought together by the
Industrial Relations Management
Association in order to develop a
guide for pre-employment inquiries.
The Branch was also involved in
establishing an equal employment
opportunity program at the Vancouver
Resources Board and the City of
Vancouver.
Settlements
It is the responsibility of the Human
Rights Branch, under the Human
 Rights Code, to investigate complaints of discrimination, and endeavour to bring about a settlement
acceptable to all parties. Most complaints are resolved through a settlement. In some cases, investigation
reveals no evidence of discrimination,
or brings to light a misunderstanding.
In other cases, investigation indicates
that discrimination was involved.
Among the cases settled under the
Human Rights Code in 1976 were the
following:
A 50-year-old woman complained that
she had been fired from her restaurant job because of age discrimination. The settlement awarded her payment of $1,000 in lost wages, and the
restaurant owner agreed to abide by
the Code.
An employee who had been dismissed by an insurance company
because he was an epileptic was
subsequently rehired.
The complaint of a 17-year-old female
bakery sales clerk, who quit her job
because of sexual harassment by her
employer, was resolved through payment of $100 in lost wages and the
issuing of a serious warning to the
employer.
A complaint of refusal to rent living
quarters because of racial origin was
settled when the defendant offered
an apartment, an apology, and a
commitment to abide by the Human
Rights Code.
A complaint of a woman who had
been denied employment as a night
driver by four separate taxi companies
resulted in the dropping of restrictions against women night drivers,
and the plaintiff's application for such
work was accepted by one of the
companies.
A supermarket employee who had
been fired because of criminal
charges that were unrelated to the
work he was doing was reinstated in
his job and paid $2,000 in lost wages.
A policy that allowed a School Board
to deny female students entry into
an industrial arts course was rescinded, and the course opened to all students regardless of sex.
A motel that had refused to consider
a woman for a job because of her sex
was required to change its policy,
apologize to the woman, and pay her
damages of $500.
A child-care worker who had not been
referred to work in her chosen field
because of a physical handicap
received an apology from a job counsellor and was provided with a referral
to work.
Equal Opportunity
The Vancouver Resources Board, in
August 1975, following proposals put
forward jointly by the Branch and
CUPE Local 881, formed a joint Union-
Management Committee to design
and oversee an equal employment
opportunity program. The committee
reported back to the Board in February 1976, presenting an over-all plan
that was accepted unanimously.
Simultaneously, the three unions
represented at the Vancouver Resources Board — CUPE Local 881,
Vancouver Municipal and Regional
Employees Union, and Social Services Employees Union — negotiated
with the Board for inclusion of an
affirmative action clause in their contract. This is the first such clause in
Canada to be included in a collective
agreement.
The union-management committee
subsequently reported to the Board
that a survey of the Board's staff
indicated an under-representation of
racial minorities, native Indians, and
handicapped persons. The committee
also reported that job classifications
such as clerk, housekeeper, and
janitor were segregated by sex, and
that the income level for female
employees was lower than for male
employees. The Board responded by
approving adoption of a program of
positive recruitment to find and encourage qualified members of the
under-represented groups who could
be hired by the Vancouver Resources
Board as openings become available.
The Board also approved the setting
of modest hiring goals for these
groups for the next five years.
The Board then applied to the Human
Rights Commission for approval of
the program under the Human Rights
Code, which provides that the Commission can approve programs
designed to assist groups in need of
special assistance to achieve equal
61
 employment opportunity. Approval
was granted.
The City of Vancouver also established, in July 1975, a joint Union-
Management Equal Employment
Opportunity Committee to design and
oversee a similar program. Council
recently received funds from the
Secretary of State that will enable the
EEO Committee to hire research
staff to assist with the collection and
analysis of information on the present
composition of the City's work force.
A report on this information, together
with recommendations on the future
direction of the City's equal employ
ment opportunity program, is expected in June of 1977.
These two programs distinguish
themselves from similar programs by
the participation of the unions, and
the attention addressed to opportunities for racial minorities, native
Indians, the physically handicapped,
and women. They are the first such
programs in the Province. The Branch
is represented on both Equal Employment Opportunity Committees.
 Boards and Commissions
Board of Industrial Relations
Boards of Review, Workers' Compensation Act
* The annual reports of the Labour
Relations Board, the Workers' Compensation Board, and the Human
Rights Commission are submitted
separately to the Legislature through
the Minister of Labour.
 Board of
Industrial Relations
The Board of Industrial Relations is a
quasi-judicial body, appointed under
the Minimum Wage Act. Its responsibilities include establishment of
minimum wage orders and regulations; establishment of hours-of-work
regulations; issuing of overtime permits and variance in hours of work;
establishment of orders regulating
the observance, and pay, for general
holidays; and the issuing and enforcing of certificates for the recovery of
unpaid wages.
An order, titled "Overtime Minimum
Wage Order 3 (1976)," became effective on August 1,1976, establishing
the minimum wage for overtime for
employees covered by, or subject to,
the negotiation of a collective agreement at the rate established in the
collective agreement, but not less
than $4.50 for each of the first three
hours worked in excess of eight in
any one day and 40 in any one week,
and $6 for each hour worked in
excess of 11 in any one day and 48
in any one week.
Pursuant to the Minimum Wage Act,
seven regulations exempted certain
employees from the Act. They were:
Regulation 51 (1976), for non-
substitute teachers in School
District No. 59 (Peace River
South) who are not teachers as
defined in the Public Schools
Act;
Regulation 52 (1976), for child-
care workers employed by the
Browndale Care Society;
Regulation 53 (1976), for employees
of the British Columbia Lions
Society for Crippled Children's
Easter Seal Camps;
Regulation 54 (1976), for house-
parents employed at the Northern Training Centre, Smithers;
Regulation 55 (1976), for mentally
handicapped persons employed
in the rehabilitation program of
the Artaban Training Centre of
the Powell River Association for
the Mentally Handicapped, for
the period expiring July 31,1977;
Regulation 56 (1976), for the Director and child-care workers of the
Wilson Creek Residential Treatment Centre, Sechelt; and
Regulation 57 (1976), for handicapped employees of Goodwill
Enterprises for the Handicapped
employed on Vancouver Island.
The Board considered numerous
applications for overtime permits, an
when the requirements of the legislation were satisfied, permits were
issued. The Board also considered
and granted many requests for scheduling and varying hours and overtime
rates to accommodate short-week,
flextime, and other working arrangements.
The Board confirmed many certificates for wages owing under the Payment of Wages Act. (For details,
reference should be made to the
annual report of Labour Standards
Branch, page 57). Several requests
for exemption from section 15A of the
Payment of Wages Act were also
dealt with.
During the year the Board held 50
regular meetings and 33 hearings
throughout the Province.
 Boards of Review
Boards of review were established
under section 76A of the Workers'
Compensation Act in 1974. They are
appellate bodies, set up independent
of the Workers' Compensation Board,
whose purpose is to handle appeals
by workers, dependants of deceased
workers, and employers, against
decisions of the Board concerning
workers.
The 1975 report of the boards of
review briefly outlined the functions
of the boards and the manner in
which they were constituted in 1974.
The report also outlined some apparent trends in the appeal process, and
provided a brief statistical summary
of the activities of the boards during
the first three years of their existence.
Current practice calls for an indication, at the time of appeal, as to
whether a meeting with a board of
review is required, or whether the
board of review is to undertake its
own investigations and deal with the
appeal without further oral presentations by either a worker or an
employer. If meetings are requested,
or subsequently found to be necessary by a board of review, they are
held either at the offices of the
boards of review in Vancouver, or in a
major community as close as
possible to the home of the worker
or employer bringing the appeal. In
1976, approximately 40 per cent of
meetings were conducted in communities outside the Lower
Mainland.
In addition to conducting meetings
in the presence of workers and employers, boards of review may conduct additional inquiries concerning
claims under appeal. They may, for
example, obtain further evidence from
persons who have witnessed industrial accidents.
Boards of review may also arrange
additional examinations by, and
obtain additional opinions from,
doctors employed by the Workers'
Compensation Board, and from pri
vate physicians. In 1976, this course
was followed in 134 cases.
Decisions of the boards of review,
accompanied by reasons, are communicated in writing to workers and
employers, and also to the Workers'
Compensation Board. If a decision of
a board of review does not confirm an
original decision of the WCB, the
Commissioners reconsider the decision of the board of review. There are
additional appeal provisions by
means of which the worker or
employer affected by the decision
may appeal directly to the Commissioners of the Board.
During the past three years, there has
been a steady increase in the number
of appeals reaching the boards of
review. The numbers have risen from
1,018 in 1974, to 1,617 in 1975, and
1,905 in 1976. There has also been an
increase in the number of appeals
carried over during each of the last
three years. At the end of 1974, there
were 220 appeals requiring disposition, and at the end of 1975 that
figure had risen to 416. Only two of
the three boards of review, however,
were fully operational in the last six
months of 1976 (the Administrative
Chairman resigned in mid-1976 and
was not replaced until January of
1977), and, at the end of 1976, a total
of 1,125 cases were pending.
During those three years, 798 cases
were adjudicated in 1974,1,421 in
1975, and 1,196 in 1976. From an
examination of the statistics for the
last six months of 1976, it is obvious
that a substantial increase in the
number of appeals pending at the
end of the year could have been anticipated, even if the boards of review
had been at full strength during the
entire year.
More than 600 of the appeals received
in 1976 involved decisions in which
the applications of workers had been
disallowed in the first instance. More
than 500 appeals involved the refusal
to reopen claims; and another 365
 were initiated by workers who
believed either that their claim had
been closed prematurely, or that time-
loss benefits had been terminated
prematurely.
A total of 134 employer appeals
reached the boards of review in 1976.
Most of these were concerned with
the question of whether injuries had
arisen out of and during employment.
The remaining appeals were primaril
concerned with the adequacy (or
otherwise) of permanent partial
disability awards, and the refusal of
time-loss and medical-aid benefits.
Back injuries resulted in a total of
777 claims. The remaining injuries
fell into approximately 15 major cate
gories, and are listed in the statistic;,
tables on page 68 of this Report.
  Compensation Advisory Services
Table 1 — Origin of Compensation Claim Referrals to Consultant and Counselk
Criminal injuries	
Hearing loss	
WCB Commissioners	
Medical review panel	
Boards of review 4£
Union representatives	
Inquiries from lawyers     1
Referrals from Legal Aid     1
Inquiries from CBC "Ombudsman"	
Pensions	
Rehabilitation consultants	
Industrial diseases     I
Counselling widows and children	
Out-of-Province claims	
Canada Manpower     1
St. John Ambulance	
Disability Rights Association of B.C	
Third-party cases	
Miscellaneous	
Total 84
New claimants assisted in 1976: 862. New claims reviewed in 1976: 918.
Table 1a — Date of Origination of Claims
Date of
Origination
1920s
1930s
19-40S
1950s
1960s
1970
Number
of Claims
1
Date of
Origination
1971    	
Numb
of Claii
        22
3
1972     	
         27
15
1973     	
         87
21
1974     	
       127
78
1975     	
      271
11
1976     	
      252
Table 2 — Compensation Claim Referrals to Employer's Adviser
Origin Numt
Hearing loss	
WCB Commissioners       At
Medical review panel	
Boards of review       6.
Industrial diseases	
Total     12-1
New claimants assisted in 1976: 462.
New claims reviewed in 1976: 499.
Table 2a — Date of Origination of Claims
Date of
Origination
1920s    	
Number
of Claims
       nil
Date of
Origination
1971
1930s    	
         1
1972
1940s    	
       nil
1973
1950s    	
         6
1974
1960s    	
       24
1975
Numb
of Clai
.4 r\—rr\
      23:
        3S
       101
 Apprenticeship and Industrial Training
Table 3 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades
Trade or Occupation
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Term
in
Years First       Second      Third      Fourth      Fifth
Total
Number
of
Apprentices in
Training
Completed
Aircraft maintenance	
Anvilman	
Automotive —
Auto parts, warehousing, and
merchandising	
Body repair	
Diesel-engine machinist	
Diesel engine repair	
Diesel fuel injection	
Electrical	
Electrical and tune-up	
Farm machinery mechanic	
Forklift mechanic	
Front-end alignment and brake
service	
Front-end alignment and frame
straightening	
Glass installation	
Heavy-duty mechanic	
Hydraulic servicing	
Machinist	
Marine-engine mechanic	
Mechanical repair	
Motor-cycle repair	
Painting and refinishing	
Partsman	
Radiator manufacturing and
repair	
Small-engine repair	
Springmaker	
Tire repair	
Transmission repair	
Trimming	
Truck-body building	
Baking	
Bandsaw benchman	
Barbering	
Blacksmith	
Boatbuilding	
Boilermaking	
Boilermaking (erection)	
Bricklaying	
Carman	
Carpentry	
Cement mason	
Cladding	
Cook	
Dental mechanic	
Dental technician	
Draughtsman (mechanical)	
Drywall finisher	
Drywall installer	
Electrical work —
Appliance repair	
Armature winder	
Cableman	
Construction section	
Domestic radio and TV servicing.
Industrial	
Lineman	
Marine section	
Meterman	
Neon section	
Operator	
Shop section	
Electronics —
Community antenna TV	
Electronics	
Industrial	
Instrument repair and calibration
Marine	
Panels and controls	
Radio communication	
Sound communication	
Technician	
Telecommunications	
Telecontrol technician	
38
12
4
—
72
112
118
116
2
—
1
1
23
8
11
16
1
1
2
4
6
4
7
4
	
—
1
2
2
—
—
—
1
4
3
4
6
2
1
1
286
5
292
202
470
4
1
—
—
3
4
8
11
9
10
4
9
1
5
7
4
4
2
284
276
306
430
31
48
	
_
3
34
26
116
—
3
8
6
7
	
4
4
2
9
5
6
2
6
3
	
	
4
9
4
5
2
4
4
3
2
1
2
—
21
13
11
-
2
31
63
	
	
4
1
2
—
—
4
11
13
8
15
3,4
1
6
3
5
3,4
26
25
14
14
4
47
53
54
68
4
12
2
6
7
4
419
469
589
567
3
—
2
22
—
2
15
16
—
—
3
29
11
14
—
4
9
3
6
5
4
5
3
21
17
29
20
25
16
47
_
2
28
105
—
—
3
4
1
3
_
4
3
1
3
2
3
—
—
5
—
4
179
289
273
420
4
7
8
8
16
4
115
113
151
182
4
32
36
73
44
4
3
1
4
4
3
4
—
8
—
4
—
2
1
4
3 V2
—
6
6
—
4,5
8
16
13
20
4
4
24
12
28
4
4
1
1
1
5
5
4
4
4
4
1
-
1
2
1
-
-
4
—
4
1
7
4
3
4
5
5
4
1
4
9
2
4
1
—
7
10
54
418
4
58
8
5
17
5
1
2
61
2
9
14
—
1,250
255
4
—
38
7
22
5
1,296
236
79
26
176
24
21
4
22
1
9
1
20
1
5
—
45
1
94
29
3
_
47
5
15
—
79
11
222
32
27
1
2,044
314
24
9
31
16
54
8
23
4
87
17
88
19
133
57
8
2
9
—
5
1
1,161
210
39
7
561
99
185
36
12
2
12
2
7
1
12
—
57
12
68
12
7
—
6
1
1
3
-
12
2
17
3
16
4
18
2
 Table 3 — Summary of Apprentices in Trades — Continued
Year of Apprenticeship Being Served
Trade or Occupation
Term
Years First      Second       Third      Fourth       Fifth
Total
Number
of
Apprentices in
Training
Completed
1976
Electroplating	
Floorcovering	
Florist	
Funeral directing and embalming ..
Gas fitter	
Glassblowing (scientific)	
Gla2ier	
Graphic arts	
Hairdressing	
Heat and frost insulation	
Industrial instrumentation	
Industrial mechanic	
Industrial warehousing	
Ironwork	
Jewellery manufacture and repair..
Jewellery engraver (machine)	
Joinery (benchwork)	
Lathing	
Leadburner	
Lumber manufacturing industry —
Construction millwright	
Benchman	
Saw filer	
Saw fitter	
Steamfitting/Pipefitting	
Machinist	
Machinist fitter	
Maintenance mechanic	
Maintenance mechanic, pipeline. ..
Meatcutting	
Millwright	
Moulding	
Moulding and coremaking	
Office-machine mechanic	
Oil-burner mechanic	
Optical technician	
Orthodontic technician	
Painting and decorating	
Patternmaking	
Pile-driver and bridgeman	
Plastering	
Plastic and rubber fabrication	
Plastic-sign making	
Plumbing	
Practical horticulture	
Refrigeration	
Roofing, damp and waterproofing . .
Sail-making	
Sawmaking and filing	
Sheet-metal work	
Ship and boatbuilding	
Ship's plater	
Shipwright	
Sign painting	
Silversmithing and plating	
Sprinklerfitting	
Steamfitting and pipefitting	
Steel fabrication	
Tile setting	
Tool and die maker	
Upholstery	
Watch repairing	
Welding	
Totals	
4
2
2
3
2
3
40
44
109
—
2
—
5
—
—
2
4
6
10
1
1
z
4
4
53
50
46
1
45
2-5
74
71
51
58
2
281
409
—
—
4
21
14
26
20
5
4
3
15
14
29
23
11
	
_
	
3
93
66
68
—
4
6
5
6
7
4
6
_
—
2
4
39
44
34
52
4
4
—
1
1
1
5
4
3
2
5
7
1
20
—
—
—
1
59
—
—
—
2
50
52
—
—
4
2
—
3
7
4
61
57
58
99
4
2
6
8
5
4
_
—
2
2
4
2
5
1
20
3
19
16
19
—
4
149
134
180
330
4
4
4
1
4
10
5
4
5
5
14
4
4
7
1
2
1
6
4
3
50
40
75
1
5
—
9
4
—
3
—
14
11
—
4
3
4
3
3
4
4
4
1
3
4
1
183
161
128
188
4
5
19
12
7
5
24
26
43
20
3
54
25
24
—
4
1
1
2
—
4
2
1
—
—
4
4
4
91
85
108
151
2
1
4
2
4
7
11
10
10
4
5
4
5
6
6
7
4
17
20
21
4
43
74
73
71
4
43
50
71
61
3
26
7
—
—
5
3
3
2
—
4
9
6
6
1
5
_
—
—
2
3
22
11
32
—
—
3,532
3,663
3,587
3,776
9
193
5
16
2
1
194
269
690
81
96
1
11
227
24
8
169
6
1
63
3
4
25
52
263
14
27
42
3
1
20
4
2
—
17
3
20
9
59
28
102
23
12
—
275
41
21
1
4
2
28
10
54
5
793
149
20
2
2
—
28
7
16
3
1
—
1
1
165
35
13
1
25
—
13
9
1
2
2
660
114
43
6
122
22
103
11
4
1
3
—
435
87
2
—
9
1
38
5
24
4 1
62
10
261
41
225
26
33
—
9
1
22
1
2
—
65
10
,599
2,750
 Table 4 — Tradesmen's Qualification Certificates and Exemptions Issued in
1976
Certificate Exemption
Trade Issued Issued
Automotive body repair  8 —
Automotive mechanical repair  445 —
Boilermaker (erection)  37 —
Bricklaying  19 —
Carpentry  448 —
Cook  118 —
Heavy-duty mechanic   415 —
Industrial, electrical  167 —
Industrial, instrumentation  30 —
Ironwork  68 —
Joinery (benchwork)  24 —
Lumber manufacturing industry —
Benchman  12 —
Circular-saw filer  35 —
Saw fitter  54 —
Machinist  77 —
Millwright  379 —
Oil-burner mechanic  18 —
Painting and decorating  67 —
Plumbing  201 60
Radio and TV, domestic  13 —
Refrigeration  47 4
Roofing, damp and waterproofing  79 39
Sheet-metal work  95 1
Sprinkler-fitting  13 6
Steamfitting and pipefitting  137 38
Totals  3,006 148
Labour Standards
Table 5 — Payment of Wages Act
Certificates — 1975
Made under section 5 (1) (c)  668
Confirmed under section 5 (2) (a)  537
Cancelled under section 5 (2) (b) (ii)  22
Cancelled and remade under section 5 (2) (6) (i)  20
Paid before confirmation  71
Paid before filed in court  24
Confirmed under section 5 (2) (b) (i) filed with
Registrar of —
County Court  4.36
Supreme Court  32
Appeals under section 5 (4)  —
Demands made under section 6 (1)  488
1976
725
641
17
22
61
50
574
60
6
520
71
 Table 6 — Comparison of Investigations and Wage Adjustments, 1975 and 197
Inspections and investigations  60,560
Annual and General Holidays Act —
Firms involved	
Employees affected	
Arrears paid      $
Minimum Wage Act —
Firms involved	
Employees affected	
Arrears paid      $
Payment of Wages Act —
Firms involved  3,204
Employees affected  10,954
Arrears paid      $1,416,157.77
1,012
1,414
122,705.35
349
763
99,477.25
61,07
8£
1,4C
122,782.£
3C
4£
$    66,148.!
3,3
8,5
$1,752,233.5
Total adjustments      $1,638,340.37    $1,941,165.?
Table 7 — Court Cases, 1976
Name of Act
Number of
Employers
Charges        Convictions        Dismis
Payment of Wages Act  3
Minimum Wage Act  2
Hours of Work Act  —
Table 8 — Summary of Permits Issued, 1976, Under Control of Employment
of Children Act
District
Amusement	
Automobile service stations	
Catering      51
Construction
Electricity	
Laundry, cleaning, dyeing
Logging	
Manufacturing	
Mercantile	
Shoe-shine stands	
Shipbuilding	
Transportation	
1
1
13
— 1
5 —
10 10
— 5
_       —        —        2
_       —        —        2
4 2 4        8
--13
1
1     -      -        2     -       2
4        1      -      -        1       -
18       1        1        2       2        1
Totals.
12     15      12     19
16       12       10     16     23J
 Mediation Services
Table 9 — Analysis of Mediation Services for 12 Months of 1976 (January 1
to December 31,1976)
1976 1975
Appointments continued from previous year  81 80
Appointments made  258 337
No official appointment  3 14
Totals  342 431
Appointments rescinded  2 8
Appointments continuing  76 81
Total appointments completed  264 342
Settlements —
During term of officer's appointment  190 201
Following officer's report  13 24
No official appointment  3 14
Total settlements  206 239
Employers involved  698 967
Bargaining units involved  696 992
Employees involved  63,495        123,115
Arbitration and Special Services
Table 10 — Frequency of Occurrence of Issues Reported in 1976
Allowances	
Annual holidays. . ..
Annual vacation pay
Arbitrability	
Bargaining unit ....
Benefits	
Contracting-out ....
Demotion	
Discharge	
Disciplinary action. .
Failure to work	
Hiring practices. . . .
Hours of work	
Interpretation	
Job classification . .
Job posting	
Layoff	
Leave of absence...
Management rights.
Overtime 	
Frequency
of
Occurrence(l)
6
3
5
7
1
9
8
4
81
3
1
1
3
22
15
9
12
3
3
10
Past practice	
Permanent employment ...
Probationary employees ...
Promotion	
Reclassification and revaluation	
Retroactive pay	
Scheduling hours	
Seniority	
Sick leave	
Statutory holidays	
Statutory holiday pay	
Suspension	
Technological change	
Termination	
Terms of agreement	
Timeliness	
Transfer	
Union security	
Wages	
Work assignment	
Frequency
of
Occurrence(l)
2
1
3
3
3
1
2
36
4
3
6
29
2
3
15
1
1
3
38
9
1 These figures do not correspond to the number of awards received, as some awards deal with more than one issue.
Table 11 — Average Number of Days to Complete Arbitration Cases in 1976
Events in the Span Single Arbitration
Arbitrators Boards
Date of dispute to date of award 199.73 238.67
Date of discharge to date of award 141.10 191.78
Date of appointment by Minister to date of award . .. 78.00 93.16
Date of hearing to date of award 28.02 38.51
73
 Human Rights
Table 12 — Number of Complaints Investigated,
Rights Code (January 1 to December 31,1976)
by Section of the Human
Section
Discriminatory publication  -|
Discriminatory public facility  80
Discriminatory property purchase  3
Discriminatory tenancy  75
Discriminatory wages  17
Discrimination in employment advertising  19
Discrimination in employment  373
Discrimination by trade unions and occupational
associations  9
Protection of complainant  1
Totals  578
	
—
_
1
—
—
—
19
1
32
1
15
1
39
2
25
15
4
—
2
10
1
-
7
-
1
11
101
54
2
8
180
30
1
5
3
2
1
3
_
	
—
—
—
—
1
—
—
—
274
Table 13 — Number of Complaints Investigated Under the Human Rights
Code, by Nature of Complaint (January 1 to December 31,1976)
Nature of Complaint
Race  52-98 19-30 17-13 1-0 0-46           8-7 0-0 7.2 150
Sex  77-210 31-64 15-19 2-1 1-111 14-13 1-0 -13.3 287
Sex and marital status  0-22             0-9            0-3 0-0 0-10          0-0 0-0 o-0 22
Marital status  14-53             8-25          3-7 0-0 0-16          2-4 0-0 1-1 67
Religion  0-9               0-5            0-1 0-0 0-3            0-0 0-0 0-0 9
Place of origin  10-29                2-5              5-7 0-0 0-14            1-3 0-0 2-0 39
Ancestry  1-1 0-0            1-1 0-0 0-0           0-0 0-0 0-0 2
Age  16-32                6-9              6-3 1-0 0-12            2-6 0-0 1-1 47
Political belief  6-5               1-0            3-1 0-1 0-2            1-1 0-0 1-0 11
Criminal conviction  15-14 6-1             5-5 1-0 0-7            2-1 0-0 1-0 29
Without reasonable cause  49-82 12-16 13-17 1-3 2-42 11-2 4-1 6-2 132
Colour  3-22 0-6              0-3 0-0 0-10 3-3 0-0 0-0 25
Totals  243-578(1) 85-170 68-80 6-4 3-273 44-40 5-1 32-9 821
NOTE — Figures in left-hand column indicate 1975 complaints handled during 1976. Figures in right-hand column indicate
complaints opened in 1976.
1 This figure includes one complaint of retaliation, filed under section 10.
Table 14 — Boards of Inquiry
1975 1976|
Total cases referred to Boards of Inquiry      16 11
Cases settled prior to hearing        5 4
Hearings held      11 7
Boards of Inquiry Hearings
1975
Total hearings  11
Cases upheld  9
Cases dismissed  2
Decisions pending  —
Total
1976
1975/71
7
18
5
14
1
3
1
1
 lets Administered by the Ministry of Labour
$
'Annual and General Holidays Act (R.S. 1960) 0.25
[•Apprenticeship and Tradesmen's Qualification Act (R.S. 1960) 25
"Control of Employment of Children Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Department of Labour Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Elevator Construction Industry Labour Disputes Act (1974) 25
'Employment Agencies Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Essential Services Continuation Act (1974) 25
Factories Act, 1966 30
Human Rights Code of British Columbia Act 25
'Hours of Work Act (R.S. 1960) 25
'Minimum Wage Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Payment of Wages Act (1962) 25
Public Construction Fair Wages Act (1976) 25
Special Provincial Employment Programmes Act (1974) 25
Trade-schools Regulation Act (R.S. 1960) 25
)ther Statutes Involving Labour
Barbers Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Act 30
Coal Mines Regulation Act (1969) 1.20
Deceived Workmen Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Fire Departments Hours of Labour Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Fire Departments Two-platoon Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Hairdressers Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Hospital Services Collective Agreement Act (1976) 25
Labour Code of British Columbia Act (1973) 50
Labour Regulation Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Master and Servant Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Maternity Protection Act (1966) 25
Mechanics' Lien Act (R.S. 1960) 30
Mines Regulation Act (1967) 75
Railway and Ferries Bargaining Assistance Act (1976) 25
Truck Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Woodmen's Lien for Wages Act (R.S. 1960) 25
Workers' Compensation Act (1968) 80
lopies of these Acts are available, at the prices indicated, from: Queen's
rinter, Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4. Please make your cheque
ayable to the Minister of Finance.
Plans are under way to consolidate these Acts in a single labour standards statute.
These Acts will be repealed upon proclamation of the new Apprenticeship and Training Development Act, scheduled for
resentation in the Legislature by the Minister of Labour on August 2,1977.
 

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