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annual report of the CORRECTIONS BRANCH MINISTRY OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL for calendar year 1977 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1978

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 annual report
of the
CORRECTIONS
BRANCH
MINISTRY OF THE
ATTORNEY-GENERAL
for calendar year
1977
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Corrections Branch for
the calendar year ended December 31, 1977, is herewith
respectfully submitted.
GARDE B. GARDOM
A ttorney-General
Attorney-General's Office, April 1978.
  Ministry of the Attorney-General,
Corrections Branch,
Victoria, B.C.
April 1978.
The Honourable Garde B. Gardom, Q.C.,
A ttorney-General,
Parliament Buildings,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir:
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the
Corrections Branch for the 12 months ended December 31, 1977.
Within the Report a Branch Overview is provided for
complete quick reference to the major developments of the
year; it is presented in descriptive and statistical form.
Respectfully submitted,
IOHN W. EKSTEDT
Commissioner
  CONTENTS
Page
Preface    8
Organizational Chart    9
Branch Overview  11
Introduction  11
Operational Overview  12
Major Issues  14
Reorganization of the Branch  16
Statistics  18
The Report in Detail 28
Youth Services  28
Prevention  28
Diversion Programs  28
Community Supervision  29
Community Service Orders  29
Attendance Programs  29
Youth Custody  34
Citizen Participation  36
Comment  37
Adult Services  37
Pre-court Services  37
Pre-trial Services  45
Probation Services  45
Community Service Orders  46
Impaired Drivers' Courses  46
Custody Services and Programs  47
Facilities and Capacities (Summary Sheet)  51
Provincial Classification  52
Re-entry Programs  54
Religious Programs  55
Citizen Participation  56
Comment  57
Family and Children's Services  58
Management and Operational Services  59
Inspection and Standards  59
Staff Development  60
Program Evaluation and Data Systems  62
Resource Analysis  65
Program Analysis  65
Information Services  66
Corrections Personnel Classification Project  67
A Common Concern  67
Appendix A 69
Appendix B 74
Appendix C  76
 PREFACE
This Annual Report was prepared in two major parts.
A general overview of Branch operation, some of the
major issues, future program priorities, and detailed statistics
for 1977 are presented as the first part, for quick reference.
The second part, "The Report in Detail," is a comprehensive
description of major programs, activities, policies, and
practices of the Corrections Branch for 1977, both with respect
to Provincial and regional operations.
This Annual Report was prepared by Information Services
on behalf of the Office of the Commissioner.
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11
 CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Honourable Garde B. Gardom, Attorney-General
John W. Ekstedt, Commissioner
Senior Branch Management
B. G. Robinson
Deputy Commissioner
W. F. Foster
Assistant to the Commissioner
J. Konrad
Regional Director of Corrections
South Fraser Region
A. E. Neufeld
Regional Director of Corrections
North Fraser Region
G. Chapple
Regional Director of Corrections
Interior Region
A. K. B. Sheridan
Executive Director
Policy Planning
E. W. Harrison
Regional Director of Corrections
Vancouver Region
W. Jack
Regional Director of Corrections
Vancouver Island Region
J. B. Graham
Regional Director of Corrections
Northern Region
Commissioner's Office
J. E. Laverock
Staff Development
D. M. Hartman
Program Evaluation and
Data Systems
D. Toombs
Program Analysis Section
Section Directors
T. Stiles
Information Services
E. Schmidt
Provincial Classification
D. E. Kent
Inspection and Standards
H. Miller
Resource Analysis Section
10
 BRANCH OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
Many forms of resolving social conflict
exist in society.   The family, church and
school are well known institutions
which, among other functions, attempt
to mediate and deal with the various
types of social conflict.   Governmental
interventions (such as social welfare) and
privately operated programs also are aimed
at the resolution of various forms of
social conflict.
The justice system, on both the civil
and criminal side, is used to deal with more
serious forms of social conflict.   The
justice system attempts to mediate, resolve,
or otherwise respond to those forms of
social conflict which have been defined, by
legislative process, as unacceptable—
conflicts stemming from behaviour which
violates the rights of others and cannot
be tolerated without some form of
formalized, state intervention.   Within
that framework, the justice system in
Canada has been developed to protect social
institutions and individuals in society,
including the offender himself, by preventing
crime and deliquency, by reducing the
negative effects of crime and deliquency,
and by fairly and humanely dealing with
social conflict that comes within the
context of the law.   Corrections is an
integral and essential part of that process
and should be viewed as part of that context.
Jurisdiction over corrections in Canada
is divided between the Federal and
Provincial Governments.   The British
Columbia Corrections Branch of the
Ministry of the Attorney-General has the
responsibility for providing services,
programs and facilities on behalf of the
Province.   These services and programs
include services to courts, such as
pre-court inquiries, pre-sentence reports,
and bail supervision; supervision of
probationers, parolees, and those on
temporary absence; the development of
special community programs, such as
community service; youth programs, such
as detention, attendance and containment
centres; a full range of adult custody
institutions; and family court services for
those approaching the court to find a legal
resolution to marriage problems.   This
involvement is detailed in a later portion of
this Report.
During 1977, increasing pressure on
all of these services has been felt, to the
extent that virtually every aspect of
corrections potentially emerges as an issue
in terms of the quality of services provided.
Some of these issues are detailed in a
following section of this Report.
But the Corrections Branch is only one
of many government agencies which require
tax dollars for operational funds.   The
operation of the various programs
therefore tend to reflect the compromise
government must make in budgeting for its
diverse needs.   Ultimately, however, the
price of these programs can only be
measured in terms of human resources and
potential, human dignity and respect, and
the opportunity of offenders to live fulfilling
lives while being held accountable for
their behaviour.
This compromise presents a dilemma
for society itself; and in particular for the
Corrections Branch as the agency that
must deal directly with offenders.   The
Corrections Branch, with its
programs, attempts to balance this
dilemma between the need to protect
society, which is a prime responsibility,
and a need to provide adequate
opportunity for offenders to grow in
responsibility to their communities.
Corrections policy with respect to its
programs and the people involved, reflect
this twin responsibility.
Programs—Since 1974, the Corrections
Branch has committed itself to the following
principles:
A commitment to the dissolution of
large, ineffective, and outdated
correctional centres.
A commitment to the development and
utilization of a wide range of
community based programs as
alternatives to incarceration.
ll
 A commitment to the use of smaller
and more fully secure facilities for
dangerous offenders.
An increased involvement of the Branch
in the areas of prevention and
diversion with both juveniles and
adults.
A commitment to a program of
Corrections which stresses the
responsibility of offenders to their
communities; a program that allows,
where possible, expression of that
responsibility in direct relation to
the victims of their offences.
A commitment to remain responsive and
in tune with needs of the community,
and of the justice system as a whole.
People—The Corrections Branch has
guidelines covering its behaviour toward
offenders:
Offenders must be accountable for their
actions.
Offenders are members of society and are
to be treated with the same respect
and dignity accorded all society's
members.
Within the limitation of court orders and
considering the risk to the community,
the offender has the right to
exercise self-determination and
personal decision making.
Offenders should not receive greater
opportunities or rights than those
generally available to other members
of society.
OPERATIONAL OVERVIEW
The following is a brief overview of the
places in the justice system where the
Corrections Branch now has operational
responsibilities (services provided in
the Family Relations area are not included,
but are described in detail in a following
section entitled "Family and Children's
Services."   These are centred around
civil process, not criminal offence—
an important difference):
Pre-court services—Alternative
programs ("diversion") for offenders
who do not require full formal court and
corrections experience; counselling and
(or) referral provided.
Reports on juveniles' (and some
adults') social circumstances, including
those around alleged offences, provided
for Crown counsel with respect to
the decision whether to proceed with
charges into court.
Pre-trial services—Supervision for
those persons requiring some degree of
control in order to ensure attendance
at court, precluding for some the
necessity of full custody remand.
Personal assistance to alleged offenders
and (or) the families of those held
in custody pending the outcome of their
charge.
Provision of secure facilities for youth
at risk, pending disposition and
placement.
Court services—Information report for
the court on offender's background and
future plans to assist the court in
sentencing.   The availability in court of a
Probation Officer to assist where on-the-
spot information is needed and referrals
must be made.
Community services—The supervision
in the community of offenders placed
on probation.
Educational courses on the topic of
drinking and driving provided for
offenders convicted of drinking and
driving offences; attended as part
of a probation order.
Facilities and programs which provide
special educational, training, recreational,
community service and wilderness
experience for juveniles and young
adults on probation.
The supervision of court-ordered
reparative activities, undertaken by the
offender with respect to the victim of the
offence, or to the community.
A range of post-dispositional
residential programs and facilities for
youth at risk, where other community-
based resources are deemed
inappropriate, or ineffective.
12
 Institutional services—Maximum and
medium security custody facilities
for persons sentenced to less than two
years, and all custodial remand for the
Province.
Open-setting programs providing forest
or farm work; special young adult
or alcohol abuse programs; and
community correctional centres in local
communities where inmates on
temporary absence may reside for work
or educational purposes.
Community re-entry services—
Permitted (temporary) absence from a
correctional centre in selected cases for
employment, training, education, medical
treatment, maintenance of family ties,
involvement in community service
programs, and pre-parole/release
planning.
Supervision in the community of
offenders paroled during the latter portion
of their sentence of imprisonment,
in order to assist them back to full
and useful participation in the community.
Community assessment reports to
provide information to the administrative
bodies making temporary absence or
parole decisions.
In April of 1974 on the advice of the
Corrections Branch, the Attorney-General
of British Columbia announced a
detailed Planning Statement of Overall
Policy and Programs throughout
Corrections.   The principles of that policy
are referenced previously; the application
of the policy has been as follows:
The phase out of Haney Correctional
Centre.
The phase out of the sentenced
population of Vancouver Island
Regional Correctional Centre with that
unit being utilized as a remand-
classification centre.
Re-opening of Chilliwack Security Unit.
Opening of Jordan River Forest Camp
on Vancouver Island.
The opening of Cedar Lake Forest Camp
near Haney for the more difficult
offender in a minimum security
setting.
Expansion in the use of temporary
absence, particularly for work and
education releases.
The opening of a total of ten community
correctional centres throughout
the Province, and the contracted use
of about a dozen community-based
residential centres.
The development of bail supervision in
Vancouver, Victoria, and Surrey.
The expansion of impaired drivers'
courses to a total of approximately
30 throughout the Province.
The transfer of juveniles under detention
prior to disposition in Vancouver
to rennovated Willingdon facilities in
Burnaby, and the razing to the
ground of the antiquated building on
Yale Street.
The development of facilities and
programs for youth requiring post
disposition containment.
Extensive planning and decision making
with respect to replacement for the
remand and sentenced facilities at
Lower Mainland Regional Correctional
Centre (OakallaDistrict).
The assumption of responsibility for
pre-trial services.
The assumption of responsibility for all
family and children services throughout
the Province.
Diversion of offenders from the justice
system continues to be an important focus
of much discussion in the justice system,
and in particular in the Corrections
Branch.   It is an area fraught with exciting
possibilities and very real concerns about
civil liberties, due process of law, and
so on.   The Corrections Branch has been
involved in diversionary procedures for
years, in its service capacity to Crown
Counsel in the form of pre-charge reports on
juveniles, to the Bench with respect
to sentencing options, and in its own service
delivery programs such as the use of
volunteers from the community.
In addition to moving toward the
streamlining of the Branch's own
correctional centres, bi-lateral talks with
the Federal Government were initiated
13
 in 1975 in order to attempt to reduce
the duplication, overlapping, lack
of communication, inefficiency, ineffectiveness, and lack of rational basis
characterizing the two separate systems of
corrections in this Province.   A
Federal/Provincial Task Force on
Corrections in British Columbia was
established to examine alternative models
for sharing Federal/Provincial
responsibility in the delivery of correctional
services, and this issue is one that still
requires resolution.
In 1976 and 1977 the principles of case
management, as an alternative to pure
casework, were enunciated and adopted
throughout the facilities of the Branch,
which gave an institutional application to
such principles adopted with respect to
probation services in 1975.   These
principles lend emphasis to the Branch's
view that (1) where possible, community
services should be utilized to lend support
to individual offenders, and those who
come into contact with the system;
(2) the Branch and individual persons must
be accountable for seeing that offenders in
the correctional system are provided with
opportunities for self-development and (or)
constructive use of time within each
corrections program or facility; and (3) a
clearly defined internal accountability
and responsibility system must be in
place to achieve these ends.
Related to the developments in case
management, and the decentralization of the
Branch, it is incumbent upon the Branch
to set minimum standards for the
Province with respect to the range of
correctional services, in order that offenders
receive equality of treatment regardless
of geographical location.   In October
of 1976 the Corrections Branch put into
motion a process by which such standards
can be developed, while realizing that
the completion of the exercise may take
several years.   At the time of writing,
a Provincial Standards Committee has been
struck to examine all corrections
operations in relation to standards.   The
Committee is chaired by the Director,
Inspection and Standards Section, and is
comprised of representatives from each
administrative region of the Branch.   One
line manager will be seconded in early 1978
on a full time basis for a maximum of
two years to co-ordinate the activities of
the Committee.   This activity is one
of the most important the Branch has
undertaken for some years.
Finally, in 1976 a major study of
Corrections Branch goals and objectives
was undertaken and completed.   This
extensive document enunciated and
reconfirmed in detail principles in the
original 1974 plan, which are noted
throughout this Report.   The recent study
included a range of activities by which
the Corrections Branch can work toward
specific goals and objectives.   In 1977,
these policies were widely discussed and
applied throughout the Branch.   As a
result of its significance this paper is
included in this Annual Report as
Appendix A.
MAJOR ISSUES
Prison Facilities—The upgrading or
replacement of facilities for those remanded
in custody waiting trial or disposition is a
major priority of the Corrections Branch.
Each of the major Regional
Correctional Centres provides this
capacity and all of the present facilities are
deemed inadequate for the task.   As well
as aged facilities, the lack of program
recreational space for those on remand
is compounded when the same space
must be utilized for sentenced populations.
Replacement or upgrading of facilities for
sentenced inmates is a second priority.
Both of these are focussed in the lower
mainland area, and are generated out of the
need to phase out Lower Mainland
Regional Correctional Centre, now known
as Oakalla District.
The capacity at Oakalla District is
approximately 600, half of which is for
remand.   In 1976, two major presentations
were made to Cabinet of Government
around the facilities issues—one on facility
requirements of the Ministry as a whole,
and one specifically focused on remand
requirements of the Corrections
14
 Branch.   In 1977 a number of activities
have derived from those presentations.
Treasury Board has approved $820,000
for the preliminary design of a 150-bed
remand centre in Vancouver, and a
75-bed centre in Coquitlam attached to the
Coquitlam Justice Centre.   The B.C.
Buildings Corporation has put approximate
price tags of $17 million and $12.5
million respectively on these facilities as
potential capital costs.   A number of
further proposals have been developed
since 1977 to complete the possibility of
phasing out the remand capability of
Oakalla District, and a number of units for
sentenced inmates in order to phase
out the sentenced capacity of that centre.
On Vancouver Island, the need to phase
down Vancouver Island Regional
Correctional Centre has seen in 1977 the
examination of Island Youth Centre as a
potential multi-program correctional facility.
That proposal will see further development
during 1978.   Whether Island Youth
Centre is utilized as a correctional facility,
or not, such a facility will have to be
developed for the middle Island in the
very near future.   Statistics have shown that
upper Island communities are growing
at twice the rate of southern communities.
There is no centre on the Island at all for
the female offender, though a small four-bed
community correctional centre is V
operational at the time of writing.
There has been a need for years to
build an adequate remand unit at Kamloops
Regional Correctional Centre, but 1977
did not see this project initiated due to the
priorizing Branch facilities needs.
During 1977, a Task Force composed
of representatives from Corrections, Court,
B.C. Police Commission, and the RCMP
was struck to collect data and other
information in relation to the Province
assuming responsibility for all police
lock-ups along with the question of the
use of Corrections facilities for those
offenders given intermittent sentences.
Lock-ups are operated in 44 locations
throughout the Province by the RCMP and
in nine of the twelve areas policed by
the municipal or city police forces.   Most
police forces express a desire to maintain
control over holding capacity during
investigations, but lock-ups have also
become extensively used for those on
intermittent sentences, immigration holds,
holding prisoners for sheriffs, and mental
patients.   If the Corrections Branch is
required to assume responsibility for
providing services in this area, increased
pressure will be felt on all facilities.
During 1977, the week-end pressure due
to intermittent sentences on Oakalla
District necessitated the giving of
temporary absences for some of those so
incarcerated, thus not honouring the
intention of the court.   The findings of the
Task Force studying this matter will not
be known until 1978.
In April of 1977 the Corrections Branch
undertook a comprehensive examination
of the bed space allocation to female
offenders across the Province.   Program
possibilities and location of appropriate
facilities for women who receive prison
terms were considered.   This examination
included consideration being given to having
more women under Federal sentences in
British Columbia complete their
sentences in Provincial facilities.   Presently,
approximately 40-50 per cent of
Federally sentenced women in British
Columbia are serving their sentences under
the jurisdiction of the Corrections Branch,
through the Exchange of Services
Agreement which was signed in February,
1974.   Before the entire study was
complete, a number of concerns were
registered about the operation of Oakalla
Women's Correctional Centre, and
subsequently a Royal Commission was
struck to investigate the incarceration
of female offenders in British Columbia.
The Royal Commission's Report will be
available in 1978, but it seems clear that the
issue of facilities and programs for women
will take precedence in correctional
planning for 1978.
Youth Custody—The Corrections Branch
assumed responsibility for Youth
Detention Centres in Burnaby and Victoria
on April 1, 1974.   These are the only
detention centres available in the Province
of British Columbia for juveniles considered
15
 "at risk" pending disposition and placement.
These centres were previously operated
by the municipalities, with very little remand
services being operated elsewhere.
During 1977, the Willingdon facility was
chronically over capacity by approximately
seven people on average.   The Victoria
Youth Detention Centre experienced
overcrowing at certain times,
necessitating the use of other facilities on an
interim basis.   The Corrections Branch
is in the process of implementing and
developing the concept of private remand
homes throughout the Province, but it is
not clear whether this development will
lessen the pressure on the detention
facilities, in particular on the Willingdon
Centre.
In 1975, several issues with respect to
the "hard core juvenile delinquent"
problem became particularly urgent.   In
October of 1976, the Branch made
recommendations for a three-tiered containment program for the Attorney-General
and this program became available to
the courts in December of 1977.   The
Corrections Branch continues to ensure
that these facilities do not become mere
"juvenile jails."
The Corrections Amendment Act, which
enables the facilities to be developed,
called for the wide reaching development of
community-based programs for juveniles,
and this will continue to be one avenue
to prevent the excessive use of containment.
Inter Ministerial (Health, Education,
Human Resources, and Attorney-General)
support for this intention has been expressed
in an inter ministerial committee to ensure
that the containment program option
maintains the widest possible community
base and services.   Youth containment
is dealt with in some detail in a later portion
of this Report entitled "Youth Custody."
Family and Children's Services—In early
1976 the Corrections Branch was given
responsibility for the provision of Family
and Children's Services throughout the
Province.   This includes counselling
services, maintenance order supervision,
preparation of custody and access reports,
and other services related to the
Family Relations Act, i.e., where families
are coming into the courts to seek
resolution to marital problems.   In 1976
the Unified Family Court projects in Surrey,
Richmond, and Delta were phased into
regular Corrections operations, concluding
the work commenced in December 1973
by the Royal Commission on Family
and Children's Law (Berger Commission).
The expectations for service throughout
the Province have placed excessive demands
on staff at present performing these
duties, and fiscal and staff restraints have
not allowed the Branch to provide these
important services in many locations.
During the 1978/79 fiscal period, the
Corrections Branch intends to utilize staff
expansion in the probation area for Family
Court counselling work.   Probation
Officers undertake Family Court
counselling, and are given a particular
training to handle these special
responsibilities.   A resolution of this issue
and others arising from an intention in
principle to establish more Unified Family
Courts, is an ongoing one.
REORGANIZATION OF THE
BRANCH
The processes leading to a major
re-organization of the management
structures of the Corrections Branch were
undertaken in 1976, and was effective
April 1, 1977.   This re-organization
has been undertaken so that administrative
structures reflect the intention of the
Corrections Branch to develop a full range
of services required by the justice system
in a manner which is consistent with
local and regional needs.
Since 1973, the Corrections Branch
consisted of three major divisions, with
Inspection and Standards providing
a fourth unit of a very specialized nature.
The three divisions were:
(1) Community Services Division, which
was responsible for the preparation
of pre-court inquiries, presentence/disposition reports,
community investigations for
temporary absence or parole,
16
 custody and access reports, the
supervision of probationers,
parolees and those on temporary
absence, monitoring of maintenance
orders and enforcement work, and
performing a range of other family
relations work.   The Division
operated the Youth Detention
facilities in the Province, Attendance
Programs and developed youth
containment centres.   Officers of
the Division have been instrumental
over the years in the development
of Community Service Order
Projects, Impaired Drivers' Courses,
and a range of community-based
programs for the supervision of
offenders in the community.
(2) The Institutional Services Division
was responsible for nine forest
camps, one farm camp, 10
community correctional centres, five
custody centres and the purchased
use of bed space in 13 community-
based residential centres.   A variety
of programming was offered for
both men and women who were
given a sentence of imprisonment
of less than two years.
(3) The Planning and Development
Division was a relatively new
component of the Branch bringing
together a variety of services:
Staff Development, Program
Evaluation and Data Systems,
Volunteer Programs, Information
Services, Bail Supervision, Religious
Programs, Library Services, and
some Purchase of Services Funding.
Each of the three divisions was headed
by a senior correctional manager who
reported directly to the Commissioner of
Corrections.   As senior staff, they
dealt with policy issues for the Branch, and
co-ordinated individual efforts with respect
to innovative programs and the ongoing
provision of correctional services.
However, with the development of new
programs over the years, the traditional
scope of institutional and probation
services had expanded so that institutions
were running more community-based
facilities requiring ongoing liaison, and
information flow, while probation services
were expanding to include more residential
types of programs.   In some instances both
probationers and parolees have resided in
community correctional centres.
The scope and inter-relationships of the
three divisions was becoming complex, with
areas of responsibility blurring, and so the
decision was taken to re-organize, i.e., to
have one senior correctional manager
in each region responsible for the complete
range of correctional services in
that region.
These senior managers were appointed
in October of 1976, and undertook an
intensive three month development course
focusing on a wide range of topics—
financial processes of government, labour
relations, relationship to central government
services (such as the Public Service
Commission, B.C. Buildings Corporation,
Treasury Board, Purchasing Commission,
Government Employee Relations Bureau,
etc.), management and organizational
principles, and current correctional theory
and practise.   Each Regional Director
of Corrections was responsible for budget
building and preparation for fiscal year
1977/78, and the development of
regional management structure models
which reflected the long term intention of
the Branch to integrate services and
decentralize decision making to the lowest
appropriate level.   The Regional Directors
were in place in the field by April 1, 1977.
At the time of writing, each region has
undertaken and completed the necessary
procedures to establish regional models,
and appoint through competition the
necessary personnel.
With the decentralization process
during 1977 a considerable amount of
energy was expended in attempting to
define the support capacities which were
required to remain central, as a resource for
both the regions and the Commissioner,
the latter of whom consistently has a
wide number of Ministry and other
government and jurisdiction demands made
of him in addition to regular operational
ones.
17
 The following functions were finalized
in 1977 as part of the Commissioner's
Office: Inspection and Standards,
Provincial Classification, Program
Evaluation and Data Systems Staff
Development, Resource Analysis Section,
Program Analysis Section, and Information
Services.   All of these are dealt with
in more detail in the body of this Report.
STATISTICS
In 1977, the Corrections Branch has
developed the capability to monitor
more than the simple "intake" function in
producing statistical analyses.   The
information included in the following tables
is based on an analysis of the actual
resources that were expended on the various
selected groups.
For the institutional population the base
unit is bed days, and for the probation/bail
supervision population the base unit is
supervision days.   The first three tables
show comparisons between 1977 and 1976
figures.   Tables four through eleven
provide information on 1977 only.
The change this year in the mode of
presentation is a reflection of an intention
to provide figures which are more appropriate for management decision making.
The traditional mode of analysing
populations in terms of number of
admissions can lead to some misleading
impressions.   For example, an individual
who enters the Branch system with a one
day sentence of imprisonment would
carry the same weight as an individual who
enters with a one year sentence.   Further,
frequent admissions by the same individual,
could lead to a misperception of the actual
population being incarcerated in Provincial
correctional facilities.
Finally, there are two qualifications
which should be noted with respect to these
statistics provided in this Annual Report:
(1) Data relating to Oakalla Women's
Correctional Centre is incomplete
for the calendar year 1977.
(2) Data on Bail Supervision is based
on a 60 per cent sample of Branch
files.   The absolute numbers are
not available.
18
 o
Q
~~l        i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r
63/ 64/ 65/ 66/  67/ 68/ 69/ 70/  71/ 72/ 73/  74/  75/ 76/  77/
64  65  66  67  68  69  70  71   72  73  74  75  76  77  78
Fiscal Year
Figure I.   Charting of Corrections fiscal expenditures over 15-year period.
19
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20
 Table I—Temporary Absence Program, Calendar Year 1977
Number of Passes
Granted
Short term 	
Continuous (Education, Employment)	
Medical	
Totals
Removed From Program1—
Unlawfully at large
Committed further offences
Fail to abide by conditions ..
8,123
1,518
9,641
1976
_ 101
... 28
... 123
Per Cent
Success
99.7
91.8
97.0
1977
93
13
196
1 With the total number of Temporary Absences granted only slightly down in 1977 over 1976, the unlawfully at large while on program was slightly down as shown above, but the committed new offences is down by
more that half. Fail to abide is up but remain in house. Therefore, the increased screening given applicants
and close staff supervision while on program have suggested a positive trend.
Total number employed1	
Total number of person-days worked
Total amount earned	
  2,498
  35,241
  $990,892
  $19,491
  $74,233
Total family maintenance paid  $242,904
Total debts paid  $63,712
Total income tax paid  $198,842
Note—Continuous Temporary Absence was 18.1 per cent of sentenced population for month.
Total restitution and fines paid
Total room and board paid
i While on Temporary Absence at  a Community Correctional Centre,  moneys  returned  to  Corrections
Branch go into Provincial Government general revenues.
Table II—Corrections Branch Types of Reports1, Community Services
1977
1976
Adult
Juvenile
Total
Adult
Juvenile
Total
Pre-sentence.	
4,112
1,093
546
1,625
801
1,049
406
12,944
6,907
4,518
12,944
8,000
546
1,625
801
1,663
4,165
945
564
1,679
461
907
453
11,380
4,864
4,628
11,380
Verbal	
5,809
564
1,679
461
Ability to pay	
Other	
614
595
1,502
Totals            	
9,226
20,871
30,097
8,721
17,302
26,023
Applications to raise.	
108
Number
Raised
18
	
325
Number
Raised
16
1 Applications to raise juveniles to adult court are included in this table for convenience.
21
 Table III—Corrections Branch Case-Months Supervision1, Community Services,
1977 versus 1976
1977
1976
Increase/Decrease (±)
Adult
Juvenile
Total
Adult
Juvenile
Total
Adult
Juvenile
Total
Diversionary counselling	
1,491
88,237
1,558
1,145
1,661
8,926
29,140
1,381
10,417
117,377
1,558
1,145
3,042
1,743
84,730
1,980
1,654
1,560
9,418
27,313
807
11,161
112,043
1,980
1,654
2,367
—252
3,507
—422
-509
101
—492
1,827
_574
—744
5,334
—422
—509
Other	
675
TotaL   	
94,092
39,447
133,539
91,667
31,538
129,205
2,425 |    1,909
4,334
Community service order	
Impaired drivers' course	
4,344
8,759
3,821
8,165
8,759
2,931
8,465
3,032
5,963
8,465
1,413
294
789
2,202
294
i This does not represent the number of cases supervised.
22
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26
 Table IX—Average Institutional Counts and Capacities by Type of Setting
1976
1977
Average
Per Cent of
Total Average
Average
Per Cent of
Total Average
Secure—
393
625
22.9
36.4
384
587
23.2
35.3
Totals _   .
1,018
970
607
780
92
118
59.3
53.7
35.4
43.2
5.4
6.5
974
980
533
784
100
125
58.6
Capacity-	
Open—
53.7
35.4
Capacity-...	
C.C.C.—
42.9
6.0
6.8
Totals—
1,717
1,807
100.0
100.0
1,662
1,826
100.0
100.0
Table X—Corrections Program Utilization by Length of Sentence
Sentenced
Probation
BSD
Per Cent
Supervision
Days
Per Cent
L/O days      	
1,089
5,008
21,550
13,064
16,983
10,233
2,613
37,014
1,524
2,395
17,201
1,524
435
25,039
20,249
21,991
19,8131
0.5
2.3
9.9
6.0
7.8
4.7
1.2
17.0
0.7
1.1
7.9
0.7
0.2
11.5
9.3
10.1
9.1
7,045
17,612
84,537
42,269
7,045
894,687
10,567
3,522
200,776
14,090
7,044
1,183,523
246,567
426,209
109,194
236,000
10 to 19 days	
20 to 30 days	
0.2
31 to 60 days	
0.5
61 to 90 days .    -
2.4
91 to 120 days 	
1.2
121 to 150 days	
0.2
151 to 180 days	
181 to 210 days   	
25.4
0.3
211 to 240 days	
1.0
241 to 270 days	
5.7
271 to 300 days	
0.4
301 to 330 days	
0.2
331 days to 12 months 	
33.6
13 to 18 months 	
7.0
19 to 24 months 	
12.1
3.1
6.7
Totals	
217,728
100.0
3,522,390
100.0
1 Over 24-month jail sentence.
Table XI—Institutional Bed Space by Status on Admission
Fine in default
Indeterminate (section 64a)
All other sentenced 	
Remand	
Immigration hold
Totals -.
BSD
Per Cent
18,071
5.2
784
0.2
198,873
56.9
126,780
36.2
5,282
1.5
349,790
100.0
27
 THE REPORT IN DETAIL
YOUTH SERVICES
Helping offenders to become aware of
their responsibility to themselves and
to their community are the major goals of
the corrections experience.   All Branch
policy leads toward that end.   The sooner
(and the younger) offenders acquire
the sense of responsibility, the less likely
they are to break the law again.
Wherever possible, it is the policy
of the Branch to resolve social conflict
outside the justice system all together.   This
is particularly important when dealing
with youth offenders.   That is why under
the authority of section 7 of the Corrections
Act, youth in conflict with the law are
referred to a probation officer by the Crown
for a pre-court inquiry.   An investigation
is done on the young person, and his/her
behaviour in the home, at school and
in the community is assessed.   Based on
the findings, a recommendation for no
further action (if the matter has resolved
itself), diversion, or court action is made.
On the strength of that recommendation,
the Crown may end its involvement, or
refer the matter to Court.   During 1977 a
total of 12,944 such inquiries were carried
out by probation staff throughout the
Province.   This is an increase of
approximately 1,500 over 1976.
Although a child can be brought into
Family Court and charged from the age of
seven on, it is the general practise in
this Province, if possible, to deal with
children under the age of 14 on an out of
court basis.   Corrections planning related to
juveniles involves attempts to formalize
this process administratively.
Prevention—The Corrections Branch
feels that it has a responsibility to encourage
the community and other Government
ministries to develop programs which will
reduce the probability of children coming
into conflict with the law in the first place.
This requires ongoing involvement with
schools, particularly at the junior-high level,
and a contribution to the planning of
appropriate programs to keep children
involved in school and community activities.
For those who come to the attention of
the probation officer, formally or informally,
the emphasis is always on referral to
private or community agencies. The Branch
has a number of formal and informal
contacts with many private and public
agencies, which include contacts with the
Provincial Ministries of Human Resources,
Education, and Health and links with
the Federal departments of the Solicitor
General, Manpower and Health and
Welfare.   This sharing of resources and
knowledge is an important element to the
over-all effectiveness of the British
Columbia Corrections Branch.
Diversion Programs—As many as
50 per cent of all juveniles brought to the
attention of the probation officers (through
the pre-court inquiries) are redirected
(diverted) away from proceeding to court,
when diversion is a more effective way
to deal with the problem than the full formal
court process.   Courts must be reserved
to be effective in dealing with those very
serious or sensitive offences which are
a concern to the country.
In 1977, a total of 7,927 pre-sentence and
reports other than pre-court inquiries,
which were previously referenced, were
prepared by probation officers throughout
the Province with respect to juveniles.   In
this regard the further refinement of the
court resource officer's role in both juvenile
and adult probation contexts in 1977,
found itself an accepted and important
operational practice.   The availability of a
probation officer in court to facilitate
information flow and do referrals, short
reports, and so on, is central to the court
support role of probation officers.
However, when a youth is diverted
as a result of a pre-court inquiry, he or she
may receive short-term counselling by a
probation officer, perhaps with his or her
parents, and there is an attempt by the
probation officer to make the fullest use of
community resources and agencies on
a referral basis. The probation officer is
often a catalyst or consultant in the
development and operation of both private
28
 and Government-sponsored programs for
juvenile offenders which may be used as
a diversion program, as well as for youths
under a court order of supervision.
Community Supervision—Where, as a
result of a pre-court inquiry, it is felt
that an element of supervision is necessary
on more than an informal basis, or there
is no admission of guilt relating to the
charge, the matter is referred to court.   If
the child admits to the delinquency, or
is found delinquent by the court, he or she
may be placed under formal probation
supervision.   In addition, a number of
specific conditions of supervision may be
applied to the juvenile, and a probation
officer will attempt to use all necessary
community resources to assist the juvenile in
meeting these court order responsibilities.
Community Service Orders—The
requirement that youth offenders perform
work for the benefit of the community or
the victim goes back many years in this
Province.   It was usually arranged
informally under the initiative of individual
probation officers (often during the pre-
court process) or judges (at the time
of making a disposition).
It was not until the 1970's that
community service was first proposed
on an organized basis for both juveniles and
adults.   Since that time, Community
Service Orders have become a major
program priority of the Corrections Branch
and is one of the clearest responses to crime
and delinquency we have.   This program
allows a humane and effective consequence
for offences; consequences which are
economical to operate, which avoid the
unnecessary use of more drastic sentences,
and is available to the many offenders
who are unable to pay a fine.
During 1977, Community Service
Officers, specialists hired to develop activity
banks of information and to supervise
those given probation orders including
Community Service, were operating in every
major location in the Province. The
court has been in support of the program,
and it is anticipated that recent
announcements by the Minister of Justice
with respect to incorporating Community
Service into the Criminal Code, will
greatly support this program.
Since the program's start in November
1974, a total of 2,958 Community Service
Orders have been made throughout the
Province for juveniles.   The average
hours per order has been approximately 35.
Over 90 per cent of all orders have been
with respect to community work as opposed
to service to the victim.   The percentage
of orders successfully completed in 1977 for
juveniles and adults averages 90.
Community Service is a program in which
the Corrections Branch is in the very
vanguard in the implementation throughout
Canada and the whole of North America.
Attendance Programs—For those cases
where the community and other agencies
are unable to supply services, or the
available services are not suitable or
available at the local level, the Corrections
Branch has developed programs which
fall under the general rubric of "attendance
centres."   Juveniles may be committed
to such programs by the court as a
condition of probation.
There are three categories of attendance
programs:
(a) Daily attendance, i.e., during the
day, after school or work, a
program where there are specific
activities to be undertaken.
(b) Week-end attendance, i.e., where
the probationer must attend and
reside at the program from Friday
night to Sunday afternoon, until
successful graduation.
(c) Full residential attendance.
These programs offer the court the
option of ordering supervision in a
structured setting for a specific kind of
program for those persons who require a
more specific form of supervision than
that generally available within the
community.   The actual program varies
from educational training, recreation
and community service activities to
involvement in wilderness "outwardbound"
types of experiences.   The Corrections
Branch operates, staffs and (or) funds
these programs in close relationship with
29
     schools, child welfare services, mental health
programs, and other community agencies.
DARE (Vancouver), Metchosin
(Victoria), Victoria Attendance, Porteau
Camp (Vancouver), and DASH
(Chilliwack) are the major such programs
operated by the Corrections Branch.
The Youth Attendance Program in
Victoria had an average monthly enrolment
of 18 during the course of 1977, with
a total enrolment up to October of 34.
In October, a very significant change in
program focus and concept was instituted
and the program was renamed "New
Directions Program."   This change was
the result of an attempt to better meet the
needs of probation field staff in the greater
Victoria area.   The New Directions
Program carries a main focus on academic
upgrading and life skills training during
twelve weeks of a probationers involvement.
The program accepts male or female
probation referrals between the ages of 13
and 17.   The goal of the program is to
present students with a structure wherein
they can discover and embark upon new
directions—directions which will lead them
to a more successful life vocationally,
educationally and socially.   Eighty hours of
academic upgrading is provided together
with 50 hours of life skills, 30 hours
of recreation, after 70 hours of work
experience.   The life skills portion
utilizes group discussions, individual
instruction, role playing, video tape, guest
speakers, and so on, including modules
on employment skills, use of the media,
communications skills, consumer education,
etc.   During the three months of operation
in 1977, the new program experienced
overwhelming support and a great deal of
positive feed-back from the field.   Over
30 students attended the program with
15 on the waiting list during that period.
The three major residential attendance
programs run by the Branch for a number of
years—Porteau, Metchosin, and DASH
provided services for 126 (juvenile
boys), 80 (juvenile and young adults, boys
and girls), and 164 (juvenile boys and
girls) respectively.   The DASH program
offered its first course for girls in April, and
this filled what has been a felt need
for some time.   From April to December,
the DASH program offered the program
to 28 girls.   The DARE program saw a
total of 65 new assignments of probationers
during 1977, with 55 carry overs from
the previous year.   At the end of 1977, a
total of 77 probationers were signed on the
program.
The Porteau and Metchosin camps offer
a winter week-end program plus a one-time
one month summer program.   DASH
operates year-round, providing a full-time
residential six-week experience for
probationers.
Another major residential attendance
program utilized extensively by the
Corrections Branch is the House of Concord
at Langley.   This is funded entirely by
the Corrections Branch ($600,000
in 1977/78) but is operated by the Salvation
Army.   House of Concord provides
educational, vocational, life skills, and
employment experience for juveniles and
young adults who attend as a condition of
probation ordered by the court.
The Branch also provides major funding
for a variety of other attendance programs
throughout the Province, often developed
from the efforts of local staff.   Some of
these are Joss Mountain (Vernon),
Step-up (Vancouver), Campbell River
Youth Diversion, etc.   The total moneys
allocated to both juvenile and adult
attendance programs and services, including
Concord, for the year 1977/78 was
$1,332,089.   It is clear that the Corrections
Branch views the expenditure of these
moneys as supporting the most efficient
development or continuation of a wide range
of programs throughout the Province,
so that youth may be dealt with as much
as possible within their own community,
where the solution to the problems of
youth in conflict with the law resides.
Youth Custody—In 1974 the Administration of Justice Act gave the Province,
and in particular the Corrections Branch
of the Ministry of the Attorney-General,
responsibility for the detention of youth
(male and female) awaiting trial,
disposition, or placement.   This included
the only two detention facilities in
34
 operation—in Vancouver and Victoria.
These responsibilities had previously been
apportioned to municipalities under the
Family and Children's Court Act (1963)
and later the Provincial Court Act
(1969).   However, with the exception of
these two facilities there had been little
other development and the two centres had
been providing the major detention
capacities throughout the Province, with the
attendant problems for youth of
dislocation from communities or places
where plans are worked out, travel, and so
on.   The alternative for short stays had
been police cells in local communities.
With the assumption of responsibility for
these services, the Branch commenced to
phase out the antiquated facility in
Vancouver and move to Willingdon
in Burnaby, upgrade the newer
Victoria facilities and set policy with
respect to remand throughout the Province.
The facilities at Willingdon were
utilized effective in June of 1976, and has a
capacity for 36—26 boys and 10 girls.
During 1977 the facility was chronically
over capacity; the daily average population
increased from 33.3 in 1976 to 42.39
in 1977, a daily increase of nine residents
and representing almost seven people
over capacity.   The average length of stay
per resident increased by one day in 1977
over 1976, and the average length of stay
was 19.5 days.
During 1977, the Corrections Branch
has sought alternative facilities to those at
the Victoria Youth Detention Centre.
This centre does experience overcrowding
from time to time, though the 1977 daily
average daily count was 11.5 residents.
There were a total number of admissions of
917, which is down slightly for 1976.
The capacity of the centre is 20 (boys and
girls).   The program possibilities at the
Victoria centre are much more limited than
those at Willingdon.   Both centres
emphasize the use of volunteers from the
community to come in and interact with
youths on remand in an attempt to bring a
variety of programs to these youths.
In August of 1976, the Corrections
Branch authorized a set of comprehensive
guidelines and policies for the development
and funding of private remand homes
throughout the Province, in an attempt to
facilitate the development of local
resources as more appropriate alternatives
than local police cells, or transfer to the
Willingdon or Victoria facilities.   Remand
homes are homes of private citizens who
for a per diem rate will provide room and
board and supervision to youths "at risk"
pending disposition of the court.   The
general per diem rate is as negotiated by
each Corrections Branch region.   The use of
private remand homes is still very much
in experimental stages, but is considered
an important program initiative of the
Corrections Branch.   Private remand homes
are being developed in conjunction with
third level containment community
resources, described below.
The very idea that youthful offenders
should be "locked up" at all, is on
the surface very upsetting.   Yet, for those
who have exhausted every other program
offered by the Corrections Branch, or
other Government ministries, some kind of
special secure programs are felt to be
necessary.   In October of 1976, the Cabinet
of Government decided that the
Corrections Branch should proceed with the
development of a three-levelled containment program for youth in the above
category.
During 1977, the facilities and program
were brought on line, with staff hired and
fully trained.   The enabling provincial
legislation, known as the Corrections
Amendment Act, which in addition to
providing authority to the Corrections
Branch for the operation of containment
centres, emphasized the need for a wide
range of community based programs, was
proclaimed on December 15, 1977.
Therefore, for this Report, there are no
relevent statistics on this program.
The three-levelled program consists of
secure custody for those juvenile offenders
whose behaviour is deemed to be dangerous
to others or themselves.   The present two
youth detention centres in Victoria and
Willingdon provide the additional capacity
to hold juveniles at the post disposition stage
in strict custody.   The Willingdon
facility has a capacity of 20, and the
35
 capacity of the Victoria facility is under
negotiation.   The program in security
facilities focus on work or school and
supervised recreation activities.   Use of the
full range of community resources is
encouraged to include the involvement of
volunteer services wherever possible.
The second level of the containment
package is camps, which provide the option
of a more definitive and active program
for juveniles, and which will be centred in
the wilderness program concept.   Centre
Creek Camp at Chilliwack and Lakeview
Camp at Campbell River are identified
to each have a capacity of 30.   Centre
Creek Camp was available at the time of the
proclamation of the Act, but Lakeview
Camp will not be opening until 1978.   The
third level of the containment package is
secure group homes, which will provide
residential placement with close staff
supervision.   These facilities are under
active development in 1978.
It is the position of the Corrections
Branch that containment does not supply
long-term answers to juvenile problems.
Containment is only one of a number of
options, and the Inter-Ministerial Youth
Committee "Children in Crisis Program" is
continuing to look at the whole issue of
services to youth.   This committee is
composed of the Deputy Ministers of
Human Resources, Health, Education, and
Attorney-General, with a working group
of representatives from each of those
ministries.   Provincial, regional, and local
Children in Crisis Committees have been
formed in many locations throughout
the Province to ensure that youths do not
"fall between stools" when it comes to
finding the appropriate programs for special
needs.
Citizen Participation—Corrections has
taken the position that justice solutions lie at
least in part in the community itself, as
it is the community by its legislation that
sets the limits on acceptable modes of social
behaviour.   Not only does the solution
lie in the community, but some of the most
effective resources are provided by members
of the community and their involvement
in seeking solutions to the problems.
The use of one to one volunteer
sponsors for youths in conflict with the law
has been used in communities throughout
the Province for many years, but in 1970
the use of volunteer sponsors for both
adult and juvenile probationers became
more focused with the appointment of
volunteer co-ordinators.   This subsequently
has led to expansion in the types of
activity of volunteers, into such areas as
Youth Detention Centres.   Citizen
participation and volunteer sponsor
activities in the adult area are dealt with
below in the section entitled Adult Services.
Volunteers can provide young people
with effective one-to-one relationships,
with group involvement, with entertainment
and recreational opportunities and
with wider general life experiences.   Citizen
volunteers give youths the kind of time
that is not possible for Branch staff as a
result of budget and manpower restraints,
but particularly as a result of the nature of
the justice system process.   Five volunteer
co-ordinators have been appointed
(Vancouver, Victoria, Langley, Abbotsford,
and Chilliwack) and a ready pool of
volunteers is available for assignment.   For
instance, at the year's end, 165 juvenile
sponsors are available in the Vancouver
area, 87 are available in the Victoria area
for either adults or juveniles, as are 66 in
the North Fraser Region.   The two coordinators in Vancouver have adopted a
team approach to volunteers, although
formally designated as adult and
juvenile co-ordinators.   In Vancouver,
there are 68 adult sponsors available.
Generally a 60-70 per cent assignment rate
is desirable in order that a pool of
volunteers is always available, and selection
and matching can be undertaken for
particular needs of offenders.
These kinds of statistics do not adequately
convey the extent and energy of citizens
who give their time in this way.
Thousands of hours of volunteer time alone
have been available to youths in the Victoria
Youth Detention Centre, and the kind
of assistance this gives cannot be overstated.   In economic terms, if the average
hourly rate of volunteers at approximately
$6.50 is utilized, in Victoria alone some
36
 $38,000 worth of time was provided to
offenders by citizen involvement.
The gross figure for the Province therefore,
including areas where there are volunteer
co-ordinators and other areas where Branch
staff are co-ordinating these programs in
addition to regular work, is substantial.
Comment—In conclusion, the juvenile
justice system is a complex business
focusing around dealing with a certain kind
of social conflict—that relating to
contravention of the law—and the
martialing of the wide variety of resources.
and programs available to remedy the
problem.   A major requirement of the
justice system is to tie together the various
aspects of services available throughout the
Government and the private sector in a
way which will be helpful to each individual
youth, and where multiple services are
required, where they will be appropriately
provided.   The humanity and effectiveness
with which this can be carried out with
respect to young people sets a standard for
society, and can have significant impact on
the quality of life in communities throughout
the Province.
ADULT SERVICES
For a number of complex reasons,
beyond the scope of this Annual Report,
the community has become much more
concerned about criminal behaviour, and in
particular, about the treatment of
offenders.   This concern has tended to
become concerned around the issue
of incarceration, and is related to a number
of critical incidents within institutions,
both Federal and Provincial, and the high
public profile these have achieved.   But the
concern goes much deeper than that.
On the one hand, the Corrections Branch
has come under public criticism for
giving out temporary absences too easily,
or to the "wrong" people, for coddling
offenders and providing them with
job training in full competition with the
rest of society or perhaps assisting in job
searches, for attempting to provide decent
living circumstances for offenders, and
for generally going too soft on society's
"outsiders."   On the other hand, the
increased sophistication of offenders
relative to civil rights, and the activities of
a number of community action groups,
have given strongly worded alternate
messages in relation to the perception of
harsh treatment that the Branch appears to
mete out, particularly in maximum
security settings.
Somewhere in between these two
extreme attitudes is the attitude of the
Branch itself, an attitude expressed in the
number of programs that try to help
offenders help themselves get back
into society, and assume the full rights and
responsibilities of such participation.
It is from within the context of attempting
to balance these dilemmas that the
following programs and initiatives are
described.
Pre-court Services—As with juveniles,
it is sometimes preferable to resolve a
community conflict involving adults before
it starts its way through the justice
system. Generally speaking, the Corrections
Branch is not involved with the alleged
offender prior to at least a hearing for bail,
because of the different nature of the justice
process for juveniles and adults. However,
probation officers' involvement in diversion
initiatives with adults as with juveniles,
is sanctioned and encouraged, and there
has been extensive involvement with local
police, lawyers, courts, and private
community agencies in an attempt to make
the court process only one of a number
of effective alternatives for adults.   To that
extent, some jurisdictions have been
experimenting with a pre-court inquiry for
certain adult offenders in an attempt to
divert persons who clearly do not require
the full, formal court process.   North
Vancouver has been experimenting
successfully with it since November 1974.
During the calendar year 1977, 58 adults
were dealt with outside of the court
setting in this manner.   The program has
been well accepted by the police, crown
counsel, clients and the community in North
Vancouver.   Kamloops is the major
other jurisdiction which is utilizing this
diversion process for adults, and in 1977
37
 i rmi »,
PMfflNB
       they handled approximately 40 cases in this
way.   In both areas, most of those
diverted are referred to another agency
for assistance, or undertake some
community service activity.
Pre-trial Services—Increased involvement by probation officers as available
resources to the court, to provide
information to the court at the pre-trial
stage, as well as at the sentencing stage, has
continued to be an important part of the
justice process in 1977.   The court
resource officer role is a relatively new
one, but has been well received.
Most of the activities of the Corrections
Branch in the pre-trial services area is
with respect to the operation of bail
supervision in Vancouver, Surrey, and
Victoria with areas such as North and West
Vancouver being serviced from the
Vancouver office.   Originally all managed
from the Vancouver area, this service
was regionalized effective April 1, 1977,
with all of the other Corrections Branch
programs.
Prior to the Bail Reform Act in 1972,
it was customary for a person who had
been charged with an offence to be released
on either a promise to reappear by posting
bail or to be remanded in custody,
usually in maximum security remand
facilities operated by the Corrections
Branch.   Indications were that a large
number of those remanded into custody
probably did not need to be incarcerated.
However, after the implementation of
the Bail Reform Act, which allowed
increased discretion to the police and courts
in remand arrangements, there were a large
number of abuses by persons who entered
into an agreement to appear in court
but who did not appear, or who committed
further offences during the time when
they were released on bail.   This indicated
that, for some offenders, a more organized
method of pre-trial supervision was
required.   To that end in September of
1974 the Bail Supervision Pilot Project was
implemented in the Provincial Courts of
Vancouver.   By the end of 1975 Bail
Supervisors numbered eight in Vancouver,
and expanded to supply services to Victoria
and Surrey.   During 1976, the staff in
those areas each had an average case load
of 50.   During 1977, Vancouver and
Surrey supervisors carried approximate
average case loads of 80.   In Victoria, with
only two supervisors, that figure reached
110 each in December of 1977.   It is
clear from these figures that the courts view
bail supervision as a worth-while service
both to the courts, in ensuring that an
alleged offender will meet commitments and
appear for trial, and in terms of providing
personal support to alleged offenders.
In April of 1976 the wider area of
pre-trial volunteers program responsibilities
was assumed by the Corrections Branch.
This service involved 10 volunteers and one
staff person (located in Oakalla District)
who provided a direct service to remandees
at the centre. The pre-trial services officer
attempts to interview each person remanded
into custody in order to assist them by
providing information, by visiting them
and making bail applications or in obtaining
a lawyer, by contacting friends, and by
dealing with any other personal loose ends
which might have arisen as a result of
a person's arrest, and subsequent remand
into custody.
The extent of the resources of the Branch
available to become more comprehensively
involved in this aspect of pre-trial services
is limited at the time of writing.   It is
a clear situation where citizen participation
in conjunction with staff efforts can
provide some very necessary human services
to people who are undergoing the first
shock of incarceration while awaiting trial.
Probation Services—The services
provided by probation officers to the court
emphasize court information to assist
in the sentencing process and in community
supervision.   During 1977, probation
officers completed 4,112 pre-sentence
reports on adults, 1,093 verbal reports,
801 reports to the court with respect to an
offender's ability to pay a fine, and
1,049 other kinds of reports.
Community supervision for adults
has placed emphasis on the formal
responsibilities of offenders, and virtually
all such persons supervised by a probation
45
 officer have come to him/her via the
court, with specific conditions to be met.
A wide range of community resources
always have been utilized, but the major
element of this supervision has been
the formal reporting responsibility.   The
development of effective programs for adults
under probation supervision, or under
voluntary diversionary supervision, is still
in its infancy.   For instance, with the
exception of one or two programs, for young
adults, there are no attendance programs
available for adults as there are for
juveniles.   Community Correctional
Centre programs have been used in some
instances for those who require residence
in addition to regular community
supervision and for whom there are no
appropriate community resources.
There are two corrections programs
which have been developed recently to fill
the gap between supervision in the
community and total incarceration for
adults.   These are the Community Service
Order Program and Impaired Drivers'
Courses.
Community Service Orders—The
Community Service Order program has
been described at some length above
under Youth Services.   More so than for
juveniles, however, this program represents
a true alternative to incarceration for
many offenders, and for those who are
unable to pay a fine where a fine would be
considered.   The tasks which might be
performed are similar to those that
juveniles might perform, but with a greater
degree of responsibility.   On a number
of occasions, particularly in the case of
young adults, the experience of assisting
the elderly, the handicapped, or providing
work for community service organizations
has been beneficial and has resulted in
continued involvement past the time of the
end of probation.
Since the program's start in November
1974, a total of 2,576 Community Service
Orders were made with respect to adults
throughout the Province.   The average
number of hours per order has been almost
60, (almost double than for juveniles).
As with juveniles, most of the hours were
with respect to community work (90 per
cent) as opposed to service to the victim.
The percentage of orders successfully
completed for 1977 for juveniles and adults
averages 90.   It might be noted that the
total number of hours which have been
utilized for community service since the
commencement of the program in late 1974
is staggering and well over the hundreds
of thousands.
There is no question that the community
is in full support of this program, where
it does not infringe upon the rights of
persons to be employed.   This has not been
a problem.   It should be noted that the
operation of community service is part of
the larger concern around fine option,
which is the focus of a Ministerial and
Branch initiative which will see
completion in 1978.
Impaired Drivers' Courses—Impaired
Drivers' Courses are designed as an
informative and educational program for
convicted impaired drivers, and its
operation represents an important area
of operations for the Corrections Branch.
The program had its beginnings in 1973
and since that time has expanded to over
30 locations throughout the Province.
Originally a joint effort of the Corrections
Branch, The Alcohol and Drug Commission,
Insurance Corporation of British Columbia,
and the Motor-vehicle Branch, the
Corrections Branch is now responsible
for funding and co-ordinating this program
which is attended by offenders as a
condition of probation.
The program consists of a four
evening, two and one-half hour per
evening format which involves presentations
by a number of persons in the community
who are likely to be involved in the problem
of drinking and driving, i.e., doctors,
judges, crown counsel, coroners, ambulance
drivers, alcoholism counsellors, Motor-
vehicle Branch and Insurance Corporation
of British Columbia representatives,
and probation officers.   A course moderator
is hired for a small honourarium by the
Corrections Branch.   Impaired Drivers'
Courses are unique in the justice system as
they have sprung from, and only continue
46
 as a result of, wide ranging community
participation in a formalized sentencing
option for the court.
The Branch has been concerned,
however, that IDC is not a final solution
to stem the tide of injury, death, property
damage, and human grief which arises
from this particular form of alcohol and
driving abuse.   In 1977 the Attorney-
General spearheaded a comprehensive
attack on the problems created by drinking
drivers in British Columbia which is known
as "Counterattack."   Impaired Drivers'
Courses are only one of a number of
important initiatives taken to combat
drinking and driving in British Columbia.
The extent of this problem cannot be
underestimated, with approximately 31
per cent of all probation cases comprised
of drinking and driving offences and 13
per cent of locked admissions to Branch
institutions in 1977.   This is not counting
the number of those incarcerated as a
result of failing to pay some of the larger
fines which are now imposed for this
offence.   (Over 40 per cent of all admissions
to institutions for failure to pay a fine,
are for defaulting on a fine imposed as a
result of drinking and driving offences.)
Custody Services and Programs—Under
the separation of federal/provincial
jurisdiction relating to the imprisonment of
convicted (adult) offenders specified in
the British North America Act, the
Corrections Branch in British Columbia
is given the responsibility for providing
appropriate facilities for five categories of
individuals.
(1) All persons remanded into custody
pending a resolution of their
charges before the courts.
(2) All offenders being held in custody
pending the appeal of their
conviction and/or sentence (up
to 30 days only where the sentence
of imprisonment is for two years
or more).
(3) Those offenders who have received
sentences of two years or over
and are awaiting transfer to a
Federal penitentiary.
(4) Those offenders who have received
a sentence of imprisonment of
less than two years.
(5) Those offenders in Federal
institutions who are transferred to
the Province under the Federal/
Provincial Exchange of Services
Agreement.
Branch facilities are designated by the
level of security they afford.   A custody
facility is described as maximum/medium
security, and includes reception and remand
centres.   Reception and remand centres
are areas within the major correctional
centres which are separated from the
sentenced inmate population for such
purposes.   Open (or minimum) security
centres include forest camps, community
correctional centres, and specialized
facilities (for alcohol or drug dependency
problems).
The incarceration of offenders has always
been closely identified with Corrections
and suffers the most intense form of public
criticism, myths, and stereotypes.   Few
people would argue with the notion that
some types of institutions will always be
needed to isolate dangerous and predatory
elements from the community.   But in
the past, people who were never a
threat to public safety were put into
maximum (or medium) security
institutions because the courts had no
alternatives.   Even with the more liberal
use of probation supervision for appropriate
offenders, there is still a large percentage
of our institutional population serving
time for offences involving Motor-vehicle
Act infractions, drunkenness, or the
inability to pay a fine.
It is the position of the Corrections
Branch that only persons requiring secure
custody should be held in these settings.
Based on extensive experience, and in
consultation with the police, courts, a
variety of community resource agencies, and
interested citizens, Corrections follows
the policy that sentence management which
is community-oriented, and requires
continued participation and a responsibility
to the community, is the most appropriate
and effective for many offenders.
47
 Within the over-all frame work, increased
emphasis has been placed on the following
developments—more intensive programming at forest camps; more community
correctional centres; increased use of
community service activities carried out by
inmates; temporary absence for work or
education; and special impaired
drivers' programs for those with alcohol or
related problems.   As outlined in the
Overview portion of this Report, 1977 has
seen continued development in each of these
areas.
The types of programs offered at the
various correctional facilities are circumscribed by the security needs and
correctional goals of each offender.   Over
the years, camps have focused on bush
work, slash and burning, road clearing,
nursery work, land clearing, fire suppression,
mill work, and so on, to provide inmates
with a healthy and vigorous way to do
their time, plus providing the opportunity to
pick up some employable skills and work
habits.   In custody facilities the emphasis
has been on shop work, carpentry,
machining, tailoring, sewing, and so on,
with farming available on a supervised
gang basis.
Some of the results of that kind of work
in 1977 on a Province-wide basis, are
the following:
The four Branch saw mills shipped a total
of 913,593 fbm and in addition, the
forestry operations shipped such
minor products as cordwood, posts,
shakes, shingles, and stakes, making a
grand total of wood products
shipped worth $194,525.   This
represents approximately a 70 per cent
increase in wood value shipped
than in 1976.   It should also be noted
here that that tally does not include
wood products produced.   For
instance, the Mount Thurston Security
Unit produced over 158,000 split
and paint dipped cedar stakes, which
were not included in the foregoing
figure as they were not shipped at the
end of the Report period.   As a
further example, Hutda Lake Camp
near Prince George produced
250,000 fbm, but only 115,874 of that
lumber was actually shipped during
the Report period.   There is little
doubt that these programs are an
effective use of inmate energies.
In addition to the above work
accomplished in the forest operations,
40,000 man-days (or 280,000 man-
hours) were utilized in nursery pallet
construction, tree planting, juvenile
tree spacing, lake clean up, nurseries,
access roads, and fire-fighting.
This is a massive increase over the
1976 figure of 165,000 man-hours.
Productivity in the camps was up in
almost every instance and in a number
of cases doubled.
Twin Maples tailor shop during 1977
turned out enough pants and shirts per
month to approximately meet the
estimated 6,000 pants and 6,000
shirts required by the Corrections
Branch.   During 1977 the tailor shop
contracted with Government-supported
teaching facilities to supply their
barbering smocks, capes, uniforms, and
towels.
Much of the work undertaken in custody
facilities is of a maintenance nature,
and inmates are assigned to provide them
with reasonable activities during the day,
while bearing in mind the needs for
security.   Except in special circumstances,
as soon as it is appropriate, inmates are
transferred to forest and other minimum
security settings.   The Branch has
moved away from any focus on skills
development in vocational training centres,
but interested inmates will pick up a
number of work skills when working with
qualified staff.
Educational opportunities for interested
inmates are provided through a number
of avenues.   Every attempt is made to
make use of educational resources within the
community, often through a placement of
an inmate at a community correctional
centre under the authority of the
Temporary Absence Program (refer below
to re-entry programs).   For instance
at Kamloops, the Community Correctional
Centre has the availability of a certain
number of seats at the local community
48
 college.   In the Lower Mainland area, a
major educational program for inmates is
carried out on a contract basis with
the British Columbia Institute of
Technology, a program called the
Educational Counselling System (ECS).
Funded in 1974, and focusing at that
time on Oakalla District, the purpose
of the program has been to assist interested
inmates in readjusting to the community
through academic and vocational training.
In addition to a generally low level of formal
education and lack of job skills, many
inmates have alcohol (or) drug problems.
The service provided by ECS attempts to
deal with these in conjunction with the
formulation of short and long term
goals for education or on-the-job training.
The latter is often achieved under the
temporary absence program, and also can
be a significant factor in pre-release
parole planning and application.   During
1976 and 1977 the service expanded
its operations to a wide number of
correctional facilities in the greater Lower
Mainland area.
Another major educational program,
which is conducted within an institution, is
that at Prince George Regional Correctional
Centre, where the Ministry of Education
has sponsored a full-time educational
program in the institute.   Inmates have been
able to receive upgrading from qualified
teaching staff and obtain entrance to the
College of New Caledonia.   One full-time
and one part-time teacher was hired and
the school opened in October.   At the end
of this report period four students had
passed their GED examinations.
Other educational opportunities rely
mainly on the availability of correspondence
courses for any inmate who desires them
and makes a request.
Community correctional centres and
community-based residential centres form
an important aspect of programs and
facilities utilized by the Corrections Branch.
A typical community correctional centre
is a large house or converted motel.   It is
the home base of the residents and he/she
must return to it immediately after work
or school.   Dinner is usually communal,
and each person has assigned chores.
After hours there is time for studying,
hobbies, and social events.   Some residents
spend their evenings and weekends on a
community service project, worth-while
causes, and on volunteer work with local
community organizations.   Those earning
an income are charged room and board
at the centre.   The rest of their money may
go towards paying off debts, making
restitution, supporting their family, or bank
savings for the time when they are released.
During 1977, as in 1976, almost $1,000,000
was earned by inmates on temporary
absence for employment purposes, and the
funds were utilized in the above manner
acting as a significant cushion to assist
offenders in final re-entry into the
community.
Community-based residential centres
offer essentially the same kind of service
as community correctional centres but are
not corrections staffed and are run by a
myriad of private agencies offering a
variety of different programs.
Inmates attend community correctional
centres or community-based residential
centres through the authority of the
temporary absence program, which is dealt
with in more detail in both descriptive
and statistical form below under re-entry
programs.   At the time of writing, there
are 10 community correctional centres
operated by the Corrections Branch
throughout the Province, and contracted
services with approximately one dozen
community-based residential centres.
In 1977, for the second year in a row
the number of escapes and walkaways has
decreased.   In 1975, there had been an
increase in the number of unlawful absences
from correctional facilities.   Although
all unlawful absences directly from a centre
are considered escapes, it is important
to qualify the word by pointing out that
the large number of these are in fact
walkaways from open settings such as forest
camps.   With the increased use by the
courts of probation supervision, and with
the phase out of Haney Correctional Centre
for young offenders, the camps are
receiving a much more troublesome type
of offender.   Young offenders generally
are more spontaneous, impulsive, have
49
 more energy, and require a more intensive
kind of programming than the older
offender previously received by the camps.
As a result of efforts directed to reducing
escapes such as more screening and
intensity of program, in 1976 escapes
dropped 20 per cent, and in 1977 a further
25 per cent from 359 to 291.
Escapes or walkaways are usually
individual, spontaneous actions and while
they may be simply the expression of
the desire to "get away," many times escapes
occur as the result of an individual need
to deal with something on the outside, such
as a family problem.   Sensitive staff can
often pick up on feelings of anxiety
of an inmate and provide that person with
the assistance required to overcome the
problem without adding the problem
of having escaped.   Sometimes a referral
for counselling or medical services is
indicated.
The Branch has one full-time senior
psychologist who is responsible for the
delivery of all psychological services
throughout the Corrections Branch.   These
include direct service to adults and juveniles
within the Lower Mainland area as well
as ensuring that psychological services
are available to other Branch regions via
local psychologists employed either in
other Government agencies or by the
Branch on a fee for service or contractual
basis.
The major approach in providing
psychological services to the Branch
continues to be in developing community
resources.   To further this, two new
programs were initiated in 1977.   One is
a credit course in forensic psychology
at The University of British Columbia.
This course focuses on the issues which
psychologists should be aware of when, for
example, providing service to those on
community supervision.   The course has
proved to be very popular with students in
clinical psychology, who will eventually
be employed in the community.
Negotiations are currently underway with
the Psychology Department at Simon
Fraser University to provide their
students with a similar exposure to forensic
issues.
A second program introduced in 1977
was the establishment of a continuing
education program aimed at psychologists
who are currently employed in agencies
such as the Community Mental Health
Centres which are located throughout
the Province.   This program has been
established as a continuing psychology-and-
the-law workshop which now forms part
of the annual meeting of the B.C.
Psychological Association.   This has
proved to be a highly successful way of
informing practising psychologists of the
current issues and concerns involved
in their working with people who may be on
probation, parole, and so on.
An important activity which was
commenced in 1977 within the Corrections
Branch was the establishment of a clinical
research committee consisting of one
member of each of Psychological Services,
Medical Services, and Program
Evaluation and Data Systems of the
Corrections Branch.   This Committee is
responsible for reviewing clinical and
related research proposals that are initiated
from within or outside of the Branch.   A
major work of this Committee in 1977
was the establishment of the initial
independent program evaluations of the
youth containment program.   This program
evaluation is jointly financed by the
Branch and Vancouver Foundation.
Medical services throughout the Branch
are co-ordinated by the full-time
Senior Medical Officer.   Each correctional
complex has the availability of local doctors
and dentists who visit the facilities at
regular intervals.   Where security is not
an issue, and hospital services are required,
inmates use community facilities.   Where
security is an issue, Corrections has the
availability of limited hospital capacities at
Oakalla District, and Alouette River
Correctional Centre.   Oakalla District
hospital has a capacity of 40, and one full-
time and one half-time doctor, and
trained staff.   The Alouette River
Correctional Centre hospital has trained
staff and is visited by a doctor.   It has a
capacity of approximately 10.   In addition,
the Corrections Branch has the
availability of a specially designated ward
50
 in the Vancouver General Hospital.   Ninety
per cent of all medical problems are
handled locally.
An analysis of the statistical information
on medical services indicated that during
1977 there were fewer psychiatric
examinations carried out at correctional
institutions in the Lower Mainland.   This
is explained by an increase in court referrals
to the Forensic Psychiatric Service
Commission for examination, rather than
to the Corrections Branch.   This trend
is welcomed, and it is hoped that it will
continue in the future.
During 1977, for the first time in British
Columbia, correctional physicians held
a joint meeting with correctional chaplains.
A combination of formal sessions and
informal gatherings of the two groups was
an interesting experience for all concerned,
in which a great number of common
concerns were shared.   Representatives
from both Federal and Provincial services
were involved.
Another activity which will have long-
term benefits for the operation of medical
services for the Corrections Branch is
the formation of the Prison Care Committee
of the Health Planning Counsel of the
B.C. Medical Association.   The formation
of this Committee is a formal admission
by the B.C. Medical Association of the concern and importance of medical care
in correctional institutions throughout the
Province, both Federal and Provincial.
The Committee is made up of
physicians and para-medical personnel in
both jurisdictions.   The Committee gives
correctional physicians an avenue of
input into medical programs outside the
institutions which are related to or which
may affect the medical care of incarcerated
persons.   It also gives interested physicians
in the Province an official avenue of
inquiry regarding medical care in
correctional institutions.   The results of
this kind of involvement are looked
forward to in 1978.
It should be apparent that the operation
of adult facilities is a complex and multi-
faceted one with virtually every aspect
potentially emerging as an issue of quality
of services.   A major portion of operational
budget is spent on food and it is only in the
last three years that positions have come
available for qualified food service
officers for each complex, and some
upgrading of kitchens has occurred.
But basic issues with respect to medical
and health services, program availability,
facility renovation and replacement, all
focus on the need for operational capital
moneys.
As noted previously in this report,
the Corrections Branch has made a series of
proposals to remedy the facility situation.
In 1977, a major replacement was
completed at New Haven Correctional
Centre, at the cost of $500,000 for a new
dormitory to replace that destroyed
by fire in 1971.   It is anticipated that in
1978 the two camps, at Clearwater and
Kamloops, will be replaced, with additional
development to institutions approved
to partially replace the remand capacity at
Oakalla District.
SUMMARY SHEET
FACILITIES AND CAPACITIES
CUSTODY FACILITIES
1. Lower   Mainland   Regional   Correctional
Centre  567
2. Oakalla Women's Correctional Centre — 103
3. Vancouver Island Regional Correctional
Centre     60
4. Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre _   86
5. Prince   George   Regional   Correctional
Centre  (male)  113
(female)    26
6. Chilliwack Security Unit     30
FOREST AND FARM OPERATIONS
1. Pine Ridge Camp (Haney)   60
2. Stave Lake Camp (Haney)   48
3. Cedar Lake Camp (Haney)   41
4. Jordan River Camp (Vancouver Island) _ 48
5. Rayleigh Camp (Kamloops)   30
6. Clearwater Camp (Kamloops)   30
7. Hutda Lake Camp (Prince George)   60
8. Ford Mountain Camp (Chilliwack)   60
9. Mount Thurston Camp (Chilliwack)   60
SPECIALIZED FACILITIES
1. Boulder Bay Camp (Haney)     51
2. New  Haven  Correctional  Centre   (Bur
naby)       40
3. Alouette     River     Correctional     Centre
(Haney)      151
4. Twin Maples Correctional Centre (Haney)    60
51
 COMMUNITY CORRECTIONAL CENTRES
1. Marpole (Vancouver)   20
2. Burnaby   14
3. Southview (Burnaby)   8
4. Lynda Williams (Vancouver)   10
5. Victoria (No. 1)   25
6. Graham St. House (Victoria)   4
7. Snowdon (Campbell River)   30
8. Chilliwack   18
9. Kamloops   20
10. Terrace   21
Provincial Classification—Provincial
Classification provides services to all
Regional Correctional Centres (reception)
for sentenced inmates.   At admission,
each inmate is seen by a classification officer
for classification either to one of the
satellite programs of the particular centre,
or for transfer to another institutional
complex in the Province.   All decisions
regarding such transfer are made by one of
the Provincial classification officers.
The classification of an inmate is an
important first step in an over-all case
management plan for the individual inmate,
and is made out of an assessment of the
information available (pre-sentence reports,
previous institutional records, police
reports, interviews) and with the participation of the inmate.   The classification
officer then places him/her in an available
Branch facility best suited to assist in
working through the plan.   Where security
and control are indicated, placement is
made accordingly.   Provincial Classification
was integrally involved in the development
of the case management system which
has been referenced in previous sections of
this report.   Effective and ongoing case
management in institutions, however, is a
difficult problem, and will require
continued involvement of Provincial
Classification staff and Branch staff in
institutions in order to ensure that the
positive results of this method are seen in
1978.
In 1976 the number of classifications
undertaken by staff showed a 20 per cent
increase from 1975, which in turn had
been a 51 per cent increase from
1974.   During 1977, however, the work
load levelled off showing only a slight
increase over the previous year.   (Please
refer to Table XII for a breakdown of
classifications by institutions.)
The major problem facing Provincial
Classification staff continues to be the lack
of differential resources.   Real security
resources exist only in Burnaby and
Prince George.   Any inmate from any
other part of the Province who requires
security consequently has to serve his
sentence far away from the community
resources which may be available to
him.   The Branch still has no facility to
focus upon the treatment of drug addicts,
though this is a recognized need.   There is
no facility at all in the Kootenays, and
inmates are normally transported to
the Lower Mainland area.
The major needs identified by
Provincial Classification, as are indicated to
them through their perception of the needs
of individual inmates, are as follows,
and should be seen in context with remarks
made in the previous section of this
report, and in the Major Issues section in
the beginning of this report.
(1) Lack of security facilities for
sentenced offenders in the following
areas: Vancouver Island,
Kamloops/Okanagan, Kootenays.
(2) Lack of minimum security
institutions (nontemporary
absence) in the following areas:
Metro Vancouver area, Kootenays,
Central Vancouver Island
(Nanaimo/Duncan vicinity).
(3) Lack of community correctional
centre facilities in the following
areas: Kootenays, Okanagan, and
Central Vancouver Island.
(4) Special program facilities in the
Province for drug (particularly
heroin) addition treatment, security
program for young offenders whose
sole reason for security is their
inability or unwillingness to stay put;
programs for protective custody
cases.
(5) Recreation of meaningful activities
for offenders in high security areas,
especially Oakalla District.
(Potential use of Island Youth Centre
referenced previously in this report for
52
 a multi-program correctional facility
in Nanaimo, will provide the necessary
facilities in that area.   There are a number
of internal options which the Branch
is studying to make optimum use of the
present resources given the changing nature
of inmates, program needs, and so on.
Many of these needs have been referenced
in previous annual reports.)
Provincial Classification processes all
applications with respect to the Corrections
Branch and the Federal/Provincial
Exchange of Service Agreement, whereby
inmates receiving sentences for either
jurisdiction may apply to spend their
sentence in the alternate jurisdiction.   Table
XIII shows a two-year comparison between
1976 and 1977, and it can be noted that the
total applications processed from Federal
to Provincial jurisdiction more than
doubled, with the number of approvals
almost tripling in 1977 those of 1976.
For those inmates going from Provincial to
Federal jurisdiction, these figures also
doubled from 1976 to 1977.   Of the
14 returned to the federal jurisdiction from
the Corrections Branch, five were for
escape or unlawfully at large; the balance
proved unsuitable for Provincial programs.
With the regionalization of the
Corrections Branch effective April 1,
1977, there has been increasing examination
Table XII—Initial and Reclassifications, Calendar Year 1977,
With Comparative Totals for 1976
Institutions
1977
1976
Total
Per Cent
Total
Per Cent
Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre 	
543
350
209
250
1,894
149
517
600
215
21
917
154
159
181
585
82
121
119
8
7.7
4.9
3.0
3.5
26.8
2.1
7.3
8.5
3.0
0.3
13.0
2.2
2.2
2.6
8.31
1.1
1.7
1.7
0.1
417
394
186
260
1,811
137
565
614
212
30
890
133
183
157
604
86
115
159
19
6.0
5.7
Victoria Community Correctional Centre _	
2.7
3.7
Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre (male) :	
Oakalla Women's Correctional Centre —	
26.0
2.0
8.0
Chilliwack Forest Camps	
8.8
3.0
0.4
12.8
1.9
2.6
2.3
8.7
Stave Lake Camp/
1.2
1.6
2.3
0.3
Totals
7,074
100.0
6,972
100.0
i Pine Ridge Camp, 5.0; Stave Lake Camp, 3.3.
Table XIII—Federal/Provincial Exchange of Prisoners, Calendar Year 1977
Federal to Provincial
1977
Total
1976
Total
Provincial to Federal
1977
Total
1976
Males
Females
Males
Females
Total
28
25
53
11
12
4
16
3
40
29
69
14
15
18
33
11
7
18
0
1
1
11
8
19
5
6
Total processed    —
Returned to Federal
11
53
 of the concept of each region developing
its own range of resources.   These are
long-term goals, and in the meantime,
administrative regionalization has not
disrupted the optimal use of all resources
of the Corrections Branch, whether the
inmate is admitted in the North or in the
Vancouver area.   However, the task
of "filling in the gaps" in geographical areas
where there are no facilities will continue
to be an urgent priority.
Re-entry Programs—There are two major
types of re-entry programs for an
offender given an institutional sentence.
These are temporary absence, and parole
supervision.   A period of incarceration
plus probation is not considered in the
same context, though often a period of
parole is available to an inmate during the
institutional portion of his sentence, and
this supervision flows naturally into
probation at the end of the institutional
portion.
All parole decisions are either made by
the B.C. Parole Board of the Ministry
of the Attorney-General, with respect
to definite indeterminate sentences (which
will be terminated with the proclamation of
Federal Bill C-51 in 1978) or the
National Parole Board with regard to all
other definite sentences, whether the
sentences are served in a Federal institution
or a Provincial one.
Probation officers of the Corrections
Branch undertake parole supervision, where
there are no Federal officers available.
In addition, probation officers often prepare
community investigations on offenders
who have applied for parole, so that this
information can be available to the
paroling authority in order to assist them
in their decision-making process.   During
1977, probation officers prepared 564 such
investigations and other parole reports.
The major re-entry program which
comes under the jurisdiction of the
Corrections Branch, through the Corrections
Act, is the temporary absence program.
Temporary absences are granted for three
distinct purposes:
(1) Short term—For leave from a
correctional centre for a specific
period of time up to a maximum of
15 days.   These are granted for
maintaining contact with the family,
or the event of a death of a family
member, for other socialization
purposes, and for other defined
reasons.
(2) Employment/education—the
authority by which an inmate
resides in a community correctional
centre or a community-based
residential centre while taking work,
education, or training.
(3) Medical—absences granted for the
purpose of obtaining medical
attention in community hospitals
when it is not available within
correctional centres.
The crucial factor in the temporary
absence program is that the program
activity which the applicant plans to pursue
in the community must be as likely to
benefit him/her and the community as
would any program offered within the centre.
The inmate must pose no threat to the
community and be unlikely to go unlawfully
at large. Apart from the community
involvement made possible for the inmate,
the program avoids wasting the community's
own resources and avoids costly duplication,
of resources in institutions.
Although the over-all total of the number
of temporary absences granted in 1977
was slightly below that of 1976, the
employment/education program, which is
the backbone of the program, saw an
increase in absences granted from 1,423 in
1976 to 1,518 in 1977.   On the average,
18.1 per cent of the sentenced population in
1977 partook of temporary absence
programs. The number of revocations
increased in 1977, but that large increase
was due entirely to people being withdrawn
from the community centre program
as a result of misbehaviour within the
program. The number of those going
unlawfully at large decreased from 101 in
1976 to 93 in 1977, and those committing
further criminal offences while on temporary
absences decreased drastically from 28
in 1976 to 13 in 1977. These statistics are
a reflection that the screening process
54
 for inmates is flexible to allow for the
appropriate use of this program, while
ensuring adequate staff support to ensure
that the community itself remains protected.
A major constructive aspect of the
temporary absence program is the
employment program. As in 1976, almost
$1,000,000 was earned by inmates on
temporary absences while residing at a
community correctional centre or a
community-based residential centre. The
sum of $19,491 of that money went toward
restitution and fines paid; $74,233 went
toward room and board to the Corrections
Branch; $63,712 went toward debts and
$198,842 went toward income tax. The
largest amount of these moneys, however,
went toward the supporting of families
of inmates—$242,904 during 1977.
The total amount of moneys paid out in
these various ways represents almost
50 per cent of the total earnings. The other
50 per cent goes toward savings for the
inmate upon release, and can be important
for the inmate getting off to a good start.
As in the case of parole, probation
officers and temporary absence officers are
involved in the preparation of community
investigations before any major temporary
absence decision is taken. This decision
is made by a screening panel, which
may include representatives from police and
community. The degree of communications
which this interchange of information
between a number of components working
in the justice system represents, is an
important aspect of the temporary absence
program.
On a final note, with the proclamation
of Federal Bill C-51 some time in 1978, the
B.C. Provincial Parole Board will be
phased out when the legislation terminates
the use of definite-indeterminate sentences.
Proposals have gone before the Ministry
from the Corrections Branch to suggest that
a reconstituted Provincial Parole Board
should be formed, to have jurisdiction
over all parole decisions in relation to
Provincial institutions.   Presently
the National Parole Board has jurisdiction
in these areas.   Some thought had been
given to placing all re-entry authority in the
hands of the new Parole Board, including
temporary absence, but Branch Management
have recommended that the temporary
absence program provides a degree of
flexibility at the local level which
is desirable. A resolution to the structure
of re-entry programs should be complete
in 1978.
Religious Programs—In December of
1975 the Senior Chaplain of the Branch was
named the Director of Religious Programs,
and this function became a separate
autonomous section of the Branch consisting
of full- and part-time Protestant and
Catholic chaplains and the Director.
The establishment of one senior position
with overall responsibility for all chaplains
in functions and programs, instead of
the services being broken up as part of each
correctional centre, has been beneficial in
terms of consistency and comprehensiveness
of policy, efficiency in administrative
matters, more effective relationships inter
and intragovernmental branches and
ministries, and with the churches.   It is a
reinforcement of the spirit of ecumenical
co-operation which is evident in the way in
which the chaplains function within the
various centres. As a result, when all
other Corrections Branch programs
regionalized effective April 1, 1977, the
Director of Religious Programs continued to
have on-going responsibilities.
Religious Programs has played an ever-
increasing and wider role in the emphasis
of the Corrections Branch in involving
the community in the correctional process.
Chaplains are taking individual clients
and groups of clients into the community for
religious and social functions at an ever
increasing rate, and have engaged
community church groups in the development of various volunteer sponsor programs.
Chaplains also have assisted in job
placement, locating accommodation, and
contacting community resources for the
inmate who is re-entering the community.
One chaplain has placed more emphasis
on aftercare and has continued contact
with inmates once they are released from an
institution. The chaplains continue to
emphasize taking a strong role in treatment
55
 program decisions, to give recognition
to their extensive involvement with inmates.
This is particularly important in matters
pertaining to temporary absence or parole
release decisions. The number of chaplains
has recently increased, in reflection of
this extensive involvement, and now number
18.   Five chaplains including the Director,
are full time, with the others providing
services on a part-time basis.
During 1977 the chaplains were involved
in two important workshops. The first
was held in March at Westminster Abbey.
Its comprehensive agenda included a
report on "family visiting," regionalization,
community education programs, common
law relationships, principles of adult
education and crisis intervention.   In
relation to the resolutions passed with
respect to "family visiting," the Corrections
Branch undertook a complete examination
of the subject, and management accepted
in principle the notion of providing the
facilities for such family visits. That will be
concluded at the ministerial level in 1978.
Another major workshop was held in
November of 1977 in conjunction with
physicians working in Corrections, and the
B.C. Psychological Association's Annual
Meeting. This workshop was referenced
earlier under Custody Services and
Programs, as it reflects an important sharing
of information between these two aspects
of ministry to the needs of inmates.
The variety of involvement of chaplains
within the community, within community
churches, and within the Branch cannot
be adequately covered in this Annual
Report.   However, chaplains, more than
many other program staff of the Corrections
Branch, can provide a very vital link
between resources in the community and
inmates. The following are a sample of
excerpts from the activities of chaplains
in Branch Correctional centres.
"Opportunities for worship for all
residents are almost exclusively in
community churches—on 42 Sundays,
312 residents from this centre went to
nine churches for worship, under escort
of the chaplain or a correctional officer. . .
Ten community volunteer sponsors
took 81 residents to Sunday worship in
the local area under the authority of
temporary absence . . . Several courses
were held by the chaplain throughout
the year, including marriage dynamics,
communications, life skills, and an
alcoholism workshop (a total of 61
residents and 25 volunteers participated
in these courses)  . . . There were
several requests from married couples for
counselling for the purpose of resolving
family conflict . . . Three different
choir groups were taken to the camps
for hymn sings on Sundays on eight
different occasions . . . The main
thrust this year has been on counselling
inmates on family difficulties, future
plans and spiritual problems . . . The
chaplain reports that he had an
increasing number of contacts with young
offenders and says 'though many of
these young people have had little
exposure with organized religious groups,
I find them responsive and receptive
to spiritual counselling in their need
for better direction and content in their
personal life' ... A five-week bible
study series initiated on the request
of one trainee saw four attend . . ."
Counselling to staff in institutions has
increased over the last year, and in one area
has mostly focused around break up
of the family. Whenever morale of staff
fluctuates, chaplains are available to
be supportive, independent and nonbiased
listener for staff concerns.
It cannot be overstated that chaplains
form an important contribution to effective
corrections operations throughout the
Province, help persons within an
institutional setting, and therefore can offer
some constructive guidance to inmates
who may not accept such direction from
regular staff. As a result of their wide
ranging involvement with both staff and
offenders, chaplains have continued through
1977 to require of themselves a high
level of energy and dedication.
Citizen Participation—The Corrections
Branch has encouraged two types of citizen
participation—development of a direct
service role to offenders, and providing
56
 citizen input to administrative and policy
decisions of the Corrections Branch.
The range of one to one sponsorship and
involvement of citizens with individual
offenders or with groups of adult offenders
is similar to that described previously under
Youth Services.
An additional step was taken in 1977
with the appointment of a full-time
co-ordinator for the Chilliwack Forest
Camps.   The impact of already existing
volunteer agencies such as the Elizabeth
Fry, W2, M2, in the provision of volunteers
in institutions is significant, but requires
co-ordination and augmentation
throughout the Province, to build on a basis
of community involvement in institutional
corrections.   Since the appointment of
the Co-ordinator in early 1977, 924
volunteers were involved with inmates at
the Chilliwack Forest Camps either working
inside the institution with an offender or
with groups of offenders, or taking inmates
out.   The Volunteer Co-ordinator at
Chilliwack is also involved in the supervision
of inmates doing volunteer work in the
community, as a form of reciprocation of
services.
In summary, volunteers involved in a
direct service role during 1977 were
active in Bail Supervision projects, the
operation of pre-trial services (without
whose services this program would be
seriously constrained), with probationers
and those on parole, for those on temporary
absence, and were integral to such Branch
programs as Impaired Driver's Courses
and the Community Service Order
Programs.   It must be stated that statistics
alone are inadequate to convey the personal
aspects of the services provided by
volunteers working in corrections in the
adult area.
The other major form of citizen
participation in corrections is in the area
of community advisory boards, and a
major step forward was undertaken in 1977
with the establishment of a pilot project in
the Vancouver area.   Over the last decade
and a half, increased activity, involvement,
and influence of public interest groups
and citizen organizations have become one
of the most distinctive features of North
American government administrations, and
in particular in the area of corrections.
A general assumption has been that
broadened participation is desirable
because it increases the representativeness
and responsiveness of our administrative
and political institutions, and most
importantly, it heightens citizens' sense of
social problems and the inherent dilemmas of
operating correctional services.   The
Community Advisory Board in Vancouver
was formed late in the year, and there
is no report available for the end of this
annual report.   However, initial feedback
indicates that both the Vancouver
administration, particularly the Regional
Director of Corrections, and the citizens and
other representatives comprising
the Board, have come to a greater
understanding of each other's positions
and problems, and have provided
valuable input to policy decisions taken by
the Regional Management.
Comment—The administration of
corrections with respect to adults,
particularly in the area of institutional
services, reflects the greatest number of
paradoxes and dilemmas for the Branch.
Corrections attempts to provide for inmates
the greatest opportunity to enhance their
likelihood for a successful return to
the community without becoming a repeat
offender.   At the same time, the Branch
is concerned about protecting society,
and sometimes inmates themselves, from
some of the more dangerous and predatory
offenders who are in the system, and
from those other offenders whose behaviour
tends to cause the community grave
concern with respect to personal property.
The solution to this problem requires an
offender's continued participation and
accountability to the community through
such programs as temporary absence,
community service, increased education, or
employment in support of family while
under a prison sentence.   It requires the
increased use of community-based programs
and facilities such as community
correctional centres and community-based
residential centres, and the fullest use
of the more normal environment possible
at a forest or farm camp.   Corrections
57
 Branch policies and plans for expansion
reflect an attempt at balancing this dilemma.
This requires a broad understanding within
the justice system and within the
community of what is essentially a
community problem.
FAMILY AND CHILDREN'S
SERVICES
In December 1973 a Royal Commission
on Family and Children's Law was
established to inquire into and make
recommendations with respect to all aspects
of Family and Children's Law enforced
in British Columbia, the administration of
justice relative to such laws, and ancillary
services to courts in Family Law matters.
The Commission was not only given a
mandate to recommend changes in the law
relating to families and children, but
also was authorized to undertake projects
and to implement and test proposals
for reform.
As a result, the Commission established
pilot projects to test the concept of a
unified family court.   In addition, the
Commission produced 13 reports which
recommended both structural reform
of the courts operating in the Family Law
field and major changes in substantive
Family and Children's Law.
The Commission's fourth report
entitled "The Family, The Courts, and the
Community" dealt with the expansion
of the unified family court concept
throughout the Province, the delivery of
family and juvenile court counselling
services, and in particular the delivery of
services to young people in conflict with the
law—one specific focus of the Corrections
Branch.   In late June 1975, the
Provincial Cabinet accepted the recommendations of the fourth report in principle.
On July 7, 1975, an implementation team
was appointed to bring about phased
implementation throughout the Province
of the recommendations.
During 1975 the Branch continued to
maintain Family Relations Act services
in most other areas of the Province.   The
end of 1975 saw the issuance of a jointly
prepared policy statement of respective
responsibilities of the Corrections Branch
and the implementation team.   As a result
of a further Government decision in early
1976, it was decided that effective April
1, 1976, the Corrections Branch would
assume full responsibility for the Unified
Family Court Projects and for further
development of services in the Family
Court area throughout the Province, in order
to locate such services under one
umbrella organization.   The existing Unified
Family Court projects were to be
transferred to the Corrections Branch and
phased into regular operations.   The
complete phasing in of these operations
was complete in March 31, 1977.
The services provided by the Branch
in the area of Family Relations are as
follows:
Short term marriage and family
counselling.
The screening of referrals to appropriate
agencies for long-term marital
counselling or other services.
Assistance in negotiating the terms of
separation agreements in matters of
financial maintenance, child custody
and child access.
Individual counselling pertaining to the
problems of separation.
Administrative enforcement of court
orders in the matters of maintenance
payments, child custody and child
access.
Custody and Access Reports for the court.
The provision of general information
on Family Court procedures.
It is the stated position of the Branch that
unification of the courts where possible
should continue to be undertaken.
Priority given to Family Relations Act
services has been raised in the Branch and
the over-all objective is the provision of
full services throughout the Province
sometime in the future.   One aspect of the
phasing in of the UFC project has been
to define and utilize the innovative
procedures and practices implemented in the
project, and to take advantage of these
with respect to the rest of the
Province.   A major aspect of this was a
58
 handbook on Family Relations Act
services for field staff which was distributed
in early 1977.
The major issues now, as noted
previously in this report, are with respect
to expansion of the services at a time of
general government fiscal restraint.
At present, all new probation officers as part
of their training are given training in Family
Court Counselling techniques and related
Family Law and procedures in order
that eventually, through additional in-service
training, officers throughout the Province
are in a position to provide Family Court
Counselling Services when designated.
In the 1978/79 fiscal year, virtually
all staff requests in the community services
area are for Family Counsellor positions.
Family Counsellors are probation officers
who are given particular training in this area.
MANAGEMENT AND
OPERATIONAL SERVICES
With the administrative re-organization
of the Corrections Branch which was
effective April 1, 1977, a number of
management and operational services were
maintained as the Commissioner's Office,
and these are described below.
Some of these sections (Inspection
and Standards, Staff Development,
Provincial Classification, Information
Services) provide a clear operational
function, as well as providing policy input
for issues which arise from across the
Province.   Provincial Classification is
described previously under Adult Services,
however, since its function is intertwined
inextricably with the operations of
institutions, and is included in that context.
The Management Services Group
(Program Evaluation and Data Systems,
Program Analysis, Resource Analysis)
provide support for field initiatives, provide
a Provincial prospective around specific
or generalized programs and services,
and provide important support for
senior management with respect to issues
arising from other jurisdictions.   The
intention is to provide a team approach to
management issues.
Inspection and Standards—In the fall
of 1973 the office of the Director of
Inspection and standards was established,
with two Inspectors appointed in July
of 1974 to work under his direction.
Several of the responsibilities of this
specialized unit were incorporated into the
Corrections Act through the Corrections
Amendment Act, 1977.   The legislated
responsibilities are
(1) to inspect all correctional centres,
youth containment centres, remand
facilities, and other facilities
established under the Act;
(2) to investigate any matter on the
written request of the Minister or
Commissioner, including escapes,
suicides, and staff misconduct;
(3) to investigate complaints received
from inmates, youths in containment
or remand, probationers or
parolees, youths on conditional
release, and parents of youths under
Corrections Branch supervision.
The legislation provided the Director,
Inspection and Standards, with the powers,
privileges, and protections of a
commissioner under sections 7, 10, and 11
of the Public Inquiries Act.
In addition to the legislated responsibilities, the Division is responsible
(1) to co-ordinate the development of
standards for all Corrections
Branch activities;
(2) to maintain the Manuals of
Operation for adult institutional
services and youth correctional
programs;
(3) to act as the Branch Safety
Representative.
The Manual of Operations, Institutional
Services, was distributed in early 1977
after a lengthy preparation period.   Work
on this manual is continuing in order
that standards and procedures are
developed for adult Correctional Centres.
In December 1977, the Manual of
Operations, Youth Correctional Programs,
was distributed after 12 months of
preparation.   The Program and Policy
Analysis Section of the Corrections Branch
59
 provided a major contribution to this
manual.   The Division has assumed
responsibility for maintaining this manual.
Throughout 1977 the revision of Gaol
Rules and Regulations continued, and it is
expected that this task will be completed
in early 1978.   The regulations for the
Youth Containment Program were
completed during 1977.
The Director continues as Chairman
of the Standards Committee for High-risk
Wilderness Programs which has been
established to evaluate such programs either
operated or funded by the Ministries of
the Attorney-General or Human Resources.
The Ministries of the Provincial Secretary
and Travel Industry, Recreation and
Conservation, and Forests are also
represented on the Committee.   Members
of the Committee investigate the programs
upon request and provide recommendations
and guidance to program operators
and Government officials.
The Division receives reports regularly
from Correctional Centres on staff
accidents, safety and health committee
meetings, inmate accidents, boards of
inquiry, statements of punishment, and
escapes.   There was a 25 per cent
decrease in the number of escapes and
walkaways this year.   Staff were involved
in 110 accidents, which represents a
10-per-cent increase in the number from
1976.   There were 447 accidents
concerning inmates, which is a slight
increase over the year.   Eleven Boards of
Inquiry were held relative to these accidents.
During 1976 the Division completed
work commenced in 1975 of fire arms
selection, standardization, and redistribution
in the Branch.   In 1977, all rifles were
replaced by the M-l carbine, and all
older firearms were recalled.   This exercise
was carried out with the co-operation of
Corrections staff, B.C. Police College
members, and the RCMP Ballistics
Section members.
Verbal or written grievances were
received during 1977 from, or on behalf of,
227 inmates listing 242 complaints.   This
represents a slight increase over 1976.
The demand for this service has increased
each year since the creation of the
Division.   During 1977, there has been
a major effort toward encouraging inmates
to discuss their grievances with staff
within the Correctional Centres prior to
writing to the Director, Inspection and
Standards.   In addition, a number of
grievances were referred to the management
of the Correctional Centres for local
resolution.
A total of 30 investigations was
carried out during 1977—special
investigations, investigations of accidents,
fires, escapes, staff misconduct, assault,
and suicide.   One investigation was a
joint RCMP-Inspection and Standards
investigation.
During 1977, a total of five inspections
of various Corrections Branch facilities
was carried out in order to monitor
health standards, facility standards, and to
establish capacity figures.
In 1978, it is anticipated that there
will be an increase in the demand for
services from this Division with the
proclamation of Part IV of the Corrections
Act which provides for the operation of
the youth containment program.   In
addition, there will be a major initiative in
the development of standards for all
Corrections Branch activities with the
creation of a Provincial Standards
Committee, chaired by the Director,
Inspection and Standards.   Each
Corrections Branch region will be represented on this committee, and it is expected
that the work of the committee will
continue for several years.
One area of concern is that the number
of inspections carried out on Corrections
Branch facilities has been reducing
each year in response to increased demands
in the other areas.   With the legislated
responsibility for the periodic inspections,
it is planned to eventually establish a
schedule of annual inspections of all
Corrections Branch facilities.   Additional
time must be found within the Division
in order to carry out this responsibility.
Staff Development—The Staff
Development Section has continued to play
an active role in the Branch during 1977,
and has offered a wide variety of
60
 training programs.   In addition, major
efforts have been taken in the area of policy
development and setting of standards for
the training of all levels of staff.
Major revisions were made to the
Recruit Training programs for both
security officers and probation officers.
Prior to implementation of new training
formats, a period of extensive consultation
was carried out with field staff.   Visits
were made to all institutions in the
Province and to most probation offices and
district offices.   Supervisors in the
institutions were involved in a series of
two-day workshops set up to explain the
new Recruit Training System and the
training role of supervisors.
On-the-job training journals were
developed for all institutions, in consultation
with institutional staff, and on-the-job
training journals were also developed
for probation officer recruit training
in consultation with probation field staff.
Flowing from this over-all process, a
series of benchmark policies relating to
training standards were adopted by
Branch management:
(1) All new employees must complete
required training before the end of
their six-month probationary
period.
(2) All staff must complete basic
training prior to promotion.
(3) All staff who have completed basic
training must participate in
advanced or refresher training at
least every three years.
(4) All new or supervisory management
staff must complete basic
management training either prior
to promotion or within six months of
promotion.
(5) All experienced management staff
must participate in advanced
training at least every three years.
(6) All staff transferring from one
functional area of Corrections to
another must complete required
on-the-job training within 30
days of transfer.
With the adoption of these policies it
is anticipated that through timely and
regular training of all levels of staff, the
quality of service provided by the Branch
will be enhanced and employee job
satisfaction will be increased.
During 1977, the Staff Development
Section played a major role in the transition
from a divisional to a regional management
structure of the Branch, and in the early
part of the year the comprehensive
training program for Regional Directors of
Corrections was successfully completed.
As a result of the change in organization
structure, the Staff Development Section
was moved from the former Planning
and Development Division to the
Commissioner's Office Staff, reporting
directly to the Deputy Commissioner of
Corrections.   Further changes involve the
placement of full-time Regional Staff
Development Officers in each of the
Corrections Regions, reporting directly to
each Regional Director of Corrections, but
maintaining close communication with
the Central Staff Development Section.
While the Central Staff Development
Section has responsibility for the planning
and co-ordination of the over-all
training system, the Regional Staff
Development Officers have responsibilities
for co-ordinating on-the-job training, and
planning and implementing short seminars
and workshops at the local level.   It
is intended that the Regional Officers will be
able to relate more directly to the
Regional training needs while ensuring
that Provincial standards are maintained.
The full range of off-the-job training
programs provided by Staff Development
during 1977 involved over 650 staff
in a total of 1,630 man-weeks of training.
Courses carried out during the year
include the following:
Security Officer Recruit Training (2
courses of 4 weeks duration, 42
participants).
Security Officer Backlog Training
(8 courses of 2 weeks duration, 120
participants).
Correctional Officer Development
Courses (6 courses of 2 weeks
duration, 119 participants).
61
 Probation Officer Recruit Training
(1 course of 4 months, 20 participants).
Probation Interviewer Training (1 course
of 4 weeks duration, 12 participants).
Community Correctional Centre Staff
Training (2 courses of 4 weeks
duration, 12 participants).
Introductory Management Training
(2 courses of 1 week duration, 17
participants).
Institutional Supervisors' Workshops (11
workshops of 2 days duration, 115
participants).
Family Relations Act and Custody and
Access Training Courses (5 courses of
1 week duration, 87 participants).
Regional Directors of Corrections
Training Program (3 months duration,
10 participants).
Juvenile Containment Training Programs
(4 courses of 3 weeks duration, 76
participants).
In addition to the above, Staff
Development Section was responsible for
co-ordinating and assisting in the development of a variety of training events and
courses outside the Branch including
training programs for supervisors at
Capilano College (71 participants); a
Symposium on Family Violence (33
participants); the 1977 World Congress on
Mental Health (26 participants); the
Canadian Congress of Corrections (20
participants); and numerous individually
funded training programs.   A total of 365
Branch staff was provided financial
assistance totalling $19,037 for a variety
of individual training programs, with
two-thirds of the funding being drawn from
the Public Service Commission's Staff
Development Appropriation Fund.
During the year five Branch employees
were granted Educational Leave with 75
per cent pay to pursue graduate training in
related academic fields.
The Staff Development Section
administered the allocation of 20 training
relief positions which were made available
to institutions in order to free up staff to
attend training programs.   During the
year a further six training relief positions
were added to the Staff Development
Establishment in order to provide training
for new probation officers prior to
placement on the job.   Additional
training relief positions have been included
in the 1978/79 budget estimates to ensure
that replacement staff are available while
all levels of staff are attending training
programs.
In 1977, the responsibility for the
development and maintenance of the
Corrections Branch Staff Library at 5501
Kingsway in Vancouver was transferred to
the Staff Development Section and
arrangements were made to hire a full-time
librarian from May through December to
develop a more comprehensive library
service.   The staffing and development of
the Corrections Branch library is seen
as a high priority during 1978.
During 1977 further planning was carried
out toward the development of a Justice
Institute; however, no concrete plans were
completed.   The need for more adequate
training facilities will be required to carry
out the Corrections Branch training
mandate for the coming year.
Program Evaluation and Data Systems—
This section of the Commissioner's Office
consists of two aspects: program evaluation
and data systems.   Both of these aspects
are focussed around development of a
fully operational information base, and
reflect the need for the development of a
system which actively supports and provides
information for ongoing management
decisions in the area of resource allocation,
and the evaluation of programs.
Chart on page 63 is the structure of
information flow within the Corrections
Branch which is the basis for all of the
activities for this section.
A. Field Data Capture
These documents are produced through
intake and client reporting interviews,
case analyses and summaries, and closing
case evaluations.   The accuracy of this
information is dependent on the skills of the
collectors, who are field staff.   This process
is key to the collection of information
on corrections.
62
 COMMUNITY
SERVICE
ORDER
BAIL
SUPERVISION
PROBATION
CASELOAD
INMATE
COUNTS
INTAKE AND
MOVEMENT FORMS
PRE-SENTENCE
REPORTS
PROBATION OFFICER
INQUIRIES
CLASSIFICATION
DOCUMENTS
OTHER
EVALUATION
DOCUMENTS
B.
I
DATA ENTRY AND RETRIEVAL
<-^>
MICROFILM
ANALYTICAL SOFTWARE (HOST)
D.
MASTER AND EVALUATION
FILES ON HOST
E. ENQUIRIES
REPORTS
PUBLICATIONS
B. Data Entry and Retrieval
Program Evaluation and Data Systems
is responsible for the entry and correction of
data received from the field. The present
mode of processing information at this
stage utilizes a mini-computer that supports
eight data entry terminals. The information
is temporarily stored on this computer
and periodically transmitted to the host
computer (presently at Simon Fraser
University) for future evaluation. The
information is then retrieved from the host
computer and printed on site at a
Corrections location.
C. Analytical Software (Host)
In order to analyse information in a
manner that will achieve the objectives of
the evaluation design, computer programs
are written and stored on the host computer.
Some of the software which is utilized
is part of packaged, statistical programs
available to all users of the host (e.g., the
statistical package for the social sciences
(SPSS)).   Some of the software has
been custom-designed specifically
for Corrections' purposes, such as citing
the most serious offences.
D. Master and Evaluation Files on Host
Corrections' master file presently
contains histories on approximately 100,000
individuals.   In addition, there are
evaluation files on individuals who have
entered specific programs of interest to the
Branch (e.g., community service order,
bail supervision, etc.).
E. Output: Inquiries, Reports, Publications
The output of the above activities
roughly takes three forms:
(1) Inquiries—the rapid production of
specific information on individuals
or programs that does not require
63
 interpretation beyond the
the source of the activity.   In other
presentation of hard data. These
words, data entry terminals would be
are most usually termed "On
located in probation offices, correctional
Demand Requests."
centres and courts throughout the Province.
(2) Reports—these are similar to
Data would be entered and retrieved
inquiries and may require several
directly from these locations.
runs of the data through the
Corrections, courts, and police are
computer in order to achieve a
presently involved in joint planning in an
meaningful pattern of description of
attempt to meet a long-term objective—an
activities. Analyses of the data
integrated data system. The initial phase
are included, where needed
of this planning has led to a decision
and when possible.
to centralize the present data entry groups
(3)  Publications—these are formal
for these three systems in Victoria under
evaluative research reports that
one roof. This first phase is consistent with
demand full explanation of all terms
both the Corrections design for a distributed
and techniques. They are targeted
network and the longer term goal of an
for individuals inside and outside the
integrated data system.
Branch and are usually published
In December 1977, the Branch
by the Queen's Printer.   Examples
Management Committee gave its approval
of recent publications are native
to a Policy Proposal regarding the issue
studies, community service order
of the security and privacy of Corrections
analyses, etc.
information. This was a major step
A major development in the data
in the development of a coherent and
systems area during 1977 was the creation
rational position on the protection
of a centralized, governmental computing
of individual rights and the security of
organization—British Columbia Systems
information within Corrections and the
Corporation (BCSC).   This organization is
Ministry.
responsible for all Government computing
Lastly, the host computer for the
and information systems development.
correctional system is being changed from
In conjunction with the Corrections
Simon Fraser University to the new BCSC
Branch, BCSC has carried on work
host computer which is presently located
primarily in areas of A and B (see
on the University of Victoria campus.
foregoing).  New forms have been developed
One of the goals of BCSC is to replace the
for probation offices and family courts.
use of external computer facilities with
They are currently being used in selected
facilities which are within the government
pilot locations.
service.
A mini-computer was acquired to
The Program Evaluation aspect of the
replace the less efficient keypunch mode of
section has carried on work mainly in the
entering and transmitting data to the host
areas C, D, and E (see chart).   During
computer. The new hardware and software
1977 the structure of the master file
speeds up the entry of data (giving us
was completely redesigned. The objective of
a more current file) and reduces the number
this effort was to increase the analytic and
of entry errors.   Furthermore, it allows
reporting capability of the system. The
for the printing of information at an
Branch is now capable of monitoring
on-site correctional location.
the flow of clients from all courts through
During 1977 the detailed plan for an
all correctional facilities and programs.
automated information system covering the
Using this expanded system, the Section
entire Branch was completed. The plan is
has embarked on a number of planning
chiefly aimed at the operational needs
and evaluation projects.   It has been
of the Branch. The structure proposed in
involved with the planning of new
the design is for a "distributed" system
correctional and court facilities and has
with data entry and retrieval taking place at
supplied planning information for depart-
64
 ments and agencies external to the
Attorney-General's Ministry.   Economic
Development, Indian Affairs (Ministry of
Labour), Ministry of Health, and Ministry
of Human Resources have all requested
and made use of Corrections information by
this Section in 1977.
In addition to the restructuring of the
master file, a number of files have been
created for the purpose of evaluating specific
programs.   Examples are the Bail
Supervision evaluation file and the Community Service Order evaluation file.   Files
such as these provide an in-depth picture
of the process in question.
In terms of report generation, this
section responded to on-demand (inquiries)
requests too numerous to detail in this
overview. A number of "reports" were
produced such as the "Analysis of
Heroin/Methadone Users in the B.C.
Correctional System." As well, two major
works were published—Native Indians in
the B.C. Correctional System and The
Community Service Order Program:
The British Columbia Experience.
During 1977 the section has been
involved in two other important undertakings: the development of a working
relationship with the Criminology
Department at the Simon Fraser University,
and the co-ordination and funding support
of three external evaluation projects
focusing on juvenile containment.   In the
first instance, the Corrections Branch
will supply a research file to the Criminology
Department in order to support the
generation of academic research information
on current criminological issues.   In the
second instance, the information produced
by these three university evaluation
teams will become directly usable by all
Corrections Branch personnel. These
moves support the intention to bring
together in a constructive and useful way,
the areas of practice and theory in
criminology in order to better support future
directions of corrections in British
Columbia.
In 1978 Program Evaluation and Data
Systems Section will commence in
collaboration with Information Services a
quarterly publication entitled B.C.
Corrections Branch Research Report. These
reports will be collections of research
summaries focusing on central issues and
programs within the correctional field.
These reports will act as a vehicle for the
distribution of research information,
produced by both academic and evaluative
researchers, back to the original data
source—the field and field administration.
Resource Analysis—This section of the
Commissioner's Office was created effective
April 1, 1977, with Branch reorganization,
to bring together Provincial expertise
from each of the previously existing
operations around issues of manpower and
fiscal allocations.   This includes
capacities in relation to construction and
maintenance, and specialized food services
expertise.
During 1977, this section was responsible
for Provincial compilation of quarterly
fiscal reports, consultation and processes
with regard to Treasury Board and Cabinet
submissions for resources, liaising as a
Provincial group with the Government
Employees Relation Bureau and Personnel
Services over manpower issues,
maintaining a Provincial set of books on
Corrections operations in liaison with
regional resource/business managers,
preparation of Branch submission for
estimates 1978/79, and ongoing
consultation and advice to senior
management with respect to manpower and
budget issues, and in particular, with
regard to use of contracts for services.
The importance of these activities
can not be overstated and in no small
measure contribute-to the Branch's relative
effectiveness in achieving the appropriate
resources to adequately run programs
and facilities.
Program Analysis—As with Resource
Analysis, this group was created effective
April 1, 1977, as a result of the Corrections
Branch reorganization, to include a variety
of program and analyst expertise which
existed in the previous operational
organizations.   The analysts in this section
undertake on demand from management
a variety of analytical, data gathering, and
65
 consultative functions.   They act as
Information Services—In May of 1975
resources to field managers on specific
a Director of Information Services was
issues, and to management as a whole with
permanently appointed within the Branch.
regard to general directions, issues, and so
Information Services became responsible
on which require policy decision.
for the design and direct implementation of
The analysts each specialize in one of the
a progressive communications function
following areas: Family Services, Adult
for the Corrections Branch, with specific
Services, Juvenile Services, Pre-trial and
responsibilities and accountability in
Court Services, and Community Liaison
the following areas—internal staff
Services.
information, formal publications of the
In each area, the analyst is accountable
Branch, public information and education
for drafting Provincial policy, standards,
materials, and finally to provide initiative,
and procedures; contributing to the drafting
direction, and expertise in the whole area
of legislation and regulations and co
of staff information, news media
ordinating inter-ministerial activities relative
relations, and public information and
to the development and implementation of
education for all Branch personnel.
the various programs and services falling
Day to day and periodic tasks of this
under the general rubric.
section are many and diverse from
Some of the work undertaken during
preparing the annual report of the
1977 by this section is as follows:
Corrections Branch and a semi-monthly
Obtaining feed-back on Bill 69 (the
Newsletter of the Corrections Branch,
amendment to the Family Relations
briefing material on behalf of the Commis
Act).
sioner, to speaking at public functions,
Assisting in the development of policy
schools, assisting with career days,
for the enforcement of maintenance.
providing information to the media,
Involvement in the drafting of the manual
working closely with the Information
of operational procedures for Youth
Services of the Ministry (which was com
Containment Centres in British
menced in early 1977), consulting with
Columbia.
management and staff at all levels of the
Ongoing co-ordination of Corrections
Branch and acting on a number of
Branch interest relative to the
committees (such as the Corrections
development of two remand centres
Personnel Classification Project—see below)
in Vancouver.
in order to assist in the information flow
Representing Corrections Branch in the
and communication process.
Ministerial Committee studying
A major function of this section during
the question of intermittent sentences
1977 was the development of a complete
and lock-up.
policy framework in relation to information
Co-ordination of information relating
sharing, the production of a complete basic
to liaison with Corrections Branch and
set of printed publications, an audio-visual
the Forest Service with respect to
presentation, and a set of information
Forest Camp programs.
binders for staff.   The policy was
The position of analyst, Community
approved in May 1977, by Branch
Liaison Services, has not been available to
Management, making Corrections one of
the Branch as a result of secondment
the only divisions of Government to
to a Ministerial program.   The position of
have such a wide ranging document.   In
analyst, Juvenile Services was vacant
early 1978, the complete information
for several months in 1977, as a result of
package will be available for distribution to
promotion of the incumbent.
the general public, schools, other justice
It is anticipated that the section will
system agencies and related Government
be at full strength in 1978, and its services
ministries, and so on.
provide a capability for the Branch to
The year 1978 should see the continuation
examine in depth the many issues which
of this two-phased plan of development,
require clarification and decision.
in which it is anticipated that each region
66
 will begin to develop its own public
information and education program plan, in
consultation with Information Services.
Corrections Personnel Classification
Project—During 1977, a significant effort
was made to attempt to grapple with issues
of anomalies and inconsistencies with
respect to classifications of personnel within
the Corrections Branch, and the lack of
any real career planning structure within the
Branch.   The following is a brief
explanation of this very significant undertaking.
As an organization, the Corrections
Branch had originally been two virtually
autonomous and non-relating correctional
streams, i.e., probation services and
institutional services.   In 1973, these
divisions were joined by a planning and
development capacity, in order to attempt
to focus the intent of the Branch to
develop an acceptable continuum of
correctional services in the Province, as
has already been outlined in the previous
section of this report entitled Branch
Reorganization.   The results of these
considerable developments had been a
blurring of traditional roles, with a number
of new roles emerging, such as bail
supervisors, temporary absence officers,
community service officers, and staff
support roles.
In September of 1976, a Correctional
Manpower Development Committee was
struck by the senior staff of the Branch.
It was given the task of designing a career
stream classification model for an integrated
correctional system.   The Committee was
to start the task conceptually from a
clean slate, but, was to develop a practical
system which would effectively rationalize
all existing roles into one classification
series, into which new and developing
roles could easily be accommodated.   The
new system should rationalize equitably the
classification level for the role being
performed; it should spell out criteria by
which people could move up as well as
laterally to change "streams."   It should
allow career planning and spell out
staff straining and development needs for
individuals and for groups.   The Committee
was made up of representatives from
the Corrections Branch, Personnel Services
of the Attorney-General's Ministry, and
the Public Service Commission.
After a number of efforts to grapple
with the complexity and size of the task at
hand, the Committee recommended to
senior management that the endeavour
required full time co-ordination and staff,
with the part-time availability of central
agency personnel, such as Public Service
Commission, Government Employee
Relations Bureau, and Personnel Services
of the Attorney-General's Ministry.   These
appointments were made in May of 1977,
and the first phase of a six-month
feasibility study was undertaken.
During the first stage, the project team
concurrently examined four possible
options for the creation of an improved
classification system for the Corrections
Branch.   The examination required an
extensive field consultation and review of
existing literature.   The option which
emerged as the most appropriate one was
built on a theoretical model which received
approval by Branch Management in
December of 1977.   The model has three
basic elements and considerable detail
associated with each one:
(1) An integrated classifications series,
(2) based on factor/point analysis as,
(3) applied to functional areas of
corrections work.
Phase II, which will be commenced in
1978, will be directed toward refining and
testing the model and producing a more
thoroughly defined working framework.
A COMMON CONCERN
The justice system is guided by, and
at the same time sets out, standards of
acceptable behaviour in our modern,
complex society. Every branch of the justice
system—the police, the courts, legal
services, and the Corrections Branch—
must share in the responsibility of finding
effective responses to those people who do
not meet society's standards—people
involved in contravention of the laws of
the land.
67
 But it has been shown throughout this tion with police and court initiatives,
report, that the Corrections Branch is because the real solutions to justice
committed to emphasizing community based problems lie within the community where
programs as constructive alternatives to they arise.   Resolving justice issues is a
imprisonment, as it is committed to responsibility not only for the justice
increasing prevention programs in conjunc- system, but for the community at large.
68
 Appendix A: Goals, Strategies, and Beliefs, Corrections Branch, 1977
PART I—INTRODUCTION
Many forms of resolving social conflict
exist in society. The family, church, and school
are well-known institutions which, among other
functions, attempt to mediate and deal with
various types of social conflict.   Governmental
interventions (such as social welfare) and
privately operated programs are also aimed
at the resolution of various forms of social conflict.
The justice system, on both the civil and
criminal side, has been used to deal with more
serious forms of social conflict and to act as a
"back-up" to those institutions and agencies
previously mentioned.
In essence then, the justice system has been
used to mediate, resolve, or otherwise respond to
those forms of social conflict which have
been defined, by legislative process, as
unacceptable; the conflict stemming from behaviour
which violates the rights of others and cannot
be tolerated without some form of formalized
state intervention.
Although general and wide acceptance is
lacking, the basic purpose of the justice system
in Canada is to protect social institutions
and individuals in society, including the offender
himself, by preventing crime and delinquency,
by reducing the negative effects of crime
and delinquency, and by fairly and humanely
dealing with social conflict which comes within the
context of law.
Thus, the purpose of the Corrections Branch
is to provide a range of services which vary
in level of supervision, control, and security, and
which collectively contribute to the achievement of
the justice system purpose.   In working toward
this purpose the Corrections Branch has
establish as principles
(i) a statement of goals and objectives
(see Part II) which outlines what it is we
want to attain;
(ii) a statement of strategies and activities
(see Part III) which indicates the means
employed in reaching those goals
and objectives; and
(iii) a statement of beliefs (see Part IV) which
serves as guidelines in determining
how we implement those strategies and
guidelines.
Corrections is an integral part of the justice
system, initiating a number of programs which, it
is hoped, will contribute to the over-all
purpose of the justice system and thus serve
society by playing a significant role in the
protection of society and the mediation
and resolution of social conflict.
Corrections must then be seen as an integral
and essential part of a co-ordinated and
interdependent justice system. Thus, it has a
relationship and interdependence with police,
courts, prosecution, and legal services as well as
numerous community agencies contributing
their services and advice in the justice area.
Actions taken by police frequently result in
required Corrections involvement. To a great
extent, the courts dictate the level of Corrections
involvement in custodial and community
programs. And conversely, actions taken in the
Corrections area have substantial impact on
police, courts and, indeed, society itself.
In summary, Corrections is part of a justice
system, has a purpose and goals compatible with
the larger system, provides a continuum of
services which collectively contribute to the
achievement of the purpose of the justice system,
and the results of correctional programs
affect the basic protection of society.
PART II—STATEMENT OF GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
Goal A
In co-operation with personnel in all components
of the justice system, to participate actively in
promoting reform throughout the justice system.
Objectives:
Al. Increased awareness and understanding of
police, courts, legal and corrections personnel
of the present state of correctional
knowledge and the effectiveness (results) of
existing correctional programs.
a2. Increased public awareness and understanding
of the state of correctional knowledge and
the effectiveness of correctional programs.
A3. Devise and implement specific strategies of
reform within contemporary correctional
theory, practice, and legislation.
69
 a4. Identify possible strategies of system-wide
reform, e.g., decriminalization, depenalization,
and diversion, and communicate these to
appropriate decision-makers.
GoalB
To assist the family in resolving those disputes
in which direct court intervention is being
considered.
Objectives:
b 1. Provide counselling and referral services to
the family in response to applications for
assistance in resolving, without direct court
intervention if possible, disputes involving
family and child maintenance, custody, and
access arising from marital separation.
b2. Provide opportunities for out-of-court
resolutions of family-related criminal matters,
e.g., assault, threat, and nonsupport.
b3. Provide information when requested by the
Family Court to assist in making a finding on
maintenance, custody of, and access to
children.
B4. Assist in the administration of orders made by
the Family Court in the above disputes,
as provided for by statute or court directive.
GoalC
To provide information which will assist the
court in determining disposition.
Objectives:
cl. Advise the court on available and suitable
dispositional alternatives and resources,
both within and outside the Corrections
Branch.
c2. Supply the court with relevant information on
the offender, as provided for by statute
or court directive.
GoalD
To administer those dispositions and orders
imposed by the court which fall within the
jurisdiction of the Corrections Branch.
Objectives:
Dl. Identify, develop, and maintain a wide range
of correctional programs and facilities which
provide graduated levels of control,
supervision, and security.
d2. Provide to offenders opportunities
which are conducive to active, self-determined
participation.
d3. Provide opportunities for offenders to exercise
responsible decision-making.
d4. Assist the offender in understanding that the
imposed sanction is a result of his infringement
upon the rights of others.
d5. Encourage the court to specify the purpose
and intent of the sanction imposed.
GoalE
To increase community and individual awareness
of joint responsibility in preventing crime,
delinquency, victimization, and family breakdown.
Objectives:
El. Provide information on social conditions
contributing to crime, delinquency,
victimization, and family breakdown.
e2. Encourage and participate in the development
of programs which contribute to improvement
in those social conditions.
e3. Encourage the reduction of opportunities
for criminal behaviour, e.g., Neighbourhood
Watch.
e4. Encourage the development of effective
mechanism for community mediation and
resolution of social conflicts/disputes
without necessitating referral to, or
intervention of, the justice system.
GoalF
To encourage effective co-operation among
justice system components.
Objectives:
Fl. Identify and recommend to police and (or)
Crown counsel appropriate alternatives to
court action.
f2. Increased communication and information
sharing among justice system personnel at all
levels.
f3. Ensure that goals and objectives of each
justice system component are mutually
compatible and complementary.
f4. Participate in joint planning for more
effective service delivery.
Note—Goals do not necessarily appear in order of priority.
70
 PART III—STATEMENT OF STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES
Strategy 1
Investigating and reporting.
Activities:
lA. Provide information as required by the court.
1b. Provide prosecutor and (or) police with
information on persons referred for possible
diversion or screening before court action.
lc. Provide information to institutions and
parole boards on incarcerated offenders before
their re-entering the community.
Id. Provide relevant information and (or)
reports to other related agencies as
appropriate and with due regard for the
confidentiality of the information.
Strategy 2
Mediation and conciliation.
Activities:
2a. Where appropriate and in co-operation with
other agencies, attempt to mediate
mutually acceptable resolutions of conflict as
an alternative to court resolution.
2b. Identify situations and make referrals for
intervention by social agencies other than
those of the justice system.
2c. Collaborate with police, Crown counsel, and
court administration to develop guidelines
for determining which conflicts should
be resolved through outside mediation.
Strategy 3
Imprisonment.
Activities:
3a. Provide a range of custodial facilities to
(1) separate dangerous and hard-core
offenders from the community;
(2) provide graduated levels of control for
those serving sentences of
denunciation and sentences resulting
from wilful noncompliance with a
previously imposed court order;
(3) provide separate containment for
juvenile offenders; and
(4) provide graduated levels of control for
those remanded in custody.
3b. Provide standards and procedures for gradual
re-entry and supervision of offenders
released from custody.
3c. Provide a classification process to determine
the level of control required for each
offender sentenced to a period of incarceration.
3d. Provide programs and activities in which
the inmate is encouraged to exercise personal
decision-making skills in areas of work,
recreation, spiritual development, education,
and life skills.
3e. Ensure that rights and responsibilities of
staff, inmates, and the community as a whole
are upheld and that the respective
responsibilities of each are identified and
communicated.
3f. Ensure the availability of suitable medical,
dental, and psychiatric services to those
incarcerated.
Strategy 4
Community supervision and control.
Activities:
4a. Provide supervision, counselling, and (or)
referrel to other agencies, thus ensuring
that the spirit and intent of the disposition is
achieved.
4b. Provide a range of community-based
residential and nonresidential attendance
facilities and programs.
4c. Develop and maintain mechanisms for
communication and information-sharing with
justice and social agencies concerned with
surveillance and control.
Strategy 5
Alternatives to imprisonment.
Activities:
5a. For some offenders, where sentences or
orders of imprisonment have traditionally been
indicated, to recommend alternatives to
imprisonment such as the following:
(1) good conduct order;
(2) reporting order;
(3) residence order;
(4) performance contract order;
(5) community service order;
(6) counselling order;
(7) restitution and compensation order;
(8) absolute discharge;
(9) conditional discharge;
(10) day fines;
(11) bail and remand supervision.
5b. Co-operate with other agencies in the search
for other alternatives to imprisonment
by providing incentive and opportunity for
innovative demonstration projects.
71
 Strategy 6
Legislative review.
Activities:
6a. Review legislation and recommend appropriate
revisions in order that laws remain consistent
with, and responsive to, changing standards
and values in society.
6b. Interpret existing legislation in view of the
goals and objectives of the Branch.
6c. Develop and communicate rationale for
existing legislation and for possible changes.
6d. Support system-wide research to study
society's views on different crimes and to
assess appropriateness of existing sanctions
provided for in legislation.
6e. Assess social costs of criminal activity and
trends to identify those offences that need not
be processed through the justice system.
6f. Where appropriate, develop and communicate
to the Minister Branch positions on selected
controversial issues related to justice.
6g. Provide opportunities for joint criminal
justice personnel training, development, and
education concerning issues of legislative
change.
Strategy 7
Community involvement and public awareness.
Activities:
Ik. Communicate information on Corrections
Branch activities generally, including those
which are unrelated to criminal behaviour,
such as services to families and
individuals.
7b. Communicate information and statistics
on type of offenders, offences, sentences,
expenditures, expectations, and results
achieved.
7c. Co-operate with and encourage public and
social service agencies to assist
offenders.
7d. Encourage and provide opportunities for
voluntary participation of citizens and
community groups in correctional programs.
7e. Provide resources to community and private
agencies which assist in the achievement
of Corrections Branch goals and objectives.
7f. Provide training opportunities for Corrections
staff to equip them to work with community
organizations.
7g. Use existing community organizations,
e.g., Justice Councils and Family Division
Committees, in promoting and facilitating
public awareness and communication.
Strategy 8
Staff management.
Activities:
8a. Provide adequate compensation and
benefits consistent with the level and
complexity of responsibilities assigned.
8b. Ensure that staff are provided with adequate
support services to effectively carry out
their assigned duties.
8c. Maximize opportunities for personal and
professional growth and development through
education and training.
8d. Provide opportunities for job rotation,
lateral and vertical career mobility, job
enrichment, and improved working
environment.
8e. Periodically review and clarify job roles
and relationship to organizational goals.
8f. Provide consistent standards of performance
and policy guidelines.
8g. Encourage staff participation in professional
associations.
8h. Promote an atmosphere in which staff
feel free to evaluate current correctional and
personnel practices.
8l.   Consistent with good labour management
practice, encourage co-operation
between management and union components
to more effectively achieve the common
purpose.
Strategy 9
Management of resources.
Activities:
9a. Reduce the fragmentation and duplication
represented by the current division of
correctional responsibilities between
the Federal and Provincial Governments.
9b. Provide an information system which will
ensure monitoring and evaluation of
correctional programs.
9c. Determine the need for resources, secure
adequate resources, and establish a set
of priorities (Provincial, regional, and local)
to ensure the most effective use of those
resources.
9d. Integrate resource management and delegate
decision-making to the lowest appropriate
level.
9e. Develop and maintain appropriate correctional
standards and policies.
Note—Strategies do not necessarily appear in order of priority.
more goals.   Thus, there is no simple one-to-one relationship implied.
Any strategy may relate to the achievement of one or
72
 PART IV—STATEMENT OF VALUES AND BELIEFS
Society has an interest in upholding values and
has developed many forums for the resolution
of social disputes arising from a conflict of values.
The justice system exists as a "back-up" to
deal with the more serious forms of conflict which
have not been or cannot be resolved in other
forums.
Correctional services exist as an essential part of
a co-ordinated and interdependent justice system.
Corrections Branch activities contribute to
the realization of the goals of the justice system
generally.
Personnel of the Corrections Branch bring to the
performance of their duties a set of values
which predisposes them to carry out their mandate
within a certain framework of beliefs.
These beliefs, which include the following, serve
as guidelines in determining how we, as
correctional personnel, implement strategies and
activities and work toward our goals:
1. Offenders must be held accountable for
their acts.
2. All offenders, regardless of their offence,
remain members of society, are to be treated with
the basic respect and dignity accorded all
members, and should not be subjected to cruel and
unusual forms of treatment.
3. Within the limitation of the court-imposed
sanction and considering the risks for the
community, the offender has a right to exercise
self determination and personal decision making.
4. Although a minority reflect a consistent
pattern of criminal behaviour, offenders are
capable of responsible decision-making and of
changing their behaviour. Therefore, some
correctional programs ought to be designed to allow
for, and indeed, encourage behavioural change.
5. The majority of offenders, with the exception
of the commission of a specific act, function
daily within acceptable societal norms,
and therefore should be subject to only simple
sanction and not to programs designed
for behavioural change.
6. Every opportunity should be provided
for offenders to "make amends" to society generally
and (or) to the victim.
7. Offenders should not receive greater
opportunities or rights than those generally
available to other members of society.
8. The term "offender" is reserved for those
persons who become identified through the
lock-step process of being observed, reported,
apprehended, charged, tried, convicted, and
sentenced for committing an act which is defined
as illegal. The term is not applied for those
persons who commit a similar act and are not
processed through the justice system;
thus offenders within the justice system represent
an unknown percentage of those persons
engaged in any given illegal activity.
9. Society must accept responsibility for those
conditions which contribute to criminal
activity and must work toward their improvement.
10. Social institutions and individual members
of the community have a right to protection
from victimization by an offender.
11. While the justice system is charged with the
responsibility of upholding certain values
through the imposition of sanction, we believe that
law should generally reflect current values held
by the community, though at times legislators in
their role as "law makers" should lead in the
formulation of community values.
12. Sanctions imposed by the court should be
influenced by the total circumstances leading to the
commission of the offence.
13. While the offender retains many of the rights
of other citizens, he does forfeit certain rights
as dictated by the explicit "limitation of
freedom" imposed by the court and the implicit
limitations dictated by the conditions and degree of
custody, security, and supervision.
14. The Branch has a responsibility to hold in
secure custody those offenders so sanctioned
until the expiration of sentence, or until such time
as there are reasonable indicators that the
risk they present to the community has been
reduced to the degree that less secure,
community-based programs can be made available
to them.
15. Since the community is the natural
environment and the environment to which
offenders will eventually return, as many
Correctional Branch programs as possible should
operate in the community in order to increase
the effectiveness of those programs.
16. We recognize that members of society are
entitled to a basic level of subsistence (food,
shelter, and care), and we recognize that we do not
have the right to force people to work or
participate in correctional programs, but we also
believe that offenders must be helped to understand
the consequences which resulted from their
action, and how their behaviour resulted in the
violation of the rights of others.
17. There must be a perceived balance of rights,
responsibilities, and respect between the offender,
the community, the victim, and the staff
responsible for administering the sentence of the
court.
18. Some conflicts are best resolved through
mediation and conciliation of the conflict
with referral to the court only when other attempts
at resolution fail.
19. In attempting to meet its objectives, the
justice system should avoid excessive and
unnecessary intervention in the lives of members of
the public generally and specifically in the
lives of offenders.
20. Within the justice system, due regard for
confidentiality of information is essential.
73
 Appendix B: Regional Operations
As explained elsewhere in this Annual Report
(Reorganization of the Branch), each
region is administratively responsible for the
full range of Correctional services within
its geographical area as illustrated in Appendix C.
The following is a breakdown of the
operational units reporting relationships
throughout the Province.
VANCOUVER REGION
Vancouver East District
North East Adult Office
South East Adult Office
South Juvenile/Family Office
East Juvenile/Family Office
North Juvenile/Family Office
Burnaby Community Correctional Centre
Vancouver Juvenile Services Intake
Vancouver Family Services Intake
DARE
Vancouver West District
South West Adult Office
West End Adult Office
Vancouver Court Team Adult Office
Vancouver Bail Supervision
Burrard Juvenile/Family Office
West Juvenile/Family Office
Marpole Community Correctional Centre
Lynda Williams Community Correctional Centre
North Shore District
North Vancouver Adult Office
West Vancouver Office
Porteau Cove Camp
Sechelt Office
Squamish Office
North Vancouver Juvenile/Family Office
Powell River Office
Oakalla District
South Wing
West Wing
East Wing
West Gate B
Hospital
Central Control
Support Services
Oakalla Women's Unit
Youth Containment
Youth Detention Centre
SOUTH FRASER REGION
Chilliwack Forest Camps
Thurston
Ford Mountain
Security Unit
East District
DASH (Pierce Creek)
Chilliwack Community Correctional Centre
Abbotsford Probation and Family Services
Chilliwack Probation and Family Services
Hope Probation and Family Services
Mission Probation and Family Services
West District
Delta Probation and Family Services
House of Concord
Langley Probation and Family Services
Richmond Unified Family Court
Richmond Adult Probation and Family Services
Surrey Unified Family Court
Surrey Adult Probation and Family Services
Surrey Bail Supervision
White Rock Probation and Family Services
Surrey Community-based Residential Centre
Juvenile Containment Program
Centre Creek Camp
Support Services
NORTH FRASER REGION
District 1
New Haven Correctional Centre
Burnaby Central Probation Office
Burnaby North Probation Office
Burnaby South Juvenile and Family Services
New Westminster Probation Office
District 2
Twin Maples Correctional Centre
Farms Program
Maple Ridge Probation Office
Coquitlam Juvenile and Family Services
Port Coquitlam Adult Probation Office
District 3
Haney Forest Camps
Stave Lake Camp
Boulder Bay Camp
Cedar Lake Camp
Pine Ridge Camp
District 4
Alouette River Correctional Centre
74
 Kamloops District
Ashcroft Probation Office
Kamloops Adult Probation Office
Kamloops Family Probation Office
Lillooet Probation Office
Merritt Probation Office
100 Mile House Probation Office
(Williams Lake Probation Office
Okanagan District
Oliver (Grand Forks and Princeton)
Penticton
Kelowna
Vernon
Salmon Arm
Revelstoke
INTERIOR REGION
Kootenay District
Castlegar
Cranbrook
Creston
Fernie
Golden
Kimberley
Nelson
Trail
Institutions
Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre
Rayleigh Camp
Clearwater Forest Camp
Kamloops Community Correctional Centre
NORTHERN REGION
(West Coast District
Terrace Community Correctional Centre
Queen Charlotte Island Probation Office
Prince Rupert Probation Office
Terrace Probation Office
Kitimat Probation Office
(Smithers Probation Office
Institutions
Prince George Regional Correctional Centre
Hutda Lake Camp
Activators Community-based Residential Centre
North Central District
Dawson Creek Probation Office
Fort St. John Probation Office
Fort Nelson Probation Office
McKenzie Probation Office
Prince George Probation Office Adult Juvenile
and Family Services
Vanderhoof Probation Office
Quesnel Probation Office
VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION
South District 1
Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre
Community Correctional Centre No. 1
(Wilkinson Road)
Victoria Adult Probation Office
Combined Services Unit (Volunteers/Bail
Supervision/James Bay Project)
Case Management Unit (Administration)
Attendance General (Administration)
South Island 2
Jordan River Camp
Youth Detention Centre
Duncan Probation Office
Court Services (Victoria)
Metchosin Camp
Family Court Probation Office (Victoria)
New Directions Program
Sidney Probation Office
Graham House (1978)
North Island District
Snowdon Community Correctional Centre
Lake View Youth Containment Camp (1978)
Port Hardy Probation Office
Campbell River Probation Office
Courtenay Probation Office
Port Alberni Probation Office
Parksville Probation Office
Nanaimo Probation Office
75
 APPENDIX C
REGIONAL HEADQUARTERS:
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
See Map below lor
Lower Mainland
Regional Areas.
1. Vancouver Island Regional Office
209-2951 Tillicum Road
Victoria. B.C.
V9A 2A6
2. North Fraser Regional Office
11965 Fraser Street
P.O. Box 67
Maple Ridge. B.C.
V2X 3C3
3. South Fraser Regional Office.
c/o Room 200 ■ 33384 South Fraser Way
Abbotstord. 8 C
V2S 2B5
4. Vancouver Regional Office
Ste 400  805 West Broadway
Vancouver. BC
V5Z1K1
76
5. Interior Regional Office
Room 350   546 St  Paul Street
Kamloops. B.C
V2C5T1
6. Northern Regional Office
3rd Floor
444 Victoria Street
Prince George, B.C.
V2L2J7
 Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1978
1,230-578-678
 

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