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Report of the MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1976 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1977

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Hon. James A. Nielsen, Minister B. E. Marr, Deputy Minister
Report of the
MINISTRY
OF THE
ENVIRONMENT
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1976
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1977
  June 30, 1977.
To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment for the year ended December 31, 1976.
JAMES A. NIELSEN
Minister oj the Environment
 June 30, 1977.
The Honourable James A. Nielsen,
Minister oj the Environment.
Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Ministry of the Environment for the 12 months ended December 31, 1976.
B. E. MARR
Deputy Minister
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  CONTENTS
Page
Ministry of the Environment  9
Land Management Branch  15
Surveys and Mapping Branch  29
University Endowment Lands  47
Water Resources Service  5 3
Water Investigations Branch  71
Pollution Control Board  95
Pollution Control Branch  99
Environmental Laboratory    107
Inspector of Dykes  113
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat  117
Personnel Services  137
Mail and File Room  145
Accounting Division  149
  Report of the Ministry of the Environment
INTRODUCTION
This is the first Annual Report of the Ministry of the Environment combining
the reports of the Lands Service, the Water Resources Service, and the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat. The report of the B.C. Land Commission will be presented separately, as required by statute.
The organization chart included in the Report is effective January 1977.
This Report, however, reflects the organization of the Ministry for 1976 and will
differ in structure from the chart.
The Ministry has, as its responsibility, the management and protection of the
land, air, and water resources of the Province. It carries out this mandate through
regional and district offices located throughout the Province, supported by a multi-
discipline head office staff, and through co-operative arrangements with other
Ministries. Thanks are due these ministries, universities, and outside agencies and
groups for their support and assistance during the year.
Highlights in 1976 included:
• Initiation of a study on the future use of the University Endowment
Lands.
• Completion of the Ladysmith Harbour Management Study and the
Campbell River Estuary Study.
• Public hearings on the Revelstoke Dam under the Water Act.
• Continuation of an inspection program covering approximately 250
licensed water storage dams in the Kelowna District. Of the 75 inspected during the year, two were ordered breached for safety reasons,
and extensive repairs were ordered for five.
• Amendments to land and water district boundaries to conform with
Regional Resource Management areas.
• The opening of a new land district office in Cranbrook and a regional
office in Nanaimo.
• Nine new improvement districts were created and two dissolved.
• Floodplain surveys were completed for 210 miles of river and 77 miles
of lakeshore, .571 proposed subdivisions within the floodplain were
reviewed.
• $10 million was expended under the Fraser River Flood Control Program. An amended agreement was signed with the Federal Government increasing total funding under the joint program to $120 million.
• Some 30 Environmental Impact Study reports were prepared or reviewed.
• A public inquiry into the Pollution Control Objectives for the Forest
Products Industry was held.
 U 10 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
• Four appeals, including the Afton Mines hearings, were held under
the Pollution Control Act.
• Project SAM compacted approximately 14,000 vehicles.
• A Water Quality Check Program was introduced, in co-operation with
the Ministry of Health, for analysis of private water supplies.
• The Babine Integrated Management Unit was created for resource
management of the southern Babine Mountains.
• The Adams River Corridor was designated to protect the valuable
fishery resource as a recreation area.
• The Coal Development Guidelines were issued, outlining the environmental and community impact process to be followed for coal development proposals.
• First stage environmental studies were completed for the Northeast
Block Area.
These and other programs are discussed in more detail in the body of the
Report.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
December 31, 1976
B. E. Marr, Deputy Minister
Lands Service
W. R. Redel, Assistant Deputy Minister
D. Borthwick, Assistant Deputy Minister, Special Projects
A. E. Raine, Co-ordinator of Ski Developments
R. P. Murdoch, Manager, University Endowment Lands (Vancouver)
G. H. Wilson, Director, Land Management Branch
A. Smith, Assistant Director, Policy Division
D. Goodwin, Assistant Director, Special Programs Division
A. Rhoades, Assistant Director, Lower Coast Division
F. Edgell, Assistant Director, Northern Division
A. Paulsen, Assistant Director, Southern Interior Division
W. J. Long, Office Manager
E. R. McMinn, Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch
W. A. Taylor, Surveyor-General
R. W. Thorpe, Supervising Surveyor, Legal Surveys Division
A. D. Wight, Chief, Field Operations Division
K. M. Bridge, Supervising Surveyor, Field Operations Division
[Vacant], Chief, Map Production Division
E. S. W. Andrews, Assistant Chief, Map Production Division
Water Resources Service
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights
E. D. Anthony, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
P. M. Brady, Director, Water Investigations Branch
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Director, Water Investigations Branch
W. N. Venables, Director, Pollution Control Branch
R. H. Ferguson, Assistant Director, Pollution Control Branch
H. P. Klassen, Assistant Director, Pollution Control Branch
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist, Environmental Laboratory
K. J. Chisholm, Inspector of Dykes
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes
Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat
D. K. O'Gorman, Acting Director
W. A. Benson, Assistant Director, Resource Analysis Unit
J. O'Riordan, Assistant Director, Special Projects Unit
E. Karlsen, Acting Assistant Director, Resource Planning
Accounting Division
K. R. MacKay, Departmental Comptroller
Personnel Office
R. C. Webber, Director of Personnel
Mail and File Room
D. S. Preston, Supervisor
11
  LAND
MANAGEMENT
BRANCH
 U 14 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
SUMMARY
The financial and manpower restraints under which the Lands Service was
obliged to operate during the past year have resulted in the largest backlog of
outstanding field work in the history of the Ministry. As of December 31, 1976,
there were 2,168 land inspections which must now be carried over to the next
field season.
Reorganization of the Land Management Branch began in 1975, but has
not been completed because of the current staff-hiring policy. Hence, decentralization of the decision-making process, which would result in more expeditious
adjudication of land applications, has not materialized.
The computer program which began in 1975 is expected to be completed by
July of 1977. This program will result in the creation of a data storage bank for
pertinent information from some 16,000 leases and will also provide information
for the accounting procedures necessary to bill and record lease revenues.
There is an urgent need to computerize all of the Crown land status records.
These records have been hand-written since before Confederation, and are still
kept in this antiquated manner. The quick retrieval of Crown land status information is a primary step in most resource management plans, whether such plans
are for management of the fish and wildlife resources of the Province or for forestry, mining, or land use. Although this program will be costly in terms of man-
hours required to screen the information in the handwritten land registers, it
cannot be delayed much longer without having an adverse effect on the planning
for all of the natural resources of the Province.
During the past year, studies have proceeded toward development of a plan
for a town centre in the Resort Municipality of Whistler. These studies have now
been completed and the British Columbia Housing Corporation has been requested
to undertake the development.
In December 1975 the Lands Service became a part of the newly formed
Ministry of the Environment. Under the new Ministry, the responsibility for the
development of rural residential subdivisions on Crown land has been transferred
to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. The role of the Land Management Branch will gradually shift from a strictly control agency to a control and
management agency.
In July the Minister announced the appointment of a team to study and make
recommendations on the future use of the University Endowment Lands. This
team will examine all of the previous reports and information available, hold public
hearings, and subsequently make recommendations to the Minister as a result of
their deliberations.
The curtailment in filling vacancies in the field staff has prevented the Land
Management Branch from expanding its role into shoreline management, land use
resource planning, and the ever-present problem of trespass on Crown lands.
Hopefully, with some internal reorganization, a shifting of priorities, and some
relaxation in hiring practices, some of these pressing problems can be addressed
during the forthcoming year.
 LAND
MANAGEMENT
BRANCH
G. H. Wilson,
Director
The Land Management Branch is charged with the management of all vacant
and unreserved Crown lands within the Province, which includes foreshore areas
and land covered by water. Since the natural resources are closely tied to the
Crown land base, it is imperative that sound land management practices be employed in order to ensure that maximum benefits are achieved from these resources.
Such benefits are not only measured in productivity but also in environmental
quality.
While emphasis is placed on management of the land resource as apart from
development, certain Crown lands are required for specific uses. To achieve sound
land management practices that not only support integrated resource management
objectives but at the same time make suitable lands available for development, a
high level of interagency co-operation is required. This co-operation, though
frequently pressed to extremes due to the shortage of staff, is maintained through
an elaborate referral system, through the active participation of resource people
in Resource Management Committees and subcommittees, and also through participation on special task forces.
A first priority of the Land Management Branch has always been to make
available suitable Crown lands to meet the needs of the public. In the absence
of adequate planning, areas required for development must be processed on an
individual application basis. This procedure is not only poor from the standpoint
of the applicant but also from the standpoint of the Branch since the process involved is very time consuming and as an end result the large majority of applications dealt with in this way are turned down. To resolve the problem and to provide better service to the public, planning for land management must be accelerated.
Due to a staff vacancy level which remained fairly constant at approximately 20
per cent during all of 1976, of 35 land management plans under development only
seven were completed.
In order to improve service to the public, one of the major objectives of the
Branch is to transfer as many of the administrative and decision-making functions
as possible from headquarters to the seven resource management regions. As a
consequence of the reductions made in staff this process of decentralization has
suffered a temporary setback.
In order to maximize use of existing staff the Branch is continually examining
administrative procedures and operational methods to improve efficiency. Following such examination and review during 1976, it has been found possible to reduce
steps in certain procedures with a consequent saving in staff time. Policy items
currently under review deal with agricultural leases, lands required by municipalities, consent to build access roads, oil and gas pipeline R/W terms, trespass use of
Crown lands, and uses of foreshore for many purposes, including public use.
15
 U  16 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
A program started in 1975 to record Crown leases in a data processing system
was completed in 1976. With this system now functioning the Branch can rapidly
retrieve information dealing with any of the 14,000 leases which have been issued
by the Branch. This new capability should assist greatly in speeding up the handling of these lease applications from the administrative point of view and assist the
Branch to serve the public better in answering correspondence and dealing with
inquiries from individual lessees.
The interest of the general public in Crown land remains strong. During
the past year, 33,887 pieces of mail were received in the Branch, an increase of 16
per cent over the previous year. An increase was also noted in demand for
agricultural and residential leases and out of a total of 986 leases finally issued,
40 per cent were in these two categories. Foreshore leases issued this year numbered 217 or 22 per cent of all leases issued.
Provision is made in the Land Act to make free grants of Crown land for a
specific public purpose. During 1976, 20 such grants were made to Crown
agencies, municipalities, and villages. The total market value of the lands involved
is estimated at $974,434. In addition, 42 leases were issued for a nominal consideration of $25 per lease for purposes such as recreation, garbage disposal, school
site, firehall, rehabilitation centre, sewage and solid waste disposal and sanitary
landfill. The estimated market value of these properties is $2,840,462. The total
net Land Act collections for 1976 were $6,522,579.90, up approximately 20 per
cent over 1974.
REGIONAL SUMMARIES
Northern Division
Interagency co-operation in land management was maintained in the Northern
Division through the use of an elaborate referral system, and the active participation
of field staff in Regional Resource Management Committees and subcommittees,
and special task forces such as the Northeast Coal Subcommittee in the Omineca-
Peace Region. The over-all work output of the Northern Division declined relative to previous years, owing primarily to a large turnover in field staff and constraints on hiring replacement staff.
Cariboo Region
Crown land management planning highlighted the field activities of the Cariboo
Region during 1976. This was advanced in several contentious areas, notably west
of Quesnel and south of Williams Lake in the central Cariboo. A highlight on the
administrative side of field operations was the transfer to the Land Management
Branch of the Land Commissioner function for the Williams Lake Land Recording
District. This reassignment of responsibilities from the Ministry of Finance has been
implemented on an experimental basis with the object of providing a more direct
and improved level of service to the public. This action, coupled with advances in
the planning program, is directed to a more positive and expeditious handling of
applications for Crown lands.
Omineca-Peace Region
Management planning in several land reserve areas in the Peace River Block
was co-ordinated on an integrated basis by the district and regional staff of Land
Management Branch. Management plans were adopted for the Umbach and the
Cecil Lake South land reserves involving approximately 68,000 acres of Crown
lands.   Phase I development began on agricultural settlement areas in the South
 LAND MANAGEMENT BRANCH
U  17
Peace and work on Phases I and II will continue in the 1977 field season. Ninety
residential lots were developed in Crown subdivisions throughout the Omineca-
Peace Region, and planning for rural residential settlement to alleviate a widespread
trespass problem on Crown lands in the vicinity of Germansen Landing was initiated
following removal of the area from the Finlay Provincial Forest. Tentative agreement was reached in negotiations involving the exchange of Crown Provincial lands
for Indian reserve lands required for railway right-of-way purposes northwest of
Vanderhoof.
Skeena Region
Integrated planning for agricultural settlement on Crown lands in the Telegraph Creek area of northwestern British Columbia, and planning for use of foreshore lands in Minette Bay at Kitimat, were among the more interesting projects
advanced by the field staff in the Skeena Region during 1976.
The subdivision program moved forward when approvals were obtained for
commercial development of Crown lands at Granisle Townsite, and Bell-Irving
Crossing on the Stewart-Cassiar Highway. Similarly, an agricultural smallholding
subdivision with lots ranging in size from 20 to 40 acres was approved for development in the Terrace area. Development of a rural residential subdivision near Dease
Lake neared completion at year-end, following successful auction of commercial,
recreational, and light industrial lots at Dease Lake Townsite in late October.
Preparatory work leading to the designation of the Babine Integrated Management Unit in the Babine Mountains east of Smithers was a major undertaking. A
permanent subcommittee under the chairmanship of the Regional Land Manager
has been struck to review and monitor resource utilization plans within the integrated management unit.
Southern Interior Division
Thompson-Okanagan Region
Use of all-terrain vehicles on Crown land, particularly in the Lac du Bois area
of Kamloops, continues to be a significant land management problem. A motorcycle meet and a subsequent public meeting at Barnhartvale served to bring the
problem out in the open and provide the basis for a careful study of the problem.
A special land management reserve for outdoor recreation was established
over the Bonaparte Plateau to maintain material qualities and high values for wild-
land recreation, forestry, wildlife, watershed, and grazing. Four areas totalling
approximately 35,000 acres were reserved by Order in Council to limit any further
alienation and to prohibit mineral staking. Porcupine Ridge, one of the four areas,
has been closed to all-terrain vehicle and snowmobile use without a permit in order
to protect wildlife and fragile alpine meadows. Another 52,000 acres is to be managed for multiple uses under the resource folio approach of the B.C. Forest Service.
Some of the more outstanding examinations in the region were the Afton Mines
application for a smelter site and related purposes located south of Kamloops, an
application for a shopping-centre site located in South Kamloops, some applications
for grazing lease renewals covering large acreages located in the Kamloops-Cache
Creek area, and a number of controversial foreshore lease applications and foreshore trespasses in Shuswap and Okanagan Lakes.
Seven co-ordinated resource management plans initiated by the B.C. Forest
Service Range Division were attended by our field staff during 1976. These studies
will help in resolving resource management conflicts as well as help in supplying
our Ministry with better information on which to base imporant land use decisions.
 U 18
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
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Road construction in Crown subdivision for rural residential lots near Dease Lake
Townsite, October 28, 1976.
 LAND MANAGEMENT BRANCH
U  19
Kootenay Region
A new district office was opened at Cranbrook on August 1, 1976. Ms. B.
Beedle became the first manager of the Cranbrook District and the first woman to
be a Land Manager in charge of a district.
Twelve co-ordinated resource management plans were completed and to a
large extent the plans were implemented during 1976.
Some of the more noteworthy land examinations in the Kootenays related to
the application by the Village of Nakusp for a commercial development in the
vicinity of Nakusp Hot Springs, the ongoing management problems associated with
the implementation of the Cranbrook City Spray Irrigation Sewage Effluent System,
and a number of applications in the southeast corner of the Province for coal-mining
purposes.
Lower Coast Division
Lower Mainland Region
The region as well as the district offices were all moved during the month of
June to a new, larger, and better equipped office in the McLaren Centre, 4240
Manor Street, Burnaby.
The management program covering the quarrying of gravel from the bars in
the Fraser River was continued. In addition, the program was expanded to cover
quarrying the other parts of the region. The quantity of quarry material removed
was lower than in 1975, with a total of $83,300 collected in royalty payments.
During the past year the professional staff of this region all attended educational seminars and workshops pertaining to the environment. Coastal environmental systems and their nomenclature were studied along with coastal management
methods, availability, and interpretation of coastal resource information.
During the past year, applications to lease areas of foreshore for raft culture
of oysters increased. New techniques and higher prices for this commodity make
this an industry of ever-growing interest. There was a general overall increase in the
number of examinations made in 1976. This was mainly due to the large outstanding work load at the beginning of the year and excellent flying and field conditions
during the later part of the year, making access to many areas easier than usual.
The number of new requests for inspection received in the region were down by 7.3
per cent from 1975 and by 23.6 per cent since 1972. The long-term outlook for
the region suggests a continuing decrease in the number of new requests. Lease
rental reviews still account for a large percentage of the total number of inspection
requests. Upland lease rental reviews make up the largest single segment of the total
at 14 per cent. Foreshore lease examinations of all kinds make up 35 per cent of
the total and examinations related to uses for log storage and booming make up 54
per cent of all foreshore areas examined.
A number of complicated and time-consuming land examinations were encountered in 1976. These included applications for purported accretions, industrial
and commercial applications with environmental concerns, and trespasses on Crown
land. Trespass problems are clearly becoming more frequent and difficult to deal
with, especially as they relate to foreshore areas. It is evident that in future more
time will be required to investigate trespasses on Crown land, especially foreshore.
Requests to examine and report upon purported areas of accretions are a complex
and continuing problem for the staff. Seminars for Land Management personnel
should be conducted to study the problems encountered when trying to determine
whether an accretion has occurred.
 U 20 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Increased attention will be needed to resolve regional districts' concerns and
problems which affect the environment. An example of this type of concern is the
problem of private docks, wharves, and floats in crowded moorage areas such as
Pender Harbour.
Vancouver Island Region
The Vancouver Island Regional Land Manager assumed his duties during the
month of January and established a regional office at 190 Wallace Street in
Nanaimo. In August the Victoria District Land Manager moved his office to the
same location in Nanaimo.
The Regional Land Manager assumed the role of Chairman of the Regional
Resource Management Committee. The Committee activities consisted of preparing
recommendations for the Environment and Land Use Committee on the Cowichan
Valley Flood Control Problems, considering a proposal by B.C. Forest Products
to fill Crown foreshore at Crofton on which to develop a dry land log-sorting operation, and establishing subcommittees involving District Land Managers to consider
interagency problems.
The Campbell River Estuary study was completed and a review of the report
was commenced by a multi-agency committee to evaluate the economic impact of
implementing the recommendations which were made. Ladysmith Harbour management continued under the Regional Land Manager and Foreshore Control
Officer. The harbour study was completed but the final report with recommendations is not yet available for use as a management guideline.
All of the staff in the region attended educational seminars or workshops
during the year which pertained to some facet of the land management function.
It is intended that this very worth-while program be continued.
The present procedure which must be followed in order for applicants to obtain
a homesite on Crown land is poor from the standpoint of both the applicant and the
Ministry, as only 19.2 per cent of those applications received in this way are
approved. In view of this problem a program has been initiated to designate uses
for uncommitted Crown lands in the E & N Railway belt so that applications can
be channelled into areas where a better prospect of approval may exist.
POLICY DIVISION
One of the major policy changes initiated during 1976 included amending the
policy of lease tenure only for commercial and industrial leases to allow for an
option to purchase upon completion of development requirements. This change in
policy does not apply to waterfront leases, foreshore leases, or to leases issued for
quarrying purposes.
Rentals for commercial resort leases on inland lakes were reduced to 5 per cent
of market value per annum and a policy established of not more than doubling
rental at any rental review date. This policy was also applied to foreshore leases
issued for uses directly related to commercial resorts on inland lakes.
Pending completion of a review by a committee convened by the ELUC Secretariat to develop a revised policy relating to agricultural leases by July 1, 1977, an
interim policy was established of not cancelling agricultural leases for nonperformance during the period of the review. Leases in this category are being automatically
extended for two years. The interim policy also precludes any change in the rental
or purchase price of a lease pending development of the revised policy.
Where existing leases are held by non-Canadians and where diligent use is
being made of same, a policy was established to renew same on the understanding
 LAND MANAGEMENT BRANCH
U 21
that the lessee cannot assign to other than a Canadian citizen or landed immigrant.
This policy will eventually repatriate all such leases into Canadian ownership.
The policy of leasehold tenure only for lands required by municipalities or
regional districts was changed to allow for the conveying of some areas for public
park purposes by a restricted Crown grant at a nominal purchase price
The Ecological Reserve Program proceeded at a very slow pace during 1976
owing to budgetary restraints and the time required to process new proposals.
Although a number of proposals are at present on stream, only one new reserve was
actually established in 1976. This, the 75th reserve, was at Clanninick Creek near
Kyuquot on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The reserve covers 91 acres and
protects and sets aside for scientific study a representative sample of a stand of
Sitka spruce on an alluvial site.
Surveys were made for new proposals during the summer months concentrating on Vancouver Island, the Mainland coast, and the southern fifth of the Province.
Long-term research, started in 1974, was continued on the Triangle Island
Ecological Reserve by the Canadian Wildlife Service. This year, summer students
worked on baseline studies of reserves in the Okanagan Valley, mainly in the vicinity
of Vernon.
Forty-two new reserves were proposed at the autumn annual meeting of the
Ecological Reserves Committee. These proposals will be studied during the forthcoming year.
The Greenbelt Unit of the Policy Division administers the Green Belt Protection Fund Act (1972). Ninety properties are now included in the Greenbelt Land
Inventory list involving 23,153 acres at a cost of $21,812,958. Four properties
involving 409 acres have been donated to the Crown and are also carried in the
Greenbelt Inventory.
The Environmental Services Unit provides advisory services on the biological,
ecological, and environmental aspects of Crown land management. Emphasized
are the analysis of environmental impacts of proposed development projects, resolution of conflicts in Crown land use, promotion of ecologically based integrated
planning of Crown land use, and development of environmental land management
policies.
The acquisition of two additional senior environmental biologists enabled the
Unit to structure its operations along regional lines in relation to the requirements of
the Branch for environmental services within the context of decentralized regional
operations. In serving the regions for Victoria, the Environmental Services Unit
staff spent approximately 33 per cent of their working-time in the regions and in the
field each month throughout the year.
In keeping with statutory requirements, the Land Management Branch has
jurisdiction over foreshore and land covered by water along 17,000 miles of marine
coastal shoreline. During 1976 the Environmental Services Unit continued studies,
for both Provincial and Federal Governments, directed toward the development of
a Provincial shoreland management policy. The conduct of pilot coastal classification projects oriented to the provision of an appropriate biophysical basis for coastal
land use planning has been and continues to be a major concern. Unit staff were
also involved in policy efforts regarding oil tanker traffic, resource access road location, riparian land management, marina development, Fraser estuary management,
and environmental assessment guidelines.
Representation of the Branch on committees and task forces continued to be a
major responsibility of the Environmental Services Unit. Staff served on Interdepartmental Standing Committees regarding outdoor recreation  co-ordination,
 U 22 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
ecological reserves, and mine-site reclamation, as well as on four Interdepartmental
Policy Committees and five Interdepartmental Task Committees. In addition, the
Co-ordinator of Environmental Services represented the Province on three Federal
Environmental Review Panels, notably those on Roberts Bank terminal expansion,
Haines Road reconstruction, and Fraser River channel training.
Environmental reviews were conducted by Unit staff on 20 major projects and
on numerous minor projects throughout the Province. In addition, the Unit
assumed a central role in the resolution of 15 significant resource conflict problems
in various areas of the Province.
Planning Studies were entered into in Minnette Bay of Kitimat Arm, and contributed to in the Germansen Landing/Manson Creek area, Naden Harbour,
Carbon Creek, Campbell River Estuary, Capital Western Communities, and Howe
Sound.
In addition to servicing Branch requests, the Environmental Services Unit also
provides advisory services to other ministerial services, other Provincial ministries,
Crown agencies, and regional districts.
SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIVISION
Land Management Branch
Staff shortages in the Special Programs Division restricted production during
the year. The Lot Development Unit operated with a vacancy in the Planning Section. The Geological Engineer of the Engineering Section resigned in May and was
not replaced. The Water Investigations Branch undertook to supply the groundwater information necessary for the development of rural subdivisions. The Status
Unit operated with two clerical vacancies during the year.
The Status Unit provides land status information for the Branch, other Government ministries, Crown corporations, and private agencies. This unit prepared 267
special status maps, checked the status of 36,011 parcels of Crown land and made
12,415 entries in the Official Land Registers. There were 17 new status maps
prepared on mylar base transparencies, bringing the total number completed to 197
status maps.
The computer program progressed satisfactorily with the completion of the
coding of approximately 14,000 leases and 2,000 easements. Since August, the
computer has been utilized for writing and testing the various programs and for
familiarizing the staff who will be operating the terminals. It is anticipated that the
lease program will be fully operational early in 1977 and the accounting program
by April 1977.
During the summer, five university students were hired to code particulars of
reserves currently recorded on Branch files. It is estimated that there are approximately 8,000 reserves established and at the present time this project is 75 per cent
completed.
During 1976 the Lot Development Unit had a total of 83 proposed subdivisions
under study, of which eight were under development and five existing subdivisions
were upgraded by additional services such as power, water, sewer, or the paving of
roads. There were 129 new lots created and 293 lots upgraded by the construction
of additional services.
In October the residential subdivision program was officially transferred to the
Ministry of Housing and Municipal Affairs. Sixty-five proposed subdivisions in
which development was under way were retained and are to be completed by the
Lot Development Unit.
 LAND MANAGEMENT BRANCH
U 23
The Engineering Section of the Lot Development Unit completed field investigations and reported on certain improvements and erosion problems on Crown land
for the Southern Interior Region of the Land Management Branch. Investigation
and supervision of construction were undertaken on green belt properties located at
Victoria, Yellow Point, and Galiano Island. The design, preparation of cost estimates, and supervision of the reconstruction and paving of roads in the University
Endowment Lands were undertaken.
Each year greater demands are being made for Crown lands. This demand
has created many conflicts between resource ministries, regional districts, and the
general public. In order to reduce these conflicts, folios showing resource data
have been completed which indicate land use options. In certain areas more
detailed integrated management plans have also been completed. The Planning
Section acted as the co-ordinator in the preparation of the resource folios and land
management plans.
More emphasis must be stressed in the coming years for the preplanning of
Crown land in order to avoid serious resource conflicts and to locate development
areas for specific purposes.
The Senior Planner represented the Land Management Branch on the task
force relative to the numerous problems encountered in the North-East Coal development. He was also a member of the task force studying problems relating to the
Campbell River estuary.
Members of the Lot Development Unit staff attended various conferences and
seminars related to their duties during the year.
Table 1—General Summary
1976
Certificates of improvements issued   6
Crown grants issued  613
Total acreage deeded by Crown
grants   71,997
Number of new land sales  613
Value of new land sales  $1,435,753
Number of leases issued  986
Total acreage leased  79,568
Easements issued   100
Reservations established   224
Net Land Act collections  $6,522,580
10-year Average,
1967-76
25
753
74,660
428
$954,617
1,510
199,233
134
388
$4,284,835
 U 24                                    MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 2—Analysis oj Inspections Completed and Inspections Outstanding
Year-end for the Years 1972 to 1976, Inclusive
at
Examinations Completed During Year
Examinations Outstanding at Year-end
Land Inspection Districts
1
1972 1   1973 I   1974
1             1
1975
1976
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
Vancouver Island Region
i             1
1             1
469 |     385 |     432
215 ]      146 |     272
416
199
493
154
103
29
91
50
69
67
90
82
97
103
684 |     531 |     704
615
647
132
141
136
172
200
Lower Mainland Region
New Westminster   	
289 |     267
216  j      161
188
176
192
165
192
193
223
291
6
29
59
45
13
40
72
25
79
64
67
12
47
44
1,4 1      183
185
50
Subtotals	
839 |     611  |     549
549
707
94
98
176
255
141
7'hompson-Okanagan Region
Kamloops	
486 |     402
209  j      193
378  |     390
546
225
605
501
195
259
423
210
177
30
42
69
39
47
166
45
21
50
93
62
25
91
57
32
1,073  |     985 | 1,376
955
810
141
252
116
180
180
Kootenay Region
425 |     417 [     347
320
378
61
59
37
-----
53
132
27
55
425 |     417 |     347
320
439
59
37
53
132
87
Cariboo Region
243  |      195
603 |     597
157
514
235
570
50
142
508
327
18
62
15
111
	
60
227
43
297
113
87
357
100 Mile House	
90
846 |     792  |     671
855
977
80
126
287
453
534
Otnineca-Peace Region
Fort-St. John 	
I
459   1      533
690
386
385
219
771
376
406
255
657
236
400
85
209
84
33
5
33T
85
92
65
57
35
46
108
67
135
68
94
46
95
150
435
169
198
294
101
121
212
Vanderhoof ._ 	
178
Subtotals 	
1,213 |  1,126 | 1,680
1,808
1,378
299
256
343
606
Skeena Region
153
199
115
164
222
174
158
102
192
102
269
170
152
244
74
36
40
23
69
78
76
50
76
116
106
65
120
180
Burns Lake	
125
467
560 |     652
541
470
74
170
202
287
425
5.547
5.022   1  5.979
5,643
5,428
911
1,123
1,226
1,822
2,168
1               1
1 Office opened August 1, 1976.
 LAND MANAGEMENT BRANCH
U 25
Table 3—Analysis oj Requests for Inspection Processed by Land Management
Branch jor Years 1972 to 1976, Inclusive
New Requests Received During—
Per Cent Change—
Land Management Regions and Land
Management Districts
1972 |
1973
1974
1975
1976
1976
Over
1975
1976
Over
1972
Vancouver Island Region
Courtenay -   - -	
457
212
373
167
410
289
436
215
589
257
+ 35.1
+ 19.5
+28.9
+21.2
Subtotals 	
669
540
699
651
846
+30.0
+ 26.5
Lower Mainland Region
261
182
306
305
145
164
214
188
224
194
209
245
176
207
218
-9.3
-1.0
— 11.0
— 32.6
+ 13.7
Vancouver North -	
-28.8
Subtotals   	
749
614
626
648
601
-7.3
— 19.8
Thompson-Okanagan Region
Kamloops  	
452
214
361
411
198
487
552
199
489
549
236
234
328
205
184
-40.3
-13.1
—21.4
-27.4
—4.2
—49.0
1,027
1,096
1,240
1,019
717
-29.6
— 30.2
Kootenay Region
436
395
363
	
399
341
48
-14.5
—21.8
436
395
363
399
389
—2.5
10 8
Cariboo Region
209
603
187
645
200
628
219
642
114
184
565
304
-16.0
-12.0
+ 166.7
120
6 3
100 Mile House	
812
832
828
975
1,053
+ 8.0  |    +29.7
Omineca-Peace Region
Fort St. John	
583
200
386
152
T32T
398
163
316
148
~no2TT
633
301
422
221
1,577
868
373
386
234
617
286
517
217
—28.9
— 23.3
+33.9
-7.3
— 12.0
+5.8
+43.0
+33.9
+42.8
1,861
I  1,637
+29.9
Skeena Region
153
145
142
153
291
211
211
283
190
102
|     269
170
|     156
318
134
+52.9
+ 18.2
—21.2
+ 12.4
+ 2.0
+ 119.3
1      —56
440
655
684
541
|     608
|    +38.2
5,454
5,157
6,017
| 6,094
1 5,851
I
Average change for 1976 over 1975 for Province is 4.0 per cent.
Average change for 1976 over 1972 for Province is 7.3 per cent.
 U 26 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 4—Subdivisions Under Development or Upgrading, 1976
Location Number of Lots
iPort Hardy (sewer)   33
JWhistler Ski Club Cabins (water)   4
1Devine (power)   34
iFort Nelson (paving)   199
iMile 62, Alaska Highway (power)   14
Jameson Road (north of Nanaimo)   11
Dease Lake  (residential)    28
Dease Lake  (commercial)    4
Bear Lake   26
Sundance (vicinity of Chetwynd)   4
Jackfish Lake (vicinity of Chetwynd)   20
Toad River (Mile 423, Alaska Highway)   14
Hyde Creek (south of Port McNeill)   22
1 Existing subdivisions which were upgraded by additional services.
Table 5—Resource Folios and Land Management Plans Completed in 1976
Omineca-Peace Land Management Region—
Land Reserve Folios—
Umbach. Upper Cache Creek.
Cecil Lake. Milligan Creek.
Sunset. Beryl Prairie.
Beatton-Doig. Boundary Lake.
Whites Landing. Farrell Creek.
Wartenbe. Giscome.
Bear Mountain.
Cariboo Land Management Region—
Land Reserve Folios—
Pantage Lake. Gerimi.
Bouchie Lake.
Land Management Plan—Southside-Williams Lake area.
Lower Mainland Land Management Region—Folio—Gambier Island.
Numerous other folios and integrated management plans are in various stages
of completion.
 SURVEYS
AND
MAPPING
BRANCH
  SURVEYS AND
MAPPING BRANCH
E. R. McMinn, Director
E. R. McMinn was appointed Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch, on
June 22, 1976, at which time the duties of the Surveyor-General were assigned to
W. A. Taylor, Chief, Legal Surveys Division of this Branch.
A significant point was reached in the Control Survey Program in the Province
this summer with the general completion of accurate monumented control for
1:50 000 mapping. British Columbia, alone among the provinces, has contributed
extensively to this Federal program and as a result the compilation of our 1:50 000
coverage is planned for completion by 1980.
The Interdepartmental Committee on Surveys and Mapping was reinstituted at
a Map Users Conference to discuss criticisms, requests, and changing needs.
At the Federal-Provincial Survey Officers meetings in Winnipeg and Ottawa,
the decision was made, supported largely by the stand of British Columbia, Ontario,
and Quebec, that the readjustment and geocentric transformation of the co-ordinate
structure of the continent, now based on the 1927 N. A. Datum, will be carried out
in one stage effective in 1983. This geodetic refinement is necessary because of
vastly improved technology in field survey work of the last decade and because of
the more precise figure-of-the-earth calculations developed by the Goddard Space
Center. This co-ordinate shift, which will amount to over 100 metres in this Province, will be introduced by geographic areas; large-scale mapping programs must
now be planned to accommodate this impending graticule shift and provision must
be made under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 to avoid problems in
locations under that Act.
Field survey work was highlighted by the airborne control work in central
British Columbia, by a second hastily assembled project to establish control in the
Northern Coal Development area of the Rocky Mountains, by the continuation of
the Boundary Commission work on the 60th parallel, by the Integrated Control
Survey work in six municipal areas, and by the completion of some 60 cadastral
surveys, 35 of which were for Land Management. The air-photo acquisition, as
was the work of the helicopter survey parties, was severely hampered by the bad
weather. In future years control surveys will concentrate on expanding the basic
structure into areas of development where it will immediately serve as large-scale
mapping and integrated survey control.
In our Crown Land Liaison Section, processing of records declined significantly;
amendments to regulations under the Land Act and Land Registry Act were made
to effect the change to metric dimensions.
In Map Production, renovated space and equipment were made available for
the Reprographics and Map Sales Sections and a rotational shift system was implemented in the Photogrammetric Section. It is clear that additional staff for shift
work in Reprographics and possibly in draughting rooms is the only rational method
of maximizing production without the need for more expensive equipment.
The vital need for space now is additional storage for the irreplaceable air
film which for the last three years has been accumulating along the corridor walls
without temperature control or special fire protection.
29
 U 30 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The booklet A Standard Mapping System jor B.C. was issued and has been
accepted in the Province and studied with interest across Canada.
This year a program of some 30 years' production, the planimetric mapping
for Forest Inventory, was changed to a project of revision and transformation to
1:20 000 scale. This change, together with the long expected crisis in composite
mapping, will mean a reassignment of compilation staff. The needs in composite
mapping have finally surfaced because of the implementation of the Assessment
Authority, the acceptance of the obvious requirements of regional planners, and
because of the activity of B.C. Hydro and B.C. Telephone Company in the field.
It makes sense that this program should be done by one control agency, done once,
done accurately, kept updated, and made available to all users. To do this work
will require funds for staff, for private sector participation, and for photogrammetric
equipment to increase quickly the production of accurate map bases.
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
For a detailed comparison of the work load in 1976 relative to 1975, reference
should be made to the Production Table for each individual function performed by
this Division. The table will be found in the section of this Report reserved for
statistics.
A majority of the functions show a decrease in activity which is generated
from applications by the public. Notable exceptions are an increase in the number
of subdivision plans checked, a substantial increase in timber sales cleared, and a
rise in the number of inquiries from the public for survey data. These are all duties
which are outside the main functions of this Ministry. The real barometer of land
disposition is the number of new lots confirmed and the number of Crown grant and
lease tracings made, and these figures showed a decline in activity.
Mention was made in the report for the preceding year of the necessity to divert
staff time to proper indexing of historical, statutory, and administrative surveys and
maps. Although one would have thought that a reduction in activity would be the
ideal time to get such a project under way, unfortunately, reduced staff allocation
coincided with this phenomenon and still no staff are available for that important
work.
A stock of official survey posts is maintained in all offices of Government
Agents, for use in Crown land surveys and replacement of original survey corners.
A resume of activity in this service appears in the table accompanying this report.
Table 6—Production Totals for the years 1975 and 1976
1975 1976
Field books prepared  226 164
Lots surveyed  274 201
Survey plans examined  250 207
Lots confirmed  320 269
Lots cancelled  272 585
Lots amended  65 56
Reference maps compiled or renewed  103 53
Applications for purchase cleared  147 72
Applications for lease cleared  3,863 3,198
Reserves cleared   420 268
Timber sales cleared  1,297 1,550
Crown grant applications cleared  1,030 965
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 31
Table 6—Production Totals for the Years 1975 and 1976—Continued
Cancellations from maps 	
Inquiries 	
Letters received and dealt with	
Examination sketches	
Crown grant and lease tracings made	
Well-site plans recorded	
Survey instructions issued	
Mineral claims lots created	
Mining leases cleared	
Mining claims plotted	
Mineral claims gazetted	
Mineral claims cancelled	
Placer leases plotted	
Placer leases cancelled	
Documents from vault examined	
Crown land subdivision and R/W plans	
Plans checked for the Land Registry Office ..
Descriptions written	
Draughting (Divisional Projects) 	
 number of hours
Money-mail and Verbal Request Forms	
Number of customers	
Number of hours 	
A great deal of time was spent in preparing the existing survey regulations for
conduct of surveys under the Land Act and various types of surveys under the Land
Registry Act, for a change-over to metric measurement. Details of what is required
in 1977 when metrication is totally in force were published in Part II of The British
Columbia Gazette as B.C. Regs. 577/76 and 578/76.
The opportunity was seized to introduce long-anticipated basic changes, such
as the allowance of a mylar film material for the original drawing as an alternative
to the tried and true Imperial linen, and the introduction of full circle bearings which
are more adaptable to modern computers than the historic quandrantal system.
New procedures to improve the permanence of surveys and to facilitate the
transfer of Crown interest in land have been introduced in recent years. Their usefulness is reflected in the increase in their use.
The stipulation of requirements for posting and examination of block outline
surveys, functions of private enterprise, as well as examination of other Crown
interest plans is developing into a significant burden. Some comparisons (see table)
will illustrate the activity, but to appreciate the burden, the complexity of the plans
must be investigated.
1975
1976
744
1,722
375
448
3,342
3,990
1,544
1,412
8,297
5,189
111
153
324
331
3
5
13
9
40
8
54
16
34
435
297
10
522
0
40,131
36,179
365
335
1,671
1,926
266
283
369
846
249
385
1,136
629
274
158
Table 7-
—Number o
/ Plans
Land Registry Act Section
Land Act,
80 (9)
81 (2)
102 (3)
118a
Section 72
1974..  	
1975 	
1976..
38
42
53
9
9
12
9
4
9
1
4
18
9
21
 U 32
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
LEGAL     SURVEYS     BRANCH
FUNCTIONS
['.'". j DENOTES WORK FOR OTHER DEPARTMENTS
GENERAL
INQUIRIES
SURVEY  INSTRUCTION
PREPARATION
PURCHASE,
LEASE,
RESERVE,
STATUS
TIMBER
SALE
CLEARANCES
INDIAN
RESERVE
SURVEYS
DESCRIPTIONS
AMENDMENT
OF OFFICIAL
PLANS
COMPUTER AND
REGULATION
EXAMINATION
LAND ACT SURVEY
PLANNING,
CROWN GRANT
AND LEASE
TRACINGS
PARK
RESERVES
LAND
REGISTRY
COMPUTER
CHECK,
INTEGRATED
SURVEY
PLANS
COMPUTER AND
REGULATION
EXAMINATION
RIGHTS OF WAY
HIGHWAYS
CROWN LAND
SUBDIVISIONS
INSPECTION
PLANS
MINERAL
CLAIMS,
P&N.G.
WELLSITE
SURVEYS,
CLEARANCES
REFERENCE
MAP
COMPLETION
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 33
Field Work
During the 1976 season the field staff undertook 62 surveys, 35 of which were
at the request of the Land Management Branch, the balance for other Government
ministries.
Land Management Branch Surveys
On Vancouver Island, surveys were carried out at the Princess Marguerite
wharf and Smuggler's Cove, Shawnigan Lake, Yellow Point, Comox, and Port
McNeill.
Further afield, surveys were carried out near Nelson, near Invermere, at Canoe,
Bear Lake, the Chetwynd Area, Dease Lake, Seton Lake, Francois Lake, and
Golden.
A total of 121 residential roadside or town lots was surveyed. Miscellaneous
assignments were carried out at Vernon, Anglemont, Okanagan Centre, Slocan, and
the New Westminster Federal Harbour, among others.
Interdepartmental Surveys
As in past years, we were of assistance in carrying out cadastral survey requirements of other ministries to the limit of our resources. Surveys were carried
out for Public Works in Victoria, Abbotsford, Haney, and Burnaby; Highways at
Wardner and UBC; Water Rights Branch at Kamloops, Boundary Bay, and Oliver
Slough; ELUC Secretariat in the Vernon area.
Many requests were handled for the Forest Service, although some must be
dealt with at a later date. Surveys completed for the Service included those at
Bear Lake, Red Rock Nursery, Vavenby, 100 Mile House, Chance Creek in the
Garibaldi area, and Wilson Creek near New Denver.
FIELD OPERATIONS DIVISION
The Field Survey Section operated six survey parties during the 1976 field
season. One was involved in extending the Provincial primary control, two parties
were assigned to Integrated Survey projects, and one party undertook the British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary maintenance project. The remaining two parties were
assigned to large-scale special mapping until about mid-summer, at which time the
two parties were consolidated and reassigned to a control survey for mapping of
the transportation corridors for the Northeast Coal Block.
The survey party working on primary control extended the basic Provincial
network into the uncontrolled areas of map sheets 93E, F, K, and L.
During the months of June, July, and early August, the survey party operated
from Burns Lake, and for the remainder of the season the crew operated from a
base at the Kenny Dam on Ootsa Lake.
One Integrated Survey party spend most of the field season extending the
control network in the District of North Vancouver. During the month of August,
this crew moved to Kelowna for two weeks and later undertook reconnaissance
surveys in the District of Coquitlam.
The second party assigned to Integrated Surveys established control in the
City of Victoria. This work is still in progress and will proceed through the winter. To date, 243 control monuments have been co-ordinated, which represents
about 50 per cent of the project. During mid-summer, this crew moved to Nelson
and established 43 control monuments to extend the existing Integrated Survey
Area to include areas of recent development.
 U 34
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The Boundary Maintenance crew continued the clearing program on the 60th
parallel, working eastward from the end of the 1975 program.
Large-scale mapping by field compilation of proposed development sites was
completed at Cumberland, Port Hardy, Whistler Townsite, and Southbank on
Francois Lake. Survey control was established for mapping by photogrammetric
compilation at Burns Lake, Jordan River gaol-site, and two quarry sites.
In July a request was received for a horizontal and vertical control for mapping the various transportation .corridors associated with the northeast coal development on a priority schedule. Two parties were consolidated and moved to
Chetwynd for the initial stage of the survey. The survey was completed in early
October.
Weather suitable for aerial photography made rare appearances during the
1976 season. Productivity on block vertical cover was reduced to 50 per cent
of the 1975 accomplishment and well below minimum expectations of the present
equipment. The numerous special projects, accomplished during marginal weather
periods, compared favourably with last season's totals. While block vertical photographic accomplishment was small, total flying-hours were only marginally reduced. This, combined with the good production on special projects (considering
the weather conditions), is evidence of and accomplished by constant surveillance
and determination by photographic personnel.
Table 8—Accomplishments of Air Survey Section
Number
of Photos
Lineal
Miles
Square
Miles
A. 1/50,000 vertical cover—
Ministry of Highways and Public Works: Lower Fraser Valley-
Ministry of the Environment:
Vancouver Island _  	
94H, I, J, O  	
Subtotals	
Totals    	
B. 1/40,000 vertical cover-
Ministry of Forests .
Ministry of the Environment.
Totals	
C. 1/31,680 vertical cover—Ministry of Forests: Dease PSYU..
D. 1/20,000 vertical cover—
Ministry of Forests	
Ministry of the Environment-
Ministry of Recreation and Conservation-
Totals .
E. Special projects—
Capital Regional District  	
ELUC  	
Ministry of Education  	
Ministry of Forests. _	
Ministry of Highways and Public Works (Highways).
Ministry of the Environment _ 	
Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources -	
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing-
Ministry of Highways and Public Works (Public Works)..
Ministry of Recreation and Conservation-
Ministry of Energy, Transport and Communications-
Water Resources Services. _	
Totals, special projects .
Grand totals	
119    |
82
51
496
2,008
1,439
2,585
350
143
23
6,816
25
6,268
1,518
765 j
344 |  	
10,710
4,816
1,109 |   	
15,526
1,228 |  	
17,044
1,313
11,712
1,485
11,892
2,798 |      | 23,604
1,324
10,620
1,080
750
5,625
22,779
2,025
1,350
12,450 |  -   | 26,154
20,286    |    12,402
38,086
12,402
72,427
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 35
A total of 38,005 new air photographs was exposed, of which 22,423 pertained to special projects and the balance on block vertical cover. Dual camera
operation was successfully used, both for two scales and two emulsions on selected
projects throughout the season.
Emphasis was on requests for aerial photography cycle between small to
large-scale cover. This year the emphasis was on medium scale because requesting agencies compromised on photographic scales to match the capability of the
available service. Block vertical photography completed this season covered 30
per cent of the total area requested, and an average year at the current rate of
demands would not exceed 60 per cent.
Small-scale photography provides economies in photo acquisition and processing for mapping or data extraction, and is suitable for many applications. The
limiting of the photographic program to large- and medium-scale photography
has, contrary to the intent, substantially increased the work load. The displayed
flexibility in choice of scales by air-photo users within the Government service
should therefore be channelled toward the use of small-scale photography by reinstating the small-scale program.
MAP PRODUCTION DIVISION
The year 1976 saw significant and long-awaited improvements in the accommodation of two sections of this Division.
The most noteworthy involved the Reprographics Section, which, in mid-
December, moved to 9,000 square feet of newly renovated floor space in the Colonist Printer Building, 2631 Douglas Street.
This section originated in the early 1900's as the Blueprint Section of the Surveys Branch. Since that date it had occupied the same quarters in the basement of
the Legislative Buildings, in subsequent years encroaching into adjoining areas and
finally accumulating a total of 6,300 square feet of overcrowded and inefficient floor
space. The move in December ended one of the longest room occupancies in the
records of the Legislative Buildings.
The second improvement, for the Map and Air Photo Sales Office, was brought
about by extensive ground floor alterations to Temporary Building No. 1, 553
Superior Street, which increased usable floor space to 2,400 square feet from an
original 1,300 square feet. This increase in area will permit the introduction of new
systems of information retrieval, leading to improved service to the users and purchasers of maps and air photos.
Staff establishment increased by nine to a total of 124, as a result of staff transfers from other sections within the Surveys and Mapping Branch and the Lands
Service. These transfers consisted of the four staff positions of the Geographical
Names and Research Section, previously under the direct administration of the
Director of Surveys and Mapping, together with the five positions of the Composite
Mapping Division at Kamloops, which had been reporting directly to the Assistant
Deputy Minister of Lands.
However, at December 31, 1976, positions filled totalled only 113. The 11
vacancies resulting from the restraints on hiring have caused considerable difficulties
in coping with the increased demand for our services, with the result that projects
have been delayed and some work, which must be done eventually, has been
neglected entirely.
There were two notable retirements in the Division during 1976.
S. L. Clarke retired after a career of 37 years in the Public Service. Commencing in July 1939 as a junior draughtsman in the Legal Surveys Division, since
 U 36
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
1971 he had been supervisor of Draughting and Map Compilation, with his main
responsibility the planning and production of the well-known lithographic map
series.
J. Hawes joined the Public Service in October 1946 and retired from his final
position as a Supervisor in the Cadastral Compilation section in September 1976.
Two other senior members of our draughting staff, R. Fraser and J. Pagonyi, also
retired in 1976.
Planimetric Section
Compilation
This year as a direct result of the poor weather during the photographic season
only 13,257 air photographs were handled for the Forest Inventory base mapping
program, compared with 29,000 in 1975. Because of the changing needs of the
Forest Inventory Division this program now consists mainly of the revision of existing base maps rather than new compilation. This is reflected in the years accomplishment of 453 20-chain map sheets revised in 11 different PSYU's and 13 40-
chain map sheets in the Dean PSYU.
Special projects included a new slotted-template laydown and planimetric
compilation of the whole of the E. and N. Land Belt at a scale of 1 inch=20
chains, at the request of the B.C. Assessment Authority, and revision of Garibaldi
Park.
The decrease in demand for base mapping for Forest Inventory purposes has
been more than offset by the demand for air-photo mosaics. These have now
become an established line of production as land and resource managers have
recognized the value of mosaics as a planning and management tool. Sixty mosaics
were constructed for various ministries, with the Forest Service issuing the bulk of
the requests.
Details of all production are shown in the tables.
Cadastral Compilation
In this section the major developments were the introduction and full adoption
of the B.C. Standard System of Mapping and a long-overdue commitment to a
planned composite mapping.
The Standard System of Mapping, which recommends the adoption of common mapping scales, sheet sizes, and numbering systems for all mapping agencies
was first established in September 1974, but the consequent reaction from map
users caused it to be withdrawn and redrafted. It was reissued in July 1976, has
been well received by both government and non-government agencies, and the
recommended standards are being generally adopted.
The composite mapping program is being carried out in three phases at scales
of 1:2 500 and 1:5 000. First, existing maps at the old scales of 1 inch to 400 feet
and 1 inch to 500 feet are converted to the new scales. The second phase involves
the updating of these maps by adding new subdivisions. The third phase is the
production of completely new composite maps.
Four hundred new composite maps were requested by the B.C. Assessment
Authority and 175 of these are in various stages of production. The mapping system
developed relies upon the use of microfilmed copies of Land Registry plans which
are made available to us by the Assessment Authority. That authority's program of
microfilming all Land Registry Office plans is an example of the type of program
which we ourselves should have initiated years ago because it eliminates all the
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 37
time-consuming and laborious LRO searches which have been a part of our system
for many years.
The microfilmed plans are enlarged to map scale by use of our CAPS
PRINTER, which was acquired in April 1976, and then fitted to the framework of
detail plotted on the map base.
The Kamloops office is also involved in this program, but concentrates its
activities on the conversion of existing maps to the new format, together with revision
and updating.
Close co-operation between this Division and B.C. Hydro, B.C. Telephone
Co., and B.C. Assessment Authority, the three main users of composite maps, is
essential if this program is to be carried to a successful conclusion.
During the summer, six Assessment Authority clerks from various parts of the
Province spent two weeks in this office learning basic draughting skills and procedures in order to add new subdivision plans to the maps in their own jurisdiction.
D. Hall, Supervisor of this section, attended three seminars on mapping, in three
areas of the Province, sponsored by the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing.
The purpose of these was to introduce the new Standard System of Mapping to the
planning technicians of the regional districts, district municipalities, and other communities and, in addition, to offer technical assistance to these agencies in their
mapping programs.
Other office work included the addition and checking of lots on the Federal
Government 1:50 000 series, lot overlays to large-scale topographic and orthophoto
projects, and the conversion and final draughting of integrated survey plans. Also
a new set of indices at a scale of 1:125 000 was prepared to show the new sheet
layout of the composite map series.
Draughting Section
This section is responsible for the compilation and scribing of the lithographic
map series, the fair drawing of topographic manuscripts and integrated survey plans,
and the general draughting involved in the production of land capability folios for
the Land Branch, mosaics, and orthophotos.
This past year saw the publication of 20 new and revised lithographic maps at
scales of 1:125 000 and 1:250 000. These included four new sheets covering
Southern Vancouver Island at 1:125 000, as replacements for the badly overcrowded 1:250 000 sheet 92 F, for which we anticipate a heavy demand. Also
included were six maps at a scale of 1:600 000 covering the whole Province, these
being a revision and replacement of the previous 1 inch to 10 miles series. A significant development was the compilation of four 1:125 000 map sheets in 93 G,
Prince George, to replace the 1:250 000 map. This is the first expansion of this
scale of map into a regional area rather than progressing with block map cover. The
future development of the 1:125 000 series will continue to follow this policy. In
addition to the issue of new and revised maps, 14 lithographic maps were reprinted,
together with two general maps of the 1 J series. Highway boundaries were overprinted on map 1 J, administrative boundaries were overprinted on 81 Federal
Government 1:50 000 maps and miscellaneous draughting was done on indices,
charts, sketches, integrated survey and site plans.
A large new task was the joining of orthophoto negatives of 25 projects together with the formation of these negatives into 112 individual map sheets.
Eighty-three large-scale topographic map sheets were fair drawn, 13 compilations
were completed for new lithographic maps, and 21 folios were assembled for the
Land Management Branch.
 u 38 ministry of the environment
Photogrammetric Section
For most members of the Photogrammetric Section, 1976 was a year of production, learning, investigation, and a change in living pattern.
We completed 52 of the 75 projects submitted for compilation. Thirty-six
of these required an orthophoto base, 27 of which are finished. Adding the remaining projects to the new ones now on hand or requested, guarantees that 1977
will be as demanding as 1976.
The acquisition of the mini computer in this section in 1975 initiated a new
phase of operator involvement in the computing and assessing of final mapping
co-ordinate values. This particular aspect of mapping was originally performed
graphically by the operator when the "long bar" of multiplex equipment was used
for bridging. The purchase of the Wild A7, with digital recording capability, and
the installation of the IBM computer system changed our approach to a precise
mathematical computation system. The assessment of the computer output was
handled by our programmer analyst.
Because of the mini computer, assessment of the final co-ordinate values has
now reverted back to the operator. This involvement has necessitated considerable
learning of new terminology and new systems. The first step was an introduction
to computers and programming at Camosun College. To complement the course
each operator will be trained on the job for a period of two months. Time and
project bridging requirements have allowed half of our staff to become competent in
the new procedures and the remainder will be trained in 1977. BCIT graduates
who have studied programming and computer handling adjust quickly to the system
with minimal training.
Job interest has been raised because of greater operator involvement in the
complete system, but the main benefit has been the significant reduction in the
time taken for the bridging portion of a project.
The automatic compilation of contours based on digitized scan-line values
produced during the production of an orthophoto negative was accomplished this
year. Unfortunately, one of the programs used was very inefficient in its use of
computer time, but an alternate system has since been suggested which we will
be using early in 1977.
The automatic plotting of compilation sheets, contours, spot heights, etc.,
on our own flatbed table may be possible in early 1977, if the proposed purchase
based on this year's investigation is carried out. Seven companies were contacted
and requested to supply us with equipment specifications together with a special
"bench mark" drawing to show the plotter's capability in drawing in ballpoint, ink,
and scribing. The bench mark made it possible for us to compare line quality and
speed combinations between companies. Based on these comparisons a set of
specifications were decided on, prepared, and written up to accompany the requisition after Treasury Board approval of the purchase.
Variable hours for scheduled work weeks were introduced for many B.C.
Government employees in 1976, but for the staff of the Photogrammetry Section
changes in work hours were much more drastic than most. A rotational shift was
introduced, which meant radical changes in the life-style of a number of employees
and was met with considerable resentment on the part of long-term employees.
Technological improvements and more efficient use of expensive equipment do
not always produce completely positive results.
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 39
Map and Air Photo Production and Sales
Services provided by the sales office were hampered by both staff and space
restrictions. The latter problem has been largely relieved by the recently completed renovations and it is hoped that in 1977 there will be a similar improvement
in staffing. New storage for the one million maps stored in the Topaz Vaults has
been provided in the Lands Service Warehouse and transfer to the new premises
will take place in early 1977. Film storage is a continuing problem which must
soon be solved. Both film vaults are completely filled and the overflow of exposed
air film is now being stored in corridors and other nonsecure areas.
Requisitions for air photos and enlargements increased over 1975 by 14 per
cent, but there was a decrease of 10 per cent in the requisition for Provincial and
Federal maps. Diapositives showed a surprising 70-per-cent increase which indicates the heavy use of B.C. Government air photographs by commercial mapping
organizations.
Use of the new Reprographics Centre with its wide range of equipment should
be maximized by instituting a full second shift which would help to eliminate the
blacklog of archival work and reduce the amount of work which is turned away.
Requisitions processed in the Reprographics Section showed a slight increase
over 1975, totalling 19,064. Included were 3,124,000 offset prints, a 28-per-cent
increase, 302,400 white prints, and 92,400 items of photo copy.
Geographical Names and Research
The British Columbia representative, Canadian Permanent Committee on
Geographical Names, attended a meeting of the Subcommittee on Glaciological and
Alpine Nomenclature in April and the 15th annual meeting of the CPCGN in
Winnipeg in October. The purpose of the subcommittee meeting was to draw up
terms of reference for advising the parent committee on generic terms for glaciological and mountain features, co-ordinate referencing of glaciers, and through
referral to scientists, mountaineers, and others, to broaden the range of expertise
on glaciological and alpine terminology.
During 1976, 142 decision lists were processed. These contained 498
adopted names, 61 rescinded names, 4 reinstated names, and 22 altered applications. The names will appear in the 1976 Cumuulative Supplement to the 1966
Gazetteer. Five name location sheets, 82 K/SW, 92 F/NE, 92 I/NW, 93 A, and
94 A were renewed by transferring detail from earlier editions.
By the end of the year, there were two staff vacancies in the Geographical
Names Section which had resulted in a substantial backlog of 21 national topographic sheets to check for names prior to reprinting, 67 items of correspondence
for processing and filing, and names on 12 Canadian Permanent Committee decision lists requiring entry in the Gazetteer records.
 U 40
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 9—Lithographic Maps Printed in 1976
Map No.
Name
Edition
Scale
Contour
Interval
Remarks
82G/SE
92B/NW-SW
92C/NE-NW-SE
Flathead	
Victoria	
Second
Second
First
First
First
First
Second
Second
Second
Fourth
Second
First
First
Third
Third
Third
Third
Third
Third
Fifth
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:125 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
1:250 000
1:600 000
1:600 000
1:600 000
1:600 000
1:600 000
1:600 000
(m)
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
5
150
150
50
150
150
150
Complete revision.
Complete revision.
92F/NE
92F/SE
Powell River	
Seven colours, contoured.
92F/SW
92G/SW
92H/NW
Yale	
93 A
Complete revision.
93 M
94A
94B
Fort St. John	
Seven colours, contoured.
94G
1031-J
Complete revision.
IB
North Western B.C	
ID
North Eastern B.C	
IE
IF
South Eastern B.C	
West Central B.C	
Partial revision.
1G
East Central B.C....
IK
South Western B.C.
Reprints
82E/SE
82K/NE
82L/SW
Second
First
Second
Third
Third
First
Second
First
Second
First
First
Second
First
Fourth
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
125 000
125 000
125 000
125 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
250 000
63 360
600 000
(Ft.)
100
100
100
100
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
500
100
Invermere	
No revision.
92H/NE
92K-J
92N
Tulameen...	
Bute Inlet	
No revision.
No revision.
93F
92G
93H-83E
Nechako	
Prince George	
No revision.
No revision.
931
93N
103B-C
Manson River	
No revision.
P.S G 3
IK
South Western B.C	
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Table 10—Topographic Mapping
U 41
No.
Project
For
Scale
Contour
Interval
Status1
72-2T
72-5T
Creston -	
WIB
WIB
WIB
Ree. & Con.
Ree. &Con.
WIB
WIB
WIB
Mun. Affairs
Lands
Highways
WIB
Highways
Highways
Highways
WIB
Secretariat
Mines
WIB
Lands
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Forests
Lands
Lands
Highways
WIB
Lands
Lands
Highways
Forests
Highways
Highways
Lands
WIB
Field Ops.
Lands
Mines
Mun. Affairs
Mun. Affairs
Lands
Parks
Lands
Lands
B.C. Hydro
WIB
Highways
UEL
B.C. Hydro
WIB
Lands
WIB
WIB
WIB
WIB
Parks
WIB
BCR
Mines
Lands
Public Works
Highways
1:1200
1:6 000
1:5 000
1:12 000
1:1 200
1:5 000
1:1 200
1:1 200
1:2 500
1:2 500
1:600
1:2 500
1:4 800
1:4 800
1:4 800
1:1 200
1:50 000
1:6 000
1:5 000
1:10 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:12 000
1:20 000
1:2 400
Bridging
1:20 000
1:20 000
1:1 200
1:2 400
1:5 000
1:2 400
1:1 200
1:5 000
1:10 000
1:20 000
1:10 000
1:5 000
1:5 000
1:12 000
1:4 800
1:14 520
1:20 000
1:2 400
1:5 000
1:4 800
1:10 000
1:2 400
1:2 400
1:20 000
1:5 000
1:5 000
1:1 200
1:2 400
1:1 200
1:5 000
Bridging
1:10 000
1:20 000
1:480
1:4 800
Spot
2'
5 m, 10 m
10', 20', 100'
20'
Spot
1'
Spot
2'
2'
5'
2m
Spot
5'
1 m, 5 m
20'
20'
20'
2'
1 m
25', 100', 200'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
100'
20'
5m
5'
100'
50'
10'
lm
5'
1'
1 m
10 m
5m
5m
20'
20'
5', 10'
50'
2', 10'
lm
10', 20', 100'
5m
2'
2', 10'
50 m
1 m, 20 m
10 m, 20 m
w', 20'
5'
2', 10'
10 m
10'
IP
IP
72-6T
Penticton-U.S.A  	
IP
73-47T
C
73 50T-0
c
74-28T-0
74-36T
Fraser River Floodplain (Chilliwack) —
IP
c
74-3 7T
Postill-South Lakes 	
c
74-6 IT
IP
74-67T
IP
74-72T
c
74 109T-0
c
75-3 5T
Highway 3 (Miles 20-28)  	
c
75-36T
Highway 3 (Miles 54-71)	
c
75-37T
75-57T
Highway 24	
c
c
75-70-0
92P/1	
c
75-72-0
c
75-73T-0
IP
75-92-0
c
75-94T-0
c
75-97T-0
c
75-98T-0
Skelly Creek	
c
75-99T-0
c
75-106T-0
Brook McPhail	
IP
75-107T-O
c
75-108T-0
c
75-109T-0
IP
75-110T-0
IP
75-111T-0
c
75-112T-0
Bull Isintok Creek	
IP
75-113T-0
c
75-I32T
c
75-143T-0
c
75-147T-0
c
76-1T
c
76-3T-0
c
76^T-0
c
76-5T
c
76-10-0
c
76-11T-0
c
76-12T
c
76-13T
c
76-24T-0
76-27 P
76-28-0
Coquitlam River  	
North Vancouver Integrated Surveys ....
c
c
c
76-29T-0
c
76-35T
IP
76-36T
IP
76-40T
c
76-44T
c
76-66T
c
76-67T
76-68T
Malaspina Peninsula ._.	
c
c
76-71T-0
IP
76-72T
c
76-74T-0
UEL                        	
c
76-75T
76-9 IT
Fairmont 	
c
c
76-95T-0
c
76-97T-0
IP
76-98T-0
IP
76-99T
IP
76-100T
IP
76-101T
IP
76-104-0
c
76-107T
IP
76-108-0
c
76-114T-0
IP
76-119T
c
76-124T
c
1 C—Complete.    IP—In progress.
 U 42 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 11—Revision Mapping Accomplishment (20-chain)
Project No.
PSYU
Number of
Map sheets
Revised
76-42P    ..
Adams	
Barriere	
Niskonlith  	
North Thompson 	
Raft	
Cranbrook _.	
Slocan  	
35
76-42P  	
22
76-42P      	
20
76-42P	
54
76-42P      	
36
76-15P	
34
76-15P.  	
13
76-15P	
100
76-17	
30
76-17	
23
76-118P	
Yalakom  	
86
453
40-CHAIN REVISION
76-41P 	
Dean	
13
Table 12—Special Mapping Projects
Project No.
Name
Number of
Map-sheets
Originator
Scale
76-7P
E. & N. Land Grant
80
8
1/15 840
76-85
Garibaldi Park	
1/31 680
Table 13—Composite Mapping Accomplishment
Victoria Kamloops
New  148
Conversions   361 280
New (in progress)   175 	
Conversions (in progress)      51 350
Kamloops Office
Maps distributed to Government ministries:
Composite maps  3,246
Litho maps   268
Interim maps  74
White prints  81
L.R.O. plans  76
Sales to public:
Composite maps  -  7,065
Litho maps  -  3,842
Interim maps  70
White prints  1,745
 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Table 14—Photo Mosaic Accomplishment
U 43
Project No.
Name
Number
of Sheets
Originator
Scale
P.M.
No.
76-6M        	
Cypress Park   	
1
4
1
3
2
6
1
1
2
1
1
I
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
22
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
3
3
1
3
4
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
5
1
2
1 /20 000
1/ 4 800
1/63 360
1/31 680
1 /63 360
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/20 000
1/31 680
1 /20 000
1/20 000
1/12 000
1/15 840
1/63 360
1/63 360
1/36 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/10 000
1/22 000
1/50 000
1/50 000
1/20 000
1/12 000
1/31 680
1/18 000
1/20 000
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/31 680
1/12 000
1/50 000
1/50 000
1/50 000
1/15 840
1/20 000
1/50 000
1/12 000
1 /25 000
1/50 000
1/12 000
1/25 000
1/15 840
1/15 840
1/15 840
1/50 000
1/20 000
1 /22 000
1/ 7 200
1/20 000
1/15 840
1/15 840
112
76-8M	
113
76-9M	
Chilko River 	
76-18M 	
76-19M 	
114
76-20M	
76-22T-M	
Bear Mountain (Folio) 	
Stump Lake _	
W.M. Ranch (Folio)
76-23M	
117
76-25M 	
Lands Service	
Lands Service	
76-26T M    . .
Wolverine Murray Reserve (Folio)	
76-30M—	
116
76-3 IM	
115
76-32M	
118
76-33M	
Slocan PSYU        	
Empire Valley  	
76-43M      	
Lands Service	
76-47M	
76-48M-.	
Lands Service	
76-49M	
Mad River —	
76-50M	
Land Commission
Land Commission.
Land Commission
76-5 IM
Tuktakamin Mountain 	
76-52M 	
76-56M	
76-57T-M	
76-60T-M   	
Upper Cache Creek Reserve (Folio)	
Lands Service..	
Land Commission
Land Commission
76-62M	
121
76-64M 	
76-65M 	
76-69M	
Land Commission
120
76-70M 	
119
76-77M	
76-78M	
76-79M —
76-80M-	
76-81M	
76-82M	
76-83M...	
76-87M	
Water Resources
76-88T-M	
Boundary Lake Grazing Area (Folio)	
76-89T-M	
76-90T-M	
76-92M	
Water Resources	
76-94M 	
Germansen Landing (Folio) —	
76-102M 	
76-103M 	
Coal Mines (colour)	
76-105M 	
122
76-106M	
Water Resources.	
Land Commission
76-109M	
76-1 UT-M	
76-112T-M	
76-115M.    .
76-116M..	
76-I20M	
76-121M—	
76-122M	
Bulkley Valley
124
76-129M	
125
76-133M	
126
 U 44
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Co
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c
 UNIVERSITY
ENDOWMENT
LANDS
  UNIVERSITY
ENDOWMENT
LANDS
R. P. Murdoch, Project Manager
In the University Endowment Lands, 1976 has been a year of vigorous planning activity. In April the Minister appointed an advisory committee with the
following members: C. J. Connaghan, Mrs. J. Corcoran, R. G. Donegani, Dr. W.
C. Gibson, Mrs. I. Mann, R. W. Twining, and R. P. Murdoch. This committee
meets regularly and advises the Minister on various problems of a community nature
that arise in the University Endowment Lands.
On July 23 a press conference was held to announce the formation of a task
force. The terms of reference were to produce a long-range plan for the use of the
Endowment Lands. J. Webster was appointed to co-ordinate the task force. A
store-front office was opened in the University Endowment Lands village shopping
centre. The public and various citizen groups were invited and have responded
with input reflecting their opinions concerning the future of the University Endowment Lands. A public forum was held at the Woodward Instructional Resources
Centre, University of British Columbia campus, on October 27, with a second one
scheduled to take place at Lord Byng Secondary School on January 26, 1977.
During the year under review Acadia Road south of Toronto Road was completely reconstructed.  This reconstruction program included curbs and sidewalks.
There remains some work to be completed in the renovation program for the
University Endowment Lands Golf Course. Because of the Provincial austerity
program, it was determined that the public should be invited to submit lease proposals. Submissions have been received and are at present being reviewed. The
golf course revenue for the year covered by this report amounted to $251,940,
which was $65,417 in excess of operating expenses.
An order has been placed for one fire pumper truck and one 100-foot aerial
ladder truck. The aerial will provide us with a life-rescue potential which we at
present do not have. A number of features have been included in the specifications
which will be assets in performing the duties associated with fire protection for the
area, including the University of British Columbia campus. One other piece of
vitally needed fire-fighting equipment was transferred by the Ministry of the
Attorney-General to the University Endowment Lands Fire Department. This fire
truck, formerly housed at the Lower Mainland Correctional Institute, is equipped
with a 500-gallon storage tank which will be a decided asset in fighting bush fires
where no hydrant system is immediately available. The Fire Department also operates an ambulance, inhalator, and rescue service, and responds to a variety of calls,
including cliff rescues, automobile accidents, chemical explosions, suicides, heart
attacks, and cars over cliffs with injured occupants.
The normal municipal services and maintenance continue and the attached
table provides a comparative summary of building permits issued for the last three
years. A table showing comparison of revenue over the last 10 years is also included.
47
 U 48
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 16—Number and Value of Building Permits Issued for the Calendar Years
1974, 1975, and 1976
1974
1975
1976
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
1
17
3
3
$
150,000
195,230
18
1
2
1
1
$
12
1
6
4
$
Alterations to dwellings  	
272,300
5,000
107,000
3,600
45,000
207,000
500
Garages, etc  	
Swimming-pools	
9,000
24,500
13,800
51,900
24
378,730
23
432,900
23
273,200
Table 17— University Endowment Lands Revenue, 1967 to 1976, inclusive
Year
Water
Lease and
Sundry
Rents
Garbage
Misc.
Revenue
Taxes and
Grants
Golf
Course
Total
Revenue
1967
$
135,870.74
160,610.25
157,368.01
180,441.79
169,911.07
179,199.93
208,491.67
206,338.11
225,987.44
215,066.40
$
49,745.23
36,148.37
42,476.19
39,658.85
51,975.47
39,614.37
39,967.69
40,070.57
46,516.97
58,915.84
$
14,964.45
10,8.14.88
5,859.42
10,736.60
7,377.70
7,971.25
9,349.54
11,199.10
10,508.25
13,033.15
$
20,755.71
19,502.85
6,535.36
30,064.18
14,167.37
30,944.39
39,936.88
22,591.92
28,449.46
28,058.39
$
349,242.55
386,105.36
416,081.90
667,722.12
515,615.58
515,797.59
630,092.29
642,072.04
1,213,187.24
1,462,937.22
$
$
570,578.68
1968
613,181.71
1969
628,320.88
1970
928,623.54
1971	
78,398.93
147,056.71
95,313.48
157,511.32
179,361.22
251,940.28
837,446.12
1972	
920,584.24
1973	
1974	
1975	
1,023,151.55
1,079,783.06
1,704,010.58
1976	
2,029,951.28
1,839,285.41
445,089.55
101,814.34
241,006.51
6,798,853.89
909,581.94
10,335,631.64
 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
U 49
Extra excavation of soft area in front of Day Care Centre.
(Note the logs, etc., mixed with peats and clay.)
Finished road and sidewalk.
  WATER
RESOURCES
SERVICE
 U 52 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
SUMMARY
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which
administers the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water
Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at
any time in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in
the Crown in the right of the Province. The common law principle
of riparian right to the use of water is not recognized in British
Columbia.
(2) Prospective users of water must file applications for water licences.
There is a procedure for notifying the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture and Recreation and Conservation and all those whose rights
may be affected, all of whom have a right of objection to the granting
of the application.
(3) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and
conditions of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water
Rights. Licences have precedence in law in accordance with the
date of priority carried by the licence.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the continued beneficial use of the water, payment of the water licence rentals, and
observance of the regulations of the Water Act.
(5) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land,
a mine, or undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other
disposition thereof.
(6) If a water licence authorizes the construction of works on another
person's land, the licensee can expropriate the land reasonably required for such construction if a voluntary agreement cannot be
reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee
must acquire a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist in the administration of the improvement districts which have been
incorporated under the Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, and
other purposes. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body
administered by elected Trustees. The undertaking of an improvement district can
be financed by Provincially guaranteed debentures.
A third major function was assigned to the Water Rights Branch on July 15,
1973, when the Comptroller of Water Rights assumed responsibility for the administration of water utilities under the provisions of the Water Utilities Act and the
Energy Act.
The administration of the Water Act and the Water Utilities Act is carried out
by the Comptroller of Water Rights and his staff, who are located at a headquarters
office in Victoria and at district offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson,
Prince George, and New Westminster.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on the
development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand. Much of
the industrial expansion of recent years in this Province is associated with the use
of British Columbia water.
 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller
The Water Rights Branch, under the direction of the Comptroller of Water Rights
and his deputy, comprises four separate divisions. Permanent established positions,
including those at the six regional offices, numbered 117 at December 31, 1976.
The Community Water Supply Division which resulted from amalgamation
during the previous year of the former improvement districts and Water Utilities
Divisions continued to deal with the administration of improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act and water utilities operating under certificates issued
under the Water Utilities Act or the former Public Utilities Act. The amalgamation
has enabled the new divisions to more efficiently apply available technical and
administrative expertise in the planning and financing of public water supplies,
particularly for small communities.
The Power and Special Projects Division continues to provide staff support to
the Comptroller in all aspects of major water licences for hydro-electric power,
including approval of plans, inspection of works during construction, review of
environmental studies, determining annual licence rentals, and directing the operation of reservoirs for flood control and other nonpower benefits. Of special note in
this regard was the review of material submitted in connection with the application
by B.C. Hydro and Power Authority for a water licence to authorize the proposed
Revelstoke hydro project on the Columbia River and assistance to the Comptroller
in conducting the month-long hearing of objections to the application for a water
licence and in review and analysis of the large volume of material submitted by the
interveners. In addition, the program of inspection of all major dams has continued,
together with a relatively extensive program of inspections of small dams carried
on in conjunction with regional offices. The Division also carried out a wide range
of water-related studies, including studies of proposals for development of resources
and establishment of industries within the Province.
The Administrative Division is responsible for the administration of sections
of the Water Act dealing with water licensing and also carries out the general
administrative duties for the Water Rights Branch as a whole. Included in the duties
performed during the year was amendment of the boundaries of the water districts
to bring them into alignment with the accepted boundaries of the new regional
resource areas. There are now 26 water districts reduced from 27 by inclusion of
the former Fort Fraser Water District within the newly defined Prince George and
Hazelton Water Districts.
The northerly portion of the Vancouver Water District, which was relatively
inaccessible to the regional office at New Westminster, was apportioned partly to
the Nanaimo Water District administered by the Victoria regional office, with the
larger portion being added to the Cariboo Water District, administered from Kamloops. The Division supplies a considerable amount of information related to water
licensing and water use requested by other Governmental agencies.
The Regional Engineers Division comprises regional engineers and their staffs
at regional offices located at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, New Westminster, Prince
53
 U 54
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
George, and Victoria. Personnel of this Division are required to exercise a high
degree of responsibility in investigating and making determinations on problems
related to water use or otherwise affecting the water resource that arise within their
areas of jurisdiction. Powers necessary to exercise this responsibility are given
under section 37 of the Water Act. Regional office staff is also regularly involved
in work of other divisions of Water Rights Branch and of Water Investigations
Branch, which work includes assistance to improvement districts, regulation of
water utilities, conducting of snow surveys and groundwater observations, and the
supervising of river bank protection projects. The regional offices serve as a point
of contact with the public on a wide range of water-related problems.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1976 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the individual divisions in the pages following.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
Water licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining, industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or Government agency
uses water from any surface water source.
As of November 30, 1976, the number of water licences in effect totalled
30,143, each of which authorizes the use of water for one or more purposes. There
were 17,876 licences authorizing the use of water for domestic purposes, 1,207 for
waterworks, 11,452 for irrigation, 286 for power, and 1,780 for storage purpose.
The number of new applications for water licences received during the period
under review was 1,451, compared with 1,591 for 1975. The number of applications pending as of November 30 was 3,026, which is a reduction of 504 from the
same date last year.
Applications for approvals under section 7 of the Water Act, either for the
use of water for a period not exceeding six months or to authorize changes in and
about a stream, increased to 229 from 211 in 1975. Applications received for the
amendments of existing licences by apportionment, transfer of appurtenancy, or
change of works or purpose totalled 836, an increase of 175 over last year. There were
682 amendments disposed of in 1976, and 745 pending as of November 30, 1976.
The following tables show the principal activities of the General and Draughting offices in the 12-month period ended November 30, 1976, together with a
summary of the activity data for the five preceding years.
Table 18—Functions Carried Out by the Water Rights Branch
1971
1972
1973
1,702
1,400
2,001
2,106
2,463
2,125
1,326
1,197
1,168
110
112
154
6
12
7
50
65
48
36
19
41
255
228
265
243
313
327
88
96
149
404
528
478
2,134
3,162
3,035
5,431
4,362
3,812
161
434
716
1,867
1,738
2,338
15,919
16,629
16,664
New water licence applications cleared and plotted on maps
Final and conditional licence plans prepared  _	
Regional Engineers* reports processed  _
Water rights maps compiled and traced 	
New improvement districts described and plans prepared	
Improvement districts descriptions and plans amended	
Reference maps renewed . 	
Apportionments and transfers of appurtenancy  _	
Changes of works and extensions of time  _ _...
Approvals  _ _   _ _ _ _
Rights-of-way over Crown land  _  	
Changes of ownership and cancellations  _ _
Land clearances (purchases, leases, etc.)  	
Pollution control permit clearances   	
Forest service clearances (timber sales, etc.) 	
Totals _	
1,682
2,017
953
110
1,355
2,427
1,288
154
17,328
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE U 55
Table 19—Applications Processed by the Water Rights Board
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
Application for—
Licences   	
Rights-of-way- 	
Apportionments —	
Transfers of appurtenancy	
1,733
263
96
159
243
88
1,515
122
91
137
307
91
1,892
246
103
162
327
149
1,708
303
130
125
452
126
1,591
215
141
141
379
211
1,451
372
189
13V
515
229
Totals  	
2,582
2,263
2,879
2,844
2,678
2,888
215
1,343
286
85
182
474
207
189
1,746
359
96
236
524
313
240
1,131
400
132
168
478
315
237
1,544
393
109
239
389
331
223
1,074
461
191
162
446
373
241
Issues of—
Conditional licences   	
Approvals   	
1,770
479
214
268
Rights-of-way..... ..	
599
414
2,577
3,274
2,624
3,005
2,707
3,744
Average monthly issues—
Changes of address, ownership, etc   	
215
1,796
338
359
273
2,803
359
206
219
2,608
427
274
250
3,534
356
262
226
2,817
302
267
312
3,022
685
360
7,652
8,905
8,812
10,001
8,771
10,699
2,827
2,522
3,115
3,156
3,530
3,026
REGIONAL ENGINEERS DIVISION
Adjustment in staff responsibilities and transfer between Water Rights Branch
regional offices of water licence files, Water Rights maps, and related material was
necessitated by the amendment of water district boundaries and was carried out by
staff of regional offices during the early part of the year.
Local matters related to the water resource within regions, each comprising
several water districts, are administered under the general direction of the Comptroller of Water Rights and the Assistant to the Comptroller, and by six Regional
Engineers and their supporting staffs at regional offices located at centres within the
Province. The location of the six regional offices, Regional Engineers in charge, and
water districts administered from each are listed below:
Kamloops: D. E. Smuin, P.Eng.
Kamloops
Ashcroft
Nicola
Cariboo
Kelowna: E. D. Anthony, P.Eng.
Revelstoke
Vernon
Princeton
Grand Forks
Penticton
Nelson: T. H. Oxland, P.Eng.
Nelson
Kaslo
Cranbrook
Golden
Fernie
New Westminster: E. G. Harrison, P.Eng.
Vancouver
New Westminster
 U 56 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Prince George: J. H. Dyck, P.Eng. Victoria: P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng.
Prince George Victoria
Quesnel Nanaimo
Hazelton Alberni
Prince Rupert
Peace River
Liard
Atlin
Some staff changes occurred during the year, although no positions were added.
The regional suboffices of the Kelowna and Prince George regional offices
located at Oliver and Smithers respectively have now both been in operation two
full years. Both have proven their value in bringing early attention to local problems, in making information on water matters more available locally, and in reducing the amount of travel required by staff of the main offices. The recent large
extension westerly of the Cariboo Water District currently administered by the
Kamloops regional office makes it increasingly important that establishment of a
regional sub-office or a new regional office at Williams Lake be considered in the
very near future.
All regional offices reported a cooler and wetter than normal summer season
during 1976. Except for the Nechako River drainage basin where the previous
winter's snow-pack had been especially heavy, the peak flows resulting from snow
run-off were generally lower than normal, resulting in minimal damage from flooding. Staff of the Prince George office participated in reporting on ice conditions
and monitoring flows, which was of assistance to the Comptroller in his ordering the
regulation of releases from the Nechako Reservoir to minimize the effect of the
large volume run-off from the Nechako system. An extremely heavy storm rainfall
during the latter part of August caused damage to hay crops throughout the Cariboo,
Kamloops, and North Okanagan areas, and caused damaging flash floods, earth
slides, and debris flows on several small streams in the upper Columbia River trench
in the vicinity of Golden and in the upper Elk River valley. Emergency remedial
work was carried out on five of these streams under direction of staff of the Nelson
regional office.
Attendance on the Technical Planning Committees of Regional Districts and
Regional Resource Committees, and participation in Task Force studies assigned to
the Regional Resource Committees continued. Regional staff also prepared a number of engineering reports connected with studies carried out by other governmental
agencies and for various improvement districts and community groups.
The Kelowna office continued its program of inspection of the approximately
250 licensed water-storage dams within its area. Inspections were completed during the year on 75 structures, two of which were ordered breached for safety reasons,
and extensive repairs were ordered on five others. Dam inspection programs have
also been initiated by the Kamloops, New Westminster, and Prince George regional
offices. The Division has been assisted by staff of the Power and Special Projects
Division in investigations of dams in some areas.
The number of applications for water licences requiring attention and report
by regional offices was reduced to 1,801 from 2,024 during the report year. This
reduction, as well as the increased attention given to applications for amendment of
existing licences and applications for approval under section 7 of the Water Act,
was made possible by the marked drop in licence administration problems due to the
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
U 57
higher than average precipitation and available stream flow during the 1976 irrigation season.
The status of the water licence application situation and routine work associated with the administration of water licences at the six regional offices for the 12-
month period December 1, 1975, to November 30, 1976, is summarized below.
This table is followed by a summary of the numbers of applications received and
handled by the Regional Engineers' Division over the preceding 10-year period.
Table 20—Applications Processed by Regional Offices
Regional Offices
Total
Kamloops
Kelowna
Nelson
New Westminster
Prince
George
Victoria
Applications for water licences—
604
302
355
99
452
11
76
34
27
47
15
2
470
54
186
296
241
42
199
25
209
31
38
32
28
1
346
54
680
334
285
52
677
31
77
55
43
49
18
20
500
123
157
154
126
51
134
18
115
12
19
16
26
8
161
130
289
140
173
47
209
83
14
9
6
7
0
30
128
24
108
156
113
21
130
35
80
13
3
13
42
2
152
28
2,024
Received during the year	
Inspected and reported on  	
1,382
1,293
312
On hand, November 30, 1976
1,801
Applications for approval under Water
Act (sec. 7) reported on 	
203
571
Water licence amendment reports—
154
Transfer of appurtenancy...	
Change of works	
136
164
129
Other 	
New conditional water licences	
63
1,757
413
Total licences on records 	
7,816
5,651
6,352
4,286
2,081
3,957
30,143
The following summarizes the numbers of water licence applications handled
by the Division over the preceding 10 years:
Year
Applications
Received
Reports
Submitted
Cancelled or
Abandoned
Total, Year-end
1967	
1,266
1,385
1,424
1,562
1,597
1,376
1,719
1,807
1,648
1,382
1,013
1,334
1,013
1,279
1,549
1,393
1,217
1,279
1,357
1,293
96
112
184
125
145
114
185
256
218
312
1,105
1968	
1,049
1969	
1,281
1970	
1,439
1971	
1,493
1972	
1,362
1,679
1973	
1974	
1975	
1,951
2,024
1,801
1976	
COMMUNITY WATER SUPPLY DIVISION
This Division assists the Comptroller of Water Rights in supervising the
activities of improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act and in supervising the operations of privately owned and municipally owned water utilities
under the Water Utilities Act and the Energy Act. The number of community
water systems in operation at year-end was as follows:
 U 58 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Water Act improvement districts  274
Water Utilities Act and Energy Act—
Privately owned water utilities  239
Municipal water utilities     39
278 278
Total    _ 552
The Community Water Supply Division is divided by functions into four sections—Administration, Accounting and Financial, Engineering, and Research and
Planning.
During the year the staff of the Division met frequently with the owners and
operators of existing and proposed water utilities and their engineering, legal, and
financial representatives; trustees of improvement districts; officials of municipalities and regional districts; members of the public seeking to incorporate improvement districts; and petitioners complaining of inadequate service and excessive
rates. About 130 visits were made by head office engineering staff to about 100
water supply authorities. In addition, numerous site inspections of waterworks
under construction were carried out by technicians working out of the regional
offices of the Water Rights Branch.
Water Utilities Act and Energy Act—Activities
The vigorous demand for serviced land for new housing again resulted in a
large number of applications for certificates of public convenience and necessity to
construct and operate new waterworks and to extend existing systems. Forty-two
certificates were granted for the construction of works estimated to cost $3.2
million. At year-end there were 61 applications under investigation by the engineering and accounting staff.
Inflationary trends again precipitated a large number of applications to increase water rates. Applications under the Water Utilities Act to file tariffs or to
file amendments thereto numbered 34 investigated and granted and 52 in process
at year-end.
The policy of requiring all new water utilities to establish maintenance reserve funds by lump-sum deposit was continued during the year. These funds
are kept by the utility indefinitely to and for the sole discretion of the Comptroller
of Water Rights against any unforeseen operating contingency. Orders by the
Comptroller made during the year required various utilities to deposit sums totalling $312,000.
During the year, 37 petitions by rate-payer groups, other members of the
public, and their elected representatives, alleging inadequate service or excessive
rates, or unacceptable service terms were investigated by the engineering and
accounting staff of the Division. For the most part these complaints were satisfactorily disposed of in direct correspondence or by discussion with the utility.
However, in a number of cases special orders were required under the Water
Utilities Act and the Energy Act compelling utilities to improve service, or to
create capital construction funds. Refusal by Keekwillie Park Estates Ltd. to
obey an order of the Comptroller resulted in the prosecution and conviction of that
company.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Water Act Activities
U 59
During 1976 there were nine new improvement districts incorporated and
two districts dissolved:
Districts Dissolved
Scott Bay Waterworks District by
amalgamation with Garden Bay
Waterworks District.
Malcolm Horie Irrigation District.
Districts Incorporated
Braithwaite Estates Improvement District.
Rivervale Improvement District.
Poupore Improvement District.
Cedars of Tuam Waterworks District.
Old Highway Waterworks District.
Wood Road Waterworks District.
Secret Island Waterworks District.
Vaseux Lake Improvement District.
Marron Valley Irrigation District.
The Letters Patent of 38 improvement districts were amended during the year,
most changes being boundary amendments. A total of 771 by-laws was received
and accepted for registration by the Comptroller.
Water Supply, Sewerage, and Other Proposals Reviewed or Designed
During the year the engineering staff of the Division reviewed proposed
schemes for 20 water supply projects and prepared final designs for two projects.
Total estimated construction cost $4 million.
There are now $16,021,300 of improvement district debentures guaranteed
by the Province under the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, of which
$2,556,300 are serial debentures and $13,465,000 are term debentures. Sinking
funds for redemption of term debentures are held by the Province in the amount
of $4,202,919.89 as at December 31, 1976. During 1976 debentures of $1,532,000
were guaranteed.
In the Federal-Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement
under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development {British Columbia) Act,
the Province has responsibility for ensuring the proper operation and maintenance
of all works constructed under ARDA programs. Where improvement districts
are concerned, Water Rights Branch personnel of the Community Water Supply
Division carry out the routine inspection of completed ARDA projects, and offer
advice and assistance on technical and administrative problems.
There are 37 improvement districts operating ARDA projects within the
Province among which are major irrigation districts serving thousands of acres of
agricultural land and, in many cases, elements of urban development located within
district boundaries.   The total cost of the ARDA projects involved is $36,571,000.
Miscellaneous Activities
There is a distinct need for those agencies of Provincial Government involved
in the approval process to reach agreement on uniform guidelines for the design
and construction of proposed domestic waterworks. With that object in view the
Comptroller of Water Rights opened discussions with the Ministry of Health,
Division of Environmental Engineering, and Director of Investigations, Ministry
of Environment, on the setting-up of a task force of engineers to recommend uniform design guidelines in consultation with other interested persons, including
 U 60 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
consulting engineers, statutory water authorities, improvement districts, municipalities, and regional districts. Agreement appears to have been reached that the
availability of uniform guidelines should do much to reduce confusion on the part
of the public and others seeking approval of more than one approving agency
and should also result in less duplication of effort on the part of the ministries involved.
The Division has also commenced work on the preparation of an updated
version of Guide to Applicants jor Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity,
which should also assist in streamlining the approval process.
POWER AND SPECIAL PROJECTS DIVISION
Power Licence Administration
Applications
General—Private individuals continue to show interest in building their own
small power plants. About a dozen water licence applications of this nature were
received during the year.
High Revelstoke Project—An application to construct a dam and 27-million-
kw power plant on the Columbia River some 3 miles upstream of the City of
Revelstoke was submitted by the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority in February.
Objections to the application were received from a number of individuals,
government agencies, private companies, and conservationist groups, and a public
hearing was deemed necessary. The hearing began in Revelstoke in June and
was adjourned, following a brief presentation by the Hydro Authority, to allow
interested parties to review the large volume of technical, economic, environmental,
and social impact reports presented. At the hearing's continuance, which began
in September and lasted four weeks, opportunity was given to all interveners to
present briefs and cross-examine B.C. Hydro witnesses.
A conditional water licence was issued on December 1 authorizing the project
to proceed. Special clauses were included in the licence to ensure that the development will have minimum adverse effects on local residents, businesses, and the
natural environment.
The project will consist of a 530-foot-high concrete dam with an earthfill
embankment, and will create a reservoir 80 miles long between Arrow Lakes and
Mica, flooding an area of some 28,000 acres.
Approval of Plans
Plan reviews were carried out for various smaller projects, many of which
were visited by Division staff to ensure that approved construction practices were
carried out for new projects, as well as all reconstruction and rehabilitation works.
Some of the dams studied or visited included Arbutus Estates, Coquitlam, Crescent Lake, Deer Lake, Graham Lake, Gibraltar Jackson, La Bonne, Langley Lake,
Lookout Brook, McKinley, Morehead Lake, Park Lane, Skins Lake, Tunnel,
Utopia, and Yellow Point Dams.
Major studies were also carried out to determine the environmental effects
of such projects as the Alberta Natural Gas Line relocation, the Ashcroft Rail
relocation, the Chilcotin Area Park proposal, Kootenay Lake dyking, and the
Illecillewaet Dam removal.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE U 61
Flood Control Operations During the Past Year
General
Early analyses of snow-pack figures indicated that, although above-average
runoffs could be expected in some areas of the Province, it would probably not be
necessary to implement flood control measures at the major reservoirs of the Province with the exception of the Nechako River as discussed below. Nevertheless,
the customary monitoring of river flows and reservoir operation was maintained
throughout the freshet season.
Nechako River Basin
By the 1st of March 1976 it was quite evident that an abnormally high runoff
was to be expected from the Nechako Basin. While flood control reservoirs can be
considered to fall into three principal categories, some may have elements of more
than one; these are
(a) "anticipatory," being storage that, due to its remoteness from flood
damage areas and a lengthy delay in achieving full effectiveness,
must be operated on a pre-planned program;
(b) "flexible," being storage that can be manipulated successfully during
the course of the flood to improve its effectiveness; and
(c) "emergency," being storage that is reserved for a last-ditch effort to
prevent, or relieve, a rapidly deteriorating situation.
As Nechako Reservoir falls into the first of these categories, the planned
method of operation was to be in three stages—pre-spill, peak reduction, and controlled discharge. The first stage consists of evacuating as much reservoir space as
possible to be able to store during the high flows to come. The second stage, which
is ideally one of little or no discharge, reduces flows downstream at the height of the
flood; it must be remembered, however, that there will be uncontrolled tributary
inflow to be taken into account. The last stage is simply one of high discharge, but
at a nondamaging rate.
Instructions were issued to ALCAN (the licensee and owner) to commence
pre-spill in early April, by which time the river was free of ice. This gained an
extra 2 feet of storage for subsequent use.
An unusually early warm spell was responsible for flows to peak in early May,
creating alarm and causing some minor damage. The second stage of flood control
was commenced at this time, although originally planned for a week or so later,
but conditions did not permit a zero discharge. A second, and greater, peak occurred in mid-June, by which time the third stage had already commenced. Ideally
this third stage should have been delayed until the peak had passed, but there was
insufficient storage space available to permit this. Reservoir inflows remained so
high that the third stage had to be extended until the end of August. When the
inflow records were subsequently analysed it was found that they were 67 per cent
above average.
A conventional statistical analysis (based upon records since 1930) indicated
that the return period of the 1976 flood was 200 years. However, a chronological
analysis indicated that conditions were becoming gradually more severe and that
floods of this magnitude can be expected much more often than might earlier have
been anticipated.
Kootenay Lake Board of Control
This Board reports annually to the International Joint Commission on operations of Cominco in reducing flow levels and maintaining winter storage on Kootenay
 U 62 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Lake in accordance with the Commission's 1938 order; and the operation of Duck
Lake outlet control works by the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Authority in
accordance with the Commission's orders of 1950, 1956, and 1970. During this
period the Board's Annual Report for 1974 was submitted which noted that
Cominco's operation was generally according to the Rule Curve, although a violation occurred on the 5th and 6th of December 1974 when the lake was two tenths
of a foot too high. The violation was caused by rain and snow but was offset to
some extent thereafter by reducing the outflow from Duncan and Libby Dams.
Ice Studies
Since completion in December 1967 of the W. A. C. Bennett Dam, the flow of
the Peace River has been regulated. As a consequence, spring snow-melt flood
flows have been greatly reduced and winter flows have increased. The present
winter flows have increased to between 50,000 and 60,000 c.f.s., as compared with
previously unregulated winter flows at the Town of Peace River, Alberta, of between
10,000 and 20,000 c.f.s. Winter stages have also increased, contributing to a
larger ice sheet carried by the river. The Town of Peace River has in most years
of its history experienced ice-jams at the end of the winter season, with associated
backing up of water. A joint task force of BCHPA British Columbia and Alberta
was established in 1974 to observe and report each year on the ice break-up at the
Town of Peace River and to implement ways of alleviating ice-jam problems.
Field staff of B.C. Hydro and Power Authority recorded and analysed meteorological and hydrometric data at intervals from freeze-up till break-up. The
Government of British Columbia underwrote the cost of air photographic coverage
during the break-up period. The 1976 break-up was relatively uneventful and the
ice rotted in place, slowly deteriorating under the combined influence of solar
radiation and the river flowing beneath it.
Environmental Studies
Arrow Reservoir Study Group
This group was formed jointly by several Provincial Government agencies and
B.C. Hydro and Power Authority under the chairmanship of this Division to
determine if, in view of increasing public use of the Arrow Reservoir, its operation
and regulation could be modified for improved recreational, fishery, and wildlife
management, navigation, and environmental enjoyment purposes
In September 1976 the group submitted an interim report to the Deputy
Minister of the Environment. The report concluded that only minor variations in
reservoir regulation were economically feasible, but that there were areas of possible improvement.   Future studies were recommended.
Transmission-lines
General—Proposed transmission-line routes are now subject to approval by
resource agencies and local authorities affected by such lines. This Division is
responsible for co-ordinating Ministry of the Environment input concerned with
avoiding or mitigating adverse effects on water use.
Nicola/Cranbrook Line—This proposed 500-kw double circuit will link the
generating stations of the Nelson/Trail area with the remainder of the Province.
In the future it will most probably form part of the Trans-Canada power grid.
During the summer, B.C. Hydro determined its preferred route and submitted its
proposals to an interdepartmental committee. An unresolved objection to the
route selection has been submitted to ELUC for adjudication.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
U 63
Dolan Creek—A proposed 500-kw line between Ashton Creek and Revelstoke
will cross the watershed of Dolan Creek, which is used by the community of Big
Eddy. Initially the line is to be used to supply power to the City of Revelstoke,
but ultimately it will link up to the High Revelstoke power plant and transmit power
in the opposite direction. At present authorization has only been given for the
first of these functions as the extension necessary to fulfil the latter could possibly
damage the water supply.
Kootenay River (Canal Flats) Diversion
Under the terms of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has the right, beginning
in 1984, to divert water from the Kootenay River near Canal Flats into the Columbia, to increase energy generation at Mica and Revelstoke Hydro-electric Projects.
Studies begun in 1975 were continued through 1976 to evaluate the technical/
economic feasibility as well as the social and environmental effects of this project.
The B.C. Hydro and Power Authority is responsible for engineering studies
reviewing the existing physical condition along both Columbia and Kootenay Rivers,
and predicting conditions under various levels of diversion being studied. Entech
Environmental Consultants are carrying out ecological and socio-economic studies
to evaluate the impact of the project on local residents, recreation and tourism, fish
and wildlife, agriculture, transportation, and land use patterns.
Generation and Load Growth
In view of the fact that very large quantities of water are licensed for hydroelectric development, and in order to take effective measures for environmental protection, the Division maintains an active interest in this field. Records of generation,
initially required for rental purposes, have been kept since the early 1920's. Several
years back, in order to keep the data meaningful, information on thermal generation,
compiled from various other sources, were included also. The results of the above-
mentioned work are published each year (usually in July) in a pamphlet entitled
Power in B.C.—Annual Review.
Past Year (Interim Report)
The results of a year-end survey (see below) indicate that electrical generation
in the Province during 1976 was 12.3 per cent greater than in 1975, whereas the
load (i.e., amount used within the Province) rose by 12.2 per cent.
Table 21—Electrical Generation and Load in British Columbia During
1976 and Comparison With the Preceding Year
Generation by utilities—
1975
(GWh)
1976
(GWh)
Change
(PerCent)
Hydro  .
22 545
28 578
Thermal 	
     1 906
195
Subtotals	
  24 451
28 773
Generation by industries—
Hydro	
     8 550
8 117
Thermal	
     1 216
1 550
Subtotals	
     9 766
9 667
Total generation	
  34 217
38 440
+ 12.3
Exports (net)         ...
1 839
2 104
Provincial load	
  32 378
36 336
+ 12.2
 U 64 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Long-term Growth
The two graphs, one entitled "Peak and Average Energy Requirements" and
the other "Total Installed Capacity" demonstrate the long-term growth in use of
electricity in the Province. Over the 46-year period since 1930 the annual energy
consumption has risen at an average rate of 7.4 per cent compounded while installed
capacity has risen at the slightly slower rate of 6.77 per cent compounded. Over
the past 10 years the growth rates have been 5.55 per cent compounded for energy
consumption, and 9.01 per cent compounded for installation.
Power Exports
Due to above-average run-off conditions there was a surplus of hydro-electric
energy during the latter half of the year, and bulk sales to the United States and
Alberta continued to take place. Prices obtainable in the United States continue to
rise and in several cases exceeded 10 mills per kilowatt-hour.
Columbia River Treaty
Mica Reservoir
While the above-average inflows were creating severe problems in one area of
the Province, they resulted in a stroke of good fortune at Mica. Early predictions,
based on a series of average-inflow years, had indicated the improbability of the
reservoir filling for a few years yet, whereas this objective was achieved during the
summer of 1976. Further negotiations between the United States and Canadian
entities to permit the retention of extra storage in Mica reservoir were thereby
obviated.
Benefits in Canada
The four treaty storage reservoirs continued to provide hydro-electric power
and flood control benefits in Canada. The Columbia was contained without undue
difficulty.
Libby Reservoir
Canada has nearly fulfilled its obligation of preparing the land required for the
portion of Lake Koocanusa in Canada.
The reservoir crossed the International Border into Canada on April 1976,
following a winter of above-average snow-pack, and reached its maximum elevation
of 2,459 on August 2, 1976. While the Forest Service has completed its program of
piling and burning of debris collected on the shores of the reservoir, the Fish and
Wildlife Branch of the Ministry of Recreation and Conservation of British Columbia
is continuing a program which includes operating fish screens on Kikomun Creek
only, having earlier removed similar facilities on Linklater and Plumbob Creeks.
The Parks Branch of the same ministry is proceeding with development of waterfront parks and recreational facilities at Kikomun Creek and Wardner. Studies are
in hand concerning the possibility of other recreational areas around the perimeter
of the reservoir.
A meeting was held on October 5, 1976, in Libby, Mont., with representatives
of the United States Corps of Engineers, the authority responsible for construction
of the Libby Dam and reservoir preparation in Montana, to discuss progress and
items of common interest and concern.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Permanent Engineering Board
U 65
The Division Chief is designated alternate to the Deputy Minister on the
Permanent Engineering Board (PEB) established under the terms of the Columbia
River Treaty. The PEB reports annually to the American and Canadian Governments on progress achieved under the Treaty. Activities during the year included
meeting of the Board and a joint meeting with the entity representatives in Portland,
Ore. The Board's technical committee reviewed and commented upon a number of
entity reports that were presented to the PEB.
Dam Inspection
Dams Inspected
The dam inspection program was vigorously pursued in 1976. Research was
begun to catalogue all dams in the Province over 10 feet in height, while inspection
records and procedures were reviewed for adequacy.
Twenty-two major dams and 28 smaller structures were inspected as part of
the continuing program to ensure that adequate maintenance was being carried out
and that no adverse conditions had developed in the four years interim since previous
inspections. The inspections included underwater investigations if such appeared
necessary. On those dams which were found to be in poor condition a consultant's
report was requested from the owner preparatory to rehabilitation or removal. Several major dams under construction were also visited during the year to ensure
compliance with previously approved plans.
Measuring pore water pressure in the foundation of the Sooke Lake Dam.
 U 66
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Final inspection of the Charters Dam.
Measuring seepage water level within the embankment of the Sooke Lake Dam.
 WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
U 67
Instrumentation
The dam instrumentation program introduced in 1975 was successfully continued in 1976. Alignment and triangulation survey networks were installed on four
major dams in the Province—Jump Creek Dam, Nanaimo; Joseph Creek Dam,
Cranbrook; Garnet Valley Dam, Summerland; and Rose Valley Dam, Kelowna.
Readings were taken every four months to determine any horizontal or vertical
surface displacement. In addition, piezometers were read and seepage monitored
to isolate any sudden changes in flow through the embankment.
A program of monthly piezometer readings was undertaken with the Greater
Victoria Water District on Sooke Lake Dam. Liaison was established with several
American and European equipment manufacturers as sources of information on any
new developments in automatic instrumentation equipment. A member of the
Division attended a course on small dam design and instrumentation in St. Louis,
Mo.
Special Projects
Hat Creek Coal
Meetings were held with B.C. Hydro and Power Authority, who are investigating a proposed thermal generating station using Hat Creek coal. Initially the plant
would generate 2 000 MW, which might subsequently be increased to 4 800 MW.
Water required for the cooling towers and other operations would be in the order
of 25 000 g.p.m. for a 2 000 MW station. Such a large quantity of water could
only be supplied either by the Thompson River or the Fraser River. While the
Thompson River water could be used directly, the Fraser River water would require
pre-treatment due to its heavy silt content.   Studies are continuing.
Coal-mining
General—The, Power and Special Projects Division has been involved in the
environmental studies and infra-structure requirements associated with coal development in British Columbia. These studies include the Sage Creek Project in the
Kootenay Coal Block and the Northeast Coal development in the Murray River
Basin south of Dawson Creek and Chetwynd.
The Division has also been involved in the preparation of the Provincial Guidelines for Coal Development.
Heber River Diversion
A report containing an economic evaluation of the Heber River Diversion, an
18-year-old project supplying B.C. Hydro's Campbell River Generating System with
water from the Gold River catchment, was prepared at the request of the Gold River
Village Council. The report concluded that the probable benefits to the steelhead
sports fishery, resulting from discontinuing the diversion and reverting to natural
Heber River flow conditions, would be minimal when compared to the value of
energy currently generated from diverted flows.
  WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
  WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
P. M. Brady, Director
The Water Investigations Branch is responsible for planning and development
programs pertaining to utilization, preservation, and control of the Provincial water
resource.
The Branch comprises 140 permanent staff members. Responsibilities and
activities are such that there is a significant proportion of staff with specialized training in a variety of technical and scientific fields.
Each of the four Divisions contains experts in the appropriate disciplines and
each Division is responsible for the management of specific assigned programs and
the associated tasks. The Divisions do not function independently of each other
but wherever necessary one supports the other by providing the needed expertise
from its own team of specialists.
In turn each Division receives significant technical support from the draughting
office. The accounting and operational services so necessary for successful operation
are provided by the Administrative Officer and the Records Compilation Section
which he manages. The typing pool handles overload from the Divisions.
For the purposes of this Report the Division lines have been ignored and the
activities described under three major program headings entitled "Flood Damage
Prevention," "Environmental Preservation," and "Water Resource Utilization."
In addition to the activities and services described under the three major headings, the Branch provides consulting and technical services to other Government
agencies and has staff representing it on a large number of interagency and intergovernmental boards, committees, and task forces.
FLOOD DAMAGE PREVENTION
Introduction
Considerable development in the floodplains of British Columbia has taken
place as a result of the topography and geology of the Province. The continual
expansion of the population and economy, particularly outside the Greater Vancouver and Victoria areas, tends to propagate further development in flood-prone
areas. As a result of this, high water levels will cause substantial flood damages and
social disruption at an increasing rate unless preventive measures are undertaken.
The necessary structural and nonstructural measures are being implemented under
a comprehensive flood damage prevention program. They include flood forecasting,
planning and control of floodplain development, regulation of flood flows, channel
clearing, and construction of flood and erosion protection works. Details of these
activities are given in this Report.
General Flood Situation During Year
April 1 snow-pack conditions were such that spring and summer run-off, under
normal melt conditions, was expected to be the highest of record on the Nechako
71
 U 72
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Reservoir watershed and above average on most other watersheds. Unusually wet
weather occurred during the forecast period, resulting in higher seasonal run-off
volumes than those predicted, including an inflow to the Nechako Reservoir 34 per
cent greater than the previous high. Fortunately, melt was a long and gradual
process with major river peak freshet stages generally no higher than those that
usually occur.
Streamflow Forecasting
Streamflow forecasting is the responsibility of the Surface Water Section of the
Hydrology Division, which operates the Provincial snow survey network. A total
of 1,145 snow surveys was made at 255 snow courses during 1976 by Hydrology
Division personnel, co-operating agencies, and part-time local employees. The
results were immediately relayed to Victoria, via Telex, telegraph, and telephone,
where the snow survey data were compiled and together with meteorological and
run-off data, analysed utilizing statistical methods and computer programs to produce seasonal volume forecasts for key locations throughout the Province. Snow
survey data and run-off forecasts were published in the British Columbia Snow
Survey Bulletin, which was issued in the first week of each month from February to
June, inclusive, with a mid-month edition published in May.
Nine new snow courses and one new snow pillow site were established during
1976. The number of snow pillow installations is now nine.
In the year 1976, field work activities included snow surveys, the training of
observers, and maintenance and installation of equipment.
Conversion of the snow survey data bank to the metric system was completed
with metric units used in the 1976 Snow Survey Bulletins. Equipment changeover
is under way but proceeding slowly due to the high costs involved.
During the snowmelt season a careful watch is kept on river stages throughout
the Province, particularly on the Fraser and Thompson Rivers where flows are
largely uncontrolled and where large sections of the floodplain have been developed.
Daily meteorological and streamflow data are analysed by the Modelling Subsection
of the Hydrology Division to produce forecast flows and stages at key points
throughout the Fraser River basin for up to five days in advance. Considerable
use is made of hydrologic models to assist in the short-term forecasting process, and
these computer programs are constantly reviewed and updated as time permits and
the science of hydrology advances. To improve the efficiency of the forecasting
process, considerable effort and time were put into transferring the programs and
data files to the new Government time-sharing computer system. This subsection
also develops and operates specialized short-term forecasting models of areas such
as Osoyoos Lake where high flows in the Similkameen can cause flooding.
Floodplain Development Control
1. General—The main activities in the control of floodplain development are
floodplain surveys, hydrological analysis, and computation of flood profiles, flood-
plain mapping, input to local planning as related to flooding, including review and
recommendation on zoning by-laws and land use contracts, and providing advice on
consent for approval of subdivisions located in flood-prone areas.
2. Floodplain surveys—Floodplain surveys were undertaken by the Surveys
Section of the Planning and Surveys Division. Some 8,225 man-hours were spent
on topographic, bathometric, and control surveys in 14 river valleys during 1976.
Surveys were undertaken for approximately 337 square miles of floodplain containing approximately 210 miles of river and 77 miles of lakeshore.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 73
Cross-sectioning Chilliwack River as part of
floodplain survey.
 U 74 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
3. Hydrologic analysis and computation of flood profiles—Hydrologic analysis
to determine the magnitude and frequency of flood flows is undertaken within the
Modelling Subsection of the Hydrology Division. This section has developed a
sophisticated program package which analyses streamflow records according to
four different frequency distributions, giving both numerical and graphical output.
Just over 300 data sets were analysed during the year for floodplain mapping and
culvert and bridge design purposes. The basic flow data are obtained from records
published by the Water Survey of Canada. These records are obtained through a
Provincial-wide hydrometric network operated under the terms of the Federal-
Provincial Agreement which came into effect at the beginning of 1975.
Where streamflow or lake data are not available, estimates of flood flows or
lake levels are made by personnel of the Surface Water Section. This is done by
utilizing available data such as rainfall records and by transposition techniques from
nearby gauged catchments.
The Planning Section of the Planning and Surveys Division utilizes the flood
flows to determine the flood profile, using a computer program designed for this
purpose.
4. Floodplain mapping—Orthophoto mapping with spot heights and contours
is undertaken by the Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Lands Service, using air
photographs provided by its Field Operations Division and the survey control information provided by the Planning and Surveys Division. Eight mapping sheets were
prepared during 1976 covering approximately 23 square miles.
The Planning and Surveys Division determines flood lines and adds these to
the mapping along with other information to produce the final floodplain maps
which are provided to other agencies and planning authorities.
The status of the floodplain mapping program at the year-end and documentation of associated tasks are summarized in Table 22.
5. Planning and control of floodplain development—The Planning Section of
the Planning and Surveys Division assists in the planning and control of development
within floodplains, assesses all subdivisions in areas that could be flooded and, where
appropriate, prepares requirements that must be met as a condition of subdivision
approval.
Planning and technical advice is given to local authorities to enable the flooding potential to be considered in the preparation of community plans. For example,
this year advisory and financial assistance was given to the City of Port Alberni for
floodplain planning studies related to future development in the Lugrin Creek area.
Control of development of land that is already subdivided takes place through
review of all zoning by-laws covering floodplain areas in cases where the Ministry
of Municipal Affairs and Housing must grant by-law approval. The Planning
Section recommends appropriate clauses be incorporated in the by-laws or agrees
with those proposed, and the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing ensures
that the final form of by-law is acceptable prior to granting approval. Land use
contracts for areas subject to flooding are also referred to the Planning Section and
recommendations pertaining to flood prevention requirements are provided to the
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing for inclusion in such contracts prior to
approval. During 1976, approximately 293 zoning by-laws and 42 land use contracts were reviewed within the Planning Section. This compares with some 210
and 42 respectively for 1975. Zoning by-laws usually contain a clause which affords
the opportunity for appeal to the Deputy Minister of the Environment for reduction
in or relief from the flood prevention requirements on a case-by-case basis. Some
211 appeals were processed during 1976.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 75
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 U 76
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The Land Registry Act requires that all approving officers refer proposed
subdivisions in areas that could be subject to flooding for consent of the Minister of
the Environment. The Planning Section reviews these proposed subdivisions and
recommends consent, refusal, or provides requirements that must be met as conditions of consent. Some 521 proposed subdivisions were processed during 1976
compared with 388 in 1975.
In 1976 a referral system was set up with the Land Management Branch to
ensure flood control requirements were given for lease applications for Crown
lands. Some 590 lease applications were given appropriate flood control requirements with approximately four times this number being checked, but which did not
require further action.
Run-off Regulation
1. Okanagan Flood Control system—Operation of the Okanagan Flood Control system, which consists of the control structures at the outlet of Okanagan Lake
and on the Okanagan River downstream to Skaha Lake, is directed by the Hydrology
Division. As of April 1, 1976, the operation and maintenance of the works became
the sole responsibility of the Engineering Division, with staff for this purpose located
in Penticton. The April-July inflow to Okanagan Lake was about 24 per cent above
average, but presented no problems, the lake being brought to its normal upper
operating level at the beginning of July. Abnormally wet, cool weather in July and
August resulted in Okanagan Lake being unusually high throughout the summer and
fall despite high releases to Okanagan River.
Due to the fact that the peak flow in the Similkameen River was less than
20,000 c.f.s., there were no problems with flooding around Osoyoos Lake with the
maximum water level of 911.75 feet being below the flood-damage level.
Satellite Sensor and Transmission Station at elevation 1 780 metres on
Mission Creek snow course east of Kelowna..
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 77
Work continued on refinement of the computer models with a view to ensuring
optimum regulation of the important water resource contained in the Okanagan
Valley system of lakes.
2. Upstream storage, Fraser River Basin—The object of the upstream storage
study under the terms of the 1968 Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood Control
Agreement is to develop an integrated plan for further flood protection, utilization,
and control of the water resources of the Fraser River Basin. This study was completed in late 1976 and it is anticipated that the Fraser River Joint Advisory Board
will submit the Summary Report to the Federal and Provincial Governments early
in 1977.
Flood Control Program—Structural
Flood control programs involving structural solutions to protect existing development are undertaken under the direction of the Rivers Section of the Engineering
Division. These programs can be categorized as follows:
(a) Implementation of design and construction under the 1968 Federal-
Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
(b)
(c)
(d)
Investigation and construction of other flood and erosion protection
works under agreement with local authorities outside the Fraser Valley and individuals throughout the Province. Projects are implemented under the River Protection Assistance Program.
Channel-clearing program.
Drainage projects.
 U 78
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
%~~  ^*§
Dyke and new Oliver Road Pumpstation on Boundary Bay in the Corporation of Delta.
Constructed under Fraser River Flood Control Program.
1. Fraser River Flood Control Program—This program provides for flood
and erosion control and drainage improvements in the Lower Mainland areas in and
adjacent to the Fraser Valley and in the Kamloops area. Project costs are shared
equally by Federal and Provincial Governments. Because approval for an increase
in total expenditure for the program from $60 million to $120 million was not
received until late in the year, it was not possible to finalize agreements with the
local governments of Pitt Meadows and Coquitlam and hence construction of these
projects did not commence in time to meet the target expenditure of $13 million for
the fiscal year. The amount actually spent is anticipated to be $10.7 million. Program expenditures projected to the end of the current fiscal year are given in Table
23.
Table 23—Fraser River Program Fiscal Expenditures
Fiscal Year
Expenditure
Design
Construction
Upstream
Storage Studies
Total
$
$
211,000
120,400
105,460
1,164,380
1,214,640
1,456,470
5,167,870
8,849,310
10,368,685
9,807,600
$
$
211,000
1968/69	
5,160
658,870
769,660
592,110
650,880
867,540
1,173,700
1,280,582
850,000
125,560
1969/70   	
764,330
1970/71                 	
3,410
492,530
295,620
64,990
92,060
75,732
50,000
1,937,450
1971/72  .... 	
1972/73	
1973/74
2,299,280
2,402,970
6,100,400
10,115 070
1974/75	
1975/76                        	
11,724,999
10,707,600
1976/77 (estimated)	
Total expenditure to March 31, 1977 	
6,848,502    j    38,465,815
1
1,074,342    |    46,388,659
1
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 79
Table 24—Fraser River Program Project Status
Date of
Application
Design
per Cent
Completed
at Year-end
Construction
During
Fiscal Year
Construction to
End of Fiscal Year
Amount
Per Cent
Completed
Kent                                                  ...    .
Mar. 5, 1969
Mar. 3, 1969
Mar. 3, 1969
May 15, 1969
Aug. 1, 1969
Aug. 1, 1969
Aug. 4, 1969
May 6, 1969
May 6, 1969
Dec. 10, 1970
Apr. 30, 1970
Oct. 28, 1973
100
25
85
100
85
85
98
100
32
85
95
100
100
S
56,700
350,000
3,500,000
15,870
451,800
2,400,000
$
2,566,000
350,000
10,524,500
3,305,254
6,410,000
8,864,900
100
5
60
85
100
Delta       	
50
Surrey—
1,201,586
34,529
1,500,000
100
5
1,500,000
50
Oak Hills	
50,000
1,156,000
1,065,000
1,156,000
211,000
466,470
810,576
98
100
167,230
160,000
Totals	
9,807,600
1
38,465,815
Extensive flooding of the Vedder River in December 1975 necessitated an
emergency program of rehabilitation of existing dykes and the removal of gravel
deposits from the riverbed. This project was completed at a cost of $1.15 million.
Studies have commenced for a project on the Vedder River to provide protection
from flooding to program standards.
2. River Protection Assistance Program—Under the River Protection Assistance Program the Provincial Government assists local authorities outside the Fraser
Valley and individuals throughout the Province in the construction of dyking and
bank protection works. Upon receipt of a request for assistance, staff from the
Engineering Division and, in some instances, a regional office of the Water Rights
Branch, undertake a site investigation. A report is subsequently prepared and the
proposed project placed on a priority list. Offers of assistance within the limits
of available funding are based on this list. Projects are implemented under written
agreement between the applicant and the Branch under which the applicant receives
technical and financial assistance and in turn contributes to the project, constructs
the works, and undertakes maintenance responsibilities.
Projects built in 1976 included those in Stewart (Bear River), Golden, Grand
Forks, Telkwa, Houston, Fort St. James, Chase, Salmon Arm, Quesnel, Zeballos,
Bella Coola Valley, Pemberton Valley, Oyster River, New Denver, and Silverton.
Investigations of erosion problems were carried out throughout the Province.
Table 25 provides a summary of this year's activities and a comparison with 1974
and 1975.
Table 25—Minor Flooding and Erosion Projects
Year
Requests for
Assistance
Site
Inspections
Reports
Completed
Projects Implemented
Number
Total Construction Cost
1974  	
1975	
1976	
115
93
114
62
104
143
34
87
112
54
24
37
$
520,000
1,179,000
1,043,000
 U 80                                    MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
In addition, this Division investigated and monitored the construction of preventive measures of the Port Alice Slide, the Salmon Arm Slide, and the Elkford
Slide at a total expenditure of $230,700.   Although the Port Alice Project was
substantially completed at year-end it will require a small amount of work to complete next summer.
3. Channel Clearing Program—A number of channel clearing projects were
undertaken during 1976. The work did not involve construction of works that are
of a permanent nature but rather the removal of logjams and gravel bars deposited
in watercourses during periods of high run-off.   Projects were initiated and undertaken by the Regional Engineers of the Water Rights Branch, in some cases with
assistance from the Engineering Division. During 1976, 14 projects costing $73,000
were completed.  This compares to 38 projects costing $54,000 in 1975, and 31
projects costing $ 115,000 in 1974.
4. Drainage schemes—Investigations and construction relating to drainage
projects carried out during the year by the Water Supply Section included the Township of Chilliwack, Castleman Road; Surrey drainage; Ptarmigan Flats; Tugulnuit
Lake; Farm Drainage Outlet Assistance Program; Deep Creek; Saar and Arnold
Creeks; Chadsey Ditch.
Table 26—Drainage Projects
Project
Description
Township of Chilliwack—Castleman Road
Construction of this drainage project is being carried out under
ARDA Project 89050, and is about 85 per cent complete.    Expenditures during the year were $68,607.   Total project cost to
date is $149,042 of an estimated final project cost of $265,000.
analysis of water quality and river stage data on the Nicomekl
and Serpentine Rivers.
migan Flats, near Enderby.
Farm Drainage Outlet Assistance Program
the Tugulnuit Lake Improvement District.
Several   small   drainage   proposals   qualifying   for   assistance   under
the   ARDA  Farm   Drainage   Outlet   Assistance   Program   were
reviewed.   These included projects in the municipalities of Kent,
Chilliwhack, Matsqui, and Salmon Arm, and the Regional District of North Okanagan.
A report was completed on a drainage scheme at Deep Creek, near
Enderby, which updated costs and benefits presented in a previous
report.
Township of Chilliwack—Chadsey Ditch
scheme, for approximately 3,000 acres in the Sumas area.
Two reports were completed on an evaluation of field data related
to run-off coefficients and Manning's "n" factors in the Chilliwack area.
ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION
Introduction
Activities relating to the economic and social development within the Province
to a greater or lesser extent are reflected in the environment of our water resources.
The Environmental Preservation Program is directed toward preservation of the
water resource in areas where degradation potential is considered to be significant.
The program also looks to the future with a view to facilitating environmental
planning.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 81
Program activities include resource inventory and monitoring, water and air
conservation preservation planning studies, investigations and remedial programs
for specific water quality problems, and protection of watersheds. The major part
of this program is undertaken by personnel from the Environmental Studies Division;
however, activities related to preservation of the groundwater resource and the
protection of the surface water resource against possible adverse effects of development within watersheds are undertaken by the Hydrology Division and the Planning
and Surveys Division.
Resource Inventory and Monitoring
This research program involves sampling and monitoring the water and biota
of widely scattered lakes and streams having diverse characteristics. The main
objective is to improve the efficiency of water quality assessments and long-term
monitoring procedures. The program is intended to evaluate methods of sampling,
methods of data analysis, and the use of various organisms as water quality indicators. During 1976, this program was severely constrained by conflicting demands
for the manpower in Environmental Studies Division.
1. Environmental impact studies—Environmental impact studies are site
specific studies to assess the impact proposed developments will have on the air,
surface water, and groundwater resources of the Province, and to propose means
of mitigating or reducing adverse effects. Activities include preparation of study
guidelines and terms of reference for use by other agencies and industry, input to
preparation of terms of reference related to water and air resources for studies to
be undertaken by others, monitoring of studies by others, and undertaking the
implementation and co-ordination of specific studies. The environmental impact
studies that were active or completed during 1976 are listed in Table 27.
Three study reports were completed, 27 study reports were reviewed and
commented on, and 15 information and data reviews were provided during 1976.
Table 27—Environmental Impact Studies
Project
Description
Provincial    studies   of   northeast   regional
development
Proposed northeast coal development (Quintette, Coalition, Utah, Bullmoose-Teck)
Proposed    Hosmer-Wheeler    coal    project
(Kaiser Resources)
Proposed Line Creek coal project  (Crows
Nest Industries)
Proposed   Sage   Creek   coal   project   (Rio
Algom)
Proposed Hat Creek thermal project (B.C.
Hydro and Power Authority)
Undertook baseline, water quality inventory of potential coal and
townsite development areas. Three reports completed for water
resources reference and management, and for the ELUC Secretariat! subcommittee and the Municipal Affairs townsite subcommittee of the Provincial northeast study.    Continuing.
Assistance to Provincial Coal-Steering Committee and ELUCS* in
the development of Guidelines for Coal Development and in
Provincial, multi-agency reviews of developer-consultant studies.
Continuing.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of developer-consultant studies for an underground, hydraulic coal
mine in the Hosmer-Wheeler Ridge area of the east Kootenays.
Continuing.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of developer-consultant studies for a surface coal mine in the Line
Creek area of the east Kootenays.   Continuing.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of developer-consultant studies for surface coal mines in the Flathead
area of the east Kootenays.    Continuing.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of proposal and allied studies to develop a coal-fired thermal plant in
the Hat Creek area.    Continuing.
1 ELUCS=Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat.
 U 82                                    MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 27—Environmental Impact Studies—Continued
Project
Description
Proposed   McGregor   River   diversion   to
Parsnip River   (B.C.  Hydro  and  Power
Authority)
Revelstoke Dam   (B.C.  Hydro and  Power
Authority)
Proposed Kootenay River diversion  (B.C.
Hydro and Power Authority)
Proposed Sites C and E, Peace River hydroelectric   development   (B.C.   Hydro   and
Power Authority)
Proposed   Afton   Copper   Smelter    (Teck
Corp.)
Proposed   Nicola-Cranbrook   transmission-
line (B.C. Hydro and Power Authority)
Assistance  to Water  Rights Branch  and ELUCS1 in Provincial,
multi-agency  review of preliminary consultant report and proposed studies prepared for B.C. Hydro.    Continuing.
Assistance   to  Water  Rights  Branch  and  ELUCS  in   Provincial,
multi-agency review of consultant reports for B.C. Hydro, pursuant to a water rights licence.
Assistance  to   Water  Rights  Branch  and  ELUCS  in  Provincial,
multi-agency review of study progress reports prepared by B.C.
Hydro.   Continuing.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of preliminary consultant reports for B.C. Hydro.    Continuing.
Assistance to Pollution Control Branch in the evaluation of proposed soil-vegetation monitoring.
Assistance to ELUCS in Provincial, multi-agency review of consultant route selection studies for B.C. Hydro.
1 ELUCS=Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat.
2. Water management studies—Water management studies attempt to resolve
conflicts arising from multiple use of the water resource or between water resource
users and water-related land use activities.    The studies usually involve water
quality, flood control, and environmental concerns.    Experts are drawn from the
various divisions of the Branch, depending on the particular problem, and the work
usually involves other Government agencies, local governments, and interest groups.
Studies are undertaken on a priority basis.   Management studies worked on during
1976 are described in Table 28.
Table 28—Water Management Studies
Project
Description
Coquitlam River Study	
Recommendations  are  being  developed  which  will  relate to  the
management of the water resources of the Coquitlam River for
flood control,  fisheries,  and outdoor recreation in  addition to
hydro-electric power production and municipal water supply, the
present major utilizers of the water system.    The study includes
an assessment of the influence which logging, gravel mining, and
urban development are having on the quality of water in the
Coquitlam River and its major tributaries.    Good progress was
made   in   1976   in  gathering   data   and   assembling   background
information.    By year-end a report was well under way.    The
study is scheduled for completion in 1977.
This   is   a   two-part   study.    The   first   part  involves   incremental
drainage improvement to the floodplain of the Serpentine River,
so designed to assure minimum conflict with other utilizers of
the land and water resource.   The second part of the study involves  a  basin-wide  approach to  the  water problems  of  the
floodplain.     A   number   of  investigations   are   proposed   to   be
carried out to assure better optimum utilization of the resources
of the over-all basin.    This study began  as a consequence of
recommendations   by   the   ELUC   Secretariat.     An   application
for an ARDA research grant, to fund certain investigations on
resource values, was approved in late 1976.
A   highly   valued   water-based   recreational   environment,   limited
sources of domestic water supply, and an above-average rate of
residential development were some of the major concerns which
prompted   the  Cowichan   Valley  Regional  District  in   1976  to
request Provincial Government assistance for an assessment of
the quality of water in Shawnigan Lake.   In response, a limited
water   quality   sampling   program   was  initiated   by   the  Water
Investigations Branch.   Additional investigations may be carried
out following an assessment of the data collated.
Shawnigan Lake Study	
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Table 28—Water Management Studies—Continued
U 83
Project
Description
Shuswap River Study   	
Salmon River Study.  	
Fraser River Ecological Studies  ■	
A possible water management study may be undertaken at some
future date on the Shuswap River. The North Enderby Residents
Association has expressed concern over deteriorating water
quality in the Shuswap River between Mabel and Mara Lakes.
The Water Investigations Branch designed a water quality
monitoring program to provide information that will permit a
preliminary assessment of the situation; however, staff commitments and limited funds prevented any field work being done.
The Vernon office of the Pollution Control Branch increased its
monitoring program on the Shuswap River to assess better the
performance of the Enderby sewage-treatment plant. The concern of the local citizens group was brought to the attention of
the Ministries of Health and Forests.
This study involves examination of water licensing, irrigation,
fisheries requirements, and groundwater-surface water relationship to facilitate water allocation decisions. A draft report
covering the inputs of the Water Investigations Branch and the
Fish and Wildlife Branch is now complete. Two groundwater
reports on groundwater return flow from irrigation in a test
study site and groundwater storage and base flow in the West-
wold-Falkland area were also completed.
The responsibility for the ecological studies in the review of the
proposed System E development on the Fraser River was assigned
to the Water Investigations Branch. A committee was formed
comprised of all involved resource agencies. Voluminous
documentation of the ecological consequences indicated the
desirability of a summary report. This was completed in 1976
and forwarded to the Fraser River Joint Advisory Board.
3. Environmental assessment studies—Environmental assessment studies are
non site-specific studies directed toward environmental planning and control within
an area or region. The studies include compilation and analysis of all available
environmental data to define existing problem areas and to determine where data
gaps exist, establishment of needed additional air and water quality monitoring
stations, collection and analysis of data, and preparation of a report that provides
a framework for environmental management. Resulting from this, the planning of
future developments can be undertaken with an understanding of the sensitivity
of the environment in various locations, and with some knowledge of ambient and
(or) existing conditions. This will facilitate more meaningful site specific environmental impact studies and assessment of impact following development.
A major environmental assessment study of the Kootenay Region, directed
and co-ordinated by the Head of the Environmental Assessment Section within the
Environmental Studies Division, is nearing completion.
The area under study comprises the Regional Districts of Kootenay Boundary,
Central Kootenay, and East Kootenay. During 1976, six Phase I reports were
published on water quality and two on air quality. These Phase I reports, which
are available to the public, evaluate existing air and water quality data up to the
end of 1974. Phase I will be completed in early 1977 with the publication of three
more reports on water quality and one on air quality.
Phase II of the study was started in the spring of 1975 to collect data in areas
where information was lacking. Air and water monitoring networks were established
and the field work was completed in the fall of 1976. The data will be presented
and interpreted in reports to be published in 1977. These reports will also contain
recommendations for corrective action where required and for future routine monitoring and planning through the entire area.
 U 84
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Servicing an Ambient Air Quality Station in Trail in connection with
Kootenay Region Study.
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Operation of a freeze core sampler in the Fording River to obtain information on
effect of coal-mining for Kootenay Region Study.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Specific Water Quality Problems
U 85
Where a water quality problem exists, or where one is anticipated, specific
localized studies are conducted. Assessments are made of the aquatic environment,
the problem, or its potential. Field and office studies are undertaken and reports
are prepared proposing remedial measures or controls over development in certain
areas. In some cases the Branch undertakes implementation of remedial measures.
This program provides much of the information and biological collections used in
the Resource Inventory and Monitoring Program already mentioned.
Table 29—Specific Water Quality Problems
Project
Description
108 Mile Lake (Cariboo)-.
Williams Lake (Cariboo)..
Chain, Link, and Osprey Lakes (Okanagan
area)
St.   Mary,   Cusheon,   and   Weston   Lakes
(Saltspring Island)
Thompson River/Kamloops Lake Study..
Aquatic weeds, Okanagan Valley lakes..
Aquatic weeds, various regions..
Alum treatment experiment at Wood Lake..
An investigation of the response of a small Cariboo Plateau lake
to residential development in its watershed. Sampling is completed and a report on its baseline condition is in preparation.
A study of the effect of increasing urbanization upon the water
quality of a Cariboo Plateau lake. Baseline data collection is
completed and a report is in preparation.
An investigation of the effectiveness of artificially increasing the
flushing rate of a lake in the control of cultural eutrophication.
Sampling is completed and a report is in preparation.
A sampling program to monitor the effects of recreational use and
residential development of the watersheds upon water quality in
these three lakes which supply domestic water to much of the
population of Saltspring Island. Baseline data collection is
completed and reports are in preparation.
An investigation of the causes of deterioration in water quality in
the Thompson River and the interactions with Kamloops Lake,
carried out jointly by a Federal-Provincial multi-agency task
force. The final report Sources and Effects of Algal Growth,
Colour, Foaming and Fish Tainting in the Thompson River System was completed in July 1976.
Continuing studies on the ecology and management of aquatic
weeds, with particular emphasis on Eurasian water milfoil. An
experiment with herbicide was done at the north end of Okanagan Lake; a report is in preparation. Experiments with netting fragment drift barriers in the Okanagan River are continuing. Detailed studies on hydrosoil and habitat characteristics
associated with Eurasian water milfoil are continuing. Mapping
surveys of weed beds in all six mainstem lakes were repeated to
document expansions. A continuing joint program with the
Okanagan Basin Water Board to control nuisance populations
used bottom membranes, hydraulic washers, rototillers, and
drawdown, singly and in combinations, was actively pursued in
1976.    Reports are in preparation.
Reconnaissance surveys were done in Mara and Shuswap Lakes to
document the extent of Eurasian water milfoil infestation. Numerous reports of nuisance weed infestations in lakes throughout
the Province were investigated. Numerous specimens were identified for the public. Consultations were held with various local,
State, and Federal officials in the United States. Work is well
advanced on a monograph on the aquatic plants of British Columbia.
The recent Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Water Management Study
identified alum treatment as a potential method for removal of
alga-stimulating phosphorous from the water of Wood Lake
(near Kelowna). Following bench-scale experiments in 1975,
B.C. Research carried out for the Branch a pilot scale experiment in situ during 1976, with the collaboration and assistance
of the Pollution Control Branch. The results were discouraging,
due to the costs of applying a dose large enough to be effective
in the natural lake. Other alternatives are being considered for
further investigation.
 U 86
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Miscellaneous Studies
At the request of other agencies, the Branch undertakes various research projects and site specific studies which do not fall into the major categories above.
Others may be initiated within the Branch. These activities for 1976 are summarized in Table 30.
Table 30—Miscellaneous Studies
Project
Description
Canadian Cellulose Co. effluent evaluation,
Prince Rupert Harbour
Williston Reservoir Potentials Study _
Water   and  habitat   quality  of   the   Lower
Fraser River
Sulphur dioxide vegetation damage assessment, Kimberley and Trail
Soil   and   vegetation   mapping  near  Afton
Copper Smelter (Kamloops area)
Soil and vegetation sampling, Trail..
Taxonomic dictionary for computer data file..
West Bench, Sage Mesa area, Penticton..
A continuation of the study undertaken jointly by Pollution Control Branch and Canadian Cellulose Co., with assistance and coordination by Water Investigations Branch. This study examined
the effects of pulp-mill effluent on the marine receiving waters,
including the bottom and intertidal zones. Data collection and
analysis were completed.   A report is in preparation.
A multi-agency project initiated by ELUC Secretariat in 1973.
Limnological contributions undertaken on behalf of the Branch
by B.C. Research were completed. The final summary report is
in preparation by the ELUC Secretariat co-ordinator.
A multi-agency Federal-Provincial-local review of the adequacy of
the present data base and of the continuing monitoring program
was initiated. Recommendations for improvements to both were
being prepared at year-end.
A continuing program of annual reassessments of damage to vegetation by sulphur dioxide emanating from Sullivan Mine and
from metal refineries, on behalf of Pollution Control Branch.
Mapping of soils and vegetation was undertaken, and instructions
for surveillance sampling of soils and vegetation were prepared,
at the request of Pollution Control Branch to assist in their
long-term environmental monitoring program.
At the request of Pollution Control Branch, soil and vegetation
sampling was carried out arond arsenic/antimony piles at Trail.
Analysis and report preparation are ongoing.
Staff biologists collaborated with Pollution Control Branch and
Ministry of Energy, Transport and Communications in the development of a taxonomic coding dictionary, one of the fundamental building blocks of a unique storage and retrieval system
for biological data. The basic system is nearing operational
stage.
Hydrology Division input to Ministry of Highways and Public
Works study to determine impact on the groundwater regime by
increasing housing density.
PROTECTION OF WATERSHEDS
The program for protection of watersheds is directed toward ensuring that land
clearing, land use, and forestry activities are undertaken in such a way that individual and community water supplies are adequately protected and significant
increases in downstream flooding, erosion, and deposition are avoided. This program requires the expertise of engineers, forestry hydrologists, watershed planners,
and environmental experts. All divisions within the Branch are involved to some
extent; however, the bulk of the tasks are undertaken by the Hydrology and the
Planning and Surveys Divisions. A major activity within the Hydrology Division is
the collection of data from all divisions and the establishment of guidelines as input
to the B.C. Forest Service resource folio system. The Planning and Surveys Division
is responsible for-activities related to the preservation of community watersheds.
Studies and activities during 1975 are described in Table 31.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Table 31—Watershed Protection Program
U 87
Study or Activity
Description
B.C. Forest Service resource folio input.
Community watersheds, general	
Community watershed, referrals-
Nahmint watershed study..
Salmon Arm burn study	
Okanagan low-flow Logging Impact Study .
Peak Flow Regionalization Study..
Complete water resources data provided for 28 watersheds; partial
input for 41 additional watersheds. Hydrologic data reviewed
for 12 folio proposals from industry.
Background information was provided for specific watershed areas
where multi-use problems necessitated discussions by interested
individuals, local authorities, and organizations. A program to
classify the community watersheds in the Province was continued, using available information.
Reviewed and commented on approximately 160 land lease proposals referred by the Lands Service and 80 timber sale proposals referred by the Forest Service.
Continuance of hydrometric program.
Collection of hydrometric and meteorological data is continuing.
Water quality sampling has terminated and data analysis is ongoing.
As a result of the Kamloops District Watershed Study, various
types of studies to qualify the effects of forest harvesting on
streamflow were reviewed and plans made for a regional low-
flow study to commence in 1977. Co-operator is the Research
Division of the Ministry of Forests.
Compilation and analysis of hydrologic data to estimate regional
25-year return period peak flow for culvert and bridge design,
particularly in proposed timber harvesting areas. Regions analysed to date include Vancouver Island, South Coastal Mainland,
Southwest Interior, Southern Monashee Mountains, Kootenay
Highlands, East Kootenays, and Selkirk Mountains.
WATER RESOURCE UTILIZATION
Introduction
The purpose of the water utilization program is to assist the citizens of this
Province in obtaining a water supply which is adequate for their needs. This service
function is provided through inventory programs, feasibility studies including the
preparation of associated reports, detailed designs of water supply systems, and
technical assistance in the construction of works.
Resource Inventory
1. General — An understanding of water resource potential is obtained
through inventory of groundwater, surface water, and storage reservoir sites.
2. Groundwater inventory—The Groundwater Section of the Hydrology Division collects and compiles data obtained during well-drilling activities throughout
the Province. The information is collected by Section staff or mailed in by private
well-drillers and incorporated into a data system which in turn facilitates provision
of information useful in determining location of future well-sites, drilling logistics,
and the potential for success.
During 1976, 2,227 well logs were collected and approximately 1,500 were
located and prepared for plotting on well location maps. Preparation has begun to
produce a new set of well location maps based on the "U.T.M. Grid System."
Water well maps and water chemistry are also of assistance in groundwater
development. During 1976, some 160 water samples were collected and analysed
and these were routinely added to the computerized data bank.
Some 200 requests for groundwater information were handled during the past
year. Several reviews were conducted of groundwater conditions in various parts
of the Province for other Government agencies.  Twenty-six well test reports sub-
 U 88
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
mitted in application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity were
reviewed and, of these, 23 were recommended for approval.
A groundwater observation well network is maintained to monitor water-level
fluctuations and water chemistry in areas of high interest or potential conflict. The
network operated during 1976 comprised 65 continuous installations and 85 short-
term special project installations. All recorder chart data were digitized for storage
on the computerized data base. Progress was made in programming for data screening and retrieval.
Two reports prepared for public distribution were published, entitled Practical
Information on Groundwater Development and Flowing Artesian Wells in British
Columbia.
3. Surface water inventory — Surface water inventory is obtained through a
Province-wide hydrometric network operated by the Water Survey of Canada and
through a much smaller network operated by the Water Investigations Branch.
The construction and operating costs of the network operated by the Water
Survey of Canada is cost-shared by the Province under the terms of the Federal-
Provincial Agreement which came into effect in 1975. The Hydrology Division
receives requests for hydrometric stations from all Provincial agencies, continually
reviews over-all network requirements, and decides on network changes. During the
year the number of stations cost-shared equally with the Federal Government and
paid for fully by the Province were 89 and 167 respectively.
The emphasis of the Branch-operated network is on small streams and lakes
where data are required for operational or special studies purposes. Station requirements and compilation of data are the responsibility of the Surface Water Section.
Field operations are undertaken by the Surveys Section of the Planning and Surveys
Division. Sixty-nine stations were operational during 1976 as compared with 61
last year.
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Stream-flow measurements under ice cover for Branch-operated station.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 89
4. Storage reservoir inventory—Inventory of storage reservoirs is the responsibility of the Surveys Section and includes an inventory of potential storage reservoir
sites and the capacity of existing reservoirs. The program of inventory for both
potential and existing storage reservoirs saw the completion of 11 surveys and
preparation of inventory plans for 17 storages. Ninety inventory drawings were
completed in 1976.
Water Supply Studies
Studies active during 1976 are described in Table 32.
Table 32—Active Water Supply Studies
Area
Description
North Cowichan	
Ashcroft	
Southeast Kelowna
Cobble Hill	
Glenmore	
Winfield _.
Larkin	
Armstrong..
Ladysmith.
North Pender Island .
Lower Columbia	
North East Coal Study..—
Bowen Island _.
Okanagan Fish Hatchery..
A study was completed during the year on alternative water supply
sources for the municipality of North Cowichan. Support reports were completed on the environmental impact and on test
drilling, aquifer testing, and well construction.
A study was completed on a proposed storage development on
Oregon Jack and Upper Hat Creeks for irrigation of lands
adjacent to the Thompson River.
A study was initiated under ARDA Project 89083 on additional
water supply sources for the South East Kelowna Irrigation
District.
Design of a small water system for Bright Angel Park was completed for local Park Board.
A study has been 10 per cent completed on additional water supply
sources for the Glenmore Irrigation District.
An appraisal of the storage and distribtuion system of the Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District has been 10 per
cent completed.
Groundwater investigations required to complete a production well
have been 30 per cent completed in assessing groundwater potential and site locations for test drilling for the Larkin Water
District.
Groundwater investigations have been 30 per cent completed for
a test drilling and aquifer testing program at the City of Armstrong.
Completion of report on groundwater potential with recommendations for test drilling and aquifer testing for the Town of Ladysmith.
Completion of preliminary review of groundwater potential of
certain areas on the island for Islands Trust.
Completion of preliminary review of groundwater potential along
the lower Columbia River for the Regional District of Central
Kootenay.
Completion of report on groundwater potential of townsite areas
for Townsite Subcommittee.
Completion of report on groundwater potential and groundwater
quality for Islands Trust.
A search for groundwater supplies adequate for a possible new
fish hatchery site is being carried out for Ministry of Highways
and Public Works.
IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER SUPPLY PROJECTS
Implementation of water supply projects includes both final design and construction supervision, and, in most cases, has been undertaken by staff of the Water
Supply Section.   In those projects involving groundwater utilization, staff of the
 U 90
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Groundwater Section have provided well design, and supervision of well testing
and drilling. A few projects have been engineered by consultants, in which case the
Water Supply Section has assumed management responsibilities.
Lowering pump column into new well for Fairview Heights Irrigation District
ARDA Project 89058.
Construction of most water supply projects has been carried out under the
Agricultural and Rural Development Act. The present agreement under this act
between Canada and British Columbia expires March 31, 1977, and projects
approved prior to that date must be completed no later than December 31, 1978.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 91
Construction of main-line pressure-reducing station for District of Summerland
ARDA Project 89044.
Table 33—Status of Water Supply Projects at Year-end
Design
per Cent
Complete
at Year-end
Construction
Project Description
During
Year
To
Year-end
Per Cent
Complete
at Year-end
ARDA Projects 89044 and 89057 (Corporation of the District
of Summerland)—Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and domestic water	
ARDA Project 89046  (Glenmore and Ellison Irrigation Districts)—Rehabilitation   of  main   line   and  intake  works   for
irrigation and domestic water system 	
ARDA Project 89058 (Fairview Heights Irrigation District)—
Rehabilitation of system to supply irrigation and domestic
water,   including  drilling,   testing   and  development  of  six
groundwater wells -	
ARDA Project 89039s (Chase Irrigation District)—Partial rehabilitation of irrigation  system 	
ARDA Project 89078 (Deadman Creek Improvement District)
—Construction of storage dam for irrigation and fisheries
water supply ____ ....   _  	
ARDA Project 89084 (Naramata Irrigation District)—Modifications to irrigation and domestic water system	
ARDA   Project   89065   (Scotty   Creek   Irrigation   District) —
Modifications to system to supply domestic water  _
ARDA Project 89066  (Ellison Irrigation District)—Modifications to system to supply domestic water	
ARDA Project 89049  (Black Mountain Irrigation District)—
Modifications to intake works	
ARDA Project 89088 (Vernon Irrigation District)—Construction of storage dams at Grizzly Swamp for irrigation and
fisheries water supply 	
85
100
100
100
90
100
100
100
100
75
$
3,732,190
214,064
524,551
16,120
54,915
12,499
54,829
60,799
42,420
$
4,820,595
784,083
601,500
128,581
54,915
12,499
67,973
76,748
121,100
75
99
90
75
40
30
100
95
100
ARDA Project 89087 (Westbank Irrigation District)—Mod ifi-
50
100
	
Village  of  Alert  Bay  —  Groundwater  pumping  system  for
domestic water supply 	
....
45,000
45,000
100
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
B. E. Marr, Chairman
The Pollution Control Board is established under section 3 of the Pollution
Control Act and provides for a Chairman and members, all of whom are appointed
by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to serve for a specific term. The term of the
present Board expires December 31, 1976.
The following are the current members of the Board:
B. E. Marr, Chairman
Deputy Minister of the Environment, Victoria.
B. D. Caine,
Assistant Director of Environmental Engineering,
Ministry of Health, Victoria.
Howard English,
Retired farmer and conservationist, Victoria.
Dr. C. J. G. Mackenzie,
Head, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology,
Faculty of Medicine,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Dr. J. E. McInerney,
Director of Bamfield Marine Station, Bamfield.
R. J. Miller,
Director of Special Services,
Ministry of Agriculture, Victoria.
J. W. Peck,
Chief Inspector of Mines,
Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes,
Deputy Minister,
Ministry of Forests, Victoria.
E. H. Vernon,
Associate Deputy Minister,
Ministry of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria.
The main functions of the Board are to act in an advisory capacity to the
Government, to set standards for controlling pollution, and to act as an appeal
tribunal when an order of the Director of the Pollution Control Branch is appealed.
The Pollution Control Board also hears appeals from the decision of the Director
95
 U 96
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
of Pollution Control (Air) of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. This agency
assumed responsibility in 1972 for issuance of air emission permits within the
boundaries of the Greater Vancouver Regional District.
Four appeals were heard by the Board in 1976. Of these four appeals, the
Board allowed one in toto, one in part, and disallowed the other two.
One appeal that aroused a good deal of attention was launched by several
groups of concerned citizens against the issuance of permits to Afton Mines Ltd.
covering air emissions and effluent discharges from a proposed copper smelter near
Kamloops, the first copper smelter in British Columbia. The Board, in dismissing
the appeal, felt confident that the air and effluent discharges would not present a
threat to the environment; however, to ensure against possible deleterious consequences resulting from the smelter's operations, the Board instructed the Director
of Pollution Control to set up a Committee whose main functions will be to monitor
and assess the effects of emissions and discharges on the water, soil, vegetation, and
aquatic life.
The first of the five-year reviews of the pollution control objectives started this
year with that of the Forest Products Industries. Following hearings and examination of submissions from interested agencies and individuals, recommendations are
now being drafted for presentation to the Board for ratification.
The review of the Mining, Mine-milling, and Smelting Objectives commences
next year with the expected completion date set for some time in 1978.
The term of office of the present Pollution Control Board ends December 31,
1976.
 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
W. N. Venables, P.Eng., Director
DIRECTOR'S REPORT
During 1976 the Branch initiated a review procedure for the waste discharge
objectives adopted by the Pollution Control Board for major liquid, solid, and
gaseous wastes discharged to the environment of British Columbia. With the establishment in 1971 of Pollution Control Objectives for the Forest Products Industry
of British Columbia, the Board resolved that these and subsequent objectives for
wastes from other major activities should be reviewed on a five-year basis in order
to keep abreast of changes in technology and the impact of such discharges on the
environment. In order to elicit the viewpoints of concerned members of the public,
the public inquiry held in Victoria by the Director of Pollution Control was preceded by visits to four other centres in the Province by the Co-ordinator of the
Advisory Panel. The information secured from interviews was entered into the
inquiry record. Seven briefs were presented at the inquiry as input from individuals,
organizations, industry, and Government agencies. The review is anticipated to be
placed before the Pollution Control Board for their consideration early in 1977.
As a continuation of the process to review the series of pollution control objectives, the Director received instructions from the Pollution Control Board late in
1976 to undertake review of the Pollution Control Objectives for the Mining, Mine-
milling, and Smelting Industry of British Columbia established in 1973.
The Branch continued in its major task of adjudicating applications for permits
and permit amendments. In 1976 the Branch issued 295 permits covering 548
points of discharge, 162 amendments to permits, 63 short-term approvals, and 536
certificates for construction of and extension to sewerage works. This brings the
total number of permits now in force within the Province to 3,521.
Four appeals from decisions made by the Director were filed with the Pollution
Control Board and required involvement of the Branch.
With respect to objections by the public to permit applications, the Branch continued with its procedure of meeting informally with involved parties in order to
establish clear understanding of the issues and to attempt to secure resolution of
differences.
In recognition of complex environment-waste discharge conflicts in certain
areas of the Province, the Branch established special committees representative of
involved factions to undertake tasks related to the discharge of waste materials
and (or) its effects on the receiving environment. Such committees were established relative to discharge of air contaminants from the Afton Mines Copper
Smelter near Kamloops and the Alcan Aluminum Smelter at Kitimat and to the
proposed sewage irrigation scheme for the District of Salmon Arm. The terms of
such committees are limited and their terms of reference are specifiic to the problems
involved.
99
 U 100
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
During the year the Branch co-operated with Federal agencies in their attempts
to establish national guidelines for waste discharges from industrial operations and
in consultations involving their expertise in atmospheric sciences and fisheries.
Following the decision of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council regarding
requirements under the permit issued to the Greater Vancouver Regional District
for their Annacis Island sewage-treatment plant, the Branch undertook, with representatives of the GVRD, steps toward implementation of the decision rendered.
For the purpose of establishing contact and exchanging viewpoints on matters
of mutual concern and involvement, senior Ministry and Branch staff met together
with their counterparts in the Washington State Department of Ecology. These
meetings culminated with the Director speaking to delegates of the North West
Pollution Control Association on a platform shared with Pacific Northwest state
representatives. These meetings have established close relationships with Washington State officials and should assist substantially in resolving possible future problems of mutual concern.
With the reduction in the number of permit applications filed during 1976 and
in anticipation of this trend continuing as more existing discharges are brought under
permit, the Branch commenced a process of reviewing discharges under permit to
improve treatment and disposal requirements. It is anticipated that emphasis on
permit review will increase in future.
While the day-to-day responsibility for air pollution control within the Greater
Vancouver Regional District lies, under the Pollution Control Act, 1967, with that
authority, the Province has a concern for over-all ambient air quality throughout the
Province. Accordingly, the Pollution Control Branch was involved with GVRD
officials, Environment Canada, and representatives of industry in the Vancouver
area in the establishment of a major air quality monitoring program for the Lower
Mainland area. This program will eventually involve continuous automatic monitoring of air quality at an anticipated 12 sites in the Lower Mainland and telecommunication of data to a computer terminal for processing. It is anticipated the proposed
$500,000 program will lead to improved air quality through better management of
air contaminants emitted in the Vancouver area.
As a result of increasing involvement in responding to spills of hazardous
materials to the environment, the Branch has undertaken to strengthen its capabilities in terms of knowledge in response actions and in spill prevention. In 1976,
two staff members travelled to Spain to observe efforts and techniques in the cleanup of a massive oil spill from the tanker Urquiola. The Branch was also involved in
investigating the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of Sheridan
Creek and McLeese Lake waters in central British Columbia. Other spill incidents
in which Branch staff were involved were primarily associated with the transport or
storage of petroleum products.
Efforts were continued to enforce the provisions of the Litter Act with the
majority of involvement related to complaints on beverage container return
infractions.
The derelict-auto recovery program under Project SAM compacted approximately 14,000 vehicles during 1976. The addition of salvaged household appliances
and some stockpiled compacted vehicles from previous years resulted in approximately 15,000 tons of material being hauled to metal-shredding equipment in
Vancouver.
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
The principle function of the Industrial Division is to resolve applications for
pollution control permits and make recommendations to the Director with respect
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U  101
to permit issuance. In addition, Division engineers participate in special projects
and committees dealing with many aspects of pollution control. While the principle
activity during 1976 continued to be the resolution of applications, an increasing
amount of time was spent on committee work.
The major mines in the Province are now under permit. Processing of applications' for amendments continued through the year. Placer operation, gravel-
washing plants, and ready-mix plants are also being handled.
Three permits were issued covering discharges to land and air from the mine-
mill-smelter complex being constructed by Afton Mines Ltd. (N.P.L.) at Kamloops.
The proposed construction of this complex created a great deal of public interest and
resulted in an appeal to the Pollution Control Board under section 12 of the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
As a result of this public interest the Director established a Surveillance Committee comprised of five members from government, local people, and the company,
who will make recommendations to the Director regarding pre-operational and post-
operational environmental monitoring control.
A second committee with similar terms of reference was established to review
the emissions from the Alcan Aluminum Smelter at Kitimat.
Coal continued to take the spotlight during 1976 with the major coal projects
carrying out environmental studies. These reports are currently being reviewed by
Branch engineers.   Some applications for permit are expected in 1977.
The uranium mining industry has also been active in 1976 with at least one
plant scheduled to start construction in 1977.
Higher oil costs are forcing many of the mills to make greater use of wood-
wastes for the generation of steam. At the same time the companies are requesting
a postponement of power-boiler emission control programs.
In the lumber industry a number of refractory-lined silo woodwaste burners
are now in operation at the smaller plants. These units operate at higher temperatures than the conventional beehive burner and improved emission characteristics
have resulted.
A dry-bed scrubber is being installed at a major plywood plant. It is expected
that this unit will remove most of the particulate matter larger than 0.3 microns,
including particulate sea salt absorbed by logs transported in log booms.
Two of the three pulp-mills in the Interior who do not at present have aeration
basins will have those facilities operational by mid-1977. It is expected that these
mills will be then able to meet the Level A effluent quality requirements.
Joint Branch-industry committees have been attempting to find methods for
reducing the colour of effluent at two of the Interior pulp-mills. Tests have been
made using inplant treatment methods. A trial involving rapid infiltration to the
ground is at present under way at one of the plants.
The Division has been active on a number of other committees, including the
Joint Committee for the Removal of Salt Particulate from Woodwaste Burners,
Coquitlam River Study, and the Provincial Emergency Programme.
Industrial Division staff continued to participate in nine task force committees
and subcommittees convened by the Federal Government to establish guidelines
and (or) regulations for waste discharges in a number of industries, including asbestos mines, pulp and paper, thermal plants, petroleum, and base-metal smelting.
In 1976 the ambient air monitoring program was expanded to meet the requirements of specific areas of concern in the Province. Continuous testing equipment
was installed at Kitimat, Campbell River, Castlegar, Cranbrook, Kamloops, and,
for a short period, at Fort St. John when a threatened strike could have resulted in
the closure of plant sulphur-removal facilities.
 U  102
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Ringelmann training courses were given at seven locations during the year;
391 candidates were certified as Ringelmann number observers.
Stack sampling courses were given to 20 regional office staff at five locations
and the Source Testing Manual jor the Determination oj Discharges to the Atmosphere was revised.
A third station was added to those operated as part of the National Air Pollution Surveillance Network.
MUNICIPAL DIVISION
During 1976 the major portion of Municipal Division effort was directed
toward processing applications for discharge permits and sewer certificates, being
statutory responsibilities, with the remainder of its efforts directed toward provision
of other services to municipalities. Such matters as advice on operating treatment
plants and implementing recycling measures have been limited accordingly.
In regard to specific discharges, investigation of the Burns Bog sanitary landfill
operation was continued to determine the suitability of continuing this operation.
The permit for the Hartland Road sanitary landfill serving Greater Victoria
has been transferred to the Capital Regional District, who have put in hand a three-
year experimental study on leachate recycling.
Following submissions by municipal authorities to the public inquiry held in
regard to municipal waste discharge, some easing of criteria was allowed by the
Pollution Control Board in their 1975 Objectives for Municipal Type Wastes in
regard to refuse-disposal sites. Accordingly, many municipalities have sought permission to burn segregated woodwastes to ease demands on space in their landfills
and thereby prevent excessive land use. A number of permits have, therefore, been
issued for seasonal or infrequent burning of woodwaste materials.
Disposal of septic-tank pumpout waste is still a problem in some areas; however, regional districts are gradually assuming responsibility for this function and
have provided suitable facilities.
Interest in spray irrigation of sewage effluent has continued on some Interior
areas. At Cranbrook a new sewage treatment and storage system is nearing completion and in 1977 it is anticipated that spray irrigation of about 200 acres will
commence, thus removing the present sewage discharge from a small stream tributary to the Upper Kootenay River. The present treatment plant and spray irrigation
system at Vernon is being considerably expanded and extensions to their sewerage
system to encompass the Coldstream area will eliminate many septic-tank discharges
around Kalamalka Lake.
Construction of an extensive sewerage system and treatment plant is nearing
completion to serve the Salmon Arm area, including the community of Canoe, and
this will replace the present raw-sewage discharge to Shuswap Lake. The District
of Salmon Arm is still exploring the feasibility of spray irrigation of the effluent.
In keeping with recommendations in the Okanagan Basin Study Report, the
municipalities of Kelowna, Westbank, Penticton, and Oliver are considering various
methods for reduction of nutrients in their sewage effluent. The Town of Merritt is
planning to install phosphorus-removal equipment at their existing secondary treatment plant.
A major new secondary treatment plant is to be constructed during 1977 to
serve the Parksville, French Creek, and Qualicum Beach areas. The discharge will
be through an 8,000-foot-long marine outfall.
The need to dechlorinate chlorinated wastes or to modify chlorination requirements has been the subject of much review and discussion, and various schemes are
in hand.   Further research is needed and dechlorination facilities which the Village
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH U  103
of Lake Cowichan has been required to install have been the subject of investigation
in co-operation with the Environmental Protection Service of Environment Canada.
Many other communities have expanded or upgraded their sewage-treatment
facilities during 1976.
The Services Section was involved in several major studies aimed at assisting
municipalities with waste-treatment problems. These included a phosphorus
removal and dechlorination study at Kamloops, the use of metal-pickling liquor
to remove nutrients from sewage-treatment plants, phosphorus removal at Oliver,
upgrading and experimental work at Manning Park, and data collection at Sidney
aimed at correcting sludge-handling problems. Advice was also given on chlorination and dechlorination at the Nakusp Hot Springs pool. The mobile laboratory
was kept busy catering to these studies. Other treatment plants were visited
throughout the Province and advice given where appropriate.
In co-operation with Environment Canada the Services Section organized and
presented papers at a technology transfer seminar held in April in Victoria entitled
Considerations in the Design of Sewage Treatment Plants.
Various staff served on committees, including the Okanagan Implementation
Board, North East Coal Study, Kootenay Study, Technical Committee on the Annacis Island Sewage Treatment Plant, National Inventory for Solid Wastes, Dissolved
Gases Study, Education Committee re operation of treatment plants, and the Data
Services Co-ordination Committee.
REGIONAL DIVISION
The Regional Division of the Pollution Control Branch provides local contact
for the citizens of British Columbia with experts in pollution control matters.
The Division consists of six regions, as follows:
Coast Region (Head Office, Victoria; Field Office, Courtenay).
Kootenay Region (Head Office, Nelson; Field Office, Cranbrook).
Lower Mainland Region (Head Office, New Westminster).
North Region (Head Office, Prince George; Field Offices, Fort St. John,
Terrace).
Okanagan   Region   (Head   Office,   Vernon;   Field   Offices,   Pentfcton,
Revelstoke).
South Central Region (Head Office, Kamloops; Field Office, Williams
Lake).
The Regional Division is responsible for the administration of all permits and
approvals issued by the Director of Pollution Control authorizing the discharge of
liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes to the environment with the exception of permits
and approvals issued by the Greater Vancouver Regional District for the discharge
of air contaminants within that regional district. The regional staff are also
responsible for assisting in the administration and enforcement of the Litter Act.
During 1976 the Regional Division processed 63 approvals, a drop of 19 from
those issued last year. Regional processing of permit applications which commenced
in 1975 increased from 60 permit applications in 1975 to 131 applications in 1976.
Regional staff continued to meet with objectors to pollution control permit
applications to ensure better understanding of the technical and environmental
information together with the positions of various parties affected by the proposals.
The reaction of individuals to this program has proven its value in resolving conflicts.
 U  104
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
One of the primary responsibilities of the Regional Division is enforcement of
the pollution control permit requirements. Enforcement normally encompasses
the surveillance and monitoring programs undertaken by the regional staff; however,
in some instances, stronger measures were required to resolve some waste-disposal
problems. In connection with the surveillance programs, the staff undertook 4,080
inspections and collected 2,568 waste-discharge samples. Their enforcement
activities included a total of 47 orders issued, charges laid, and court hearings under
the Pollution Control Act, 1967 and the Litter Act.
The Province-wide environmental monitoring network maintained by the
regional staff includes ambient air stations, streams, lakes, and marine environments.
The staff serviced ambient air stations on 2,035 occasions and collected 4,074
water samples from stream, lake, and marine stations during 1976.
During 1976 the regional staff increased their public involvement at the community level. They participated in 146 public education activities which included
presentations to university and public school student groups as well as presentations
to community and to service groups. In co-operation with the Industrial Division,
the Division assisted in the Pollution Control Branch Ringelmann Training Courses
which held nine seminars throughout the Province and certified 117 new observers
and recertified 274 observers for a total of 391 persons attending the courses.
On a routine general basis each regional office provides information to the
public. During 1976 the regional offices provided information to 454 individuals
who visited the offices seeking information dealing with all aspects of pollution
control and environmental protection. The Division also received and investigated
627 complaints dealing with environmental problems.
Regional staff continued their participation on local resource management and
planning committees and they have increased their participation in the Provincial
interagency groups dealing with accidental hazardous chemical or petrochemical
spills in the Province.
 ENVIRONMENTAL
LABORATORY
  ENVIRONMENTAL
LABORATORY
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
The Environmental Laboratory-continued to provide routine analytical and
special services to branches of the Provincial Government and to the general public.
The majority of the laboratory work load is in support of the monitoring programs
of the Pollution Control Branch (Figure 1). The over-all laboratory work load
decreased in 1976 by 10 per cent to 201,000 tests from 224,000 in 1975. This
decrease was due to a reduction in the number of tests per sample submitted by
monitoring agencies. The decrease in tests, however, was counteracted by an
increase in the number of complex tests requested.
In 1976, increased emphasis was given to the analyses of organic contaminants,
the provision of biological services, and instrumentation calibration services. A
calibration laboratory was equipped to prepare and measure known concentrations
of gases accurately. These gases are supplied to the Pollution Control Branch and
the Greater Vancouver Regional District for calibration of air-monitoring equipment.
Planning of laboratory facilities continued in 1976; preliminary architectural
drawings were completed by the Ministry of Highways and Public Works (Public
Works) design team.
The laboratory computer system (LABMAN) continued to function well.
In 1976, additional programs and data capture techniques were introduced. This
computer system now functions as the laboratory's "nerve centre" for controlling the
production and reporting functions.
WATER QUALITY
In 1976 the Water Quality Division performed 183,000 tests on water, wastewater, sediment, and biological material samples. Although there was a 13-percent reduction in the total number of tests performed, the complexity and diversity
of tests increased greatly. The largest increase was in tissue and sediment sample
analyses for new parameters.
The taxonomic service was expanded with respect to the volume of samples
classified, as well as identification of new sample types such as periphyton, phyto-
plankton, and zooplankton. The additional work load necessitated the purchase of
another stereo-microscope and an inverted microscope.
The computer terminal, which was installed in 1974, had previously been
utilized primarily for management and reporting functions. During 1976 a method
for entering analytical results from the nitrate/nitrite/chloride autoanalyzer into the
computer via a teletype/punched paper tape data capture system was introduced.
The Quality Control Programs for monitoring analytical procedures for waters
and wastewaters was further developed. Preliminary studies have been completed
for implementation of a quality control program for soil and vegetation samples.
The senior staff of the laboratory have participated on interagency committees for
investigation of potential environmental problems. This has resulted in the Water
Quality Division's participation in interagency comparison studies for analyses of
soil and vegetation samples.
107
 U 108 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
In 1976 a service called the Water Quality Check Program was introduced by
the Ministry of the Environment and Ministry of Health. This program provides a
service whereby individuals may obtain analyses of their private water supplies, at
a subsidized cost, in order to determine its suitability for domestic purposes. This
program includes 11 physical and chemical tests and one bacteriological test.
In addition to the routine analytical work the following projects were completed in 1976:
(1) Preservation Study for Cyanide, Phenol, and Chemical Oxygen
Demand.
(2) Digestion Procedures for Arsenic in (a) Fish Tissue, (b) Sediments,
and (c) Vegetation.
(3) Digestion Procedures for Boron in (a) Fish Tissues and (b) Sediments.
(4) Comparison Study of Barbituric Acid as Colour Reagent for Cyanide
Analysis Replacing Existing Pyrazalone Method.
(5) Determination of the Extent of Possible Contamination Due to
Leaching of Sawdust if Used as Landfill.
(6) Automatic Reagent Addition During Atomic Absorption Analyses.
AIR QUALITY
The Air Quality Division of the Environmental Laboratory continued to perform chemical analyses on air, soil, and vegetation samples for the Pollution Control
Branch, the Water Investigations Branch, and the Ministry of Health. The number
of air quality stations was increased from 212 in 1975 to 303 in 1976. The number
of air tests increased from 13,000 in 1975 to 18,000 in 1976. Projects completed
during 1976 include the following:
(1) The second edition of A Laboratory Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Ambient Air, Emissions, Soil and Vegetation was completed
and published. A number of additional parameters and methods of
analysis have been introduced since the publication of the first
edition.
(2) The Air Quality Division and the Methods Development Section
developed procedures for the corrosion study of the Nelson, Castlegar, and Trail areas.
(3) The effects on analytical results by varying the reagent addition parameters for the sulphur/sulphation index analysis were determined.
(4) The effects of algaecide (added to dustfall canisters) on the measurement of soluble phosphorus were investigated.
INSTRUMENTATION SERVICES
In 1976 the Instrumentation Services continued to offer services in the field of
environmental and laboratory instrumentation to the Pollution Control Branch,
Environmental Laboratory, and other Government agencies. The section carried
out a program of instrument repair, calibration, preventive maintenance, modification, and design on air, water, and laboratory instrumentation. In addition to the
routine work carried out, the Instrumentation Services has begun to offer a calibration service for ambient air-monitoring systems through its production of high-
reliability gaseous standards. This service, which is being offered to the Pollution
Control Branch and the Greater Vancouver Regional District, will increase the
reliability of the air-monitoring systems in the Province.
 ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY
U  109
FIELD AND REGIONAL LABORATORY SERVICES
In 1976, 13,200 water samples and 4,400 air samples were received, logged,
and transferred to the analytical sections. During the year a significant increase was
experienced in preparation of chemical solutions and shipment of supplies for submitting agencies.
In addition to routine servicing, a number of projects were begun to assist
submitting agencies with sample preparation in the field. Two types of sampling
kits providing bottles, preparation chemicals, and instructions were prepared and
distributed to all Fish and Wildlife Branch field offices. A prototype field filtering
kit has also been prepared to assist the Pollution Control Branch. Staff participated
in three seminars on Pollution Law and Enforcement held by the Fish and Wildlife
Branch in regional areas.
The Regional Laboratories have continued to provide a testing and information
service in Kamloops, Prince George, Vernon, and Victoria. The Regional Laboratories have received and reported results for 2,200 water samples.
ENVIRONMENTAL     LABORATORY
WORKLOAD    FOR    1976
5%
HEALTH    BRANCH
< 1%
WATER   RIGHTS
BRANCH
 U 110 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
METHODS DEVELOPMENT
During 1976 the Methods Development Section has continued to expand and
refine the applications of gas chromatography to environmental monitoring. Several
procedures for simple hydrocarbons and mining flotation reagents have become well
characterized and will soon be transferred to a routine section. Preliminary work
has now begun on procedures for the more complex parameters such as phenols,
fatty acids, and polynuclear aromatics. In addition, an applications study has been
completed on the feasibility of updating the facilities to include mass spectrometry
(GC-MS).
The microscopical examination of particulates has been continued in 1976 by
the Methods Development Section. The addition of reflected light optics has further
expanded the capabilities for examining opaque particles and studying corroded
surfaces. A major continuing project is the development of a standardized procedure for counting asbestos fibres (visible light microscopy) and identification of
the different types through dispersion staining techniques.
Studies of procedures having particular application to the monitoring of inorganic parameters in air, sediments, and vegetation samples have continued. Two
papers have been submitted for publication. In co-operation with the Atomic
Absorption Section, an extensive study of the applications and merits of plasma
source emission spectroscopy has been undertaken. This study has resulted in the
ordering of an instrument which will significantly increase the capabilities and
efficiencies of the Environmental Laboratory for analysing metallic pollutants in the
British Columbia environment.
 INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
  INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
K. J. Chisholm, P.Eng.,
Inspector of Dykes
During 1976 the process of consolidation and transfer continued with negotiations for future operation of the Coquitlam Dyking District reaching the final stages.
A decision on the future of this district is expected early in 1977.
Formal inspections of the dykes reconstructed under the Fraser River Flood
Control Program were instituted. These formal inspections covered the dyking
systems in the following municipalities:
(a) Kent;
(b) Chilliwhack;
(c) Matsqui.
In addition, spot inspections were made throughout the year in all dyking districts
in the Lower Fraser Valley.
The Inspector of Dykes sat as a member of the Advisory Committees for the
Pitt and Serpentine Fen Wildlife Management Areas. Development plans for additional dykes in the Pitt Wildlife Management Area were checked for dyke safety.
The Inspector of Dykes attended the annual meetings of the following dyking
districts:
(a) Dewdney Area Improvement District;
(b) Nicomen Island Improvement District;
(c) Surrey Dyking District.
In addition, several public meetings were held by the District of Abbotsford on
drainage problems and on the future operation of the old Sumas Dyking District.
Reports on the status of dyke and pump station reconstruction proposed under the
Fraser River Flood Control Program were given at these meetings by this office.
During 1976 the following statistical data were recorded:
(a) Dyking certificates issued  205
(b) Title searches made  1,163
(c) Tax notices issued  839
(d) Tax receipts issued  816
(e) Tax roll amendments made  292
(/)   Court of Revision notices  839
113
  ENVIRONMENT
AND
LAND USE
COMMITTEE
SECRETARIAT
  ENVIRONMENT
AND
LAND USE
COMMITTEE
SECRETARIAT
Denis K. O'Gorman
Acting Director
THE ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE
The Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat serves as the staff arm
of the Environment and Land Use Committee of Cabinet, which contains the
Ministers of the Environment (chairman), Agriculture, Economic Development,
Forests, Health, Highways and Public Works, Mines and Petroleum Resources,
Municipal Affairs and Housing, and Recreation and Conservation.
The Environment and Land Use Act establishes this Committee and empowers
it to establish and recommend programs designed to foster increased public concern
and awareness of the environment, ensure that all the aspects of preservation and
maintenance of the natural environment are fully considered in the administration
of land use and resource development, study any matter pertaining to the environment or land use, make recommendations to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
prepare reports, hold public inquiries, appoint technical committees, and recommend
Orders in Council under the Act respecting environment or land use which are
binding on other statutes.
The ELUC thus has a major role in determining the policy where the mandates
of individual ministries may be leading in conflicting directions on broad questions
of land use and environment management.
In the exercise of its powers the Committee requires well-considered information and advice from its contributing ministries. In order to secure the essential
background, the Secretariat to the Committee is directed to prepare studies and
reports and advise on matters over which the Committee has jurisdiction. The
functions of the Environment and Land Use Committee described above set the
framework for defining roles and services of its Secretariat.
THE SECRETARIAT
Organization
The ELUC Secretariat was organized into three units in 1976, each under an
Assistant Director. Two of the units, Resource Planning and Special Projects,
have a small multi-disciplinary professional staff which serve the Committee directly
in the co-ordination of interagency investigations into environment and land use
conflicts. Although the general objectives of the two units are similar, their points
of focus differ. The Special Projects Unit concentrates on the development of
techniques such as benefit cost analysis and environmental impact assessment, to
resolve classes of environment and land use conflict, while Resource Planning
applies these and other techniques on a broad regional scale to evaluate and propose
integrated resource use plans.
117
 U 118 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The third unit of the Secretariat is Resource Analysis. It provides "biophysical" inventories and analyses of soils, landforms, climate, vegetation, and
aquatic systems, as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitats which form a basic
building block for resource planning by all Government agencies and private
interests. From this data base it is possible to develop a wide range of interpretations about the productivity of land and water areas for various resource uses as
well as the natural suitability of lands for urban, transportation, and other developments.
Recognizing that biophysical resource inventories and interpretations have
widespread application in resource planning for line agency as well as programs
directed by the ELUC, the Resource Analysis Unit was separated from the Secretariat and renamed the Resource Analysis Branch of the Ministry of the Environment, effective January 1, 1977. By separating the "line" function of resource
inventory analyses from the ELUC-oriented functions, it will be easier for staff of
the Secretariat and Resource Analysis Branch to perform their respective roles.
The Branch will continue to conduct the systematic resource inventories and interpretations in 1977 as it has in 1976. The close professional collaboration with the
Resource Planning and Special Projects Units that has characterized past work will
continue.
Secretariat Planning Approach
Most ELUC directives to the Secretariat relate to problems of resource development and use. These number among major policy questions facing governments everywhere because decisions can affect the economic base of whole communities and regions as well as their natural and social environments. Hydro
power, coal, and major forest developments, land use conflicts on the coastal zone,
and conservation proposals are typical topics where conflicts of view are often
precipitated between resource users in diverse sectors of the public and within the
ministries of Government where reconciliation must be found.
When directed to investigate a particular problem by the ELUC, the Resource
Planning and Special Projects Units seek alternative approaches and define their
consequences for Committee consideration and decisions. Secretariat study
activities and reports combine and evaluate biophysical information provided by
the Resource Analysis Branch with specific resource management "standing stock"
inventories and related social and economic information provided by other Government ministries. The intent is to provide a comprehensive and balanced set of
alternatives in keeping with the breadth of interests in the Environment and Land
Use Act.
In order to deal with environment and land use problem and solution identification in this comprehensive way, the Secretariat typically consults with senior
officials of the Environment and Land Use Committee ministries and brings together
teams of individuals from various resource ministries.
The teams are flexible, with assignments handled by teams of officials from
resource energy field staff. They can then clarify conflicts, document the impacts
of proposed developments, identify approaches to avoid, reduce, or compensate for
adverse impacts, quantify and assess alternatives, and present preferred solutions
or options to the Committee for final decision.
As a refinement on the co-ordinated team approach to resource allocation, the
Secretariat, under the auspices of the ELUC, has developed environmental impact
assessment and planning procedures for major projects. These procedures formalize
what a developer is expected to consider in the assessment of environmental, community, and social impacts of a project.  A three-stage reporting procedure is fol-
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT
U  119
lowed, generally under the co-ordination of the Secretariat or by a Steering Committee involving Secretariat and appropriate line agency representatives.
Impact assessment reports prepared by the developer are circulated to all
interested ministries of the Provincial Government. Ministry comments on the
acceptability of impacts and advice on how to deal with these are then transmitted
to the developer and incorporated into a second, more detailed, report.
By the end of staff review of the second stage report, the developer will be
informed of what the Provincial Government's agencies recommend on project
designs for impact avoidance or mitigation as well as for compensation for losses
or enhancement of benefits resulting from the development. If any unresolved
matters remain at the end of the second stage, these are referred to the Environment
and Land Use Committee for a decision. If the project receives approval in principle at this time, the developer is then in a position to proceed with applications for
permits (stage three) with the knowledge that the Provincial Government has fully
considered all aspects of the project. This approach will be elaborated in the report
of the Special Projects Unit.
It should be emphasized that the Secretariat, with its limited number of staff
and ELUC-oriented responsibilities, does not get involved in program implementation, which is best handled by the appropriate agency specialists and administrators.
Its function is rather one of identifying and clarifying, in consultation with line
agencies, approaches and strategies for problem resolution.
Furthermore, in co-ordinating investigation, the Secretariat does not duplicate
the many lateral arrangements existing between ministries. Most matters can be
settled satisfactorily by the agencies dealing directly with each other. Where problems cannot be handled simply and directly, or where frustration levels are high, or
the problem is complex and has numerous dimensions, or many interests are
affected, or there is no precedent to follow, the Secretariat may be directed by the
ELUC to become involved.
This is a political decision which ensures that the Ministers have collectively
identified the problem and are satisfied that its general resolution is beyond the scope
of a single ministry or normal bilateral arrangements.
ELUC ACTIVITIES IN 1976
During 1976 the Environment and Land Use Committee convened 20 regular
meetings and dealt with integrated resource development and management studies,
special studies, environmental impact assessment procedures and studies, appeals
to the ELUC pursuant to the Land Commission Act, and contribution to the inter-
ministerial studies. Some items of interest are highlighted below. A more detailed
report of these and other items is contained in the unit reports.
Integrated Resource Management
After more than a year of study by regional resource managers and extensive
public consultation, co-ordinated by the Secretariat, recommendations on the management of extractive and preservation resource values in the Babine Integrated
Management Unit were brought forward to and endorsed by the ELUC. Specific
steps resulting from the Committee's decisions were:
(1) creation of a standing committee of resource officials who will jointly
set management policy, prepare plans, and manage the Southern
Babine Mountains;
(2) designation of subareas for motorized recreation, involving a special
permit system and nonmotorized recreation;
 U  120
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
(3) consensus on special approaches for wildlife management and
research, forest harvest, and research and mineral exploration
programs;
(4) provision for regular public consultation.
The Bonaparte-Tranquille resources study came before the ELUC after a year
of study by regional officials based in Kamloops. This study process also included
public consultation and multi-agency analysis. It laid out land allocation and multiple use management recommendations. Considering these, the ELUC opted to
designate for recreational purposes four specific areas, as well as implement a special
control on off-road vehicles in a particularly fragile subarea of the plateau. The
balance of the area was approved for proceeding with regular multiple use with a
forestry emphasis.
The ELUC Secretariat considered the Serpentine-Nicomekl Drainage Study
and gave policy direction on implementation. This study, involving elements of land
use and water resource planning, the economics of flood protection and irrigation,
plus other considerations, laid out a planning framework for tackling these problems,
together with a number of specific steps to initiate the program implementation.
The Adams River Corridor was also the subject of an ELUC decision in 1976.
Under ELUC direction a regional study of land management options, complemented
with headquarters input and review, was concluded by the decision to designate this
valuable fishery resource as a recreation area. Parks Branch is implementing this,
explicitly recognizing the concerns of other agencies through an advisory committee.
ELUC also endorsed some general land management principles for the area surrounding the corridor.
Special Studies
The issues surrounding the implementation of secondary effluent treatment at
the Annacis Island Sewage Treatment Plant were referred to the Secretariat. An
inter-governmental task group, including representatives of the Fisherman's Union,
the Fisheries Association, and the Westwater Research Institute of UBC, concluded
their analysis. The detailed proposals they made were endorsed by ELUC. These
included
(1) the immediate implementation of a source control program to reduce
the amount of toxic materials entering Annacis;
(2) implementation of pilot tests to determine the most cost-efficient type
of secondary treatment.
The University Endowment Lands were singled out for a conceptual planning
study in 1976 by ELUC. The objective is to develop an overview concept that
explicitly takes account of the diverse demands and pressures for the use of the land.
Environmental and land use studies as part of the Northeast Coal Study coordinated by ELUC Secretariat represented a major element of the total program
involving all units of the Secretariat. The Secretariat chaired a subcommittee of a
number of resource ministries. This was one of five subcommittees established to
examine various aspects of the study and advise the Cabinet Coal Committee. In
addition, professional staff served on townsite and manpower subcommittees. A
major field program was mounted by the Resource Analysis Unit to provide baseline
data and complete a preliminary assessment of environmental impacts of proposed
rail, road, and townsite alternatives. This demanded considerable inter-ministerial
and inter-committee collaboration on both inventory and analysis phases. The broad
goal was to ensure environmental analysis as an integral component in all aspects of
feasibility assessment, project planning, and development.
 environment and land use committee secretariat      u 121
Environmental Impact Assessment
The Secretariat has continued to co-ordinate Ministry reviews of the impact
assessments prepared by B.C. Hydro and Power Authority for major hydro and
thermal power developments and associated transmission-lines.
In addition, the ELUC directed the Secretariat to attend the hearings on the
proposed Revelstoke Dam and report directly to the Committee on the social and
community policy implications of that project.
Coal development has assumed a high economic significance in response to
rising world prices. In order that the many development proposals in northeastern
and southeastern British Columbia could be subject to a systematic, consistent, and
comprehensive appraisal, the ELUC issued Guidelines for Coal Development in
March 1976, which outlines the environment and community impact assessment
process outlined earlier in this Report. At the end of 1976, submissions from six
companies were under consideration, representing a major work load for the ELUC
Secretariat. The coal development guidelines policy of Government is functioning
as an effective means of positive project assessment and communication between the
private and public sectors.
Co-ordination of Appeals
Under the terms of the Land Commission Act, local governments can request
modifications (inclusions and exclusions) to the British Columbia designated agricultural land reserves. The ELUC receives and considers these applications from
municipal authorities. In addition, the ELUC is the designated appeal body for all
individual appeals related to agricultural land reserve designations. Such appeals
only go forward with the concurrence of local government and two members of the
B.C. Land Commission. In 1976 the ELUC considered 27 appeals and applications.
Contribution to Inter-ministerial Studies
The Secretariat has served to co-ordinate comprehensive environmental and
land use analyses which form part of an over-all project assessment. The best
examples of 1976 activity in this regard related to North East Coal Development
and the assessment of oil tanker movements.
Oil tanker movement off the British Columbia Coast is a policy question
receiving joint consideration by several Provincial ministries in so far as it affects
British Columbia interests and jurisdictions. Relevant Provincial considerations
embrace energy supply, environment, transportation, and economic development.
As of year-end, co-ordinated consideration was continuing with ELUC Secretariat
efforts focused on environmental implications. This work involves close cooperation with relevant resource agencies.
RESOURCE PLANNING UNIT
The Resource Planning Unit prime function is to organize and conduct regional
scale integrated resource, environmental, and land use planning studies as directed
by the Environment and Land Use Committee. The approach taken to these studies
has been outlined.
Studies co-ordinated by the Unit, or those reviewed by the Unit prior to
presentation to the ELUC have resulted in the establishment of special planning
and management areas in the Skeena and Thompson-Okanagan Resource Manage-
 U 122 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
ment Region during 1976. Studies in the South East Kootenay area and in the
Terrace-Hazelton area, which began in 1974 and 1975 and continue into 1977,
are aimed at achieving balanced environment and land use planning based on
biophysical analyses and economic and social considerations.
During 1976, Unit staff have also been involved in community and social
development impact, analyses of the environmental impact assessment and planning
submission of developers under the Guidelines for Coal Development. Staff have
also been active in drafting similar guidelines for linear development. These items
are more fully reviewed in the Special Projects Unit report.
Resource Planning Unit staff also participated as active members of the North
East Coal Study Sub-Committee on Townsite and Community Development and on
Labour.
Major projects initiated or completed by the Resource Planning Unit during
1976 are highlighted below.
Terrace-Hazelton Forest Resources Study continued as a major project in
1976 and was completed for submission to the ELUC. This study, conducted by
the Unit staff reporting to a Steering Committee of senior Secretariat, Forest Service,
and Canadian Cellulose Co. Ltd. officials, assesses the relative values of each major
resource in the 15-million-acre study area and concentrates on the potential of the
timber resource. Government and industry institution factors in resource management in the regional economy were identified. A logging operability model which
integrates the physical nature of the logging systems and assumptions about future
markets was developed to arrive at a classification of the "economic" forest.
When combined with annual allowable cut figures, this model gives a realistic
picture of the amount of timber that can be cut under varying conditions of resource,
economy, and engineering. Although having specific relevance to planning in the
Terrace-Hazelton area, this study has introduced an "integrated" resource management approach which, once refined, will be applicable elsewhere and which combines
not only multiple resource use planning procedures but includes financial and engineering considerations in resource management. Technical papers on the logging
operability approach to identify forest harvest potential were being prepared and
proposals for on-the-ground testing of the study findings were under consideration
at the year-end.
The ELUC endorsed two new approaches to resource planning and management in areas where recreation and preservation values are high and warranted
special management, but where full preservation status under the Park Act was not
warranted. A third approach involving recreation area designation is also noteworthy. Together these are distinct but comparable approaches to integrated
planning and management worthy of close attention.
INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT UNIT
Unit staff were actively involved in the introduction and definition of the Integrated Management Unit approach to area designation in the Babine Mountains,
north of Smithers. This involves multiple use of an area with resource management
being jointly planned and implemented by a committee of regionally based resource
managers.
The area remains under the general jurisdiction of the Forest Service with
usual administrative responsibilities retained by the Forest Service, the Mineral
Resources Branch, Land Management Branch, Water Rights Branch, and the Fish
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT        U 123
and Wildlife Branch. Special recognition is being given to high-value recreation
features and wildlife habitats.
So far, policies have been prepared by an IMU Committee for preservation of
vegetation, soils, and scenic qualities of the subalpine and alpine zones for the
enhancement and preservation of wildlife values and their nonconsumptive use and
for the retention of extensive wildland recreation.
The IMU approach is experimental at this time and, whereas a draft policy
has been completed for the Babine IMU, extensive planning will follow. Since the
IMU is a new approach to planning, it will likely lead to the introduction of a number of administrative challenges which so often result from the overlapping of jurisdictional interests for a common purpose.
Bonaparte-Tranquille Wildland Recreation Reserves
On the Bonaparte-Tranquille Plateau, in accordance with the recommendations
of an inter-ministry study report prepared by resource management staff in the
Thompson-Okanagan Resource Management Region, the ELUC adopted a different
approach to recognizing wildland recreation values. Here, special area reserves
were established under the Land Act and other Acts.
These reserves served to restrict alienation and extractive resource uses. Outdoor recreation planning will be conducted by the Forest Service in consultation
with other ministries.
Adams River Corridor
A third approach is that being taken to integrated recreation resource planning
and management, as exemplified by the Adams River Corridor. This involves the
designation of the land as a recreation area under the Park Act. While other agencies act as advisers on matters of interest to their ministries, the Parks Branch is
responsible for administration.
Although each approach was designed to be applied to a certain area, they
have a common thread of integrated resource management of recreation and preservation values where other resource values are high and warrant land use allocation.
On behalf of the ELUC, whose decision it was to implement these approaches, the
Resource Planning Unit will continue to monitor implementation of these decisions.
South East Coal Project
The South East Coal Project involves the Resource Planning Unit and the
Resource Analysis Unit in a set of study programs. The first objective is to determine how much coal development, where, when, and with what environmental,
social, and community development impacts, will occur in the Elk and Flathead
River valleys. The second objective is to determine, in consultation with the Provincial ministries, regional and local government, and boards, how these impacts can
be managed.
The Resource Planning Unit presented a report on coal development prospects
and impacts to the ELUC and Cabinet Committee on Coal Development early in
1976 followed by a presentation by staff to the Coal Committe of the Regional District of East Kootenay later in the year. Staff also accompanied the Minister of the
Environment to the coal development area and to meetings with Provincial Government and regional district officials in November. In addition to these major meetings, there were several meetings with municipal officials on planning problems being
faced in Sparwood, Elkford, and Fernie.
 U  124 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
The Resource Analysis Unit completed its field work for biophysical inventories of the study area and at year-end portfolios were in draft form for urban
suitability analyses of the existing and proposed townsites and for analyses of the
environmental hazards and sensitivities in the valley bottom-lands which would be
subject to transportation and mining developments.
University Endowment Lands
Resource Planning Unit staff also played a major role in the co-ordination of
the University Endowment Lands study and development plan concept. This project
has involved extensive public consultation and proposals will be going forward to
the ELUC early in 1977.
North East Coal Study
As members of the North East Coal Study Townsite and Labour Force Subcommittee, staff have prepared submissions on Provincial service requirements and
costs for proposed communities and have been active in advising on studies on town-
site development service cost allocation.
Other major projects involving Unit staff include:
All-terrain Policy Review—This began in late 1976 and will involve inter-
ministerial consultation to determine approaches to all-terrain vehicle area selection
and designation. Work is under the direction of the Outdoor Recreation Coordinating Committee, chaired by the Outdoor Recreation Branch of the Ministry
of Recreation and Conservation. They will report to ELUC in the spring of 1977.
Kitwanga-Meziadan Impact Study—Final resolution of highway location in
the Cranberry Junction received attention.   Resolution is anticipated in early 1977.
South Moresby Island Wilderness Proposal—Secretariat, Parks Branch and
Forest Service staff reviewed this proposal by Queen Charlotte Island residents.
A draft report prepared by a member of the Resource Planning Unit is now being
considered by the Skeena Resource Management Committee.
Boston Bar/North End Bridge Proposal—A review of this proposal was
requested by the Ministry of Highways and Public Works. Staff have consulted
with Forest Service, local industry, and highways officials.
Guidelines for Resource Management Committees—Draft guidelines were prepared by the Secretariat and circulated for comment. Work was continuing at
year-end in response to these comments.
Englishman River—Staff advised the ELUC on alternative approaches to
public designation of streambank lands in an area proposed for private development.
Trespass on Crown lands—A paper prepared on trespass in 1975 was circulated to land management agencies in 1976. A revised paper was then presented to
the Environment and Land Use Technical Committee late in 1976. Members of
the Committee will take their concerns on this matter to the ELUC early in 1977.
Other smaller projects or those with more limited scope or those which are
pending ELUC or Ministry initiation or reinitiation have not been mentioned.
During 1976 the Resource Planning Unit of the Secretariat participated in
numerous seminars and workshops, including the Forest Service Unit IV Class,
University of Victoria law classes (environmental law), Inter-Mountain Logging
Conference, Centre for Continuing Education Conference on Environmental Impact
Assessment, Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Conference, and others.
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT        U  125
SPECIAL PROJECTS UNIT
The major function of the Unit has been to co-ordinate environmental impact
assessments for major development projects in the Province. As noted in the
Director's report, the Secretariat has developed a number of guidelines for carrying
out such studies relating to major hydro generation projects, coal developments
such as roads, railways, transmission-lines, and pipelines. Guidelines for these
linear types of development are still in draft form.
These procedures are now being applied to a wide range of development
projects (Table 34) and much of the Unit staff time was spent in discussion with
developers and consultants to explain the guideline processes and review consultants
reports. The Coal Guidelines Steering Committee, chaired by the Assistant Director
of the Special Projects Unit, met several times during the year and reviewed five
Stage I reports and one Stage II report prepared by various coal developers
(Table 34).
The Special Projects Unit also chaired the Environment and Land Use Subcommittee for the North East Coal Study. This Subcommittee was responsible for
undertaking environmental baseline inventories and preliminary environmental
assessments of road, rail, and townsite alternatives. The Unit co-ordinated input
to field studies from a number of resource ministries and prepared a preliminary
impact report which has been reviewed and accepted by these agencies.
The Unit also played a major role in the review of environmental reports
associated with oil-tanker routes, terminals, and pipeline proposals for the west
coast of British Columbia. The Secretariat participated on an Interdepartmental
Tanker Traffic Committee and Energy Transportation Task Force.
Short-term Projects
The Unit continued in its role as mediator in land use and environmental
conflicts, seeking satisfactory solutions in accordance with rational planning guidelines. Review of the mitigation plans to compensate for lost winter wildlife habitat
in the Pend-d'Oreille Valley was completed, as was a report on the timing of implementation of secondary treatment at Annacis Island.
The Unit continued to monitor sawmill developments in the Cowichan estuary
to ensure continued adherence to the 1974 ELUC decision ruling out additional
industry in the estuary.
Waterfront lands owned by B.C. Hydro on the Arrow Reserve are now being
offered for sale in the northern and central sections of the reservoir in accordance
with a land use plan co-ordinated through the Secretariat, though additional studies
are being undertaken in the southern part to search for land use plans that minimize
the disturbance of prime winter habitat for deer yet permit some resettlement for
former land-owners.
The Unit also reviewed a report prepared by an interdepartmental committee
chaired by the Parks Branch on a proposal for a wilderness park in the Chilcotin
region. Terms of reference for specific studies on alternative proposals have been
drafted.
Agricultural Leasing Policy Review
The Environment and Land Use Committee was directed by the Secretariat
to review existing policies operated by the Land Management Branch for leasing
Crown lands for agricultural development. A small task group comprised of
representatives from the Unit, Land Management, the Ministry of Agriculture, and
 U  126 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
the Resource Analysis Branch is at present undertaking this review and will be
reporting to the Committee in the spring.
B.C. Ferry Study
A comprehensive study of the B.C. Ferry system operating between Vancouver
Island and the Lower Mainland was completed by the Secretariat in April. The
report examined a number of options available for the future management and
development of the ferry system, including environmental and land use implications
of a short crossing of the Strait of Georgia between Iona Island and Gabriola Island.
Long-term Projects
The Unit is responsible for chairing a number of interdepartmental task groups
established to prepare policy recommendations and for resource management proposals to ELUC associated with long-term management issues.
Benefit-cost Analysis
Substantial progress was made during 1976 toward the completion of Guidelines for Benefit-cost Analysis, a working manual which will set out principles for
economic evaluation of major public expenditures undertaken by Government
agencies. A working group of economists from various resource ministries, chaired
by the Special Projects Unit, has prepared a final draft which will be submitted for
policy acceptance in early 1977.
Salmonid Enhancement Program
The Unit has convened a small task group to examine the impact on resources
under regional jurisdiction which might result from enhancement of salmonids in
various watersheds. The Unit has also assisted the Federal Government in applying
the benefit-cost guidelines to the evaluation of enhancement project alternatives.
Agricultural Land Reserve Reviews
The Special Projects Unit continued to act as a liaison between the Land Commission and the ELUC in the review of ALR applications and appeals under the
jurisdiction of the Committee. The Unit's responsibility was to discuss resource and
land use implications with line agencies, identifying issues affecting Government
policies, and to document implications of alternative solutions for ELUC guidance
in decision-making.
Coastal Zone Projects
The Unit participated in a subcommittee on Coast Zone Resource Inventory
under the general direction of the B.C. Land Resources Committee. Other work in
the coastal zone included summarizing Government programs and resource management issues on Howe Sound and the Lower Fraser River and estuary. The Secretariat has now been given the responsibility to convene a task group of Provincial
and municipal government agencies to examine present and future land use requirements in the Lower Fraser River estuary area as part of a co-ordinated approach to
land use planning in this sensitive area.
Williston Reservoir Resources Study
The Unit has co-ordinated a multi-agency study team examining the resource
potentials in and around Williston Reservoir. Detailed fishery and limnology
studies were completed during the year, but over-all integration of study results has
been delayed due to competing priorities.
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT        U 127
Table 34—Impact Assessment Reports Reviewed by Secretariat and
Government Agencies During 1976
Developer/Agency
Proposed Development
Energy projects—
B.C. Hydro   	
B.C. Hydro  ."..—     .-
B.C. Hydro  	
Gas pipelines—
Alberta Natural Gas :	
Alcan Pipeline .•      	
Kitimat Pipeline Ltd	
Transmission-lines—
B.C. Hydro	
B.C. Hydro	
Highways—
B.C. Department of Highways and Public
Works   ._	
B.C. Department of Highways and Public
Works ._..   -
B.C. Department of Highways and Public
Works 	
B.C. Department of Highways and Public
Works  .....	
Railways—■
Canadian National 	
Canadian National	
Canadian National   	
B.C. Railway _	
B.C. Railway  	
Coal-mining developments—
Southeast British Columbia:
Sage Creek Coal Co. Ltd.	
Crowsnest Industries . 	
Kaiser Coal of Canada Ltd.	
Northeast British Columbia:
Denison Mines Ltd _	
Utah Mines „. 	
Other mining developments—
Afton Mines	
Equity Mining Corporation	
Port and Coastal developments — Kitimat
Pipelines Ltd   „	
1 Included in North East Coal Study.
Hat Creek Thermal Project (Transportation Study).
Sites C & E, Peace River (Stage I).
Revelstoke Dam, Columbia (Stage II).
Crowsnest Pass to Kingsgate Route (Heritage Site Impact Report).
Yukon to Alberta and Fort Nelson to Sumas (Stage I).
Kitimat to Edmonton (Stage I).
Nicola to Cranbrook (500-kv) (Stage II).
Site One to Pine Valley (500-kv) (Stage II).
Kitwanga to Meziadin (Stage II).
Chetwynd to Tumbler Ridge (Stage I).i
Dawson Creek to Tumbler Ridge (Stage I).1
Fort Nelson to Fort Simpson (Stage I).
McGregor to Monkman Access (Stage l).1
Valemount to Tete Jaune (Stage II).
Ashcroft to Clinton (Stage II).
Chetwynd to Tumbler Ridge (Stage I).t
Anzac to Tumbler Ridge (Stage I).i
Sage Creek (Stage I).
Line Creek (Stage I).
Hosmer to Wheeler (Stage I and Stage II).
Quintette Coal Project (Stage I).
Carbon Creek Project (Stage I).
Afton Mine at Kamloops (Stage II).
Sam Goosley Project (Stage II).
Kitimat Oil Port Development (Stage I).
RESOURCE ANALYSIS UNIT
The Resource Analysis Unit was formed by the B.C. Department of Agriculture in 1964 and was known as the B.C. Land Inventory. The B.C. Land Inventory
was headed by a Co-ordinating Chairman who received his direction first from the
ARDA (Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act) Deputy Ministers' Committee and later from the Environment and Land Use Technical Committee. Then,
as now, it was a multi-disciplinary group of highly trained professionals and technicians capable of doing inventories rapidly for a number of uses as well as a number
of integrative impact or planning functions. The group was strengthened by the
addition of surficial geologists, hydrologists, and fisheries biologists to complete
the complement of natural resource professionals.
In January 1974 the B.C. Land Inventory was moved from the B.C. Department of Agriculture to the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat.
Concomitantly, negotiations began to move the remainder of Soil Survey to the Secretariat while allowing for specific soils expertise to be available to the Department
of Agriculture. Such specifics include advisory roles in fertilization, drainage, irrigation, tilling methods, etc. This transfer of soil personnel is not yet finished and six
positions should be established in the Resource Analysis Unit to bring its effectiveness in soils back up to strength while allowing Agriculture access to positions
 U 128 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
needed by them. Soil survey and other surveys of the Resource Analysis Unit are so
obviously of use to all ministries that the Unit cannot be as effective in a single
management ministry as it can be in a nonmanagement-oriented agency. The Secretariat was a convenient agency for this purpose. In the coming year the Resource
Analysis Unit will be grouped with other service agencies in the Ministry of the
Environment to further enhance the neutral role of "base data" collectors.
The Resource Analysis Unit is the Provincial agency responsible for
(1) Soil survey;
(2) Surficial Geology/Terrain Analysis Inventory;
(3) Vegetation Inventory;
(4) Climate Inventory;
(5) Aquatic Systems Inventory.
These systematic surveys or inventories of the Province are not done in any
other Government ministries but are basic to all resource management agencies and
their specific management problems. Thus these functions are services to other
ministries and require rigid application of scientific principles and standards. Members of the Resource Analysis Unit, as a consequence, are British Columbia representatives to the Canadian Soil Survey Committee, the National Committee on
Biophysical Classification, Urban Resource Information System (North), and
others, including some in the formative stage such as the National Resource Data
Systems Committee, the National Committee of Quarternary Geology, and a
National Committee of Resource Meteorology. Most of these have international or
North American counterparts such as the International Soil Congress and Urban
Resource Information Systems America.
The Unit is in three divisions:
(1) Resource Inventory Division;
(2) Analysis/Interpretation Division;
(3) Data Services Division.
The Resource Inventory Division and Analysis/Interpretation Division conduct similar activities, but in very different proportions. The preponderance of work
in the Inventory Division is systematic regional inventories according to Province-
wide and national standards. It also does interpretations and analysis or impact
assessment for developments or requirements within the map area and at the map
scale they are currently working or using. The Analysis/Interpretation Division has
a preponderance of analysis interpretations, education, and impact assessment
activities and is usually concerned with inventory for small areas and at more
detailed standard scales as priority requests arise from the ELUC or from other line
agencies. The qualifications of professional personnel in each division is similar
and occasional functional shifts occur between the personnel of the two divisions.
Throughout the Unit the melding of professionals and their work into a biophysical
approach to integrated environment and land use management is the over-riding
theme.
The Data Services Division provides all laboratory services, library, air photo
(remote sensing), cartography (manual and semi-automated), and data handling
to the other divisions. This Division is also responsible for operations research and
methods analysis of all activities in the Secretariat on a continuing basis. Outside
the Resource Analysis Unit it provides services to the other Units of the ELUC
Secretariat and represents the entire Secretariat on all computer, data handling, and
systems matters. Interministerially, it has the function of co-ordinating the data
services of the ELUC member agencies via the ELUC Data Services Committee,
which reports to the ELUC Technical Committee.
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT
U  129
The Resource Analysis Unit, like other units of the Secretariat, has a large
investment in co-ordination, integration, and task force functions. Unlike the other
units of the Secretariat where such functions are with planning and resource policy
aspects, the Resource Analysis Unit performs such functions with their technical
and scientific counterparts of resource managers and regional planners. In this way,
the Resource Analysis Unit's co-ordination, etc., role, is complementary to and supportive of the goals of the other two units. In addition, it is the responsibility of the
Resource Analysis Unit to ensure that data collections are of high quality and are
compatible between agencies so that they can be used efficiently by all and so that
costs can be kept to a minimum. This is done by arranging for standard data collection formats, committees, task forces, etc.
The Unit comprises a work force of 120 people. The uniqueness of the Unit
lies not simply in its capability to collect information about geology, soils, vegetation, or weather, for example, but to collect it in such a manner that the total contribution and effect of all these components is recognized as representing the quality
of the land. This wide-ranging, objective approach to land resources allows the
Unit to provide sufficient data to support objective decision-making in areas conflicting interagency interests.
Among the duties of the Unit are the following:
(1) Preparation of resource inventories and interpretations on a comprehensive and systematic basis and when required on a priority area or
strike force basis.
(2) Preparation of environmental and land use data interpretations for
environmental evaluations and impact assessments for resource
management or for economic development.
(3) Development of methodologies, co-ordination of standards and education via publications, workshops, seminars, and by public involvement where necessary or requested.
(4) Furthering the technical and scientific educational process in Government and private sectors by reviewing and making recommendations
on agency and consultants' reports and by providing survey and
inventory methods and guidelines in the fields of expertise found
within the unit.
The largest single project during the year was the North East Coal Study,
which required rapid surveys for environmental impact assessment (especially in
transportation corridors) and for economic analysis related to physical advantages
and disadvantages of each route. Several slide, slump, and avalanche areas were
identified for costing in railroad, road, and pipeline route options. Most other
activities are shown in Table 34.
Data Service activities are difficult to show since they occur in every project
for its maintenance. Approximately 300 maps were drafted by Data Presentation
Section along with several folios, reductions for screen or wall projection, as well
as innumerable graphics for reports, public hearings, and displays.
Computing Services processed the greatest amount of data in their history.
Besides adding to all existing data banks they have begun design of two new banks.
In addition, they conducted a special project for the Ministry of Agriculture using
x, y digitizers and their terminal capacity to generate acreages by agricultural
capability rating for every mapped area of the Province. A publication of the results
was made for the Ministry of Agriculture and is available from Resource Analysis
Branch Library or from Agriculture.
 U 130                                  MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 35—Some Major Projects for 1976
Type of Project
Special Concern
Area
Collection and interpretation of
weather and climate data for re-
Northwest   British   Columbia,   Lillooet, Omineca.
and where necessary for urban and
With   particular   attention   to   coal
and associated development.
Southeast British Columbia.
Particularly on forestry and fisheries resources affected by timber
harvesting in difficult terrain.
Northeast British Columbia, Queen
Charlotte Islands.
Interpretation   and   presentation   of
previously   collected   climate   data
Grazing, dry land agriculture.
Kamloops area.
Additional emphasis on agriculture.
Southwest British Columbia.
tion.
Focused   particularly   on    agricultural problems in the  Okanagan
Region.
Okanagan Region.
Forest productivity sites.
To  establish relationships between
climate and tree growth to support replanting, fertilization, and
thinning programs in the Forest
Service.
Vancouver Forest District.
Biophysical  inventory  of  vegetation
zones   and   types   related   to   soils
Supporting interpretations for coal
and associated development.
East Kootenay, northeast Kootenay.
ning and allocation.
Penticton,      northwest     Kootenay,
Skeena - Takla,        Cariboo - North
Thompson,   Southern   Vancouver
Island,   Kluskus,   Prince   George,
Morice River-Whitesail Lake, central and  northern Vancouver Island, Vernon, Nelson.
To   gain   an   understanding   of   age,
development, and origin of alpine
surficial   sediments   and   soils   to
support   planning   for   high   elevation logging.
Omineca Mountains.
To map landforms and materials to
provide   the   physical   framework
for soils, vegetation, and resource
interpretations for planning.
Supporting interpretations for coal
and associated development.
East Kootenay.
Kluskus area, Bowser Lake.
Slope  stability for selected watersheds,   for  forest  resource   planning.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Support soils mapping for agricultural areas.
Southern Vancouver Island.
Illustrated keys to the Monocot, Di-
cot, and Grass families of British
Columbia.
Throughout  the   regions  of  British
Columbia.
To review and assess, through application,   technological  changes  and
improvement  in   satellite   technology  relative  to  resource  management needs.
To devise and implement systems of
classifying   terrain   at various   information   levels   and   scales,   to
map,  analyse,  and present terrain
data in a manner such that it may
be  understood  by a wide variety
of users in Provincial, Federal, and
private sectors.
Steep-slope logging.  To devise a system  of  classifying  terrain  specifically to support engineering applications designed to minimize likely
environmental   impacts   of   timber
harvesting.
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT        U 131
Table 35—Some Major Projects for 1976—Continued
Type of Project
Special Concern
Area
Provide   basic   hydro-meteorological
data in a high-rainfall West Coast
watershed   and   interpretation   for
forest resource management.
Nahmint Basin.
To   study    application   of   low-level
colour air  photography  in  stream
inventory;    to    study    changes    in
channel stability after a diversion;
to  monitor  the  effectiveness  of  a
channel stabilization program.
Elk River.
To   establish   baseline   biomass   estimates for browse species to aid in
land   classification   of   wild   ungulates.
Spallumcheen    Sensitivity    Analysis;
visual analysis and report for B.C.
Land Commission.
Spallumcheen.
Inventory   updating   and   monitoring
of   present   land   use   patterns   in
northern  British Columbia by  remote   sensing   techniques   for   resource  planning and management.
Northern British Columbia.
Frost-free   period   variations;   to   investigate suspected trends in frost-
free   periods   in   mapping   climate
capability for agriculture.
Throughout the regions of British
Columbia.
To develop a methodology to predict
moisture levels in soils relative to
uses in agriculture and forestry.
Throughout the regions of British
Columbia.
To determine the size of area over
which fire weather forecasts could
be   applied  from  a  single  climate
station.
Throughout the regions of British
Columbia.
To  assess  the  costs  and  benefits  of
extending   the   period   over   which
climate data are collected in order
to improve their quality.
Throughout the regions of British
Columbia.
To    apply   improved   analytic   techniques to previously collected data
to   enhance   climate   mapping   and
interpretations for agriculture.
Peace River area.
To  provide  overview  wildlife   interpretations  of biophysical information for a soils report.
Bonaparte Lake and Nelson area.
Enhancement   of   existing   climate
classification   for   coastal   mapping
areas.
To  analyse  all  existing  data in  the
Province for  applications in  agriculture, forestry, and housing.
To   standardize  instrumentation  and
site  specifications   for   public  and
private agencies in the Province.
 U 132                                  MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 35—Some Major Projects for 1976—Continued
Type of Project
Special Concern
Area
Mapping   and   classification   of  soils
and   surficial   materials   to   determine soil capability for mines, forestry,  and agriculture and  to provide  interpretations   for  a  variety-
of resource uses.
Nass River,  West Kootenays,  Central Vancouver Island, Bonaparte-
Canim Lake area, Omineca-Peace
area, Skeena Mountains, Hazelton
area,  Prince  George  area,  North
Okanagan-Shuswap    area,    South
Okanagan, Terrace-Prince Rupert
area, North Shuswap area, Monk-
man Pass area.
Covering industrial expansion grazing and irrigated areas.
Kamloops area.
With   particular   attention   to   coal
and associated development.
East Kootenay Region.
Detailed  survey  of  soils   and   land-
forms to determine soil capability
for agriculture and forestry and a
variety of resource uses.
Water  requirements  for irrigation.
Okanagan and Similkameen.
Allowing   growth   areas   for   urban
development  and   agricultural
land reserves.
Langley, Vancouver area.
Agricultural and urban  conditions.
Comox-Oyster River area.
Examination of proposed Forest Service plot installations to determine
the uniformity of soils.
Vancouver Forest District.
Base   data   on   stream   channel   and
fisheries parameters to enable forestry and (or) fisheries habitat protection and planning  decisions  by
line agencies and companies.
Nass and Skeena drainages.
With   particular   attention   to   coal
and associated development.
Two special areas within east and
southeast   Kootenay   Regions   for
more      detailed      consideration.
These  are Springbrook area and
extreme southeast.
Mapping  and  classification   of wildlife (ungulates) from a biophysical
base for resource management and
protection.
East Kootenay and southeast Kootenay Regions.
Integrated   resource   analysis   with
B.C. Parks Branch.
Adams River, Kamloops area.
Development   of   methodologies   for
R.A.U.   Wildlife   Inventory  and
Biophysical Assessment.
Province-wide.
North East Coal Study; Aquatic Resources Component; provide aquatic biophysical base data and interpretations to guide development in
the   study   area    (37   map-sheets)
with   Water   Resources   and   Fish
and Wildlife Branches.
Northeast British Columbia.
Development   of   Aquatic   Systems
Handbook   for   all   relevant   agencies.
Province-wide.
Urban suitability studies; hydrologic
consequences   of   urban   development  (with Municipal Affairs and
Housing).
North and West Vancouver.
To   provide   aquatic   data   base   for
planning and management of forested domestic water supplies (with
Forest Service and Water Resources).
Nelson Forest District.
Energy balance studies of water use
of alfalfa   (with  Agriculture  Canada).
 ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE SECRETARIAT        U 133
Table 35—Some Major Projects jor 1976—Continued
Type of Project
Special Concern
Area
Energy   balance   over   unirrigated
seeded rangeland (with Agriculture
Canada).
Bioclimatology    interpretations;    climatic effects on weed toxicity (with
CDA) and on the biochemistry of
alfalfa.
Province-wide.
Soil and geologic inventory 930; map
areas to describe and map soil and
surficial deposits.
Provide   interpretations   useful   for
land use planning.
Detailed soil survey; soil description
and   mapping   with   interpretations
suitable for management and planning.
Pemberton Valley.
Soil and geology inventory on specific  Gulf  Islands; to describe and
map   soil   and   surficial   materials
and to provide interpretations for
management  and  planning;   Island
Trust.
Gulf Islands.
Surficial  geology inventory program
for Vancouver Island.
Recreation   inventory  of the  recreation features, physical carrying capacity for outdoor recreation, and
inventory   of    existing   recreation
facilities; maps and accompanying
report.
North East Coal, South East Coal.
Cousen's   Bay   carrying   capacity   inventory; a detailed survey for the
Parks Branch to  provide information   necessary  for   park  planning
purposes (with Parks Branch).
Cousen's Bay area.
Compilation  of  a  list  of  recreation
terms   presently   used   in   Government   which  establish  a  base  for
recreation  management;   to evaluate list and suggest changes (Outdoor   Recreation    Committee   and
ELUC Secretariat,  with Parks
Branch).
Recreation    input    to    the    Williston
Lake Study.   Inventory of the outdoor   recreation   features   of    the
Williston Lake area; maps and report.
Recreation inventory of areas in As-
siniboine  Park;   inventory  of  outdoor recreation features and physical   carrying   capacity   of   selected
areas within and near Assinibcine
Park (with Parks Branch).
Application   and   assessment   of   remote sensing (thermal); evaluating
and utilizing airborne thermal imagery  for  determined  spatial   distribution of surface temperature.
Application   of   airborne   radar   to
ground   surveying;   high-resolution
airborne radar will be used to survey an area near Fort St. John to
allow evaluation and assessment of
the technique and the derived  information.
 U 134 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 35—Some Major Projects for 1976—Continued
Type of Project
Special Concern
Area
Feasibility of developing frost penetration   measurement   and   modelling.
Climate   input   into    suitability   for
townsite   location   Highlands/Met-
chosin   in   response   to   report   on
Victoria  Highlands   (Canada  Forestry Service).
During the year the Soils Laboratory processed 3,549 samples; conducted
35,228 chemical analyses and 12,745 physical analyses. Despite this highest
volume of all time and one extra laboratory technician obtained on contract, the
carry-over of samples will be greater this year than any before. Last year the
carry-over was about 400 samples. This year 800 samples arising from Resource
Analysis Unit surveys and 650 from Forest Service Research Division will be carried
over.   It is essential that the services of the extra technician continue to be available.
The Library handled a record number of requests for maps and publications
and has started easing storage problems with the aid of microfilm/microfiche.
Further information on any of the Resource Analysis Unit activities or on material
available from other years may be obtained from the Catalogue of Maps and Publications. This catalogue can be obtained by writing to The Library, Resource
Analysis Branch, Ministry of the Environment, Legislative Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
V8V 1X4; or by telephoning 387-6995; or by dropping in at 839 Academy Close.
 PERSONNEL
SERVICES
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
R. J. C. Webber, Director
In the past, this office functioned as the personnel office for three separate
services—Lands, Water Resources, and the Environment and Land Use Committee
Secretariat. In early 1976, however, the newly elected Government announced
that these services would be amalgamated in the Department of Environment, and
subsequently the Ministry of the Environment. Also in 1976, the British Columbia
Land Commission, consisting of 23 positions from the Department of Agriculture,
was added to the Ministry.   This year's Report reflects this new organization.
Even though recruitment was less than in previous years, Personnel Services
continued to be active in 1976 because of the demands from union negotiations and
classification, and an increase in union grievances. In addition, contract interpretations were required in many areas and there were increased requests for various
statistical reports due to the cut-back on hiring imposed by the Treasury Board.
During the year, Personnel Services undertook the heavy task of decentralizing
Personnel Records, and by year-end the first step of that project had been completed
with all records and instructions sent to the field. Seminars and audits are planned
for 1977 as a follow-up step in order to aid in the transition of records. Steps were
also taken to update all Ministry organization charts and to produce them on a
common format. At year-end this task was well on its way to completion. Additionally, efforts were being made to create position control files, but lack of available
clerical staff in the office is severely hindering completion of this task.
There were many staff changes in Personnel Services during 1976. A. P.
(Tony) Magee, M. (Bud) Harvey, and Peter Birch-Jones replaced R. Renaud,
K. Knight, and R. Emperingham as Personnel Advisers; Heather Hawrys replaced
the Office Manager, and Kerry Alexander the Receptionist.
LABOUR RELATIONS
Considerable labour relations activity was evident in 1976 with all BCGEU
components being renegotiated, one BCPEA component was still under negotiation
at the beginning of the year and their Master Agreement reopened at year-end.
Redirection of our Ministry's bargaining activities continued while the Personnel
staff moved more into a co-ordinating role. Even with this redirection, Ron Renaud
was heavily involved in the bargaining of several components and Tony Magee in
management caucus sessions for the BCPEA Master. Several line managers participated in union negotiations in 1976, most notable were R. P. Murdoch, Manager
of the University Endowment Lands; Andy Lynch and Ilga Kalnins of the Environmental Laboratory; and G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister. During 1976
a number of grievances were handled by the Ministry; however, only two grievances
required formal arbitration to reach resolution.
137
 U 138
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
RECRUITMENT OF CONTINUOUS STAFF
Government restrictions on the number of vacant positions that could be filled
continued in 1976. This resulted in a substantial decrease in recruiting activity
over previous years as the following graph illustrates:
to
u
o
S
W
z
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
181
145
197
1972
1973     1974
Year
35
1976
SEASONAL AND SHORT-TERM APPOINTMENTS
Short-term hiring was also down in 1976. Reductions in funds made available
to the service for use in hiring students during the summer and restrictions on hiring
temporary staff were major reasons for the slow-down. Additionally, higher
students' salaries in 1976 resulted in fewer jobs with the funds available.
<L>
S
a
360
340
320
300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
128
322
286
1972
1973     1974     1975     1976
Year
 PERSONNEL SERVICES
U  139
RECLASSIFICATIONS
There were fewer reclassifications processed in 1976 than in the previous year
in which an unusually large number of Technical Assistants were reclassified as a
result of a major review of that series in 1975. In addition to individual reviews,
major reviews were still under way at year-end to study the classifications of all
licensed professionals and many technical positions in the Pollution Control Branch,
and a similar study is under way in the Environment and Land Use Committee
Secretariat covering all positions.
C3 py)
1)
o
6w Cl
s m
E
I
260
240
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
-.:,■'■
99
H
1972
1973     1974     1975
Year
1976
STAFF TRAINING
Staff training funds made available through the Public Service Commission
provided educational assistance to 122 Ministry employees during 1976. In addition, 35 licensed professional employees received educational assistance through
their Optional Selection of Benefits Plan.
Executive Development Training Plan Class 18 graduates:
H. K. Boas, Land Officer, Land Management Branch, Prince George.
H. H. Nesbitt-Porter, Engineer, Water Investigations Branch.
R. A. Nickel, Biologist, Pollution Control Branch, Prince George.
Correspondence Course in Public Administration Class 12 graduates:
A. O. Stephens, Engineer, Pollution Control Branch, Kamloops.
R. C. Muir, Technical Assistant, Environment and Land Use Committee
Secretariat.
A. K. McKenzie, Technician, Water Investigations Branch.
PRINCIPAL PROMOTIONS, APPOINTMENTS, AND TRANSFERS
The following key promotions occurred during 1976:
E. McMinn, promoted to Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch.
W. Taylor, appointed to Surveyor-General, Surveys and Mapping Branch.
E. Warnock, promoted to Regional Land Manager, Williams Lake.
 U 140 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
D. O'Gorman, appointed as Acting Director, ELUC Secretariat.
J. Dyck, promoted to Regional Engineer, Water Rights Branch, Prince
George.
E. Anthony, promoted to Deputy Comptroller, Water Rights Branch.
Establishment at December 31, 1976
Number of established positions, 1,094.
Number of vacant established positions, 173.
Number of temporary employees on staff, 369.
Total number of employees on staff, 1,290.
Turnover
Turnover within the Ministry continues to be significantly lower than the Government average. No obvious single factor appears to account for this wide variance
or the improvement in Ministry turnover from 1975 to 1976. However, it is
expected that improvement is at least partially attributable to the relatively high
unemployment levels in Canada and the higher salaries in British Columbia. Statistically, the 7.5-per-cent rate is consistent with past methods of calculation; however, taking into consideration the large number of positions intentionally left
unfilled during 1976, a more representative rate would be 7.0 per cent.
G
o
u
t-c
a
a.
20%
19
18
17
16
15
____— 16.5
15.5 -~"""^
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
10.8 x
\
\
\
\
X
N
\
S 7.5
Government-wide average
Environment average
1975       v 1976
Year
 PERSONNEL SERVICES
U  141
SICK LEAVE
Or
VI
Q
s
Z
00
ca
a)
>
<
1>
>-.
o
s
W
M
U
Oh
ca
u
5.9
4.9'
1975
6.4
5.1
Government-wide
average
Environment average
1976
Year
The incidence of sick leave in the Ministry, although slightly higher than in
1975, continues to be significantly below the Government average. Payment of
unused sick leave credits, as provided in the first collective agreement, had the
initial effect of reducing sick leave; however, it has been increasing since that date
and during 1976 the use of sick leave was again approaching former levels.
RETIREMENTS
The following employees retired in 1976:
R. C. Fraser, Technical Assistant 4, Surveys and Mapping Branch, after
22 years' and 8 months' service.
S. L. Clarke, Technician 3, Surveys and Mapping Branch, after 37 years'
and 3 months' service.
R. Butt, Technical Assistant 4, Legal Surveys Branch, after 32 years'
service.
J. Hawes, Technician 1, Surveys and Mapping Branch, after 20 years'
service.
M. Chandler, Technician 2, Water Rights Branch, after 48 years' service.
A. K. Sutherland, Program Manager 4, Deputy Comptroller, Water Rights
Branch, after 28 years' service.
J. Pagonyi, Technical Assistant 4, Surveys and Mapping Branch, after 19
years' and 6 months' service.
LONG-SERVICE AWARDS
The following people became elegible for 25- and 35-year awards during 1976:
25 years—
R. Anfield
Z. Bradley
H. DeBeck
W.Jackson
V. Knapik
C. Mansfield
35 years—
E. R. Gandy
A. Lees
D. Preston
J. Perdul
R. Harris
M. West
G. Wilson
  MAIL
AND
FILE
ROOM
  MAIL
AND
FILE
ROOM
Letters received in the Ministry during 1976 amounted to 206,202, compared
with 218,041 in 1975, a decrease of 11,839 pieces.
During the year a review was made of the older historical records, which were
indexed, catalogued, and accepted for reference purposes and safe-keeping by the
Provincial Archives, Ministry of the Provincial Secretary and Travel Industry.
Table 36—Mail and File Room Work Load
LETTERS INWARD
1976
1975
10-year
Average,
1967-1976
Branch—
57,839
89,423
41,567
17,373
62,401        |          64,091
101,644                117,385
Water	
37,921                  37,944
16,075                  21,977
Totals      	
206,202                 218,041        [        241,397
1                              I
LETTERS OUTWARD (RECORDED)
Branch—■
Lands 	
Forests 	
1
1
9,100        [          10,366
1,642                    1,866
13,455
1,815
Totals 	
10,742                  12,232
1
15,270
MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS
Designation—■
Forest-fire reports..
Logging inspection
Land classification.
Totals	
15,609
NEW FILES CREATED
Designation—
"O" files	
1
I
3,206        |           2,946
1.457         1              1367
6,383
1 4<M1
576                       430        |              828
Totals	
5,239        |           4,743
I
8,701
Microfilm reference, 850.
145
  ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
  ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
K. R. MacKay,
Comptroller
This Division provides accounting services for the Water Resources Service,
the Lands Service, the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat, and the
Provincial Land Commission. These services include direction and assistance in
the preparation of annual estimates, control of appropriations allotted, maintenance
of adequate statistical information concerning all phases of financial activity in the
Ministry, the preparation and distribution of payroll data, the processing of accounts
payable and purchase requisitions, the billing and collection of Water Rights, Land
Management, and Surveys and Mapping revenue, and the preparation of various
reports and summaries for other Provincial ministries and Federal Government
departments.
Numerous Treasury Board directives, complex and varied staff agreements, and
increasing demands for information from the Ministry of Finance have made it a
busy year. In addition, a new Financial Management Reporting System was instituted by the Ministry of Finance which is inadequate at its present stage of development and necessitated additional input by the Accounting Division staff to make
monthly program and activity reports more meaningful.
Work has continued during 1976 on the transfer of the accounting for Lands
Service revenue from a manual to a computerized system. Target date for implementation of the new system is April 1, 1977.
Following is certain information with regard to revenues of the Water Resources
Service and the Lands Service for 1976.
WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Water Rights revenue increased by $1,474,499 in 1976 and this was due
mainly to increases in power revenue of $1,111,990 and funds received on applications of $278,605.
Following is a statement of Water Rights revenue for 1976 by major purpose
and also a statement of comparative revenue for the past 10-year period:
Domestic, incidental use, and fees  702,172
Waterworks   199,703
Irrigation   23,599
Power   11,386,067
Funds received on applications  331,139
12,642,680
149
 U 150 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Table 37—Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1967—76, Inclusive
1967  2,431,010
1968  2,749,848
1969  3,364,577
1970  3,716,932
1971  4,076,598
$
1972     4,923,346
1973     5,404,106
1974     6,287,142
1975  11,168,181
1976  12,642,680
LANDS SERVICE
As at December 31, 1976, there were 14,685 lease accounts.   Following are
certain summaries and comparisons in regard to Lands Service revenues:
Summary of Lands Service Net Revenue Collections
for the Year Ended December 31,1976
LAND LEASES,
RENTALS,  FEES, etc.
LAND
SALES
SALE OF MAPS
3  AIR  PHOTOS
NET REVENUE
COLLECTIONS
2 3 4 5
MILLIONS      OF      DOLLARS
Table 38—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31,1976
Land sales— $
Country lands  1,190,145.40
Town lots  234,518.41
Surface rights  —
Indian reserve cut-off  11,090.14
1,435,753.95
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.—
Foreshore leases— $
Booming and log storage  1,040,012.07
Commercial (marinas, etc.)   1,224,184.64
Oyster   18,167.85
Miscellaneous  (foreshore protection, etc.)   80,167.64
2,362,532.20
 ACCOUNTING division
U  151
Table 38—Classification of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31, 1976—Continued
Land leases— $                      $
Grazing and (or) agriculture  492,187.36
Quarrying  (limestone,  sand,  and
gravel)    78,597.00
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)   460.00
Homesite   357.38
Residential   943,331.40
Miscellaneous         83,308.02
  1,598,241.16
Land use permits  845.00
Licences of occupation  126,837.00
Royalty collections  616,037.48
Bonus bids (lease tenders and auctions)   122,575.00
Easement collections—
Annual rentals	
Outright considerations
Fees—
Crown grant
Assignments
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.)
66,951.19
98,840.44
28,496.39
19,110.00
56,172.51
165,791.63
Sundry   collections   (occupational   rental,   survey
charges, etc.) 	
103,778.90
81,893.08
$
5,178,531.45
Sale of maps and air photos—maps, air photos, survey posts, etc.
(includes composite mapping)       358,023.87
Gross revenue for year.	
Less refunds and taxes
6,972,309.27
91,705.50
Net revenue for year .
6,880,603.77
 U 152 MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT
Comparison of Revenue Collections for 10-year Period, 1967-76, Inclusive
2 3 4 5
MILLIONS       OF       DOLLARS
Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, Etc., Revenue
for 10-year Period 1967-76, Inclusive
 ACCOUNTING DIVISION
U  153
Comparison oj Land Sales Revenue for 10-year Period,
1967-76, Inclusive
0.5
MILLIONS
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1977
3,230 877-2112
   

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