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REPORT of the BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE DECEMBER 31 1973 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1974

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. A. Williams, Minister B. E. Marr, Acting Associate Deputy Minister
of Water Resources
REPORT
of the
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
DECEMBER 31
1973
Printed by K. M. MacDonald,
Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
COVER
Spectacular Helmcken Falls, in Wells Gray
Provincial Park north of Kamloops, exemplify the recreational value of much of the
Province's water resources.
  February 15, 1974.
To the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the year ended December 31, 1973.
ROBERT A. WILLIAMS
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 February 15, 1974.
The Honourable Robert A. Williams,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the 12 months ended December 31, 1973.
B. E. MARR
Acting Associate Deputy Minister of Water Resources
 BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
December 31, 1973
V. Raudsepp, Deputy Minister, January-November
B. E. Marr, Acting Associate Deputy Minister, December
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister
Water Rights Branch
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
Water Investigations Branch
B. E. Marr, Director, January-November
P. M. Brady, Assistant Director (Tech.), January-November
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Director (Admin.), January-November
Pollution Control Branch
W. N. Venables, Director
R. H. Ferguson, Assistant Director
A. J. Chmelauskas, Assistant Director
Chemistry Laboratory
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
Inspector of Dykes
W. R. Meighen, Inspector of Dykes
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
W. J. Stephenson, Supervisor
Accounting Division*
M. B. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller
Personnel Office*
R. C. Webber, Personnel Officer
Mail and File RooMf
D. S. Preston, in Charge
Public Information Officer
J. McCrossan
* Service shared with Lands Service.
t Service shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
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 CONTENTS
British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Report of the Acting Associate Deputy Minister,
Water Rights Branch—
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights	
Water Licensing Division	
District Engineers Division	
Improvement Districts Division	
Power and Major Licences Division.
Water Utilities Division	
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Director	
Report of Assistant Director.
Page
9
13
15
18
27
37
46
53
57
Records Compilation and Reports Section.
Draughting Office	
Water Supply and Investigations Division     78
Hydrology Division	
Groundwater Division	
ARDA Division	
Basin Planning and Power Division	
Projects Division	
Ecology Division	
Pollution Control Board.
93
98
104
112
117
124
127
128
133
Pollution Control Branch—
Report by the Director.
Industrial Division	
Municipal Division	
District Division	
Projects and Research Division.
Administrative Services	
Chemistry Laboratory	
Inspector of Dykes	
Southern Okanagan Lands Project..
Personnel Services	
Accounting Division.
139
140
144
147
156
159
163
171
175
181
185
  BRITISH COLUMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
B. E. Marr, P.Eng.
Acting Associate
Deputy Minister
The activities of the various branches of the Water Resources Service
continued at a high level during 1973 in meeting the challenges and
opportunities of water resource and environmental management in British
Columbia.
The Water Rights Branch experienced a heavy work load with a record
number of applications for licences being received during the year. Problems in the district offices were compounded by the extremely low run-off
recorded in 1973, causing many conflicts between water-users and requiring
judicious regulation of the available supply by the engineer. This was in
sharp contrast to the heavy run-off in 1972.
With the repeal of the Public Utilities Act and the coming into force
of the Water Utilities Act, we welcomed into the Service former staff members of the Public Utilities Commission who now form a new division of the
Water Rights Branch. Technicians have been placed in the district offices
to deal with water utilities.
The Water Investigations Branch is involved in the planning, investigation, and implementation of water-development projects and in data collection and water-management studies. Of particular note during the year
was the increased emphasis on floodplain zoning and the initiation of a
programme to develop flood-hazard maps covering flood-prone areas of the
Province to be used for land-use planning purposes.
The Canada-British Columbia flood-control programme for the Lower
Fraser Valley accelerated during 1973 with projects under way in Kent,
Matsqui, Chilliwhack, Surrey, and Delta. The review of upstream storage
possibilities for flood control and hydro-power purposes continues. Rehabilitation of water supply and irrigation systems under the Agricultural
and Rural Development Act saw substantial completion of projects at Otter
Lake, Robson, and Black Mountain near Kelowna during 1973.
A highlight of the year was the release of the draft Findings and
Recommendations of the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Study,
and public reaction is now being assessed. The Provincial water-management study of the Kalamalka-Woods Lake area continues.
 T 10 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Pollution Control Branch gave priority in 1973 to bringing under
permit the many discharges existing prior to the passing of the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, and to establishing enforcement procedures to ensure
compliance with the Act.
Of particular note in 1973 was the acceptance of the pollution control
objectives for the mining, mine-milling, and smelting industries. These,
together with the previously established forest products industry objectives,
will assist in the Provincial water management programme. The Branch
has completed work on the objectives for the chemical and petroleum
industries and these are now before the Pollution Control Board for
approval.
The Chemistry Laboratory experienced a busy year in 1973 with an
increase of 39 per cent in routine environmental tests. Of interest is the
planning of the proposed district laboratories at five locations throughout
the Province and the publication of manuals outlining procedures for
analysis of water, waste water, biological tissues, ambient air, and stack
emissions.
The year 1973 was marked by the retirement of Valter Raudsepp,
Deputy Minister of Water Resources, after a long and distinguished career
in the Public Service.    His many friends and colleagues wish him well.
The staff of the Water Resources Service looks forward to the future,
confident they have an important role to play in the management of the
water resource and the preservation of environmental quality in British
Columbia.
PROVINCIAL MAJOR DISASTER FUND
Since 1972 the Water Resources Service has been involved in the
processing of claims against the Fund for damages to private property
resulting from adverse natural causes.
The Province-wide flooding from snow-melt which occurred in the
summer of 1972, together with significant rainstorms in the Christmas and
post-Christmas period of 1972/73, resulted in payments being made to
individuals and small businesses from the Fund in the amount of $6,054,247
during the year.
A forest fire near Salmon Arm in the fall of 1973 destroyed a number
of homes, farm buildings, and timber. Land-owners will receive assistance
in excess of $1,000,000 to offset their losses. In December a landslip at
Port Alice destroyed or damaged over 40 homes. Assistance from the
Disaster Fund was approved and claims are expected to total over $300,000.
 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers the
control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time in
any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right
of the Province. The common law principle of riparian water rights has been
abolished.
(2) Prospective users of water must file applications for water licences. There is a
procedure for notifying the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture and Recreation and
Conservation and all those whose rights might be affected, all of whom have a
right of objection to water applications.
(3) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(5) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(6) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if a voluntary agreement cannot
be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire
a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist
in the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the Water
Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, fire protection, and several other
purposes. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by
elected Trustees. The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially
guaranteed debenture issues.
A third major function was assigned to the Water Rights Branch on July 15, 1973, when
the Comptroller of Water Rights assumed responsibility for the administration of Water Utilities
under the provisions of the Water Utilities Act and the Energy Act.
The administration of the Water Act and the Water Utilities Act is carried out by the
Comptroller of Water Rights and his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria
and district offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and New Westminster.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers of other
resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water.
11
 T 12
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch is responsible for the administration of all use of
surface water in British Columbia under the provisions of the Water Act. For this
purpose a licensing system has been developed in British Columbia over the course
of the last century which applies to all surface water in the Province with provision
for extension to groundwater licensing when required. In addition to providing for
the administration of water use, the Water Act also makes provision for the incorporation of improvement districts which provide local services in water-related and
other fields.
Another function was assigned to the Water Rights Branch with the repeal of
the Public Utilities Act on July 15, 1973, and the coming into force of the Water
Utilities Act. Under this Act the Comptroller of Water Rights is responsible for
the administration of water utilities, exercising for the purpose the powers of the
Energy Commission under the Energy Act. The main purpose of the administration
of water utilities is regulation of rates and standards of works and service. Staff
members of the former Public Utilities Commission who had been dealing with water
utilities were transferred to Water Rights Branch to form the Water Utilities Division
of the Branch, headed by John Simpson, P.Eng., formerly Assistant Chief Engineer
of the Commission.
On-the-spot investigation and determination has been a guiding principle in
the administration of the Water Act for many years both in new licensing and in the
administration of existing rights. For this purpose, the Branch maintains six district
offices staffed mainly by engineers and technical people, who are available for the
first-hand investigation of all sorts of water problems in addition to licensing matters.
By the use of district and headquarters staff, the Water Rights Branch carries out a
great number of engineering studies on water matters, including water supply, erosion, flooding, and dam safety. This policy of field inspection is to be applied also to
water utility administration and five senior technicians have been placed in the
district offices of the Branch to look after water utility problems.
In terms of water supply, 1973 was notable in many areas of the southern part
of the Province as the driest year since 1930. This was in marked contrast to the
year 1972, which in the same areas produced record maximum stream flows. Severe
water shortages occurred in many of the small irrigation streams in the Interior dry-
belt area, although the situation was relieved on some streams with extensive storage
systems by stored water held over from the previous good water supply year. Staffs
of the district offices were heavily committed to the regulation of water use resulting
from conflicts between water users, many of whom had never experienced water
shortage before.
13
 T 14 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In the field of water licensing, the number of new applications set a new record
of 1,892. This severely taxed the capacity of the Licensing Division in Victoria,
delaying the issue of new licences, while in the field problems associated with water
shortage had to be given priority over investigation of new applications. As a result,
the number of applications pending reached a new peak of 3,115 at the end of the
report period. The number of water licences in effect, as of November 30, 1973,
was 29,785, comprised of 13,259 final licences and 16,526 conditional licences.
The water rights maps maintained in our Administrative Draughting Room are
probably the most essential of the working records used in water resource administration. In addition to their use for recording water licences and applications, they
are also used in clearance procedures for applications under the Pollution Control
Act, 1967, the Land Act, and the Forest Act. Administrative procedures are made
more difficult because coverage of the Province by maps of this series is far from
complete and because many of the water rights maps in use are more than 40 years
old and in very bad condition. For this reason it is gratifying to be able to report
that the Draughting Office was able to produce 152 new maps during 1973, an
increase of about 40 per cent over the level of the last two years.
In dealing with applications for new licences, the main burden rests on the
District Engineer who is responsible for the inspection of every application. Objectors are contacted to ensure that they fully understand the application and that they
have an opportunity to fully state their objections. The engineer makes a firm
recommendation on each application, and for practical reasons these recommendations are usually accepted by the Comptroller. The work load resulting from new
applications has greatly increased in recent years, not only because of the increase
in the number of applications but also because of the increasing complexity of many
of these applications and the increasing number of objections. At the same time
there has been a steady increase in the variety and complexity of the other responsibilities of district office staffs resulting from such problems as flooding and erosion,
resource-use conflicts, and the greatly increasing scope of the activities of regional
districts in which the District Engineers participate as members of the technical
planning committees.
Activity in the Improvement Districts Division continued high during the year.
A number of feasibility studies were carried out with regard to proposed new systems, or the rehabilitation of old ones, and final design and supervision of construction were provided for several small projects where special circumstances warranted
such assistance. However, the main responsibility of the Division continued to be
administrative, involving a continuing general review of district administration and
capital projects involving borrowing. Many proposals prepared by consultants were
reviewed with respect to both technical suitability and economic feasibility.
By agreement with the Federal Government, the Province assumes the responsibility for the proper operation and maintenance of all irrigation and farm domestic
water systems constructed with Federal and Provincial funds under the ARDA programme, in order to assure compliance with the intent of the statutes involved and
the agreements made under them. A programme of continuing surveillance of these
systems was instituted by the Water Rights Branch in 1972. The programme is still
in an early stage of development and is limited by the availability of manpower, but
the need for this kind of follow-up has been clearly demonstrated.
The Power and Major Licences Division continued, during the year, to be
occupied with various aspects of the Columbia River Treaty development, particularly with the Canal Plant project. The Water Resources Service has been assigned
a co-ordinating role in the preparation of the Canadian portion of the Libby Reser-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 15
voir which is being carried on by several departments of the Government of British
Columbia, and liaison is also being carried on with United States authorities. Staff
work on these matters has been provided by the Power and Major Licences Division.
This has included maintaining staff in the field during the critical portions of the
initial filling programme in 1973 as well as 1972. By the end of 1973, Libby
preparation work was virtually complete.
Because of the wide seasonal variation in stream-flows in British Columbia,
the storage of water is one of the most significant features of water management in
the Province. More than 600 storage dams of all sizes are now under licence in
British Columbia. In some circumstances such dams are capable of imposing a
severe hazard to life and property, particularly in the mountain valleys of British
Columbia. For this reason a programme of inspection of storage dams is carried
on, based on the powers of the engineer and the Comptroller under the Water Act.
This programme is divided between the staff of the district offices and the headquarters staff of the Power and Major Licences Division. The programme has been
successful to the extent that there have been no significant failures of licensed storage structures in British Columbia in recent years, even during the record floods of
1972. However, due to staff deficiencies the programme has not been adequately
comprehensive, and increased emphasis was given to this problem in 1973.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1973 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the individual divisions of the Branch in the pages following.
WATER LICENSING DIVISION
W. R. Tuthill, Chief of Division
The Comptroller of Water Rights administers the Water Act, under which
rights to the diversion of water within the Province are granted for almost every
conceivable use. Licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining,
industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few
exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or government
agency uses water from any surface-water source.
The Licensing Division is responsible for the processing of new applications
for licences and amendments to existing licences.    In order to maintain complete
1064 I
1.65 1
1966 I
1967 1
19681
19691
1970 ■
1971 ■
1972 1
1973 ■
APPLICATIONS
 RECEIVED
11333
■ 1336
___H1624
■_I1503
____■■ 1767
-■_■! 1733
APPLICATIONS
PENDING
MAJOR    AMENDMENTS
TO    LICENCES
I 2400
■■2623
--■Hi 2627
CONDITIONAL
1964 ■
19651
19661
19671
19681
1969 ■
19701
1971 ■
1972 ■
1973 ■
I 298
■ 266
■ 359
■ 400
TOTAL
I 1449
---- 1706
 T 16 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
records, the Division is divided into two offices—the General Office, which handles
the clerical aspects of licensing, and the Draughting Office, which handles the
mapping requirements. These offices are responsible for maintaining the many
files, indexes, maps, and other records required for the orderly processing of new
and pending applications and keeping track of the rights granted under existing
licences and amendments thereto. Close liaison is required with the District Engineers Division and its six district offices, situated at strategic locations in the
Province, for field investigations and reports on applications and amendments.
Light snowfall during the winter of 1972/73 and lack of rainfall in 1973 in
many parts of the Province created water shortages in many areas. As a result of
the water shortage a record number of 1,892 applications were received, including
a monthly record in August of 267. Many applications were made by persons
wishing to obtain licences for previously unlicensed use.
The investigation and processing of applications and amendments to licences
continues to get more difficult as the population of the Province grows. Pressures
from the public and requests from government agencies are resulting in more
stringent controls on the use and licensing of water. The number of applications
pending at November 30, 1973, reached 3,115, up approximately 600 from November 1972.
In an attempt to keep pace with the increased licensing activities, 152 new
water rights maps, showing roads, railways, subdivisions, etc., were compiled.
The reports of the General and Draughting offices follow.
General Office
The number of new applications for water licences received during the period
under review was 1,892. This is the highest on record and exceeds the number
received in 1972 by 377. There seems little doubt that the dryness of any year
has a bearing on the number of new applications received; it is unfortunate that it
also causes a reduction in the number of reports received from our District offices,
as a larger part of our District office staff's time is spent in resolving disputes over
water use in a dry year than is spent in a normal or wet year. This reduction in
the number of reports received causes a reduction in the number of new licences
produced, with a consequent increase in the number of applications pending.
This year there has been a noticeable increase in the number of applications
for licences to authorize the use of water for placer mining; the increase appears
to be due to the high price of gold.
Applications for approval under section 7 of the Water Act, either for the
use of water for a period not exceeding 90 days or to authorize changes in and
about streams, have risen to 149, compared with 91 in 1972.
Applications for the amendment of existing licences by apportionment, transfer
of appurtenancy, or change of works or purpose, have again increased over last
year's totals, and there are now 448 amendment applications pending.
Copies of 1,018 Pollution Control Permit applications have been received and
cleared and our findings brought to the attention of the Pollution Control Branch.
There are now 93 water-users' communities incorporated under the Water Act,
compared with 92 at the end of November 1972.
Staff changes during the year under review totalled 18. Of these, five were
transfers to other Departments or to other Divisions of the Water Rights Branch,
three were new employees, and 10 were promotions within the office.  The present
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 17
staff establishment comprises one Administrative Officer 1, two Clerks 5, three
Clerks 4, three Clerks 3, two Clerks 2, two Clerks 1, one Clerk-Stenographer 3, one
Clerk-Stenographer 2, and one Clerk-Typist 2.
The following table shows the principal activities of the General Office in the
12-month period ended November 30, 1973, together with the same data for the
five preceding years:
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
Applications for—
Licences _. „
Rights-of-way            	
Apportionments    _	
Transfers of appurtenancy _
1,627
339
73
97
324
40
1,503
227
75
119
270
50
1,767
243
60
104
278
81
1,733
263
96
159
243
88
1,515
122
91
137
307
91
1,892
246
103
162
327
149
Total    	
2,497
2,244
2,533
2,582
2,263
2,879
Average monthly applications 	
208
187
211
215
189
240
Issues of—
1,127
405
30
93
347
329
1,103
444
45
206
356
258
1,447
298
75
164
478
271
1,343
286
85
182
474
207
1,746
359
96
236
524
313
1,131
Final licences	
400
132
168
Rights-of-way                .   .
Changes of works and extensions of time	
478
315
Total  _	
2,331
2,412
2,733
2,577
3,274
2,624
Average monthly issues	
194
201
228
215
273
219
Changes of address, ownership, etc	
2,921
296
450
2,701
399
493
2,272
340
616
1,796
338
359
2,803
359
206
2,608
427
Objections to applications	
274
Annual over-all totals	
8,495
8,249
8,494
7,652
8,905
8,812
Applications pending at November 30	
2,152
2,400
2,628
2,827
2,522
3,115
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office is staffed by a Technician 2, a Supervising Draughtsman, four Draughtsmen 3, four Draughtsmen 1, a Clerk 5, Clerk 4,
and two Clerks 3. Main functions of this office are checking the legal status and
clearing of water applications; compiling, revising, and maintaining water rights
maps; preparing plans for water licences; clearing land applications for the Lands
Service, timber sales for Forest Service; pollution control permits for Pollution Control Branch; checking petitions and preparing legal descriptions for improvement
districts; and attending to requests for maps and various information from our district offices, other departments of Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. In most cases this work
entails a search of records of other departments of Government, such as Land
Registry Office, Surveyor of Taxes, Lands Service, Department of Highways, etc.
Upon completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water rights maps
and in the stream registers which together form a record of all pertinent data regarding all water licences and applications within the Province.
The Draughting Office is responsible for checking all petitions received requesting incorporation into an improvement district. Checking petitions involves searches
of records of the Land Registry Office and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct
property descriptions.  When the petitions to incorporate an improvement district
 T 18
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
have been checked and found correct, a plan showing all lands within the boundaries of the proposed district is drawn up and a legal description defining the boundaries of the district is prepared. During 1973, seven new districts were incorporated
and the boundaries of 48 districts were amended.
The following table shows the principal activities of the Draughting Office in
the 12-month period ending November 30, 1973, together with the same data for
the five preceding years:
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
New water licence applications  cleared and plotted  on
1,533
1,640
1,448
1,961
1,623
1,955
858
65
5
3
46
24
164
278
81
478
2,612
6,990
1,702
2,106
1,326
110
1,400
2,463
1,197
107
5
12
65
19
228
313
96
528
3,162
4,362
434
1,738
2,001
2,125
1,168
152
26
6
16
59
29
158
320
26
347
3,217
6,759
51
7
8
31
48
194
270
50
356
3,100
8,623
2
New improvement districts described and plans prepared—
Improvement districts descriptions and plans amended
6
50
36
255
243
88
404
2,134
5,431
161
1,867
7
48
41
265
327
149
478
3,035
Land clearances (purchases, leases, etc.) - -	
3,812
716
	
358
2,338
Totals 	
14,136
16,147
15,540
15,919
16,629
16,664
DISTRICT ENGINEERS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief of Division
For administrative purposes, the Province is divided into 27 water districts
with borders based on watershed boundaries, except for a few exceptions made for
access considerations. District offices of the Water Rights Branch, each in charge
of a District Engineer who is responsible for administration of the Water Act within
the several water districts under his jurisdiction, are located at Kamloops, Kelowna,
Nelson, New Westminster, Prince George, and Victoria. The office of the Chief
of the District Engineers Division is located at headquarter's office in Victoria.
With limited guidance only, the District Engineers are responsible for adminis-
traton of the Water Act within their respective jurisdictional regions. Each District
Engineer represents the Water Resources Service on the various technical planning
committees of regional districts and the intersector resource-use committees within
his area. The District Enginer at Kelowna has continued his participation in the
Public Involvement Task Force under the Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin Study
and the Wood Lake-Kalamalka Lake study group. The District Engineer at Prince
George is involved in a Maxan Lake Multiple Resource Use study being conducted
in the Burns Lake area. The Nelson District Engineer participated in a study and
preparation of a report covering the resources of the Purcell Mountain area bordering the Rocky Mountain Trench in the East Kootenay area of the Province.
The 1973 report year was one marked with severe water deficiencies in the
southern districts of the Province, flows being the lowest experienced since the
drought years of 1929/30 for many streams in the areas administered by the
Kamloops and Kelowna offices. Except for some shortages of a local nature, water
supply was relatively good in the northern areas administered by the Prince George
office.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 19
Reporting on applications for water licences was set back slightly as a result
of attentions required to the large number of complaints and disputes over water
sharing arising from water shortages. This, combined with receipt of 1,719 new
water applications at District offices, an increase of 343 over the number received
last year, has resulted in an over-all increase in the backlog of applications requiring attention at District offices.
The staff situation was relatively stable at District offices for the year, except
for the resignation of R. L. Lewis, Assistant District Engineer at Nelson, early in
the season. The vacancy left by this resignation is not yet filled. We are fortunate
in having as District Engineers, senior staff members with excellent experience in
their field which has enabled this Division to maintain its relatively good position
while continuing to accept increasing responsibilities.
Individual reports of the six District Engineers follow. The table below summarizes activities associated with licences for the 12-month report period ending
October 31, 1973.
Summary of Water Licence Application Report Situation and Reports for Licence
Amendments and Related Activities as Reported by District Engineers for
Period November 1, 1972, to October 31, 1973.
District Offices
Total
Kamloops
Kelowna
Nelson
NewWest-
minster
Prince
George
Victoria
Applications for water licences—
On hand November 1, 1972. 	
Received during the year	
Inspected and reported on.	
Cancelled or abandoned  	
On hand October 31, 1973	
Applications for approval under Water
Act, section 7, reported on 	
496
429
289
46
590
27
39
24
24
45
21
2
324
39
96
263
238
17
104
11
68
11
44
12
8
0
196
55
365
366
187
46
498
7
40
46
48
53
5
28
197
35
166
215
193
29
159
34
138
9
26
20
19
98
171
127
170
220
115
35
240
22
48
0
7
6
85
2
115
24
69
226
195
12
88
20
48
10
5
7
22
2
166
92
1,362
1,719
1,217
185
1,679
121
381
Water licence amendment reports—
Apportionment	
100
154
143
160
Other _ _
132
1,169
372
Kamloops District Office
D. E. Smuin, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops, Ashcroft, Cariboo, and Nicola Water Districts, within south
central British Columbia, are administered by the staff of the Kamloops District
office. The staff of this office includes the District Engineer, three Assistant District
Engineers, two Technicians, one Engineering Assistant, one Clerk-Stenographer,
one Clerk, and two temporary Engineering Aides. One Assistant Engineer position
is vacant and recruitment is under way.
During the report year, precipitation was approximately only 60 per cent of
normal, and the flow of water in most sources dropped to critically low levels. The
supply in many streams failed to satisfy even the most senior licences, and the production of crops dependent upon irrigation suffered severely. Fisheries interests
were seriously affected by the low flows prevailing in streams utilized by spawning
salmon.    Complaints of water shortage and (or) misuse of water began to be
 T 20 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
received early in the irrigation season and continued into September. As a result
of the water shortage experienced, studies of water use from three local watersheds
were initiated in order to develop a management programme to properly control the
diversion and use of water should similar conditions recur in the future.
Requests for technical and administrative assistance from improvement districts and water-users communities incorporated under the Water Act continued
throughout the year with staff attending meetings of district trustees or providing
advice by telephone and mail. General assistance was given in several instances on
the design of water intakes and related works.
The District Engineer was appointed Chairman of the Technical Planning Committee for the Cariboo Regional District and attended meetings of the Technical
Planning Committee for the Thompson-Nicola Regional District, and the Kamloops
Region Inter-Sector Committee for the Environment and Land Use Committee. In
all, 33 of these meetings were attended during the year.
Technical staff sampled the Lac Le Jeune snow courses for the Hydrology Division and measured various local observation wells for Groundwater Division, both of
Water Investigations Branch.
The reporting on applications for water licences was noticeably lower (289)
than for 1972, due partly to staff turnover, and to the necessity of attending to the
unusually large number of complaints due to water shortages received. On the
positive side was the larger number of reports completed for licence amendments,
final licence surveys, and applications for approvals under section 7 of the Water
Act.
Kelowna District Office
E. D. Anthony, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area administered by the staff of the Kelowna District office contains the
Similkameen, Okanagan, and Kettle River Basins, the Shuswap drainage above
Sicamous, and that portion of the Columbia River basin between Mica Creek dam-
site and Arrow Lakes.
The staff in Kelowna consists of a District Engineer, two Assistant District
Engineers, a Technician, an Engineering Aide, and a Clerk-Stenographer. Richard
Penner, P.Eng., Assistant District Engineer, was transferred to the Water Investigations Branch in June and was replaced by Peter Mickelson. In October, Alan
Boom joined the staff as an Engineering Assistant responsible for Final Licence
Surveys.
The 1973 run-off within the watersheds administered was the lowest recorded
since the drought of 1929-31. The summer was one of the hottest and driest in
recent years. As a result, water users on small streams experienced severe water
shortages.
The peak level of Okanagan Lake during 1973 was 1,122.49 feet above mean
sea-level on June 18, which was 1.30 feet below the authorized full-pool level. During the period from April 1 to July 31 the net inflow to Okanagan Lake was 123,780
acre feet, which represents only 27 per cent of the mean inflow for the period of
record. Net inflow during August was minimum 34,210 acre feet, the greatest
monthly deficit ever recorded.
The majority of storage reservoirs in the Okanagan Valley were filled during
the freshet period because of substantial storage carried over from 1972. Toward
the end of the irrigation season, however, several reservoirs were emptied and some
irrigation districts experienced shortages.
The dam inspection programme initiated three years ago is now fully operational.   During 1973, 99 of the 239 authorized storage dams were inspected.   Sub-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 21
stantial repairs were ordered on 57 of these structures. Reconstruction of the
following storage dams was completed during 1973—Demers Creek near Enderby,
Esperon Lake near Kelowna, Munro Lake near Summerland, Little Clark Lake near
Okanagan Falls, Clearwater Lake near Oliver, Christian and Stevenson Creeks near
Princeton, and Davis Lake, Tommie Lee Lake, and Harvey Hall Lake near Aspen
Grove. Ten other dams are currently under construction.
Requests from other agencies for input to resource-management plans increased
sharply this year. The regional districts and the Forest Service, in particular, have
invited participation by my staff in multiple resource use planning. In addition, my
staff has been actively involved in the Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin Study and
the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Study undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch.
To improve my staff's ability to fully participate in future discussions on
multiple resource-use planning, programmes are currently being developed in the
Kelowna District office to compile and analyse data on controversial watershed.
Notwithstanding numerous water regulation problems resulting from the
drought conditions, staff changes, and the increased involvement in resource planning, a large volume of administrative work and technical reports was completed.
Shown below is a summary of the water licence applications processed by this office
for the past 10 years.
Summary of Water Licence Applications Processed by Year
Year
Applications
Received
Reports
Submitted
Cancelled or
Abandoned
Total
Disposed of
1964...	
192
187
196
209
229
230
272
246
199
263
193
145
165
156
209
149
249
301
254
238
46
13
35
27
24
55
30
23
16
17
239
1965   	
158
1966	
200
1967  	
1968... -
1969 	
1970 	
1971..	
1972    	
1973	
183
233
204
279
324
270
255
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Prepared a feasibility report on the proposed extension to the Sicamous Waterworks District System. Prepared a report on a drainage problem affecting the
Upper Deep Creek area near Armstrong. Prepared a report on the effect of distillery cooling water discharge on the levels of Kalamalka-Wood Lake during 1972.
Prepared a report on water licensing and water use within the Kalamalka-Wood
Lake Watershed. Prepared a report on the regulation of levels on Lower Nipit
Lake near Penticton. Prepared a report on groundwater levels during the 1972
freshet at the Village of Keremeos and at Tulameen townsite. Prepared a report
on use of water from Keremeos Creek. Prepared a report on regulation of water
use in the Similkameen River Basin.
Nelson District Office
T. H. Oxiand, P.Eng., District Engineer
The area administered by the Nelson District office includes the Nelson, Kaslo,
Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden Water Districts which contain some 26,000 square
miles of the upper drainage of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers in the southeastern part of the Province.
 T 22
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
J^TER "Rl___HTS.-_BRfil.lCH_-.."!.' L__ ."1. ...     NELS OhtZDJSIMCXlOEEi CE
_ikflph___Bhow(_)uJ-.   I Relati-Hl   B<.._y.>.<n    Wntftr ^ I k\Rhr.t>   ftppli<tnHnfr$   Pitert    finrl    Rfrp<>rf4rt      ■
: ;    :    ■■        ffrnh.     1951   to  IQ.?.V    \    :    \ ■    ■    i i    ;    ;    ;    ■ '    ;    i    I    .    ,.  ■
2: N._u_at-.---<_ier.-_iJ_»nC-LiJu^^
LEGEND
Water
Woier Ucance.: appUccfi
The permanent staff of the District office consists of a District Engineer, two
Assistant District Engineers, a Technician, an Engineering Assistant, a Clerk-
Stenographer, and a temporary-continuous Clerk-Typist. Two students are employed as Engineering Aides during the summer months to assist with final licence
surveys. This year, after almost four years with no staff changes, there were five
resignations from staff members. The positions vacated, except for an Assistant
District Engineer, have been filled.
Stream-flow in the areas administered were well below normal as a result of
the lower than average snow-pack and mild dry weather which persisted during
most of the growing season. These conditions caused many of the smaller water
sources to go dry during July and August and resulted in much of the staff effort
during this time being devoted to adjudicating on water-sharing problems. Field
investigations were required on 32 sources where flow was inadequate to meet
demand.
A considerable amount of staff time was required to assist Improvement Districts and Water Users' Communities and on attendance on Technical Planning
Committee meetings for three Regional Districts and meetings of the Intersector
Committee for the Environment and Land Use Committee. Eighty such meetings
were attended during the year.
The District Engineer was involved for some time during the summer in the
Purcell Range Special Study which included two one-week workshops held in Nelson. Enforcement of an engineer's order against a sawmill which had constructed
and made use of unauthorized works in the Salmo River required approximately
three weeks involvement by staff. This matter is now before the Court.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 23
The number of new applications dealt with was down from last year as a result
of staff changes, an extremely dry season, and involvement in other tasks. A total of
233 reports on new applications were completed. In addition, 179 amendment
applications were processed during the year.
The water shortage experienced this season is reflected in the number of new
applications for water licences filed in this region especially on the smaller streams.
There were 366 new applications received which is an increase of 10 per cent over
the previous maximum received in the dry year of 1970. In addition, a large
number of requests, both verbal and written, for information about water supplies,
were received.
The bar graph included in this report extends the data contained in previous
reports related to water-licence applications received and reported on and licence
amendments dealt with since 1967.
Engineering Investigations and Studies
The feasibility study for water supply to the Glade Improvement District continued through the year. Another feasibility study was initiated for the Krestova
area as a result of a petition from landowners in that area. The design of two small
intake structures to meter-licensed flow was completed. A design of a permanent
intake for the diversion of Lewis Creek to Lazy Lake near Wasa, British Columbia,
is also under way. Design and supervision of work necessary to rehabilitate a short
length of the channel of Erie Creek near Salmo, was completed. This work was necessary to control erosion caused by unauthorized relocation of the original channel.
New Westminster Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The New Westminster District office administers the Water Act in the Vancouver and New Westminster Water Districts in the southwest portion of the Province. The majority of the work within these water districts is required in the Lower
Mainland and Sunshine Coast-Powell River areas.
Stream-flows were well below normal during the summer of 1973 as a result
of low winter precipitation couped with warm dry weather in July and August, and
complaints regarding water shortages were common. Most of the water use in the
New Westminster and Vancouver Water Districts is licensed without storage and,
therefore, is dependent on natural stream-flows, which were critically low this year,
especially in some of the water-short areas in Surrey, Langley, Sumas, and Chilliwack. An exception to normal flow patterns is experienced in Whistler Creek where
high water flows are experienced in summer due to melting snow and ice at high
elevation. This stream, together with nearby Alpha Creek, supplies the waterworks requirements for the growing community in the Whistler ski-ing and recreational area.
A ski resort on Grouse Mountain at North Vancouver has submitted an application for a water licence for the unusual purpose of making snow in order to extend
and improve ski-ing. Machines to mix water at a rate up to 1,000 gallons per
minute, with cold air blown from fans, are proposed to be installed.
A ranch in the Lower Fraser Valley is studying the feasibility of growing rice
in British Columbia, indicating that another unusual application, for a water licence
for the flood irrigation of rice fields, may be expected.
Applications for water licences received during the year were up 25 per cent
over the previous report period, but the office was able to cope with the increased
volume without falling behind. Increased participation by office staff in other
activities such as Technical Planning and Land Use Committee meetings was experienced.    The District Engineer was also called upon to address the Forest
 T 24 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Service Training School classes in Water Resources Service administration. There
have also been several requests for information by University students studying
resource management. The District Engineer was subpoenaed to give evidence in a
prosecution under the Water Act.
District office personnel consist of a District Engineer, Assistant District Engineer, Technician, two Engineering Aides, and a Clerk-Typist. During the year,
Assistant District Engineer D. P. Meyer resigned and was replaced by J. W.
McCracken, and L. Barak was employed as an Engineering Aide.
Prince George Office
C. E. Wilson, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George District staff during 1973 consisted of a District Engineer,
George, Quesnel, Peace River, Liard, Fort Fraser, Hazelton, Prince Rupert, and
Atlin Water Districts, which include the drainage basins of the Taku, Stikine, Nass,
Skeena, and Fraser Rivers draining to the Pacific, and the Liard and Peace systems
within British Columbia, draining to the Arctic.
The Prince Geroge District staff during 1973 consisted of a District Engineer,
an Assistant District Engineer, a Technician, and a Clerk-Stenographer, all on a
permanent basis, and an Engineering Aide retained on a temporary-continuous
basis. During the survey season, two students were employed to assist in the final
licence survey programme. The employment of an Engineering Aide on a continuous basis, coupled with two student surveyors, greatly increased the number of
final licence surveys completed during the report year.
Early in the year it appeared from snow-pack measurements that the Skeena
River watershed might experience another high run-off. This failed to develop
due to lower than normal precipitation during January through March, coupled
with normal spring temperatures. In general, the area north of Quesnel experienced
heavier than normal precipitation during the months of May and June and lower
than normal during the months of July and August. Only a few water shortages
occurred and these were mainly south of Quesnel and a few in the Smithers area
during the late summer. The Fraser River peaked at 1,858.5 feet geodetic at Prince
George, which level is reached approximately once every two years.
The Nechako River jammed with ice at its confluence with the Fraser River at
Prince George December 13 and remained in that condition throughout the winter.
Some flood damage occurred in the industrial area and on Cottonwood Island.
An increase in the number of new applications and our greater involvement in
resource management problems has resulted in some increase in the backlog of
applications requiring attention. This year 220 new applications for licences were
received, a record for this office.
Close liaison was maintained with the Branch's Improvement Districts Engineering Section and with improvement districts in the Prince George area, particular
attention being given to Pineview, Nechako, Parkridge Heights, and Tabor Lake
Improvement Districts. Improvement districts outside of the Prince George area
requiring attention were Fort Fraser, Kathlyn Lake, Hazelton, Red Bluff, and
Crooked River. A total of 56 meetings with improvement district trustees was
attended during the year. Technical planning committee meetings of the Fraser-
Fort George, Bulkley-Nechako, Kitimat-Stikine, Skeena-Queen Charlotte, Peace
River-Liard, and Cariboo Regional Districts were attended regularly in Prince
George, Burns Lake, Terrace, Prince Rupert, Fort St. John, and Williams Lake
respectively, totalling 24 meetings. Eight meetings of the Intersector Committee
were attended in Prince George and Smithers.   The District Engineer attended the
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 25
15th Annual Muskeg Conference in Edmonton and a seminar on land-use control
in Prince George.
Measurements of groundwater levels and of snow courses were continued for
the Groundwater and Hydrology Division, and a programme of measurements on
various streams was continued.
The demands for water in the northern Interior have continued to increase
with the growth in population. This growth is most noticeable around Quesnel
and Prince George and to a lesser extent around Smithers and Terrace. The number of domestic licence applications in these areas increased enormously over the
past year.
A renewed interest in placer-mining in the Barkerville-Bowron Lake, German-
sen Lake, and Atlin areas has caused considerable anxiety among the various
resource agencies, including Water Rights Branch, because of possible damage to
the environment.
Staff from the office assisted the Major Power and Licencing Division in the
investigation of an erosion problem and inspection of construction of a small earth-
fill dam to stop further erosion caused by spill from the Nechako reservoir adjacent
to the Cheslatta River.
Surveys were conducted at Bowron Lake and Puntataenkut Creek, both near
Quesnel, in order to obtain data to assist in solving erosion problems in those areas.
Staff involvement in the Maxan Lake Multi-Resource Use Study continued
throughout the year. Two years of the five-year study period are now completed.
The objectives of the study are to observe, measure, and document the interaction
between resource users within an ecosystem, and the changes that take place within
the regional ecosystem through the imposition of induced changes in land use.
On May 27, 1973, the Peace River was blocked at Attachie for 12 hours by a major slide
involving 15 million cubic yards of material.
 T 26 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In late April a landslide blocked Moberley River just downstream of the outlet
of Moberley Lake, and the ensuing backwater threatened the highway bridge over
the river, until the blockage was overtopped and eroded away. A second landslide
occurred on May 26 on the Peace River at Attachie, blocking the river for some
12 hours, and ponding water about 24 feet above normal river level. Between 10
and 15 million cubic yards of overburden were involved and the portion which
filled the channel covered an area of 160 acres. The bulk of this slide material
may remain in the river valley since there are now no large freshet flows to flush
it out due to the control imposed by the Bennett Dam upstream. The cause of
these slides remain unknown, although a specialist consultant has determined that
it was not associated with Peace River flow conditions.
Staff of this office organized and supervised the construction of river-training
works on Small River, near Tete Jaune Cache, to correct damage caused by the
exceptional runoff of 1972.
Victoria District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District office administers the Water Act throughout the Victoria,
Nanaimo, and Alberni Water Districts, covering Vancouver Island, the Gulf
Islands, and adjoining islands.
During most of 1973 the office staff was comprised of a District Engineer, one
Engineering Assistant and one Engineering Aide, and was augmented during the
summer by the hiring of a second Engineering Aide to enable surveys for final
licences and allied work to be carried out. Although both aides resigned in the
fall the procurement at that time of an Assistant District Engineer was a welcome
and valuable addition to the staff and to its goal of attempting to cope with the
ever-increasing work load. Clerical and stenographic services were provided by
the Water Licence Division.
In the 1973 water-year the weather throughout the Vancouver Island region
again varied widely. In the Victoria area a record rainfall of 10.78 inches was
experienced during December 1972. Another record was established when the
Victoria Airport recorded 3.35 inches of rainfall in a 24-hour period over the
Christmas-Boxing Day holiday. Extensive flooding occurred in low-lying areas
involving approximately 100 homes in the Duncan-Chemainus-Shawnigan Lake
regions.   Heavy rainfall continued into January 1973.
In contract, the summer and fall of 1973 proved to be very dry, and crops
suffered for lack of water. Rainfall from January to October 1 was 7 inches for the
Greater Victoria area, the normal being 14.75 inches.
Forty-five complaints of flooding of residential lands were investigated during
the report year. Many of these are recurring complaints arising as a result of continuing subdivision and the construction of homes on low-lying lands subject to
winter flooding. Areas requiring repeated attention in this respect are the Happy
Valley-Luxton area near Colwood, Millstream and Craigflower Creek areas at
Langford, Cedar and Harewood Districts at Nanaimo, Beaver Creek area at Port
Alberni, Errington-Coombs area near Parksville, the Qualicum Bay area, and the
Little River area at Comox.
Twelve complaints of land erosion received attention, the main offending
streams being Haslam Creek at Cassidy, Robertson River at Cowichan Lake,
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 27
Nanaimo River at Cedar, French Creek at Qualicum, Oyster River near Courtenay,
and Chase River at Nanaimo.
Eighteen complaints of obstruction of streams and 10 complaints of pollution
were investigated. Development of residential subdivisions is the principal cause
of these complaints. Investigation of complaints of unauthorized works involving
dams, dugouts, stream-channel diversions, and deepening of lake outlets resulted
in 11 orders being issued. Complaints of shortages of water during July and August
on Colquitz Creek and Hagan Creek in Saanich, Veitch Creek at Sooke, Millstone
River at Nanaimo, Morning Star Creek at Qualicum, Little River at Comox, required
investigation and regulation of water use.
Studies were undertaken to determine the availability of water for further
licensing on Porters Creek and Travers Creek in Saanich, Reay Creek at Sydney,
Josiah Creek at Cowichan Lake, Crocker Creek at Coombs, Beaver Creek and
McCoy Lake tributaries at Port Alberni, foreshore springs on Quadra Island, Millstone River tributaries at Nanaimo.
Rulings were made to regulate water levels on Young Lake and the release of
storage to DeMamiel Creek at Sooke. Arrangement was made for the release of
water down Goldstream Creek for salmon migration. Designs for dams on Cusheon
Creek on Saltspring Island and Stevens Swamp at Port Alberni were reviewed.
The District Engineer attended 16 meetings of Technical Planning Committees
of the five regional districts within the area.
A new responsibility assumed was attendance on subcommittees of the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat. Meetings of the Vancouver Island-
Lower Mainland Intersector Committee were attended, together with a field trip
involved with a study of a proposed ecological reserve on Northern Vancouver
Island.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT DIVISION
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The staff of the Improvement Districts Division was increased by one to 11 in
1973, and now comprises five Engineers, one Accountant, two Technicians, one
Administrative Officer, one Draughtsman, and one Clerk-Stenographer.
There are now 280 improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act.
During 1973 the following new districts were incorporated: Braemar Heights Waterworks District, Dewdney Area Improvement District, Glade Irrigation District, South
Canyon Improvement District, Deadman's Creek Improvement District, Black Pines
Improvement District, Rockyview Improvement District, Sahara Heights Waterworks District, and Lund Waterworks District. The following improvement districts
were dissolved: Barnhart Vale Improvement District, B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation
District, and Westsyde Fire Protection District, whose assets and liabilities were
transferred to the City of Kamloops; Rutland Fire Protection District, transferred to
the City of Kelowna; Hazelton Waterworks District, transferred to the Village of
Hazelton; and South Dewdney Dyking District, which was amalgamated with the
Dewdney Dyking District (a development district) as the new Dewdney Area Improvement District.
In keeping with Provincial Government policy that the Comptroller of Water
Rights will administer only those improvement districts under the Water Act at least
one of whose objects relate to water, namely, waterworks, irrigation, dyking, drainage, and land improvement, the administration of 27 fire-protection districts were
transferred to the Department of Municipal Affairs under section 79 8h of the
Municipal Act.
 T 28
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
H
BiSe
M**s_
No—the first isn't an ancient Egyptian struc-
I ture on the Nile nor the other two on a Scot-
| tish baronial estate. One is a close-up of one
I end of the dam and spillway at the ultramod-
I ern Mica Dam, second highest in the world
• and now completed. The other two structures
1 are the B.C. Hydro gatehouse and the Greater
I Vancouver Water District intake tower at the
Coquitlam Dam.
Iw*"\1"
t    *    J   ;..— . *
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 29
These before-and-after pictures at the intake on Jimmies Creek (Walhachin Waterworks
District) during 1973 typify work constantly in progress all over British Columbia to
improve local water supplies.
 T 30 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The territorial boundaries of an improvement district and the object or objects
for which the district is incorporated are set out in its Letters Patent. Upon petition
of the trustees, the Letters Patent may be amended to include new lands within the
district or exclude land, or to include extra objects. The Letters Patent of 56
improvement districts were amended in 1972, most changes being boundary amendments.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue
by the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases, and by the
imposition of tolls and other charges. They are also empowered to issue debentures
to obtain funds for capital purposes. In many cases, improvement districts' debentures and interest thereon are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act. There are now $13,745,200 of such guaranteed
debentures outstanding, of which $4,634,200 are serial debentures and $9,111,000
are term debentures. Sinking funds for redemption of the term debentures are held
by the Province in the amount of $770,747. During 1973, debentures of $1,893,000
were guaranteed.
Engineering Services
The Improvement Districts Division provides a technical service to improvement districts, or communities considering incorporation as improvement districts,
throughout the Province. This service is variously concerned with domestic water-
supply schemes, irrigation projects, or drainage and sewerage works. The nature
of assistance provided falls generally into three categories, as follows:
(1) Where new schemes or rehabilitation of existing works are contemplated, an engineering investigation is required, and a preliminary
report must be prepared giving technical recommendations, cost
estimates, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of the
scheme. The incorporation of an improvement district or extension
of the boundaries of an existing district are not usually recommended
unless such study shows that the new area can be economically
served. A similar economic feasibility study is required where an
existing district proposes to take on new objects, before amendment
of the Letters Patent is recommended. The aforementioned feasibility studies may be undertaken by the Division if the landowners
in the benefiting area or district cannot afford to retain an engineering consultant. Generally, the Division provides these engineering
services for depressed rural areas, while in more affluent areas the
benefiting landowners are required to engage a professional consulting engineer at their expense.
(2) Once the decision to initiate a project has been made, the district
then submits plans, specifications, and details of proposed financing
methods prepared by their engineering consultants for checking and
approval. With the notable exception of water-supply projects
carried out under the Federal-Provincial ARDA programme, for
whose design and construction the Water Investigations Branch
largely, and the Improvement Districts Division and private consultants to a lesser extent, provide engineering services, in most instances plans and specifications for proposed works of districts are
prepared by professional consulting engineers retained and paid by
the district. However, the Division's primary engineering role is to
review plans, specifications, proposals, and reports of other professional engineers prepared for non-ARDA projects of improve-
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 31
ment districts.    Frequently, details of a project are discussed with
the district's consultants,  and revisions  or modifications recommended.    Sound engineering and economic feasibility are prerequisites to a recommendation for a Government-guaranteed loan.
(3)  In the case of non-ARDA projects, to assist certain improvement
districts where works must be installed, the financing of which will
result in economic hardship, the Division assumes full responsibility
for the engineering of a project.   After having completed preliminary
surveys and investigations, the Division prepares final design drawings, specifications, and contract documents, and provides supervision of construction.    Advice is also given to districts regarding
operational problems, or modifications and repairs to existing
systems.
Throughout the year both engineering and administrative staff of the Division
travelled extensively throughout the Province, meeting with district trustees, municipal officials, organizing committees, and other groups concerned with problems
of development.   About 40 field trips were made to investigate technical problems
and about 80 districts were visited regarding their administration.
Reports Prepared and Under Preparation
Avola—This community, on the Yellowhead Highway 30 miles northeast of
Clearwater, is petitioning to form an improvement district to take over the several
private water systems serving the area, all of which get water by gravity from Avola
Creek. The Division has reconnoitered the area preparatory to preparing a report
on proposed integration and improvement of existing systems.
Balfour Irrigation District—A recreational area on Kootenay Lake, this district
has been experiencing water shortage and low pressures during the summer months,
attributed to the seasonal influx of tourists and sportsmen to its many fishing resorts.
At the request of the trustees, the Division has appraised the district's domestic
water system and is preparing recommendations on its upgrading to meet the increasing demand.
Crozier Waterworks District—At the request of the trustees of this district, 3
miles south of Armstrong, the Division prepared a feasibility report covering rehabilitation of the existing inadequate domestic-water system serving farms in the
area. The report proposed amalgamation of Crozier with neighbouring Larkin
Waterworks District and a simple extension of the Larkin system to Crozier. To be
economic, assistance under the ARDA programme would be required.
Dallas-Barnhart Vale—At the urgent request of the Minister of Lands, Forests,
and Water Resources, the Division prepared a preliminary report on water supply
to this area within the enlarged City of Kamloops. The report recommended that
the city acquire three existing water systems in the area, which supplied domestic
water to 575 connections and irrigation for 92 acres of farm land, namely, those of
the Todd Hill Irrigation District, the Sunrise Valley Water Company, and the
Thompson Park Waterworks Company. The report proposed an integrated and
enlarged system to supply domestic water to the 1,200-acre study area, with a
present population of 2,500 and potential of 10,500. This study area includes all
land served by the three systems and some 90 homes now without a community
water supply. The cost of the additional works and of upgrading existing systems
was estimated to be in the order of $2,219,000, plus the acquisition price of the
two utilities. Subsequently, the city bought the Sunrise Valley Water Company for
$195,000.    The Barnhart Vale Improvement District, where 60 of the afore-
 T 32 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
mentioned 90 homes are situate, has been dissolved and its assets and liabilities
have been transferred to the city. The city has installed a distribution system in
the former district at a cost of $176,673, and this is being supplied from the Sunrise
system.
Edgewater Improvement District—This district, in the Columbia Valley 60
miles southeast of Golden, owns and operates the original, pre-World War II system
of the local sawmill, which obtains water by gravity from Baptiste Lake. The distribution system of woodstave pipes has now reached the end of its useful life,
necessitating frequent costly repairs and lengthy shutdowns. The Division prepared a memorandum on proposed rehabilitation of the distribution system, which
also included a review of source, storage, and main pipe-line capacities.
Fanny Bay Waterworks District—The Division completed a report, started in
1972, on proposed rehabilitation of the District's domestic-water system. The
trustees accepted its recommendations, and the proposed works, consisting of a
shallow well near Cougar Creek, submersible pump, chlorinator, approximately
1,300 feet of 3-inch P.V.C. pipe, and a 15,000-gallon steel tank on the existing
tower, were installed under the direction of a consulting engineer. The rebuilt
system is now in service.
Hillcrest Waterworks District—This district, located on the Cariboo Highway
at Mile 99, gets it domestic water from two sources: most by pumping from a
drilled well, where the groundwater is heavily mineralized, and the remainder by
gravity from a small spring, where water quality is poor also. The Division is preparing a report indicating feasible sources of water in the area, including their
chemical analyses, and will recommend action by the district to establish an improved supply.
Larkin Waterworks District—The Division prepared an "as-built" report on
the domestic-water system installed in 1971 and 1972 under its supervision.
Lund—This fishing settlement, 15 miles northwest of Powell River, gets its
domestic water from Thulin Lake by gravity through a system of improperly installed, low-grade, plastic pipes. At the request of the Lund-Southview Ratepayers
Association, the Division investigated the local water supply situation and prepared
a feasibility report, which proposed a staged programme of water system rehabilitation by an improvement district. In the proposed scheme, water would be pumped
from Thulin Lake, via a system of new distribution pipes, to a storage tank on a
hill near the harbour. The cost of installing the new system will be relatively high
due to the prevalence of bedrock near surface.
Louis Creek—Individual property-owners in this settlement, on the east bank
of the North Thompson River about 40 miles north of Kamloops, get their domestic
water by gravity from Louis Creek through the CN Railway's wood-stave pipe
installed in 1912. The physical quality of the water is poor and pressures are low.
The Division has made a site reconnaissance preparatory to preparing a feasibility
report on system rehabilitation.
North Saltspring Waterworks District—This district on Saltspring Island, serving Ganges and the surrounding area, requested advice on a proposed boundary
expansion. The Division prepared a feasibility report on water supply to the new
area, 2 miles south of Ganges, which proposed the addition of a storage tank to the
district's system and extension of their distribution system to the new area.
Ootischenia Improvement District—The Division prepared an "as-built" report
on the domestic-water system installed in 1971 and 1972 under its supervision.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 33
Pineview Improvement District—The newly elected trustees of this district, 5
miles southeast of Prince George, requested an appraisal of their domestic-water system and its ability to meet the demands of subdivision developments in the vicinity.
At present, water is pumped from a deep well to a ground-level storage tank, whence
it is pumped directly into the system by a continuously operating booster pump. The
Division prepared a memorandum on the local water-supply situation, which proposed the erection of an elevated storage tank and improvements to the distribution
system and which outlined conditions whereby water could be supplied by the district
to the subdivision developments.
Qualicum Bay-Horne Lake Waterworks District—This district, a "strip development" along the Island Highway some 15 miles north of Parksville, pumps its
domestic water from Nile Creek. Because of an inadequate intake and the absence
of distribution storage, the consumer experiences dirty water and low pressures. The
Division prepared a memorandum on extension of the district's system to serve a
proposed subdivision of new lands to be added to the district, including measures
to correct existing low-pressure problems. The Division is assisting the trustees in
their negotiations with the developers.
Ridgewood Improvement District—This small district, across the west arm of
Kootenay Lake from Nelson, requested recommendations on rehabilitation of the
domestic water system of Ridgewood Utilities, which it purchased in May 1973. The
Division prepared a memorandum on required renewals and proposed extensions of
the system, using the present source on Blunt Creek.
Rutland Waterworks District—This district, within the enlarged City of Kelowna, continues to supply domestic water within the boundaries of the district.
During the last three years the district has drilled seven wells, with partial success,
in its endeavour to develop groundwater to replace eventually Mission Creek as its
source of domestic water. To this end, the district also purchased in 1972 the Hollywood Dell Waterworks, a utility which obtained water from wells. Unfortunately,
the chemical quality of the water in the district's well having the greatest yield, the
"Hollywood Road" well, is poor, and iron treatment would be required before this
well could be utilized for domestic use. At the request of the district, the Division
prepared a memorandum on the probable cost of sequestering iron in groundwater
from this source. The memorandum concluded that, if iron-free wells could be
developed in the district, abandonment of the Hollywood Road well would be the
most economic alternative.
Silver Star Waterworks District—Located 2 miles north of Armstrong, this
district requested advice on water supply to a proposed subdivision. The Division
prepared a report outlining a staged development of waterworks designed to ultimately co-ordinate water supply in the area with the City of Armstrong.
Spences Bridge Waterworks District—The Division prepared an "as-built"
report on the new water-supply main installed in 1972 under its supervision.
Stillwater Waterworks District—This District, 12 miles southeast of Powell
River, gets its water by gravity from Jefferd Creek through some 9,000 feet of 12-
inch wood-stave main and 3,000 feet of smaller distribution pipes. The Division
completed a feasibility report in March on proposed rehabilitation of this 50-year-
old system, but its issue was delayed pending negotiations with the Fisheries Departments of both the Federal and Provincial Governments over licensing of Jefferd
Creek water. As a result of price escalation in the meantime, the rehabilitation as
originally proposed is no longer economically feasible.  To reduce the project cost,
 T 34 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
the Division proposes to modify the proposed scheme and to design and supervise
construction of the project in 1974.
Wells Improvement District—This district, near Barkerville, operates the old
water system and combined storm and sanitary sewerage systems acquired from the
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co. in 1971, after closure of the company's mine.
The trustees have appealed for financial assistance in urgent replacement of spent
wood-stave pipe in the district's water distribution system. The Division made a
preliminary appraisal of the immediate problem and prepared a memorandum
thereon.
Design and Engineering Services
Blue River Waterworks District—This district, on the North Thompson River
about 50 miles northeast of Clearwater, gets its domestic water by gravity from
White River through the former CNR system. The Division advised the district on
rehabilitation of its intake after it had been washed out by the 1973 spring freshet.
Lexington Improvement District—Located on the Cariboo Highway close to
Williams Lake, this district gets its domestic water by pumping from the lake. The
Division advised on operation of their chlorinator and in installation of a proposed
booster-pumping system to increase pressures in a high area.
Mill Bay Waterworks District—This district, about 20 miles north of Victoria,
pumps its domestic water from Shawnigan Creek. The Division advised on remedial
work to the pump-house foundation damaged by a flood in December 1972. The
structure was subsequently restored as recommended.
Walhachin Waterworks District—During the last four years both the Water
Investigations Branch and Improvement Districts Division of the Water Rights
Branch have carried out investigations on proposed rehabilitation of this small
district's worn-out domestic-water system. Three possible sources of supply were
considered: the Thompson River, groundwater and Jimmies Creek, the present
source. However, costs of a rehabilitated system using even the most economic
source, Jimmies Creek, were estimated to be beyond the means of the consumer. The
supply of labour free to the District by the Department of Human Resources was
subsequently approved for the project under a Provincial scheme designed to reduce
welfare rolls. Furthermore, the Improvement District's Division undertook the
complete engineering and construction supervision. With this assistance and an
agreed increase in water charges by the district, the rehabilitation scheme became
economically feasible, and construction was started in August. A combination of
inexperienced labour and an early winter slowed progress beyond all expectations
and has caused the project to exceed estimated costs. Work was suspended in
December because of adverse weather. The job will be completed in the spring of
1974.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Water Supply, Sewerage, and Other Proposals Reviewed
T 35
District
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Village of Cumberland ...
Village of Pemberton	
Improvement Districts
Beaver Creek	
Blue Water Park	
Campbell-Bennett Bay.	
Clearwater    	
East Kawkawa Lake	
Lantzville 	
Little River	
Nakusp. 	
Wells.. _ 	
Irrigation Districts
Okanagan Mission	
Todd Hill 	
Waterworks Districts
Beaver Falls    	
Braemar Heights 	
Christina 	
Cowichan Bay	
Deep Bay.. _.
Deep Cove  	
Eagle Rock  	
Heffley Creek 	
Lower Nicola	
North Cedar 	
North Campbell River	
Rayleigh	
Redroofs  	
Rutland 	
Saltair	
Sicamous  	
Sidney	
Reconstruction   of   flood-damaged   dams
and intake of domestic water system
Improvements to domestic-water system
Domestic-water reservoir.
Enlargement of domestic-water reservoir.—
No. 5 well pump installation	
Extension of domestic-water system	
Sanitary sewer system  	
Interconnection of "Old" and "West"
Lantzville  domestic-water  systems
Interconnection of District's and Canadian Armed Forces' domestic-water
systems
Improvements to domestic-water system	
Sanitary sewer system 	
Irrigation and domestic-water system .
Extension of water system - _ 	
Extension of water system 	
No. 2 well pump installation .
Domestic-water system.
Extension of domestic-water system-
Extension of domestic-water system.
Domestic-water system 	
Booster pump installation 	
Domestic-water system.
No. 2 well pump and pipe installation 	
Well and pump installation-
Extension of domestic-water system	
High-pressure main 	
Extensions of domestic-water and sanitary sewer systems
Improvements to and extension of domestic-water system
Domestic-water reservoir  	
Extension of domestic-water system _
Improvements to and extension of domestic-water system
Domestic-water reservoir. _	
Under construction 	
Preliminary planning stage.
Construction completed	
Construction completed	
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage
Preliminary planning stage
Construction completed	
Pending.  	
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage-
Construction completed	
Construction imminent	
Construction completed	
Construction completed	
Under construction	
Preliminary planning	
Preliminary planning stage
Preliminary planning stage.
Planning stage— 	
Pending 	
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage
Under construction	
Under construction	
Construction imminent	
Under construction	
Construction completed	
Construction imminent	
Preliminary planning stage
Under construction	
271,000
60,000
110,900
22,000
2,000
51,000
148,000
10,000
6,000
166,000
414,600
1,200,000
160,000
10,700
10,000
150,000
11,000
15,000
102,000
15,000
163,000
4,700
10,400
175,000
115,000
160,600
176,200
50,000
45,500
123,000
ARDA Systems Supervision
J. W. Webber, Supervisor
In the Federal-Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement
under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act,
the Province assumes responsibility for the proper operation and maintenance of all
works constructed under ARDA programmes. The ARDA Section—Improvement
Districts Division carries out routine inspections of ARDA systems completed by
improvement districts in British Columbia to ensure compliance with the intent of
the Act. Where necessary, Section staff advise and assist on any technical or
administrative problems that arise concerning the ARDA projects.
The Section was actively involved with the following districts during the year:
A.    General
Black Sage Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection.
Boundary Line Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection.   Investigation
regarding subdivision and the proposed inclusion of additional land.
 T 36 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Canyon Waterworks District—Routine ARDA inspection.
Grandview Waterworks District—Routine ARDA inspection. Investigations
regarding misuse of water, subdivisions, and proposed new connections.
Glenmore Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection.
Kaleden Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection. Continued monitoring water-use regulation. Preparation of "as-built" drawings of high-
level booster pumping-stations.
Larkin Waterworks District—Routine ARDA inspection. Investigations regarding system operating problems. New pipe-line road-crossings, and
proposed subdivision. Negotiations on proposed interconnection with
Eagle Rock Waterworks District system.
Meadow Valley Irrigation District—Investigation regarding the construction
of temporary diversion facilities.
Naramata Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection. Investigations regarding water-use regulation, subdivisions, new connections, and the
proposed inclusion of additional lands.
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection. Assisting in
the negotiation of a Fire Protection Agreement between the District and
the Regional District.
Otter Lake Waterworks District—Routine ARDA inspection. Site and administrative supervision of RSM extension. Investigations regarding new
connections and proposed subdivision.
Oyama Irrigation District—Routine ARDA inspection. Investigations regarding subdivisions, inclusion of additional lands, and proposed extension of
system.
Peachland Irrigation District—Investigation regarding proposed inclusion of
additional lands and extension of existing system.
Slocan Park Improvement District—Investigation regarding negotiations for
acquisition of rights-of-way for well-site, and applying for supplementary
ARDA assistance.
Westbank Irrigation District—Investigation of proposed take-over of serviced
subdivision, and proposed extensions and modifications to sewer system.
Winfield Okanagan Centre Irrigation District—Investigations and advice regarding the inclusion of additional land and extending water service
thereto.
Wood Lake Improvement District—Routine ARDA inspection. Investigation
and report regarding the inclusion of additional land and extensions of
the system.
B.    Reports Completed or Under Preparation
Crozier Waterworks District—The section prepared the aforementioned report
on proposed rehabilitation of the water system serving this district, which
recommended amalgamation with neighbouring Larkin Waterworks District and a subsequent application for ARDA assistance.
Kaleden Irrigation District—This district was among the earlier ARDA projects. Subsequent subdivision and other developments have led to operational problems. The Section has carried out on-site investigations as a
result of which water-use regulation was recommended. Meanwhile the
Section is preparing an appraisal of the existing works and will make
recommendations regarding the technical and economic provisions for
adequately meeting present and future commitments.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 37
Naramata Irrigation District—This district, located on the east shore of Okanagan Lake 7 miles north of Penticton, has been requested to include a
considerable area of outside lands scheduled for domestic subdivision.
The Section is preparing a report to guide the district in this matter and
in future development policies.
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District—The ARDA rehabilitation project for this
district did not include the non-imminent replacement of pipe-lines in the
townsite area. The Section, in co-operation with the Kelowna District
Engineer of the Water Rights Branch, is preparing a report which will
include a master plan for the phased renewal of townsite pipe-lines, and
other measures necessary to augment the system and preserve the intent
of ARDA.
C.   Engineering Services
Larkin Waterworks District—Following completion of their ARDA project
this district received numerous consumer complaints of sand in the water
supplied from the system. The section carried out site investigations and
determined that the sand was being pumped from No. 1 well. Following
repairs to the well pump, the section will continue a testing programme to
determine what remedial measures are appropriate.
Otter Lake Waterworks District—In co-operation with the Water Investigations Branch, the Section carried out site and administrative supervision
of the RSM extension to the original ARDA project. The new works,
including two booster stations, a balancing reservoir, and miscellaneous
pipe-lines, have now been completed at a cost of $140,000.
Wood Lake Improvement District—Coincidental with the inclusion of additional lands, the District requested advice regarding the necessary extensions to the existing system. The Section investigated the technical
aspects involved and supplied appropriate specifications for the additional
works, involving two pressure-reducing valve installations and connecting
pipe-lines.
POWER AND MAJOR LICENCES DIVISION
H. M. Hunt, P.Eng., Chief of Division
On March 29, 1973, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority declared
Mica Dam operational under the terms of the Columbia River Treaty, and filling
was initiated ahead of the April 1 deadline scheduled under the International Sales
Agreement. All three treaty dams in British Columbia are now operational and
each was completed within the deadlines set under the terms of sale. A contract
was awarded in the spring for construction of an underground powerhouse containing six 400 mw. units, the first of which will go on line in 1976.
To take advantage of stream-flow regulation afforded by Duncan Dam in
British Columbia and Libby Dam in Montana, both treaty projects, construction
of the Kootenay Canal Project was proceeding on schedule toward an on-line date
in 1975 for the first two of four 125 mw. units.
Libby Reservoir preparations are now nearly concluded and only a few acres
of clearing remain to be completed, and eight properties have still to be acquired,
to permit filling to full reservoir level—it is now anticipated that this will occur in
July of 1974.   Poor snow-pack during the winter of 1972/73 accounted for a short-
 T 38 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
fall in storing and the reservoir rose to elevation 2,415 in mid-August, some 44 feet
below full pool.
During the summer months, the Division maintained a team of two observers
in the area to ensure that filling and early drafting proceeded without incident in
view of the anticipated and unavoidable bank sloughing and floating debris which
could constitute hazardous conditions for the public, both on land and in boats.
Close liaison was maintained at all times with the Corps of Engineers in Montana
and in the Seattle District Office.
During the period, work continued at G. M. Shrum Generating Station toward
installation in 1974 of Unit 9 (300 mw., compared to the first eight 227 mw. units).
A representative was sent to inspect the landslide which blocked the Peace River
40 miles downstream from the Portage Mountain Development for several hours in
May—fortunately no loss of life or injury was caused to residents in the area and
the river gradually eroded a channel through the blockage; river levels returned to
normal from being backed up 23 feet above the normal river stage.
In addition to the routine major licensing administrative and other work loads
which the Division carries, a number of special assignments were undertaken, including reviews of several water-supply systems on Vancouver Island, investigation
of accelerated erosion on the Cheslatta River near its confluence with the Nechako
River, and studies in connection with the City of Seattle's proposal to raise Ross
Dam on the Skagit River.
Supportive work for the Permanent Engineering Board of the Columbia River
Treaty represented a continuing responsibility and a number of reports on operating
treaty facilities were reviewed, several meetings attended, and contributions made
toward the Board's Annual Report to the Canadian and United States Governments.
The regular programme of inspection of existing dams throughout the Province
was maintained with the object of ensuring that all major impoundments are in a
safe condition. These regular inspections are undertaken with the co-operation of
the district offices.
Power Licence Applications
During the past year no major application for power purpose was received.
A small number of applications, with respect to plants under 40 kw. in size, were
considered.
Approvals of Plans
Review of plans and construction progress concerning major water licence
applications and approvals, particularly those dealing with power developments, is
undertaken for the Comptroller of Water Rights by this Division. During 1973,
such projects included W. A. C. Bennett Dam, Mica Dam, and Kootenay Canal
project as well as other smaller projects. To assure the Comptroller that these
projects were being constructed in accordance with approved plans, Divisional staff
visited Mica project three times, and Kootenay Canal Plant twice during the past
year, and made visits to several smaller projects to ensure that rehabilitation or
reconstruction work required by the Division was being carried out according to
approved plans. Work is progressing favourably on both the Mica and Kootenay
Canal Projects. Mica Dam is complete with only clean-up and completion of
deficiency items remaining. Work on the powerhouse contract is progressing
satisfactorily with excavation continuing in all areas. The Kootenay Canal Development is continuing satisfactorily. The canal contractor has submitted a revised
construction schedule showing an earlier completion date. At the time of writing
the approach channel and headworks were complete with the exception of the
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 39
headworks bridge. Work continues on the canal and the central pool. The powerhouse contractor has completed excavation in the powerhouse and tailrace area.
Construction of the powerhouse and power intakes was slightly behind the contractor's latest revised schedule. On the Peace River development, work continues
on the completion of the 300-mw. Unit 9 scheduled to go on line in 1974. Unit 10,
also 300 mw. capacity, will be added later as needed.
A more detailed report on the construction progress of the major projects
named above appeared in the 1973 Annual Review of Power in British Columbia.
Average annual change-
Power Rentals
The administration of all major power licence rentals is supervised by this
Division, while billing is done with computer assistance. A tabulation of rentals
for the past 10 years, together with the percentage change from each previous year,
is shown below.
Year
1963.
1964.
1965.
1966.
1967.
1968.
1969.
1970..
197L
1972„.
1973.
Total Billed
$
1,808,748
Per Cent
Change
2,042,612
+ 12.92
2,146,805
+5.10
2,135,593
-0.53
2,290,985
+ 7.27
2,467,329
+7.69
3,207,607
+30.00
3,546,868
+ 10.57
3,510,014
-1.04
3,978,448
+ 13.34
4,345,060
+9.21
+9.16
Cumberland Water System
Following a washout of two dams and a section of supply main in December
of 1972, a study of rehabilitation costs and possible alternative methods of supply
was undertaken for the Village of Cumberland. A Government grant of $45,000
was provided to enable the village to proceed with emergency remedial works to
ensure that water would be available during the 1973 dry months. Subsequent
engineering studies indicated that complete system rehabilitation would be more
economical in the long run than supply by pumping from Comox Lake; however,
major construction work has of necessity been deferred by the village pending
arrangement of financing.
Cheslatta River Erosion
As a result of increased flows in the Cheslatta River due to spill from the Nechako Reservoir, a second channel has been gouged out a few miles upstream from
the confluence with the Nechako River. Although this new channel only flowed
during periods of high discharge initially, the large run-off of 1972 accentuated the
problem. An inspection was made, using helicopters, during the early summer; it
was found that rapid erosion was taking place on a year-round basis through an area
of fine sand, which is most harmful to the fish. Representatives of Alcan Ltd. were
members of the inspecting party, and subsequently the company agreed to alleviate
 T 40 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
the problem by building a dam across the new channel. The proposed structure was
approved by the Comptroller under section 7 of the Water Act and construction
took place during September.
Enos Lake Water Supply
A study was completed reviewing the water availability and current licensing
status of Enos Lake, a source of water for several large subdivisions and a Canadian
Armed Forces base located near Parksville on Vancouver Island. The review incorporated hydrologic data collected since the lake was declared "fully recorded" some
11 years ago. It was concluded that insufficient dry-year storage was currently
available to supply existing licensees, and that no further licences should be granted
until an agreement has been reached by all users as to how additional storage would
be provided and financed.
District of North Cowichan Water Supply
An application for water rights on the Chemainus River, submitted by the
District of North Cowichan, was reviewed in light of objections raised by Provincial
and Federal Fisheries Agencies, who reported that storage and diversion dams as
proposed by the district would virtually eliminate steelhead runs to spawning-
grounds upstream. The water application was subsequently rejected when the district was unable to demonstrate to the Comptroller that the Chemainus River is, in
fact, the only feasible long-term source of water for the district.
Flood Control at Major Reservoirs
Operations During the Past Year
Quite in contrast to 1972, the past year was one of relative calm so far as
flooding is concerned. The winter snow-pack was somewhat below average in the
southern half of the Province though in the north it was higher. As a precautionary
measure, and in order to prepare flood mitigation procedures for the future, a close
watch was kept on the progress of the spring run-off.
Studies in Progress
A study has been under way for some months to develop "Flood Control
Storage Reservation Curves" and "Flood Control Refill Curves" for Lake Williston
reservoir. It is proposed that the method, if found to be successful, will be applied
to other major reservoirs in the Province. The procedures being developed take into
account such variables as forecast volume of run-off, reservoir level, magnitude of
daily inflow, and the date.
Coquitlam River
Studies were initiated investigating the costs and benefits of a dual-purpose
project which would provide both additional peaking to the British Columbia Hydro
system in the Lower Mainland and flood control for the Coquitlam area. The cost
of peaking provided by a new 100-mw. power-plant on Indian Arm, supplied by a
tunnel from Coquitlam Lake, would likely be competitive with additional capacity
installed at Stave and Ruskin Generating Plants, but would be considerably more
expensive than units installed at G. M. Shrum or Mica. Provision of crest gates on
the existing spillway at the outlet of Coquitlam Lake would greatly reduce flooding
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 41
in the lower Coquitlam Valley, and could be installed economically without power
facilities should sufficient savings in average annual flood damages be indicated.
Generation and Load Growth
Interim Estimate for Past Year
During 1973 consumption of electricity in British Columbia rose by 7.8 per
cent from the previous year's figure to 32,948 gigawatt-hours.
As a result of serious energy shortages in the United States, exports of electricity from the Province were very high for a number of months. In addition, the
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority delivered 1,000 Gwh. of thermal
energy to the Bonneville Power Administration in lieu of storage retained by the
Authority at Mica Dam. This was done to facilitate filling the reservoir and eventual
use for generation in Canada.
A quick year-end survey of generation and load has been made and the results
are tabulated below. More accurate data will appear in the 1974 Annual Review
of Power in British Columbia.
1972
1973
Change
Generation by utilities—
(Gwh.)
18,717
795
(Gwh.)
21,969
3,041
(Per Cent)
+ 17.4
+282.5
Subtotal...                        	
19,512
25,010
+28.2
Generation by industries—
Hydro 	
10,549
1,341
11,381
1,370
+7.9
Thermal 	
+2.2
Subtotal 	
11,890
12,751
+7.2
31,402
834
37,761
4,813
+20.0
Exports (net)  _   	
30,568
32,948
+7.8
Notes—1  gigawatt-hour  (Gwh.) = 1,000,000 kilowatt-hours.    Hydro-mechanical output not included in the
above figures.
Long-term Growth
A 10-year analysis of growth in power requirements appeared in the July 1973
Annual Review of Power in British Columbia. For the period 1962-72 the mean
annual rates of growth were—total generated, 7.90 per cent; and total required
within British Columbia, 7.60 per cent. The difference in the two growth rates is
due to imports and exports which vary substantially from year to year, but which
indicate a growth in over-all net export over the period.
Two graphs, one showing peak and average energy requirements and the other
the installed capacity, 1930 to date, are included herein. It will be noted that, on
the average, while a fairly constant rate of load growth has been maintained since
1955, for a few years installed capacity outstripped the peak requirements.
Exports
Due to a general deficiency of run-off, extending from southern British Columbia to northern California, the U.S. Pacific Northwest States experienced severe
shortages of electrical energy. British Columbia, being in the fortunate position of
having a year of good run-off for its largest reservoir, Lake Williston, was able to
export substantial amounts of power to assist in alleviating the situation.   Nearly
 T 42 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
4,000 Gwh. were sold to United States utilities and, in addition, 1,000 Gwh. were
sent as replacement energy for accelerating the filling of Mica Reservoir.
As a result of hearings held in February 1973, the National Energy Board
issued two certificates to the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for construction of power-lines to be used for export/import of electrical energy. One of
these lines is a 500-kv. circuit to replace a 230-kv. one between Vancouver and
Blaine, while the other new 230-kv. line is to be used for wheeling energy to Cranbrook. The National Energy Board also heard applications from Cominco Ltd. for
renewal of three of its export licences.  These were subsequently granted.
Future Power Development
Undeveloped Hydro Power Sites
A summary of known undeveloped power-sites appears in Table V of the 1973
Annual Review of Power in British Columbia. As the data were compiled from
reports dating back in some cases to the 1920's, they should not be regarded as
definitive nor as more than a long-range planning aid. A detailed listing of the more
desirable sites in the Province appeared in the Montreal Engineering Co. Report of
1972 to the former British Columbia Energy Board.
Studies in Progress
Continuous liaison has been maintained with planning engineers of the British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, with particular emphasis on pre-construction
requirements for projects currently scheduled for development to meet expected
load-growth during the next decade. Top priorities have been assigned to the Site
One and Seven Mile projects on the Mainland, to John Hart II on Vancouver Island,
and to new transmission-lines. Activities to date pertinent to these projects have
been co-ordinated by British Columbia Hydro and have included environmental
impact studies assigned to specialist consultants, public meetings to assess local
impact, and early involvement of both Federal and Provincial Government Fisheries
Agencies in discussions and field tests to estimate the effects on fisheries of proposed
developments.
An independent Divisional study assessing the cost of additional capacity and
energy at Brilliant Dam on the Kootenay River, made available by increased regulation at Libby and Duncan Dams, was nearing completion by the end of the year.
Columbia River Treaty
Permanent Engineering Board
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for providing technical
support to British Columbia membership on the Permanent Engineering Board of
the Columbia River Treaty. Among the several functions required under the terms
of the treaty, the Board has to report to the Government of Canada and the United
States of America on progress being achieved under the treaty, to assist in reconciling differences between the development agencies of the two nations (termed the
"Entities"), and to assemble flow records of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers at
the International Boundary.
The Chief of the Power and Major Licences Division is the nominated alternate
member to V. Raudsepp, who succeeded to the position in August of 1973 following
the resignation of A. F. Paget.   Responsibilities of the alternate member include
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
PEAK AND AVERAGE  ENERGY REQUIREMENTS - 1930 to DATE
T 43
:
!
y
S
/
y
/
y
PEAK-^
y
■^AVERAGE
9,0 00
8,0 00
7,0 00
6,0 00
5,000
4,0 00
2,000
m
CI
>
1,000 <
9 00 >
800 H
7 00 H
600 M
5 00
400
rOTAL
NSTALLED
CAPACITY
I93C
I
to DATE
1
r
1
r
P
J
r-r
J
1
f
J
F
—-~
-r-
-r
J
9,000
8,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
__:
m
a
■>
1,0 00
*
900 >
800-1
700 H
600
Ui
500
400
1930
 T 44 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
assisting the member in the performance of his duties and taking his place at Board
meetings in his absence. During 1973 the Division Chief attended two meetings of
the Board and participated in an inspection tour of Hugh Keenleyside Dam, Mica
Dam, and Libby Dam. A joint meeting with the Canadian and United States Entities in Washington, D.C, was also attended.
Another function served by this Division is representation on the Permanent
Engineering Board Committee, whose function is to assist the Board in considering
proposals and operating plans from the Entities. During the year, eight treaty documents were reviewed for the Board including the flood-control operating plan,
assured operating plan for 1977/78 power production, the detailed operating
plan for 1972/73 power production, downstream power benefit computations for
1977/78, initial filling of Mica Reservoir, and various operations reports by the
Entities.
Mica Reservoir
On March 29, 1973, Mica was officially declared operational for the purposes
of the treaty; that is, that it is capable of providing 7 million acre-feet of annually
usable storage. As has always been contemplated, Mica will also be used for the
production of at-site power and for this reason will have more storage than the
amount committed under the treaty. Filling of this extra amount, 13 million acre-
feet, will require careful management of whatever additional water may be available
during the next few years. Alternatively, storage can be purchased by supplying
replacement energy for that which is lost by deliberately withholding treaty releases
from the dam. As 1973 was a year of poor run-off, the latter method was used and
some 1,000,000 acre-feet of storage was exchanged for 1,000 Gwh. of thermally
generated electrical energy for the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
During the early years of operation, water from Mica will be released through
a set of low-level outlets that are unique in design. In order to dissipate the energy
of water under several hundred feet of head, an expansion chamber has been located
between two sets of gates. During the summer, after several months of continuous
operation, the outlets were closed down to afford an opportunity of inspecting the
chamber and checking on erosion. The results of this inspection were generally
favourable and the structure was back in operation after only a three-day closure.
Benefits in Canada
The Columbia River Treaty provides that the Comptroller of Water Rights, as
the authority in Canada having jurisdiction, must approve the use of improvements
in Kootenay River flow arising in British Columbia from Libby storage releases.
Earlier approval to make use of Duncan releases (until Libby regulation was
effected) was given by the Provincial Government in 1967 to Cominco Ltd. and
West Kootenay Power and Light Co. Ltd., who own plants on the Kootenay River,
on the understanding that the additional power so developed would be shared with
the licensee for Duncan Dam (i.e., British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority).
Similarly, interim approval has now been given to make use of Libby regulation on
the understanding that the additional power be shared with the Authority. A tentative agreement has also been reached in connection with the co-ordinated operation
of the existing plants in the area and the 500-mw. Kootenay Canal Plant, now under
construction.
Libby Reservoir
On January 27, 1966, the United States exercised its option under the Columbia
River Treaty to commence construction of Libby Dam on the Kootenai River near
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 45
Libby, Montana. The schedule attached to the January 1966 exchange of notes and
the terms of Article XII of the treaty require the project to be in operation by June
30, 1973. Canada is responsible for providing the reservoir area in Canada and this
task is being undertaken by several Departments of the Provincial Government, with
the over-all work being co-ordinated by the Water Resources Service.
Partial filling of the reservoir up to elevation 2,405 commenced in April 1972
and filling to full-pool elevation of 2,459 was scheduled for 1973. However, due
to a very light winter snow-pack and spring run-off well below normal, the maximum
pool elevation reached this year was only 2,415, some 10 feet higher than the initial
operating year.
The British Columbia Forest Service has now virtually completed clearing the
estimated 9,240 acres of forested land which would be inundated or subject to possible sloughing. Piling and burning of debris around the perimeter of the reservoir
is scheduled to continued following the fall drawdown and it is expected that much
of the remaining debris will be disposed of by the spring of 1974.
Little progress was made during the year in acquiring privately owned properties owing to resistance by owners to settle. By the end of the year eight properties,
including three ranches, remained to be acquired by the Government.
All new roads, railway relocations, and bridges necessitated by the flooding are
now complete, including the 4-mile rail section north of Wardner which had to be
raised and stabilized.
A field-testing programme to investigate the technical feasibility of constructing
three large waterfowl holding-ponds at Wardner was conducted during the summer
of 1973. Excessive water seepage observed during the test strongly indicated that
the area would be unsuitable for water-retention pools and the project was subsequently abandoned. Studies of other possible wildfowl projects in the Bull River
and Newgate areas are to be continued.
Considerable progress was made by the Parks Branch in developing a 50-unit
campground at the 1,390-acre Kikomum Creek Provincial Park, and it is expected
that both overnight camp-sites and day-use areas will be open to the public by the
summer of 1974. Construction work on the Wardner Waterfront Improvement
Project was also initiated and most of the major earthworks completed.
A meeting was held on December 7, 1973, in Seattle with representatives of
the United States Corps of Engineers, the authority responsible for construction of
Libby Dam and reservoir preparation in Montana, to discuss progress and items of
common interest and concern.
Dam Inspection
During 1973 the dam-inspection programme instituted in 1967 was continued,
and a total of 21 field trips were made. Twenty-nine major dams were inspected for
adequacy and safety, as well as 19 smaller structures. Of these, Mica Dam, Henderson Dam, and McCulloch Dam were inspected while under construction to ensure
compliance with the previously approved plans. Other dams recently completed
were also inspected to ensure that their initial operation had proceeded satisfactorily
and without incident. Most of the remaining visits were made as part of the continuing schedule of inspections to ensure that adequate maintenance was being
carried out and that no adverse conditions had developed. As a result of these
inspections, recommendations were made to the owners of several of the dams
concerning improvements in maintenance practices, and rehabilitation work was
inspected at two dams. Follow-up visits were made to ensure that the rehabilitation
was being properly implemented.
 T 46 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In addition to the inspection of the structures in the field, a continuing programme of studies was followed in the office during which various aspects of
dam safety were investigated, such as dam stability, flood-handling capability, and
reservoir-bank stability. Also, during 1973, further work was done on a study of
instrumentation techniques applicable to large dams with a view of establishing
minmum standards for new construction. Some investigation was also carried out
to determine the feasibility of expanding the dam inspection programme in order to
ease a little of the burden of work load carried by the various district offices.
Peace River Slide
On Saturday, May 26, 1973, the Peace River was completely blocked by a
landslide near Attachie. The slide's first activity occurred about 9.30 p.m. Saturday.
No further activity was noticed until shortly after midnight Saturday when approximately 6 million cubic yards of material completely blocked the river. An additional
6 million cubic yards of material is believed to have failed but remained on the
valley slope. Thus the total volume of material involved in the slide was in the order
of 12 million cubic yards.
It was not until Sunday that the river started to break through the slide in
several channels. A main channel soon established itself midway between the banks
of the river.
Water continued to back-up upstream of the slide until about 6 p.m. Sunday,
May 27, after which the outflow exceeded the inflow. The maximum water level
was approximately 23 feet above the normal river elevation.
On Monday, May 28, G. Morgan, a soils consultant of R. C. Thurber and
Associates and a member of this Division, inspected the area. An engineering report
outlining the probable cause of the slide and proposing certain recommendations
was prepared.
The most likely cause of the slide was determined to be the higher than normal
groundwater conditions in conjunction with a slow snow-melt in the area.
The report recommends that appropriate signs be erected on the highway and
on the banks of Halfway Creek cautioning the public against the use of the area for
camping. The report further recommends a comprehensive study be made of the
nature and magnitude of slides that have occurred along the river from Hudson Hope
to Fort St. John and an evaluation prepared of the hazard of future slides.
WATER UTILITIES DIVISION
J. Simpson, P.Eng., Chief of Division
With the repeal of the Public Utilities Act on July 15, 1973, regulation of water
utilities was transferred to the Comptroller of Water Rights under the Water Utilities
Act and Energy Act. The Water Utilities Division was created within the framework
of the Water Resources Service, Water Rights Branch, to assist in the administration
of the new Acts. This report covers the period January 1, 1973, to November
30, 1973.
At the date of take-over a total of approximately 284 utilities of various kinds
were subject to regulation under the Public Utilities Act, of which 260, being water
utilities, were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Comptroller. The large bulk of
the work formerly performed by the engineering and accounting staff of the Investigations Branch of the Public Utilities Commission was thereby assigned to the new
Water Utilities Division.   However, the number of engineers and accountants of the
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 47
Public Utilities Commission who were transferred to the Water Utilities Division was
disproportionately small and efforts are currently being made to acquire suitable
engineering and accountaing staff.
The strength of the Division was recently improved by the appointment of five
Engineering Technicians, one to be located in each of the Prince George, Kamloops,
Kelowna, New Westminster, and Nelson District Offices of the Water Rights Branch.
They will carry out a function not previously undertaken, and in particular will
conduct surveys of existing waterworks, ensure that new works are constructed in
accordance with approved plans, and provide a facility for on the spot investigation
of complaints made by the public regarding utility service.
Although the Water Utilities Act makes little or no distinction between one
water utility and another, they could be divided into three broad categories or types,
each requiring different treatment. For the purpose of this report only they are
labelled (1) normal utilities, (2) municipal utilities, and (3) land-development
utilities, and are described briefly below together with some of the problems encountered in their regulation.
(1) Normal utilities—There are utilities which have a substantial investment
in plant whose prime purpose is to earn a return on investment sufficient to attract
investment capital and investors, and whose aim is to continue in business for that
specific purpose. This type responds readily to regulation under the Water Utilities
Act and Energy Act. Although larger in size than most other utilities, they are
comparatively few in number.
(2) Municipal utilities—-Municipalities are also subject to regulatory control
under the Water Utilities Act but only with regard to water service supplied outside
municipal boundaries. Residents within a municipality have control over their
waterworks system through their elected municipal councils.
From time to time municipalities refuse water service to applicants whose
homes or places of business are located outside municipal limits, ground for refusal
frequently being that the applicants do not pay municipal taxes. In deciding such
disputes the Comptroller takes cognizance of the fact that there may not be available
to the applicants alternative sources of supply and that higher rates and contributions
in aid of construction can normally be justified for outside users.
(3) Land-development utilities—The third group of utilities and by far the
largest are those whose objects are wholly incidental to, or part of, a plan to enhance
the value of land for land-sale purposes. Growth in number and size of these utilities is rapidly increasing. There are presently 79 applications before the Comptroller
for permission to create or extend land-development waterworks.
Historically, the regulation of land-development utilities has presented special
and difficult problems, some of which remain to be resolved. Up until 1964, land
developers were free to construct and operate waterworks outside the jurisdiction of
the Public Utilities Commission provided no direct charge was made for water supplied. Many inadequately designed and financed waterworks commenced operations in this way only to be subsequently abandoned or neglected after all the land
was sold.
However, in 1964 the Public Utilities Act was amended so that any person
promising or providing water service as part of a plan to sell land became a public
utility within the meaning of the Act, regardless of whether a direct charge was made
for water supplied. Although this revision placed the onus on land developers to
comply with the Act, it was still possible for systems to be constructed and commence operations without the knowledge, consent, or approval of the Commission.
It was not until 1970, when the subdivision regulations, pursuant to the Local Ser-
 T 48 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
vices Act, were passed that a subdivider was compelled to comply with the Public
Utilities Act as a condition to approval of his subdivision plan by the Approving
Officer.
The upgrading of many water utilities which were constructed prior to 1964, or
which were irregularly constructed prior to 1970, continues to present difficulties.
Orders by the Comptroller requiring improvements are frequently impossible of
fulfilment if the developer has already disposed of all his assets and has no motivation in seeking new financing. There is no source of funds under the Water Utilities
Act which could be made available to privately owned utilities.
In such cases the Water Utilities Division has sought to encourage the water
users to form an improvement district under the Water Act with a view to acquiring
the works and gradually carrying out improvements within the financial capability
of the lot owners. Such a solution is contingent on there being a large enough
number of revenue-producing water users in residence in the subdivision. Nonresident lot owners who would be obliged to pay taxes to the district are less likely
to be in favour of such a move, even if the utility is willing, as it sometimes is, to
transfer ownership of the works to the district without cost.
Permission to create or extend new land-development waterworks is given in
the form of a certificate of public convenience and necessity. An applicant for a
certificate is presently required among other things to do the following:
(a) Submit for examination and approval a complete set of engineering
drawings and specifications of the proposed works, hydrological
studies, or a report by a groundwater geologist or engineer of well-
test results, together with proposed easements, estimates of capital
cost, and maintenance and operating expenses.
(b) Provide satisfactory evidence that the land developer is prepared to
contribute the entire capital cost of works to the utility without
charge.
(c) Deposit in advance in a maintenance reserve fund a sum of money
approximately equal to 25 per cent of the cost of works—these funds
to be held indefinitely for the sole discretion of the Comptroller of
Water Rights against any unforeseen contingency. The moneys may
be released by the Comptroller if or when the system becomes self-
supporting.
(d) Show that the land developer has undertaken to meet the operating
losses which are bound to occur, particularly in the early years when
few customers are taking service.
(e) If the proposed system lies within the boundaries of a municipality,
the applicant is required to seek a written agreement with the municipality, including in its provisions among other things, the terms on
which the system may be acquired by the municipality.
(/) Obtain the approval of any other agency of Government as directed
by the Comptroller, including the Department of Health.
While the present legislation and arrangement would appear adequate to secure
construction of a water utility in accordance with approved plans, and while the
maintenance reserve fund requirement provides some degree of assurance of continuing interest on the part of the land developer, there can be no guarantee that
sufficient customers will take service within a reasonable period of time to make
the utility economically viable.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
T 49
The following tables provide statistical information on the more important
aspects of water utility operations from January 1 to November 30, 1973.
Table 1 Totai
(a) Certificates issued authorizing construction and operation of
waterworks systems   22
(b) Number of amendments granted existing water utilities, e.g., additional service areas, new construction  21
(c) Number of applications for certificates and amendments outstanding  79
Table 2
Exemptions granted from requirement to obtain certificate in respect
of extensions and plant construction by existing water utilities ____    6
Table 3
Number of complaints dealt with in respect to customer service and
rates charged by water utilities  45
Table 4—Tariffs
(a) Number of tariffs filed (rules and rates for service) for new
water utilities   19
(b) Amendments to rules and rates accepted for filing in tariffs of
existing water utilities (privately owned)   13
(c) Amending by-laws (municipally owned)      8
Table 5
Applications for approval of sales of assets of water utilities     2
Table 6
Orders issued requiring water utilities to establish Maintenance Reserve Funds, or deposit additional sums in existing funds to
ensure future operations   35
Table 7
Orders under section 84 (2) of the Public Utilities Act and section
105 (3) of the Energy Act, exempting applicants from provisions
of both Acts     1
  WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Director, are the
control, planning, and management of water resources of the Province where these do not
directly come under the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
These functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, are briefly
summarized below.
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Surveys and mapping in connection with water-resource planning, investigations, and construction.
(b) Data collection in connection with water quality, water quantity, and reservoir storage-site investigations.
(c) Feasibility studies for water storage-sites.
(2) Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utilization
of water supply.
(b) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydromete-
orological data for use in planning, engineering studies, and related purposes.
(3) Groundwater Division: Collection of existing groundwater data and investigation and
evaluation of groundwater potential to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of this source of water supply.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division:
(a) Development of plans for water conservation and management on a regional basis.
(b) Development of floodplain and flood-hazard maps to facilitate management
and planning of floodplain development.
(c) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential
of the Province.
(5) ARDA Division:
(a) Processing of water-project proposals made under the Agricultural and Rural
Development Act, and investigation, design, and supervision of projects.
(b) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise in the
development, planning, and management of water-supply projects.
(6) Projects Division:
(a) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
advice and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(b) Implementation of projects under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser River
Flood-control Agreement.
(7) Ecology Division: To undertake and direct limnological and ecological surveys in connection with water-resource planning, investigations, and development projects.
(8) The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Typing Pool as well
as a Records Compilation and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better
use of the water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic
and social development of the Province.
51
 T 52
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
P. M. Brady, P.Eng.
Acting Director
The Water Investigations Branch was created in December 1962 and is involved in the control, planning, and management of the water resources of the
Province where these functions are not directly connected with the administration of
the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
To carry our Branch functions, seven divisions have been formed and a detailed
account of their activities in 1973 is given in the following pages. Also included are
reports on the operation of the Draughting Office and the Records Compilation and
Reports Section. These two offices also perform certain services for the other
branches of the Water Resources Service.
In order to reflect more appropriately the purpose and responsibilities of the
Branch, particularly in the fields of planning and management along with the associated data collection and studies, the titles of the Branch Head and his Assistants
were changed during 1973 by replacing "Chief Engineer" with the more appropriate
title of "Director."
During 1973 there was considerable increase in emphasis on the planning
aspect of floodplain development. This necessitated the formation of a field survey
party as well as the employment of a hydrologist. In addition, a planner will be
brought on staff early in the new year. To facilitate efficient and consistent management of all Branch surveys, the additional survey party was established in the Water
Supply and Investigations Division and this Division's responsibility for studies and
design for water-supply projects, along with associated staff, was transferred to the
ARDA Division. Final production of floodplain and flood-hazard maps will be the
responsibility of the Basin Planning and Power Division, which will request and
utilize hydrologic and survey information from other divisions. In order to accommodate this increased divisional responsibility, staff were diverted from other Branch
functions and additional resources will be required in the future.
The Water Investigations Branch is responsible for the implementation of
projects under the 1968 Federal-Provincial Agreement for flood control in the
Lower Fraser Valley. Applications for participation have been received from 18
local authorities in the Lower Fraser Valley and adjacent areas, and reports outlining project extent and estimated cost have been issued to 11 of these. The total
estimated cost of projects covered by these reports is approximately $43 million.
Provincial-local agreements covering five major projects is complete or under way,
with the estimated total cost amounting to approximately $23.6 million. Total
project expenditure to the end of the 1973 calendar year was very approximately
$10 million. Construction scheduled indicates this amount could well double during
the next 12 months.
Reconstruction of the dyke at the Oak Hills Subdivision was commenced.
Representation has been made to the Federal Government to have the project cost,
53
 T 54 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
estimated at $ 1.2 million, shared equally by the senior governments as a first step in
expanding the 1968 Agreement to include upstream areas. A more detailed review
of this project appears later in this report.
Under the terms of the Fraser River Flood-control Agreement, it is required
that a review of the programme of upstream storage set out in the 1963 Final Report
of the Fraser River Board on Flood Control and Hydro-electric Power in the Fraser
River Basin be carried out, including any additional measures, with a view to recommending further flood protection, utilization, and control of the water resources of
the basin. Among other responsibilities delegated to the Water Investigations Branch
is the re-evaluation of the ecological impact of the upstream storage proposals on all
resource-users. In September 1970 a committee was formed to undertake these
ecological studies. This committee is comprised of seven branches of government,
both Federal and Provincial, and is carrying out its assignment through the following studies:
(1) To assess the existing and potential mines in reservoir areas, and
economic effects of flooding on the existing and potential mines:
(2) To review the timber inventory and analyse the impact of flooding
on forest management and operations:
(3) To evaluate present and projected social and economic outdoor recreational values of affected areas
(a) in their present and undammed state; and
(b) with the establishment of the proposed dams:
(4) To determine the benefits and disbenefits to wildlife resources of
System E flood storage proposals:
(5) To determine the benefits and disbenefits to fresh-water sport fishery
resources of System E flood storage proposals:
(6) To determine the effects upon anadromous fish populations in tidal
and nontidal waters resulting from System E flood storage proposals
and to evaluate the potential biological changes in the intertidal and
lower areas of the estuary, including much of the Gulf of Georgia:
(7) To prepare an analysis of Canada's commitments to the United
States under the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission
Treaty:
(8) To prepare an economic analysis of System E flood storage proposals
as it affects the anadromous fisheries resources:
(9) To assess the loss of agricultural production in flooded areas and the
benefits from potential production of farm lands irrigable from the
reservoirs:
(10) To assess farm-land benefits to be derived in the Lower Fraser Valley, in areas outside dykes, due to upstream storage.
Reports were received during 1973 from all seven participating agencies and a
summary of these is nearing completion.
An additional task undertaken by the Branch in connection with the upstream
storage studies was the updating of costs for reservoir storage works. Studies during
1973 were limited to those associated with the McGregor River diversion alternative.
Flood and erosion control studies and projects other than those related to the
1968 Agreement received considerable attention during the year. Reports were
completed on major projects at the Village of Houston, the Town of Golden,
Strachan Creek, the Similkameen Valley, and along Trout Creek near Summerland.
The Houston, Similkameen, and Strachan Creek projects were completed at a total
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 55
cost of approximately $660,000. Studies for several other important areas are
currently under way. In addition, 83 requests were received for assistance in minor
river-protection projects. Of these, 71 were investigated, reports were completed
for all but 12, and 28 offers of assistance totalling $470,000 were made to local
authorities and land-owners. Nineteen offers of assistance were accepted and the
associated projects proceeded to construction with the cost shared on a 75-per-cent
Provincial/25-per-cent local basis. The total value of major and minor river-
protection projects constructed during the year amounted to approximately $1.1
million.
The Okanagan Basin Study culminated in November 1973 when the Draft of
the Findings and Recommendations of the Canada-British Columbia Consultative
Board was issued to the public. This will provide a basis for final public discussion
and participation leading to the preparation of the final report scheduled for completion and presentation to the respective Federal and Provincial Ministers by
March 1974. A special study group was established under T. A. J. Leach, Assistant
Director, to carry out those aspects of the study assigned to the Branch. The activities of this group and its findings are outlined in the Assistant Director's section of
this Annual Report.
The Hydrology Division now operates 239 snow courses throughout the Province which provide run-off information used in forecasting floods and operating
storage reservoirs. Freshet run-off in 1973 varied from below normal in the south
of the Province to above normal in the north. A cutback in service by the Water
Survey of Canada necessitated the expansion of the hydrometric network by the
Branch through the installation of 52 hydrometric stations. In addition to studies
in connection with flood-control and water-conservation projects, the Hydrology
Division undertook studies to improve predicting techniques and is involved in interagency projects related to watershed management.
Feasibility studies of domestic water supplies for various localities were completed during 1973. The use areas included the proposed Dease Lake Townsite, the
East Kootenay Valley, and the Village of Telegraph Creek.
The Branch continues to be involved in water projects under the Federal-
Provincial ARDA programme (Agricultural and Rural Development Act). Since
the start of this programme in 1963, a total of 50 projects has been completed.
Three projects, namely Otter Lake Waterworks District-RSM Extension, Robson
Irrigation District, and Black Mountain Irrigation District distribution system were
completed in 1973 and 13 projects were under construction at the end of the year.
To date, total expenditure under the programme amounts to $33,864,000, which
will rise to an estimated $37,433,000 with completion of projects still under construction. Toward the end of 1973 the functions of design and studies related to
water-supply projects under ARDA, as well as for other projects, was consolidated
in the ARDA Division of the Branch.
Work continued on the mapping of existing and potential major water storage-
sites to provide basic data for water-planning purposes. The survey programme
was expanded considerably in 1973 in the installation of hydrometric stations and
in the surveys and mapping of floodplains. The latter is the initial and most time-
consuming step toward the compilation of floodplain and flood-hazard mapping
necessary for the management and planned development of flood-prone areas
throughout the Province.
The Basin Planning and Power Division continued with studies of hydro-power
potential on the Liard and Yukon Rivers; however, the main attention of this
Division was focused on other matters pertaining to basin planning.   Considerable
 T 56 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
progress was made in defining floodplains and, at the end of the year, the first sets
of floodplain maps were nearing completion for the Similkameen River valley, the
Thompson-North Thompson Valley upstream of Kamloops Lake, and the Kettle
River valley in the Grand Forks area.
A task force was appointed in 1972 under the Environmental and Land Use
Committee to investigate the practicability of obtaining wholesome water supply
from streams, the watersheds of which are subject to multiple use, and to recommend
policy and procedure for resource management in watersheds and the resolution
of associated conflicts. During the year, completed questionnaires were received
from 310 community water-users, the results analysed, maps of the watersheds
prepared which included a summary of pertinent data, problems and conflicts
analysed, and a tentative method of classification of community watersheds prepared.
The programme of monitoring, collecting, and compiling groundwater data
continues and this information is much used by the public and other agencies. A
total of 1,352 well logs was received from outside agencies along with reports from
consultants and other Government agencies. Studies to assess groundwater quantity, quality, and distribution in the Gulf Islands continued with studies for Mayne
Island completed and final reports under preparation. Geological and hydro-
geological studies were undertaken on Saltspring, Galiano, and Gabriola Island.
There was considerable groundwater information input to the Kalamalka-Wood
Lake Water Resource Management Study and the Okanagan Basin Study, and in
addition, groundwater investigations were undertaken for 11 potential water-supply
projects.
Research, office studies, and field investigations pertaining to nuisance aquatic
plants continued throughout the year. In addition, advice on water quality and
other ecological matters in connection with existing and potential problems was
provided to other agencies and the public.
A major interdisciplinary study of the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin continues
and is reported on in a later section of this report. This study involves staff members
from the various divisions of the Branch as well as outside consultants. This trend
toward a multidiscipline approach to water and other resource management accelerated during the year. In addition to the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Water Resource
Management Study, major involvement carried over from last year included the
Fraser River Upstream Storage Studies, the Okanagan Basin Study, and the Task
Force on Multiple Use of Watersheds of Community Water Supplies. The Branch
also became involved in several minor and major multidiscipline assessments. These
ranged from group meetings with other agencies related to project proposals to
involvement in long-term studies pertaining to resource management, which require
considerable studies and input by the Branch. The more important of these involvements are referred to later in this report.
The Branch acknowledges the assistance received during the year from other
Government agencies and outside services in the investigation, planning, and management of the Provincial water resources. Special mention is made of the continued co-operation of the Civil Engineering Department of the University of British
Columbia, the British Columbia Research Council, and the Inland Waters Directorate of the Department of the Environment, along with the Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Lands Service, Department of Recreation and Conservation,
and the Department of Municipal Affairs of the Provincial Government.
Senior staff of the Water Investigations Branch participated in a number of
committees and advisory and co-ordinating groups dealing with water resource
matters, including ARDA Committees; the National, Provincial, and Screening
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 57
Committees of the International Hydrological Decade; the IHD Hydrology Subcommittee of the National Research Council; Co-ordinating Committee for Hydro-
meteorological Networks; the Fraser River Joint Advisory Board; Fraser River
Ecology Committee; Steering Committee for Fraser River Upstream Storage Studies;
Land Use Working Committee; Mines Reclamation Act Technical Committee; Sea
Use Council; Task Force on Multiple Use of Watersheds of Community Water
Supplies; Carnation Creek Study Co-ordinating Committee; Ecological Reserves
Committee; Technical Subcommittee — Environment and Land Use Committee;
Interagency Technical Advisory Committee on Control of Aquatic Weeds; and the
Babine Lake Watershed Change Committee.
At year-end the Water Investigations Branch staff consisted of 82 permanent
and 57 continuous temporary positions. Among these were engineers and technicians specializing in hydraulics, hydrology, and geology; biologists; one hydro-
meteorologist; and administrative support staff.  There were nine vacant positions.
REPORT OF ASSISTANT DIRECTOR
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Co-Chairman, Okanagan Study Committee
Through mutual agreement by the two Governments, the Canada-British
Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement was extended by Orders in Council from its
previous termination date of October 29, 1973, to March 31, 1974, with the stipulation there would be no increase in the original budget of $2 million.
A list of the responsible agencies under the study as of November 1973 is
shown below.
Agencies Responsible Under the
Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement
CANADA-BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSULTATIVE BOARD
Canada
Dr. A. T. Prince (Co-Chairman), Director,
Inland Waters Branch, Department of the
Environment.
Dr. E. R. Tinney, Director, Water Planning
and Management Branch, Department of
the Environment.
R. E. McLaren, Regional Director, Environmental Protection Service, Department of
the Environment.
British Columbia
B. E. Marr (Co-Chairman), Director, Water
Investigations Branch, Water Resources
Service.
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller, Water Rights
Branch, Water Resources Service.
W. N. Venables, Director, Pollution Control
Branch, Water Resources Service.
G. J. A. Kidd, Executive Secretary and Advisory Consultant to the Consultative
Board.
okanagan study committee
Canada
Dr. J. O'Riordan (Co-Chairman), Assistant
Chief, Water Planning and Management
Branch, Pacific Region, Department of the
Environment.
F. Boyd, Chief, Environmental Quality Unit,
Fisheries Service, Department of the Environment.
Dr. J. L. Mason, Head, Soil Science Section,
Summerland Research Station, Department
of Agriculture.
British Columbia
T. A. J. Leach (Co-Chairman), Assistant
Director, Water Investigations Branch,
Water Resources Service.
E. H. Vernon, Chief, Fisheries Management, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation.
M. W. Slezak, Chief, Projects and Research
Division, Pollution Control Branch, Water
Resources Service.
 T 58                                      B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Study Director: A. MURRAY THOMSON
Study Office: 264 Westminster Avenue, Penticton
An over-all study plan was prepared by the Committee, and this received
formal approval by the Consultative Board
in June 1970.
Agreement was then reached with the following Federal and Provincial Govern-
ment agencies to assume responsibility for the various portions of the study:
Responsible Agency
Study Task Responsibility
British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Water Investigations Branch	
...Water quantity.
Pollution Control Branch	
Water quality and waste treatment.
Environment Canada—Fishery Research
Board Freshwater Institute	
Limnoloev.
Environment Canada and British Columbia
Water Resources Service
Socio-economics.
Study Director's Office, Penticton	
Co-ordination study.
Public Involvement Consultant	
G. W. Sinclair.
The major tasks that have been undertaken since the start of the study in
October 1969 are as follows:
Okanagan Study Major Tasks
Task
No.
Water Quantity
Task                         Limnology
No.
35
Matching of Supply and Demand.
118    Lake Monitor Study.
180
Forest Hydrology.
119    Nutrient Bioassay.
53
Regionalization of Sub-Basin
120    Physical Limnology Study.
Hydrology.
124   Chemical Limnology Study.
43
Surface Gauging Network.
121    Geological Study.
44
Meteorological Network.
122    Benthic Studies.
36
Water Supply Studies.
123    Zooplankton Study.
38
52
Hydrogeological Investigations.
Operation of Gauging Stations.
115    Fish Population and Analysis.
66   Fisheries Studies.
21
34
Shoreline Survey.
Computer Models.
104    Lake Ecology Evaluations.
39
Seismic Exploration.
163    Salmonid Enhancement.
40
Deep Valley Test Holes.
41
Deep Well Instrumentation.
Socio-economic
29
Forecasting Model.
201    Economic Base Study.
22
Engineering Investigations.
207    Principles of Evaluation.
47
36
Groundwater Evaluations.
Stream Water Quality.
205    Economic Growth Study.
11    Inventory Irrigable Land.
Water Quality
203    Financial and Institutional Studies.
130
Outfall Discharge Study.
15   Present-Future Water Use.
131
32 Streams Quality Study.
54   Water Demand Studies.
128
Design Data Bank.
10   Methodology for Evaluations.
139
Groundwater Nutrient Inputs.
204   Water Management Opportunities.
133
Storm Discharge Study.
206   Alternate Economic Growth Plans.
134
Dustfall and Precipitation.
160   Wildlife and Water Management.
135
105
Bacteriological Study.
Present and Future Waste Loadings.
161    Sport Fisheries  and  Water  Manage-
ment.
102
126
Water Quality Studies.
Inventory Pesticide Use.
162   Pacific Salmon Population-Habitat.
202    Existing Land Use.
Waste Treatment
20   Flood Damage Studies.
142
Review Nutrient Removal Methods.
Ill    Alternative Evaluations.
147
Applied Pilot Research Projects.
200    Recreation and .Esthetic Resources.
113
Waste Treatment Evaluations.
209   Future Land Use Studies.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 59
Evaluations
The greatest emphasis of the study during the latter part of 1972 and the first
half of 1973 has been on the development of evaluation techniques and the subsequent evaluation of various management alternatives in the fields of water quantity, water quality, fisheries, and recreation. Based on the various economic projections for 1980 and 2020, the effect of specific management options compared to
existing conditions have been developed, and the costs and benefits of these alternatives set out for comparison. Benefits were considered in both standard monetary
units and also in environmental and social units where economic benefits could not
be measured.
Evaluation matrices were prepared for the 1980 projections and for the three
projections to the year 2020. This work was carried out by the evaluation team.
The results of most of these evaluations were presented in summary form in the
mini-Final Report which was presented to the Board in March 1973.
These evaluations point out the relative insensitivity of water quantity and
water-quality management needs to several future economic growth patterns.
Management improvements to meet present demands and maintain acceptable levels
of quality are very similar to those required for the year 2020. Fisheries and
recreation on the other hand are very sensitive to various economic growth projections and will require the implementation of various alternatives as specific demand
levels are reached, if existing benefits are to be retained or improved.
Public Involvement Programme
The public involvement programme, initiated in 1971, was greatly expanded in
the fall of 1972. This was due in part to the change in personnel and the direction of this programme, and also the fact that the study had progressed to the stage
where considerable information and evaluations were available for release to obtain
public response.
In the fall of 1972, six task forces were formed to discuss available study
material in depth during the winter months. Four of these task forces represented
the four main regions in the valley, one, the local elected officials, and one, the technical level of management. The latter two groups were selected on a valley-wide
basis, and all groups were chosen so that all major interests—Government, agriculture, service groups, industrialists, professionals, etc.—were included. Between
October 1972 and December 1973 these groups held meetings to review the study
material and projections for 1980 and to develop their own general recommendations for future options to 2020, as input to the study plan.
To bring the various interpretations and analyses of the problems of water
management as discussed by Task Forces 1 to 6 together in a comprehensive package of recommendations, Task Force 7 was formed with representation throughout
the valley. Task Force 7 reported to the Study Committee in August 1973 through
its publication entitled To Our Children's Children.
This summary report was based on a study by Task Force 7 of some 45 preliminary reports that have been made available to the public during the last three
years by the study participants. Other additional information includes one brochure, three annual reports, as well as the following preliminary data bulletins:
Bulletin 1: Water Supply in the Okanagan Basin and Operation of the
Okanagan Flood Control Works.
Bulletin 2: Water Quality in the Okanagan Lakes.
Bulletin 3: Limnology of the Mainstem Okanagan Lakes.
 T 60 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Bulletin 4: Land Use and Water Demand.
Bulletin 5: Recreation and Aesthetic Resources.
Bulletin 6: Fisheries in the Okanagan Basin.
Bulletin 7: The Legal and Administrative Framework Affecting Water
Resource Management in the Okanagan Basin.
Bulletin 8: The Public Involvement Programme.
Bulletin 9: Economic Growth in the Okanagan Basin to 1980.
Bulletin 10: Economic Growth Projections to the Year 2020 and Their
Effect on Water Resource Management.
In addition to the distribution of pertinent information to the citizens of the
valley as it became available in printed form, public debate was encouraged through
multimedia television stations, radio stations (including "hot lines"), and the newspapers, where the following subjects were discussed:
(1) Projected development in the Okanagan Valley to 1980 presented
by study personnel in November 1972.
(2) Discussion of major findings by Task Force 7 in April 1973.
( 3) Discussion of Draft of Findings and Recommendations by Board and
study personnel in November 1973.
During the last three years the following half-hour movies were also produced:
(1) Will There Be Water Tomorrow?
(2) A Future for the Choosing.
(3) To Our Children's Children.
Okanagan Water Supply and Water Resources Conflicts
The ideal objective in water management in the Okanagan would be the supply
of adequate water of good quality within the major tributaries and along the main-
stem system to meet present and projected future water requirements. These
requirements include not only the consumptive uses taken from the system by
agriculture, municipalities, rural residents, and industry, but also the nonconsumptive in-channel storages and discharges needed for recreation, fisheries, and aesthetic
purposes.
In contrast to water conservation for the above-mentioned uses is the need for
control of surplus water in times of floods.
Historic Development (Fig. 1)
Historically, the early water resource developments in the Okanagan Basin were
primarily for consumptive use purposes, although the need for flood control soon became apparent. In more recent times, in-channel flows to support fisheries, recreation, and aesthetics have become important under the concept of multiwater use.
In the early 1820's, the Okanagan Basin was one of the major trading routes
for the fur-trading industry, extending from the mouth of the Columbia River
through to Fort Kamloops. However, it was not until 1850 that a significant influx
of population occurred, attracted primarily by the gold rush to the Fraser, and later
to the Cariboo and Similkameen Valleys.
Toward the latter part of the last century, cattle-ranching became an important
industry, and as transportation improved through the building of the Canadian
Pacific Railway supported by regular steamship on Okanagan Lake, apples, as a
commercial crop, were introduced.
Near the turn of the century, a land boom occurred in which large holdings
were subdivided for orchard development.   In addition to apples, it was found that
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 61
TRANSPORTATION   ROUTES
FIG. I
 T 62 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
the hot, dry soils of the southern part of the valley were suitable for soft fruits such
as apricots and peaches, providing irrigation water was available. In fact, with an
average valley precipitation of only 13 inches, supplementary water is a necessity
in the orchard industry.
It was natural that the first water sources developed were on tributaries with
diversion points sufficiently upstream to provide gravity flow to the land under irrigation. The remains of some of these old open-flume systems which provided water
through ditch irrigation can still be seen today.
In many instances, these schemes were initiated by private land companies
which went bankrupt during the early part of this century. In an effort to help the
individual land-owners within these holdings, the Province established the Conservation Fund in 1918, which provided for loans for the renewal of irrigation works,
These loans were made to irrigation districts formed by the various communities
under the Water Act. Many of the irrigation districts were unable to meet the
annual loan payments, and following the 1930 Depression, the Government cancelled a major portion of the outstanding indebtedness.
The Federal Government was active in irrigation development in British Columbia for a brief period after the Second World War under the Veterans' Land Act.
These projects, constructed for veterans, have also been incorporated into irrigation
districts under the British Columbia Water Act.
At the present time, the main activities in community irrigation are directed
toward the rehabilitation of existing systems under a Federal-Provincial assistance
programme carried out in accordance with the Agricultural and Rural Development
Act (ARDA).
Within the Okanagan Basin today, there are some 93,000 acres of cultivated
land, 60,000 of which are irrigated (Table 1). It is estimated that about 84,000
acres of arable land are still undeveloped.
In terms of the Province as a whole, water licence records would indicate
there are some 300,000 acres irrigated, of which the Okanagan Basin contributed
about 20 per cent.
Table 1—Land Use in the Okanagan Basin, 1970
Forests  Acres Per Cent
Sustained-yield units1   1,067,000 68.2
Tree farm licences1       286,000
Agriculture—arable potential2—
Irrigated3   60,070
Dryland4    32,770
Undeveloped  84,480
Lake surface areas      104,000 5.3
Urban—cities, highways, etc.5        56,540 2.9
Nonproducting lands, rangeland (not
forested)       289,140 14.6
Totals   1,980,000        100.0
i A. M. Thomson, Mini-Final Report, March 1973; original source unidentified.
2 G. Scott, preliminary draft, Land Use in the Okanagan Basin, Task 209, February 1973.
3 C. H. Thomas, Water Demands in Okanagan Basin, Task 54, September i972.
* G. Scott, preliminary draft, Land Use in the Okanagan Basin, Task 209, June 1973.
5 British Columbia Department of Agriculture Preliminary Report on Agricultural Potential In the Okanagan Basin. May 1971.
Note—This table is subject to revision pending clarification of agricultural
land capability statistics.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 63
Only about one-third of the total arable land in the Okanagan is presently
irrigated. In Table 2, three different types of economic projections show the total
irrigated land in the year 2020 may range from 56,000 to 74,000 acres.
LEGEND   !
EXISTING    IRRIGATION □
POTENTIAL    IRRIGATION □
OKANAGAN RIVER BASIN
IN CANADA
EXISTING   AND   POTENTIAL   IRRIGATION
WITHIN   OKANAGAN   BASIN
 T 64
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Table 2—Examples of Range of Economic Growth That May Occur in the
Okanagan Valley to the Year 2020
(From preliminary study data, Bulletin 10)
Description of Projection
Population
Employment
Total
Basin
Income
$ Mil-
lionsi
Irri-
gated2
Acreage
Acres
Tourists
1971 situation  	
Projection I: Continuation of Existing Economic Policies—■
Continuation of existing economic growth policies in the
valley. The high rate of population, employment, and industrial development experienced in the past 10 years is
expected to continue until 1980 and then gradually decline
over the next 40 years to 2020. In accordance with present
Government policy, agricultural lands in the valley will be
protected from subdivision for residential and industrial
purposes.
Projection II: High Economic Growth—Growth that may be
realized if the Okanagan economy is stimulated through
senior Government support for industrial development and
employment-creating activities. To provide a contrast with
the first projection described above, it is assumed that
existing controls on subdivision of agricultural lands would
be relaxed and some transfers of land use from agriculture
to residential and industrial development would result	
Projection III: Low Economic Growth—Growth that may be
realized if there is a retardation of the current economic
trends through control on industrial development. These
controls would apply to both nonresource based, or clean
industries, such as trailer manufacturing, as well as
resource-based industries such as lumber-mills and pulp-
mills. In this projection the emphasis would be on environmental quality, agricultural lands would be protected
from subdivision, and additional agricultural development
encouraged    _ 	
115,500
29,800
391,000
105,060
430,000
118,000
290,000
76,000
380
60,000
700,000
3,700
59,600
2,300,0003
4,200
56,600
2,300,0003
2,400
73,700
1,800,0004
i Figures shown based on 1970 dollars.       2 Totals for irrigated acreage in 2020 are preliminary and subject to revision.
3 1,500,000 holiday visitors, June to September.       * 1,200,000 holiday visitors, June to September.
Present Requirements (Reference Table 3 and Fig. 3)
Actual irrigation is by far the major water consumer as can be seen from Table
3. Thus, out of a total consumptive use of some 101,000 acre-feet within the
valley, 88,000 acre-feet are for agricultural purposes.
A major portion of this water (70,000 acre-feet) is supplied from tributary
sources to meet irrigation districts' requirements, and in some of these areas urbanization has already taken place with a transfer of water use from irrigation to
domestic and municipal purposes.
Table 5—Present (1970) Water Requirements Within the
Okanagan Basin in British Columbia
Consumptive use—diversions from Okanagan Lake and tributaries:
Irrigation      56,580
Municipal and domestic       7,970
Industrial       4,180
Acre-feet
Total consumptive use, Okanagan Lake Portion
Basin      68,730
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
2. Consumptive use and in-channel flow requirements—
Main Okanagan River (Okanagan Lake Dam to U.S.
Border:
Consumptive USe: Acre-feet
Irrigation      31,430
Municipal and domestic  740
Industrial   230
T 65
Total consumptive use, Okanagan River Portion Basin	
32,400
In-channel flows:
Evaporation  losses,   Skaha  Lake  to
Osoyoos Lake      49,120
Minimum flow  122,660
Additional salmon fishery flows     39,320
211,100
Total water requirements, Okanagan Lake Basin 312,230
It is interesting to note that the present total water requirement in the Okanagan Basin of 312,000 acre-feet is about 88 per cent of the average net run-off
within the Okanagan Lake Basin. In dry years, only about one-quarter of this
inflow occurs and additional water must then be withdrawn from Okanagan Lake
to make up the deficit since there is little or no water available from the Okanagan
River section. A repetition of 1929-32 drought would result in Okanagan Lake
falling below its normal low-water elevation and remaining there for up to two
years if all downstream water requirements were met. The situation could be even
more critical in the tributaries where only limited upstream storage is available for
drought conditions. However, economic estimates indicate that since only one
such prolonged drought has occurred in this century, the losses are not significant
when averaged over this long period of time.
Multipurpose Water Management
Present-day water requirements shown in Table 3 and illustrated in Figure 3
show the single-purpose consumptive use requirements for the Okanagan Lake
Basin as well as the multipurpose operation along the mainstem. The latter regulation is achieved through the Okanagan Flood Control Works extending from the
Okanagan Lake Dam at Penticton down to Osoyoos Lake. The heart of this system
is the storage on Okanagan Lake which controls the major portion of the inflow to
the basin.
The possibilities of modifying some of the tributary operations to meet consumptive and sport fishery flows were examined in some detail by the study. The
most promising tributaries were found to be Mission, Equesis, and Trepanier Creeks.
Thus, through some modification in the present operation of headwater storage and
the addition of further storage upstream for fisheries, exploratory computer models
have indicated that suitable flows may be maintained at the mouth of Mission and
Equesis Creeks. These flows, together with an improved habitat, will enhance the
reproduction of the rainbow trout and kokanee along the mainstem. In the case
of Trepanier Creek, no storage-sites are available and pumping from Okanagan
Lake to the lower portion of the tributary is indicated.
 T 66
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
CUMULATIVE
TOTAL
300
UJ
UJ
Li-
L_J
q:
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PRESENT   (1970)
WATER   REQUIREMENTS
OKANAGAN BASIN
IN    B
200-
100-
INDUSTRIAL
CONSUMPTION
IN CHANNEL
NON - CON SUMP TI VE
OKANAGAN RIVER
FLOW REQUIREMENTS
IRRIGATION
CONSUMPTION
MUNICIPAL
AND  DOMESTIC
CONSUMPTION
NOTE:   SEE   TABLE   3  FOR  DETAILS.
FIG. 3
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 67
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 T 68
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Future Water Requirements
Future water requirements based on the economic projections outlined in
Table 2 and illustrated in Figure 4 indicate about a 10 per cent increase will occur
over the next 50 years.
The insensitivity of water requirements with respect to the economic growth
projections is due primarily to the changeover of presently irrigated land to urban
development, particularly within the central portion of the basin in Kelowna. In
effect, this amounts to a transfer of water in that an acre of semi-urban land requires
about the same amount of water as an acre of irrigation.
Under the low-growth projection, this loss of irrigated land is more than
replaced by an increase from 60,000 acres in 1970 to 73,600 acres in 2020. However, a considerable portion of the new land is in the north where water requirements
per acre of irrigation are at a minimum.
Draft of Findings and Recommendations
The Draft of Findings and Recommendations released by the Consultative
Board on November 28, 1973, invites "public discussion within the Okanagan
Basin community prior to the preparation of the final report scheduled for completion and preparation to the respective Federal and Provincial Ministers by
March 31, 1974." The major findings and recommendations dealing with water
quantity are summarized below:
Tributaries (Fig. 5)
In the eight major tributaries around Okanagan Lake, additional storage-
reservoir capacities will have to be developed to meet increased demands for water
in irrigation, domestic use, and fisheries. Only two tributary basins—Vernon and
Kelowna—would require supplemental water from outside their watersheds to meet
maximum water requirements for consumptive uses, while Trepanier Creek would
require water pumped from Okanagan Lake to meet fishery requirements. Through
use of multiple purpose management on Mission and Equesis Creeks, the more
serious conflicts in water use between fisheries and irrigation should be resolved.
Existing and planned storage on the eight most heavily utilized tributaries in
the basin are as follows:
Planned Tributary Storage for Consumptive Use and Fisheries
Tributary
Reservoir Storage
in 1972
Proposed New Storage
Consumptive Use
Fisheries
Trr>"t Crept
Acre-feet
10,300
9,500
3,700
2,200
46,700
5,700
18,000
9,800
Acre-feet
1,700
1,100
15,800
1,600
7,200
Acre-feet
700
3,600
Totals  _ _	
105,900
27,400           j             4,300
1
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 69
OKANAGAN   DRAINAGE   BASIN
SUB-BASINS
DAMS   ON   OKANAGAN   RIVER
STUDY OF
SELECTED
TRIBUTARIES
OKANAGAN
BASIN
AGREEMENT
fig. 5
 T 70 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The estimated capital cost of constructing these proposed storages is $1.1
million for fisheries and $6.9 million for consumptive use purposes, with annual
costs of $110,000 and $730,000 respectively.
From the above findings, the following recommendations are made:
(1) Vernon Creek
"The pumped diversion from Okanagan Lake to Vernon Creek be continued."
This diversion returns the flow in Lower Vernon Creek to historical levels
(prior to agricultural development in the area), and provides sufficient water to
eliminate consumptive-use deficiencies along the lower reach of Vernon Creek, including fishery-flow deficits.
The development of some 16,000 acre-feet of storage on Vernon Creek could
be used for the development of an additional 4,000 acres of irrigated land. Such
development should be carefully considered because available water supplies are
located at some distance from potentially irrigable lands.
Further recommendations for the Vernon Creek Basin are anticipated under the
Kalamalka-Wood Lake Water Resource Management Study presently being carried
out by the Branch.
(2) Mission, Equesis, and Trepanier Creeks
"Major conflicts in water use between irrigation and fishery requirements
in tributary streams be avoided by managing Mission, Equesis, and Trepanier
Creeks for fisheries and irrigation purposes, and developing other major creeks
primarily for domestic and agricultural water use."
Some 4,300 acre-feet of headwater storage should be licensed and developed
to meet fishery requirements on Mission and Equesis Creeks. An additional 25,000
acre-feet of headwater storage are available on these and other major tributaries to
meet a possible expansion of 9,000 acres of agricultural lands.
Development of Trepanier Creek as a fishery resource stream will require that
water be pumped from Okanagan Lake to the spawning area near its mouth. A
capacity for pumping 2,200 acre-feet per season would be necessary.
(3) Multipurpose Water Management
Multiple purpose water management should be practised in the above-mentioned tributary basins to meet present and future consumptive and nonconsumptive
uses, i.e., irrigation, etc., and fisheries.
(4) Monitoring
The present stream-monitoring programme in the tributary streams to Okanagan Lake and the mainstem should be continued to improve inflow forecasts to
Okanagan Lake and the major tributaries.
Water Quality Management Mainstem System (Fig. 6)
As a general conclusion, it has been found that through implementation of
water-conservation measures within the Okanagan, all water requirements can be
met in all but prolonged drought. Large-scale importation of water into the Okanagan is not necessary, based on the present studies. In extreme drought conditions
(which may occur once or twice a century) all water requirements cannot be met
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 71
and priorities for use must be established. The Valley consensus is that all consumptive requirements for household and agricultural uses should be met at all
times, but that fishery flows for sockeye salmon in the Okanagan River could be
reduced and Okanagan Lake drawn down below the present minimum elevation of
1,118.8 feet. Provided that a programme of adjustments to water intakes around
Okanagan Lake and along the Okanagan River is undertaken and the public is made
fully aware of the consequences of such lake drawdowns, they should not create
severe problems.
These conclusions led to the following recommendation of the Okanagan Basin
Study Consultative Board:
"That improved water-quantity management be undertaken within the
Okanagan Basin without large-scale water importation to provide water for
present and future consumptive uses (municipal, agricultural, and industrial)
and nonconsumptive uses (fisheries, recreation, wildlife, and aesthetics) in
Okanagan Lake and along Okanagan River in all years except during prolonged
periods of droughts when nonconsumptive uses will have to be restricted and
increased drawdown of Okanagan Lake will be necessary."
Recommendations Concerning Okanagan Lake
Based on the forecast requirements, the Consultative Board for the Okanagan
Basin Study has recommended
"That Okanagan Lake be regulated within its normal 4-foot range (elevation 1,119.8 ft. to elevation 1,123.8 ft.) in all but extreme flood years (net
inflows to Okanagan Lake exceeding 550,000 acre-feet per year) and successive
drought years (net inflows less than 200,000 acre-feet per year)."
but that to minimize the impact of droughts in the mainstem system, the following
steps should be taken:
"That Okanagan Lake be maintained as high as possible during drought
years, though in single drought years all consumptive and nonconsumptive
water requirements should be met. Under prolonged drought conditions, the
lake level may reach a low of 1,116.8 feet."
which is 3 feet below the normal minimum and 2 feet lower than the present
"extreme low" level for Okanagan Lake.
In corollary recommendations, the Board calls for all irrigation and domestic
intakes around Okanagan Lake to be adjusted to be operable at a minimum lake level
of 1,116.8 feet, and for all future intakes, wharves, boat ramps, and other structures
around Okanagan Lake to be built to operate with a lake elevation range of 1,116.8
feet to 1,125.5 feet.   It also recommends that adjustments be made to the Kelowna
Floating Bridge to accommodate the same operating range.
To minimize the impact of flooding, the Board recommends
"That Okanagan Lake should be drawn down below its normal low-water
elevation of 1,119.8 feet prior to freshet by up to 1 foot."
which would expand the present operating range, and
"That the gates (on the control dams) on Okanagan and Skaha Lakes be
improved to avoid icing during the winter and (that) erosion and bank protection works be built around some drop structures and along the Okanagan
River."
 T 72 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Board further recommends
"That floodplain zoning be implemented and enforced by the regional
district up to elevation 1,127.5 feet around Okanagan Lake."
this level being 2 feet higher than the 200-year flood level of 1,125.5 feet.
With these improvements, the average flood discharge in the Okanagan River
at Penticton can be increased by 15 per cent or 12,000 acre-feet a month in flood-
years, which will be particularly valuable during the spring months in the years when
the snowpack is particularly heavy.
Recommendations for Okanagan River Works
Under present operating conditions, the Okanagan Flood Control Works is
operated so that a minimum flow of 300 cubic feet per second is maintained in the
Okanagan River from April to September, inclusive, with 100 cubic feet per second
being required during the remaining months of the year.
It was determined that a base flow of 100 cubic feet per second is required to
support ecological and aesthetic resources. Water for consumptive uses and evaporation along the Okanagan River and on Osoyoos Lake would be supplied in addition
to this flow. In order to conserve water, particularly in drought years, the Consultative Board has recommended
"That irrigation and domestic intakes along the Okanagan River channel
be lowered so that they are fully operable under a base flow of 100 cubic feet
per second in drought years."
This work will conserve 40,000 acre-feet annually in drought years and will
save an estimated $30,000 a year in operating costs of regulating water levels along
the river by placing stoplogs in the drop structures. The study also recommends
that this programme should be undertaken jointly by the Canadian and British
Columbian Governments.
Field tests were carried out in November 1973 to check water levels along the
river under low-flow conditions, and office studies to this end are continuing.
The Okanagan Basin Consultative Board further recommended
"That once the intakes have been lowered, water requirements for sockeye
salmon in the Okanagan River should be met in all years except consecutive
drought years. . . . In two or more consecutive drought years, these flows
will have to be reduced."
which agrees with the previous general recommendation concerning water-quantity
management for the Okanagan Basin.
Recommendations Concerning Osoyoos Lake
In 1972 the Osoyoos Lake area experienced severe flooding resulting from
the high-volume freshet coupled with a backwater effect from the Similkameen
River, which joins the Okanogan River downstream from the outlet of Osoyoos
Lake near Oroville, Wash. In 1973, on the other hand, complaints were registered
by residents about exceptionally low lake levels.
Flooding around Osoyoos Lake constitutes a more serious threat to the area
than low levels, with considerably greater damage potential. Studies of the extreme
conditions resulted in a recommendation by the Consultative Board of the Okanagan
Basin Study.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 73
"That potential flood damage around Osoyoos Lake be minimized through
the institution of floodplain zoning and emergency protection measures."
which recommendation was also made pertinent to Okanagan Lake and the Okanagan River area.
On Osoyoos Lake, flooding occurs about once every 10 years. Large-scale
structural measures for flood control cannot be economically justified in Canada
alone, and Osoyoos Lake will continue to flood on occasion. Floodplain zoning to
elevation 921.0 feet around Osoyoos Lake will prevent additional developments on
threatened areas, thus avoiding potential increases in shoreline property damage,
while implementation of protective measures on an emergency basis will reduce flood
damage to existing properties.
Adjustments to intakes along the Okanagan River will allow reduction in
flows in the river to conserve water, but these flow reductions may create problems
of maintaining desirable levels on Osoyoos Lake during drought conditions unless
control at the outlet of Osoyoos Lake is improved. The measures needed to be
taken either in the United States or Canada to maintain Osoyoos Lake levels during
drought periods and to reduce flood damage around the lake on both sides of the
International Boundary should be determined, and the Consultative Board has
recommended
"That the Governments of Canada and British Columbia immediately
refer a study of Osoyoos Lake level regulations to the International Joint
Commission."
With more specific recommendations, the Board has called for
"Floodplain zoning around Osoyoos Lake (to) be implemented by the
regional district to 921 feet as soon as possible,"
and
"That emergency protection measures and flood-warning systems be
further developed for Osoyoos Lake as soon as possible by the British Columbia
Water Resources Service.   These measures should be described in an information booklet and made available to all residents around the lake."
Based on experience in 1972 and previous flood years, there is difficulty in
making reliable flood-warning predictions for Osoyoos Lake.    There does appear
to be some relationship between high stage on the Similkameen River and the level
of Osoyoos Lake which may give two to two and one-half days' warning of the
direction but not the amount of level changes.    This relationship is being further
investigated.
Under good management and allowing for the withdrawal of larger volumes of
water from Okanagan Lake in drought periods than has been allowed in the past,
the study has shown there is enough water in the basin to supply all projected withdrawal, fishery, and recreation requirements in the main valley. It is noted, however, that water-resource management, though an important component in planning
the valley's future, will not by itself ensure the present desirable balance between
economic growth and high environmental quality will continue over the next 50
years. Other resources should also be carefully managed on a valley-wide basis.
In particular, land use has been found to have a significant impact on water quality,
water-based recreation, and fisheries. The planning of these resources must be
integrated with water management and must include ongoing public involvement to
ensure a continuation of the current prosperous economic and environmental balance
in the Okanagan Basin.
 T 74
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
CONTROL  DAM
8NM 50
OK AN A 6AN LAKE wss'-1123a'ussd
eNM64
C.P.R.- Skoho Cross,  i
SKAHA  LAKE
CONTROL   DAM
8NM2 -q^T
-SCALE
MILES
1'   1  '1—r~r
KILOMETERS
ELEVATION   RELATIONSHIPS   FOR
OKANAGAN  LAKE   DAM  AT  PENTICTON
OPERATING
LEVEL
PUBLIC
WORKS
CANADA
DATUM
GEODETIC
DATUM
1934
GEODETIC
DATUM
1961
HIGH
102-5
1123-2
1123-6
LOW
98-5
1119- 2
1119-8
EMERGENCY
LOW
97 5
1118-2
11186
NOTE
SECTIONS  A,B end C  ARE MAJOR CONTRACT AREAS
WITH  REFERENCE  TO OKANAGAN   FLOOD   CONTROL
WORKS  CONSTRUCTED  1950-1958.
IMPROVED   CHANNEL   SHOWN    IN   HEAVY LINE.
OSOYOOS LAKE
OKANAGAN
FLOOD
CONTROL
WORKS
ZOSEL DAM
FIG. 6
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 75
Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Basin Water-resource Management Study
L. A. Bergman, P.Eng., Study Co-ordinator
General
In the summer of 1971, fairly large surface algae blooms occurred on Wood
Lake. Alga? blooms had been recorded a number of times on this lake since 1935;
however, local residents and resort-owners associated the 1971 algae bloom with the
cooling-water discharge from the Hiram Walker and Sons distillery at Winfield,
which had just begun operation. The late and above-average run-off aggravated
the situation by carrying the algae-laden water of Wood Lake into Kalamalka Lake.
The Okanagan Basin Study Committee, from information at hand, was of the opinion
that the distillery cooling-water discharge was not in any way responsible for the
algae-growth conditions which occurred in 1971.
Notwithstanding the fact that the cooling-water discharge is of a higher quality
than any water in the Kalamalka-Wood Lakes system, the addition of this discharge
flow may impose a threat to the quality of water in Kalamalka Lake by causing more
of the nutrient-rich water of Wood Lake to flow into Kalamalka Lake. From the
water-quantity point of view, the distillery cooling-water discharge is a valuable
asset to the system since the available water in the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin is
limited and fully licensed. In any event, removal of the cooling-water discharge
from the system would not solve the basic problem of the Wood Lake algae blooms.
The scarcity of data prohibited any scientific explanation or remedy to the situation.
Subsequently, the Deputy Minister of Water Resources authorized the Water Investigations Branch to undertake a study which would encompass all aspects of the total
water system such as biology, limnology, hydrology, geology, engineering, and economics, and to concentrate on water inputs and exchanges within the Kalamalka-
Wood Lakes System and nutrient inputs to the system from all sources. The result
of the study should be a better understanding of the water resources of the basin,
which will assist the Comptroller of Water Rights and the Director of Pollution
Control to discharge their responsibilities better and more effectively under the
British Columbia Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
The objectives of the study are as stated in the Deputy Minister's letter of
August 16, 1971, which are as follows. To obtain information and better understanding of the system necessary for
(1) the regulation of pollution control permits;
(2) the administration of the water-licensing system;   and
(3) the regulation of water-storage reservoirs such as Kalamalka Lake
and other reservoirs on tributary watersheds upstream from it.
A project proposal was prepared by Water Investigations Branch staff in February 1972 which details some 27 separate studies believed necessary to accomplish
the above objectives, and are summarized as follows:
(1) To determine the present and future water demand of the basin; to
evaluate the availability of water in the basin:
(2) To determine whether additional water could be stored on any of
the lakes in the basin for licensing purposes (use); this will involve
assessment of the hydrology of all major drainages of the basin:
(3) To estimate the cost of rebuilding the outlet works on Kalamalka
Lake to provide a greater degree of lake regulation for flood-control
purposes and possibly water-licensing purposes (use):
 T 76 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(4) To determine the present fishery resource in the basin and to estimate
its potential:
(5) To assess the nonconsumptive recreational resource (power-boating,
canoeing, swimming, camping, etc.) of Kalamalka and Wood Lakes:
(6) To determine the present quality of the water in the lakes of the
basin; to estimate the influence that man's activities are having on
the quality of the lakes:
(7) To determine the major sources of the present nutrient loading to the
lakes (especially Kalamalka and Wood Lakes):
(8) To make recommendations on means of slowing down or reversing
the eutrophication of Kalamalka and Wood Lakes:
(9) To determine whether there should be modifications to the present
method of cooling-water disposal by the Hiram Walker and Sons
distillery; to assess the environmental effects of and the costs of
various alternatives.
The services of the Department of Civil Engineering, University of British
Columbia, and British Columbia Research, in addition to Water Investigations
Branch staff, have been utilized in carrying out this water-resource management
study.
Information gathering and data collection began in March 1972 and was
planned to run over one hydrologic cycle; however, since the 1972 run-off year was
atypical with respect to run-off (net inflow to Okanagan Lake in 1972 was the
highest in 43 years of record), it was decided to extend the data collection period
through the 1973 run-off period with the hope of monitoring more near-normal
hydrologic conditions. Data collection continued to July 1973. Because of this
extension, the final report on the study is now anticipated in April 1974. More
information on the progress of the study will be found elsewhere in this Annual
Report under the various agencies who are participating in the study (Hydrology
Division, Groundwater Division, Ecology Division, and the Water Rights Branch),
as well as in the following section on tourism and recreation.
Tourism and Recreation
The initial objectives of this study were to identify present water-based recreational facilities serving both the resident and tourist populations; to determine the
significance of the tourist and recreational activities in the local economy; and to
outline possible development patterns of recreation in the Kalamalka-Wood Lake
Basin. As this study commenced after the Okanagan Basin Study, some background
information on recreation and tourism in the Okanagan was available. To avoid
duplication of work by both studies, information was readily exchanged.
The study area was recognized as difficult to assess in both recreational and
economic terms. The proximity of Kelowna and Vernon presents the problem of
inconsistent movements of visitors and Okanagan resident recreationists to and from
the relatively small study area to participate in water-based recreation. As a result,
it was concluded that the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin would be analysed not as
a unit, but in relation to its recreation and subsequent economic contributions to the
Okanagan region.
During 1973 the inventories of water-based recreational facilities and shoreline land use and tenure were completed. It was noted that less than 1 per cent of
the total shoreline of both Kalamalka and Wood Lakes (37.7 miles) is committed
to public recreation in the form of one beach and several small access points.   There
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 77
is an additional 1 per cent allocated as park reserve on Crown land. As a comparison, 41 per cent of the shoreline is occupied by road and rail rights-of-way and 13
per cent is designated as residential. An investigation concerning the degree of
participation in water-based recreational activities by residents and visitors was completed. In 1972, there were estimated to be 32,000 overnight visitors to the basin,
of which 23,000 used commercial accommodation in the form of motels and campgrounds. The remainder stayed with friends and relatives. However, indications
from motel revenue trends suggest that attendance of visitors in the basin is declining. This has been related to the deteriorating water quality of Wood Lake and
resulting adverse publicity.
Swimming and related beach activities were found to be the most popular form
of water-based recreation of both residents and visitors. During approximately
70 per cent of a visitor's stay in the basin, all or part of the day was spent at the
beach. The average resident went to the beach 20 times during the summer. The
lakes in the Kalamalka-Wood Lake basin, particularly Headwater Lakes, appear to
play an important role in the Okanagan sport fishery. Although comprising only
10 per cent of the lake area utilized for fishing in the Okanagan, the study area
supported 20 per cent of all Okanagan angling. Approximately three-quarters of
the Okanagan residents fishing in the study area live in Kelowna, while 44 per cent
of the visitor anglers are from the Lower Mainland.
Current work is directed toward estimating the over-all value of water-based
recreation and projecting future demand for recreational facilities by both Okanagan
residents and visitors. In the past, the basin appears to have been a visitor "spill
over" area from the larger centres of Kelowna and Vernon. As demand for water-
based recreation grows in British Columbia, the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin could
become a much more important recreation area in the Okanagan. However, further
development will have to be undertaken as a result of the current lack of public
recreational facilities. The potential exists for a large park development on the
northeast shore of Kalamalka Lake. This area could be instrumental in meeting
some of the projected demand for recreation in the Okanagan.
The final report is now being drafted to serve as an input in the evaluation of
water-management alternatives for the study area.
Oak Hills Dyking Project
L. A. Bergman, P.Eng., Project Manager
On June 2, 1972, a subdivision development called Oak Hills, located approximately 4 miles north of the City of Kamloops, was inundated by high river waters
of the North Thompson River. The subdivision was approximately half complete
at the time of the flood, which had an estimated frequency of occurrence of approximately one in 30 years. Some 130 homes, 81 condominium units, and a 231-unit
trailer park were affected.
The Water Investigations Branch investigated the adequacy of the existing dyke
and subsurface drainage facilities at the Oak Hills subdivision. Cost studies indicated that the existing dyke was far below desired flood protection standards and
that the least-cost solution would be the construction of a new dyke some 300 feet
back from the river bank. Other alternatives such as the relocation of the subdivision off the floodplain and rebuilding the existing dyke (which was located at the
river's edge and would have required extensive riprapping) were found to be considerably more expansive.
In March 1973 the decision was made to construct the new dyke. The Water
Investigations Branch was assigned the responsibility to implement the dyke con-
 T 78
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
struction programme. Representation was made to the Federal Government to
have the terms and conditions of the Fraser River Flood Control (1968) Agreement,
previously only applicable to the Lower Fraser Valley, expanded to include the Oak
Hills project. If accepted, this would mean that the costs of construction of the
flood-protection works would be shared equally between the two senior governments.
The dyke is estimated to cost $1.2 million, which includes engineering costs but not
the cost of the property on which the dyke is located.
The over-all length of the dyke is approximately 6,000 feet. It will vary in
height from a maximum of about 18 feet at the south end to around 10 to 12 feet
high along the northerly two-thirds of its length. The dyke cross-section will have
3:1 side slopes and a 12-foot crest width. The side slopes are planned to be grassed
and a topping of crushed gravel will be placed on the dyke crest.
The dyke and its associated seepage control trench was designed to protect the
benefiting land from a flood of the same magnitude as the flood of 1894. Hydrology
studies indicate that, statistically speaking, a flood of this magnitude will occur once
every 200 years or has a probability of occurrence of Vi per cent in any one year.
Water levels of the North Thompson River at Oak Hills during the design flood
would be at an estimated elevation of 1,140.8 feet, or some 5 feet above the recorded
high of 1,135.8 feet in 1972.
Where the original ground elevation on the landside toe of the dyke falls below
elevation 1,130 feet, the area within 100 feet of the dyke is planned to be brought
up to this elevation. This measure will help to minimize seepage in the immediate
vicinity of the dyke, which can be considered the critical area.
A drainage trench is planned to be constructed along the landside toe of the
dyke. The function of this drainage trench is to intercept water which seeps through
and under the dyke during high river-water levels. A perforated pipe located in
the drainage trench will carry the seepage water to pumping stations which will be
located approximately every 500 feet along the dyke. At the pumping stations, the
seepage water will be discharged back into the river. Each pumping station will
consist simply of a manhole-covered well connected to the collection pipe. Most
of these wells are expected to be empty most of the time. Depending on the forecast
river-water levels in any run-off year, pumps would be installed in a number of
stations to handle the seepage water.
A major portion of the project was completed in 1973. Construction is planned
to resume as soon as weather permits next spring. It is anticipated that the flood
protection works will be ready well in advance of the 1974 high river-water levels.
WATER SUPPLY AND INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., B.C.L.S., Chief of Division
The Water Supply and Investigations Division, one of the original divisions
formed when the Water Investigations Branch was created in December 1962, is
composed of the Engineering Investigations Section and the Field Surveys Section.
Engineering Investigations Section—During the period from 1962 to the latter
part of 1973, the main functions of the Engineering Section were to assist and advise
in the development and maintenance of water-supply projects; to carry out feasibility
studies of available water supply; and to carry out miscellaneous hydraulic investigations. With a reduced engineering staff, the present function of this section is to
carry out preliminary dam-site investigations, including cost estimates, in connection
with the mapping of major water-storage reservoirs under Storage Inventory Programme; soil stability investigations and land use inventories in connection with
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 79
the mapping of floodplains; basin studies in connection with the availability of water
supply;  and the design and construction of major hydrometric stations.
Field Surveys Section—The principal function of the Surveys Section is to
carry out major surveys required by the various divisions of the Water Investigations
Branch, namely, investigation surveys in connection with feasibility studies on water
supply; flood, drainage, and erosion control and other projects; design and construction surveys; and the mapping of major water-storage reservoirs in the Province, including water-sampling.
In addition, the mapping of floodplains in the Province has now become one
of the major functions of this Division. To assist in carrying out this programme,
in particular with respect to the Lower Fraser Valley floodplain, with an area of
over 300 square miles, the Field Survey Section was expanded in late 1973 with the
addition of a third field party.
During the past year, engineering investigations were continued or completed
on seven water-supply projects and one flood-control project. Construction was
completed on one water-supply project under the ARDA programme involving the
preparation by the Division of final design and supervision of construction.
The main projects dealt with in 1973 are summarized below:
Engineering Investigations Section
WATER-SUPPLY PROIECTS
Proposed Dease Lake Townsite Water Supply
The proposed Dease Lake Townsite is situated at the south end of Dease Lake
on the Stewart-Cassiar Highway, approximately 60 miles south of the mining community of Cassiar. The townsite area lies on the divide between Dease Lake and
the Tanzilla River drainage basins, about 2 miles south of Dease Lake.
The present population is about 100, including seasonal workers. Present
development includes a Department of Highways' maintenance camp, Forest Service
ranger station, Ministry of Transport weather station, a school, and a general store.
Air transport is provided by two airlines—Transprovincial and Harrison Airways—
and helicopter service is provided by Frontier Helicopters.
In 1972 the Lands Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources had proposed extending an existing subdivision into a new townsite. As
the expansion would undoubtedly require water services, the Water Investigations
Branch was requested to carry out a feasibility study for the supply of water to the
proposed community.
In carrying out the investigation of an acceptable water supply, including a preliminary design and cost of a water-supply system, town planning, environmental
protection, and recreation were considered in the study, utilizing the available resources of the various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, and other
Government departments; in particular, the services of the Department of Municipal
Affairs, responsible for the planning of the proposed townsite.
Following a field inspection during the latter part of August 1973, field surveys
and a further engineering investigation were carried out during the latter part of
September. Several alternative sources of supply, including groundwater, were
investigated, and bathymetric surveys were carried out covering Allan Lake, Allanby
Lake, and the lower end of Dease Lake.
In March of 1973 an interim preliminary report was prepared with a design
and estimate of cost for a water-supply system to serve a community of approximately 5,000 population.   As groundwater supply appeared to be the most econom-
 T 80 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
ical source of supply and least affected by the severe winter conditions experienced
in this area, a groundwater exploration programme was recommended.
During the late summer of 1973 a contract prepared by the Groundwater
Division of the Water Investigations Branch was awarded to a consulting firm to
carry out the programme. However, the water requirements were reduced to about
200 U.S. gallons per minute, as a review of the potential development of the area
indicated that the community should be designed for an initial 500 population,
instead of the original 5,000.
The groundwater programme was completed in early October, and two production wells were developed with adequate capacity to supply the revised design
demand.
Proposed Water Supply, East Kootenay Valley
The establishment of the Libby Reservoir has resulted in the loss of farm land
and the displacement of wildlife from its traditional winter range in the valley
bottom, through flooding. As a result, there is considerable land use pressure in
the southerly portion of the East Kootenay Valley for such things as park development, resettlement of displaced persons, and highway relocation.
As additional land use demands develop, the Crown range on which a substantial
number of small ranching operations are currently dependent, will be seriously
curtailed. To avoid this, as well as to allow the successful integration of all uses,
in particular wildlife, more intensive forage production practices are required.
As it would appear that excellent forage production could be achieved through
irrigation on a substantial acreage lying east of the Kootenay River and south of
the Elk River, the Water Investigations Branch was requested by the British
Columbia Forest Service to carry out a brief preliminary investigation of the
physical possibility and possible cost of irrigation within the area.
Initial studies have indicated that of the three possible sources of water supply
available, namely, Libby Reservoir, lakes and streams in the area, and groundwater, only the latter source appeared feasible.
Land units suitable for irrigation have been delineated by the Soils Division,
British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and preliminary pumping costs have
been established by this Division.
If a cost-benefit study indicates a further study is warranted, it would then be
necessary to carry out a groundwater exploration programme.
Glenrosa Area Extension, Westbank Irrigation District
The Glenrosa area is situated to the south of Powers Creek, adjacent to the
west boundary of the Westbank Irrigation District. Basically an agricultural area,
the land is presently being dry-farmed for use as pasture or the growing of hay crops.
In 1969 the land-owners within the study area submitted a petition to the
Westbank Irrigation District requesting the new ARDA system be extended to provide the area with both irrigation and domestic services.
Office studies and field surveys were initiated in the latter part of 1971 during
final stage of construction of the present ARDA project. The area under study consists of about 200 acres classified as suitable for agriculture. In addition, domestic
water could be supplied to about 40 connections.
From studies carried out, storage supply would be required to supplement
diversion from Powers Creek. Of the district's existing reservoirs, Lambly (Bear)
Lake has been considered to be the most economic reservoir for the development
of the required storage supply.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 81
Studies on the proposed Glenrosa area extension have now been completed
and it is expected the report will be available early in 1974.
McCulloch Reservoir, South East Kelowna Irrigation District
Rehabilitation of storage works on the McCulloch Reservoir was carried out
under the supervision of the Water Supply and Investigations Division as part of
the over-all rehabilitation of the South East Kelowna Irrigation District's system
under the ARDA prograunme.
Rehabilitation of the distribution system, construction of a 4 Vi-mile-long diversion ditch from Pooley Creek, and improvement of the existing Myra Ditch to supplement the inflow into McCulloch Reservoir, and the construction of a new all-year-
round diversion intake on Hydraulic Creek is being carried out under the supervision
of the ARDA Division.
With a design capacity of about 12,500 acre-feet, the McCulloch Reservoir is
now the largest capacity reservoir in the Okanagan Valley. The reservoir, which
has a shoreline of about 18 miles, is contained by five earthfill dams. Construction
was initiated in 1970, with the clearing of the original flooded area. Rehabilitation
and raising of the existing four dams, including the enlargement of an existing ditch
connecting Haynes, Minnow, and Hydraulic Lakes, composing the McCulloch
Reservoir, commenced in 1971.
Rehabilitation of the storage works was completed in 1972, with the exception
of the intake works at the North Dam.
The intake works, consisting of two 24-inch-diameter inclined sliding gates, was
completed late in 1973. In addition, a new saddle dam was constructed at the south
end of the reservoir.
iltlwfiit
South East Kelowna Irrigation District—construction of saddle dam
for McCulloch Reservoir.
 T 82 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The storage works of McCulloch Reservoir were rehabilitated at a cost of
about $480,000.
Peachland Irrigation District
The Peachland Irrigation District is situated within the Okanagan Valley, approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna on the west side of Okanagan
Lake. The boundaries of the district enclose a total area of about 1,480 acres, of
which 640 acres are classified as suitable for agriculture.
The installation of a new combined irrigation and domestic water-supply system
under the ARDA programme was completed in the latter part of 1972 at cost of
approximately $803,000. The new system is presently serving about 515 acres of
agricultural land and 465 domestic users. In addition, the system provides emergency water supply to the Municipality of Peachland in the event of a pump failure.
A new diversion intake was constructed on Peachland Creek with screening facilities
and a headpond capacity of about 16 acre-feet for settling purposes. However,
during the spring run-offs of 1971 and 1972, considerable quantities of gravel and
silt were deposited in the headpond, resulting in silt being carried into the Peachland
Irrigation District system, seriously affecting the quality of water for domestic use.
In addition, the 1972 run-off destroyed kokanee eggs in the lower reaches of Peachland Creek.
The problem was investigated at the request of the district. Although some
material had been carried downstream from a slide 2 miles upstream, the origin of
the greater portion of the material was some 10 miles upstream of the intake where
a record flow in a diversion ditch from MacDonald Creek to Peachland Creek had
caused extensive erosion of a high silt bank. This diversion ditch, which had been
constructed by an industrial company, was relocated during the summer of 1972.
As the slide deposit has now been eroded to well above the normal water level of
Peachland Creek, it is not expected that either source will present a serious problem
in the future.
As a result of increased demand for domestic water in the district following
completion of the new system, the Division has been carrying out a review of the
available water supply and the district's present system demand. In this connection,
a hydrometric programme was initiated in 1973, to be continued in 1974.
Potential Storage Supply, Similkameen Basin
To facilitate planning and future development, an investigation of potential
storage supply within the Similkameen Basin was initiated during the latter part of
1972. Recommendations, which will include preliminary cost estimates, to a considerable extent will be dependent on the tributary yield studies being carried out
by the Hydrology Division.
In general, the studies will be based on an assessment of the tributary water
requirements within the basin which has been carried out by the Water Rights
Branch.
Field surveys, initiated in 1964 under the Similkameen Basin Storage Inventory
Programme, were completed in late 1972 with respect to the major storage-sites. In
addition to topographic and bathymetric reservoir-site mapping, the surveys have
included water-quality sampling, dam-site investigations, inventory of lakefront
land, etc.
It is expected that the results of the field surveys and tributary yield studies will
be available by early 1974 to allow completion of the storage study.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Village of Telegraph Creek
T 83
The Village of Telegraph Creek is situated at the confluence of the Stikine
River and Telegraph Creek, approximately 150 miles south of the Yukon border.
Historically, Telegraph Creek was a major distribution centre for the Atlin area,
as the Stikine River was the principal access to this area from the southern part
of the Province. However, it is now of lesser importance, through the development
of the Alaska and Stewart-Cassiar Highways and the widespread use of air transportation.
The present population of the project area is about 150, half of which are
Taltan Indians living on Indian Reserve 6 adjacent to the village. Present development includes an RCMP station, a school, health clinic, and two stores.
The existing water-supply system which consists of a 4-inch woodstave pipeline supplied by gravity from Telegraph Creek, serves the school, health clinic and
a portion of the Indian reserve. The remaining households receive their water
supply by individually piping or hauling water from Telegraph Creek.
A request was received from the Department of Municipal Affairs to consider
the feasibility of improving the present system and extending it to serve the entire
community.
The study was initiated in September 1973 by a joint inspection of the area
from representatives of the Groundwater Division and Water Supply and Investigations Division.  The study has been scheduled to be completed early in 1974.
Trepanier Area, Municipality of Peachland
The Trepanier area, which lies mainly within the Municipality of Peachland,
is situated approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna on the west side of
Okanagan Lake. Basically an agricultural area, it occupies the northern portion
of the municipality.
The existing system, which is administered by the Trepanier Water-users'
Community, consists of ditches, flumes, and low-head pipe-lines, and is no longer
considered to be adequate for present-day irrigation and domestic requirements.
The system is supplied by gravity from Trepanier Creek.
In September 1970 a request was received from the municipality, on behalf
of the water-users within the area, to carry out a study to consider the possibility
of installing a combined irrigation and domestic water-supply system.
Preliminary field surveys were carried out in 1970, and the study was initiated
in early 19*71.
The area under study consists of about 960 acres of land, of which some 550
acres have been classified as suitable for agriculture. Of the latter area, about 411
acres are considered eligible for ARDA assistance. In addition, domestic water
could be supplied to about 181 connections.
Present studies indicate that storage supply would be required to supplement
diversion from Trepanier Creek during the low-flow season. Of the three potential
storage-sites investigated namely Silver Lake and Lacoma Lake which lie within
the Trepanier Creek drainage basin and Cameo (Cameron) Lake, which lies within
the Nicola River drainage basin, Cameo Lake appeared to be the most acceptable
site for storage development. However, as diversion is unacceptable on the grounds
it would affect downstream water-users in the Nicola River drainage basin, storage
development is now being considered on Silver Lake. As there is some questions
as to whether there would be sufficient inflow into Silver Lake to provide the
required storage, pumping from Okanagan Lake is also being considered.
 T 84 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
With an increase in qualifying irrigable acreage from 330 acres indicated in
the initial studies to the present 411 acres, it was necessary to revise the water-
supply system design and costs. However, it is anticipated that the preliminary
report will be completed in early 1974.
FLOODING, DRAINAGE AND EROSION PROJECTS
Lake Windermere Control
Following representations made by a number of residents living along the
shoreline of Lake Windermere situated in the East Kootenay region of the Province,
an investigation was initiated in late 1969 to consider the feasibility and cost of
constructing a control dam at the outlet of the lake for the purpose of regulating
the water level during the latter part of the summer to facilitate the launching of
boats. As a flooding problem exists during the early part of the summer, this
problem is also under investigation.
Lake Windermere, which has a maximum depth of water of just over 20 feet
and contains numerous shallow bays, has an extensive growth of aquatic weeds
which also present a problem to boating.
For the purpose of considering the feasibility of regulating the lake level for
boating, a bathymetric survey was carried out covering the developed areas at the
northern end of Lake Windermere, including the communities of Athalmer and
Invermere. The position and elevations of the major boathouses were also
established.
In order to study the effect of flooding on low-lying lands, in particular the
community of Athalmer, the area extending from Lake Windermere has been
mapped. In addition, in order to study any possible backwater effect on Lake
Windermere from Toby Creek during spring-run-off, a number of gauging stations
were established on the Columbia River and Toby Creek. These gauges were read
during the run-off period of 1970. However, as 1970 was a below-average run-off
year, they were again read during 1972, an above-average run-off year, to determine
the maximum effect from backwater.
Initial studies considered the feasibility of developing upstream storage on
Dutch Creek, the only major stream entering into Lake Windermere, to control
spring flooding and to regulate summer lake levels. However, owing to the estimated
high cost of development, this scheme did not appear acceptable.
Further proposals for the protection of Athalmer against flooding were considered, namely, the diversion of Toby Creek to relieve the flooding of Athalmer
from backwater effect and the construction of dykes with drainage pumping. However, neither of the latter two proposals appeared acceptable owing to the high cost
and the fact that the proposals would not provide complete protection. Consequently, floodplain zoning appeared to be the only feasible solution for Athalmer.
In order to regulate the summer lake levels of Lake Windermere, a control
dam at the outlet of the lake is being proposed. The control works have been
designed to allow all-year navigation for local boating.
A preliminary report was completed late in 1973.
Field Surveys Section
The Field Surveys Section of the Division is composed of two subsections,
namely, Field Operations Section and Office Compilations Section.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 85
The two original field parties, established in 1962, are mainly responsible for
carrying out the various field surveys required by the several divisions of the Water
Investigations Branch. Each party normally operates with a staff of five during
the winter period, increasing to nine each during the field season with the hiring
of summer students.
In carrying out the various types of surveys, the field staff have become proficient in photogrammetric mapping control, including air-photo interpretation,
topographic surveys, bathymetric surveys for both lakes and streams, metering of
streamflows and establishment of hydrometric stations, setting of grade stakes for
construction projects, etc.
In order to maintain a high order of operating efficiency and degree of
accuracy, the field staff has been equipped with up-to-date survey equipment, i.e.,
Tellurometer, and Hewlett and Packard Geodemeter for distance measurement;
echo-sounders for bathymetric surveys; second-reading transits for mapping control; automatic levels for establishing benchmark networks and running profiles;
two-way radios for communication; etc.
Generally, all field information is processed through the computer for checking
and adjustment of data. To minimize the time involved in processing the field data,
a computerized field book prepared by the survey staff is now in use.
During the latter part of 1973 a third field party was established for the purpose
of carrying out floodplain mapping surveys. This party is to consist of a permanent
staff of four, to be increased to a total of 10 during the field season by the addition
of summer students.
The Compilations Section is responsible for the final processing of field data
and the production of maps. In addition, this section is also responsible for the
indexing and filing of survey data, and the issuing and maintenance of survey
equipment.
Over the past year, this section has been involved in reorganizing and updating
the survey data library, in many cases using computer programmes for cataloguing.
During the winter period the Compilations Section is assisted by the Operations
Section field staff.
However, with an increasing work load in the field resulting in a much longer
field season, a considerable backlog of data processing has accumulated. It is estimated the backlog at the end of the 1973/74 fiscal year will be over 900 man-days.
A total of 32 survey projects was either continued or initiated during the 1973
field season, of which 23 were completed. The balance of nine projects either
required further field work or were continuing programmes, i.e., storage inventory
programme, floodplain mapping programme, etc.
Including the backlog of data processing from survey projects initiated prior
to 1973, a total of 30 projects was listed for data processing during the current year,
of which 21 have been completed, leaving an estimated balance of nine to be carried
over into 1974.
In view of this situation, additional assistance is required for both the Field
Operations and Compilations Sections in order to meet the demand for field information.   The alternative to this is a reduction in future field surveys.
The operation of the Field Surveys Section for the period December 1962 to
March 1974 is summarized below:
 T 86
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Summary Field Survey Projects, 1962-73
Fiscal Year
Field Survey
Projects
Office Compilations
Survey Projects
Outstanding Work
Load in Man-days
Requested I Completed
Listed      ! Completed
Field
Office
1963/64	
1964/65    _            —.   .
6
15
10
17
22
22
18
31
33
30
32
6
13
8
15
20
19
15
28
31
26
23
6
15
10
17
22
22
18
31
33
30
30
4
9
4
10
15
16
12
21
23
15
21
150
250
210
1965/66 	
1966/67	
	
1967/68	
1968/69	
1969/70	
1970/71 	
1971/72 	
1972/73 	
780
790
1973/74	
900
Note—Storage reservoir mapping, contining programme initiated in 1964. Floodplain mapping, continuing
programme initiated in 1972. Listing of office compilations for each fiscal year, include projects not completed
in previous fiscal year.
Some of the major surveys which were carried out in 1973 are summarized
below.
Basin Studies
Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Study
In connection with a water resource management study being carried out for
the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin, a sub-basin within the Okanagan Basin, field
information requested by the several Branch divisions involved in the study was
completed in the fall of 1972.
The processing of the field information covering the preparation of area-elevation curves for water-yield studies, bathymetric surveys of Ellison Lake, Kalamalka
Lake, and Wood Lake for computation of storage capacities, detailed shoreline
topography and cross-sections to determine effect of change in water levels on
improvements, establishment of water-well elevations in connection with groundwater studies, and metering of a number of streams in connection with hydrology
studies was completed in May 1973.
Okanagan Basin Study
For the purpose of determining the low-water profile of the new Okanagan
River channel completed in 1958, a total of 104 reference points was established
along the section of channel between Skaha Lake and Osoyoos Lake. Water-level
readings were taken by Okanagan Flood Control staff.
Okanagan Lake
A bathymetric survey to provide 2-foot contours was carried out on the east
arm of Okanagan Lake. The above information was required in connection with
a study of weed growth being made by the Ecology Division.
Potential Water Supply, Similkameen Basin
In order to investigate potential storage supply in the Similkameen Basin,
studies were initiated in early 1973. In connection with these studies, area-elevation
curves were prepared for water-yield studies being carried out by the Hydrology
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 87
Division, including the establishing of a hydrometric network for measurement of
stream flows.
In addition, field surveys of the major storage-sites within the basin, which
were initiated under the Similkameen Basin Storage Inventory Programme in 1964,
were mainly completed duirng the latter part of 1973.
It is anticipated that the processing of the field data covering the storage
surveys will be completed by early 1974. To obtain more complete hydrometric
data for the water-yield studies, the hydrometric programme will be continued during 1974. This programme has entailed the establishment of several staff gauging
stations and it is now proposed to install a number of recording stations.
FLOODING, DRAINAGE AND EROSION PROIECTS
Bella Coola River
As a result of recent flooding on the Bella Coola River, considerable property
damage occurred and funds were allocated for flood-control works on the Bella
Coola River, Thorsen Creek, and Nooklikonnik Creek, with construction to commence early in 1974.
To provide the necessary engineering data, the Projects Division requested
channel topography and cross-sections covering the three streams. The surveys and
compilation of field data were completed in December.
Eagle River Near Sicamous
In connection with proposed bank-protection works to be carried out on the
section of the Eagle River extending from Shuswap Lake to Kay Falls, a distance
of about 23 miles, 22 cross-sections were taken and a number of water-level gauges
and high-water marks tied to Geodetic Survey of Canada datum. All cross-sections
were marked with permanent reference points and bench-marks were established at
each cross-section, gauge, and high-water mark.
Remaining field data, consisting of longitudinal channel and water-surface profiles, were obtained during the 1973 field season. It is anticipated that office compilations will be completed early in 1974.
Fraser River Dyking System
In connection with upstream storage studies and the associated review of upstream dykes under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser River Flood Control
Agreement, approximately 30 cross-sections were taken at the confluence of the
Fraser and Quesnel Rivers, including surface profiles. In addition, a number of
cross-sections were also taken on the Fraser River near Chilliwack.
Kootenay River
In order to study the possible effects that the construction of Libby Dam has on
the Canadian portion of the regime of the Kootenay River, surveys were carried out
in 1968 on the section of the river extending from the International Boundary to
Kootenay Lake, a distance of about 26 miles. Twenty-five permanent river cross-
sections were established, surveyed, and referenced to 50 concrete monuments.
Longitudinal profiles were obtained at the mid- and quarter-points on the river
channel. Detailed information was obtained at existing bridges, gravel bars, and
the river estuary. In addition, bathymetric information was obtained by use of
river-boat and depth-sounding equipment.
 T 88 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
As the studies were to be on a continuing basis, it was proposed that the
information be updated at five-year intervals. Consequently, the surveys carried
out in 1968 were repeated in 1973.
Lillooet River Delta Study
Lairge loads of sediment being carried annually by the Lillooet River are being
deposited at its delta on Lillooet Lake. In order to study the processes of sediment
distribution and the volume of sediment being deposited, a survey programme was
initiated in 1971.
The delta has been controlled for above-surface detailed photogrammetric
mapping and permanent reference lines established for subaqueous mapping by
sounding.
Surveys were repeated in 1972 and 1973 and the continuous frequency of
mapping will be based on the degree of sediment deposits.
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
In connection with flooding problems from the Lillooet River and its tributaries
in the vicinity of the community of Pemberton, a mapping programme, including
detailed surveys, was carried out in 1965 and 1966 by this Division, followed by
the preparation of a report in 1967 entitled Preliminary Report on Pemberton Valley
Dyking District Drainage Proposals.
During the period 1968 to 1972, additional surveys were carried out to provide information for an expansion of the original study. Again, in 1973, a bathymetric survey of the outlet of Tenas Lake was carried out during the low-water
stage.
FLOODPLAIN MAPPING PROGRAMME
General
In order to develop a comprehensive programme of floodplain management,
the Water Investigations Branch is proceeding to define the floodplain of a number
of critical areas within the Province.
The responsibilities for all field surveys and the final production of the base
maps under the programme has been assigned to the Water Supply and Investigations
Division.
In general, the base maps will consist of the following information: (a) mosaic
maps prepared from controlled air photography; (b) existing or prepared cadastral
maps; and (c) spot-heighting obtained photogrammetrically or from field surveys.
The cadastral and spot-heighting map information can be prepared on clear linen
and used in the form of an overlay on the mosaic.
It is proposed to provide general mapping of the over-all floodplain at a scale
of 1 inch=400 feet, and detailed mapping of select areas at a scale of lineh=200
feet.
Mapping of the floodplain will be in the form of spot-heighting to plus or minus
1.0 to 1.5 feet within the floodplain and plus or minus 0.5 foot along the perimeter
of the floodplain. The lower section of the floodplain slopes will be mapped to
show from 5- to 10-foot contour intervals. Up-to-date air photography will be
required for the above mapping and production of mosaics. The Floodplain Mapping Programme was initiated in early 1973 with the commencement of field surveys
as indicated in sections to follow.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 89
Athalmer, Lake Windermere
In connection with a proposal to alleviate the periodic flooding of the community of Athalmer, situated at the outlet of Lake Windermere, a floodplain
mapping survey was carried out during the latter part of 1973, consisting of detailed
spot-heighting.
North and South Thompson River Valleys
The area to be mapped extends from the outlet of Kamloops Lake to Little
Shuswap Lake, along the main Thompson River and South Thompson River valleys,
and from the City of Kamloops to the community of Vavenby, along the North
Thompson Valley, a total distance of about 160 miles.
During the 1973 field season, surveys were completed covering the section
of the main Thompson River and South Thompson River valleys, extending from
Tranquille, situated at the upper end of Kamloops Lake, to Chase, situated at the
outlet of Little Shuswap Lake.
Survey crew establishing mapping control at Shuswap Lake.
In detail, the surveys consisted of mapping control for the production of general
maps at a scale of 1 inch = 400 feet, covering the City of Kamloops and the communities of Westsyde, Valleyview, Pritchard, Monte Creek, and Chase. All horizontal control points were tied into existing legal surveys for the purpose of controlling cadastral mapping.
In addition, the South Thompson River, from its confluence with the North
Thompson River at Kamloops to Little Shuswap Lake, was cross-sectioned for the
purpose of computing the 200-year design flood level.
It is anticipated the base maps covering the above section of valleys will be
completed in 1974. The remainder of this project has been scheduled for the 1974
field season.
 T 90 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Lower Fraser Valley
It has been estimated that the total area of the Lower Fraser Valley floodplain
to be mapped, including the Serpentine-Nicomekl area, is approximately 330 square
miles.
During the latter part of August, surveys were initiated in the Chilliwack area,
consisting of about 55 square miles of mapping. The surveys were completed by
the end of December and the processing of the field data and the production of the
base maps will be carried out during the early part of 1974.
The series and scale of base maps will be similar to those being prepared for
the Thompson Valley floodplain.
Whereas the Athalmer, the Thompson Valley, and this year's component of
the Fraser Valley floodplain surveys were carried out by existing field staff attached
to this Division, the remainder of the Lower Fraser Valley floodplain survey and the
majority of future similar surveys will be carried out by a new 10-man field party.
Mapping of the Serpentine-Nicomekl floodplain, consisting of some 24 square
miles, has been scheduled for the 1974 field season.
HYDROMETRIC INSTALLATIONS
As a continuing function, the Division is called upon to install hydrometric
stations for various water-supply, basin-resource management, and research studies,
and engineering projects.
In addition to installing numerous staff gauges on lands and streams, a number
of streamflow recording stations have been constructed. Basically, these latter stations require the installation of a wet-well to mount the water-level recorder and the
construction of a headpond to maintain a sufficient depth of water in the well.
Either a measuring weir is incorporated in the headpond dam, or a metering section
is established in the stream above or below the recorder.
During freshet periods, Division staff is required to measure peak flows for
flooding and erosion studies. Metering is carried out either by using light equipment
by hand or mounted in a boat, heavy equipment mounted on a bridge dolly, or truck
equipped with a power winch.
Routine metering is carried out to provide station-rating curves and the staff
are also responsible for collection of metering data and maintenance of stations.
In general, the above stations are installed by the Field Operations Section of
the Division. However, the construction of the recording stations may require the
joint services of the Engineering and Field Survey Sections.
The following hydrometric projects were initiated during the 1973 field season.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
Establishment of hydrometric network on Mission Creek drainage for review
of district's water supply.
Peachland Irrigation District
Establishment of hydrometric network on Peachland Creek and Trepanier
Creek for assessment of available water supply.
Similkameen Basin
Establishment of hydrometric network in Similkameen Basin in connection with
study of potential storage supply.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 91
Salmon Arm Burn
Construction of three recording hydrometric stations in connection with a
research study on effects of burn on water-supply yield.
Wood Lake, Okanagan Valley
Initiation of construction of a concrete measuring weir for recording station on
Ribbleworth Creek plus installation of V-notched weirs on La Fleche Creek and
Trewhitt Creek. Installations required for research study on return flow from
irrigation.
In addition to continuing metering on the above networks during 1974, it is
anticipated that reduction of services by the Water Survey of Canada will increase
the number of future requests for installation of hydrometric stations by this Division.
WATER STORAGE RESERVOIR INVENTORY PROGRAMMES
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the southern Interior of the Province was initiated by this Division in 1964. In 1973 the programme
was expanded to include other areas of the Province.
The Province has been divided into 15 major drainage systems, namely, Columbia, Fraser, Skagit, Peace, Liard, Skeena, Nass, Stikine, Taku, Alsek, Coastal, Vancouver Island, and the Queen Charlotte Islands, and are further divided into individual drainage basins.
The principal basins in the southern Interior are the Okanagan and the Similkameen, both in the Columbia drainage system. Surveys have included both existing
and potential reservoir-sites, and the information has been used in the investigations
of water supply in the water-deficient areas, and has assisted in the administration of
water rights. This information has also been the basis of design in the reconstruction
of a number of existing storage dams under the ARDA programme.
Reservoir maps are being prepared by photogrammetry for above-surface
mapping, and the use of echo-sounding equipment for subaqueous mapping.
Detailed damsite mapping and plans of existing storage works are prepared from
field-survey data.
Of the approximately 160 storage reservoirs at present under licence in the
Okanagan Basin, about 115 reservoirs are in operation. The capacity of these
reservoirs varies from a minimum of 1 acre-foot to a maximum of about 12,500
acre-feet, which has been developed in McCulloch Reservoir under the South East
Kelowna Irrigation District ARDA project.
A large percentage of the reservoirs in operation with a capacity of 100 acre-
feet or more have been surveyed, with an additional 13 lakes being surveyed in 1973.
Drawings for 42 reservoirs are in various stages of completion, 13 are 95-100
per cent completed, 20 require "as-constructed drawings" or final drafting, and nine
require additional field surveys, new air photographs, mapping, or computations.
Forty additional reservoir surveys have been initiated and require further information, and the remaining 78 reservoirs will be done on a priority basis or as survey
field-time permits. Reservoirs with a capacity of less than 100 acre-feet have now
been included in the present programme.
In addition to drawings and field surveys, a historical file has been set up to
include photographs, correspondence, and existing information consisting of plans
of the storage works and reservoirs prepared during the original planning and
construction stages, some of the information dating back as early as 1910. At the
present time, there is an excess of 80 historical files.
 T 92 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
A total of about 40 reservoir-sites has been listed in the Similkameen Basin, of
which 29 have been licensed for storage development.
Surveys were completed on 12 of the major storage-sites in 1973, following
initial surveys carried out in 1964.
The above information is required in connection with a study of potential
storage supply within the Similkameen Basin currently being carried out by the
Division. It is anticipated that the drawings covering the 12 sites will be completed
early in 1974.
Surveys are required on 27 of the 40 sites listed.
WATER-SUPPLY PROJECTS
Chase Irrigation District
At the request of the ARDA Division, a survey was made of the existing
storage works on Pillar Lake, including a bathymetric survey, for the purpose of
computing storage capacity. This information was required in connection with a
rehabilitation study.
Cumberland Water-supply System
As a result of damage to the Village of Cumberland's gravity water-supply
system, the Water Rights Branch was considering the cost of an alternative method
of supply by pumping from Comox Lake.
The Division was requested to carry out a bathymetric survey at the proposed
intake site on Comox Lake, and a route survey along an abandoned railway right-of-
way from the intake-site to the Village of Cumberland.
Glenmore Irrigation District
During the latter part of 1972, storage surveys were carried out on Postill
Lake, South Lake, and Moore Lake storage reservoirs at the request of the ARDA
Division. These reservoirs provide storage supply to the Glenmore Irrigation
District and Ellison Irrigation District, to supplement their water supply from
Kelowna (Mill) Creek.
As all three reservoirs were holding carry-over storage at the time of survey,
it was necessary to employ a diver for the purpose of establishing the invert elevation
of the outlet works.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
In connection with the construction of the Pooley Creek-Myra Ditch diversion
system under the ARDA programme, the ditch was re-cross-sectioned following construction in 1973. The information was required for both preparation of "as constructed" drawings and a review of the ditch capacity.
Municipality of Summerland
In connection with a rehabilitation study being carried out on the Municipality
of Summerland's water-supply system by the ARDA Division, a total of 16 existing
storage reservoirs were surveyed in the latter part of 1972.
Area-elevation curves for water-yield studies being carried out by the Hydrology Division have been completed and plans of storage works, including reservoir storage capacities, are nearing completion.
Surveys of storage reservoirs are being carried out under the Storage Inventory
Programme.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 93
HYDROLOGY DIVISION
H. I. Hunter, Hydrometeorologist, Chief of Division
Snow Survey Network and Snow Survey Bulletins
One of the main functions of this Division is the operation of the British
Columbia snow survey network and the subsequent publication of the six issues of
the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin. During the first six months of 1973,
967 snow surveys were completed at 207 snow courses by personnel of co-operating
agencies and by part-time local employees. Of this total, approximately 25 per cent
were made at remote mountain locations by helicopter, with the remainder by ground
access using automobile, ski, or snowshoe as a means of transport. The snow depth
and water equivalent measurements, on the scheduled sampling dates, were transmitted to Victoria by telex, telegram, and telephone, and, together with other hydro-
meteorological information, compiled and prepared for publication.
Immediately following the February 1, March 1, April 1, May 1, May 15, and
June 1 sampling dates, the snow course data, along with up-to-date written and graphical descriptions of snow-pack and run-off conditions, were published in the Snow
Survey Bulletin. The bulletins are widely distributed, free of charge, to those interested in snow conditions, run-off conditions, flood or drought potential, hydro-power
operation, and water management. A total of 1,000 Snow Survey Bulletins was
printed for each issue and distributed immediately following each measurement date.
During the winter of 1973 the Division's technicians made 53 visits to snow
courses to provide at-site instruction in measurement technique and during the
summer visited 70 courses for maintenance purposes. In addition, 22 new snow
courses were established and of these, 19 are new locations, two are backup for
existing courses, and one is a replacement. Details applicable to each are listed
in the following table.   A total of 239 snow courses will be operational in 1974.
1973 Revisions to the British Columbia Snow Course Network
Number and Name
Elevation
(Feet)
Latitude
Longitude
Drainage
Remarks
Additions
245 Bugaboo Creek	
246 Fernie (NE)	
247 McBride (Middle).	
248 Monkman Creek	
249 Mount Stearns...	
250 Sukunka River 	
251 Beatton River	
252 Wonowon  	
253 Fort St. John A	
254 Portage Mountain	
255 Narrow Lake 	
256 Kostal Lake	
257 Trophy Mountain 2	
258 Mount Cook 2	
259 Telegraph Creek	
260 Iskut 	
261 Ningunsaw Pass	
262 Bear Pass 	
263 Granduc Mine 	
264 Wedeene River  _	
265 Boston Bar Creek (Upper)
266 Boston Bar Creek (Lower)
Deletions
167   Carrs Landing (Lower)	
208   Mount Copeland	
Change of Name
50 Now Mount Cook 1	
51 Now Trophy Mountain 1—
54   Now McBride (Upper)	
4950
3500
3800
5100
4920
3750
2700
3000
2270
2500
5400
5800
6100
5200
1900
3275
2275
1500
2600
1100
4400
4025
2250
5570
6000
6250
5300
50°45'
49°31'
53°20'
54044.
57°04'
55°14'
57-13'
56°44'
56°15'
56°00'
53°35'
52°12'
51°49'
52°11'
57°57'
57°51'
56°48'
56°06'
56°13'
54°15'
49°35'
49°36'
50°08'
51"06'
52°11'
51°49'
53°18'
116-42'
115°02'
120°19'
121-14'
123°24'
121°37'
121-28'
121-48'
120°43'
122-11'
121-54'
120-02'
119-57'
119-19'
131-09'
130-00'
129-57'
129-40'
130-04'
128-45'
121-13'
121-07'
119-26'
118-28'
119-20'
119-56'
120-20'
Upper Columbia.
East Kootenay	
Upper Fraser	
Peace 	
Peace 	
Peace	
Peace 	
Peace	
Peace 	
Peace	
Upper Fraser	
North Thompson
North Thompson
North Thompson
Stikine- _	
Stikine..	
Nass and Stikine.
Nass (Coastal)....
Nass (Coastal)	
North Coastal	
Lower Fraser	
Lower Fraser	
Okanagan	
Upper Columbia.
North Thompson.
North Thompson
Upper Fraser	
New.
Backup.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
Backup.
Replacement.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
New.
Project terminated.
No ground
access.
 T 94
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In addition to the snow survey network, the Division operates a number of
automatic recording snow pillows which are located in key water-producing areas
of the Province. These devices, which are left unattended throughout the winter,
measure and record the water equivalent of the snow-pack, and hence, continuously
monitor both the buildup and depletion of mountain snow. Precipitation and temperature are continuously recorded at each pillow-site as backup information. Two
additional snow pillows were established in the fall of 1973, with one located on
Mount St. Anne in the North Thompson region and the other on the Boston Bar
Creek watershed northeast of Hope. A total of eight pillow installations will be
operational during the 1973/74 snow season.
In order to complete the 1973 field work, the Division's technicians travelled
24,300 miles by vehicle, 5,100 miles by helicopter, and 420 miles by oversnow
machine.
1973 Streamflow Forecasting and Run-off Conditions
The snow surveys of March 1, April 1, and May 1, 1973, indicated a well-
below-average snowpack in southern regions, close to average in the central regions,
and average to above average in the northern regions of the Province. Snow surveys, along with other predictor data such as winter valley precipitation and winter
streamflow, were used to produce volume run-off forecast for publication in the
April 1 and May 1 Snow Survey Bulletins. The April 1 volume forecast, covering
the periods April through September or April through July ranged from a low of
61 per cent of normal for the Similkameen River to a high of 113 per cent of normal
for the Skeena River. A comparison of forecast to observed volume run-off is
tabulated for a few selected regional streamflow stations in the following table.
1973 Volume Run-off Forecasts (April 1)
Forecast Station
Forecast
Period
Acre-feet X 1,000
Forecast
Observed
Per Cent
of
Acreage
Fraser River at McBride.
Fraser River at Hope1..
Thompson River at Spences Bridge..
Nechako Reservoir inflow-—	
Arrow Lakes inflow 1 	
Kootenay Lake inflow1 	
Okanagan Lake inflow 	
Similkameen River at Hedley	
Upper Campbell Lake inflow 	
Williston Lake inflow.. 	
Skeena River at Usk	
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-July
Apr.-July
Apr.-July
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
4,080
51,350
14,520
4,190
23,750
15,830
270
686
827
26,170
22,230
4,013
47,360
13,210
3,582
21,010
12,330
124
531
696
23,689
19,796
94
93
90
109
92
85
81
64
99
109
113
1 Adjusted for upstream storage.
Volume run-off forecasts are made assuming that forecast period weather will
be normal. This was not the case in 1973 as the weather was extremely dry, resulting in lower observed run-off than that forecasted. By regions, the April-September
precipitation ranged from a low of 60 per cent of normal in the Okanagan-Similkameen to 91 per cent of normal in the Upper Fraser.
During the freshet period a close watch is maintained on those rivers subject
to flooding. Daily streamflow and meteorological data, provided by the Department
of the Environment, are analysed for developing flood situations. No such flooding
problems occurred as the light-to-average regional snow-pack in combination with
short periods of alternating cool and warm weather provided near ideal snow-melt
conditions.   Observed peak flows were generally less than normal.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 95
A daily watch was kept throughout the year on storage levels and releases from
Okanagan Lake. Because of the below-normal inflow forecast and the subsequent
light precipitation, the 1973 operation was to conserve water with releases from the
lake just sufficient to meet downstream demand.
Hydrometric Network
A new Hydrology Division function is the operation of an expanding hydro-
metric network which has resulted because of a cutback in service by the Water
Survey of Canada, the Federal agency historically responsible for stream-gauging
in the Province.
During 1973, 52 hydrometric stations were established, with 36 monitoring
stream-flow and 16 lake or reservoir levels. Of this total, 49 are staff gauge installations, with the remaining three having recording devices. They were established for
water-supply and hydrology study purposes and, with the exception of three stations
near Salmon Arm, are all located in the Okanagan and Similkameen regions. In
addition to station operation, the Division will be responsible for data compilation
in a form compatible for insertion in the annual Water Survey of Canada Surface
Water Data publications.
Hydrology Studies
Special hydrology studies are being or have been carried out, and reports are
either completed or in the process of completion by staff members during 1973.
These are as follows:
1. Under the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement, the final
report on Sub-Basin Runoff from Basin Characteristics was completed. In this
regionalization technique, sub-basin run-off characteristics were estimated using
physiographic characteristics as run-off predictor indices. The relationships obtained from gauged sub-basins can be extrapolated to estimate run-off characteristics on ungauged Okanagan sub-basins. Work has continued on a variety of tasks,
including review of both the final report and technical supplements and a study of
the operation of Okanagan Lake prior to the freshet year.
2. Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Water Resource Management Study—The
Division is responsible for the hydrology portion of this study which began in late
1971. During 1973, two final reports were completed. The first describes an
annual run-off relationship which is used to estimate mean annual, minimum annual,
and maximum annual run-off for all ungauged sub-basins of the Kalamalka-Wood
watershed. The report also provides an estimate of the monthly distribution of these
annual flows for use in water-management studies. The second report provides
a detailed accounting of water movement throughout the Kalamalka-Wood Lake
basin for the 20-month period December 1971 to July 1973. For this accounting,
monthly data from 21 hydrometric stations, seven meteorological stations, three
evaporation stations, and six snow courses are used.
3. Similkameen Basin Hydrology Study—A report has been written outlining
the general run-off characteristics of the basin with sufficient detailed analysis to
quantify mainstem flows and flood and drought frequencies. Also included are
tributary watershed yield and active and potential storage in the basin.
4. Osoyoos Lake Level/Similkameen River Discharge Relationship—Almost
complete is a study which has established the hydraulic properties of the Okanogan-
Similkameen junction airea and determined relationships between the flows in the
Okanogan and Similkameen Rivers and the level of Osoyoos Lake.   This will make
 T 96 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
possible prediction of Osoyoos Lake levels under high-water backwater conditions
and thereby improve water management of the Okanagan Flood Control system.
5. Osoyoos Lake Discharge—A study is continuing of the controls on Osoyoos
Lake discharges at times other than during Similkameen floods. This is a complex
phenomenon as the control can be either at a shifting sandbar in the river or at a
privately owned dam across the river near the town of Oroville. The slope of the
river south of Osoyoos Lake is very gradual and this makes determination of the
control difficult. An understanding of the controlling mechanisms is considered
essential before remedial action can be taken as suggested in the final report of the
Okanagan Basin Study.
6. Kelowna Creek Hydrology Study—The study was completed and report was
written for the water supply of Glenmore and Ellison Irrigation Districts.
7. Peachland and Trepanier Creek Hydrology Study—This water-supply study
was completed for the Peachland Irrigation District and Trepanier Water-users'
Community.
8. Mission Creek Hydrology Study—The study of water supply for the South
East Kelowna Irrigation District was continued.
9. Rubble Creek Hydrology Study—This study was carried out to determine
the maximum natural flow expected for Rubble Creek near Garibaldi and to estimate the cost of channel improvement to protect a proposed subdivision on the
creek fan.
10. Capilano River Hydrology Study—It was completed to determine the cause
of streambank erosion near the river mouth and to specify possible remedies.
11. Tsolum River-Wolf Lake Hydrology Study—A study was carried out to
determine the storage required on Wolf Lake near Courtenay to meet water requirements for irrigation and fisheries on the Tsolum River.
12. Gray stoke Lake Hydrology Study—This study was completed to determine
magnitude of the peak outflow from Graystoke Lake near Kelowna for spillway
design.
13. Snow Course Network Expansion Studies—Investigations were completed
and reports written for the Peace River basin and the Stikine-Nass River basin to
determine additional snow course sites. Seven new snow courses were subsequently
installed in the Peace basin downstream of Bennett Dam, at the request of the
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, and five in the Stikine-Nass basins
to fill data gaps in the network.
14. Salmon Arm Burn Study—The serious forest fire which occurred in the
Salmon Arm area in late September has provided an excellent opportunity to study
the effects of fire on the hydrology of a small watershed. Run-off from two watersheds, Palmer Creek and Gordon Creek, with varying degrees of burn will be compared with run-off from a nearby unburned watershed, Kernaghan Creek. To date,
three recording hydrometric stations, one recording precipitation gauge, and two
storage precipitation gauges have been installed. It is expected that the effects of
fire will be most noticeable during the freshet and low-flow periods. The effects are
expected to diminish as regrowth takes place over the next few years, and, when
not discernible, the study will be terminated.
15. British Columbia Forest Service Toquart River and Chapman Creek Projects—Hydrology Division participation commenced this year with involvement in
these integrated Resource Management Studies. In the Toquart River project, the
objective is to develop methodologies to be used in the formulation of cutting plans
which will reduce the impact of logging on other resources such as fish, recreation,
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH T 97
and wildlife to a minimum. In the Chapman Creek watershed, conflicts have arisen
involving logging and use of the water resource as a municipal water supply. The
purpose of the study is to provide plans for rehabilitation and future development
which will alleviate these conflicts. Our contribution to these projects consists of
providing information on the behaviour of the hydrologic system in the watersheds,
identify critical portions of the system, and identify and estimate possible effects of
logging. A water-level recorder has been installed on Toquart Lake and crest-stage
gauges installed near the mouth of Toquart River to provide data necessary to assess
the hydrologic regime.
16. Flood-flow frequency analyses were completed for many stream-gauging
sites for design and flood-zoning purposes.
Data Processing
1. In addition to the annual updating of British Columbia meteorological and
snow course data, a quality-control check was carried out on snow pillow data which
have been collected since 1967. These data are stored on punched cards and a listing
is retained in the Hydrology Division Library.
2. The Carrs Landing data for 1972 have been extracted and listed. These
data are also stored on punched cards as well as on magnetic tape.
3. A new computer programme was developed to print snow course sampling
reminders directly from the computer line printer, resulting in an annual saving of
many man-hours of manual compilation and typing.
4. In the Division's co-operative International Hydrological Decade Beaufort
Range project with the Atmospheric Environment Service, computer programming
was carried out in preparing climatological day precipitation data collected since
1967. This serves as the first phase of a quality-control check and eventually a listing
of daily temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation will be prepared.
5. An examination of the 1972 flood-damage data extracted from claims was
carried out in order to prepare these data for storage on magnetic tape.
6. Programming assistance was also given to the Water Supply and Investigations Division to prepare computerized inventory listings.
Research
In 1972 the Division became increasingly interested in improving short- and
long-term streamflow forecasting accuracy and in improving methods of lake and
reservoir operation. In conjunction with this, the following projects were undertaken in 1973:
(1) Analysis of a digital computer watershed simulation model developed
at the University of British Columbia. The computer programme
was modified and adapted for our use on the Data Processing Centre's computer. The model's use as a forecasting device was tested
by attempting to stimulate the net inflow into Okanagan Lake in the
1973 freshet. The results were very promising and warrant further
testing of this model.
(2) The computational details of several other watershed simulation computer models were studied in order to assess their applicability to
British Columbia drainage basins. These models range from relatively simple to very complex and have widely varying input-data
requirements.   Further study is required in order to find a reasonable
 T 98 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
compromise among available data, data required by the models, and
the models' capabilities of accurately simulating basin run-off.
(3) Study and testing of a reservoir operation method utilizing Bayesian
decision theory, also developed at the University of British Columbia.
The method was used in the 1973 freshet operation of Okanagan
Lake and appears to be a promising method of attaining optimum
operation.
(4) Various means of frequency analysis were studied in order to develop
a computer prograunme for estimate of return periods of high or low
flows or stages of rivers and lakes in British Columbia.
Miscellaneous
As a continuing function, the Division's hydrometric and meteorological libraries were updated in 1973. As co-ordinator for requests for unpublished hydro-
meteorological data, many requests were made to the Water Survey of Camada and
the Atmospheric Environment Service for such information.
Another continuing annual function is the co-ordination of Departmental
streamgauge installations under a Federal-Provincial agreement. In 1973, a listing,
comprising 21 all-year, 74 irrigation period, and 19 pollution control stations was
compiled and forwarded to the Water Survey of Canada, the Federal agency responsible for streamgauging installations.
As in previous years, personnel of the Division continue to be active as members
of interdepartmental, Provincial, national, and international working committees
which deal with problems applicable to hydrology. These include Kalamalka-Woods
Lake, Okanagan Basin, Forest Resource Use—Technical Committee, British Columbia Hydrometeorological Networks Co-ordinating Committee, British Columbia Coordinating Climatological Committee, Mackenzie Basin Information Task Force
Committee, Columbia Basin Forecast Committee, Western Snow Conference Executive Committee. Hydrology presentations have also been made to technical and
public audiences.
GROUNDWATER DIVISION
J. C. Foweraker, Ph.D., P.Eng., Chief of Division
Collection and Compilation of Basic Data
Data Collection
A continuing function of the Data Bank Section of the Groundwater Division
is the collection and compilation of basic data for ease in use both by Divisional staff
and by interested members of the public.
Logs, and other information of wells drilled by British Columbia drillers, are
collected by Groundwater Division staff or are mailed in by drillers. A total of 1,352
logs was collected for wells drilled in 1972, a decrease of 7 per cent over the previous
year. As a follow-up to this collection programme, it is often necessary for a field
check on the location of the well to be carried out by staff of the Groundwater Division, as inaccurate or unlocated well logs are of limited value. To this end, because
of other priorities, a backlog of well logs with no locations or inadequate locations
had accumulated. To alleviate this situation, the Groundwater Division committed
two full-time staff members and a summer student to locate these wells. The backlog
of unlocated wells was substantially decreased, with over 2,600 well logs being
located.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 99
Reports on groundwater resource use and evaluations in the Province were
collected from private consultants and Government agencies, particularly from the
former Public Utilities Commission and the Water Rights Branch.
Discussions were held with personnel from other Government departments,
including the Department of Highways, for ways to co-ordinate their data-storage
systems so that relevant groundwater-resource information could be readily integrated into the groundwater data bank.
Data Compilation
To facilitate optimum plotting of groundwater information, a review was made
of all known available mapping in the Province. This is of course a continuing function requiring frequent updating.
A folder has been designed for use in the data bank. It will simplify data
storage in allowing all pertinent data for any one observation point to be filed at one
location and, in consequence, facilitate any assessment of basic data. It will be
introduced into the system early next year.
Water-well Maps
A total of 24 new water-well maps was compiled. These new maps cover areas
in the following districts:
District
New Westminster
Yale	
Kamloops
Kootenay .
Number of
New Maps
_ 12
... 3
- 6
... 3
Total
24
Inquiries
The data bank serves as a basis for providing information and advice on availability of groundwater and technical aspects associated with the resource.
The following is a very approximate percentage breakdown of routine inquiries
handled by Divisional personnel over the past year:
Other government agencies
(a) Provincial
(b) Municipal
Consulting firms	
Private individuals __.
Per Cent
... 30
... 4
- 21
... 38
- 7
Industry (including water-well contractors) 	
A majority of these inquiries was for the Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland areas.
Special Project Maps
A series of hydrogeological maps are being completed during this year and
early 1974 as a part of two special projects being undertaken in the Okanagan
Valley and the Gulf Islands. The completion of a third series of maps for a pilot
project area in the Peace River area has been postponed due to a senior staff
resignation. This resignation also resulted in the termination of a fourth area along
the east coastal lowland of Vancouver Island.
 T 100
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Observation-well Data
As of December 31, 1973, the Division was monitoring 152 observation wells
throughout the Province. Fifty-nine of these comprise a network of continuing
observations, and 93 are being observed for shorter term special projects. Four
special projects observation wells of Mayne Island were entered into the network
of continuing observations. Automatic water-level recorders are installed in 16
of the continuing network wells, and in 26 of the special project wells. In April
and October 1973 the continuing network was inspected for servicing and water
chemistry data collection.
As a result of the "appraisal of hydrographs" in 1972, six monitor wells were
discontinued. Six new wells were added to the network in 1973, one in the Thorn-
hill area and one at Dease Lake. The remaining four are from special projects on
Mayne Island.   Two wells were destroyed by vandals and two by developers.
At the end of May 1973 the distribution by watershed of observation wells in
the continuing network was as follows:
Coastal watershed  10
Fraser watershed and Lower Mainland  30
Okanagan and Similkameen-watersheds  13
Columbia watershed     2
Northern watershed      4
Total  59
The distribution of special projects observation wells was as follows:
Kalamalka-Wood Lake  39
Okanagan Valley "study area"  33
Okanagan Basin Study  9
Athalmer   5
Gulf Islands   5
Fraser Valley Trout Hatchery  2
Total
93
Groundwater Chemistry Data
The 1972 groundwater chemistry samples have been processed and plotted.
A hydrochemical information map series is under way for selected map sheets. The
92-1, Kamloops Sheet, is completed in draft form.
A water sample collection programme was undertaken for NTS Map Sheets
82-F and G in the Kootenay District. The results of the chemical analyses have
been received from the Provinciad Water Resources Laboratory. Hydrochemical
information map sheets are to be prepared from the water-sampling programme.
Flowing Artesian Well Location Maps
Maps using the National Topographic Series numbering system are being made
up for all known flowing artesian wells in the Province. Draft copies of maps
have been completed for the Lillooet; Cariboo; Coast, Ranges 1 to 5; and Peace
River Land Districts.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH T 101
Special Projects
Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Study
The objective of the groundwater study programme is to try to determine the
role of groundwater in nutrient input into Wood aind Ellison Lakes. The wells
selected for study, and the locations of 37 new wells installed in 1972, have been
designed to monitor
(1) groundwater flow and water-quality changes in the more densely
settled parts of the area along the lake margins;
(2) groundwater flow in and from agricultural areas;
(3) areas of underflow between lakes; and
(4) areas where recharge to groundwater occurs from influent streams.
Work during the current year included plotting of basic water-well data and
use of water-well drillers' lithologic and electric logs to study the subsurface surficial
geology and to construct water-level contour maps. Plan view maps and cross-
sections were made of the geology and groundwater geology of parts of the study
area.
In the 1973 field season a study of field features was conducted. This included
mapping and sampling of springs, creeks, and wells, bedrock outcrops, main types
of surficial deposits, and installation and measurements of four temporary stream
gauges; study of the above data has been combined with existing data into making a
hydrogeological map for the study area. The field work was supplemented by
studies of black-and-white and colour air photographs.
A total of 105 water-sampling sites (wells, springs, and creeks, including 37
newly installed observation wells was sampled over a period of 17 months. The
number of samples per site ranged from three to 13 and were partial chemical
analyses oriented toward nutrient studies. Full chemical analyses have also been
run on groundwaters on about 150 samples in the study area. Results of the
nutrient studies have been plotted on semilogarithmic graph paper and average
values have been obtained for total nitrogen and total soluble phosphate in parts
per million.
One permanent automatic recorder monitors streamflow at a gauging point
established by the Hydrology Division. Results from the data and other temporary
weirs have been used to study return groundwater flow from irrigation on the east
side of Wood Lake. Return groundwater flow has also been studied for the Winfield
Creek basin using pumping-test data from one of the Division's test-sites, data from
an automatic recorder, and the results of hydrogeological mapping.
Quantitative estimates of groundwater inflow to Wood Lake have been made
based on field findings where possible or on literature studies. These have been
combined with average results for nitrogen and phosphate to determine nutrient
contribution of groundwaters to Wood Lake.
Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin Groundwater Programme
The groundwater programme forms part of the water-quantity studies being
undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch. During the early part of the year
the final groundwater report prepared under this programme by Groundwater Division personnel was submitted to the Study Director's office. This report was completed under Task 47.
Task 47: This involved evaluation of various task findings and previously obtained information, and integration of several reports into the volume to be produced
 T 102 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
as part of Technical Supplement I—Surface and Groundwater Studies in the Okanagan River Basin.
East Coastal Lowland of Vancouver Island
A hydrogeological assessment of the east coastal lowland of Vancouver Island
between Nanaimo and Comox was undertaken as a pilot project to demonstrate
the viability of hydrogeological mapping as an aid in resource planning. The area
selected was determined as justifiable primarily on the basis of population density,
public awareness, and factors determined by discussion. This study has now been
terminated due to a senior staff resignation. However, the project has reached a
logical termination point at which the initial existing data compilations have been
completed.   Further work will now require engineer input and field investigations.
Peace River Area
Work was completed on a first draft report and maps summarizing the known
hydrogeology of a selected area near Fort St. John. The report covers an account of
the geology based on a study of drill cuttings, core samples, and geophysical borehole logging. Pump-test data on pumping and observation wells were analysed to
obtain some idea of well yields. Chemical analyses of groundwaters were studied,
and combined with information on the geology and hydrology. Further editing will
be required before this report can be drafted in its final form.
Gulf Islands Groundwater Study
The groundwater investigations completed on Mayne Island are the first step
in a larger groundwater study of the Gulf Islands. The purpose of these studies is
to investigate the potential, distribution, quality, and quantity of groundwater in the
Gulf Islands in order to determine if licensing and regulation of groundwater is
necessary for the future management of the resource. The results of the Mayne
Island investigations will give direction for further work to be carried out in the
other Gulf Islands.
The groundwater investigations on Mayne Island are recorded in three reports
now completed to the stage of first-draft copies.
Report 1 includes an evaluation of the resource with recommendation on development and management. Hydrogeological maps and geological maps and cross-
sections are included. Quantitative studies include groundwater recharge considerations, interpretations of hydrographs prepared from observation wells, regression
analyses with the aid of the computer to obtain a mathematical expression of water
quality and depth, and a theoretical model of the potable groundwater supplies and
estimated demands. Recommendations are made for groundwater development and
management.
Report 2 is a detailed account of the hydrochemistry of the islands and includes
a hydrochemical grouping map and a total dissolved solids map for each of three
depth zones. A theoretical model was designed to show interpreted groundwater
flow systems on two cross-sections through the island.
Report 3 is an analyses of the 1973 test-well drilling programme, pumping tests,
and down-hole geophysics completed on Mayne Island.
A preliminary draft copy of a bedrock and structural geology map of much of
Saltspring Island has been completed under the terms of an agreement made with
the University of British Columbia. The map is a prerequisite to an understanding
of the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the island. A final map and geological report
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH T 103
are expected. During the summer of 1973, 273 water samples from wells, springs,
lakes, and creeks were collected and analysed from Saltspring Island, and an additional 100 samples collected from Galiano Island. Mapping of groundwater features
was carried out on both islands and additional geological mapping done on Galiano
Island.
Processing of data continues so that preliminary maps can be completed in time
to use for the next field season.
A groundwater consulting firm was engaged to make a groundwater study of
Gabriola Island. A draft report was submitted and a final report is expected.
Groundwater Engineering Projects
During the year, field investigations and reports were completed on the following groundwater engineering projects:
Quadra Island—At the request of the Water Rights Branch, a pump test was
conducted using Branch equipment on a spring to evaluate its maximum yield.
Surrey—At the request of the Deputy Minister, the effects of a flowing artesian
well were investigated along with suggestions on how to control its flow.
Cobble Hill—An investigation was made in this area to establish whether or
not well interference was taking place between two wells pumping simultaneously.
The investigation was in response to a request from the regional district.
Nanaimo River—At the request of the Department of Agriculture, suggestions
were made on how to alleviate adverse water-table fluctuations in wells affected by
stage change of the Nanaimo River.
Grand Forks Irrigation District—A review of existing information followed by
a house-to-house well inventory was carried out in the district at the request of the
Branch Director as the first step in a groundwater evaluation within the district.
Telegraph Creek—At the request of the Branch Director, an investigation was
made at Telegraph Creek to investigate groundwater-supply alternatives for the
community.
Kitimat—At the request of the Lands Service, consultative services were given
in connection with a drilling programme to evaluate groundwater supplies for a
proposed subdivision north of Kitimat.
Nelson—At the request of the Water Rights Branch, a preliminary field study
was completed on potential groundwater sources in the Krestova Improvement District.
East Coast of Vancouver Island—A short investigation was made of potential
groundwater sources for the Headquarters Road Improvement District in connection
with an irrigation water-supply project under the ARDA agreement.
Texada Island—At the request of the Branch Director a short investigation was
made to Texada Island in order to inspect a number of springs located in an area
of future logging operations near Gillies Bay.
Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District 4, Oliver—Some advisory assistance was given to the ARDA Division regarding exploration for additional groundwater supplies in that area. A brief field study was undertaken by a consultant.
Contract documents were reviewed and prepared by senior staff at the request of
the Branch for the possibility that test drilling and the installation of one or more
production wells might be carried out. Further work on this project has now been
terminated.
 T 104 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Miscellaneous
In addition to the activities outlined above, considerable staff time was spent
on attending to numerous inquiries concerning all matters dealing with groundwater
in the Province and also interdepartmental consultative services, advice, and review
requests. A number of short reports and memos were prepared for specific requests
and for future Division activities.
As more groundwater information is collected, and as demand increases for the
collected data, a rapid storage and retrieval of data will become necessary. A number of methods of processing groundwater data are presently available and these are
being studied. A small pilot project involving a limited amount of data on Mayne
Island is being transcribed for machine processing in order to evaluate more effectively the feasibility of one system.
A new well log form has been designed and printed. It will replace the former
Division log form and will, as before, be distributed to drillers on request.
A short internal report was completed, entitled Groundwater Resource Evaluation in British Columbia.
The Division Chief and a senior Geological Engineer attended a two-day
seminar in Edmonton, conducted by the Research Council of Alberta, on the
preparation and use of hydrogeological maps and the collection, storage, processing,
and interpretation of basic data.
The Division Chief attended the 1973 Pacific Northwest Water Well Exposition
held in Portland, Oreg., and took part in a panel discussion and gave a short address.
ARDA DIVISION
J. V. Eby, P.Eng., Chief of Division
Since the start of the ARDA water-projects programme in British Columbia in
1963, a total expenditure of $37,433,000 has been authorized and some
$33,864,000 actually expended on approved ARDA water projects. In addition, a
further $200,000 has been expended on projects for which final approval is awaited.
Actual and potential water projects under the ARDA programme total 97 in
number and, of these, 68 have been approved by Federal and Provincial authorities
and 29 are under study prior to a possible proposal submission or awaiting approval.
Fifty projects have been completed and 13 are presently under construction.
Of the projects under construction, three were brought into full operation during the year and may be considered complete in the construction sense. The 13
incomplete projects mostly have construction periods exceeding one year, some of
which will not be completed until 1974 or later. Some of the completed projects
have still to submit final claims for reimbursement in respect of such things as contractor's holdback, and legal and surveying costs pending.
Projects descriptions following will be given only for those which are actively
under study or where significant changes have taken place during 1973.
ARDA Projects Essentially Completed During the Year
1. Otter Lake Waterworks District—RSM Extension (ARDA Project 89027)
—The Otter Lake Waterworks District reconstructed its water-supply system in
1972 under ARDA Project 89004. Subsequent to approval of this project, the
property-owners in the adjacent RSM area petitioned for inclusion within the Otter
Lake Waterworks District and received ARDA approval for the extension in August
 WATER investigations BRANCH T 105
1972 under ARDA Project 89027. The approved cost was $125,400, which included an allowance for increasing the capacity of the main system to meet the
increased water demand.
Design of the project was carried out by consulting engineers and construction
was completed under contract in 1973 at a final cost of $140,000. The district has
made application for ARDA assistance to cover the supplementary amount required.
2. Robson Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89020)—The Robson Irrigation
District provides irrigation water to 110 acres of land, and domestic water to about
45 farms and 260 residential water-users. During 1968 and 1969 the district completed the first two phases of reconstruction of its work under ARDA Projects 29029,
29029(S), and 29039. This work involved the replacement of approximately
10,000 feet of 12-inch pipe-line and improvements to the intake works.
The final phase of the project under ARDA Project 89020 commenced in 1971
with the installation of about 5,000 feet of 10-inch pipe-line and is now substantially
complete with the installation in 1973 of about 2,000 feet of 12-inch pipe-line and
250 feet of 6-inch pipe-line, together with valves, fittings, and service connections.
Design of the project was by consulting engineers.
Final cost of rehabilitation under all four projects is anticipated to be below
the estimated cost of $216,000.
3. Black Mountain Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29018, 29050, and
89030)—The majority of the construction for these projects was completed in 1971
which included replacement of the old open-gravity system with a new pressurized
irrigation and domestic water system to supply approximately 5,000 acres, and
reconstruction of Fish Hawk Lake Dam to provide an additional 1,700 acre-feet of
storage. This work was carried out under ARDA Projects 29018 and 29050
respectively.
A supplemental ARDA Project 89030 was approved in January 1973 to cover
over expenditures on these two projects, and to complete construction of additional
chlorinating facilities. This work was completed during 1973, and final expenditures
on these projects will be slightly less than the approved cost of $3,886,360.
An additional project for reconstruction of the district's remaining storage
works has recently been approved and is described under ARDA Project 29042.
ARDA Projects Under Construction or Study
1. Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 10010,
29041, 29042 (S), and 29051)—The purpose of these ARDA projects is to rehabilitate completely the existing irrigation system of the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District, a Provincially operated system, and to provide a supply of domestic
water for rural users. New works under this programme have been constructed over
the past nine years. The rehabilitation of the system is virtually completed with only
minor construction remaining. The total estimated cost of rehabilitation is
$3,552,000.
Construction during 1973 included replacement of 1,500 feet of concrete
canal north of Gallagher Lake, an interconnection of Systems 1 and 3 in order to
supply water to System 1 from the wells in System 3 during the high demand
periods in the spring before the carnal can be put into operation, and replacement
of the 7.5-horsepower unit in pumphouse 1a with a 30-horsepower unit.
2. South East Kelowna Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29053 and 89031)
—The purpose of these projects is to construct a water system to supply 4,336
 T 106
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
acres with irrigation water under pressure and to supply domestic water to 660
homes at an approved cost $4,415,600.
The main features of the water system are upstream storage and diversion works
to provide the annual requirement of 12,700 acre-feet of water, a diversion dam
and settling-pond on Hydraulic Creek, a chlorinator, 18,600 feet of 42-inch-diameter
supply-line, and two distribution systems containing approximately 150,000 feet of
pipe ranging in size from 4-inch to 30-inch in diameter, and 26 pressure-reducing
and pressure-relief stations.
The construction of the upstream reservoir structures is being carried out under
the direction of the Water Supply and Investigations Division, and that portion of
the project is described more fully under the report of that Division. The design
amd construction of the distribution system works and the Pooley and Myra diversions works is being carried out by the ARDA Division.
The Pooley and Myra diversion canals, approximately 6 miles in length, were
completed and tested during 1973. The canals divert water from Pooley Creek,
Canyon Creek, Easter Creek, and Halfway Creek into the McCulloch Reservoir.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District section of Pooley Creek diversion canal
nearing completion.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 107
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South East Kelowna Irrigation District excavation of Pooley Creek diversion canal.
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South East Kelowna Irrigation District hydraulic creek intake, screening works, and
chlorinator station under construction.
 T 108
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
During 1973, 23,500 feet of pipe in sizes 18-inch to 30-inch and related accessories were installed in the distribution systems. Designs were also completed and
tenders awarded for the supply of all remaining distribution system works. The
installation of the remaining distribution system will be completed in early 1974.
The 1973 construction season also saw completion of the intake dam on
Hydraulic Creek which provides a small reservoir for balancing storage and settling
an intake with mechanical travelling screens, and a chlorinator.
All works under this project should be completed and operational by mid-1974.
3. Black Mountain Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89042)—In the original
ARDA submission for Project 29018, some allowance was made for rehabilitation
work on the existing district storage works, Belgo and Graystoke Lake dams, and
associated diversions. Further investigation of these works prior to rehabilitative
work being started revealed that far more extensive work was required than the
original estimate would cover. Hence, very little work was performed on these
storage works other than to continue the investigation of the work required. This
investigative work revealed that the Graystoke Lake Dam was in very hazardous
condition, and, in light of the 1971/72 run-off predictions for a very high water
yield, an order was issued to breach this dam. The breaching was carried out in
April 1972.
A new submission was presented to the ARDA authorities in 1973 for the
rebuilding of the Graystoke Dam and rehabilitating Belgo Lake dams, Diamond
Dick diversion, Hilda Creek diversion, and Mugford Creek diversion. ARDA
Project 89042 was approved on October 16, 1973, in the amount of $1,600,000
for this work.
The district awarded a contract for the construction of the new Graystoke
Lake dam in July 1973, amd the contractor was able to construct approximately 80
m™™-,. -««-,___» ..      MF_lJB3»fI»y_-. _, -       -   *„._««. " *>« .£S_5__.__'
Black Mountain Irrigation District, placement of gravel filter at base of downstream
section of Graystoke Lake dam.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 109
Black Mountain Irrigation District, installation of 36-inch-diameter outlet conduit,
Graystoke Lake dam.
per cent of the works before construction activities were curtailed by winter conditions. Graystoke dam is a zoned earth-rockfill dam of 64 feet in height, and with
an 80-foot-wide. spillway. The dam was completed to grade over one-half of its
length, and to 43 feet in height over the remaining half before construction was
curtailed.
It is anticipated that the remaining work at Graystoke will be completed during
the 1974 construction season and that the rehabilitative works at Belgo Lake dam
and the diversions will be well under way.
4. Chase Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89039)—This project involved
the rehabilitation of the dam on Pillar Lake, the intake of Chase Creek, and the
supply main. Provision is also made for the removal of sediment during the freshet
flow. The renewed system will ensure the continued irrigation of 635 acres of
pasture and hayland.
The project received final approval in November 1973 at an estimated cost
of $82,500.   Construction is scheduled to start in September 1974.
5. Deadman Creek Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89021)—This project
involves construction of a storage dam and control structure located at the outlet
of Snohoosh Lake, which will provide 4,000 acre-feet of operating storage. Released storage water during the irrigation season will supplement low flows in Dead-
man Creek and water will be pumped or diverted at various points downstream to
irrigate bordering fields.
The project was approved in August 1972 at an estimated cost of $126,000.
Design of the project will be by consulting engineers under the direction of the
Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
 T 110 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
6. Coldwater Indian Band Irrigation Project (ARDA Project 89022)—This
project was approved in August 1972 at an estimated cost of $301,000. The project
involves construction of a dam on Midday Creek to develop a storage capacity of
1,400 acre-feet. Two separate pumping systems aire to be constructed downstream
of the storage dam for irrigation of some 800 acres within the Coldwater Indian
Reserve 2.
Design of the project will be by consulting engineers under the direction of
the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern
Development.
7. Ellison Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89040)—The distribution works
for the Ellison Irrigation District were reconstructed under ARDA Projects 10016
and 29036. In addition, the Bulman Creek storage dam, operated jointly with the
Glenmore Irrigation District, was reconstructed under ARDA Projects 29049 and
89011.
ARDA Project 89040 was approved in 1973 for the construction of chlorinating and distribution storage facilities to provide a year-round supply of domestic
water. The approved cost of this project is $62,400. Design is by consulting
engineers and work will be carried out under contract.
8. Scotty Creek Irrigation District (ARDA Project 89041)—Scotty Creek
Irrigation District reconstructed its distribution works in 1968 under ARDA Projects 29011 and 29011 (S). The storage works on Trapper Lake were reconstructed
under ARDA Projects 10004 and 29034.
ARDA Project 89041, which was approved in October 1973 at a cost of
$52,800, will provide for chlorinating and storage facilities for domestic water
supply to about 50 farms. The project is being designed by consulting engineers
and construction will be carried out under contract.
Other Studies
During the year the ARDA Division carried out investigations and feasibility
studies on several possible projects. The project descriptions following cover the
more detailed studies carried out in both water-supply and drainage projects.
1. Corporation of the District of Summerland Water-supply system rehabilitation—The Corporation of the District of Summerland supplies irrigation water to
about 3,600 acres of land and provides domestic water to about 2,000 connections.
During the period 1965 to 1969 the district completed reconstruction of four of its
ten storage dams and replaced sections of its main flumes under ARDA Project
10029. The storage reservoirs provide about 10,500 acre-feet of storage from the
watersheds of Trout Creek and Eneas Creek.
The major part of the irrigation supply system consists of open flume and ditch
which is in need of replacement. A feasibility study was therefore undertaken by the
ARDA Division in November 1971 to determine extent and costs for rehabilitation
of the district's system, including work required on the remaining storage dams.
This study was completed in January 1973 and was presented to the district in April
1973. The study outlined three alternative proposals, including the rehabilitation
of the existing irrigation system, a new pressurized irrigation system, and a combined irrigation-domestic pressurized system incorporating the existing domestic
system with the proposed works as well as including the supply of water to the Trout
Creek Irrigation District, which lies within the district's boundary.
In June 1973, Council advised it wished to proceed with the combined irrigation-domestic system, including Trout Creek Irrigation District, subject to public
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH Till
referendum, and an application for ARDA assistance is currently under consideration by the Federal Government having previously been approved by the Provincial
Government.   The estimated cost of the project is $4,795,520.
2. South East Kelowna Irrigation District domestic water supply—A report
was made on the feasibility of supplying domestic water to some 350 land-owners
who did not qualify for assistance under the ARDA programme. The study consisted of a preliminary design and estimates of the cost of installing distribution
system works to supply all properties within the boundaries of the district which
presently does not receive water.
3. Headquarters Road Irrigation District—A feasibility report was completed
on a proposed irrigation project for the Headquarters Road Irrigation District. The
district proposed to irrigate up to 1,000 acres of land situated in the Tsolum River
valley of Vancouver Island. It was proposed to construct a storage dam on Wolf
Lake with pumphouse and intake structure located adjacent to the Tsolum River.
Two possible schemes were considered, one which would irrigate some 585 acres
of land and one which would irrigate a full potential of 1,000 acres. Capital cost
of these projects were estimated at $337,000 and $400,000 respectively.
4. Vernon Irrigation District, Grizzly Swamp Diversion—A feasibility report
was completed by the ARDA Division on development of additional upstream
storage for the Vernon Irrigation District. This project involves construction of
two dams to develop 2,200 acre-feet of storage on Grizzly Swamp and a diversion
canal into Aberdeen Lake. The Vernon Irrigation District has applied for ARDA
assistance to construct these works at an estimated cost of $395,000. The project
is under review by the Fisheries Service of the Federal Department of the Environment with a view to providing additional storage for the maintenance of salmon-
spawning habitat in the Duteau and Besette Creek systems.
5. Glenmore Irrigation District—A report has been completed on the proposed
rehabilitation of intake works and main transmission-line of the Glenmore Irrigation
District from Mill Creek to the McKinlay Reservoir, as well as rehabilitation of a
portion of the distribution system which is supplied from this line. The majority
of the district's system has been reconstructed under ARDA Projects 10003, 29005,
and 29020.
Part of this project would be shared with the Ellison Irrigation District, as the
two districts operate joint diversion works on Mill Creek. The capital cost of the
project is estimated to be about $735,000.
6. Fortune Creek Drainage and Dyking District—A preliminary study was
undertaken by the ARDA Division to estimate the cost of dredging Fortune Creek
within the boundaries of Fortune Creek Drainage and Dyking District. The scheme
would benefit approximately 700 acres of hayland and pasture by providing flood
control and by reducing the high-water table. The capital costs were estimated at
$96,000.
7. Vinsulla Irrigation District—A feasibility report on an irrigation system for
Vinsulla Irrigation District is being prepared by the ARDA Division. The proposed
scheme is to convert from flood and ditch irrigation to pressurized sprinkler irrigation of 377 acres of hay and alfalfa crops. The district's diversion of irrigation water
from Knouff Creek is supported by storage on Huff Lake, Badger Lake, and Martin
Meadows Lake.   Further development of storage may be required.
8. District of Surrey—A study is being made of the feasibility of using controls
at the dams on the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers to regulate the water levels in
these rivers during the irrigation season.
 T 112 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
9. District of Matsqui—The extent of the internal drainage improvements to
be carried out in Matsqui Prairie under the Fraser River Flood Control Programme
has still to be determined. Further design of the secondairy drainage system will
await a decision on what is to be done to the main drainage channels.
10. District of Abbotsford—A study has begun of the flooding problems on
1,900 acres of farmland bordering on Saar Creek in the southeast part of the district.
11. Township of Chilliwhack, Castleman Road Drainage Scheme—The proposed Castleman Road drainage scheme, which would provide gravity drainage for
2,060 acres, was submitted to the township early in 1973. A meeting was held
with the land-owners to discuss the report and there were some objections to the
proposed location of a section of the main drainage ditch. As a result of the meeting, an amendment has been made to the report suggesting an alternative location
for part of the main ditch. The revised cost estimate of the drainage scheme is
$177,500.
12. Township of Chilliwhack, Chadsey Ditch Watershed—The discharge data
collected during the winter of 1971/72 from the 320-acre Chadsey Ditch watershed
have been analysed and have been found to provide useful information on the
volume of run-off from agricultural land. The study has been expanded to review
the data collected during the winter of 1967/68 on the much larger Chilliwhack
Creek watershed, which covers 13,390 acres and which is also largely composed of
agricultural land.   A report is being prepared on these investigations.
BASIN PLANNING AND POWER DIVISION
J. D. Watts, P.Eng., Chief of Division
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions—the
development of plans for water management on a regional or watershed basis, and
the inventory of the undeveloped water-power potential of the Province. The
following work has been done during the past year:
Water-management Studies
Creston Flats Monitoring Programme
Investigation of the consequences of changes in river regime and possible
changes in Kootenay Lake storage levels on the dyked areas at Creston is the subject
of an extensive monitoring programme commenced in 1969. To date, the following
work has been done:
1. In co-operation with the Groundwater Division, 71 observation wells within
the dyked atreas were installed or rehabilitated. Due to road and other construction,
the number of active wells has now dropped to 63. The resident well-reader made
a total of 26 circuits of the well system in 1973. Data collected are tabulated and
plotted in preparation for comparison with data from other years.
2. Each of the four dyking districts has two pumping stations to assist in land
drainage. In co-operation with the station operators, data on pumping time and
power consumption are being collected on a continuing basis.
3. Infra red colour and panchromatic air photography, river and lake levels,
local precipitation records, and other information are being collected for correlation
and evaluation in conjunction with data provided by the observation wells.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 113
Similkameen River Floodplain
As part of a programme to develop suitable structural and nonstructural flood-
control measures in the Similkameen Valley, an outline of the areas affected by the
1972 flood was prepared using air photographs obtained during the freshet supplemented by a field survey made at the time of peak flows.
An extrapolation from the flood profile developed in the 1972 study was made
to delineate the probable limits of a once in 200 years return period flood from
Princeton downstream to the Canada-United States border. Seventeen maps to
scale 1 inch=400 feet have been prepared which illustrate the floodplain limits, and
these will be available to interested parties in the near future. The same information
has been shown also on 1 inch=1/4 mile maps which cover the same portion of the
Similkameen Valley in four sheets.
North Thompson River Floodplain
In order to establish criteria for dyke-crest elevation in the Kamloops area,
a design flood profile was calculated for a flood having a frequency of recurrence of
once in 200 years. This flood profile was originally calculated from Kamloops Lake
upstream to Kamloops and up the North Thompson River to the Canadian National
Railways bridge. The profile was subsequently extended upstream for some 102
miles to Vavenby at the request of the Thompson-Nicola Regional District.
Maps to scale 1 inch=500 feet have been prepared showing the floodplain
limits for the 200-year flood based on the calculated profile. This series of flood-
plain maps is comprised of 28 sheets and these should be available for distribution
to interested parties early in 1974.
General floodplain maps, comprised of four sheets, showing the area from
Kamloops to Vavenby at a scale of 1:50,000 (\XA inches to 1 mile) have also been
prepared.
The 1 inch=500 feet maps were based on a set of topographic maps prepared
in 1935. New detailed surveys were carried out this year and new mapping of
critical areas is being prepared. The floodplain limits will be redrawn to a greater
accuracy on the new mapping. Further studies to map potential depths of flooding
are anticipated to enable recommendations to be made to assist the City of Kamloops
and the Thompson-Nicola Regional District to minimize future flood damages.
Nicola-Coldwater Flood Profile
A report was prepared in 1967 entitled "Nicola and Coldwater Rivers, Erosion
amd Flooding Study." This report dealt mainly with flooding problems in and near
the Town of Merritt. In this report, the flood profile of a 50-year return period flood
was used. In order to make this report consistent with current practice, the profile
of a 200-year return period flood was calculated and the report amended accordingly.
Chilliwack River Floodplain
At the request of the Department of Municipal Affairs, a study was made of
the floodplain limits for a 200-year return period flood on the Chilliwack River from
the Vedder Crossing bridge upstream for some 10 miles.
Based on a frequency study of the water levels recorded at Vedder Crossing,
and the river profile of a lesser flood developed for an earlier report, the floodplain
boundary limits for the 200-year return period flood were estimated.   However, until
 T 114 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
this study has been corroborated by river profile measurements in the upper reaches
of the study area, it is not anticipated that this Chilliwack River floodplain mapping
will be made available to the general public.
Lillooet River Flood Study
Early in 1972, a flood-control study was completed and a report entitled "Preliminary Report on Lillooet River Flood Control for the Pemberton Valley Dyking
District" was prepared. Following meetings with the trustees of the Pemberton
Valley Dyking District, it was decided to further investigate the problems of flooding
in the Pemberton area. The primary purpose of the new study is to ascertain the
effect of using a 200-year return period flood instead of the 50-year flood used in
the 1972 report.
This study is continuing and the feasibility of dyking, bank protection, river
stabilization, and drainage of the dyked areas is being investigated. It is expected
the new report will be completed in mid-1974.
Kettle River Floodplain
In conjunction with flood-protection studies for the City of Grand Forks, a
flood profile for the 200-year return period flood was calculated for the Kettle and
Granby Rivers in the vicinity of Grand Forks. This flood profile was used to delineate the floodplain from Gilpin upstream to the Canada-United States border on the
Kettle River and for a distance of approximately 1 mile on the Granby River from
its confluence with the Kettle River. Maps to scales 1 inch=200 feet and 1
inch=400 feet, showing the floodplain limits, will be available for distribution to
interested parties in the near future.
City of Grand Forks Flood-damage Study
Estimates of potential flood damage to residential and commercial properties
in three flood-prone areas within the City of Grand Forks have been prepared for
use in determining the extent of flood-protection works required. Using large-scale
cadastral and topographic mapping, output from the Hydraulic Gradients Computations Programme, and data derived from the city assessment rolls, stage-to-flooded
area and stage-to-damage relationships have been computed for each flood-prone
area.
Multiple Use of Community Watersheds
The Task Force on Multiple Use of Watersheds of Community Water Supplies,
which was formed in 1972, is comprised of members of Provincial resource departments with the Departments of Health and Municipal Affairs also being represented.
Its terms of reference are to investigate the practicability of obtaining a wholesome
water supply from streams having watersheds subject to multiple use and to recommend procedures and policies for consideration of such land-use conflicts.
Various functions have been carried out during 1973 in support of the Task
Force as follows:
1. About 310 of the 325 questionnaires which were distributed to community
water-users throughout the Province late in 1972 were returned. A summary of
the results of the questionnaire survey was prepared.
2. The community watershed areas throughout the Province were measured
and outlined in maps which indicate the location, drainage-area size, stream source,
user's name, and population, as well as other pertinent data.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH T 115
3. Background information was provided for specific watershed areas where
multiple-use problems necessitated discussions by interested agencies and organizations.
4. Data were prepared and requests made to the Lands Service to establish
map reserves for all community watersheds in the Province and to provide status
mapping of selected watershed areas.
5. The six Regional Inter-Sector Committees in the Province, comprised of
regional officials of the resource departments, were requested to assist the Task
Force in its study. Background data on the community watersheds within their
regions were prepared and forwarded to each of these committees.
6. Symposia and field tours of community watersheds were attended to obtain
information on the opportunities, problems, and research needs in the management
of community watersheds.
7. A tentative method of classification of community watersheds was prepared
and submitted to the Task Force.
Fraser River Agreement Studies
The following tasks under the Fraser River Upstream Storage Study were
assigned to the Water Investigations Branch and carried out under the direction of
this Division.
Task 1 is to update the cost estimates of System E projects proposed in the
Final Report of the Fraser River Board 1963, including, where necessary, further
field investigations and revised designs.
Progress during the year is as follows:
Lower McGregor Project—The results of the 1972 field investigation programme were contained in a report by G. E. Grippen and Associates Limited, Consulting Engineers to the Service, entitled "1972 Fraser River Investigations, Lower
McGregor Project, February 1973." This report concluded that control of seepage
through the infilled valley at the Lower McGregor damsite, to the extent necessary,
is feasible. The report also described the results of a programme of air photograph
interpretation and a brief field reconnaissance of a 28-mile length of the Parsnip
River, through which the flow of the McGregor system would be diverted by the
proposed Lower McGregor project. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the existence of possible damsites on the Parsnip River to provide regulation
of the diversion flows and enhance power production at the Peace River dams, both
existing and proposed. Five alternative potential damsites were tentatively located
from the air photograph interpretation and examined on the ground. Tentative
layouts of developments proposed for four of these sites are included in the report.
Task 2 required that a benefit-cost analysis be made of upstream dyking requirements necessary to provide protection against a 200-year return period flood.
To this end, the Basin Planning and Power Division has undertaken the tasks of
preparing preliminary designs and cost estimates for dykes which may be necessary
in the Kamloops, Prince George, and Quesnel area. This task was nearing completion when information became available from observations recorded during the exceptionally heavy run-off in June 1972 which indicated the necessity to recalculate
the design flood flows utilizing the new flow data. As a result, the design flood profiles
were raised above those calculated previously, requiring the dyke crest elevations to
be increased and the costs re-estimated.
 T 116 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Cost estimates were completed for the construction of the 22 miles of dyke
in the vicinity of Kamloops and 2Vi miles of dyke at Quesnel, as well as the necessary associated bank protection.
Work is proceeding on the design of 24,500 feet of dykes required to protect
flood-prone aireas in the vicinity of Prince George.
Reports on required flood-protection works in the Kamloops and Quesnel areas
have been prepared, while that for the Prince George area should be completed in
early 1974.
Computer Programmes
Program WBP001 "Hydraulic Gradients Computation" has been placed in the
User's Library at the Provincial Data Processing Centre and a User's Manual for
the programme has been prepared and is available for distribution. The programme,
given a description of cross-sections of the reach under consideration, allows the
programmer to determine water-surface profiles for various discharges. With the
aid of air photographs to assess overbank conditions, and an observed water-surface
profile to assess channel roughness, the required flood profile can be stimulated.
For use with Programme WBP001 "Hydraulic Gradients Computation," the
following river reaches have been modelled:
(a) Granby River, from confluence with Kettle River upstream to Gauge
8NN2 (approximately 1.1 miles).
(&) Kettle River, from Gilpin upstream to the Canada-United States
border (approximately 18.3 miles),
(c) North Thompson River, from Heffley Creek upstream to McLure
(approximately 17.4 miles).
Miscellaneous
The system of review of applications for Crown land purchases, leases, and
reserves to determine possible water-resource management conflicts was continued.
Some 430 applications were reviewed.
Numerous inquiries from other departments regarding the anticipated flood
hazard in respect to particular properties were answered.
Hydro-power Investigations
Liard River
Detailed office studies of the hydro-power potential of the Liard River in
British Columbia continued during the year. A report was completed covering the
hydro-power potential at Site X, located on the mainstem of the Liard River, some
10 miles downstream from the mouth of the Fort Nelson River. Schemes involving
the development of sites located on the mainstem of the Liard River, upstream of
Site X, were investigated previously by this Division. In this report, Site X was
considered as an addition to a scheme of development involving two dams at Site A
some 30 miles upstream from the mouth of the Fort Nelson River, and at Site E
located some 17 miles downstream from Lower Crossing.
The development costs related to Sites X, A, and E were estimated to involve
a total capital expenditure of $1.88 billion in 1972 dollar values. The average
annual energy production is estimated to be about 27.8 million megawatt-hours.
Average at-site energy cost, based on 1972 prices and an interest rate of 6 per cent,
was estimated to be 4.6 mills per kilowatt-hour.
Power generation at Site X contributes about 4.4 million megawatt-hours per
annum to the energy production of this three-dam system.   It was estimated that
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 117
the average at-site cost of the energy produced at Site X would be 7.4 mills per
kilowatt-hour.
The study concluded that Site X was not an attractive addition to the two-dam
scheme of development based on at-site energy costs. The development of Site X
would be enhanced if most of the lairge expenditures required to transmit Liard River
power to southern load centres were already incurred in connection with the development of Sites A and E.
The developments considered in the Liard River power studies to date have
not received detailed examination in regard to their environmental impact.
Yukon River
Office studies to evaluate alternative proposals for utilization of the water resources of the Upper Yukon River system for hydro-electric power development
were continued. Utilizing new large-scale topographic mapping of the Atlin Lake-
Taku Valley area, a scheme of development involving the diversion of Upper Yukon
River flows via Atlin Lake and the Silver Salmon River valley to a power-generating
station in the Taku River valley was compared with previously studied alternative
schemes using other diversion routes.
Preliminairy analysis indicates that the Silver Salmon River scheme would
result in at-site energy costs comparable to the original Yukon-Taku scheme proposed by Northwest Power Industries Ltd. in 1954. Studies previously carried out by
this Division have indicated that lower at-site energy costs would be obtained by a
development involving long tunnels from Atlin Lake via Sloko Lake to a power-
generating station in the Taku Valley to Honakta Mountain. A report is being
prepared which describes the Silver Salmon River scheme and compares the three
alternative schemes.
Other Activities
The Chief of the Division was appointed to membership of the Fraser River
Upstream Storage Study Steering Committee in January 1973. The Committee
held seven meetings during the year and was actively engaged in furthering progress
toward completion of the Upstream Storage Review Report.
PROJECTS DIVISION
J. D. C. Fuller, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The Projects Division has as its main function the investigation, review, and
implementation of flood-control, land-reclamation, erosion-control, and drainage
projects.
Since assuming responsibility in 1972 for implementation of design and construction of flood-control works in the Lower Fraser Valley under the Federal-
Provincial 1968 Agreement, this has formed a major part of the activities of the
Division. The other principal activity of the Division continues to comprise the
investigation, report, and implementation of construction relating to flooding and
erosion problems throughout the Province.
In addition, the Division acts in an advisory capacity to other agencies regarding development where river flooding and erosion is likely to be involved.
During 1972, work under the Fraser River Flood-control Programme continued
at an accelerating pace, particularly construction, as the Chilliwhack, Delta, and
Surrey Dams projects were implemented. Work related to flooding and erosion
problems elsewhere in the Province has continued to comprise largely remedial
 T 118 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
measures resulting from river flooding and erosion during the exceptional 1972
freshet. In particular, this involved some $430,000 worth of work along the Similkameen River, completed in co-operation with the Department of Highways, and
some $140,000 worth of work at Houston.
Details of principal activities during 1973 are given as follows:
Lower Fraser Valley Flood-control Programme
Implementation of each project is carried out by a Project Manager who coordinates design, both by consulting engineers aind design groups within the Division.
He also maintains liaison with respective local authorities and other agencies, including the Federal Department of the Environment, Water Planning and Management
Branch, who represent Federal Government interests in the programme.
In general, work by the Division design groups comprises design and preparation of contracts for bank protection, and preparation of basic design criteria for
dyking and drainage works for which outside consultants prepare final designs and
contract documents.
The majority of construction is carried out by contract, the exception being
some channel improvements which are made by forces of the local authority concerned on an equipment rental basis. Field supervision is generally provided by
consulting engineers, except for bank-protection contracts, and in certain cases other
works, which are supervised by staff of the Division.
Assisting Victoria staff with both over-all administration of the construction
phase, field supervision, and survey work is a staff of approximately seven belonging
to the Division and operating from an office located in Abbotsford.
To date, applications for assistance with flood-control works under the programme have been received from the following municipalities or local authorities:
Local Authority Date of Application
District of Kent. March 1969 (C*)
District of Pitt Meadows March 1969 (R)
Township of Richmond March 1969 (R)
District of Matsqui -May 19691 (C)
Township of Chilliwhack August 1969(C) (part)
Corporation of Delta August 1969 (C)
District of Mission August 1969 (R)
District of Sumas (Abbotsford) May 1969 (C) (part)
Harrison Hot Springs February 1970 (D)
District of Surrey May 1969 (C) (part)
New Westminster, Queensborough December 1970 (R)
District of Burnaby November 1970
District of Langley March 1972
City of Port Coquitlam April 1970(D)
District of Maple Ridge October 19*69
Department of PubUc Works,
Colony Farm August 1970
Department of Indian Affairs,
Seabird Island October 1971 (C) (part)    •
South Dewdney. April 1973
(C*)—Project essentially complete.        (R)—Project report complete.
(C)—Project under construction. (D)—Preliminary designs under way.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH T 119
Other assignments to Projects Division during the year included, in connection
with the Fraser River Flood-control Programme, a hydrology and drainage study
for the Port Coquitlam area, due for completion early in 1974, and a study of
flooding and erosion along the lower Vedder River. Also, hydrology studies continued at Barker Creek, Whalley, for which an interim report was prepared, and at
Barnston Island. Both of these projects are required to provide additional information in connection with the design of internal drainage works under the pro-
graimme.
In addition, assignments to the Division included continuation of work relating
to internal drainage design for the Harrison Hot Springs and Mission projects. Also,
further drainage studies were carried out concerning the Westham Island portion
of the Delta project.
During 1973, principal design work was centred around the Chilliwhack, Delta,
Richmond, New Westminster (Queensborough), and Mission projects. Construction work took place mainly at the Matsqui and Chilliwhack projects, with a construction start being made late in the year at Delta and on rehabilitation of the
Nicomekl and Serpentine dams in Surrey.
During 1973, contracts totalling $4.9 million were awarded and contract payments totalling $2.6 million were processed under the programme. Design costs
amounted to $5.50,000.
The following descriptions are given for projects on which significant activity
occurred during the year:
1. District of Kent—This project was approved in December 1969 at a
construction cost of $2,003,825 and an agreement for cost-sharing between the
Province and local authority signed in February 1970. In December 1971 the
approved cost was increased to $2,185,825. While construction was essentially
completed in 1972, high water during the exceptionally high freshet that year
caused seepage problems which were the subject of a report completed by
soils consultants in 1973. The report was under study at the end of the year with
a view to carrying out remedial measures costing an estimated $150,000.
2. District of Matsqui—This project was approved in June 1971 at a construction cost of $2,283,600 amd an agreement for cost-sharing between the Province and local authority was signed in October 1971. Main features of this
project include rehabilitation of some 38,000 feet of dyke, with construction of
a berm along most of the landward side to control underseepage; riprap repair
work to approximately 2,700 lineal feet of riverbank, and internal drainage
works. The drainage works include the replacement of two combined pumping-
floodbox facilities having a combined installed horsepower of approximately 850.
Work during 1973 included completion of the pumping and floodbox facilities
at Matsqui Slough and McLennan Creek by May, and virtual completion of dyke
work by the end of the year. Bank protection had been completed during 1972.
Remaining work on the project comprises channel improvements, and the local
authority was considering proposals at the end of 1973.
Expenditure on this project amounted to approximately $4,140,000 by the
end of 1973.
 T 120
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Matsqui project, Matsqui Slough pumphouse, floodbox, and approach channel
nearing completion.
3. Township of Chilliwhack—This project was approved in December 1971
at a construction cost of $5,315,850 and an agreement for cost-sharing between the
Province and the local authority was signed in February 1973. Main features of
this project comprise the rehabilitation of some 20 miles of dyke, including seepage
control in the form of gravel filters and wells, some 46,000 feet of bank-protection
works comprising rock riprap, and internal drainage works. The drainage works
include the construction of three pumphouses, two of which are combined with new
or existing floodbox structures. Also included is the improvement of main drainage
channels.
Proposals for a change in dyke alignment to include Indian Reserves 3 and 4,
prepared by the Federal Department of the Environment, Water Planning and Management Branch, were still under negotiation with the Department of Indian Affairs
and Northern Development at the end of 1973.
During the year, five contracts were awarded under this project, totalling
$3,500,000. These included contracts for the east dykes, west dykes, bank protection
(part), McGillivray and Collison pump stations, and pumping equipment for these
stations. By the end of the year, substantial progress had been made on all contracts
and project expenditure amounted to approximately $2.6 million.
4. Corporation of Delta—This project was approved in August 1973 at a
construction cost of $10,523,700 and an agreement for cost-sharing between the
Province and the local authority was signed in September 1973. Main features of
the project comprise rehabilitation of some 40 miles of dyke; 24,000 feet of new
bank protection or repair work, and internal drainage, including rehabilitation or
reconstruction of 11 pumping facilities, 25 floodbox facilities, and approximately
70,000 feet of main drainage channel improvements. In September 1973 the first
contract comprising dyke and bank-protection works in the Ladner-Canoe Pass area
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 121
was awarded at a cost of $1.2 million. By the end of the year, work under the first
contract was under way, and drawings and specifications for drainage works in the
same area, to be carried out by municipal forces, was complete. Contracts for
pumping facilities and dyke work in the Ferry Road-Green Slough area were also
well advanced at that time.
Problems with land acquisition and dyke alignment with the Department of
Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Harbours Board authorities, and some
private owners have impeded progress with this project somewhat as have problems
relating to future land use, particularly in the Boundary Bay area.
5. Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District—A project to construct
approximately 5,000 feet of emergency bank protection to protect dyking on the
southeast bank of the Sumas River, immediately downstream from the Sumas River
dam, was approved in April at a cost of $87,600. A contract for construction was
awarded in April and work was completed in October.
6. Seabird Island Indian Reserve—A project to construct approximately 1,100
feet of emergency bank-protection work immediately upstream from the Skookum-
chuck Dam of Seabird Island was approved in March at a cost of $85,520. A contract for construction was awarded in March, and the work completed by May 15.
'tilted ^tm
Seabird Island Indian Reserve, construction of emergency bank protection.
7. District of Surrey—A project to rehabilitate the Nicomekl and Serpentine
Dams was approved in November 1973. A contract in the amount of $1,109,655
for this work was awarded in late November, and construction work commenced in
December.
Lower Squamish Valley
While no further river improvement works were constructed during 1973,
further works under a continuing programme, including additional dyking and bank
 T 122 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
protection along the Mamquam River and the Brackendale area along the Squamish
River, are under review. The Division provided technical assistance late in the
year to the Department of Highways regarding proposed replacement of the road
bridge over the Mamquam River near its confluence with the Squamish River.
Bella Coola Valley
Work on a comprehensive study pertaining to flooding and erosion on the
Lower Bella Coola River, including sidestreams, continued, and at the end of 1973
the report was complete in preliminary draft form. In the report, river improvements estimated at $600,000 are proposed, also areas of floodplain are delineated
and areas for possible future development indicated. Progress with the report was
delayed by the necessity to construct emergency bank-protection works and dyking
in the vicinity of the airstrip earlier in the year. This work, costing $30,000, was
carried out by local forces directed by staff of the Division.
In September, additional erosion occurred within the lower valley, resulting
from heavy rainfall, and surveys were made with a view to completing the first stage
of river improvements outlined in the report and estimated at $150,000 on an
emergency basis. This construction is scheduled for early 1974.
Cowichan River
A preliminary report on flooding and erosion by the Cowichan River at Lake
Cowichan and in the lower Cowichan Valley was completed in 1967. Any further
action on proposals contained in the report await the results of studies by the Federal
Fisheries Service on the economic value of the Cowichan River as a fishery resource.
However, during the year, it was necessary to carry out channel improvements
in the north fork of the river due to the accumulation of gravel the previous winter.
This work, requested by the Federal Fisheries Service and costing approximately
$20,000, was completed by contract, directed by staff of Projects Division, and cost-
shared by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
The recurrence of flooding and erosion problems in the area indicate the need
for an over-all flood-control plain, and while Federal Fisheries Service comments are
still awaited, updating of the 1967 report was commenced toward the end of 1973.
Announced plans for dyke construction within Indian reserves along the lower
Cowichan River indicate the necessity for early preparation of a comprehensive plan
for river development.
Kitimat River
Little progress was made regarding finalization of the report on flooding problems in the Kitimat Valley due to commitments of staff elsewhere. However, a field
inspection of existing dykes carried out during the summer indicated that substantial
flood protection for developed areas has been achieved due to recent dyke construction completed independently by local authorities.
Similkameen River
In late 1972 as a result of damage during the exceptional flood of 1972, a
programme of dyking and bank protection was undertaken jointly by the Department
of Highways and the Water Resources Service. The programme included intermittent dyking of the river extending from Princeton to Cawston. The principal area
of construction extended along both banks in the Keremeos area. During the spring
of 1973, these works were completed at a final cost of $430,000.
 WATER investigations branch
T 123
In addition to involvement with this programme, staff of the Division also
assisted with river improvements at several private properties in continuation of
works for which Provincial cost-sharing assistance has been provided.
Surveys were also carried out along Keremeos Creek and studies continued
regarding flooding and erosion problems in that area. A report on this is expected
to be complete early in 1974.
Houston
Subsequent to flood damage resulting from the exceptional run-off in the spring
of 1972, an investigation was completed during that year, and in 1973 a contract
was awarded for dyke and bank-protection work along Buck Creek. This was completed in essential form prior to the spring run-off at a cost of $140,000. This brings
to $234,000 the cost of river improvement works completed at Houston on a cost-
sharing basis since 1970.   Possible future work in the area is estimated at $150,000.
Golden
Resulting from a local request to the Water Resources Service in 1972, a firm
of consulting engineers was engaged to investigate flooding problems at Golden along
the Columbia and Kicking Horse Rivers. Staff of the Division provided design
water-level information for these studies. Dyking and river channelization estimated
to cost $1.5 million, contained in a report prepared by the consultants in February
1973, are presently under consideration by the local authority.
Trout Creek Near Summerland
During the exceptionally high 1972 freshet, considerable changes occurred in
the lower IVi-mile section of Trout Creek. These resulted in decreased protection
from existing dykes, increased water-table levels, and associated problems for local
residents.
Resulting from a request from the District of Summerland in the summer of
1972 to the Water Resources Service, a firm of consulting engineers was engaged to
investigate the problem. A report was completed in January 1973 outlining dyke
and channel improvements estimated to cost $330,000. Funds for the project were
approved under the Disaster Relief Fund in May 1973.
After objections to the channel improvements, mainly on the grounds of
aesthetics, had been settled to the satisfaction of the majority of area residents, a
contract was awarded for the work in December 1973 in the amount of $212,750.
Construction commenced in December 1973 with completion scheduled before
the 1974 freshet. The fined project cost, including engineering, is estimated at
$275,000.
Strachan Creek
In November 1972, exceptionally high flows in Strachan Creek caused considerable flooding and erosion damage, including a threat to bridges carrying the
British Columbia Railway fine and Squamish Highway. This Division was responsible for investigations and subsequent channel improvements, including replacement
of two local bridges, at a cost of approximately $90,000. Construction was carried
out between July and December 1973 by local forces supervised by staff of the
Division.
The main highway bridge was also replaced during this time and plans are
being prepared by the British Columbia Railway to reconstruct the railway bridge.
 T 124 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Design information relating to creek-bed configuration and water levels was provided
to both agencies by the Projects Division.
Grand Forks
Further to a report on flood-control for the City of Grand Forks prepared in
March 1972, and following completion of Phase 1 at a cost of $65,000 during 1972,
investigations and surveys continued on this project during 1973. Work during the
year included estimation on the effect of constructing remaining works to withstand
a flood having a once in 200-year recurrence interval rather than the once in 50-year
interval adopted previously. It is anticipated that proposals will be ready for a
second phase of construction, comprising the west bank area of the Granby River,
early in 1974.
Other River-flooding and Erosion Projects
Due in large part to the damage caused by the exceptionally high 1972 spring
run-off, a large number of requests continue to be made for assistance with flooding
and erosion problems.
During 1973, 83 requests were received compared to 76 the previous year, and
of these, 50 were investigated and reported on, 12 were inspected with reports
pending, and 12 remained to be investigated at the end of the year. In addition,
some 12 applications were brought forward for investigation from 1972, and additional activity in the form of construction arrangements or further investigations was
required on a considerable percentage of 75 projects investigated during 1972.
Investigations resulted in 28 offers of assistance being made during the year on
river-improvement projects totalling $470,000. Nineteen projects were under construction during the year. Construction, comprising dyke and bank-protection work,
was generally carried out by contract, with design and supervision by staff of the
Division. The value of construction amounted to $397,000*, cost-shared generally
on a 75-per-cent Provincial and 25-per-cent local basis.
Investigations, surveys, or construction included such areas as Bear River
(Stewart), Kitsault River (Alice Arm), Elk River (Fernie), Peace River (Pouce
Coupe), Boundary Creek, Fraser River (Quesnel), Lillooet River (Pemberton),
Upper Kettle River, North Thompson and Clearwater Rivers, Salmon River, Nicola
River, and South Alouette River.
On Vancouver Island, areas under investigation included Haslam Creek, Little
Qualicum River, Chemainus River, Nanaimo River, Millstream Creek, and Oyster
River, in addition to the Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers.
Miscellaneous
During 1973, technical assistance and advice were provided to Provincial Government and other agencies in connection with road and bridge construction, sale of
land, and zoning and floodplain definitions.
ECOLOGY DIVISION
R. J. Buchanan, Ph.D., Senior Biologist
The activities of the Ecology Division were expanded to include one new major
study, several new moderately sized projects, and new aspects of ongoing projects
during 1973. The staff at the disposal of the Division on a continuous basis included
* Excludes Trout Creek, Penticton Creek, and Point Grey Cliff stabilization projects.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 125
three permanent biologists and one temporary.   During the summer, two additional
temporary biologists were engaged.
The Division procured a variety of new scientific equipment and nautical equipment in addition. Expansion into new storage and laboratory facilities is imminent,
and will remove a major impediment to efficient operation.
Technical Reviews and Office Studies
The main items in this category are as follows:
(1) A review of the 1972 Environment Canada, Fisheries Service report
on the Skeena River estuary.
(2) An assessment of the available data on the condition of Kathlyn Lake
(near Smithers) and suggestions for further investigation.
(3) An assessment of the seriousness of algal proliferation in the Tulameen River with regard to Princeton waterworks.
(4) A review of a proposal for research on groundwater return flow.
(5) A review of the data available on the configuration and condition of
watersheds affected by the "Eden" forest fire (near Salmon Arm) in
September.
(6) A preliminary investigation of the condition of Lillian Lake (near
Invermere) and factors governing water quality.
Field Studies
Field studies undertaken by Ecology Division include those scheduled well in
advance and those made necessary by unpredictable circumstances. During 1973
field activities included:
1. Studies into the ecology and distribution of nuisance aquatic plants. These
studies ranged from reconnaissance surveys to experiments on control methods and
included lakes in the East Kootenay, Okanagan, Lower Mainland, Bulkley Vailley,
and Southern Vancouver Island regions. Large masses of biological collections and
physicochemical data on habitat quality have been assembled and are being
processed.
2. Water-quality sampling related to the effects of ground water on lakes of
Saltspring Island, in co-operation with the Groundwater Division.
3. Water-quality sampling was initiated as part of a major study on the effects
of the "Eden" forest fire on water quantity and quality, in co-operation with the
Hydrology Division. Various aspects of the watersheds and the streams being
monitored were examined in the field as the study design was being developed.
4. Reconnaissance surveys were conducted in connection with investigations
into a variety of ecological matters referred to the Ecology Division by the Water
Investigations Branch and other agencies. Notable among these were field surveys
at Dease Lake townsite, Logan Lake, Kathlyn Lake, and Lillian Lake.
Laboratory Studies
The main laboratory effort was devoted to the phytoplankton studies carried
out under the identification and enumeration of the algae in approximately 320 water
samples, and associated drawings, photography, and literature citations to substantiate identifications. Additional phytoplankton analyses, on approximately 115
samples, were carried out in connection with other projects.
 T 126 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Consultation and Liaison
Studies had been carried out or were under way on all known methods of controlling aquatic weeds, save chemical methods. To enable initiation of systematic
study of chemical control, an Interagency Technical Advisory Committee on the
Control of Aquatic Weeds was formed, with representation from two Federal and
four Provincial departments having expertise or responsibilities bearing on the use
of herbicides in water. This committee will conduct co-operative experiments which
will ultimately assist the Provincial Pesticide Committee (which is the regulatory
body) in assessing applications for permits to use herbicide. It is hoped that useful
information can be made available to various levels of government and the public,
on appropriate control measures in various circumstances.
The Ecology Division has provided consultation to several other agencies or
officials on ecological matters.   More important examples are:
1. Advice on the worth and recommendations on the organization of a Provincial biological laboratory.
2. Advice on the advisability of subsidizing the purchase of an aquatic-weed
harvester by the Okanagan Basin Water Board.
3. Recommendations for postimpoundment studies in Lake Kookanoosa (behind Libby Dam) and for a study on the effects grazing live stock have on water
quality.
4. Advice to the Forest Service on the effects of drowned vegetation on the
water quality in reservoirs.
5. Advice and assistance to the Water Rights Branch in connection with hydroelectric reservoir creation, water-quality sampling, the condition of several lakes and
water supplies, and the implications of a proposal to rehabilitate a lake.
6. Investigation of water-quality matters in connection with the proposed
Dease Lake townsite, for the Land Service.
Service to Citizens
The Ecology Division intermittently deals with ecological problems referred
to the Water Resources Service by citizens who are water-resource users. The
ensuring work may involve office reviews, field investigations, or both. The problems dealt with in 1973 included algae blooms and weed infestations, and deterioration in the quality of domestic and recreational water bodies. While several cases
are being examined, a shortage of manpower prevented action of several other
requests from the public.
Reports
Several internal reports were prepared by staff of the Ecology Division during
1973:
(1) An interim report on aquatic plant studies in the North Okanagan, by
P. R. Newroth.
(2) A draft of Summary of Observations on Nuisance Growth of Aquatic
Plants, by P. R. Newroth.
(3) Crayfish as a Biological Control Measure for Aquatic Macrophytes
—A Progress Report, by B. R. Baillie, D. L. Bissell, and N. M. F.
Kirk. .
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 127
(4)  Windermere Lake Data, 1971-1973, by R. S. Hawthorn.
( 5) Studies on A quatic Macrophytes, Part II—A quatic Plants of Windermere Lake, by R. S. Hawthorn.
(6) Limnological Sampling and Measurement Procedures, A Manual for
Use in the Water Investigations Branch, by R. J. Buchanan and B.
R. Baillie.
(7) Considerations in the Rehabilitation of Logan Lake by Pumping and
Refilling, by R. J. Buchanan.
(8) The Water-Quality Impact of a Forest Fire, Considerations in the
Design of a Research Program at Salmon Arm, by R. J. Buchanan.
Other Activities
Members of the Division attended the Annual Meeting of the American Society
of Limnology and Oceanography at Salt Lake City, Utah, and the Second International Estuarine Research Conference at Myrtle Beach, S. C.
RECORDS COMPILATION AND REPORTS SECTION
A. S. Stencel, R.I.A.
The Records Compilation and Reports Section is responsible for the assembly
of engineering reports, operation of the Reports Library, collection and compilation
of technical, cost, and inventory records, operation of the Branch motor-vehicle pool,
and general duties for the Branch.
A review of what has been accomplished during the past year by the Reports
Library and the General Office, the two basic units of the Section, follows:
Reports Library
During the course of the year, 163 new engineering reports were received by
the Library for assembly and registration. In addition to the new reports, over 730
other copies of reports were prepared and distributed as compared with 650 in 1972,
and 450 in 1971.
Set out below is a numerical and percentage summary of reports written during
10-year periods:
Periods (Years)
1911-20 ..
1921-30 ..
1931-40 ..
1941-50 ..
1951-60 _
1961-70 .
1971-73 ..
Number of
Reports
Available
Percentage
of Total
Available
36
1.7
190
9.1
30
1.4
155
7.5
583
28.0
779
37.4
311
14.9
Totals
2,084
100.0
 T 128
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Of the present total of 2,084 reports in the Library, 1,231 reports have been
prepared by the Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the number of such reports and the various fields which they cover:
Technical Reports in Library Prepared by Water Resources Service Staff
as of December 31,1973
Period (Years)
Water
Power
Water
Supply
Floods,
Drainage,
Dyking
Groundwater
Hydrology
Miscellaneous
Total
1911-20	
1921-30 _.
13
132
15
35
32
7
2
3
31
1
37
126
293
93
3
8
78
90
46
1
2
2
9
8
7
2
19
17
17
3
8
1
10
24
35
21
20
176
17
94
288
1941-50. . _ ..
19M-6"
1961-70	
1071-71
450
186
Totals   	
236
584
225
29
55
102
1,231
As the proposed micro-filming of reports was again postponed, there are now
over 350 reports scheduled for filming during 1974.
Throughout 1973, the Reports Library also dealt with over 600 requests for
report loans and copies of other publications.
General Office
In order to meet the 1973 requirements of all Branch divisions, over 450
requisitions covering purchases and (or) repairs of equipment, furniture, machinery,
and supplies were prepared, and over 1,900 invoices from suppliers processed for
payment.
The General Office staff assisted in the processing of claims for various water
projects under construction and in the collection and compilation of technical, cost,
and inventory records.
In addition, the General Office provided a central service for mail, messenger,
and shipping functions, and operated the Branch motor-vehicle pool. During the
past year, Branch units travelled approximately 400,000 miles on over 500 assignments. During the same period, seven Branch employees took advantage of the
Defensive Driving Course arranged by the Accident Prevention Section of the Public
Service Commission.
As the year closed, preparations were in hand for the move of Branch equipment and supplies to the new warehouse at the Provincial Service Centre, 805
Cloverdale Avenue.
DRAUGHTING ROOM
B. Varcoe, Chief Draughtsman
The 1973 draughting picture for the Water Investigations Branch has again
enlarged. In 1973, some 180 requests for work were accepted by this office and
from that, a total of 951 drawings was handled. Of that total, 43.3 per cent were
large plans being in the vicinity of 22 by 34 inches or larger, the remainder being
small plans, 14 by 17 inches or smaller. Seventy per cent of the total of drawings
handled were completely new production, whereas the remainder were received only
to add further information, to make corrections, or both.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
T 129
The breakdown of the total of drawings handled by divisions is shown as
follows:
Water Supply and Investigations Division  113
Groundwater Division     44
Hydrology Division     74
Basin Planning and Power Division  140
ARDA Division	
Ecology Division	
Projects Division—
Fraser River Section _
Small Streams Section
Okanagan Basin Study
Kalamalka-Wood Lake Study
100
12
43
73
293
59
Total
951
Over and above this total, 24 miscellaneous jobs such as compiling contract job
costs, checking job claims, colouring or illustrating jobs, filling in IBM data processing sheets, and the making of air-photo mosaics were completed.
Of the airphotos received from Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Lands
Service, 5,047 photo prints, including 101 coloured prints, were flown especially
for the Water Investigations Branch. From 92 requisitions, a further 1,930 9 by
9-inch prints and 56 enlarged prints were also received from the air-photo processing
laboratory.
Reproductions were required in great numbers again this year. The Reproductions Office of the Lands Service supplied 78,866 prints and reproducibles of various
types; however, 74 per cent of this total were offset prints which are used for reports
and contract specifications.
Three Grade 3 Draughtsmen resigned during the past year and were replaced
by two Grade 2 and one Grade 1 Draughtsmen, all of whom are now well-settled
and doing good work. It also should be noted that the large number of Okanagan
Basin Study drawings have been made largely by a two-man detachment which has
been housed in the Blanshard Building, separate from the main Draughting Office.
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
131
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
V. Raudsepp
Chairman (January to November 1973)
J. W. Peck
Acting Chairman (December 1973)
The principal functions of the Pollution Control Board are to act in an advisory
capacity to the Government, to set standards for controlling pollution, to act as an
appeal tribunal in case of an appeal from an order by the Director of the Pollution
Control Branch, and to consider acceptability of the objections to applications for
permits which, under the provisions of the Pollution Control Act, 1967 cannot be
made directly to the Director of the Pollution Control Branch, or directly to the
Greater Vancouver Regional District with respect to air pollution control permit
applications within the boundaries of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, as
provided in the 1972 amendments to the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
The members of the Board, in addition to the Chairman, were as follows:
J. S. Allin,
Department of Agriculture.
Dr. K. I. G. Benson (replaced by B. D. Caine in August 1973),
Public Health Service.
Dr. C. J. G. Mackenzie,
Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia.
R. D. McMynn (replaced by E. H. Vernon in June 1973),
Department of Recreation and Conservation.
J. W. Peck,
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
J. S. Stokes,
Forest Service.
During the year of 1973 the Pollution Control Board met 28 times and had a
total of 37 sessions. Among other business, the Board heard 13 appeals from the
decision of the Director of Pollution Control, including two appeals from air pollution control permits issued by the Director of Pollution Control of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. On seven occasions the Board decided against the Director allowing an appeal in part or whole.   One appeal lasted 10 days.
Four decisions of the Pollution Control Board have been appealed to higher
tribunals—one by two appellants to the Supreme Court of British Columbia and to
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and three appeals to the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council, of which one appeal has been refused. All others are still pending.
133
 T 134 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Board reviewed the pollution control objectives for mining, mine-milling,
amd smelting industries and approved the objectives drafted by the Director of the
Pollution Control Branch with certain modifications. The pollution control objectives for petroleum and chemical industries were reviewed and modifications are
being finalized.
In November, V. Raudsepp retired from Provincial Government service and
J. W. Peck acted as the Board's Chairman until January 3, 1974. An Order in
Council of that date appointed B. E. Marr as Chairman and, on the expiration of the
terms of office of all other Board members, all were reappointed, with the exception
of J. S. Allin, replaced by R. J. Miller, Department of Agriculture.
 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
The Pollution Control Branch, under the Director of Pollution Control, is
responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967,
which provides authority to control pollution caused by the discharge of solid,
liquid, and gaseous materials to the environmental resources of British Columbia.
Pollution problems are normally caused by the introduction into land, water,
or atmosphere, of the uneconomic by-products of our technology, in such manner
or amounts as to exceed the assimilative capacity of the receiving environment. The
control of pollution in British Columbia is regarded as principally a waste-management concept involving detailed studies of waste sources to eliminate or reuse waste
materials followed by conditioning or treatment of nonreusable wastes and the
proper introduction of these wastes into the receiving environment. This concept
is carried out through a formal procedure of applications for permits to discharge
wastes which involves inputs by the permit applicant, the general public, other Provincial and Federal agencies that have vested interests in matters associated with the
environment, and specialized staff within the Pollution Control Branch.
Since 1970 the Branch has been undertaking to develop, through public involvement, common objectives for the quality of waste discharges emanating from
the major activities in the Province. The first round in the development of these
objectives is now almost complete and they will serve as a guide to industries amd
municipalities as to the basic requirements they will have to meet for their waste
discharges.
A brief summary of the primary functions of the various divisions of the Pollution Control Branch are as follows:
1. Industrial Division
(a) Review and evaluate applications for permits under the Pollution Control
Act, 1967, for waste discharges from sources of an industrial nature.
(b) Provide advice and assistance as required in the formulation of objectives
for the control of pollution.
2. Municipal Division
(a) Review and evaluate applications for permits under the Pollution Control
Act, 1967, for waste discharges of a municipal or domestic nature.
(b) Provide advice and assistance as required in the formulation of objectives
for the control of pollution.
(c) Review plans and prepare certificates to authorize construction of public
sewerage systems.
135
 T 136 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
3. District Division
(a) Administration and enforcement of permits issued under the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, amd general enforcement of the requirements of the
Act throughout the Province.
(fo) Review and recommend on applications for permits under the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, with particular emphasis on field conditions.
(c) Monitoring of receiving and general environmental resources of the Province.
(d) Investigation and appropriate action on complaints from the public and
environmental crisis situations.
4. Projects and Research Division
(a) Investigation and (or) study of various waste discharge and receiving
environment situations.
(b) Advice to Branch staff on matters requiring specialized knowledge or
experience.
(c) Develop and establish programmes for the monitoring of environment,
the hamdling amd processing of environmental data, and the training of
Branch staff, other public servants, and private employees in monitoring
procedures.
 POLLUTION
CONTROL BRANCH
T 137
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  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
W. N. Venables
Director
R. H. Ferguson
Assistant Director
A. J. Chmelauskas
Assistant Director
DIRECTORS' REPORT
In 1973 the Branch assigned priority to bringing under permit the many discharges that have existed in the Province prior to the jurisdiction of the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, to control such actions. This activity has not yet been completed and will continue in 1974. As a framework on which to base pollution
control requirements for the majority of activities in the Province that produce
wastes, the establishment of pollution control objectives continued to be a principal
task involving Directors and other elements of the Branch. In late 1973 the
Pollution Control Board ratified pollution control objectives for the mining, mine-
milling, and smelting industries in British Columbia and these objectives will
immediately be applied to assessing applications for permits for waste discharges
associated with the mining industry. In late 1973 the Directors' recommendations
regarding pollution control objectives for the chemical and petroleum industries of
British Columbia were placed before the Pollution Control Board for their consideration. It is anticipated that recommendations for the control of pollution
from the food processing, agriculturally orientated, and other miscellaneous industries, and for municipal-type waste discharges will be placed before the Pollution
Control Board in early 1974.
All these objectives, together with those which were earlier established for the
Forest Products Industry, will substantially assist in the technical and administrative
management of wastes in British Columbia. The objectives basically consist of a
three-tiered structure with new proposed discharges required to meet the most
stringent levels at the outset and existing dischargers required to meet the lowest
objectives at the earliest possible date with improvement to the higher levels on a
scheduled programme utilizing the most practicable technology.
During 1973, Branch staff and the Directors' office were involved in investigating the possibilities of applying the objectives concept to a system in which waste
dischargers would be charged for the use of environmental resources. This is an
extremely complicated and difficult area and much more consideration of the
over-all concept needs to be undertaken.
In response to increased Branch activities and a strengthening of requirements
for the control of pollution, four appeals were heard by the Directors' office against
orders of staff engineers under the Pollution Control Act, 1967, and 17 appeals
139
 T 140 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
were made to the Pollution Control Boaird against decisions of the Directors. It is
significant to note that the majority of these appeals have been lodged by the
recipient of the permits or orders rather than by the general public as was the case
with most appeals prior to 1973, a fact that would appear to confirm that requirements of permits amd orders aire considerably more stringent.
The Pollution Control Act, 1967, provides that in lieu of issuing a permit, the
Director may issue an approval for a short term not exceeding six months. Based
on recommendations of the various Managers of the Pollution Control Branch
District Offices, approvals for 121 discharges were issued by the Directors' office.
During 1973, 398 permits and 83 permit amendments were granted, covering
a totad of 565 discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes. A total of 30 applications were refused, and 226 applications were withdrawn, leaving 790 applications
in hand at year-end to be resolved with respect to administrative or technical details.
There was one public hearing held during 1973 to elicit additional information
on a permit application for the consideration of the Director.
The procedure of ordering persons who had previously registered their discharges as required by the Pollution Control Act, 1967, was relaxed in favour of a
procedure of requesting the registrant to apply for permit. This latter approach
was found to generate a high degree of response, it allowed a considerable reduction in administrative work load, and it often resulted in a better feeling of co-operation between the Branch and the registrant. Throughout 1973, 266 orders were
issued requiring permit applications, and since June 1, 1973, 338 letters were sent
requesting applications be made for permits.
In efforts to enforce the requirements of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, and
permits and orders issued thereunder, the District Division of the Branch undertook
prosecutions for various offences with the basic objective in 1973 of establishing
enforcement procedures and identifying shortcomings in the legislation. It is
anticipated that an increase in enforcement activities will generally be applied
throughout the Province in 1974.
The Directors' office was also involved throughout the year in meetings with
other Provincial agencies, informal meetings with other jurisdictions in Alberta,
Manitoba, Ontario, and Washington State, and meetings with various levels of local
government throughout the Province. A high degree of co-operation continued
with Director of Pollution Control for the Greater Vancouver Regional District.
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
H. P. Klassen, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The function of the Industrial Division of the Pollution Control Branch is to
process applications for pollution control permits from the industrial sector of the
Province. This includes the manufacturing portion of the forest products industry,
the mining and milling industry, the petroleum refining and processing industry,
agriculture and food-processing operations, chemical manufacturing, and all mis-
cellameous manufacturing and servicing operations that have potential discharges to
air, water, or land of waste products other than domestic wastes and traditional
farming wastes.
In the assessment of applications, a thorough in-plant examination of the plant
or operation is made to reduce, and eliminate where possible, the sources of wastes
and to determine where wastes may be effectively reused. Subsequently, outplant
treatment and necessary disposal of the wastes are investigated to determine
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH T 141
whether or not they can be discharged into the receiving environment in accordance
with the policies and objectives established by the Pollution Control Board.
During 1973, approximately 300 meetings were held by staff members with
representatives in industries to discuss pollution control problems and negotiate the
required improvements to proposed and existing works. In addition, engineers
visited and inspected some 75 plant sites relating to applications and permits in
hand. Numerous meetings and discussions were also held during the year with
other provincial agencies and the Environmental Protection Service of the Government of Canada.
During 1973, 680 applications were received and 250 permits and 30 permit
amendments were issued. At year end there were 568 applications in hand, in
various stages of processing.
The types of discharges applicable to the permits issued consisted of 45 per
cent effluent, 35 per cent air emissions, and 20 per cent solid wastes to land.
A good deal of time and effort was applied to the formalization of the Pollution
Control Objectives pertaining to the inquiries held in 1972 into the mining, mine-
milling, and smelting industry, chemical and petroleum industry; and the food
processing, agriculturally orientated, and other miscellaneous industries. The
Pollution Control Board adopted the mining, mine-milling, and smelting objectives
and the others are now near finalization.
Forest Products Section
Applications for permits and amendments to permits continued to come in at
the same high level as in 1972. During the past year, 95 permits and 9 amendment
to permits were issued, with 2 refusals. Permits issued comprised the following:
63 air emissions, with 55 of these for modified wood-waste burners and 8 power
boilers, 30 refuse and 5 effluent. Of the 202 applications on hand, which are in
various stages of processing, 40 of these are in their final stages of review and should
result in permit issue shortly after the New Year.
Two of the three new kraft pulp-mills which came on stream late last year
have overcome their start-up problems and are now meeting their permit requirements in most respects. One mill is still experiencing shakedown problems resulting
in high suspended solids and BOD losses. The mill is taking corrective measures
which should resolve these difficulties in the near future.
The programme to phase-out the nonmodified wood-waste burners by January
1, 1975, as set out in the Pollution Control Objectives is progressing favourably.
Of a total of 237 known and registered burners, 85 have been granted permits with
conditions consistent with the objectives. Of the remainder, 63 applications are
now being assessed and by the end of 1974 the number remaining unresolved
should be insignificant. This accelerated programme of modification and replacement of existing burners has placed strains on the wood-products industry financially
and upon the supply industry to meet delivery schedules. The latter may well be
the critical factor in meeting the January 1, 1975, goal of phasing out most conventional wood-waste burners with due regard to the location of the burners and the
existing quality of the environment.
In numerous cases hogging equipment is being provided and the wood waste is
then transported to pulp-mills, etc., as fuel supply for boilers. At present there is
an excess of wood-waste fuel (hog fuel) and the potential of alternative energy
uses are under active study by industry and Government.
Through the CPAR programme, jointly financed by the forest products industry and the Federal Government, investigation studies are continually being
 T 142
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Villain of the piece and now fast disappearing from British Columbia — the
familiar teepee burner used by the Province's forest-products industry and a major
past source of air pollution. The following
pictures show one of these burners in full
blast. They are now banned and being
replaced by modern electronically controlled burners which virtually eliminate
all smoke pollution, like the one shown
here in operation near Enderby.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH T 143
carried on to identify amd to isolate the toxic components of pulp-mill effluent.
These studies have shown that the evaporator condensates contain the major portion
of the resin acid soaps which are toxic to fish. Removal of these is possible at the
evaporator stage. Under this same programme, the University of Toronto is
currently working on a project which considers that the total recycling of mill water
and chemicals is technically feasible and offers a more economic advantage than
external effluent treatment.
Investigative work, at the pilot-plant stage for the removal of flyash and salt
particulate from emission of hogfuel boilers is currently being carried out by a
private forest products firm. Preliminary results, although limited at this stage,
are very encouraging, with operating efficiencies being in the 90 per cent range on
some species of wood-waste incineration.
General Section
During 1973 a total of 558 registered discharges were processed by the General Section. Of this number approximately 422 have been resolved by the submission of permit applications, exemption under section 8 of the Pollution Control
Act, 1967, or by cessation of the discharge. A substantial proportion of the applications received have been from unregistered or new discharges. Approximately
three-quarters of the 130 permits and permit amendments issued were for effluent
and refuse discharges, the remainder for air emissions.
The major applications processed by the General Section covered effluent
discharges and air emissions from petroleum refineries, natural gas processing plaints,
cement manufacturing plants, large fish-processing operations, and fruit and vegetable processing industries. In addition, the Section is processing a wide variety of
applications for relatively small but often high-strength wastes from such industries
as abattoirs, meat-packers, fruit-packers, and asphalt aggregate plants.
As a result of negotiations with a major natural gas company, a sulphur recovery facility will be constructed near Fort Nelson. This facility is designed to remove
approximately 385 long tons of sulphur per day from the company's air emissions
which will then allow them to meet ambient air-quality requirements.
Most of the large fish-packing and canning plants in the Province have been
issued pollution control permits which require considerable improvement in effluent
quality. The treatment facilities to be installed include fine screening, stickwater
evaporation, and in some instances, air flotation. A number of these operations are
concentrated on the Lower Fraser River and in the Prince Rupert area.
Mining and Mineral Products Section
During the year the Mining Section of the Industrial Division had in hand
some 185 applications for pollution control permits which resulted in the issuance of
39 permits and six amendments to permit. Effluent permits were issued to 12
mining operations, six gravel-washing plants, and seven ready-mix concrete plants.
Five air permits were issued to mining operations and five to ready-mix plants. Four
refuse permits were issued to mining operations. Six mining permits were amended,
one of which was appealed to the Pollution Control Board which upheld the Director's technical requirements.
All of the 530 registered discharges on hand at the beginning of the year have
been dealt with through issuance of permits which often cover more than one discharge, or through cessation of discharge.
 T 144 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In addition to the mining, sand and gravel, and concrete operation applications
being processed, the Branch has been assessing applications from the smelter and
fertilizer complexes in the Province. The aluminum smelter at Kitimat has been
installing specially designed baghouses to replace wet scrubbers which caused contaminated effluent to be discharged into Douglas Channel. These installations will
significantly reduce the fluoride contamination of the remaining effluent. The company is being asked to provide works to further improve the quadity of other effluents
being discharged into the receiving waters.
The fertilizer complex at Kimberley is committed to providing a recycle system
for effluent to reduce the quantity and improve the quality of effluent being discharged. In addition, the company has been asked to provide the Branch with a
time schedule for upgrading of all discharges to acceptable levels.
At Trail, programmes for upgrading the quality and quantity of discharges to
the Columbia River and to the atmosphere are being assessed by the Branch. It is
anticipated that upgrading of these discharges will begin during 1974 with an ongoing programme until acceptable levels are achieved.
In 1973, one new mining operation was started and two operations were
reopened.   Significant tonnage increases were implemented at three plants.
The Section co-authored a report on the public inquiry into the mining, mine-
milling, and smelting industries held in 1972 and participated in the hearing of
appeals by industry to recommendations contained in the report. The aimended
report, which contains objectives and guidelines to be used by industry and the
Branch to control pollution, was adopted by the Pollution Control Board.
MUNICIPAL DIVISION
J. E. Dew-Jones, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The work of the Municipal Division can be considered under the following
categories. First, assessment of applications to discharge solid and liquid wastes
of municipal or domestic origin together with the processing of registrations of
existing discharges of this nature. Secondly, assessment of requests for certificates
to approve by-laws to raise money for sewerage works and certificates to approve
sewer construction. Thirdly, the assessment of permit adequacy in the light of
monitoring programme, and fourthly, participation in setting various general requirements for municipal wastes. One aspect concerning such general requirements in
which the Division has been deeply involved has been the public inquiry regarding
municipal wastes held in the first week of May. Twenty-eight submissions were
made for this inquiry, including one from a Federal Government Agency, one from
a Provincial Government Agency, one from the Union of B.C. Municipalities, 11
from regional districts, municipalities, and sewerage districts, 7 from Consultants,
and 7 from other private persons or organizations. To assist him at the inquiry,
the Director appointed a panel representing various professions including a Biologist,
a Botanist, two Engineers, a Medical Health Officer, and an Economist, all from
outside the Pollution Control Branch, co-ordinated by the Municipal Division Chief.
The pamel met on many occasions and the work of reaching objectives has been
found challenging and rewarding. It is intended to send copies of the draft objectives to each of the participants for their comments before the end of the year.
Once these have been considered by the Pollution Control Board and final objections
resolved, it should be possible for dischargers to make a much better assessment of
what will be acceptable and for the Branch to review all permits to check their
adequacy.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH T 145
The Act enables the Director to require registered dischargers to apply for
permits when he so orders. It has been envisaged that the processing of such registrations would lead to a comparable number of applications and the target for the
number of these to be assessed in the year 1973 was 400 compared with 130
assessed in 1972. In practice, it was found that many registered discharges were
best resolved by consolidation to other discharge locations, abandoning the discharge or connecting to a municipal sewer. In actuality, 250 applications were
resolved in 1973, whereas 600 of the registrations have been processed. Broadly
speaking, this is a satisfactory outcome as elimination of an existing discharge is the
ideal method of pollution control. The work has proceeded on a priority basis so
that the discharges still to be considered are either of limited significance or
deliberately deferred until the anticipated objectives are available.
The number of requests for certificates for sewer construction processed during
the year was 468, compared with 502 in the previous year.
The Division is organized into three sections, the Coastal Section headed by
P. N. Bardal, P.Eng.; the Southern Interior Section headed by R. C. Schurr, P.Eng.;
and the Northern and Central Interior Section headed by D. L. Marcoux, P.Eng.
Coastal Section
The largest single pollution control project in the Coastal area is the ongoing
$80,000,000 programme by the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District.
This has included extending facilities at the Iona Treatment Plant, commencing
construction at the Annacis Island Plant, and completion of construction at the
Richmond Plant.
Other major schemes are the processing of applications for the three major
sanitary landfills in the Lower Mainland. Permits have been issued for two years
with stringent requirements to establish satisfactory operation. A permit for a
major landfill serving Victoria and adjacent areas was also issued, where treatment
of the leachate is required.
A number of studies which the Director requested dischargers to commission
from independent agencies in previous years are now available. The study of the
major discharge of raw sewage at Macauley Point appears to indicate there is no
detectable ecological change outside a very limited zone. The study at Sturgeon
Bank, on the other hand, reveals matters of concern, particularly to deposition of
heavy metals.
Southern Interior Section
The Southern Interior Section in 1973 was concerned with bringing a large
number of refuse-disposal sites under permit. The majority of municipalities in
this area are either currently operating refuse-disposal sites in a satisfactory manner,
upgrading existing operations, or are seeking new sites and treatment methods.
Worthy of mention are the 17 well-run rural landfill sites established and (or)
operated by the East Kootenay Regional District.
Release of information from the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin
Study is influencing waste-disposal practices in the Okaganan area and there has
been a marked increase in sewage-treatment proposals involving land disposal.
These include two major proposals for spray irrigation of sewerage effluent which
should be brought into operation within the next year. The experimental spray
irrigation scheme operated by the City of Vernon is continuing and useful information related to British Columbia conditions is being compiled which may be used
for assessment of similar future proposals.
 T 146
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
T 147
An application by the City of Revelstoke to provide a secondary-treatment
plant with outfall to die Illecillewaet River was the subject of a public hearing.
Subsequently, a permit was issued with suitable restrictive conditions and plans
for construction of a treatment plant are proceeding. It is anticipated that construction should be completed by the end of 1974.
Northern and Central Interior Section
The chief activity in the Northern and Central Interior Section was in the
solid waste-disposal field. One regional district has taken over all municipal solid
waste disposal within the district and now holds 16 refuse permits with more applications pending. Four regional districts have assumed responsibility for this function
in unorganized areas and a total of 21 permits have been issued to these authorities.
A total of 57 domestic refuse applications are pending from municipal, commercial,
or private applicants. One northern city has an application pending for refuse disposal on a site which it is proposed subsequently to use as a golf course.
In the Prince George area the new secondary-treatment plant will soon be in
operation and a permit has been issued to the city granting permission to dispose
of sludge to the ground and an extensive monitoring programme to study results
will be carried out.
DISTRICT DIVISION
A. A. Hayman, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The District Division has responsibility for the administration of all permits
issued by the Director authorizing the discharge of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes,
with the exception of permits issued for air contaminants in the Greater Vancouver
Regional District.
The fulfilment of this responsibility includes the carrying-out of ambient environmental monitoring plus discharge monitoring to provide the necessary data
for management and protection of environmental resources. Of more immediate
significance is the function of the District Division in providing site information to
the Municipal amd Industrial Division in their assessment of permit applications, and
the investigation of all matters of concern brought to the attention of the Branch by
the public.
In order to cope with the ever-increasing work load of the district and provide
a more significant surveillance programme, additional scientific equipment, particularly in the field of gaseous monitoring, was obtained during the past year, and
District staff was increased by six persons to a total of 80.
During the past year the district offices increased their service to the public by
assisting local municipal authorities in providing advice on waste-disposal sites, and,
where requested, participating in technical planning committees of regional districts
and special study committees established by the Secretariat of the Environment and
Land Use Committee.
The District Division has continued the programme of decentralization by
strengthening the staff in the existing field offices and opening a new field office in
Terrace, and planning for an additional field office in Revelstoke. Technical staff
has been moved into these areas from the respective district offices to provide more
efficient service to the outlying communities of the respective districts. The addition
of these two field offices will bring the number of field offices to a total of seven.
During the past year, as part of the district office surveillance programmes, the
District Managers issued 93 orders to illegal dischargers to either cease discharges
or bring the operation within the requirements of the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
 T 148 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
There were also a number of instances where efforts to improve unsatisfactory situations failed, and as a result there were 16 court actions initiated, 9 of which were
successful, while the other 7 are pending.
The issuance of approvals for temporary waste discharges under section 5 (c)
of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, increased significantly during the year. District
Managers recommended issuance of approvals for 121 temporary discharges and
refusal of 5 applications. The approval applications included such operations as
portable asphalt plants, refuse-disposal projects, and temporary sewage-disposal
installations.
OKANAGAN DISTRICT
W. A. Kastelen, P.Eng., Manager
During 1973 the Okanagan District office administered the Pollution Control
Act, 1967, in the Regional Districts of Okanagan-Similkameen, Central Okanagan,
North Okanagan, and Columbia-Shuswap.
The district office is located in the Vernon Provincial Courthouse and service
to the public expanded in 1973 by the opening of a field office in Penticton on February 1, 1973, staffed by two Technicians, and the establishment of a District Air
Pollution Control Section staffed by an Engineer and a Technician. Arrangements
have been initiated to expand public service in the northern part of the district by
establishment of a field office in Revelstoke, anticipated in early 1974. During 1973
the permanent staff of the Okanagan District was increased from 10 to 13 persons
while the nonpermanent staff remained unchanged at two, with an Engineering Aide
leaving the staff and a Clerk-Typist joining the staff.
A comparative summary of the Okanagan District work load is shown by the
statistics in the following table:
Item Year
1970 1971 1972 1973
Permits administrated—
Effluent discharges     50 57 68 99
Refuse discharges  5 16 24
Air emissions           3 17
Permit and permit amendment applications received     35 45 168
Approvals issued           11 15
Approval applications received           18 25
Orders served  3 3 5
Prosecutions  1 3       	
Pollution complaints investigated  27 85 156
Pollution monitoring—
Outfalls sampled:
Permitted     69 72        202        181
Nonpermitted  163        305        318        137
Stream stations sampled:
Chemical analysis  193        276        444        356
Biological parameters           11 17
Lake stations sampled:
Chemical analysis     55 16 48 78
Biological parameters  9 48 78
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
T 149
Item Year
1970 1971 1972 1973
Pollution monitoring—Continued
Groundwater stations sampled  4            2 40
Dustfall stations operated  19          41 17
Hi-vol stations operated  2             6 7
Smoketape stations operated  13 4
Stack-sampling surveys conducted                    1
The annual district managers' meeting was held outside Victoria (in Kelowna)
for the first time and representatives of six other Govenmental agencies participated
in this meeting for the purpose of improving co-operation in areas of mutual concern.
A three-day smoke opacity measurement training course for forest industry and
Pollution Control Branch personnel was also held in Kelowna.
In addition to receiving many requests for information during the year, the
Okanagan District staff participated in a televised public information documentary
on pollution for teepee wood-waste burners, a Water Resources seminar, and conducted several tours of local pollution control facilities for grade-school students.
COAST DISTRICT
J. W. Thomas, P.Eng., Manager
The Coast District office administers the Act in an area covering Vancouver
Island and Powell River to Ocean Falls from offices in Victoria and Courtenay.
There are eight regional districts within this territory. These are Alberni-Clayoquot,
Comox-Strathcona, Cowichan Valley, Mount Waddington, Nanaimo, Ocean Falls,
Powell River, and the Capital Regional District.
The northern part of the district was covered by a Technician and an Engineering Assistant, operating out of the Courtenay office, under the direction of the
Assistant District Manager. An Air Engineer and and Engineering Assistant joined
the District office, making a total staff of 11 at the end of the year.
At year-end there were 160 permits issued in the Coast District, an increase of
48 from last year, and 147 applications being processed. Ten approvals, and one
amendment to an approval, were issued in 1973.
Permits Permit Background Complaints Orders
Sampled Inspections Sites Sampled Investigated Issued
183 377 417 86 13
The servicing of a number of air-monitoring stations is also carried out on a
routine basis. A programme of sampling and testing fish from certain lakes for
heavy metals was also instituted during the year. Sampling data from the computer
bank was supplied to various other Government departments and the public in
response to specific requests.
In co-operation with the Projects and Research Division, a number of air stations were set up and serviced in the Courtenay area in connection with the monitoring of emissions from a coal slag pile which caught fire.
Lower Mainland District
W. G. Hamilton, P.Eng., Manager
The Lower Mainland office is responsible for administration of the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, within the Regional Districts of Greater Vancouver, Central
Fraser Valley, Dewdney-Alouette, Fraser-Cheam, Squamish-Lillooet, and Sunshine
Coast, with the only exception being the air pollution control function within the
Greater Vancouver Regional District.
 T 150 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The district office staff was increased by one Engineer during the past year who
transferred from Victoria following special training. Permanent staff of 11 is
supplemented by two part-time and one temporary employee.
The following statistics refer to permits being administered and applications
outstanding in the Lower Mainland District and reflect the work load related to
this responsibility.
1970 1971 1972 1973
Effluent permits   112 121 137 195
Refuse permits  1 4 13 38
Air permits       ..._ 5 20
Effluent applications  29 43 60 130
Refuse applications   2 7 20 25
Air applications        3 7 22
Site investigations and subsequent reports related to applications continues to
comprise a substantial portion of the district work load. The regular programme of
sampling and (or) inspection of all discharges on a quarterly basis continued and
numerous infractions of permit conditions were noted and brought to the attention
of the permittee. Legal action has been initiated where flagrant violation of permit
conditions is suspected. The surveillance programme was expanded to include
zone of influence sampling in areas where discharge might effect changes in the
receiving media.
A general surface water-quality programme covering major lakes and streams
remained static with approximately 108 sampling stations. Assessment of last
year's results of this programme revealed some quality characteristics to be insignificant or consistently below detectable limits, therefore request for analysis of
these parameters have been deleted accordingly. Intensive studies on a few sensitive
water resources were initiated and will continue into 1974. This will include a
biological assessment of the areas involved in the study. An expanded biological
assessment of the effects of waste discharges is currently under way.
The ambient air-monitoring programme at Squamish is continued. Some of
the data from the air-quality trailer are not transferred directly to the Data Centre
in Victoria by means of telex. Additional stations for measurement of one or more
of the standard air-quality parameters (dustfall, suspended particulate, soiling index,
sulphur compounds) were installed in the Fraser Valley and the Pemberton area.
Special short-term air programmes relating to specific problems such as coal dust
from unit trains in the Fraser Valley were carried through at the request of Projects
and Research Division.
The district office has responded to numerous requests for assistance in interpreting application and permit requirements during the year. Complaints related
to pollution matters were handled on a routine basis as were meetings with municipalities, industries, small businesses, and the generad public. Problems related to the
disposal of noxious chemicals, heavy metals, etc., are becoming acute in the Lower
Mainland District and would appear to be a prime concern for the coming year.
Kootenay District
The Kootenay District is responsible for the administration of the Pollution
tion Control Act, 1967, in the Regional Districts of East Kootenay, Central Kootenay and Kootenay Boundary.
The district office and laboratory are located at 1617 Baker Street, Cranbrook,
with a field office at 711 Stanley Street, Nelson.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH T 151
In 1972, there were nine full-time staff located in Cranbrook and two in Nelson.
Two people resigned during the current year and replacements were hired for these
and the remainder of the vacant positions to bring the full-time staff to 13, plus a
part-time Stenographer.
Investigations were carried out on 157 applications for permits compared to
50 in 1972; 74 permits were issued compared to 32 in 1972, making a total of 144
permits compared to 70 in 1972. A total of 66 complaints was investigated during
the year.
In addition to permits, 26 temporary approvals were issued in 1973, mostly
for asphalt plants as in 1972.
Routine inspections and monitoring were carried out to ensure compliance
with the terms and conditions of the permits and approvals.
A special inventory of sources of waste oil was carried out along with existing
means of disposal.
Stream and lake and groundwater sampling stations were increased from 107
in 1972 to 173 in 1973, primarily due to the monitoring requirements of new permits. This monitoring network now gives a good coverage of major streams in the
Kootenay District, including the Columbia, Kootenay, Elk, Fording, St. Mary,
Slocan, and Kettle Rivers and a considerable number of tributaries. The streams
are monitored for physical, biological, and chemical conditions most likely to be
affected by waste discharges.
Ambient air-monitoring programmes were conducted in Trail, Kimberley,
Sparwood, Fernie, Creston, Cranbrook, Castlegar, and Grand Forks.
The Elk River study, initiated in 1969, was continued to monitor the effects
of coal-mining on the Elk River.
The Libby study, also initiated in 1969, was continued with primary emphasis
being placed on streams flowing into Lake Koocanusa. As in 1972 the reservoir
level was not high enough for a long enough period of time to determine if waste
discharges were impairing the reservoir water quality. It is generally considered
that loading of nutrients discharged to the receiving streams flowing into Lake
Koocanusa are adequate to sustain undesirable algae growth unless other factors are
more significant. A report is being prepared that will summarize (to the spring of
1972) conditions of the streams entering Lake Koocanusa.
The Kootenay Lake study, initiated in 1970 to monitor effects of pollution on
the lake, was continued. This study includes an assessment of the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the lake with emphasis being placed on determining
the trend toward eutrophication. The combination of high nutrients, low stream-
flow, a hot summer, and reduction of turbidity by the Libby Reservoir led to a widespread alg« bloom in Kootenay Lake this summer. It is hoped the action being
taken to reduce waste discharges of phosphorus will lessen the chance of an algae
bloom in the future.
North District
M. K. Baillargeon, P.Eng., Manager
The North District office is responsible for the administration of the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, in the Regional Districts of Skeena-Queen Charlotte, Kitimat-
Stikine, Bulkley-Nechako, Fraser-Fort George, Peace River-Liard, and the unorganized Stikine Region in the northwest corner of the Province.
The headquarters of the North District is located at Prince George with a field
office located at Fort St. John to provide local service within the Regional District
of Peace River-Liard.   In 1973 a second field office was established at Terrace to
 T 152
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Pollution Control Branch field staff sampling wastes under widely diverse conditions
at (a) Prince George, (b) on Green Lake, and (c) on a platform 175 feet above ground
near Winfield.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
T 153
provide local service within the Regional Districts of Skeena-Queen Charlotte and
Kitimat-Stikine.
The staff of the North District was increased in 1973 to 16 with the addition of
three Engineers, two Technicians, and two Engineering Assistants. One Engineer
and one Technician transferred to other Provincial offices and one Engineer resigned.
A Clerk-Typist was employed on a part-time basis at mid-year.
In addition to inspection and sampling of waste-treatment facilities under permit, the following environmental monitoring programmes have been initiated:
Frequency
Number of Number of Times per Year
Monitoring Programme Stations Parameters Year Initiated
A. River Studies
(1) Fraser River  21 34 4 1971
(2) Fraser  River receiving
waters at Prince George 18 7 3 1972
(3) Peace River     8 33 3 1972
B. Lake Studies
(1) Lakelse Lake     8 11 2 1973
(2) Tabor Lake     6 16 2 1973
C. Ambient Air
(1) District of Mackenzie... 4 5 Continuous 1972
(2) Village of Taylor  6 6 Continuous 1972
(3) Otway   3 1 Continuous 1973
(4) Bear Lake  3 1 Continuous 1973
Several accidental oil and chemical spills and numerous complaints were investigated.
The staff of the North District provided information and assistance to other
Government agencies, permittees, and applicants and responded to numerous inquiries from the public.
South Central District
H. H. Henderson, Manager
The South Central District Pollution Control Branch is responsible for the
administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, in the Thompson-Nicola and
Cariboo Regional Districts. The main office is located in Kamloops and a field
office is located in Williams Lake.
During 1973 the staff was increased from 10 to 12 members with the addition
of one Technician in the Williams Lake office and one part-time Secretary in the
Kamloops office.
Inspection and sampling of waste-treatment facilities under permit and the
receiving environment were conducted on a regular basis.
Permit Administration
Air emissions	
Refuse discharge	
Effluent discharge     61
Number Issued
to D<Ue
____    15
-_    24
Number Issued Number of Permit
in 1973 Inspections
8 15
15 150
14       46
Total
100
37
211
 T 154 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The following number of applications for permit and applications for amendment to permit were processed by the district office. The source of wastes, the existing works, and the receiving environment pertaining to the specific applications were
inspected and reports were written for submission to the Processing Divisions in
Victoria.
Applications Investigated
Number Received
and Inspected
Air emissions      27
Refuse discharge      49
Effluent discharge      41
Total  117
A total of 11 approval applications was received and inspected by the district
office for which resumes and approvals were prepared and submitted to the Directors' office. Most approval applications were initiated by the District office staff.
During the year an agreement was made with the Provincial department of Highways in the South Central District, wherein they would advise all asphalt plant
operators with Department contracts of the requirements of the Pollution Control
Act, 1967.
During 1973 a number of new sampling stations were established and some
relocated to give more realistic results. The data obtained from previous years
were reviewed and with due cognizance of the environmental stress factors a number
of parameters changed at some sampling stations.
Monitoring Stations
Number of
Stations
Number of Stations
Added in 1973
Total
Samples
Streams 	
     96
40
358
Lakes 	
     13
5
19
Outfalls	
     43
10
139
Ambient air	
     23
—
360
Total	
  175
55
876
During the year there were 71 complaints from the public received and
answered by this office. Fifty-nine complaints required investigation and detailed
reports were written on 26 complaints.
Meetings were held during the year with representatives of municipalities, industry, consulting firms, Federal and Provincial agencies, and the public concerning
the following matters:
(1) Environment land-use special study.
(2) Thompson River study.
(3) Investigations of factors in a number of spray irrigation proposals.
(4) Aims of mam and resources.
(5) Input of environmental groups.
(6) Discussion of common matters with other Provincial and Federal
Government agencies.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
WlJlfflllWM^
T 155
These two examples of Pollution Control Branch's air-monitoring show: (a) a floating
dustf all station on Okanagan Lake, and (b) "Snifferbug"—the Branch's mobile air-quality
laboratory—monitoring industrial air emissions at Trail.
The South Central District was also involved in the following special studies:
(a) In September and October, the Air Quality Mobile Laboratory was
set up and maintained on McArthur Island to establish ambient air-
quality data for the City of Kamloops.
(b) In the late winter, the excessive build-up of algae in Kamloops Lake
and downstream of the lake in the Thompson River as well as foam
occurrences on the river system, brought about the Interagency
 T 156 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Thompson River Study. The district office staff participated in
collection of water chemistry and biological samples, and in the
preparation of the preliminary report (May 1973). Following a
recommendation of the report, a year-long interagency study was
commenced in October with the district office staff aiding in coordinating the sampling and research studies.
(c) Following a second recommendation of the preliminary report, the
Weyerhaeuser pulp-mill in Kamloops (PE-1199) was required to
reduce the colour in the mill-effluent discharge to the river. To date,
two colour-removal studies have been performed using an outplant
alum-precipitation method and an inplant change in bleaching
chemicals. The district office staff has participated in meetings and
sampling in connection with the studies.
(d) An inventory was carried out of sawmills with wood-waste burners
in the North Thompson River Valley and Cariboo Regional District.
(e) The district office staff arranged for the classrooms and smoke
generator trailer sites in Williams Lake and Kamloops for the Ringel-
mann Course given in the fall.
Various district office staff attended a total of seven different courses or
seminars during the year.
PROJECTS AND RESEARCH DIVISION
M. W. Slezak, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The prime responsibilities of the personnel in the Projects and Research Division were to undertake fact-finding programmes with or without the assistance of
outside agencies and to act as a technical advisory group to other Division personnel,
the Directors' office, and other senior officials of Government.
In this regard advice was given, on request, to the Industrial and Municipal
Divisions in the assessment of applications and permits and in the assessment of
monitoring programmes proposed or being carried out by permittees or by independent agencies. Assistance was given to district offices through the development
and implementation of ambient air, biological and water-quality monitoring programmes. Division personnel were responsible for equipment selection, start-up
operation of equipment, and staff training in the use of specialized equipment as well
as familiarizing Branch staff with procedures and techniques for new methods of
sampling and analysis.
Assistance was also provided to the Director of Pollution Control Branch at
inquiries and in the development of discharge objectives for mines, mine-mills, and
smelters; chemical and petroleum industries; food processing, agriculturally oriented,
and other miscellaneous industries; and municipal discharges.
In summary, the projects have been numerous and varied in nature with a
total of 289 undertaken by Division personnel over the past year.
Air Section
The number of personnel in the Air Section was reduced from 16 to 5 during
the year, due to allocation of staff to the district and Industrial Divisions.
In 1973 the Air Section undertook the following major projects:
(1) The development of a portable smoke generator, and implementation
of a training programme for permittees, applications, Branch personnel, and the public on the visual determination of the Ringelmann
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
T 157
number (opacity) of emissions. Training courses will be completed
in five centres in the Province by December 31, 1973.
(2) The development and putting into operation of the mobile air laboratory to determine the concentration of contaminants in the ambient
air. Monitoring programmes for wind speed and direction, suspended particulate, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans, nitrogen oxide, total oxidants, and carbon monoxide have been completed in Prince George and Kamloops.
(3) Participation at inquiries into and the development of discharge
objectives for mines, mine-mills, and smelters; chemical and petroleum industries; food processing, agriculturally orientated, and other
miscellaneous industries; and municipal discharges.
(4) The publishing of a manual outlining the recommended procedures
for stack sampling.
(5) The evaluation of the continuous analysers available on the market
to determine the concentrations of gaseous compounds in the stack
gases emitted from pulp-mills.
(6) Assistance to the district offices in the selection of sites for ambient
air-monitoring programmes.
(7) The continuing operation of the mobile laboratory at Squamish to
determine the concentrations of particulate, sulphur dioxide, and
chlorine in the ambient air.
(8) The evaluation of collection efficiencies of various types of abatement equipment on asphalt plants.
(9) The training of Branch personnel scheduled for relocation in the
district offices in all aspects of air pollution control.
(10) An inspection and report on the incineration of wood waste by means
of the pit incinerator.
(11) Participation on various technical committees relative to air pollution, such as the B.C. Co-ordinating Climatological Committee; Fed-
eral-Provincial-Industry Committee on coal dust emission; Federal-
Provincial ambient air standards; and the Vancouver Airport impact
task force.
(12) The development and design of a new trailer for ambient air monitoring.
(13) The evaluation of municipal incinerator at Powell River.
Land and Water Section
The number of personnel in the Land and Water Section consisted of 12 people
with backgrounds in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry and Agriculture.
During 1973, work was carried out on the following major projects:
(1) Following the public inquiry into waste discharges from the food
processing, agriculturally orientated and miscellaneous industries,
detailed objectives for discharges to surface waters and to land were
prepared.
(2) A joint report with Environment Canada was issued on sources and
effect of colour, foam, and algal growth in the Thompson River.
 T 158 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Following a recommendation of the report, a more extensive one-
year study of the Thompson River system was initiated jointly with
the Federal Government.
(3) Methods for reducing colour from pulp-mill effluents were studied.
Data from a short mill trial using alum to treat bleach-plant effluent
were obtained.
(4) A report entitled "Alternative Methods for Treatment and Disposal
of Community Wastewaters" was prepared. This report provides
municipalities and the general public with basic information on treatment methods and costs and can be used as a reference in planning
and decision-making.
(5) Technical supplements to reports on water management in the Okanagan Basin were completed in conjunction with Federal and Provincial agencies. The supplements included cost estimates for
waste-treatment systems.
(6) A review of major health aspects of effluent irrigation was carried
out. The review is part of a continuing prograimme for establishing
detailed guidelines for disposal of effluent by spray irrigation.
(7) An oil-spill observer was appointed to inspect and report on spill
incidents. The purpose of the observer is to obtain rapid and direct
information and to advise Government in cases where clean-up is
not satisfactory.
(8) A research programme on the use of coal to treat wastewaters was
initiated. Results obtained show that coal may have an application
in the removal of heavy metals from effluents at relatively high concentration.
(9) Studies were carried out on various aspects of solid waste management with a view to revising present solid waste-disposal methods
in British Columbia. Special emphasis was placed on regional recycling depots and the feasibility of recycling waste paper from
Government offices.
(10) Participation in studies of the Comox and Prince Rupert Harbours
to identify and characterize existing liquid and solid waste discharges
from domestic, commercial, and industrial sources.
(11) Participation in the preparation of objectives for municipal discharges.
(12) Participation in a joint evaluation programme for phosphorus removal at a community wastewater-treatment facility in the Okanagan.
Other work performed by the Section included providing technical assistance
to the permit processing divisions, evaluating various wastewater and solid waste-
treatment processes, and presenting papers at technical meetings. Papers presented
concerned the Midstream Landfill Fire; Forest Management Practices and Water-
Quality, Soils, and Pollution.
Ecology Section
The Ecology Section was established in the Projects and Research Division in
1972 to advise on the ecological aspects of pollution control. This section is composed of six personnel in the environmental sciences.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH T 159
The principal projects undertaken by the Ecology Section in 1973 include
the following:
(1) Technical assistance to the Kootenay District office with respect to
to the laboratory, field, and data storage aspects of a biological and
water-quality study for Lake Koocanusa and related tributaries.
(2) Continuation of a preliminary survey of dissolved gas supersatura-
tion levels for selected Provincial waters.
(3) Further development in co-operation with the Data Processing Centre and with the Chemistry Laboratory of a computer storage and
retrieval system to store data regarding monitoring of the ambient
environment amd of discharges to land, air, and water. Instruction
to Province-wide Branch staff in the operation of the data storage
and retrieval system.
(4) Development of methodology and (or) interpretation for the following special analyses:
(a) Nitrogen gas supersaturation;
(b) T.A.C. colour measurement;
(c) Fish bioassay tests  (three-hour laboratory R.T.A.  and
field in situ);
(d) C14 productivity data;
(e) sediment analyses.
(5) Development of and (or) assistance in limnological and oceano-
graphic biological monitoring programmes, especially with regard to
the diversity, abundance, distribution, and condition of aquatic life.
(6) Participation in and co-ordination of Provincial interagency monitoring programme of water quality.
(7) Evaluation of the utility of remote sensing techniques for environmental assessment.
(8) Preparation of a field biology manual for the inS'tuction of, and the
uniform use by, Branch biologists.
(9) Survey of the Effects of Air Pollutants on Land Vegetation at selected
sites in British Columbia.
(10) Design, supervision, and final assessment of the Clover Point Eco-
logicad study.
(11) Participation in inquiries into and the development of discharge
objectives for mines, mine-milling and smelters; food processing,
agriculturally orientated and other miscellaneous industries; and
municipal discharges.
(12) Joint Federal-Provincial-Industry evaluation of zinc-oyster relationship in British Columbia coastal waters.
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
Stephen J. Hives, Administrative Officer
Under the general direction of the Administrative Officer, the Administrative
Services personnel provide the administrative support function for the technical and
professional staff of the Branch. The administrative services staff now comprises 13
Stenographers, 12 Clerks, 4 Typists, and a Switchboard Operator. Because of the
increased work load, two additional Clerks have been hired on a temporary basis.
 T 160 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The previously established pattern for service has been continued on the basis of
three sections:
(a) Central Registry.
(b) Expediting Services.
(c) Secretarial Services.
A changeover to the colour-coded filing system is taking place in Central
Registry. At the same time, the information retrieval system previously set up in
conjunction with the Data Centre and the Projects and Research Division is almost
fully operational, enabling the Branch to provide up-to-date information on the
status of any permit issued as well as providing statistical information useful in
developing work load patterns in district offices. The incoming mail volume has
risen steadily over the past year, with approximately 3,700 pieces of mail per month
incoming with a peak in November of 4,062.
The expediting section has proved its worth and has now taken over the role
of supplying statistical information to processing divisions and keeping them fully
informed of fulfilment of statutory requirements relative to permit applications. In
addition, objectors and interested permittees are being kept informed as necessary
as to the progress of specific applications.
The secretarial services are providing the necessary backup requirement to
enable reports and correspondence to be effectively prepared and dealt with by the
Branch.
With the growth of the technical library, a Clerk has been promoted and
assigned full time to ensure that publications and technical literature is readily
available for the professional and technical staff, thus promoting greater awareness
of technological improvements.
 CHEMISTRY
LABORATORY
161
  CHEMISTRY
LABORATORY
A. J. Lynch, B.Sc, M.P.H.
Chief Chemist
In 1973 the total number of routine environmental tests performed by the
Chemistry Laboratory increased to 128,000 from 92,000 in 1972, an increase of
39 per cent. This increase was primarily due to an expansion of the environmental
monitoring activities of the Pollution Control Branch, the Water Investigations
Branch, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch. In addition to these tests, a number of
special projects were completed. The percentage work load from each Branch in
1973 was:
Per Cent
(1) Pollution Control Branch  79
(2) Water Investigations Branch  10
(3) Health Branch  5
(4) Fish and Wildlife Branch  3
(5) Others (Departments of Agriculture, Public Works
and Highways, Parks Branch, Water Rights Branch,
and University of British Columbia)      2
A Methods Development Section was established to assist in the introduction
of new methods in the laboratory and the modification of present methods to correct
problems associated with chemical interferences. The work load of the Instrumentation Section and Field Services Section increased considerably, particularly
due to their involvement in establishment of the Water Resources Service District
Laboratories.
The permanent staff of the Chemistry Laboratory increased from 52 in 1972
to 62 in 1973. Five of these positions were for the District Laboratories, planned
for opening early in 1974 in Kamloops, Prince George, Vernon, Cranbrook, and
Victoria. The five other positions were for increased work load at the main Chemistry Laboratory in Vancouver. Considerable difficulty was encountered in recruitment of personnel, primarily due to problems of salary structure. These difficulties
resulted in a delay in the commencement of a three-month training programme for
district laboratory staff to mid-October.
The installation of a terminal to the computer facilities of the Data Processing
Centre in Victoria was approved; start-up is planned for mid-1974. This terminal
will improve the efficiency of the laboratory record-keeping and the reporting procedures as well as providing the laboratory reports in a machine readable form for
an environmental data base, operated by the Data Processing Centre.
During the year the Chemistry Laboratory published manuals outlining the
procedures used for the amalyses of water, wastewaters, biological tissues, ambient
air and stack emissions. These manuals provide documentation for the analytical
methods specified in each laboratory report. A total of 437 copies of the manuals
was sold in 1973.
163
 T 164
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Water Quality Division
Mrs. I. Kalnins, Head of Division
The Water Quality Division provided analytical services for water and wastewater analyses to the Pollution Control Branch, the Health Branch, the Water Investigations Branch, the Fish and Wildlife Branch, and other Governmental departments. A growing demand for trace metal analysis in biological samples resulted in
evaluation and implementation of procedures for routine analyses. In 1973 a total
of 118,000 chemical tests were performed by the Water Quality Division. This
represents an increase of 42 per cent over 1972.
Technical papers on an automated method for the determination of total mercury in water and wastewater, and a modification of the methodology for the
determination of ortho phosphate, were presented at a seminar held in Vancouver
on May 1, 1973. Staff members also participated in the planning and designing of
the Water Resources District Laboratories. In co-operation with other staff members of the Chemistry Laboratory, a training programme for the district laboratory
technicians was organized.
An interfield office quality control study was initiated and carried out during
the year. Standard reference samples were distributed to Pollution Control Branch
district offices for field analysis. The Water Quality Division also continued to
participate in the Environment Canada Quality Control Study and the EPA Reference Sample Programme.
Careful checking of water samples received at the Chemistry Laboratory for the
purpose of presenting evidence in a legal action.
 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
T 165
In order to consolidate the methods used by the Water Quality Division, the
first edition of A Laboratory Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Waters, Wastewaters, and Biological Tissues was compiled and published in January 1973. This
manual describes the analytical procedures currently used by the laboratory. A
seven-digit method code specified the parameter, the sample preparation and the
analytical method. All test results reported are accompanied by this code. Precision
and accuracy data presented in most methods or publications are usually determined
on synthetic or clean, fresh-water samples. The Water Quality Division has recently
completed a precision and accuracy study on fresh water, sea water, and domestic
and industrial wastewater samples.  The results of this study are available.
Projects completed during 1973 include the following:
(1) Implementation of trace metal analysis by the graphite furnace.
(2) Modification of automated nitrate analysis from hydrazine sulphate
(wet) reduction to cadmium (stationary) reduction.
(3) The addition of antimony and selenium to the routine tests presently
performed by the laboratory.
(4) Compilation of "Quality Control Checks" for the proposed computer system.
(5) Participation with the Systems and Programming Division of the
Processing Centre in modification of analytical report forms.
A Chemistry Laboratory staff member calibrating monitoring equipment used
to measure sulphur dioxide.
 T 166 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Air Quality Division
H. See, Head of Division
In 1973 the Air Quality Division of the Chemistry Laboratory continued to
provide air-monitoring services and chemical analyses to the Pollution Control
Branch and the Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British
Columbia. During the year, 10,000 routine air-quality tests were performed. The
Air Quality Division added a number of new methods, resulting in the receipt of
140 vegetation and soil samples for fluoride, sulphate, and heavy-metal analyses
and 60 stack samples for particulate emissions, moisture, and sodium chloride
analyses.
Projects completed include the following:
(1) Identification of the coal dust samples by microscopy.
(2) Investigation of the microdiffusion method for the determination of
of sulphate in vegetation and soil samples.
(3) Investigation and evaluation of the fusion-titration method for the
determination of sulphate in vegetation and soil samples.
(4) Investigation of the analyses of sulphation plates.
(5) Evaluation of several types of filters for use in the stack-sampling
programme.
Methods Development Section
Dr. D. P. Horning, Head of Section
The Methods Development Section was established in 1973 to investigate new
analytical procedures, update older procedures, and to provide a trouble-shooting
and technical information service for all sections of the Chemistry Laboratory.
Further, during the past year, this Section has served as a technical advisory service
to other Branches regarding testing methods and analytical procedures. Thirty
projects were instituted during 1973. Twenty of these projects have been completed, and further information on individual topics may be obtained directly from
the Chemistry Laboratory.   Some of the completed projects are listed below:
(1) The determination of the chemical oxygen demand of highly saline
samples.
(2) An evaluation of the Pearl-Benson Method for monitoring pulp-
mill receiving waters.
(3) Particle sizing by microscopy.
(4) Evaluation of a pumping system for field sampling.
(5) Investigation of a possible monitoring system for the determination
of metal corrosion by sulphur dioxide in ambient air.
Recently, two gas chromatographs were purchased and are currently being set
up for routine analyses. It is anticipated that several more testing parameters will
be available on a routine basis when these units come into full operation in 1974.
Field Services Section
D. Sandberg, Head of Section
The Field Services Section continues to provide a liaison between the Chemistry Laboratory facilities by all Provincial agencies requiring environmental chemical
analyses.   Within the last year, this section's work load has increased by approxi-
 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
T 167
mately 40 per cent. In 1973, 8,731 water and 2,052 air samples were received,
logged, and transferred to the analyses sections; approximately 750 shipments of
chemicals and supplies were made to field offices.
In addition to routine services, the following projects have been undertaken:
(1) Five Water Resources Service District Laboratories have been
planned for initiation in early 1974.   Progress includes:
(a) Renovated facilities have been designed and equipped
in the Vernon and Victoria locations.
(b) A Laboratory Technician has been hired for each laboratory and a two-month course held for training in Chemistry Laboratory procedures.
(c) Procedures for instrument installation and maintenance,
quality-control testing, and co-ordination of quality and quantity of
production have been devised.
(d) All necessary instruments, chemicals, and laboratory
equipment have been prepared for use.
(2) The systems of sample handling have been altered to facilitate the
introduction of data handling systems.
(3) A more extensive range of field equipment and supplies has been
stocked for use of field offices.
(4) Information on sampling, preparation, and shipping procedures has
circulated to offices using the Chemistry Laboratory facilities.
(5) StafiE of various bramches and agencies have been given tours of the
Chemistry Laboratory to orient themselves to sample submission
requirements and services available.
Instrumentation Section
J. Jeffrey, Head of Section
The Instrumentation Services Section provides an instrument calibration,
maintenance, and repair service for laboratory and field instrumentation. In addition, equipment specifications are evaluated and recommendations are made on the
purchase of new equipment.
In 1973, the Instrumentation Section of the Chemistry Laboratory calibrated
150 instruments and over 200 received maintenance or repair service.
In addition, the Instrumentation Service Section was involved in the following
projects:
(1) Co-ordination of the expansion of facilities within the Chemistry
Laboratory.
(2) Participation in the construction and start up of Branch Laboratories.
(3) Design  amd fabrication of sample filtration systems for Branch
Laboratories.
(4) Purchase of teletype equipment to improve data-handling within the
Chemistry Laboratory.
(5) Calibration, installation, and commissioning of field instruments for
the determination of sulphur dioxide in air.
 T 168 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(6) Construction and calibration of impinger sampling train systems for
the determination of sulphur dioxide in air and for the collection of
particulate matter.
(7) Instrumentation assistance with mobile air-quality laboratories operated by the Pollution Control Branch.
Chemistry Laboratory analysis of particulates from a smoke-stack sample
 INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
169
  INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
In the 1970 Annual Report, we reported the dissolution of several dyking
districts and the transfer of their functions to the municipalities in which they
were located.
In the 1972 Annual Report, we reported the reconstituting of two districts
located in unorganized territory into a single new district, as well as the transfer of
approximately 6,000 acres of the Sumas District to the Municipality of Chilliwack.
As a result of these transfers and consolidations, this office is now responsible
for the management of six dyking districts, five of which are relatively small, as
compared to 12 dyking districts for which it had management responsibility at the
beginning of 1970.
The following tabulation gives the names of these six districts and their size
(in acres) as well as the year in which management of the district was first transferred to this office.
Year of
Size of Management
Name of District District Transfer
Coquitlam      3,007 1898
Sumas  21,770 1926
South Westminster     1,344 1930
West Nicomen     3,928 1930
East Nicomen     1,173 1950
North Nicomen        230 1954
The first three districts in the above lists are located within municipalities. Discussions are in progress with the municipalities with a view to eliminating the dyking
districts and integrating their functions into the municipal structure.
The last three districts are contiguous and are located in unorganized territory
east of Mission Municipality. It is hoped that these areas will be consolidated into
a single new improvement district under the Water Act legislation in the coming
year, and that management of the district can be again placed under elected trustees.
171
  SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
173
  SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
W. J. Stephenson
Supervisor
Operation and maintenance of the irrigation and domestic water systems continued to be the main responsibility of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project (SOLP)
during 1973. The rehabilitation of these systems, commenced in 1964 under the
Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act (ARDA), is
nearing completion. Much of the construction work required by this programme
has been performed by SOLP employees. It is expected that the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District (SOLID) will take over full responsibility for
administering the water-distribution system in the near future.
A further responsibility of the SOLP is to investigate and make recommendations to the Department on applications for the purchase, lease, or reserve of vacant
Crown lands lying within the boundaries of District Lot 2450(S), SDYD. This work,
together with the billing and collecting of irrigation charges, the receiving of lease
and Crown grant fees and sundry payment and the answering of innumerable inquiries from the public sector, continued to place a substantial work load on the
small SOLP office staff.
Operation
A light winter snowfall combined with a protracted spring run-off to produce
unusually dry soil conditions at the start of the irrigation system. This situation was
aggravated further by the cool spring weather, which delayed maintenance work on
the canal. As a result, irrigation did not commence until April 24. In view of the
numerous complaints received from both domestic and irrigation water users, it
could hardly be considered an auspicious start to one of the sunniest, windiest, and
driest irrigation seasons on record. However, some very useful lessons were learned
regarding spring operating procedures, and measures have been taken to prevent a
recurrence of such water shortages at the start of the irrigation season.
From January 1 to September 17, precipitation was less than 50 per cent of the
average for this period. The Penticton Airport Weather Office reported that the
five-month period between April 1 and August 31 was the driest in their 33 years
of records. By mid-July the daily evaporation rate at Osoyoos was in excess of
0.5 inch. Nevertheless, except for the aforementioned problems experienced in
April, the irrigation system proved capable of meeting the stringent demands placed
on it. The dry spell was finally broken in the latter half of September and irrigation
was officially terminated after 172 days, on October 12. Extension of the irrigation
season into mid-October was brought about as a result of the need for vineyard frost
protection at this critical time of the year.
Work was completed by SOLP employees on the interconnection of Systems 1
and 3 and on the installation of a larger (30 h.p.) domestic pump on System 1.   Field
175
 T 176
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
I
•4-*__f
Southern Okanagan Lands Project work in progress: (a) installation of insulated pipe
for interconnection of Systems 2 and 3 at the Okanagan River crossing, and (_>) construction of the canal section to replace Flume No. 12.
 SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT
T 177
surveys were completed for design of the interconnection of Systems 2 and 6 and
for the relocation of Pumphouse 5. A contract was let on reconstruction of 1,500
feet of canal located in the rockslide area immediately upstream of Flume 1. The
above projects, together with some additional canal reconstruction, purchase of a
spare 150-h.p. motor, and completion of the flow valve distribution programme,
constitute the remainder of the SOLID's final ARDA supplementary submission.
The SOLP also initiated numerous improvements to the irrigation system during
1973. The capacity of System 4 was increased by the installation of new impellers
at Pumphouse 4; the motor control centre at Pumphouse 9 was raised to a ground-
level platform for safety reasons; a 200-foot canal section was constructed to replace
Flume 12 which was washed out late in 1972; intensive investigations were undertaken to improve the performance of a pumping-unit at Pumphouse 2; and all unserviceable vehicles and operating equipment were either replaced or removed from
SOLP inventory.
There was no public sade of SOLP lands during 1973, but Crown grants were
issued to adjoining property-owners on several sections of surplus rights-of-way.
Increased agricultural use of bench lands outside the district boundaries stimulated
considerable interest in the purchase of bulk water from the canal. As a result
numerous applications were received for pipe-line easements across Crown lands
and for permission to construct private pumping facilities on the canal right-of-way.
Ditchriding service was expended to the Black Sage Irrigation District at their
request. Survey and inspection were provided to the Boundary Line Irrigation District for 1,050 feet of relocated pipe-line.
The annual revenue of the project to November 30 with an estimate for December was as follows:
$
Irrigation  170,182.18
Land sales (principal)  191.00
Sundries       20,566.19
Total
190,939.37
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
AND
ACCOUNTING
DIVISIONS
179
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
R. C. Webber
Senior Personnel Officer
This Division provides personnel services for the Lands Service and the Secretariat to the Environment and Land Use Committee as well as the Water Resources
Service. Activity in 1973 continued at a high level, although recruiting was down
somewhat from the previous year. The following table summarizes the principal
activities of Personnel Services during 1973, along with a comparison of the previous
three years:
1970
1971
1972
1973
Recruitments for continuous staff..
Reclassifications	
Promotions  	
Internal transfers   	
Promotions and transfers to other departments	
Promotions and transfers from other departments-
Terminations of continuous staff 	
Retirements  —	
Short-term appointments 	
38
21
9
3
4
13
18
1
28
84
55
14
2
9
27
21
2
56
141
40
44
4
7
14
40
3
77
80
45
36
5
18
31
65
1
69
Recruitment
Staff recruitment decreased considerably from the 1972 peak, which was primarily the result of the addition of 120 new positions to the Pollution Control Branch
and the Chemistry Laboratory, but remained slightly ahead of the previous year.
Particular difficulty was encountered during the year in the recruiting of engineers,
technicians experienced in pollution amalysis techniques, and auditors, due to a
shortage of qualified applicants.
Increases in Establishment
(58 Positions)
The establishment of the Personnel Office was increased by two positions in
1973. An assistant Personnel Officer and a Clerk-Typist commenced work in June
to help handle the heavy work load. Other increases in the Water Resources Service
establishment are listed below:
Deputy Minister's Office—one Administrative Officer.
Water Investigations Branch—16 positions (six for the Floodplain Management Programme and 10 to meet additional responsibilities under
the Fraser River Flood-control Agreement).
Water Rights Branch—11 positions transferred from the PubUc Utilities
Commission and seven new positions established as a result of the
Branch assuming responsibility for water utilities.   Seven additional
positions established in the spring, mainly Engineers and Technicians.
Pollution Control Branch—six Technicians for suboffices.
Chemistry Laboratory—10 new positions, main Laboratory Technicians.
181
 t 182 b.c. water resources service
Staff Establishment as .of December 31, 1973
Number of permanent and temporary continuous positions:
Professional   207
Technical  186
Clerical  107
Operational services  12
5121
Number of temporary employees on staff     41
Total  553
1 Includes 44 vacancies.
Reclassification
Although the number of reclassifications were up 12.5 per cent over 1972, the
number is still below the record set in 1971. A major reclassification study of all
technical positions in the Pollution Control Branch was started in 1973; however,
the Department's recommendations were still under review by the Public Service
Commission at the year-end.
Principal Promotions, Appointments, and Transfers Within the
Water Resources Service During 1973
Although the number of promotions within the Service is down somewhat from
1972, a peak year which saw the reorganization of the Pollution Control Branch,
we still experienced a number of significant changes, which are listed below:
B. E. Marr, promoted to Acting Associate Deputy Minister.
P. M. Brady, appointed as Acting Director, Water Investigations Branch.
Miss E. J. Hanley, promoted to Secretary to the Deputy Minister of Water
Resources.
D. L. Marcoux, promoted to Head, Northern and Central Section, Municipal Division, Pollution Control Branch.
Miss S. R. Mitchell, promoted to Administrative Officer, Office of the
Deputy Minister.
D. P. Horning, promoted to Head, Methods Development Section, Chem
istry Laboratory.
S. Horvath, promoted to Head, General Services Section, Chemistry Laboratory.
P. P. M. Wong, promoted to Head, Manual Colorimetric Section, Chemistry Laboratory.
R. H. Cameron, promoted to Engineer 4, Projects Division, Water Investigations Branch.
J. M. Jeffrey, promoted to Technician in Charge of the Instrument Shop,
Chemistry Laboratory.
A. A. MacTaggart, promoted to Engineer 4, Improvement Districts Division, Water Rights Branch.
E. W. D. Bonham, promoted to Engineer 4, Projects Division, Water
Investigations Branch.
D. E. Reksten, promoted to Engineer 4, Hydrology Division, Water
Investigations Branch.
 PERSONNEL OFFICE
T 183
R. Y. McNeill, appointed as Engineer 4, Water Investigations Branch.
J. Simpson, transferred to the Water Rights Branch as head of the Water
Utilities Division.
J. D. Herbert, transferred to the Water Rights Branch as head of the
Accounting Section, Water Utilities Division.
F. N. Manson, transferred to the Water Rights Branch as head of the
Engineering Section, Water Utilities Division.
H. W. Mellish and F. C. Bett transferred to the Water Rights Branch as
Administrative Officers, Water Utilities Division.
R. M. Renaud, appointed as Assistant Personnel Officer.
The number of promotions and transfers between the Water Resources Service
and other departments shows a significant increase in 1973, mainly due to the transfer of the Water Utilities Division from the Public Utilities Commission to the Water
Rights Branch in July.
Staff Turnover
Turnover of staff in 1973 is again up over the previous year; however, the
rate within the Service is still lower than the Government-wide average. We did,
however, have a significantly high turnover in the technical staff of the Pollution
Control Branch where we experienced a turnover rate of 20.9 per cent. This was
more than offset, though, by a significant drop in the Water Resources Service turnover rate for clerical employees, which fell from 24.8 per cent to 15.5 per cent.
Perhaps the April salary increase, which had a more dramatic effect percentage-wise
on clerical salaries than for the other classification groups, is mainly responsible for
the improvement in the clerical turnover rate.
Turnover Rate by Classification Category
Professional
Technical 	
Clerical 	
Operational services 	
Water Resources average  12.5
Government-wide average  16.3
Per Cent
1972
1973
7.3
13.1
11.7
13.9
24.8
15.5
8.3
8.7
12.5
14.3
Staff Training
Executive Development Training Plan
K. N. Pleasance, an Engineer in the Water Investigations Branch, graduated
from this course in 1973. Water Resources Service employees presently taking the
course are S. J. Hives, an Administrative Officer in the Pollution Control Branch
(third year); G. G. Soellner, a Technician in the Pollution Control Branch, and
J. H. Morley, an Engineer in the Water Investigations Branch (second year);
H. H. Nesbitt-Porter, an Engineer in the Water Investigations Branch; and R. A.
Nickel, a Biologist in the Pollution Control Branch (first year).
Correspondence Course in Public Administration
Employees presently enrolled in this course are Miss S. R. Mitchell, an Administrative Officer in the office of the Associate Deputy Minister; D. Blake, a Clerk
in the Pollution Control Branch;  and H. L. Faust, a Technician in the Pollution
 T 184 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Control Branch.   G. A. Poole, a Clerk in the Pollution Control Branch, graduated
from the course in 1973.
Defensive Driving Course
This course is available to all Government employees throughout the Province
whose work involves a significant amount of driving. The Accident Prevention
Division of the Civil Service Commission conducted the course amd, in 1973, 27
Water Resources Service employees successfully completed it. This brings the total
number of Water Resources Service employees who have taken the course since
its inception in 1972 to 40.
Staff-training Assistance
In June 1973, staff-training funds were made available to all departments
through a Staff Development Appropriation. Employees have been urged to submit
requests for reimbursement of tuition fees for courses that would assist them in
developing their skills and potential. To date, 22 Water Resources employees have
been reimbursed for up to 100 per cent of the cost of the courses they are taking.
Sick Leave
Although the incidence of sick leave increased in 1973 over the previous year,
the Water Resources Service still enjoys a rate which is significantly below the
Government-wide average.
Sick Leave in Days per Employee
1971 1972 1973
Water Resources Service  4.2 4.3 5.0
Government-wide average  6.2 6.7 	
Safety
The Water Resources Service was awarded the Premier's Safety Trophy "On
Target Award" for an accident frequency of under 5.0 per million man-hours in the
preceding 12 months, for departments in the hazard category. This is a significant
achievement, and the employees of the Water Resources Service should be proud
of this accomplishment and urged to keep up the good work.
Field Trip
In September 1973, Pollution Control Branch offices in Williaims Lake, Prince
George, Fort St. John, Courtenay, and the Water Rights Branch offices in Prince
George, were visited, and personnel matters of concern to staff were discussed. The
Vancouver offices were also visited several times throughout the year.
Retirements
The only retirement that took place in 1973 was that of Valter Raudsepp,
Deputy Minister of Water Resources, after 24 years' service.
Twenty-five Year Awards
Twenty-five year service awards were presented to the following employees at
a dinner in Government House:
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights.
E. V. Tomlin, Ditchrider, Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
F. C. Bett, Administrative Officer, Water Rights Branch.
 ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
M. B. Maclean
Departmental Comptroller
The expanding activities of Water Resources Service during 1973 have reflected
in an increased work load for the Accounting Division. Noticeable expansion has
been experienced, particularly in the operation of the Water Investigations Branch,
Pollution Control Branch, and the Chemistry Laboratory. The Fraser River Flood-
control Programme has steadily progressed with new projects and contracts being
approved throughout the year.
Besides providing the accounting function for Water Resources Service, the
Division also carries out the accounting function for Lands Service.
The duties of the Division include preparation and distribution of payroll data,
processing of accounts payable, interdepartmental charges, processing of requisitions
and expenditure control, collection and billing of Water Rights licence rentals, and
billing and collection of Lands Branch and Surveys and Mapping revenue.
Following is a statement of Water Rights revenue for 1973 by major purpose,
and also a statement of comparative revenue for the past 10-year period:
$
Domestic, incidental use, and fees      525,855
Waterworks         51,721
Irrigation         11,9*11
Power   4,745,551
Funds received on application        69,068
Total  5,404,106
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1964-73, Inclusive
$
1964  2,175,223
1965  2,251,025
1966  2,285,932
1967  2,431,010
1968  2,749,848
$
1969  3,364,577
1970  3,716,932
1971  4,076,598
1972  4,923,346
1973  5,404,106
185
 Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
2,030-274-2496

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