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of the
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia, 1976
 Victoria, B.C., March 1976
Colonel the Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Secretariat of the
Environment and Land Use Committee for 1975.
Environment and Land Use Committee
 The Honourable James A. Nielsen, Chairman,
Environment and Land Use Committee,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Environment and Land Use Committee
Secretariat for 1975.
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat
D. K. O'Gorman
A. D. Crerar
J. O'Riordan
W. A. Benson
Long-term Regional Planning Studies.
Short-term Investigations	
Other Investigations	
Environmental Impact Assessments.
Long-term Studies	
Independent Project Assessments	
Short-term Projects	
Surficial Geology and Soils Interpretation Division..
Surficial Geology Section	
Soils Interpretation Section	
Land Inventory Division	
Soil-Landform Section	
Laboratory Section	
Vegetation Section	
Recreation Division	
Recreation Section	
Wildlife Section	
Water-Fish Section	
Climate and Data Services Division	
Climate Inventory Section	
Special Services Section	
Data Services Section	
Geographic Division	
Resource Geography Section	
Draughting Section	
Map Information Section	
Personnel Services	
Accounting Division	
Financial Statement
New Publications 1975-
  Report of the Director
(1)  Functions
The Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat serves as the staff arm of the Environment
and Land Use Committee of Cabinet. Under the
Environment and Land Use Act the Cabinet Committee is given power to
• ". . . establish and recommend programs
designed to foster increased public concern
and awareness of the environment   .    .    ."
• ". . . ensure that all the aspects of preservation and maintenance of the natural
environment are fully considered in the administration of land use and resource development   .   .   ."
• ". . . make recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council   .   .   ."
• ". . . study any matter pertaining to the
environment, or land use   .   .   ."
• ".   .    .   prepare reports   .   .   ."
• ".   .   .   hold public inquiries   .   .   ."
• ".   .   .   appoint technical committees   .   .   ."
Orders made by the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, upon recommendation by the Committee, may be made under this Act ". . . notwithstanding any other Act or regulation.   .   .   ."
In the exercise of such powers the Committee requires well-considered advice from its contributing departments and typically this is obtained
through interdepartmental studies using the Secretariat as the vehicle of co-ordination. The Committee has a major role in determining policy
where the mandates of individual ministries may
be leading in conflicting directions. The studies
undertaken on the direction of the Committee
through the auspices of the Secretariat are intended to help clarify the alternatives and the
consequences of the policy choices available to
the Cabinet Committee.
The focus of studies undertaken by the Secretariat
relates to problems of resource development and
use which now number among the major policy
questions facing governments everywhere. These
development decisions affect the economic base
of whole communities and regions as well as their
natural and social environments. Such questions
include hydro power, coal and major forest developments, land use conflicts on the coastal zone,
conservation proposals, and a host of others. As
these issues precipitate conflicts of interest between resource-users, departments, and departmental responsibilities represented by the Ministers, reconcilation must be found. Creation of
the Environment and Land Use Committee and its
Secretariat was an approach to achieving such reconciliation.
In dealing with resource allocation conflicts, the
concept of the Secretariat has been to bring together teams comprising individuals from various
resource departments who speak for the different
interests and attempt to clarify the conflicts, understand the impacts of proposed developments,
identify approaches for mitigation, quantify and
assess these alternatives, and, finally, present preferred solutions to the Committee for final decision. Heavy emphasis is given to identification of
opportunities for integrated resource management,
though in the final analysis, political judgment
and decision must prevail.
In co-ordinating such investigations we emphasize that the Secretariat does not intrude on the
many effectively operating bilateral arrangements
that presently exist between departments. As a
rule, most matters can be settled satisfactorily by
the departments dealing directly with each other.
It is only in those questions where problems that
cannot be handled simply and directly, where
frustration levels are high, where the problem is
complex and has numerous dimensions, where
many departmental interests are affected, or
 where there is no precedent to follow, that the
Secretariat becomes involved and then only on the
direction of the Environment and Land Use Committee. This ensures that the Ministers have
collectively identified the problem and are satisfied
that its resolution is beyond the scope of a single
department or normal bilateral arrangements.
(2)  Organization
The Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat is organized into three units, each with an
Assistant Director at the head. Two of the units
—Resource Planning Unit and Special Projects
Unit—have a small multi-disciplinary professional
staff which co-ordinate interagency investigations
into resource use conflicts. Although the general
objectives of the two units are similar, their points
of focus are different. The Special Projects Unit
concentrates on developing techniques to resolve
classes of resource use conflict such as benefit-
cost analysis and environmental impact assessments, while the Resource Planning Unit applies
these techniques on a broad regional scale to
evaluate and propose integrated resource use
The third unit of the Secretariat is the Resource
Analysis Unit, which provides the basic building
blocks for resource planning. Its mission is the
compilation of an inventory of resources, including soils, landforms, climate, and vegetation.
From this biophysical data base, it is possible to
develop a wide range of interpretations, including
resource productivity and suitability of lands to
support urban use, transportation, and other developments.
The role of the Resource Analysis Unit differs
quite distinctly from that of other departments
involved in resource inventory. The unit develops
information on the potential capability of the
land to support a wide range of resources, while
other resource departments undertake inventories
of existing resources and current use patterns.
Because the resource inventory data have widespread utility in resource planning, it has been
advantageous to house this expertise in close contact with the planning units of the Secretariat.
Through mutual interaction, both the data-
gatherers and the data-users have become more
aware of each other's needs and capabilities.
Information developed by the Resource Analysis
Unit is also directly used by line agencies, in their
planning functions, notably the preparation of
"folio plans" prepared by the B.C. Forest Service
to guide forest harvest patterns in each major
drainage in recognition of the needs and sensitivities of other departments.
In summary, the three units within the Secretariat
now operate interdependently to improve and
apply the techniques of integrated resource planning in the Province. The Resource Analysis
Unit provides the basic building blocks—biophysical data and resource capability interpretations. The Special Projects Unit has begun to
develop new analytical techniques which evaluate
various combinations of resource use, where conflicts arise to determine the best allocation that
maximizes economic and social returns to the
Province. The Resource Planning Unit in turn
applies these analytical techniques in resolving
practical problems and in working toward broad
regional resource allocation plans.
Perhaps the best way to describe the diverse roles
of the Secretariat is to illustrate some of these
roles through specific examples. Other examples
are contained in the unit descriptions which follow
this section.
(i) Short-range investigations—Complex resource
problems involving the several resource departments are perhaps the most frequent type of projects undertaken by the two planning units. These
problems are referred to the Secretariat by the
Committee for resolution within four to eight
months. A good example was the conflict over
park expansion in the Cathedral Lakes area situated in the southern Interior of British Columbia.
Controversy over best resource use in the Cathedral Lakes Park region has existed for some time.
The ELUC instructed the Secretariat to evaluate
the implications and impact of a Parks Branch
proposal to expand the park. This involved
assessment of various resource potentials and
demands, including forest capabilities, mineral
claims, grazing, hunting, and possible future
water impoundments. These diverse demands
were taken into account in arriving at the final
decision to expand the park. Park boundaries
exclude existing mining claims, but any other
resource use will be carefully regulated, such as
use of summer grazing range under existing permits and controlled hunting. General provisions
for potential future water impoundments have
been included in the plan.
(ii) Longer-range investigations—Occasionally,
the Secretariat is asked to co-ordinate more complex resource allocation projects which require
over a year to complete as they often include field
studies. Examples include the Williston Resource
Study, Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resource Study,
and the B.C. Ferry Study which is briefly described below.
The ELUC asked the Secretariat to co-ordinate a
study of future options for ferry transportation
between the Lower Mainland and Vancouver
Island. Recognizing that the future provision of
ferry services will have a direct bearing on land
use and environmental resources in these areas,
the study has involved representatives from B.C.
Ferries, various Provincial and Federal agencies,
municipal governments, and consultants. Projections for passenger and vehicle use on the ferries
have been prepared to the year 1990 and the
economic, environmental, and social implications
of various options for accommodating such demands have been evaluated. These options include facility expansion, development of new
terminals, controlling peak demands through fare
adjustment, reservation system, and improved
public transportation.
(iii) Development of Resource Management Techniques—Integrated resource management must be
made operational through administrative systems.
In British Columbia it is common to have the
same prime lands being sought by a number of
users. Where the potential for conflict is high,
rational means of facilitating integration or
achieving trade-offs must be developed.
The Secretariat identified the need to update and
expand benefit-cost techniques to assist political
decision-makers in determining the optimum allocation of resources as well as to provide a
systematic mechanism for comparing resource
development alternatives. In the past, this technique has been used sparingly without any consistent criteria, but the Secretariat has convened
a small working group of resource economists
from all major resource agencies to establish
guidelines that will be used by all departments.
The objective is to produce a working manual
which will have widespread use within Government and its Crown corporations to standardize
economic analysis of resource decisions. Although the manual is not yet complete, the guide-
 lines that are accepted are already being applied
in hydro power evaluations, agricultural drainage
developments, and the value of recreational and
commercial fisheries. Participation by economists from B.C. Hydro, Water Resources, Energy
Commission, Agriculture, and Forest Service
helps spread the work load and ensures that the
guidelines will be understood by the various participating agencies.
These economic principles have also been incorporated into the resource folio planning developed
by the Forest Service to improve integrated resource planning techniques. Although the resource folios developed by the Forest Service and
the Resource Analysis Unit of the Secretariat
greatly improve the analysis of forest harvest
impacts on the environment, they do not include
economic and social data which are often necessary to allocate resources in the best interests of
the public. The Springbrook Project in the southeast Kootenays was designed to upgrade the folio
data by introducing socio-economic evaluations
of various combinations of resource use in the
benchlands surrounding the Kootenay River.
These lands are valuable for forestry, wildlife,
and cattle grazing, but, because of conflicts in
resource use, the maximum productivity of these
three resources cannot be achieved simultaneously.
Three resource use alternatives were analysed—
forest use, rangeland use, and combination of
rangeland and forest management through selective logging. The study analysed the levels of
productivity in each resource use, singly and in
combination, and placed economic values on
these levels of production to determine total net
benefits. This same technique can be used in
other areas of the Province to establish, for
example, the level of increased costs of logging
operations to protect the environment that can be
justified through reduced losses in fish and wildlife production and recreational use.
(iv) Technical co-ordination—One of the more
important roles of the Secretariat is to act as a
single point of contact in Government for coordination of agency involvement in complex
technical issues such as resource inventory techniques and environmental impact assessments of
major projects such as power generation, transmission-lines, and coal developments. As these
major developments can involve a wide range of
Government agencies interested in the economic,
environmental, and social impacts, it is difficult
and time-consuming for private industry or
Crown corporations to contact each agency at the
right time in the impact assessment process.
The Secretariat has developed a comprehensive
set of procedures for undertaking impact assessments of major developments and has applied
these to proposed B.C. Hydro developments,
major power transmission-lines, new highways,
and coal mine developments. These procedures
follow a four-stage assessment starting with project justification, followed by broad evaluation of
a number of alternative development sites; detailed evaluation of a selected site and finally impact mitigation and compensation during and
following project implementation. The Secretariat, with the co-operation of several resource
agencies, has developed a draft set of guidelines
for hydro-power developments outlining the necessary data and information required at each stage
in the assessment process. The aim of these
guidelines is to avoid excessive and often conflicting requirements specified by various departments,
yet ensure that all departmental interests are
taken into account during the assessment process.
Terms of reference for proposed impact studies
to be undertaken by private consultants hired by
private industry and Crown cofporations are
funnelled through the Secretariat to the various
agencies for comment. Similarly, draft reports
are reviewed by interested departments and comments  integrated by  Secretariat  staff to  avoid
 duplication or conflict and returned to the proponent for further analysis. Technical advice, such
as the application of benefit-cost guidelines, is also
available to the proponent through the Secretariat.
During 1975 the Secretariat encouraged B.C.
Hydro to apply these impact assessment procedures to proposed developments at Revelstoke,
Peace River, Upper Fraser, and Kootenay Diversion. During the assessment process, the Secretariat can provide detailed progress reports to
ELUC to advise the Committee as early as possible on major conflicts and possible alternatives
for their resolution.
In response to the rapidly growing interest in coal
as an energy source draft, Guidelines for Coal
Development have also been prepared by the
Secretariat is association with other resource departments. They also represent a good example
in which the three units of the Secretariat pooled
their skills in data analysis, impact assessment
techniques, and regional planning approaches to
develop a unique document. These technical
guidelines specify a similar four-stage project
assessment process as developed for hydro-power
projects proceeding from a general prospectus to
preliminary and detailed project assessments and
concluding with a Ministerial approval stage. The
objectives of the Guidelines are to clarify the requirements of Government, and to direct the
efforts of the companies and their consultants in
addressing and resolving questions related to
natural environmental and socio-economic impacts. To facilitate this interagency project review
process, a Coal Guidelines Steering Committee
consisting of representatives from the ELUC Secretariat, the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources, and the Department of Economic Development has been established.
These Guidelines can be used to assess individual
mining proposals, as well as a number of developments in one region, when there can be a cumula
tive regional impact that requires broad Governmental assessment. Regional impact assessments
associated with coal developments are now under
way for the southeast Kootenays and recently for
the northeast region south of Chetwynd and for
the Hat Creek thermal development.
The Secretariat also convenes various technical
committees such as the Data Services Committee,
which has co-ordinated agencies using computer
data and the Land Resources Steering Committee
consisting of Federal and Provincial scientists as
well as the relevant university community. This
latter committee is working toward more useful
and integrated resource inventories throughout the
Province. The objectives of the committee are to
co-ordinate the collection of soil and land resource
information, to investigate data needs of resource
managers, and to promote research congruent with
these needs as well as encourage integrated research programs of co-operating agencies!
(v) Technical liaison with industry—The Secretariat does not only liaise with other Government
departments on resource planning, it can also
work directly with the industrial sector. A good
example of this role is the development of the
Babine Forest Products Sawmill at Burns Lake
which benefited industry, the community, and the
native Indians.
The Burns Lake native people were given an 8-
percent share in the mill through the Burns Lake
Native Development Corporation (BLNDC).
This share was funded through a Provincial loan,
which would be forgiven if the native Indians
used the opportunity to create new employment
opportunities for themselves. To assist the Indians in this task, Provincial and Federal social
assistance programs were co-ordinated to provide
a vehicle for native input to education and job
training, child care, housing, and alcohol rehabilitation programs. In addition, a logging school
was established on Ootsa Lake and in the spring
 of 1975 some 50 natives graduated, ready to
work for the mill. A training program for mill
workers was also established and by start-up in
July 1975, 90 percent of the total employment
of 200 came from the local labour force. Over
40 percent were native people, thus significantly
reducing the local unemployment population of
300 (400 prior to mill commencement). By the
end of the year, the mill was operating smoothly
and was estimated to lie in the top 10 percent of
recently developed sawmills in terms of attaining
production targets.
The opening of the mill had a variety of "spinoff" effects on the local white and native population. Municipal services had to be improved due
to increased housing starts, and a community tree-
farm licence was planned. Under the Burns Lake
Native Development Corporation, local Indian
bands became involved in logging, trucking, agricultural development, and commercial salmon
The Secretariat under the direction of ELUC was
responsible for bringing together the many services of the Provincial Government, the municipality, the native people, and local residents to
create a wide range of new opportunities for the
area. For the company there has been a smooth
start-up, high production, and productivity. For
the native peoples an opportunity to become part-
owners of a major sawmill and to get the education and training required to hold stead jobs. For
the local residents the same opportunities for
training and steady jobs and for local merchants
and businessmen, increased opportunities provided by increased incomes. For the village, the
opportunity to improve the services and to transform a stagnating community into a dynamic one.
For the Provincial Government, its timber resources are being put to work on behalf of the
people in a socially responsible way, which incidentally will generate revenues through stumpage
and taxes that did not previously exist.    For
Human Resources it means a reduction in welfare
payments and case loads and the avoidance of
social tensions that accompany rapid influxes of
Industrial development need not be a win-lose
confrontation. It is possible to use industrial
development for the benefit of all with coordinated application of a wide range of Federal
and Provincial programs.
(vi) Studies involving community consultation—
Questions of resource development and conservation are generating increasing public interest
which has led to greater public consultation during problem resolution. The Secretariat has been
involved in a number of projects where public
consultation has taken place, ranging from small
meetings to public workshops and hearings.
At the local level, for example, the Secretariat
was directed to work with citizens in the Smithers
area, after opposing views of two citizen groups
emerged on the most suitable use of the southern
Babine Mountains. The Secretariat brought snow-
mobilers and conservation interests together to
meet with officials of Provincial agencies and to
inspect contenious sites. The result is agreement
on a "winter recreation system" for the area.
This assignment is detailed more fully in the section describing the activities of the Resource Planning Unit.
On a regional scale, the Secretariat and staff of
other departments participated in northline community meetings and workshops. These were
initiated by the ELUC to give residents in northwestern communities an opportunity to hear and
discuss proposals centering on forest development
and related rail and port construction under a
proposed Federal-Provincial agreement. The response varied from community to community but
it permitted decision-makers to understand the
differing needs and attitudes of these communities.
 After the initial round of public meetings in
northwestern British Columbia, it was clear that
residents wanted more in-depth dialogue on resource development and its effects. Community
workshops were then held in nine centres with a
range of groups, including municipal councils,
school boards, labour unions, teachers' associations, and environmental groups. The Secretariat
also organized a number of public hearings held
by Environment and Land Use Committee.
These included hearings on land use in Victoria's
Inner Harbour, agricultural land reserves in Richmond, and forest development in the Tsitika-
Schoen drainage in northern Vancouver Island.
(vii) Independent technical advice—In several
instances, the ELUC, when faced with complex
policy questions, has received divergent technical
advice from different sources making decisionmaking difficult especially if the financial consequences of error are high. The Secretariat,
which has professional expertise in a wide range
of disciplines—economics, biology, forestry, social and community development issues, land use
planning, etc.—has been asked to provide an
independent assessment in such instances.
One example of such analysis was an examination
of future demands for electrical energy in the
Province over the next 15 years. B.C. Hydro
prepared forecasts ranging between 7 and 10 percent annual growth with a "best estimate" of 8.6
percent growth. The B.C. Energy Commission
produced a lower range of forecasts, ranging
between 5 and 8 percent, with a "best estimate"
of 7 percent growth. Both projections used
different methods for projecting population and
economic development in the Province, and these
were compared by Secretariat staff economists
with input from the Department of Economic
Development. In the space of approximately six
weeks, all the data were carefully examined and
a comprehensive critique of both reports summarized for ELUC. The analysis identified weak
nesses in the techniques of economic projections
and initiated discussions between Economic Development, B.C. Hydro, and the Energy Commission to standardize procedures in future forecasts.
These examples provide a framework to illustrate
the diversity of roles played by the Secretariat
while undertaking its unique function within Government. The following sections of this report fill
in this framework with descriptions of other projects undertaken by the three units.
A.D. Crerar
 Resource Planning Unit
The main focus of the Resource Planning Unit
is on the co-ordination and conduct of integrated
resource development management studies on a
regional basis assigned by ELUC. More specifically the roles performed include
• Co-ordinating integrated regional studies involving evaluation of resource potentials,
social requirements, and economic factors.
The object of such analyses is to ensure that
development strives for a balance which is
environmentally sound, economically feasible, and publicly acceptable.
• Conducting planning evaluations of specific
resource-management issues and formulating
action-oriented alternatives for ELUC consideration and decision.
These roles require considerable interdepartmental   and   interdisciplinary   consultation,   de
signed typically on a team basis, to sharpen
understanding, clarify options, and find avenues
of resolution. Because divergent views on optimum resource allocation or management often
exist, considerable emphasis is placed on evaluation of alternatives by interagency study teams.
This approach, while perhaps slower than unilateral decision-making, generates a more comprehensive assessment of the issues.
As noted in the Director's report the roles of the
Resource Planning Unit also require it to coordinate, on behalf of ELUC, various forums for
public consultation.
An appreciation of the scope of the work of the
unit can be obtained from the following resume
of its diverse assignments in 1975.
Long-term Regional
Planning Studies
Regional studies entail long-term investigations
into the particular development problems and
prospects of particular areas.
(i) Terrace-Hazelton Region—The key investigation in regional resource planning initiated by
ELUC in 1975 was the Terrace-Hazelton Regional Forest Resources Study. The study was
designed to develop a comprehensive appreciation
of the regional economy, its resource potentials,
and multi-resource management requirements in
a regional context. Initiated in response to contradictory assessments of the region's sustained
timber supply, the study was geared to improving
the information necessary for future decisionmaking.
The study summarized the resource potentials in
the Nass and Skeena basins (excluding the Bulk-
ley and Babine drainages), an area of 12 million
acres. Known information was assembled and
reconnaissance inventories to fill obvious data
gaps were undertaken. These resource assessments were achieved through the co-operation of
the Forest Service, Fish and Wildlife Branch,
Mines Department, Parks Branch, Lands Service,
Water Resources Service, Federal Fisheries Service, Highways Department, and Provincial Secretary's Department as well as the Inventory Unit
of the Resource Analysis Unit.
The renewable resource base was assessed by
using the biophysical concept in which the inher-
 ent capabilities of the region's resources are
evaluated based on terrain analysis, soils, climate,
and vegetation. These data were integrated into
a functional classification known as a "Land Use
Planning Framework." To facilitate analysis, the
study area was divided into 15 resource management areas according to subdrainages of the
Skeena and Nass Valleys. This approach assisted
understanding of resource interactions, the relative and varying significance of individual resources throughout the study area, and in drafting
a more sensitive and regional approach to resource management objectives. Considerable
effort was given to evaluating the timber resource
by isolating the varying commercial values and
defining the factors which promote (or limit)
profitable logging as a basis for making judgments
on the region's long-term economic timber supply.
This led to the definition of a timber-management
concept based on "operability," which defines the
factors contributing to profitable logging and
applies them "to the ground" to outline areas with
high, medium, and low operability. Logging
technology and transport assumptions are an
integral aspect of this concept as are financial
and physical feasibility criteria inherent in different terrain and timber types.
This concept represents a new approach to assessing available timber resources and with the help
of a skilled consultant was well advanced at the
end of the year. Workshops have been held with
representatives of the B.C. Forest Service, local
logging companies (and contractors), local equipment companies, and financial institutions to
refine the concept and improve mutual understanding of its practical application.
/           V     ALPINE
S       ROCK        \
.    SLOPE
SOIL        *
S.            VALLEY
>.        BOTTOM
 The operability concept and the biophysical classification system should be useful in assessing resource opportunities and limitations elsewhere in
British Columbia. Both contribute to a better
definition of the sustaining resource base. Thus,
the biophysical potentials of the timber base can be
integrated to economic potentials under assumed
(cyclical) market conditions to develop more
realistic assessments of the capability of the timber resource to sustain economic forest production.
Consultation in the course of study indicated that
administrative as well as physical factors have a
major bearing on resource prospects. Administrative (institutional) factors ranging from international markets, the industrial structure, to
regulatory policies and their regional impact were
included as appropriate to assist in the goal of
assessing regional timber resource potentials. At
the end of 1975, this study was well advanced
with conclusions available for ELUC consideration midway in the 1976 fiscal year.
(ii) Spatsizi Plateau—Another of the unit's major
assignments was related to a proposal to create
a combination wilderness conservancy and ecological reserve in the Spatsizi Plateau of northwestern British Columbia. A major focus of this
exercise was to achieve consensus on appropriate
boundaries and to identify means of handling
"resource conflicts" within these boundaries. An
interdepartmental task group was assembled to
evaluate this proposal and make recommendations on the basis of resource inventories. Results of these inventories, undertaken in the 1974
and 1975 field seasons, indicated that
• Spatsizi possessed outstanding wildlife values
and is a scenic alpine plateau with high
recreation values;
• timber and mineral values were low.
Successive study sessions led to development of
park boundary proposals which minimized  ad
verse effects on resource development potentials
while protecting key wildlife and recreation
values. The task group recommended creation of
Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Park and Gladys
Lake Ecological Reserve. It further recommended that both consumptive and nonconsump-
tive wildlife values be planned for, through a
process incorporating public participation. Acceptance of the task group's recommendation was
announced at the 27th Annual Meeting of the
Ecological Reserves Committee in November
(iii) Coal development proposals in the Southeast Kootenays—Rising demand and prices were
a major factor behind a renewed interest in extraction of coking and thermal coal for international and domestic markets respectively. Preparation of the draft Guidelines for Coal Development helped ensure a more comprehensive
evaluation of individual coal developments by the
mining companies, but there was a need to assess
the cumulative impact of a number of coal development proposals on the region as a whole.
Recognizing these potential regional development
implications, the ELUC instructed the Secretariat
to co-ordinate a regional planning investigation
in concert with other Provincial agencies. Much
of the impetus came from concerns of regional
district and municipal officials and citizens who
were anxious that any coal development proceed
in a planned manner.
The main thrust of this investigation has been the
development of biophysical mapping to assess
resources capabilities in the region and examination of community development opportunities in
the area to accommodate potential population
increases. A number of coal companies had prepared a prospectus of their developments, thus
initiating the environmental  and  social  impact
 review process as outlined in the Guidelines for
Coal Development (see Director's Report, pages
12 and 13).
(iv) Resource Management Regions—Seven Resource Management Regions were established in
1974 to co-ordinate the regional operations of
the resource departments represented on the
ELUC. During 1975, individual departments
continued to reorganize their staffing and administrative boundaries to fit into this concept. To
facilitate the implementation of these regional
groups, the Secretariat co-ordinated the preparation of boundary descriptions through large-scale
mapping and detailed documentation of earlier
interagency boundary decisions.
In the Skeena Resource Management Region, the
unit established an office, staffed with one individual to
• function in a supporting role to the Resource
Management Committee;
• co-ordinate integrated resource management
assignments in the region.
This decentralized approach has in the Secretariat's judgment proven successful, and has
contributed to the depth of interdepartmental investigations undertaken and the quality of the
recommendations to ELUC. Eventually it is
hoped that a small staff can be placed in each of
the seven Resource Management Regions.
A variety of projects, shorter in duration or sub-
regional in scale, were also undertaken. Several
of these projects were developed in the Skeena
(i) Smithers Winter Recreation Study—Conflicts
between snowmobiles, skiers, and conservationists
have developed over use of winter recreation
areas in the Smithers area. In response, the
Secretariat and Fish and Wildlife Branch (in
Skeena) co-sponsored a study to determine the
biological effects of snowmobiling in various alpine areas. Simultaneously, a public participation
program involving concerned groups was initiated.
Citizen representatives plus personnel of Parks
and Fish and Wildlife Branches worked to resolve
differences of view, facilitated by the Secretariat.
As a result, a winter recreation area "system" has
been devised enabling each type of winter recre-
ationalist to enjoy their particular activities without infringing on the opportunities of others or
creating environmental damage.
(ii) Babine Integrated Management Unit—Work
progressed in the detailed development of a new
form of multi-resource administration called the
"Integrated Management Unit" (IMU), using the
Babine Mountain area near Smithers as a pilot
project. The IMU is a technique designed to
manage multiple resource values in areas where
the prevailing resource theme is one of preservation (be it of vegetation, wildlife, landscape, etc.)
and no single resource use or value is dominant.
Planning for integrated resource use is undertaken
by an interagency committee which identifies and
arrives at consensus for appropriate zoning of
resource values and use policies. Management
zone boundaries arrived at by consensus are
amenable to change as integrated management
considerations evolve over time. This approach
to complex and sensitive resource areas is not a
panacea yet it does provide a method of in-depth
integrated management whereby several agencies
jointly set and evolve policies for managing areas
having a range of resource values. It promises to
provide a suitably flexible type of management for
complicated resource areas such as the Babine
(iii) Kispiox Valley Study—Recommendations
by residents of the Kispiox Valley that the upper
region of the Kispiox watershed should be set
aside as a wilderness area led eventually to the
development of a Kispiox Valley Citizens Advisory Resource group. Initial resource reconnaissance of the upper Kispiox completed in 1974
had shown that although the area did not have
sufficiently unique values to qualify it for proposed wilderness status, several values seemed
outstanding. More comprehensive inventories
carried out in the area during 1975 affirmed that
the upper Kispiox possesses
• high fisheries values (steelhead, salmon),
• high wildlife values (grizzly bear),
• high watershed regulating values,
• moderate wildland recreation values,
• moderate timber values,
• low mineral values.
Joint discussion between the appropriate agencies
and local citizens' groups concluded that these
values could all be managed properly (perhaps as
an IMU, or under the Forest Service "Portfolio
System") in an integrated fashion, if suitable
advance planning was undertaken. At the end of
1975, discussion between resource agencies and
citizens to engage in such planning was continuing.
(iv) Adams River—The Adams River, located
near Shuswap Lake, contains some of British
Columbia's most valuable spawning-grounds for
Pacific salmon. In mid-1975, following a report
by Parks Branch, the ELUC placed a reserve
against further land development in this critical
stream corridor pending further investigation into
resource protection and management requirements. This work was well under way as of the
end of 1975.
(v) Stream corridor protection — The Adams
River was one of several cases stimulating ELUC
to instruct the Secretariat to undertake a review
of legislation and techniques used in other jurisdictions for securing public interests in stream
corridors. This investigation, substantially aided
by the consulting efforts of the West Coast Environmental Law Centre, was also well under way
at the end of 1975. The objective was to produce
an interim report outlining the major issues and
jurisdictional controls for submission to the
ELUC in early 1976.
(vi) Bonaparte-Tranquille Plateau—The Bona-
parte-Tranquille Plateau study was initiated in
1974 after citizen interest groups in the Kamloops
area requested an integrated resource study to
resolve conflicts between forestry, wildland recreation, wildlife management, and watershed protection.
The study was undertaken in 1975 by the
Thompson - Okanagan Resource Management
Committee under the leadership of the Forest
Service. ELUC placed the core of the study area
under a development moratorium pending completion of the study and acceptance of recommendations of integrated resource management
by the ELUC. A draft report was completed in
late 1975 and would be reviewed by other
agencies pending submission to ELUC in 1976.
(i) Kitwanga-Meziadin Highway environmental
and social impact assessment—The Department
of Highways, Design and Surveys Branch, requested the Secretariat and the Environmental
Services Unit of the Lands Service to assist in the
preparation of terms of reference for and management of a consultant project to examine the
environmental, social, and economic impacts of
the proposed upgrading and realignment of the
public and forest industrial road linking Kitwanga
with Meziadin Lake.
As a general route alignment had already been
selected by Highways prior to the study, the focus
of the assessment was thus to ensure this route
 did not adversely affect valuable aquatic and terrestrial habitats, land use potentials, or settlements
in the area. The consultants were instructed to
discuss the proposed upgrading of access through
the area with local residents and determine their
view of advantages and disadvantages this would
bring to area residents. These included such factors as increased accessibility to medical services
as well as job opportunities on one hand and
pressure from increased "outside" use of locally
used resources on the other.
This was the first major impact assessment of a
major highway undertaken by the Department of
Highways. As such it has set a precedent for
future studies and has provided a model from
which much has been learned regarding impact
assessment procedures for highways and other
linear developments such as railways, transmission lines, and pipelines.
The Kitwanga study report—consisting of four
volumes—was completed in December 1975. It
will undergo a lengthy review process in view of
the need to ensure that all potential impacts are
thoroughly understood by all agencies so that
appropriate steps can be taken to avoid, mitigate,
or compensate for these.
The study also included public participation.
Draft copies of the study were made available to
local residents and their comments were fully
used in preparing the final report and recommendations.
(ii) Quality of life in resource communities—
Most of the major resource developments in
British Columbia over the past 15 years have led
to the development of "instant towns" to accommodate industry and service workers and their
families. Many residents of these communities
have and some continue to experience what they
consider serious problems affecting their quality
of life.   Complaints range from concern about the
levels of local goods and services to the availability and cost of housing, municipal tax levels,
company involvement in community life, etc.
As part of its responsibility for integrated resource
planning and project impact assessment, the
Secretariat has been carefully examining the
nature and cause of problems associated with
resource communities in an endeavour to determine what can be done to improve conditions for
the residents of existing and future resource
In early 1974 the Secretariat and the Federal
Government's Ministry of State for Urban Affairs
collaborated on a study to examine quality of life
issues and solutions to these. A Canada-wide
study was funded by the Ministry in 1974 and
1975, resulting in a Ministry/Information Canada
Publication Quality of Life in Resource Communities, which offers many useful insights and
suggestions. A sequel to this study is planned for
1976 to examine the role of Government (all
three levels) and industry in resource community
development planning, financing, and administration. This study will again take a national perspective and should provide some direction for
the Provincial Government for application in
future resource community developments in
British Columbia.
Closer to home, the Secretariat and the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources have
jointly sponsored a study of the relationships between job and community dissatisfaction in the
mining industry. Residents of six communities
were surveyed in 1975 by summer students under
direction of a consultant from Simon Fraser
University. The results provided some useful
direction on measures that can be used by Government and industry to reduce labour turnover
in the mining industry.
hi / ft
Special Projects Unit
The role of the Special Projects Unit is similar to
that of the Resource Planning Unit, though the
focus of the unit's activities has been centred on
continued improvement of integrated resource
planning procedures. In the first year of operation, the unit initiated the development of project
evaluation methods such as environmental impact
assessment and benefit-cost analysis. This year,
the unit has consolidated these initial steps through
completion of guidelines for environmental assessment of hydro projects and advancement of the
benefit-cost guidelines. These procedures have
been applied to a number of projects, including
new coal developments with the drafting of Coal
Development Guidelines.
This report highlights the unit's activities in a number of different projects, each of which fits into the
range of roles outlined in the Director's report.
The Special Projects Unit is the main point of
contact within the Provincial Government for
Crown agencies and private industry undertaking
environmental impact assessments of proposed
developments. For most major projects, a four-
stage review process has been established as
described in the Director's report and has been
applied to a number of proposed hydro projects,
transmission lines, pipelines, rail and road developments, and major industrial developments
such as oil refineries (see Table 1).  With a few
exceptions, these impact assessments have been
undertaken by consultants hired by the developing agency and the unit has been active in liaising
with these consultants to ensure the study terms
of reference are broad enough to encompass the
concerns of all Provincial agencies.
At the end of the year, as the various regional
resource management committees were established, arrangements were made to include the
appropriate committees in the review process.
 Table 1—Impact Assessment Reviewed by the Secretariat and Other
Provincial Agencies in 1975
Agency Proposed Development
Energy Developments
B.C. Hydro Vancouver Island Thermal Power Station Site Study.
B.C. Hydro Hat Creek Thermal Power Station.
B.C. Hydro Sites C and E, Peace River.
B.C. Hydro Revelstoke-Downie, Columbia River.
B.C. Hydro Kootenay Diversion.
B.C. Petroleum Corporation    Oil Refinery, Fraser Valley, Merritt.
Mohawk Oil Refinery, Fraser Valley.
Gas Pipelines
Alberta Natural Crowsnest Pass-Kingsgate Pipeline.
Canadian Arctic Gas Crowsnest Pass to Kingsgate Pipeline.
Westcoast Transmission Territories Mainline Extension to Fort Nelson.
Transmission Lines
B.C. Hydro Nicola-Cranbrook 500-kv line.
B.C. Hydro G.M. Shrum to Prince George 500-kv line.
B.C. Hydro Pike Lake-Campbell River kv line.
B.C. Hydro Canal Flats to Golden 230-kv line.
B.C. Ferries Lower Mainland to Vancouver Island Routes.
CN Rail Meziadin Project.
CN Rail Clinton-Ashcroft Connection.
CP Rail Tapen-Notch Hill Double Tracking.
B.C. Department of Highways Kitwanga-Meziadin Highway.
B.C. Department of Highways.Fort Nelson to Fort Simpson (NWT) Highway.
B.C. Forest Service Houston-Ootsa Road.
(i) Williston Reservoir Study—The ELUC and
B.C. Hydro jointly commissioned a study of
resource potentials in and around Williston
Reservoir in 1974. A multi-agency study team
chaired by the Special Projects Unit presented an
interim report on the first year's studies to ELUC
in April. This report indicated that the reservoir
had significant populations of sport fish and lake
white fish (potentially a commercial fish), but
that the sampling of water quality and biological
productivity in the reservoir was too sparse to
develop any conclusive results. Accordingly,
ELUC and B.C. Hydro agreed to extend the
fishery and limnology programs as well as the
wildlife studies for another year to complete more
detailed sampling studies.
A complete biophysical inventory of the lands
bordering the reservoir has been undertaken and
a wide range of resource capabilities derived from
this data base. This information will aid the
Forest Service to prepare resource folios for
timber harvesting, the Lands Branch to design
rural subdivisions, and the Fish and Wildlife
Branch to develop a wildlife management program for the area. The final report is to be
completed in 1976.
(ii) Cowichan Bay Study—The Special Projects
Unit co-ordinated an inter-agency study of the
impacts of various levels of development in
Cowichan Bay in 1974. The ELUC decided to
maintain the existing level of development in the
estuary but follow-up studies were undertaken
during 1975 to ensure that the reconstruction of
an existing sawmill near the estuary met strict
environmental standards, and to determine the
benefits and disbenefits on initiating a comprehensive flood control program for the Cowichan
(iii) Salmon Enhancement Program—The Federal Government has proposed a large-scale
salmonid enhancement program for the west coast
fishery which, at full scale, could increase the
current populations of Pacific salmon and ana-
dromous sea trout (cutthroat, steelhead, and Dolly
Varden) to historical levels. Before launching a
full-scale enhancement program, however, the
Federal Government has proposed a two-year
planning phase to improve bioengineering understanding of enhancement techniques, and to
undertake some socio-economic studies.
The Provincial Government has a strong interest
in the program for several reasons:
• Whatever net benefits the program generates
will potentially accrue largely to residents of
the Province of British Columbia.
• Implementation of any particular salmonid
enhancement project may well require re-
channelling or curtailment of other resource
uses, e.g., forestry, water resource maintenance and improvement, land development,
hydro, and estuary protection over which the
Provincial Government has direct responsibility..
The involvement of the Special Projects Unit has
to date consisted largely of assistance to the
Fisheries and Marine Service in the establishment
of a socio-economic evaluation framework to be
applied to projects and to the entire program. In
particular, the focus has been to identify the
elements of economic analysis which are critical
to the Province, and to ensure that the analysis is
completed to a standard that is satisfactory to the
(i) Pend-d'Oreille Study—In April 1975 the
Water Comptroller held a public hearing under
the Water Act to consider the location of an
access road along the Pend-d'Oreille River to
haul gravel from the Columbia to B.C. Hydro's
hydro-electric project on the Pend-d'Oreille River.
Three alternative routes were suggested, one
route along the south side of Pend-d'Oreille and
two routes along the north side. Following the
hearing, the Water Comptroller selected a north
side route near the river and also asked B.C.
Hydro to pay the Fish and Wildlife Branch $1.8
million in compensation for losses of wildlife
This decision was appealed and the Secretariat
was asked to review the economic, biological, technical, and social data involved in route selection
analysis. Following this review, the original
decision was upheld by a Cabinet committee acting as an appeal tribunal, but the Secretariat was
asked to examine the amount and type of financial
settlement B.C. Hydro must pay the Fish and
Wildlife Branch to compensate for lost deer
The Fish and Wildlife Branch was preparing a
wildlife and range management plan for the Pend-
d'Oreille valley involving the purchase of key
wildlife habitat at the end of the year and recommendations to ELUC are expected in the spring
of 1976.
(ii) Agricultural Land Reserves (ALR)—The
ELUC, as Cabinet Committee responsible for
reviewing Agricultural Land Reserve Proposals
of the Land Commission, requested the Secretariat to co-ordinate an interdepartmental review
of such proposals. In 1975, Agricultural Reserve
Plans for the five regional districts were approved
by ELUC, thus completing the designation of
ALR's for all 28 regional districts in the Province.
 The Special Projects Unit also acted as a liaison
between the Land Commission and the Environment and Land Use Committee in the review of
ALR appeals and the generation of new data to
refine some ALR boundaries. Some of the roles
played by the Secretariat included
• the Secretariat's Resource Analysis Unit
assembled folios involving baseline and interpretative data on soils, climate, terrain,
aquatic, and cultural systems for use by the
Land Commission in planning specific areas
around Sardis and Fort Langley;
• appeals to the Environment and Land Use
Committee under section 9 (7) of the Land
Commission Act were processed by the
Special Projects Unit of the Secretariat;
• certain aspects of block appeals from municipalities and regional districts to Cabinet
were further researched by the Secretariat at
the request of the ELUC;
• some concerns raised by the public regarding
Agricultural Land Reserves were investigated
by the Secretariat, and in the case of the
riverside properties in Richmond, a public
hearing was held and the results summarized
for ELUC by the Secretariat.
Perhaps the most significant aspect of the Secretariat involvement in ALR's was the initiating of
a task force in late 1975 to consider problems
related to Agricultural Land Reserves in the areas
of resource management (e.g., determining resource use priorities in ALR's) and urban fringe
pressures, with a view to developing processes for
resolving these problems.
(iii) Sewage disposal—The Secretariat, in conjunction with representatives from other departments, carried out a review of the administration
of sewage disposal in unorganized areas of the
Province and recommended a number of changes
to the Committee. As a result, some improvements in procedures have been established and
the sewage disposal regulations have been
The Special Projects Unit also directed a number
of short-term project investigations, some of
which continued into 1976 for presentation to
the ELUC.
(i) Annacis Island Sewage Treatment Plant Study
—In April 1975 a Cabinet Committee instructed
the Secretariat lo convene a committee to prepare
a time schedule for implementation of secondary
treatment of effluent discharged from the Annacis
Island Sewage Treatment Plant. This issue arose
from an appeal by the Greater Vancouver
Regional District against the need for secondary
treatment because of the high dilution capacity of
the Fraser River.
The Secretariat pulled together a group of experts
from the Federal, Provincial, and regional levels
of Government and the University of British
Columbia. This group has agreed that discharge
of nutrients, biodegradable chemicals, and suspended solids from Annacis does not cause any
significant environmental problems at present, but
that the main pollution problem is the release of
toxic materials such as trace metals, detergents,
and ammonia. The Committee has examined the
costs and effectiveness of both source controls
and two secondary treatment alternatives, activated sludge and physical-chemical treatment for
controlling the discharge of toxic materials, and
expects to report back to Cabinet in the spring
of 1976.
(ii) Arrow Lakes—The Secretariat has been involved in two inter-related studies on the Arrow
Reservoir. The first involves good land use planning on the lands B.C. Hydro purchased prior to
reservoir development in 1964. Over the next
two years, approximately 175 former landowners
will be given the opportunity to resettle on some
of these lands, but efforts are being made to
ensure that this resettlement fits into an over-all
land use plan for the reservoir. Existing information on wildlife, recreational,  agricultural,  and
urban land capability has been assessed and is
being used in the preparation of a land use plan.
Resettlement plans for the most of the reservoir,
with the exception of the southeast corner, have
been approved in principle.
A second and related study, chaired by the Water
Resources Service but involving the Secretariat,
Fish and Wildlife Branch, and Parks Branch, has
been initiated to determine, if possible, whether
the present regulation of the Arrow Reservoir can
be modified for improved recreational, fishery,
and land management. Studies have indicated
that the present operation cannot be changed
significantly without large costs due to lost power
potential at Mica, though some improvement in
summer lake levels could be possible. Management plans.for recreational lands and sport fishery
are now being prepared by the Department of
Recreation and Travel Industry, accounting for
expected reservoir fluctuations.
(iii) Serpentine-Nicomekl Drainage Study —
Approximately 1,200 acres of the Serpentine-
Nicomekl lowlands subject to poor drainage due
to their low elevation (below high-tide levels)
and increasing urban development on the surrounding uplands with consequent more rapid
run-off. This problem has been examined for a
number of years under the Federal-Provincial
Fraser River Flood Control Program, but failed
to qualify for funding because total costs of drainage and dyking exceeded benefits.
The Secretariat was requested by the ELUC to
resolve the drainage problem by convening a
group of experts from Water Resources, Agriculture, Land Commission, and Fish and Wildlife.
This group has examined a smaller scale proposal
which would improve drainage in part of the
floodplain where agricultural benefits can be
quickly realized, develop some of the very poorly
drained areas for wildlife management, and upgrade the dykes to safety standards.   The eco-
 nomic benefits of this scheme are now being
evaluated by the Department of Agriculture and
the Fish and Wildlife Branch. A report on this
design should be presented to ELUC early in
(iv) Coastal Zone Studies—The Special Projects
Unit has been involved in developing a rational
approach to shoreline management using the
principles of integrated resource management developed for other regions of the Province. Several
coastal areas subject to development pressures
have been studied by the Unit. As part of the
Cowichan Bay Study, alternative port sites on the
east coast of Vancouver Island were examined to
seek possible ports whose development would
create less environmental problems. The study
indicated that sites in the vicinity of Harmac,
near Nanaimo, were best suited for forest products
shipping. The Nanaimo Harbour Commission
has proposed a new port at Duke Point, and following review of this site by the Secretariat,
ELUC agreed to provide some Provincial funding
to support its development.
The study of Comox Harbour water quality was
completed by the Pollution Control Branch and
reviewed by the Secretariat in May of this year.
Implementation of the recommendations in the
study was delegated to the Vancouver Island Resource Management Committee. The recommendations included the undertaking of detailed monitoring of water quality in tributary streams and in
the harbour to determine more accurately the
nature and degree of coliform contamination.
In Howe Sound, at Britannia Beach, residential
development proposals have been studied with
regard to slopes, soil stability, flooding hazards,
and the need to preserve future options for other
 r>%/ y /
Resource Analysis Unit
The Resource Analysis Unit, formerly known as
the B.C. Land Inventory, is a multi-disciplinary
group of highly trained professionals who undertake inventories and interpretations of the biophysical resource base. The Unit contains surficial geologists, hydrologists, climatologists,
fisheries biologists, pedologists, wildlife biologists,
as well as resource geographers. In addition to
developing resource capability maps, the Unit also
undertakes biophysical analysis of environmental
impacts associated with major development projects.
Although the Unit was established as part of the
ELUC Secretariat in January 1974, the transfer
of soils personnel from the B.C. Department of
Agriculture is still not complete. Since the soil
survey assesses the land base common to all resources, it is much more effective in the Secretariat
where it serves all resource departments rather
than in a single department.
Assistant Director
Inventory Co-ordinator
 The four basic inventory functions in the Resource Analysis Unit are as follows:
(1) Soils/ Landforms.
(2) Surficial Geology/terrain analysis.
(3) Vegetation.
(4) Climate.
A laboratory in Kelowna serves the first three
inventory groups, while an instrument/electronic
laboratory is available in Climatology. These
groups serve all resource departments and are
most effectively housed in a neutral agency.
In addition to the foregoing, there are some secondary inventories undertaken by the Unit. These
(1) Water/fish.
(2) Recreation.
(3) Wildlife.
(4) Present Land Use.
The first three are developing methodologies for
line departments and are modifying the classification of the basic inventories so that they can be
more useful for the respective line departments.
These inventory groups will phase out of resource
inventories as soon as possible in favour of line
departments and instead will perform a liaison
and implementation role between basic inventories and user departments. In addition, they
are available as part of the whole Resource Analysis Unit for special project studies, impact assessments, continual upgrading of basic inventories,
and interpretations to evaluate trade-offs among
resource uses.
Characteristically, the members of the Resource
Analysis Unit are a closely integrated (know each
other's specialties) group of resource professionals
with no management or line department bias.
For example, members of the soils group in addition to being pedologists  are  also  either pro
fessional agrologists or professional foresters.
Similar dual qualifications are held by most other
members of the staff.
Resource Analysis field groups generate a great
deal of data, some of which are displayed on
maps, and some stored in files or in computers
with or without prior computer manipulation
(depending on use and kind of data). To handle
this material, the Unit has a drafting and data
processing staff.
The draughting staff, like all staff members, are
well integrated into the unit. They undertake occasional field work as members of field crews, thus
enabling them to appreciate the nature of the
material they will be later plotting. The draughting group is backed by a small group of professional geographers which supplies expertise in
cartography and photogrammetry and undertakes
geographical analyses from a social/demographic
or a physical/distributional standpoint. The geographers work very closely with other Units of the
Secretariat and in liaison/co-ordinative roles with
other departments.
The data handling group also has a dual role. It
handles, banks, and produces data from the Unit's
collections. In addition, it provides systems
analyses and data flow analyses both for the Secretariat and for other resource departments via
liaison committees and research arrangements.
As computing capability (hardware and software)
can save time and make data for decision-making
more readily available, these facilities have the
potential to achieve cost savings.
The Unit chairs the Data Users Committee, which
ensures efficient use of data and computer programs for resource inventories by all Provincial
agencies. The main aim of the committee is to
co-ordinate the requirements of the user to avoid
waste or duplication of effort.
 Surficial Geology
and Soils Interpretation
The primary function of the Surficial Geology and
Soils Interpretation Division is to provide the physical data base for resource inventory and interpretations from these base data to aid resource
management decision-making. This function is
served by air photo interpretation and field programs, mapping landforms and materials, observing the processes acting upon them, recording
stratigraphic information, and collecting materials
samples for laboratory testing. These programs
form a part of the multi-disciplinary resource data
gathering function of the Resource Analysis Unit,
and require extensive co-operative effort in all resource areas.
A secondary, and important, function of the Division is to deal with numerous, wide-ranging requests for geological and soils information in
specific problem areas such as slope stability,
natural hazards, timber harvesting lay-outs, agricultural land reserves, urban suitability, forest
productivity, and environmental impact assessment.
This section involves three types of projects:
1. The collection of basic surficial geology data
(inventory). This is carried out chiefly by means
of air photo interpretation and field observations,
backed up by limited laboratory analysis. The
information is presented as maps (at scale of
1:125,000) and accompanying reports.
2. Provision of surficial geology maps to other
Resource Analysis Unit divisions and to other
Provincial and Federal Government departments.
These data are used as a basis for inventory mapping of such things as vegetation and wildlife
whose distributions are partially controlled by the
nature of the surficial materials.
3. Provision of information and advice at the request of public and private external agencies that
are involved with resource development, industrial
and urban siting or expansion, and construction
of transportation routes.
The terrain classification system that has been
used as the basic mode of data collection (surficial
geology and landform mapping) for the past several years was originally developed by R. J. Fulton
of the Federal Geological Survey. This scheme
is currently under study by members of the Division with the aim of producing a comprehensive,
self-explanatory guide to this mode of mapping
and the collection of related additional data. Discussions and workshops were held with other
groups who will utilize the information gathered
by this means (including other Resource Analysis
Unit divisions, B.C. Department of Agriculture,
Agriculture Canada, Soil Research Institute, the
University of British Columbia, and representatives of the logging industry).
1. The Northwest British Columbia Project was
initiated in May 1975. It involves terrain mapping (surficial geology and landforms) of the
Stewart (104ASE/SW) map area. This information will be used as a guide to management and
conservation during future resource development
in the area.
2. The Kluskus Project commenced in March
1975. Surficial geology and landforms, soils, and
vegetation are being mapped for the Burns Lake
(93F SW) map area. The information gathered
will be used as base data for a resource management study.
3. Since May 1975, surficial geology, landforms,
and soils mapping has been undertaken in cooperation with other Resource Analysis Unit staff
in the East Kootenay region in map areas 82C
(Fernie) and 82J (Kananaskis Lakes) (southern
 half). In general, the information will be used
for resource planning and management. In particular, these data will be used by the B.C. Forest
Service in the East Kootenay area in relation to
the control of slope stability and erosion during
logging operations, and in the East Kootenay coal
areas as an aid in planning the layout and reclamation of mine sites and their access routes (see Resource Planning Unit Description).
4. Terrain maps and report for Seymour Arm
(82M, west half) map area have been completed.
5. Terrain maps for southern Vancouver Island
(92C) have been completed.
6. Terrain mapping with particular reference to
slope stability is under way for Graham Island,
Queen Charlottes (parts of 103K and 103F).
1. Terrain mapping and slope stability rating of
Carney River drainage basin (Lardeau PSYU)
was undertaken in order to provide base data for
a park proposal. This is a co-operative project
with B.C. Department of Agriculture personnel
who are administratively attached to the Resource
Analysis Unit.
2. Mapping and analysis of geomorphic processes
affecting slopes and their significance to future
resource development is ongoing in the Skeena
Mountains, northern British Columbia (104H).
This is also a co-operative project with B.C. Department of Agriculture personnel.
3. In conjunction with Canada Department of
Agriculture, alpine soils, vegetation, and surficial
geology were studied in the Omineca and southern
Cariboo Mountains (93N).
4. Educational programs concerned with the
teaching of surficial geology and terrain mapping
were offered to various levels of government and
private industry.
The functions of the Soils Interpretation Section
are many and varied but generally relate to the
following four functions:
1. To undertake and participate in soil and land-
form inventory programs with inventory personnel
from the Land Inventory Division.
2. To undertake special projects related to interpretations of physical data for land use planning
as requested by various Government agencies and
other sections of the Environment and Land Use
Committee Secretariat.
3. To originate and co-operate in research projects related to interpretations of land-based information required for the many facets of land
use planning.
4. To provide educational seminars and workshops directed toward instructing various users
of land-based information in the methodologies
employed in collecting the data and the techniques
used to interpret these data.
Some of the more important projects undertaken
by the Section are listed below:
1. In co-operation with the Land Inventory Division, personnel were involved in soil and landform
inventory projects in the following three localities:
(i) East Kootenays.
(ii) Northwest British Columbia (103P/1  to
4; 1030/1).
(iii)  Gulf Islands (92G/4; 92F/8, 9 part).
These projects are presently ongoing and will result in maps portraying the various surficial deposits and soil types occurring in these landscapes.
2. In conjunction with the inventory program in
northwest British Columbia, an overview of forest
productivity was mapped as input into the
Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources Study (see
Resource Planning Unit Description).
 3. Various smaller inventory and interpretation
projects were undertaken and completed.
(i) An assessment of the proposed plan for
development of the Britannia Beach area
by Anaconda Britannia Mines.
(ii) Investigation of the surficial materials and
soil characteristics of the proposed Stave
Lake Provincial Park with interpretations
directed mainly toward camp-site development and road location.
(iii) An inventory of the surficial materials and
landforms in the proposed Grouse Mountain development area; these data are used
as part of the information required to
assess the suitability of various portions of
the landscape for urban development.
(iv) Investigation of the surficial materials and
soil characteristics as related to urban suitability for the expanded portion of the
town of Golden, B.C.
(v) Reconnaissance biophysical investigations
of the proposed Fort Nelson to Fort Simpson Highway to provide background data
required to assess the environmental impact of the project.
4. Technical expertise was provided to the B.C.
Forest Service in terms of soils and geomorpho-
logical information as part of the CARP (Computer Assisted Resource Planning) program.
This input was restricted mainly to providing interpretations of the physical inventory data for the
Cranbrook PSYU. The Section provided technical aid and acted as co-ordinator for the subdivision of the PSYU into various types of Environmental Protection Forests and the definition of
"land classes" which will form part of the input
to CARP for the Cranbrook PSYU.
5. Various projects were completed for the British Columbia Land Commission. These were
generally of two types. A review of Agricultural
Capabilities in specific areas to improve/refine the
Agricultural Land Reserve boundaries, and interpretation of soils-related information to form part
of a folio for lands administered by the B.C. Land
Commission (see Special Projects Unit Description).
6. Educational programs in the form of seminars
and workshops were provided to many Government departments and educational institutes
throughout the Province. Two, for example, were
for forestry students at Selkirk College and B.C.
Forest Service trainees at Green Timbers.
Staff in this Division consist of both Soils Branch,
B.C. Department of Agriculture and Land Inventory Division, Resource Analysis Unit. As noted
in the introduction, most of the Soils Branch staff
currently involved in soil, landform, and vegetation inventories, as well as those in the laboratory,
are scheduled for transfer to the Land Inventory
Division on April 1, 1976, and are presently
under the functional administration of the Secretariat. Most projects and programs are cooperative in nature, therefore, no attempt will be
made to separate them by jurisdiction. Other
agencies co-operating with the Land Inventory
Division include the B.C. Pedology Unit, Soil
Research Institute, Agriculture Canada; Canadian
Forestry Service, Environment Canada, and Geological Survey of Canada.
A major function of the Land Inventory Division
is undertaking reconnaissance mapping and systematic inventory and classification of the surficial
materials, soils, and vegetation of British Columbia to provide a component of the biophysical
baseline information for a variety of resource uses
and decisions. This biophysical base is also interpreted by the Division to provide, for example,
land capability ratings for agriculture and forestry, suitability and/or limitations for urbanization, susceptibility to erosion and slumping,
capability for wildlife habitat, input into environmental impact studies, climatic forest zonation,
successional relationships of vegetation to the
landscape and forest zones, as well as information
for many other land and vegetation-oriented decisions. The reconnaissance inventories also point
out environmentally sensitive areas which may
require more detailed inspection in the future.
Another important function of the Land Inventory Division is to respond to more site specific
requests for soils, surficial materials, and vegetation information. These requests usually are from
other resource  Government departments  which
 either do not have the necessary expertise among
their own staff or which require a multi-disciplinary approach.
(a) Reconnaissance Soil-Landform (Surficial Materials) Surveys—During 1975 the demand remained strong for reconnaissance surveys to
provide basic data on soils and landforms (surficial materials). New inventories were undertaken in several parts of British Columbia, with
areas generally chosen in response to requests by
other resource departments. Special emphasis
was placed on interpreting the data gathered and
presenting it in a form and manner which can
readily be used in resource planning and management. Maps, graphic displays, reports, and tabular summaries were the most common methods
of presenting general descriptions and interpretations for agriculture, forestry, engineering, wildlife, and recreation purposes.
Areas Mapped (Thousands of Acres) (1975)
Map Area
82G, J/S (East Kootenay)	
103P (Nass River)    	
92F, K/SW (Central Vancouver Island)	
93E/N, L/SW (Morice-Ootsa Lake)   *.	
1031, J (Prince Rupert-Terrace-Kitimat)	
93F/SW (Kluskus)	
1975 total           	
To date, total areas for which soil-landform surveys and soil capability for agriculture and forestry mapping are completed as follows:
Area (Thousands of Acres)
A. Soil-Landform Surveys 1975 Total to Date
Initial reconnaissance  14,655 71,544
Reconnaissance resurvey     6,280
Detailed resurvey  30 924.5
B. Capability Ratings
Agriculture  10,355 76,407
Forestry  10,355 88,870
Agriculture reassessment  4,330 7,340
Forestry reassessment   4,300 4,410
 A major-related activity applied concurrently to
all areas inventoried was the gathering of information necessary for the production of land capability
ratings for agriculture and forestry. For agriculture, this required an assessment of the range of
crops possible under varying soil and climatic
conditions occurring on the area, while for forestry, plots were located and measured to obtain an
estimation of the mean annual increment (cubic
feet of wood produced per acre per year).
The major areas in which reconnaissance surveys
were initiated during 1975 centred on the Prince
Rupert-Terrace-Kitimat, Morice Lake-Ootsa Lake,
East Kootenay, Central Vancouver Island, Nass
River, and Kluskus areas. Initial field mapping
was essentially completed; however, field checking, correlation, and sampling still are required. A
summary of the reconnaissance surveys undertaken during 1975 is as follows:
Manuscript soil-landform and soil capability for
agriculture and forestry maps are mostly completed for project areas surveyed in previous
years. Areas include West Kootenay-North
(82K), West Kootenay-South (82F), South Okanagan (82E), North Okanagan-Shuswap (82L),
Columbia-Shuswap (82M), Merritt-Kamloops
(921), Bonaparte Lake-North Thompson (92P/E),
Prince George (93G/S, J/N), Omineca-Williston-
Parsnip (93N, 930/NW, SW, J/N), Babine-Takla
Lakes (93M/SW, NW, NE), Vancouver-Langley
(93G/S), South Vancouver Island (92B, C).
Accompanying manuscript interim reports for
West Kootenay-South and North, Prince George,
and Bonaparte-North Thompson are expected to
be available by spring 1976.
(b) Special assignments—A considerable number of special assignments were undertaken upon
request in 1975. These assignments differ from
regular reconnaissance surveys in that they are
usually  smaller,  problem-oriented,  or  develop
mental in nature, and of usually short duration.
A summary of the special assignments undertaken
during 1975 is as follows:
1. In response to a request from the B.C. Land
Commission, a detailed soil survey (approx.
30,000 acres) of the Oyster River area was conducted to delineate the agricultural soils and refine the Agricultural Land Reserve boundaries.
Revised soil and agriculture capability maps have
been completed and forwarded to the Land Commission.
2. As part of an Integrated Resource Study initiated by the B.C. Forest Service, the Nahmint
River watershed was mapped in 1974. During
1975 a landform map and interpretations for
forest development and management were completed and submitted for inclusion in the study.
3. In response to a request from Kootenay-
Boundary Regional District, maps and reports
indicating terrain suitability for urban development and septic-tank effluent disposal in the
vicinity of Christina Lake were completed and
4. As in the previous several years, the Soil-
Landform Section continued to co-operate with
the Forest Productivity Committee's thinning and
fertilization trials by inspecting potential forest-
plot installations for soil uniformity and, for those
installations found acceptable, sampling, describing, and analysing the soils.
5. At the request of the B.C. Department of Municipal Affairs and in co-operation with other
sections of Resource Analysis Unit, ELUC Secretariat participated in the preparation of maps and
report regarding terrain suitability for urbanization in the vicinity of Golden.
6. Several staff participated in meetings and field
tours dealing with the formulation of development
plans for the Langley property owned by the B.C.
Land Commission.
 7. At the request of B.C. Department of Economic Development, staff participated in evaluating several sites for a possible steel mill in British
Columbia by supplying maps and reports dealing
with surficial materials, soils, forestry, and agriculture capability and urban suitability.
8. Sampling and analyses of soils from the City
of Vernon sewage effluent spray irrigation project
was continued to monitor any changes in soil
characteristics. Soils of the proposed extension
to the project were also examined and reported
9. Several staff were involved in examining and
assessing several potential areas for sewage effluent spray irrigation for the City of Kelowna.
10. The proposed area for sewage effluent disposal by irrigation from the City of Cranbrook was
examined to determine soil suitability for this purpose.
11. In conjunction with staff of the Department
of Municipal Affairs and Department of Health,
several subdivisions in the Alta Lake area were
inspected with respect to urban suitability and
suitability for ground disposal of sewage effluent.
12. The Soils-Landform and Vegetation sections
are currently mapping in detail the surficial
materials, soils, and vegetation in the vicinity of
existing and potential coal-mines in southeast
British Columbia to provide more accurate baseline information for environmental impact studies
and environmental considerations.
13. Computer Assisted Resource Planning
(CARP)—Surficial materials, forest capability
ratings, and vegetation data were being finalized
for computer input for Cranbrook PSYU. This
pilot project is attempting to analyse all available
resource information for determining annual
allowable cut and also delineate the boundaries of
environmental protection forests.
14. The International Society of Soil Science
Congress will be held in Edmonton in 1978. In
conjunction with the Congress several field tours
through British Columbia have been planned, stop
sites chosen, described, and sampled.
15. As part of the Springbrook Integrated Resource Study, the Soils-Landform and Vegetation
Sections provided surficial materials, soils, forest
and agriculture capability, climax forest zonation,
and present vegetation maps for input into resource folio. This co-operative project involving
British Columbia Department of Agriculture, British Columbia Forest Service, Fish and Wildlife
Branch, local community groups, and the ELUC
Secretariat is designed to determine physical and
economic parameters for resolving land use conflicts (see Director's report).
16. At the request of the Lands Service, the Soils-
Landform Section mapped in detail the soils and
landforms and applied agriculture capabilities to
the south side of Williams Lake, Giscome, and
Willow River Community pastures. Maps and
reports are currently being prepared.
17. In conjunction with B.C. Department of Agriculture personnel, a first draft of the suitability
and yields of various crops as they relate to different soils in the Lower Mainland is being compiled.
18. Staff conducted on-site inspections of appeals
for exclusion from Agriculture Land Reserves
throughout the Province at the request of B.C.
Land Commission.
19. The Soil-Landform and Vegetation Sections,
at the request of the Resource Planning Unit,
ELUC Secretariat, prepared generalized surficial
geology, soils, vegetation, and forest capability
maps for the Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources
Study (see Resource Planning Unit Description).
20. Several staff prepared and conducted soil-
landform, vegetation, and interpretations short
courses for B.C. Forest Service personnel in the
 Nelson Forest District and in Victoria. The purpose of the short courses was to improve understanding of the philosophy and methodology of
biophysical surveys and how they can be used in
forest management.
21. The effects of forest grazing by cattle and the
development of community pastures on the fish,
wildlife, recreation, and forest resources has continued to be monitored in the Maxan Lake Pilot
22. Several staff participated in the Canadian
Transport Commission hearing in Salmon Arm
regarding the proposed rerouting of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in that area.
23. Several workshops and seminars were
attended and/or presented. The primary purpose was to make participants more proficient in
the multi-disciplinary aspects of biophysical inventories and also update staff in respect to their
professional qualifications. Other notable meetings attended included the 5th Soil Science Workshop and Wetlands Seminar.
A primary function of the Laboratory Section is
to analyse soil and surficial deposits both physically and chemically, and to characterize the
samples for mapping and inventories. The Section also analyses samples submitted by other
agencies and organizations. For example, all
analyses of soil samples from the British Columbia
Forest Productivity Committee's Thinning and
Fertilization Project were analysed in this laboratory as were samples submitted by forest pedolo-
gists located in the various Forest Districts. Other
examples included heavy metal analyses of Prince
George sewage-sludge samples submitted by Pollution Control Branch and soil samples collected
during monitoring of the Vernon Effluent Spray
Irrigation Project.
 Analysis of almost all samples submitted during
1974 was completed in 1975. Approximately
1,430 samples were analysed entailing about
18,660 separate chemical analyses and 5,000 physical analyses.
The need for an increasing program of physical
soil analyses was apparent and it is now necessary
to increase technician strength for this purpose.
During the summer of 1975, four technicians were
employed for a total of 11 man-months. This
casual assistance is down from the 1974 figure by
a total of three man-months and is reflected by
the lag being experienced in soil preparation.
Meanwhile the numerical strength of the permanent laboratory staff has remained static from
Analysis of the current year's samples (1975),
numbering about 1,700, has been initiated.
The main features of the 1975 activities of the
Vegetation Section were personnel training, surveying, zonation mapping, communication and
correlation, program development, interpretation,
and the illustrated keys to plant families of British
Since the group expanded by two additional technicians and a professional plant ecologist, emphasis was placed on instructing these personnel
in the techniques of forest zonation mapping and
surveying. Early in the field season, a week was
dedicated to the instruction of survey crews to
introduce them to the theoretical and practical
aspects of conducting a vegetation inventory. An
additional three-week period was used in the field
to develop practical application of these principles.
During the summer, surveys were conducted in
the East Kootenays (82G, J), Central and Northern Vancouver Island (92E, F, K, L), Skeena-
Nass area (1031, J, P), and some additional work
was done in the Kluskus (93C). On these surveys a total of 884 sites were described (see Table
2). This number is down from 1974 (1,291) due
to the reduction in effective field season time and
the relative inaccessibility of the northern parts of
the Province. The reconnaissance surveys of
Vancouver Island and the East Kootenay were
completed, while the survey for the northwestern
parts of the Province is continuing.
Because of an anticipated demand, more emphasis was placed on the mapping of forest zones.
Earlier in the year, broad forest zonation maps
were prepared for parts of 93E, 93F, and 93K.
Later in the year, forest zonation maps, present
condition and climax, were prepared for the
Springbrook (82J, G in part) and for Nelson
(82F). Because of the data requirements for
the Computer Assisted Resource Planning
(CARP) program, the latter maps have been
revised to include subzonation lines. For special
purposes forest zonation, present condition and
climax, were also mapped for the Spallumcheen
Municipal District and for the southeastern corner
of the Cariboo (92P/1). Presently, forest zonation maps for Vancouver Island and Vernon
(82L) are under preparation.
A considerable amount of time was spent on communications within the RAU and with other
departments through seminars, workshops, and
meetings. Approximately 35 meetings were attended, including a number of biophysical seminars; contacts with B.C. Forest Service personnel
with regard to topics such as CARP, Environmental Protection Forests (EPF), Northwest Forest Resources Study; workshops and meetings
with B.C. Fish and Wildlife; trips with western
soils correlator, vegetation surveys Canadian Forest Service for Southern Vancouver Island, and
zonation correlation for the Cariboo Forest District; a number of advisory committees such as
the Maxan Lake Project and CARP Advisory
Committee; and a variety of administrative and
 technical meetings within the Resource Analysis
Unit. Meetings of the Vegetation Functional
Subcommittee of the B.C. Land Resources Committee resulted in a first draft of a standardized
vegetation data collection form. This form has
since been used by a number of agencies.
Further development of the program of the Vegetation Section has resulted in the "debugging" of
the computer analysis program (Coenos 1) and
the streamlining of the data coding procedures.
In   co-operation   with   the   Recreation   Section
(RAU) some interpretation techniques were developed and applied to the data of the Smithers-
Hazelton report area and the Spallumcheen
Municipal District area.
An illustrated key to the monocotyledon families
of British Columbia has been completed. And
the key to the dicotyledon families is in progress.
Due to the time devoted to training of personnel
and the emphasis on communication and correlation, a backlog of reports to be prepared has been
Record of Number of Vegetation Inventory Samples for Project A
Project Area
-, ft
rt cs
o —
.a »
"u O
South Okanagan   	
I       6
\      6
\   325
East Kootenays   __.  	
1   230
\   739
82G, J
9  t    -
92B, C
92E, F, K, L
Central and North Vancouver Island	
Kakweiken —   	
93 C
___  |       43
93 D
........  |        19
93E, L, M
139 j     188
----- !   -
4 |   |   	
........ 1   ....... 1     226
1031, J
(•   178
(■   394
104 A
Peace River —  	
Totals    -
1,240 !     295
The Recreation Division is made up of three
sectors—Wildlife, Water-Fish, and Recreation.
Each component is involved with reconnaissance
mapping and special projects as required by the
Inventory Co-ordinator. However, there was
shift in emphasis during 1975 in the direction of
1. Liaising more directly, not only within the
Division, but also within the RAU at large in an
effort to achieve more of a multi-disciplinary
approach to land productivity analysis.
2. Initiating special projects, workshop, and
training sessions designed to develop mapping
methodologies and classification systems useful to
other Governmental line agencies.
3. Introducing the Visual Resource Management
System as an input to management guidelines.
Although use of the system is being sponsored by
the Division, its principles can be applied to other
RAU disciplines. In-service training sessions
were held in 1975 and will continue throughout
1976. Agencies having impact on the visual
environment such as Forestry, Highways, B.C.
Hydro, etc., have shown interest in its use at an
applied level.
Background and Objectives
The Recreation Section is made up of two research officers and one engineering aide. Their
concern lies primarily in the areas of
1. Updating CLI reconnaissance inventory data.
2. Development of guidelines leading to a manual
for recreation capability mapping on a biophysical base (scheduled for completion by mid-1976).
3. Mapping features and carrying capacity within
selected areas.
4. Research into more sophisticated methods of
assessing carrying capacity beyond the land base
and into socio-economic parameters.
5. Affecting liaison with forestry, parks, wildlife,
recreation, and historical/archaeological agencies
and other recreation-oriented interests within
6. Development of the Visual Resource Management System and its adaptation to British Columbia.
Project Areas
Recreation features and physical carrying capacity studies were conducted during 1975 on Vancouver Island, within the Central Interior Region,
East Kootenay, Omineca-Peace, and Skeena
areas. The most significant of these projects include the following:
1. Recreation input to Chilliwack, Sardis, and
Langley study areas for the B.C. Land Commission; May and November 1975.
2. Cathedral Lakes Park and proposed expansion
area. A summary report was completed in February 1975 (see Resource Planning Unit description).
3. Cosens Bay area (Vernon) for the Parks
Branch; report completed and submitted to the
Parks Branch in November 1975.
4. Springbrook study area (East Kootenay);
maps completed April 1975 (see Director's report).
5. A "recreation features" interview program
conducted in co-operation with personnel and
interested citizens in the East Kootenay area.
This program will extend and update available
recreation features information, with a report
scheduled for completion in January 1976.
6. Designation of Environmental Protection Forests (EPF) for recreation in the Cranbrook PSYU
as a part of the Computer Assisted Resource
Planning program.
 7. A recreation features assessment along the
proposed route for the Fort Simpson-Fort Nelson
Highway; completed in May 1975 and submitted
to the Special Projects Unit.
8. A report on recreational resources of the
Smithers study area; completed May 1975.
9. A recreation features analysis of the Bowser
Lake map sheet with expected completion May
1976; of the Kispiox area completed December
1975; and of the Spatsizi Wilderness area (Spatsizi Wilderness Park), completed April 1975.
10. A high capability recreation features summary was prepared for the Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources Study area: in this connection an
interview program, as outlined in (5) above, was
concurrently carried out in the Hazelton-Prince
Rupert area. This program will extend and update available recreation features information,
with a report to the Resource Planning Unit
scheduled for completion in early 1976.
General Programs and Projects, Current
and in Progress
1. A study of the compatibility of various forms
of outdoor recreation activities with each other on
a four-season basis; ongoing.
2. A critical review with comments regarding
recreation input necessary to proposed folio
studies to be conducted by timber companies
within tree-farm licences in the Vancouver Forest District; ongoing.
3. A recreation capability assessment of proposed steel mill sites; January 1975. An estimate
of requirements and costs involved in a recreation
inventory in the Northeast Coal area was also
carried out in late December.
4. Publication of an in-service document entitled
Landscape Architecture and the Visual Resource
was completed in September.   The document has
been used within and outside the Secretariat as an
introductory manual to the Visual Resource Management System.
5. A major report entitled Spallumcheen: the
Visual Environment was initiated in mid-1975 in
response to a B.C. Land Commission request. It
is scheduled for publication in 1976.
Background and Objectives
Wildlife Section involvements within the Environment and Land Use Secretariat relate to the following five main functions:
1. To undertake basic studies on subjects related
to the capability classification of lands for wildlife.
2. To participate in wildlife and related land capability surveys where necessary.
3. To serve in an advisory capacity and assist individual Governmental agencies
• interpret wildlife and related land inventory
• tailor their land inventory programs to facilitate a multi-disciplinary approach to resource
analysis and thus minimize duplication of
effort, and
• on occasion to serve in a "liaison" capacity
with other agencies in the resolution of inter-
resource conflicts involving the wildlife resource.
Project Areas
(a) Land Capability for Ungulate Species—A
biophysically based land classification system for
ungulate species has been developed in co-operation with the Fish and Wildlife Branch. The
development of this system involved field mapping
in the Smithers-Hazelton and in the East Kootenay regions. A preliminary classification manual
has been prepared and will be finalized in 1976.
 (b) Springbrook Resource Study—The Phase I
portion of this study was designed to provide
biophysical base information and land capability
data for use by regional resource managers to
assist in making resource allocation decisions.
Co-ordinated by the Wildlife Section, this phase
of the study was completed in April.
(c) Range Productivity Study—Wildlife Section
personnel are presently involved in the development of a biophysically based forage productivity
classification system for rangeland in British Columbia. This is being undertaken in consultation
with the Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of
Agriculture, and Grazing Division, B.C. Forest
Service. Major field work has been undertaken in
the East Kootenay area.
(d) Wetland Fur-bearer Classification Study—
A study to develop a biophysically based capability classification system for wetland fur-bearers
is virtually complete. This study was undertaken
by a post-graduate student at Simon Fraser University under the direction of the Wildlife Section
and was carried out over two summer periods
spent in the Smithers-Burns Lake area. A final
report will be produced in 1976.
(e) Ungulate Food Habits Study—A research
bibliography on big game food habits in the Pacific Northwest, and listing of key plant species
used by big game in British Columbia has been
under joint study by the Fish and Wildlife Branch
and RAU Wildlife Section. A final report covering the study will be available in early 1976.
(/) Smithers-Houston and Terrace-Kitimat Land
Capability Studies—The Wildlife Section participated in reconnaissance level inter-disciplinary
studies in the above areas in 1975 as part of a
program to supply land capability information to
aid in regional resource planning.
(g) Spatsizi Wilderness Conservancy and Ecological Reserve Study—The Wildlife Section pre
pared a generalized wildlife capability map for the
Spatsizi River and adjacent areas in 1975. The
Section also participated in inter-agency meetings
to discuss resource conflicts and values and make
land use recommendations for the area.
Background and Objectives
Initiated as an addition to the Recreation Division
in early 1975, the Water-Fish Section reached its
full staff complement of four biologists, seven
technicians, and one clerical assistant by April
1975. Involvement in a number and variety of
activities has taken place since that date. Primary
among these has been the undertaking of a basic
biophysical approach to the aquatic system within
the following broad areas:
1. The development of standard methodologies
for the inventory of aquatic systems, including the
compilation and mapping of data gathered by
other agencies.
2. Systematic reconnaissance and detailed inventory of various areas of British Columbia with the
ultimate objective of attaining complete coverage
of the Province.
3. Analysis of aquatic systems in special project
areas by request from other Governmental
In most of the above activities, intergovernmental
involvement and co-operation by resource agencies has been necessary. Among these, the Section has worked most closely with B.C. Fish and
Wildlife Branch and the Fisheries Service, Environment Canada, stream biologists.
In June 1975 a branch office with one biologist
and two technicians was established at Smithers,
B.C.    The major focus of this subsection's work
 developed during the Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources Study in late summer. The group will
continue to co-ordinate water-fish inventory in
northwestern British Columbia and work with
the Victoria group on standard methodologies for
classification of rivers and fish populations.
 Project Areas
A. The Reconnaissance Inventory is being carried
out within several major drainage basins. In each
case the characteristics of the biota, channel, and
hydrology are being mapped and summarized in
a data file. These areas have included parts of
the following:
1. The Skeena-Nass drainage basin as part of the
Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources Study.
Special emphasis is being placed on the Kispiox
2. The Elk-Flathead drainage basin as part of the
Southeast Coal Study.
3. The Cranbrook PSYU area as part of the computer assisted resource planning study (CARP).
B. Analyses of aquatic systems for special study
areas have included the following:
1. The Sardis Agricultural Land Reserve review.
2. The Langley ALR review.
3. The Whistler-Blackcomb Mountain study for
ski development.
4. The North Cowichan water supply study.
5. The Green Mountain Study involving hydro-
logical aspects of snow accumulations.
6. The Nahmint integrated watershed management study involving interdisciplinary forest
harvesting planning.
7. The Carnation Creek study, an interdisciplinary watershed analysis of the effects of logging within and upon an aquatic system.
C. The Water-Fish Section has participated in
stream ecology courses given by the Continuing
Education Department of UBC, and in October
hosted a week-long workshop on inventory and
mapping methods, attended by all active stream
inventory personnel in British Columbia.   This
workshop was helpful in consolidating the approach to stream inventory being applied in
British Columbia. "In-house" workshops have
also been given for Secretariat staff when time
D. Along with the development of standard
methods at appropriate scales for routine inventory, the Water-Fish Section has been active in
the following specific areas:
1. The use of large-scale remote sensing imagery
to augment and/or replace field data.
2. The initiation and development of systems of
field data collection for use by resource personnel
in other Governmental departments and industry.
This is carried out in co-operation with fishery
management agencies.
3. The conduct of research into interpretive criteria suitable for application to basic biophysical
stream data in the assessment of specific development proposals.
4. The ongoing development of a data management system for the storage and analysis of biophysical data gathered by the Water-Fish Section
and other resource agencies.
 Climate and
Data Services
In co-operation with the Federal Atmospheric
Environment Service it is the function of the
Climate and Data Services program to collect,
collate, and interpret all pertinent climate and
weather data relative to the needs of Provincial
resource planners and managers in long-range
and day-to-day decisions on resource allocation
and management in British Columbia.
The concern for integrated land use and planning
in keeping with the environment brings a substantial increase in projects requiring detailed
climate information; particularly in British Columbia with its complex terrain, proximity to the
Pacific, and the diversity of resources. This need
was reflected in the large increase in projects
undertaken during 1975 by the three sections of
the Division.
In addition to its basic inventory of climate, the
Inventory Section undertook a major study involving climate constraints to logging and recreation as part of the Terrace-Hazelton Resource
Study and developed a new Agriculture Climate
Classification for Coastal British Columbia Lands,
including Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island, Middle Coast, and Queen Charlottes.
The Special Services Section more than doubled
the number of projects undertaken.
Key reports completed include:
(i)  Tree Fruit Microclimate Mapping in the
Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys,
(ii)  Whistler/Blackcomb   and   White   Crown
Ridge-Green Mountain Ski Climate Studies,
(iii) Meteorology   and   Climatology   of   Proposed Georgia Strait Ferry Terminal Sites,
(iv)  Climate Suitability for Recreation Classification,
(v)  Computer Modelling of Climate for Lodge-
pole Pine and Douglas Fir Provenances.
Data Services was faced with the sharpest increase in work load resulting from demands for
computer applications, data banks, and statistics.
Four staff were added from other sections to Data
Services late in 1975 to partially offset increased
work load.
A systematic study of map production and distribution was undertaken by Data Services prior
to introducing some facets of computing and
microfilming systems within the Geographic Division.
It is expected that the arrival of the new Honeywell Computer and substantial demand for computer-based data systems will add to the present
burden of Data Services.
As Chairman of the ELUC Computer and Data
Services Committee, the Division Chief led a team
of representatives from Transport and Communications, Forest Service, and ELUC Secretariat to
a number of Canadian and American centres to
review a wide variety of geo-information and
auto-cartographic systems with direct application
to resource planning and management. A library
of information systems has been created for interdepartmental use.
Considerable further effort is required to develop
departmental data bases and systems so that inter-
resource questions can be satisfactorily answered.
Other key activities completed by the Committee
were an Inventory of Resource Data Files within
the ELUC member departments, recommendations on the use of Universal Transverse Mer-
cator Rectangular Grid for geo-referencing
resource data, and increasing map production
within Surveys and Mapping Branch.
Division staff participated in a large number of
intersector, interdepartmental meetings, and projects.
Section reports follow.
The Climate Inventory Section maintains meso-
scale networks of climate stations in select areas
and plays a co-ordinating role in all climate observations throughout the Province. The networks are designed to complement the macro-
scale networks of the Canadian Atmospheric
Environment Service and other agencies, so that
both regional and local variations in climate can
be incorporated in land planning and management
decisions. Basic data on temperature, precipitation, snow-pack depths and water contents, wind
velocity and direction, humidity, soil temperature,
and solar radiation are collected as appropriate
for interpretative support for forestry, agriculture,
wildlife, and recreation capabilities as well as for
resource decisions concerning development, engineering design, location of facilities, and management.    Major networks in operation during
1975 included the Northwest, Omineca-Williston,
Columbia-McBride, Lillooet, and South Coast
Vancouver Island regions as shown in Figure 1.
Air temperature and other weather elements were
measured at a total of 300 stations, and precipitation alone was measured at another 630 stations
(additional stations are listed under Special Services). At the end of the year the regular operations were concluded on schedule in the Columbia-McBride, Lillooet, and South Coast
Vancouver Island networks. The Northwest network was decreased considerably in area as the
result of budgetary limitations. New networks
have been planned for 1976 operating in the Queen
Charlotte Islands and the Lower Middle Coast
areas. In addition to the networks operations, a
special mobile unit was used to compare energy
and water consumption of fertilized and unfertilized range-land grasses in the Kamloops areas.
 Interpretative maps of Climate Capability for
Agriculture were produced at a scale of 1:125,000
for 93F/SE and parts of 93N, O, 94B, C, 82K
in the Prince George and Williston Reservoir and
West and East Kootenay areas. Maps of the dryland agricultural climate ratings for mapsheets
82L/NW/SW, 92I/NE/SE, in the Kamloops area
have been started.   Noteworthy reports included:
1. An Agricultural Climate Capability Classification for Coastal Areas of British Columbia.
2. Climate Constraints to Logging and Climatic
Suitability for Recreation in the Terrace-Hazelton
Forest Resources Study Area.
3. Proposed Climate Network for Northwest British Columbia.
4. A Proposal for Additional Solar and Net
Radiation Measurements in British Columbia.
5. Climatological Instrument and Site Standards
in British Columbia.
Table 3—Number of Requests by Departments*
and Reports
Forest Service	
Lands Service	
Water Resources	
Municipal Affairs	
Recreation and Conservation (Parks)
Fish and Wildlife 	
Public Works	
B.C. Hydro     	
Internal and otherf	
* Does not include verbal requests.
t Secretariat, Federal Government, Regional Districts, University, Public.
Special Services provides meteorologist/ climatol-
ogist support for Provincial studies which have a
specific need for tailored weather/climate such
as smelter, ski hill, nursery, terminal site selection.
Agriculture Land Reserve appeals, local development proposals, and program management support.
Requests for instrumentation, data summaries,
and interpretation are reflected in Table 3 and
some of the project reports listed. A doubling of
projects undertaken occurred in 1975, but work
load was offset by the addition of two meteorologists.
List of Major Reports/Projects for Special
Services Section 1975
1. Whistler/Blackcomb Ski Climate Study.
2. Whitecrown Ridge/Green Mountain Ski Climate Study.
3. Meteorology and Climatology Study of Proposed Georgia Strait Ferry Terminal Sites.
4. Climate of Gulf Islands (for Gulf Island Trust).
5. Microclimate and Frost Risk Mapping of Okanagan Valley (DATE Project).
6. Wind Machine Evaluation for Frost Protection
(DATE Project).
7. Wind Climatology of MacMillan Park Region
of Cameron Valley with Reference to Possible
Wind Damage (for Parks Branch).
8. Remote Sensing of Frost Pockets in Glenmore
Valley Area of Kelowna.
9. Climate Suitability for Recreation Classification Scheme Developed.
10. Minimum Temperature Patterns in the Smithers Region.
11. Site Assessments of Various Potential Steel
Mill Locations.
12. Air Quality Study of Langley Area.
13. Spillimacheen Project—Climate Description
and Map of Climate Suitability for Recreation.
14. Computer Modelling of Climate Information
for Lodgepole Pine Provenances and Douglas Fir
15. Biogeoclimatic Zonations in the Cariboo Area
for British Columbia Forest Service.
The Data Services Section provides continuing
data reduction, summarization, storage, and analyses for the soils, vegetation, and Climate Inventory Sections of the Resource Analysis Unit. It
also provides support in the form of numerical
and statistical advice and computer programming
to all of the ELUC Secretariat sections and computer support for interpretations and numerical
modelling for the Climate Special Services Section.
Soils, vegetation, and climate data banks arc
maintained. Historical climate data for use in
interpretations have been acquired from the Federal Department of the Environment.
The increased work load this year has necessitated
transferring staff to the section from the Climate
Inventory Section and Geographic Division.
Training for these personnel plus training for the
new Honeywell Computing Facility has been initiated and is ongoing.
Requests for data summaries have increased as the
data banks increase in volume and other Government departments, such as Agriculture, Forest
Service, Recreation and Conservation, become
aware of the data bases.
The Geographic Division provides geographic research and technical support for the ELUC Secretariat. The Division's work in applied geography
includes mapping such distributions as present
land use, land status, population distribution, and
communication facilities. The research analysis
and interpretation is oriented toward specific regional studies and projects. On the technical side,
the Division continues to provide a central cartographic service for the whole Secretariat, and
maintains a central Map Library for public information and display.
The work of this Division is illustrated by select
examples from each of the three Sections—Resource Geography, Draughting, and Map Information. The examples shown are representative of
the work of this Division, but are by no means
the whole story. Further details can be found in
the Annual List of Available Publications, from
project reports, and by personal inquiry.
The three Research Officers in the Resource
Geography Section have brought their various
talents and disciplinary backgrounds to a variety
of projects, usually on a co-operative basis with
other agencies. They have been ably assisted by
the technical staff within the Division, and by
personnel from other divisions and departments.
In addition, the Technical Co-ordinator and Division Chief have collaborated directly on a number
of the projects involving the Section. Among the
projects are:
(1) The B.C. Ferries Study—The Study was
directed by the Special Projects Unit, with the
Geographic Division involved identifying major
resource, land use, socio-economic, and planning
issues in the immediate vicinities of the existing
and proposed ferry terminal sites. The regional
implications of alternative ferry policies on recreation and tourism, public convenience, and devel
opment pressures were then investigated; management strategies for terminal design and access,
vessel deployment, and capital expenditure were
reviewed, and estimates of operating costs and
revenues of alternate routes and fares were made.
The Study Report is currently in the final stages of
(2) Integrated field programs—Traditionally, Resource Departments have undertaken independent
resource inventories. To make the most efficient
use of inventory personnel, to support Provincial
natural resource planning and management, there
was a need to co-ordinate and integrate various
departmental inventories and mapping functions.
Two meetings of the interdepartmental working
group were held in April and September; the results to date included:
(a) Field areas—Summer 1975 saw the production of a set of indices showing the field programs
of each department or branch; 750 copies were
printed and circulated to Provincial and Federal
Resource Departments and Universities. Departments have submitted their tentative 1976 Field
Programs for discussion in the spring.
(b) Base maps—The adoption of the key standard scales of 1:20,000 and 1:50,000 for resource
mapping has meant that Surveys and Mapping
(Lands Service) can now concentrate their work
on 1:20,000 base maps as the Federal Government is responsible for those at a scale of
(c) Air photography—Most of the inventory
programs require air photography; in most instances, existing photography will suffice, but in
some it is necessary to arrange for new photography. A start has been made in identifying the
requirements for next year.
Co-ordination of field inventory has direct benefits in saving both money and staff time.   How-
 ever, this increased efficiency in field operations is
of little value unless data delivery and presentation techniques can be improved.
(3) Geographic Information Systems—The Technical Co-ordinator represents the Division in the
interdepartmental review of automated cartography and microfilm/fiche systems, delivery, and
presentation. To date, a number of systems in
Canada and the United States have been examined.
The present Division map library is to be transferred to microfilm with a computerized indexing
system. This move will ease current problems
of security of originals, storage, retrieval, duplication, update, and distribution.
In conjunction with ELUC Computer and Data
Services Committee and Climate and Data Services Division, a number of alternatives have been
determined for automating all or parts of current
map production. These innovations introduce
flexibility of output relative to the demands of
integrated resource planners and managers. The
current manual draughting system is not suited to
the increasingly complex questions being asked
by Resource Managers through folio management
and CARP (Computer Assisted Resource Planning).
The Division has been represented on the interdepartmental review of the Standard System of
Mapping for British Columbia. It is recognized
that the integration of the Universal Transverse
Mercator (UTM) geo-referencing system with
standard map scales is an important requisite in
the use of mapped data and the implementation
of automated cartography and geographic information systems.
The Draughting Section is broken down into three
draughting teams.    The Inventory Projects team
produces final draughts of soil, landforms, vegetation, climate, and hydrology maps, as well as any
interpretative maps prepared from these five
bases; the Springbrook Biophysical Study is an
example of an inventory project. The Analysis
Project team is involved with longer-term projects
such as the Williston Study. The Kelowna Field
Office, which was augmented in 1975 by the
addition of a senior Technical Assistant, is mainly
concerned with preliminary biophysical mapping.
(1) The Springbrook Biophysical Study—A wide
array of resource capability maps was prepared
and placed in a resource folio of the study unit.
The folio consisted of 26 overlays and was presented in Cranbrook to Government agencies and
resource users in April 1975.
(2) The Williston Reservoir Potentials Study—
Resource potentials in and around the Williston
Reservoir were assessed in order to permit integrated resource management in the area immediately surrounding the reservoir. Approximately
30 maps are currently being finalized, and portray information on hydrology, water quality,
forestry, reservoir clean-up, recreation, fisheries,
wildlife, land status, land capability, and mineral
potential. The maps were prepared by a study
team consisting of representatives from several
Government agencies (see Special Projects Unit
(3) The Kelowna Field Office—In Kelowna a
close link exists between the technical assistants
and the Land Inventory Division staff. The
pedologists, foresters, ecologists, and agriculturists gather the data while the technical staff undertakes the preliminary draughting. The three-man
office provides preliminary soils, landforms, and
vegetation maps for finalization in the Victoria
office for use on special projects and inclusion in
the central Map Library. In 1975, field work
was completed and inventory mapping was begun
for the West Kootenay, North Thompson, Kam-
 loops, Kluskus, Williston Lake, Maxan Lake,
Stuart Lake, Nass River, Prince Rupert, Vancouver Island, East Kootenay, and Babine River
areas. Reports and interpretative maps for these
areas were also in progress.
Maps and publications arising from Secretariat
projects are stored in the Resource Analysis Unit
Map Library. The library consists of approximately 20,000 maps, many of which are repro-
duceable and are available as manuscript maps.
Multiple copies of Canada Land Inventory (CLI)
published maps and reports are also available; to
date, 122 CLI maps have been published in British Columbia. Preliminary manuscripts and finalized   maps   are   listed   in   the   Annual   List   of
Available Publications, obtainable from the Map
Librarian, Resource Analysis Unit, ELUC Secretariat, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
V8V1X4. The Map Information Section staff
provides guidance on the interpretation of the
maps as well as assistance in printing, publication,
and distribution of reports (see table below).
They also co-ordinate requests from other departments or divisions to receive relevant base maps
and air photographs.
Summary Table for Map Distribution
Agency White Prints
ELUC Secretariat   4,508
Other Government departments (including municipalities and regional
districts)    3,266
Educational institutes  1,774
Companies and consultants  1,592
Public    484
The Personnel Office provides services to the
Water Resources Service and the Lands Service as
well as the ELUC Secretariat.
The ELUC Secretariat had 81 established positions filled at the end of the year, with nine vacancies for a total complement of 90 established positions (Table 4). In addition there were 41
temporary continuous and six temporary auxiliary
employees on staff for a total of 128 employees.
The Secretariat recruited and filled 34 positions
in 1975 compared to 24 new positions in 1974,
almost all of these positions being filled prior to
the Government-imposed restrictions on hiring.
The number of short-term and summer appointments was also increased over 1974 due to increased funding under the Work in Government
(WIG) Program. Over the year, 64 such positions were filled compared to 53 in 1974. A
substantial increase in reclassifications occurred
during 1975, 34 positions being reclassified compared to four positions in 1974. A major reason
for this increase was the implementation of a new
Technical Assistant Series; as a result, many
draughtsmen and mapping assistants were reclassified to higher levels in the Technical Assistant
The Government signed its first contract with the
British Columbia Government Professional Employees' Association on June 20, 1975. As this
contract covers a number of the Secretariat's employees, much of the Director's time was spent
in providing management input into these negotiations. Separate component negotiations covering salaries for geologists, foresters, and agricul
turists also occupied staff time and as of the year-
end agreement with the agriculturists had not
been reached.
The second master contract with the British Columbia Government Employees' Union, the union
representing the majority of Secretariat employees, was signed on November 14, 1975. Only
a limited amount of this office's time was devoted
to this contract, but it has become very much
involved in developing greater departmental involvement in component negotiations at the line
Although there was a small increase in turnover
in 1975, the Secretariat rate of 10.5 percent is
still well below the average for the Provincial
Government of 17 percent. Similary, the average sick leave rate of 3 percent for the Secretariat
continues below the Government-wide average of
4.5 percent (1974 figure). Under the master
contracts signed with the major employee unions,
a portion of the unused sick leave is payable upon
The principal promotions within the Secretariat
during 1975 occurred within the Resource Analysis Unit. Dr. A. N. Boydell was appointed Chief,
Surficial Geology and Soils Division; T. W.
Chamberlin became Supervisor of the Water-Fish
Section; Dr. R. G. Wilson was appointed Supervisor of the Climatology Section, and W. G.
Yeomans became Chief of the Recreation Division.
R. H. Reid of the Geographic Division successfully completed a correspondence course in Public
Administration. Additionally, employees received
sponsorship on 24 courses that would assist them
in developing skills and increase their potential
within the B.C. Government.
 Table 4—Secretariat Establishment by Units
Executive   Offices   and   Ad-
1 Clerk-Stenographer 4
1 Clerk-Stenographer 2
1 R.O.
1 Economist 2
1 Agriculturist 3
1 Agriculturist 3
1 Biologist 3
1 R.O. 5
Resource Analysis Unit—
Land Inventory—	
Soils and Surficial Geology
Climate and Data Services...
9 vacancies
This Division provides accounting services for
the Lands Service and Water Resources Service as
well as the ELUC Secretariat. These services include assistance with the preparation of estimates,
budgetary control, the preparation and distribution of payroll data, the processing of accounts
payable and purchase requisitions, and the preparation of reports and summaries for other Provincial and Federal Government departments.
Because of staff turnover, increased expenditure,
and numerous complexities and adjustments arising from the collective bargaining process it has
been a very busy year for the payroll and accounts
payable sections. Serious delays in payments,
which occurred during the year, were somewhat
alleviated in October when this department was
permitted to add one temporary employee to each
section. The staff additions also made it possible
to focus more attention on expenditure control.
Statement of Expenditure for the Calendar Year 1975
Executive Offices and Administration ]
Resource Planning Unit
Special Projects Unit
Resource Analysis Unit— $
Land Inventory  366,597
Soils and Surficial Geology  219,480
Recreation Division   501,681
Climate and Data  644,999
Geographic  373,693
Land Capability Maps*
Agriculture (1:125,000)
93J/SE—Salmon River
93K/SW—Burns Lake
93L/NE—Fulton River
Forestry (1:125,000)
93F/NE—Tachick Lake
93K/SW—Burns Lake
93L/NE—Fulton River
9 3M/SW—Hazelton
94A/NE—Rose Prairie
94B/NE—Halfway River
94H/SE—Big Arrow Creek
Recreation (1:125,000)
9 3E—Nootka Sound
931—Monkman Pass
Ungulates (1:250,000)
92L-102I—Alert Bay
920—Taseko Lakes
Waterfowl (1:250,000)
92E—Nootka Sound
92 J—Pemberton
92K—Bute Inlet
93A—Quesnel Lake
* Published by the Lands Directorate, Department of the
Environment, Ottawa.
Block, H. J., et al. Recreation Capability Inventory—A Preliminary Description for
Reconnaissance Inventory of Outdoor Recreation Features and Physical Carrying
Capacity for Outdoor Recreation, 19 pp.,
1975 (2nd preliminary edition).
Block, H. J., and Falls, R. W. Recreational
Resources of the Smithers Area, 40 pp, 2
maps, 1975.
Environment and Land Use Committee. Resource and Environmental Planning in British
Columbia, 16 pp, 1975.
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat. Annual Report, 1974, 63 pp, 7
maps, 1975.
Hawes, R. A. A Landscape Approach Useful to
Regional Land Use Planning, 1969, 200 pp,
77 plates, 1 map, 1975.
Johnston Associates. MacKenzie Market
Study, 70 pp, 30 tables, 9 figures, 1975.
Lord, T. M., and Green, A. J. Soils of the
Tulameen Area of British Columbia, British
Columbia Soil Survey Report #13, 163 pp,
5 tables, 18 figures, 1 map, Ottawa, 1974.
Paish, L. H., et al. Tsitika-Schoen Resources
Study Summary Report, 42 pp, 2 maps,
Travers, O. R. Cathedral Provincial Park Expansion Proposal: Impact Evaluation, 60
pp, 12 maps, 3 graphs, 1975.
Yeomans, W. C. Landscape Architecture and
the Visual Resource, 28 pp, 1975.


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