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Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Annual Report 1976 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1978

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Full Text

 Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
Annual Report
1976
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1978
ISSN   0365-9356
 0      *
 To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
herewith respectfully submitted.
JAMES R. CHABOT
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Office of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
June 1977
 Layout and compilation
A. Sutherland Brown
Rosalyn J. Moir
 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword.
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1976.
Chapter 2—Activity of the Ministry	
Chapter 3—Mineral Resource Statistics	
Chapter 4—Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics.
Appendix—Directory	
Page
A 7
A 9
A 29
A 61
A 109
A 145
PLATES
Underground mine-rescue training competition (photo, R. E. Player) Cover and A 2
Blast at Afton mine (photo, R. E. Player)  facing A 9
Geological fieldwork in Goldstream area (photo, Trygve Hoy)  facing A 29
Conveyer system and coarse ore stockpile, Bethlehem Copper Corporation (photo, R. E. Player)  facing A 61
Oil drilling rig in foothills of Northeast British Columbia
facing A  107
A 5
  FOREWORD
The Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources for
1976 follows the format of the 1975 Report closely. Annual Reports have been
published since 1874, from that date to 1959 as the Annual Report of the Minister
of Mines and subsequently as the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Because of the increasing size of this volume, a new yearly publication, Geology,
Exploration and Mining in British Columbia, was initiated in 1969 incorporating
geological and technical reports previously published in the Annual Report.
Starting in 1975, this technical volume has been divided into separate reports that
can be issued as they are prepared, but eventually will be bound together. Detailed information on mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences, etc.,
that form part of the Chief Inspector's Report was included in the Annual Report
until 1973, for 1974 was issued separately, and in 1975 and subsequently forms
part of the separate volume Mining in British Columbia, but not included in the
consolidated bound volume Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia.
The Annual Report for 1976 as for 1975 therefore contains four chapters—
a general review of the industries, a chapter on the activities of the Ministry, one
on the statistics of the mineral industry, and one on the performance of the petroleum industry.
A 7
  The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1976
CHAPTER 1
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 1—The Mining and Petroleum Industries in 1976  A 9
Introduction  All
The Mining Industry in 1976  A 12
Solid Mineral Production in 1976  A 12
Metals  A 12
Coal  A 14
Industrial Minerals  A 14
Structural Materials  A 14
Provincial Revenue From Mining Companies  A 14
Expenditures by Mining Companies  A 15
Mining and Treatment  A 15
Metal Mines  A 15
Concentrating  A 16
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates— A 16
Non-metallic Mines  A 17
Coal  A 17
Mine Inspection and Safety   A 18
Reclamation  A 20
Mining Road Program  A 20
Exploration  A 20
Metals  A 20
Pattern  A 21
Major Exploration Activity  A 21
Development and Feasibility Studies  A 22
Non-metallic Commodities _  A 22
Coal  A 22
Distribution of Coalfields  A 22
Exploration  A 23
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry in 1976  A 24
Drilling  A 24
Production  A 24
Exploration and Development  A 25
Land Dispositions  A 27
Figures
1-1—Major minerals produced in 1976 (by value) _   A 11
1-2—Quantities of major metals produced, 1885-1976  A 13
1-3—Major mines, 1976 (greater than 1 000 tonnes of ore) facing A 15
A 9
 A 10                   MINES AND
Table 1-1—
PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Mineral Production in British Columbia
-
1975
1976
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Metals
Antimony 	
Units
.. kg
 kg
364 045
19 163
320 923
258 497 599
44
4 819
1 299 215
70 603 483
13 026 627
196 306
32 511
99 668 230
$
1 467 928
261 931
1 971 035
331 693 850
232 204
25 082 494
15 245 902
24 450 158
71 201 391
30 545 947
200 669
80 572 872
3 695 987
447 001
20 261
356 422
263 618 197
26
5 393
1 255 277
85 407 582
14 088 686
239 721
102 262
106 498 987
$
1 636 871
226 462
1 530 800
378 984 941
115 613
21 761 502
14 760 526
32 796 533
94 109 138
32 532 836
712 912
65 499 108
2 083 161
 kg
 kg
Gold-
placer 	
lode, fine 	
Iron concentrates	
Lead  -	
 kg
- kg
t
- kg
 kg
Silver  -	
Tin 	
 kg
 kg
 ka
Others 	
586 622 368
646 750 403
 t
 t
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos 	
76 771
5 847
39 589
33 316
474 387
110 437
246 079
37 849 743
229 483
174 824
1 144 968
1 751 799
414 123
5 738 134
1 364 528
70 433
2 737
11 378
31476
556 134
483 796
231 704
40 727 296
182 159
33 263
1 219 884
4 434 471
1 535 030
4 296 189
488 850
Fluxes 	
,...t
 t
 t
 kg
 t
Others 	
     |         48 667 602
52 917 142
 t
Structural Materials
Cement	
915 293
31681722
6 593 189
4 349 800
8 723 448
39 575 457
4 395
846 548
34 973 746
6 995 917
5 610 063
5 205 973
48 138 635
14 314
 t
 t
 t
1 976 415
4 103 452
28 945 523
53
2 173 831
2 485 215
36 073 618
657
Rubble, riprap, and crushed rock 	
 t
Subtotals 	
     [         90 928 011
     1       100 938 648
Coal
Coal—sold and used  -	
 t
8 924 816    |       317 111744
7 537 695
298 683 679
Total solid minerals 	
      1    1 043 329 725
 ___    1    1 099 289 872
Petroleum and Natural Gas
2 269 898
16 094
185 272
94 229 725
668 092
6 525 837
2 367 450
18 309
167 576
116 595 050
901711
7 198 957
Field condensate	
Plant condensate   	
m3
 m3
Subtotals	
     I       101 423 654
     |       124 695 718
.10<5m3
9 236
106 427
81975
214 733 528
2 577 205
1 985 087
8 800
109 781
88 195
287 997 059
4 591 832
3 688 955
Propane  — -	
 m3
Subtotals 	
219 295 820
296 277 846
Totals, petroleum and natura
gas ....
320 719 474
     |       420 973 564
1 364 049 199
1 520 263 436
Metric
Tonnes	
Kilograms 	
Kilograms 	
C
ONVERSION 1
Symbol
t -4- .907
kg H- .453
..kg -=- .031
 m3 X 6.29
■ABLE
18=short tons.
59=pounds.
I03=troy ounces,
^barrels.
Millions cubic metres
106m3 X 35 4
)6=thousand stanc
lard cubic feet.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1976
A 11
INTRODUCTION
The value of mineral production in British Columbia during 1976 reached
a new record of $1.5 billion (see Table 1-1). This is an increase of $156 million or
11.4 per cent over 1975. All segments of the industries except coal experienced
growth of value of their output. Production increased in a majority of commodities,
and the value of production, whether the quantity was up or slightly down,
increased in most cases because of increased unit value.
The following table indicates the relative proportion of the total values of the
industries taken by the various sectors in 1976 and the preceding two years:
Table 1-2
Metals 	
Industrial minerals     	
1974
Per Cent
  64
     3
1975
Per Cent
48
4
8
26
14
1976
Per Cent
42.6
3.5
Structural materials
      6
6.6
Coal 	
Petroleum and natural gas	
  13
  14
19.6
27.7
This shows the trend continuing in which metals represent a smaller part of
the whole even though metals production and value in fact showed a 10.2-per-cent
increase. Coal production and value dropped (5.8 per cent) because of a prolonged strike, so its share dropped to less than 20 per cent of the total after being
26 per cent in 1975. The value of industrial minerals and structural materials
increased nearly 10 per cent, so that their relative position was maintained. The
quantity of all petroleum products except natural gas and plant condensate was
up, the value of all production was up, and the total value was up significantly
(31 per cent), so that petroleum industries share of the total also increased
markedly to nearly 28 per cent.
Table 1-1 shows the details of mineral production, quantity, and value for
1976 compared with 1975. Figure 1-1 is a pie diagram of the value of mineral
production in 1976.
42.5%
Figure 1-1—Major minerals produced in 1976 (by value).
 A 12 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
THE MINING INDUSTRY IN 1976
By
A. Sutherland Brown, J. E. Merrett, and W. P. Wilson
SOLID MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1976
The value of solid minerals, that is, metals, industrial minerals, structural
materials, and coal, set another new record of nearly $1.1 billion (Table 1-1), up
5.4 per cent from 1975. This was achieved on the face of a decline of some commodity prices (zinc, gold, cadmium, sulphur) because the quantity of production
was generally up.
The value of metals production increased 10.3 per cent to $647 million and
represents 58.8 per cent of the total value of solid mineral production; industrial
minerals increased 8.7 per cent to $52.9 million or 4.8 per cent of the total;
structural materials increased 11 per cent to $100.9 million or 9.2 per cent of the
total; and the value of coal sold and used decreased 5.8 per cent to $298.7 million
for 27.2 per cent of the total.
Metals
The growth and long-term trends of production of major metals are shown on
Figure 1-2. Lead and zinc production advanced sharply in the period 1920 to
1943, thereafter starting a slow decline, a feature dependent principally on the
production history of the Sullivan mine. In contrast, copper production remained
at a modest level until the onset of major porphyry copper production in the late
sixties. Molybdenum production also started its growth in this period, related
principally to mining of porphyry deposits. Precious metals are not shown but
their history in this period is principally one of byproduct origin related to the
production of major base metals. Detailed graphs of metal production are shown
in Chapter 3.    Figure 1-2, however, shows the major metals were all up in 1976.
Copper continued to be the most valuable solid mineral and metal, increasing
in quantity by 2 per cent. Major world stockpiles made markets weak but, nevertheless, the price of copper advanced steadily until mid-year and then dropped
significantly so that the average price for the year was $1.44 per kilogram, only
12.1 per cent above the very low price of 1975. However, with the increase of
quantity, the value of production increased 14 per cent to $379.0 million.
Molybdenum markets continued strongly, the price advanced about 22 per
cent, and this metal overtook zinc once again to be the second metal in 1976.
Production increased 8 per cent so that the value of production was up 32 per cent
to $94.1 million.
Zinc production rose but the price dropped back significantly, due to depressed markets, and zinc returned to third place among the metals. Production
rose 7 per cent but value dropped to $65.5 million.
For lead, the fourth metal, production increased 21 per cent over 1975 and
the price increased steadily in a strong market to 38 cents per kilogram for a 34-
per-cent increase in value to $32.8 million.
Production of gold and silver is chiefly dependent in the production of
copper and lead and zinc respectively. Production of these metals was up but
the markets for precious metals were relatively soft. The resulting interplay of
these facets was that silver was the fifth and gold the sixth metal in value in 1976.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1976
A 13
-750
325-
1
-700
300-
-650
275-
-600
250-
V
-550
225-
-500
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MOLYBDENUM
-50
30
80             1890            1900             1910             1920             1930             1940             1950             I960
1970            19
Figure 1-2—Quantities of major metals produced, 1885-1976.
 A 14 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
Silver production advanced 22 per cent so that even with a drop in price the
total value advanced 6.5 per cent to $32.5 million or virtually the same as lead.
Gold production rose 12 per cent but the price of gold fluctuated downward
so that the value was reduced 13 per cent to $21.8 million for the sixth place.
The price for iron concentrate was stable and the production was down
marginally so that the total value slipped slightly to $14.8 million.
Coal
Coal still ranked as the second most valuable mineral commodity after copper
in spite of the lengthy strikes at both of the major producing coal mines during
1976. The total coal shipped and used was 7.5 million tonnes with a mine value of
$298.7 million (1975—8.9 million tonnes valued at $317.1 million).
Industrial Minerals
The production of most industrial minerals was down slightly, including
asbestos and sulphur. Gypsum and jade, however, were up significantly as was
their price so that with the rise in the price of asbestos the total value of production of industrial minerals was up 8.7 per cent to $52.9 million.
Structural Materials
Production of structural materials was up in some cases and down in others
but the value was generally up because of increased prices. The exception was
rubble, riprap, and crushed rock, which were down significantly. In total the
value of production of structural materials was up 11.0 per cent to $100.9 million.
PROVINCIAL REVENUE FROM MINING COMPANIES
Direct revenue in 1975 to the Provincial Government derived from the mining
sector of the mineral industry is shown in Table 1-3. The amount for mineral
royalties shown is the amount collected after adjustments for 1975, etc. For coal
licences and rentals the amount shown includes cash paid in lieu of work, some of
which may be refundable. The rentals and royalties on industrial mineral and
structural materials was collected by the Lands Service of the Ministry of the
Environment.
Table 1-3—Revenue for Mineral Resources
$
Claims      1 618 025.16
Coal licences and rentals collected        569 376.00
Coal royalties     2 502 201.78
Mineral land taxes  22 428 217.32
Mineral royalties on copper, gold, silver, molybdenum,
lead, zinc, cadmium, and iron  14 094 284.00
Mining taxes   15 650 648.41
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and structural
materials (Lands Service)         694 634.48
Total   57 557 387.15
 wm
Mines in British Columbia Which Produced More Than 1 000 Tonnes of Ore in 1976
Name of Mine
Products-
Metal Mines
Phoenix _ 	
Horn Silver	
Susie	
Dusty Mac   —
Highland Bell 	
HB -
Silmonac  —
Scranton..,	
Ottawa  v	
Sullivan -	
Ruth Vermont	
Texada	
Lynx, Myra	
Similkameen	
Brenda	
Craigmont	
Lornex	
Bethlehem	
Warman	
Island Copper - 	
Boss Mountain -	
Gibraltar  	
Endako -	
Granisle j.	
Bell (Newman)	
Tasu -	
Granduc -	
Atlin-Ruffner	
Industrial Mineral Open Pits
and Quarry
Western Gypsum 	
Mineral King	
Brisco	
Cassiar- v	
Coal Mines
Byron Creek (Corbin);	
Kaiser (Harmer Ridge; Balmer North
and Hydraulic)
Fording (Clode Creek and Greenhill)
Coleman (Tent Mountain)	
Cu
Au
,Ag
Ag
Pb,
Cu
Zn,
Ag
Pb,
Zn,
Cu, Au
Au, Ag
Ag
Zn,
Pb,
Au, Cd
Zn,
Pb,
Cd
Ag,
Zn,
Pb,
Cd
Ag,
Au,
Ag,
Pb
Zn,
Ag
Pb,
Zn
Zn,
Pb,
Cd
Ag,
Ag
Pb,
Zn
Fe, Cu
Zn,
Pb
Cu,
Au,
Ag,
Cd
Cu
Ag,
Au
Cu,
Mo,
Cu
Ag
Cu,
Cu,
Mo,
Au
Ag,
Ag
Au
Au, Ag
Cu,
Mo
Au
Mo
Ag
Cu,
Mo,
Mo
Ag
Cu
,Ag,
Au
Cu, Au
Fe, Cu
Cu
Ag,
Au
Ag
, Pb,
Zn
Gypsum
Barite
Barite
Asbestos
Coal
Coal
Coal
Coal
NTS
Location
Rated Capacity
of Mill/Cleaning
Plant
(Tonnes/Day)
Mine1
Type
Name of Company
Company Address
82E/2|5
82E/4E
82E/4E
82E/5E
82E/6E
82F/3E
82F/14
82F/14E
82F/14W
82G/12W
82K/15W
92F/10E
92F/12E
92H/7E
92H/16E
92I/2W
92I/6E
92I/7W
92J/3E
92L/11W
93A/2W
93B/9W
93K/3E
93L/16E
93M/1E
103C/16E
104B/1W
104N/12E
82J/5W
82K/8W
82K/16W
104P/5W
82G/10E
82G/10, 15
82J/2W
82G/10W
2 500
140
110
1090
140
68
9 500
450
4 500
900
13 600
22 000
4 860
40 900
16 800
426
34 500
1 590
36 330
24 500
12 260
11 800
7 300
7 270
54
2 450
Small
3 630
1700
28 000
17 000
o
u
u
o
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
I o
o
o
u
o
o
u
o
u
o
o
o
o
o
u
u
o
o
u
o
o
O, U
o
o
Grandby Mining Corp	
Dankoe Mines Ltd.._ _
Hem Mines Ltd	
Dusty Mac Mines Ltd	
Teck Corp. Ltd	
Cominco Ltd. (HB mine)	
Kam-Kotia Mines Ltd. and
Silmonac Mines Ltd.
Silver Star Mines Ltd	
Slocan Development Corp. _.
Cominco     Ltd.     (Sullivan
mine)
Consolidated      Columbia
River Mines Ltd.
Texada Mines Ltd	
Western Mines Ltd _
Similkameen    Mining    Co.
Ltd.
Brenda Mines Ltd. 	
Craigmont Mines Ltd	
Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd	
Bethlehem    Copper    Corp.
Ltd.
Northair Mines Ltd ...
Utah Mines Ltd	
Noranda Mines Ltd.  (Boss
Mt. Div.)
Gibraltar Mines Ltd 	
Canex    Placer    Ltd.    (Endako Div.)
Granisle Copper Ltd	
Noranda  Mines  Ltd.   (Bell
Copper Div.)
Wesfrob Mines Ltd. (Tasu).~
Granduc Operating Co	
Atlin Silver Corp	
Westroc Industries Ltd	
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Mountain Minerals Ltd	
Cassiar Asbestos Corp. Ltd.
Byron Creek Collieries Ltd.
Kaiser Resources Ltd	
Fording Coal Ltd .	
Coleman Collieries Ltd	
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6E 2H7
2002,  1177 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2K3
Box 855, Oliver	
433, 355 Burrard St., Vancouver
1199 W. Hastings St., Vancouver V6E 2K5
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C 2R2
42Q, 475 Howe St., Vancou-
. ver V6C 2B3
c/o Kirkstiuk, 1900 Guinness
Tower, 1055 W. Hastings
St., Vancouver V6E 2E9
2002, 1177 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2K6.
200 Granville Square, Vancouver V6C 2R2
3rd Floor, 73 Water St.,
Vancouver V6B 1A1
Box 10, Gillies Bay VON 1W0
Rm. 1103, Box 49066, 595
Burrard St., Vancouver
V7X1C4
14th Floor, 750 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6C 1 K.3
Box 420, Peachland V0H 1X0
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
202, 580 Granville St., Vancouver V6C 1W8
2100, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 2H8
333, 885 Dunsmuir St., Vancouver V6C 1N5
1600, 1050 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 3S7
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
700, 1030 W. Georgia St.,
Vancouver V6E 3A8
17th Floor, 1050 W. Pender
St., Vancouver V6E 2H7
1050 Davie St., Vancouver
V6B 3W7
603, 1112 W. Pender St.,
Vancouver V6E 2S5
520, 890 W. Pender St., Vancouver V6C 1K3
200, 124 Seymour St., Kamloops V2C 2E1
Box 5638, Postal Station A,
Calgary, Alta. T2H 1YI
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta.	
Box 700, Lethbridge, Alta	
2000, 1055 W. Hastings St.,
Vancouver V6E 3V3
Box 270, Blairmore, Alta	
2600, 1177 W. Hastings Stf
Vancouver V6E 2L1
206, 205 Ninth Ave. S.E.,
Calgary, Alta. T2G 0R4
Box 640, Coleman, Alta	
Mine Address
Box 490, Grand
Forks (Mining
ended 1976).
Box 190, Keremeos.
Box 855, Oliver.
Box 402, Okanagan
Falls.
BeaverdellVOHlAO.
Salmo.
Box 189, New Denver.
Kaslo.
Box 2000, Kimberley
V1A2G3.
Box 1649, Golden.
Box 10, Gillies Bay
(Mining ended
1976).
Box 8000, Campbell
River.
Box 520, Princeton
VOX 1W0. ~
Box 420, Peachland
V0H 1X0.
Box 3000, Merritt.
Box    1500,    Logan .
Lake V0K 1W0.
Box 520, Ashcroft.
Squamish.
Box 370, Port Hardy
VON 2P0.
Hendrix Lake.
Box   130,   McLeese
Lake VOL 1P0.
Endako.
Box 1000, Granisle.
Box 2000, Granisle.
Tasu.
Box 69, Stewart.
Atlin.
Box 217, Invermere
V0A 1K0.
Box 603, Invermere.
Box 603, Invermere.
Cassiar V0C 1E0.
Box 270, Blairmore,
Alta.
Box 2000, Sparwood.
Box   100,   Eikford  j
V0B 1H0.
Tent      Mountain
T0K 0MO.
i O—Open pit.   U—Underground.
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 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1976 A 15
EXPENDITURES BY MINING COMPANIES
Major expenditures in 1976 by companies involved in exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal were as shown in Table 1-4. A
major part of the capital and development cost was related to the Afton mine and
plant and coal developments in the Crowsnest Coalfield. The total expenditures in
1976 were up 5.2 per cent over 1975.
Table 1-4—Expenditures (Mining Companies)
$ $
Capital expenditures  94 868 964
Exploration and development  76 294 132
  171 163 096
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   382 378 963
Mining operations (structural materials)   46 158 758
Repair expenditures  134 309 808
Total   734 010 625
MINING AND TREATMENT
Metal Mines
Metal mining continued to be adversely affected by inflation in costs, including
fuel, machinery, and taxes; by generally low commodity prices; and by the depressed
world market. Only lead and molybdenum showed much market strength in 1976.
In spite of this scenario, production increased in all major metals during the year
and the total value of metals produced rose 10.3 per cent to $646.8 million.
In 1976, 59 mines produced an aggregate of 83 024 513 tonnes of ore, which
was concentrated or shipped directly to a smelter (see Table 3-13). This contrasts
with 66 mines in 1975 producing 80 360 807 tonnes. Fewer small mines were
producing in 1976 but aggregate tonnage increased 3.3 per cent. Of the 59 mines,
28 produced more than 1 000 tonnes and these are shown on Figure 1-3 classified
as to geological type, and whether open pit or underground. Thirteen mines produced more than 1 million tonnes of ore in 1976 and in aggregate produced more
than 79.5 million tonnes or about 96 per cent of the total. Of these 13 large mines,
only three are underground mines (Craigmont, Granduc, and Sullivan) and their
aggregate tonnage was only 5 204 010 or 6.3 per cent of the aggregate tonnage.
In regard to geological type, nine were mining porphyry deposits, two skarn deposits,
one stratiform deposit, and one massive sulphide deposit. There were five intermediate-sized mines operating in 1976 with tonnage produced between 1 million and
100 thousand tonnes. Of these, two were skarn, one porphyry, one massive sulphide,
and one stratiform. Only one of these was an open-pit mine. There were 10 small
mines with tonnages between 100 thousand tonnes and 1 thousand tonnes per year,
all but one were vein deposits, and all but the same one (Dusty Mac) were underground mines.
During the year one new mine, the Warman mine of Northair Mines Ltd., came
into full production. This is a vein deposit in a volcanic setting near Brandywine
Falls which produces gold-silver dross bars and lead and zinc concentrates. The
concentrate has a rated capacity of 426 tonnes per day. In addition, two former
small producing mines were reactivated, the Atlin Ruffner (Atlin Silver Corpora-
 A 16 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
tion), a lead-silver-zinc vein mine near Atlin and the Ottawa mine, a silver-lead-zinc
mine in the Slocan.
Two productive old, intermediate-sized mines closed during the year, the
Phoenix and the Texada. The Phoenix mine of Granby Mining Corporation near
Greenwood completed mining in October 1976 but will continue milling from their
low-grade stockpile. This copper skarn mine produced as an underground mine
continuously from 1900 to 1919 and then intermittently until it was reactivated as
an open-pit mine in 1959. The Texada mine also had an early life as a small producer, started as an open-pit mine in 1952, went underground in 1964, and continued
production until December 1976.
Concentrating
In 1976, 27 concentrators at metal mines were in operation (see Table 3-12);
seven treated copper ore, three treated copper-iron ore, one treated zinc-copper-
silver-lead ore, eleven treated lead-zinc-(silver) ore, three treated copper-molybdenum ore, and two treated molybdenum ore.
Smelting, Refining, and Destination of Concentrates
The only base-metal smelter in operation in the Province is the lead-zinc
smelter owned and operated by Cominco Ltd. in Trail. Concentrates of other
metals are mostly exported to smelters in diverse parts of the world, but mainly
Japan and the United States. However, molybdenum concentrates at Endako are
roasted to form molybdenum trioxide and are also processed to make ferromolybdenum.
The smelter at Trail received concentrates and scrap from a number of
sources—company mines within the Province (Sullivan and HB), outside the
Province (Pine Point), and custom sources both inside and outside the Province.
The smelter received 114 222 tonnes of lead concentrates and 174 742 tonnes of
zinc concentrates from the Sullivan and HB mines, and 11 309 tonnes of lead concentrates and 3 912 tonnes of zinc concentrates from other British Columbia mines.
The total value of concentrates, including byproduct metal, from British Columbia
treated at Trail was $112 667 994 or 17 per cent of metal production of the Province
in 1976.
Endako shipped products containing 6 766 374 kilograms of molybdenum.
Of this, 1 098 tonnes was molybdenum concentrates, 9 771 tonnes was molybdenum
trioxide, and 288 tonnes was ferromolybdenum.
The proportions of the total metal production going to the various destinations
are not known accurately but are approximately as follows: Smelted or treated in
British Columbia, $112.7 million (17.4 per cent); shipped to other parts of Canada,
$43.1 million (6.6 per cent); exported to Japan, $282.9 million (43.7 per cent);
exported to the United States, $78.2 (12.1 per cent); exported to Germany,
$6.2 million (1.0 per cent); other plus unattributed, $123.6 million (19.2 per cent).
The destination of concentrates of the major metals is shown in Table 3-13 and
discussed following.
Copper concentrates produced in British Columbia were shipped to the following destinations: Eastern Canada, 105 819 tonnes; the United States, 144 921
tonnes; Japan, 668 347 tonnes; Germany, 13 378 tonnes; elsewhere, 37 787 tonnes.
Details of the disposition of molybdenum (14 008 686 kilograms valued at
$94 109 138) are not always ascertainable but, from known sales, slightly over one
half of the total was shipped to Europe and about one third to Japan. The balance
was disposed of to a multitude of countries.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1976 A 17
Zinc concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
32 982 tonnes of which 12 211 tonnes were shipped to the United States and the
balance shipped to India and Belgium.
Iron concentrates produced in British Columbia were sold to the following
markets: Japan, 1 021 951 tonnes; the United States, 155 097 tonnes; Australia,
2 924 tonnes; Canada, 48 989 tonnes.
Lead concentrates, produced but not smelted in British Columbia, totalled
907 tonnes and were shipped to the United States.
Non-metallic Mines
Industrial minerals of importance produced in British Columbia are asbestos,
gypsum, jade, granules, barite, diatomite, and sulphur. The latter is a byproduct
of natural gas production. Asbestos is by far the most valuable and is produced
only at the Cassiar asbestos mine (see Fig. 1-3). Barite is produced by Mountain
Minerals Limited at two small mines and the tailing of the former Mineral King
mine, all in the East Kootenays (see Fig. 1-3). Gypsum is produced in a major
way (550 000 tonnes) at the Windermere quarry of Westroc Industries Limited
(see Fig. 1-3) and a minor way at Falkland quarry of Canada Cement Lafarge
Limited. Diatomite and pozzolan are produced near Quesnel by Crownite Industrial Minerals Ltd. Silica for flux is produced at two operations in the Kamloops area. Jade (nephrite) was the industrial mineral showing the greatest
growth of production in 1976 (338 per cent). This was accomplished at three
main operations—two on Mount Ogden in north central British Columbia (Far
North Jade Ltd. and Continental Jade Ltd.) and east of Dease Lake (Nephro
Jade Ltd.). All of these operations are mining in situ jade.
The dominant structural materials produced are sand and gravel, cement,
limestone, clay products, and riprap, crushed rock, and building stone. The
mines and quarries are not shown on Figure 1-3. Many of these products are
produced at a large number of small quarries, some of which have very intermittent
production. Limestone production is dominated by four mines (Ideal, Imperial,
Vananda, and Domtar) on Texada Island. The Cobble Hill quarry (British Columbia Cement) on Vancouver Island is being phased out. Significant operations
also occur at Harper Ranch near Kamloops (Canada Cement Lafarge), Ptarmigan
Creek near Quesnel (Quesnel Redi Mix), and Pavilion Lake (Steel Bros, of
Canada).
Clay and shale production in British Columbia is dominated by Clayburn
Industries' pit and plant near Abbotsford, with lesser production by Haney Brick
and Tile Limited, east of Haney.
Coal
The major producing coal mines are concentrated in the Crowsnest Coalfield
of southeast British Columbia. They are represented by five symbols on Figure
1-3 for (1) Fording Coal Limited's two open pits, (2) Kaiser Resources Ltd.'s
open pit complex (Harmer Ridge), (3) Kaiser's two underground mines (Balmer
North and Hydraulic), (4) Coleman Collieries Limited's Tent Mountain open pit;
and (5) Byron Creek Collieries Limited's open pit. The only other operating
coal mine is Bulkley Valley Collieries Limited's mine at Telkwa, which was a very
minor producer of thermal coal. On Table 3-8b production for Kaiser's and
Fording's mines is consolidated so that only five operations are shown. These
two operations produced 97 per cent of the coal mined in the Province in 1976.
 A 18 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Some salient facts of coal production in 1976 are as follows:
(1) About 90.7 per cent of raw coal produced in 1976 comes from surface mining operations.
(2) About 90.5 per cent of clean coal produced in 1976 was metallurgical coal.
(3) Clean coal output was down 21.7 per cent to 7 498 369 tonnes in
1976 because of prolonged strikes at Kaiser and Fording.
(4) The value of coal sold and used decreased to $298 683 679, down
only 5.8 per cent from 1975.
(5) The percentage of clean coal to raw coal remained at 74 per cent.
(6) Coal sales to Japan were down 16.6 per cent but account for 87.2
per cent of the total sales. Canadian sales dropped 38.5 per cent
and coal used domestically in making coke dropped to 162 404
tonnes from 240 628 tonnes in 1975.
MINE INSPECTION AND SAFETY
In an endeavour to minimize personal injury, property damage, multiple
resource-use dislocation, and insure optimum mineral resource recovery, the Inspection and Engineering Division has the responsibility of enforcing, where pertinent,
the observance of the Mines Regulation Act and Coal Mines Regulation Act by all
persons working in the mines in this Province. The Inspection and Engineering
Division maintained a Province-wide system of districts staffed by inspection and
rescue personnel. Staffs of specialized personnel have also been established and
during the year additional staff was obtained to assist the specialists in their duties.
To ensure that the supervision of mines is knowledgeable in safe and acceptable operating practices, certain supervisors and officials at mines require various
certificates of competency depending on their supervisory functions. For this
purpose Boards of Examiners have been appointed from the Inspection and
Engineering Division to conduct examinations and award certifications. In addition, miners' certificates, coal miners' certificates, and blasting certificates are
issued by the District Inspectors.
During the year a minor number of amendments were made to the two Acts.
Two of the amendments were directed at improving safety practice and training
at both metal and coal-mining operations, another revised certain subsections of
the reclamation legislation in both Acts, while another was directed in particular
to the Mines Regulation Act to require more detail to be provided concerning intended operating plans and procedures in the development of mining operations.
The Province continued to maintain its leadership in the design, development, and
installation of improved safety equipment on the large haulage vehicles, particularly
in the provision for adequate braking capabilities. The same thrust was also
directed to the installation of nonflammable hydraulic fluid systems on underground equipment.
Monitoring of dust, ventilation, and noise conditions continued at most mining
operations and, where the environmental conditions were found unsatisfactory,
orders were issued for their improvement. Subsequent surveys were made to ensure
compliance was being achieved. Audiometric testing of mine employees was continued at most operations. The test equipment and procedures being used at each
installation were monitored to ensure conformity.
Mine-rescue stations, manned by qualified staff and fully supplied with rescue
equipment,   were  maintained   at  Fernie,   Kamloops,   Nanaimo,   Nelson,   Prince
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1976 A 19
George, and Smithers. Each station had on hand sufficient self-contained oxygen-
supplying breathing apparatus to maintain at least two mine-rescue teams of six
men each. In addition, each station had auxiliary equipment such as Type N gas
masks, gas detectors, oxygen therapy units, and first-aid equipment. The Ministry
also had some equipment on loan to some mining companies to supplement their
own equipment.
A senior mine rescue co-ordinator in Victoria oversaw the training being done
by the rescue co-ordinators at the various rescue stations. The co-ordinators at
the stations made periodic visits to the mines in their areas to give or to assist in
giving instruction in surface and underground mine-rescue training. They assisted
also in survival rescue and first-aid training, and checked on all rescue equipment
at the mines to insure it was being well maintained and immediately available for
use at any time.
The four mine safety associations sponsored jointly by the Ministry of Mines
and Petroleum Resources and the Workers' Compensation Board continued with
their annual competitions in surface and underground mine-rescue and first-aid
events. They were as usual aided by mining companies, safety supervisors, mine
inspectors, mine rescue co-ordinators, and in some instances, local industry. The
winners of the local underground competitions met in Nelson on June 19 for the
Provincial Underground Mine Rescue Competition. The HB mine team of
Cominco Ltd., captained by Barry Abbott, won the trophy and went on to compete in the Tenth Canadian Underground Mine Rescue finals in Victoria on June
26 where they captured the Canadian Trophy.
The Provincial Surface Mine Rescue Competition was held in Nelson on June
19, at which competition the team from the Phoenix Copper Division of Granby
Mining Corporation, captained by N. Varabioff, won the Provincial Trophy.
Annual awards and trophies have been provided by various organizations in
recognition of deeds of bravery, rescue work, and for good safety records at mining
operations.
In 1976 there were no awards for either bravery or rescue work, but there
were several awards made for good safety records and are herewith detailed.
The John T. Ryan Safety trophies were established in 1941 by the Mine
Safety Appliance Co. of Canada Ltd. to promote safety in coal and metal mines
in Canada. Three Canadian and six regional trophies were established and their
administration was given to the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
There were no awards made to British Columbia mines either in the coal or metal-
mining categories in 1976. Granduc mine, managed by Granduc Operating Company, had a lower accident rate than the regional award winning company but
had an insufficient number of hours worked to compete for the award.
In 1951 the West Kootenay Mine Safety Association donated a trophy to
promote safety in small mines, and in 1976 this trophy was again awarded to the
Horn Silver mine of Dankoe Mines Ltd.
In 1961 the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources organized a
safety competition for the open-pit and quarry industry, and provided two trophies.
Since that time three categories of competition have been established, based on
amassed man-hours, and trophies or certificates of achievement awarded to mines
having the least number of compensable accidents in their respective categories.
In 1976, the A trophy was won jointly by seven operations, each having no compensable or lost-time accidents. These were British Columbia Cement Company
Limited (Cobble Hill quarry), Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd. (Vananda quarry),
Construction Aggregates Ltd. (Hillside-Furry Creek quarries), Ideal Basic Industries Limited (Vananda quarry), Imperial Limestone Limited (Vananda quarry),
 A 20 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Jack Cewe Limited (Port Coquitlam gravel operation), and Lafarge Concrete
Ltd. (Surrey gravel operation).
Wesfrob Mines Limited's operation at Tasu won the B trophy with an accident frequency of 10.78 per million man-hours. In addition, Certificates of
Achievement were won by the following smaller operations having a full year of
accident-free operation: Blackham's Construction Ltd. (Abbotsford), Construction Aggregates Ltd. (Langley Division), Ocean Cement Northern Ltd. (Kamloops Division), and Plateau Construction Limited (Kamloops-Lafarge quarry).
RECLAMATION
In 1969 the Mines Regulation Act and the Coal Mines Regulation Act were
amended to provide for the reclamation of the surface of lands disturbed by surface mines. Inasmuch as the surface development at mining properties involves
the protection of other resources, a Reclamation Committee, comprised of representatives of the resource agencies of the Government, was formed with the Chief
Inspector as Chairman. This committee reviews all reclamation proposals before
the permits are submitted for Cabinet approval. The permits are issued only after
a performance bond has been posted. In 1976, 81 reclamation permits were
issued and 34 permits were approved for renewal. To date, a total of 368 permits
has been authorized involving a total bonding of $4 393 940 on 16 440 hectares
of land disturbed by mining operations.
Closely associated with reclamation of disturbed lands is the construction of
tailings impoundments and miae dumps, because in the ultimate stages of these
structures, revegetation will be necessary. In these projects where their size can
place them in the category of some of the largest man-made structures on earth,
property engineering design and construction are essential. It is therefore incumbent on the Inspection and Engineering Division to insure these structures are
being designed and constructed in accordance with acceptable engineering practices. In 1976, construction of the L-L starter dam for Lornex Mining Corporation Ltd. began and when completed the total dam will be about 320 metres long,
160 metres high, and will impound 1.8 billion tonnes of tailings.
MINING ROAD PROGRAM
The Inspection and Engineering Division supervises the mining road and
trail construction program authorized by the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources Act. In 1976, 25 applications for such assistance were received of
which assistance was offered to 17 applicants with a total allocation of $838 304.
In addition, a total of $400 000 was spent to provide access from Dawson Creek
to the Babcock coal area in the Northeast Coal study area, and $392 000 was expended to maintain, upgrade, and extend the Omineca Road from Mile 65 to
Moosevale Creek and from Germansen River to Tsavta Lake.
EXPLORATION
Metals
Although exploration for metals in 1976 remained at a relatively low level
compared to other years in the previous decade, for the first year since 1970 it
showed an increase over a previous year. The indices of metal exploration in the
following table are mixed but many show upward trends, particularly total expenditure and claims staked. These indicate a resurgence of exploration substantially
related to the search for uranium and massive sulphide deposits.
 1975
1976
$22 100 000
$27 182 927
11 751
28 970
39 403
36 729
8 484
7 826
562
555
92 802
97 277
THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1976 A 21
Table 1-5
1974
Exploration expenditure   $25 400 000
Claims recorded :  16 971
Certificates of work  48 071
Free miners' certificates—
Individual  9 998
Companies   700
Total drilling (metres) ______ 192 935
Total   geophysical   surveys
(line-kilometres)    6 989               4 835               4 267
Pattern
The pattern of distribution of metals exploration on properties is grossly
similar to former years. The changes from the pattern in 1975 can be summarized
as follows: General increases in exploration in the East Kootenays (Invermere,
Cranbrook, Fernie areas) and to the north in Revelstoke to Clearwater area, partly
as a result of the discovery of the Goldstream massive sulphide deposit. Increases
also occurred in the Kelowna to Rock Creek area, as the search for uranium deposits intensified. A modest increase also" occurred in the north in the Cassiar to
Kutcho Creek and Dease Lake areas, again partly as a result of the success of the
massive sulphide deposits at Kutcho Creek and the Red-Chris porphyry deposit
near Eddontenajon.
Much of the rest of the Province continued as before but some decreases in
activity were evident in the Northern Rockies near Robb Lake, the Tatshenshini
area, the Iskut-Stewart-Alice Arm area, and the Sustut, Cariboo, Northern Vancouver Island, and Bridge River to Alta Lake areas.
Reconnaissance exploration activity was clearly up by an unmeasured amount,
much of it directed to the search for secondary uranium deposits or massive sulphides in the Omineca Belt.
Major Exploration Activity
Major exploration activity at properties not in production, defined as programs
of greater than 3 000 metres of drilling or 300 metres of underground development,
occurred at seven properties, the same number as in 1975. The following programs exceeded the criteria:
Pat, Goldstream (Noranda Exploration Company Limited), 92M/9W—
north of Revelstoke, a bedded copper-zinc massive sulphide deposit,
3 000 metres of underground drilling, 1 200 metres of development.
Sheba, Joy (Sheba Copper Mines Ltd.), 92I/7W—Highland Valley, a porphyry copper-molybdenum prospect, 3 130 metres of drilling.
Iron Mask, DM, Norma (Canadian Superior Exploration Limited), 92I/9W
—Iron Mask batholith near Kamloops and the Afton mine, a syenitic
porphyry copper prospect, 4 010 metres of drilling.
Poplar (Utah Mines Ltd.), 93L/2W; 93E/15W—60 kilometres south of
Houston, a porphyry copper prospect, 4 334 metres of drilling.
Hab, Buy (Stikine Copper Limited), 104G/3W—Galore Creek, 160 kilometres northwest of Stewart, a major syenitic porphyry copper prospect,
5 233 metres of drilling.
 A 22 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Jeff, Bow, Kris, Py (Imperial Oil Limited), 104I/1W—Kutcho Creek, 130
kilometres east of Dease Lake, bedded, massive copper-zinc sulphide
prospect, 3 633 metres of drilling.
SMRB (Sumac Mines Ltd.), 1041/ 1W—Kutcho Creek, 130 kilometres east
of Dease Lake and adjacent to Jeff, Bow, Kris, Py, 3 260 metres of
drilling.
Red, Chris (Texasgulf Inc.), 104H/12W—near Eddontenajon Lake, a porphyry copper-gold prospect, about 3 000 metres of drilling (just short
of the criteria).
Development and Feasibility Studies
During 1976 development work continued at two properties and feasibility
studies continued at a number of others without decisive results. Warman mine
of Northair Mines Ltd. came into production in March 1976 and construction of
the Afton mine and plant proceeded on schedule toward production in late 1977.
Feasibility studies continued at Sam Goosly and Chappelle, and were initiated
at Goldstream and Rexspar. Early in 1976, Noranda Exploration Company,
Limited announced that the Goldstream deposit had reserves of 2.9 million tonnes
with an average grade of 4.49 per cent copper, 3.24 per cent zinc, and 28.33 ppm
of silver. No announcement was made of intentions. Drilling and feasibility
studies on the Rexspar property north of Kamloops continued in 1976 with a decision to proceed to production partly dependent on necessary permits in regard
to environmental aspects. Reserves are stated to be in the order of 1.45 million
tonnes of better than 0.075 per cent U308.
Non-metallic Commodities
Exploration activity related to non-metallic minerals in 1976 was maintained
at a moderate level similar to 1975.
The major exploration projects were related to jade, magnesite, and phosphate.
Development of jade properties continued in the Marshall Creek area northwest of Lillooet, the Mount Ogden area north of Takla Lake, and the Provencher
Lake area of northern British Columbia.
Baymag Mines continued their investigation of the ROK magnesite deposit
near Mount Brussilof, northeast of Radium Hotsprings.
Cominco conducted some exploration diamond drilling for phosphate on their
Grave Lake property in the Elk River valley.
Coal
Distribution of Coalfields
The principal coal resources of the Province occur in comparatively narrow
linear belts within the intermontane basins of the East Kootenay area (the Crowsnest Coalfield) and the inner foothills region of northeastern British Columbia (the
Peace River Coalfield). These deposits of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age
contain major reserves of medium to low-volatile bituminous coal, generally suitable for the production of metallurgical coke.
In addition to the above-described mountain coals, local deposits of lignite,
sub-bituminous, high-volatile bituminous, and semi-anthracite coals, of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age, occur in widely scattered areas of British Columbia. Size
and economic potential of most of these, including possible reserves in the former
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN 1976 A 23
coal-mining areas of Vancouver Island, are comparatively small, although they are
of potential value for base-load power development as energy costs continue to
increase. An exception to the foregoing is the Hat Creek property, which is a
Tertiary lignite of limited areal extent but of remarkable thickness.
Exploration
Exploration and development in these settings have been intense for the last
three years. Exploration rose to a peak in 1975 of $13 013 350 on undeclared
mines and $1 million on declared mines. In 1976 this fell very marginally to
$12913 162 on undeclared mines and $693 000 on declared mines (see Table
3-5). The moratorium on issuance of new coal licences was continued except
for seven issued to Quintette Coal Ltd. to consolidate their existing holdings. This
exploration was confined to 1 090 coal licences covering 248 992 hectares, excluding the land held by freehold.
Exploration in 1976 was intense at all the producing mines of the Crowsnest
Coalfield during the year with Kaiser drilling 6 553 metres on Natal Ridge, Fording drilling 3 000 metres of diamond and 84 000 metres of rotary, Coleman drilling
3 598 metres at Tent Mountain, and Byron Creek drilling 1 608 metres. Many of
the other major properties in the Crowsnest Coalfield have completed their drill
programs and are in the process of getting necessary permits and sales contracts.
However, Elco Mining Ltd. carried out a major program of drilling (6 790 metres
of diamond, 310 metres of rotary) as well as bulk sampling.
In the Peace River Coalfield exploration programs are not generally as advanced and very active drilling is still under way. Major projects (3 000 metres
of drilling or 300 metres of underground development) were carried out at the
following properties, listed from south to north:
Saxon (Denison Coal Limited), 931/8—adjacent to Alberta boundary 4 421
metres, four adits.
Belcourt-Monkman (Canadian Superior Oil Limited), 931/8, 10, 15—■
from Kinuseo Creek to Belcourt River, 3 344 metres.
Quintette (Denison Coal Limited), 931/14, 93P/3—Kinuseo Creek to
Bullmoose Creek, 4 102 metres, three adits with 222 metres combined.
Bullmoose-Chamberlain (Teck Corporation Ltd.), 93P/3, 4—Bullmoose
Mountain, 3 846 metres, two adits with 100 metres combined.
Carbon Creek (Utah Mines Ltd.), 930/15, 94B/2—south of Williston
Lake, 3 288 metres of diamond drilling, 6 300 metres of rotary drilling,
six adits with 515 metres combined.
In the other coalfields the only major program was at Hat Creek, 24 kilometres west-northwest of Ashcroft, where British Columbia Hydro and Power
Authority drilled 89 diamond-drill holes with an aggregate depth of 20 422 metres
and a 108-tonne sample was produced by auger holes.
Late in 1976, B P Exploration Canada Limited acquired the underground
rights in the Sukunka-Coalition coal properties formerly held by Brameda Resources Ltd. Teck Corporation Ltd. retained the surface rights in the Bullmoose-
Chamberlain area.
 A 24 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
THE PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN  1976
by
A. G. T. Weaver and W. L. Ingram
A substantial recovery of most activities related to the petroleum industry in
the Province was made in 1976 due primarily to substantial gas price increases
introduced in October 1975. For three consecutive years steady decreases had
been recorded in both the drilling and production operations. However, except
for the continuing decline in gas production due to normal depletion, this downward
trend was reversed in 1976.
DRILLING
Footage drilled and total wells completed increased over 120 per cent compared to 1975. During the year, 184 wells were completed and 928 776 feet were
drilled in comparison to 81 wells and 421 547 feet. The footage made at development locations more than tripled, while exploratory footage was nearly double.
Successful wells similarly increased from 2 to 13 oil completions and from 31 to 95
gas completions.   There were 71 well locations abandoned compared to 44 in 1975.
All of the drilling activity, which was again limited to the northeastern corner
of the Province, was accomplished by 52 individual drilling rigs owned by 18 contractors and employed by 51 different oil companies.
During 1976, industry experienced considerable success in stimulating shallow
Cretaceous gas wells utilizing both the gelled condensate frac and alcoholic foam
frac. Resultant flow rates from wells stimulated in this manner have been so
encouraging that these techniques have gained industry acceptance.
One major blow out and resultant fire occurred during 1976 at a well located
in 11-26-84-23. This well was being completed for production when the blow out
occurred. The gas flow was estimated at between 5 and 10 MMSCF/D and continued fairly steady for about three and one-half days, blowing sweet gas up through
the drilling rig derrick. Adair well control specialists were called in and, while
attempting to save the drilling rig and other ancillary equipment, the well caught
fire presumably from truck exhaust. At this point all efforts were then concentrated
toward killing and closing in the well. It took nine days to finally close in the well
and during this time section personnel continuously monitored events at the well
site.
During 1976 a major recompletion and testing program was undertaken in
the Grizzly Valley area. Seven wells were selected for recompletion, stimulation,
and subsequent testing. This project continued for three and one-half months and
during that period section personnel were continuously involved in all aspects of
the field work.
PRODUCTION
An abrupt reversal in the annual oil production was noted for 1976 although
the gas production continued to decline. The oil production increased 5 per cent
to 14 890 811 barrels or an average of 40 797 barrels a day. Annual gas production decreased 4 per cent to 372 565 267 MCF.
The largest producing oil fields were Boundary Lake, 6 919 634 barrels;
Peejay, 1 725 748 barrels; Inga, 1 669 051 barrels, and Milligan Creek, 1 079 651
barrels.   The Clarke Lake field produced the largest gas volume, 80 226 278 MCF,
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1976 A 25
which was followed by Yoyo, 71 640 639 MCF; Sierra, 31 582 013 MCF; and
Laprise Creek, 20 583 020 MCF. Of the eight oil and gas fields mentioned only
Inga and Yoyo produced greater annual volumes than in 1975.
Two operational procedures involving water continued throughout the year.
Waterflood operations to aid the efficiency of oil recovery were used in 10 producing
pools in the Province. A total of 35 950 531 barrels, including both fresh and
formation water, was injected into 150 water-injection wells. Disposal of salt-water
produced with petroleum and natural gas was accomplished by injection into subsurface formations, preferably the formation from which the water originated.
During 1976, there were 8 588 798 barrels injected into 28 disposal wells and
19 985 barrels put into evaporation pits. Six applications to convert wells to saltwater disposal service were approved in Fort St. John, Gundy Creek, Helmet (2),
Sierra, and Tsea fields.
An application for 320-acre spacing in the Baldonnel gas pool in Laprise
Creek Field was denied following an objection from one of the operators. The
Branch felt that it would be improper to permit one operator to drill on 320-acre
spacing at his location boundary if the offsetting operator did not wish to do so
but would be forced to follow suit to prevent drainage. Three applications for
320-acre spacing for oil wells were approved.
Five applications for concurrent depletion of oil column and gas cap were
received for the Aitken Creek Gething pool, Boundary Lake Dunlevy B pool, Cecil
Lake North Pine A pool, Peejay North Halfway project, and Peejay West Halfway
pool. These were all approved in principle but were subject to certain conditions.
At year-end only the Peejay North Halfway project was producing concurrently.
The Aitken Creek application for concurrent depletion was supported by a model
study with predictions of the performance of the reservoir under the present production method, with several offtake rates from the gas cap and under waterflood.
The Branch approved the application on the basis that the present worth of
increased energy production from the reservoir was beneficial to the Province.
Consideration is being given to the utilization of the Aitken Creek gas cap as
a gas storage reservoir. Gas would be taken from the Westcoast main line
during the low demand months and stored in the gas cap; during the high demand
months gas would be taken from the gas cap and returned to the main line. During
the year a program of testing wells in the Aitken Creek gas cap to determine productivity and injectivity was carried out by the operator.
Major changes in production facilities made during 1976 included the extension of the Inland Natural Gas pipeline system in southern British Columbia, the
connection of the gas pipeline to the Helmet area, and the commencement of
sulphur extraction at the Fort Nelson plant.
EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
An aggressive exploratory drilling program heavily committed to the general
Fort St. John area and to a lesser extent north of Fort Nelson resulted in 11 New
Pool oil discoveries and 31 New Pool gas discoveries for an over-all success ratio of
48 per cent.   None of the 42 completions were given major discovery status.
Most of the oil discoveries were made within the Triassic Charlie Lake Formation in stratigraphic sand developments of limited thickness and areal extent. All
of the New Pool oil discoveries were encountered within the Fort St. John area and
are considered to be relatively insignificant in terms of new reserve potential.
Approximately two thirds of the New Pool gas discoveries were made in
Mesozoic rock sequences of the Fort St. John area.   With the exception of the Half-
 A 26
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
way Formation most of the discovered gas offered small appreciable reserve
potential. However, the continuous sandstone phase of the Halfway Formation
located west of the Peejay-Beatton River oil trend registered several encouraging gas
completions during the year. These commercial gas accumulations were encountered in relatively thick sandstone sequences associated with narrow structural folds.
A number of New Pool discoveries of interest were completed to the northeast
of Fort Nelson. The Quintana HBOG Roger a-30-A/94-J-15 well encountered a
Middle Devonian gas-bearing pinnacle reef a few miles to the north of the Clarke
Lake facies front. The reservoir rock and accumulation is comparable to the producing intervals of the Yoyo and Sierra gas pools. Mobil Sahtaneh d-86-J/94-I-12
located midway between the Clarke Lake and Sierra fields penetrated a substantial
thickness of Slave Point gas-bearing section. The gas accumulation of the Sahtaneh
well is associated with a reefal front which would appear to offer excellent prospects
of extension type drilling. A minor amount of new gas was encountered in the
Upper Devonian Jean Marie carbonates of several wells within the general Helmet
area.
Development drilling activity which more than doubled over the previous years
drilling had a success ratio of 64 per cent. Most of the development drilling took
place within the general Fort St. John area with successful gas extensions to a
number of established pools and the more recently discovered Town Halfway and
Buick Creek West Bluesky gas pools. Development activity in the northern area
included extension drilling at Helmet and Kotcho and deliverability drilling in the
Clarke Lake, Yoyo, and Sierra gas fields.
The volume of geophysical industry activity increased almost four-fold over
the previous year. Most of this activity was centred in the Middle Devonian Reef
areas near Fort Nelson with a minor amount being in the Cretaceous and Triassic
plays further south near Fort St. John and Dawson Creek. A total of 84 projects
was approved during the year.
Table 1-6—Oil Discoveries, 1976
Well
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Total
Depth
(Feet)
Productive
Horizon
3649
3671
3723
3770
3780
3782
3802
3803
3804
3806
3838
I
Imperial et al Mica 11-34 	
Coseka et al Velma d-79-E	
Pacific Stoddart A6-16   	
Wescent et al Red Creek 11-15 ...
Dome Buick a-63-G —	
Scurry CanPlac Eagle 14-27	
Scurry CanPlac Eagle West 6-36_
Ashland Numac Fireweed b-8-H..
Monsanto Cecil 6-7	
Monsanto Cecil 6-6	
Kilo Buick a-67-I	
11-34-81-14 W6M.
d-79-E/94-H-8	
A6-16-86-19 W6M.
11-15-85-21 W6M._
a-63-G/94-A-14	
14-27-84-18 W6M.
6-36-84-19 W6M....
b-8-H/94-A-13	
6-7-84-17 W6M	
6-6-85-17 W6M	
a-67-I/94-A-ll	
12 154
3 700
4 300
5 136
3 645
6 050
6 190
4 440
5 525
4 892
4 604
Confidential.
Charlie Lake.
Cecil.
Confidential.
Confidential.
Siphon.
Confidential.
Dunlevy.
Confidential.
Cecil.
Confidential.
 THE MINING AND PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES IN  1976
Table 1-7—Gas Discoveries, 1976
A 27
Well
Authorization
No.
Well Name
Location
Total
Depth
(Feet)
Productive
Horizon
3637
3640
3664
3665
3676
3678
3684
3685
3699
3706
3712
3717
3728
3733
3750
3752
3758
3762
3765
3771
3772
3779
3792
3797
3801
3808
3819
3820
3821
3835
3857
Quintana HBOG Roger a-30-A 	
Decalta Fina Chowade d-8-A	
Pacific Red Creek 11-8    	
Cdn Res Union et al Kotcho d-7-J..
Chevron SOBC Kyklo d-26-K	
Chevron Helmet North b-22-B 	
Quintana PCP Helmet S c-61-C 	
Mobil Sahtaneh d-86-J ._.	
BP GAO Birley d-91-I	
BP Ethyl Dot 4-11-1..
APL CanPlac Sunlite Helmet a-6-K
ARCo Maxhamish b-21-K 	
Pacific WP Ft St John SE 14-33	
Westcoast et al Kimea b-7-L 	
Dome et al Laurel d-19-C     	
Ashland et al Helmet a-85-G	
CZAR et al Fireweed a-81-A	
Canhunter Bubbles a-9-A 	
Sundance et al Flatrock 10-17	
CZAR et al Birch a-89-E 	
Norcen Pembina Attachie 11-26	
Pacific Westccast Pingel 6-27      	
Canhunter et al Julienne S b-82-L	
Canhunter et al Altares a-23-A	
Kilo Dome Buick c-14-H   .     	
CZAR et al Blueberry All-19	
CZAR et al Monias 10-5  _
Pacific Canhunter Grewatsch d-99-B..
AEG Cache North b-82-I    	
Westcoast Numac Silver a-23-C	
Westcoast Mesa Kyklo a-47-I	
a-30-A/94-J-15	
d-8-A/94-B-10   	
11-8-86-21 W6M	
d-7-J/94-I-14	
d-26-K/94-I-ll	
b-22-B/94-P-10._	
C-61-C/94-P-7	
d-86-J/94-I-12	
d-91-I/94-H-3	
d-ll-I/94-H-5	
a-6-K/94-P-7	
b-21-K/94-0-14	
14-33-82-17 W6M...
b-7-L/94-P-8	
d-19-C/94-H-l	
a-85-G/94-P-7	
a-81-A/94-A-13	
a-9-A/94-G-8	
10-17-85-16 W6M...
a-89-E/94-A-14	
11-26-84-23 W6M.
6-27-81-18 W6M_
b-82-L/94-B-16	
a-23-A/94-B-8	
C-14-H/94-A-14
Al 1-19-88-24 W6M
10-5-82-21 W6M...
d-99-B/94-G-8	
b-82-I/94-A-12	
a-23-C/94-H-ll	
a-47-1/94-1-11	
6 735
9 987
5 572
6 500
6 110
6 810
6 235
7 799
4 058
4 480
6 140
7 520
4 180
6 880
3 669
6 138
4 155
5 390
4 800
4 000
4 825
3 460
8 632
7 000
3 850
4 259
4 940
5 390
5 218
4 215
1710
Pine Point.
Doig.
Halfway-
Slave Point.
Slave Point.
Jean Marie.
Slave Point.
Slave Point.
Bluesky.
A Marker.
Jean Marie.
Mattson.
Siphon.
Slave Point.
Gething.
Jean Marie-Slave Point.
Bluesky-Dunlevy.
Halfway.
Halfway.
Confidential.
Pingel.
Confidential.
Confidential.
Confidential.
Confidential.
Bluesky-Dunlevy.
Halfway.
Baldonnel.
Confidential.
Confidential.
Debolt.
LAND DISPOSITIONS
As a result of a very considerable increase in activity and interest in exploration and development, revenues to the Crown for fees, rents, and bonuses were up
227 per cent to $57 426 007. The fees and rents were up slightly but the major
increase of 339 per cent to $43 226 441 was recorded in the Crown reserve disposition bonuses paid to explore and develop resources. All three categories, i.e.,
permits, leases, and drilling reservations, were up sharply both in totals received and
in prices paid per acre.
  Activity of the Ministry
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS
Chapter 2—Activity of the Ministry	
History and Formation	
Page
A 29
A 31
Legislation _' ___  A 31
Organization .  A 32
Appointments.
Branch Activity.
Mineral Resources Branch___ _	
Inspection and Engineering Division-
Staff.	
Staff Changes	
Geological Division	
A 34
A 34
A 34
A 34
A 34
 _  _____  A 35
__: _.  A 36
Objectives.-..       _.  A 36
Organization and Function _: ____  A 36
Staff .  A 3 6
Staff Changes r .  A 37
Review of Work in 1976  A 38
Project Geology  A 38
Resource Data  A 39
Applied Geology--  A 39
Analytical Laboratory   A 39
Wet Chemical Laboratory  A 39
Emission Spectrographic Laboratory  A 39
X-ray Diffraction Laboratory  A 39
Sample Comminution 1  A 39
Mineral Separation _'  A 39
Publications  A 40
Titles Division  A 42
Staff  A 42
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver)  A 43
Mineral and Placer Title Maps  A 43
Coal  A 43
Economics and Planning Division  A 44
A 29
 A 30 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Page
Petroleum Resources Branch  A 44
Organization, Function, and Staff  A 45
Engineering Division  A 45
Geological Division  A 45 ,
Titles Division  A 46
Staff  A 46
Engineering Division  A 46
Geological Division  A 47
Titles Division  A 47
Highlights of Branch Activities  A 47
Legislation  A 47
Mediation and Arbitration Board  A 47
Engineering Division  A 48
Development Engineering  A 48
Drilling and Production Engineering  A 48
Reservoir Engineering  A 49
Geological Division  A 51
Economic Geology  A 51
Geophysical  A 51
Reservoir Geology  A 52
Titles Division  A 52
Mineral Revenue  A 54
Coal Royalties  A 54
Mineral Act Royalties  A 54
Mineral Land Taxes  A 54
Mineral Royalties  A 55
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties  A 57
Mineral Resource Tax Act  A 58
Administrative Services  A 58
Personnel  A 58
Accounts Section  A 59
Library  A 59
Publications  A 59
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 31
HISTORY AND FORMATION
The Department of Mines was created in 1874. Before that time, mining laws
were administered by the Provincial Secretary's Department, to a great extent
through the Gold Commissioners, the first of whom was appointed in 1858. As the
Province grew, and mining increased in importance and diversity, the Bureau of
Mines was formed as a technical division within the Department. Composed of
professional men under the direction of a Provincial Mineralogist, the Bureau lasted
from 1896 to 1934, when it was succeeded by the Mineralogical Branch. In 1953,
the Department took over from the Department of Lands the administration of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and the Coal Act. The Department of Mines
became the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in 1960, and then the
Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources in October 1976.
The Ministry administers the laws and regulations governing the entire mineral
industry, which is second only to the forest industry in terms of gross value. The
value of production was over $1.5 billion, while that of the forest industry was $4.3
billion. However, the annual revenue of approximately $141 million generated by
the Ministry is about double the revenue of the Ministry of Forests.
The Ministry provides technical services that are intended particularly to aid
in the orderly development of the Province's natural resources of metals, minerals,
coal, petroleum, and natural gas. These services include geological mapping and
research investigations; aid to prospectors; financial aid in the construction of mining
roads; advice to small operators; information to the public; determination of rocks
and minerals; promotion of safety in all operations; general betterment of working
conditions; encouragement of exploration, development, and conservation; and
maintenance of records. These services are provided in order that new deposits and
fields may be found to maintain the industry and in order that the known deposits
and fields may be worked to the best advantage of the Province.
LEGISLATION
During the Session of the Legislature in 1976, four Acts directly affecting the
mineral and petroleum industries were passed. These were Bill 21, Prospectors
Assistance Amendment Act, 1976; Bill 25, Petroleum and Natural Gas (1965)
Amendment Act, 1976; Bill 30, Mineral Amendment Act, 1976; and Bill 57,
Mineral Resource Tax Act. In addition, Bill 53, Municipal Amenment Act, 1976
and Bill 54, Energy Amendment Act, 1976 had some impact on mineral resources.
The Prospectors Assistance Act was amended to eliminate the first rights of
the Government to purchase, lease, or option properties discovered on the program
and to emphasize training of prospectors.
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 was amended to clarify some sections and correct certain differences in Part III concerning entry, mediation, and
arbitration.
The Mineral Act was amended in regard to the conditions under which mineral
claim owners can bring mines into production. The principal amendments in this
regard are the following:
(1)  The right of the free miner to mine his mineral claim is given by an
amendment to section 12.
 A 32 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
(2) For major production a mining lease is required, which must be
certified in production. This certification requires the submission of
technical reports to the Chief Gold Commissioner, payment of a
prescribed fee, and compliance with sections 10 and 11 of the Mines
Regulation Act, which relate to approval by the Mining Inspector
and approval of reclamation plans.
(3) Limited production may take place on a mineral claim provided
certain technical reports are submitted, a prescribed fee has been
paid, and the free miner complies with sections 10 and 11 of the
Mines Regulation Act.
(4) Suspension of a lease at the discretion of the Minister of cancellation
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been removed.
The Mineral Resource Tax Act imposes a HVi-per-cent tax on the net income
from the operation of a mine producing minerals as defined in the Mineral Act.
The Act also
(1) repeals the Mineral Royalties Act as of January 1, 1977, and abolishes the incremental royalty from April 1, 1976;
(2) amends the Mining Tax Act to make it no longer applicable to
minerals to which this Act applies. Coal, sand, gravel, and certain
industrial minerals will remain subject to the Mining Tax Act;
(3) amends the Mineral Land Tax Act to allow the forgiveness of the
section 4 tax on land used for agricultural purposes;
(4) amends the Income Tax Act to disallow the resource allowance and
the deduction from income of 1976 royalties assessed under the
Mineral Royalties Act.
The new tax is effective at the beginning of the fiscal year of operation starting
in 1976.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Ministry continued to evolve in 1976, mostly early in
the year. Firstly, a management committee was created on January 6, 1976, consisting of the two Associate Deputy Ministers, James T. Fyles and John D. Lineham.
At the same time, Operations Branch, created in 1975, was discontinued and its
components redistributed. Basically administrative components and Mineral Revenue Division reported directly to the management committee; Mineral Development
Division became Economics and Planning Division, Mineral Resources Branch;
Prospectors' Assistance was transferred to Geological Division, Mineral Resources
Branch; and Roads and Trails returned to Inspection and Engineering Division,
Mineral Resources Branch. The Public Information function was dispersed; Library
and Publications reported to committees.
Dr. Fyles was appointed Deputy Minister by the Honourable T. M. Waterland
on January 16, 1976, but otherwise the organization continued similarly as shown
on the accompanying chart—applicable on December 31, 1976.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 33
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 A 34 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
APPOINTMENTS
The Honourable T. M. Waterland, who was appointed Minister of Forests as
well as of Mines and Petroleum Resources in December 1975, relinquished the
latter portfolio on October 29, 1976. The Honourable James R. Chabot was
appointed Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources at that time.
Dr. James T. Fyles was appointed Deputy Minister on January 16, 1976.
Dr. E. W. Grove, Senior Geologist of Applied Geology Section, "Mineral Resources
Branch, was also appointed Director of Prospectors' Assistance on January 9, 1976.
BRANCH ACTIVITY
The organization, function, staff, and activities of the major components of
the Ministry are reviewed.
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
The Mineral Resources Branch, under the direction of Deputy Minister James
T. Fyles, consisted of four divisions—Inspection and Engineering, Geological, Titles,
and Economics and Planning.
Inspection and Engineering Division
Inspectors stationed at the following listed locations inspected coal mines,
metal mines, and quarries. They also examined prospects, mining properties, roads
and trails, and carried out special investigations under the Mineral Act. The Environmental Control Inspectors, supervised by S. Elias, conducted dust, ventilation,
and noise surveys at all mines and quarries and, where necessary, made recommendations to improve environmental conditions. P. E. Olson supervised the roads and
trails program. J. D. McDonald administered the reclamation sections of the Coal
Mines Regulation Act and the Mines Regulation Act. A. R. C. James, Senior
Inspector, Coal, had additional duties as mining adviser to the Securities Commission. Mine-rescue training is completed under the direction of the Co-ordinators,
Rescue Training, for the areas in which their stations are located.
Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector of Mines  Victoria
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines  Victoria
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector of Mines; Aid to Securities  Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Senior Inspector of Mines, Electrical-Mechanical  Victoria
J. Cartwright, Inspector of Mines, Electrical  Victoria
P. E. Olson, Senior Inspector, Mining Roads  Victoria
J. D. McDonald, Senior Inspector, Reclamation  Victoria
D. M. Galbraith, Inspector, Reclamation  Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control  Vancouver
G. V. Lewis, Inspector, Environmental Control  Vancouver
N. D. Birkenhead, Technician, Environmental Control  Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Vancouver
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 35
Inspectors and Resident Engineers—Continued
W. H. Childress, Inspector, Technician  Vancouver
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Nanaimo
H. A. Armour, Inspector, Technician  Nanaimo
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Prince Rupert and Kamloops
B. Varkonyi, Inspector, Technician  Prince Rupert
J. F. Hutter, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Smithers
S. J. North, Inspector, Technician  Smithers
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Prince George
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Prince George and Fernie
L. H. Kocich, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Prince George
K. G. Hughes, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical  Prince George
J. J. Sutherland, Inspector, Technician  Prince George
B. E. Warner, Technician, Reclamation  Prince George
D. Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Kamloops
E. S. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Kamloops
R. H. Heistad, Inspector, Technician, Mechanical  Kamloops
J. A. Thomson, Inspector, Technician    Kamloops
J. B. C. Lang, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Nelson
A. L. O'Bryan, Technician, Reclamation Nelson
R. W. Lewis, Inspector and Resident Engineer  Fernie
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Training
G. J. Lee, Senior Co-ordinator  Victoria
T. H. Robertson  Nanaimo
J. E. A. Lovestrom  Smithers
R. J. Stevenson  Prince George
B. A. McConachie  Kamloops
E. C. Ingham  Nelson
A. Littler  Fernie
Staff Changes
In February, Gordon V. Lewis resigned from the staff of the Environmental
Control Section, and R. W. Lewis resigned from the Inspection staff in April.
T. H. Robertson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training, retired in August. In December
1975, T. M. Waterland was elected as member of the Provincial Government and
was appointed Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and Minister of Forests,
in 1976.
On R. W. Lewis' resignation from the Fernie office he was replaced by D. I. R.
Henderson on transfer from Prince George. L. H. Kocich was appointed Inspector
and Resident Engineer in November in Prince George.
B. M. Dudas transferred from Prince Rupert to the Kamloops office in October
to fill the Inspector and Resident Engineer's vacancy caused by the leave of absence
granted to T. M. Waterland.
 A 36 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Geological Division
Objectives
The objectives of the Geological Division are to provide accurate and current
information on the quantity and distribution of mineral and coal deposits of the
Province for Government and industry, to provide maps and other data, ideas, and
interpretations useful in the search for these deposits, and to assist in the orderly
exploration, development, and use of these resources.
Organization and Function
To carry out these objectives, the Division is organized into four sections,
under the over-all direction of Dr. A. Sutherland Brown. The Division is domin-
antly oriented to geological mapping and field studies but also carries on significant office studies.   The roles of the various sections are as follows:
Project Geology, under Dr. N. C. Carter, is a field-oriented section with 11
geologists concerned principally with geological mapping of areas of high and
moderate mineral and coal potential, and studies of the deposits in these areas.
Such projects in the past have contributed to increased exploration and. the discovery of additional resources. The emphasis in the past has been on metal deposits, but geologists in the section are currently making significant contributions
in regard to the coal program.
Applied Geology, under Dr. E. W. Grove, is a field-oriented section of six
geologists concerned with monitoring the activity of the exploration and mining
industry, evaluating mines and prospects for several purposes, and with helping
small operators, prospectors, and exploration geologists. The section was therefore
highly involved in the Prospectors' Assistance Program and related training of prospectors. The District Geologists, resident in Smithers, Prince George, Kamloops,
and Nelson, also represent the Ministry on many intergovernmental committees.
Resource Data, under Dr. J. A. Garnett, is an office-oriented section of five
geologists concerned principally with the gathering, compilation, and computerization of data relating to the mineral resources of the Province, and also with interpretations of this data for various integrated land use studies and other special
projects.
Analytical Laboratory, under Dr. W. M. Johnson, has a professional and
technical staff of nine. The laboratory provides a full service of analyses of rocks
and assays of metals in significant and trace amounts of samples submitted by
Ministry geologists and engineers, prospectors under the Prospectors Assistance
Act and other prospectors, and by other ministries of the Government.
Staff
The professional staff of the Division on December 31, 1976, was as follows:
A. Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng. Chief Geologist
N. C. Carter, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
J. A. Garnett, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
E. W. Grove, Ph.D., P.Eng. Senior Geologist
W. M. Johnson, Ph.D Chief Analyst
P. F. Ralph, L.R.I.C Deputy Chief Analyst
P. A. Christopher, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 37
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
R. D. Gilchrist, B.Sc.  Geologist
T. Hoy, Ph.D., P.Eng. Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc, P.Eng. Geologist
W. D. McCartney, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
A. Panteleyev, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
D. E. Pearson, Ph.D., P.Eng.  Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., P.Eng. Geologist
A. F. Shepherd, B.A.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
G. G. Addie, M.Sc, P.Eng. District Geologist, Nelson
G. H. Klein, B.A.Sc, P.Eng. District Geologist, Prince George
T. G. Schroeter, M.Sc. District Geologist, Smithers
G. P. E. White, B.Sc, P.Eng. District Geologist, Kamloops
G. L. James _  Systems Analyst (Geology)
Rosalyn J. Moir Assistant Editor
J. L. Armitage Chief Draughtsman
R. E. Player Lapidary and Photographer
N. G. Colvin Laboratory Scientist
R. J. Hibberson, B.Sc. Laboratory Scientist
B. Bhagwanani, B.Sc. Laboratory Scientist
Miss V. V. Vilkos, Ph.D.  Laboratory Scientist
M. A. Chaudhry Laboratory Technician
F. F. Karpick  Assayer
L. E. Sheppard Laboratory Technician
The Ministry also has contracted for the services of A. H. Matheson, B.Sc,
to supervise the coal inventory and prepare Mineral Deposit/Land Use maps.
Staff Changes
During the year, three geologists resigned or retired and no replacements
were made.
J. W. McCammon retired after 28 years with the Ministry as a specialist in
industrial minerals and structural materials. During that time he had been responsible for inventory and had been author or co-author of bulletins on "Clay
and Shale Deposits of British Columbia," "Calcareous Deposits of Southwestern
British Columbia," and "Surficial Geology and Sand and Gravel Deposits of the
Sunshine Coast, Powell River, and Campbell River Areas."
Judith Winsby resigned as Research Officer (Geology) after four years with
the Ministry.
A. F. Bowman resigned as geomathematician after two years with the Ministry.
A. F. Shepherd was transferred, January 11, from the Administrative Services
Division, Operations Branch. His new duties with the Applied Geology Section
as Assistant Director, Prospectors' Assistance, involved prospectors' grants, prospectors'  training  programs,   and  co-ordination  of  Ministry-sponsored  geology
 A 38 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
courses throughout the Province.    He has continued his geological information
services to the public, prospectors, and industry.
R. J. Moir was transferred from the Administrative Services Division, Operations Branch, to the Publications Section.
Review of Work in 1976
Project Geology—The highlights in the year included the extension of field
mapping programs in the Peace River Coalfield as well as Crowsnest Coalfield;
extension of mapping related to massive sulphide deposits in the Omineca Belt, and
start of the intensive uranium program of field mapping as well as initiation of the
Federal-Provincial Uranium Reconnaissance Program of geochemistry.
An outline of major field projects was as follows:
P. A. Christopher started study of secondary uranium deposits in the Kelowna
area.
B. N. Church completed studies in the Greenwood area.
G. E. P. Eastwood continued review of mineral deposits on Vancouver Island.
T. Hoy continued studies in the East Kootenays in regard to lead-zinc stratiform deposits and the structure and stratigraphy relative to Goldstream and other
massive sulphide deposits.
W. J. McMillan reviewed porphyry and other deposits in the Taseko Lakes
area.
K. E. Northcote continued with his studies of the Iron Mask batholith and
its copper deposits.
V. A. Preto concluded his studies of the Nicola volcanic rocks and mineral
deposits.
A. Panteleyev continued his studies of structure and stratigraphy and massive
sulphide deposits at Kutcho Creek and the Red-Chris and Galore Creek porphyry
deposits.
Coal Program
D. E. Pearson started detailed study of the coal beds and measures in the
southern Crowsnest Coalfield.
R. D. Gilchrist started 1:50 000 scale mapping in the southern part of the
Peace River Coalfield.
Prof. D. McL. Duff continued his correlation studies, this year in the Peace
River Coalfield.
In addition, a number of thesis projects were sponsored.
Resource Data—This section continued its former program but augmented it
in two ways. Firstly, coal files were consolidated under the supervision of A. H.
Matheson as the coal inventory. Secondly, the MINDEP computer file of over
8 000 mineral occurrences, that had been developed over a four-year period by the
Department of Geological Sciences, University of British Columbia, in co-operation
with the Geological Division and with Provincial, Federal, and industry support,
became operational on the Government computer facility at Victoria. Updating
and expansion of this file is now the responsibility of the section.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 39
Applied Geology—This section became responsible for the Prospectors' Assistance Program in addition to its previous program related to aiding and monitoring
exploration by district offices. New policy emphasized prospector training but
continued a program of grants to prospectors on proof of competency and within
limits of the budget. In addition, district geologists were involved in short-term but
detailed field studies at a large number of properties within their areas.
Analytical Laboratory—The Analytical Laboratory had a productive year in
terms of output and method improvement. In addition, a satellite terminal connected to the Government Honeywell computer system was installed which improved
the turn-around time for the data treatment of our total silicate analysis from three
weeks to one day. The Laboratory purchased a double-beam IL 351 atomic
absorption spectrometer with background correction capabilities and this has
significantly improved our ability to do trace element analyses on rock and silt
samples. We also received a new U-Th analysis system based on a Nal detector
and multi-channel analyser.
W. M. Johnson spent March and April in the Geological Survey of Canada
Laboratories in Ottawa on educational leave. He visited many other laboratories
while he was there, including the U.S.G.S. facilities in Reston, Virginia, N.R.C.,
A.E.C., and Bondar Clegg.
Paul Ralph attended a very informative seminar on the computerization of
analytical instruments held in Ottawa in November.
M. A. Chaudhry went to New York for a two-week course on X-ray diffraction
at the end of August.
The Analytical Laboratory hosted an X-ray School and Workshop run by
Philips in May. There were 18 registrants, including three persons from our
laboratory who attended (B. Bhagwanani, M. A. Chaudhry, and V. Vilkos).
Wet Chemical Laboratory: There were 323 results reported on 126 samples
from general prospectors, 701 results on 326 samples from grubstaked prospectors,
and 5 622 results on 933 samples from Ministry geologists and other Governmental
personnel. This represents a total of 6 646 results on 1 385 samples. Of these,
236 samples were for total silicate analysis. The 236 samples, duplication, standards, quality control, and method improvement involved doing over 500 individual
samples to obtain the results for the 236. These included numerous K results
determined for age-dating purposes.
Emission Spectrographic Laboratory: There were approximately 22 500 semiquantitative determinations made on 780 samples and 3 738 quantitative trace
element results on 1 528 samples. This includes a large number of results on the
suite of samples submitted by E. W. Grove.
X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: There were 132 mineral identifications made,
56 diffractograms recorded for D. E. Pearson's coal project, and numerous F and
U308 determinations (the latter included in the Wet Chemical section and the
former not yet reported and so not yet counted in the statistics).
Sample Comminution: There were 990 samples submitted by Ministry geologists and other Government personnel prepared for subsequent analytical work and
498 samples submitted by prospectors (general and grantees) were prepared. Also
24 samples were crushed and fused for RI work.
Mineral Separation: A total of 24 mineral separates were prepared for age-
dating purposes and seven samples were crushed and sized in preparation for
separation.
In total, the Laboratory produced 33 016 results, 56 diffractograms, 24 mineral
separates, and other miscellaneous services during the year.
 A 40 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Publications
Most of the work of the Division is made available to the interested public
through a series of publications, maps, and also through open files. The most
important publications include the following:
(1) Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia is our major
yearly publication that summarizes and collates all known exploration and mining activity each year as well as reports on properties
by Division geologists and by Mine Inspection engineers. Since 1975
the publication is issued initially as three separate publications.
(2) Geological Fieldwork is a smaller yearly publication that describes
the work of project and district geologists in a preliminary manner
as soon as possible after the completion of the field season and within
the same calendar year.
(3) Bulletins are produced at irregular intervals, usually one or two a
year, and generally describe the geology and mineral deposits in
detail of various areas of mineral potential mapped by Division
geologists.   No bulletins were published in 1976.
(4) Lithographed Geological Maps.   In 1976 the following were issued:
Map A—Generalized Geological Map of the Canadian Cordillera, 48 degrees north to 65 degrees north, by E. V. Jackson
(1:2 500 000).
Map B—Faults, Porphyry Deposits and Showings, and Tectonic
Belts of the Canadian Cordillera, 48 degrees north to 65 degrees
north, by R. H. Seraphim, V. F. Hollister, E. V. Jackson, S. H.
Pilcher, J. J. McDougall, and A. Sutherland Brown (1:2 500 000);
an overlay for Map A.
(5) Preliminary Maps, issued as ozalids. In 1976 the following were
issued:
Map 20—Morehead Lake Area (92A/12), by David G. Bailey.
Map 21—Nicola Group south of Allison Lake (92H/10E), by
V. A. Preto.
Map 22—Radioactive Occurrences in British Columbia, by
P. A. Christopher.
Map 23—Toby Creek Area (82K/8, 9), by Susan J. Atkinson.
(6) Mineral Inventory Maps show locations and commodities of all
known mineral deposits. In 1976 a complete set of revised maps
was issued (89 in total), covering the Province except for some non-
mineralized terrain in the Peace River area.
(7) Mineral Deposit/Land Use Maps are interpretive maps that portray
the varying mineral potential of terrain in a simple five-fold classification.   In 1976, five maps at a scale of 1:250 000 were issued.
(8) Aeromagnetic Maps of two series were issued, Federal/Provincial
maps in 1:250 000 map sheets and more detailed Provincial maps.
In 1976 no Federal/Provincial maps were released from the current
survey program. British Columbia issued a series of 17 maps at
1 inch to 2 640 feet plus interpretative notes of parts of Vancouver
Island and adjacent Mainland.
(9) Assessment Report Index Maps are available which show the location and number of reports accepted for assessment credit by the
Ministry. These maps, at various scales, cover the mineralized
terrain of the Province.    They are regularly updated.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 41
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 A 42
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Titles Division
Staff
E. J. Bowles Chief Gold Commissioner
R. Rutherford Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
D. Doyle Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders, whose
duties are laid down in the Mineral Act and the Placer Mining Act, administer
these Acts and other Acts relating to mining. Mining Recorders, in addition to
their own functions, may also exercise the powers conferred upon Gold Commissioners with regard to mineral claims within the mining division for which they
have been appointed.
Recording of location and of work upon a mineral claim as required by the
Mineral Act and upon a placer lease by the Placer Mining Act must be made at
the office of the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which the claim or
lease is located. Information concerning claims and leases and concerning the
ownership and standing of the claims and leases in any mining division may be
obtained from the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which the property
is situated or from the Ministry's offices at Victoria and Room 320, 890 West
Pender Street, Vancouver. Officials in the offices of the Gold Commissioner at
Victoria and the Gold Commissioner in Vancouver act as Sub-Mining Recorders
for all mining divisions. Sub-Mining Recorders, who act as forwarding agents,
are appointed at various places throughout the Province. They are authorized
to accept documents and fees, and forward them to the office of the Mining Recorder for the correct mining division. Officials and their offices in various parts
of the Province are listed in the following table:
Table 2-2—List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders
Mining Division
Location of
Office
Gold
Commissioner
Mining Recorder
Alberni	
Atlin                     	
Port Alberni	
Atlin     .....
W. G. Mundell	
R. E. Hall	
H. S. Tatchell	
W. R. Anderson	
W. L. Draper	
I. Olson	
S. Matsuo	
N. R. Blake	
E. A. H. Mitchell
M. Sakakibara	
R. H. Archibald
G. L. Brodie	
F. E. Hughes 	
L. P. Lean	
A. W. Milton	
I. D. Sands	
D. G. B.Roberts	
W. L. Marshall	
T. H. W. Harding
T. P. McKinnon	
A. Sherwood	
D. Doyle	
N. A. Nelson 	
E. A. H. Mitchell
W. G. Mundell.
R. E. Hall.
Quesnel	
H. S. Tatchell.
Clinton	
Fort Steele        	
Clinton	
Cranbrook	
Golden	
W. R. Anderson.
W. L. Draper.
Golden      	
I. Olson.
Greenwood    	
Grand Forks 	
S. Matsuo.
Kamloops 	
Kamloops 	
Victoria	
N. R. Blake.
Liard              	
E. A. H. Mitchell.
Lillooet                      _ 	
Lillooet	
M. Sakakibara.
Nanaimo              	
Nanaimo     .. .
R. H. Archibald.
Nelson... 	
New Westminster
Nelson     ...
New Westminster
G. L. Brodie.
Nicola.-       	
Merritt	
L. P. Lean.
Omineca	
Smithers        	
Penticton	
Revelstoke   	
Princeton             	
A. W. Milton.
Osoyoos	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen.—
I. D. Sands.
D. G. B. Roberts.
W. L. Marshall.
Skeena          	
Prince Rupert	
Kaslo	
Rossland	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
T. H. W. Harding.
Slocan    	
T. P. McKinnon.
Trail Creek	
Vancouver	
Vernon
A. Sherwood.
D. Doyle.
N. A. Nelson.
Victoria	
Victoria  	
E. A. H. Mitchell.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 43
Central Records Office (Victoria and Vancouver)
Transcripts of all documents recorded in Mining Recorders' offices throughout the Province are sent to the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner in Victoria
twice each month. Mineral claim recordings are reported daily. The records and
maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims held by record and of
placer leases may be viewed by the public during office hours at Victoria and at the
office of the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver, Room 320, 890 West Pender Street.
The approximate position of mineral claims held by record and of placer leases
is plotted from details supplied by locators.
During 1976, 13 investigations were carried out pursuant to section 80 of the
Mineral Act. Eleven investigations were made with regard to mineral claims
having been located or recorded otherwise than in accordance with the Mineral
Act, which resulted in 18 mineral claims being cancelled.
Mineral and Placer Title Maps
The Mineral Titles map series has now been completed for the whole of the
Province at the scale of 1:50 000 and shows the location of mineral claims (based
on the locator's sketch, unless surveyed or verified by inspection), Crown-granted
mineral claims, and mining leases. The Placer Titles map series shows placer
leases and those areas available for staking under the Placer Mining Act.
Indexes for the two series are available, free of charge, from the offices of all
Gold Commissioners and all maps may be viewed at Room 411, Douglas Building,
Victoria, and at Room 320, 890 West Pender Street, Vancouver. It is advisable
to order claim maps from an index.
Prints of the maps at the scale of 1:50 000 may be purchased for 50 cents
each (tax and third class mail included) by applying in person at both the Victoria
and Vancouver offices, and may be ordered by mail from the Victoria office.
Coal
Information concerning the ownership and standing of coal licences and coal
leases may be obtained upon application to the Chief Gold Commissioner, Ministry
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps showing location of coal
licences and coal leases are also available upon application and payment of the
required fee.
Table 2-3—Coal Revenue From Licences
Fees __
Rental
1975
$
16 880
932 121
1976
$
8 830
560 546
Maps showing the location of coal licences issued under the Coal Act may.be
seen at the Titles Division, Mineral Resources Branch, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria. An index of coal reference maps is obtainable from the Chief Gold
Commissioner at the above address.
During 1976, seven coal licences were issued. As of December 31, 1976, a
total of 1 090 coal licences, amounting to 249 093 hectares, was held in good
standing.
 a 44 mines and petroleum resources report, 1976
Economics and Planning Division
During 1976 the name and direction of the Division was returned to Economics and Planning from Mineral Development. This change shifted the emphasis from a development-oriented concept of mineral evaluation to long-range
planning studies, economic research, and analysis. The Division became a part of
the Mineral Resources Branch and the responsibilities under the Prospectors
Assistance Act and the administration of the Roads and Trails Program were
transferred to other Divisions within that Branch.
During 1976 the Division was under the direction of J. S. Poyen and operated
without an Assistant Director. The latter position was vacated in mid-1975 and
a replacement, F. C. Basham, was subsequently recruited late in 1976 and assumed
his responsibilities in January 1977.
During 1976 the economic analysis was focused on coal development with the
main emphasis centred on the co-ordinated studies of the Peace River Coalfield.
A major coal resource analysis was co-ordinated in this Division for the joint
evaluation by Federal and Provincial representatives concerned with Northeast
Coal Development. A significant byproduct of this work was the development of
a Coal Cost Model. The work on the model was completed in 1976 and the published documentation will be available in the near future. In addition to coal
resource studies, the Economics Section continued analysis in commodity studies,
mineral and coal price forecasting, resource taxation, recreation corridors, natural
gas pricing, mineral policy review, studies under the Foreign Investment Review
Act, and work in the development of a cost/benefit manual for the Province. The
work of the Economic Section has been co-ordinated by J. F. Clancy.
The ongoing statistical work, co-ordinated by W. P. Wilson, included the
Annual Census of Mining, mail out, compilation, and organization of mineral
statistics for the Annual Report, and monthly mineral statistics for intergovernmental use (under review). The Section is currently involved in a number of
committees relevant to mineral statistics, including Mines Ministers' Subcommittee
on Mineral Statistics, Consultative Council for Mineral Statistics, Coal Statistics,
and Statistics Canada, and represents the Government of British Columbia on such
committees. A Task Force on Mineral Valuation established at the Mines Ministers' Conference was charged with evaluating and, if necessary, redesigning the
statistical forms currently in use throughout Canada. A three-man working group
(British Columbia Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Statistics Canada,
and Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa) has worked to this
end and significant progress has been made.
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the general direction of Associate
Deputy Minister J. D. Lineham, Chief of Branch, administers the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, 1965 and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling
and Production Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the Drilling Reservation
Regulations, and the Development Road Regulations. It also administers the
Underground Storage Act, 1964. Therefore, the Branch is responsible for all
matters related to the disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and natural gas rights
as well as the regulation of the exploration, development, and production phases
of the oil and gas industry.
The Branch is divided into three Divisions, namely, the Engineering Division,
the Geological Division, and the Titles Division.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 45
Organization, Function, and Staff
Engineering Division
The Engineering Division, under the direction of Chief Engineer A. G. T.
Weaver, is responsible for all engineering activities of the Petroleum Resources
Branch.
There are three main functions:
(1) Enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, together with provision of
advice to the Minister with respect to applications made by industry
under the Act.
(2) Collection, filing for Branch and public use, and publication of
drilling and production statistics, production and disposition data,
reservoir and pool performance data.
(3) Reservoir analysis of all oil and gas pools in the Province, including
maintenance of current production rate forecasts together with data
concerning reserves discovered to date and estimates of potential
reserves growth.
The Development Engineering Section, under the supervision of Senior
Development Engineer W. L. Ingram, licenses drilling and service rigs, issues well
authorizations, and maintains detailed records pertaining to all drilling and production operations.
The Reservoir Engineering Section, under the Senior Reservoir Engineer B. T.
Barber, is concerned with all reservoir engineering aspects of the Division's activities. The section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production
characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation of
reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production data. These parameters are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from oil and gas accumulations in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes will be produced. Oil
and gas allowable rates are set by the Section, and recommendations concerning
proposed improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made.
The Drilling and Production Engineering Section, under the supervision of
District Engineer D. L. Johnson, is located at the field office at Charlie Lake and is
primarily responsible for enforcement of the Drilling and Production Regulations
in the field. It also collects reservoir and other data as required, acts.in a liaison
capacity with industry at the field level, and maintains core and drill sarnple storage
and examination facilities.
Geological Division
The Geological Division, under the direction of Chief Geologist W. M. Young,
consists of three Sections and is responsible for all geological and geophysical
activities of the Petroleum Resources Branch.
Data resulting from the drilling of wells, geophysical surveys, and other related
sources in the Province in the search for and development of accumulations of oil
and gas are supplied to the Branch. These data are used by staff geologists and
geophysicists as a basis for reports on, and maps and cross-sections of, the economically important sedimentary rocks of the Province. The Division is responsible
for providing data and opinions to attract, assist, and encourage the exploration
and development of the petroleum resources of the Province. The Division also
directs and provides all draughting services required by the Geological and Engineering Divisions.
 A 46 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
The Economic Geology Section, under J. A. Hudson, is primarily concerned
with those matters related to exploration and economic geology.
The Reservoir Geology Section, under R. Stewart, is primarily concerned with
the detailed knowledge of the geology of oil and gas wells and reservoirs. This
is required to assist in reserve estimations and in the framing of procedures that
ensure the best returns from these reservoirs.
Titles Division
The Titles Division consists of two Sections, under the direction of Commissioner R. E. Moss, and is responsible for administering those parts of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965 relating to and affecting title to Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights.
The Division administers the disposition of Crown petroleum and natural gas
rights and, in consultation with the Engineering and Geological Divisions, approves
and selects parcels for posting, and accepts or rejects the tenders received.
The Titles Section is responsible for all transactions involving petroleum and
natural gas permits, all leases, natural gas licences, drilling reservations, geophysical
licences, notices of commencement of exploratory work, affidavits of work, unit
agreements, and miscellaneous recordings.
The Revenue Section, under W. J. Quinn, is responsible for the collection of
all petroleum and natural gas revenue, except royalty, payable to the Crown under
the provisions of the Act.
Staff
On December 31, 1976, the professional and technical staff included the
following:
Associate Deputy Minister, J. D. Lineham, P.Eng Chief of Branch
Engineering Division
A. G. T. Weaver, P.Eng Chief Engineer
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng Senior Development Engineer
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T Development Technician
B. T. Barber, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Engineer
P. S. Attariwala, P.Eng Reservoir Engineer
L. Pepperdine, P.Eng Reservoir Engineer
P. K. Huus Reservoir Technician
J. H. Burt Reservoir Technician
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng District Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician
G. T. Mohler Field Technician
H. W. Spooner Field Technician
J. W. D. Kielo Field Technician
G. L. Holland Field Technician
J. L. Withers Geophysical Technician
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 47
Geological Division
W. M. Young, P.Eng Chief Geologist
R. Stewart, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Geologist
T. B. Ramsay, P.Eng Reservoir Geologist
K. A. McAdam Reservoir Geologist
J. A. Hudson, P.Eng Senior Economic Geologist
D. W. Dewar Economic Geologist
Titles Division
R. E. Moss Commissioner
W. J. Quinn Assistant Commissioner
Highlights of Branch Activities
Legislation
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 was amended during 1976 for the
purpose of clarifying some sections and correcting certain deficiencies in Part III
concerning Entry, Mediation, and Arbitration. In addition, authority was provided
to make regulations respecting the exploration, development, and production of oil
sand, oil sand products, oil shale, and oil shale products, and to order that all or
part of the Mines Regulation Act applies to the exploration, development, and production of oil sand, oil sand products, oil shale, and oil shale products.
In addition to the above, the Drilling and Production Regulations issued under
the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 were significantly updated and reissued in
new format. While many of the amendments were of a housekeeping nature there
were others designed to simplify and add greater flexibility to drilling and production
procedures. Particularly affected were regulations concerning well spacing, well
classifications, production allowables, and the requirements for production testing.
In conjunction with the new regulations, work was started on a Procedural
Handbook primarily designed to guide industry in their dealing with the Branch.
This will be issued in 1977 for inclusion with the regulations in a loose-leaf binder.
Mediation and Arbitration Board
Chairman: Patrick D. Walsh.
Vice-Chairman : Douglas Pomeroy.
Member: Cecil RuddeU.
The Mediation and Arbitration Board, established under the authority of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 grants rights of entry to oil and gas companies over alienated lands, and determines conditions of entry and compensation
therefore. The Act now provides for a process of mediation by the Chairman of
the Board. Failing satisfactory agreement between the parties upon mediation, the
Act provides for final disposition by the Board of entry conditions and compensation. The Board is also charged with responsibility to review and set compensation
on leases and previous Board orders of more than five years' duration, and to terminate rights of entry when an operator has ceased to use occupied lands.
In 1976, 16 field inspections were carried out by the Board; the Board made
a total of 25 orders, 13 as a result of Board hearings and 12 to vary or terminate
existing orders; the Board met 105 times during the year to deal with general Board
matters and specific concerns of the public.
 A 48 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Engineering Division
An important aspect of the Division's function continued to be the provision
of a service with respect to petroleum engineering, regulatory, and administrative
matters for Government, Crown agencies (such as the B.C. Energy Commission),
and industry. This involved numerous meetings and the attendance at hearings.
Work specifically carried out by the three Sections in the Division is outlined below.
Development Engineering—The Development Engineering Section is responsible for the administration of all matters related to the location, drilling, completion,
and abandonment of wells in the Province. This involves the assurance that operators of all wells located and drilled conform with the Drilling and Production
Regulations and submit the required applications, reports, and information to the
Branch.
Approval of well authorizations to drill proposed well locations is granted by
the Section after review and reference to the Titles and Geological Divisions. In
1976, there were 195 authorizations issued, an increase of 95 per cent over 1975.
Throughout the life of a well the status, well name, and assigned classification may
be changed as circumstances require. During the year statuses were changed on
119 occasions, well names on 53, and well classifications on 20.
In addition to comprehensive well data records, all geological and geophysical
reports submitted for work credits and the Branch correspondence files are maintained by the Section. Reorganization of the filing system to a unified system continued throughout 1976. The Development Section itself was reoriented into two
distinct functions. One dealt with the aspects of drilling and production and the
other with the determination of product disposition and certain administrative
duties, including a typing pool, and the Branch file room.
Each drilling or service rig operating in the Province must have a valid rig
licence.   Sixty-one licences were renewed in 1976 and 16 new ones were issued.
In view of the impending conversion to metric measurements, various preparatory steps were taken by the Section, including the identification of all petroleum-
related legislation and a detailed review of the effect of metrication on the
ministerial forms and files in present use.
Drilling and Production Engineering—During 1976, some 180 000 miles
were driven by staff members in the course of fulfilling their primary function which
is the enforcement at the field level of the Drilling and Production Regulations of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965. Oil production facilities were inspected
on 318 different occasions and inspections of drilling, producing, and abandoned
well sites were conducted 3 148 times. A total of 580 inspections of active drilling
sites was made during 1976. Two oil-well tests were conducted by Branch personnel, and 31 gas-well tests (AOFP deliverability and reservoir limit) were witnessed. To ensure reliability of gas volumes being reported (both sales and individual well volumes), 489 complete orifice meter calibrations were performed
and spot checks were made on 556 other occasions.
During the year, 124 static-pressure gradients were conducted on selective oil
and gas wells to augment data received by the Reservoir Engineering Section and
to further ensure the reliability of pressure data being received, 1 028 bottom-hole
pressure-bomb elements were calibrated.
Some 86 man-days were spent on seismic inspections ensuring that regulations
concerning geophysical activity were being carried out.
During 1976, this Section continued its involvement with the British Columbia
Oil Spill Contingency Plan, taking an active role in all meetings and training
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 49
exercises. No major spills occurred during 1976, and only six man-days were spent
inspecting oil spills.
Inspections of salt-water disposal systems and witnessing of segregation tests
were again emphasized during 1976.
During the year a map showing areas of northeastern British Columbia which
might be accessible for summer drilling operations was finalized by this Section
and, after gaining Branch approval, was forwarded to industry for their comments.
At year-end, favourable response and support had been received from the drilling
contractors, and from several oil companies.
Reservoir Engineering—Hydrocarbon reserve estimations were made as of
year-end 1976. It was decided that, henceforth, oil reserves will be reported as
"established" reserves rather than as "proved and probable." It was felt that the
use of a single number for reserves would remove any confusion which may have
occurred as a result of the earlier nomenclature, which is used by other reporting
bodies in Canada but not always with the same meaning.
Table 4-2 is a summary of the hydrocarbon and by-products reserves in the
Province as at December 31, 1976, and indicates the following:
Oil, established  154 981 MSTB
Natural gas, established—
Raw        8 520 MSTB
Residue        7 310 BSCF
Residue (1 000 Btu/SCF)        7 588 BSCF
Natural gas liquids—
Propane      8 054 MSTB
Butane   12 154 MSTB
Pentanes plus  23 449 MSTB
Sulphur      6 467 MLT
It may be observed from Table 4-2 that the oil reserves have decreased 24.5
MMSTB from last year. Additions due to drilling were 2.8 MMSTB; revisions
reduce the reserves by 12.4 MMSTB and 14.9 MMSTB were produced. Raw gas
reserves of 8.5 TSCF at the end of 1976 show an increase of 0.5 TSCF. Additions
due to drilling were 0.5 TSCF; revisions added 0.4 TSCF and 0.4 TSCF were
produced.
A submission which showed the effect on reserves and deliverability of drilling
from May 1974 to April 1975 and from May 1975 to April 1976 was prepared
and presented to the British Columbia Energy Commission at a hearing in Vancouver in June 1976 for "the purpose of an annual review of present and future
field prices of petroleum and natural gas and other factors that may affect the level
of exploration and development of petroleum and natural gas in British Columbia."
A forecast of oil and condensate production in the Province was prepared and
submitted to the National Energy Board at a hearing in Calgary in October 1976.
The results of this forecast may be summarized as follows:
(1) Oil producing rates from existing reservoirs are expected to decline
from an estimated 40.3 MSTB/D in 1976 to 7.3 MSTB/D in 1995.
(Actual 1976 production averaged 40.8 MSTB/D.)
(2) Based on statistical data from current geological considerations, it
is not expected that oil production from new discoveries will appreciably increase the predicted oil supply rate. The predicted oil reserve
addition from new discoveries is some 9 MMSTB only.
(3) Pentanes plus supply rates are forecast to remain relatively constant
at about 3.2 MSTB through 1982 and then to decline to 1.1 MSTB
 A 50 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
in 1995. No additional volumes of pentanes plus are forecast to
be obtained from any future plants installed to process currently
unconnected gas reserves or from future gas discoveries.
A forecast of gas production in the Province at year-end led to the following
conclusions:
(1) Raw gas production is forecast to increase from 370 BCF/yr in
1977 to a peak of 450 BCF in 1982. Thereafter, production is
essentially constant in the range 430-440 BCF/yr until 1995 and
declines to about 300 BCF/yr in 2004.
(2) This forecast is based on the assumption that
(a) some 2.3 TCF of known raw gas reserves will be connected
to pipeline in the period 1977-82 and will add about 25 BCF/yr.
This will more than balance the decline of 9 BCF/yr from presently
connected reserves;
(b) production from future discoveries of 340 BCF/yr of raw
gas will yield 18 BCF/yr which balances the forecast decline of
18 BCF/yr from presently connected reserves in the period 1982-95;
(c) the last year of gas discovery was arbitrarily selected as
1995, so after 19^9 no additional production comes from new discoveries. In addition, gas production from earlier discoveries commences to decline and causes the decline experienced from 1995 on.
The Branch has been concerned for some time by the problems of water influx
into and water production from gas reservoirs in the Slave Point formations. In
a preliminary study of water influx, Clarke Lake, Clarke Lake South, Yoyo, Sierra,
and Kotcho Lake fields were examined and the following conclusions drawn:
(1) All these pools except Sierra have the same hydrostatic gradient and
perhaps a common aquifer; Sierra has a higher gradient and is
isolated from this common aquifer.
(2) Water influx appears to be occurring in Clarke Lake, Clarke Lake
South, and Sierra. No water influx has been detected in Yoyo or
Kotcho Lake. Water production (in excess of water condensation)
is a problem in Clarke Lake and Kotcho Lake. Thus it would appear
that water production can occur without water influx and that water
influx can occur without water production.
(3) A straight-line plot of P/Z vs. cumulative gas production does not
necessarily indicate no water influx.
(4) A recent well in Sierra penetrated the gas-water contact some 70 feet
above the original level which would suggest a residual gas saturation
in the invaded zone of some 50 per cent.
Another aspect which concerns the Branch is the effect, if any, of the rate of
gas production from a pool with water influx on ultimate recovery. In the hope of
obtaining some insight into this problem, the Branch decided to have a reservoir
simulation study performed on a portion of the Clarke Lake reservoir which included
wells of completely different performance characteristics with respect to water
production. Once this portion of the reservoir has been successfully modelled, the
model will be tested at different rates of production. At year-end, specifications had
been forwarded to various consultants who were invited to bid.
A number of pressure drawdown and build-up tests conducted on various wells
in the Grizzly Valley-Sukunka trend were analysed by the Section in an attempt to
confirm that the gas in matrix porosity was flowing into the reservoir fracture system.
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY A 51
In the opinion of the Branch this has now been established and, consequently, it is
correct to include in reserves the estimated recoverable gas in the matrix porosity.
Geological Division
Economic Geology—During the year the Economic Geology Section continued with its program of initiating, organizing, and carrying through to publication regional subsurface compilation, mapping, and related projects within the
sedimentary basin of northeastern British Columbia.
The drillstem test and penetration compilation map series using the National
Topographic System were converted to a scale of 1:100 000 from the previous scale
of 1:125 000. The east half and west half of NTS map sheets 93-1, 93-0, and 93-P
completed the series and coverage of the northeastern sedimentary area. The latter
compilation series of 36 map sheets shows for all wells outside designated field
boundaries the deepest geological Formation penetrated, all Formation drillstem
tests, and the Zone(s) in which gas and oil wells are completed. In addition to the
latter information and within the designated field limit the penetration map will
show drillstem tests in horizons other than that productive in the field as well as the
Formation at total depth for wells which have penetrated below the lowest productive horizon within the field.
Subsurface structural coverage of the Lower Cretaceous Bullhead Group (Top
Bluesky-Gething) was completed with the mapping of the east half of NTS map
sheets 93-1, 93-0, 93-P, and the west half of 93-P. Most of the published series
on regional subsurface mapping were updated as of May 1, 1976, with the latest
released information. A total of 74 map sheets covering the mapping of all major
economic oil and gas producing horizons on a scale of 1:100 000 has been made
available to industry and the public through publication.
A geological assessment was completed on the ultimate reserve potential of the
Grizzly Valley-Sukunka gas trend. The project included an in-depth study of the
geology and reservoir characteristics of the primary producing horizons. The estimated ultimate reserve potential was concluded by determining the ratio of the
present drilling density to the optimum drilling density over the selected area in
relation to the established reserve from completed drilling. In conjunction with
this assessment a series of structural cross-sections combining surface and subsurface geology across the disturbed foothills belt was completed from south of the
Grizzly Valley area northwest to the John Hart Highway.
In addition to the activities outlined above, the Economic Geology Section
spent considerable time in assisting other Divisions and Ministries of the Government, Crown agencies, and intergovernmental relations in matters concerning
petroleum geology. Frequent meetings were held with various industry representatives to discuss various aspects of geology, geophysics, and exploration in general
and to clarify questions arising from the regulations with respect to the drilling of
wells and its relationship to the tenure of petroleum and natural gas rights.
Geophysical—The method of using released geophysical data as an integral
part of the regional subsurface mapping program was continued for the first half of
the year. Data received by the Ministry in support of applications to record
geophysical work are converted to depth and integrated into the appropriate regional subsurface map. This work has provided significant structural control at
the Devonian, Mississippian, and Triassic levels within the Foothills Belt area extending north of the Peace River to Fort Nelson.
An assessment of the complete geophysical coverage submitted by industry on
the Grizzly Valley gas-bearing structures was carried out by members of the Geophysical and Economic Geology Sections.   In general, the quality and resolution
 A 52 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
of the sectional seismic data provided good correlation and ties with available
information obtained from drilling operations. Structural configuration and areal
extent of the Halfway and Nikanassin Formation gas-bearing horizons have been
reasonably well defined.
Reservoir Geology—The Reservoir Geology Section continued with its ongoing program of assessing and mapping in detail all oil and gas accumulations
encountered by the drilling during the year. Structural stratigraphic and reservoir
geologic data made available through drilling were used as basis for map revision
work, reservoir studies, evaluation of reserves, and the control of remedial work,
cycling, repressuring, and secondary recovery projects.
Revision work on the Slave Point gas productive interval in Helmet Field was
concluded. Previous mapping in this area indicated a series of small isolated one-
to-three well pools. However, the determination of gas/water interfaces based on
drilling and pressure depth studies supports the interpretation of one large pool and
one-to-three small isolated pools located to the south and east of the main pool.
A considerable amount of work was expended in reassessing the net gas pay
thicknesses and areal extent of existing Nikanassin, Baldonnel, and Halfway gas
pool reservoirs of the Grizzly-Sukunka area. The geological and associated reservoir engineering studies carried out on the various pools were instrumental in
assigning a substantial increase to the established reserve estimates.
The geologic evaluation of development and outpost drilling completed during
the year extended the defined limits of a number of producing pools and some shut-
in pools waiting to be placed on production.
In addition to the above ongoing type of work, members of the staff completed
special studies on a concurrent production scheme of the Weasel East Halfway
pool; re-evaluation of the Currant Halfway pool in order to account for additional
reserves as indicated by production history and material balance results, and reinter-
pretation of the Willow Gething and Halfway gas pools.
Other reservoir geology work completed included a detailed stratigraphic
correlation study of the Baldonnel/Charlie Lake Formation contact in the Laprise
gas field; review of the gas/water interfaces of the Beg and Nig Creek Baldonnel
reservoirs and defining the limits of a numbsr of small isolated oil and gas-bearing
reservoirs within development and (or) developing Peace River Block areas.
In addition to the above the Reservoir Geology Section assisted other Divisions
in providing a geological evaluation and assessment on Crown lands posted for
disposal of petroleum and natural gas rights, reclassification of wells under the
regulations, maintaining current oil and gas pool boundary designations and related
geological evaluations concerning industry production schemes, and the disposal of
salt water.
Titles Division
There were five dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum and natural gas rights
held during 1976. These resulted in tender bonus bids amounting to $43 226 441.93
an increase of $30 477 193.73 from the previous year. A total of 433 parcels was
offered, with bids acceptable on 304 parcels covering 2 425 802 acres. The average
price per acre was $17.81, which is an increase of $7.02 per acre over 1975. The
average bonus price per acre was respectively—permits, $13.81; leases, $90.03;
and drilling reservations, $18.96.
During the year, 28 geophysical licences were issued or renewed, an increase
of 15 over 1975.   One Unit Agreement was approved.
A total of 114 notices of commencement of exploratory work was recorded,
an increase of 43 from the previous year.  These notices are required prior to the
 ACTIVITY OF THE MINISTRY
A 53
commencement of any geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum and
natural gas.
As of December 31, 1976, 20 190 964 acres or approximately 31 548 square
miles, an increase of 507 594 acres over the 1975 total of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 were
held in good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to
major international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage
of each case were as follows:
Form of Title
Permits 	
Natural gas licences .
Drilling reservations
Leases (all types) 	
Total 	
Number
418
1
54
3 515
During 1976 the following transactions were completed:
1.
4.
Permits—
Issued	
Renewed 	
Converted to lease	
Cancelled 	
Transferred (assigned) 	
Drilling Reservations—
Issued	
Renewed 	
Converted to lease	
Cancelled 	
Transferred (assigned) 	
Leases—
Issued	
Acreage
13 252 878
7 175
525 151
6 405 760
20 190 964
79
292
40
50
87
  37
  8
  8
  10
  14
  413
  2 664
  48
  140
  220
  248
Transferred (assigned)   483
Natural Gas Licences—
Issued  1
Renewed  Nil
Converted to lease  1
Cancelled   1
Transferred (assigned)   Nil
runwM Sat EC                                                                     Number Number
L.ROWN SALES                                                                   Advertised Sold
Permits     91 79
Drilling reservations     53 37
Leases   289 188
Annual rental paid	
Renewed for 10-year term	
Extended under penalty	
Extended not under penalty
Cancelled 	
Total
433
304
6. Geophysical Licences—Issued     28
7. Notices of Commencement of Exploratory Work—
Approved   114
 A 54 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
8. Affidavits of Work—Approved
Permits  65
Leases   9
9. Miscellaneous Recordings (mergers, grouping notices,
etc.)—Approved   525
10. Certificates Prepared for Inspection Division, Mineral
Resources Branch   450
11. Unit Agreements—Approved  1
MINERAL REVENUE
The assessment and collection of mineral royalties, mineral land taxes, mineral resource tax, and petroleum and natural gas royalties are the responsibility
of the Mineral Revenue Division. Authority for the assessment and collection of
these revenues is set out under the Coal Act, Mineral Land Tax Act, Mineral Royalties Act, Mineral Resource Tax Act, Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, and
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements which are drawn pursuant to the provisions of the
Mineral Act.
The Mineral Revenue Division reports directly to the Deputy Minister. The
Division, which is under the direction of W. W. Ross, assisted by B. A. Garrison, is
composed of three operating sections—the petroleum and mineral accounting sections, which are under the supervision of A. R. Lockwood, Acting Divisional
Accountant, and the Mineral Titles Search Section, which is under the supervision
of N. D. Smith. The Division s operating complement of 25 was reduced to 22
during 1976 due to the elimination of staff for the Vancouver, Prince George, and
Prince Rupert District Title offices. Three of the remaining 22 established positions
were vacant as at December 31, 1976.
During the past year, operations of the Division have been hampered due to
staff turnover and difficulties in replacement.
A short review of the royalty and tax statutes, together with the related regulations administered by the Division during the year, is as follows:
Coal Royalties
These royalties are assessed under the provisions of the Coal Royalty Regulations drawn pursuant to the provisions of the Coal Act. Under these regulations
coal is classified as either metallurgical coal which has a free swelling index of
4 or more and thermal coal which has a free swelling index of less than 4.
The 1976 coal royalty rate was $1.50 per long ton of metallurgical coal and
75 cents per ton of thermal coal. Coal royalty collections during the year were
$2 502 202 on reported coal production of 1 668 135 long tons from two producers. The details of monthly revenue collections for coal are set out under
Table 2-5.
Mineral Act Royalties
Iron Ore Royalty Agreements are in effect covering two producing iron mines.
Under the provisions of these agreements, $182 314 was collected during the 1976
calendar year on a production of 729 260 long tons of iron concentrate. The
monthly collections under this royalty heading are set out in Table 2-5.
Mineral Land Taxes
Freehold mineral rights are subject to the assessment of a mineral land tax
in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Land Tax Act.   This Act has a
 activity of the ministry
A 55
three-level tax structure consisting of undesignated mineral land, production areas,
and production tracts. The 1976 mineral land tax assessment notices issued on
May 1, 1976, covered 1 039 103.67 acres of mineral land under 3 259 tax folios.
This represents a net increase of 230 tax folios and 150 346.63 acres over the
mineral land tax roll at May 1, 1975.
A summary of the 1976 mineral land tax assessment roll as at May 1, 1976,
is as follows:
Table 2-4—Mineral Land Tax Assessment Roll
Classification of
Mineral Land
Number of
Folics
Acreage
Tax
Assessed
Collected
3 209
16
34
$
997 799.29
3 341.69
37 962.69
$
369 465.02
8 714.45
24 005 968.76
5 356.84
$
342 638.75
8 039.63
23 726 365.01
5 356.84
Totals	
3 259
1 039 103.67
24 389 505.07
24 082 400.23
The Mineral Land Tax Act also contains a provision whereby an owner of
mineral land may elect to surrender his mineral land rather than pay the tax
assessed. In conformance with this provision, 11 surrenders were processed covering approximately 1 484 acres. During the 1976 calendar year the Mineral Titles
Search Section completed a total of 42 315 titles searches which were for purposes
of roll additions, forfeitures, surrenders, and escheatments. These searches resulted in 958 parcels of mineral land being added to the roll during the year.
Forfeitures for nonpayment of taxes during the year were processed covering
130 lots with a combined acreage of 33 201.24. Also, a review of the roll data
was undertaken which indicated that several corporate entities holding title under
the Mineral Land Tax Roll had been struck from the register of the Registrar of
Companies which, in turn, resulted in the issuance of 17 Vesting Certificates under
the provisions of the Escheats Act covering mineral lands totalling 3 840.39 acres.
The Division completed 39 audits during the year which resulted in revised
mineral land tax assessments of $13 651 556.21 as compared to the original
assessments of $14 762 196.53, giving rise to a net credit to industry of
$1 110 640.32.
Mineral Royalties
The Mineral Royalties Act and related regulations provide for the assessment
of a royalty on designated minerals which are produced from production instruments held under the provisions of the Mineral Act, Placer Mining Act, or Coal
Act. This Act provides for a royalty of 5 per cent on the basic value of a designated mineral together with a surcharge up until April 1, 1976. The Mineral
Royalties Act is repealed, effective January 1, 1977.
Molybdenum and iron were the only minerals subject to a surcharge during
the 1976 calendar year.
The total revenue collected for the year under this revenue heading was
$11 409 768, with the monthly details being provided in Table 2-5. The royalties
actually assessed for the calendar year, based on December 31, 1976, returns,
totalled $12 155 080 as reflected in Table 2-6.
Seven audits were completed during the year resulting in revised royalty
assessment of $2 891 944.52 as opposed to the original royalty assessment of
$3 178 191.77, giving rise to a net credit to industry of $286 247.25.
 A 56
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
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Table 2-6—Mineral Royalties Act Royalties Assessed, 1976
A 57
Quantity
Net Value
Basic
Royalty
Surcharge
Royalty
Total
Rate of
Royalty
Royalty
Per Unit
  lb.
417 250 553
53 364
2 270 543
30 430 295
4 764 458
14 216 523
69 125
25 202
$
181623 546
9 469 074
6 556 111
79 812 246
646 283
2 147 532
33 570
551 735
$
7 264 776
438 006
274 101
3 563 533
24 359
101 401
1 201
27 587
$
$
7 264 776
438 006
274 101
4 015 751
24 359
101 401
1201
35 485
Per Cent
4.00
4.63
4.18
5.03
3.77
4.72
3.58
6.43
$
0.017
Gold	
8.208
Silver  	
 oz.
lb.
 lb.
.121
Molybdenum ..
452 218
.132
.005
 lb.
.007
Cadmium 	
Iron —	
lb.
.    ..ton
7 898
.017
1.408
280 840 097
11694 964
460 116
12 155 080
4.33
Petroleum and Natural Gas Royalties
Petroleum and natural gas royalties are assessed on all petroleum and natural
gas, including sulphur, natural gas liquid produced from Crown lands held under
the provisions of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, with the provision
that natural gas and natural gas byproducts produced and sold under contract with
the British Columbia Petroleum Corporation are exempt from the payment of royalty.
Under the royalty regulations oil is classified as either old oil (that is, oil
produced from a well completed prior to October 31, 1975) or new oil (that is,
oil produced from a well completed subsequent to October 31,1975).
The rate of royalty on new oil is lower than the rate applicable to old oil;
however, old oil earns one 75-cent exploration credit for each barrel produced
which, in turn, can bs redeemed by performance of exploratory work to the value
of $100 for each credit redeemed. This incentive program is comparable to the
gas credit program offered by the British Columbia Petroleum Corporation.
On December 8, 1976, Order in Council 3562 was approved, which amended
the royalty rates on both old and new oil, effective January 1, 1977.   A comparison
of the new and old rates on production are as follows:
Old oil-
New rate: 0-500 barrels = 20 per cent of production; greater than 500
barrels =100 barrels plus 40 per cent of the excess over 500 barrels
per month.
Old rate: 0-500 barrels = 25 per cent of production; greater than 500
barrels = 125 barrels plus 55 per cent of the excess over 500 barrels
per month.
New oil—
New rate:   0-1 000 barrels = production squared  divided  by  6 667,
greater than 1 000 barrels =150 barrels plus 30 per cent of the
production in excess of 1 000 barrels per month.
Old rate: 0-500 barrels = 15 per cent of production; greater than 500
barrels = 75 barrels plus 33 per cent of production in excess of 500
barrels per month.
During 1976, petroleum and natural gas royalty revenue collections were as
follows:     " - $
Natural gas royalties         323 7501
Crude petroleum royalties  43 732 456
Natural gas byproducts royalties        716 448
Late filing penalties  550
Total  44 773 204
1 The bulk of British Columbia gas production is sold under contract to the British Columbia Petroleum
Corporation and, as such, is not subject to the imposition of royalty.
 A 58 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Details of the revenue collected will be found in Table 2-5.
The status of the oil credit unit suspense account as at December 31, 1976, is
as follows: $
Balance forward from 1975  81 552.75
Credits established during the year   11 722 754.73
Credits redeemed during the year     2 107 651.50
Balance remaining at December 31, 1976     9 696 655.98
Mineral Resource Tax Act
This Act came into effect in June of 1976 and becomes operative for the 1976
fiscal years of any corporation or individual producing minerals as defined under
the provisions of the Mineral Act. The Act provides for a tax of 17Vi per cent
of mining profits and allows for the deduction of normal operating expenses, capital
cost allowances, exploration expenses, development expenses, earned depletion,
and a processing allowance in determining taxable income.
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
This Division was not fully implemented during the year as no Director was
appointed. As a result, the components reported either directly to the Deputy
Minister, as with Personnel and Accounts, or to the Deputy Minister through a
committee, as with Library and Publications.
Personnel
The Ministry personnel statistics for 1976 were as follows:
Permanent employees   240
Appointments   42
Resignations  24
Retirements  3
In-service transfers  6
Promotions and reclassifications  12
Temporary employees   5
Temporary employees under WIG '76  14
Temporary employees under summer field program  22
There was a change in the Personnel Office as Mrs. Pennie Hepworth replaced
Mrs. Sharon Belfie as Personnel Clerk.
R. E. Moss, Personnel Officer for the Ministry, and Mrs. Hepworth were kept
very active as the Ministry administers five component agreements, namely:
Administrative Support—Clerks, Clerk-Typists, and Clerk-Stenographers.
Administrative, Fiscal and Regulatory—Administrative Officers and
Audit Accountants.
Environment, Resource, and Conservation—Laboratory Technicians.
Educational and Scientific Services—Laboratory Scientists, Economists,
and Research Officers.
Engineering, Technical, and Inspectional—Technical Assistants, Technicians, Engineering Aides, Engineering Assistants, and Co-ordinators (Rescue Training).
The Personnel Office was also involved with the MEG Plan for the Management Executive Group employees and the OSB Plan for the British Columbia
professional employees in the Ministry.
 activity of the ministry a 59
Accounts Section
Accounts Section, under Mrs. Sharon Bone, was responsible for the preparation and control of Ministry estimates, payroll, the costing and facilitation of
Ministry purchases, and the acquisition and maintenance of vehicles and equipment. Several functions handled in 1975 by the section were transferred, including
space allocation and acquisition to the Associate Deputy Minister, Petroleum Resources Branch, and mail and central filing system to Central Records Office,
Mineral Resources Branch.
Library
The Ministry library located at Room 430, Douglas Building, Victoria, consists of close to 15 000 volumes. It is one of the oldest and largest separate libraries
in the Provincial Government and constitutes a significant resource which provides
geological and technical information for staff, other Government ministries, and
the public. It is administered by the Library Committee under the direction of
J. S. Poyen, Chairman, and supervised by Sharon Ferris. The Ministry library
co-operates with the Legislative Library, which carries out the indexing and some
other functions.
On recommendation from the Committee, new additional shelving was added
to the library to facilitate expansion, a proper reading room was set up, and a
general reorganization and cleaning of material was commenced.
Publications
Publications Section includes publication preparation and dispatch and consists of Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir, Assistant Editor, and three assistants—one primarily
involved with manuscript typing and two primarily with dispatch. The Section
personnel are technically part of the Geological Division, which originates most
of the manuscripts for publication. Chairman of the Publication Committee is
Dr. A. Sutherland Brown.
In addition to publications primarily the responsibility of the Geological Division, Mineral Resources Branch, and listed on page A 40, the Ministry issued the
following publications of general interest in 1976: Annual Report of the Minister
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, 1975; Coal in British Columbia, A Technical
Appraisal; Summary of Operations, Petroleum Resources Branch, 1976.
A list of publications of the Ministry is available on request to the Petroleum
Resources Branch or to the Chief Geologist, Mineral Resources Branch, Ministry
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria V8V 1X4.
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Ministry of Mines
and Petroleum Resources in Victoria and from the Geological Survey of Canada,
100 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may also be obtained
from the Gold Commissioner's office, Room 320, 890 West Pender Street, Vancouver.
Publications are available for reference use in the Ministry Library, Room
430, Douglas Building, Victoria; in the reading room of the Geological Survey of
Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver; in the offices of the Inspector of
Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert; as well as in some public libraries.
Rock and mineral sets are available for sale in small numbers for schools or
prospecting courses. Information regarding them may be obtained from the Chief
Geologist, Mineral Resources Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria V8V 1X4.
  Mineral Resource Statistics
CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS
Page
Chapter 3—Mineral Resource Statistics  A 61
Introduction  A 62
Method of Computing Production .  A 62
Metals  A 62
Average Prices  A 62
Gross and Net Content  A 63
Value of Production  A 63
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials  A 64
Coal  A 64
Petroleum and Natural Gas  A 64
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables  A 64
Figure 3-1—Value of Mineral Production, 1887-1976  A 74
Figure 3-2—Production Quantities of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc,
and Molybdenum, 1893-1976  A 75
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year A 77
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1863-1976  A 78
Table 3-3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years, 1967-76  A 80
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Quantity and Value of Production, and
Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines  A 82
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1975 and 1976  A 83
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1976  A 84
Table 3-7A—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1975 and 1976, and
Total to Date  A 86
Table 3-7B—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc by
Mining Divisions, 1975 and 1976, and Total to Date  A 88
Table 3-7C—Production  of Miscellaneous  Metals by  Mining  Divisions,
1975 and 1976, and Total to Date  A 90
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1975
and 1976, and Total to Date  A 94
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1975
and 1976, and Total to Date  A 96
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1976  A 97
Table 3-8B—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1976  A 98
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes  A 99
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-76  A 100
Table 3-11—Employment at Major Metal and Coal Mines, 1976  A 101
Table 3-12—Metal Production, 1976  A 102
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1976  A 106
A 61
 A 62 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Economics and Planning Division of the Mineral Resources
Branch.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning
with the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial ministries have
co-operated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production
published by the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses
average prices considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the
British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British
Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production, being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
The statistics of the petroleum industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated
for this Report by the Petroleum Resources Branch.
METHODS OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors became known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by the producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For petroleum, natural gas, and liquid by-products,
production figures supplied by the Petroleum Resources Branch of the Ministry
of Mines and Petroleum Resources are compiled from the monthly disposition
reports and the Crown royalty statement filed with the Ministry by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds.   Metric weights are used throughout.
METALS
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page A 76.
Prior to 1974 the price of gold used was the average Canadian Mint buying-
price for fine gold.
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold.   Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 63
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and until 1973
the average price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total
amount received. Starting in 1974 the price used for the valuation of gold, lode
and placer, is the amount received by the producer.
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average prices at the markets indicated in the table on page A 66, converted into
Canadian funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New
York; Lon.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Starting in 1949 the price of silver, copper, lead, and zinc were average United
States prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices were supplied
by Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it was the New York price; for lead it was the New
York price; for zinc it was the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper
it was the United States export refinery price. Commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers and
since 1974 this applies also to gold, silver, lead, zinc, and cadmium.
For antimony and bismuth the average producers' price to consumers is used.
For nickel the price used is the Canadian price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. The value per tonne of the iron ore used in making pig iron
at Kimberley was an arbitrary figure, being the average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
the metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents are
the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross contents
less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents, particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another.
The method established in 1963 is outlined in the following table. For example,
the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross content,
of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc. Commencing in 1974 the quantities represent the actual net quantities or metals paid for.
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Copper-Nickel
Copper
Concentrates
Concentrates
Concentrates
Concentrates
Matte
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
Silver	
98
98
98
98
Copper	
Less 26 lb./ton
Less 10 lb./ton
85
Less 10 lb./ton
Lead	
98
50
50
Zinc.	
50
90
Cadmium	
70
Nickel	
88
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate, mercury, molybdenum, rhenium, and tin the
value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production was calculated from the assay
content of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an
 A 64 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
average price per unit of weight. The 1974 values represent the settlement values
received by the producers for the respective metals.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per
cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on
page A 76.
For 1925 to 1973 the values had been calculated by using the true average
price (see page A 76) and the net metal contents in accordance with the procedures
adopted by Statistics Canada and the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Since 1974 the total quantity and value of metal production include the quantities paid for to the mines, and the smelter and refinery production that can be
attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity and value paid for to the
mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
Coal
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per tonne which is
the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
Petroleum and Natural Gas
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES  OF PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE TABLES
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a
by-product of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined
in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then
other out-of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lar-
deau, Slocan, Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 3-7C the antimony
assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to
foreign smelters; the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter
from various ores received there.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Arsenious oxide—Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Asbestos — British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the
Cassiar mine was opened.  All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 65
from the Cassiar mine near the Yukon boundary. This deposit is noted for its
high percentage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre.
The original claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped
two years later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar and mostly shipped by
truck to Whitehorse, and then moved by rail to tidewater at Skagway. From 1953
to 1961 the fibre was valued at the shipping point in North Vancouver, but beginning
in 1962 it has been valued at the mine, and values for the preceding years have been
recalculated on that basis.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
is mined from lode deposits and the rest is recovered from the mill-tailings ponds of
the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines.   See Table 3-7D.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Butane—-Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 3-7C the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated
recovery at the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates. See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7C.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are British Columbia Cement Company
Limited, with a 490 000 tonnes-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement
Lafarge Ltd., with a 476 000 tonnes-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 191 000
tonnes-per-year plant at Kamloops.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 608 tonnes from Cascade in 1918 and 114 tonnes from Scottie Creek in 1929. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Clay and shale products — These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery,
lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craigflower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in
plants at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant at Quesnel makes
pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of Quesnel.   Several hobby and art
 A 66 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
potteries and a sanitary-ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported
raw materials and their production is not included in the tables See Tables 3-1,
3-3, and 3-7E.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island
in 1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that
of placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for
the next 30 years.
First production, by mining divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains
coking-coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building.
Mining started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and
on the Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the
last large mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The
colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the
large mine at Tsable River in 1966, and the last small one, near Wellington in 1968,
marked the end of continuous production from the important Vancouver Island
deposits. Recent exploration indicates the possibility of renewed coal mining on
the island.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains
south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British Columbia,
the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and Sage Creek basin southeast of Fernie.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created intense exploration in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of large contracts
with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several deposits in the
East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities at North
Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-7A, 3-8A, and 3-8B.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
From 1971 to 1973, cobalt was shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at Hope.
See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 3-1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 3-9, but this table has
been discontinued.  The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 3-8B.
Condensate—(a) Field—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing, (b) Plant—
Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from natural gas at gas-
processing plants. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Copper—Most of the copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese, Eastern
Canadian, and American smelters because no copper smelter has operated in British
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 67
Columbia since 1935. Small amounts of gold and silver are commonly present
and add value to the ore. Most of the smelting in British Columbia in early years
was done on ore shipped direct from the mines without concentration, but modern
practice is to concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver
King mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at
Grand Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).
Later, small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and
Texada Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper-smelting
ceased in the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935.
British Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and
since 1961 have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Rossland, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During the 1960's, exploration for copper became intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment
of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley (Bethlehem)
in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda) in 1970,
Stewart (Granduc) and near Port Hardy (Island Copper) in 1971, near Babine
Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lornex), and Princeton
(Ingerbelle) in 1972. See Table 3-12 for a complete list of copper producers.
Some of these mines produce molybdenum as a by-product, for example,
Brenda, Lornex, and Island Copper. Copper is also produced as a by-product of
iron mining at Tasu Sound, Queen Charlotte Islands (Wesfrob), and on Texada
Island (Texada), and with ores containing zinc, gold, silver, and lead at Buttle Lake
(Lynx and Myra, Western Mines).
Copper has been the most valuable single commodity of the industry since
1966. Production in 1976 was 263.6 million kilograms. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the oil pipeline was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans Mountain
Oil Pipe Line Company pipeline near Kamloops. In 1976, oil was produced from
39 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan Creek, and Inga
fields were the most productive.
In Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, but since 1962 the field and plant condensates are listed
separately.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. A plant to process the material is located in Quesnel. See Table 3-7D.
Fluorite (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the Rock
Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery. From 1958 to
1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica quarry.
See Table 3-7D.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and from a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past, silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
 A 68 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Today, silica from near Kamloops and limestone, chiefly from Texada Island, are
produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See Tables 3-1, 3-3,
and 3-7D.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province.
The first discovery of lode gold was on Moresby Island in 1852, when some gold
was recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras (primitive grinding-mills) were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short-lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. By
1900 the value of gold production was second only to that of coal. At the start of
World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly value of more than $22 million,
but since the war it has dwindled until developments in the 1970's.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland
Canal, Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River
closed.
With the closing of the Bralorne mine, most of the lode gold is produced as a
by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver, and other base metal mining. Because
of the volume of this production the amount of gold produced is still at a fairly high
level, and with the significant rise in the price of gold in the 19.70's the value of
production has exceeded the peaks reached during the era of gold mines in the
1930's. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B. See Table 3-12 for a complete list of
current producers.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer-miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream from
Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery of the placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the
discovery of placer gold in the Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1885. A high
level of production ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak
output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort
Steele, Rock Creek, Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike
was made on Cedar Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in
1927 and on Wheaton Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II, placer-mining declined under conditions
of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold but is showing signs of revival in
response to a freely floating gold price since 1972. Since 1858, more than 163 000
kilograms valued at $97.8 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kamloops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 69
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold in the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7A.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby and near Grand Forks, Sirdar, Vananda, and
Armstrong.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956, more than 907 000 tonnes were shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956,
nearly all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942. Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipment. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Moresby Island. At Texada Island copper is a
by-product of iron-mining, and in the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is
that of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is
produced as a by-product.
From January 1961 to August 1972, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings
of the Sullivan mine was used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This was the first
manufacture of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and
pyrite in the lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead
and zinc minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron
sulphides are separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile has been
built containing a reserve of about 18 million tonnes of iron ore.
The sulphur was removed in making pig iron and was converted to sulphuric
acid, which was used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converted the
pig iron to steel, and a fabricating plant was acquired in Vancouver. The iron
smelter at Kimberley closed in August 1972. The entire production, credited to the
Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 3-7C, is of calcine. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7C.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its
 A 70 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika,
and Wheaton Creeks. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
and in total production by zinc in 1966. Lead and zinc usually occur together in
nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single deposit. Zinc is the
more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable than zinc ore because
it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British Columbia produced
almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces about 34 per cent of the total. Most
of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of
the Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about 88 per cent
of the Province's lead and has produced about 86 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works
at Trail. Other mines are at Pend-d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
and southwest of Golden. In northwestern British Columbia less important parts
of the total output have come from Tulsequah, the Premier mine, and several small
mines in the general region of Hazelton. See Table 3-12 for the current lead
producers.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines in British Columbia owned
by Cominco Ltd. goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines
goes to American smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to approximately 7.7 million tonnes.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6,
and 3-7B.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920, manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test
shipment was made from Olalla. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then
small amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River
district. The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi
Lake and Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine
reopened and continued in operation until 1975 when it closed because of market
situations.   See Tables 3-1 and 3-7C.
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961, small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined
near Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7D.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 71
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade
molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the
point that molybdenum now ranks second in importance in annual value of metals
produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine
recovered by-product molybdenum from 1964 and 1966. In 1965 the Endako
and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia
Molybdenum mine in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. The Boss Mountain mine closed in 1971 and reopened late in 1973. In
1970 the Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer, started operating, and Island Copper in 1971, and Lornex in 1972. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and
3-7C.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 363 tonnes of natro-alunite were mined
from a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent
production. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. In 1957 the gas plant at Taylor and the pipeline
to serve British Columbia and the northwestern United States was completed. The
daily average volume of production in 1975 was 1.14 billion cubic feet. In 1976
there were 76 gas-fields producing both associated and nonassociated gas, of which
the Clarke Lake, Yoyo, and Sierra were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A is the total amount sold
of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the gas-
gathering system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line. The
quantity is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas used
or lost in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as millions of cubic metres
at standard conditions (99.2 kPa, (kilopascals) pressure, 15°C temperature, up to
and including the year 1960, and thereafter 101.3 kPa pressure, 15°C temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in the tables in chapter 4.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. From 1960 to 1974, bulk
copper and nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan and Alberta respectively for smelting. The mine closed in August 1974. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and
3-7C.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a byproduct of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1 009 tonnes was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.  There has been no further production.  See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3 485
tonnes of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for
commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964, but there has been no
commercial production. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
 A 72 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery
is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from
the Copper Mountain mine. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7A.
Rhenium—Rhenium occurs in significant quantities only with molybdenite
associated with porphyry copper deposits. It was first produced in 1972 by the
Island Copper Mine and is extracted as rhenium oxide from fumes produced during
roasting of the molybdenite concentrate.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work.
The output varies from year to year according to the level of activity in the construction industry.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 332 kilograms, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 3-1
and 3-7C.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, and some is exported in concentrated ores of copper,
lead, and zinc to American and Japanese smelters. Silver bullion was produced by
the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores, if mined in quantity, produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters. Today the greatest
single source of silver is the Sullivan mine, which has been in production since 1900.
By 1974 the Sullivan mine has accounted for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total amount is contributed by the Lynx,
Silmonac, Phoenix, Bethlehem, Granisle, Brenda, and Granduc mines. Table 3-12
details the current silver production. The only steady producer that is strictly a
silver mine is the Highland Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A
former important mine, the Premier near Stewart, produced more than 1.3 million
kilograms of silver between 1918 and 1968.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7D.
Stone (see Building-stone)—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from
rock produced at quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of
the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7E.
Structural materials—In Table 3-7E the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions, and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 3-2 that includes unclassified structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 73
years. The figure $3,180,828 in Table 3-7E under "Other Clay Products" is the
value in the period 1886-1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products
or assigned to mining divisions. See Tables 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 3-7A, and 3-7E.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Canadian Occidental Petroleum
Ltd. plant at Taylor has been included.  See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7D.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936. See Tables 3-1 and 3-7G.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. Tin is also produced in a lead-tin alloy at the Trail smelter.
See Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced
from 1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the
Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton
and the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald
in 1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas where demand was high. In 1970, production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo, which closed in 1973.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 3-1, 3-3, and 3-7C.
Volcanic ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 27 tonnes from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.  See Table 3-7D.
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of copper production exceeded that of zinc.
In 1976 the production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper, molybdenum, coal,
crude oil, and natural gas. Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most ores
are mined for their combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for their zinc
content alone. Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated with copper at Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate
the zinc mineral (sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most of the zinc
concentrates go to the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are converted
electrolytically to refined metal. Usually some concentrates are shipped to American
or Japanese smelters.
About 85 per cent of the zinc that has been mined in British Columbia has
originated in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines
near Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake, Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillima-
cheen. Other production has come from mines at Portland Canal and Tulsequah
and is coming from Buttle Lake. The greatest zinc mine is the Sullivan, which has
contributed about 73 per cent of the total zinc production of the Province. See
Table 3-12 for details of current zinc producers.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 17 096 tonnes
of zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1918, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter. See Tables 3-1, 3-3, 3-6, and 3-7B.
 A
74
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 75
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80-
70-
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300-
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1890
1895
1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
I960
1965
1970
1975
3
ft
 A 76                  MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Prices1
Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Fine
Silver,
Fine
Copper
Lead
Zinc
Coal
$/kg
$/kg
$/kg
$/kg
$/kg
$/t
1901	
664.57
18.01 N.Y
0.355 N.Y.
0.057 N.Y.
2.92
1902 	
15 Q3
•258    „
.292    „
.283    „
.344    „
•425    „
•441    „
•291    „
.286    „
.081    „
.084    ,,
.086    „
.094    „
.106    „
.106    „
.083    „
.085    „
2.90
2.94
2.89
2.98
2.88
3.38
3.43
3.52
1903	
>
16.33    ,
17.16
16.50    ,
20.40    ,
19.95    ,
16.15    ,
15.73    ,
1904	
1905
1906	
1907	
1908 ..	
1909	
1910	
16.34    ,
.281    „
.088    „
0.101 E.St.L.
3.69
1911..	
16.28
•273    „
.088    „
.108      „
3.51
1912	
18.58    ,
.360    „
.089    „
.130
3.70
1913	
*
18.26
.337    „
.087    „
.106      „
3.74
1914..	
16.75
.300    „
.077    „
•097      „
3.69
1915	
15.18
.381    „
■092    „
•248      „
3.78
1916  ....	
20.06
.600    „
.136    „
.240      „
3.80
1917	
24.87
•599    „
.174    „
.167      „
3.84
1918	
29.56    ,
.543    ,,
.147    „
.153      „
5.50
1919	
33.94    ,
.412    „
.114    „
.138      „
5.42
1920
•
30.80    ,
19.14    ,
.385    „
•276    „
.158    „
.090    „
.144      „
.087      „
5.20
5.30
1921	
1922	
20.62    ,
.295    „
.114    „
.107      „
5.20
1923	
.
19.81    ,
20.40    ,
22.21    ,
.318    „
■287    „
■310    „
.144    „
.161    „
.173 Lond.
.124      „
.119      „
.174 Lond.
5.30
5.39
5.28
1924    ..
1925  	
1926 	
19.97    ,
•304    „
.149     „
.163     „
5.34
1927	
18.12    ,
.285    „
.116     ,
.137     „
5.30
1928	
18.70    ,
■ 321    „
.101     ,
.121     „
5.19
1929..	
17.04    ,
.399    „
.111     ,
.119     „
5.22
1930  	
12.27    ,
.286    „
.087     ,
.079     „
5.21
1931	
9.23
.179    „
.060     ,
.056     „
4.80
1932..	
754.59
10.18    ,
.141 Lond.
.047     ,
.053     „
4.45
1933 	
919 53
12.16    ,
.164     „
.053     ,
.071     „
4.30
1934    .
1,109.22
1,131.40
1,126.26
15.26
20.83    ,
14.51    ,
.164     „
.172     „
.209     „
.054     ,
.069     ,
.086     ,
.067     „
.068     „
.073     „
4.41
4.35
4.66
1935	
1936	
1937 	
1,124.97
14.43    ,
.288     „
.113     ,
.108     „
4.68
1938..	
1,131.08
13.98    ,
•220     „
.074     ,
.068     „
4.42
1939	
1,161.95
13.02    ,
.223     ,,
.070     ,
.068     „
4.43
1940	
1,237.82
12.30    ,
•222     „
.074     ,
•075     „
4.70
1941	
1.237.82
12.30    ,
•222     „
.074     ,
.075     „
4.57
1942	
1,237.82
13.24    ,
•222     „
.074     ,
.075     „
4.55
1943...	
1,237.82
14.55    ,
•259     „
.083     ,
.088     „
4.60
1944	
1,237.82
13.83    ,
.265     „
.099     ,
.095     „
4.68
1945	
1,237.82
15.11    ,
.277     „
.110     ,
.142     „
4.67
1946 	
1,181.56
26.89    ,
.282     „
.149     ,
.172     „
5.16
1947 	
1,125.29
1,125.29
23.15    .
.450     „
.493 U.S.
.301      .
■248     „
.307     „
5.64
6.71
1948...... 	
24.11 Mont.
.398     ,,
1949    .
1,157.44
1,223.35
23.87 U S
440
.348 U.S.
.292 U.S
7.18
1950	
25.93    ,.
.517    „
.319    „
•332    „
7.09
1951. 	
1,184.77
30.40    ,
•611    „
.406    „
•439    „
7.12
1952 	
1,101.82
26.74    ,
.685    ,
.355    „
.350    „
7.65
1953	
1,106 65
26.93    ,
.669    ,
.292    „
.235    „
7.58
1954	
1,095.39
26.68    ,
.642    ,
.302    „
.230    „
7.72
1955	
1,109.86
28.25    ,
.844    „
.329    „
.267    „
7.43
1956	
1,107.29
28.73    ,
.877    „
•347    „
•293    „
7.26
1957.	
1,078.67
27.99    ,
•574    „
.310    ,,
•246    „
7.45
1958	
1,092.50
27.79    ,
.516    „
•259    „
•221    „
8.21
1959	
1,079.32
28.12    ,
•611    „
.257    „
•242    „
8.74
1960	
1,091.53
28.50    ,
.639    „
•256    „
•277    „
7.32
1961	
1,140.08
30.12    ,
.620    „
■243    „
.258    „
8.16
1962	
1,202.78
37.30    ,
.672    „
•227    „
•274    ,,
8.19
1963 	
1,213.71
44.36    ,
.676    „
.265    „
•290    „
8.08
1964 	
1,213.71
44.84    ,
.737    „
■323    „
•323    „
7.65
1965 	
1,213.07
44.81    ,
.846    „
.380    „
.345    „
7.75
1966 	
1,212.42
1,214.03
44.79    ,
53.73    ,
1.176    „
1.125    „
.359    „
•333    „
.344    .,
•329    „
8.02
8.54
1967	
1968.. 	
1,212.42
74.29    ,
1.195    „
■321    „
.312    „
8.72
1969	
1,211.78
61.96    ,
1.470    „
.354    „
•347    „
8.82
1970..	
1,175.45
59.46    ,
1.2942
.360    „
•353    „
8.16
1971	
1,136.22
50.14    ,
1.0302
.308    „
.359    „
11.06
1972 	
1,849.34
53.48    ,
.9892
.328    „
.388    „
12.08
1973	
3,131.85
82.51
1.8352
.359    „
.455    „
12.71
1974..	
5,348.682
156.532
1.8842
.<_272
.7672
19.93
1975	
5,204.662
155.602
1.2832
.3462
.8082
35.53
1978  	
4,035.14^
135.712
1.4382
.3842
.6752
39.63
1 See page A 62 for d
etailed explanation.
2 See page A 63 for e;
tplanation.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS                                      A 77
Table 3-1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year
Products1
Total Quantity to Date 2
Total Value
to Date
Quantity,
1975
Value,
1975
Quantity,
1976
Value,
1976
Metals
Antimony	
-kg
kp
26 083 986
3 214 539
19 908 071
722
114 484
3 398 531632
163 098
557 024
32 036 222
7 676 695 704
92 819
1 564
1 891 974
131601 686
23 337 783
23
44
232
16 401 912
8 969 261
9 090 002
7 222 799 406
$
22,720,683
15,645,621
84,083,854
32,295
376,661
3,287,676,222
97,880,802
605,553,128
324,218,673
1,522,606,093
88,184
32,668
10,447,358
562,570,475
51,698,754
30,462
135,008
1,389
487,734,598
19,755,795
48,068,016
1,755,022,918
57,290,568
364 045
19 163
320 923
$
1,467,928
261,931
1,971,035
447 001
20 261
356 422
263 618 197
26
5 393
1 255 277
84 407 582
$
1,636,871
226,462
1,530,800
kp
t
-kg
kp
Cobalt  	
378,984,941
115,613
21,761,502
14,760,526
32,796,533
258 497 599
44
4 819
1 299 215
70 603 483
331,693,850
232,204
25,082,494
15,245,902
24,450,158
Gold-
kp
kp
t
Lead  	
-kg
-kg
...t
kp
Mercury3   	
13 026 627
14 088 686
-kg
Vp
71,201,391
94,109,138
-kg
-kg
kp
Selenium 	
196 306
32 511
30,545,947
200,669
80,572,872
3,695,987
Silver 	
kp
239 721
102 262
32,532,836
712,912
Tin	
kp
Tungsten (W03) 	
kp
Zinc  	
kp
99 668 230
106 498 987
65,499,108
2.083,161
Others     	
Totals	
-kg
...
t
  | 8,953,670,225
586,622,368
646,750,403
.... 	
Industrial Minerals
Arsenious oxide  	
9 986 428
1 343 805
718
3 885 503
541 160
6 133 362
2 044
16 427
1 124 873
12 604
5 815 954
474
1 009
3 485
9518
8 121 190
984
273,201
345,181,523
16,858
8,254,083
11,534,351
25,155,884
27,536
155,050
3,237,794
254,352
185,818
9,398
11,120
16 894
70 433
11378
31476
556 134
483 796
Asbestos	
Bentonite  —	
76 771
39 589
33 316
474 387
37,849,743
174,824
1,144,968
1,751,799
40,727,296
t
33,263
1,219.884
4,434,471
t
Gypsum and gypsite
Hydromagnesite 	
.t
t
Iron oxide and ochre ....
t
kp
110 437
Jade	
414,123
1,535,030
Magnesium sulphate 	
t
kp
Mica	
Natro-alunite	
t
Perlite ...._	
t
i
Phosphate rock .—	
f
Sodium carbonate 	
t
t
118,983
231 704
'
Sulphur   	
117,278,247
34,871
8,688,212
246 079
5,738,134
4,296,189
Talc	
. t
Others 	
1.594,011
671,009
Totals	
520.434.175 1	
48.667,602
52,917,142
t
Structural Materials
Cement	
16 896 957
373,871,725
114,731,641
77,992,739
81,419,082
470,809,226
9,277,418
5,972,171
915 293
31,681,722
6,593,189
4,349,800
8,723,448
39,575,457
4,395
846 548
2 173 831
2 485 215
36 073 618
657
34,973,746
6,995,917
5,610,063
5,205,973
48,138,635
14,314
Clay products 	
Lime and limestone
Rubble, riprap, crushed
rock     	
.t
f
1976 415
4 103 452
28 945 523
53
Sand and gravel  	
t
t
1 057 772
Not assigned	
Totals 	
1,134,074,002
90,928,011
100,938,648
t
Gas
m3
Coal
Coal—sold and used
172 374 958
1,606,480.862
8 924 816
317,111,744
7 537 695
298,683,679
Petroleum and Natural
Crude oil 	
44 131 753
168 831
2 768 143
108 779
1 327 722
1 046 339
862,685,457 |    2 269 898
4,046,732 1         16 094
21,156,955  1       185 272
951,643,124             9 236
9,416,658  |       106 427
7,444,531  I          81 975
94,229,725
668,092
6,525,837
214,733,528
2,577,205
1,985,087
2 367 450
18 309
167 576
8 800
109 781
88 195
116,595,050
901,711
7,198,957
287,997,059
4,591,832
3,688,955
Field condensate  ...m3
Plant condensate m3
Natural gas to pipeline 10<im3
Butane m3
Propane	
m3
Totals
1,856.393,457
320,719,474
420,973,564
14,071,052,721
1.364,049,199
1 	
1,520,263,436
	
1 See notes on individual products listec
2 See page A 10 for conversion table to
3 From 1968, excludes production which
alphabetically on pages A &
old system,
is confidential.
1 to A 73.
 A 78                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1976
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1836-86
$
52,808,750
729,381
745,794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7,575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
11,360,546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673,592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
$
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
$
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
$
$
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502,519
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8,394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434,312
16,355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17,497,380
18,955,179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513,584
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26,382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056,284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207,350
41,330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67,077,605
60,720,313
65,227,002
68,689,839
55,763,360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133,485
74,438,675
64,416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76,471,329
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,430
139,995,418
1887
	
1888 	
1889	
1890	
1891	
1892	
-
1893	
1894	
1895	
726,323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018,719
1,238,718
1,796,677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10,246,939
1896	
1897  	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901	
	
-
1902	
1903	
2,400
1904	
1905..     	
-
1906.. ._	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497,720
1,783,010
2,275,972
2,358,877
2,500,799
2,462,340
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919.	
1920	
1921	
1922
1923
1924 ..
1925	
1926.
1927
1928	
1929	
1930
1931 	
1932   . .
— -
1933
1934	
1935	
1936	
—
1937	
1938
1939
1940
1941	
	
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948	
1949
1950
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 79
Table 3-2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836—1976—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1951.	
$
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865,318
250,912,026
294,881,114
309,981,470
301,059,951
372,032,770
795,617,596
764,599,451
586,622,368
646,750,403
$
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020,359
21,909,767
25,764,120
27,969,664
33,676,214
48,667,602
52,917,142
$
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,104,071
59,940,333
65,745,698
73,720,831
78,088,393
90,928,011
100,938,648
$
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
45,801,936
66,030,210
87,976,105
154,593,643
317,111,744
298,683,679
$
$
176,867,916
1952   .    . ..
171,365,687
1953
152,841.695
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
6,545
18,610
319,465
1,197,581
4,806,233
5,967,128
9,226,646
11,612,184
27,939,726
36,379,636
36,466,753
44,101,662
54,274,187
67,096,286
75,281,215
86,756,009
90,974,467
99,251,158
105,644,978
124,104,445
233,275,505
320,719,474
420,973,564
152,894,663
173,853,360
188,853,652
170,992,829
1958  —.
1959	
144,953,549
147,651,217
I960.....	
1961	
177,365,333
179,807,321
1962	
1963	
229,371,484
255,863,587
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
1968	
1969   	
405,028,488
464,388,749
1970.
1971 —	
488,640,036
527,963,145
1972   	
1973 	
636,217,776
1,109,388,641
1974 	
1,264,233,206
1975	
1976.-...  	
1,364,049,199
1,520,263,436
Totals	
8,953,670,225
520,434,175
1,134,074,002
1,606,480,862
1,856,393,457
14,071,052,721
 A 80
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
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A 81
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 A 82
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-4—Comparison of Total Quantity and Value of Production,
and Quantity and Value of Production Paid for to Mines
Metals
1976
Total Production
Quantity
Value
1976
Production Paid for to Mines
Quantity
Value
Antimony kg
Bismuth
Cadmium  	
Copper 	
Gold—placer   	
lode, fine ..
Iron concentrates
Lead   	
Molybdenum	
Silver  	
Tin 	
Zinc	
Others	
-kg
■ kg
kg
..kg
kg
.... t
_kg
-kg
-kg
-kg
-kg
Totals
447 001
20 261
356 422
263 618 197
26
5 393
1 255 277.
85 407 582
14 088 686
239 721
102 262
106 498 987
$
1,636,871
226,462
1,530,800
378,984,941
115,613
21,761,502
14,760,526
32,796,533
94,109,138
32,532,836
712,912
65,499,108
2,083,161
646,750,403
263 484 402
26
5 368
1 238 789
77 281 986
14 088 686
210 011
66 183
90 569 371
275,
16,
14.
23,
92.
23,
39,
256,124
.318,922
115,613
761,694
.478,604
.186,868
370,245
,247,958
467,130
,638,229
906,820
486,748,207
Note—'For metals, the total quantity and value of production include the quantities paid for to the mines,
and the smelter and refinery production that can be attributed to the mines but is not paid for. The quantity and
value paid for to the mines, excluding outward transportation costs, smelting and refining costs, penalties and
deductions, are shown separately for comparative purposes.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 83
Table 3-5—Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1974,1975, and 1976
Physical
Work
and Surveys
Administration,
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
Construction,
Machinery and
Equipment,
Other Capital
Costs
Totals
A. Exploration on Undeclared Mines
Metal mines—
1974	
1975	
1976 _ -  	
Coal mines—
1974 _	
1975	
1976 -	
Others—
1974_	
1975	
1976  	
Totals—
1974	
1975...
1976-
B. Exploration on Declared or Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974...	
1975	
1976 , _	
Coal mines—■
1974 _	
1975	
1976 -	
Others—
1974	
1975	
1976	
Totals—
1974	
1975	
1976	
C. Development on Declared Mines
Metal mines—
1974	
1975	
1976	
Coal mines—
1974 	
1975	
1976	
Others—
1974 _	
1975 - _	
1976	
Totals—
1974 _	
1975	
1976 _ _	
D. Development of Operating Mines
Metal mines—
1974 _	
1975	
1976 _	
Coal mines—
1974 _	
1975   -	
1976 _	
Others—
1974 __	
1975	
1976 _	
Totals—
1974	
1975	
1976 _
18,773,326
16,366,152
20,437,180
3,450,746
9,955,507
9,234,269
42,706
90,025
73,453
22,266,778
26,411,684
29,744,902
2,652,243
2,792,378
8,359,413
488,308
1,000,000
665,000
4,236
36,242
214,081
3,144,787
3,828,620
9,238,494
1,280,513
512,197
320,098
1,425,312
23,242
1,623,853
1,937,509
20,933,501
9,013,375
6,937,229
9,027,818
3,300,000
16,043,383
6,198,552
17,350,175
58,980
36,159,871
29,663,550
23,039,592
6,525,878
5,298,367
6,365,331
884,849
3.057,843
3,678,893
11,134
35,679
47,760
7,421,861
8,391,889
10,091,984
762,224
3,090,135
83,304
104,259
28,000
2,700
30,000
866,483
3,092,835
141,304
1,028,199
57,166
974,985
256,055
583,304
37,988
3,155
1,322,242
57,166
1,561,444
1,722,680
5,804,924
404,226
55,377
146,182
124,860
79,300
1,868,862
5,929,784
538,903
128,144
442,327
381,416
18,958
147,102
442,327
381,416
278,500
278,500
1,985,000
840,344
12,447,569
111,500
2,883,584
18,001,500
4,980,084
840,344
30,449,069
46,732,326
24,548,602
41,881,126
16,607,506
59,000,000
20,767,397
16,606,229
18,077,384
1,389,956
79,946,061
101,625,986
64,038,479
25,427,348
22,106,846
27,183,927
4,354,553
13,013,350
12,913,162
53,840
125,704
121,213
29,835,741
35,245,900
40,218,302
3,692,967
5,882,513
8,442,717
592,567
1,000,000
693,000
4,236
38,942
244,081
4,289,770
6,921,455
9,379,798
4,293,712
897,510
13,934,751
687,653
2,008,616
2,944,814
18,004,655
7,926,179
897,510
33,948,022
69,388,507
39,366,901
49,222,581
25,635,324
62,300,000
36,866,157
22,950,963
35,552,419
1,528,236
117,974,794
137,219,320
87,616,974
 A 84
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
REPORT
, 1976
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1976
Year
Gold (Placer)
Gold (Fine)
Silver
Copper
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
kg
$
kg
$
kg
$
kg
$
1858 90
100 978.533
11 703.748
55,192,163
6,397,183
12,858,353
6 876.531
700 977.829
214,152
13,561,194
1891-1900.
19 682.165
16 064 375
4,365,210
1901-10	
15 787.261
8,628,660
72 224.836
47,998,179
971 114.910
16,973,507
172 344 737
56,384,783
1911	
779.441
426,000
7 110.675
4,725,512
58 858.198
958,293
16 750 016
4,571,644
1912	
1 016.446
555,500
8 008.898
5,322,442
97 417.955
1,810,045
23 340 171
8,408,513
1913	
933.090
510,000
8 467.916
5,627,595
107 798.519
1,968,606
21 073 930
7,094,489
1914	
1 033.864
565,000
7 687.729
5,109,008
112 038.605
1,876,736
20 415 949
6,121,319
1915	
1 408.655
770,000
7 776.403
5,167,934
104 708.436
1,588,991
25 817 619
9,835,500
1916	
1 062.167
580,500
6 902.751
4,587,333
102 699.711
2,059,739
29 655 426
17,784,494
1917. •	
907.585
496,000
3 562.009
2,367,191
91 107.405
2,265,749
26 765 241
16,038,256
1918	
585.358
320,000
5 121.855
3,403,811
108 803.644
3,215,870
27 888 416
15,143,449
1919	
524.086
286,500
4 740.906
3,150,644
105 847.210
3,592,673
19 259 132
7,939,896
1920	
405.583
221,600
3 733.853
2,481,392
105 061.237
3,235,980
20 360 601
7,832,899
1921	
426.733
233,200
4 222.699
2,804,197
83 150.418
1,591,201
17 706 790
4,879,624
1922	
674.624
368,800
6 153.915
4,089,684
220 872.076
4,554,781
14 678 125
4,329,754
1923	
768.555
420,000
5 575.057
3,704,994
187 643.964
3,718,129
26 181 346
8,323,266
1924	
769.799
420,750
7 704.7111    5,120,535
259 454.010
5,292,184
29 413 222
8,442,870
1925	
512.453
280,092
6 522.890     4,335,069
238 088.613
5,286,818
32 797 475
10,153,269
1926	
650.426
355,503
6 264.984|    4,163,859
334 312.337
6,675,606
40 523 625
12,324,421
1927	
285.868
156,247
5 536.365|    3,679,601
325 654.164
5,902,043
40 461 530
11,525,011
1928	
262.012
143,208
5 619.130|    3,734,609
330 536.775
6,182,461
44 410 233
14,265,242
1929	
217.192
118,711
4 516.871|    3,002,020
309 791.230
5,278,194
46 626 180
18,612,850
1930	
278.527
152,235
5 002.482|    3.324,975
352 342.964
4,322,185
41 894 588
11,990,466
1931.	
534.225
291,992
4 545.175|    3,020,837
234 837.945
2,254,979
29 090 879
5,365,690
1932	
634.501
395,542
5 649.891|    4,263,389
222 406.822
2,264,729
22 955 299
3,228,892
1933—	
744.233
562,787
6 954.289|    6,394,645
218 397.615
2,656,526
19 572 164
3,216,701
1934.	
783.205
714.431
9 244.309|  10,253,952
267 920.527
4,088,280
22 521 530
3,683,662
1935	
961.985
895,058
11 363.263| 12,856,419
288 323.068
6,005,996
17 884 241
3,073,428
1936..	
1 349.528
1,249,940
12 583.590[  14,172,367
296 944.198
4,308,330
9 830 071
2,053,828
1937	
1 684.321
1,558,245
14 331.6711  16,122,767
351 630.830
5,073,962
20 891260
6,023,411
1938	
1 796.478
1.671,015
17 340.607|   19,613,624
337 827.661
4,722,288
29 832 572
6,558,575
1939	
1 547.250
1,478,492
18 267.9121 21,226,957
336 577.786
4,381,365
33 227 590
7,392,862
1940	
1215.101
1,236,928
18 149.347
22,461,516
383 436.042
4,715,315
35 371 049
7,865,085
1941	
1 361.534
1,385,962
17 760.622
21,984,501
378 700.797
4,658,545
30 134 516
6,700,693
1942	
1 023.413
1,041,772
13 825.843
17,113,943
301 011.133
4,080,775
22 723 823
5,052,856
1943	
454.104
462,270
6 979.607
8,639,516
265 193.820
3,858,496
19 190 263
4,971,132
1944	
355.601
361,977
5 804.815
7,185,332
177 453.003
2,453,293
16 465 584
4,356,070
1945.	
391.556
398,591
5 454.626
6,751,860
191 510.720
2,893,934
11 726 375
3,244,472
1946	
489.219
475,361
3 658.086]    4,322,241
197 994.264
5,324,959
7 938 069
2,240,070
1947	
216.757
200,585
7 566.800J    8,514,870
177 550.262
4,110,092
18 952 769
8,519,741
1948	
632.386
585,200
8 902.612|   10.018.050
209 016.328
5,040,101
19 515 886
9,616,174
1949	
556.308
529,524
8 969.981|   10,382,256
237 559.178
5,671,082
24 882 500
10,956,550
1950	
595.125
598,717
8 832.723|  10,805,553
295 772.610
7,667,950
19 147 001
9,889,458
1951 _..
736.861
717,911
8 126.405|    9,627,947
255 632.882
7,770,983
19 617 612
11,980,155
1952	
545.982
494,756
7 955.805)    8,765,889
274 042.530
7,326,803
19 053 280
13,054,893
1953.	
443.062
403,230
7 886.228|    8,727,294
260 606.407
7,019,272
22 235 441
14,869,544
1954	
270.098
238,967
8 036.6421    8.803,279
305 630.613
8,154,145
22 747 578
14,599,693
1955	
238.436
217,614
7 541.762
8,370,306
245 811.643
6,942,995
20 065 928
16,932,549
1956	
120.213
109,450
5 963.782
6,603,628
261423.017
7,511,866
19 667 923
17,251,872
1957	
91.318
175.732
80,990
157.871
6 948.504
6 044.992
7,495,170
6,604,149
252 847.111
218 998.027
7,077,166
6,086,854
14 237 029
5 741 837
8,170,465
2,964,529
1958	
1959	
235.450
208,973
5 385.360
5,812,511
192 779.535
5,421,417
7 363 374
4,497,991
1960	
119.653
107,418
6 394.155
6,979,441
231 612.937
6,600,183
14 997 694
9,583,724
1961	
106.248
103.106
99,884
96.697
4 970.913
4 940.712
5.667,253
5,942,101
229 353.429
192 521.474
6,909,140
7,181,907
14 375 361
49 431 850
8,965,149
33,209,215
1962	
1963	
143.696
135,411
4 820.3121    5,850,458
199 764.616
8,861,050
53 635 704
36,238,007
1964	
57.292
55,191
4 307.361
5,227,884
163 901.675
7,348,938
52 414 456
38,609,136
1965	
26.935
25,053
3 642.908
4,419,089
154 646.729
6,929,793
38 644 540
32,696,081
1966	
47.743
44,632
3 717.057
4,505,646
172 594.622
7,729,939
47 990 080
56,438,255
1967	
27.713
25,632
3 923.861     4,763,688
192 239.525
10,328,695
78 352 932
88,135,172
1968
20.839
19,571
3 853.537
4,672,242
221 791.325
16,475,795
73 024 968
87,284,148
1969.	
12.410
11,720
3 654.012
4,427,506
179 169.889
11,100,491
75 937 956
111,592,416
1970—	
15.272
14,185
3 135.462
3,685,476
202 521.462
12,041,181
96 329 694
124,657,958
1971	
5.505
4,647
2 668.046
3.031,844
238 670.301
11,968,046
127 286 040
131,037,918
1972	
21.492
26,905
3 782.871
6,995,448
215 420.498
11,519,660
211 832 288
209,403,822
1973	
119.156
311,524
5 784.723
18,117,268
236 987.318
19,552,997
317 603 055
582,803,251
1974	
45.162
232,512
5 001.082
26,749,083
181 695.950
28,440,365
287 547 048
541,644,913
1975	
43.744
232,204
4 819.241   25.082,494
196 305.885
30,545,947
258 497 599
331,693,850
1976	
26.064
115,613
5 393.477| 21,761,502
239 720.882
32,532,836
263 618 197
378,984,941
Totals—
163 098.018|97,880,802
1
557 024.079|60_,5_3,128
1
16 401911.632|487,734,598
1
3 398 531 632| 3,287,676,222
1
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 85
Table 3-6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1976—Continued
Year
Lead
Zinc
Molybdenum
Iron Concentrates
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1858-90	
kg
473 729
93 002 804
184 989 089
12 189 051
20 353 243
25 112 864
22 963 016
21 093 563
22 102 314
16 922 293
19 912 447
13 370 004
$
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2.175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1.526.855
kg
$
kg
$
t
27 097
11 820
17 738
$
70,879
1891-1900
5 753 423
1 195 003
2 430 462
3 065 710
3 568 151
5 888 705
16 859 478
18 982 067
18 947 777
25 735 631
21 413 198
22 416 133
25 921 103
26 464 465
35 893 017
44 568 438
64 807 554
65 872 809
82 445 946
894,169
45,602
1901-10	
68,436
1911.	
129,092
1912	
316,139
324,421
346,125
1,460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
1913	
1914   	
901
1641
5 598
3 167
436
662
2,000
1915	
1916
20,560
11,636
1917	
1918    	
1,840
907
1 116
1335
916
1089
220
5,000
6,150
1919	
1920	
17 840 247|       2,816,115
18 779 664        1,693,354
30 593 731J       3,480,306
43 845 439J       6,321,770
77 284 697|     12,415,917
107 908 698|     18,670,329
119 305 027J     17,757,535
128 364 347|      14,874,292
138 408 8121      13.961.412
7,360
1921	
5,050
1922	
3,600
1923.	
3,278,903
4,266,741
7,754,450
10,586,610
8,996,135
9,984,613
1,337
1924	
1925	
1926..     .
1927	
1928	
18
1929	
139 705 336
145 966 952
118 796 232
114 308 115
123 7.35 517
15,555,189
12,638,198
7,097,812
5,326,432
6 497 719
78 061 406
113 614 910
91 657 703
87 143 752
88 887 198
113 013 038
9,268 792
1930	
9 017 005
1931	
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291.416
7 581 199
1932	
1933	
1934	
157 562 183!       8,461,859
156 156 723j     10,785,930
171 444 146|      14,790.028
1Qfl 1117 Oft.1       71 AM (UQ
1935	
116 227 650|       7,940,850
115 475 574I         8.439 371
1936	
1937	
132 081 905
135 395 388
126 283 585
14 274 245
1938	
187 323 227
171 794 338
711 758 089
13.810,024
12,002,390
15 fiQS A«l
9,172,822
1939    . ...
8.544.375
1940	
141 529 4561      10.643.026
1941	
207 218 262|     15,358,976
230 060 714      17,052,054
199 196 604J      16,485,902
132 866 8931     13,181,530
152 849 156|      16.848,823
156 879 8531     23,345,731
142 306 192J     42,887,313
145 165 821|     57,734,770
120 373 215|     41,929,866
128 830 683J     41,052,905
124 037 1811       S0.31fi.015
166 861 962
175 646 590
12 548 031
1942	
13.208.636
1943	
152 474 485|      13,446,018
126 126 765]     11,956,725
133 7145381      18.984.581
1
1944  .
.      1....
1945	
1946	
124 406 109
114 761 068
122 610 001
130 736 145
131 697 238
153 091 761
169 130 882
173 407 848
151 555 559
194 680 177
201 327 284
203 787 462
195 952 146
182 498 693
182 977 897
175 970 780
187 528 084
182 734 698
181 797 313
141 179 547
138 401 395
119217472
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654,211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
1947.	
1948
616
4 964
3,735
27,579
1949	
1950     	
1951	
102 997
816 898
899 240
486 018
554 223
335 616
324 174
571 769
770 421
1 052 651
790,000
1952	
129 250 197
135 004 129
150 807 088
137 241 656
128 691 681
127 732 462
133 615 439
130 372 360
151 321 570
45,936,692
39,481,244
45,482,505
45,161,245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542,306
38 fifil 912
59,189,656
40,810.618
34,805,755
52 048 909
5,474,924
1953	
6,763,105
3,733,891
1954 „..	
1955	
3,228,756
2,190,847
1956	
58,934,801
50,206,681
43,234,839
44,169,198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48,666,933
47,666,540
39 248 539
1957	
2,200,637
4,193,442
1958	
1959
2 456
9,500
6,363,848
1960	
10.292.847
1961	
174 307 6171      42 313.569
1211 147|  12,082,540
1962	
152 080 806
142 869 197
121 896 644
113 480 794
95 929 798
94 406 546
105 063 971
95 286 815
97 448 607
117 865 575
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402,293
43,149,171
34,436,934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693,539
35,096,021
1_. 71 1 408
1627 3421  18.326.911
1963 	
1 869 009
1 816 684
1 964 410
1 952 074
1 954 468
1 900 311
1 882 266
1 704 650
1 750 738
1 139 698
1 420 160
1 306 930
1 299 215
20,746,424
1964	
12 812
47.063
20,419,487
1965	
3 306 274|  12,405,344
7 754 088J 27,606,061
7 945 7821  31 183.064
21,498,581
20,778,934
20,820,765
1966 	
1967	
1968
1969   	
135 803 151|     43,550,181
134 565 199|     46,639.024
125 005 208J     44.111,055
138 549 629|     49,745,789
121719 968|     47,172,894
137 380 7681     62,564,751
77 733 732|     59,582,753
99 668 230|     80,572.87°
106 498 987!     65,499,108
8 980 988
12 064 350
14 186 706
9 926 694
12 719 391
13 785 264
13 789 825
13 026 627
32,552,722
47,999,442
52,561,796
36,954,846
43,260,349
51,851,509
60,791,552
71.201.391
| 21,437,569
19,787,845
17,391,883
18,153,612
11,642,379
12,906,063
12,742,227
15.245.902
1970	
1971
1972	
88 109 6631     28,896,566
84 890 924|     30,477,936
55 252 692|     23,333,016
7O603 483|     24,450,158
85 407 582!     32.796,533
1973	
1974   	
1975	
1976    	
14 088 686   94,109,138
1 255 277|  14,760,526
Totals-
7 676 695 704(1,522,606,093
1
7 222 799 40611,755,022,918
1
131 601 6861562,570,475
32 036 222)324,218,673
1
 A 86 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-7A-—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Quantity
Value
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Alberni	
Atlin	
Cariboo	
Clinton	
Fort Steele	
Golden	
Greenwood	
Kamloops	
Liard	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster-
Nicola.	
Omineca	
Osoyoos	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen	
Skeena	
Slocan	
Trail Creek	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Victoria	
Not assigned	
Totals..
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
kg
50.294
18.526
22 952.603
12.663
14.058
81 244.025
33,253
98,205
39,381
17,722,708
69,551
62,1 62
54,355,803
21,542,622
22,842,047
235,442,548
47,869
68,694
38,171,207
56,667,716
42,521,291
383,383,422
9,398
20,325
229,483
182,159
889,043
316.349
.665
243,069
3,637
115,662
858.287
.169
.187
1 564.712
.222
604,785
757
763
1,253,403
1,006
848
82,54.3.
73,762,
2,598.350
337.
1,596.
66,248.
9,798,
9,449,
234,226,
94,830,
137,311,
731,308,
377
061
106
283
885
901
091
823
384
142
324
394
457
162,427
992,228
138,853
780,892
751,799
434,471
019,011
 I   42
19,156,498|365
540,538
696,495
875.298
.328,903
.|-
891.464]     1,928,446
111.535
.152
.!-
89.020
992
148,167,256
76.699,010
86,095,838
615,987,879
10,406.662
7,004,795
397,970,752
473,095[
271,1031
143,7831
2.575,981
885,08.3
1,058,002
5,828,129
975.3871
 I-
596,902
7.2781
.492|
.-I-
4.764
2,720
1 755.6651     1,506,400
•I-
63
29
29
352
80
79
651
44.
51,
328
.I..
,|..
235.823!
.!..
I I-
143.167I
105,569
.1..
11.3841
 I-.
.!■■
26.4691
 I-
9.397
241-260
5.6611
.085|
5,306
464
15,
20.
38,
266,
35,
38,
612
1.
2.
281.
3
301
751
353
,575
,809
,754
,361
,522.
.991
451,
.550
7.
3,
500.
897.
.891,
634,
797.
.839,
,618
604.
,314.
091.
209.
89,
771,
170,
.359,
046,
8051     1,611,625
271! I
,917
3251
.4301
,774
,055|
.3711
067|
.122|
064!.
,432|
4141,
3821.
222|.
4211
725|
.1431
,9131
330|,
,0061
8751.
6001.
6311
924
722
121
134
10,050|
407.6361
226,5801
1,396,036|
59,984|
14,212]
6,734,437
18,558
1,240,215|
..!..
73,349
..!..
32.
371.
82,
395
55 4
5 65
7,066,9641
101,519!
35,7601
225,3411
19.5331
10.770!
3.452!
|   47 581.8751
15,680
54,872
13,307
17,642,218
24
19.
22
396
809
647
064
990,
..!..
 I
343[ 190,651|
114( 4,272,2721
632 2,808,0241
626| 69,984,659|
600,288
717,580
0,302,767
4,164
3,275
345,680
4,230,037
4,738,135
39,103,853
412,036
392,525
4,783,159
1,087.969
770,686
12,085,424
279,350
285,114
4,446,176
249,071
182,679
3,082.568
8,648,363
10,138,452
60,546,885
2,514,306
1,650,024
18,838,571
195,839
226,208
3,837,065
7,278,004
7,054,301
93,371,036
871,500
1,108,418
10,895,121
20,394,370
19,086,386
252,060,081
140,487
229,815
2,598,886
1,002.877
1,268.235
16,734,136
786.229
753,952
6,014,301
159,337
223,673
3,957,088
118,609
350,424
4,818,873
2,532.935
1,467.349
24,603,780
29,976
509,496
2,935,765
86,116
145,381
3.918,642
15,425,449
15,652,054
190,443.665
1,785,644
2,841.135
14,802,766
19.693,463
25.562.105
295,060,937
2,400,992
5,581,246
58,486,177
1975
1978
To date
43.744I
| 26.064!
I163 098.0181
232,204
115,613
97,880,802
586.
646.
8,855,
390.
634.
789.
164I   48,667,6021
790]   52,917,1421
423!520,434,17511
I I
90.928.011
100,938,648
134,074,002
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Divisions, 1975 and 1976, and Total to Date
A 87
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipeline
Butane and
Propane
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
m3
$
Mn3
$
M3
$
$
22)142,910
23,559,627
241,787,966
150,238
111,350
56,259,920
61,196,787
47,503,747
263
1,100
477,733,221
412.036
392,525
6,037,032
8 909 438
316,716,363
298,679,369
1,269,686,080
402,343,858
7 537 481
374,351,014
97 499 386
3,905,374,766
2,369,034
6,31 6,486
93,724,546
10 047,894
239 752 269
13 687
59.765
799 120,430
15 060!             300,116
2 471 264
2 553 335
47 068 727
101,423,654
124,695,718
887,889,143
9 236
8 800
108 779
214,733,528
287,997,059
951,643,124
188 405
197 976
2 374 061
4,562,292
8,280,787
16,861,190
362,321,148
465,499,649
2,262,486,339
196,845
131 923
1,515,507
226,208
154,405,862
84,248,726
93,293,922
301,144,744
1,013,098,940
12,163,245
        [
9,171,215
  .... 1   ..
414,783,028
20,395,362
19,086,386
318 020,413
29,493,758
29,805,732
2 657 660!       11.080.836
366 503,861
318
5,265
4,310
3,433,981
82,172.937
214
|    	
80,860,899
456 464
  __■____	
674,592,608
	
45 837,584
52,219,231
1 018
5,008
166,401
227,105
19,622,579
21,015,991
39,241,646
4 188 851
19,553,725
	
291,903,781
38,330,660
|        	
40,306,492
33
116
1
638,568,593
  1  	
1     	
1,634,306
2,823,502
284,037,037
295,716
235,012
94,714,826
 |	
15,596,171
 |	
19,011,175
 ]	
498,562,069
1,887,627
 I	
2,909,290
 ]	
15,473,010
          ]     	
          |	
25,562,105
 !	
320,076,611
 1	
26,375.250
 ]	
30,467,209
 1	
543,103,680
8 924 816]    317,111,744
7 537 695]    298,683,679
172 374 95811,606,480,862
1
2 471 2641101,423,654
2 553 335 124,695,718
47 068 727(887,889,143
1
9 2361214,733,528
8 8001287,997,059
108 7791951,043,124
1
188,405]   4,562,292|   1,304,049,199
197 976]   8,280,787!   1,520,263,436
2 374 061|16,861,190114,071,052,721
1                       1
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 91
 A 92
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
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A 93
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 A 94 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
Table 3-7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Division
Period
Asbestos
Barite i
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limeston., and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Q-n-     Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1875
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
t        i          $
t
$
t
$
I                  I               I
t         |        $        |      t       |         $
	
I
i
Atlin	
  |	
 |	
 |	
5 847
2 737
21 343
229,483
182,159
745,563
 |	
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
..
441                 IBS
Clinton	
|
i
Fort Steele...
I
 I	
71               80
Golden	
 |	
|
398 388|4,489,227
2 956
12,612
Greenwood....
1975
|
	
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
 |	
 |	
 1 1	
1 624 308[1,540,319
 |	
181
4.000
Kamloops	
1
i
 |	
1
567[         12.230
Liard	
76 771
37,849.743
40,727,296
345,181,523
J
 |	
1976    I      70 433
To date   11 34.3 805
1
 1	
 |	
Lillooet	
1975
1976
To date
1975
 1	
1
	
    .
  p.
Nanaimo	
i
35 914
11 378
971 159
174.824
2 .325
96 279
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
 |	
33.263!      2 856
110,520
 |	
1,909,480
28 773
666.501
Nelson	
 |	
23 394|       885,083
1
26 720'   1 ,058,002
 |	
6 895
8,174
176 662j   5,764,054
New West-
 |	
 |	
minster
 1	
 1   	
 |	
99 490!   1,611,625
Nicola	
[
1
 1	
 [	
 |	
 |	
 |	
|
 1	
 |	
26|           2,103
 1	
 |	
18             1,390
 1 1 '
 |	
791           6,189
Osoyoos	
|
 |	
|
576          14,212
728 113:3,699,031
 I
192 505|   2.702,935
Similkameen.
1975
.   .1	
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
[	
 i	
 !	
|
Skeena	
 I	
I
 |    	
1
545 232|1,050,722
i
Vancouver	
|
 |	
 |	
1
26 936!        41 R.606
Vernon	
1975
1976
To date
1975
|
4 271
1 306
7 210
101,519
35,760
|
2 903
30,400
190,963
Victoria	
1
 |	
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
|
1
 !..	
I
 |	
2«2          ...345       8.71.3
157,080
Not assigned.
1
 1	
 j	
 |
  1.	
|
|
 j 1 |	
 1	
1975    |       76 7711   37,849,743
197B     !        70 433'   40.727.298
 |	
5 8471229.483
2 7371181.159
35 9141    174,824
11 378!       33.263
33 316|  1,144,968
31 476!   1.219.884
To date
1 343 805
345,181,523
398 395'4,489,307
1
21 343
745,563
3 881 828
8,254,083
541 160
11,534,351
1 From 1972, excludes production which is confidential.
Other: See notes on individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages A 64 to A 73.
2 Natro-alunite.
3 Hydromagnesite.
4 Volcanic ash.
5 Magnesium sulphate.
6 Sodium carbonate.
" Phosphate rock.
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS A 95
Mining Divisions, 1975 and 1976, and Total to Date
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
t
$
kg
$
t
1
$      1        t
$
$
$
	
	
9.3982
9.398
               j	
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20,3253
20,325
229,483
 |	
182,159
 1	
4 542 160
143,012
 1	
3004
889,043
792
6,236
156,1913 5 6
162,427
RR 062
1,992,228
64 978|     1,138,853
1 331 494)   24,465,094
1,138,853
102 400
298,834
1,751,799
4,434,471
18,515,896
16,8947
24,780,892
474 387
1,751,799
556 134
1
4,434,471
4 896 580
 1	
1,2768 9
23,019,011
783,57810
2,327,897
1 131 179
6,323,178
192 640
2,075
2 03,0555 6
6,540,538
1 458
364 278
388 678
8,590
1,309,840
1.391,441
34 405
R3R 162
38.696,495
34 405|         838,162
914 340I   1R 755 939
42,875,298
I
365,328,903
 1	
253,391
467,966
5,1299
473,095
271,103
143,783
2,575,981
885,083
1,058,002
55,9018
5,828,129
1,611,625
2 184
10,050
10,050
108 9791    405,533
119 518]    225,190
482 80411,378,387
 |	
407,636
226,580
11,46011 12
1,396,036
59,984
14,212
720 664
25,938
306,5335 10 11
6,734,437
 1	
 1-
227
1,700
16,85813
18,558
287 689
10.815
37 761
178,678
1,240,215
623 773
6,550,969
97,3898
7,066,964
101,519
35,760
72 801
3,978
225,341
30,2269
1,364,528
488,850
2,657,092
190,651
4,272,272
125 612|     2,907,744
132 3211     2,319,174
 |	
 1	
5 213 822|   67,327,567
69,984,659
474 387
1,751,799
4,434,471
110 437|    414,123
483 79611.535.030
246 079|     5,738,134
231  704!      4.296.189
1.364 528                   48.667.602
556 134
488,850
4,371,605
52,917,142
520,434,175
6 133 362
25,155,884
1 124 873
3,237,794
5 815 954|185,818
1
8 121 190
117,278,247
8 Iron oxide and ochre.
9 Talc.
io Fluorspar.
ii Arsenious oxide.
12 Perlite.
13 Bentonite.
 A 96
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1975 and 1976,
and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To dale
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1973
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To dato
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
197S
To date
1975
1976
To dato
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To dato
1975
1976
To date
1975
1976
To date
S
$
$
$
140
S
600,142
1
5                   $
$
600,288
I
717,580
5,956,108
4.164
3,275
242 i in
717,580
 |	
346,659
6,302,707
Atlin	
4,164
3,275
1.10S
332,564
577,452
2,648,276
102 433
345,680
2.139,7741     1,757,699
1.684,141       2,476,542
7,738,633'   28,384,487
4,230,037
4,738,135
332,457
39,103,853
412,036
392,525
392,525
4,783,159
 |	
Fort Steele	
              I
1,087,969
770,686
770,686
43,873
71,941
15,918
Golden	
	
279,350
285,114
4,446,176
249,071
182,679
285,114
4,010.254
249.071
182,679
1,000
50,840
255,923
128,159'	
 |	
	
 1	
42,560
161,020
121,283
Kamloops	
	
5,970,918
7,286,060
27,994,916
1,367,948|     1,300,497
906,620      1,945,772
13,508,421;   18,926,272
8,648,363
10,138,452
25,067
19,800
72,379
60.546 885
2,514,306
1,650,024
1,650,024
18,838 571
Lillooet	
	
161,019
216,139
377.258
3,302,182
3,860,294
05,411,716
459,986
549,724
2,376,895
03,000
67,000
3,524,910
19,820!            15,000
2,595'              7,474
1,122,818'     2,334,989
1.137.942J     2,838,480
461,499!     2,732,508
5,300.340'   18,023,253
8,830|         402,484
2,770'         555.924
589,5711     7,4 69,543
2,668.374!   11,009.807
741,137!   11,282.332
195,839
226,208
2,000
!
3,837,065
7,278 604
	
j
 1	
7,054,301
3,450,735
200
1,178,992
1,108,418
437,138
21,974
6,593,189
6,995,917
97,542,791
10,895 121
New Westminster.—.
...
20,304,370
19,086,386
20,974
252,060,081
	
140,487
229,815
140,487
229,815
8,000
70
341
411
5,121
3,991
29,800
258,705!         738,921
112.001'      1,151,902
1,268.235
.
5.274
16,734,130
780,229
753,952
	
786 229
 [	
753,952
	
43,774
33,018
4,125
11,750
35,170
4.125!         151,087
2,000          209.923
763,1531     3,158,305
159,337
223,673
1,000
!
1
118 609
350,424
4,047,100
i
350,424
	
10,500
11,571
24,000
712.341
13,355]	
4,818,873
2,532,935
163.229'     1,304,120
1,467,349
 1   1,045,300
144,000
13,249
Slocan	
29,976
509.496
2,002,299
86,110
145,381
29,976
j
509.496
1,000
115,143
157,323
2,935,765
Trail Creelf	
86,116
145,381
32,500
85,520
3,918,642
10,328,746
9,549,544
106,687,474
15,425,449
6,102,510
09,932,358
1,785,644
2,533.995
|
15,652,054
40,885
4,012.500
8,081,796
1,088,592?	
 I	
190,443,665
1,785,644
304,917
351,410
25,928
30,546
1,067,272
2,223
100,075
 1	
2,841,135
161,254
14,802,766
15,382,058
18,138,142
239,178,805
1,1441     4,284,333
981 \     7,392,436
19,693,463
25,562,105
55
10,855,136
295,000,937
2,400,992
2,400,992
5,581,246
315,498
505.018
2,140,5701   40,372.092
3,180,828
5,972,171
58.486,177
	
1975
1976
To date
31,681,722
34,973,746
373,871,725
4,349,800
5,610,063
77,992,739
4.395
14,314
9,277,418
6,723,448    39,575,457
5,205,973'   48,138.635
81,410,0821470,800,226
1
6.593.189! 1       90.928.011
6,995,917
114,731,641
100,938,648
1,134,074,002
	
5,972,171
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
Table 3-8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1976
A 97
Year
Quantityl
Value
Year
Quantityl
Value
1836-59	
tonnes
37 985
14 475
13 995
18 409
21687
29 091
33 345
25 518
31740
44 711
36 376
30 322
50 310
50 310
50 311
82 856
111912
141 425
156 525
173 587
245 172
271 889
232 020
286 666
216 721
400 391
371 461
331 875
419 992
497 150
589 133
689 020
1 045 607
839 591
993 988
1 029 204
954 727
909 237
906 610
1 146 015
1 302 088
1 615 688
1 718 692
1 667 960
1 473 933
1712 739
1 855 121
1 929 540
2 255 214
2 143 225
2 439 109
3 007 074
2 305 778
2 913 778
2 461 665
2 029 400
1 883 851
2 343 671
2 209 982
2 336 238
$
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
1919	
1920	
tonnes
2 207 659
2 587 763
2 422 455
2 473 692
2 391 998
1 839 619
2 305 337
2 182 760
2 316 408
2 431794
2 154 607
1 809 364
1 601 600
1 464 759
1 249 347
1 297 306
1 159 721
1 226 780
1 312 003
1 259 626
1 416 184
1 507 758
1 673 516
1810 731
1 682 591
1 752 626
1 381 654
1 305 516
1 538 895
1 455 552
1 470 782
1 427 907
1427 513
1 272 150
1 255 662
1 186 849
1 209 157
1 285 664
984 886
722 490
625 964
715 455
833 827
748 731
771 594
826 737
862 513
771 848
824 436
870 180
773 226
2 398 635
4 141 496
5 466 846
6 924 733
7 757 440
8 924 816
7 537 695
$
11,975,671
1860	
13,450,169
1861 	
1Q">1
12,836,013
1862 	
1922 ..
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
1863	
1864	
1923	
1924      	
1865	
1866	
1925	
1926	
1867—	
1927--    	
12,269,135
1868	
1928	
12,633,510
1869 	
1929
11,256,260
9,435,650
1870.	
1930	
1871	
1931	
7,684,155
6,523,644
1872 ,
1932
1873  	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937 ...
5,375,171
5,725,133
1874 	
1875-  	
5,048,864
1876	
5,722,502
6,139,920
1877   .
1878	
1879	
1938.	
1939    	
5,565,069
6,280,956
1880	
1940	
1941
7,088,265
7,660,000
1881 	
1882 	
1942	
1943 	
8,237,172
7,742,030
1883. -	
1884.	
1944       	
8,217,966
1885	
1945	
6,454,360
1886	
1946	
1947—	
1948       	
6,732,470
1887  ...
1888	
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
1889	
1949
1890 	
1950	
1951	
1952       	
10,119,303
10,169,617
9,729,739
1891 _
1892	
1893 	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956
9,528,279
1894	
1895	
1896	
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
1897	
1957       	
1898	
1958       	
1899  	
1959 	
5,472,064
1900	
1960   	
5,242,223
1901	
1961	
6,802,134
1902   _
1962	
1963	
1964
6,133,986
1903.	
1904 	
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
1905	
1965	
1906 	
1966    	
1907	
1967
7,045,341
7,588,989
1908 -	
1968	
1969      	
1909	
6,817,155
19,559,669
1910	
1970
1911	
1971	
1972 —
45,801,936
66,030,210
87,976,105
1912	
1913	
1973—      	
1914	
1974
154,593,643
317,111,744
298,683,679
1915
1975    	
1916    _
1976  	
Totals	
1917    	
172 374 958
1,606,480,862
1918
1 Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
For
 A 98
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
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 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
A 99
Table 3-9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining	
Exploration and development.
Coal 	
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production) ..
Industrial minerals	
Structural-materials industry-
Totals, 1976	
Totals, 1975..
1974..
1973-
1972..
1971-
1970-
1969-
1968-
1967-
1966.
1965..
1964_
1963_
1962_
1961-
1960-
1959_
1958..
1957..
1956-
1955-
1954_
1953-
1952-
1951-
1950-
1949-
1948._
1947-
1946..
1945-
1944..
1943-
1942-
1941-
1940-
1939-
1938-
1937-
1936..
1935-
119,174,934
70,369,040
45,087,051
8,125,887
11,550,007
23,429,909
33,284,375
8,878,580
4,615,514
12,441,735
277,736,828
246,
272.
221
199.
179
172
123
113
94,
93,
74
63.
57
55
50.
52,
49
48
56
57,
51,
48,
55.
62
52,
42,
41.
38,
32.
26
22.
23
26.
26
26
23
22
22,
21,
17,
16,
953
945
,877
,351,
,175.
,958,
,450.
,459,
,523
409,
,938.
,624.
,939,
,522.
,887
,694
,961
,933
,409
,266.
,890
,702.
,543
,256.
,607,
,738,
,023
,813.
,160
,190
,620
,131
,051.
,913
,050
,391
,357
,765,
,349
,887,
753,
,568
,078
,595
,449
,692
,282
.327
219
,495
528
,736
.559
,294
,171
,275
818
,996
,560
,056
,026
,246
,746
,490
631
171
,035
,786
,506
,338
,200
,975
,874
,467
,160
,491
,330
,035
,711
,690
,619
,367
59,220,204
49,104,838
42,381,258
36,750,711
31,115,621
23,166.904
19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13,590,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
144,828,244
11,284,955
3,675,303
10,287,114
170,075,616
154,476,238
140,002,685
103,840,649
77,092,955
68,314,944
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962, lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964, some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include "process, operating maintenance and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company-operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 A 100
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-76
u
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s
Metals
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
rt»
'£.2
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ea
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1901
2 736
1,212
1,126
1,088
1.103
3,948
3,345
2,750
3,300
3,710
3,983
3,943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3,836
4,278
4,174
4,144
5,393
5,488
4,390
4,259
3,679
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
5,138
7,610
8,283
8,835
8,892
7,605
6,035
4,833
6,088
8,046
7,915
8,197
9,616
10,192
10,138
10,019
9,821
8,939
7,819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10,724
10,832
12.831
3,041
3,101
3  13 7
933
9101
1-127
1,974
1,011
1,264
1,453
1,407
1,805
1,709
5,073
1,418
■,758
1,873
M30
5,071
),732
1,991
i.OOO
S.170
i,427
),966
5.349
5,885
>,644
5,149
>,418
,443
),322
),225
>,334
,028
,045
1,082
,608
,094
>,893
,971
,814
,153
,962
,970
,874
!,723
!,360
!,851
1,839
2,430
1,305
1,425
!,406
1,306
1,261
,925
,681
,550
,434
,478
,300
1,380
,080
,050
,182
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
t.275
L.457
1,985
1,216
2,522
,763
>,627
7,922
7,356
7,014
7,759
8,117
8,788
7,712
9,767
9,672
11,467
10,467
10,906
10,949
9,906
9,135
10,453
1902	
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
•>
219
662
143
1903
1904	
3.278 1.1751
1905
4701,240
680]1,303
70411,239
567|1,127
1841,070
47211.237
3,127
3,415
2,862
4,432
4,713
5,903
5,212
5,275
4,950
4,267
3,708
3 694
1,280 '
1,390 '
907 ■
1,641
1,705
1,855
1,061
1,855
1,721
1,465
1,283't
1   3 00'
1906	
1907	
1909	
1910       	
435
472
773
741
709
357
1,159
1,364
1,505
1,433
1,435
2.030
1912	
1913       	
1914     	
1915   	
2902,198
626|1,764
513 1,746
0741,605
355;    975
510|1,239
102 1,516
35311,680
298 2,840
606|1,735
671 1,916
70712,469
9262,052
316J1.260
4031    834
355|    900
7861,335
79611,729
74011,497
959ll,840
6031  818
3,7601,410
3,65811,769
4,145 1,821
4,191 2,158 I
4.722 2.163 (
10,058
9,817
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9,707
9,451
10,581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10,524
11,369
12,985
13,737
14,179
16,129
16,021
15,890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12,314
11,820
11,933
14,899
16,397
1921       	
4,712
4,342
3,894
3,828
3,757
3,646
3,814
3,675
3.389
2,957
2,628
2,241
2,050
2,145
2,015
2,280
2,088
2,167
2,175
2,229
1,892
2,240
2,150
1,927
1,773
1,094
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
1,280
1,154
1,076
1,100
968
1,020
826
765
894
705
548
501
446
405
347
260
195
245
242
444
214
265
267
299
327
1,932|(
1,807|(
1,524 .
1,015 I
1,565 .
1,579 ,
1,520|!
1,888 t
1.2501'
1,125''
980|;
853|!
843 I
826U
79911
867(;
874IS
809(1
0991;
494]!
468(1
611 i
6891.
503(
5321
731j!
872|!
54511
5161
463
4011
396|
358
378|
398
300
260
291
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
358
455
1,033
1,013
1,771
1,951
2,255]
2,464|:
2,300 .
9,
808
854
911
966
2,461
2,842
2,748
2 948
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,910
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,861
1,646
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
909
1,293
1,079
1,209
1,309
1,207
1,097
740
846
1,116
898
895
826
931
324
138
368
544
344
526
329
209
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
508
481
400
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
794
800
802
782
725
680
124
122
120
208
170
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
309
561
647
4"?
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
491
529
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
582
567
627
666
527
667
646
705
670
415
355
341
2
2
2
9
832(3,197
58113,157
542(2,030
531|2,436
631(2,890
90712,771
72012,078
1,108 3,027
919(3,158
990(3,187
1,048(2,944
1,025'3,072
900(3,555
891J2.835
84912,981
822(2,834
67212,813
960|3,461
1,126(3,884
1,20313,763
1,25913,759
1.30714.044
68811
874J1
1,1341
1 122'2
l'2fll 2
1,124
1,371
1,303
1,252
1,004
939
489
212
255
209
347
360
348
o
3
3
3
3
3
2
•2
1
1
1
3
3
'!
849
905
923
001
2,260
2,050
2,104
1S'S
1942
920(1,504
394 1,699
896il,825
93311,750
918|1,817
02412,238
143i2,429
034:2,724
39912,415
78513,695
17113,923
145 2,589
644'2,520
564(2,553
637J2.827
3932,447
919|1,809
937 1,761
782ll,959
78511  582
1947    	
16,621
327,3
205|3
23014
132:3
199 2
103 '-
16,612
17,863
18,257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11,034
11,560
1,51614,120113,730
1.37113.901 11.000
1,129(3,119
l,09l!3,304
1,043'3,339
8383,328
62513,081
61813,008
648 3,034
626;3,118
94913,356
85013,239
82213,281
965,3,529
1,014:3,654
99213,435
1.072 3.283
9,412
9,512
9,846
9,006
7,434
7,324
7,423
7,111
7,958
7,814
7,909
8,265
8,970
8,887
8,547
8,831
10,396
10,125
10,383
11,493
10,867
10,435
10,591
105
67
75
99
86
74
35
43
5
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1957
1958     	
1959	
1961
1962	
677
713
839
1,976
2,012
1.967
270
450
772
786
1,894
1,264
3,990
4,270
4,964
4,040
4.201
3,392
2,848
2,931
3 101
1963
10,952
1964
11,645
12,283
14,202
13,380
15,059
16,437
19,086
18,423
19,470
19,922
19.069
1965 	
7522,019
006(2,296
928|2,532
82312,369
79412,470
160|3,167
07313,058
83313,463
704;4,005
509(4,239
100(3,019
268 3.733
441
478
507
400
416
437
495
458
454
509
1966	
1967   	
1968	
1969	
7
1,009
1,331
1,513
3,468
3,738
3.481
1970	
1971	
1972	
1,734 3,353
2,3943,390
2,35212.767
1,983(3,733
2.048 3,542
1973	
1974	
1975	
518(18,903
495(19,095
I
1976	
I
i Comm
Note—.
ing firms.
encing with 1967, do
"hese figures refer o
es not include employment in by-product
nly to company employees and do not ii
plants,
lclude
the m;
ny employee
of contract-
 MINERAL RESOURCE STATISTICS
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MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
a
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72 800
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1 276 240
27 897
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34 455
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40 435.642
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Copper concentrates, 8 830 t; lead concentrates, 7 093  t;  zinc concentrates,
31 653 t
Molybdenite  concentrates,  1 843 t  containing  1 022 697  kg of molybdenum
It
Lead concentrates, 109 140 t; zinc concentrates,  151 636 t; tin concentrates,
125 t containing 66 183 kg of tin
Lead concentrates, 1 504 t; zinc concentrates, 2 244 t
Lead concentrates, 33 t; zinc concentrates, 56 t
Lead concentrates, 733 t; zinc concentrates, 299 t; jig concentrates, 103 t
Copper concentrates, 15 435 t	
Copper concentrates, 64 781 t	
Copper concentrates, 204 020 t; molybdenite concentrates, 3 133 t, containing 1 715 590 kg of molybdenum
Ore
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or
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t
269 293
1610
564 036
7 672 2961
2 124 886
60 7252
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 A 106 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
Table 3-13—Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1976
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Iron
Trail
t
125 531
907
t
178 654
t
105 819
144 921
668 347
51 165
t
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United States
12 211
20 771
155 097
1 021 951
29 240
Totals	
126 438
211 636
970 252
1 255 277
  n** I
ijtej^
 Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics
CHAPTER 4
CONTENTS
Page
Statistical Tables
Table 4-1—Acreage of Crown Petroleum and Natural Gas Rights
Held, 1967-76  A 110
Table 4-2—Established Hydrocarbon and Byproducts Reserves,
December 31, 1976  A 111
Table 4-3—Wells Drilled and Drilling, 1976  A 112
Table 4-4—Summary of Drilling and Production Statistics, 1976  A 117
Table 4-5—Monthly Crude-oil Production by Fields and Pools, 1976 A 118
Table 4-6—Monthly Nonassociated and Associated Gas Production
by Fields and Pools, 1976  A 121
Table 4-7—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil/Pentanes
Plus, 1976  A 127
Table 4-8—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Natural Gas, 1976.— A 129
Table 4-9—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Propane, 1976  A 132
Table 4-10—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Butane, 1976  A 133
Table 4-11—Crude-oil Pipelines, 1976  A 134
Table 4-12—Crude-oil Refineries, 1976  A 135
Table 4-13—Natural Gas Pipelines, 1976  A 136
Table 4-14—Gas-processing Plants, 1976  A 139
Table 4-15—Sulphur Plants, 1976  A 139
Figures
4-1—Footage Drilled in British Columbia  A 140
4-2—Petroleum and Natural Gas Fields in British Columbia  A 141
4-3—Oil Production in British Columbia  A 142
4-4—Gas Production in British Columbia  A 143
4-5—Petroleum and Natural Gas Pipelines in British Columbia  A 144
Chapter 4 is a series of tables and figures providing important information
on the petroleum industry operations in 1976. It complements the review of the
industry in Chapter 1 and the work of the Ministry reported in Chapter 2.
A 109
 A 110
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
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 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 141
NORTHEASTERN   BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Province cf
rr- ► i    British Columbia
ggj    Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
viCrOHIi  8C    DECEMBER 31
Figure 4-2
 A 142
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1976
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OIL PRODUCTION  IN BRITISH   COLUMBIA
1955 to 1975   inclusive
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 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 143
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PRODUCTION   IN
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 A 144
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
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I
 DIRECTORY
A  145
Directory
(as at December 31, 1977)
Hon. J. R. Chabot (Minister) Parliament Buildings  387-3576
Dr. J. T. Fyles (Deputy Minister) Room 406, Douglas Building  387-4262
P. D. Meyers (Solicitor for Ministry) 102, 1016 Langley Street  387-5680
[Vacant] (Executive Assistant)  Parliament Buildings   387-3576
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES DIVISION
[Vacant] (Director) Room 435, Douglas Building  387-6243
N. K. Gillespie (Personnel Officer)  Room 428, Douglas Building  387-5765
[Vacant] (Information) Room 435, Douglas Building  387-6243
Rosalyn J. Moir (Assistant Editor) Room 422, Douglas Building  387-5975
Library Room 430, Douglas Building  387-6407
W. W. M. Ross (Director)	
Bruce Garrison (Assistant Director)
MINERAL REVENUE DIVISION
 Room 442, Douglas Building  387-6991
 Room 442, Douglas Building  387-6991
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
E. R. Macgregor (Assistant Deputy Minister) Room 409, Douglas Building  387-5489
Victoria Office:
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION
.1837 Fort Street.
387-3781
W. C. Robinson (Chief Inspector) 	
V. E. Dawson (Deputy Chief Inspector)—Coal 1837 Fort Street  387-3782
[Vacant] (Deputy Chief Inspector)—Metals _.
J. Cartwright (Electrical Inspector) 	
G. J. Lee (Senior Mine Rescue Co-ordinator).
J. D. McDonald  (Senior Reclamation Inspector)  	
1837 Fort Street .
1837 Fort Street
1837 Fort Street .
1837 Fort Street.
D. M. Galbraith (Reclamation Inspector)  1837 Fort Street .
J. C. Errington (Reclamation Inspector) 1837 Fort Street.
P. E. Olson (Engineer), Mining Roads and
Chairman, Mineral Development Committee  1837 Fort Street .
387-3782
387-3781
387-6254
387-3179
387-3630
387-3630
387-6254
Vancouver Office:
[Vacant] (Inspector)  2747 E. Hastings Street,
Vancouver V5K 1Z8  254-7171/72
S. Elias (Inspector-Environmental Control) 2747 E. Hastings Street,
Vancouver V5K 1Z8  254-7171/72
Kamloops Office:
D. Smith (Inspector)  101, 2985 Airport Drive,
Kamloops V2B 7W8  376-7201
E. Sadar (Inspector) 101, 2985 Airport Drive,
Kamloops V2B 7W8  376-7201
B. M. Dudas (Inspector) 101, 2985 Airport Drive,
Kamloops V2B 7W8  376-7201
Nelson Office: J. B. C. Lang (Inspector)
Fernie Office: D. I. R. Henderson (Inspector)
.310 Ward Street, Nelson
V1L5W4   352-2211
ext. 213/342
.Box 1290, Fernie  423-6222
(Operator)
 A 146
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1976
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION—Continued
Nanaimo Office: J. W. Robinson (Inspector)  2226 Brotherstone Road,
Nanaimo V9S 3M8  758-2342
Prince Rupert Office: [Vacant] (Inspector)  Box 758, Prince Rupert V8I 3S1 .. 624-2121
ext. 202
Smithers Office: J. F. Hutter (Inspector) 	
 Box 877, Smithers VOJ 2N0  847-4411
ext. 212/245
Prince George Office: A. D. Tidsbury (Inspector).. 1652 Quinn Street,
Prince George V2N 1X3   562-8131
ext. 322/323
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
Dr. A. Sutherland Brown (Chief Geologist) Room 418, Douglas Building  387-5975
Analytical Laboratory
Dr. W. M. Johnson (Chief Analyst) 541 Superior Street
P. F. Ralph (Deputy Chief Analyst) 541 Superior Street
387-6249
387-6249
Dr. N. C. Carter (Senior Geologist)
R. D. Gilchrist
Dr. T. Hoy 	
Project Geology
 Room 418, Douglas Building  387-5975
Dr. W. J. McMillan .
Dr. A. Panteleyev —
Dr. V. A. Preto	
Dr. P. A. Christopher _
Dr. B. N. Church	
Dr. G. E. P. Eastwood .
Dr. K. E. Northcote _
Dr. D. E. Pearson	
Geologists
 626 Super
 626 Superi
 626 Super:
 626 Super
 626 Super
 630 Super
 630 Super
 630 Super
 630 Super:
 630 Super
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
or Street  387-5068
Dr. J. A. Garnett (Senior Geologist)
Special Projects: [Vacant]
Resource Data
 Room 418, Douglas Building  387-5975
Industrial Minerals: Z. D. Hora
Mineral Inventory:
E. V. Jackson	
G. L. James	
J. E. Forester.
Coal Inventory: A. Matheson
Geologists
 Room 416, Douglas Building  387-5975
 626 Superior Street  387-5068
.Room 427, Douglas Building  387-5975
.Room 421, Douglas Building  387-5975
.Room 421, Douglas Building  387-5975
.630 Superior Street  387-5068
Applied Geology and Prospectors' Assistance
Dr. E. W. Grove (Senior Geologist) Room 30, Douglas Building  387-5579
A. F. Shepherd Room 30, Douglas Building  387-5538
District Geologists
Kamloops: Gordon White 101, 2958 Airport Drive  387-7201
Nelson: George Addie 310 Ward Street  352-2211 (Local 213)
Prince George: Gerry Klein 1652 Quinn Street  562-8131
(Local 322 or 323)
847-4411 (Local 277)
Smithers: T. Schroeter
-Box 877, VOJ 2N0
 DIRECTORY
A 147
TITLES DIVISION
.Room 409, Douglas Building
387-7201
E. J. Bowles (Chief Gold Commissioner) 	
R.  Rutherford   (Deputy  Chief  Gold  Commissioner)   Room 433, Douglas Building  387-5517
D. I. Doyle (Gold Commissioner, Vancouver)  890 W. Pender Street, Vancouver.. 668-2672
E. A. Mitchell (Mining Recorder)  Room 411, Douglas Building 387-6255
A. R. Corner (Coal Administrator)  Room 411, Douglas Building  387-5687
Mineral Claims Inspectors
Vancouver: F. A. Reyes 320, 890 W. Pender Street,
Vancouver
668-2672
Kamloops: H. Turner
Quesnel: D. Lieutard ..
Smithers: R. Morgan .
.212, 2985 Airport Drive  554-1445
.401, 350 Barlow Avenue  7751-260
..Box 877, VOJ 2N0      776-278
ECONOMICS AND PLANNING DIVISION
J. S. Poyen (Director) 	
F. C. Basham (Deputy Director)
W. P. Wilson (Statistician) 	
.Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street .... 387-3787
Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street .... 387-3787
..Third Floor, 1005 Broad Street.... 387-3787
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
J. D. Lineham (Associate Deputy Minister, Chief
of Branch)
Rooms 404, 405, Douglas Building
  387-3485, 387-6256
ENGINEERING DIVISION
A. G. T. Weaver (Chief Engineer)  Room 436a, Douglas Building ._..__ 387-5993
B. T. Barber (Senior Reservoir Engineer)  Room 436, Douglas Building  387-5993
P. K. Huus (Reservoir Engineering Technician)  Room 403, Douglas Building  387-5993
W. L. Ingram (Senior Development Engineer) Room 401, Douglas Building  387-5993
M.   B.   Hamersley   (Development   Engineering
Technician)  Room 401, Douglas Building  387-5993
D. L. Johnson (District Engineer)  Box 6880, Fort St. John  758-6906
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
W. M. Young (Chief Geologist)  Room 402a, Douglas Building .  387-5993
R. Stewart (Senior Reservoir Geologist)  Room 440, Douglas Building  387-5993
J. A. Hudson (Senior Economic Geologist)  Room 442, Douglas Building  387-5993
TITLES DIVISION
R. E. Moss (Commissioner)  Room 446, Douglas Building  387-3333
W. J. Quinn (Assistant Commissioner)  Room 445, Douglas Building  387-3334
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1977
3,730-977-2561
 

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