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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1974

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. Jack Radford, Minister Lloyd Brooks, Deputy Minister
Edwin H. Vernon, Associate Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH, BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, AND MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
(COMMERCIAL FISHERIES)
Year Ended December 31
1973
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
  Victoria, B.C., February 1974
To the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1973.
JACK RADFORD
Department of Recreation and Conservation
 Victoria, B.C., March 1974
The Honourable Jack Radford,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir:   I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1973.
LLOYD BROOKS
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation
   CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  9
General Administration  11
Fish and Wildlife Branch  21
Provincial Parks Branch  77
British Columbia Provincial Museum  111
Marine Resources Branch (Commercial Fisheries)  143
COVER PHOTO
Naikoon Provincial Park, on Graham Island,
in the Queen Charlotte Islands.
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1973
Lloyd Brooks, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
Significant progress was made during the year to accommodate the growing
demands on the Department from an environmentally concerned and aware public.
Stepped-up activity was possible by all four branches as a direct result of welcome
new funding and staffing.
The first restructuring of the Department's senior administration was made
with the appointment of an Associate Deputy Minister and additional Assistant
Directors in both Parks and Fish and Wildlife. These additions will enable the
Department to respond more effectively to specialized needs of senior management
and the public.
There was a substantial increase in new park acquisition under the Provincial
Parks Branch. New protection by statute of 82 of the most important Provincial
parks was most welcome and timely. Continued emphasis was given to historic
parks in response to growing public interest in this special type of facility. Over
one-quarter million visits were recorded to each of the two most developed historic
parks—Barkerville and Fort Steele.
Progress was also made in new park research projects and in new planning
approaches to meet changing demands. Also, a new programme, the Community
Recreational Facilities Fund, stimulated construction of much-needed recreational
facilities in over 90 communities throughout the Province. This programme has
generated tremendous response and should do much to enrich the lives and recreational opportunities of thousands of British Columbians.
The Provincial Museum is moving full speed ahead to complete its new exhibits,
thanks to increased budgeting. A target date of 1976 has been set to complete all
galleries in the Museum. Work was started on the remaining space designated for
the Anthropology and Natural History Galleries. Of major importance is the first
concerted effort to prevent the loss from this Province of historical objects through
the historical artifact acquisition programme. The Provincial Museum is also
initiating needed new programmes such as travelling exhibits and technical aid to
other museums to give this important service a truly Provincial dimension. Scientific
study and collection of the flora and fauna of the Province is being expanded.
The Commercial Fisheries Branch is being renamed the "Marine Resources
Branch" to reflect more accurately its broader involvement in the marine resources
of this Province, especially conservation. The Branch stepped up its activities as
a Provincial voice in national and international fisheries negotiations and to provide
guidance to other departments whose activities may impinge on the Province's
marine resources. New aquatic plant management programmes are being developed
in anticipation of increased commercial activity in this relatively new field. Similarly,
improved management capability in the shellfish industry was initiated.
 A backlog of Fish and Wildlife inventory needs required the hiring of new
staff to provide a catch-up. The inventory is urgently needed to serve as a guide to
current resource allocation decisions. New staffing under this Branch also resulted
in better habitat protection and increased enforcement.
The growing concerns and changing demands of the public are expected to
place a continued heavy load on the Department of Recreation and Conservation,
but 1973 marked an important turning point in permitting the Department to
improve its capability in responding to these demands.
10
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  Lloyd Brooks, Deputy Minister, Department of Recreation and Conservation.
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        AA  15
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel office.
The staff of General Administration work closely with all branches, and the
Department of Travel Industry, in such Departmental matters as putting policy into
effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance. General Administration
is also responsible for the processing and handling of all subscriptions to Wildlife
Review.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
PROJECT SAM
The Department continued a programme of environmental conservation by
removing abandoned and derelict motor-vehicles and other scrap materials from
roadside and recreational areas through the services of Project SAM; the name is
derived from the first letter of each of its three objectives—Salvage old car bodies,
Assemble at suitable collection depots, and Manufacture into smelter feed, has
compacted 54,203 derelicts at 223 depots in 116 communities within 22 regional
districts throughout the Province. In that time 37,011 of thees compacted derelicts
have been hauled to the shredding plant in Richmond. The remaining cars are
stacked in depots around the Province. Enumerable old stoves, refrigerators,
washing-machines, freezers, and water tanks have also been compacted and hauled.
A number of depots in 11 regional districts have been serviced twice already.
The hauling has been done by Project SAM lowbeds, private sector trucks
(on a back haul basis), and barge companies.
The reclaimed material is used in the manufacture of a wide range of steel
products.
Approximately 15,000 cars were hauled to the shredder and 19,000 cars
compacted during the period of January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1973.
WILDLIFE REVIEW
The Departmental magazine Wildlife Review, which is issued quarterly, has an
average press run of 36,000 copies. Individual circulation accounts for 25,000 of
these, while bulk purchases from some branches of the Department, from the
Canadian Forestry Association, and others, represent a further 8,000 copies. Copies
are also sent to the various regional offices of the Department throughout the
Province.
The magazine has a limited exposure through selected stores. Some 22,000
of the regular subscribers are in Canada, 4,000 in the United States, 500 in the
United Kingdom, and small pockets of readers in countries throughout the world.
PERSONNEL SECTION
The year 1973 saw a continuation of the development of the Personnel Section
within the Department of Recreation and Conservation. An additional Personnel
Officer and three clerks were added to staff. A comprehensive system of employee
evaluation was introduced with some degree of initial success. Work has begun
on a system of establishment control and the development of basic personnel filing
systems. Other systems within the Personnel Section will be established during
the forthcoming year.
 AA  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
During 1973, major classification reviews were undertaken involving the
various technical groups within the Department. These included the park technicians, fish and wildlife technicians, and museum technicians. In addition,
numerous individual classification reviews were undertaken. The Personnel Section
also assisted in major reorganizations of the Parks Branch and the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
The Section had an extremely active year in the recruitment of additional staff
at all levels. Extensive recruitment of short-term employees was again continued
through the Accelerated Parks Development Programme.
Over 200 new continuous employees were recruited at the professional,
technical, and clerical levels. Highlights included the appointment of an Associate
Deputy Minister, two new assistant directors in the Fish and Wildlife Branch, and
one new assistant director in the Parks Branch.
In 1973, two employees completed the Basic Course in Public Administration,
one employee from the Department commenced the 1973/74 Executive Development Training Programme, while three were admitted to the Course in Public
Administration. A number of employees attended short programmes in staff
management, first aid, and secretarial practice. Plans were laid to train senior
management and supervisory staff for the introduction of collective bargaining
procedures during 1974.
Six employees in the Department received 25-year continuous service awards:
Fish and Wildlife Branch: R. R. Farquharson; Dr. J. Hatter; W. S. Webb;
A. M. Hames.
Parks Branch: W. R. Heggie.
Provincial Museum: C. J. Guiguet.
The Department of Recreation and Conservation was honoured in receiving
the Premier's award for the most improved accident prevention record in the
Provincial Government during 1973. This marks the second time that the Department has received this award since its inception in 1970.
Two safety awards of merit were presented to the Parks Branch:
Alouette Lake Region, bronze.
Langford Workshop, silver.
PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICE
The public's interest in the things we do continued to be demonstrated in
1973, with an increasing tendency on the part of the public to seek information in
a collective manner.
As few as three press releases were issued in February and as many as 20 in
November. The increase resulted from the emphasis given to the need for media
contact as the year progressed. Additional staff were provided with the appointment
of an assistant to the office secretary, and a photographer, assigned on a temporary
basis.
The Resource Use Information Committee, composed of public information
officers from departments represented in the Environment and Land Use Committee,
was dissolved in 1973 as the E.L.U.C. Secretariat was formed.
The Departmental Public Information Officer continued to be a member of
the Wildlife Review Advisory Board. As well, he assumed the appointment of
assistant editor on the departmental publication and, in that capacity, conducted
a general readership survey.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        AA  17
The Departmental Public Information Officer also carried out information
duties with the Man and Resources programme (Canadian Council of Resource
and Environment Ministers) and assisted at the Provincial and national meeting
in an information services role.
Several meetings of Public Information Officers and senior staff in the Department were held during the year to discuss the possibility of improving information
services. Generally, information officers felt that services to the public and to the
Department needed much improvement and as the year concluded they looked
ahead with hope that 1974 would see important changes.
  E. H. (Ed) Vernon, Associate Deputy Minister.
  Flsti
Department: of Recreation and! conservation
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 23
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G. D.   Taylor
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  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        A A 25
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
J. Hatter, Director
A budget increase of $1.2 million and an increase of 48 in permanent staff
enabled the Fish and Wildlife Branch to improve and expand most of its programmes and services above previous levels. Public concern for the welfare of
fish and wildlife resources and many associated environmental matters placed
heavy demands on the Branch for the implementation of more intensive management practices of all kinds and for greater interdepartmental involvement in natural
resource planning. Similar demands placed on other agencies and industry created
heavy demands for information and consultation services which the Branch was
unable to meet at previous budget and staff levels. Budget increases permitted the
Branch to obtain more precise estimates of fish and wildlife stocks as well as more
detailed knowledge of habitat requirements; to acquire more inventory information
applicable to land use and resource development decision-making; to improve and
extend enforcement, information, education, and habitat protection services; and
to conduct a number of habitat improvement projects.
During the year the Branch was reorganized into three main divisions—Management and Development, Planning and Administration, and Enforcement and
Environmental Protection. Assistant Directors were appointed to each of these
and senior positions were added to the headquarters staff to co-ordinate major
activities within the Branch. This has served to redistribute a very heavy work load
and to provide better co-ordination of activities and programmes throughout the
Province. In addition, a new regional office was established at Smithers to provide
essential services in this rapidly developing northwest section of the Province.
The need for increased habitat protection services throughout the Province was
partially alleviated by the appointment of eight habitat-protection biologists and
technicians to regional offices. This permitted wildlife and fisheries biologists, who
were previously inundated with demands for this type of work, to redirect their
attention to management aspects of more direct benefit to hunters, fishermen, and
other recreationists.
Newly established conservation officer districts at Cassiar, Port Hardy, and at
Tlell on the Queen Charlotte Islands, an addition of 10 Conservation Officers, and
an increase of 57 in the number of auxiliary Conservation Officers has expanded
and extended enforcement services. In addition, five Conservation Education Officers were appointed to regional offices in order to provide improved information
education services and to permit the extension of the Conservation Outdoor Recreation Education programme throughout the Province.
Continuing increases in the demand for hunting and fishing opportunities are
reflected in the revenue statement for the 1972/73 fiscal year. Resident hunters
increased slightly and more than 8,000 additional resident fishermen elected to
spend some of their leisure time on the waterways of British Columbia. Hunting
by nonresidents increased only slightly, while fishing activity decreased. However,
Canadians from other provinces enjoyed fishing in British Columbia to a greater
degree than ever before.
 AA 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue by Source
1968/69
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
1972/73
$
$
$
$
$
579,412
604,906
623,988
615,745
($4)
620,974
($4)
($4)
($4)
($4)
Nonresident hunting licence (other
173,725
182,800
179,450
166,225
175,475
than Canadian)
($25)
($25)
($25)
($25)
($25)
Nonresident  hunting   licence   (Ca
2,160
1,995
1,995
2,715
2,265
nadian)
($15)
($15)
($15)
($15)
($15)
Deer-tag licence.-.	
179,387
173,544
177,581
162,451
151,505
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
Moose-tag licence	
300,770
329,058
319,545
311,636
330,114
($6, some $5)
($6)
($6)
($6)
($6)
Elk-tag licence   _ _...
55,680
56,080
51,090
44,380
45,530
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
15,420
14 938
14,751
12,976
($2)
($2)
($2)
$2)
($2)
12,180
12,280
12,985
13,215
($5)
13,275
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Caribou-tag licence	
24,610
24,290
26,585
28,540
31,580
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
28,460
26,545
28,160
22,670
25,080
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
7,882
8,136
8,970
10 677
10,407.50
(50C)
(50O
(50c
(50* )
(50*)
1,795
2,244
2,295
($5)
($5)
($5)
(Canadian)
Big-game trophy fees (non
321,760
328,436
324,570
298,820
280,725
resident)
550,667
610,128
639,552
642,651
667,821.50
($3)
($3, some $2)
($3)
($3)
($3)
Resident steelhead angler's
9,462
10,856
10,700
48,717
54,087.31
licence
(25*)
(25c)
(25C)
($2)
($2)
2,684
($1)
licence
232,710
257,000
261,070
249,870
238 640
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
Nonresident angler's licence
65,862
67,986
72,486
78,753
84,684
(Canadian)
($3)
($3)
($3)
($3)
($3)
Nonresident angler's (short-term).....
138,298
165,882
168,151
163,103
157,001
($3.50, some $2)
($3.50)
($3.50)
($3.50)
($3.50)
Nonresident   steelhead   angler's   li
9,635
11,995
10,495
9,620
9,655
cence
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Nonresident angler's licence
17,883
20,731
20,908
19,388
17,780
(minor)
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
11,020
11,665
10,880
10,360
12,543
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Guide-outfitter,    registered   guides,
12,185
12,405
29,400
29,136
28,170
and    small    game    and    angling
($15, $10, $5)
($15, $10, $5)
($50, $5, $15)
($50, $5, $15)
($50, $5, $15)
guides
Resident   fur  trader's   licence   and
35,778
37,040
36,793
29,671.24
37,700.50
royalty on fur
Fines  imposed  under  the   Wildlife
29,645
31,094
35,282
38,181
58,062.50
Act and Firearms Act
Miscellaneous revenue	
23,0791
18,0491
8,132
6,916.50
10,140.21
Subtotal               	
2,837,610
3,017,838
3,075,314
3,018,661.24
3,086,590.52
Less commissions on sale of
132,675
109,347
157,972
142,912.91
129,779.27
2,704,935
2,908,492
2,917,342
2,875,748.33
2,956,811.25
Less Wildlife Review	
29,542.11
Total                   	
2,927,269.14
i Includes subscriptions to Wildlife Review.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 27
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
During the year a specialized environmental protection team was created by
combining fisheries and wildlife habitat protection elements within the Branch. The
resultant division considerably strengthens and specializes the habitat protection
function and allows the fisheries management unit to direct more effort toward
management, enhancement, and specific regulation of the freshwater fisheries of
the Province.
Most Branch fisheries management work is organized and conducted in the
field by biologists and technical staff under the direction of regional directors in
the seven management regions of the Province. Much of the fisheries activity is
therefore outlined in the regional sections of this Report. However, several
Province-wide functions are administered or co-ordinated through the Victoria
office to provide services and support to regional management programmes. These
activities are outlined in the following sections.
Angler Use and Licensing
The number of freshwater anglers in the Province increased by approximately
9,000 from 1971/72. Anglers in British Columbia freshwaters have increased by
about 50,000 (18 per cent) in the last five years (1968/69 to present). Table 1
presents the estimated number of angling licences sold in the Province annually for
the last nine years. Due to some duplicate licensing (steelhead licences and alien
three-day licences), there is a variation between these data (see below) and the
actual number of anglers using British Columbia freshwaters.
Total Freshwater Anglers and Total Licence Sales, 1964/65 to 1972/73
Year Total Licence Sales Year Total Licence Sales
1964/65 219,551 1969/70  365,691
1965/66  236,789 1970/71   376,227
1966/67 289,436 1971/72  357,468
1967/68  315,790 1972/73   368,869
1968/69  328,767
Analysis of angling licence sales indicates that fewer United States anglers are
coming to British Columbia from Washington and California than in past years,
while more visitors from the eastern and southern states are angling here. In
1968/69 about 72 per cent (17,121) of the non-Canadian anglers came to the
Province from Washington and California. In the 1972/73 licensing-year only
67 per cent (15,975) of the alien anglers came from these two states, in spite of
identical licence fees. Alberta anglers still make up over 80 per cent of all angling
from other Canadian provinces.
Steelhead Questionnaire Results
In the 1972/73 licence-year, 28,992 anglers purchased steelhead licences.
Of that number 9,503 (32.8 per cent) did not fish for steelhead. Of those who
did (19,489), only 8,165 anglers (42 per cent) were successful in taking one or
more steelhead. Some 61,452 steelhead were caught, of which 25,670 were
released. These data are almost identical with the catch and release figures of
1971/72. Steelhead angling provided an estimated 203,400 angling-days of
recreation in the past year.
 AA 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HHHHK
■;;3„_i.:C    ::::S:::~-~:.     CMia-:
Outside rearing-ponds at the Kootenay Trout Hatchery near Wardner.   Two and a
half million fish were raised in these ponds in 1973.
The satisfaction of an outdoor experience.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 29
A temporary fishway built by the Fish and Wildlife Branch to pass kokanee over an
obstruction on Inonoaklin Creek, a tributary to Arrow Lake near Edgemont.
—(Photo by B.C. Research Council)
Partially constructed pilot plant to evaluate water recycling for the new Fraser Valley
Trout Hatchery.   Note newly designed circular rearing-ponds at lower left.
 AA 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
California bighorn sheep on lands secured for wildlife management near Riske Creek.
Two million ducks, five million shorebirds, and thousands of other bird species migrate
annually through the Lower Fraser Valley. In addition, about 250,000 ducks, 20,000 snow
geese, and 1,000,000 shorebirds remain to winter on the tidal marshes and agricultural
lands of the valley. The Fish and Wildlife Branch is continuing its efforts to preserve this
critical aquatic bird habitat.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        AA 31
—(Photo by D. Demarchi)
Valuable grass benchlands near Riske Creek acquired by the Fish and Wildlife Branch
to insure more effective management of the California bighorn sheep.
—(Photo by R. Wright)
One of the forty elk transplanted from Jasper National Park to the release site near Lytton.
 aa 32 british columbia
Inventory
A total of 89 lakes throughout the Province was fully surveyed or partially
resurveyed in 1973. Emphasis was directed toward southern Vancouver Island
(Victoria area), the Cariboo-Coast Region, and the Northern Region. Information
pertinent to fish management, for nearly 1,300 of an estimated 22,000 lakes in the
Province, is now available. A total of 62 drainage systems was examined by stream
survey crews with emphasis placed on description of physical conditions and fish
distribution. Aerial photograph interpretation and overflights in some systems
reduced ground reconnaissance requirements.
Requests by other Government agencies, industry, and the public for information on water bodies noticeably increased during the year. A data retrieval system
and method of preparing survey maps for wider distribution was investigated to
meet growing demands. Co-operative surveys with several resource agencies (e.g.,
Forest Service, B.C.L.I.) provided opportunities for cost-sharing and preparation
of objective alternatives for integrated resource-use planning.
Habitat Improvement
A wide range of improvement activities included stream clearance, diversion
structures, lake aeration, chemical rehabilitation, food organism (shrimp) and egg
transplants, and lakeshore clearing.
Co-operative ventures with service clubs, several logging companies, and the
Parks Branch were, for the most part, highly productive. Stream clearance, including log-jam removal, stabilization of road banks, and fish-passage structures were
the major activities.
Engineering, biological, and technical support from headquarters was provided
to most regions, several other sections in the Department, other Government
branches, municipalities, and the public to expedite both long- and short-term local
projects involving fisheries.
Reconnaissance and subsequent project initiation have become more complex
with increasing and competing demands on water and land resources.
The following is a brief summary of typical improvement projects pursued
in 1973:
Lightning Lake outlet—The second co-operative venture between the Fish and
Wildlife Branch and Parks Branch (Vancouver District) resulted in the improvement of an outlet spawning stream in Manning Provincial Park. A phased and
limited stream-clearance programme was commenced in 1973 as well as providing
adult and fry ascent facilities for rainbow trout. It is anticipated in 1974 that
further clearance work will be conducted by Parks personnel with Fish and Wildlife
direction.
Meadow Creek—In 1973, progeny from the third (1969) kokanee spawning-
run in the artificial channel returned to spawn in Meadow Creek (North Kootenay
Lake area). An estimated 630,000 fish entered the system, a population level
half again as large as the donor stock.
Loosening and partially cleaning the gravel in the spawning-channel in the
past several years, in conjunction with controlling the number of spawners, has
resulted in increased fry survival. From a previous low in 1971 of 6.3 per cent
fry, survival rose in 1973 to 25.6 per cent.
Diversion of a tributary stream, which annually deposits large quantities of
sand, silt, and bedload materials in the channel, was commenced in 1973 and is
expected to be completed in late 1974.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 33
Lake rehabilitation—Five small lakes located near population centres throughout the Province were chemically treated with fish toxicants (rotenone and anti-
mycin) to remove undesirable fish (see below). A number of permanent stream
barriers were built prior to treatment to prevent reinvasion by coarse fish species.
Following detoxification and recolonization of food organisms (in the cases of
rotenone treatments), the lakes will be replanted with game fish in 1974.
Lakes Chemically Rehabilitated in British Columbia in 1973
Lake
Region
Location
Size
(Acres)
Kamloops	
Kamloops _. 	
Kamloops	
Okanagan	
Cariboo-Coast	
153
Corbett	
50
Vidette	
Savona.—	
86
82
Blue	
Williams Lake.	
126
Sheep-proof fence being constructed near Vaseaux Lake to keep California bighorn
sheep out of orchards in the area. The local Rod and Gun and Naturalists Clubs assisted
in the project.
 AA 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inonoaklin Creek—In 1972 the feasibility of providing access for migrating
adult kokanee over a series of obstructions in the stream at its exit to Arrow
Reservoir near Edgewood was determined. Since initial results indicated a combination of reservoir-level control after 1976, and comparatively inexpensive fishways
could make 15 miles of excellent spawning environment available, the first of
several large egg plantings was completed in October and November. Approximately 2 million eyed eggs (partially developed) were planted in 12 sites about
4.5 miles upstream of the reservoir. In 1977, adult kokanee returns should number
20,000 or more. Planting will likely occur in each of the next three years to build
up donor stocks for one cycle in these 4-year-old fish.
Stream clearance—As a result of surveys near Williams Lake in the Cariboo-
Coast Region in 1972, five important trout-spawning streams were improved
through stream clearance programmes in 1973. Removal of instream debris (log
jams) and beaver dams increased spawning area ninefold (from % to 6% miles).
Fish Culture
A permanent staff of 13 fish culturists, a supervisor of construction, and 22
seasonal employees based at permanent hatcheries at Abbotsford, Summerland,
and Wardner provide support to regional fisheries management programmes involving artificial fish propagation. A biologist in charge of fish culture and the
Superintendent of Hatcheries provide the necessary co-ordination with regional
staff.
Fish species cultured included brook trout, cutthroat (coastal and Yellowstone) trout, kokanee, lake trout and rainbow trout (including steelhead). Seventeen field stations were operated in 1973 to collect the eggs necessary for subsequent
fish-rearing and eventual release.
The weight of fish distributed in 1973 was the highest on record. Almost 6
million fish weighing 51,000 pounds were stocked in 380 lakes (see below). This
is the first time since 1962 that production has exceeded 50,000 pounds.
Number and Weight of Fish Released From Hatcheries in 1973
Number Pounds
Brook trout   71,500 204
Cutthroat trout—
Yellowstone   64,000 20
Coastal   1,950 56
Kokanee   289,750 332
Lake trout   57,000 1,955
Rainbow trout  5,325,270 47,056
Steelhead   19,463 1,023
Totals   5,828,933        50,646
Duncan River (Kootenay Region) was again planted with a small number of
fish (3,200).  This is part of an enhancement programme for this population of
large rainbow trout which has been prevented from spawning in traditional areas
due to construction of the Duncan Dam.
Some 868,000 kokanee eggs were placed in Mission Creek as compensation
for eggs lost from the native run when a mud slide covered many of the eggs with
sediment.
Two liberations of young steelhead were completed during the year.  The first
summer steelhead, of Coquihalla origin, were placed in a seminatural rearing-pond
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 35
adjacent to the river. High water in December caused the loss of an unknown but
large number of the 2,900 fish which were introduced earlier in the year. In 1974
a larger number of summer steelhead will be released in the Coquihalla pond for
an additional year of rearing with supplemental feeding. About 17,000 winter
steelhead were liberated in a rearing-pond located on property of the Armed Forces
Base at Chilliwack. No artificial feeding was provided for this group of steelhead.
An attempt is being made to establish a small run of fish to this site for future egg
collections.
In total, 18 million eggs were collected in 1973; 9.5 million rainbow trout,
4.8 million kokanee, and 3.2 million brook trout. Sufficient numbers of eggs of
most species were obtained to satisfy requirements for regional fisheries management programmes. For the first time, no eggs were imported this year from outside
the Province. Adequate numbers of brook trout and domestic rainbow, which
were formerly imported, were obtained from British Columbia fish stocks.
Planning and design of the Fraser Valley Hatchery continued as a major
project of the Department of Public Works and staff of the Fish and Wildlife
Branch. Design of this facility was nearing completion in December when a
contract was let to preload the construction site with gravel. Evaluation of a
system for water reuse and treatment was completed during the year by B.C.
Research. The pilot plant used in tests has operated satisfactorily for five months
and design of the new hatchery will incorporate features of the test unit for water
recirculation.
Several construction projects were completed or nearly completed in 1973.
A wooden weir used to trap mature rainbow trout in the outlet stream (Spahomin)
of Pennask Lake was replaced with a more durable structure. Trapping of fish at
this site has been poor in recent years due to fish movement past the 40-year-old
structure. At Swalwell (Beaver) Lake, another important field station for egg
collections, improvements were made to the residence, grounds, egg-holding and
boat-dock facilities. New water-distribution lines to the fish ponds and egg incubation room were installed at Summerland along with replacement of all the fish
rearing-troughs.
In co-operation with the Department of Bacteriology and Biochemistry at the
University of Victoria, a small number of trout from 13 lakes were examined to
determine what bacterial groups were present and in what orders of magnitude.
Many of the study lakes are sites for fish culture operations, and "background"
levels of bacteria could prove to be useful in future fish culture programmes.
Fisheries Research Board personnel from Winnipeg were given assistance in
collecting fish for a genetics programme designed to develop suitable fish stocks
for aquaculture developments.
An evaluation of two manufactured fish foods commenced in 1969. This year,
the study involved sampling the returns of spawning rainbow trout, of three-year
classes, which were hatchery reared and planted in Swalwell and Premier Lakes.
In each of three years, 25,000 marked fish raised on each diet were introduced to
Premier Lake. The following summarizes returns of mature adults of different ages
to the spawning-stream according to the diet:
 AA 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Year
Class
Ewos Diet
Clark Diet
Age
Total
Age
Total
11
III
IV
li               III
IV
1969.	
1,508
227
515
502
211
2,211
398
515
1,307
129
269
426
103
215
[    1,948
1970	
171
232
1971	
......      |      ......
269
Totals	
|    3,134
1
|    2,449
[
A much smaller number of marked fish have been accounted for in spawning-
streams at Swalwell Lake. Creel census data indicates this may be due to the more
intensive fishery in this lake when compared to Premier Lake.
About 35,000 people visited the three fish hatcheries in 1973 (about 20,000 in
1972), with most visitations in the summer months. Tourist guides were on staff
at Summerland and Kootenay Hatcheries to assist visitors during their tours.
Research and Technical Services Section
The emphasis of fisheries research has shifted from strictly biological studies
of fisheries management problems to a broader view of the effects of other resource
uses on dynamics of sport fish populations. In addition, a growing proportion of
research effort has been spent participating in interagency, multidisciplined resource
studies, both within the Provincial service and in co-operation with the Institute of
Animal Resource Ecology at the University of British Columbia.
Trout Production and Resource Conflicts, Loon Lake
This year the study has been directed along two basic lines of investigation—
(1) to determine biological and environmental factors regulating rainbow trout
production in the lake as well as the inlet and outlet streams, and (2) to assess the
impact of angling, increased cottage development, and intensified ranching on lake
production and productivity.
Production of juvenile trout from the outlet stream was lower in 1973 (16,600)
than in 1972 (25,000), but 10,900 fry migrated in 1973 compared to only 4,500
in 1972. Inlet production of 125,000 fry in 1973 was similar to the 1972 estimate
despite an unusually dry year. This estimate suggests that some of the previous,
less detailed estimates have probably been conservative.
In order to determine the trophic state of the lake, standing crops of phyto-
plankton and zooplankton have been measured and algae bloom species identified.
Preliminary analysis of the ratio of selected diatom species found in lake bottom
sediment cores indicates that the lake may have undergone a change in recent times.
Examination of scales of outlet spawners marked as juvenile and fry migrants
indicate possible differences in pattern and rate of growth as well as differences in
age at return when compared to those from the inlet stream. Trout migrating to the
lake as juveniles return as males age 2+ or 3 + , while females return at either age
3+ or 4+- The relationship between age of lake entrance and age of first return
as a spawner has yet to be determined.
Food selectivity of stream rearing-trout in inlet and outlet streams is being
determined by comparing stomach contents with available food items found drifting
in the stream; seasonal patterns of food availability will also be assessed. Similar
data for young trout in the lake littoral zone indicates that in some months more
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 37
plankton is found in the diet of juveniles than in fry, which supports earlier
observations of niche differentation by the two age-classes.
A more comprehensive analysis of the sports fishery was undertaken in 1973
using two methods to assess angler success and effort. Resort-owners provided
patrons with survey cards on which to record fishing-trip duration and number of
fish caught. These data will be compared to stratified samples of anglers interviewed
on the lake itself. Preliminary computations of catch indicate that it is slightly
higher than last year (about 41,000 fish) in spite of a small decline in total effort.
During the survey, demographic data and angler preferences for types of fishing environments were gathered. British Columbia residents comprised 75 per cent
of the angler population, while the remaining 25 per cent originated in the United
States. In response to a hypothetical question regarding a change to fly fishing
only on Loon Lake, less than 5 per cent of the anglers indicated that they would
fish the lake more frequently than present, while 40 per cent indicated that they
would stop fishing Loon Lake under those circumstances. If evidence of clearcut
logging was visible to the angler on the lake, then 43 per cent of the British Columbia
resident fishermen stated they would not change their frequency of visitation, while
40 per cent would go elsewhere. In contrast, corresponding values for nonresident
anglers were 70 per cent and 23 per cent respectively.
An experimental screening device on the inlet stream prevented adult and
juvenile trout from entering an irrigation ditch, but evaluation for passage of fry
was postponed because of low water conditions.
Fisheries Management and Forest Harvesting
The interagency study involving the Fisheries Service, Department of the
Environment, the B.C. Forest Service in co-operation with a forest products company, was continued in the Slim Creek watershed, 50 miles east of Prince George.
The study is designed to determine the effectiveness of fisheries protective measures
currently incorporated in forest harvesting plans.
Preliminary results of physical and biological measurements have demonstrated
the primary importance of obtaining and utilizing soils data in the early planning
stages of forest harvesting designs. The major biological impact has occurred at
Centennial Creek, as a result of sediment transport originating from main roads and
skid trails located in silty textured soil deposits. Without erosion controls and
relocation of roads, reserve strips along Centennial Creek were limited in effectiveness. Results of surveys on stream-course alterations, associated with several
streamside harvesting practices, indicate that selective harvesting in narrow reserve
strips, rather than harvesting to and across streambanks, is an effective management
practice for minimizing instream debris accumulations, bank scour and slumpages,
possible fish obstructions, and diversions in small tributary streams.
Limnological conditions and fish populations of Tumuch and Shandy Lakes
were assessed monthly during spring to fall in 1973, concentrating on light penetration, zooplankton composition, and fish catches in beach seines. Possible changes
in Tumuch Lake, induced by forest harvesting, will be compared to Shandy, the
control lake. The post assessment period is scheduled for 1975; preliminary results
indicate reduced light penetration from suspended colloidal sediment and increased
nutrient input in Tumuch Lake during spring and fall. Growth rate of mountain
whitefish in the two lakes appears identical at this point in time.
Sedimentation and Salmonid Egg Survival Studies
In both natural streams and those associated with poor land-use practices,
suspended sediment loads may reach levels that seriously impair salmonid repro-
 AA 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ductive success. Studies were initiated during 1973 to provide a better base for
assessing the effects of various suspended sediment loadings in rainbow trout and
kokanee spawning-substrates. Sediment deposition, survival, and quality of emergent fry were examined for typical trout egg incubation conditions throughout a
range of suspended silt loads. Emphasis is being placed on determining the effect
of various particle sizes on egg survival, emergence success, emergence timing, and
fry condition.
Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Joint Study
An investigation of the distribution and spawning habitat requirements of
shore-spawning kokanee in Okanagan Lake was completed by the preparation of
a report that provided estimates of the effects of lake-level change on reproductive
success. An average of about 30 per cent of all eggs deposited in 1972 were probably killed because of the drop in lake level that occurred between November 1,
1972, and January 31, 1973. Distribution of shore spawning was determined
primarily by the availability of suitable gravel.
Water Management Investigations, Ellison, Wood, and Kalamalka Lakes
Under the auspices of the B.C. Water Investigations Branch and in co-operation with B.C. Research, the Research Section assessed the fishery resources of the
lakes and streams; estimates of the effect of several water-management alternatives
on the fishery resource have been made. Possible improvements in Wood Lake
water quality would likely decrease the total annual yield per acre, but this would
likely be compensated for by an increase in the relative abundance of kokanee,
mountain whitefish, and rainbow trout. Maintenance of water quality in Kalamalka
Lake will probably have little or no effect on sports fish populations there. Water-
management schemes will have no impact on recreational fisheries in Ellison Lake
because no sports fish are found there; winter recreational use of the lake will
have to be taken into account by management alternatives—some opportunities for
rehabilitation of the lake for sports fish do exist.
Lake-level changes in Wood and Kalamalka Lakes during 1972 did not cause
any significant loss of shore-spawning kokanee. Reproductive success of sal-
monoids in Coldstream Creek is restricted because of a deterioration in water quality
induced by land-use practices in its watershed. Initial feasibility studies have been
made to determine the possibility of restoring spawning habitat in Vernon Creek
between Ellison and Wood lakes.
Technical Services
Computer programming services, advice on statistical analyses, and data
processing were provided for several other Branch sections and regions.
Fisheries Research personnel acted as expert witness in two successful court
cases under section 33 of the Fisheries Act and assisted in evidence collection procedures for a third case.
Samples of fish scales from several projects in many areas of the Province
were processed and read. Benthic samples from the Kootenany River were sorted;
preliminary analysis indicate that there was a greater number and diversity of invertebrate species above the pulp-mill effluent and significantly fewer species and
numbers below the effluent discharge.
 DEPARTMENT OF K .CREATION AND CONSERVATION,   1973
AA 39
Publications
Halsey, T. G., and B. N. Lea, 1973.   The shore spawning habitat of kokanee in
Okanagan Lake and the effect of lake level changes on reproductive success.
Task 66E Preliminary Report.   22 pp.
Northcote, T. G., 1973.    Some impacts of man on Kootenay Lake and its sal-
monids. Technical Report No. 25, Great Lakes Fishery Commission. 46 pp.
  1973.   Eutrophication and recreational fishes in two large lake basins in
British Columbia.    Proceedings of the Symposium on the Lakes of Western
Canada,   pp. 173-180.
Slaney, P. A.; T. W. Chamberlin; and T. G. Halsey, 1973.   Effects of forest
harvesting practices on the aquatic environment of watersheds in the central
interior of British Columbia: A progress report of the fishery-forestry studies
at the Slim-Tumuch watershed.   33 pp.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
As a direct result of revised Government concepts of multiple resource use,
wildlife management improved its position in the field of land-use planning. Progress was also made in the areas of wildlife inventory, habitat evaluation and protection, mainly due to increased funding and staffing. Waterfowl habitat improvement
projects, both independently and in co-operation with other conservation agencies,
were a continuing phase of wildlife management during the year. More specific
references to these aspects of management are included in the following regional
portions of this Report. Opportunity for Youth programme and the employment
of summer students were intrinsic parts of these and other projects.
Habitat Protection
Recognition of the  importance of critical ranges  to wildlife management
resulted in the acquisition of several key areas.   These include:
(1) A donation of 469 acres of land near Golden made to the Fish and
Wildlife Branch by John and Caroline Bergenham. This land will
be used for the preservation and propagation of wildlife in the East
Kootenay area.
(2) Extensive holdings of Riske Creek Ranch (formerly part of the
Gang Ranch), which are important to bighorn sheep, were acquired
by the Crown in trade for grazing land of less importance to wildlife.
This trade will allow for effective management of the bighorn sheep
in the Chilcotin River area.
(3) An area of 250 acres in the vicinity of Mud Bay, known as the
Serpentine Wildlife Management Area, has been declared a wildlife
sanctuary under the Wildlife Act. The Fish and Wildlife Branch,
Ducks Unlimited (Canada), Canadian Wildlife Service, and Douglas College are co-operating in a project to raise Canada geese in the
sanctuary for release throughout the Fraser Valley.
(4) An area of approximately 1,900 acres, known as Bummers Flats
near Fort Steele.
(5) An area of approximately 1,012 acres, known as the Gordon Earl
Ranch near Newgate.
(6) An area of approximately 975 acres known as Three Sons Ranch
near Wasa Provincial Park.
 AA 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Studies were initiated to examine ways of minimizing land-use conflicts in the Mica
Reservoir and in the Purcell Range of the East Kootenays. These studies will serve
to establish wildlife as a legitimate user of land in recognition of their public values.
Management
The winter of 1972/73 was a favourable one for most wild ungulate populations. Grouse population levels were generally somewhat lower than average,
principally due to inclement weather during hatching and rearing periods. The
abundance of waterfowl during the hunting season showed a slight increase over
previous years. There was evidence of a notable increase in coyotes in the southern
and central areas of the Province and this, coupled with an increase in the occurrence of black bears in both urban and suburban areas, necessitated increased
predator control measures on these species.
The Hunter Sample continued to provide statistical data on game harvests by
British Columbia residents, and the voluntary information submitted by sportsmen
to this end is gratefully acknowledged. The following table summarizes the last
seven years of resident game harvests:
Summary of Game Harvests by Residents of British Columbia, 1966/72
Species
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1972
Deer	
Moose 	
Elk	
Caribou..	
Goat      	
Sheep.—	
Grizzly bear	
Pheasant	
Grouse	
Licensed hunters
76,692
19,940
1,970
798
1,762
225
182
29,207
508,514
134,351
70,534
19,397
1,709
1,191
1,577
221
159
32,324
978,485
143,048
77,013
22,469
2,257
830
1,661
267
192
23,531
623,979
145,052
57,035
15,205
1,498
854
1,557
227
176
23,634
807,229
151,653
65,830
16,450
1,638
949
1,386
248
204
25,267
948,142
153,424
56,117
17,379
1,526
1,000
921
223
159
24,017
691,585
152,759
25,433
11,486
933
1,080
737
252
194
7,982
384,954
150,615
The management of wild fur-bearers continues to contribute significantly to the
income of resident trappers, particularly in the central and northern Interior of the
Province. The commercial value of the wild-fur harvest over the last 11 years is
as follows:
$ $
1963   1,024,898.26 1969      867,494.12
1964      854,422.29 1970      657,733.72
1965      600,316.91 1971      702,049*. 11
1966      889,332.40 1972      794,445.80
1967      666,682.06 1973  1,744,480.40
1968      687,255.16
The high values for the years 1963 and 1973 probably reflect the cyclic
periodicity of Canada lynx populations, which tend to reach a high population
density approximately every tenth year.
The Department has joined an all-out effort to find a human alternative to the
controversial steel leg traps. A contribution of $5,000 was made to the Canadian
Association for Humane Trapping in furtherance of that organization's humane
trap development programme. There was also an involvement on behalf of Provincial wildlife management in the Federal-Provincial conference on humane trap
development planning. As a result of this conference a committee has now been
established to co-ordinate humane trap research and development on a Government-
sponsored, nation-wide basis.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,   1973
AA 41
Special Studies
A study of opportunities for improving hunting recreational use of private
lands was conducted in the Fraser Valley. The results of this study will provide
guidelines for developing better relationship between wildlife managers, landowners, and sportsmen. In particular, the Fish and Wildlife Branch will act as
a catalyst to facilitate co-operation between owners of huntable lands and the
hunting public. A pilot test area will likely be set up for the 1974 hunting season
in the Fraser Valley.
Wildlife Research and Technical Services
Research
Wildlife species are integral parts of the many ecosystems in the Province.
As parts of the whole, they are affected by the development and utilization of
resources in these ecosystems, especially by habitat alterations. Again this year,
research activities were keynoted by the study of these interfaces that are of important and often critical value to wildlife.
The effects of logging on moose, blacktail deer, Roosevelt elk, and mountain
caribou were examined in such diverse areas as the sub-boreal and boreal forests
of north central and northeastern British Columbia, the coastal rain forests of Vancouver Island, and the alpine and subalpine zones of the Kootenays. These studies
are defining baselines for the habitat requirements of these species and looking at
the effects of different logging practices, with the aim of producing guidelines for
forest management. The mountain caribou project is unique as it is an international
effort to research the last remaining herd in the contiguous United States.
The interaction between wildlife and domestic stock was studied at three locations. In the East Kootenays, we partly supported a study of the habitat preferences
of elk, mule deer, whitetail deer, bighorn sheep, and cattle on an important big
game winter range. This study will likely conclude in 1974. In the Ashnola, near
Keremeos, a regional project is concerned with the response of California bighorn
sheep to the removal of cattle. Since the cattle were removed in 1968, little
change in the adult population has occurred. We are also co-operating in a study
on deer and cattle on the Dewdrop Range near Kamloops, in order to determine
how cattle-grazing affects the capability of a winter range for deer.
Our growing concern for humane trapping and for the nonconsumptive use of
wildlife is reflected in two supported projects. We extended a grant to McMaster
University for a research project that is trying to develop a humane alternative to
the leghold trap. We also funded a new project for this year—a proposal to increase
deer numbers on a Lower Mainland area for both nonconsumptive and consumptive users in this most heavily populated area of the Province.
Long-term research on the population dynamics of Vancouver Island blue
grouse was also supported in 1973. A variety of projects are under way designed
to determine why grouse numbers vary between areas and with time. Continued
support was also provided for contract studies into the economic benefits of wildlife
to the people of British Columbia.
Technical Services
In addition to conducting and supporting research projects, we completed a
variety of technical services for the regional offices. Requests for data were collated
and compiled. Specimens submitted for autopsies were examined for parasites,
and tissues were submitted for pesticide analysis.   The analyses carried out are for
 AA 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
chlorinated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury. We
are especially concerned with those accumulator species near the top of food chains
such as hawks, falcons, eagles, owls, and sea-birds, and those species used for
human consumption, such as grouse and waterfowl. We acted as a liaison between
regions and the several agencies that carry out and provide remote sensing data,
from aerial photographs to satellite imagery.
Additional services included assistance to enforcement through identification
of hair samples; laboratory analyses, such as plant identification and rumen content
analyses for food habit studies; and graphic services such as draughting and artwork.
The first of a proposed series of public information booklets on wildlife parasites and diseases was released. Titled Trichinosis in British Columbia, the pamphlet describes the disease—symptoms and occurrence, the causative parasite and its
life cycle, and how wild meat should be cooked to make it safe for eating.
Report
Eastman, D. S., 1973.   Moose-factory interactions in the sub-boreal spruce zone
of north central British Columbia.   Second annual report.   29 pp.
  1973.    Integrating moose habitat management with forest development.
Presented Ninth North American moose conference and workshop, Quebec.
10 pp.
1973.   Effects of logging on moose habitat in north central British Colum
bia.   Presented to Fish and Wildlife Branch Seminar, Prince George.    12 pp.
Friis, L. K., 1973.    Trichinosis in British Columbia.    Fish and Wildlife Branch
publication.    4 pp.
CRESTON VALLEY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA
Construction activities continue to change the face of the management area
for greater public enjoyment as well as for greater waterfowl usage. The construction of dykes, nesting islands, and water-level control structures at Leach Lake
neared completion this year with the co-operation of Ducks Unlimited (Canada).
Now vegetation patterns may be altered by the manipulation of water levels, permitting a greater diversity of habitat for migratory and resident waterfowl and, in
time, substantial numbers of locally produced waterfowl will be seen.
Summit Creek Campground was opened to public use in early July. Overnight facilities received over 30 per cent utilization in 53 nights of use. The Parks
Branch again assisted in providing maintenance funds.
Public facilities for greater enjoyment of Duck Lake's waterfowl populations
were completed with the generous assistance of the Creston Kiwanis Club. Club
members donated labour and materials to build a viewing platform and a rustic
shelter from which visitors may better watch the activities of the waterfowl. The
facilities occupy a site overlooking the northeast corner of Duck Lake, and include
an information shelter with appropriate signs.
A contract for the construction of the Creston Valley Wildlife Centre was
awarded this year. The site for the centre is located in the marsh near the Management Authority's administration centre. The first permanent staff member for the
new wildlife centre will plan to conduct the summer's interpretative programme—
this will consist mainly of organized tours and talks until the wildlife centre is completed. This programme should greatly enhance public understanding and appreciation of the management area, of the Creston Valley, and of other natural features
of the area.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 43
In addition, technical and public advisory groups to the Management Authority
have been established to provide more active public participation in the plans and
programmes of the management area.
Habitat Protection
In 1973, each administrative region acquired a habitat protection biologist and
technician. The full-time involvement of these persons in local resource conflict
investigations has made the regional protection function far more efficient than in
the past, and has considerably reduced the burden of these activities previously
thrust under regional fisheries and wildlife management biologists. However,
because of the varied training and work experience brought to the Branch by each
of these new employees, there will continue to be a good amount of sharing of this
particular work, and a reliance upon the considerable knowledge of wildlife populations which is acquired by other staff members in the course of their management
and enforcement activities.
Liaison
To an ever greater extent, other branches and departments of Government are
entering into effective discussions and agreements with the Branch to provide for
protection of fish and wildlife resources. Particularly encouraging were invitations
extended by the Deputy Minister of Water Resources to begin informal meetings
with Pollution Control Branch and Water Resources Service to improve the effectiveness of the referral systems existing between our branches.
Although beginning discussions have focused on more administrative matters,
future meetings should explore wildlife resource problems relating to policies in
placer-mining, operation of pulp-mills, sewage disposal, and solid-waste disposal.
Similarly, discussions with the Water Resources Service should centre on provision
of residual flows in fish-bearing streams, regional water management, and flood
control policies. The Department of Highways is entering into a system of formal
notification to this Branch and regular joint staff meetings to allow for input of
habitat protective measures in all aspects of highway, bridge, and other construction and maintenance. Although various informal notification systems at headquarters and field offices have existed with the Department of Highways for some
years, the real need for a more formal system was not recognized until conflicts
arose in 1973 relating to unauthorized channelling of the Similkameen River in
Manning Provincial Park.
The Branch has entered into the beginnings of a satisfactory and encouraging
relationship with the newly-established Secretariat of Environment. It is hoped
that we will provide useful information and some guidance to this group in their
future activities.
Hydro-electric Dams
The Province continues to plan for filling the growing need for electrical power
by construction of hydro-electric dams. The Branch is, with its own resources
and with use of consultants, investigating fish, wildlife, and recreation conflicts and
potentials at eight potential damsites in the Province. In 1973, Campbell and
Kokish Rivers were reviewed as possible sites for generation of peaking power on
Vancouver Island; a site must be selected in early 1974 to supply this need. In the
Interior of the Province, studies conducted by environmental consulting firms with
some direction from this Branch have mainly been directed toward finding ways to
compensate for loss of deer ranges associated with the soon-to-be-constructed
 AA 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Seven Mile Dam on Pend-d'Oreille River. At Site 1 downstream from the W. A. C.
Bennett Dam on Peace River, another environmental consulting firm has determined
that wildlife losses will be small, but is devising methods of ensuring that a viable
sport fishery will exist within the pondage. The Branch undertook an overview
appraisal of problems associated with a possible Kemano II hydro-electric development which includes possible diversion of water from Dean, Morice, and Nechako
Rivers. Other sites receiving various degrees of investigation included the McGregor Diversion of the upper Fraser into Peace River system, a small site (Ain
River) on Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Revelstoke Dam downstream of Mica
Dam on Columbia River.
Pulp-mills
In 1973 the Habitat Protection Section continued to maintain an effective
liaison with regional personnel and with other Provincial and Federal agencies in
dealing with pulp-mill effluent discharges to inland waters of the Province. Of
major concern were mills located on the Thompson, Kootenay, and Columbia
Rivers.
Numerous complaints of deteriorating water quality in the Thompson River
during the low-flow period (November 1972 to March 1973) prompted a hasty
interagency appraisal prior to the onset of run-off conditions. The Fish and Wildlife Branch co-operated with the Pollution Control Branch, Fisheries Service, and
the Environmental Protection Service in an attempt to isolate and identify pollution
sources. It was found that colour was a direct result of pulp-mill discharges.
Orders have since been issued to rectify this problem. A further more comprehensive study involving additional Federal and Provincial agencies has begun and
will continue through a complete water cycle (to spring 1975). The information
obtained will form a basis for further management recommendations.
A sampling programme was conducted on the Kootenay River in order to
document our objection to grossly deteriorated conditions arising through effluent
disposal.   These data are currently being reduced and interpreted.
Recent personnel additions will enable the Fish and Wildlife Branch to expand
its capability to investigate pulp-mill pollution at all Interior locations. This Branch
has been invited to participate in developing a proposal for quantifying the effect
of various effluents on fish and their habitat in the Columbia River near Trail. It
has been suggested that the pulp-mill at Castlegar be included in this study.
Forestry
"Total Resource Planning" has been the key phrase during 1973 for the
Forest Service and Fish and Wildlife Branch. The concept of integrated forest
resource planning was originally formulated through the efforts of the Prince
George Forest District and (Northern) Region VII of the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
The objective and principle of this system is to establish and identify all resource
values with their respective contraints before the planning for forest harvesting
commences. During 1973 the first steps were taken to expand this system throughout the Province.
Continuing excellent co-operation from the Forest Engineering Division of the
Forest Service in all regions has resulted in a number of major forest road and
bridge construction projects completed with minimal environmental damage.
During 1973 the Habitat Protection Section was invited to sit on a number of
Forest Service Engineering water improvement project committees. These committees are charged with planning the clearing of drowned timber in a number of large
reservoirs in British Columbia, including Nechako Reservoir (Ootsa Chain), Willis-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 45
ton Reservoir, and Mica Reservoir. Habitat Protection personnel are currently
engaged in planning priority cut areas, leave areas, etc., for the benefit of lake
fisheries, recreation, and lakeshore wildlife range.
Road Construction
Referrals from Department of Highways Design and Survey Section and Bridge
Design Section reached monumental proportions in 1973. Major construction
projects in which the Habitat Protection Section became heavily involved were
Highway 1 from Victoria to Nanaimo, Highway 3 from Hope to Princeton, and the
extension of Highway 401 from Hope to Merritt via Coquihalla and Coldwater
River valleys.
Extensive environmental problems encountered along Similkameen, Skagit,
and Sumallo Rivers adjacent to the Hope-Princeton reconstruction project have
resulted in the Department of Highways establishing the Highways Environmental
Liaison Committee on which sit representatives of Fish and Wildlife Branch, Parks
Branch, and various sections of Department of Highways. The purpose of the
Committee is to discusss and devise ways and means of establishing closer liaison
between headquarters and in the field.
Pesticides
Regulation and monitoring of pesticide use in British Columbia became a major
function of Habitat Protection personnel in 1973. Through its representation on
the B.C. Interdepartmental Pesticide Committee, the Branch is able to recommend
environmental protection measures for all herbicide and insecticide projects conducted throughout the Province. Branch personnel made numerous pre- and post-
spray inspections in 1973 with the excellent co-operation of the B.C. Forest Service
and the member companies of the Council of Forest Industries.
Representation on the Council of Forest Industry's Pest Control Committee
provides this Branch the opportunity for involvement in all the planning stages for
control of major forest insect outbreaks, ensuring the early formulation and incorporation of environmental protection measures. An example of a major insecticide
programme in 1973 was the northern Vancouver Island spray project aimed at
control of the black-headed budworm in the Neuroutsos Inlet area. The chemical,
Simithion (fenitrothion), was applied twice at the rate of 2 oz./acre, a concentration
believed not to be harmful to animal or fish life. Although a 600-foot leave strip
was to be maintained on all water bodies, Fisheries Service and Fish and Wildlife
Branch personnel monitored the spray for effects on fish. To date, no adverse
effects on fish populations have been discerned as a result of spraying.
Referral Systems
Placer-mining—The concept of placer-mining throughout the Province has
come under critical review this past year by all resource agencies involved in the
issuance of leases. It has become increasingly difficult to justify the small monetary
gains made by placer miners as opposed to the substantial degradation of the
environment that results from some placer operations. Consequently, there has
been a greater emphasis on more restrictive protective clauses and the responsibility
has been placed on the miner to fully reclaim damage done to the environment.
The Fish and Wildlife Branch currently receives all applications for placer-
mining on the Fraser River watershed, numbering 94 applications in 1973. Of
major concern during assessment of these applications is the discharge of silt-laden
effluent waters into fish-producing streams, instream work resulting in destruction
of spawning-beds and disruption of habitat, and the channelization of streams.
 AA 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Close co-operation between the Mines Branch and the Fish and Wildlife Branch is
intended to ensure that both fisheries and wildlife interests are protected.
Water licences—Excessive removal of water from rivers, streams, and lakes
in the Province is of great concern to the Fish and Wildlife Branch. Approximately
1,900 water licence applications were referred to the Branch for comment in 1973,
and investigations have shown that further water withdrawals from rivers such as
the Salmon in the Kamloops region, the Tsolum in the Courtenay area, and the
Kettle in the Okanagan could result in a total loss of fish habitat. This Branch has
requested that these waterways be classed as fully recorded.
Pollution control applications—The Fish and Wildlife Branch received 1,300
pollution control permit applications for review from the Pollution Control Branch
in 1973. It was our responsibility to investigate the applications and assess their
effects on fish and wildlife habitat; an attempt was also made to relate the recreational and aesthetic values of an area to possible harmful effects of the proposed
discharges.
Emphasis was placed on such problems as discharge of chlorinated effluents,
the need for upgrading of effluent treatment from municipal and industrial sources,
the location of dump-sites adjacent to watercourses, and the recurrent problem of
refuse-sites and their attractiveness to bears.
This latter situation is a most difficult problem. Bears, both black and grizzly,
soon discover garbage-sites are an easy food source. Studies have shown that
bears in proximity to humans often lose their fear of people and become panhandlers,
raiders, and garbage eaters. Consequently, garbage-eating bears must be destroyed
or trapped and relocated to avoid injuries to humans.
One way to minimize these conflicts is to reduce the attractiveness of the
refuse. Our personnel have done some study on incineration; and we have
encouraged consolidation of refuse-sites and requested bear-proof fencing around
some disposal sites.
Reports
Hooton, R. S. Sport fish, wildlife and recreation values in Chemainus River Watershed, and some effects of construction of a water storage dam.    17 pp.
Hooton, R., and M. R. Whatley. A preliminary survey of fish and wildlife to be
affected by hydroelectric developments on Columbia River. 25 pp., appendices.
Morley, R., and M. R. Whatley. The effects of implementation of the Kemano
II project on sport fisheries, wildlife and recreation.   110 pp., plus appendices.
OKANAGAN REGION
The year 1973 was one of unprecedented growth and activity in all phases
of fish and wildlife administration. Dominant in the period was the great attention
given to acquiring and upgrading of inventory of the fish and wildlife resources of
the region. Companion to the inventory emphasis in our work load has been the
notable increase in public contact in both field and office areas by our Conservation
Officers, in particular. This has resulted in a closer check on the user of the fish
and wildlife and has enabled us to respond to a greater variety of public requests
for information, guidance, and service. Accommodation for our district officers
and for the regional office, however, remains overtaxed. Opportunities to develop
and execute meaningful, socially supported fish and wildlife management programmes have never been better. We are confident that with support our activities
will further improve the security of the over-all wildlife resources of the region.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1973      aa 47
Protection and Enforcement
The protection of the resource base and enforcement of hunting and fishing
regulations were considerably accelerated at the district level with the attachment
of six special Conservation Officers to assist in the wide variety of duties in the five
district conservation offices. Additionally, the Penticton office was elevated to a
two-man district late in 1973 with the assignment of a junior Conservation Officer
to the area. This assistance resulted in a much increased public contact which was
reflected in a better service to the public and a higher rate of field checking for
general enforcement purposes. It also allowed a number of special enforcement
patrols to areas of known hunter and fishermen concentrations. Alpine patrols
were conducted in the Ashnola area (MA7), Galloping Hills (MA8), and Mount
Faith area, in the Granby River drainage. Special creel census programmes were
conducted on several waters of the area (Beaver-Dee Lakes, Okanagan Lake and
River, Yellow Lake, and the Kettle River and tributaries.) Although the emphasis
in general enforcement continues to be placed in the hunting season, public contact
with fishermen and other recreationists has been increasing. A significant increase
in public demand for protection from nuisance wildlife has been of concern. This
area of servicing accounted for almost one-fifth of the field endeavour of our
Conservation Officers in 1973 and was largely related to the protection of agricultural crops or live stock from ungulates and black bears.
The present practice of equipping our Conservation Officers with two-way
U.H.F. radio continues to bring dividends. Liaison with the RCMP has been improved with the common ability to communicate readily from field locations and
we are able to bring enforcement capability upon a given area much more rapidly
than formerly. Attempts to tie in aerial patrols to our staff vehicles by radio have
given much promise of more effective coverage of backwoods areas by our staff.
The demands for the services of our Conservation Officers are increasing rapidly
and are having severe effects upon their conduct of field contact with the users
of the wildlife resource.
Wildlife Management
The winter of 1972/73 was relatively mild, and wild ungulate populations
fared well as did game birds. Post-season counts of mule and whitetail deer
revealed an increase in overwinter survival of juvenile animals as compared to the
two previous years. However, as populations generally remained lower than
desired, a further cutback in hunting opportunity was brought about by a cessation
of hunting female mule deer throughout Management Areas 5, 6, 7, and 8.
The mountain goat populations of southeastern Management Area 7 are
increasing, particularly in that portion between the Similkameen River and the
International Border. That group, closed to hunting in 1966, has shown a steady
increase, while the stocks north of the river, long closed to hunting, have remained
static.
The California bighorn sheep populations of the Ashnola, Vaseaux, and Shorts
Creek areas passed the winter in good condition. Carefully regulated hunting
seasons were allowed in the Ashnola and Vaseaux area, but the Shorts Creek stocks
were closed to hunting.
A three-year study of the migrational behaviour and population dynamics of
the California bighorn sheep in the Ashnola was concluded in early summer. The
results of this intense study, not yet published, have given a better basis on which
to manage the sheep-dependent lands of the area in co-operation with the B.C.
Forest Service, which administers the area.
 AA 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A study of the effect of wildlife damage in orchards and vineyards was commenced under the guidance of a committee representing the B.C. Fruit Growers and
the B.C. Grape Growers Associations. The questionnaire sent to all association
members (3,000) revealed the dispersal and intensity of damage caused by large
mammals (deer, elk, and bear) and provided an estimate of the economic significance of the damage to those agricultural sectors.
The first part of a joint programme to attempt to alleviate the losses of deer
in the Summerland-Peachland section of Highway 97 was completed with the installation of a series of roadside reflectors to delay the movement of deer onto the roadway at night when occupied by vehicles. The second part of this project, the erection
of a test section of fencing, has yet to be completed by the Department of Highways.
It is hoped that these techniques may prove effective in reducing both the hazard
to motorists in this area and the loss of animals which, in some winters, exceeds 100
mule deer.
An ongoing deer-tagging programme in the Tulameen portion of Management
Area 7 and on the Summerland deer winter range (MA 6) is expected to lead to
an understanding of the location and extent of the summer/fall ranges of these two
stocks. To date, 31 deer in the Tulameen, and two mule deer of the Summerland
stocks have been marked.
Intensive planning for the development of wildlife capabilities of Swan Lake,
near Vernon, and the estuary of the Okanagan River at Osoyoos Lake was largely
completed in 1973, and it is hoped that these areas may be subject to co-operative
development in 1974.
The Gilpin range-management unit, east of Grand Forks in Management Area
8, is a co-operative venture with the B.C. Forest Service, Department of Highways,
and Parks Branch. This deer winter and spring range, composed of private, vacant
Crown, and greenbelt lands, received intensive improvement during 1973. Refenc-
ing, water-hole improvement, browse improvement, and fertilization were variously
applied to planned sections of the eco-unit. This experimental approach to the
integrated management of several resource values is proving both viable and beneficial and is strengthened by representation of public groups interested in the planning council.
Intensive deer range improvements were carried out on extensive portions of
critical deer winter ranges in each of Management Areas 5, 6, 7, and 8. A variety
of techniques including browse forage pruning, thinning, seeding, fertilization, fencing, water-hole improvements, and spring burning, were carried out on winter ranges
in the following locations:
MA 5—Byers Range, Shuswap River.
MA 6—Shorts Creek; Antlers Saddle, Peachland; Vaseaux Creek.
MA 7—Etches-Cool Creeks, Ashnola River; Hargreaves Flat, Crater
Mountain; Ashnola, Juniper Creek.
MA 8—Gilpin Management Unit, Grand Forks.
A review of the current status of road access was conducted by summer
assistants for most of the region. Information from the Department of Highways,
the Forest Service, the Department of Mines, and logging companies was consolidated to give an up-to-date picture of the extent and availability of roads for recreational use.
A summer assistant was assigned the task of initiating a review of the historical
status of fish and wildlife of the region. Study of newspaper archives, Historical
Society publications, and direct contact with "old-timers", by tape, was the basis
of this still-incompleted project.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 49
Preparation of a publication on the history of the pheasant in the Okanagan
is complete and expected to be published shortly.
The involvement of our wildlife staff in resource management planning necessitated the refinement of wildlife inventory data and the initiation of new inventory
programmes to provide the data needed for integrated forestry, highway, and
regional district planning. This enterprise accounted for a dominant portion of the
work-year of our wildlife staff.
Fishery Management
The rapidly developing demands by resource management agencies for fish
and wildlife inventory and recreational evaluations were largely met by the fishery
management staff of the region. While this new and exacting function was emphasized, basic fisheries management activities were quite fully pursued, particularly
in the improvement to fish habitat.
A two-year base-line study of the fishery and aquatic resources of the Main
and West Kettle Rivers was completed in 1973. This evaluation, created in the
context of the interdisciplinary planning needs, provides the basis for fisheries
management and protection input to each other resource management agency of
government. The water requirements of the Kettle River and its tributaries for
fishery maintenance purposes has been established and, in marriage with an acute
knowledge of the extent and dispersal of game fish stocks of this system, now forms
the foundation for planning for the recreational use of this large area in the Kettle
River watershed.
Similarly, a definitive survey of Okanagan, Kalamalka, and Woods Lakes for
the location and extent of shore-spawning kokanee was completed during the year.
This information is important to the future management of both the kokanee and
trout fisheries of these lakes and has resulted in various forms of protection being
sought for these valued foreshore areas.
A special year-round creel census of Beaver (Swalwell) Lake near Winfield
was initiated during the year. This major angling water of the Okanagan supports
not only the heaviest of recreational fisheries but is also the source of a majority of
the wild Kamloops trout eggs required by our hatchery system. The study is
designed to indicate the extent to which the fishery may be exploited before a threat
to the trout-egg supply becomes evident.
Twin Lake, southwest of Penticton, was chemically rehabilitated in 1973
with the use of a new, short-life chemical antimycin. This treatment to remove
undesirable competition fish completes the restoration of the two lakes in the
system—Home Lake, treated in 1972, and Twin. The latter was stocked with
rainbow trout about one month following the chemical operation.
Yellow Lake, on Highway 3a, between Penticton and Keremeos, continues to
yield amazing numbers of rainbow and brook trout and to support a unique recreational fishery involving many thousands of angler days. The maintenance of this
productive water is due entirely to the operation of a machine-driven air pump
which, in the late fall and early winter period, upgrades the oxygen content of the
lake to sustain the trout within. It has been calculated that, given a value of $5
per fisherman day, the benefit to cost ratio of this fishery approximates 16:1.
Not so happily, we must report that in October, the failure of a large water
flume adjacent to Mission Creek caused many thousands of yards of clay and silt
to be deposited over the entire bottom of the creek for a distance of about 10 miles
to Okanagan Lake.    This accidental inundation caused the complete destruction
 AA 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the 1973 kokanee spawn, then in the gravel of the river, as well as an estimated
80 per cent reduction of rainbow trout juveniles from the spring 1973 spawn-year.
The rehabilitation of the creek bottom is being planned for the spring of 1974.
Mining and roadbuilding activities along different portions of the Similkameen
river created gross threats to the habitat of fish by the silt enrichment of this river.
In both cases, corrective action was adopted and the destructive threats to this
beautiful river subsided.
Fishery habitat improvement projects completed during  1973  included the
restoration and restructuring of many spawning streams serving the following lakes:
MA 8—
Conkle Lake  5,150 square yards spawning/rearing substrate.
Arlington Lakes (2) ____     550 square yards spawning/rearing substrate.
Copper Kettle      650 square yards spawning/rearing substrate.
Chain Lake  improvements to Shinnish Creek diversion ditch.
MA 7—
Boss       400 improvements to Shinnish Creek diversion ditch.
Kump (Lost)       300 improvements to Shinnish Creek diversion ditch (plus bank willow
planting).
Murphy (2) Lake      235 improvements to Shinnish Creek diversion (plus fish ladder).
Hornet Lake        70 improvements to Shinnish Creek diversion (plus ladder).
Summit Lake  culvert screening.
Gladstone Lake  culvert replacement and screening.
Dead Horse Creek      100
Ketchum Lake       150
Missezula Lake      900
Stringer Lake       300
Rampart Lake      800
Whipsaw Creek  creek clean-up.
MA 5—Hidden Lake       600
MA 6—Coldstream Creek  2 miles of creek cleaned of trash and
debris.
Basic descriptive reconnaissance for physical and biological parameters was
conducted on the Wap River watershed, tributary to the northern end of Mabel
Lake, the Shuswap River above Sugar Lake, and the sloughs at the headwaters of
the Kettle and Inonoaklin Rivers adjacent to the Monashee Highway.
During the year, all fishery inventory for the region was transcribed to a
standard map base using colour-coding to designate various resource components,
i.e., spawning areas, high-use angling waters, obstructions, access, etc. These
basic resource-planning functions formed a large part of our effort during the
year and, while not the sort of activity which can readily be seen by the public,
has already, and will continue to bring, dividends to that public in better recreational
resource management.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 51
KAMLOOPS AND CARIBOO REGIONS
Resource Protection
Resource protection received a major boost with addition of a regional habitat
protection biologist and one technician to deal primarily with resource conflicts and
to apply inventory data collected by management sections to resource decisions.
This will allow management sections more time to concentrate on projects designed
to improve fishing and hunting.
Inventory crews were active in both regions throughout the summer cataloguing game ranges and surveying lakes and streams. Moreover, additional funds
made it possible to hire students for mapping and for collecting information from
other agencies applicable to protection work. Data on past fires and past logging
activities were assembled and the various Ranger offices of the B.C. Forest Service
were most helpful, without exception. Nevertheless, conflicts remain and their
seriousness reflects the degree of direct interaction.
Intra-agency meetings programmed every two months provide an effective
forum for discussing differences between departments. But there is no doubt the
escalating demands for all products of the land make compromise and solutions
more difficult.
Fisheries Management
Cursory survey of streams tributary to Owikeno Lake was made to assess effect
of logging and generally evaluate potential production and stream gradient for future
referrals. Steelhead counts were again conducted on Chilcotin River immediately
downstream from the lake where most spawning occurs.
Stream clearance crews continued to remove log jams and other obstructions
that would impede spawning. Also, a number of outlet screening devices were
installed to prevent downstream losses of maturing trout where re-entry to the lake
was impossible.
Windmills were installed on about five lakes that had a history of winterkill.
By pumping air through a diffuser whenever the wind blows, this technique may
effectively replace a compressor, thereby reducing cost and need for constant attention. Initial results are encouraging, but oxygen levels will need to be checked
throughout winter of 1973/74 before making any meaningful assessment.
Fishing was generally good throughout the year in most Interior lakes, although
it dropped off badly during hot weather in August and early September. Run-off
was light and reduced natural recruitment. Also, total rainfall was lowest for many
decades, magnifying demand for water. Many of the productive lakes near Kamloops are dammed and drawdown was usually maximum. Consequently, water
levels were minimal at freeze-up and winterkill in marginal lakes could be higher
than usual, especially if there is a heavy snow cover.
Courtenay and Corbett Lakes were rehabilitated with rotenone to remove
undesired special and co-ordinated with a study supervised by Dr. P. A. Larkin
(UBC) to monitor changes, if any, in flora and fauna. Both lakes will be stocked
with yearlings in 1974 and it is planned to release larger trout in Corbett to establish
a fishery by early summer.
Vidette Lake near Savona and Blue Lake near 100 Mile were also treated,
but with an antibiotic termed antimycin (fintrol). This chemical is cheaper than
rotenone and degrades rapidly; post-treatment checks indicate total removal of fish.
The two lakes will be stocked but possibly not until fall, thereby providing one summer for food supply to recover.
 AA 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A creel census was maintained on Dean River from May through September to
record angler success, gear used, resident to nonresident numbers, and degree of
hooking and release. Some 500 fish were tagged in hope of learning more about
movement patterns of this famous run of summer steelhead. While data have not
been fully assessed, results show a need to reduce use of natural baits because of a
common hook and release practice. Conversely initial impressions on steelhead
movement pattern cast doubt on validity of some closures.
Wildlife Management
Wildlife managers likewise spent most of the project funds on range inventory
and mapping of data collected in past few year. With possible shifting of logging
operations from Dean to Kinsquit Valleys, funds were provided to conduct an
appraisal of wildlife values and general topography, especially width of valley and
slope. These are two key features that determine possible impact of logging on a
watershed, problems relative to planning of road location, size of cut-blocks, protective leave strips, and so forth.
Wildlife Biologist H. Mitchell spent two weeks covering streams is Owikeno
area as part of a five-year plan to evaluate grizzly populations in this portion of
Management Area 17. Grizzly concentrate along spawning-streams, moving in
presumably from most of the surrounding area. Track measurements and plaster
casts provide a means of identification from which counts of different animals can
be made. Experience has demonstrated the advantage of measuring the track,
rather than the foot making the track.
Appraisal of winter range on Skull Mountain near Kamloops revealed improvements from experimental logging by Branch personnel as a meaningful technique of
range improvement. While not a practical approach using Branch resources, the
results indicate that industrial logging of game winter ranges can be modified to
extract timber and improve wildlife populations.
Watch Lake grouse study terminated and results will be contained in a
Master of Arts thesis which should be completed in early 1974. Study of competition between deer and cattle continued on the Dewdrop area, completing the third
year of a proposed five-year study.
With the mild winter of 1972/73, moose and deer came through in good condition in contrast to the previous two winters when conditions were much more
severe. Data from Cache Creek indicated both number of hunters and game harvested increased substantially, even though a partial forest closure in September
curtailed hunting at the outset. Grouse were scarce, which was expected because of
cold and wet weather during hatching period.
A number of changes were effected in regulations, reflecting the concern of
residents about game abundance and their reluctance to share it on an equitable
basis. Nonresident were not allowed to hunt antlerless moose and deer in Management Areas 16, 17, 18, and 19, and no complaints were received over what could
be considered a marked change in status quo.
Enforcement
Use of auxiliary Conservation Officers again proved effective in providing better
enforcement coverage, particularly during hunting season. One of these temporary
officers doubled as a pilot and an aircraft was rented during July and August pri-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 53
marily to check fly-in lakes in Chilcotin and southern Cariboo. One two-man district was established at Williams Lake and it is hoped to add others as funds become
available.
Auxiliaries were hired on a monthly basis to work in areas where the Conservation Officer was away on annual leave or had been transferred, whereas others
were employed one or two days per week in particular areas.
VANCOUVER ISLAND REGION
In the face of a rapidly expanding population on Vancouver Island and attendant increasing competition for the use of land and water resources, management
of the highest order will be required to maximize fish and game production and
recreational opportunities. Otherwise today's efforts will prove entirely inadequate
to meet tomorrow's needs.
Should the wildlife resource remain in a static condition, or decrease, it is
obvious the return to the recreationist will be less in the future than it is today. If
we follow the pattern of history, a further reduction in sportsman bag limits and
seasons will be in order so that the available supply can be spread among a larger
number of sportsmen. Nonconsumptive users will have fewer recreational opportunities. Whether or not these reductions will be made depends largely on the
effectiveness of the management programmes developed and to the degree money
is invested in these programmes. Science and experience have combined to provide
many of the techniques and tools needed to protect and increase fish and game
production. Implementation of existing knowledge plus that which will come
through further research and experience must be done as rapidly as finances will
permit.
On Vancouver Island some vitally needed staff positions were established near
the latter part of 1973; these included the posting of a Conservation Officer to Port
Hardy, the acquisition of a resource protection biologist and technician at Nanaimo,
and the hiring of an Information and Education Officer whose main responsibility,
at first, will be to make visible the mandatory CORE programme. The new Resource
Protection Section will undoubtedly release fish management and wildlife management staff for other management activities that have been neglected because of
work pressure in past years.
The region's main efforts in 1973 were aimed at:
protecting the resource base;
protecting the resource;
inventory;
research into new and better inventory techniques;
increasing fishing opportunities in the urban environment;
initial attempts at sampling public opinion.
Fisheries Management
Emphasis was placed on habitat protection during 1973, with a considerable
amount of time spent on various forestry-fisheries conflicts. Field surveys were
conducted on approximately 300 specific areas slated for immediate cutting and
those watersheds where cutting is to take place in 1974. Close contact was maintained with officials from various resource agencies, including the Forest Service,
the Water Rights Branch, the Department of Highways, the Lands Branch, and the
Pollution Control Branch.
 AA 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A historical study relating past fish distribution and numbers on the Cowichan
River with development of the watershed was undertaken. This study will provide
some insight into the lang-term trends of fish populations.
The first year of a three-year hatchery evaluation and recreational use study
was initiated on lakes in the Victoria area. Studied most intensively were Elk-
Beaver and Prospect Lakes, while other surveys were conducted on Council, Dur-
rance, Glen, Langford, Matheson, Old Wolf, Prior, Spectacle, and Thetis Lakes.
In addition, areas of legal public access to all Victoria area lakes were researched.
This information will be used as a base in establishing a management plan for the
area.
Inventory surveys on Vancouver Island streams and lakes continued through
1973. Information collected during the inventory is transferred to colour-coded
maps and made available to field personnel and various resource managers. Approximately one-half of the region remains to be inventoried.
A number of major rivers and streams have been selected for continuing snorkel
surveys. This programme will give fisheries managers information on the relative
abundance of various fish populations and will help in pinpointing sensitive areas for
fish production.
A preliminary inventory of the fisheries resource of the Tsitika River indicates
that the entire drainage is utilized by anadromous fish and contains a fairly large
summer-run steelhead population. The Tsitika represents the last unlogged watershed on the east coast of Vancouver Island, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch has
proposed that it be set aside as an ecological reserve.
An extensive cutthroat trout research programme was initiated. The programme, which will take three years to complete, includes work on the interactive
ecology of cutthroat trout and coho salmon, creel census, scale analysis, and an
evaluation of habitat requirements for cutthroat. This work is being carried out at
various locations on Vancouver Island, including the Oyster and Puntledge Rivers,
Sproat Lake, and the Gorge waterway in Victoria.
As part of a continuing survey of the unique cutthroat trout of Sproat Lake,
all accessible tributaries were examined. In a questionnaire designed to sample
angler opinion, anglers were asked if they would favour some type of fishing
restriction to protect the large cutthroat. Seventy-three per cent replied "yes",
18 per cent replied "no", and 9 per cent had no opinion. If restrictions were
introduced, 43 per cent of the people would prefer restrictive bag limits, 27 per
cent restrictive seasons, 18 per cent no restrictions, 7 per cent restrictive angling
methods, and 5 per cent had no opinion.
Enforcement
A Conservation Officer was posted to the Port Hardy District in the fall of
1973, thereby providing much needed supervision on the north end of Vancouver
Island.   This increased the permanent Conservation Officer staff of the region to 10.
A uxiliary Conservation Officers
Ten officers were employed during the year and were of assistance to the
district Conservation Officers. The value of such temporary personnel placed on
the Gulf Islands, such as Galiano, proved conclusive.
Enforcement
Extra enforcement patrols were made to Gabriola, Galiano, Pender, Hornby,
and Denman Islands, in response to complaints from residents.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 55
With the increase in meat prices, it would appear more hunters were afield
this year than last. Apprehensions of those who violated the regulations also
showed an increase. There were 195 prosecutions in 1973, compared to 86 in
1972. The incidence of night hunting was no worse than the previous year, but
accounted for many hours of patrol by Conservation Officers, assisted by the RCMP.
The most common cause of public complaints received at district offices involved cases of dogs running deer or harassing game birds; however, this matter
is very difficult to curtail.
During the months of September, October, and November, a total of 11 days
was spent on enforcement "blitz" patrols. As many as six Conservation Officers and
auxiliary Conservation Officers took an active role each day. An attempt was made
to hold these extra patrols in a heavily hunted area, and move the locations in a
random manner, to saturate the area.
"Blitz Patrols"
Total number hours  271.5
Total hunters checked   838
Violations      38
Warnings      10
Approximately three hunters were checked each hour, a violation encountered on an
average 7.1 hours, one out of every 22 hunters checked was in violation of the Acts
or regulations.
During the same months the enforcement staff also conducted programmed
patrols within their districts. In comparison, the number of hunters checked per
hour were identical, but for the time spent, the blitz programme proved more than
twice as effective in apprehending violators.
Conservation Officers also took an active role in inspections of forest cutting
permits, pollutions, and inventory.
Predator and Nuisance A nimal Control
A great deal of time was spent in an attempt to control the wolf populations at
Black Creek and on Cortes Island. In both cases, losses of live stock to wolves were
involved. The task of reducing wolf populations is made more difficult by strongly
polarized views on predator control presently held by various sectors of the public.
The apparent increase in wolf population is remarkable, considering these animals
were considered rare and endangered on Vancouver Island over five years ago.
Wildlife Management
In 1973 the groundwork was laid for an effective wildlife management programme, and the year's activities were thus extremely significant. The single most
important advance was the decision to allow wildlife managers for the first time to
have an effective say in land-use planning on the Coast. Thus, for the first time, the
Fish and Wildlife Branch had authority for effectively protecting estuaries, winter
range, and other areas of importance to wildlife populations.
Important events in 1973 included the following:
1. Following a request from the Fish and Wildlife Branch to have the Tsitika
River watershed declared an ecological reserve, a two-year moratorium was placed
on logging in the area. This watershed is the last major untouched watershed on
the east coast of Vancouver Island, and as a result of the moratorium, a land-use
planning study was begun for the entire north island.
 AA 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
2. A team of students was hired to assess wildlife values of proposed logging
areas; the first time that this type of protection work has been attempted. The programme was only partially successful, for while the students worked diligently, it
was found that the work required more expertise than they possessed, and the available funds did not permit all necessary work to be attempted.
3. Student crews conducted intensive wildlife surveys of the Tsitika River and
Kwois Creek, similar to the survey conducted in the White River the year before.
Additionally, the Fish and Wildlife Branch supervised a shorter survey of the
Toquart River in conjunction with a Forest Service study of the watershed. As a
result of these surveys, information is now available on relative wildlife densities in
most major types of untouched Vancouver Island habitat.
4. Progress was made in an attempt to assemble land for a waterfowl management unit near Tofino, but by year-end the project was not yet a reality.
5. Cougar research was carried on in two areas—at Port Alberni by Conservation Officer Bill Hazledine, and at Northwest Bay by two independent researchers,
Penny and Percy Dewar. Both studies involved tagging cougars, but only in the
latter one were radio tags utilized. These studies provided startling results regarding
the distances that cougars travel (much further than previous studies had indicated)
and the relative vulnerability of cougars to hunting on Vancouver Island. As a
result of this research, more restrictive cougar-hunting regulations are anticipated.
6. A study of deer winter-range requirements in the Nimpkish Valley was
continued. This study revealed the importance of mature timber to deer survival
in high-snow areas, and again, the radio-tagging programme produced surprising
information on the extent and direction of deer movements.
7. An inventory of many areas likely to contain colonies of Vancouver Island
marmots was conducted in an effort to determine the abundance of this species,
which is considered rare and endangered. This inventory indicated that the species
may be much more restricted in distribution and numbers than had previously been
suspected, and greater conservation measures may be warranted. The Branch also
provided assistance to a complementary study of two marmot colonies by a University of British Columbia student.
8. After an extremely mild winter, deer and elk herds began to recover
strongly. This fact, combined with very favourable hunting weather, resulted in one
of the better deer-hunting seasons in recent years.
9. Twenty-two more Canada geese were released in the Nimpkish Valley as
part of a continuing project to reintroduce the species to the area. There were indications that the project was succeeding, as geese from the area were reported
wintering in various locations as far south as Oregon. Limited nesting may have
taken place near the release site for the first time among the initial group of birds
which were placed in the area in 1971. Ten geese were also released at Comox in
a similar attempt to reintroduce the species in that area.
10. For the first time, an attempt was made to determine the opinion of
Vancouver Island residents regarding hunting, via a questionnaire mailed to
randomly selected adults. The topics ranged from the very general, such as the
antihunting controversy, to specific aspects of the Vancouver Island deer-hunting
regulations. It was found that the public was evenly split on the topic of hunting
vs. no hunting, and that most people favoured tighter controls on hunting (mandatory hunter training, compulsory red clothing, more areas closed to hunting, tighter
bag limits, and shorter seasons). The majority of hunters favoured retention of
the antlerless deer season, although most wanted it shortened and the bag limit
reduced.   (Both of these moves were made in the 1973 regulations.)
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 57
The most surprising aspect of the survey was the high public awareness of the
role of adverse land-use practices (mainly logging of ungulate winter ranges) in
the decline of wildlife populations on Vancouver Island. However, a high proportion blamed declines on over-hunting and (or) lack of enforcement.
11. At the request of natural history clubs, complete protection was given to
mountain quail and rails.
12. A survey of trumpeter swans wintering on Vancouver Island revealed a
smaller population than in 1971. This was probably due to a poor nesting season.
Five swans bearing blue collars were seen during the survey. These birds were
banded in the Copper River delta region of Alaska, thus indicating the origin of the
Vancouver Island wintering population.
13. Two Opportunities for Youth projects were completed, one of which
resulted in the construction of 31 nesting platforms for Canada geese, while the
other involved an initial attempt at clearing up the mess left by logging and hydro
operations along the Elk River. A Conservation Officer also directed the planting
of willow at the mouth of the river by local residents to prevent erosion.
14. A wildlife survey of the White River was completed in 1973. The results
indicated that deer and elk densities are much higher in some mature forests than
had previously been suspected.
15. A waterfowl habitat improvement project was also completed involving
the construction and placement by members of the public of nesting structures for
Canada geese, mallard ducks, and wood ducks.
16. An important precedent was set when the Nanaimo Water District agreed
to make provision for elk which will be displaced by the Jump Creek Dam. This
will include winter feeding if necessary.
17. The Nanaimo Fish and Game Protective Association assisted the Branch
by conducting a winter range survey of the south fork of the Nanaimo River
drainage.
KOOTENAY REGION
The Kootenay region has been the scene of several ongoing resource-use conflicts. Some activities have taken place that can help to solve the problems and lead
to better planning.
The Mica and Purcell studies have identified many facets of the resource-use
conflicts in this region. They have pointed the way to a number of administrative
and managerial approaches that will provide partial solutions. The problem of
heavy commitment or over-commitment of wood resources to industry remains as
a major issue to be dealth with if flexibility is to be allowed resource-users in other
sectors. Some major service agencies continue to operate with only secondary
planning input from other agencies. Such actions will continue to pre-empt other
management opportunities.
Government resource-management agencies are presently working to develop
more functional systems of integrated management. Two more major studies have
been proposed, in addition to the Purcell and Mica studies, to indicate inventory
needs, pinpoint potential conflict areas, and to provide a basis for selecting areas
where priority should be placed on immediate planning. A resource management
co-ordinator, support staff, and equipment have been requested as an integral part
of regional management process.
These measures will not totally remove agency problems and public concern.
If British Columbia sustains its rapid economic and population expansion, continuing resource-use conflicts will arise. Continuing trade-offs will be required. Wildlife and fisheries can be managed with some types of land use, but cannot be main-
 AA 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tained with others. Wildlife and fisheries resources and wilderness are sensitive
indicators of change. They will continue to be in the forefront of problems associated with expansionism.
Wildlife Resource Protection
Conflicts between wildlife, forestry, and agricultural interests involving Government agencies, the industries, and the public intensified in the Region. Two separate
resource studies, the Purcell Study and the Mica Study, were initiated and completed
during the year. The commitment of the timber resource to the forest industry and
the range resource to the live stock industry emerged as the fundamental issues
frustrating the achievement of integrated resource management. It is an inescapable
conclusion that as long as the timber resource is committed to a programme of
maximum sustained yield, subalpine forests, essential for the survival of subalpine
species such as mountain caribou, will continue to be exploited at rates considerably
faster than their replacement rates and marginal, low-elevation forest lands will
continue to be committed to the regrowth of conifer trees at the expense of big-game
winter range. The superimposition of live stock grazing over most of the low-
elevation winter ranges and the subsidization of a marginal agricultural industry
further complicates the achievement of optimum resource management programmes.
The fact that these commitments have been exposed through two independent
resource studies can be considered as a major achievement toward solving resource-
use conflicts in the region.
The expanding world demand for energy resources has placed a new focus on
the coal reserves in the Fernie Basin. One new open-pit coal mine was announced
in the Corbin area and at least three more potential open-pit mines are under active
exploration. Concern over long-term environmental destruction, including losses
of important big game habitat in the Elk, Fording, Michel, and Flathead Valleys,
has resulted in some action by Government and industry to minimize the losses.
At least one company (Kaiser Resources Ltd.) initiated an intensive reclamation
programme, including the training of excavation-equipment operators in environmental matters. However, the damage by open-pit mining and bulldozer exploration in high-elevation mountainous terrain is severe and cannot be entirely eliminated. A proliferation of pipe-lines, transmission-lines, highways, railroads, industrial plants, and human settlements adds further to the deterioration of the limited
valley-bottom lands.
Habitat Acquisition and Management
Mitigation proposals for wildlife losses resulting from the Libby Reservoir were
combined with ongoing and proposed land acquisition and management programmes
into a submission entitled "A Program for Land Acquisition in the East Kootenay."
The objective of the programme is to acquire key parcels of land and associated
leases and permits on a voluntary basis for the purpose of integrated resource management, according to the capability of land in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
Emphasis was placed on the acquisition, protection, and management of big game
winter ranges for public benefit.
Land-management projects, including clean-ups, rail-fencing, and habitat
improvements, were completed on the Branch's Bull River and Wolf Creek properties, a fencing project was completed on the Cominco property on the Pend-d'Oreille
deer winter range, and work was initiated on the Bergenham property.   Detailed
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 59
management plans, including Ducks Unlimited (Canada) projects, were drafted
for the three ranch properties and a joint resource agency-public committee involving both public wildlife and agricultural interests was established to participate in
the development of the management programmes.
Wildlife Management
A thorough review of elk management over the past 20 years in the Kootenays
was initiated and the review of mountain goat management neared completion.
A revision and subdivision of Provincial management areas was undertaken
and co-ordinated between regions.  A preliminary draft was prepared and submitted.
Classified big game counts in the East Kootenay revealed depressed bull moose
and elk components and lower-than-average juvenile deer, elk, and moose in most
areas flown. Bighorn sheep continued to increase in the Elk Valley herds where an
increasing proportion of rams was observed along with an increase in total numbers.
Bighorn herds in the Rocky Mountain Trench continued to show gradual recovery
following the severe die-off of 1964 to 1967. The Premier Ridge herd showed a
marked increase in the lamb component following several years of critically low
recruitment. The large Wigwam herd reached near pre-die-off numbers and appears
to be stabilizing.
Only minor changes were made in the 1973/74 hunting regulations following
the major restrictions in the preceding year. The most significant changes made
were the antler restriction imposed on bull elk and moose designed to protect
yearling males in order to restore a normal sex ratio.
Over-all big game hunter success in the East Kootenay continued to decline
directly as a result of diminishing big game numbers and indirectly because of
hunting season restrictions. Hunter activity and success in the West Kootenay
remained relatively stable for the major species—mule deer, whitetailed deer, and
elk.
A trial pheasant-hunting season under special permission forms issued by landowner agreement was held at Creston. More than half of the farmers on the Creston
Flats opened their land to pheasant hunters. About 150 hunters paid the daily $5
fee and killed about 50 pheasants. A follow-up survey revealed that the season was
well received by both the farmers and the hunters.
An additional 19 elk were released near Deer Park, completing the release of
75 elk at this site, while 18 elk were transplanted from Jasper to West Creston to
supplement the small native herd. The release of 18 elk to Premier Ridge for radio-
tracking purposes did not produce the desired results as the elk dispersed over a
large area, independently of the native herds.
Publication
Demarchi, R. A., 1972. Post die-off recovery of East Kootenay Bighorn Sheep.
Presented to N. Wild Sheep Council Symposium Proceedings, pp. 22—28.
Alberta Fish and Wildlife publ. (Edmonton).
Wildlife Resource Protection
Conflicts between wildlife, foresty, and agricultural interests involving Government agencies, the industries, and the public intensified in the region. Two
separate resource studies, the Purcell study and the Mica study, were initiated and
completed during the year. The commitment of the timber resource to the forest
industry and the range resource to the live-stock industry emerged as the fundamental issues frustrating the achievement of integrated resource management.   It is
 AA 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
an inescapable conclusion that as long as the timber resource is committed to a
programme of maximum sustained yield, subalpine forests essential for the survival
of subalpine species such as mountain caribou will continue to be exploited at rates
considerably faster than their replacement rates and marginal, low-elevation forest
lands will continue to be committed to the regrowth of conifer trees at the expense
of big game winter range. The super-imposition of live-stock grazing over most of
the low-elevation winter ranges and the subsidization of a marginal agricultural
industry further complicates the achievement of optimum resource management
programmes. The fact that these commitments have been exposed through two
independent resource studies can be considered as a major achievement.
These measures will not totally remove agency problems and public concern.
If British Columbia sustains its rapid economic and population expansion, continuing resource-use conflicts will arise. Continuing trade-offs will be required. Wildlife and fisheries can be managed with some types of land use, but cannot be maintained with others. Wildlife and fisheries resources and wilderness are sensitive
indicators of change. They will continue to be in the forefront of problems associated with expansionism.
Fisheries Management
Kootenay Region fisheries habitat continued to deteriorate in the face of
increasing industrial expansion. Logging-road construction, highway construction,
pipe-lines, power-lines, and reservoirs all contributed to further loss of fish habitat
in 1973.
Despite close co-ordination with the Forest Service, logging-roads severely
damaged several streams. In terrain dominated by steep, narrow valleys such losses
must be expected. However, this difficulty is compounded by over commitment of
the forest resource, thus making it necessary to road every valley in the Kootenays.
Planning of undeveloped watersheds in the Kootenays still follows development.
Until planning considers all resource uses prior to development, conflicts will continue to occur.
Fish Habitat Protection
1. Mining—Both Kaiser Resources and Fording Coal Ltd. appear to have
reduced the rate of habitat destruction in their respective operations. Much less
time was spent with these companies now that their operations are reasonably well
established.
Announcements in late 1973 concerning coal mining at Corbin and at Sage
Creek (Flathead Valley) undoubtedly will result in considerable work in 1974.
2. Forestry—Fishery liaison—By far the most time-consuming consideration in
fish habitat protection has been the impact of forest development. In 1973 several
major conflicts appeared, some of which have yet to be resolved. The Fry-Carney
Creek issue was considered as part of the Purcell study. This study dealt with
resource conflicts in the Purcells and the results will be made public in 1974.
Less noticeable publicly but equally intense in conflict was the proposal to log
Elk Creek. This valley was the subject of numerous meetings in 1973 and a compromising settlement was reached. Considerable damage to fish and wildlife habitat
will occur with logging in this drainage, regardless of care taken during actual
logging.
Skelly Creek, a major tributary of the Goat River, and Upper Kootenay River
north of Radium, were inventoried for fish in anticipation of logging proposals.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 61
3. Reservoirs—The Kootenay Canal power project construction phase probably peaked in late 1973. This project is having minimal effect on fish and wildlife
habitat.
The Libby Reservoir was two-thirds filled in 1973, thus flooding the Kootenay
River and several tributaries. Silt retention in the Libby plus extremely warm
weather caused severe alg_e blooms on the south arm of Kootenay Lake.
The Pend-d'Oreille River was actively under investigation in 1973 for potential power development. Some stream survey work in this area was conducted in
1973.
The Mica Reservoir began to form in 1973 and several hundred miles of fish
habitat will be lost in the process.
4. Fisheries management—A major stream inventory was conducted on the
upper St. Mary River. Fish distribution, identification of spawning habitat, and
angler use was documented during July to October. A food-habitat study of the
large Kootenay Lake rainbow trout was conducted in 1973.
Mysis shrimp transplants from Kootenay Lake to Slocan, Arrow Lakes, and
Wilson Lake were conducted in 1973.
Habitat Improvement
Minor improvements were made to the Alces Lake Diversion constructed in
1972. In addition, an outlet screen was constructed at Whiteswan Lake in an
attempt to prevent loss of spawning rainbow trout.
Land-clearing commenced at the Meadow Creek spawning-channel in preparation for construction of a diversion on John Creek. When completed in 1974 this
diversion will allow control of flood waters in the spring and also provide suitable
flows during spawning.
A major rainbow spawning-channel below the Duncan Dam has been proposed
and feasibility studies are now under way.
Nearly 2 million kokanee eggs were planted in the Inonoaklin River in the
fall, 1973. This plant is the first of several in an attempt to build up a spawning
population in this system.
Some habitat improvement work in the Lardeau River at Gerrard was attempted in late 1973. Gravel taken from the Lardeau River downstream of Mobbs
Creek was hauled to Gerrard and placed in a pre-selected site. This was the first
in a series of proposals to improve and increase the amount of available spawning
habitat for the Gerrard rainbow trout.
The 1973 adult kokanee run into Meadow Creek increased from that of four
years ago, i.e., 407,000 fish spawned in Meadow Creek in 1969 and 630,000 in 1973.
The entire spawning population of Meadow Creek is gradually increasing from the
pre-Duncan Dam years.   Nearly 1 million fish are anticipated for the 1974 run.
As expected, 1973 kokanee fry production at Meadow Creek improved considerably as a result of channel scarification in the summer of 1972. A near record
25-per-cent egg-fry survival rate was recorded for the spawning-channel. Gravel
cleaning was again carried out throughout the entire channel in 1973 (summer)
and production figures for 1974 should be between 25 to 30 per cent.
Kootenay Lake Fishing
A substantial decrease in the 1973 burbot fishery was evident. However the
main lake kokanee catch was recorded at a high of some 18,000 fish. Main lake
rainbow fishing continues to decline, particularly on the north arm.
 AA 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Resident dissatisfaction of nonresident use at Balfour continued and has grown
to conflict proportions. New licence fees and a trophy fishery licence for Kootenay
Lake was proposed during 1973 and accepted. A 25-per-cent reduction of nonresident use at Balfour is expected due to the new licence structure.
Enforcement
In the Kootenay Region, 12 Conservation Officers and one Regional Protection
Officer now comprise the enforcement staff. This is an increase of two men over
former years. All nine districts are currently staffed and three districts are now
established as two-man districts. It is hoped to have an additional man in each of
the remaining districts by the end of next year. In addition, a total of 20 auxiliary
Conservation Officers and four part-time office workers were employed during the
past summer and fall. This is the second season auxiliaries have been used in this
region and the first time office help has ever been available to the field staff. This
additional help has relieved the permanent staff of many of their routine duties and
office work and permitted them to spend more time in the field and to concentrate
on the more serious enforcement problems. This has resulted in much more efficient
service to the public and made people much more aware of the existence of this
Branch.
Prosecutions
There was a total of 193 prosecutions in the region, of which there were 189
convictions and four dismissals. The total fines amounted to $11,896. This is an
increase of 57 per cent in prosecutions and 123 per cent in fines over the previous
year. Some very substantial fines were meted out, indicating that Judges are taking
a more serious view of offences committed under the Wildlife, Firearms, and Fisheries Acts. Loaded firearms in a motor-vehicle are still the most common infraction found in this region.
Hunting Accidents
During the past year there was a total of six accidents in this region. Five
of these were firearms accidents of a more or less minor nature which occurred
while target-shooting. The remaining one, which was quite serious, was a non-
firearms hunting accident which occurred when a hunter was poked in the eye by
the antler of a bull elk whose throat he was attempting to cut with an axe.
Nuisance Animal Control
Conservation Officers spent considerable time on nuisance animal control.
Bear complaints were down considerably over that of the previous year. A number
of complaints were attended this past fall concerning elk which have moved into
the Castlegar, Kinnaird, and Robson area and become a nuisance around gardens
and orchards. Quite some time has been expended by Conservation Officers trying
to discourage these animals, with little success, so they will probably have to be
disposed of or live-trapped and transported to another area.
Equipment
Most of the enforcement staff in this region have now been equipped with two-
way radios, which will help increase their efficiency. It is hoped by next year to
equip the remaining staff with radios and to install a radio repeater in both the East
and West Kootenays for added efficiency.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 63
LOWER MAINLAND COAST REGION
Fisheries Management
The year 1973 saw the Fisheries Management Section of the Coast-Mainland
Region extensively involved in many situations where land use could conflict with
fishery values.
The hiring of students for the summer period also was invaluable in that much
needed inventory data were obtained as a result of their field investigations and
office work.
General fisheries inventory and habitat improvement work continued, with
emphasis on stream management for steelhead.
Logging and Fisheries
Investigation of new areas to be logged continued to occupy a large amount of
time within the fisheries section in 1973. The advent of a specialized habitat protection section for this region in late summer eased the load considerably.
Some of the areas that were investigated in response to the referral system (by
the fisheries section) were Homathko River drainage, Cayoosh Creek-Duffey Lake
area, Chehalis watershed, Harrison Lake tributaries, Powell River-Daniels River
watersheds, and the Nahatlatch watershed.
The fisheries section was also involved in a multi-agency watershed study
which included the Chapman Creek drainage on the Sechelt Peninsula. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for quickly assessing watershed
values on a priority basis. This was administered by the Forest Service and was
prompted by increasing forest land-use conflicts where forestry values clashed with
other values such as fisheries and wildlife.
Steelhead Management
In keeping with fisheries management policy for the Lower Mainland, emphasis
was placed on steelhead management. Considerable time was expended on all
aspects of steelhead management.
A. Habitat protection—Investigations were conducted into problems or potential problems that occurred on the following steelhead streams:
(1) Little Campbell River (Surrey): A fish kill resulting from a feed lot
that was immediately adjacent to the river:
(2) Coquihalla River: Proposed major highway from Hope to Merritt
immediately adjacent to the river; aerial survey of the main stem of
the river and its tributaries to assess the impact of past and present
logging; aerial and ground assessment of logging and mining road
impact on Ladner Creek, a tributary to the Coquihalla:
(3) Coghlan Creek: An illegal dam on a small tributary to this creek
that posed a threat to steelhead and salmon migration.
In addition to these, fisheries section investigated numerous proposed changes
to small streams, important to steelhead, in the Surrey-Langley area. Many of these
investigations were the product of the excellent referrel system that has been established with the municipalities.
B. Habitat improvement—The steelhead rearing-pond at Watercress Creek
on the Coquihalla River continued tdo operate during 1973. Of the 24,000
Coquihalla stock winter-run steelhead fingerlings that were initially placed in the
pond, 20,100 migrated to the Coquihalla River during the spring months. The pond
was subsequently restocked with 3,000 Coquihalla stock summer-run steelhead
fingerlings.
 AA 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A new steelhead rearing-pond was established on Department of National
Defence property adjacent to the Vedder River. This was stocked with 14,000
Vedder stock winter-run steelhead fingerlings.
Several other potential steelhead habitat improvement projects were investigated on the Coquitlam, Chehalis, Brunette, and Cheakamus Rivers and on Hastings
Creek on the North Shore.
C. Inventory—An adequate inventory of potential spawning areas, actual
spawning areas, and knowledge of spawner numbers and distribution is essential to
good steelhead management.
Helicopters were used to assess spawning potential and holding-pools on the
Coquihalla River and its tributaries, on Silverhope Creek, on the Chehalis River,
and on the Indian River.
Ground surveys were conducted on Ladner Creek, Sowaqua Creek, Silverhope
Creek, the Stein River, and all creeks on the Strait of Georgia side of the Sechelt
Peninsula.
Skin-divers were also used to define spawning potential and to assess spawner
number and distribution. This method was used on the Capilano River, Lynn
Creek, the Coquihalla River, Silverhope Creek, and the Chilliwack-Vedder River.
Most startling was the small number of summer-run steelhead counted in the
Coquihalla River.
Counting fences to enumerate steelhead spawning runs were constructed on
Brohm Creek and Stawamus River in the Squamish area.
D. Research—A 12-month water quality study commenced and continued on
three streams on the North Shore of Vancouver and on two streams in the Hope
area.
A co-operative steelhead tagging programme on the Squamish-Cheakamus
River system was initiated and directed by the Fish and Wildlife Branch and carried
out by the organized steelhead anglers. This programme was established to gain
information on such factors as steelhead movement and incidences of recapture.
Student Summer Employment
The hiring of three students to assist in fisheries work over the summer period
must be deemed an unqualified success. Capability of the fisheries section, especially in accumulation of much needed inventory data, was increased enormously.
Two of these students spent almost the whole of their employment period
roving throughout the region gathering inventory information, while the third student was involved in summarizing the ever present back-log of fisheries data that
has existed in this section.
Habitat Improvement
A spawning-channel for resident coastal cutthroat was constructed at the outlet
to Ruby Lake on the Sechelt Peninsula in 1967. As part of a continuing programme
to monitor the channel, a counting fence was constructed to enumerate the 1973
fall spawning migration.
A large increase in the number of fish using the channel was noted this year.
It appears that the channel has been successful in increasing the outlet spawning
run.
Habitat Protection
The population of the Lower Mainland has expanded greatly in past years;
1973 was no exception to this general trend.   With increasing population there has
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 65
been more pressure for urban, suburban, and recreational living space with subsequent land-use conflict. Land use where it interacts with fishery values, especially
those of small streams, has been most critical.
The year under review saw much improved awareness and liaison developing
within the private sector. Individual problems still occur, but gradually land-
developers are beginning to realize that when water bodies are involved, fishery
agencies must be contacted during the planning stages of land development prior
to the actual start of construction. Private lands, however, are still a problem when
attempting to maintain streamside values such as vegetation.
The local levels of government (regional districts and municipalities) have
become attuned to the need for preserving natural habitat within their geographical
jurisdictions. The leaders, in so far as protection of fisheries habitat is concerned,
are District of Surrey, Sunshine Coast Regional District, District of North Vancouver, and the District of Langley.
Liaison with Provincial Government agencies such as Water Rights Branch,
Pollution Control Branch, Lands Branch, and the Forest Service continues to
improve.
Communication problems still exist with such agencies as the Department of
Mines and Petroleum Resources. Unlike the forestry referral system where Fish
and Wildlife Branch has input into all aspects of logging, we have very little input
into analogous problems as they relate to mining and mining exploration.
Liaison with the Department of Highways, specifically in the areas of road
location, maintenance, and improvement, is poor. A very good liaison has been
developed, however, with regard to Department of Highways subdivision approvals.
A referral system has been established in this area.
The protection of habitat is absolutely essential to the effective management of
the freshwater sport fishery. Protection of habitat is, to a very large degree, dependent on liaison with the public, with regional districts and municipalities, and with
other Government agencies. An awareness of the factors that are important for
the maintenance of fish in streams and lakes must be instilled in all persons who are
responsible for making land-use decisions. Without this awareness, we cannot hope
to maintain fish populations within or in close proximity to urban centres.
Staff Training and Improvement
Fisheries staff within this region had the opportunity to participate in a number
of courses and seminars designed to broaden the information base that is so necessary when making land-use decisions.
Wildlife Management
Wildlife input in resource planning expanded immensely in 1973. In response
to the accelerated demands of the co-operative approach concept of resource management, priorities were placed on wildlife inventory and habitat evaluation programmes. The appointment of a Regional Habitat Protection Section has proved
invaluable in this regard, but the Wildlife Section anticipates a continuing high
degree of involvement in resource planning.
Big game and waterfowl harvests were average for the season and slightly
higher than those of the previous two years. It appears deer populations are recovering well from the devastating winters of 1968/69, 1970/71, and in spite of general
reductions in hunting seasons, the harvest was considered quite satisfactory. Waterfowl hunters in the Lower Fraser Valley continue to be hindered by land alienation
and local restrictions.   This problem warrants serious consideration.
 AA 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The addition of a full-time wildlife technician and temporary summer help to
regional staff has increased our ability to become involved in a number of projects.
Specific events and achievements in 1973 can be listed as follows:
Waterfowl
Wood Duck programme—In conjunction with Ducks Unlimited (Canada) and
local organizations, several hundred wood duck nest boxes were established throughout the Lower Fraser Valley in an attempt to increase the local wood duck population.
Wild rice project—Wild rice stocks were introduced into the Pitt Polder Shooting Grounds in an experiment to determine the feasibility of establishing this species
as a food source for waterfowl.
Canada Goose programme—A co-operative programme sponsored jointly by
Ducks Unlimited (Canada), the Canadian Wildlife Service, the Fish and Wildlife
Branch, and local organizations saw the establishment of a breeding flock of Canada
geese in the Fraser Valley. It is hoped this flock will become the parent stock of an
increased huntable population.
Big Game
Elk release—After three years of study and preparation, 40 Rocky Mountain
elk from Jasper National Park were released above the village of Lytton, B.C. The
herd appears to have selected the predetermined range of Lytton Mountain and
Lytton Creek. Several calves have been sighted and the population appears to be
establishing itself very satisfactorily.
Carpenter Lake Habitat study—Work continued throughout the winter on the
Carpenter Lake mule deer range; including establishment of fertilizer trial plots,
studies of predator-prey relationships, slashing of additional overgrown winter foods,
and collection of general biological information in the area. The data compiled will
provide an extremely useful reference for future land-use applications and game-
management proposals.
Dump Bear Marking programme—Several black bears utilizing the North
Vancouver garbage dump as a food source were marked with paint in an attempt
to determine their occurrence as nuisance bears in residential areas.
Inventory Programmes
Stein watershed wildlife inventory.
Upper Lillooet River system wildlife-inventory.
Kwoiek Creek wildlife inventory.
Chehalis River wildlife inventory.
Squamish drainage wildlife inventory.
Several on-site inspections of areas of proposed logging developments.
Routine spring inventory of key deer herds.
Routine coastal grizzly bear inventory.
Special Projects
In 1973, this office was involved in a model of an integrated resource study for
coastal watersheds. The sites were selected for comparative purposes and were
located on the Toquart River (unlogged) and Chapman Creek (logged). The data
collected should provide an invaluable aid to further resource planning of coastal
systems.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1973      aa 67
Habitat Protection Section
The Habitat Protection Section was established in midsummer of 1973, being
initially staffed by a technician who assisted both the Fisheries and Wildlife staff
with the interdepartmental referral system. A major portion of his time was allotted
to forestry referrals. This referral system was established in 1970 and became
functional in 1972. Logging plans and cutting permit applications for proposed
new cutting areas are sent to Fish and Wildlife Branch requesting comments and
recommendations for the protection of fishery and wildlife values. Investigations
are carried out with the co-operation of the Wildlife and Fisheries Sections.
In November a biologist joined Habitat Protection and the Section expanded
its responsibilities to include referrals from other agencies such as the Department
of Highways and the Pollution Control Branch.
To date, the Section has established an excellent rapport with the forest industry
and liaison between other agencies is being strengthened. It is felt that as Branch
requirements and priorities become better understood, less time will have to be spent
with repetitive requests, and this will enable the Section to develop more detailed
long-range plans.
Enforcement
As it was for many other people, 1973 was a year of frantic activity and drastic
change for Conservation Officers. The growth of recreational activity was unbelievable.
Environmental protection work made very heavy demands. This may be to
some extent alleviated in the future, with the establishment of specialists within the
Branch.
The area of heaviest growth was Squamish-Pemberton. With the improvement and extension of roads, much of the growing pressure generated within the
metropolitan area is flowing into Squamish and Pemberton, where wilderness conditions are within easy reach of the population centre. This growth may continue at
an even greater rate if gasolnie availability and cost discourage travel further afield.
A Conservation Officer is desperately needed in Pemberton.
A larger office was secured in Cloverdale, to accommodate a second Conservation Officer appointed to the area, as well as stenographic support. This has resulted
in improved service to a highly populated and growing area. The Maple Ridge
District was enlarged, extending now to the settlement of Dewdney. The district
previously located in Mission City was removed to Agassiz, where office accommodation was secured in the Municipal Hall. This move was made to accommodate
the growth of recreational activity created by expanding roads in the Harrison and
Lillooet Lakes area. It is anticipated that an all-weather connection will be established with Pemberton in the very near future.
A maximum of 18 auxiliary Conservation Officers were used during the year;
principally during the fall hunting seasons. We were fortunate in obtaining effective
people for this work, and the programme can be considered an unqualified success.
All available indices point to a very much improved control of illicit activity, and
public approval of that control. However, over much of the region, protection
activity is still not keeping pace with the need for protetcion, and every effort must
be made to expand our services.
 AA 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRINCE GEORGE REGION
Resource Protection
Environmental issues related to major changes in access and proposed additional access by rail and highway in the northern part of the Province coupled with
resource extraction capabilities inevitably resulting from the planned access network
continue to dominate the activities of the operation staff of the region. Concerted
effort to document fish and wildlife values in areas subject to imminent resource
development remains top priority both for fisheries and wildlife. This, of course, is
coupled with detailed recommendations to protect fish and wildlife habitat wherever
industrial development is currently taking place.
Despite considerably increased capability in the operating budget for 1973, the
vastness of the area under proposed development and the limits imposed on conventional transport makes detailed investigation both time-consuming and costly. Because land access in many cases does not as yet exist, much of our investigative work
must involve the use of either fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters, both of which add
greatly to the cost of obtaining basic information.
Some of the major ongoing access routes referred to here are: B.C. Railway
extension from Fort St. James to Dease Lake, modification to the B.C. Railway
extension to Fort Nelson; completion of the officially opened Stewart-Cassiar Highway; looping of Westcoast Transmission's pipe-line from Fort Nelson south, to
name only a few. There are many other smaller projects and ancillary access routes
developing in association with these major projects.
Initial discussions and some field investigation related to the proposed Canadian National Railways northern extension from Terrace have taken place and
accelerated studies will be required in 1974 to investigate the impact on the environment of a major transport network proposed for the northwest portion of the
Province.
Following much communication and basic planning dating back to 1971, a
system of total resource planning developed by the Prince George Forest District
and the Prince George Region of the Fish and Wildlife Branch was officially adopted
in January of 1973. It has since been the subject of considerable publicity and
public scrutiny. The system appears to have had a high degree of acceptance by
all resource departments as well as by the forest industry and interested public
participants. Basically the system requires first a commitment to acquire all available resource data from all sources and to compile this information in a central location. The responsibility for this acquisition was assumed by the forest district, but
the information is abailable to all other resource agencies. From this source it is
the responsibility of the two departments to map the independent resource values,
provide a legend of constraints or operational limitations, and a statement of management objectives which include both social and economic considerations for each
independent resource. In this manner, a folio is compiled containing all available
information on forests, water, fish, wildlife, waterfowl, recreation, agriculture, etc.
In addition, information on soils, climate, topography, etc., is compiled and used
to define the basic capabilities for all renewable resources for the area under consideration.
Upon completion of the assembly of all information, the folio is turned over
to the industrial licensee, who then has the responsibility to devise a cutting plan
which recognizes all resource values. This plan becomes the final portion of the
folio and is submitted for joint approval by the Forest Service and Fish and Wildlife
Branch, both of which have to be satisfied that the plan is environmentally accept-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 69
able. The system differs from other similar systems in that a folio is compiled for
each operational cutting plan, most of which at present have a three to five-year
duration. The folio thus becomes the basis of each approval and expires at the
completion of harvesting and post-harvesting treatment in the licensed area. The
document then becomes a permanent record for reference and eventual evaluation
of the effect of the planned timber extraction.
To date nearly 100 folios are in various stages of completion, but it is likely
to be approximately one more year before all logging within the Prince George
Forest District can be incorporated into the system.
The Prince Rupert Forest District is moving into a similar plan and has provided similar information where possible. However, it will take considerably longer
to provide necessary staffing for both departments and to acquire basic soils data,
etc. (much of which does not exist at present), before such a plan can become fully
operational there. In the interim, recommendations for the protection of fish and
wildlife habitat is proceeding through an improved referral system.
In other areas of resource development such as mining, placer development,
exploration, seismic operations, etc., communication is improving and unnecessary
environmental degradation is decreasing. However, a greater degree of formal interdepartmental and industrial planning is still required before environmental degradation problems are reduced to an acceptable level.
Fisheries Management
As well as routine inventory work conducted locally, lake and stream inventories were conducted in some widespread portions of the region, particularly in
areas south of Vanderhoof, southwest of Burns Lake, and parts of the Skeena and
Nass drainages. This area of work requires a rapid expansion in order to provide
sound information on which to base recommendations for habitat protection.
In addition to processing information for the folio system previously described
for the Prince George Forest District, some 500 logging referrals were processed
by the regional fisheries staff as well as approximately 200 referrals associated with
pollution control, water licences, placer-mining, etc.
The proposed CNR rail extension up the Kitsumkalum Valley was subjected
to close scrutiny, in conjunction with consultants, with the aim of protecting the
fishery and aesthetic values of this valley.
Highway referrals on the Kitwanga Bridge, Highway 16 between Kasiks and
Tyee, and the forestry access road on the Babine were investigated and reported on.
A special fisheries survey on Nanika Lake was undertaken to obtain information on the potential of the lake for inclusion in a report to show the possible effects
the implementation of Kemano II could have on the area.
An analysis of the hack and squirt herbicide programme on the Queen Charlotte Islands was performed to ensure against damage to fisheries values on adjacent
streams.
Some significant fishing regulation changes were proposed for 1974, primarily
in relation to bag and possession limits, spring closures on spawning creeks, size
limits in the Skeena drainage, and some gear restrictions.
The second year of the Francois Lake project was completed with the minimum
of problems and the information was efficiently collected and compiled by two first-
year students of British Columbia Institute of Technology Fish and Wildlife programme.
 AA 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The project consisted basically of
(1) creel survey on three days of each week, conducted by boat, vehicle,
and foot;
(2) netting of fish for age and growth analysis;
(3) complete stream inventory of all inflow and outflow streams.
The compilation of data and processing and reading of scale samples is hoped
to be completed in 1974. Some additional work is anticipated for Francois Lake
in 1974 to tie up loose ends, in particular the documentation of lake char spawning
areas.
The salient points of the Skeena steelhead investigation in 1973 were as follows:
(1) Kispiox River: Smolt collection and documentation of winter
habitat.
(2) Suskwa, Kitsequela, Kitsumkalum: Assessment of critical areas
and present potential.
(3) Kinskuck, Meziadin, Tseaux, Cranberry: Initial aerial photo interpretation followed by helicopter reconnaissance of critical areas and
present potential.
(4) Sutherland: Survey to verify suspicion of steelhead potential.
(5) Babine and Zymoetz: Redd sampling and smolt collection related to
development of life histories.
Considerable expansion in the field of fisheries management is anticipated for
1974.
Wildlife Management
Routine classified game counts were conducted in Management Areas 20, 21,
22, 25, 27, and 28. In general, the big game populations are healthy, but continually increasing demands for wildlife, improved road access, and the increased
use of all-terrain vehicles has forced season reductions and in all likelihood will
necessitate review of current seasons and bag limits and could force further
reductions in the near future.
Mountain goat studies in the Nass Range in northwestern British Columbia
were continued in July and August when classified counts were completed. The
Nass Range goat study was brought to termination and a final report will be published pending completion of map work. On the basis of this study, the Nass goats
will very probably be opened to a Limited Entry Hunting Season in 1974.
Proposals to establish a community pasture near Maxan Lake, southeast of
Houston, and an ARDA research project resulting from these proposals, made it
imperative that assessments of wildlife values for the area be conducted. Browse
studies were performed to gain a better insight into the winter use of the watershed
by big game. Furthermore, the Branch, to fulfil its consultancy role to the Advisory
Committee on the Maxan project, was committed to
(1) provide lake survey data;
(2) conduct classified game counts for the duration of the project (1976);
(3) advise on methods to investigate browsing intensity of ungulates
about exclosure plots;
(4) become involved, as a representative on the Advisory Committee, in
all aspects of field investigations.
An Opportunities for Youth project was initiated and completed during the
summer of 1973. The publication History of Moose Use in the Central Interior was
published. The paper summarized the changing trends in consumptive use of moose
in the central Interior and provided as well some valuable insights into the population
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 71
dynamics of the species itself. This work will aid in regional decisions on regulations
and season lengths for future hunting seasons. There exists a need for similar projects to be conducted on various game species in the northern regions.
A programme to classify and map all big game ranges and wildlife dispersion
in northern British Columbia was undertaken and conducted from the Fort St. John
office and will incorporate all available information obtained from guides and long-
term residents, etc. Field work for most of the area within Management Areas 26,
27, and 28 has been completed and is currently being processed into map form. It
is intended to continue this programme in 1974 to include Management Areas 20,
21, 22, 23, and 25.
A second programme being carried out in the Peace River is designed to classify
in detail areas suited for agriculture, wildlife, and forestry. The information is being
compiled by the Lands Branch, the Forest Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch,
and will be made available to the Government to establish guidelines for properly
planned land use in that area.
Also in the Peace River a joint committee composed of members from the
North and South Peace River Cattlemen's Associations, the B.C. Forest Grazing
Division, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch have been engaged in formulating zones
where various degrees of predator control will be implemented in the future. The
object is to provide better protection to legitimate live-stock operations, improved
community pastures, etc., without going into blanket control procedures in areas
where it is not required.
Land acquisition has become a relatively new programme for the Branch in
the central Interior. Several land parcels have been offered to the Branch as
wildlife ranges. Cursory assessments of wildlife values have been conducted. A
regional priority list must be drafted and lands must be adequately and fairly
assessed if eventual purchase is to be forthcoming. Several ranches are presently
under regional review for purchase considerations.
Enforcement
A significant contribution toward public safety and improvement of the hunter
image resulted through legislation prohibiting the discharge of firearms along 1,500
miles of northern major highways. Specifically, "No Shooting" regulations were
introduced prohibiting the discharge of firearms within one-quarter mile on either
side of all main highways, with the exception of the Alaska Highway. The public
response to these "corridor closures" under the Firearms Act was overwhelmingly
one of support and acceptance. At this time there is little reason to doubt that
more gazetted and heavily travelled public roads in the north will be selected for
similar restrictions in the future. To be able to drive roads such as the Stewart—
Cassiar and observe most species of native big game along the highway right-of-way
is reason enough to view this move as being a positive one.
The region's enforcement attitude changed noticeably this year from one of
routine checking by individual Conservation Officers within their respective districts
to planned group operations designed to blanket specific zones at specific times.
This approach required a flexible movement of regional enforcement staff to high
public use or traditional problem areas. It provided frequent coverage of these
problem areas and made possible a high frequency of public contact. An increase
in the use of auxiliary Conservation Officers complemented this method of enforcement.
 AA 72
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
A pilot programme involving a Duty Officer system and an answering service
was instituted in Prince George this year which allowed the public to contact a
Conservation Officer anytime, regardless of the hour. This proved to be a significant factor in apprehending a number of offenders who normally would not
have been reported because of the public being unable to contact a Conservation
Officer. An all-out public information programme was implemented through the
various media to publicize the region's enforcement role. This created a public
awareness of the Branch's enforcement function and was also reflected in the
attitude of many Courts toward fish and wildlife violations. This year a number of
northern Judges rendered near maximum fines under the Wildlife Act.
Additional funds made it possible to inspect previously inaccessible hinterland
areas by helicopter where a number of more serious offences occur. The Branch
leased aircraft was active in patrolling similar areas which could be inspected by
fixed wing.
GUIDING INDUSTRY
Since August 21, 1970, when the first guide outfitter's certificate was issued to
Leonard W. Dillabough, of Quesnel, B.C., 116 certificates have now been granted.
Guide outfitters are recognizing the benefits they derive from holding these certificates, and are now inclined to apply for certification as soon as their guiding areas
become eligible.
During the year the Branch was able to examine a greater number of guiding
operations. Four guides had their licences cancelled and their renewal privileges
suspended for varying periods of up to four years. Most of the guides are endeavouring to maintain efficient and high-quality services and are performing well.
The organized guides are policing their own ranks to assure the continuance of a
high and acceptable level of performance by their members. The executives of
Western Guides and Outfitters Association, representing the majority of organized
guide associations, meet twice yearly with the Branch's Guiding Committee, composed of Regional Directors R. Goodlad; G. E. Stringer; and J. P. Gibault, the
Co-ordinator of Guiding Services; to discuss all aspects of the guiding industry. The
deliberations at these meetings between the two groups is improving the level of
communication within the industry.
The guiding regulations were amended during the year and now provide closer
direction for administering the guiding industry.
The 1973 summary of guided hunter activity is not available at the time of writing, but the results for 1972 are compiled and compared to those of previous years.
Summary of Guided Hunter Activity, 1968/72
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1968 	
698
1    1    1
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621
611
383
415
268
368
205
16
21
68
6.261
95
1969. 	
652
874|   190|6,518|3,158
695
681
333
465
246
306
231
29
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1970
585
8611    172|6,548|3,175
607
742
335
418
230
290
198
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69J6.119,     91
64[5,689J     97
1971	
566
842|    156[5,670|2,780
559
673
324
429
232
384
200
30
45
14
1972    ..
545
8471      986.19812 844
451
530
187
380
173
347
159
19
9615.231:       83
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION  AND CONSERVATION,   1973 AA 73
ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES
Seventy-seven (increase of six over 1972) Conservation Officers, senior Conservation Officers, and regional Protection Officers of the six regions comprised the
uniformed field staff most concerned with direct "people management." For varying time periods, a total of 1 14 auxiliary Conservation Officers, effectively assisted
in seasonal and high-density enforcement. Due to a welcome budget increase,
the auxiliary staff were utilized to a greater extent than in 1972.
Staff Training
Twenty-two Conservation Officers graduated from Class IV of the two week
"Basic Law Enforcement" course at Vancouver Police Training Academy. This
valuable programme has produced a marked improvement in staff confidence,
ability, morale, and public appearance. In addition, 17 Conservation Officers
completed a certificate course provided by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. This is a home study course combined with some 20 days attendance at
BCIT covering mathematics, statistics, report-writing, ecology, resource measurement, mapping, and photo interpretation.
Communications
Mobile radio communication (VHF) is a most valuable aid to our public
service and efficiency, especially as our Conservation Officer staff is linked with
RCMP offices. Sixty-eight units are now installed in vehicles operated by Conservation Officers. Base stations are located at Burnaby and Penticton regional
headquarters, while four more base installations are proceeding at Nanaimo, Kamloops, Williams Lake, and Prince George. In addition, our leased floatplane based
at Prince George has SSB communications with RCMP and B.C. Tel.
Wildlife Sanctuaries and "No Shooting Areas"
During 1973, one wildlife sanctuary was created under the Wildlife Act, while
six "No Shooting" areas were provided by authority of the Firearms Act. One
"No Shooting" area was rescinded.
Licence to Carry Firearms
Effective April 1, 1972, an amendment to the Wildlife Act created a new $1
licence to carry firearms for nonhunting purposes. Thus, unless exempted as in the
case of peace officers, a person who carries a rifle or shotgun without either a hunting licence or licence to carry firearms is in violation, and practical preventive action
may be taken by the seizure of his firearm. The licence to carry may be cancelled
or suspended for cause, as is the case for hunting licences. No such cancellations
were actioned in 1973.
Approximately 8,790 licences to carry firearms were issued from April 1 to
December 31, 1973, as compared to 7,916 in 1972.
 AA 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Firearms Hunting Casualties, 1969-73
Year
Fatal
Serious
Not
Serious
Total
Rate per
100,000
Licences
Total
Licences
1973   ..
1972	
2
8
11
5
8
5
4
6
3
11
9
8
1
9
12
1
16        j           9.8
20         1         12.6
163,0001 2
162,2781
1971	
1970        	
1969...	
18
17
31
11.2
10.4
19.5
160,609
163,308
158,672
1 Does not include licence to carry.
2 Estimated.
Comparison Note—Idaho State reports its rate per 100,000 licences in 1970 was 22.7, in 1969 it was 24.
Licence Cancellations
Hunting licences may be cancelled or suspended for cause under the Wildlife
Act. Where the Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education course is available, successful completion has generally been a condition of reinstatement in
addition to a prohibition period of from one year to life. In 1973, 41 hunting
licences were cancelled for violation, while 10 were cancelled arising out of firearms nonhunting as well as hunting situations. Seven hunting licences were reinstated.    Two angler's licences and one trapper's licence were cancelled.
Prosecutions
The total number of prosecutions is greatly increased (41.3 per cent) as well
as total fines (up 46.3 per cent) over 1972. Average fines shows a continuing
annual rate of increase since 1969.
Prosecutions
Fines
Percentage of
Most Frequent Violations
Convicted
Dismissed
Total
Average
Loaded
Firearm in
Motor-vehicle
Lack of
Angler
Licence
1973...	
1972        	
1,662
1,175
825
834
812
44
14
14
12
15
s
87,477
58,012
38.181
35,282
31,094
$
51.24
48.70
46.78
42.30
38.29
24.9
23.4
33.3
27.9
27.0
26.0
25 3
1971	
21.0
1970.	
1969            	
29.4
24.^
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The major event of the year affecting the activities of the I & E function was
the appointment in November of five regional Information and Education Officers
to regional offices. These individuals will be responsible for the development and
application of Branch educational programmes at a local level and for the establishment of regular contact and communication between the Fish and Wildlife Branch
and the members of the news media, concerned organizations, institutions, and the
general public. Much of the work done by the existing I & E function prior to the
appointment of these new people was directed toward preparation for their taking
these positions and the provision of appropriate programmes and materials for their
use. Following this appointment, all I & E staff participated in a two-week orientation and training seminar. At this session, topics ranging from media techniques to
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 75
management processes were covered and plans for programmes were developed for
the following year's activities. Regional I & E staff then returned to their respective
regional offices and to date have become involved in activities ranging from origination of programme materials to the contacting of various involved institutions
and organization and evaluation of our requirements for public communication in
these areas.
In addition to planning and programme development for regionalization, the
head office I & E function completed a number of more specific projects and
continued with the development of existing programmes.    Some of these include:
1. The series of television programmes initiated last year on fish and wildlife
management topics was continued and expanded into two new station outlets. Public exposure to this series was increased considerably with its introduction at one
station into a new time slot following the evening news. These programmes, as well
as the film and photographic packages used in their production, are now being
organized into topic packages for use by regional staff. A series of programmes is
now recorded on videotape and available for reuse through local outlets; in addition,
a system of cataloguing all visual material is being implemented to make this material
available in package form for reuse on other types of programming.
2. A project was initiated this year to originate and erect a series of information
signs and shelters at areas of wildlife or wildlife management significance throughout
the Province. These structures are not only for public information, but also provide
a focus for educational field trips to significant management areas. For this reason,
a series of brochures and area descriptions are being prepared for each to assist in
lesson planning. To date, nine shelters and some 75 signs have been erected throughout the Province. The completion of displays for the shelters and further construction will be continued through 1974.
3. The book Fish and Wildlife—the Recreational Resource was reprinted this
year, a total of 30,000 copies have now been printed. A proportion of this number
was distributed through public sale and this type of distribution will continue in the
coming year. In addition to this publication a number of smaller publications
covering various management activities and fish or wildlife species were completed.
These publications are presently being organized into educational packages to be
offered to schools for programmes in wildlife and environmental conservation. The
I & E function also assumed production of the hunting regulations this year. Finally,
two special wildlife management proposal booklets were also completed—one for
the Osoyoos management area and the other for wildlife habitat acquisition programmes. These booklets were designed to describe to the public the objectives and
proposals for specific management programmes.
4. Preparation of new programming and materials for CORE (Conservation
and Outdoor Recreation Education) also occupied a considerable amount of time
in the past year. More visual aid materials were created as well as a comprehensive
new Instructor Guide. The programme continued to expand with new instructors
and areas being added to existing course distribution. In addition, the content of
the programme is continuing to diversify with an increasing emphasis on broader
aspects of outdoor safety.
5. Summer Tour Guides to serve visitors to the Summerland and Wardner
Fish Hatcheries were hired as a special pilot project this year. These individuals
developed well-organized tours and were extremely valuable in satisfying the inquiries of visitors without disturbing fish-culture activities.
6. Information activities such as press releases, film clips for news, special
events, and public inquiries increased dramatically in this past year.   The causes
 AA 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
for these increases would appear to be an increasingly obvious branch "image,"
increasing public interest and concern and the sudden development of exciting
management programmes. In addition, I & E staff were called upon to assist in
production of materials in conjunction with numerous public and government
agencies. This involvement included also serving on committees related to communication of fish, wildlife and recreational concerns, and programmes by other
involved agencies.
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  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
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 AA 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        AA 81
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1964    1965 1966 1967  1968  1969   1970   1971   1972  1973
YEAR
 AA 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ORIGIN  OF   CAMPERS  VISITING
PROVINCIAL    PARKS   AND   TYPE
OF  ACCOMMODATION   USED
1973
ORIGIN
TYPE   OF   ACCOMMODATION
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 83
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
R. H. Ahrens, Director
A milestone of historic proportions in the history of Provincial parks in British
Columbia took place during the Second Session of the Thirtieth Legislature of the
Province of British Columbia when the Bill to amend the Park Act (Bill 174) was
enacted. The amendment to the Park Act provided for protection by statute of 73
existing Provincial parks with a total area of 2,888,692 acres, and the establishment
by statute of nine new Provincial parks encompassing an area of 1,565,000 acres.
In addition to providing unprecedented protection for 82 Provincial parks, the
amended Park Act gave the Parks Branch effective jurisdiction over all resources in
Provincial parks with the Park Act having precedence over other Provincial statutes
except the Environment and Land Use Act and the Pollution Control Act. This
priority position of the Park Act in Provincial parks is a situation that did not exist
heretofore.
Continuation of the Accelerated Park Development Fund Act of 1972 by the
addition of $5 million to the residual moneys through Bill 77 and by the passing of
Order in Council 1812, the Summer Student Employment Programme, which made
$4 million available for labour-intensive projects, enabled the Parks Branch to
proceed with the programme commenced in 1971 which has seen a general upgrading of all developments, expansion of camping and day-use facilities, and improvement of water systems, including installation of flush toilets and sani-stations. A
total of 2,192 persons was employed in Bill 77 and Order in Council 1812 projects
at the height of activity in October.
Acquisition of lands for Provincial parks and purchase of private inholdings
in existing Provincial parks was accelerated during the year with the availability of
$2 million for these purposes. A special fund of $10 million, subsequently augmented to $15 million, was established as the Community Recreation Fund to be
administered by the Parks Branch and to be used to assist communities throughout
the Province in the provision of recreational facilities on a shared-cost basis.
Attendance in Provincial parks increased again during the year to 9.6 million
recorded visits, continuing an upward movement which commenced in 1965.
Camper-use showed the most dramatic upsurge, increasing by 26 per cent over the
previous year.
Reorganization and restructuring of the Parks Branch was begun in 1973 in
an effort to better meet the Branch obligations of service to the public. To this end,
decentralization of park administration to the six park districts, an increase of two
such districts from previous years, was started. Construction of works and some
aspects of planning are being deployed to the districts.
An outline of Provincial Parks Branch activities for 1973 follows. The level of
activity could not have been maintained without the concerted effort of all staff.
PLANNING DIVISION
Consideration has been given this year to the reorganization and restructuring
of this Division's responsibilities. This was to facilitate the decentralization process
and to provide the Division with abilities to meet the increased demands on its
services. Staff training was given more attention this year, which resulted in our
representation at the International Seminar on National Parks and Equivalent Reserves; the Conference on Bikeway and Pedestrian Traffic in Orlando, Fla.; a remote
 AA 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sensing workshop sponsored by B.C. Remote Sensing; an avalanche course given by
the National Research Council; a Planning Institute Seminar; a Continuing Education Course on Landscape Architecture; and an in-service field training session on
site planning.
PARK SYSTEM PLANNING SECTION
Land Acquisition Programme
In addition to the 11 new major parks created and the enlargement of Mount
Assiniboine Park this year, the Parks Branch has been very fortunate in being able
to negotiate successfully seven land acquisitions for inclusion within the Provincial
parks system. Six of these have outstanding Provincial significance and include
French Beach, a 145-acre property having 5,200 feet of waterfront, near Sooke, on
Vancouver Island; a 16-acre parcel of land at the northern end of Chilliwack Lake
that will become part of a large lakeside park; two inholdings within Cape Scott
Park at the northern end of Vancouver Island, containing 225 acres of land and
three magnificent ocean beaches; a 130-acre property adjacent to the Lakelse Lake
Park that will permit a significant increase in the recreational facilities provided
there; and a 40-acre lot at Smelt Bay on Cortes Island near the site of a major
marine park proposal. A seventh property, containing 5 acres next to Sooke Potholes Park, was purchased in 1973.
Negotiations are nearing completion on five other properties for which authority
to purchase has been received. These properties involve the above-mentioned
marine park proposal on Cortes Island, containing 117 acres and located at Man-
sons Landing; 350 acres of waterfront property on Mclntyre Bay within the newly
created Naikoon Park on Graham Island in the Queen Charlotte Islands; a 17-acre
parcel of land on Moyie Lake near Cranbrook adjacent to Moyie Lake Park; a 75-
acre inholding on Bowron Lake within Bowron Lake Park; and the purchase of the
lessee's interest on a 7-acre Crown lease on Gwillim Lake near Chetwynd.
Special mention is made of a 1,200-acre Saltspring Island property made available for park purposes at a most reasonable price by the Ruckle family; a donation
of 3.3 acres of land near Westwold by Mrs. J. Pearce for park purposes; a 36-acre
property on Christina Lake donated by G. Haszard; 17 acres near Okanagan Landing donated by T. D. Locheed; and 7 acres of land near Harrison Mills donated by
The Corporation of Kent for an addition to the adjoining Kilby Historic Park.
Inter-agency Studies
Intense public concern developed as a result of conflicts arising from the proposed industrial use and the potential for public recreation in the Purcell Mountains
of the Kootenays and the Schoen-Tsitika area of Vancouver Island. Bryan Price
and Al Fairhurst attended several meetings with the other Government and industrial agencies concerned, in Victoria and in the field, regarding the ultimate use of
these areas. The intention of these studies is to arrive at agreements whereby the
land and the resources of the above areas will be used most effectively, with public
recreation receiving due consideration.
The ultimate use of the Mica Reservoir, now filling, was the subject of a third
study to which Roger Norrish was assigned. The presence of a representative from
the Parks Branch at the meetings on this matter was to indicate the future lole for
public recreation in the region of this body of water where optimum land and
resource use management is also sought. In the meantime, reserves for park study
have been established in the watersheds of the Blaeberry, Bush, Cummins, and
Valenciennes Rivers.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 85
Manning Park Naturalist
Pat Swift introduces a
young visitor to the world
of nature.
Seeing the trees of Cathedral Grove in MacMillan Park through the eyes of Park Naturalists Kathy Earle and Jenny Singleton.
Early morning line-up at
Rathtrevor Beach Park
Campground Gatehouse attests to continuing popularity of camping in the
Provincial Park System.
 aa 86 british columbia
Recreational Reserves Review Programme
With moneys made available through the Special Funds Appropriation Act,
popularly known as Bill 77, this pilot project, begun in 1972, was enlarged considerably. Under the direction of Bill Hepper, with assistance from Marty Roberts
and Rick Simmons, 12 summer students examined and assessed 455 recreational
reserves in the Nelson and Kamloops Park Districts. The information gathered by
these students has been compiled and is now available for long-term planning for
outdoor recreation.
Trail Inventory Programme
In order to assist people who inquire about trails and to facilitate planning for
trail systems within the Provincial parks, a trail inventory was undertaken this
summer by Bill Spriggs, with assistance from Mark lohnston. Park trails may now
be seen in an atlas which eventually will show all important trails for hiking, riding,
and bicycling in this Province. Sections of this atlas have been made available to
park supervisors in charge of large parks with well-used trail systems.
Adams Lake-Shuswap Lake Study
The preliminary field work necessary for the preparation of a park master plan
for the above-mentioned region was undertaken by Roger Norrish and Gil Scott
during July of this year. The master plan will be completed by mid-1974 and will
set long-range goals for the establishment of parks and guidelines for their development in this region of the Province.
Proposed Dogwood Bikeway Study
Accompanying the increasing interest in bicycling and the provision of safe
paths for their use has come an exciting proposal for a hiking and bicycle route along
the abandoned 82-mile CNR right-of-way between Victoria and Cowichan Lake.
This idea, advanced by Jake Masselink, Chief of the Park System Planning Section,
has been called the Dogwood Bikeway Proposal and could be a precedent for other
abandoned railways in the Province to be made available for bicycling and hiking.
The necessary field work, research, and report writing for this proposal were done
by Dave Preston, John Mikitka, Don Tarasoff, and Nick Walton, and were made
possible largely by the funds provided for the Summer Employment Programme as
authorized by Order in Council 1812.
Summary of Provincial Parks and Recreation Areas Established,
Enlarged, Deleted, or Cancelled in 1973
Nineteen new parks established—
Atlin Park (Class A, Category 1)     	
Area
(Acres)
575,000.0
1.2
365.0
37,200.0
47,800.0
384.0
1,450.0
14,000.0
13,900.0
29.0
414,000.0
Blessing's Grave Historic Park (Class A, Category 2) ___
Brandy wine Falls Park (Class A, Category 6) 	
Cape Scott Park (Class A, Category 1)      	
Carp Lake Park (Class A, Category 6)
Chilliwack Lake Park (Class A, Category 6) 	
Conkle Lake Park (Class A, Category 6)    	
Desolation Sound Marine Park (Class A, Category 1) ___
Elks Lakes Park (Class A, Category 1)      	
Kilby Historic Park (Class A, Category 2) 	
Kwadacha Wildnerness Park (Class A, Category 1) ___
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973 AA 87
Summary of Provincial Parks and Recreation Areas Established,
Enlarged, Deleted, or Cancelled in 1973—Continued
Nineteen new parts established—Continued (Acres)
Naikoon Park (Class A, Category 1)   179,500.0
Okanagan Mountain Park (Class A, Category 1)      25,500.0
Ole Johnson Park (Class A, Category 6)   36.0
Smelt Bay Park (Class A, Category 6)   40.0
St. Mary's Alpine Park (Class A, Category 1)      22,600.0
Tatlatui Park (Class A, Category 1)   261,500.0
Top of the World Park (Class A, Category 1)      19,800.0
Truman Dagnus Locheed Park (Class A, Category 4) ____ 17.3
Additions to existing parks—
Barkerville Historic Park (Class A)   970.0
Lakelse Lake Park (Class A)   130.0
Mount Assiniboine Park (Class A)      83,606.0
Sooke Potholes Park (Class A)   5.0
Recreation areas established—
Atlin Recreation Area      95,000.0
Desolation Sound Recreation Area        6,300.0
Kitsumkalum Mountain Recreation Area       3,800.0
Newcastle Island Recreation Area  72.7
Skagit Valley Recreation Area     80,500.0
Deletions—
Garibaldi Park (Class A)        2,400.0
Kleanza Creek Park (Class A)   12.2
Paul Lake Park (Class A)   3.6
Thunder Hill (Class A)   10.5
Cancellations—
Skagit River Park (Class A) (within new recreation area)      3,700.0
Tlell Park (Class A) (within new park)    312.0
Tow Hill Park (Class A) (within new park)   493.0
Major reclassifications of parks took place this year which saw 82 parks
established by statute, including 9,000-acre Birkenhead Lake Park and 1,303,000-
acre Wells Gray Park, which were also reclassified from Class B to Class A following the enactment of Bill 174 amending the Park Act.
As the result of a name change, Devil's Pot Holes Park is now called Sooke
Pot Holes Park.
The year under review saw the establishment of 58 new reserves for public
recreation on Crown land with the co-operation of the Department of Lands, Forests,
and Water Resources. Seventeen recreational reserves were cancelled during 1973.
There are now 2,763 areas in the Province reserved for public recreation, comprising a total of 563,287 acres.
MASTER PLANNING SECTION
Resource Assessment Programme
This year a programme was formulated to systematically collect and record
park resource information in a format applicable to master planning purposes. The
intent of the programme is to provide a framework under which resource specialists
from various fields can assess that component of a park's natural resource in which
 AA 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
they are trained. The information resulting from these assessments is to be used in
establishing zoning plans, facility locations, and refined use and preservation objectives for a park.
Assessments of recreation features, landforms, and animal habitats were undertaken in Golden Ears and Mount Robson Parks as pilot projects under this programme.
The Objective Programme
During 1972 to 1973, studies were undertaken to determine the role of the
Parks Branch in the field of outdoor recreation in British Columbia. The aim of the
objectives study was to develop and apply a framework for assessing on future park
acquisition and development. Areas covered to date include Vancouver Island,
Lower Mainland, Kootenays, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Kamloops-Shuswap. Included in this study was an inventory of outdoor recreation facilities by all suppliers
and estimates of current use.
Research Section
In 1973, Parks Branch established a Research Section separate from Master
Planning, whose objective will be to improve the information base for decisionmaking. Immediate priority is being placed on improving the quality of user data
which are collected by the Branch and making this more readily available. Also
undertaken was an inventory of user facilities available in Provincial parks. Proposed studies for 1974/75 go well beyond this and include several environmental
impact studies on trail use, development of a programme to analyse flows of park-
users within British Columbia, and a study of winter recreational activities.
SITE PLANNING SECTION
Accelerated park development in 1973, as in the previous two years, required
site plans for new development, reconstruction, and expansion of existing facilities.
Plans for both campground and day-use areas were completed for Chilliwack
Lake, Norbury Lake, Premier Lake, Sasquatch, and Fillongley Parks, and for Green
Lake and Horsefly Lake. Under preparation are plans for comparable facilities at
Conkle Lake Park.
Plans for parks requiring camping facilities were drawn up for Montague Harbour, walk-in sites; Nancy Greene, high density campground; Golden Ears, conventional and group campgrounds; Delta Grove, campgrounds in Cultus Lake Park,
Beaumont Marine, and Rolley Lake Parks, renovations; Ten Mile Lake Park, expansion.
Day-use area plans were prepared for Rosewall Creek and Sasquatch Parks
and for Shawnigan Lake. Boat-launching facility designs were completed for
Syringa Creek Park and for Clearwater Lake in Wells Gray Park, and for Green
Lake. A design concept was prepared and approved for a park information/travel
industry reception centre at Mount Robson Park. A service area plan was prepared
for Bowron Lake Park.
In addition to the preparation of site plans, staff members participated in general planning problems. Considerable involvement with the pending reorganization
of the entire planning division occurred both at the organizational and logistical
levels. As part of this effort, a staff member was stationed in a regional office for
the summer. During the latter part of the year, two staff members began a landscape
architecture course offered by the UBC Extension Department.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 89
Park Naturalist Freeman
"Skipper" King, belying his
82 years, addresses attentive audience of delegates
to the Eighth International
Seminar on the Administration of National Parks
and Equivalent Reserves.
Seminar visited Thomas S.
Francis Park (shown here)
and other Provincial parks
during visit to British Columbia in August.
Unstructured camping
area is a new campground
design concept being tried
out at Sproat Lake Park.
Scene repeated throughout the Park Campground
system, this busiest year on
record, is family setting up
camp in newly opened Big
Bar Lake Park near Clinton.
 AA 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WEST COAST NATIONAL PARK PROJECT
The land acquisition programme to acquire the privately held land within the
Part I boundary of the Pacific Rim National Park continued with the Provincial
Government again putting up $2 million and being reimbursed for 50 per cent of this
amount by the Federal Government on transfer of the lands concerned to Canada.
The accountable advance system, finally accepted by the Federal Government
after 2Vi years, eliminated the complicated system which had hampered the Branch
in its negotiations with the private owners.
No let-up has been indicated in the over-all dissatisfaction with the name of
the park and recently the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
assured us this matter was under further consideration.
At the time of writing, 231 parcels have been acquired in the Long Beach area,
15 parcels are under negotiation, and 12 have not yet been dealt with.
In the fiscal year 1974/75, it is proposed to complete the purchases for the
Part I boundary (Long Beach area) and the Part II boundary (Broken Group of
islands), leaving the West Coast Trail portion for commencement in 1975.
DEPARTMENTAL LIBRARY
In 1973 the Parks Branch Library officially became the Department of Recreation and Conservation Library, and it now offers service to the Fish and Wildlife
Branch and the Commercial Fisheries Branch as well as the Parks Branch.
The librarian spends half-days in the Department and half-days at the Provincial Library, and is able to draw upon the information resources of the Provincial
Library (which houses all materials published in or about British Columbia), the
other B.C. Government libraries, plus all other Government and university libraries.
The estimates for next year include funds to be allocated to the development of
regional district sublibraries, which will increase service to the field staff. This year
the expansion of the library's physical premises was completed, and the three branch
collections are now amalgamated into one central facility.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Administration of field operations was complicated by several changes in the
content of the works programme and by a Branch reorganization which deprived
the Division of direct control of its construction wing. On the other hand, the scope
of work was restricted to projects judged to have considerable technical content or
which could best be handled on a contract basis. Combined with the fact that
three of the engineers were unaccustomed to Parks Branch practice, these factors
had a considerable impact on the effective output of the Division.
Employment of consultants was substantially reduced except in the electrical
field, where 14 projects were handled by three firms. The Department of Highways
continued to assist the Branch and handled five minor paving contracts, the major
paving job at Mount Seymour, the construction of the Goldstream Bridge and the
Cypress Highway contracts. The Department of Public Works provided help with
the site works to the new Kamloops Workshop.
Administration of consultant referrals and contracts, provision of advice to
field staff, and inspection visits absorbed a large part of the effort of the staff. Time
was found, however, to design and directly supervise a large new water supply at
Kikomun Creek, arrange an emergency replacement of a major bridge at Wells
Gray Park, and to design and detail a number of new water supplies and building
projects.   Twenty-six new well-sites were selected and 21 wells were successfully
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        A A 91
Mark Johnston and Don
Tarasoff, of the Parks
Branch, are interviewed for
CBC-TV News regarding
proposed Dogwood Parkway which would utilize
CN right-of-way on southern Vancouver Island. Portion of the right-of-way
near Skutz Falls on the
Cowichan River is shown.
Rugged coastline of
Cape Scott Park on northwest tip of Vancouver
Island. Cape Scott Park
is one of 11 major parks
established during 1973.
Falls on East Creek.
One of the features of
Conkle Lake Park.
 AA 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
completed. The Division was also involved in the construction of roads, sewage-
disposal systems, boat-launching ramps, the extension of a marina, and the preparation of reports on a wide range of subjects. In the circumstances, 1973 could be
judged to be a very fruitful year.
Waterworks and Sanitation Section
During 1973 the Section was reorganized to include one engineer, two technicians, and one engineering aide who are responsible for the design and construction
supervision of the capital works programmes. The Section provided drawings,
specifications, and lists of materials for approximately 12 waterworks projects
dispersed throughout the Province and 11 sewerage projects concentrated mainly
in the Nelson and Prince George Districts. In addition, a number of pump and
pump-control systems were designed for both water and sewerage systems.
A major waterworks system has been designed for Kikomun Creek Park,
located in the Nelson District. Because of the complexity of this system it has been
presented in four stages, of which Stage 1 has been virtually completed this year
and Stage 2 is planned for 1974/75.
Buildings and Structures Section
A total of 11 contracts for buildings was carried over from the previous year.
Due to several changes in the capital works programme, most projects in this Section
did not come to fruition. New contracts included those for a regional workshop in
Kamloops and major renovations to Manning Park Lodge.
Designs and working drawings were prepared for several projects in addition
to those contracted. The designs encompassed such structures as standard workshops, extensions and alterations to several buildings, a crew building, and tourist
centre.
As a supplement to the normal work load, the Section was made responsible
for the documentation and administration of all contract work.
Draughting Section
Production of drawings continued at a stepped-up rate to keep pace with the
Capital Works Programme. Outside firms continued to provide support at times
of overload and during the prolonged process of securing replacements and increases
to staff in proportion to increased work loads.
The usual wide variety of draughting was undertaken to service the needs of
the Branch. These projects included status maps, land-use design, buildings, waterworks, sewerage, tourist maps, publicity assignments, consultant records, park
standards amendments and circulation, report maps, and filing and printing of
Parks Branch drawings.
The microfilming of all drawings is now nearly complete and a completely
new system of referencing and identifying drawings in conjunction with microfilming is expected to be in operation by mid-year.
Workshop Section
During the past year the Langford Workshop instituted a production method
designed to speed up the process and delivery of materials requested from the field.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 93
Hikers on Rubble Creek Trail into Garibaldi Lake-Black Tusk area of Garibaldi
Park. Increasing public interest in back
packing is evidenced by large numbers of
people traversing trails in the park system.
Visitors look over the
newly reconstructed Hudson's Bay Company store,
butcher shop, and carriage
shed at Barkerville Historic Park.
Nelson District Park Officer Milt Goddard surveying recreational potential
of Ly al li i Lake in St.
Mary's Alpine Park, one of
11 major parks established
during the year.
 AA 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This system featured the assignment of a work production number and anticipated
delivery date, which was designed to assist the District Park Officer in planning his
capital works development programme.
In addition to the normal production and distribution of Parks Branch furniture, the Workshop handled the maintenance and dispatching of the headquarters
vehicle pool, the production of plastic fittings for water-supply systems, and the
control of the plumbing-supply stores located at Goldstream. A preliminary investigation into the relocation and expansion of the Langford Workshop was carried
out with the view to providing better service to the District Park operations.
Equipment Section
Semi-annual equipment inspections were carried out in regions with direct
counsel to maintenance personnel to effect repairs. A spring inspection of ski area
equipment was carried out at Mount Seymour and Manning Parks, with recommendations for repairs and modifications.
Electric sets were installed at Mount Robson, Naikoon, and Tweedsmuir Parks.
Equipment requisitions and specifications were submitted for vehicles and
equipment.
Liaison with suppliers covering specifications, conformance, and warranty
administration was carried out. In addition, this Section provided liaison with
consultants on ski-lift modifications as well as electrical installations.
A submission was prepared for the development of a Departmental Mechanical
Services Division with decentralized headquarters in the Vancouver, Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince George Districts.
Survey Section
This year was once again a year of high activity for the Survey Section. Summer staff reached a maximum of 32 persons in nine crews and a highly diversified
programme was carried out.
Thirty-six mapping projects involving 1,850 acres were completed, and a
multitude of control projects involving engineering works or boundary surveys were
instrumental in maintaining an active programme. Bridge Lake, Topley Landing,
and Shuswap Lake were the most intensive mapping projects, with the Mount Seymour sewer-line, Kikomun Creek water system, and Blanket Creek pondage area
proving to be the control projects of note.
A start was made toward reorganization of the Section to provide a faster
response and better service to the Branch in line with the general reorganization taking place.
VANCOUVER MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Continued expansion under the Accelerated Park Development programme
was given added impetus this year by Order in Council 1812. All regions responded
effectively to the call for labour intensive projects and a good number of local projects and works were pressed to completion.
As a further move toward decentralization of the Branch, a District Construction Section was formed and D. H. Eggen has assumed responsibilities as Construction Superintendent. In addition, positions for a District Planner and an assistant
to the District Park Officer were established.
A major paving and reconstruction programme early this fall marked the
completion of the Mount Seymour Road. Attendance continues to surpass previous
records at Mount Seymour as thousands of visitors now take advantage of the
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973        A A 95
Carp Lake Park, northwest of Prince George, was
already a popular outdoor
recreational area before its
establishment in 1973.
Mr. and Mrs. Acton Kilby, whose presence
lends so much to the period atmosphere of the
General Store and Museum in Kilby Historic
Park at Harrison Mills.
Mountainscape, one of the features of Top-
of-the-World Park, located east of Kimberley.
The park is one of 11 major parks created
during the year.
 AA 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
smooth three-lane road to the top of the mountain. Extensive renovations have
been made to the old V.O.C. Building and the modified structure is now serving the
ski school staff and patrons. Considerable grooming and stabilization of the ski
runs and hydro seeding on road embankments was effected with the aid of Order in
Council 1812 funding.
Construction of 40 additional sites in Lightning Lakes Campground brought
the total to 100 units now enjoyed by visitors in this popular section of Manning
Park. A new water system for the Pinewoods area was brought into operation this
year. The 100,000-gallon reservoir is an asset to the greatly expanded development
here. Manning Park also took delivery of a combination triple pumper truck and
an ambulance as part of the area's emergency service establishment. G. F. Lawrie
was successful in the competition for Safety and Emergency Services Officer and
now leads this important facet of Manning Park's operation. Expansion and improvements to the park's trail system were undertaken this year and extensive landscaping and painting was accomplished by our forces under Order in Council 1812.
A project in conjunction with the Fish and Wildlife Branch to improve the fishery
at Lightning Lake was also initiated. This year's use figures at Gibson Pass have
reflected the growing popularity of ski-ing here and especially the trend to recreational vehicles for family winter camping. A new addition to the Manning Region,
made public this fall, was the Skagit Valley Recreation Area, which represents a
valuable asset to the Branch in meeting the recreational needs of Lower Mainland
populations.
Major renovations and a general upgrading of facilities were carried out at
Cultus Lake Park in an effort to rehabilitate the well-used campgrounds there. Delta
Grove campground has been refurbished and a new water system is pending.
Rowdyism and vandalism, once prevalent in the park, have declined dramatically
thanks to effective security procedures. Work commenced at Sasquatch Park this
year on innovative camping facilities. Some interesting reaction to this new concept
is anticipated.
In the Garibaldi Region, a major effort was concentrated at Birkenhead Lake
Park, where a 100-unit campground, boat launch, and preliminary work for day-use
area have been carried out. This attractive park is destined to be the focal point for
recreation in the Pemberton area. Work in the Black Tusk area continued this year
as trail building and rehabilitation kept crews busy all summer. Relocation of the
campground by Garibaldi Lake has been proposed and should get under way next
year. The Black Tusk continues to be one of the most attractive and well-used
alpine regions in the park system where progress is being made toward improved
maintenance and control in the area. This fall the Branch took over operation of
the Diamond Head Chalet. Parks staff now maintain the building and its access
road and provide soup, sandwiches, and hot drinks to day-users of the area.
At Golden Ears Park, considerable effort was made in both the rehabilitation
of the day-use area and the construction of a new 120-unit campground to complement existing facilities. Extensive painting, clean-up, and landscaping activities
took place under Order in Council 1812, while a continued co-operative programme
with Haney Correctional enabled us to accomplish substantial trail work. Foot
trails to Alouette Mountain and to Golden Ears, plus work on many miles of horse
trails, were among some of these projects. The campground at Rolley Lake
underwent rehabilitation this year and a service building was constructed in the
park. Vandalism and rowdyism in Alouette Region have been curtailed dramatically, largely due to our new system of radio communication.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 97
Llewellyn Glacier characterizes Atlin Park, a 1973
addition to the Provincial
Park system.
Established in 1973, Elk
Lakes Park on the Alberta
boundary provides scenery
and mountain recreational
opportunities.
Parks Branch crew
moves gatehouse across
new Goldstream River
bridge in Goldstream Park.
New bridge (erected this
year) replaces one which
had become unsafe for
heavier traffic load.
 AA 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A new workshop and service yard are also being constructed at Peace Arch
Park. This facility will certainly be welcome to Mr. Kristjanson, who, for many
years now has maintained to perfection what is probably the most photographed
park in the Provincial Parks system.
The Vancouver District had a new addition this year in the establishment of
the Sechelt Region. Substantial increases in tourism to the Sunshine Coast have
precipitated this move and the regional headquarters will be situated in the very
popular Porpoise Bay Park. Work on the campground there is approximately 80
per cent complete and construction of the day-use area has been initiated. At
Saltery Bay, day-use facilities were renovated and expanded, including the construction of a sorely needed retaining-wall. Princess Louisa is still very popular with
boaters and our staff there have upgraded the trail system and accomplished a
general clean-up of the area. A picnic shelter, reminiscent of a native Indian
structure, was donated by the Princess Louisa Society. It is a welcome respite to
boaters during inclement weather ashore. At Plumper Cove Marine Park, 160
feet of Ce-Fer floats were installed to accommodate the rapidly expanding popularity
of pleasure boating in the area.
To head the new park region at Sechelt, O. N. Johansen has left his post at
Mount Seymour Park which he held for 29 years. Ole's many friends were sorry
to see him leave Mount Seymour, but wish him the very best in his new position.
A. Midnight, from the Garibaldi Region, will be joining Mr. Johansen as his
assistant early in 1974.
To replace Mr. Johansen at Mount Seymour, T. O. Moore has left his position
at Manning Park. D. E. Green moved south from Wells Gray Park to assume
charge of Manning Park and we are pleased to have him with us. This year we
lost H. Schmidt, Assistant Supervisor at Cultus Lake, who was successful in his bid
for the vacancy at Wells Gray Park. We wish Mr. Schmidt every success in his
new post.
The year 1973 has been active and eventful, much being accomplished, initiated, and continued in the district. Labour intensive projects gave us the opportunity to tie up many loose ends and the shifts in senior personnel, the chance for
a new look at the situations in three of our regions.
The district office is becoming more involved in public hearings and meetings
as decentralized responsibility and authority falls imperceptibly upon us.
NELSON MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
The continuation of the Accelerated Park Development programme for a third
year insured the continued improvement of parks in the Kootenays. The Summer
Student Employment Programme, Order in Council 1812, initiated in June 1973,
provided funds for employment of young people in the upgrading, maintenance,
and construction of park facilities in most parks in the district.
Two major wilderness parks, Elk Lakes and St. Mary's Alpine, were established under the amendment to the Park Act, while the wilderness known as the
Top-of-the-World was given Class A park status by an Order in Council. Another
Order in Council significantly extended the boundaries of Mount Assiniboine Park.
Class A park status also was given to lands surrounding Conkle Lake and to the
old Class C park lands at Premier Lake.
Park Rangers were stationed for the first time at Fortress Lake in Hamber
Park and at at Conrad Kain Hut in the Bugaboos. These Rangers, in addition to
their regular maintenance responsibilities, guided park visitors in the use of these
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973
AA 99
wilderness areas, and recorded a wide range of data which are required for completion of the long-range plans for these parks.
Major construction works were undertaken at Norbury Lake Park where 46
camp-sites and a day-use development had been readied for final completion in
June to meet the 1974 summer visitor use. A start was made on the reconstruction
of the old Class C park facilities at Premier Lake Park—improvements to the boat-
launching site, the parking-lot, and the campground were started late in the year
so that public use during the summer would not be interrupted. This project,
however, ran into adverse weather conditions and was forced to shut down before
works were completed. The campground construction previously started at Moyie
Lake Park was completed, bringing the camp-site total to 71 units. Paving contracts under the direction of the Department of Highways were undertaken at Moyie
Lake and Yahk Parks.
The development of Kikomun Creek Park, situated on Lake Koocanusa, continued throughout the year, with emphasis on trails, placement of tables, toilets,
and changehouses. The first phase of the water system has been completed with the
construction of a 70,000-gallon concrete reservoir and installation of 8,632 lineal
feet of water pipe.
Development of facilities at Kokanee Creek Park continued in the Sandspit
Campground until 104 sites were completed for public use. The campground
first opened July 1, 1973, providing 50 units for camping, with another 20 sites
being opened August 1, 1973. The day-use parking-lots were redesigned and
readied for final dressing, while the meridians were reshaped for landscaping. An
access road was built to the new boat-launching area in preparation for the construction of a boat ramp.
Camp-site construction at the Kettle River Recreation Area continued with
works concentrated on the completion of the campground, on the extension of a
scenic river trail, and on the development of day-use facilities.
Two boat ramps with adequate parking were constructed in Syringa Creek
Park to meet future boating needs of people wishing to gain access to the waters of
the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. One of the ramps has been extended to low-water
levels to provide launching facilities throughout the year.
Construction continued at Blanket Creek Park near Revelstoke with the
development of a large swimming-basin adjacent to the Arrow Lakes Reservoir.
Some reconstruction of the access highway was necessary to improve roadside and
ditches which were not completed during initial construction. The Students' Employment programme provided the necessary workers to improve the camp-sites,
rebuild trails, landscape small creekbeds, etc.
Numerous other small projects and reconstruction works were undertaken in
Nancy Greene, Beaver Creek, Erie Creek, Stagleap, Mount Fernie, Johnstone
Creek, Boundary Creek, and Mount Assiniboine Parks.
Sewerage systems for newly constructed toilet buildings were completed at
Champion Lakes, Syringa Creek, Christina Lake, Kokanee Creek, Wasa Lake,
Mount Fernie, Dry Gulch, and Mount Fernie Parks.
Deep wells were dug at Syringa Creek and Kokanee Creek Parks and at Kettle
River Recreation Area to extend and improve the water systems in these park
developments. Electrical contracts under Engineering Division control were let to
meet pumping requirements at Wasa Lake, Dry Gulch, Kokanee Creek, Christina
Lake, and Beaver Creek Parks.
The trail programme continued in Mount Assiniboine Park with 6 miles of trail
and two bridges being constructed in the Simpson River valley. Trail improvements
 AA  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in Kokanee Glacier Park were undertaken in Coffee Creek, Silver Spray Creek,
Woodbury Creek, Joker Lakes, Paupo Creek, Enterprise Creek, Lemon Creek, and
Nilsik Creeks.
The Youth Crew programmes at Kokanee Creek, Champion Lakes, Wasa
Lake, and Mount Assiniboine provided 60 boys with a working experience in the
outdoors. Their recreation programmes included canoe trips, wilderness hikes, water
ski-ing, and a close association with Park Naturalists, trappers, and Conservation
Officers.
The Park Naturalist programme was extended from Champion Lakes, Kokanee Creek, and Wasa Lakes Parks to include very successful walks and talks in
Kokanee Glacier and Mount Assiniboine Parks.
NORTHERN MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Park development in the northern districts for 1973 was again active as a
result of the continuation of the Accelerated Park Development Act. As in previous
years, emphasis was placed on the improvement and expansion of existing recreational facilities.
In the Bear Lake Region, sewage-disposal systems were constructed in Crooked
River Park to complete the two public toilet-changehouse buildings. Hydro power
to the park will be connected in the spring of 1974. The campground at Whiskers
Point Park was enlarged by 32 camping units and a service yard and staff residence
building constructed. At Ten Mile Lake Park, the day-use area facilities were
increased by the addition of 1,000 feet of beach, construction of a 30-table picnic
terrace, and two changehouses. Parking facilities were enlarged to accommodate
an additional 150 cars.
The major project in the Bear Lake Region was at Purden Lake. A 78-unit
campground plus service yard and boat-launching facilities were constructed. The
construction of a day-use area is scheduled for 1974.
Construction efforts in the Fraser Lake-Stewart Lake area consisted of construction of a 30-table picnic terrace and 600 feet of beach at Beaumont Park, as
well as the completion of Parrens Beach day-use area on Stewart Lake.
In the Lakelse Region, major activities were confined to Lakelse Lake and
Maclure Lake Parks. At Furlong Bay, a gatehouse was installed, and construction
of sewage-disposal fields for the public toilet buildings was started. Completion is
scheduled for early 1974. The campground at Furlong Bay has been enlarged by
24 units; construction is not yet complete, but these units should be ready for the
start of the 1974 season.
At Maclure Lake, a six-unit public toilet building was constructed, as was a
sani-station and sewage-disposal system. The beach frontage was also enlarged by
dredging and sanding. Other minor works in the region consisted of drilling and
installation of wells at Topley Landing, Ethel F. Wilson, and Pendleton Bay Parks.
Roads and parking areas in Exchamsiks Park, near Terrace, were paved.
Activity in the Peace-Liard Region was significantly lower than in 1972. At
Liard River, a campground renovation programme was undertaken, and the boardwalk to the hot springs was replaced. At Charlie Lake, general renovations were
done to the campground and boat-launching ramp. At Moberly Lake a Pan-Abode
garage-workshop was constructed, and improvements to the beach trail system
undertaken.
Bowron Lake Region was the scene of considerable activity this past season.
A new service yard, made necessary by increased park usage, was constructed, and
a new well drilled.  The Youth Crew programme was introduced in the park and
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  101
construction of a new camp was started in conjunction with the service yard. To
date, construction of a washroom and three accommodation buildings have been
completed. Continuation of the camp-service yard complex is scheduled for 1974.
Other works in the region included improvements to the lake chain facilities and
portages, and the construction of a residence building for the regional supervisor
in Wells.
In the Mount Robson Region, the Youth Crew complex was expanded to
accommodate an additional 15 boys, bringing the camp size up to 45 boys. Four
additional accommodation buildings were erected, and a laundry building, storage
shed, and a storage room added to the cookhouse. Construction of an entrance
portal at the west gateway to Mount Robson Park was also completed. A Youth
Crew camp was constructed in the Berg Lake area of Mount Robson, and operated
during the summer season. The projects concentrated on were trail improvements,
installation of toilet facilities, and garbage collection. This programme will be continued in 1974. Other projects undertaken in the region included the extension of
the water system to the Robson River campground and completion of the sani-station
at Robson Meadows campground.
The 1973 season saw a number of changes in the administrative make-up of
the northern districts. The most significant change was the establishment of the
Smithers District, with headquarters at Smithers. R. Norrish is the District Park
Officer in charge of the district. An additional administrative change was the establishment of the Tweedsmuir Region, with headquarters at Houston. J. P. I. Rogers
is the newly appointed Regional Supervisor.
R. A. Russell, Regional Supervisor, Bear Lake Region, was transferred to the
Nelson District as Regional Supervisor, Kokanee Region.
KAMLOOPS MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Reorganization seems to have been the key feature of a year, highlighted by
the posting of District Construction Superintendents. The third phase of the
Accelerated Park Development programme, Bill 77, coupled with the inception
of a Student Summer Employment programme, Order in Council 1812, saw an
unprecedented increase in funding. Again, efforts were concentrated on trying to
complete works that have been in progress for several years. Much was done,
much more remains to be done. The only new project initiated was the work at
Green Lake in the Cariboo, where the construction began of what will become a fine
park, accessible by a 35-minute drive from the Cariboo Highway. Changes in
ledgering and accounting procedures added substantially to the district work load.
Fortunately, increased financing permitted the hiring of additional staff in the
district headquarters, which in turn permitted us to respond to regional needs at a
reasonable level.
The Okanagan Region was allocated 13.6 per cent of district funds. The
most meaningful work was undertaken with funds provided by the Student Employment programme. Many parks and reserves were cleared of an accumulation of
debris produced by a decade of use and neglect. The infusion of these funds into
the local economy was almost as significant as their effect on the landscape.
The Shuswap Region absorbed 13.2 per cent of district funds. Much of the
financing provided by the Accelerated Park Development Act was absorbed in the
completion of buildings and intensive landscaping in Shuswap Lake Park. The
student programme was extremely beneficial and, among other things, permitted
trail work and the meticulous hand-grooming and cleaning of both developed and
 AA 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
undeveloped parks and reserves. No new works were initiated and the region,
which offers great variety of recreational opportunities, remains deficit in basic
facilities.
Almost one-third of the total funding for the Kamloops District was expended
in the Thompson Region on bringing facilities up to standard, and undertaking the
construction of basic facilities that had been planned, designed, and on paper for
some time. Very significant additions were made to Paul Lake and to Lac Le
Jeune, while minor but equally significant works were undertaken in other region
parks. The student programme permitted a much higher standard of construction
than normal, and the intrusive appearance of new construction was softened by
landscaping which included the placement of topsoil, turf, and trees. Of real
significance is the completion of the regional headquarters, which includes such
basic administrative necessities as a service area, garage workshop, and office space.
Regional staff have survived a trying period when the lack of proper accommodation
has made efficient administration difficult.
The Wells Gray Region utilized 30.4 per cent of the funds allocated to the
Kamloops District. These moneys were expended in Wells Gray Park, with the
bulk of those funds spent on either roads or trails. The success of these projects
would have remained largely unsatisfactory except for the provision of supplementary funding through the student programme. As with most other regions,
the effort was concentrated on the completion or upgrading of existing facilities,
rather than the construction of new ones. Following a reassessment of the capability of the Murtle River Bridge, the section spanning open water was replaced
with a Bailey bridge under the design and supervision of Engineering Division.
Public use and acceptance of the Park would indicate that additional camping
facilities are required immediately.
At Lac la Hache, the Day-Use area was landscaped to guard against erosion.
Bridge Lake was reconstructed and landscaped to Planning Division specifications.
Landscaping and completion of the day-use area, together with the purchase and
construction of a simulated log building for a seasonal residence and a small workshop were projects slated for Big Bar Lake. Perhaps the most significant work
undertaken in the Cariboo was the beginning of a park at Green Lake, where the
bulk of the student programme money was expended. A most significant contribution for 1974/75 will be the completion of the first stage of this development.
The South Tweedsmuir Region was allocated 3.1 per cent of district funds.
The administration of this subregion has been handled through the Cariboo office of
this district on a temporary basis. This year saw substantial improvements to the
headquarters area as well as to the campground on the Atnarko River near Stuie.
The trail improvement programme continued, with perhaps the most significant
achievement being the construction of two log footbridges crossing the Hotnarko
River near Young Creek and the Atnarko River near the Stillwater.
VANCOUVER ISLAND MANAGEMENT DISTRICT
Emphasis was again on improvement to facilities and standards of maintenance
in the Malahat Region, with extra fundings provided by Bill 77 and Order in Council
1812. A new bridge across the Goldstream River was constructed by the Department of Highways and another 12 camp-sites were reconstructed to accommodate
larger recreational vehicles in Goldstream Park. Extensive renovations were carried
out to the changehouse and toilet building in Bamberton Park. Planned facilities at
Gordon Bay Park were completed, which included beach improvements, parking-
lots for boaters and picnickers, and landscaping. Two new cabanas were constructed
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973       AA  103
at Gabriola Sands Park and improvements made to the grounds and parking-lots.
Heavily used China Beach Park received a new parking-lot and access road. The
renovation of Prior Centennial Park campground marked the completion of the
major renovation projects required to bring the region up to new design standards.
Parks in the Strathcona Region continued to receive heavy use by campers,
picnickers, and hikers during 1973. In addition to normal maintenance commitments, staff directed much effort to organizing and managing the Summer Student
Employment programme, Order in Council 1812, which permitted improvements to
park services and facilities. An average of 35 people was employed on the reconstruction of Elk Falls Park, continued reconstruction of Miracle Beach Park, reconstruction of 11 miles of the Elk River Trail in Strathcona Park, and in various
management duties throughout the region.
The establishment of Cape Scott Park within the Strathcona Region provides
a challenge in the development of techniques relating to the management and administration of a wilderness, sea coast park.
Activities in the Arrowsmith Region during the year were supported by the
funds available through Bill 77 and Order in Council 1812. All main roads were
paved, the original barn was restored, and the entrance to the campground and the
area around the sani-station were landscaped in Rathtrevor Beach Park. In Little
Qualicum Falls Park, a new pumping station was installed and the water system was
completed. Trails were upgraded and various buildings were painted in parks
throughout the region. The Youth Crew programme was most successful, with trail
construction, stone work, and some maintenance being carried out.
PARK SECURITY
During the 1973 camping season full-time security patrolmen were employed in
15 parks, seven with gatehouse control and eight without. During the Easter school
holiday, before security measures were in effect, outbreaks of vandalism and rowdyism occurred in some parks, but these were quickly brought under control, and from
May 1 the operation was successful. As in 1972 there were virtually no complaints
of rowdyism from the camping public and serious acts of vandalism were few. The
eviction section of the regulations was used early in the year before any incipient
disturbance could reach major proportions. This proved effective. There was a
noticeable drop in complaints from the public about the security measures, and
against the enforcement of these measures by park staff. This is probably due to,
first, the acceptance of controls by the public and, second, more experience on the
part of park staff.
ACCIDENT PREVENTION
With no serious accidents, and the Department of Recreation and Conservation
again being awarded the Premier's trophy for accident reduction, it is felt that 1973
was a good year. Emphasis again was on on-the-spot inspections, accident prevention committees, an increased awareness of hazards, and the necessity of safe work
habits.
YOUTH CREW
Following the pattern of previous years, crews were made up of boys 16 and
17 years of age, with the work tailored to their physical and emotional capabilities,
and liberally broken up with sports, trips to points of interest, and periods of relaxation.
Camps were again operated at Little Qualicum Falls, Manning, Champion
Lakes, Kokanee Creek, Wasa, Mount Robson, and Crooked River Parks and at
 AA  104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Horsefly Lake. New camps were opened at Golden Ears and Bowron Lake Parks
and alpine camps were in operation in the Black Tusk area of Garibaldi Park and
in Mount Assiniboine Park. Considerable renovation of old trails was accomplished
and a fair mileage of new trails built. These activities, together with the construction
of the new camps and improvements to the old, made for a busy summer. This year,
Manning Park returned to a system of satellite camps, a system which had not been
used for some years. One headquarters camp, with all amenities was established,
with three primitive camps in semiwilderness locations being operated from it. With
four crews moving progressively from camp to camp, each boy got a taste of what
each area had to offer, as well as spending a period of time at park headquarters.
Foremen and cooks were maintained at each satellite camp, and supplies were
brought in from headquarters. The boys thoroughly enjoyed the experience and
they were not long enough at any one camp for the work to become boring. During
their time at the headquarters camp, they were taken on trips to points of interest
and spent considerable time at sports and relaxation.
With a total of 254 boys in the field, it is felt that 1973 was quite a successful
year.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
Requests for information from the general public and interested groups and
organizations increased again in 1973 over previous years, reflecting the continued
and growing concern of the people of British Columbia and elsewhere for the
Province's natural heritage as exemplified by the Provincial Parks system. Inquiries
for folders and brochures were up by 29.5 per cent over 1972, while the dissemination of letters and memoranda remained at the same level.
Providing the required informational material necessitated revising and teprint-
ing of nearly all available publications and the preparation and printing of three
new major folders—Kokanee Glacier Provincial Park, Gibson Pass Ski Area of
Manning Provincial Park, and A New Era for Provincial Parks. In addition, a
number of temporary mimeographed hand-outs describing smaller parks were
prepared and distributed.
Information about Provincial parks was presented to the public in the Okanagan, Lower Mainland, and on Vancouver Island through the Parks Branch portable display which was exhibited at outdoor shows, university open houses, recreation associations, and schools. The refurbished Department of Recreation and
Conservation display in the B.C. Building at the PNE in Vancouver told the story
of parks as well as of Commercial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife, and the Provincial
Museum to countless visitors during the year.
Special presentations on Provincial parks were made to the annual Travel
Counsellors' school in Vancouver and to Tourist Advisers in Prince George and
Nelson in co-operation with the Department of Travel Industry. Talks were
delivered to students of recreation at the University of Victoria and at Capilano
College in North Vancouver as well as to other groups in various locations in the
Province. The Information Officer appeared on a television programme taped at
the CHEK-TV Station in Victoria for broadcast on the CTV network in British
Columbia and was a guest on a CKWX radio open-line show in Vancouver.
Arrangements were made for the visit to British Columbia of the Eighth International Seminar on the Administration of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves
in August. During the seminar's stay in the Province, the delegates toured Provincial parks on Vancouver Island and they were transported to Sidney Spit
Provincial Marine Park on board Canadian Forces' ships through the courtesy of
Rear-Admiral R. J. Pickford, CD., Commander, Maritime Forces Pacific.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 105
News releases and features prepared by the Information Officer helped keep
the news media informed of the activities of the Parks Branch. An article about
Mount Edziza Provincial Park and Recreation Area was written for Beautiful British
Columbia magazine. Assistance was given to individuals and agencies writing about
Provincial parks through provision of photographs and by editing and proofreading
manuscripts.
The Information Officer helped in the preparations and arrangements for the
Parks Branch conference held in Vancouver in December. In connection with this,
a Parks Branch logo was designed and submitted for official approval. During the
course of the year the Information Officer visited parks throughout the Province
and recorded Branch activities and park developments on film and in print.
INTERPRETATION
Expanded programmes and record attendance marked a successful year for
Interpretation in 1973. Under Order in Council 1812, programmes were extended
to September 30, allowing naturalists the opportunity to reach a larger audience,
particularly among school children.
Six new staff members were added to Interpretation's various sections during
1973. L. Pavlick and G. Hazelwood were appointed respectively as Assessment
Officer and Wildlife Officer to assist in carrying out Interpretation's traditional roles
of providing information on parks' natural features, and of the protection of wildlife
in parks. Miss J. Fisher and Miss P. Swift joined the Programmes Section to assist
in the office support for the increased number of summer naturalist programmes.
Peter Eyles and Miss Connie Knowles joined the Display Studio staff to increase
the quality and amount of art work in each display production.
A seven-day training workshop session for seasonal naturalists was held in
May at Parksville where the natural setting proved ideal for practice walks and talks.
An intensive week of study, together with briefings by park administrators and outside resource people, introduced new employees to all aspects of the naturalist's
role in the park system. The sessions also provided new information and techniques
of interpretation for experienced naturalists.
PROGRAMMES SECTION
Park Naturalist programmes were conducted in 29 parks throughout British
Columbia, ranging from a pilot project at Ralph River in Strathcona Park to a new
programme at Mount Assiniboine. Fifty seasonal naturalists, an increase of 10
over 1972, welcomed 240,259 visitors to programmes conducted from Vancouver
Island east to Alberta and north to the Yukon boundary. As a result of this expanded programme with increased staff, headquarters personnel spent many extra
hours in field supervision and administration, visiting 23 of the 29 park programmes
during the summer.
Nature houses containing popular displays were open in Bowron Lake, Manning, Miracle Beach, Mount Robson, and Shuswap Lake Parks. The Miracle
Beach programme introduced 44,937 people to the environment of the forest and
the sea, while Shuswap Lake's walks, talks, slide shows, and Nature House entertained a record 46,371 people. Goldstream's extension programme gave 9,534
school-children the opportunity to experience the park's natural history, and the
fall salmon run attracted an additional 45,000 visitors.
Experimental interpretive programmes were conducted in three parks—Home
Lake Caves, Liard River Hotsprings, and Mount Assiniboine.   Of these, the Home
 AA  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lake Caves programme was the most unusual and, in a sense, the most successful.
Visitors were equipped with cave exploration gear and were conducted through two
contrasting caves—one badly damaged by vandals, the other gated, protected, and
in excellent condition. Members of the Vancouver Island Cave Exploration Group
served as guides. Many man-hours of their time were donated to helping people
understand and experience the nature of the cave world. In 20 days of operation,
over 2,000 people ventured underground. An experimental community Park
Naturalist programme was started during December in the Lower Mainland area.
The purpose is to provide a naturalist resource person who can take school-children
outdoors for a natural history experience or give talks indoors to interested groups
on Provincial parks and outdoor recreation opportunities in parks close to Vancouver.
ASSESSMENT SECTION
Liard River Hotsprings Park, an unusual area of natural hot springs, luxuriant
vegetation, and water-formed tufa terraces on the Alaska Highway, was carefully
studied for its interpretive value and its natural area protection requirements. Other
parks assessed in this way included Carp Lake and Kikomun Creek. Preliminary
observations and assessments were carried out for Purden Lake, Premier Lake,
Whiskers Point, Fort McLeod Historic, Davis Lake, Sasquatch, and Chilliwack
Lake Parks, and at Toad River Hotsprings.
WILDLIFE SECTION
Activities since September have included field examinations of Cape Scott,
Mount Robson, and Hamber Parks to determine the nature of specific wildlife
specifications. These parks were assessed in order to ensure the continuation of
wildlife populations for park visitor enjoyment. The work involves liaison with
wildlife management agencies, consultants, and knowledgeable individuals involved
directly with park animal populations.
DISPLAY STUDIO SECTION
The major work undertaken during 1973 was the complete revision of Shuswap
Lake Park Nature House. In total, 17 new indoor displays were planned and completed for all nature houses. A second major work, an ecological display for
Manning Nature House, was planned. To date, two-thirds of this display has been
completed.
More emphasis was placed this year on outdoor displays in parks. A survey
of present and potential outdoor displays in southern British Columbia was completed during the summer. Ten outdoor display panels, including sets of aluminum
signs, were produced for visitor use in MacMillan, Alice Lake, and other southern
parks.
The campground orientation map programme was accelerated slightly to
produce 14 of these visitor aids. Three new pamphlets, 20 Plants of Champion
Lakes Park, Trees of British Columbia's Parks, and 20 Birds of Miracle Beach Park,
were written, illustrated, and prepared for the printers.
The success of the 1973 programme and related activities is a direct result of
the enthusiasm, dedication, and interest expressed in the work by all staff. Particular credit for this success goes to the seasonal naturalists whose attitudes and
activity have so much to do with a park visitor's feeling of enjoyment in a park.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973       AA  107
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES DIVISION
In addition to the regular historic sites funding from the Provincial Secretary's
Department, the Division utilized $280,000 of the Accelerated Park Development
Fund for historic parks and sites projects throughout the Province. Besides the
various projects described below, a grant of $15,000 to the Atlin Historical Society
enabled acquisition of the courthouse and other buildings.
PARKS SECTION
Barkerville Historic Park—Attendance continues to increase, with a total of
280,000 day-visits and 40,000 camper-nights estimated for the season. In order
to protect the approaches to the park from the possibility of both placer-mining and
commercial development, about 800 acres extending along nearly 4 miles of the
highway between Wells and Barkerville were added to the park. Projects during
the year included the completion of the carriage shed in the Hudson's Bay Company
complex; the completion of the Conklin Gulch feeder to the water system; completion of 80 of the 90 units in the Lowhee Campground, and the water system in the
campground; continuation of the souvenir shop-refreshment pavilion to be opened
in 1974, and drilling of two water wells in the Forest Rose Campground, 50 units
of which will be available in 1974. Employment of a full-time exhibits man
enabled long-due attention to be given to displays throughout the park. New displays included the carriage shed, Mrs. Neate's house, and working exhibits in the
Cariboo Sentinel print shop and the blacksmith's shop. New displays are planned
for 1974.
Cottonwood House Historic Park—Although this pleasant historic park attracts less than 10 per cent of the visitors going to Barkerville, it does so without
publicity and without any interpretive programme. Now that all the roofs except
the one on the main building have been reshaked and most of the immediate reconstruction has been completed, attention can go to interpretation.
Fort Steele Historic Park—The park attracted 275,000 day-visits, including
62 organized school groups. The school visits doubled over the previous year and
are demanding thorough planning and preorganization. The appointment of an
Assistant Supervisor has enabled that necessary attention be given to the many
aspects of both short- and long-range planning. The construction of the hospital
completed the reconstruction of the eight-building North West Mounted Police post
as originally built by Superintendent Sam Steele and "D" Division in 1887. The
Clydesdale horses now occupy the barn. A start was made on completing the
balcony in the Wildhorse Theatre, and it should be ready for use for the 1974
theatrical performances. Studies are being made toward a provisional master plan.
On the basis of present use and available space within the interpretation area, it is
estimated that the optimum use of the park should not exceed 700,000 visitor-days
during the summer season. The establishment of privately operated campgrounds
in the vicinity of the park has presently removed the need for governmentally
developed facilities. Preliminary work was done toward the publication of a
visitor's guidebook which should be available for public sale in 1974. In September
the park hosted the first annual meeting of western Canada Federal-Provincial-
Municipal historic sites people and the 17th Annual Training Seminar of the British
Columbia Museums Association.
Kilby Historic Park—With the addition of two parcels fronting on the Harrison
River, there are now 29 acres in the park. Surveys have been completed toward
an over-all development plan which will include parking, picnicking, water, sani-
 AA  108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tary, and fire-protection facilities. Floor plans were drawn of the Kilby Store
Museum toward planning for the best use as an interpretive centre. An automatic
oil furnace was installed and fire extinguishers placed in the museum. Two students
assisted Mr. and Mrs. Kilby during the summer and continued cataloguing artifacts.
One assistant is being retained for the whole year. Nearly 7,000 visitors discovered
this unique old general store museum during the year.
SITES SECTION
Historic buildings inventory—Two history graduates were employed starting
in June on a co-operative programme with the Federal Government's Canadian
Inventory of Historic Buildings. Under Phase II, architectural information is being
gathered on historic buildings within the Greater Victoria area. The expertise
gained from this project is proving valuable toward developing guidelines on
heritage structures for the new Historic Sites Advisory Board.
Stop-of-lnterest programme—Five new plaque texts were prepared. Particular
attention is being given to marking sites in the northern portion of the Province,
especially along the new Stewart-Cassiar Highway.
Historic trail reconnaissance—Three students continued the previous summer's
work of locating and clearing the Christina Lake-Rossland section of the 1865
Dewdney Trail. Permission has been obtained from most of the private landowners to clear the portions of the trail within their respective properties. With the
co-operation of the Lands Branch and the Forest Service, a reserve was established
on a half mile of the Hope to Tulameen section of the Hudson's Bay Company's
Fur Brigade Trail.
RESEARCH SECTION
In the past, except within a few historic parks, emphasis has been placed on
natural history interpretation within the Provincial Parks system. In recognition
that man's role is an important and interesting part of any given area, more attention
must be given to the significant human history of various parks. A much fuller
appreciation of any park will be possible through a broadened interpretive programme along roads or trails, at archaeological or historic remains or structures, or
within interpretation centres.
A start has been made toward specific studies within Carp Lake, Beaumont,
and Liard River Hotsprings Parks; parks in the Shuswap Lake area, the Vancouver
Island Bicycle Parkway, and Wells Gray Park.
A complete inventory of human history resources within Provincial parks will
be started in 1974, aimed at determining priorities for interpretation through various
possible means.
DESIGN SECTION
Within its responsibility for designing and inspecting buildings and structures
within historic parks, this year's projects included preparing floor plans of the Kilby
Store Museum at Kilby Historic Park; drawing plans for panelling Fort Steele's
Wildhorse Theatre ceiling and walls, and plans for expanding workshop areas;
inspecting Barkerville's souvenir-refreshment pavilion, and proposed restoration
and construction projects in the Chinese section; and supervising the Division's
architectural and photographic research and reference library.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973       AA  109
COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FUND
The establishment of the Community Recreational Facilities Fund by an Act
of the Legislature on March 31, 1973, has added a new dimension to the Parks
Branch. The purpose of the fund is to allocate moneys in such a way that each
community within the Province shall have sufficient variety of recreational facilities
to provide adequate opportunities for participation by interested residents. The
fund is designed to provide capital assistance up to one-third of $1 million for any
recreational facility built by a municipality or a nonprofit, religious, ethnic, or cultural group that is prepared to guarantee that the facility will be open to the general
public.
The fund is administered by the Extension Liaison Office, which prepares
applications for submission to technical and advisory committees. It is the function
of the Technical Committee (consisting of representatives from four separate departments) and the Advisory Committee (drawn from professional recreationists from
throughout the Province) to make recommendations to the Minister on the disposition of each application.
In its first 10 months of operation, the Minister has awarded grants totalling
$15,177,440.80 to 162 applicants in over 90 communities throughout the Province.
The wide variety of facilities receiving assistance includes everything from swimming-pools and hockey arenas to theatres and marinas. There is no indication that
the demand on the fund will decrease immediately; however, it is expected that once
the tremendous backlog of needed facilities is satisfied, the grant requests will level
off and become consistent with population and leisure-time demands.
  Nfii
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Department of Recreation and conservation
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973       AA  113
PROVINCIAL   MUSEUM
YEAR ENDING DECEMBER   31, 1973
DIRECTOR
J. B. Foster
^
ETHNOLOGY
P. L. MACNAIR
A. L.   HOOVER
ARCHAEOLOGY
D.N. ABBOTT
J.C. HAGGERTY
HISTORY
D.T. GALLACHER
J.R. WARDROP
LINGUISTICS
B. E. EFRAT
ASSISTANT
DIRECTOR
R. Y  Edwards
MUSEUMS ADVISOR
J.E. KYTE
CONSERVATION
P. R.   WARD
C. A. RUSSELL
BOTANY
A.F. SZCZAWINSKI
T.C. BRAYSHAW
MARINE BIOLOGY
A. E. PEDEN
P. LAMBERT
BIRDS & MAMMALS
CJ. GUIGUET
W. CAMPBELL
ENTOMOLOGY
R. H. CARCASSON
B.D. AINSCOUGH
EDUCATION
W. A. WOOD
S. A. CUTHERTSON
DISPLAY
J.J. ANDRE
A.  JAMES
_>
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 115
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Dr. J. B. Foster, Director
The year 1973 saw unprecedented growth in the Museum fortunes despite the
fluctuating vagaries of funding bodies. The Local Initiative project, Mamook,
begun in February 1972, died at the end of May but was resuscitated by the Park
Development Act (Bill 77) until the end of October. Then Mamook expired completely, after a highly successful run of 21 months. The National Museum programme delayed in sending its contributions of funds so that the 33 people hired in
the spring on this programme remained on tenterhooks throughout the summer and
autumn.
Fortunately, the Provincial Government came to our rescue by more than
doubling our budget, by an additional major grant for display construction, by providing an Acquisition Grant of $250,000, and by assurance that any financial deficiencies in the National Museum programme would be honoured by the Province.
The unprecedented increase in our budget from the Province was aimed largely
at our display programme. The history galleries, opened last year as the beginning
of Project '70, were acclaimed by both experts and the public. However, acres of
empty exhibit area remained and here our priorities were directed.
Yorke Edwards, the Assistant Director, used his considerable knowledge of
display, natural history, and tact to act as the catalyst between the Exhibit Chief
and the curators to help them produce story lines for two half floors—anthropology
and natural history (Coast and Sea).
Construction began in these two half floors in December. It is intended to
open the anthropology galleries in early 1975, and the coast and sea galleries about
a year later.
For the first time in its history, the Museum has a substantial sum of money
to try to stem the flow of important objects and specimens from the Province. The
Acquisition Grant was established largely to purchase significant ethnological
objects, but the fund could assist all curatorial divisions in obtaining collections.
During the year the Acquisition Grant permitted us to acquire ethnological and
historical objects, as well as place bids on others.
The National Museums programme got under way in early 1973. It is comprised of four projects—Associate Museum, Catalogue Assistance, Training programme, and National Loan Collection.
As an Associate Museum in the National Museum programme, our responsibilities involve providing aid to other museums in the Province (conservation,
exhibits, curatorial, etc.), sending and receiving travelling exhibits and helping to
assess other applications for funds from museums to the programme. The Museum
Adviser and Education Services were most involved in these aspects of the programme, though most curatorial divisions obtained an "extension curator" to help
in the above activities.
The Catalogue Assistance programme gave great impetus to the tasks of
properly cataloguing our vast collections of objects and photographs in the fields
of history, archaeology, and ethnology. This programme is a precursor to a National
Inventory, wherein it is hoped that data on all objects in museums across Canada
will be stored in a central data centre.
The Training programme got under way toward the end of the year. It
involves both two people coming to the Museum on in-service training and a third
person conducting training seminars throughout the Province.
 AA  116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The National Loan Collection programme was to have assembled a collection
of very significant objects in Ottawa, which would be available for loan. To this
end, the Museum hired a caster who began making replicas of important archaeological objects. However, the Federal Government put this programme in
abeyance.
The National Museums programme began to have its effect on the other
museums in the Province during the year. At the same time, the Community
Recreational Facilities Fund Act became an additional source of money for the
capital costs of new museums or expansion of old ones.
As well as all the other advantages of the National Museums programme, it
helped our Museum to become more Provincial in fact as well as name, for the
first time in its history. Field studies were conducted from the Alaska Highway
to the Flathead, including an intensive study of the flora of Manning Park and the
marine life of Barkley Sound. The last was immensely aided by the addition of
the MV Nesika to the Museum.
Two new curatorial divisions were added by the Province during the year.
Dr. Barbara Efrat became Curator of Linguistics and Dr. Robert Carcasson Curator
of Entomology. Native peoples are more concerned than ever for their vanishing
languages. There is no other Provincial body concerned with insects other than
the few useful or obnoxious kinds, yet these kinds of animals far outnumber all
kinds of vertebrates.
Mrs. R. R. Rogers became the Museum's librarian at the end of the year and
faces an immense backlog of work.
We find we need our highly successful voluntary organization even more
as a result of increased Provincial and Federal support. The Friends of the
Provincial Museum and the Heritage Court Society had their best years, providing
indispensable help, chiefly in supplying docents and running the gift shop. For all
this help and acting as the most important interface between the Museum and the
community, we are deeply grateful.
Tweedy's Lewisia (Lewisia tweedyi): A southern plant found for the first time
in Canada, in Manning Provincial Park in 1973.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 117
*''L "* ■
Soil profile: Largest-ever soil profile taken from Glenrose Cannery Dig
for the archaeology permanent exhibit.
Preparing artifacts: Conservation staff
members restore and repair artifacts for
exhibition or storage purposes.
Cleaning and storing: Entomological specimens are stored and
used for research purposes.
 AA  118 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DIVISION OF ARCHAEOLOGY
The Division's participation in four of the National Museums policy programmes has allowed us to offer services and perform functions long needed.
Under the Museum's status as an Associate Museum in the National Museums
programme, we have hired an additional Curator, Grant Keddie, whose assistance
enables us to improve our liaison with the Education Services Division and Museums
Adviser, and to provide advice on archaeological matters to the local museums of
the Province. He also expedites the two-way flow of archaeological information
for the National and Provincial Inventories. To date, Mr. Keddie has carried out
a reconnaissance of 20 community museums, in order to examine the collections,
undertake a rough inventory, and assist in an advisory capacity; designed a travelling
display "Preserving Man's Cultural Heritage" which is now touring community
museums; participated in education activities, including a workshop seminar at the
British Columbia Museums Association Conference, a training seminar for Education Services Division docents, lectures and Division tours to school and university
classes.
This Division is one of three institutions in Canada actively involved in the
National Inventory, which is intended eventually to be a vast computer catalogue
network of the major collections in all fields of the nation's cultural and natural
heritage. The inventory will begin with limited projects in four disciplines, one
being archaeology. Three institutions—Memorial University of Newfoundland, the
Archaeological Survey of Canada in Ottawa, and the British Columbia Provincial
Museum—were chosen to set up this project, in co-operation with the Systems
Services Division of the National Museums of Canada.
The National Inventory will consist of two basic computer files, one of sites
and one of artifacts, accessible to all participating institutions. One museum will
act as file controller and data centre for each province and will have direct connection with the central computer in Toronto. The British Columbia archaeological
site file, already centred here, was copied by the Archaeological Survey into inventory
format and was transmitted to Ottawa during 1972 and 1973. Work on the artifact
file began this autumn under the supervision of our Systems Curator, with the help
of two technicians employed for us by Systems Services.
Supplementing and extending our National Inventory project are functions
supported by yet another Federal programme, Catalogue Assistance. Tom Loy was
hired in late August as Systems Curator, to research and supervise this whole area.
He has been charged with studying the feasibility of applying more sophisticated
data processing techniques on a regional level to archaeological data beyond those
covered by the National Inventory. Meanwhile, more conventional curatorial tasks
proceeded. Wally Bishop oversaw the continued cataloguing and ordering of the
artifact collections. Mrs. Deirdre LaForest reorganized the human osteological
collection geographically rather than by accession sequence, and organized two
basic comparative collections for faunal identification. She and lames Haggarty
finalized the cataloguing and accessioning system for the bio-archaeological collections. In addition to supervising the transcription of the site file for the National
Inventory, Mrs. Oliver prepared a third duplicate of the file for the Union of B.C.
Indian Chiefs and joined with Mr. Loy and the Curator in discussion with representatives of the union and of the University of British Columbia to determine
policy regarding access to and administration of the file. Relevant portions of the
site file were also copied for certain Indian Bands who requested this service and
for persons carrying out specific research projects.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 119
Travelling exhibition: Preserving Man's Cultural Heritage was the first travelling
exhibit to our community museums in British Columbia under the National Museums
programme.
The fourth National Museums programme, the National Loan Collection,
enabled us to hire a skilled castmaker and archaeologist, Ross Brand. Mr. Brand
is engaged in making precise duplicates of significant artifacts in our own and other
collections for exchange purposes, in order to improve the study and display collections of this and other institutions.
The other area of greatest activity in 1973 has been research and planning for
the permanent archaeological-ethnological displays to open next year. It was
decided only in spring that the archaeology portions of Project '70 would proceed
at once. One of the key exhibits will be a pair of monoliths, actual large segments
of excavated sites, which between them may represent a time span of 9,500 years
of Indian cultural development. The first of these monoliths was removed under
Mr. Brand's direction from the Glenrose site excavation in Delta Municipality.
Field work was limited in 1973. One project which we assisted in organizing,
and in which Division staff participated, involved training soldiers from the 3rd
Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, in archaeological techniques.
The exercise, code-named "Raleigh Passage," took place in April at Echo Bay on
Gilford Island and at several other archaeological sites on nearby islands. To our
knowledge, this is the first time scientific excavations have been carried out by a
military unit supervised by professional archaeologists. The experiment proved
highly successful. The men, working in small teams, each under the direction of
an archaeologist (Provincial Museum staff, the Provincial Archaeologist, and Uni-
 AA 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA
versity of Victoria), quickly proved adept and skilled at the delicate and sometimes
complicated procedures. As a result, valuable information was acquired from a
previously little-known area. Dr. Donald Mitchell, of the University of Victoria,
was chosen director of the project, since he had previously prepared a research
design which was ideally suited for deployment of a large crew in two relatively
isolated areas—criteria important for the PPCLI's training needs. All logistics were
handled by the Canadian Armed Forces.
Our association with the Hesquiat project continued. The Assistant Curator
and other staff members devoted considerable time to this project during the year.
At Hesquiat Harbour the main part of the planned archaeological fieldwork was
completed and excellent progress was made with construction of the Band's museum
and longhouse.
Another Indian-run project which we helped to organize was carried out by
the Atlin Indian Band and their archaeologist, Diana French, on the Nakina River
this summer. The project involved survey, reconnaissance, recording, and salvage
of gravehouses and other sites.
A third such project, with which we have been less directly involved, was
carried out by the Osoyoos Band. Gerry Roberts, their archaeologist, is using our
facilities for the analysis of data recovered.
Mr. and Mrs. R. C. Hill received a grant, through this Division, from the Leon
and Thea Koerner Foundation to continue their intensive petroglyph recording
project on the Coast north of Vancouver Island. Rubbings, photographs, and
records from this project have been turned over to the Museum. The Hills are
currently preparing a book on the subject, to which the Curator has contributed a
foreword.
Two projects, funded under the Opportunities for Youth programme, at Esquimalt Lagoon and Coles Bay, received minor support from the Division. These were
directed by Ernie Oliver.
In late luly the Curator and Assistant Curator, with the Provincial Achaeologist,
made a brief tour of archaeological projects at Hesquiat, Prince Rupert Harbour,
and Graham Island.
In addition to the extension activities of Mr. Keddie, other staff members carried out duties of an extension nature. Mrs. Condrashoff, the Chief Research Technician, visited Neskainlith Reserve in October to offer her services as a resource
person for the proposed development of a Shuswap Indian cultural centre at Salmon
Arm. Several school and university classes were conducted through the Division
and staff members lectured in classrooms in Victoria and Nanaimo. The Assistant
Curator and Dr. Wyatt (University of Victoria), gave an experimental series of
lectures in Victoria highrises. The Curator gave one of a series of public lectures
entitled "Pages of Prehistory" in the Newcombe Auditorium. Finally, "The Hesquiat Project" was the topic for a talk given by Mr. Haggarty over CHEK-TV.
The Division has provided space and facilities during the year to the following
scholars carrying out associated research: Miss Katherine Capes (Courtenay);
lohn Dewhirst (National Historic Sites); Dr. Roberta Hall and Tom German (University of Victoria); Dr. James Hester (University of Colorado) and Gerry Roberts.
The Division's sincere thanks are owed to Miss Sabrina Murdoch, Miss Jackie
Boyer, and other volunteer workers; to the many donors of specimens and information, particularly Mr. and Mrs. Keith Edgell, of Edgewood; to those who have
loaned specimens for photography, recording or casting; and to the Friends of the
Provincial Museum for the gift of a Wild binocular microscope.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 121
Total learning package: A marine biology kit for travelling to schools was designed
and constructed. About 1,000 students have taken part in the project, currently under
study.
DIVISION OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS
Main activity centred around study collections, specimen preparation and collecting, and in acquiring record systems in several fields previously housed at the
University of British Columbia. These latter include a British Columbia nest records scheme, a photo-duplicate file of British Columbia vertebrate records, a system
on consolidating all birds records for the Province, and a seabird banding programme.
Compilation and indexing of field notes old and new continued apace. The
lifetime records of three deceased, active field ornithologists—Theed Pearse, Derek
Beecham, Rev. M. W. Holdom, as well as field records compiled by staff members
this year and last, were processed.
Field activities were carried out on the Queen Charlotte Islands, the west coast
of Vancouver Island, pelagic waters, the inside passage, Triangle Island, and in the
Flathead region of southeastern British Columbia. These had many purposes,
including ecological reserve assessments, scientific study collecting, seabird banding
and nesting inventory, display collecting, a cetacean salvage operation, oil pollution
investigations, pesticide and pelagic bird food studies. Examinations of specimens
collected as a result of oil pollution and for pesticide and food analyses are under
the supervision of Dr. Eoin McEwan at the University of British Columbia.
The preparation of specimens for display continued through the year. Richard
Gibbs, taxidermist, prepared 110 specimens of birds and mammals, mainly for
The Coast and Sea history exhibit planned for the display galleries. At the year's
end he was busy with a large specimen of grizzly bear donated by the Fish and Wildlife Branch (an illegal kill, confiscated). The sea lion group, also part of The
Coast and Sea exhibit and featuring a large bull, two cows, and some calves, is
under preparation.
 AA  122 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Barbara Jull, cataloguer and osteological preparator, and Phil Nott, Chief
Technician, prepared between them 475 study specimens of birds and mammals,
including osteological specimens.
The Assistant Curator was active in slide, television, and radio shows throughout the Province, including the presentations in the Queen Charlotte Islands, Prince
George, Kamloops, Victoria, and Vancouver. He also conducted a series of noon
bird walks in Beacon Hill Park in connection with an adult education programme
sponsored by Camosun College.
Two films, one featuring bird banding, the second on museum taxidermy, were
prepared in this Division by the Department of Education.
The Province's scientific study collection of birds and mammals was heavily
used during the year. Specimens were utilized by many institutions, individual
scientists, artists, teachers, and students.
DIVISION OF BOTANY
The manuscript of the handbook Wildflowers of Mount Revelstoke National
Park has been completed by the Curator in collaboration with Dr. J. H. Soper,
Chief Botanist at the National Museum, Ottawa.
The Assistant Curator spent the summer on field work in Manning Provincial
Park with the help of the Provincial Parks Branch. The work produced an authoritative list of the flora of the park, a set of 1,200 specimens and a set of photographs.
In addition to examination of his own collections made this summer, the Assistant
Curator has examined the existing collections of plants housed in the nature house
at Manning Park, in order to compile as complete a list as possible of the flora of
the park. His list includes 96 species new to the park. Of special interest among
these was Lewisia tweedyi the first record of this species from Canada. The photographs will be the basis of an illustrated book on the wildflowers of Manning Park,
to be published jointly by the Provincial Parks Branch and the Provincial Museum.
A new series of Museum publications has been started, dealing with methods
used in museum work, with the first booklet on Plant Collecting for the Amateur,
written and illustrated by the Associate Curator.
The Curator and Dr. R. J. Bandoni, of the University of British Columbia,
have revised the Museum's Guide to Common Mushrooms, describing several additional species. The revised edition will have a complete new set of coloured
illustrations.
The Associate Curator spent a month in Ottawa studying records of the catkin-
bearing plants of British Columbia in the herbaria of the National Museum, the Plant
Research Institute, and the Central Research Forest of the Canadian Forestry Service, for a forthcoming publication on this group of plants.
Dr. T. M. C. Taylor completed his research on the legumes (Leguminosae)
of British Columbia. His muniscripts on this family and on the figworts (Scrophu-
lariaceae) are now in press. He is currently working on the Cyperaceae (sedges
family). Our illustrators have completed the illustrations for the first two of the
above families and are currently working on plate of the Cyperaceae and Cruciferae,
the latter series for a manuscript previously completed.
Dr. Nancy Turner has been carrying on research in ethnobotany and is currently preparing the manuscript for a handbook to be entitled: Food Plants of the
British Columbia Indians: Parti: Coastal Indians.
Visiting researchers included Dr. J. H. Soper, of the National Museum, who
has been working on the flora of Mount Revelstoke Park; Dr. G. W. Argus, also
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  123
of the National Museum, who examined the collection of Salix (willows) and identified a number of specimens; and Dr. E. L. Little, dendrologist for the United States
Forest Service, who examined tree records in preparation for a forthcoming volume
of the Atlas of United States Trees.
The Curator has played an active part on the Advisory Board of the Ecological
Reserves Committee, mainly in drafting regulations for administration of the
reserves.
The herbarium collection consists of 61,261 sheets, an increase of 1,019 in
1973. As our herbarium is listed in Index Herbariorum, there are always requests
for loans of our material for study. This year a total of 868 plants was sent out for
scientific studies by other institutions.
Herbarium exchange was continued with institutions in Canada, the United
States, and Europe. There is a rapidly growing list of requests for exchange and
study material, which until now has been difficult to oblige. This year, with the able
help of additional technical staff, all duplicate material was put in order, labels made
and checked, plants grouped into families and finally moved into our duplicate
herbarium storage cabinets on the mezzanine floor. This will now enable us to fill
requests for exchange material more efficiently.
Another large project that will be completed by the end of 1973 is the numbering of the 5,400 sheets presented to the Provincial Museum from the J. Austin Bailey
Herbarium during the years 1972/73.
The Curator has provided a service identifying fungi for hospitals, medical
doctors, and the public at large. The Assistant Curator examined and identified
material in the Harrison collection, approximately 3,500 specimens, and an old
collection of G. A. Hardy, a former Curatory of Botany, approximately 1,400
specimens, in addition to working on the Manning Park collections. The Associate
Curator identified approximately 3,000 specimens for outside collectors, the largest
collection being aquatic plants from the Water Investigations Branch.
Mrs. S. Ewan, of this Division, assisted by Miss L. Pugsley, a student assistant,
made multiple collections of plants primarily for exchange purposes. They collected
260 sets of 12 replicates of species of Vancouver Island.
In addition to the collection of aquatic plants made by the Water Investigation
Branch, of which the Museum acquired a duplicate set, significant collections were
received from other outside collectors.   These included
J. Dick—plants from the Stewart and Flathead Valley areas.
J. Risse-Sawitski—plants from the Rocky Mountains and Coast Range.
National Museum—collections from Mount Revelstoke Park and of the
willows of British Columbia.
Mrs. T. O. Connolly—from Atlin and Tulsequah areas.
Mrs. R. Rosie—from Frances Lake, Y.T.
R. E. Walton—from Trail and vicinity.
The Associate Curator has been heavily involved in work with the Display
Division in planning a large diorama of the Coast forest and seashore for the second
floor display area. He has made several field trips in conjunction with display technicians and artists to observe and record natural features that are to be reproduced
in the dioramas. He has also advised the artists involved in the construction of
plant and tree models.
The Curator and Associate Curator gave a number of lectures and participated
in several radio and television programmes. The Curator also assisted with a display of mushroom models in the Centennial Museum, Vancouver.
 AA 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Botany Division has benefited from the able assistance of Mrs. R. R.
Rodgers, who has brought badly needed order to the botanical library and drawn
up a complete catalogue of its contents. Mrs. Rodgers was recently appointed
librarian for the entire Museum.
Under the continued supervision of V. W. Ahier, planting and labelling has
proceeded in the Native Plant Garden of Heritage Square, Victoria, to the point
where over 200 species of plants native to this Province have now been introduced
into it. The Associate Curator has prepared a manuscript for a descriptive leaflet
and check list of the plants in the garden.
DIVISION OF ENTOMOLOGY
The Division was established in February, with the appointment of the Curator
and Associate Curator: the latter had been working on the insect collections since
the previous June as honorary Curator.
The insect collections, consisting of some 100,000 specimens housed in an
assortment of storeboxes, shoeboxes, cigar boxes, and in a few poorly designed
home-made cabinets, were in a bad state. They had been stored in a damp basement and many had been damaged by carpet beetles and mildew. There had been
little attempt to curate the collections from the time of G. Hardy's retirement in
1955 until 1970, when they were moved to the Curatorial Tower and the Curator
of Marine Biology had them fumigated. When the Associate Curator started work
on the collections in July 1972, there were no active infestations.
The insect collections had been accumulating since 1886, the result of gifts
and bequests from a variety of sources and of a good deal of local collecting by the
late Mr. Hardy. When the Division was established there were eight separate collections and no attempt had been made to amalgamate and to arrange the specimens
in any kind of systematic order. Much of the material was damaged or without
data and had to be discarded. The coverage of the Coleoptera (beetles) and Lepid-
optera (butterflies and moths) of southern Vancouver Island was reasonable, but
the representation of other orders and the coverage of other areas was and still is
deplorably inadequate.
Thanks to a generous gift by the Friends of the Provincial Museum, 200 standard insect drawers were obtained and delivered in September. Another 124 insect
drawers of various patterns were scrounged from the University of British Columbia
and from other sources.
The eight collections have now been amalgamated; some 50,000 Lepidoptera
and 40,000 Coleoptera have been sorted, relabelled where necessary, and housed
in an acceptable taxonomic sequence.
There is also arachnid material of two major systematic groups—the Araneida
(spiders) and the Acarina (mites and ticks). The former are represented by about
300 specimens of British Columbia spiders preserved in alcohol.
The acarine collections consist of approximately 100,000 specimens, of which
about 10,000 are mounted on glass slides for microscopic examination. The remainder are preserved in alcohol. Most of the mite material is on loan from other
museums, such as the British Museum, London; the Bishop Museum, Hawaii; the
New Zealand Dominion Museum, Wellington; and the South Australian Museum,
Adelaide. Geographically, the mite collections represent all continents and most
major archipelagos, although the systematic coverage is largely restricted to the
Uropodina.
All arachnid collections are in an excellent state of preservation and require
minimal curatorial attention.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 125
Journey through time: A museum educator took this travelling kit to schools
in the Smithers-Kitimat area.
No field work on insects was undertaken in 1973. First priority was given to
the rearrangement and proper housing of the existing collections.
With the acquisition of six Tullgren funnels for the extraction of soil fauna,
a project was initiated to study the uropodine mite fauna of the Pacific Northwest.
These mites form an important element in the ecology of leaf litter decomposition.
Although the Division possesses significant collections from Oregon and Washington, the fauna of British Columbia is completely unknown. A start was made in
1973 with samplings from the west coast of Vancouver Island, although the soil
extractors arrived too late for the collections to be extensive. Even this very limited
sampling, however, has revealed 10 species of mites new to science.
Priority will be given in the coming field seasons to improving the geographical
coverage of the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera collections and to building up a more
adequate collection of such important orders as the Diptera, Hymenoptera, and
Hemiptera. The eventual aim should be a good collection of the major orders,
covering the Pacific slope of western North America and a synoptic collection
covering the rest of the continent.
A major part of the Curators' research programme will be a study of Holarctic
affinities in the Lepidoptera, which should help to shed some useful light on the
origins of the insect fauna of western North America. To this purpose, time will
be spent in the near future studying the Eastern Palaearctic collections of the British
Museum, and it is proposed to establish some contact with appropriate institutions
in Japan, the USSR, and possibly China.
The collection of soil mites will be extended to cover as many biotic regions
of British Columbia as possible. The sampling of British Columbia, Yukon, and
Alaska as thoroughly as possible is extremely important in the context of systematic
affinities with Palaearctic species. Certain genera have been found to be exclusively
Holarctic in distribution, allowing for the eventual publication of world revisions.
 A A  126 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Museum collections of spiders are presently inadequate. It is hoped to
extend these considerably in future, both geographically and systematically.
DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY
During 1973 the activities of the Ethnology Division were concentrated upon
the production of a story line for the permanent Indian History Gallery and upon
the providing of services to Indians, students, community museums, and the public
generally. Much of the Division's success in achieving its goals was due to an
increase in staff, which permitted the expansion in services and research.
Elizabeth Knox and Ray Bethell joined the staff early in the year and their
combined photographic expertise produced some 10,000 prints which were catalogued by Elizabeth Virolainen and Daniel Savard. Marilyn Chechik joined the
staff in April and is now in charge of the ethnological collection. Hindy Ratner
was appointed as Extension Curator and in this capacity toured about 15 museums
throughout the southern part of the Province, familiarizing herself with their interests
and problems and offering advice or assistance when appropriate. Anne Lowe
provided much needed secretarial assistance. John Pritchard joined the staff in
September as Associate Curator to assist in preparing the programme. During the
summer, several students assisted in the exhibit programme. These included Diane
Persson-Aarnoudse, April Frank, Leona Sparrow, Marnie Chapman, Terry Hickman, Brad Taylor, and Ardyth Cooper.
Some field work was possible despite the heavy commitment to the display
programme. Various staff members attended potlatches at Alert Bay and Gilford
Island, where photographs and tape recordings were made on behalf of those sponsoring the ceremonies. Brief trips were made to the Blackfish Sound and Hazelton
areas so that the Chief of Exhibits could familiarize himself with typical areas
traditionally occupied by British Columbia Indians. This should enable a more
intimate and knowledgeable presentation of typical environments and topographies
in the permanent exhibit.
As was the case last year, the main effort of the Thunderbird Park carving
programme was directed to finishing the Kwakiutl Indian house, a focal point in
the proposed exhibit. The end of the year saw the erection of the permanent framework for the house, and work on the walls and roof is progressing rapidly. Work
at the park was directed by Chief Carver Henry Hunt, who was aided by Assistant
Carver Ron Hamilton and apprentice Frank Puglas. Richard Hunt was employed
for two months to assist in completing the house.
As far as the ethnological collection was conerned, staff members catalogued
various miscellaneous items of minor significance that had accumulated over the
years. The Legacy Collection of contemporary British Columbia Indian art assembled in 1971 was formally accessioned into the permanent collection. Mrs. J.
Tullis, of Victoria, kindly donated a collection of artifacts which included a
significant carved mountain goat horn spoon. Other important accessions included
a tambourine drum with design painted by the renowned Kwakiutl artist, the late
Willie Seaweed. A cannibal bird mask, from the hand of the above artist, was also
obtained. This significant piece was made by the artist to replace its prototype,
collected by this Museum in 1914.
During the course of the year, staff members gave public lectures and acted
as advisers to students pursuing degrees in anthropology.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 127
DIVISION OF HISTORY
With the Modern History exhibits completed in 1972, the History Division was
able to turn its concentrated attention toward both temporary displays and the
collections.
During 1973, this Division, in combination with the Display staff, mounted
four temporary exhibits in the Capital Curios gallery situated above the theatre in
the Urbanization gallery. Because many facets of British Columbia's history are not
explained in the permanent exhibits, these temporary displays give the public the
opportunity to dwell more fully on a given subject. Thus displays for 1973 included
"Victoriana," a brief look at collectables of the Victorian era; "British Columbia
Through Glass," a representative display of bottles used by British Columbian businessmen over the decades; "Victoria Numismatic Society Display," which included
coins, tokens, and bank notes of companies and banks that played important roles
in early British Columbia; and "The Outer Woman," which provides a decade by
decade account of clothing and accessory style changes as experienced by British
Columbian women.
One of the most important reasons for British Columbia's rapid urbanization
was street railways. Thus we have almost restored a BCER 400 street-car, which
now stands in front of the Museum. Its restoration was the result of concentrated
efforts by Museum staff, B.C. Hydro, Friends of the Provincial Museum, and many
interested private citizens.
Other elements of the collection have been vastly improved during the year.
Accessions have been strengthened by increased funding from both the Friends of
the Provincial Museum and the Provincial Government. One of the recent additions
is a 1910 Climax steam locomotive, which is at once the smallest and oldest logging
locomotive still extant in British Columbia.
The additional staff provided by the National Museums programme has helped
solve the problems caused by the backlog of uncatalogued collections. Of these
newly catalogued objects, a large number have been restored to a condition suitable
for display and study. The strict limitations of storage facilities has been eased with
the acquisition of new storage cabinets, thereby doubling our storage capacity.
Two new publications have been completed to accompany the Modern History
exhibits. In these, various concepts, dioramas, and artifacts in the exhibit are being
explained more fully; the first in the series are HMS Discovery and Fort Victoria.
More are being prepared. Additional leaflets are produced to accompany the temporary exhibits in Capital Curios.
The Curator of History, Daniel T. Gallacher, returned from the University of
British Columbia in July upon successful completion of the course work and residence requirements for his doctorate in Canadian history. His dissertation will deal
with the beginnings of industrialism in British Columbia.
DIVISION OF LINGUISTICS
In luly the Linguistics Division formally entered the Museum family with the
appointment of Dr. Barbara S. Efrat as Curator. The establishment of this Division
reflects the Provincial Government's and the Museum's growing concern with the
preservation and appreciation of the fast-disappearing native languages of the Province.   The Division is committed to the following:
(1) Preservation in written form and on tape of native language data.
A secure tape storage facility, with appropriate controls over access
to socially sensitive materials, will be made available in the near
future.
 AA 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(2) Active encouragement of the proper collection of language materials
by interested individuals and groups.
(3) Rendering service to the public by making available information
about languages and by encouraging further scholarly research into
the structures of these fascinating and comparatively neglected
languages.
To help fulfil these aims, the Division appointed Mrs. Alfreda Cooper to its
staff in November. She has commenced a bibliography of basic works on British
Columbia native languages which will form the basis of a Division catalogue and
will eventually be available for interested persons in the form of lists of materials
known for individual language families.
To date, the Curator has participated in the continuing Hesquiat project, for
which she has prepared a sizeable tape archive and currently is assembling language
data for lessons. In addition, she participated in field trips, continuing research
in the Saanich and Sooke dialects of Straits Salish and Nooksack. A workshop in
interviewing techniques was conducted in November for the Union of B.C. Indian
Chiefs; two more such regional workshops are currently being planned in conjunction with this organization.
The Curator has given lectures to several groups, including the Indian Educational Club at William Head Penitentiary and to Anthropology 339 at the University
of Victoria, and has participated in a meeting of trustees of the Northwest Linguistic
Collection at the University of Washington in September, as well as taking part in
a conference of those interested in applied Amerindian Linguistics, held at the
University of Oregon. In addition, Dr. Efrat co-authored a paper The Indian and
the Social Scientist: Contemporary Contractual Arrangements on the Pacific Northwest Coast, which was delivered to the annual meeting of the Society for Applied
Anthropology in Tucson, Ariz., in April.
DIVISION OF MARINE BIOLOGY
The second year of operation of the Division marked a year of rapid growth
and accomplishment. Most significant was the appointment of Philip Lambert as
Assistant Curator, who is now chief custodian of invertebrate biology within the
Division. A 15-metre vessel, the Nesika, was also transferred to the Division from
the B.C. Forest Service; an event that increased our capacity for field work.
In 1973, Nesika made a brief expedition to the Gulf Islands and a three-month
survey of the Barkley Sound-Broken Group area. As the vessel is not yet equipped
for hauling nets, the field party on board used it primarily as a floating hotel during
scuba operations. The National and Historic Parks Branch at Pacific Rim National
Park agreed to the Museum's programme for field work within the park's boundaries
in return for a report on field observations made by the Division.
Many days of fog during the summer limited the use of Nesika. A need for
radar and for hydraulic equipment to raise and lower the anchor quickly was
apparent.   Some of this equipment was installed in the fall.
Field work from Nesika greatly increased the quality of the Museum's marine
collections. The initial objective was to make extensive collections in the southernmost waters of British Columbia in 1973 and the northernmost region in 1974.
Such collections should indicate the over-all geographic range of many marine
species within Provincial boundaries and provide contrasting population samples
to analyse morphological variation. As most invertebrates collected were not
represented on the Museum's shelves, the numbers of species and phyla obtained
have vastly enriched the educational and scientific value of the Division's collections.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      A A  129
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 AA  130
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The 248 invertebrate collections made from Nesika this year produced a major
task of sorting. Some 80 species of fishes were also taken during inshore collecting.
Collecting by means of scuba permitted the capture of many delicate species which
are normally torn when caught in nets.
With the hiring of Brent Cooke under the National Museums programme, the
Division took advantage of his experience in scuba as well as his extensive underwater camera equipment. Some 1,400 35-mm slides of underwater life from the
Barkley Sound and Victoria area are now catalogued for use in the Museum's display
and research programmes. Because the aquatic organisms were photographed in
their natural habitat rather than the posed aquarium situation prevelant in many
popular textbooks, they have major educational value.
The use of scuba, Nesika, and underwater photographs signalled a boon to the
exhibit and display programmes. During explorations from Nesika in the Broken
Group, underwater habitats were surveyed as possible display themes. With two
members of the Display Division recently qualified in scuba, and underwater photographs now available for those who are not divers, a close liaison has been developed
between display and marine biology to portray underwater life to the public. Since
preserved marine specimens tend to be too lifeless and colourless for display, the
Marine Biology Division provided many live animals for copying in plastic by
display personnel. Similar co-operation with the Education Division produced a
highly successful teaching kit on marine biology for the schools of the Province.
Despite display and routine curatorial work, some research was conducted.
Collections were loaned to researchers in Oregon, California, and Quebec. Research
on the Province's marine fishes required specimens to be borrowed from institutions
in Alaska and California. Much of the research centred on the identification and
taxonomic history of about 18 fish species previously unknown from British Columbia waters. Reports on this work were submitted for publication. Descriptions
of fishes were made for a future Museum handbook on the Province's inshore
fishes. Preparations for a handbook on asteroids (starfish) were also made. During
September the Curator spent 10 days aboard the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada's vessel, G. B. Reed, and obtained more than 20 species of rockfish
(Sebastes) which were not yet represented on the Museum's shelves.
The Curator was recently appointed on the Common Fish Names Committee,
sponsored by the American Fisheries Society and the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, and attended committee meetings in Ann Arbor, Mich.
Across North America there has been little conformity in the use of fish names,
often resulting in such problems as consumers not getting commercial fish species
they think they are purchasing, in legal authorities not having standard names for
undesirable fishes to be excluded from import lists, and in aquarium hobbyists not
knowing what species they are raising. A decision was made to meet twice a year
in Michigan and Washington, D.C. A list of proper common names for important
exotic fishes is to be submitted for publication in 1975, followed by a revision of
the North American list of fish names by 1980.
The Division was gratified to see plans drawn up in 1973 for aquarium facilities
in the Curatorial Tower and Display Building. In addition to allowing the public
to see some typical marine organisms, the use of aquaria could greatly modernize
the research approach of the Museum to systematic biology. The study of invertebrates is particularly enhanced with the use of live laboratory specimens, since
many important taxonomic features are obscured in preserved specimens. As many
of the taxonomic differences of organisms reflect specialization or adaptions to a
species' specific habitat, experimental aquarium studies in conjunction with mor-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  131
phological studies of museum specimens can show much about the adaptation of
British Columbia's marine animals to their environment.
DIVISION OF CONSERVATION
Due to the decision taken three years ago that we should train staff for our own
use, and to our good fortune in recruiting an experienced senior conservator, the
Division's organization has now achieved the balance and versatility which we have
long sought.
Also important in achieving this goal were the appointments, in January, of
Miss Barbara Kennedy, an experienced archaeologist who joined the Division as a
Conservation Technician, and in November, of Mrs. Valerie Hunt, who joined the
staff as Registrar to relieve the working conservators of much of the routine maintenance of records and administration.
In August the senior staff was strengthened by the appointment of Richard
Renshaw-Beauchamp, who has some 22 years' experience as a Chief Conservator
with the National Historic Sites and Parks and Acting Director of the Canadian
Conservation Institute's Pacific Conservation Centre.
The treatment of the Museum's collections, and especially their preparation for
display, has accelerated. The emphasis continues to be upon anthropology, with
special attention to the large collections of the Ethnology Division. Some 200 major
objects have received substantial treatment during the year, of which 125 have been
from the ethnological collections.
One major project (achieved by the loan from the Display Division of the
Museum's cabinetmaker, Ed Mullett) has been the design and construction of special
fitted supports for 113 masks. These are designed for use in display, storage, and
transportation and represent a permanent asset to the preservation of these unique
objects.
The Museum's archaeological collections usually require relatively little preparation for display, but some present special problems which have received considerable attention. Examples are a series of mud cores taken during pollen-analysis
studies and the unique bone armour excavated on Gabriola Island in 1967 in fragmentary condition.
In April the Division achieved a "first" in British Columbia and possibly in
Canada by establishing and operating an archaeological field conservation laboratory
in support of the excavation carried out by the Canadian Armed Forces at Echo
Bay with the assistance of the Museum, the University of Victoria and the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board. The laboratory was equipped to provide any treatment which might be required and was staffed throughout by the Division, which
relieved the archaeologists of responsibility for the care and treatment of artifacts.
Every member of the conservation staff did a tour of duty and acquired valuable
experience in the establishment and operation of a remote field laboratory.
Since 1966 the Division has provided an advisory service to other museums
in British Columbia and occasionally, in exceptional cases, has undertaken the
treatment of objects for them. However, lack of staff has prevented us from advertising this facility. In May it became possible to offer this service of the Museum,
which thus becomes the first Provincial Museum to provide a Province-wide conservation service.
In June the Chief Conservator visited the Queen Charlottes, where he advised
the Skidegate Indian Band on the recovery and repair of totem poles and consulted
with the Queen Charlotte Islands Museum Society. In July, C. A. Russell conducted a party from the Canadian Conservation Institute on a visit to the Washington State University Laboratory at Neah Bay, and he visited the University of
 AA  132 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Birtish Columbia to advise on the transportation of excavated material. In August,
Mr. Beauchamp visited the Campbell River Museum to advise on the care of their
collections and Mrs. Ann Krahn spent two days at the University of Victoria excavation at Fanny Bay.
One external service which merits special mention is the treatment of specimens
of organic materials excavated from waterlogged sites. Such artifacts will suffer
irreversible damage and possibly complete disintegration if not treated promptly.
As the only available source of such treatment we had long been concerned at the
possibility that archaeologists excavating in British Columbia might encounter a
productive waterlogged site and consequently, as reported last year, the Chief Conservator and Mr. Russell had visited the Washington State University Conservation
Laboratory at Neah Bay to study their methods. This preparation was fortunate,
for several waterlogged sites were encountered during 1973, including that excavated
by the University of British Columbia at Musqueam. By arrangement with Dr.
Carl Borden, all organic material from the waterlogged levels at Musqueam is
brought to Victoria, treated in the Conservation Laboratory, and returned to UBC
for study. This material is now known to include the earliest perishable artifacts
yet recovered on the Northwest Coast. By the end of the year some 250 objects had
been treated or were undergoing treatment.
Approximately 320 objects excavated from sites at Echo Bay and Fanny Bay
were treated for the University of Victoria.
The Division was paid a considerable compliment in May, when the Chief
Conservator was officially appointed adviser on conservation to the University of
British Columbia's projected Museum of Man.
In museum training, the Division has continued its customary activity. Lectures on "Handling" were given to groups of new employees on six occasions. The
Division's entire staff attended the British Columbia Museums Association's Annual
Seminar at Fort Steele in September, and together presented two three-hour workshops on "Handling, Packing, and Transportation." The Chief Conservator also
conducted a discussion on "Conservation Services in British Columbia." The course
on the conservation of antiquities taught by the Chief Conservator for the University
of Victoria entered its fourth year with an increase in enrolment of 50 per cent.
Three of the Division's present staff of six are graduates of that course, and several
more are employed in other divisions.
The Museum received several loan exhibitions during the year and the Conservation Division assisted the Museum Adviser with the reception and handling of
each.
In November the Conservation Division took part in the Art Gallery of Greater
Victoria's annual exhibition, "The Artist at Work." A member of our staff was on
duty throughout the exhibition, during which the Airbrasive unit was demonstrated.
The Division's part of the exhibition attracted such attention that at the end of the
year a small travelling display on the work of the Conservation Division was in
preparation.
DIVISION OF DISPLAY
Framing construction for permanent exhibits on the second and third floors
began in December, following a grant of $425,000 from the Department of Public
Works. The construction includes 26,000 square feet of three major galleries
at the south end of the Natural History floor (Coast Forest, Coast and Sea)
and 22,000 square feet for the archaeology-ethnology exhibits on the third floor,
north end.
In the latter part of the year, plans for the archaeology-ethnology exhibits were
started and the projected time for opening them is spring 1975.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  133
Ross Brand, of the Division of Archaeology, headed a team from the Display
and Archaeology Divisions that took a 23- by 16-foot soil profile from the Glenrose
Cannery dig. Probably the largest soil profile ever taken from a site, it will be a
focal point of the archaeology exhibit.
Carpenters and Indian carvers and artists completed the construction of a
full-size Kwakiutl dance house which will centre the Ethnology Exhibit.
An intensive casting and plant-making programme included many innovative
processes and techniques. Using silicone moulds experimentally in casting produced the most perfect replicas for the Sea exhibits. Innovative processes were
discovered in making realistic full-size plant replicas. These processes are recorded
and filed for future publications.
Plant-modelling consultant, Judy Baumgart, of Milwaukee, joined the staff
in May for three months. She taught our staff the basic skills and knowledge
required to make natural-looking artificial plants.
The casting and plant-making programmes required regular field trips within
the regions to be portrayed by the exhibits. Jean J. Andre, Chief of Display, and
Ewald Lemke became qualified scuba divers and this underwater ability is proving
valuable as plans for the Sea galleries progress.
During the year, staff members visited the Museum of Anthropology in Mexico
City, Los Angeles County Museum, Jacques Costeau's Living Sea at Long Beach,
and Disneyland in Anaheim. The visit to Disneyland was a unique opportunity
to see in use the same sound equipment that the Museum is installing in its exhibits.
Four temporary exhibits were designed and installed in the History Gallery,
including "British Columbia Through Glass" from the Victoria Glass and Bottle
Collectors Society, "Victoriana" and "The Outer Woman" from the Human History
Collections, and the "Victoria Numismatics Society Display."
DIVISION OF EDUCATION SERVICES
This Division responds to specialized needs of groups in the Museum audience.
These include school-age children, teachers, Faculty of Education students and
professors, educational associations, and groups interested in education. It also
responds, in co-operation with other divisions, to general inquiries not at a scholarly
level, pertaining to museum activity.
During the school-year, programmes designed to supplement the school curriculum were taught by trained volunteers (the docents) under the direction of
various education staff members. The spring programme included "The Last
Chance," presented in the Modern History galleries, which dealt with the exploration, fur trade, and gold-rush periods of British Columbia's history; "Land of the
Kekuli," directed by a native Indian instructor, Len Souliere, which gave children
an opportunity to experience some aspects of the life of the Interior Salish Indians
of the past; "The Link in Time," which used activities with telegraph and printing
to demonstrate the importance of communication in this Province; and "The Green
Food Factory," an indoor/outdoor programme featuring the native plants of British
Columbia.
In the fall, "The Last Chance," with some modifications, continued to be
shown in the Modern History galleries; "Kutenai" gave children a taste of the daily
activities of native Indian people in the Kootenay region toward the end of the last
century; and "Digging up the Past" demonstrated the skills and techniques of the
archaeologist. Students participated in a simulated dig and recreated the technology
of the past by studying and making stone tools.
 AA 134 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Prototype travelling activity exhibits funded by the National Museums programme, in marine biology and British Columbia history, were designed, developed,
and pre-tested between January and June. They were prepared for more complete
testing in July and August and were set up in school classrooms in Quesnel and
Smithers School Districts in September. The "Marine Biology Kit" remained in
Quesnel District and was circulated by the Resource Centre to outlying schools in
small towns. "Journey Through Time," the history kit, travelled with its museum
teacher-developer, Maureen Gee, throughout the Smithers, Kitimat, and Terrace
School Districts, staying for short periods at towns like Houston, Telkwa, and
Hazelton. These programmes will be more fully evaluated in 1974, with the
assistance of the Educational Research Institute. These innovative travelling programmes are unique in this country in that they are professionally designed and
developed as total learning packages which can be fitted into the teacher's own
space and teaching programme.
Another travelling programme, "Son of Raven, Son of Deer," funded by the
Native Indian Fund, was circulated first in the Greater Victoria area in the spring,
then in Courtenay and Alberni School Districts in the fall. This programme is a
dramatization of a Nootka Indian story published by George Clutesi and is directed
by a native Indian instructor, Emma Hunt. Costumes, masks, and paraphernalia
used in the programme were commissioned from contemporary Indian artists.
A series of six evening seminars for teachers was held in the Museum from
January through February in co-operation with Camosun College. Education staff
presented special programmes for teacher staff meetings and professional days when
requested through the school-year. Special sessions on the museum as an educational resource were also given to Faculty of Education students from the University
of Victoria and the University of British Columbia.
For special needs, Education staff prepared and presented single demonstrations and workshops, at primary, elementary, and secondary levels, and participated
in school programmes taking place at schools and at Camp Thunderbird on Glintz
Lake. Education staff also receive and facilitate teacher requests for individual
loan items from educational collections. Work experience students from Saanich
area secondary schools learn audio/visual techniques and assist with school programmes during the school sessions.
Saturday morning and afternoon programmes were developed for children
aged 12 and under, from February through April. In February, "Moving About"
presented films and projects relating to marine life, birds, and mammals. In March
and April the Modern History galleries were the focus and children used all the
facilities of the Division for in-depth museum-oriented activities. During the summer, two three-week Ecobox Workshops, using materials obtained from the Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education, were held for secondary school-age students.
These were a combination of individual research, group activities, field trips, ecology-
oriented discussions and presentations, culminating in a student-prepared display
and open house in the Museum classroom.
The very popular adult programme, "Memories," was rerun in January and
February. This was a series of informal talks, by historians and by people who
could remember old times, which took place in the Modern History galleries. "Film
Craftsman," a noon-hour series, was also run twice; the first, in January and February, featured films produced by Wilf Gray; the second, in February and March,
featured films by J. B. Foster, The National Film Board, and Bill Round. "Heritage
Court Presents" featured a variety of exceptional speakers in February and March
and was very well attended.   Another popular programme at this time was "Music
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  135
Collecting in the sea: Marine biologists returning from a subtidal collection trip.
in the Museum," a series of chamber concerts featuring turn-of-the-century and
Canadian composers. These programmes provided an opportunity for young Victoria musicians to perform professionally. "Noon Hour Forum" was repeated three
times in February and March, in co-operation with Camosun College. The first set
was "How to Fill out Your Income Tax," and the others, "Birdwatching for Beginners," took place outdoors with Provincial Museum staff as leaders. One other
series, "Pages of Prehistory," was presented in February and March by various
professional archaeologists who have made a study of British Columbia's prehistory.
Museum staff participated in a series, "Your Provincial Museum Comes to
Nanaimo," presented by the Continuing Education Department in Nanaimo in
March and April. "No so Long Ago" was an hour-long Sunday film series for the
family, featuring the best of the National Film Board, which ran from February to
the beginning of April. Three other special adult programmes were offered in April
and May: the " 'Ksan Dancers," a group affiliated with the artistic community at
'Ksan Indian Village at Hazelton; "Fur Trade Canoe Routes in Canada," an illustrated lecture by Hugh MacMillan, Ontario Government Archives; and "Downtown
Is for People," an illustrated presentation by the Mayor of Victoria, Peter Pollen,
and other city officials.
Tour guides, two of whom were supported by the Native Indian Fund, were
trained and took groups of students, as well as adult visitors, through the Museum
galleries from May to August. Fifty-five docents (volunteer teachers) were trained
by Education and Curatorial staff during September and October for the school
programmes. Their contribution to the Museum is significant and their training is
a further service to the community.
One teacher, commenting on the high-intensity, stimulating programme which
uses the Museum's resources fully, said that it accomplished in an hour or two the
same amount of learning which a teacher would be forced to take more than a week
 AA  136 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to develop. A total of 61,956 people visited the Museum as members of groups in
1973. Of these, 10,371 attended programmes for adults and 11,579 were
"unguided." The last refers to school classes whose purpose ranges from a get-
acquainted walk-through (often with an orientation briefing), to special in-depth
projects designed by their teachers. A total of 17,037 students and adults was given
a special introduction to the Museum.
As teachers develop an appreciation of the value of the Museum as an educational resource, requests for special interest programmes are increasing. The
greatest student/teacher interest is shown in programmes designed to complement
the school curriculum, and 19,860 students took part in these special interest programmes in 1973, while 3,109 took part in programmes which were even more
specifically tailored to fit the needs of the group, for example, programmes for
handicapped.
Students in structured tours were given almost individual attention in groups
of 10 or fewer with one docent; some worked intensively in their own classrooms
with Museum travelling programmes for up to eight hours over several days. One
class, under the direction of Mrs. John Hall, from Willows Elementary School, was
treated to an experimental week with the Museum as their classroom. Some took
part in Saturday programmes and came to the Museum for two hours at a time for
several weeks.
DIVISION OF MUSEUMS ADVISER
In 1973 the Division continued to emphasize development and assistance for
community museums and galleries throughout the Province. Display assistance,
training, and travelling exhibitions effectively supported the advisory service normally carried out through correspondence, phone, and personal contacts with the
smaller institutions in the Province. With Federal and Provincial involvement in
the resurgence of cultural affairs currently sweeping the country, museums in British
Columbia have inevitably been drawn into the mainstream of activity. Gradual
changes in the pattern of museum development indicated a trend toward a network
of intermediate or regional institutions, municipally owned and, in some cases,
municipally operated. To these may fall the job of guiding the destiny of the
smaller museums within their area of influence.
With the Museums Adviser working in an advisory capacity with Federal
agencies under the National Museums programmes, at least four out of the six
National Exhibitions Centres proposed for construction in conjunction with existing
community museums received approval this year. Additional benefits received
from the Federal programmes were training assistance and a number of local and
national travelling exhibitions, which toured parts of the Province. A number of
qualified personnel, including a co-ordinator of museum training, were made available by the National Museums programme.
A break-through of major significance to all British Columbia museums and
art galleries was their assurance of eligibility for partial capital cost funding by the
Province through the new Community Recreational Facilities Fund Act. The new
Act, administered through the Provincial Parks Branch, has already provided partial
funding for some facilities, thus attracting further funding from the Federal programme.
While the full implications of this cultural explosion and various funding plans
may not become apparent until well into the new year, there is no doubt that community museums have suddenly shifted their emphasis to the possibilities of improved facilities and new displays, and are energetically seeking ways to open new
sectors of local museum activity to the public.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  137
FRIENDS OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Friends of the Provincial Museum in its third year of operation voted to
accept individual memberships, and at the end of the year a total of 425 people
had become members.   Membership fees are $5 (family) and $3 (individual).
At the first meeting and social evening held for the new members, four were
elected as interim representatives—A. Douglas Turnbull, Dr. Douglas Ross, Mrs.
B. Winsby, and Mrs. M. DeCarie.
Each year a memorial to Dr. G. C. Carl is awarded to a University of Victoria
student majoring in marine biology. John Gobolos was the winner in 1973 of the
$300 bursary.
Donations from foundations and industry this year include
B.C. Cultural Fund, $1,500;
Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, $5,000;
Provincial Secretary, $1,000;
Woodwards Limited, $8,000;
Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation, $2,000;
Council of Forest Industries of B.C., $5,000;
Fisheries Association of B.C., $3,000;
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, $5,808.75;
Donation box receipts, $886.51;
Sundry donations, $234.02.
Acquisitions for 1973 include
Six units of 50-drawer insect cabinets, $3,947;
Uniforms being made in England, History Division, $3,699.38;
Education Fund, $500;
Decanter holder, engraved HMS Ganges, $210;
Liquor cabinet from Premier S. F. Tolmie, $103.75;
Oak chest from Judge M. B. Begbie, $231;
Additional equipment for Porta-Pak, $927.25;
Selectric typewriter for British Columbia Museums Association, $733.95.
HERITAGE COURT SOCIETY
The Heritage Court Society has now completed its first full year of operation
under the leadership of Mrs. D. A. Ross and her band of volunteer workers. The
profits for this year's work are expected to exceed $60,000. Although most of this
money has been put back into stock, some excess has been turned over to the
Friends of the Provincial Museum to continue their work on behalf of the Museum.
A banquet and pleasant evening were held at the Faculty Club of the University of Victoria for the volunteers and directors of the Friends of the Provincial
Museum on November 21, 1973.
The matter of paying income tax is still being discussed by the directors with
legal authorities.
Heritage Court Society sponsored the '"Ksan Dancers," May 24 and 25, and
"Music in the Museum" in February and March, with the assistance of the British
Columbia Cultural Fund.
A special thank you to all the volunteer helpers for their efforts during 1973.
 AA 138 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PUBLICATIONS
Ainscough, B. D.   The care of insect collections.    Museum Round-up, October,
48:37-38.
Brayshaw, T. C.    Plant collecting for the amateur.    Museum Methods Manual,
Provincial Museum, Victoria, No. 1:1—15.
  The glabrous-fruited variety of Salix cascadensis in British Columbia.
Syesis, 6:47.
The sandbar willow on Vancouver Island.    Syesis, 6:147.
Campbell, R. Wayne, and B. Davies. Nesting raptor survey in the western Canadian arctic. In: Towards an environmental impact assessment. Interim Report
No. 3.   Environment Protection Board, Winnipeg.   45 pp.
  and M. G. Shepard.   Spring waterfowl migration on the Mackenzie River
from Norman Wells to Arctic Red River, N.W.T., 1972. In: Towards an
environmental impact assessment. Interim Report No. 3. Environment Protection Board, Winnipeg.   48 pp.
 Baseline study of selected nesting waterbirds on the northwestern Mackenzie delta, N.W.T. In: Towards an environmental impact assessment. Interim
Report No. 3.   Environment Protection Board, Winnipeg.   31 pp.
  and W. C. Weber.    Abundance species composition of birds in selected
areas along the pipeline routes, 1972. In: Towards an environmental impact
assessment. Interim Report No. 3. Environment Protection Board, Winnipeg.   39 pp.
  Fall migration of birds in the Mackenzie delta and lower Mackenzie River,
1972. In: Towards an environmental impact assessment. Interim Report
No. 3.   Environment Protection Board, Winnipeg.   28 pp.
  and M. G. Shepard.    Laysan albatross, scaled petrel, parakeet auklet:
Additions to the list of Canadian birds. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 87(2):
179-180.
  Land invertebrates:   Gastropods 'stomach foot'.   In:   Nature West Coast:
As seen in Lighthouse Park.   Discovery Press, Vancouver,   pp. 269—271.
  Birds.   In:  Nature West Coast: As seen in Lighthouse Park.   Discovery
Press, Vancouver,   pp 157-198.
  Review of:   The effect of phosphamidon spraying on forest birds in New
Brunswick, by C. D. Fowle.   Syesis, 6:273-274.
  Review of:   Populations, movements and seasonal distribution of mergansers, by A. J. Erskin.   Syesis, 6:273.
— Lark sparrow on Vancouver Island.   Canadian Field-Naturalist, 87(4):
387.
— Coastal records of the barred owl for British Columbia.   Murrelet, 54(1):
17.
— with L. A. Gibbard.   British Columbia nest records scheme—18th annual
report (1972). British Columbia Federation of Naturalists Newsletter,
ll(l):4-5.
Chuang, C-C. A moss flora of Taiwan exclusive of essentially pleurocarpous families.   Journal Hattori Botanical Lab., 37:419-509.
Cuthbertson, Shirley A. Notes for new docents. Museum Round-Up, July,
51:21a-21d.
Edwards, R. Yorke.   Going, going, gone.   Victoria Times, April, 15:5.
  British Columbia's parks bonanza.    Park News, Journal of National and
Provincial Parks Association of Canada, 9(3): 16-23.
  The hunter, hero or villain?   B.C. Outdoors, 29(1): 50-55.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  139
■ The mountain sky gardens.    The Young Naturalist, 15(2) :8-9.
  Thoughts while walking.   The Bulletin of Ontario Conservation Council,
20(3):3-5.
  Mexico's great museum.   Museum Round-Up, April, 50:28-30.
  No magic, no park.   Forestry Chronicle, 49(2): 110-111.
  The grandfather way.   Museum Round-Up, July, 51:14-16.
  Ruts, grassroots and soaring dinosaurs.    Museum Round-Up, October,
52:6-8.
Efrat, Barbara S. Review of: The Squamish language: Grammar, texts, dictionary (2 vols.), by Aert Kuipers.   Language, 49(1):235-238.
Fontaine, A. R., and P. Lambert. The fine structure of haemocyte of the holo-
thurian, Cucumaria miniata (Brandt). Canadian Journal of Zoologists, 5(3):
323-332.
Foster, J. Bristol.   The age of biology.   Victoria Times, March, 31:5.
  Seabird sanctuary needed.   Victoria Times, June, 16:5.
  Changing attitudes hopeful.   Victoria Times, August, 11:5.
  The ecoporn that disparages Mother Nature.    Victoria Times, September,
29:5.
  Seabirds on the Charlottes.   The Charlottes, 2:13-14.
Gallacher, Daniel T.   Modern history on display.   Beautiful British Columbia,
winter 1973:10-16.
  British Columbia-
-a readers guide. Pacific Northwest Library Association
Quarterly, 37(3):4-9.
Keddie, Grant R. The museum's function in archaeology. Museum Round-Up,
October, 52:13-14.
Loy, Thomas H. Glenrose midden yields early C14 dates. The Midden, December, 5:4-6.
Peden, A. E.   Down in the deeps.   Victoria Times, May, 5:5.
  Variation in anal spot expression of gambusiin females and its effect on
male courtship.   Copeia, 1973(2) :250-263.
  Virtual extinction of Gambusia amistadensis n. sp., a pceciliid fish from
Texas.   Copeia, 1973(2) :210-221.
  Records of eelpouts of the genus Lycenchelys and Embryx from the northeastern Pacifis Ocean.   Syesis, 6:115.
  and C. A. Corbett.    Commensalism between a liparid fish, Careproctus
sp., and the lithodid box crap, Lopholithodes foraminatus.   Canadian Journal
of Zoologists, 51(5): 555-556.
Renshaw-Beauchamp, R. B.    Conservation at the B.C.M.A. Seminar.   Museum
Round-Up, October, 52:18.
Robertson, J. C.   UBC Museum of Anthropology.   Museum Round-Up, January,
95:1-3.
  Any old buildings.   Museum Round-Up, April, 50:18.
  Maps in museums.   Museum Round-Up, April, 50:24-27.
 Water use map, Strait of Georgia-Puget Sound basin. Department of Environment, Ottawa.
Stevenson, M. N., and A. E. Peden. Description and ecology of Hyalella texana
n. sp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Edwards Plateau of Texas. American Midland Naturalist, 89(2): 426-436.
Souliere, Len.   Kekuli.   Museum Round-Up, July, 51:21.
Turner, N. J. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia.
Syesis, 6:193-220.
 AA 140 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ward, P. R. Review of:  The conservation of antiquities and works of art, by H. J.
Plenderleith and A. E. A. Werner.   Museum Round-Up, January, 49:18-19.
  The Monck Park site: EbRd 3, Summary Report.   14 pp.
Wardrop, James.   Atlin.    Wildlife Review, summer VI, 8:8-10.
  A town tries to rescue history.    Victoria Times, April, 5:5.
  Let's not forget the B.C. Provincial Police.    Museum Round-Up, April,
50:23.
  HMS Discovery.   Gallery Leaflet.   British Columbia Provincial Museum.
4 pp.
Fort Victoria.    Gallery Leaflet.    British Columbia Provincial Museum.
4 pp.
Wood, Wilma A.   Memories.   In:   Packet Project.   Canadian Museums Association, Ottawa.   1:1.
  Have museum will travel.    Wildlife Review, autumn VI, 9:11-13.
UNPUBLISHED REPORTS
Archer, D.   Summary report of the Wasa Lake site.   4 pp.
  The Monck Park site: EbRd 3, Summary Report.   14 pp.
Brand, Ross.   An annotated bibliography of antiquities:   their care, preservation,
casting and display.    11 pp.
Brown, Lyvia.   Hesquiat:   the historical background.    39 pp.
 Kootenay National Park and surrounding area:    a brief history of the
white man in this area.   22 pp.
Carl, A. D.   The B.C.P.M. archaeological survey of parks and recreation reserves,
summer 1971.    11 pp.
  and J. Haggarty.    Preliminary report on archaeological investigations at
Hesquiat, B.C., summer 1972.   6 pp.
Condrashoff, Nancy.   An archaeological survey of parks and recreation reserves
for the B.C.P.M., summer 1971.    17 pp.
 Beehive-shaped stone structures found in B.C.    2 pp.
  The reconstruction of a Shuswap winter dwelling.    35 pp.
  DdRu 22:   a destroyed inland site in the Victoria region.    50 pp.
Gallacher, Daniel T.    Imperial, continental, or national economy?    Historians
and the problems of British North America's development, 1821-1866.  21 pp.
  Continuing dilemma: Changing ideas on Canadian resources and American
industrialism, 1870s-1970s.    33 pp.
 Iron production as a leader and a measure of American industrialism,
1620-1860.   22 pp.
  Strategic  metals  and  production strategies:    Mineral  production  as  a
measure of the Great War's influence on British Columbia's economy.   14 pp.
Our Empire, right or wrong?   Some western Canadian editorial opinion
on Canada's participation in the South African war.    7 pp.
Haggarty, James.    A report on the Hesquiat Project and its implications for
future research on the northwest coast.   5 pp.
  Threat or opportunity.   The Hesquiat experience.    6 pp.
Hanson, Gordon.   The Katz site:   a prehistoric pithouse settlement in the Lower
Fraser Valley, B.C.   390 pp.
Hatler, D. F., with R. Wayne Campbell and A. Dorst.   Birds of Pacific Rim
National Park, British Columbia.  Canadian Wildlife Service.    383 pp.
Keddie, Grant.    The B.C.P.M. archaeological survey of parks and recreation
reserves.  Summer 1971.    17 pp.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  141
  Chilcotin archaeological and ecological survey project.    120 pp.
Keen, S. D.   Preliminary report on Montague Park excavations:   DfRu 22, DfRu
12, and DfRu 16.    3 pp.
Kenny, Ray.    A preliminary report on the excavation at Deep Creek, Williams
Lake:  EbRn 13.   9 pp.
  A summary of archaeological work in Strait of Georgia and lower Fraser
regions of B.C.   48 pp.
Moncks, G.    Excavations at Saltery Bay Provincial Campsite:   DhSb 2.    21 pp.
 Excavation at Newcastle Island:   DhRx 6.   28 pp.
Noury, J.   Excavation at two sites in Newcastle Island Provincial Park:   DhRx 4,
DhRx 6.    3 pp.
Peden, A. E.   Report of collecting activity by the Marine Biology Division of the
British Columbia Provincial Museum in the Pacific Rim National Park, 1973.
14 pp.
Renshavv-Beauchamp, R. B.    A very basic manual of museum handling.    6 pp.
Russell, C. A.    Guidelines for the treatment of archaeological artifacts.    4 pp.
  Treatment of specific materials.    8 pp.
St. Claire, D.   Excavation at Witty's Beach:  DcRv 2.   16 pp.
Sendey, J.    Preliminary report of excavations at site EfQu 3, Shuswap Lake
Provincial Park, 1971.    21 pp.
Simonsen, B.    Survey of archaeological resources in provincial parks and maps
reserves in the southern coastal area of B.C.   5 pp.
Ward, P. R.   Hints for the new totem pole owner (revised).   6 pp.
 Report on the recovery of totem poles from Alder Park, Prince Rupert.
(To the Minister of Recreation and Conservation.)   June 1971.    17 pp.
  The great ring of Canada; a condition report.  (To the Secretary of State.)
April 1971.    13 pp.
  Conservation at Echo Bay.  April/May 1973.    8 pp.
  A conservation Service for you.    Museums Advisor's Newsletter, May
1973.   4 pp.
 Conservation in British Columbia.    Paper presented to the International
Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. October 1973. 6 pp.
Wardrop, James. The fur trade in British Columbia. Museum Educator's teaching guide.   27 pp.
Woodworth, Mary.   Soils analysis for the archaeologist.   33 pp.
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  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  147
MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
(Commercial Fisheries)
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
Commercial and recreational demands on the relatively fixed or diminishing
supplies of marine resources of British Columbia continued to escalate during
1973. This escalation was reflected in the increasing and diverse demands placed
upon the services of the Branch by segments of the fishing industry, general public,
and many Federal and Provincial resource-use agencies. To meet these responsibilities, which run the gamut from answering inquiries from the general public and
students to the supplying of information respecting endangered species; providing a
Provincial voice in respect to many emerging issues involved in fisheries management; serving on advisory groups regarding the negotiation or renegotiation of
bilateral and multilateral fishery conventions or agreements; advising Provincial
resource-use departments of the ecological implications of their actions in respect
to the marine resources, being directly involved in managing oyster and aquatic
plant resources; and preparing and distributing pamphlets, bulletins, and information sheets on marine resources. The Government's recognition of the importance
of the Branch's activities in relation to our marine resource heritage is demonstrated by the rapid growth in staffing and funding for the Branch. The rapid
development of a "Provincial marine resource expertise," together with the adoption
of our new name "Marine Resources" in place of the narrower implications in the
former "Commercial Fisheries," are evidence of the Province's resolve to continue
to develop a strong and effective voice in the management and conservation of
British Columbia's marine resources by and for the benefit of Canadians and
British Columbians in particular.
The following sections and statistical tables provide a general view of the
fishing industry and a summary of the Marine Resources Branch's major activities.
AQUATIC PLANTS
The vast commercial potential of British Columbia's marine plant resources
remains virtually untapped. However, several licensed firms are stepping up their
efforts to initiate profitable enterprises. One firm which has taken over the kelp-
meal plant at Masset in the Queen Charlotte Islands, successfully attempted a small-
scale test run during August and September 1973. A total of 1,200 tons of
Nereocystis was harvested; 35 tons of meal were eventually produced after a number
of mechanical difficulties. This firm expects to produce 1,000 to 3,000 tons of
kelp meal in the 1974/75 season.
With the distinct prospect of a large-scale operation in the Masset area, the
Marine Resources Branch plans to initiate a 3- to 4-year study of the effects of kelp
harvesting on regrowth and repopulation in the beds. The goal of this study is to
develop a sound management strategy. Hopefully and necessarily this study will
be broadened to include an evaluation of the effects of kelp harvesting on the
ecology of associated fauna. An inventory of Macrocystis and Nereocystis stocks
within a radius of 18 miles of Masset performed in August and September indicated
a combined standing crop of 130,000 wet tons in beds covering 4,473 acres.
 AA 148
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The only other firm engaged in active development has been operating in the
northeast sector of Vancouver Island. A total of 200 tons of Nereocystis and
Macrocystis was harvested, much of it being put through an experimental emulsifica-
tion unit.   The product is used as a fertilizer additive.
With the addition of an algal ecologist to its staff, the Branch has reviewed its
policy regarding conditions prerequisite to the issuance of licences to harvest aquatic
plants and the maintenance of such licences in good standing. As the result of
changes in policy the Branch is proceeding with the revocation of licences for all
unutilized areas and is seriously considering adopting a "species approach" to
licensing.
The University of Victoria inventory of carrageenophyte algae in the Strait of
Georgia is continuing under the supervision of the Branch. To date this programme, which is funded under the Federal-Provincial cost-sharing agreement, has
provided data which will be invaluable in drafting new regulations governing the
harvesting of carrageenophytes and in developing a management strategy.
COST-SHARED PROJECTS
During 1973 the Branch was involved in several fishery projects funded generally on a 75-per-cent Federal and 25-per-cent Provincial basis. These projects were
carefully selected for their practicability and (or) potential in respect to expansion
of existing fisheries, exploration of new fisheries, product or gear development,
An experimental Porphyra (nori) cultivation operation being carried out in
Howe Sound using Japanese techniques.
Porphyra is a very valuable and nutritious
marine algae.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 149
increasing or improving productivity, and the inventorying or development of inventory methods for various groups of potentially valuable marine algae. A brief outline of the projects totalling over $100,000 follows:
1. Inventory Studies
(a) In conjunction with University of Victoria, the 1972 studies on red algae
biology and inventory were continued. Two genera of this group, Iridaa and
Gigartina, are relatively abundant and rich in a valuable "gel" (carageenin). In
1973, field studies were directed on seasonal growth and effects of harvesting. An
evaluation of the inventory method developed in 1972 was undertaken, as were
pilot experiments on the laboratory and field culture of Iridma. The objective of
these studies is to develop a rational management plan before commercial exploitation.
(b) Two biologists undertook an inventory of two important genera of the
brown algae group, Macrocystis and Nereocystis, within an 18-mile radius of Masset,
Q.C.I. The method used involved natural colour and infrared false colour aerial
photography in conjunction with scuba-diving to measure bed areas. These beds
encompassed 4,773 acres and contained an estimated total of 130,000 tons. During
this survey some estimates were also made of sea urchin and abalone populations.
2. Industry Assistance
(a) Masset Kelp Meal Processing Plant: Hi-Co International Limited purchased the new but unused plant from the receiver of Canada Kelp Company
Limited in 1973. Fishery agencies of the two senior governments were anxious to
see an aquatic plant industry commence and contributed funds for a test run. Some
1,200 tons of Nereocystis were harvested from the local beds and, after "run-in"
difficulties, 35 tons of meal produced. Encouraging feedback following meal sample
distribution will prompt an enlarged harvesting and processing programme in 1974.
(b) Studies of the content and chemistry of lime derived from waste oyster
shells were completed in 1973. The lime is of excellent quality and both glass and
pulp industries have expressed interest in the product. Economics is a major consideration and the oyster industry may wish to hoard their waste shells for higher
prices they anticipate from other uses such as "chicken scratch" or as mother shell
in the oyster-seed business.
(c) Secretary-Manager, Gulf of Georgia Oyster Producers Co-operative:
British Columbia's oyster industry, traditionally a "cottage-type" operation, has
long suffered from lack of strong business-like central direction. This was especially
so in respect to market development, quality control, product diversification, and
culture practices. In an effort to co-ordinate the effects of individual growers and
to improve the grower's incomes, money was made available for the hiring of an
experienced businessman for a period of two years. The efforts of this man are being
directed toward the location and design of a diversified central processing plant,
increased markets, product diversification, and quality control.
(d) Purification of clams: The artificial cleansing of oysters was proved out in
1972 by a project which utilized circulating sea water sterilized by ultraviolet light
in which contaminated oysters were held for a period of 48 hours. As clams are
also subject to bacterial contamination and thus unmarketable from many areas, a
project was initiated in 1973 to determine if clams might be cleansed in the same
manner.
 A A 150 BRITISH COLUMBIA
3. Exploratory Fisheries
During the summer of 1973 a fishing-vessel was chartered to search for unex-
ploited shrimp populations in Queen Charlotte Sound. Fishing was confined to two
promising-looking areas and some 155,000 pounds were landed during a two-month
period. As a result of this survey, as well as good showings of shrimp as incidental
catches in groundfish trawls, a large processing complex plans to expand its operations to include four trawlers and four automatic shrimp-peelers in 1974.
4. Aquaculture (Mariculture) Studies
(a) Raft culture of oysters can produce yields in excess of 20,000 lb./acre
(compared to 2,000 lb./acre on the beach). Cedar logs, commonly used for floatation, have a life span of only about three years and are becoming increasingly expensive. Thus, alternative floatation methods—styrene plastics, ferro cement, fibreglass
floats, aluminum "logs"—begin to look more attractive. The economics of such
alternatives is an important consideration to the aquaculturist; therefore, a project
was initiated in 1973 to test various types of floatation in Sooke Basin.
(b) Tray culture of oysters, from "seed" to market size, was successfully
undertaken on a small private scale in Tucker Bay, Lasqueti Island. Commercial
application of this method is now being financially supported by the Branch and
will probably continue through 1975. If successful and economically attractive, the
oyster-grower in British Columbia is presented with another means of supplementing
his income.
OYSTERS
The extension and advisory role of the Branch with respect to oyster production continues to expand rapidly. A biologist has been employed by our Branch
to aid in this role and to investigate methods related to further development of the
shellfish industry. In this regard a number of problems associated with oyster
culture are presently being examined with members of the oyster industry and
Federal shellfish scientists. Of particular importance is the previous low effort
expended on seed collection by the oyster industry. However, with the aid of
Branch staff and a secretary-manager for the Gulf of Georgia Oyster Producers
Co-operative, provided through a Federal-Provincial cost-sharing project, the members of the industry are considering several alternatives to solving a serious oyster
seed-supply shortage. This facet of oyster culture will continue to receive close
attention by Branch staff.
Although production figures compared with the acreage under lease still indicate that efficiency and production can be materially improved, it is felt that the
present economic conditions of the industry will provide stimulus for this development. The market demand for oysters remained strong throughout the year and
wholesale prices rose to $8.80 per U.S. gallon. Production for 1973 was about
130,000 gallons, an increase of 13 per cent over the 1972 production of 115,000
gallons. The wholesale value of the 1973 production was roughly $1 million, as
compared to the 1972 wholesale value of $750,000. About 1,600 tons of shellstock
commercially harvested from Crown foreshore on 85 permits contributed almost
one-third of the total production. In addition to the shucked oyster production,
oyster seed worth approximately $300,000 was collected in Hotham Sound. Financial losses were reported by seed collectors due to spatfall failure in Pendrell Sound.
A more detailed account of this aspect of oyster culture activities is presented below.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 151
Part of a group visiting Lummi seeking guidelines for British Columbia
Indian aquaculture projects.
Pacific Oyster-breeding, 1973
Pendrell Sound—Physical conditions during the summer of 1973 were generally
favourable for Pacific oyster breeding; however, virtually no setting was recorded
in Pendrell Sound. Water temperatures and salinities were monitored at five
stations in the sound and at seven stations in the waters around East Redonda
Island. Surface water temperatures were slightly cooler in 1973 than in 1972, and
remained above 20°C for a shorter period of time. Surface water temperature of
20°C or higher were recorded from July 16 to August 17, except for a four-day
period, July 24-27. Except for minor fluctuations at the mouth of the sound,
surface water salinities remained above 15 parts per thousand throughout the
breeding period. As in 1972, unusually heavy phytoplankton blooms were observed
in the sound during the course of the summer.
Extensive spawning of Pacific oysters was first observed on July 20 and it
extended from the top of the sound, down the east side and out into Waddington
Channel. Larvae from this spawning were observed on July 22 and 23, but then
they virtually disappeared from the plankton during the course of their development
and no significant spatfall resulted from them. Further light spawnings were observed on August 3, 13, and 15, but the numbers of larvae found in plankton samples
were small, and the resulting spatfall was minor. Continued light spawning occurred until about mid-September.
Spatfall was monitored at seven locations, Stations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10.
Settlement of Pacific oysters was first observed during the week of August 4-15 at
Stations 1, 2, and 4. All cultch was removed and examined on September 25.
The maximum number of spat per shell observed at each station was four at
Station 1, five at Station 2, nine at Station 3, seventeen at Station 4, nine at Station
5, five at Station 6; and eight at Station 10. Size of the spat ranged from 2 to 11
mm in length.
 AA  152
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Map of Pendrell Sound showing location of sampling stations.
■—Reproduced by permission from Fisheries Research Board.   Bulletin 169, by D. B. Quayle
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  153
About 100,000 strings of shell or the equivalent in the form of cement disks
were exposed in 1973 by seven companies.
Hotham Sound—At the request of the industry, observations were made in
Hotham Sound to determine if this area could be used to obtain commercial sets of
Pacific oysters in 1973.
Temperature and salinity measurements in August indicated a surface layer
of about 4 m in depth; water temperatures here were above 20°C and the salinities
above 20 parts per thousand.
Large quantities of larvae in the straight-hinge to mid-umbone stages were
observed in a surface plankton tow made on August 1. Additional spawnings
occurred in the first half of August, producing large numbers of Pacific oyster larvae.
Spatfall was first recorded on August 13 and continued until about the end of
the month. Spat counts of over 1,000 per shell were common. All cultch was
removed on September 26 and examined. Spat counts of over 2,000 per shell were
observed; the maximum size of the spat was 15 mm, shell length.
About 150,000 strings of shell or the equivalent in the form of cemented
veneer were exposed by three companies.
Ladysmith Harbour—No commercial set of Pacific oysters was recorded in
Ladysmith Harbour. Surface water temperatures of 20°C or above occurred from
July 16 to 20 and July 30 to August 17. No spawning was reported. Surface
plankton tows taken during the course of the summer had a few straight-hinge larvae
and one mid-umbone larva, again indicating no significant spawning. No spat was
found on the experimental cultch exposed at the sampling station.
Newsletter—The Newsletter, started in 1972 to inform the British Columbia
oyster industry of Pacific oyster-breeding in the Province and assist with seed-collection operations, was continued in 1973.
FISHING INDUSTRY PRODUCTION
Figures for 1973 were not complete at the time of printing, but preliminary
figures are available and indicative of some trends which are worthy of mention.
Salmon-canning
Commercial—The canned-salmon pack for 1973 was 1,553,581 48-pound
cases, being 380,829 more than the 1972 pack of 1,172,752 cases. Pack figures for
both sockeye and chum were the highest for many years.
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1973. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River-Prince Rupert area, five; Central area, one; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River-Lower Mainland area, six. New Oceanside
Cannery in Prince Rupert was built to replace the original Oceanside Cannery
destroyed by fire in 1971.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1972 1973
Sockeye   312,308 652,692
Chinook   11,535 11,022
Steelhead   866 996
Blueback ._...,  705
Coho   83,413 113,860
Pink    482,933 360,623
Chum    279,481 413,683
 A A 154
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Workers at the Lummi Indian Aquaculture Project prepare to harvest
cultured coho and chinook salmon.
Sport—Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught fish operated during 1973. They were located at Brentwood, Comox, Nanaimo, and Quadra Island.
Production to the end of December 1973 was 106,807 cans, a decrease of 3,161
cans from the previous year's total. A total of 2,214 sportsmen used these facilities,
of whom 1,952 were residents and 262 nonresidents. The following number and
species of fish were canned: Chinook, 5,635; coho, 4,204; pink, 355; chum, 267;
sockeye, 724; steelhead, 56; trout, 315. The additional cannery, situated at Comox,
only operated at season's end and contributed little to the total pack figure.
Herring Fishery
The herring season opened February 27 and the 50,000-ton quota was taken
by March 23.
The best catches were made in Barkley Sound to lower west coast of Vancouver
Island area, where the total production was 23,998 tons. Other area totals were:
Central area, 10,596 tons; upper west coast of Vancouver Island, 8,821 tons; Strait
of Georgia, 3,562 tons; Queen Charlotte Islands, 8,540 tons.
The fishing fleet consisted of 105 seiners and between 135 and 150 gillnetters.
Another 50 or more boats were used as packers. The gillnetters did especially well
and at $185 per ton some of these fishermen were expected to gross $20,000 or more
for the season.
About 20 companies were involved in the fishery and of these 11 fished dogfish. Total dogfish catch, under the Federal Fisheries incentive programme of 2 tons
of herring for every ton of dogfish, was 4,400 tons.
Season's end saw some 12 Japanese buyers participating in the herring-roe
auction held in Vancouver.   Successful bidders paid up to $3.50 per pound, but the
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA 155
average was $2.75 per pound. This lucrative fishery will attract excess gear to the
1974 herring fishery and will create an extremely difficult management problem for
the Federal Government.
Halibut Fishery
Halibut stocks continue to decline and the International Pacific Halibut Commission, in addition to cutting quotas and fishing-times in the various regulatory
areas, has introduced such additional conservation measures as a new minimum size
of 32 inches instead of the former 26-inch limit and imposed a daily sport catch of
three halibut per fisherman during the period from March 1 to October 31 each
year. The Bering Sea halibut fishery was open from April 1 to 19 and for the first
time no Canadian boats fished the area.
Late in the season catches had declined by nearly 10 million pounds and,
although final figures are not available at this date, the preliminary catch figure of
14.4 million pounds is well below the 1972 level. The major reason for the decline
in abundance is the "incidental catch" of halibut by the large unregulated foreign
fishery off the coasts of Alaska and British Columbia.
August prices for medium-sized halibut reached 89 cents per pound in Vancouver and 87 cents in Prince Rupert. Prices for large halibut also ranged from 80
to 89 cents per pound.
Halibut fishermen, as well as Government "managers," are concerned. To
date our fishermen have borne all of the costs associated with reduced halibut
catches while "foreign" fleets, especially those of Japan and the U.S.S.R. continue
to overfish North American halibut stocks while pursuing their own target fisheries
(flounders and pollock). The Halibut Commission is in an extremely difficult position and unless the foreign fishing fleets become more co-operative and "conservation minded" respecting halibut, the very existence of halibut in the North Pacific
and Bering Sea is in jeopardy. Hopefully, the forthcoming Law of the Sea Conference will allow coastal management of the shelf species and (or) be instrumental
in bringing "foreign" fishermen to the bargaining table in a more co-operative mood.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION,  1972
General
The wholesale value of all British Columbia fish products marketed reached a
record $159 million, compared to the 1966 figure of $123.7 million, the previous
high record for the Province.
High prices for practically all types of fish and fish products and the largest
chum salmon return since 1954 combined to make it a record year.
Fishermen's earnings at $75.1 million were the highest ever, about $16.5
million more than 1971 and $13.7 million above the 1966 record $61.4 million.
The wholesale value of all major species was at an all-time high.
As marketed wholesale, the principal species were salmon, with a value of
$114.3 million, herring valued at $12,612 million, and halibut with a value of
$12,593 million.
The herring fishery remained closed for straight reduction purposes. Landings
totalled 43,013 tons, with a wholesale value of $2,700,000. The marketed value
amounted to $12,612 million, the highest value ever, being $500,000 in excess of
the best previous year, 1947. Roe and herring frozen for the roe market valued at
$10.2 million accounted for 81 per cent of the total 1972 marketed value.
 AA 156 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1972 the total wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $3,287 million. The
value of the clam production was $759,000; oyster production, $798,000; and crab
and shrimp production, $1.73 million.
Tuna landings of 7.8 million pounds valued at $2.5 million was 3.8 million
pounds and $1.4 million greater than 1971, the previous high.
Fishing-vessels
During 1972 the fishing fleet of British Columbia was comprised of drum
seiners, 268; table seiners, 30; gillnetters, 1,982; trailers, 1,905; trawlers, 25; and
longliners, 46.
Salmon-canning
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1972. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, five; Central Area, one; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, six.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1972, amounted
to 1,172,752 cases, 231,253 less than the 1971 pack of 1,404,005 cases.
Sockeye salmon—The 1972 sockeye pack was 312,907 cases. This was a
decrease of 255,849 cases from 1971's total of 568,756 cases.
It was an average sockeye year with a wholesale value of $20.7 million, a drop
of more than $13 million from the previous record year. Landings were the lowest
since 1965, higher prices on both domestic and foreign markets kept wholesale
values up.
Pink Salmon—Wholesale value of pinks was only a few dollars less than
sockeye and almost the same as the previous year. With a value on the market of
$20.6 million it was almost exactly $10 million less than the record of $30.6 million
set in 1968 and slightly less than the 10-year average.
This year's pack of 485,164 cases was 17,160 down from the previous year's
pack of 502,324 cases.
Chum salmon—Chum salmon was the big money-earner in 1972. After more
than 20 years as one of the lesser species, the tremendous return to the Nitinat
spawning areas resulted in a chum production in canned and frozen products worth
$30.8 million in the wholesale market.
The 1972 pack was 278,451 cases, 179,943 more than the 1971 pack of
98,508 cases.
Coho salmon — Coho landings declined substantially, reducing the market
value of this species to $16.6 million, down almost $3 million from the previous year
and the lowest since the disastrous 1969 season when it was $12 million. The
1972 pack was less than half of 1971's 83,755 cases.
Chinook salmon—Chinook produced a record high of $14.12 million; this was
a million above the previous year and far above the 10-year average. This was due
entirely to the increase in price as landings were down slightly over the previous
year. The 1972 pack was 11,608 cases, down slightly from the 1971 total of
11,653 cases.
Steelhead—The 1972 steelhead pack amounted to 867 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each year, principally those caught incidental
to fishing other species.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  157
Other Canneries and Processors
Shellfish and specialty products—In 1972, seven shellfish canneries were
licensed to operate in British Columbia and produced the following packs: clams,
9,960 cases; crabs, 21 cases; clam chowder, 10,197 cases. Sundry processing plants
produced the following: fish spreads, 82,777 cases; creamed salmon, 4,909 cases;
oyster stew, 12,384 cases; salmon chowder, 3,867 cases; smoked oysters, 110 cases;
smoked salmon, 7,679 cases; herring in oil, 15,297 cases; salmon milt, 4,851 cases;
pickled salmon, 981 Vi-pound tubs; fish and chips, 114,000 cases.
Fish-curing—Twenty smokehouses processed the following: herring (kippered,
plain, and snax), 56,650 pounds; cod, 744,673 pounds; salmon, 973,000 pounds;
oysters, 167 pounds, 20,402 gallons, 870 Vi-pound containers, 91 24/6-ounce
cases; steelhead, 794 pounds; trout, 180 pounds; mackerel, 6,000 pounds.
Pickled herring—Pickled-herring production in 1972 amounted to 10,679
cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 261 cases, 12/16-ounce jars; 283 cases, 12/32-ounce
jars; 237 cases, 6/56-ounce jars; 3,186 128-ounce jars; 50 10-pound pails; 930
20-pound pails; 100 25-pound pails; 87 50-pound pails.
Miscellaneous production—Herring roe, 5,480,000 pounds; mild-cured salmon, 153,000 pounds; salmon eggs and caviar, 4,197,000 pounds; frozen food
herring, 14,722,000 pounds; salmon offal meal, 1,795 tons.
SUMMARY TABLES,  1968-72
Total Landings and Effort
Landed Value of Fish and
Fish Products
1968  55,718,000
1969  44,565,000
1970  56,909,000
1971  55,664,000
1972  70,817,000
Wholesale Value of Fish and
Fish Products
$
1968  119,255,000
1969   83,000,000
1970   123,280,000
1971  120,100,000
1972     159,132,000
Number of Licensed Boats
1968  7,548
1969  7,181
1970  6,975
1971  6,698
1972  6,670
Number of Licensed Fishermen
1968  12,133
1969  10,942
1970  11,647
1971  11,015
1972  9,902
 AA 158 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1969—73, Inclusive
Licence
1969
970
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
$
$
15
3
6,000
17
3
6,800
300
300
21
3,325
19
3,275
61
2,300
64
2,320
7
700
7
700
2
200
3
300
5
250
5
250
295
2
358
50
17,900
14,750
2
50
2
50
4
100
3
75
31
1,550
51
2,550
3
103
600
1
107
200
1,030
1,070
1,048
4,001
309
2,313
1,600
35,156
951
38,153
1971
Number
Revenue
1972
Number
Revenue
1973
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
Herring cannery	
Herring reduction	
Tierced salmon	
Fish cold storage	
Fish-processing-	
Shellfish cannery	
Tuna cannery	
Fish-offal reduction	
Herring dry-saltery.	
Fish-buyers-	
Pickled herring	
Sport-caught fish cannery
Aquatic plant harvesting.
Aquatic plant processing.
Dogfish reduction	
Salmon dry-saltery	
Oyster-picking permits	
Provincial receipts	
Totals	
14
3
23
63
6
1
5
1
300
2
3
51
131
250
5,600
300 |
3,550 |
2,500 |
600
100
250
25
15,000
50
75
2,550
1,310
3,014
853  |    34,924
I	
15
1
2
3
27
67
7
2
4
324
2
3
25
94
153
729
6,000
25
800
300
3,825
2,900
700
200
200
16,200
50
75
1,250
940
1,751
35,216
15
1
2
3
30
91
7
2
4
1
352
2
4
27
1
2
1
85
149
779
6,000
25
800
300
4,075
5,300
700
200
200
25
17,600
50
100
1,350
200
100
25
850
3,371
41,271
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia, 1968-72, Inclusive
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
$
99,956,000
331,000
8,385,000
2,378,000
995,00
1,122,000
743,000
1,183,000
349,000
222,000
$
57,982,000
559,000
13,814,000
2,460,000
920,000
937,000
856,000
1,352,000
275,000
226,000
1,090,000
2,488,000
$
99,597,000
682,000
14,025,000
1,775,000
1,038,000
752,000
590,000
1,819,000
226,000
457,000
984,000
1,335,000
$
96,926,000
2,256,000
11,367,000
1,303,000
1,003,000
1,299,000
575,000
1,829,000
219,000
503,000
1,499,000
1,310,000
120,089,000
$
114,349,000
12,612,000
Halibut    	
16,904,000
Crabs and shrimps	
1,730,000
981,000
3,428,000
798,000
Sole	
1,504,000
806,000
Clams	
759,000
3,088,000
3,591,000
2,173,000
Totals     	
119,255,000
82,959,000
123,280,000
159,132,000
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1973      AA  159
British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1968-72, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases)
1968
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring..
Steelhead.	
Blueback	
Coho	
Pink  ._.
Chum	
Totals-
398,438
852'/2
1,471
823 Vi
263
10,389
92,619
227,893>/2
212,573        |       611,011
8021/2
2,3321/2
1,134
670
84,5861/2
441,453
1,655
3,803i/2
l,957i/2
933
10,389
177,2051/2
669,3461/2
79,225 i        191,4621/2     |       270,6871/2
311,9741/2
935,014        I    l,746,988!/2
1969
253,458
1,402
1,446i/2
656
2951/2
2,146
39,0461/2
109,830
36,212
106,1491/2
573V2
8231/2
400
289'/2
359,6071/4
1,9751/2
2,270
White spring      	
1,056
585
2,146
Coho	
16,754!/2
44,358
10,312
55,801
Pink              	
154,188
46,524
Totals                   	
444,4921/2
179,6601/2
624,153
1970
Sockeye,..	
Red spring	
Pink spring-
White spring..
Steelhead-	
Blueback—	
Coho _	
Pink	
Chum	
Totals..
279,0091/2
826
4,966
2,205!/2
225
2,881
62,489
212,996
100,411
116,5961/2
348
1,037
641V2
306
49,185
447,781
141,9781/2
666,009
I       757,873!/2
395,606
1,174
6,003
2,847
531
2,881
111,674
660,777
242,389'/2
1,423,8821/2
1971
Sockeye	
Red spring	
Pink spring	
White spring	
Steelhead	
Blueback.	
Coho	
Pink	
Chum	
Totals..
439,031
129,725
568,756
5211/2
5061/2
1,028
5,571
1,63014
7,201i/2
2,802 Vt
62IV2
3,424
727
574
1,301
5,608
5,608
174,640
41,215
215,855
359,0411/2
143,282!/2
502,324
24,2071/2
74,3001/2
98,508
1,012,150
391,8551/2
l,404,005!/2
 A A 160
BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1968-72, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
(48-pound cases
1972
:cies
Area
Sp
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
199,8901/2
113,0161/2
312,907
927
4,292
3,0241/2
3931/2
8741/2
2,047>/2
4421/2
473 V2
l,801i/2
6,339'/2
3,467
867
Coho -	
52,8781/2
225,502
187,415
30,877
259,662
91,036
83,755'/2
Pink    	
485,164
Chum _    	
278,451
Totals  	
674,323
498,4291/2
1,172,7521/2
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
2,780-574-5169

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