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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1977 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1978

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
MINISTRY OF FORESTS
Hon. T. M. Waterland, Minister E. L. Young, Chief Forester and Chief Executive Officer
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1977
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1978
  Victoria, B.C., May 10, 1978
Colonel the Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service for
1977.
T. M. WATERLAND
Minister of Forests
 April 28, 1978
The Honourable T. M. Waterland,
Minister of Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir—This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1977.
E. L. YOUNG
Chief Forester and
Chief Executive Officer
 CONTENTS
Forest Service Directory..
Page
.    6
Forest Service Organization  7
Chief Forester's Report  8
Administrative and Support Services Program  9
Resource Management Program  12
Reforestation Program  13
Research Program  15
Forest Protection Program  15
Fire Suppression Program-
Inventory Program	
... 16
... 16
Range Management Program  17
Forest Development Roads Program  17
Reservoir Waterway Improvement Program  18
Appendix (Statistical Tables)  19
 Q 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FOREST SERVICE DIRECTORY
Executive Committee
E. L. Young, Chief Forester and Chief Executive Officer, Victoria
R. W. Robbins, Assistant Chief Forester (Operations), Victoria
W. Young, Assistant Chief Forester (Resource Management), Victoria
P. J. J. Hemphill, Director of Services, Victoria
J. E. Milroy, Director, Range Branch, Victoria
Staff Consultant
J. A. K. Reid
Staff Division Heads
J. B. Bruce, Forester-in-charge, Reforestation Division, Victoria
J. H. Carradice, Director, Forest Service Training School, Surrey
D. R. Glew, Forester-in-charge, Inventory Division, Victoria
C. J. Highsted, Forester-in-charge, Resource Planning Division, Victoria
E. Knight, Manager, Special Studies Division, Victoria
L. W. Lehrle, Forester-in-charge, Engineering Division, Victoria
R. W. Long, Ministry Comptroller, Victoria
E. H. Lyons, Forester-in-charge, Information Division, Victoria
D. H. Owen, Forester-in-charge, Protection Division, Victoria
A. B. Robinson, Forester-in-charge, Administration Division, Victoria
R. D. Thomas, Forester-in-charge, Valuation Division, Victoria
L. G. Underwood, Personnel Officer-in-charge, Personnel Division, Victoria
G. C. Warrack, Forester-in-charge, Research Division, Victoria
District Foresters
W. G. Bishop, District Forester, Vancouver
A. H. Dixon, District Forester, Kamloops
M. G. Isenor, District Forester, Prince George
J. R. Johnston, District Forester, Nelson
A. C. MacPherson, District Forester, Prince Rupert
E. W. Robinson, District Forester, Cariboo
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
FOREST SERVICE ORGANIZATION
Q 7
MINISTER OF FORESTS
CHIEF FORESTER/CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER
STAFF CONSULTANT
RANGE SPECIAL STUDIES
DIRECTOR OF SERVICES
PERSONNEL PROTECTION INFORMATION
TRAINING COMPTROLLER ENGINEERING
SCHOOL
ASSISTANT CHIEF FORESTER
(RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
FOREST DISTRICTS
III III I'ffllllflllllll.lllffPlil.
FOREST       RESEARCH   ADMINISTRATION
VALUATION
VANCOUVER PRINCE PRINCE CARIBOO        KAMLOOPS        NELSON
RUPERT GEORGE
REFORESTATION   RESOURCE   INVENTORY
PLANNING
FOREST DISTRICT BOUNDARY —
DISTRICT HEADQUARTERS O
RANGER STATION
 Q 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
The financial picture for 1977 was encouraging, with a forward trend which
by year's end showed every indication of continuing. Encouragement was provided
by a promising upswing in housing starts both in Canada and the United States . . .
together with a devalued Canadian dollar.
Total revenue from stumpage and other forest resource sources was $83,-
500,169, which compares with $63,018,456 in 1976.
Amounts charged against logging operations totalled $85,544,601, an increase
of 28.5 per cent over the previous year.
Following the appointment of John S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests, to
the Forest Policy Advisory Committee in January 1977, the Chief Forester assumed
additional duties as Chief Executive Officer.
Throughout the entire year members of the Forest Policy Advisory Committee
carefully studied the 1976 report submitted by forest economist Dr. Peter Pearse,
whose one-man Royal Commission looked into practically all aspects of British
Columbia's forest resources. By year's end the committee had almost completed
its work—a new Forest Act, a Ministry of Forests Act, and a new Range Act. All
three are scheduled for presentation to the legislature in the spring of 1978.
The year also saw a substantial increase in the timber harvest. A cut of nearly
25 million cunits was recorded—a record for the Province.
The market was strong, but because of an oversupply of low-grade logs and
chips the Forest Service continued to administer modified utilization standards in
the Interior and optional utilization standards on the coast.
Approximately six million cunits were sold through the bid proposal format
which requires a written submission, with bidding for cutting rights rather than on
the stumpage. More than 800,000 cunits were sold in the form of small competitive sales.
A significant development in forest inventory during 1977 was the initiation
of a three-year program designed to convert the present timber inventory to a
multiple-use concept. It will attempt to identify resource values other than timber
where such values affect either the availability of the timber for harvesting, or
indicate whether a higher level of forest management is warranted because of other
resource values. The task will be streamlined through the acquisition of a computerized mapping system.
Our reforestation program saw nearly 66 million seedlings planted on an area
of more than 60 000 hectares—approximately 25 million by the Forest Service,
and 41 million by various companies. This drop of some 7 million seedlings from
the 1976 figure was due to several factors. Unusual weather caused heavy losses
in the Interior nurseries and unusually heavy "turn backs" by some companies were
attributed to poor economic conditions. Further, weather conditions of 1975 and
1976 restricted site preparation work which in turn resulted in a lack of suitable
planting areas in 1977.
A trend which commenced several years ago in our forest protection program
gained added emphasis in 1977. It sees almost equal attention, and concern,
devoted to destruction caused by insects and disease. Our protection personnel
estimate these pests each year are now killing a volume of wood equal to one-third
of the Province's annual cut.
Despite a series of high to extreme hazard conditions, the forest fire picture for
the year was a good one. There were 1,854 fires reported, averaging 2.04 hectares
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 9
in size. Compared to the 10-year average of 33.94 hectares. This substantial
decrease was attributed largely to fast initial attack.
The Service's ecological classification project was extended to the Kamloops
and Nelson Forest Districts. It is hoped to complete the program in developed
parts of the Province within five years.
The year saw a substantial increase in the work load of our Range Branch
following commencement of the Land Management Branch, Ministry of the
Environment, referral of all grazing lease renewals to the Forest Service's range
organization. It was in keeping with the Government's decision to have a single
ministry responsible for the forage resource.
A highlight of the resource planning program was a major expansion in
preparation of resource folios and co-ordinated resource plans. Close to 130 such
plans were developed for controlling timber harvest, improvements to range, integrating use of forest land, and prevention of damage to the environment.
Our forest recreation program continues to grow. It became operational in
1972 and by the end of that year there were 286 recreation sites throughout the
Province. Today, there are more than 1,000, and in 1977 they were enjoyed by
an estimated 1,418,000 people—most of them residents of British Columbia.
Our internal and external information program saw continuation of the
increasingly popular quarterly magazine ForesTalk; and the introduction of a new
Forest Service newsletter. The photographic section produced one training film
and one half-hour documentary film.
ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPPORT SERVICES PROGRAM
SPECIAL STUDIES
A major part of Special Studies Division's attention has been directed toward
the resolution of resource use conflicts. Studies completed included "Management
Opportunities on the Sayward Forest," identifying opportunities and conflicts among
the various resources and proposing solutions, and a cost-benefit analysis for the
"Evaluation of the Western Spruce Budworm Problem in British Columbia."
Other projects included reviews of the economics of Forest Service marine
activities, of the relative benefits of various reforestation projects, of the organization and procedures of the Engineering Division and a similar review of the
Kamloops District Administration section. The main purpose was to detect various
inefficiencies and assist in their resolution.
SYSTEMS GROUP
In April 1977 the Systems Group moved to new quarters with modern facilities
enabling them to make effective use of the Government's computers.
The Systems Group co-ordinates activities between the Forest Service and the
new B.C. Systems Corporation and is working with the corporation to define the
computing functions of the two agencies.
Of particular note was the removal of the IBM 1440 from Vancouver and the
installation in Victoria of a computer mapping system for the inventory program.
A Province-wide accounts receivable system, a weigh-scale system, and a
cruising program were all implemented in 1977.
The Systems Group is working with the Computer Uses Committee to develop
a five-year plan which will take advantage of new technology and new systems.
 Q 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRODUCTIVITY OPERATIONS
A new five-year plan was developed and included expansion and an improved
organization.
Work continued on the development of growth models, efficient sampling
methods, expanded and updated data base, analysis of fertilizing and thinning trials
and in testing the economic efficiency of silvicultural treatments.
VALUATION
In May 1977 the calculation of scaled volumes and the issuance of accounts
were transferred from district offices to the Victoria computer. This was the result
of an analysis begun in 1976. All of these systems provide for a change to metric
measurement in 1978.
In order to provide all users with the same basic information, a new metric
cruise compilation program was completed together with a new cruising manual.
This package will be introduced to the industry in 1978. These new procedures will
ensure accountability, efficiency, and accuracy.
The development of a logging equipment cost schedule was commenced. It is
designed to provide costs for analysing productivity of equipment. District staff
are studying equipment productivity on various forest sites and using this information, the Valuation Division is developing a system for rating logging chances
throughout the Province.
The Joint Interior Product Outturn Committee commenced a two-year study
of lumber yields from Douglas-fir and a study of lumber recovery from decadent
cedar was completed.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Province-wide log haul studies were carried out.
COMMUNICATIONS
Fifteen communication shelters, 12 repeater installations, 5 lightning protection projects, and 28 repeater-site radio coverage surveys were completed.
The first solar-powered automatic repeater station was established west of
Quesnel. It promises long-term savings compared to the disposable batteries used
in other installations.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Progressive maintenance of the depot facilities, equipment overhauls and refits
to 26 launches and repairs of 48 launches, were completed. In addition, some
4,000 units were assembled and tested, and transport pool vehicles travelled a total
of 221,000 miles.
PUBLIC INFORMATION SERVICES
Activities of the Information Division continued at a hurried pace during 1977,
with a dramatic increase in both internal and external communications planning.
Two new 16-mm films were completed, "The Model Planter," a training film
illustrating the methods of planting seedlings and "One Jump Ahead," an information film explaining the Mountain Pine Bettle problem in the Prince Rupert
Forest District and the methods used to contain the infestation. The principles
shown are applicable throughout the Province.
Co-operative work continued with the Western Education Development Group
at UBC. Two forestry teaching guides were completed, "Seeing Through the Trees,"
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q  11
and "There's Dirt in the Forest." Thirty elementary schools in various regions of
the Province participated in the final testing of a "Forest Resource Management
Game."   Production and marketing of the game should begin late 1978.
ForesTalk resource magazine continued in popularity. With a circulation in
excess of 80,000, ForesTalk has an estimated audience of over 225,000 readers.
Several publications were completed for use by field personnel. Of particular
interest were "The Renewable Resource," a 40-page colour brochure illustrating
one complete cycle of a managed forest, and "Who We Are and Where to Find Us,"
an informative directory of Forest Service programs, offices, and operations. A
new series of fact sheets titled "Forestopics" was started. Covering all aspects of
forestry, this series will be in full production by mid-1978.
With the implementation of the Provincial Government's Visual Identity Program, the Division completely redesigned all Forest Service signs. Full-scale
production of new signs should begin as early as next year.
Gregson Graham Ltd., a private communications and marketing firm, were
commissioned to undertake a Province-wide study of the information function
within the Forest Service, as it relates to the news media, industry, schools, and
special interest groups. Their findings and recommendations will assist the Forest
Service to enhance and greatly improve its communications.
An updated version of the Forest Service newsletter was started. Published
monthly, the newsletter will help improve communications within the service.
FOREST SERVICE TRAINING SCHOOL
A training advisory committee of district and divisional representatives was
formed and provided guidance and direction for the Provincial training program.
As a result of its deliberations, the training program has been broadened. In 1977,
18 courses were held, compared to eight in 1976.
During 1977, 2.91 per cent of Ministry staff time was spent on training, 1.31
per cent administered by the school, and an additional 1.60 per cent committed to
district/divisional programs. This is below the industrial average.
Planning toward a comprehensive staff training and development program was
commenced. This includes an analysis of long-term manpower needs, career path
identification, and the development of an organized schedule of courses to satisfy
the long-term needs of training at all levels.
Number of Students Attending Courses at
Forest Service Training School
1970      1971       1972      1973      1974      1975      1976      1977
 Q 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
During the year, 90 folios and 40 co-ordinated resource plans were completed
at the subunit level to provide for the integrated use of forest land.
Plans were initiated for at least one PSYU in each forest district. Of these,
unit plans for the Smithers, Barton Hill, and Creston PSYU's are nearing
completion.
Forest Service personnel participated in a multi-agency land use plan for
the Prince George Special Sale Area.
The Resource Planning Division initiated analysis of "timber supply regions"
throughout the Province. Procedures are being formulated for a multi-agency
supply and demand approach to regional planning.
Public involvement has been stressed at all levels of planning, with public
meetings, public advisory committees, and public "write in" procedures established.
There have been a number of planning meetings with community watershed users.
Annual reviews for 32 PSYU's were prepared by districts, and distributed to
environmental groups and other interested persons throughout the Province.
In Victoria, planning staff have concentrated on the formats for subunit, unit,
and regional plans, a planning handbook, involvements with the environmental
protection area program, investigations for the Forest Policy Advisory Committee,
and the resolution of conflict areas with other agencies.
Using the computer, 20 allowable cut calculations were completed. Good
progress was made toward bringing the CARP system into operational use. A
basic version of this system was used in the regional timber supply analysis and
will be available for operational use by April 1978. The Resource Planning
Division continued to provide leadership in the application of mathematical
programming and computers to timber supply operations.
FOREST RECREATION
Public recreational use of forests and wildlands continues to grow steadily.
At the end of 1977, there were 1,007 sites under Forest Service maintenance.
Visitors to these sites totalled 1,418,000, with the great majority, as in previous
years, being Provincial residents. A total of 1 793 kilometres of developed trail
and several canoe routes also helped to disperse users to the more remote wildland
areas.   The trail network will be expanded as other priorities allow.
Projects in 1977 included participation in designating environmental protection
areas, continuation of trail inventory, recreation features inventory, and visual
sensitivity mapping.   Input was provided for a number of unit and subunit plans.
Forest Recreation-site Record
1975
1976
1977
Forest District
Sites at
Year-end
Visitors
Sites at
Year-end
Visitors
Sites at
Year-end
Visitors
Cariboo	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
136
233
174
137
53
150
58,000
230,000
87,000
166,000
18,000
335,000
145
233
236
153
50
153
85,400
550,000
94,500
150,000
38,400
305,000
142
247
225
165
71
157
134,000
605,000
92,000
163 000
80,000
Vancouver	
344,000
Totals	
883
894,000
970
1,223,300
1,007
1,418,000
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q  13
A recreation handbook for staff guidance, and a regulation dealing with
control measures at recreation-sites were prepared and are under review. A site
record punch-card system covering all Forest Service Sites was completed.
A position for a Landscape Forester was advertised and filled.
REFORESTATION PROGRAM
In 1977, nearly 66 million seedlings were planted on an area of over 60 000
hectares by all agencies—approximately 25 million by the Forest Service and 41
million by various companies. This was a drop of nearly 7 million from 1976.
There were several contributing factors. Unusual winter weather resulted in
heavy losses in the Interior nurseries. There were also a number of unusually
heavy turn backs by some companies that were attributed to a downturn in economic conditions. Weather conditions in 1975 and 1976 that restricted the amount
of site preparation meant a lack of suitable planting areas in 1977.
The Forest Service awarded 233 contracts to independent planters, and
undertook 139 planting projects itself.
Some 25 000 hectares were prepared for planting and over 23 000 hectares
were prepared for natural regeneration. To maintain suitable stocking levels and
promote faster growth of immature stands, 2 827 hectares were brushed out and
juvenile spacing was implemented on 6 811 hectares—in addition, 95 hectares were
thinned for commercial-size timber. To control tree-damaging dwarf mistletoe,
2 667 hectares were treated by removing infected trees.
Forest Service crews in all forest districts examined 131 126 hectares of
logged and (or) burned forest land and found that 78.5 per cent were satisfactorily
stocked. Various companies similarly examined 40 975 hectares and found that
54.3 per cent were satisfactorily stocked. Summation of Forest Service and
company results indicated that 72.7 per cent of the area examined was restocked.
To determine survival of planted seedlings, 13,395 new plots were established
and 24,407 plots were remeasured. Maintenance was carried out on 133 kilometres
of access roads leading to reforestation projects and a further 6.75 kilometres of
new roads suitable for four-wheel drive access were constructed.
In the Kamloops Forest District a major rehabilitation program of bunching
and burning in preparation for planting was continued on reverted timber berth
lands at Hidden Lake near Enderby. In the Nelson Forest District, a further one
million trees were planted on 748 hectares in the area of the 1971 "Sue" fire north
of Golden.
Initial observations of winter buds indicate that a potential crop of cones
exists for the 1978 crop-year. A full program of bud sampling has therefore been
planned for early 1978 in order to determine the location of likely crops. Seed
is in extremely short supply for some provenances; precluding nursery production
for planting stock.
NURSERY OPERATIONS
Sowing in the nurseries in 1977 was maintained at the level of the last three
years to produce 80 million seedlings. Sowing for container grown stock accounted
for one-third (27 million), while the bareroot sowing was scheduled to produce the
balance of 53 million seedlings. Approximately 14 million seedlings of various
species and stock types were transplanted in the spring of 1977.
During one of the most unusual winter weather cycles on record, there was
nearly a complete absence of snow-cover at all nurseries producing Interior bareroot
stock.  This resulted in serious losses of 1-year-old seedlings, principally spruce,
 Q 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
because of frost-heaving. At Red Rock Nursery in the Prince George Forest District, frost-heaving caused severe reduction in inventory levels and root deformation
in residual seedlings, ultimately resulting in recovery of less than 20 per cent of
plantable quality spruce. Dessication due to freeze-drying was another result of
the absence of snow-cover, particularly on lower elevation Interior Douglas-fir
seedlots grown at Skimikin Nursery near Salmon Arm.
Some existing facilities were upgraded to improve the capability of meeting
stock standards and species requested. Although container and bareroot stock
requests have increased significantly, no new production capacity was developed
during 1977; production levels in 1978 will be similar to those in 1977.
SEED PROCESSING
Due to the cool and wet weather experienced during the spring and summer of
1976, a collectible crop for most species did not materialize in 1977. A total of
684 hectolitres of cones, mainly lodgepole pine, was processed yielding 210 kilograms of seed. Early testing results of the mobile seed processing unit indicate
satisfactory performance on Douglas-fir cones, but modifications are being made to
handle the cones from spruce and lodgepole pine. Additional seed processing
equipment was installed at the Duncan plant to improve the cleaning of seed. A
total of 1 343 kilograms of seed was withdrawn from storage for sowing in both
bareroot and container facilities.
SEED ORCHARDS
Initial studies of root pruning in young coastal Douglas-fir seed orchards
indicate that this technique holds promise in inducing cone development and thus
increasing seed production. A mechanical tree spade was acquired for both transplanting and root-pruning purposes. Other equipment acquisition included a self-
propelled unit with a lift bucket to enable booster pollination, pruning, cone
harvesting, and other orchard operations. Despite the generally poor seed crop
in 1977, coastal Douglas-fir orchards produced a total of 47 hectolitres of cones.
However, because of insect depredation of cones and seeds, and poor pollination,
the seed yield was very low (0.117 kg/hi compared to 0.507 kg/hi in 1976).
Negotiations were continued for the purchase of suitable land for orchards
with good prospects of acquiring 8 hectares on the Saanich Peninsula. The program
as a whole, now includes development of orchards of major reforestation species in
all forest districts.
FOREST CAMPS
The Forest Service continued its co-operative programs with the Corrections
Branch, Ministry of the Attorney-General, as well as with the Canadian Penitentiary Service, and on almost every program, the number of man-days work
contributed by inmates increased over those of 1976. In addition, forestry projects
of every description were undertaken involving the Forest Service, Ministry of
Human Resources, Canada Manpower, and the Federal Agricultural Rehabilitation
and Development Act.
OTHER SILVICULTURAL ACTIVITIES
Studies continued in the development of techniques and equipment to thin
young stands to induce better growth. Experience is reducing costs (in one
operation, costs were reduced 41 per cent compared to similar operations done in
1976).
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 15
The "Site Preparation Guide" was revised with co-operation from the Research
and Protection divisions.
Vancouver Forest District staff have developed a guide for classifying Abies
amabilis seedlings left after logging in order to identify those seedlings which will
be likely to grow into useful trees.
Recently developed ecosystem classification systems have helped foresters to
make better prescriptions for managing forest land.
RESEARCH PROGRAM
The ecological classification program was extended to the Kamloops and
Nelson Forest Districts. Practical interpretations aimed at improving forestry
practices on a site-specific basis were developed in three forest districts and staff
training sessions were held in the field. A major program is being prepared to
complete ecological classification within the developed parts of the Province within
five years.
Progeny testing of Douglas-fir has been increased to a total of 35 test-sites.
Selection of 160 more lodgepole pine plus-trees in the Nelson Forest District brings
the total to 450 trees. Transferring the breeding of Interior spruces from Prince
George to Vernon was successful in increasing the flowering of the test trees.
Western hemlock breeding research was initiated. Studies in the use of enzymes
in genetic research in Douglas-fir are showing promise.
Nursery research focused on improving the monitoring of quality control.
Controlled environment chambers were developed for monitoring lodgepole pine.
Combinations of hormones and fertilizers have been tested with encouraging results
at Koksilah and Red Rock. Studies have shown that freeze-dried Douglas-fir pollen
is still usable after two years.
Dr. N. Keser's book, Interpretation of Landforms from Aerial Photographs,
has been well received both locally and outside of Canada. Permission to use his
excellent stereo-pairs has been granted for a book under preparation at Oregon
State University.
Monitoring excessive mortality in plantations in the Kamloops Forest District
continued. Site-preparation studies in lodgepole pine cut overs to promote natural
regeneration were conducted. Alternate foods were tested to reduce deer mice
feeding on seeds sown by man.
FOREST PROTECTION PROGRAM
Site preparation using fire was continued on those sites where it is known to
be beneficial to the specific sites. Field staff assisted in joint projects with the
Range Branch and the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
New infra-red detecting devices were used successfully to detect many fires
which would not normally have been detected before they become dangerous.
The Zenith telephone number public reporting system proved of considerable
value with a large number of useful reports being received.
In one forest district, initial attack times were reduced significantly as a result
of changes in normal initial attack crew organization. One large crew of 25 men
with helicopter transport was located at a central location and small auxiliary crews
were maintained at each ranger district.
 Q 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Although the western spruce budworm received the greatest publicity, no
action was taken on this insect except the monitoring of nontarget organisms in the
infested area. An internal report on the impact of the western spruce budworm,
including recommendations, was completed by the end of the year.
Large-scale harvesting of mountain pine beetle infested timber continued.
Other treatments used fire to control small infestations.
Tests in the use of fire to control dwarf mistletoe were carried out in the
Cariboo Forest District.
FIRE SUPPRESSION PROGRAM
The 1977 fire season was characterised by three- to four-week drought periods
interspersed with short periods of rainy, cool weather.
Throughout the drought periods, less than usual lightning occurred with only
30 per cent of the fires resulting from lightning (10-year average, 36 per cent).
Also, there were no extreme winds during these periods.
The use of seven new infra-red detectors was credited with the location of
150 invisible latent fires in burnt logging landings and current fires.
The total of 1,854 fires compared favourably with the 10-year average of
2,500. They burned a total of 3 796 hectares and had an average size of just over
2 hectares.
Direct suppression expenditure by the Forest Service was $3.4 million. Industry and other agencies spent another $1.2 million. A further $5.5 million was spent
by the Forest Service on indirect costs such as maintaining fire-suppression activities
of air tankers, purchase of equipment, site rehabilitation and overhead.
INVENTORY PROGRAM
The new Research and Development Section was active in initiating a three-
year conversion of the present forest inventory to a multiple-use inventory. The
acquisition of a computerized mapping system has made the new integrated inventory system possible.
Reinventory surveys were completed on the Arrowhead, Edgewood, Kamloops,
Kettle, Nakusp, Slocan, and Yalakom PSYU's. Environmental protection work
was done on 23 units—Monkman, Stuart Lake, Finlay, Takla, Longworth, Queen
Charlotte Islands, Morice, Kingcome, Quadra, Vancouver, Lac la Hache, Barton
Hill, Nicola, Spallumcheen, Ashnola, Botanie, Similkameen, Kinbasket, Upper
Kootenay, Lardeau and Granby PSYU's, and the Fort St. James and Furry Creek
Special Sale Areas (SSA's). In all cases, field measurements were made in metric
measure.
The Natural Stands Subsection established 133 new permanent growth plots
in selectively logged Interior dry-belt fir stands and remeasured 87 ten-year-old
growth plots in the Barriere, Nakusp, Raft, Shuswap, and Spallumcheen PSYU's.
Remeasurements were made on 30 licensee established permanent growth plots in
TFL 8 and three experimental plots on Vancouver Island. The section also began
the compilation of computer produced metric yield equations and curves for the
new forest inventory zones. The Managed Stands Subsection stem-mapped 768
plots and remeasured 314 plots on the Lower Coast and is now developing Preliminary Managed Stand Yield Tables.
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 17
The Volume and Decay Section sampled balsam and lodgepole pine stands in
the Babine, Smithers, Cranbrook, and Fernie PSYU's. In addition, fir and larch
stands were sampled in the Fernie PSYU.
The low-level fixed-base air photography program aided the work of the
Managed Stands Section (spring and fall photos), obtained Level 4 photography
in the Yalakom River, Nahatlatch River, Mehatle Creek, Pemberton Creek, and
Boise Creek subunits and photographed the Carnation Creek Project for Environment Canada.
The Draughting, Compilation, and Publishing Sections processed most of the
590 forest cover maps and statements and unit reports for the areas surveyed in
1976.
RANGE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
In keeping with the Government's decision to make one agency responsible
for the Crown forage resource, the Ministry of the Environment commenced
referral of all grazing lease renewals to the Range Branch.
Four ARDA (Agricultural and Rural Development Act) two-year projects
totalling $3,510,000 were launched for construction of a variety of structures and
for resource treatments. Range Branch staff has a prime role in planning, although
the implementation is done by contractors or ARDA employees. Monitoring the
results of these programs will be a priority function of the Forest Service.
Range staff in the Cariboo Forest District hosted the Northwest Section of the
Society for Range Management for a successful two-day field tour in July.
Fall sale prices for beef picked up and the turn around was attributed to the
general deficit in the North American cow herd. The improvement was amplified
by the discount of the Canadian dollar. The price gain over 1976 is $8 per 100
pounds live-weight.
The shortage of snow during the winter of 1976/77 severely reduced the
availability of water for stock and irrigation in some areas. Fall rains and early
snow in 1977 have restored water reserves. Range forage production was much
below normal in both the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts. Abundant
summer rain in the northern districts provided excellent range forage growth, but
hampered hay production.
Brucellosis outbreaks at several unrelated points required emergency testing
and herd disposal with compensation by authorities of the Federal Health of Animals Department.   The range position of affected ranchers was protected.
FOREST DEVELOPMENT ROADS PROGRAM
New construction extended the Michelle Forest Road in the Cariboo Forest
District.    Sections of the following forest roads were relocated and upgraded:
Morice River, Prince Rupert District.
Port Douglas-Pemberton and Harrison-East, Vancouver District.
Coldwater-Coquihalla, Kamloops District.
Red Fish, Nelson District.
Permanent bridges were constructed on the Lillooet River and on the Seymour
River Forest Road.
With assistance in funding from the Ministry of Highways and Public Works,
relocation and upgrading were carried out on the Head Bay Forest Road, the
Germansen Landing Forest Road, and the Cayoosh-Joffre Forest Road.
 Q 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Location survey assistance was provided to the Cariboo and Prince Rupert
Forest Districts. Site surveys were completed on six sites in the Vancouver District.
The Road Recorder Unit was employed in all six forest districts, completing 1,016
miles of traverse. Assistance was also given to the Cariboo, Prince Rupert, and
Prince George Districts in evaluation of licensee constructed roads and bridges.
Consultants were engaged to gather data, design and prepare drawings and
cost estimates for a bridge at Walker Creek Forest Road, across the Fraser River.
In co-operation with the Council of Forest Industries, assembly of land and
equipment for a debris catchment and disposal area on the Fraser River has been
initiated.   The operation is planned to be functional by April 1978.
RESERVOIR WATERWAY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
Disposal of debris was continued on the Peace, Duncan, and Stave reservoirs.
Debris disposal on the Mica Reservoir is now being done by B.C. Hydro. Operations commenced on the Revelstoke 1880 Project under supervision of the Nelson
Forest District.
 APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATISTICS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
1977
  FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 21
CONTENTS
Page
. 23
. 24
Table
1—Summary of Planting 1968-77____
2—Planting by Forest District, 1977
3—Hectares Clearcut and Hectares Planted in Public Sustained-yield Units
by Forest District, 1973-77  24
4—Site Preparation, 1977, Forest Service and Licensees in PSYU's  25
5—Stand Improvement and Tending, 1977  (Hectares Completed), Forest
Service and Licensee in Public Sustained-yield Units  25
6—Regeneration Surveys, 1977, Forest Service and Licensees in PSYU's  26
7—C
-Cone Collections, 1977, Forest Service..
-Seed Orchards Established as of 1977	
9—Inventory of Seed in Storage, 1977, by Forest District
10
11-
12
13
14
  26
  27
  27
•Seed Extracted, 1977, Forest Service and Companies by Forest District  28
Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms  28
•Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences, 1977  29
-Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences, 1977  30
Average Stumpage Prices Received by Species and Forest Districts on
Timber Scaled From Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits During 1977  32
15—Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units, 1977  33
16—Average Bid Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest Districts on Cutting
Permits of Timber Sale Harvesting Licences and Timber Sales Issued
During 1977 per Cunit Log Scale  36
17—Timber Cut and Billed From Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences, 1977  37
18—Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During the
Years 1976 and 1977  38
19—Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1977  39
20—Species Cut, All Products, 1977  40
21—Acreage Logged, 1977  40
22—Total Scale of Christmas Trees Billed 1970-77  41
23—Wood-processing Plants of the Province  42
24—Export of Logs, 1977  43
25—Exports From the Province of Other Forest Products, 1977  44
26—Unit Standard Reinventory Surveys, 1977 Field Work  45
27—Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for 1976 Projects    45
 Q 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table Page
28—Uses of Crown Range, 1977  46
29—Fire Occurrences by Months, 1977  47
30—Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1977  47
31—Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  47
32—Fires Classified by Size and Timber Loss, 1977  48
33—Loss of Property Other Than Forests, 1977  49
34—Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1977 (Part I)  49
35—Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1977 (Part II)  50
36—Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1977  51
37—Comparison of Loss Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  52
38—Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1977  53
39—Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1976/77  54
40—Forest Revenue, 1973-77  54
41—Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1976/77  55
42—Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1977  56
43—Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1976/77  57
44—Scaling Fund  57
45—Accelerated Reforestation Fund  57
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 23
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 Q 24                                                    BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 2—Planting by Forest District, 1977
(Number of Trees in Thousands (Hectares in Parentheses Below))
Forest
Service on
Crown Land
and Crown-
granted
Land
Companies
on TSHL's,
TSL's on
Crown Land
Companies on
Tree-farm Licences
Tree-farm
Companies
on Other
Private
District
Totals
Forest
District
Crown
Land
Crown-
granted
Land
Total
Vancouver	
6,072.8
(5 510.9)
2,446.7
(2 173.6)
8,359.3
(6 650.2)
1,553.5
(1 120.2)
2,521.7
(1986.6)
3,724.2
(3 020.0)
2,704.0
(2 242.5)
1,356.0
(1 108.0)
7,608,5
(6 150.4)
3,247.8
(2 662.1)
1,232.0
(956.0)
3,090.6
(2 592.7)
9,400.8
(11577.2)
1,310.4
(1 342.0)
929.2
(744.7)
1,486.7
(1 228.0)
1,178.0
(950.0)
104.0
(89.0)
2
(2
,439.2
715.4)
8.6
(11.0)
11,840.0
(14 292.6)
1,319.0
(1353.0)
929.2
(744.7)
1,486.7
(1228.0)
1,178.0
(950.0)
104.0
(89.0)
1,392.1
(1623.3)
3,380.6
(3 498.8)
25,389.5
(27 168.1)
5,121.7
(4 634.6)
16,897.0
(13 545.3)
6,288.0
(5 010.3)
5,216.7
(4 101.6)
6,918.8
(5 701.7)
	
36.6
(38.0)
Nelson 	
	
249.0
(171.0)
Totals...
24,678.2
(20 461.5)
19,238.9
(15 711.7)
14,409.1
(15 930.9)
2,447.8
(2 726.4)
16,856.9
(18 657.3)
1,641.1
(1794.3)
3,416.6
(3 536.8)
65,831.7
(60 161.6)
Table 3—Hectares Clearcut and Hectares Planted in Public Sustained-yield Units
by Forest District, 1973-77
(Hectares Planted Includes Forest Service and Licensee Planting in PSYU's)
District
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1
Total
Five-year
Period
Accumulative
Total,
1971 +
Per Cent
Cutover
Planted,
1971 +
Vancouver-
Hectares clearcut	
Hectares planted -
15 446
11414
12 470
6 965
31 609
3 348
13 235
2 633
17 027
1471
13 073
3 847
10 231
8 650
11 901
3 291
33 282
5 779
12 392
4 670
10 907
2 961
12 430
4 272
8 636
7 843
7 018
4 689
26 855
8 955
11 869
7 457
10 539
4 569
8 060
6 386
12 414
6 581
11 293
6 253
30 267
12 116
14 570
5 382
17 968
4 840
14 233
5 276
12 977
7 753
12 462
3 282
40 791
13 545
15 529
5 612
16 770
3 782
12 124
2 942
59 704
42 241
55 144
24 480
162 804
43 743
67 595
25 754
73 211
17 623
59 920
22 723
82 905
62 107
71 948
32 105
222 305
48 316
91597
29 815
99 301
22 373
84 779
29 014
74.9
44.6
21.7
32.6
22.5
34.2
Prince Rupert-
Hectares cles
Hectares pla
Prince George-
Hectares cle<
Hectares pla
Cariboo—
Hectares cle;
Hectares pla
Kamloops—■
Hectares cle;
rcut.— -
Nelson—
Hectares cle.
Hectares pla
Totals—
Hectares cle.
Hectares pla
Ited	
102 860
29 678
91 143
29 623
72 977
39 899
100 745
40 448
110 653
36 916
478 378    1
652 835
34.3
176 564    1   223 730
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977 Q 25
Table 4—Site Preparation, 1977, Forest Service and Licensees in PSYU's
Prime Objective Indicated in Appropriate Column
Method of Treatment
Hectares
(1)
Natural
Regeneration
Preparation
(2)
Planting
Preparation
(3)
Hazard
Abatement
(4)
Total
(5)
Per Cent
1 183
3 502
1671
1568
10 494
2 456
2 524
3 673
-----
878
212
1552
11908
5 346
22 675
66 476
1225
458
23 585
11304
26 870
71717
11 330
3 359
801
12
3 391
613
1994
4911
14.7
2. Bunched and burned	
7.1
16.8
44.9
10 713
1256
131
12
539
7.1
2.1
0.5
10. Residual falling only (including snags).
1300
613
940
800
2.1
0.4
12. Other treatment	
13. No treatment -	
761
2 075
293
2 036
1.2
3.1
Totals	
23 411
24 735
111 741
159 887
100.0
Table 5—Stand Improvement and Tending, 1977 (Hectares Completed),
Forest Service and Licensee in Public-sustained Yield Units
Stocking Control
Forest
District
(Brushing)
Juvenile Spacing
Commercial
Thinning
Control
Total
Forest
Service
Licensee
Forest
Service
Licensee
Forest
Service
Licensee
Forest
Service
Licensee
Forest
Service
Licensee
Vancouver
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Cariboo ~-
Nelson 	
Kamloops	
154
2 673
1078
62
45
107
338
5 100
81
95
142
858
1607
60
1232
62
142
903
107
338
7 868
81
1607
60
Totals..
154    j    2 673    |    1630    |    5 181    |     	
95    [    1 000    |    1667    |    2 784    [    9 616
Grand
totals
2 827              1             6 811              1                   95
2 667              j            12 400
 Q 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 6—Regeneration Surveys, 1977, Forest Service and Licensees in PSYU's
Forest District
Total
Hectares
Examined
Hectares
Satisfactorily
Stocked
Hectares
Not
Satisfactorily
Stocked
Per Cent
Stocked
Vancouver—
25 727
(!)
25 727
8 074
2 667
10 741
29 610
5 980
35 590
36 928
7 835
44 763
23 703
15 224
38 927
7 084
9 269
16 353
19 234
(!)
19 234
6 284
932
7 216
24 345
2 721
27 066
30 975
4 889
35 864
17 847
9 494
27 341
4 219
4 201
8 420
6 493
(!)
6 493
1 790
1735
3 525
5 265
3 260
8 525
5 952
2 946
8 898
5 856
5 730
11 586
2 865
5 068
7 933
74.8
(!)
Total
Prince Rupert—
77.8
Licensee	
Total	
Prince George—
34.9
67.2
82.2
45.5
Total                   	
76.0
Cariboo—
83.9
Licensee	
Total	
Kamloops—
62.4
80.1
75.3
62.4
Total                                              	
70.2
Nelson—
59.6
45.3
Total 	
51.5
Provincial totals—
131 126
40 975
172 101
102 904
22 237
125 141
28 221
18 739
46 960          |
1
78.5
Licensee  	
Total	
54.3
72.7
1 Vancouver data incomplete (no licensee report).
Table 7—Cone Collections, 1977 (Hectolitres), Forest Service
(1976 in Parentheses)
Species
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Douglas-fir-	
Western hemlock 	
(312)
(45)
(2)
(33)
(85)
(8)
(1)
(73)
(2)
(1)
(5)
8.0
(2)
42.0
(15)
1
(1009)     |      (17)
        1      	
1
(3)
"(2)
(130)
(3)
86.0
(5)
3.0
(2)
(6)
(21)
(0.3)
(1338)
(48)
(2)
Amabilis fir —
28.8
(75)
(451)
72.31
(190)
(233)
(24)
(33)
(87)
Alpine fir	
Sitka spruce	
Interior spruce	
(8)
(1)
(671)
(5)
229.1
(271)
(238)
White pine	
Limber pine  ..
Larch   	
Birch  -.
11
(2)
(6)
(45)
(0.3)
Total 1977—-
8        |         42        |        _-.
28.8    |        72.3    |        89                 240.1
Total 19762
(567)                 (2)
(15)
(1084)     |    (915)     [    (172.3)   1     (2 755.3)
III'
i Licensees in Prince Rupert and Kamloops collected a further 68.0 hectolitres.
2 Collections in 1976 were considered poor.
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Table 8—Seed Orchards Established as of 1977
Q 27
Orchard No. and Agency
Date(s)
Established
Location
Species 1
Elevation
Band (m)
Type
Size
(ha)
1. B.C. Forest Service	
2. Tahsis A  _ 	
3. B.C. Forest Products	
4. Crown Zellerbach 	
5. Crown Zellerbach - _	
6. Rayonier-  	
7. Tahsis B  	
8. Tahsis Local 	
9. Pacific Logging _	
10. Pacific Logging	
11. Tahsis C _ —
12. Rayonier  -	
13. Rayonier  -	
14. B.C. Forest Service	
15. B.C. Forest Service _..
16. Canadian Forest Products
17. Tahsis  	
18. Tahsis  _	
19. B.C. Forest Service.—	
20. B.C. Forest Service	
21. Pacific Logging 	
1963
1962-69
1963-64
1964-65
1964-65
1964-65
1964-68
1968-75
1966
1966
1968-75
1968
1969
1970
1971
1971
1969-75
1973
1974
1975
1976
Campbell River.
Gold River	
Caycuse	
Courtenay.- —
Nanaimo Lakes
Jordan River	
Gold River	
Gold River	
Saanich.. -	
Saanich 	
Saanich _ 	
Jordan River	
Port McNeill	
Duncan	
Campbell River
Sechelt 	
Gold River	
Saanich 	
Red Rock	
Saanich	
Saanich 	
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
Hw
Ss
PI
F
F
450-610
0-450
400-660
0-150
450+
450
450+
0-910
0-450
550
0-450
450-640
0-300
450-610
0-910
0^150
760-1 070
550
seedlings
seedlings
seedlings
I
Clonal + seedlings
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal
Clonal +
Clonal +
Seedlings
Seedlings
Seedlings
Seedlings
Clonal
Clonal + seedlings
Clonal
Clonal
Seedlings
Seedlings
Total
6.6
2.2
1.8
1.8
1.8
4.1
1.8
2.3
1.8
3.4
4.9
0.4
0.4
4.5
4.9
8.2
3.7
0.8
4.1
7.4
6.0
72.9
1 F—Coastal  Douglas-fir.
lodgepole pine.
Hw—Coastal  western  hemlock.        Ss—Coastal  Sitka  spruce.        PI—Interior
Table 9—Inventory of Seed in Storage, 1977, by Forest District
(Quantity in Grams (g)1)
Species
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Douglas-fir  —
5 933 849
214 041
28 855
219 775
2415
18 554
6 003
510 160
55 841
3 145
113 269
35 955
1 505 279
469 649
619 177
21900
122 725
964 430
1 212 570
5 208
533 283
878 062
2 037 018
7 235
1 402 176
1 133 158
10 383 861
262 439
Englemann spruce 	
1 990 194
708 130
411464
225 399
6 860
5 671 251
689 424
3 566 341
18 554
6 003
6 440
543
159 100
59 614
542 122
2 538
7 810
177 643
685 108
145 165
723 453
Totals 	
6 992 648
2 565 229
2 828 032
1 608 153
3 389 959
4 767 578
22 151 599
1 Including seed provided by companies:
Total seed native species —-  22 151 599
Total seed exotic species   82 297
Total seed in storage _  22 233 896
 Q 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 10—Seed Extracted, 1977 (Grams),1 Forest Service and Companies
by Forest District
Species
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Cariboo
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Douglas-fir	
9 913
2 140
	
23 015
32 928
1 770
2 140
Englemann spruce	
12 950
12 950
85
3 240
24 625
85
Lodgepole pine	
127 975
157 610
3 270
194
3 270
1 640
1 834
Totals	
18 842
47 640
140 925
3 140
210 817
1 1 343 000 grams of seed sown in 1977.
Table 11—Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-
yield Units Over Crown-granted Lands)
INCLUDED WITHIN TREE-FARM LICENCES
Number
of
Tree-
farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual Cut
Forest
District
Mature
Immature
NSR
and
NCC
Total
Or Estimated
Productive
Capacity
(Cunits)
Vancouver	
Prince George 	
14
1
2
58,874
33
494
239,617
1,043
4,719
30,249
145
4,394
328,740
1,221
9,607
363,204
1,280
10,158
328,892
458
4,312
Totals _	
17
59,401
245,379
34,788
339,568
374,642
333,662
NOT INCLUDED WITHIN TREE-FARM LICENCES
Vancouver  _	
Nelson  	
19
10
97,937
110,296
303,932
214,699
36,853
92,495
438,722
417,490
475,669
486,900
402,999
(1,000)
111,133
(293,700)
Totals	
29
208,233
518,631
129,348
856,212
962,569
514,132
(294,700)
Grand totals
46
267,634
764,010
164,136
1,195,780
1,337,211
847,794
(294,700)
Figures in parentheses (    ) are Christmas trees.
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 29
Table 12—Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences
(Private Sustained-yield Units), 1977
Forest
Number of
Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual Cut
(Cunits)
District
Crown
Private
Total
10
4
4
9
2
4
1,433
1,274
997
2,527
371
1,359
158
147
242
%
617
1,591
1,421
997
2,769
467
1,976
2,072
2,436
1,032
3,973
467
2,071
706
284
400
Cariboo
646
163
Nelson  _	
267
33
7,961
1,260
9,221
12,051
2,466
 Q 30
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128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
114°
112°
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60c
58'
56
54
52
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS
H Inside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas Y~
No.
1 Prince George Pulp and Paper Limited
y.
Big Valley                          43.
Naver
ib.
Carp                                44.
Nechako
20.
Crooked River                       52.
Parsnip
No.
2  Kamloops Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.
1.
Adams                            45.
Nehalliston
15.
Barriere                          46.
Nicola
6.
Barton Hill                         47.
Niskonlith
11.
Botanie                             49.
North Thompson
23.
Eagle
No.
3 Northwood Pulp Limited
12.
Bowron                           39.
Monkman
37.
Longworth                         55.
Purden
No.
5 Cariboo Pulp & Paper Company Limited
17.
Cottonwood                        42.
Narcosli
Stuart Lake
Westlake
Willow River
Raft
Salmon Arm
Shuswap
Spallumcheen
Intercontinental Pulp Company Ltd.
Peace
P.S.Y.U.'s I  I Outside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
Arrowhead
Ashnola
Babine
Bell-Irving
Blueberry
Burns Lake
Canoe
Chilko
Cranbrook
Creston
Dean
Dewdney
Edgewood
Fernie
Finlay
Fontas
87.
Fort Nelson
29.
Granby
30.
Hecate
31.
Kamloops
32.
Kettle
33.
Kinbasket
34.
Kingcome
94.
Kluskus
35.
Lac La Hache
36.
Lardeau
38.
Moberly
40.
Morice
41.
Nakusp
48.
Nootka
50.
Okanagan
bl.
Ootsa
56.
Quadra
57.
Queen Charlotte
60.
Rivers Inlet
62.
Salmo
68.
Smithers
92.
Sikanni
65.
Similkameen
66.
Skeena
67.
Slocan
69.
Soo
72.
Stum
74.
Upper Kootenay
75.
Vancouver
76.
Wapiti
J a.
Williams Lake
80.
Windermere
Bl.
Yalakom
90.
Kotcho
91.
Liard
SPECIAL SALE AREAS \J\jJ\
Fort St. James (O-I-C 1888/65)
Furry Creek (O-I-C 3909/67)
Prince George (O-I-C 2811/62)
TREE FARM LICENCES B9
T.F.L. No.
1. Canadian Cellulose Company, Limited
2. Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
3. Triangle-Pacific Forest Products Ltd.
5. Weldwood of Canada Limited
6. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
7. MacMillan Bloedel Limited
8. Pope and Talbot Ltd.
9. Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
Timberland Development Company Limited
Crown Zellerbach (Hardwicke Island) Limited
Galloway Lumber Company Limited
Crestbrook Forest Industries Ltd.
Northwood Properties Ltd.
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
Clearwater Timber Products Limited
Tahsis Company Ltd.
21.
22.
23.
25.
26.
27.
30.
32.
33.
36.
37.
31
39.
MacMillan Bloedel Industries Limited
MacMillan Bloedel industries Limited
British Columbia Forest Products Limited
Canadian Cellulose Company, Limited
Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
The Corporation of the District of Mission
British Columbia Forest' Products Limited
Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited
Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
Federated Co-Operatives Limited
Weyrhaueser Canada Ltd.
' British Columbia Forest Products Limited
Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
Empire Mills Limited
MacMillan Bloedel Limited
Eurocan Pulp and Paper Company Limited
MAJOR PARKS
RECREATION AREAS
WILDERNESS AREAS
58°
52°
50°
Province of British Columbia
Ministry of Forests
Kilometres  20 0
SCALE-1:3,500,000 (Approx.)
60 80        100       120        140
200   Kilometres
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1977
48°
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
116°
  FOREST SERVICE,  1977
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 18—Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During
the Years 1976 and 1977 (in Cunits)
Forest District
10-year
Average
1968-77
1976
1977
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
Vancouver — 	
8,319,402
1.593.428
9,732,729
1.635.997
8,600,829
1.484.166
1,131,900
151,831
	
Totals, Coast  	
9,912,830 |  11,368,726 | 10,084,995
  |  1,283,731  | --	
1,324,284 1    1,460,641
3,862,235 |    4,355,744
1,034,597 1    2,417,524
2,705,105  |    2,805,461
1,966,035 |    2,143,006
1,920,180
4,763,844
2,381,482
3,159,614
2,399,514
459,539
408,100
354,153
256,508
36,042
Prince George  	
—
.... —
10,892,256 |   13,182,376 |  14,624,634
1,478,300 |       36,042
20.805.086  1  24.551.102
24,709,629
1,478,300
1,319,773
158,527
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 Q 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 20—Species Cut, All Products, 1977 (in Cunits)
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver.	
Prince Rupert (Coast)...
Totals, Coast.	
Prince Rupert (Interior)
Prince George	
Cariboo.....	
Kamloops —
Nelson.  	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals—
1,438,141
33,050
1,785,525
299,951
129,654
233,184
481
614
3,279,747
718,199
1,678,960
162,851
1,471,191  | 2,085,476 |     362,838 | 1,095
44
86,241
525,727
693,151
218,971
40,582
24,077
25,136
205,904
345,931
439,506
2,694,904
622,273
852,513
665,175
751,501
1,535,110
1,088,608
805,070
498,444
346,348
5,678
2,212
134,264
205,601
319,123
397,855
105,680
366,273
294,806
1,524,134 |     641,630 [ 5,274,371  | 4,678,733
2,995,325 | 2,727,106
 I
5,637,209 | 4,679,828
4,692,049
3,325,548
38,415
18
3,997,946 |  1,841,811  |       38,433
3,021
57
21,929
46,374
694,103  |  1,483,737 |       71,381
109,814
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
120
219,251
29,479
—
6,716
129
20,491
1,977
3,328
4,714
8,600,829
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
1,484,166
Totals, Coast	
120 |     248,730 |   |         6,845
22,468 |         8,042 110,084,995
1   1
390
2,310
124
577
82
7,222
6,219
14
1,538
751
12,443
10,465
10,595
15,790
9,666
1,920,180
927
4,763,844
1,113
40.702
2,381,482
85
21,818
105,300
3,159,614
Nelson   - ...
8,413   |   - ....
2,399,514
Totals, Interior-.	
50,229 |               85  |      128,045  |         3,483
15,744
58,959 |14,624,634
Grand totals— _	
50,349 |     248,815
1
128,045 |       10,328
1
38,212
67,001
24,709,629
Table 21—Acreage Logged, 1977
Forest District
Clear Cutting
Selective Cutting
Total
Vancouver -   	
76,372
47,439
111,791
41,497
46,490
41,860
1,383
3,634
30
24,187
29,580
10,508
77,755
51,073
111,821
Cariboo	
Kamloops     	
Nelson	
65,684
76,070
52,368
Totals, 1977 -	
365,449
329,322
248,333
323,324
368,792
328,553
334,994
69,322
58,560
47,122
44,488
59,121
48,005
73,039
434,771
Totals, 1976    -	
Totals, 1975 	
387,882
295,455
Totals, 1974 -	
Totals, 1973               --	
367,812
427,913
Totals, 1972                                	
376,558
Totals, 1971 ..                 	
408,033
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Q 41
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Q 43
Table 24—Export of Logs, 1977 (in Cunits)
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Exported
Species
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Total
Exportable i
Under
Permits
Fir.	
360
8,617
2,034
15,978
13,193
7 537
22,170
11,013
17,590
4,580
1,442
4,003
7,010
Spruce	
5,418
22,119
43,515
217
43,298
9,767
24,672
107,420
141,859
41,576
100,283
69,982
69,982
15,343
54,639
Lodgepole pine	
5
68
371
444
351
93
2,280
10,988
59,096
72,364
16,503
55,861
3,444
3,444
2,485
959
  -
1
17
18
1
17
Totals, 1977	
19,272
62,358
209,753
73,426
364,809
98,069
266,740
Totals, 1976   	
10,107
30,228
133,443
34,461
208,239
88,777
119,462
Totals, 1975	
12,066
29,820
98,397
9,843
150,126
73,447
76,679
Totals, 1974	
6,160
31,906
155,541
16,424
210,031
113,267
96,764
Totals, 1973	
1,547
6,380
32,747
6,834
47,508
32,680
14,828
Totals, 1972	
7,171
23,086
67,532
4,089
101,878
30,058
71,820
Totals, 1971	
28,743
60,942
168,171
23,244
281,100
46,304
234,796
Totals, 1970	
32,224
76,299
308,002
83,962
500,487
134,558
365,929
Totals, 1969	
5,988
30,313
172,708
50,403
259,412
106,553
152,859
Totals, 1968 	
36,196
44,828
201,118
26,956
309,098
162,651
146,447
Ten-year-aver
age, 1968-77-
15,947
39,616
154,741
32,964
243,269
88,636
154,632
1 Export privilege—exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12,  1906, under authority of
section 97 of the Ministry of Forests Act.
 Q 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 25—Exports From the Province of Other Forest Products, 1977
Forest District
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles 	
Piling 	
Hop poles 	
Cedar shakes .
Fence-posts ....
Pulp chips	
Prince Rupert—
Poles	
Piling
..lin. ft.
..pieces
..units, GPU
 lin. ft.
Fence-posts	
Fence-posts   ...
Shake bolts ....
Shakes 	
Shingles 	
Prince George-
Poles 	
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes
Shake blanks
Shake bolts _
Fence rails	
Pulp chips 	
... pieces
 cords
..squares
... lin. ft.
 pieces
.squares
 cords
Cariboo—
Christmas trees
Pulp chips 	
Kamloops—
Cedar shakes 	
Christmas trees .
Fence-posts	
Fence rails 	
Pulp chips	
Nelson—
Poles	
, pieces
units, BDU
„     GPU
-pieces
..units, BDU
 pieces
..units, BDU
 lin. ft.
Corral rails	
Orchard props
Pickets	
Fence-posts	
Fence-posts  	
Fence-posts 	
Christmas trees
Cedar shakes .	
Shake blanks ....
Cordwood	
Shingle bolts —
Mine timbers _.
 pieces
 cords
 pieces
..squares
 pieces
 cords
Sawdust and shavings .
Pulp chips	
Total value, 1977
Total value, 1976
 ....lin. ft.
units, BDU
...    „    BDU
2,533,392
67,290
11,790
1,333,121
14,788
617,946
774,375
6,870
39,423
2,199
983
1,330
9,935
2,700 |
196,440 |
1,551
1
1
1,000
126,349
2,422
5,952
17,751
2,360
12,639
440
180
35,439
140,683
806,285
147
52,384
1,177,281
130,809
872
454,519
60,844
222,800
35
340
4,000
9,021
52,066
7,458,208.00
201,870.00
12,969.00
399,936.00
25,879.00
20,392,218.00
1,103,462.00
13,740.00
3,942.30
1,759.20
294,900.00
58,520.00
437,140.00
5,400.00
271,740.00
69,795.00
350.00
260.00
1,000.00
2,274,282.00
93,611.00
5,000.00
887,500.00
590.00
37,917.00
2,200.00
360.00
885,975.00
212,858.00
80,629.00
15.00
2,620.00
117,728.00
143,900.00
87,200.00
727,224.00
2,814,000.00
44,560.00
1,750.00
34,000.00
2,000.00
27,063.00
1,424,000.00
543,350
58,780
11,790
327,639
335,010
6,870
184
2,700
68,754
543
1
1
1,000
126,349
5,952
1,336
2,920
440
180
5,746
137,016
45,626
52,384
471,168
52,352
349
177,214
37,149
220,800
13
79
1,909,817
8,510
1,005,482
14,788
578,045
439,365
39,423
2,199
983
1,146
9,935
127,686
1,008
73
1,024
9,719
3,667
760,659
147
7067113
78,457
523
268,199
23,695
2,000
22
261
4,000
9,021
52,066
80,225
39,901
2,349
17,751
29,693
9,106
40,660,070.50
I 	
29,241,771.00
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977 Q 45
Table 26—Unit Standard Reinventory Surveys, 1977 Field Work
Unit Name
(PSYU)
Maps
Classified
Number of
Samples
Total Area
(Hectares)
Arrowhead	
Edgewood— 	
Kamloops	
Kettle	
 	
37
20
68
46
19
30
93
122
54
276
166
79
113
166
228 590
126 327
503 200
376 058
133 445
225 845
Yalakom	
776 204
Totals
313
976
2 369 669
Table 27—Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for 1976 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area (Hectares)
Crown
Alienated
Total
Volume in
Cubic Metres
for Mature
Crown Area
(Close "U")
Big Barl	
Burns Lakei-
Ootsa	
Skeenai...
Smithers.
Totals.
89
67
135
214
85
590
666 586
455 290
1 082 202
1 588 275
582 492
4 374 845
90 062
38 987
42 824
60 018
55 795
756 648
494 277
1 125 026
1 648 293
638 287
287 686
4 662 531
23 883 660
39 674 838
129 680 600
290 637 070
89 605 700
573 481868
1 Area and volume figures based on earlier surveys.
 Q 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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P
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977
Table 29—Fire Occurences by Months, 1977
Q 47
Forest
District
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Other
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver.-	
0
0
0
10
3
1
6
4
27
60
84
13
20
20
10
36
9
13
50
27
25
130
47
33
55
27
16
182
138
31
107
57
25
183
180
108
12
14
2
20
17
3
4
3
3'
20
5
4
0
0
1
1
7
1
254
152
109
642
490
207
13.7
8.2
5.9
34.6
Nelson  	
26.4
11.2
Totals	
14
0.8
194
10.5
108
5.8
312
16.8
449
24.2
660
35.6
68
3.7
39
2.1
10
0.5
1,854
100.0
100.0
15
0.6
84
3.5
318
13.5
366
15.5
661
28
673
28.5
177
7.5
67
2.8
4
0.1
2,365
100.0
Table 30—Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1977
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44
52
11
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0
254
13.7
Prince Rupert 	
50
24
1
21
4
0
3
22
4
23
0
152
8.2
Prince George	
33
10
4
8
7
14
6
8
8
10
1
109
5.9
Kamloops	
176
76
29
123
24
9
6
60
24
112
3
642
34.6
Nelson	
194
64
14
62
32
5
6
34
8
71
0
490
26.4
54
11
4
20
6
6
2
10
72
21
1
207
11.2
Totals.	
551
237
63
302
83
34
27
154
128
270
5
1,854
29.7
12.8
3.4
16.3
4.5
1.8
1.5
8.3
6.9
14.5
0.3
100.0
100.0
Ten-year average...
872
229
152
319
98
78
34
193
77
298
15
2,365
....
37
9.7
6.4
13.5
4.1
3.3
1.4
8.2
3.2
12.6
0.6
100,0
Table 31—Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years
Causes
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
Total
Lightning-
Recreational   (campers,  hunt-
ters, fishermen, etc.)	
Railroads operating 	
Smokers 	
Brush-burning (not railway or
right-of-way clearing)	
Range-burning- 	
Road, power, telephone, and
pipe-line construction	
Industrial operations (logging,
etc.).
Incendiary  _	
Miscellaneous known causes -
Unknown causes  —
Totals...
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
1,647
646
188
238
374
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
2,318
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
30
255
70
432
27
4,003
1,327
211
175
309
129
105
50
205
70
303
14
583
188
136
267
70
59
44
189
77
277
13
810
338
218
431
145
78
38
224
99
462
20
1,903 | 2,863
I
716
288
147
407
102
34
36
319
133
355
21
1,417
249
113
289
83
42
25
133
94 [
252 '
16
2,558    2,713
159
157
57
130
24
56
116
59 |
127 I
3
551
237
63
302
83
34
27
154
128
270
5
8,720
2,289
1,514
3,189
980
780
341
1,927
772
2,984
154
893    1,854
23,650
 Q 48
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Table 33—Loss of Property Other Than Forests, 1977
Q 49
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver	
$
43,293
7,991
400
2,035
$
8,000
$
27,400
450
207
8,340
2,800
900
$
2,200
100
600
8,171
150
10,000
$
80,893
8,541
4,707
47,346
19,950
12,100
46.6
4.9
3,500
28,800
17,000
2.7
Kamloops	
27.3-
11.5
1,200
7.0
Totals	
54,919
31.7
57,300
33.0
40,097
23.1
21,221
12.2
173,537
100.0
100.0
Ten-year average..	
177,145
38.7
131,580
28.7
94,560
20.6
55,170
12.0
458,455
100.0
Table 34—Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1977, Part I
Forest District
Merchantable Timber
Net Area
Killed
(ha)
Total
Volume
Killed
(m3)
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
(m3)
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Immature Timber
Net Area
Killed
(ha)
Present
Value
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert-
Prince George-
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Cariboo	
Totals.
Per cent	
Ten-year average-
Per cent	
72
134
832
167
50
72
20 876
29 036
130 943
7 350
5 023
10 030
10 125
15 425
76 368
4 238
1562
7 678
1 326
35.1
203 258
100.0
115 396
57.0
14 449
18.0
3 096 965
100.0
1 317 206
43.0
104,178
10,660
34,036
6,999
10,151
3,093
10
67
70
28
29
49
169,117
45.8
253
6.7
$
29,869
26,786
27,100
16,773
20,562
52,107
i       173,197
| 46.9
2,076,752    |      18 238
57.3    I 22.7
1,403,703
38.7
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 39—Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1976/77
Timber licence rentals and fees
Timber berth rentals and fees _
Timber lease rentals and fees ..
Timber sale rentals and fees	
Timber sale stumpage
Timber sale cruising and advertising
Timber royalties 	
Grazing permits and fees
Forest-protection tax 	
Miscellaneous  	
Weight-scaling 	
Coast scaling
Indian Affairs Agreement 	
TSHL fire-fighting costs, standby crews
Reservoir-waterway improvements 	
Total
552,687.13
74,555.43
80,244.37
826,249.31
49,777,942.72
188,810.88
7,298,643.91
413,949.19
1,333,155.62
1,119,201.34
4,504,859.16
697,247.63
181,848.14
530,301.68
1,156,783.01
68,736,479.52
Table 40—Forest Revenue, 1973-77
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1973
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1974
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1975
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1976
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1977
Timber licence rentals and fees	
Timber berth rentals and fees	
Timber lease rentals and fees	
Timber sale rentals and fees 	
Timber sale stumpage.	
Timber sale cruising and advertising
Timber royalties  —
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous- _  	
Weight-scaling  	
Coast scaling _	
Indian Affairs Agreement	
TSHL fire-fighting costs, standby crews
Wood products-   	
Reservoir-water improvements	
Totals	
585,616.72
87,545.48
84,405.30
736,073.92
230,648,895.04
132,227.44
6,879,851.39
542,090.28
1,149,528.61
1,056,014.21
2,660,410.57
569,850.39
81,729.63
86,412.80
696,048.97
181,605,120.21
144,040.10
7,459,614.20
661,145.80
1,028,180.35
1,654,564.42
2,772,736.05
282,596.87
151,585.78
283,095.50
551,336.77
75,548.18
85,655.56
693,428.67
43,437,755.58
113,492.20
6,142,472.77
514,595.23
1,136,279.10
1,175,699,59
3,073,017.84
175,202.08
651,038.38
154,285.90
244,845,255.83
197,200,142.26
57,979,807.85
536,424.40
74,772.43
80,253.37
841,081.45
43,691,476.49
199,208.82
6,691,829.70
412,690.82
1,421,792.84
1,267,600.72
4,468,124.99
2,067,742.02
181,848.14
775,716.72
2,792.17
305,101.00
512,757.29
70,324.86
74,757.20
806,406.86
62,314,958.73
275,650.62
8,628,049.98
503,775.34
1,198,161.44
1,203,475.27
4,637,871.16
587,913.39
143,357.00
163,909.94
2,378,800.00
63,018,456.08
83,500,169.08
 FOREST SERVICE, 1977
Q 55
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ZO
 FOREST SERVICE,  1977 Q 57
Table 43—Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1976/77
Minister's office 	
Departmental administration and support services program-
Resource management program 	
Reforestation program 	
Research program  	
Fire suppression program 	
Forest protection program 	
Inventory program   	
Scaling program1
Range management program
Forest development roads program
26
5
19
2.
4,
5.
4.
7.
1,
4.
Reservoir waterway improvement program      4
Forest advisory committee (SW 3) 	
Accelerated reforestation fund x   	
28,528.19
779,556.82
.838,704.31
211,915.79
245,090.54
783,975.07
776,626.93
818,619.33
987,920.28
159,970.70
339,704.16
861,223.08
34,174.50
Total
87,866,009.70
1 See Tables 44 and 45.
Table 44—Scaling Fund
Deficit, April 1, 1976 	
Collections, April 1 - June 30, 1976
1,314,861.61
485,163.37
829,698.24
Expenditures, April 1 - June 30, 1976     -     980,616.19
1,810,314.43
Transferred from revenue to close out deficit balance of scaling
fund June 30, 1976   _.. 1,810,314.43
Balance, March 31, 1977
Nil
Table 45—Accelerated Reforestation Fund
Surplus, April 1, 1976
1,476.69
Expenditures, fiscal year 1976/77          Nil
Surplus, March 31, 1977      1,476.69
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1978
4M-678-6937
 

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