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ANNUAL REPORT 1974 British Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1975

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT 1974
British Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation
HON. JACK RADFORD, Minister — LLOYD BROOKS, Deputy Minister
ED VERNON and BOB AHRENS, Associate Deputy Ministers
containing the reports of the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1974
 DD 2 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OP RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
DD 3
The Honourable Jack Radford,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
/
To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1974.
JACK RADFORD
Minister of Recreation and Conservation
Victoria, B.C., February 1975.
To the Honourable Jack Radford,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1974.
LLOYD BROOKS
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation
Victoria, B.C., February 1975.
 DD 4 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
DD 5
Minister
_L
L. BROOKS
Deputy Minister
E.H. VERNON and R.H. AHRENS
Associate Deputy Ministers
GENERAL
L.G. Underwood
f           —
PUBLIC
OFFICE
FISH & WILDLIFE
W.T. Ward
PROVINCIAL
Dr. J. Hatter
Director
PROVINCIAL
CJ. Velay
Acting Director
MARINE
RESOURCES
R.Y. Edwards
Acting Director
BRANCH
R.G. McMynn
Director
 DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
DD 7
Lloyd Brooks,
Deputy Minister.
The Department of Recreation and Conservation is composed of a number of
branches which together work toward an over-all responsibility for the management
of living, recreational, and cultural resources in British Columbia. The Fish and
Wildlife Branch is responsible for the protection and management of fish, wildlife,
and their associated habitat. The Parks Branch is responsible for identifying,
securing,' and managing Provincial parklands. The Museum Branch collects,
researches, and preserves many components of our history, culture, and living
resources. The Marine Resources Branch is the Provincial voice in the commercial
and recreational management of marine resources.
These branches are concerned with resources of land and water; of plants and
animals and the communities which they form. Many of these resources are seen
as the responsibilities of other agencies as well. But unlike any other resource
department, the Department of Recreation and Conservation regards them as
natural amenities for the enrichment of life in this Province. While other agencies
are involved with the commercial or industrial use of natural resources, this Department looks to their recreational and cultural potential and seeks to secure and
develop opportunities for their public use and enjoyment. The result is not only
a wide range of recreational and educational benefits but also the security of knowing that we are preserving future options for the use of these resources.
In a time of growing population and expanding development of all types, this
role becomes a most difficult one. The public, with a new sensitivity to environmental issues and a greater proportion of leisure time, is increasingly aware of
the value of natural systems and environments. As a result they are demanding
a greater quantity and quality of outdoor opportunities. But at the same time an
expanding population and continuing industrial and resource development is steadily
degrading the very basis for these opportunities. As the Department responsible
for the conservation of recreational and living resources, we are caught squarely
between the two. As a result, and as this Report will indicate, we are increasingly
concerned with preventing or mitigating the more destructive results of this type
of development. It is only in this way that the values we represent will be secured
both now and for the future.
 DD 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
E. H. (Ed) Vernon,
Associate Deputy Minister.
-'. •" :;
■.'■,' ':■'-'•:■■.-■::
R. H. (Bob) Ahrens,
Associate Deputy Minister.
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
DD 9
General Administration
The general administration group consists of the Deputy Minister's office and
those of the Associate Deputy Ministers; the Accounts office, the personnel section
and, for the last year, the Departmental information office. At the most senior level
—that of the Deputy and Associate Deputy Ministers—this function is responsible
for creating an administrative and policy bridge between the minister's office and
the senior staff of all branches of the Department. As an executive group, this
office creates Departmental policy and guidelines, act as senior Departmental liaison
on broad Governmental and interdepartmental issues and provide guidance to
branches in major policy, budgeting, and administrative matters. The accounts
office provides central accounting and fiscal control services, including those of payroll, and Departmental budgeting. The Personnel Section provides broad personnel
services including those of recruitment, classifications, and advice on functional
organization systems and union-management relations. The information office,
responsible for providing public information services, was transferred to the newly
formed Information and Education Branch in late 1974.
A major step in developing the capability of this group was made with the
appointment of two Associate Deputy Ministers. E. H. Vernon, formerly of the
Fish and Wildlife Branch, was appointed an Associate Deputy Minister in late
1973 and assumed broader administrative responsibilities throughout this year,
particularly related to the Fish and Wildlife, Information and Education, and Marine
Resource Branches. Late in 1974, R. H. Ahrens, formerly Director of the Parks
Branch, was appointed as a second Associate Deputy Minister with specific responsibilities for the Parks Branch, the Provincial Museum Branch, and the organization of a new Outdoor Recreation Branch. These appointments represented a
major step forward in the integration of Branch functions to meet the over-all responsibilities and philosophy of the Department.
PERSONNEL
A major staff increase and the negotiation and implementation of the first
Government-Union contracts shaped most of this year's activities.
Over 348 new positions were established in the Department for an over-all
increase of 46 per cent over 1973. A new branch, the Information and Education
Branch, was also established. At the same time, two master union agreements and
10 component agreements were negotiated. Personnel staff participated in these
negotiations and subsequently set up systems to administer the agreements. As
part of this process, a series of meetings was held to introduce both headquarters
and field staff to bargaining procedures and contract interpretation.
The Careers '74 program provided an opportunity for experimentation with
new programs while providing meaningful summer employment for students and
 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
introducing them to the activities of the Department.   The personnel office assisted
in the administration of this program, including the recruitment of staff.
The hiring of two personnel officers allowed the reorganization of the personnel office to deal more effectively with its various responsibilities. As a result, recruiting and classifications were set up as separate functions within the group.
Also established was a circular of appointments and transfers. The following
employees received continuous service awards:
35-year Awards
R. K. Leighton
J. J. Osman
F. J. Renton
25-year A wards
R. H. Ahrens
T. R. Broadland
W. J. Forsythe
T. H. Hunter
W. H. Fowkes
R. F. McKay
J. W. Moore
C. J. Velay
WILDLIFE REVIEW
As a Departmental magazine, Wildlife Review continues to promote not just
the activities of the Department but the broad environmental and conservation
values that represent this Department's philosophy.
The magazine is issued quarterly, and each edition runs to some 36,000 copies.
It is worth pointing out that the majority of this circulation consists of paid subscriptions; this is part of a philosophy that suggests a commitment of the recipients
of the magazine rather than a broadcast and unsolicited type of distribution.
Throughout the year Wildlife Review gave exposure to many issues which
fundamentally affected public attitudes toward conservation. On a number of
occasions, an article in the magazine has provided the first public airing of issues
which subsequently received wide attention through major media. For example,
the conflict between wildlife and domestic cattle on Crown ranges, first described
in a Wildlife Review article, later became a Provincial issue, resulting in major
Governmental policy changes.
As with the information office, Wildlife Review will continue as a function of
the Information and Education Branch.
PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICE
The public information function was forced to assume a holding position for
the better part of 1974. There were two reasons for this. First, the position of
Departmental Public Information Officer was vacant for the better part of the year,
and information activities were maintained largely by support staff. Secondly, a
decision had been made to create an Information and Education Branch, of which
the Departmental Information office would become a part. As a result, most of
the year was occupied with analysis of the information office and its role in Departmental communication. An acting Information Officer, hired during this period,
devoted most of his time to this type of analysis and research.
By mid-year, most of the groundwork had been laid for this new Branch. It
was to consist of Information, Education, and Communication Services Sections
and would carry out Departmental information and education programming in
addition to providing services to parallel functions in the various Branches. The
information office, reorganized under a Chief of Information Services within this
new Branch, would assume information service responsibilities on a much broader
scale than previously.
 DD  12
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
By the end of 1974, organization, staffing, and budget had been determined
for the new Branch. The new director was R. L. Cameron, previously of the Fish
and Wildlife Branch, and staffing was to consist of all Departmental Public Information Officers, the information and education centre located in Vancouver, and a
series of new positions to bridge these components and provide new staff for additional Departmental programming.
 Fish & Wildlife Branch
The Fish and Wildlife Branch is responsible
for the protection and management of
Provincial fish and wildlife resources to
ensure sustained benefits from these
resources for the people of British
Columbia. To accomplish this, the Branch
engages in research and inventory, the
protection of land and water environments
required by fish and wildlife, and the
establishment and enforcement of
regulations for the orderly use of these
resources. Public benefits from fish and
wildlife resources take the form of
recreational opportunities as well as
monetary returns through licensing and for
this reason, programs are also developed to
enhance fish-and wildlife-based recreation
and the quality of the environment in which
these activities take place.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Information and
Education
R.L. Cameron
Assistant Director
Management and Development
Fish, Wildlife, Recreation
D.J. Robinson
Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Authority
Supervisor: D.D. Moore
Assistant Di recto i
Planning, Administration
Research
Dr. P.J. Bandy
ition
r_n
Wildlife Co-ordinator
D.R. Halladay
Waterfowl, Upland Game
Birds and Raptors
W.T. Munro
Fur Management
Vacant
Fisheries Co-ordinator
Administrative Services
J.A. McLellan
Fisheries Biologist
Vacant
mm
Habitat Improvement
G.D. Taylor
Facilitating Services
S.J. Fairbairn
BWBBMMIWHWfflllllill
Licences and Permits
P.J. Kirby
Planning and Evaluation
C.H. Thomas
W. Bedford
Research and Technical
Services
Fisheries-T.G. Halsey
Wildlife-D.S. Eastman
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 15
Enforcement
Evaluation
W.R. Hazledine
Enforcement
Officer
Vacant
Impoundments
J.H.C. Walker
Estuaries and Strip
Mining
B.A. Pendergast
Highways and Development
A. Eadie
Referral Systems
C. von Barloewen
■
Forester
Vacant
Office
Manager
Administrative
Support Staff
Engineer
Vacant
Information
and Education
Officer
Bh
fish & wildlife branch
The management responsibilities of the
Fish and Wildlife Branch are divided into
five main areas. The fisheries management
group are responsible for the management
and enhancement of the Provincial freshwater
sport fishery. The wildlife management
group have an equivalent role in the management of Provincial wildlife resources. Habitat protection is a separate section which
works closely with the Fish and Wildlife
Management functions and other land and
water-use agencies to ensure the protection
of fish and wildlife habitat requirements. The
Enforcement Section, through field conservation officers, enforces both fishing and hunting regulations and those concerned with
habitat protection. The Information and
Education Section is responsible for the development of programs to increase public
awareness of Fish and Wildlife values, management, and opportunities.
The organization of the Fish and Wildlife
Branch is a highly regionalized one; as a
result the various described functions are
reflected in both the regional offices, through
regional management specialists, and in the
headquarters office, through Provincial level
co-ordinators. For this reason, each function
is reported here at both Provincial and individual regional levels. In addition, the head
quarters office provides special management
services such as research, inventory, and
administrative services.
Vancouver Island
— J.C. Lyons
Lower Mainland
— G. A. West
Kamloops
— G.E. Stringer
Penticton
— Vacant
Prince George
— R. Goodiad
Kootenay
— G.F. Hartman
Smithers
— D.J. Spalding
Williams Lake
— 1. Withler
67 District Offices
■
 DD  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 17
1974  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE  FISH  AND WILDLIFE  BRANCH
Eight key wildlife habitat areas totalling 1,200 acres were acquired for wildlife
management purposes.
A resident-only limited entry hunting season on grizzly bear, mountain goat, and
mountain sheep was instituted in several areas of the Province.
A committee representing seven wildlife agencies was formed to contribute to the
Federal-Provincial Humane Trapping Program.   In addition, a Trapper Education Course was initiated in Prince George.
Two new staff positions were established to develop a Fur Management Program.
A Provincial Predator Management Committee was formed to develop new
predator management policies and a process to implement them.
The John Creek diversion was completed at the Meadow Creek Spawning channel;
15 per cent more kokanee entered the Meadow Creek system to spawn than in
the 1970 brood-year.
The annual operation and maintenance budget for the Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Authority reached $200,000.
A framework for an inventory program was developed, with Fisheries and Wildlife groups adopting identical guidelines.
A Summer Outdoor Recreation and Fishing Program provided 323 disadvantaged children from the Lower Mainland with a quality outdoor sport-fishing
experience in a total of 19 outings.
The Public Conservation Assistance Fund, created to encourage private conservation groups in their conservation activities, made 15 grants for a total of
$44,390.
A program was developed to encourage citizens to observe, record, and report
wildlife violation to Conservation Officers or police.
Twenty-five new Conservation Officer (Enforcement) positions were established—
the largest increase in Branch history. New offices were opened in Tofino, Gold
River, Pemberton, Valemount, Mackenzie, and Atlin.
Prosecutions had increased by 197 over 1973 figures by the end of November;
this is a continuation of a three-year trend that may be related to staff increase
and use of auxiliary Conservation Officers.
Environmental assessments and impact studies were completed on a number of
existing or proposed B.C. Hydro projects.
Work began with the forest districts to begin preparation of resource folios, a
system to establish and identify all resource values before planning for forest
harvest begins.
The Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education Program was made mandatory for certain licence applicants. This promoted a Province-wide increase in
the number of CORE courses offered, with 4,945 students and over 1,000 instructors qualified between April and November.
Information and Education Officers were appointed to regional offices at Nanaimo, Burnaby, Kamloops, Prince George, Nelson, and Smithers to administer
information and education programs in these regions.
David R. Hum was appointed Assistant Director of the Enforcement and Protection Division of the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
A plan to change the hunting licence system from a manual to a computerized
operation was initiated.
Substantial increases in nonresident hunting and fishing fees and the replacement
of the trophy fee system by a species licence system were put into effect.
  FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 19
J. Hatter,
Director.
Fish & Wildlife Branch
A budget increase of $2.2 million over 1973 and an increase of 97 in permanent staff has marked the second consecutive year of unprecented expansion
in the Fish and Wildlife Branch. This Report can touch only in general terms on
the diverse activities of the Branch.
The Land Acquisition Program was additional to the budget and was highlighted by the addition of six new properties for the protection and management of
wildlife habitat. These acquisitions were funded from one or more of the following
sources:
Provincial Greenbelt Fund,
National Second Century Fund,
Nature Conservancy of Canada, and
Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society.
This year marked the beginning of limited entry hunting in the Province with
special seasons being applied to grizzly bears (Toba and Bute Inlets), mountain
goats (near Terrace), and California bighorn sheep near Keremeos. Another innovation was the establishment of a Provincial Predator Management Committee
and Associated Regional Advisory Committees to allow for involvement of private
as well as Government interests in the management of nuisance predators.
Site preparation for the new Fraser Valley Fish Hatchery at Abbotsford was
completed and construction is scheduled to begin early in 1975. This new hatchery
will become a major contribution to fish culture and recreational fishing in the
Province.
New also in 1974 was an experimental outdoor recreation and fishing program
for disadvantaged children on the Lower Mainland. The program involved some
323 children and a total of 19 outings of up to three days in duration. Hopefully,
this is the beginning of a trend toward greater emphasis upon achieving more apparent public recreational benefits from our fish and wildlife resources.
The year 1974 marked a new initiative in recognizing the service rendered to
conservation issues by sportsmens'. and other citizens' organizations.    A Public
 DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Conservation Assistance Fund of $50,000 provided for 15 grants to private conservation groups to assist them in work programs beneficial to fish and wildlife.
Voluntary citizen participation in law enforcement was intiated by the Observe,
Record, and Report Program. In addition, 25 new Conservation Officer positions
were created and two-men districts were established for the first time. A significant increase in the number of prosecutions has resulted.
Habitat protection activity was intense in 1974. The Branch was involved
in numerous projected hydro developments and a great amount of routine protection activity. All regions commenced upon a Resource Folio Planning Program
with the B.C. Forest Service.
The Conservancy Outdoor Recreation Education (CORE) Program became
mandatory Province-wide for first licence applicants. From April to November
almost 5,000 students took the program with some 1,000 instructors qualified for
this purpose.
Substantial increases in nonresident hunting and fishing fees were put into
effect. Resident licence fees were also increased. The old trophy fee system for
nonresidents was abolished and replaced by a new species licence system. As
expected, the new fees resulted in a small decline in resident licence sales and some
34 per cent decrease in nonresident hunting but this latter situation was partially
due to economic conditions in the United States.
I wish to conclude these introductory remarks by saying that 1974 has been
one of the most exciting and progressive years in the history of the Fish and Wildlife Branch. I am pleased to report that activities and work functions have been
directed to the broad over-all goal of the Fish and Wildlife Branch, viz., to "Optimize the Opportunities for Public Use and Enjoyment of the Fish and Wildlife Resources of the Province," with all that this implies.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 21
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Most Branch fisheries management work is organized and conducted in the
field by biologists and technical staff under the direction of regional directors in
seven management regions of the Province. As a result, most fisheries management
activities are outlined in the regional sections of this report. Several Province-wide
functions are, however, administered or co-ordinated through Victoria, to provide
services and support to regional management programs.
ANGLING LICENCE STATISTICS
The table below presents the estimated number of angling licences sold in the
Province annnually for the last 10 years. Due to some duplicate licensing (steelhead
and alien three-day licences), there is a variation between these data and the actual
number of anglers using British Columbia freshwaters.
Total Freshwater Anglers and Total Licence Sales
Year Total Licence Sales
1964/65 219,551
1965/66 236,789
1966/67 289,436
1967/68 315,790
1968/69 328,767
Year Total Licence Sales
1969/70 365,691
1970/71 376,227
1971/72 357,468
1972/73 368,869
1973/74 426,729
STEELHEAD QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS
In the 1973/74 licence-year, 31,315 anglers purchased steelhead licences. Of
that number, 11,025 (35.2 per cent) did not fish for steelhead. Of those who did
(20,291) only 8,282 anglers (40.8 per cent) were successful in taking one or more
steelhead. Some 58,695 steelhead were caught, of which 26,213 were released.
Steelhead angling provided an estimated 208,000 angling-days of recreation in
1973/74, an increase of 5,000 days over the previous year.
HABITAT IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
Regional and headquarters staff were involved in stream clearance and diversion, lake aeration and chemical rehabilitation, fish passage and enumeration, egg
transplants, fish barrier construction, and inventory. Co-operative ventures with
other Government agencies (Parks Branch in particular) resulted in further clearance of streams, stabilization of stream gravels, and recommendations for interpretation work.
Region and Headquarters staff provided on-site technical advice for LIP Grants,
reviewed and recommended highway locations, studied the effects of placer mining
activities, acquired map reserves and water licences, reviewed fish passage problems
at culvert installations, provided extensive aerial photography, reviewed potential
lake and stream enhancement projects, and represented Federal-International,
Federal-Provincial, and interdepartmental agencies on resource use and policy
committees.
A separate Engineering Services Section was formed in late 1974. This section
will provide a broader service, as it will relate to functions other than the fish habitat
improvement section.
Two large lake systems near population centres were treated with fish toxicants
(antimycin and rotenone) to remove undesirable fish.    Permanent barriers were
 DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
built on outlet streams to prevent reinvasion by nongame species. After rapid
detoxification, one of the lakes was stocked with gamefish in 1974. Some undesirable fish remained, due to difficulties in dispersal of the chemicals. There will be a
recolonization of the lakes by these fish, although fishing should be good for the
next five to eight years because of the stocking program.
Lakes Chemically Rehabilitated in 1974
Lake
Region
Location
Surface Size
Rail          	
Kamloops	
, A brief was prepared on "Lake Rehabilitation with Piscicides" for presentation
to the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Pesticides and Herbicides. The brief
included the history and highly limited use of piscicides in fishery management in
British Columbia, guidelines for planning, conducting, and evaluating individual
projects, and directions for future use of more selective (species-specific) toxicants.
FISH CULTURE PROGRAM
Approximately six million fish for a total of 64,000 pounds were distributed
to 450 lakes in 1974.
Number and Weight of Fish Released from Hatcheries in 1974
Number Pounds
Brook trout   567,000 3,330
Cutthroat trout—
Yellowstone   299,000 110
Coastal   22,000 400
Kokanee   559,000 1,370
Lake trout  4,500 1,800
Rainbow trout  4,560,000 56,000
Steelhead   29,000 1,400
5,840,500        64,410
Fourteen million eggs were collected in 1974 from native stocks of trout and
kokanee.    Rainbow trout accounted for eight million of the total eggs collected.
The evaluation of two manufactured fish foods that started in 1961 should be
finished in 1975. Results to date show the high fat Ewos diet to have proven
advantages over the Clark diet.
The effect of effluent water from the Summerland Hatchery on the Lower
Summerland domestic water supply from Okanagan Lake was investigated by an
outside Consultant to the Ministers of Health and Recreation and Conservation.
As a result of this study, cleaning wastes from the ponds will be removed for
alternate disposal.
Two fish culturists were added to staff at the Fraser Valley Hatchery (Abbotsford) ; one fish culturist was hired for Summerland Hatchery. In mid-March, J. G.
Terpenning left his position as Superintendent of Hatcheries to accept a position
as Administrative Assistant in the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
Site preparation for a new hatchery at Abbotsford was completed in late 1974.
Tenders for the new hatchery will be let in January 1975.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 23
INVENTORY PROGRAM
Considerable time was spent developing a framework for the inventory program. Near the end of the year, the fisheries and wildlife groups adopted identical
guidelines for such a program.
Stream inventory was doubled (two 2-man crews instead of one) with the
majority of work being done in the Stuart and Nass systems in northwestern British
Columbia. Lake inventory was increased slightly, with most work being done in
the Cariboo and Prince George areas.
Assistance was provided to regions in their summer wildlife inventory work
and to the Forest Service in implementing the Computer Assisted Resource Planning (CARP) Program. This involved three activities: (1) inventory and data
processing; (2) development of models to help evaluate management and research
strategies; (3) development of models to assist with regional planning and the
development of long-term objectives. Initial CARP work is a feasibility study of
the use of computer techniques for resource planning.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
In 1974 the 28 wildlife management areas of the Province were divided into
201 management units. These are geographically defined areas, with different
species, populations, and recreational opportunities associated with each. This move
was designed to allow more intense and refined wildlife and recreational management. As with the fisheries management program, most specific wildlife management activities are conducted by, and thus reported on, by regional management
staff. Headquarters staff is involved with co-ordination of these activities and
provincial policy development.
SPECIAL HUNTING SEASONS
A limited entry hunting season on grizzly bear (Toba and Bute Inlets), Mountain goat (near Terrace), and Mountain sheep (near Keremeos), was instituted.
Nonresident hunters were not eligible to participate in a public draw for special
licences to hunt in these areas.
PROVINCIAL PREDATOR MANAGEMENT COMMITTEES
A Provincial Predator Management Committee was formed in 1974 to develop
and implement new predator management policy. The Fish and Wildlife Branch,
Department of Agriculture, B.C. Cattlemen's Association, B.C. Wildlife Federation,
Federation of Naturalists, and the Federation of Agriculture were represented.
Similar Regional Advisory Committees have been formed to solve local predator
problems, to reduce unnecessary livestock losses, and to seek improved distribution
of livestock. The F & W Branch, however, has the prime responsibility of maintaining and protecting all wildlife, including carnivores.
WATERFOWL, UPLAND GAME BIRDS, AND RAPTORS
With the preservation and management of marshes recognized as the key to
continued high population levels of waterfowl, the Branch has continued to pursue
a policy of preserving wetlands through negotiation, agreement and purchase. Intensive habitat management was conducted on some areas under Branch control.
Policy and regulations were developed for raptorial birds. The new policy
required that all populations of raptorial birds be protected in their wild state.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Particular measures are taken to protect the Peregrine falcon and other species
endangered elsewhere. The taking of any raptorial bird from the wild is prohibited,
unless a specific permit has been issued by the Branch.
Work was begun on a Provincial policy dealing with the capture and possession
of live animals. A policy dealing with the care of animals in zoos and game farms
will be prepared in 1975.
FUR MANAGEMENT
An Advisory Committee was formed to support the Federal-Provincial Humane
Trapping Committee, at the instigation of the British Columbia Association for the
Protection of Fur Bearing Animals. The Fish and Wildlife Branch, B.C. Association
for the Protection of Fur Bearing Animals, B.C. Registered Trappers Association,
B.C. Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, B.C. Union of Indian Chiefs,
B.C. Union of Non-Status Indians, and the Department of Indian Affairs and
Northern Development are represented.
Two new staff positions were established in 1974 to develop a fur management
program, including trapper education and humane trap promotion.
A Trapper Education course was held in Prince George in November. It was
available through the co-operation of Canada Manpower, the B.C. Registered Trappers Association, the Technical Vocational Division of the Department of Education,
and the Fish and Wildlife Branch. This was the first course of its kind in British
Columbia; additional courses will be held in other areas of the Province in the
future.
BIOMETRICS
Questionnaires
The 1973 Hunter Sample and the 1973/74 Steelhead questionnaire were completed.  Work on the 1974 Sample and 1974/75 questionnaire was begun.
The Cache Creek report has been completed. A committee was formed to
review the Cache Creek Check and Hunter Sample programs in light of changing
information and data requirement of the Branch.
Data Storage and Retrieval
Fish and Wildlife became involved in a joint Federal-Provincial task force to
develop a program for storage and retrieval of waterfowl counts. A data storage
and retrieval program and survey format for the North-West Sport Fish Capability
Survey was completed. This survey is being expanded to steelhead on Vancouver
Island.
New Programs
A new hunter licensing program proposal was given approval and design is
continuing by a consultant supplied by the Department of Transport and Communications. This program, based on a five-year term "basic" hunting licence, is expected
to be implemented April 1976.
A procedure for evaluating region enforcement activities and programs is being
tested in Smithers.
Data Services Committee
This is an interdepartmental committee, chaired by ELUC, to facilitate exchange of data between resource departments. To date, an initial Resource Data
Bibliography has been completed and a method of geo-coding proposed.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 25
URBAN RECREATION PROGRAM
Recreation Land Green Belt Encouragement Act
The purpose of this Act is to provide relief from taxation for approved recreational lands. The Branch has been involved in the preparation of the guidelines
and regulation for this Act. The responsibility for administration of the Act will
soon be transferred to Parks.
Public Conservation Assistance Fund
The Public Conservation Assistance Fund helps organizations financially in
their conservation activities, provided that the clubs helped contribute labour, material, and some of their own money.
$50,000 in the 1974/75 Fiscal Year.
19 projects approved out of a total of 30 submissions.
Total of moneys requested was $121,854.96.
Types of projects included fry feeding, waterfowl rearing, stream rehabilitation, and facilities for the care of injured animals.
HABITAT PROTECTION
Pollution Control
Concern for the integrity of streams used for placer mining resulted in the
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources and the Fish and Wildlife Branch
designating areas where placer mining is acceptable or unacceptable.
Literature searches of the effects of sewage and chlorine on fish continued, in
order that accepted levels of contaminants in effluents and of dilution factors can be
revised.
Liaison
The Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Interdepartmental Liaison Committee
of the Department of Highways reviewed construction proposals in the Lower
Mainland, Vancouver Island, and northern areas.
The Secretariat of ELUC continues to receive Branch input concerning special
resource use studies and development proposals.
In 1974, all regions co-operated with the Forest Districts to start preparation
of Resource Folios. This system will establish and identify all resource values and
constraints before forest harvest planning begins. The resource folios contain information on topography, soils, vegetation, fishery streams, wildlife use, and recreation.
Hydro-electric Development
The Branch is involved in planning studies, reviewing the work of consultants,
and drafting guidelines for the assessment of wildlife values affected by hydro
projects.
B.C. Hydro funded a study by the Fish and Wildlife Branch, the Federal Fisheries Service, and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission on the
effects of the Kemano II development on fish and game populations.
A survey of steelhead fishermen was made at the site of the John Hart II Dam
on the Campbell River.
A water licence has been granted to B.C. Hydro and Power Authority for the
construction of a 700 mw dam on the Pend-d'Oreille River. Negotiations were
initiated to determine the location of the access road and the land required to relieve
wildlife losses.
  FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
PESTICIDES
On-site pesticide use inspection was increased. The Branch is now better represented on the Interdepartmental Pesticide Committee, the Forest Pest Review
Committee, and the Aquatic Weed Control Committee.
The effects of aquatic weed herbicides on fish were studied, in co-operation
with the Water Investigations Branch and Environment Canada. A brief outlining
Fish and Wildlife Branch concern over present and future use of herbicides and
insecticides was submitted to the B.C. Royal Commission of Inquiry into the use
of herbicides and insecticides.
Special Studies
Field studies of minimum flow requirements of streams containing fish were
begun; from these, minimum flow standards may be set for streams faced with excess
water withdrawal.
Information on the effects of forest management policy on fish, wildlife, and
recreation was assembled for a specially commissioned Task Force on Forest Policy.
Various critical wildlife areas are being used for coal exploration and mining
activities. Mapping was begun in order to provide a basis for protecting them
against these activities. The attitude of the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources has been favourable.
Field surveys and aerial waterfowl counts were done along Coast estuaries.
This information is needed for current site-specific development proposals and for
future systems of coastal zoning.
ENFORCEMENT
Conservation Officers are involved in resource-use planning (logging, hunting,
fishing, mining), water and land pollution prevention, and policing activities. In
1974, 25 new Conservation Officers (Enforcement) positions were established—
the largest increase in Branch history. Most new enforcement staff were to set up
two-man districts. New offices were opened in Tofino, Gold River, Pemberton,
Mackenzie, and Atlin.
Court Actions
At the end of November, prosecutions had increased by 197 over 1973 figures.
This is a continuation of the trend over the past three years and can be related to
staff increase and use of auxiliary Conservation Officers.
Observe, Record, and Report
A program was developed to encourage citizens to observe, record, and immediately report wildlife violations to Conservation Officers or police. This program
was well received as a means of enabling citizens to participate in the protection
of their wildlife resources.
Hunting Casualties
In 1974, there was only one fatality and two serious hunting casualties compared to two and five respectively, in 1973.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
With regional Information and Education staff becoming fully operational this
year, the major change in the Information and Education section was the shift from
 DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 29
a centralized type of programming to a regionalized approach with the headquarters
function assuming a supportive and co-ordinating role. As a reflection of this
change, a major Information and Education office was established in Vancouver,
where both services and Provincial media contact were more readily available.
A second event which shaped a large proportion of this year's activities was
the decision to make the hunter training component of the Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education program (CORE) a compulsory pre-requisite for
obtaining a hunting licence. Groups affected by this requirement were all those
who had not held a licence subsequent to their 14th birthday and all 14-year-old
applicants. The reason for selecting this group was that it established a system for
the eventual training of all licensed hunters. With the announcement in early April
of an October effective date for this requirement, there was an immediate Province-
wide demand for CORE programs.
Preparation for this anticipated demand had begun early in the year. Final
revisions were made to complete program reorganization begun two years previously.
Additional resource materials such as a new series of species brochures and new
administrative and record forms were completed and published. New policies were
established for the Province-wide development and operation of the program with
special attention given to regional adaptation of these policies. Finally, a strategy
for implementing, the program on as broad a basis as possible was devised and
responsibilities divided throughout the Province.
With program organization complete, regional Information and Education
staff returned to their respective regions and began a Province-wide series of
orientation seminars for CORE instructors. These seminars introduced new program materials and policy, offered training in teaching and audio-visual techniques
and identified program potential throughout the Province. The seminars were closely
followed by a series of instructor courses operated under a new instructor qualification policy. Over 1,000 new instructors were recruited during this phase, with
a dramatic shift toward school and college involvement. The result of this whole
process was the qualification of almost 5,000 students between April and the end
of November—traditionally a slow time for CORE programming. In addition, the
program was expanded into schools, colleges, recreation centres, and adult education
programs throughout the Province.
CORE program development left little time available for other types of
Information and Education activities, but a great deal was also accomplished both
in the continuation of existing programs and in experimentation with new forms of
communication. One reason for this was the fact that contacts developed through
expansion of the CORE program led to opportunities for other activities. Some of
these were:
1. Programming with media such as radio, television, and newspapers continued as in previous years, but was greatly facilitated by the location of production
facilities in the new Vancouver office. Two new TV program series were completed
and aired; one, covering each section of the CORE program for CBC's "Bob Switzer
Show" and another, covering a number of fish, wildlife, and environmental issues
for CBC's Hourglass "Focus" program. Both series were recorded and added to
our growing video-tape library. News item clips were also produced and distributed;
public service announcements were produced but not completed in time for use in
1974.
2. The construction and erection of information and regulatory signs continued throughout the Province. All signs are now produced according to a
standard format. Display production increased substantially to meet commitments
to both major Provincial shows and conferences and as a service to regional In-
 DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
formation and Education staff for local use. A large "mall" type of display was
constructed and used extensively throughout the summer in shopping centres and
major outdoor shows. This display created a miniature "wildland" with live
animals such as deer and Canada geese and a backdrop of trees and rough cedar
structures; for this reason it was extremely well received although its use was
limited by the need for extensive staff involvement.
3. A variety of publications was produced ranging from information pieces
to the hunting regulations synopsis. A new environmental awareness program was
initiated to complement the CORE program. Audio-visual support material for
both CORE and other educational programs was produced or purchased and distributed to regional offices.
A final event of 1974 which had an important effect on the Information and
Education section was the creation of a Departmental Information and Education
Branch. This new branch was designed to provide Information and Education
services on a Departmental basis and support existing programs in other branches.
R. L. Cameron, co-ordinator of Information and Education for the Fish and Wildlife Branch, was named director of this new branch. The Information and Education
Centre in Vancouver, having assumed broader media communication and services
roles, was transferred from the Fish and Wildlife Branch to the new Information
and Education Branch. As all these events occurred near the end of 1974, the
exact relationships between the Fish and Wildlife Information and Education
Section and the new Information and Education Branch has still not been completely described at the time of writing this Report.
ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
LAND ACQUISITION
Several areas critical to wildlife management in British Columbia were acquired
in 1974:
Purchase From Branch Funds
(1) Newgate—10 acres inside the area of the Gordon Earl Range purchased
in 1973.
(2) Three water licences on Mission Creek to ensure continued quantity and
quality supply of water essential to fish spawning.
Purchase by Outside Sources
(1) Mud Bay—145 acres of estuarine marsh associated with the Serpentine
and Nicomekl Rivers. Funding—Green Belt, The National Second Century, and
the Nature Conservancy of Canada.
(2) Antlers' Saddle—282 acres of vital winter and spring range adjacent to
Highway 97, north of Summerland.   Funding—Green Belt.
(3) Tofino—145 acres of upland within the Tofino Waterfowl conservation.
Funding—Green Belt.
(4) Delkatla Slough—120 acres of meadowland contiguous with Delkatla
Slough as part of Delkatla Slough Waterfowl Sanctuary. Funding—Green Belt.
Additional acreage was purchased but will be assigned to other users.
(5) Osoyoos Lake—Approximately 30 acres of wetland purchased by the
Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society as part of the Osoyoos Conservation Area
for protection of a unique environment and one of the few wintering areas for
waterfowl on a major Interior migration route.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 31
(6) Grand Forks—Approximately 475 acres of very important mule deer
and whitetail deer spring/winter range purchased by the National Second Century
Fund of B.C. Land has been leased to the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
LICENCES AND PERMITS
Revenue by Source
1969/70
1970/71
1971/72
1972/73
1973/74
$
$
$
$
$
10,241
Resident hunting licence	
604,906
623,988
615,745
620,974
676,642
($4)
($4)
($4)
($4)
Nonresident hunting licence (other
182,800
179,450
166,225
175,475
183,750
than Canadian)
($25)
($25)
($25)
($25)
Nonresident   hunting   licence   (Ca
1,995
1,995
2,715
2,265
3,660
nadian)
($15)
($15)
($15)
($15)
173,544
177,581
162,451
151,505
172,447.50
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
329,058
319,545
311,636
330,114
415,078
($6)
($6)
($6)
($6)
56,080
5 1,090
44,380
45,530
53,950
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Mountain goat-tag licence 	
14,938
14,751
12.976
10,480
11,585
($2)
($2)
($2)
($2)
12,280
12,985
13,215
13,275
14,490
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
24,290
26,585
28,540
31,580
38,740
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Grizzly bear-tag licence 	
26.545
28,160
22,670
25,080
28,710
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
Black bear-tag licence -   ....
8,136
8,970
10,677
10,407.50
11,812
(50*)
(50*)
(50*)
(50*)
1,795
2,244
2,295
2,985
($5)
($5)
($5)
(Canadian)
Big-game trophy fees (non
328,436
324,570
298,820
280,725
298,385
resident)
Resident angler's licence	
610,128
639,552
642,651
667,821.50
746,239
($3)
($3)
($3)
($3)
Resident steelhead angler's licence _
10,856
10,700
48,717
54,087.31
60,124
(25*)
(25*)
($2)
($2)
2,684
13,913
licence
($1)
Nonresident anglers ..	
257,000
261,070
249,870
238,640
266,426
($10)
($10)
($10)
($10)
Nonresident  angler's   licence   (Ca
67,986
72,486
78,753
84,684
98,960
nadian)
($3)
($3)
($3)
($3)
Nonresident angler's (short-term) „
165,882
168,151
163,103
157,001
161,067.50
($3.50)
($3.50)
($3.50)
($3.50)
Nonresident   steelhead   angler's   li
11,995
10,495
9,620
9,655
10,605
cence
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Nonresident angler's licence
20,731
20,908
19,388
17,780
17,326
(minor)
($1)
($1)
($1)
($1)
Resident trapping licence	
11,665
10,880
10,360
12,543
13,322
($5)
($5)
($5)
($5)
Guide-outfitter,   registered   guides,
12,405
29,400
29,136
28,170
27,250
and    small    game   and    angling
($15, $10, $5)
($50, $5, $15)
($50, $5, $15)
($50, $5, $15)
guides
Resident   fur   trader's   licence   and
37,040
36,793
29,671.24
37,700.50
38,281.30
royalty on fur
Fines  imposed under the  Wildlife
31,094
35,282
38,181
58,062.50
87,477
Act and Firearms Act
Miscellaneous revenue -	
18,0491
8,132
6,916.50
10,140.21
16,223.99
Subtotal 	
3,017,838
3,075,314
3,018,661.24
3,086,590.52
3,474,890.19
Less commissions on sale of
licences 	
109,347
157,972
2,917,342
142,912.91
2,875,748.33
129,779.27
155,403.85
Totals                           ....
2,908,492
2,956,811.25
29,542.11
3 319 486 34
Less Wildlife Review	
19,808.95
Total   	
2,927,269.14
3,299,677.39
318.75
Total  _     	
3,299,358.64
i Includes subscriptions to Wildlife Review.
 DD 32          BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
In 1974 the Fish and Wildlife Branch began planning to change the hunting
licence system from a manual to computerized operation, with the aid of system
analysis of the Data Centre.    1977 is the target date for this change-over.
The price structure for licences was revised for the 1974/75 Fiscal Year.
Most licence fees were increased, with greatest increases made in nonresident
hunting and fishing fees.   At the same time, the nonresident trophy fee system was
replaced by a species licence system.
Below is a comparison table showing number of licences sold and revenue
received from April to December. The number of licences sold decreased, but total
revenue received increased $2,207,955 over 1973.
HUNTING AND ANGLING LICENCE SALES
Comparison for the Period April-December 1973 and 1974
B.C. RESIDENT HUNTING
1973
1974
Plus or Minus
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Senior citizen1	
$
5,553
134,993
9,080
3,369
190
111,374
7,196
537
46,834
1,916
890
$
5,553
944,702
36,309
33,685
1,895
445,295
71,955
18,795
468,292
28,720
22,250
5,553 +
27,655 —
10,669-
2,395—
56+
50,739—
2,179—
755-
13,799-
2,335—
725-
$
5,553 +
294,115 +
26,435 +
4,865 +
1,225 +
283,182+
25,080+
5,875 +
104,494+
20,218 +
14,175+
162,648
19,749
5,764
134
162,1132
9,375
1,292
60,633
4,251
1,615
650,587
9,874
28,820
670
162,1132
46,875
12,920
363,798
8,502
8,075
Deer „  _.
Elk              	
Mountain sheep	
427,574
1,292,234
321,932
2,077,451
105,642—
785,217+
Firearms  _	
Bow  	
Special Areas
8,800
8,800
13,711
857
3,215
80
113
13,711
2,571
16,075
400
565
4,911
857
3,215
80
113
4,911
2,571
16,075
400
565
Limited entry hunting1 - ._
8,800
8,800
17,976
33,322
9,176
24,522
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 33
NONRESIDENT HUNTING
1973
1974
Plus or Minus
1
Number   I      Value
1
Number
Value
Number
Value
Canadian resident (non-B.C.)
221
6,784
$
3,315
169,600
931
4,488
263
891
1,061
13
483
$
2,745
336,050
6,575
35,640
106,100
1,300
24.150
170+
2,296-
263 +
1,933-
573-
178-
483 +
322-
957-
2,092—
563-
469-
242+
$
570-
166,450+
6,575 +
Black bear  	
2,824
1,634
191
1,412
8,170
955
3,695
14,390
32,046
2,604
5,645
298,385
34,228+
97,930+
345 +
24,150+
Elk	
739
1,439
5,341
1,302
1,129
417    |        41,700
482    !       144.600
38,005 +
130,210 +
Moose 	
3,249
793
660
242
324,900
73,900
165,500
18.150
292,854+
71,296+
159,855+
Wolf1	
18,150+
Trophy fees   _____	
(3)         |           (3)
298,385—
21,604
540,217
13.379    1    1.281310
8,225 —
741,093 +
1973
1974
Plus or Minus
Total hunting revenue—Resident	
Total hunting revenue—Nonresident	
Total hunting revenue—Combined
1,301,034
540,217
2,110,773
1,281,310
809,739+
741,093 +
1,841,251
3,392,083 1,550,832+
         I	
B.C. RESIDENT ANGLING
1973
1974
Plus or
Minus
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
243,040
13,374
24,076
$
729,120
13,374
48,152
243,488
18,581
18,321
$
1,217,238
18,581
54,796
448+
5,207+
5,755-
$
488,118 +
5,207+
6,644+
Steelhead _.	
Totals     —_    	
280,490
790,646
280,390
1,290,615
100-
499,969 +
NONRESIDENT ANGLING
Canadian resident (non-B.C.)_
Nonresident (annual) ____	
Nonresident (three-day)	
Canadian resident (non-B.C.)
and nonresident steelhead _—
Special lakesi____ _ 	
Special rivers1 	
Minors1 _	
Totals 	
32,787
25,766
45,436
1,881
17,178
123,048
98,361
257,660
159,026
9,405
17,178
541,630
38,262
17,188
31,591
1,799
1,178
984    |
I
91,002
$
191,303
257,820
189,441
71,950
17,670
24,600
698,784
5,475 +
8,578—
13,845-
82-
1,178+
984+
17,178-
32,046-
$
92,942+
160+
30,415 +
8,545 +
17,670+
24,600+
17,178-
157,154+
1973
1974
Plus or Minus
Total angling revenue—Resident	
Total angling revenue—Nonresident _	
$
790,646
541,630
$
1,290,615
698,784
$
499,969+
157,154+
1,332,276
1,989,399
657,123 +
 DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
TOTAL ANGLING AND HUNTING REVENUE
B.C. resident	
Nonresident	
Grand total..
$ ' $
2,091,680      |      3,401,388
1,081,847      |      1,980,094
3,173,527      |      5,381,482
 I	
$
1,309,708 +
898,247 +
2,207,955 +
1 This licence newly introduced 1974.
2 Includes nonresident figures, but these are negligible.
3 Prepaid now by higher fee for species licences.
PLANNING AND EVALUATION
In 1974 the Fish and Wildlife Branch began the process of Program Planning
and Budgeting. The planning section was initiated in December of 1973 with the
appointment of a Planning Officer. Initially, the section changed the budgeting
procedure to a system where budgets were identified with long-term programs. To
further improve the system, the section has begun work on a planning manual for
the Branch.
In October 1974 a Planning Assistant was appointed to develop program
evaluation methods, to ensure the best allocation of Branch resources, and to research public attitudes, options, and use of fish and wildlife resources. Management
information on these resources can then be developed, in terms of present management practices and demand on the resource by outdoor recreationalists, naturalists,
historians, general interest groups, and concerned individuals.
RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
Fisheries
Objectives of this section include (1) researching factors that regulate fluctuations in sport fish populations; (2) assessing the possibilities of integrated resource
management through research in multidisciplinary resource studies; (3) researching
and developing fisheries protection and management techniques; recently, resource-
user studies have been initiated.
Research
Trout Production and Resource Conflicts—Loon Lake Project—From 1949-
1954, 50 per cent of the anglers at Loon Lake were non-B.C. residents. In recent
years this has dropped to 25 per cent. The effort of individual fishermen has increased, however, for the catch has remained between 30,000-60,000 fish.
Studies have shown a change in the trophic state of the lake over the last few
years. Major sources of nutrient input include natural run-off, cattle manure,
chemical fertilizers, and probably septic tank fields. Relative importance of these
factors is not yet known. Fish are larger now; studies of zooplankton and phyto-
plankton communities over the last four years should also show changes due to
increased nutrient levels.
Escapement studies of inlet and outlet streams reflect the relatively poor pro-
dutcion in 1971 and the increased fishing pressure recently.
Spawning and rearing habitat appear to be limiting trout production in Loon
Lake. Because of this, an artificial system for producing rainbow trout was introduced. When intial problems were corrected, survival and growth rates increased
to a high level.
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 35
 DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Screens were placed on the inlet streams to prevent fry, juvenile, and adult
trout from entering irrigation pipes and ditches. They have proven very suitable
for small gravity flow diversions; significant production losses of under-yearling trout
have been prevented.
Fisheries Management and Forest Harvesting
(1) Slim-Tumuch Watershed—The Fish and Wildlife Branch, Fisheries and
Marine Services, Department of the Environment, B.C. Forest Service, and a Prince
George forest products company are continuing a study to determine the effectiveness of fisheries protective measures in an area that is being logged. The stream
phase of the study is complete; an interagency report will be available in the spring
of 1975.
(2) Haney Research Forest—A study is being conducted jointly with the
Institute of Animal Resource Ecology at UBC to assess the effects of clear cutting
on a small resident cutthroat trout population. Water quality and quantity data have
been collected for several years by the Faculty of Forestry.
Stream Sedimentation and Salmonid Egg Survival Studies—Success of salmonid
reproduction may be impaired by suspended sediment loadings and subsequent
sediment deposition in streams. Studies show that the higher the sedimentation
level, the lower the survival of trout eggs. These studies will provide a basis for
better management-protection guidelines.
Water Management Investigations—Ellison, Wood, and Kalamalka Lakes—
The Fisheries Research Section, in co-operation with B.C. Research and the B.C.
Water Investigations Branch, completed a report on the assessment of fishery resources in the lake basin. This section also represented the Branch on a public
participation task force and a management alternative evaluation committee. A
series of recommendations for sports fish and water management were made as a
result of the fishery resource assessment. They were modified through public involvement, then included in the final joint report "Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Water
Resource Management Study" to be published by the Queen's Printer about April
1975.
Reservoir Fisheries Investigations
In autumn of 1973, B.C. Hydro and the Fish and Wildlife Branch planned a
study of resource potentials in the Williston Reservoir watershed above the Bennett
Dam. The study is co-ordinated by the ELUC Secretariat. Field studies in 1974
were focused on reservoir fishes, rearing environments, and recreational angling.
These first studies show that the northern Findlay reach of the reservoir has greater
abundance of fishes than the southern Parsnip or east-west Peace reaches, although
lake whitefish are two to five times more abundant in the Parsnip reach.
A Careers '74 study shows that anglers regularly fish the Peace, Parsnip, and
Findlay reaches, concentrating on creek mouths. Most anglers prefer to catch
rainbow trout, although arctic grayling make up 60 per cent of the catch, rainbow
trout 21 per cent, Dolly Varden 10 per cent, and mountain whitefish 8 per cent.
Technical Services
There is increasing demand for fisheries technical services as Regional and
Head Office capabilities expand.   In 1974
(1) a field method for determining optimum acceptable minimum stream
flows for salmonoids was designed; it will be tested in several streams
in 1975;
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 37
(2) standard specifications for gill nets used by Fish and Wildlife Branch
were developed with other agencies;
(3) computer programming and analyses services for regional creel survey data were provided; advice on statistical analyses and experimental design was provided for regional and Water Investigations
Branch personnel;
(4) technical witness services were provided for an appeal of a court case
under section 33 (2) of the Fisheries Act. The case was dismissed
on a technicality.
(5) the technician for technical services spends much of his time processing and aging fish scales. The capability of this function has been
increased by adding one regular technical and changing the job
responsibilities in the original position.
Fisheries Resources Enhancement Program
The head of the Research Section represents the Fish and Wildlife and Marine
Resources Branches on the joint Federal-Provincial Biological Research Working
Group. This group is developing research that will eventually double the number
of salmonid and anadromous gamefish on the Pacific Coast. The Provincial research proposals are to
(1) develop and test steelhead stock assessment, fish culture, and habitat
improvement techniques;
(2) update inventory on major steelhead streams;
(3) assess commercial interception of steelhead;
(4) determine esuarine use, survival, growth, dispersal, and distribution
of anadromous gamefishes.
In the 1974/75 fiscal year, the Research Section also undertook three enhancement projects:
(1) Compilation of an annotated bibliography of anadromous gamefish
stream ecology:
(2) Compilation and review of enhancement techniques epplicable to
anadromous gamefishes.
(3) Development of a computerized stream inventory data retrieval
system for Vancouver Island, incorporating all known Federal and
Provincial stream inventory data for the Island. The computerized
data management and retrieval system will be used, in a trial run,
by fishery managers.
PUBLICATIONS
Halsey, T. G. 1974.   The fishery resources of the Ellison, Wood, and Kalamalka
lakes system.   In: Kalamalka-Wood Lake Basin Water Resource Management
Study, B.C. Water Investigations Branch.
Sjolund, W. R. 1974.   Collection and preparation of scales, otoliths, and fin rays
for fish age determination.   Fisheries Management Technical Circular No. 12,
20 pp.
Slaney, P. A. 1974. Water temperature changes resulting from clearcut logging
and effects on the productive capacity of salmonid streams. In: Stream Ecology
FP 2407. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Association of B.C.
Professional Foresters, Faculty of Forestry, UBC and Centre for Continuing
Education, UBC.
 DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
and T. G. Northcote  1974.    Effects of prey abundance on density
and territorial behaviour of underyearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in
laboratory stream channels.   J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 31(7): 1201-1209.
Staley, G. S., and K. J. Hall 1974. Squoxin: A review of research and applications.   Fisheries Management Technical Circular No. 13.   16 pp.
Stockner, J. G., and T. G. Northcote 1974. Recent Limnological studies of
Okanagan Basin lakes and their contribution to comprehensive water resource
planning.   J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 31(5):955-976.
MIMEO REPORTS
Anderson, M. E., T. G. Halsey, and S. M. Steele 1974. A creel study of Willis-
ton reservoir, summer, 1974.   28 pp.
Barrett, D. T., and T. G. Halsey 1974. Fishery resources of Williston reservoir
—a preliminary report.   23 pp.
Halsey, T. G., and L. R. Russell 1974. Smelt migration, dispersal, and distribution of rearing juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the
Slim-Tumuch watershed.   20 pp.
WILDLIFE
The Wildlife Research Section conducts both basic and applied wildlife research
and provides technical services for wildlife management staff. Activities in 1974
were as follows:
Research
Studies are being done on
(1) the effects of logging on moose in the Salmon River area near Prince
George, the effects of logging on blacktail deer in the Nimpkish River
valley on Vancouver Island, and the use of small, recently reclaimed
strip mines in southeastern British Columbia by ungulates,
(2) the production and nonconsumptive use of blacktail deer in a forest
area near Vancouver, the physical fitness changes associated with
hunting on Vancouver Island, and the diversity of urban wildlife in
Vancouver and Victoria,
(3) the development of intensive wildlife management methods. Evaluation of a habitat management program for big game winter range is
being done in the East Kootenays.
Technical Services
Technical services are involved with the production of graphics, identification
of parasites and diseases, completion of literature searches, analysis of food habit,
advising on forensic matters, identifying plants, and preparing specimens.
In the future, Wildlife Research and Technical Services will develop Provincial
programs to provide unity and direction to wildlife research.
In 1974 the staff expanded from one biologist to two, and from one technician
to three.
CRESTON VALLEY WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
The annual operation and maintenance budget for the Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Authority now exceeds $200,000, provided by the Canadian Wildlife
Service and the Fish and Wildlife Branch.  These organizations contribute to the
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH DD 39
Management Authority Trust Fund by an annual grant. The Management Authority
also received appropriated money through the Department of Recreation and Conservation and Ducks Unlimited (Canada), which contributed heavily toward the
dyking program.
Unusually high spring run-off water damaged the Corn Creek Dykes, Leach
Lake, and Six Mile Slough. Ducks Unlimited (Canada) provided assistance in the
repair of Corn Creek Dykes, but because of high water, other repairs will be done
in spring 1975.
Careers '74 students were employed for maintenance and operation of public-
use facilities, habitat development for upland game birds, flood prevention, and
office support services.
Construction on Canadian Wildlife Service interpretation facility, located in
Corn Creek Marsh, was completed. It will be operated by Canadian Wildlife Service, in co-operation with Creston Valley Wildlife Management Authority.
Development began on West Meadows, a Federally owned farm to be managed
in co-operation with the Management Authority.
VANCOUVER ISLAND—REGION I
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
The fisheries management team on Vancouver Island is working to develop an
intensified management program in order to maximize fish resources for both consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. To this end, we have identified the following
objectives and report the following progress:
Objective 1—To inventory and map the distribution of Vancouver Island's
sport fish resource and habitat.
Species distribution data within watersheds was collected; physical habitat was
analysed. Inventory work was done on the Nimpkish, Gold, Keogh, Kokish,
Cluxewe, Quatse, Tsulquate, Kakwichan, Klinaklini Rivers, and associated tributaries.
Objective 2—To plan and develop a fisheries management program on Vancouver Island; to maximize the benefits of management activities.
The evaluation of lake stocking study (second year of three) will result in
stocking plan for southern Vancouver Island lakes.   Target date is April 1976.
The second year of three-year study on the interactive ecology of coho salmon
and cutthroat trout is now complete. Results show that coho populations may suppress trout populations.
Some areas on Vancouver Island's east Coast are not easily accessible; Region I
personnel have been researching and developing areas where improved access would
benefit consumptive and nonconsumptive users without damaging the fish resource.
Vancouver Island, Region I
 DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A questionnaire was sent to 1,000 randomly selected Vancouver Island steelhead fishermen to determine their angling preferences and desires. Results of the
questionnaire will form part of a steelhead management plan for Vancouver Island.
A fisheries technician is working on the Cowichan River brown and steelhead
trout. The history of the two species is being collected and general harvest information is being analysed.
Objective 3—To improve fish habitat on Vancouver Island to enhance sport
fish populations.
Improvement work was done on 40 stream tributaries to lakes in the Victoria
area: Spawning areas were improved and debris and log jams preventing fish migration were removed; a barrier on the Millstone River was removed by the Nanaimo
Fish and Game Protective Association, with technical help from fisheries personnel.
Salmon and trout now ascend the lower falls on this river.
Objective 4—To provide expertise on fish habitat protection in order to maintain the fishery resource.
Guidelines were developed to evaluate subdivision locations. A study to assess
the amount of water withdrawn from selected streams on southeast Vancouver Island
and to determine impacts of water withdrawal was done. Various recommendations
for fish habitat protection were forwarded to the Forest Service, Pollution Control
Branch, Water Rights Branch, Department of Highways, and regional districts.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Much time was spent organizing, developing, and completing analysis for a
large Careers '74 program. Final interpretations and report writing will continue
into 1975.
Data was collected on the Tahsis, Tsitika, Klaskish, Stranby, Megin, Nisnack,
and White River watersheds. An intensive study was again conducted at Northwest
Bay. It integrated relative deer densities, deer distribution, ground and overstory
vegetation, logging history, and will eventually relate to the predator study currently
being conducted by the Dewars. At the same time, a hunter check was done.
Big Game
Moose—The first moose survey was conducted in the lower Klinaklini River
valley.
Goat, Grizzly—A goat-grizzly study was conducted in the Sim, Ahnuhati, and
Wahkach watersheds, in co-operation with B.C. Forest Products; an extensive goat
survey was conducted in the Klinaklini River watershed. A mountain goat collected
in Knight Inlet was autopsied and the first case of contagious ecthyma in a British
Columbia mountain goat was recorded.
Cougar—The Dewars' cougar study has progressed from a population study to
one describing family group relationships.
Deer—The Nimpkish deer work is continuing, with the study of winter range
and associated nutrition near completion. A management model for blacktail deer
is being developed in conjunction with UBC.
Elk—Accumulated elk data has been summarized; plans have been made for
an elk management program. This may provide the basis for an elk permit system
in 1976 or 1977.
Waterfowl
Geese—An additional 25 Canada geese were released into the Nimpkish area
by Canadian Forest Products. This region has also developed plans for a captive
goose flock on land, donated by the Nanaimo Water Board.
Vancouver Island, Region I
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 41
Hunting
The past hunting season had one of the lower success ratios on record. Weather
was extremely mild, with little snow; as a result, deer did not move into the accessible areas until the end of the hunting season.
Liaison
Experimental training of forest crews to collect wildlife, fisheries, and hydro-
logical data was initiated in 1974; it will be expanded in 1975.
Through an integrated meeting of regions bordering the Coast, a descriptive set
of species protection guidelines was developed for inclusion in existing B.C. Forest
Service guidelines.
The Tsitika report was completed by consultant H. Paish, with minimal input
by the task force.   It is currently being reviewed.
HABITAT PROTECTION
Summer students hired through Careers '74 began a resource inventory data
collection which included the following:
(1) Nine major watersheds were examined to determine forestry-wildlife
interactions and to develop five-year development (logging) plans.
The information will be used to determine the future of blacktail
deer habitat.
(2) Data on vegetation, climate, waterfowl use, benthic organisms, land
dispositions and per-cent use of 30 Lower Mainland estuaries were
collected.
(3) Preliminary studies on stream bank ecology were done to identify
factors influencing susceptibility of buffer strips to wind throw.
(4) Permanent Habitat Protection staff were assisted in processing non-
forestry interagency referrals and short-term studies.
(5) Distribution, abundance, habitat use, and effects of logging on
Coastal Mainland grizzly bear and mountain goat were studied.
Staff
Three new Habitat Protection Technicians were hired in July, two assigned to
Campbell River and Alberni Districts and the third stationed in regional office at
Nanaimo.
A meeting of regional staff was held in September to discuss problems associated with the forest industry. Tentative species-specific protection guidelines were
discussed and drafted; these should be available in early 1975.
Resource Inventory
Resource inventory and unit area management planning of such things as fish
and wildlife capabilities, recreational use, accessibility, degree of existing development, and habitat composition were high priorities. These will be done in conjunction with the regional fisheries and wildlife management sections.
Fish resource data for a flood control proposal of the Courchan River were
compiled.
At present, resource folio information includes known fish and wildlife values;
a 1975 summer program should enable us to provide input into most folio areas.
Liaison
Meetings were help periodically with B.C. Forest Service personnel to discuss
policies, guidelines, and operational procedures.
Vancouver Island, Region I
 DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Preliminary guidelines for subdivision development were drawn up in cooperation with the Department of Highways, the regional districts, and other
agencies concerned with subdivisions. The guidelines included protective measures
to deal with problems of restricted public access, in-stream activities, bank erosion,
disturbance of streamside vegetation, sewage facilities, and water withdrawals.
Arrangements were made with the Lands Branch to receive referrals on all
land-use applications, including log booming and sorting leases. This Branch has
developed guidelines to discourage development or booming activities on estuaries
and intertidal zones. Recommendations have been made, in conjunction with
Fisheries and Marine Services, Special Services, and Lands Branch, to restrict
booming activities within these areas.
In 1974, interagency referrals handled by the regional office continued to
increase:
Forestry referrals including folios  412
Subdivisions   103
Land applications  173
Pollution Control Branch applications     75
Water licences  225
Mineral exploration and placer mining     50
Additional referrals from the Highways and Transport Departments and B.C.
Hydro were also handled.
In 1974, Mines Branch designated certain areas for placer mining; on Vancouver Island, these centre on the Malahat-Otter and Sooke Land District and the
Renfrew Land District. As a result, the number of placer referrals has decreased
from 1973.
Investigations
The problems of chlorinated sewage outfalls to fresh water, particularly in the
Village of Lake Cowichan discharge to the Cowichan River, have been studied.
Alternatives such as dechlorination and the use of ozone as a disinfectant have been
recommended.
Bear problems associated with municipal and industrial garbage dumps remain
unsolved.
Regional staff reviewed Department of Highways plans for widening the Island
Highway, constructing bridges, installing culverts, and gravel removal applications.
Recommendations were made on plans for sensitive areas.
A proposal to build a domestic water supply dam on the Chemainus River was
investigated.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
Conservation and Outdoor Recreation Education Program
About 2,043 students took part in the CORE Program: 83.6 per cent gradu-
uated, 12 per cent failed, and 4.4 per cent did not complete the course.
Staff spent approximately 75 man-days training new instructors and updating
procedures for existing instructors.   One hundred and thirty-three new instructors
graduated from this course, bringing the number qualified to 325.
Information Services
Eighty-nine presentations were made to schools, service clubs, industrial establishments, naturalists, and Fish and Game Clubs.
Vancouver Island, Region I
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH DD 43
Special film and slide presentations in remote rural communities reached about
2,000 people.
Special displays designed for large urban centres depicting various aspects of
Branch activities reached an estimated 30,000 people.
Liaison with local press, radio, and TV media has been established and
maintained.
Sign posting of all Branch projects with descriptive information is under way
and will continue in 1975.
Education Services
Student involvement in Fish and Wildlife management projects has been
extensive. One Junior High School class has "adopted" a small lake to experience
management techniques under Branch supervision. Some 5,300 Grades V to VII
students have been introduced to Wildlife Conservation education through school
field trips; about 1,000 Boy Scouts were provided with an introductory course in
Conservation Outdoor Recreation. A number of schools have now included the
CORE program as part of their curriculum.
Public Participation
Public involvement in the Fish and Wildlife management decision-making
process has been introduced experimentally through formation of a local Advisory
Council.  This system will continue in 1975.
Paid Access Pheasant Hunting
A study project designed to provide information on the possible values of such
programs was operated on a 600-acre farm at Qualicum, in co-operation with the
landowner and with other Branch sections.
COAST-MAINLAND—REGION  II
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Staff
A new fisheries technician now works in Chilliwack on the Chilliwack-Vedder
River watershed.
Fisheries Inventory
Fisheries inventory studies were done at Lillooet Lake, Lillooet River, Harrison
Lake and tributaries; in the Lytton and Squamish areas; and in the Chilliwack,
Homathko, Southgate, Teaquaham, and Quatum River drainages.
Coast Mainland, Region ll
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Commercial and Private Fish Ponds
Burnaby headquarters and district offices processed six applications for Commercial Fish Pond Licences and 17 applications for Private Fish Pond Permits.
Fisheries Habitat Protection
The Regional Habitat Protection section was expanded in 1974, with the
fisheries sections involved in investigation and formulation of recommendations for
referrals and problems directly affecting fishery values.
Referrals and problem areas included Dakota and McNair Creeks, Cheakamus
River, Mossom Creek, and Nathan Creek. Department of Highways referrals
concerned the Cheakamus River, White Creek, and Gibsons and Langdale Creeks.
Water Rights Branch referrals: Fishtrap and Bertrand Creeks. Provincial Parks
Branch referrals—Rolley Lake, Phelix Creek, Hicks Lake, and the Skagit River
valley. Problems handled included Ouellette Creek, Mossom Schoolhouse, Scott,
Ladner, and Anderson Creeks.
Research
Water chemistry investigations were done at Coquihalla, Silverhope, and other
creeks to obtain baseline water chemistry data over 12 months.
Habitat documentation and adult spawner distribution studies were done in
the summer at Coquihalla River and Silverhope Creek.
A tagging and diver observation program of winter steelhead under the direction of the Fish and Wildlife Branch and the Steelhead Society of B.C. was done on
the Vedder-Chilliwack River. It was funded by the Provincial Government Public
Conservation Assistance Fund.
Habitat Improvement
A number of potential habitat improvement areas were investigated including
Hastings Creek, Salmon River, and Gravelpit, Carpenter, Judson, and Laxton Lakes.
Spawning grounds were constructed for cutthroat trout at the outlet of Ruby
Lake in the Sechelt area; short-term manipulation has resulted in increased numbers
and distribution of spawners. There were 15 spawners in 1968; there were 150 in
1973.   In 10 years, there could be an optimum number of 500 spawners.
Fish Culture
Rearing ponds for steelhead continue to be operated at Watercress Creek Pond
(12,000 summer-run juveniles of Coquihalla stock) and Salwein Creek Pond
(18,000 winter-run juvenile of Vedder River stock).
Student involvement in fisheries projects provided considerable baseline data.
Projects included a fisheries inventory of the Stein River valley; a lake angler use
and success study at Squamish, Pemberton, Lillooet, Bridge River, Harrison, and
Mission; a low-flow study in the Surrey-Langley area to develop a method of determining minimum water flows for fish; a summer-run steelhead research program in
Silver-Hope Creek; a sea-run cutthroat inventory in the Sechelt Peninsula; a general
stream and lake inventory in the tributaries to Squamish and Gates Rivers, River
of Golden Dreams, Sunrise and Hicks Lakes.
Planning
A number of watershed plans were started or completed in 1974. They will
lend direction to fisheries management within the region.
Regional guidelines for anadromous fish management were completed. They
will direct management of steelhead and cutthroat trout within the region.
Coast Mainland, Region II
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 45
Under the Fisheries Resource Enhancement Program, sponsored by Federal
Fisheries and Marine Services, plans for inclusion of steelhead and cutthroat
enhancement were developed. This program is aimed at improving conditions for
Pacific Salmon.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Waterfowl
Waterfowl hunting success within the Lower Mainland region appeared normal,
although the total number of hunters has decreased from previous years. Waterfowl
hunting interest in the Lower Mainland may be declining because of increased
licence and equipment costs, reduced opportunity, and changing social attitudes to
hunting.
The Wood Duck Nest Habitat Improvement Project, started in 1973 with the
aid of Ducks Unlimited (Canada) and local fish and game organizations, was
monitored during the summer of 1974. Approximately 1,100 wood ducks were
successfully produced during the 1974 hatching season.
Canada Goose Program—The Canada Goose flock established in the Lower
Mainland Region in 1973 has increased to a total population of approximately 1,300
birds. Further releases of birds are planned for areas near Chilliwack and Abbotsford. Equipment was purchased to prevent the geese from damaging agricultural
crops.
Big Game
Big game hunting success was substantially reduced from the 1973 season.
There was a normal to good yearling-adult ratio; poor hunting success may have
been due to unseasonably mild weather conditions throughout the hunting season.
Big game remained at higher, inaccessable areas until after the season closed.
Grizzly Bear—Fifteen grizzly bear permits were available in Managament
Area 3: eight hunters applied for them, seven used the permits they received, and
three grizzlies were taken.
California Bighorn Sheep—Past guide returns for Management Area 4 were
researched to determine the annual harvest of sheep within specific drainages of the
management areas. Key sheep ranges were inventoried to assess adult-lamb ratios
and potential cattle-sheep grazing conflicts.
Inventory Programs
Inventory was done on key deer herds, coastal grizzly bear, and mountain goat.
Wildlife inventory was done on Lillooet and Harrison Lakes, Stein, Chilliwack,
Nahatlach, Birkenhead, and Upper Stave watersheds; Phillips Arm, Phillips, Squamish, and Elaho Rivers.
Special Programs
Stein Watershed Study—A moratorium has been placed on the Stein River in
order to provide for development of a multiple-use resource plan. The Stein is the
last major unlogged watershed in southwest British Columbia.
The results of the 1972/73 Carpenter Lake Range Improvement Project were
examined and assessed.
Serpentine Wildlife Management Area; Pitt Polder Public Shooting Ground—
Preliminary engineering studies on the control water levels of these areas were
done, in co-operation with Ducks Unlimited (Canada), the Canadian Wildlife
Service, and various interest groups throughout the Lower Mainland.
Coast Mainland, Region II
 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
HABITAT PROTECTION
Inventory, data, methods, habitat classification, development of an inventory,
data storage, and retrieval system continued.
A Wildlife Habitat Classification System using forest cover and topographic
criteria is being developed.
Training and Public Information
Habitat protection staff appeared on the "Bob Switzer Show" on CBC to
explain the role of the Habitat Protection Section, spoke to Forestry students at
BCIT, participated in a short course at UBC on logging practices, and held a short
course, with Federal Fisheries representatives, on methods of collecting and preserving water samples.
Liaison
Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society—Habitat protection for various fish and
wildlife species were discussed.
ELUC Secretariat—Development of inventory techniques and methodologies
were discussed.
A proposed B.C. Petroleum Corporation oil refinery was discussed with various
agencies.
B.C. Forest Service—The Habitat Protection Section co-operated with Forest
Service in development of a 40 chain mapping system using transparent overlays
showing different components to be applied to all five-year plan areas and resource
folios. B.C. Forest Service road building guidelines were reviewed and updated.
Resource Folio mapping began on Two Mile, Mill, Siwash, and Silverhope Creeks,
and East Anderson River.
Forest Industry—Habitat personnel meet regularly with several forest companies to discuss and inspect development plans in various watersheds. These areas
include Cattermole Timber; Blackwater, Grey, and Rogers Creeks; Upper Stave,
Mamquam, Southgate, Quatum, Upper Lillooet, Seymour, Capilano, and Coquilem
Rivers. Logging-roads inspected were Silverhope Creek, Flat Creek, Toquart-
Chapman Creek, and Indian River. A 2,500-acre slash-burning area near Skwawka
River was inspected. In the North Creek area, a survey of deer populations relation
to cut block boundaries was done. Existing resource information on the Stein
River study was assembled. A resource folio was completed on Squaqua Creek.
Log-handling practices on the Harrison and Fraser Rivers were reviewed; Fish and
Wildlife Branch concerns were explained to Lands Branch and Federal Fisheries.
B.C. Hydro and Power Authority—Gas pipe-line and submarine power cable
crossings in Roberts Bank area, crossing Fish and Wildlife Branch reserve, were
opposed.  Alternate routes were suggested.
Pollution Control Branch—A water quality study of Sakwi and Weaver Creeks
were discussed with PCB, IPSFC, and CWS.
Department of Highways—The Cheakamus River canyon and Coquihalla
River proposed Langdale to Sechelt Highway site, were inspected.
Parks Branch—Dump site and culvert installations in Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park were inspected.
Habitat protection personnel met with the Technical Planning Committee,
The Greater Vancouver Regional District, Surrey Municipality, the Technical
Planning Committee Meeting of Sunshine Coast Regional District, and the Langley
City mayor and council concerning planning and development in the Lower Mainland region. Field inspections were done on Coleman and Hastings Creeks, and
Gates River.
Coast Mainland, Region II
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 47
Interagency Referrals Completed During 1974
Department of Highways       50
Pollution Control Branch    107
Lands Branch     31
Water Rights Branch  212
Municipalities      31
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources     38
British Columbia Forest Service  331
Miscellaneous      43
ENFORCEMENT
Prosecutions
There were 383 prosecutions during the year, resulting in 375 convictions,
five withdrawals, and three dismissals. This respresents a decrease of 99 from the
previous year. The drop in the number of prosecutions is probably related to the
decrease in the number of hunters in the field, because the added cost of licences
and the sparse distribution of animals during the warm, dry fall.
Staff
A new district office was established in Pemberton. A second Conservation
Officer was added to staff in the Powell River and Chilliwhack Districts.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The first year Region II had an Information and Education Officer was 1974.
Work was done in continuing and improving Branch programs and in developing
future programs. In addition, the establishment of a major Information and Education Centre in Vancouver resulted in involvement by the Lower Mainland Region
in a number of activities of Provincial status.
CORE Program
New instructional materials were developed and instructors were updated on
program changes and additions. Updating seminars were held in Vancouver,
Haney, Chilliwack, Burnaby, Richmond, Boston Bar, Lillooet, Pemberton, Sechelt,
and Powell River during the early summer months. Instructor training and assessment programs were held in Burnaby, Chilliwack, and Squamish.
A series of 11 half-hour presentations, primarily about CORE, were produced
by the Information and Education Section for CBC's "Bob Switzer Show."
Permanent and summer staff spoke to rod and gun clubs, naturalists, and
school groups about CORE.
CORE course attendance was over 500 in the fall months; much time was
spent in program co-ordination.
Information Services
The B.C. Wildlife Federation, the Federation of B.C. Naturalists, and several
groups of outdoor educators were given information about the Fish and Wildlife
Branch.
Slide shows were developed describing Branch activities and concerns. They
were used in conjunction with films and nature walks in smaller Provincial park
campgrounds and summer youth camps within the region.
Coast Mainland, Region 11
 DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Careers '74
Five summer students were hired: one CORE assistant; three research personnel to develop an environmental awareness program; one photographer to add
to the regional and headquarters photo collection and to develop CORE slide
packages; one Resource Interpreter to act as a roving naturalist; and assistant
CORE personnel.
URBAN RECREATION
A Regional Recreation Co-ordinator was hired in February 1974. The immediate objective was to develop quality hunting on public and private lands in
the Fraser Valley. Sportsmen were encouraged to organize themselves and become
involved in land and wildlife husbandry as a part of this program.
Urban Hunter Management
An advisory committee of representatives of Richmond, Delta, Surrey, and
Langley municipalities was established. A Standard Firearms By-law was developed
and adopted; a Special Licence Hunting Area Program was established. Under
this program, hunters in the four municipalities must possess a Special Area Hunting Licence. "No Shooting Boundaries," as defined by municipal by-law, were
posted, enforcement capabilities were increased, and the local office stayed open
on week-ends to handle complaints and distribution of an information brochure
to hunters.
Summer Outdoor Recreation and Fishing Program
This program provided disadvantaged children with a quality outdoor recreation based upon sports fishing. The children were from the Kingsway Branch
of Children's Aid and the Boys Club of Vancouver. Three hundred and twenty-
three children and 30 adults took part. There were 19 outings, ranging from
three-day camping and fishing trips, to fishing, hatchery excursions, and nature
walk trips.   Cost to the Branch was $2,200.
The Information and Education Section also provided transportation for
members of the Golden Rods and Reels, a senior citizens club, for five club excursions.
KAMLOOPS—REGION  III
Regional offices moved from the Government buildings complex to larger
offices in Valleyview.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
In general, fishing was good throughout Region III in spite of increasing fishing pressure.   New fisheries are being developed to keep pace with growing demand.
Kamloops, Region III
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 49
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Habitat Improvement
Lake aeration—In 1974 a windmill for lake aeration and winter-kill prevention was erected at Walloper Lake. Windmill operations at Bleeker, Black, and
Walloper Lakes were monitored. Three other mills, donated to the Branch by
Nicola Valley Rod and Gun Club, were operating at Corbett, Centre, and Edna
Lakes.
Lake outlet screening—Barriers to prevent losses of adult trout through irrigations systems were completed on Six-Mile, Jacko, Tunkwa, Rocky, and Knouft
Lakes in 1974.
Water storage—A water storage dam and reservoir were constructed on Jacko
Creek inlet to Tunkwa Lake.
Lake rehabilitation—Three lakes in Region III were rehabilitated in 1974
using Antimycin-A (Fintrol). Lakes treated were Trapp, Richie, and Napier
adjacent to Highway 5 south of Kamloops. In total, 11,065 acre-feet of water
were treated.
Fisheries Inventory
North Thompson River Drainage—Thirty-one streams and five lakes between
the headwaters of the North Thompson River and Avola were surveyed in detail
by Careers '74 students.
Angler surveys—An intensive creel survey was carried out on four lakes in
the Kamloops Region, using six Careers '74 students.
Environmental studies—Meetings and field surveys were held with Government agencies involved in the Thompson River Study; final report will be issued
in 1975.
Research—The environmental effects of Squozin, an unregistered pesticide,
are being researched at UBC. It may prove invaluable for intensive fisheries
management.
Staff—A fisheries technician was added to the staff.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Habitat Improvement
Prescribed burning was carried out with the Forest Service on 80 acres of deer
winter range north of Kamloops Lake.
Two logging areas, to be used to improve wintering conditions for deer rather
than to obtain maximum sustained yield of wood fibre, were approved by the
Forest Service and management plans are being developed.
B.C. Forest Service, the Fish and Wildlife Branch, and a private logging company designed cutting permits to improve winter deer range south of Kamloops
Lake.
Student crews collected seeds of wildlife browse species for planting in logged
or burned areas. Some were seeded in the fall, some will be seeded in spring 1975,
and others will be stored for future use.
Research
The co-operative research study of deer-cattle interactions continued, in the
fourth year of a five-year study.
Summer students completed a survey of nonconsumptive use of wildlife in the
Kamloops area. It showed that there is high year-round interest in wildlife; many
people felt that hunters interfere with their opportunity to see and enjoy wildlife.
Kamloops, Region III
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 51
Inventory
Inventory of wildlife winter ranges continued; aerial surveys of deer winter
ranges were done in the southern part of the region. Aerial surveys of moose
showed high productivity and good populations on winter ranges in Management
Area 14. In Wells Gray Park, populations and productivity remained low because
of deteriorating range conditions. Ground and air surveys of deer in Management
Area 4 showed that numbers of deer on the spring ranges had increased from the
previous year.   The survival of deer to yearling age was also high in most areas.
Spring drumming counts of ruffed grouse showed lower than average breeding
populations of this species.
Hunter Surveys
In 1974 the numbers of hunters decreased, success was slightly reduced, and
a lower harvest of nearly all species of big game, upland birds, and waterfowl resulted.   Extremely mild weather was blamed for the poor hunting season.
HABITAT PROTECTION SECTION
Tentative arrangements were made on special considerations to cutting areas
above 5,500 feet or in known caribou range.
Much time was spent handling logging referrals; the resource folio system
should streamline this function.
Special Studies
A "low flow" stream study is being done in consultation with Water Rights
Branch, with salmon rivers being given special attention.
Land-use studies are being done on the Adams River watershed and an area
south of Bonaparte Lake.
Department of Highways is now providing monthly summaries of pending
subdivision proposals so that input can be gathered prior to receipt of the final plan.
ENFORCEMENT
A second Conservation Officer was appointed to Merritt, Clinton, and Salmon
Arm.   Auxiliary enforcement officers were used in most districts.
Prosecutions numbered 484, with 70 per cent being for not having an angling
licence and for having loaded firearms in vehicles. Three charges of obstruction
were successfully prosecuted.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
Interpretative display shelters were built at a number of sites to illustrate
points of interest or give public information. Displays were set up in conjunction
with local functions such as "Salute to Sockeye" and Kamloops Sportsmen's Show.
Signs and periodic news releases helped maintain public awareness of Branch
activities.
Six hundred and fifty students became qualified in the CORE Program; instructors were trained or updated.
Kamloops, Region III
 DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
OKANAGAN—REGION IV
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Extensive Canada-B.C, Okanagan, and Kal-Wood studies show that more than
half of the fishing effort in the region occurs on the larger lakes; in particular, on
Okanagan Lake. As a result, most work done in 1974 involved protection and
enhancement of the Okanagan Lake fishery.
Okanagan Lake
An intensive creel census was completed. Shore spawning kokanee were
enumerated and mapped. Rainbow trout were sampled and tested for DDT and
mercury; the contaminants do not have any effect on spawning success. Tests
show that carp are uncontaminated, tasty, and a potentially valuable market species,
although yield is too low to support a year-round industry.
At Powers Creek, a fishway of stone steps was blasted into bedrock.
At Mission Creek, an Alaska Steeppass fishway was built, a storage dam, and
attendant water rights were purchased to provide an additional 1,000 acre-feet of
water, and 3,000 cubic yards of silt and clay were removed, with assistance from
Water Resources Service and Black Mountain Irrigation District.
A study of the effects of flood-control channeling of Trout Creek was made;
incubation boxes were recommended to make up for losses.
The plankton Mysis relicta, an important link in the trout food chain, was
discovered for the first time in Okanagan, Christina, Pinnaus, Kalamalka, and Skaha
Lakes after transplant to these lakes a decade ago by the Branch.
Routine Management
Stocking lists and regulations were prepared; winter and summer limnological
conditions were studied; fish and their habits in various lakes were analysed. This
year a method for collecting and assessing data was designed, so that a management
plan can be worked out for each lake in the region listed in the Gazetteer of Canada.
A windmill compressor was installed at Yellow Lake in co-operation with West
Kootenay Power and Light Company.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Waterfowl and Game Birds
The Lands and Water Resources Branches gave permission for habitat
improvement work to proceed at the north end of Swan Lake. Ducks Unlimited
constructed a network of channels for waterfowl and enhanced pheasant habitat in
the adjoining field, with help from local clubs.
Okanagan, Region IV
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 53
Big Game
The first Limited Entry Hunt of California Bighorn in the Ashnola area was
held in the fall; it was moderately successful.
The subject of reintroducing cattle to grasslands was discussed informally and
on-site inspections were done with members of the Grazing Division. In the future,
reintroduction of cattle will be controlled by the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
The nutrition of California Bighorn sheep will be investigated in co-operation
with the Okanagan Game Farm.
Five important winter range areas for deer were chosen for intensive management. Mapping of cover and vegetation types began; sites for regular observation
of wildlife and for monitoring habitat and wildlife use were chosen. District Lots
2898 and 2898a, in the Antlers Saddle area, were purchased by the Crown for
wildlife management purposes.
A winter feeding program for sheep, deer, and game birds was designed in
conjunction with the South Okanagan Sportsmans Association, which has received
a Conservation Assistance Fund grant for the project.
Predator Management
A Regional Predator Management Advisory Committee was formed in December; regional control policy was set and persons for contact and reporting were
established.
Careers '74
In the Grand Forks Environment Unit, a vegetative and topographical map of
the area was completed, a plant collection of 61 species was compiled, an open-site
macro plot was established at Overton Creek and Morrissey Creek, old fences on
the northeast boundary were removed and new fences were built, and clear cut
openings were made in selected aspen groves.
In the Ashnola area, an ungulate winter range rehabilitation was partially
completed.
At Peachland, posts for a deer-proof fence were installed along a 2-mile stretch
above Okanagan Lake Park.
In the Vaseux Range, greasewood was pruned to 3 feet in height and fertilization
was done, a Russell fence around the Bighorn sheep watering hole was partially
completed.
A cabin was built at Short Creek.
A 2,600-foot snake fence was built at the north end of Swan Lake.
A source book of historical wildlife and fisheries information for the Okanagan
Region was completed.
HABITAT PROTECTION
The Provincial Water Rights Branch, Department of Agriculture, Fish and
Wildlife Branch, and Fisheries Service of Canada formed a committee to determine
minimum water-flow requirements of fish in streams.
Waterworks improvements caused a large volume of silt to be deposited in
Mission Creek, which threatened to destroy an estimated 350,000 spawned Kokanee.
A complete investigation was conducted and a report was submitted to the Deputy
Ministers of Recreation and Conservation and Water Resources.
Crown Zellerbach and the Fish and Wildlife Branch initiated a folio plan for
Tree Farm Licence No. 9.  The B.C. Forest Service endorsed this approach.
Okanagan, Region IV
 BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Damage to Blythe Creek, a tributary of the Kettle River, was partially rectified
by the offending private logging company after a clean-up order was issued by the
B.C. Forest Service and Fish and Wildlife Branch.
An experimental "mark-to-cut" selective logging program was conducted in
Tree Farm Licence No. 8 to enhance deer winter range and natural forest regeneration.
ENFORCEMENT
In 1974, there were 11 permanent Conservation Officers, one full-time auxiliary
officer, and six part-time auxiliary officers. Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, Grand
Forks, and Princeton are now manned by two permanent officers.
Night Patrols
Night patrols were initiated and special patrol work has been increased. These
additional patrols and growing public awareness of wildlife and fisheries values have
resulted in increased numbers of complaints in all districts.
Four air-ground hunter checks were done; no violators were found. This system
is valuable in covering areas of chronic complaints of night hunting, for a single
light aircraft can cover a large area in a limited time.
Special Patrols
Areas checked by blitz tactics include the Kettle River drainage, the Lumby-
Monashee area, and the South Okanagan. A contact violation ratio of 8 to 1
actionable circumstances per 1,000 hunters contacts resulted. Fall hunting pressure was below normal because of prolonged summer-like temperatures.
The Ashnola Bighorn limited entry hunt was specially patrolled. During the
open season, one Conservation Officer and one auxiliary successfully patrolled the
entire area on horseback.
A mounted patrol of the Ashnola district began under the auxiliary Conservation Officer program. The public received helpful information and assistance;
information was obtained on recreational use of the area; regular Conservation
Officers were assisted during the limited entry Bighorn Sheep season.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
A full-time Information and Education Officer was hired in early 1974. Conservation activities and environmental education were promoted on local TV and
radio programs, a number of ecology classes were taught in secondary schools,
field trips were conducted with youth group leaders, a workshop for Scout leaders
was held, and Provincial camp-sites were visited during National Wildlife Week to
discuss wildlife management with campers.
The South Okanagan Sportsmans Association winter feeding program for deer
and mountain sheep was filmed in co-operation with the B.C. Wildlife Federation.
The section initiated a Regional Information Bulletin for distribution within
and outside of the Branch.
New CORE courses were started in Keremeos, Cawston, Princeton, Penticton,
Kelowna, Vernon, Lumby, and Osoyoos.
Okanagan, Region IV
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 55
KOOTENAY—REGION V
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Prior to 1974, most of the activities of fisheries personnel was related to habitat
protection. In 1974, more emphasis was placed on management related matters
with the establishment of a regional habitat protection function.
Habitat Protection
Coal activity in the Elk and Flathead Valleys increased, with little input from
the Fish and Wildlife Branch to avert potential problems.
Stream inventory, creel census, and rainbow fry assessment were conducted on
the Arrow Lakes system. Most of this work is being carried out in anticipation of
another dam on the Columbia River at Revelstoke.
Management Highlights
A program for producing rainbow trout at Meadow Creek has been established,
with first production expected in 1975. Meadow Creek kokanee fry production
exceeded all previous years' records: 10 million fry were produced in the system
and egg to fry survival was 35 per cent.
Final plans for the Inonoaklin River fishway were completed. Construction
should begin in late 1975.
A Special Lakes Licence on Kootenay Lake was successful in reducing fishing
effort at Balfour. A safe level of harvest for burbot at the Balfour fishery has been
determined. Kokanee fishery catch at Balfour exceeded any previous years despite
reduced effort.
More gravel was introduced at Gerrard. A record run of Gerrard rainbow
trout was observed in 1974.
Research began on the early life history of Lardeau River rainbow trout.
Future Plans
Broad direction for the next few years includes Arrow Lakes work, continued
Kootenay Lake rainbow and kokanee production, stream management, and East
Kootenay small lakes management.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
A Habitat Protection Biologist was added in the Kootenay Region; the Regional
Wildlife Biologist is also involved in wildlife habitat protection and enhancement
programs conducted by the Regional Land Co-ordinator.
Kootenay, Region V
 DD 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Wildlife Habitat Protection
Communications with the Forest Service improved through the development
of forest resource folios. Subalpine forests of the Salmo-Creston were studied;
logging plans were revised to accommodate wildlife requirements.
Co-ordinated planning of range use by domestic livestock followed an extensive
field trip to Oregon and two exchange visits to the East Kootenay by wildlife and
range managers from Oregon. Little progress was made on the St. Mary's, Gras-
mere, and Packham's units, although communications and joint planning activities
increased.
The Springbrook project is an intense bio-physical resource inventory program
to stimulate integrated public resource management. Support was provided by the
ELUC Secretariat and supplemented by permanent and summer staff.
Environmental damage due to mineral and coal exploration decreased in 1974,
although these activities continue to impair valuable wildlife, recreational, and
fisheries habitats. Affected areas are Upper Elk, Line Creek, and Flathead valleys,
and the Fording and Wheeler Creek Watershed.
Hydro-electric developments resulting from the Columbia River Treaty continued to take their toll on wildlife as the Libby Reservoir reached full pool and as
the Mica Reservoir began to fill.
Hearings were held on the Pend-d'Oreille 9-mile dam site; the Branch focused
on the location of the main haul road and compensation for the loss of critical white-
tail deer winter range.
Planning and surveillance of pipe-line and transmission-line projects have
been less than adequate, with the resultant loss of wildlife habitats.
Progress has been made with the Forest Service Engineering Division to include
fish and wildlife values in road locations and design. Certain access roads will
eventually be destroyed in order to maintain important wildlife and recreation
habitats.
Land alienation application referrals decreased. Land application referrals
are now the responsibility of the Regional Land Co-ordinator.
Agricultural land reserve plans were reviewed for all Kootenay Regional Districts. The Land Commission rejects the East Kootenay land reserve plan in favour
of a single Agriculture Land Reserve. The expansionist philosophy of the Department of Agriculture continues to impair important wildlife, forestry, fishery, and
recreational lands that are marginal for agriculture.
Executive staff of the Departments of Highways and Recreation and Conservation toured the southern Kootenay Region. Attention was focused on land use
in the Arrow Basin and the Pend-d'Oreille, the Gerrard Bridge issue, flood-plain
subdivisions, overgrazing and forest succession in the East Kootenay, and open pit
coal-mining and exploration in the Elk, Fording, and Flathead Valleys.
Land Acquisition and Management
Active management projects continued on Bummers Flats and the Bergenham
property. Flooding due to unsually high water caused some damage to dykes,
fences, and the cultivated field.
Communications were established with the Band Manager of the St. Mary's
Indian Reserve and the Chief of the Lower Kootenay Reserve to advise in range
management and land use programs.
Species Management
The Kootenay Region wildlife management program was reorganized and
established as part of the region's 10-year plan.   Grizzly, goats, and caribou man-
Kootenay, Region V
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 57
agement reviews and plans are nearing completion. Elk, bighorn, moose, and deer
outlines are being organized, with a priority on an elk management review and plan.
A temporary elk-feeding program began in early January. High quality grass-
alfalfa hay was distributed to 14 sites in the Rocky Mountain Trench and Elk
Valley; about 1,500 elk used the hay regularly.
Aerial counts were low in most units in the winter, due to milder-than-average
winter conditions. Juveniles of all species increased over most of the East Kootenay. Recruitment rates, however, remained below normal; they are critically low
for whitetail deer and mule deer between Fort Steele and Fairmont. Bighorn herds
in the Rocky Mountain Trench continued to recover from the die-off of the 1960's.
Eight sharptailed grouse were captured for the National Bison Refuge in
Boise, Montana, with the aid of the Branch.
Elk continue to damage hay stacks, orchards, and irrigated fields in the east,
central, and west Kootenays. The Point V-Bar Ranch near Skookumchuck was
acquired by the Land Commission for integrated management because of this
problem.
Hunting Seasons
Big-game seasons continued to be conservative in the East Kootenay. A
special elk season at Robson was successful; with more than 20 elk taken.
The special pheasant season on the Creston Flats was opened for the second
consecutive year since 1968. About 85 per cent of the landowners opened their
lands to hunting, compared to about 50 per cent in 1973. Two hundred and sixty-
six daily $5 permits were sold and a total of 128 pheasants were bagged.
Deer harvests were lower than average in the West Kootenay despite liberal
seasons and moderately abundant populations.
A gradually increasing whitetail deer population and light harvests for the two
or three years resulted in severe orchard damage and high highway losses in the
Creston District in 1973/74.
An extension of the hunting season from January 1 to February 16, 1975,
was instituted on either-sex whitetail deer near Creston.
Predator Management
The Kootenay Region Predator Management committee held its first meeting.
Individual problem animals in agricultural areas will be controlled; individual predator species management plans will be developed.
Careers'74
The following projects were done: A thorough 20-year review of grizzly management in the Kootenays; a study of elk winter feeding sites; an inventory of sharp-
tailed grouse population; a study on the effects of Christmas-tree management on-
forage production and big-game use; an expansion of the Creston Pheasant Project;
a review of Kootenay elk management.
Conferences and International Programs
A North American Wild Sheep workshop was attended in Missoula, Montana.
The Wildlife Management Institute will publish the results of the workshop as a
guideline for North American mountain sheep protection, management, and research.
Kootenay, Region V
 DD 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS
Churchill, Brian P. 1974. Christmas tree permits and their relation to ungulate
forage in the Springbrook-Canal Flat Region of southeastern B.C. Career '74
Project.    B.C. F. W. Branch.    25 pp. mimeo.
Demarchi, Raymond A. 1974. Forest and elk management in the Interior Douglas-fir Zone of southeastern B.C. Presented to: UBC Continuing Ed. Prog.
For. Wildl. Ec. and Mgt: Interior.   7 pp. mimeo.
 1974. A brief resume of the wildlife resource values associated with Kootenay Forest Products Ltd. Lands in the West Kootenay. Rpt. to Min. of
Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.   2 pp. typed.
Farr, Anthea. 1974. A preliminary study of range use in the vicinity of Kimberley Airport.   Careers '74 Project.   B.C. F. W. Br. and UBC.   32 pp.
Warkentin, W. J. 1974. 1973/74 Classified Big Game Counts in the East Kootenay.   B.C. F. W. Br. report.    10 pp. typed .
  1974.    1973 East Kootenay Game Check results.   B.C. F. W. Br. Report
22 pp. typed.
LAND MANAGEMENT
In 1974, three major properties came under intensive management, two were
completed and maintained, and new programs in wildlife land management were
instituted.
Land Acquisition and Management
With ELUC approval, Bummers Flats, Premier Ridge, and Bar 40 at Newgate
were acquired by early 1974. Annual management plans were immediately formulated.
Successful management plans on Wolf Creek and Bull River were instituted in
1974.
The Point V-Bar Ranch and the Lost Creek and Steeples Ranch were acquired
by the Land Commission, with consent from the Department of Agriculture. It is
not known yet who will be responsible for the land.
Early in 1974, a Public Involvement and Management Committee was set up
by the Fish and Wildlife Branch; all management plans receive input from the
Committee.
Late in 1974, the land acquisition program was expanded to include land for
fisheries management.   No acquisitions were completed.
Reserves
An inventory of land reserved for wildlife was conducted under the Careers
'74 program.
Waterfowl Development
All waterfowl developments and Ducks Unlimited (Canada) projects (except
the CVWMA) were absorbed by the land management function. The Ducks Unlimited projects on Bummers Flats and the development on Elizabeth Lake were
completed in 1974. Final planning, approval, and water-licensing for the Waterfowl Oxbow project on the Kootenay River was completed; construction will begin
in mid-1975. This project will be financed entirely by Ducks Unlimited. Management of the Reed Lakes development (now complete) has been turned over to the
Kimberley Wildlife and Wilderness Club.
Kootenay, Region V
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 59
LlBBY
The Fish and Wildlife Branch was represented on the Libby Preparation Committee, which will continue into 1975.
Conflicts
A major obstacle to wildlife management (both habitat and species) is agriculture. The Department of Agriculture has not been co-operative in wildlife
management pursuits in this region.
Habitat Protection
In the Kootenay area, 300 miles of productive valley bottom lies under hydroelectric reservoirs; the Kootenay and lower St. Mary River are overburdened with
pulp-mill and mine wastes, many of the forest areas are over committed to the
logging industry; many grazing areas are over committed and abused. In the Elk
and Flathead valleys, three open pit mines are in operation with three more planned
in the immediate future. Concurrent with hydro-electric development and industrialization, a web of transmission-lines is forming over the area.
There are two Habitat Protection staff members in Region V, working almost
entirely on logging protection. Folio planning for logging is developing; a small
number of folios are complete. Between 500-600 cutting permits were processed
during the 1974 fiscal year.
The remaining Pend-d'Oreille will be flooded by the 7-mile dam project, with
B.C. Hydro reluctant to mitigate for the loss.
ENFORCEMENT
Four addition permanent Conservation Officers were hired in this region, making seven of the districts two-man districts. Conservation Officers are involved
with enforcement duties, investigating land applications, timber cutting referrals,
pollution control applications, and logging enforcement activities. They assist with
game checks, lake surveys, control and removal of nuisance animals, special patrols
and checks in the Cranbrook, Kimberley, Flathead, Robson, Creston areas, and in
the Alberta and United States boundary area.
Fourteen Auxiliary Conservation Officers were employed throughout the region for a total of 536 man-days.
Population increases in the area and increases in leisure time resulted in an
increased interest in hunting. There were no hunting accidents reported in this
region during the past year.   One cougar attacked a human in the Fernie area.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
CORE Program
From May to August, Information and Education staff travelled 20,000 miles,
set up 21 programs, and qualified and retained 180 instructors. Over 1,000 students
have been qualified.
CORE has been accepted by the Kootenay Council of Scouting as part of the
scouts prescribed requirements for several of their badges.
General Information and Education
News releases, talks programs on radio, and letters to the media were produced and distributed by the information section.
Kootenay, Region V
 DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The role of the Fish and Wildlife Branch was explained to tourist booth personnel working for the Tourist Bureau.
A newsletter was started; it will be produced on a regular basis in 1975/76.
Sites
The Bergehham property was explored and the location of the new house,
parking area, and interpretation shelter were discussed with Parks Branch and the
Bergenhams.
Bummer Flats ranch was visited, photographed, and picnic tables and interpretation sites were laid out, in co-operation with the Land Management Section.
CARIBOO-COAST—REGION VI
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) planted in Canim in 1968 survived and
sizeable numbers were uncovered in 1974. It is hoped this added food supply will
benefit growth rate of kokanee.
Rehabilitation of Rail Lake using "Antimycin" was not successful because of
rapid breakdown of chemical and inadequate mixing. Coarse fish population was,
however, materially reduced and a healthy introduction of yearling rainbow should
provide good fishing for two to three years. Blue Lake, successfully treated in 1973
with same material, was planted with yellowstone cutthroat and a 1976 opening is
planned.
Creel census crew on Dean River indicated a significant increase in fishing
pressure reflecting in large measure a great increase in nonresident campers. Catch
limits have been reduced, roe banned, and a fly-only area proposed in order to
balance a growing demand with a somewhat fixed supply.
HABITAT PROTECTION
Habitat Protection Section has been largely involved with resource referrals
with those from Forest Service being paramount. Considerable time has been spent
on high elevation logging and development of a suitable folio referral system.
However, future problems are evident. If the Nazko cannot be logged, there seem
few alternatives but to go back and remove many of the leave strips from areas
logged in past decades.. If this happens, all the planning for resource referrals will
have been in vain.
ENFORCEMENT
Implementation of dual districts at Quesnel and Alexis Creek materially
improved enforcement coverage as reflected in fines and prosecutions.    More per-
Cariboo-Coast, Region VI
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
sonnel coupled with an improved radio network increased efficiency in resource
protection.
An animal control officer was appointed to fill a long-standing vacancy as for
many years the District Conservation Officer at Williams Lake had filled a dual role.
The person in this position will work closely with a regional committee representing
interest groups to formulate and implement realistic programs.
SKEENA AND PRINCE GEORGE-
REGIONS VII AND IX
During 1974 the Prince George Region was divided into two regions: Skeena
and Prince George.   Management activities are therefore reported in two sections.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Carp Lake Project
The fisheries potential of the Carp Lake Watershed is being studied. Stream
and lake water levels, temperatures, lake sounding, and lake plankton and stream
insect populations are being measured. Rainbow trout were measured, tagged, and
released. Stomach and parasite samples were collected from approximately one
quarter of the trout sampled. Creek surveys were conducted regularly. Parks
Branch was given a report on trout producing capabilities of various tributaries, so
park development will not damage this valuable fishery.
Francois Lake—The 1973 assessment of a declining fishery was continued in
1974; a report will be completed in 1975.
Portions of the Stuart, Trembleur, and Takla drainages were inventoried. This
information will be used in resource folios.
Careers '74 crews did stream clearance on Tabor, Purden, and Aleza Creeks to
improve access for spawning rainbow trout, detailed stream evaluation of Corkscrew
Creek, did an intensive gillnetting program of Stoney Creek on the degree of
predation by Squawfish on juvenile rainbow trout (results indicated a negligible
predation problem), and creel survey checks at high-use and stocked lakes.
A portion of the upper Sinkut River was rechanneled, following washout of a
large beaver dam. Portions of Stoney Creek between Tachick and Nulki Lakes
were also rechannelled to provide a deeper channel and more contained flow.
One Island Lake and Coplin Lake were inspected, to evaluate stocking success.
Watershed protection—Inspection patrols of the road north from Fort St.
James to Johanson Lake and B.C. Railroad construction north of Fort St. James
were completed. Reports were prepared, outlining fisheries conflicts due to poor
stream crossings.
Logging and road construction on the west side of Williston Reservoir and
south of Vanderhoof in the Finger and Tatuk Lakes drainages were inspected and
Prince George, Region VII
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
recommendations were made.    Stream crossings on the Teardrop and Mossvale
roads east of Fort St. James were checked.
Many Fort St. John residents objected to an application for the establishment
of a fishing lodge on the Chowade River. A report outlining the objections to this
lodge was sent to the Lands Branch and the Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Management
Routine classified game counts were conducted in Management Areas 20, 21,
22, and 25. Big-game populations were heavily concentrated in lowland and sub-
alpine habitats because of record snowfall in the winter 1973/74. Deer and moose
populations were in healthy condition and production was normal.
Analysis of Cache Creek data and hunter sampling showed decreasing hunter
success. Hunting seasons in the Prince George Region were adjusted and closures
on hunting of antlerless animals were introduced in restricted areas about urban
centres.
An experimental regional hunter check station program was introduced in
1974.
Inventory
The survey of northern guides and outfitters continued in 1974. Inventory
information was gathered in the summer months by Careers '74 students. By 1975,
an inventory atlas of wildlife in Northern and North Central British Columbia should
be complete.
Wildlife and Recreation Studies
A furbearer study was proposed to detail the ecology of, and impact of logging
on, the pine marten. A computer analysis of annual trapline returns was begun in
conjunction with the Department of Animal Science, University of Alberta, and
several local trappers.
Radiotelemetry investigations of moose movements in the Salmon River Valley
were proposed and adopted as a regional management priority.
Annual returns of licensed guides and outfitters were collated for computer
analysis. Preliminary investigations into the feasibility and needs to establish quotas
on harvest or hunting licences were also begun.
A co-operative venture with the ELUC Secretariat to assess the recreational
values of wildlife in the Williston Reservoir was adapted. This study is sponsored
by the Secretariat and B.C. Hydro; the field operation is administered by the Management Section of the Fish and Wildlife Branch, Prince George.
HABITAT PROTECTION
This was the first year of operation of the Habitat Protection Section in the
Prince George Region. Work responsibilities to the Fish and Wildlife Branch and
to other Government agencies, Crown corporations, business and regional development bodies were developed; good working relationships were established.
Until June 1974, staff consisted of the regional biologist and one technician.
A second permanent technician arrived in late June. At the end of 1974, most
water-licence applications and Pollution Control Board permit applications were
still being handled for the Skeena Region through the Prince George office, as well
Prince George, Region VII
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH DD 63
as a small number of logging and mining referrals, land leases, and others from the
Burns Lake District. This will likely continue into 1975.
Referrals were investigated, screened, and commented on: 1,050 referrals
were received, with 402 from the Forest Service, 354 from the Lands Branch, 83
from the Pollution Control Branch, and a significant number of referrals from the
Department of Highways and the Department of Mines. One hundred and forty-four
water-licence applications were given for domestic purposes. Other referrals came
from the Environmental Protection Service, Federal Department of Public Works,
B.C. Hydro, CN Rail, Westcoast Transmission, various petroleum and gas exploration companies, the Special Projects Division of the Lands Branch, Parks Branch,
and the Department of Agriculture. More frequently, the Fish and Wildlife Branch
is being asked for input at early stages of plan development, before plans are set and
great sums of money are spent.
Habitat Protection staff began identifying areas within the bottomland of the
region where high fish and wildlife recreational values conflict with social and
industrial development.
Habitat Protection staff studied the interaction of cattle with game (primarily
moose) and forestry in the Maxan Lake area. Two years of data have been
collected.
Initial clearing work was done on the Wren Community pasture area. Cattle
are scheduled to begin using these lands in 1976. Planning was done for the establishment of another community pasture about 10 miles southwest of Hixon.
Establishment of the Agricultural Land Reserves in 1974 has caused concern
for the maintenance of fish and wildlife values; some extremely critical winter ranges
could be lost.
A break in a Westcoast Transmission main oil-line poured 140,000 gallons of
lightweight volatile crude oil into the Salmon River and down the Fraser River.
Environmental damage to fisheries, waterfowl, furbearers, and other animals was
minimal. Two improper uses of chemical sprays were investigated, one involving
mosquito spraying without a proper licence, the second involving careless use of
herbicides along a railroad right-of-way.
Through the spring run-off period, three major washouts of fills occurred on
logging roads. With the recent placement of a Water Rights Investigator in Prince
George, these problems should be minimized in the future.
The Habitat Protection staff participated in several meetings with Water Rights,
Department of Mines, and the Pollution Control Branch regarding the problem of
placer mining.   Several placer leases were inspected.
Newly proposed hydro transmission-lines are a growing concern. The existing
rights-of-way for the lines now create ecological deserts in the winter and are
barriers to animal movement from summer to winter ranges. B.C. Hydro is investigating other methods of line-clearing used in the United States.
ENFORCEMENT
Enforcement responsibilities for the Skeena Region now centre at Smithers;
enforcement in the northeast section are now covered by the Prince George Region.
Two Senior Conservation Officer positions were established in the Prince
George and Fort St. John offices. Two-man districts were created at Vanderhoof
and Fort St. John and one-man districts were established at Valemount and Mackenzie. These new recruits spent the first six months of 1974 learning administrative
procedures, the geography of the region, and regional nuisance animal problems.
Prince George, Region VII
 DD 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Enforcement activities were publicized through the news media prior to the
hunting season. The prolonged mild fall weather caused a marked reduction in
hunter effort and success. The number of violations was not high, but the types of
offences were unusual. There is an over-all public awareness and favourable reaction
to increased fish and wildlife resource protection.
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
During 1974 the Prince George Information and Education Section was staffed
by one Information and Education Officer, one part-time office clerk, and two summer students. Responsibilities extended through Regions VII, VIII, and IX until
late in the year, when a position was established at Smithers to cover Region VIII.
CORE Program
New CORE instructors were trained and existing instructors were given
refresher courses. Approximately 1,400 students completed the CORE program
in 1974 in the northern region. The CORE program is now used in a number of
schools.
Licence Regulations
The new compulsory CORE requirement for obtaining hunting licences was
misunderstood by some licence issuers, resulting in many people circumventing the
new regulations. Clarification of instructions for the next licence-year should solve
these problems.
General Information and Education
A total of 66 talks and slide shows was given to schools, service clubs, pulp-
mills, 4-H Clubs and camps, Junior Forest Wardens, Boy Scouts, Brownies, Camera
Clubs, the Canoe Club, Rod and Gun Clubs, the Snowmobile Association Convention, Naturalist Clubs, hospital outpatients, a Metis village, and a school at Kelly
Lake.
SKEENA—REGION VIII
The new Skeena Region was officially created on April 1, 1974, with headquarters in Smithers. Prior to this, staff consisted of one Senior Conservation
Officer, five Conservation Officers (Queen Charlotte Islands, Prince Rupert, Terrace,
Smithers, Cassiar), one fisheries biologist, and two half-time stenographers. By
the end of 1974, staff had increased to 22 permanent members with the addition
of biologists, technicians, enforcement officers, clerical help, and an Information
and Education Officer.
Much of this first year was spent familiarizing new staff members with the
geography, fish and wildlife resource, people, and problems of the region.
Skeena, Region VIII
 FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
DD 65
One major and continuing concern is hunting and fishing by Indians both in
and out of season. Many of the 12,000-15,000 Indians of the Northwest still rely
heavily on the fish and wildlife resource of the region for food. Until Indian rights
are clarified, we will continue to control hunting and fishing without depriving those
in need of sustenance. Meetings have been held with the Native Brotherhood and
the different Band Councils to attain this goal.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Steelhead inventory was carried out in the Zymoetz, Kispiox, Katwanga,
Babine, Suskwa, Bear, Kitimat, Lakelse, Kitsumkalum, Ecstall, and Kloiya Rivers.
Spawning areas of Stephens Creek were surveyed in detail.
An analysis of the effect of the Skeena commercial fishery upon the Skeena
steelhead population was initiated; a report is near completion.
Creel census of Tyee, Ross, and Round Lakes indicated fair fishing success
and low fishing pressure.
A steelhead angler-use survey was carried out on the Zymoetz, Kispiox, and
Bulkley Rivers during September, October, and November. Although the majority
of fishermen interviewed were disappointed with their success, they were in agreement with our restrictive regulations on these rivers.
Surveillance of B.C. Rail extension from Fort St. James to Dease Lake continued. Although major environmental damage continues, it has been difficult to
prove and stop. However the frequency of requests from B.C. Rail construction
officials for guideance is increasing.
Massive and sudden rains during October caused severe flooding and scouring
in the Telkwa and Zymoetz Rivers. Road, bridge, and natural gas-line repairs
added to habitat disruption.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Evaluation continues of the proposed Kamano II impoundment area as wildlife habitat.
Strong support was added to the now successful recommendation to legalize
limited trapping of wolves.
A Regional Predator Control Committee was formed; a Predator Management Officer was appointed.
HABITAT PROTECTION
Forest industry—Heavy involvement in forestry referrals, five-year development plans and resouce folio preparation has indicated the lack of fish and wildlife
inventory information.
We are urging the Forest Service to reduce the rate of wood extraction from
many coastal watersheds. Logging on some goat, grizzly bear, and caribou
ranges continues; attempts have been made to control this. Hand-logging operations
on the smaller Queen Charlotte Island threaten seabird colonies.
With the co-operation of the Forest Service and T.V.L. No. 1 managers,
logging in the Meziadin watershed has been temporarily stopped, so more information on salmon, trout, and grizzly bear populations can be gathered.
A study of winter range requirements of the Sitka deer on the Queen Charlotte
Islands was initiated in the summer of 1974.
Skeena, Region VIII
 DD 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Referrals of residential lease applications, grazing permits, clearing of agricultural land, tailings disposal ponds from Atlin to the Queen Charlotte Islands were
handled.
Mining—Over 200 known orebodies are in various stages of development or
exploration; little has been done to date in terms of habitat protection.
ENFORCEMENT
One hundred and thirty-five prosecutions were conducted, with 131 convictions and four dismissals.
Two new Conservation Officer districts were created with officers at Hazelton
and Atlin; a second Conservation Officer was placed in Terrace.
Meetings between Fish and Wildlife Branch officials from Skeena Region with
counterparts from Alaska and the Yukon resulted in a useful exchange of ideas and
joint patrols of the Taku and Stikine Rivers.
Some progress was made in reducing illegal traffic of Peregrine falcons from
the Queen Charlotte Islands. Evidence of a well-planned attempt to steal falcon
eggs was uncovered.
Skeena, Region VIII
 Provincial Parks Branch
The Parks Branch is responsible for the
identification and securing of appropriate
Provincial parkland areas .and for the
management of these areas to provide
recreational opportunities based upon a
natural outdoor setting. This management is
designed to satisfy current recreational and
aesthetic demands while still maintaining
the natural attributes of park areas for the
enjoyment of future generations. In addition,
the Branch also provides interpretive
programming and park security to enhance
this outdoor experience.
To meet these responsibilities, the Parks
Branch must examine and predict public
recreational needs, evaluate the capabilities
of potential park areas, recommend the
acquisition of appropriate areas for park
use, and develop park management plans to
satisfy both public demands and park
capabilities. The Branch must also maintain
liaison with other agencies involved with
public recreation in order to ensure that the
Provincial park system is developed as a
complementary part of over-all public
recreation opportunities throughout the
Province.
 11
10
Annual Attendance .(visits in millions)
Camper nights
Day visits
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 -
1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974
CAMPERS VISITING PROVINCIAL PARKS IN 1974
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 69
1974  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE  PROVINCIAL PARKS  BRANCH
• Popularity of the Provincial parks continued its upward trend, with attendance
passing the 10 million mark for the first time.
• Twelve new parks, four recreation areas, and one wilderness conservancy were
established. Six parks were enlarged and one was cancelled. There are now
9,433,933 acres of Provincial parks, recreation areas, and wilderness conservancies.
• Decentralization continued with more responsibility being vested in District Park
offices.
• Two new park districts created at Nanaimo and Smithers.
• The Branch began an over-all review of permits and started the process of phasing
out resource exploitation, particularly with respect to mineral claims.
• Thirty-seven patrolmen and eight gatemen employed in 17 parks resulted in better
enforcement.
• Twenty-five "Back Country Rangers" were employed as a pilot project to provide
a park presence in back country and alpine areas not patrolled in the past.
• Fifty summer naturalists welcomed 300,000 visitors in 30 parks.
• Requests for information increased more than 30 per cent over the previous
year; 21 maps, 2,000 ski-trail signs, 500 posters, and three new pamphlets were
produced.
• Three hundred and fifty-eight grants amounting to approximately $17,500,000
were made through the Community Recreation Facilities Fund.
• Grants totalling approximately $1 million were made to regional parks, and
assistance to a total of approximately $15,000 was given to Class C parks.
• The executive office, a new section with wide-ranging responsibilities in administration, financing, and land acquisition, was created, and the Headquarters Services Section reorganized.
• Librarian services were extended to full time to play a greater role in library
needs of Park District offices and Fish and Wildlife regional offices.
• Construction projects in Historic Parks and Sites were minimized in order to concentrate on needed repairs and maintenance of existing buildings and improving
visitor services.
• A position paper on increased public participation in park planning and management was prepared.   Private lands offered for sale were examined.
• System plans were prepared for the Sunshine Coast and Squamish Valley. Volumes I and II of the Report of the 1,700-mile Alaska Highway, Stewart-Cassiar
Highway, and highway travel corridor were received.
• A system of Natural History Themes of British Columbia was prepared to provide
the basis for evaluating natural features to be preserved in the park system.
• Site development plans were prepared for 15 construction projects, with several
of the designs aimed at innovative approaches to camping. Concept and preliminary master plans were prepared for another 15 projects.
 DD 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
provincial parks branch
Executive
Committee
Assistant Director
l/C Park Operations
G. Trachuk
Management
Division      |fa
Lowrey
Park Use Permits
D. Fauville
Public Safety
H.L. Jordan
Youth Crew
Program
Prince George
Park District
J.N.MasselinkD.P.O.
Bear Lake Region
Lakelse Region
Mt. Robson Region
Peace-Liard Region
on Lake Region
Kamloops Park
District
D.G. Podmore D.P.O.
Cariboo Region
Okanagan Region
Shuswap Region
Thompson Region
Wells Gray Region
1
Executive Officer
D.M. Rogers
Headquarters
Services
C. Heggie
Public Information
Officer
J.B.L. Walter
Departmental
Lands Officer
J.B. Miller
Community
Recreation Division
M.C.M. Matheson
Community Recreation
Facilities Fund
J. Thompson
Provincial
Community Parks
Administration
Regional Parks
Assistance Program
G. Broome
Park Interpretation
K.R.Joy
Interpretation Prog
D. Stirling
Interpretation
Displays
J.E. Underhill
Interpretation
Assessment
L.E. Pavlick
Wildlife
Management
W.G. Hazelwood
Nelson Park
District
M.E. Goddard D.P.O
Kokanee Region
Wasa Region
vaam
Vancouver Park Dtst
J.O Leman D.P.O.
Alouette Region
Cultus Region
Garibaldi Region
Manning Region
Mt. Seymour Region
Sechelt Region
Peace Arch Regioi
Smithers Park
District
R.W. Norrish D.P.O.
Lakelse District
Tweedsmuir District
Departmental
Librarian
. Woodworth
Federal-Provincial
Programmes
Vancouver Island
Park Regions
J.W. Gillings D.P.O.
Arrowsmith Region
Malahat Region
Strathcona Region
-t
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 71
ining Division
G.F. Macnab
itral Planning
I.D. Anderson
Range Planning
r.D. Frechette
Assistant Director l/C
Park Systems Development
OJ. Velay
Engineering
Division
D.A. Shaw
Water and Waste
W.J. Forsythe
in Coordinator
.C. Hammond
Research
;. K.Campbell
stal Plannin
3.A. Fairhurst
hern Planning
R.F.B. Price
Workshop
J.P. Mcintosh
Operations Engineer
1. Klima
Building & Structure
F.C.Smith
Senior Design
Engineer
G.A. Dery
Project Engineers
G. Buydens
J.P. LAventure
R. Schelle
Historic Parks &
Sites Division
________BtT.R. Broadlandl^B
Research and
Interpretation
P.R.Whitfield
F Design
E.Joe
Barkerville
Historic Park
J.O. Premischook
Fort Steele
Historic Park
S. Robertson
The Parks Branch is presently
undergoing transition from a largely
centralized organization to a more
regionalized type. Under this new
organization planning, development,
and programming will be determined
on a regional basis along with traditional maintenance and operating
functions. Park regions are consistent with Provincial resource management regions.
The head office structure is divided into Park Systems Development and Park Operations functions,
each under the guidance of an assistant director. The Park Systems Development group includes the Planning and Research Division, the
Engineering Division, and the Historic Parks and Sites Division; these
sections provide the planning and
guidance for park development. The
Park Operations group co-ordinate
programming of each of the six park
regions and provide security and interpretation services. In addition
there is a headquarters services section to provide administrative support and a Recreational Facilities
and Regional Parks Division which
includes the administration of the
Community Recreation Facilities
Fund, Regional and Class C parks,
and the Recreational Land Green
Belt Encouragement Act.
  PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 73
|
-
l^J
IK"""
•
Bob Ahrens,
B^W
Director.
.
Provincial Parks Branch
Again in 1974, major funding for the Parks Branch capital development program was accorded through Bill 114, an Accelerated Park Development Fund
which provided $5,000,000. The total of all funding in support of the Provincial
Parks Branch was just under $17,400,000. The Careers '74 employment program
through the Department of Labour saw $2,100,000, largely in work force, applied
to operation and maintenance of Provincial parks. This funding was vital to upkeep
of the park system.
Facility development consisted of a wide variety of small-scale projects
throughout the Province with the exception of the Cypress Valley Project near
West Vancouver. There, completion of the access highway, ski-slope preparation,
and work on basic services of sewerage, power, and water absorbed nearly one-
quarter of the $10,350,000 funding for facility development. Campgrounds at
Green Lake, Purden Lake, and Sasquatch Parks, and Skagit Recreation Area were
among the larger-scale developments.
Awarded grants for 358 projects under the Community Recreation Facilities
Fund amounted to $17,600,000 for 1974. By the end of 1974, $32,042,026 had
been committed via the fund.
Tallied park visits for the first time exceeded 10 million for the developed
Provincial park. A total of 10,746,000 visits were counted, an increase of 11.2 per
cent over 1973, with use from within Province proportionately greater.
Twelve new parks were added to the Provincial park system. While these
take in only 3,589 acres, they are highly attractive and valuable waterfront multi-
recreation parks. French Beach Park, Ruckles Park, and Mansons Landing Park
are notable examples. Two park properties were donated and three prospective
donations were being negotiated by the end of the year. Fifteen land purchases
for park were negotiated but the major expenditure on park land buying in this
year was on behalf of National and Regional Parks. By the end of 1974, a total
of 241 properties in Part I, and five ownerships in Part II of the Pacific Rim
Proposed National Park had been acquired by the Province.
The Youth Crew Program of park-support work and training for 15 to 17-year-
olds, included, for the first time, a crew of girls. The enthusiastic effort and strong
performance of the girls' crew gave clear indication that a more equitable oppor-
 DD 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
tunity for employment should be accorded young females under this program,
hitherto for males only.
No significant changes in park legislation, regulations, or Parks Branch
organization occurred in 1974. However, an organizational structure and recommended staffing level for the regional and district offices of the Branch was worked
out with, and approved by the Public Service Commission.
In the course of the year, 103 temporary continuous employees, with varying
but in some cases lengthy service with the Parks Branch, were accorded permanent
positions in the Branch establishment. The staffing of the new Skeena and Vancouver Island Park Regions commenced with appointment of Park Region Managers
to these units.
The program of natural history interpretation in parks was significantly
increased to 50 summer naturalists giving service in 30 parks.
The year 1974 saw marked increase in the involvement of the Provincial Parks
Branch in regional resource management committees, and resource allocation
assessments being conducted through the Secretariat of the Environment and Land
Use Committee. While these involvements taxed the limited staff, the increasing
emphasis on detailed analysis of potential resource uses before allocation to particular purposes, and improved co-ordination of the efforts of resource-using
agencies is welcomed by the Branch.
R. H. Ahrens, Director
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 75
During 1974 it was a year of continued development of Provincial park
facilities, substantial expansion of the system and staff, commencement of the
decentralization of the administrative function of the Branch, and consolidation of
gains realized in recent years. Popularity of the Provincial parks continued its
upward trend with attendance passing the 10 million mark for the first time. To the
end of November, 8,540,000 day visits and 2,000,000 camper nights were recorded.
These figures show a slight increase over the 1973 totals of 8,170,000 and 1,180,000.
Summary of Provincial Parks and Recreation Areas Established,
Enlarged, Deleted, or Cancelled in 1974
Area Acres
Twelve new parks established—
Fossli (Class A, Category 6)   130
French Beach (Class A, Category 6)   145
Gold River (Class A, Category 6)   77
Horsefly Lake (Class A, Category 6)  365
Mansons Landing (Class A, Category 6)   117
Octopus Islands (Class A, Category 6)   162.5
Pennask Lake (Class A, Category 1)   604
Ross Lake (Class A, Category 6)   763.65
Ruckle (Class A, Category 6)   1,200
Shawnigan Lake (Class A, Category 6)   14
Tarahne (Class C, Category 4)   8.5
Westwold (Class A, Category 6)   3.3
Additions to existing parks—
Big Bar Lake  80
Chilliwack Lake  15.9
Cottonwood House Historic  5.4
Golden Ears  176
Mount Robson   4
Nairn Falls  56
Recreation areas established—
Fry Creek Canyon  1,360
Kettle River   346
Mansons Landing  130
Octopus Islands  107
Wilderness Conservancy established—Purcell  325,000
Cancellations—Brothers Memorial (Class C)   16
Provincial Parks, Recreation Areas, and Wilderness Conservancies,
December 31, 1974
Acres
249 Class A  5,198,578
6 Class B  3,321,163
66 Class C r,  27,721
17 Recreation areas  561,355
1 Wilderness Conservancy  325,000
339
9,433,817
 DD 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
LAND ACQUISITION
Fifteen land acquisitions were successfully negotiated. Of particular interest
were: Desolation Sound Marine, 97 acres; Tweedsmuir, 402 acres, including 4,000
feet of frontage on the Atnarko River; Otter Lake, 111 acres; Mansons Landing,
117 acres; Cathedral, 40 acres; Naikoon, 493 acres, including 9,400 feet of water-
frontage; and Bowron Lake, 73 acres.
These 241 parcels of land have been acquired in the Phase I area of Pacific
Rim National Park, 15 parcels are under negotiation, and five have not been dealt
with. One property has been acquired in Phase II, seven are under active negotiation, and two have yet to be dealt with. To date, $3.5 million has been expended
on acquisition, with 50 per cent of this amount being reimbursed by Federal Canada.
CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT
See regional sections for more complete information.
Nanaimo District—
Toilet building and picnic shelter—Newcastle Island Marine.
Trail work and Elk River habitat rehabilitation—Strathcona.
Vancouver District—
Road, power, water, and sewerage, two chairlifts planned—Cypress.
Campground/day-use area completed—Birkenhead Lake.
Two staff houses, trailer court, lodge renovation, administration area road system—Manning.
Ski area improvements—Mount Seymour.
Garage-workshop and completion of facilities—Porpoise Bay.
Workshop—Peace Arch.
Nelson District—
Facilities completed and design for Interpretation Centre—Kokanee Creek.
Power and water—Syringa Creek.
Campground renovation—Champion Lakes.
High density campground—Nancy Greene.
Campground—Norbury Lake.
High density campground—Premier Lake.
Water and electricity—Kikomun Creek.
Kamloops District—
Campground—Green Lake.
Road relocation, picnic ground, first phase campground—Mabel Lake.
Boat campground—Cinnemousun Narrows.
Water and power—Paul Lake.
Major road improvements—Wells Gray.
Regional workshop Thompson Region—Kamloops.
Smithers District—
Water, power, and sewerage—Maclure Lake.
Water, power, and sewerage—Lakelse Lake.
Trail and access improvement—Tweedsmuir.
Prince George District—
Campground and day-use facilities—Purden Lake.
Water and power—Mount Robson.
Day-use Facilities—Swan Lake.
Rehabilitation of flood-damaged sites (five)—Alaska Highway.
Water and service area—Bowron Lake.
Day-use area and campground extension—Ten Mile Lake.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 77
Historic Parks—
Campground—Barkerville Historic.
Water and power—Fort Steele Historic.
Trail work—Dewdney Trail.
Water—Kilby Historic.
MANAGEMENT
General Administration
Tempo of decentralization speeded up with more responsibility being vested
in district park offices. Two new park districts were activated: Nanaimo, consisting of Vancouver Island and the Mainland east of Campbell River; and Smithers,
the westerly portion of the Kamloops District. A Park Use Permit Officer was
appointed, enabling the Branch to proceed with an over-all review of permits and
begin the process of phasing out resource exploitation, particularly with respect to
mineral claims. The program of cabin acquisition in Mount Seymour Park accelerated.
Security
Except for a few early in the season, complaints from the public were virtually
eliminated, although an increase in hoodlumism is evident. Thirty-seven patrolmen and eight gatemen employed in 17 parks resulted in better enforcement.
Back Country Ranger
Twenty-five patrolmen were employed as a pilot project in back country and
alpine areas, providing a park presence in heretofore unpatrolled areas.
Accident Prevention
A plethora of minor accidents and lack of inspecting staff resulted in an increased accident rate.
Youth Crew
Two hundred and sixty-six young people including, for the first time, 15
females, were employed in 15 locations. An information dissemination project
about the program resulted in 2,700 applicants, the highest number ever received.
Interpretation
Programs—Fifty summer naturalists welcomed 300,000 visitors in 30 parks.
Home Lake Caves Park cave interpretation program was handled by the Vancouver
Island Cave Exploration Group. An experimental community-oriented naturalist
program was initiated in the Nanaimo, Vancouver, Prince George, and Nelson Park
Districts, oriented toward schools and winter parks use. Naturalists assisted the
public during the Adams River and Goldstream River salmon migrations.
Wildlife—A working liaison was established with Fish and Wildlife Branch;
park fauna was evaluated. Parks Branch administered the Elk River habitat rehabilitation project.
Assessment—Natural features of parks were evaluated, interpretation of
natural values was developed, and interpretive plans were prepared. A major
ecological study of Liard River Hotsprings Park was undertaken.
 DD 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Display studio—Displays for new Mount Robson nature house and half of
new Manning display were completed. Twenty-one maps of all kinds, 2,000 ski
trail signs, 500 posters, and other items were made, including three new outdoor
signs.   Three new pamphlets were published.
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
Executive Office
This is a newly formed section with wide-ranging responsibilities in administration, financing, and land acquisition. Efforts were spent negotiating with prospective donors of land for park purposes. Two such donations were finalized
during the year: (Fossli) Park (130 acres) 5,000 feet of lake frontage on Sproat
Lake donated by Mr. and Mrs. F. Armour Ford, Port Alberni; and Kettle River
frontage (46 acres) donated by Boundary Forest Products Ltd., now known as
Pope and Talbot Ltd. Three other possible donations were under negotiation at
year-end.
Headquarters Services
This section was reorganized during the year with resultant greater efficiency.
A rotary filing system was set up; a stock control program is underway; 2,700 youth
crew applications were processed. An accounting and office procedure course was
conducted for Headquarters and District staff.
Departmental Library
Librarian services were extended to full time, to play a greater role in library
needs of Park District offices and Fish and Wildlife regional offices. A "Thesaurus
of Terms of Outdoor Recreation Literature" was developed.
Public Information
Requests for information increased more than 30 per cent over the previous
year. New publications describing Manning Provincial Park—Ski Touring Trails,
Cypress Provincial Park—Ski Touring Trails, Cape Scott Provincial Park, and
Bugaboo Glacier Provincial Park and Alpine Recreation areas were prepared and
printed. Completely revised editions of Mount Assiniboine, Thomas S. Francis—
Freeman King, and Goldstream Provincial Parks folders were made available for
distribution.   Nearly all other publications were updated and reprinted.
The Parks Branch portable display was exhibited at a number of outdoor-
oriented functions throughout the Province. Information about Branch activities
via the media was stepped up.
COMMUNITY RECREATIONAL FACILITIES AND
REGIONAL PARKS DIVISION
The Community Recreational Facilities and Regional Parks Division was
created in 1974. The Division administers the Community Recreational Facilities
Fund Act, the Regional Parks Act, the Recreational Land Green Belt Encouragement Act, and supervises Class C Provincial parks.
The Community Recreational Facilities Fund made 358 grants amounting to
approximately $17.5 million during the course of the year.
Regional Park Assistance grants totalled approximately $1 million in 1974.
Assistance to Class C parks included approximately $15,000 in grant funds.
 provincial parks branch
DD 79
PLANNING
Improvement of User and Resource Information Base
Facilities inventory and basic attendance data were computerized.
In conjunction with the library, classification of library categorization was improved.
Details on profiles, attitudes, behaviour, and information on environmental
impact of users at Mount Robson and Mount Assiniboine were provided.
External recreation research by colleges and universities was encouraged.
Basic recreational resource assessment was completed for existing parks and park
proposals, including Stein River watershed, Kakwa Lake, Monkman Pass, Purcell
Wilderness Conservancy, Anstey Arm (Shuswap Lake), Chilcotin Region, marine
park system, Adams River, Prince Rupert area, Elk Lakes, and Top of the World.
A position paper relative to implementing procedures for increased public
participation in park planning and management was prepared. Examples of instances where public input was requested include Cathedral and Rebecca Spit.
Recreation and Parks Systems Planning
The examination of private land offered for sale involved a considerable
amount of time this year.
Particular attention was given to review of the many properties offered for
sale in the Okanagan Valley and Vancouver Island and those made available by
B.C. Hydro on the Arrow Reservoir.
System Plans were prepared for the Sunshine Coast and Squamish Valley.
Volumes I and II of the Report on the 1700 Mile Alaska Highway Stewart-Cassiar
Highway, highway travel corridor prepared by Dr. P. J. Dooling were received.
A system of natural history themes of British Columbia was prepared; it will
provide the basis for evaluating natural features to be preserved in the park system.
A proposal for expansion of Cathedral Park was prepared. During late 1974
this report was reviewed by the ELUC Secretariat and it is expected that a decision
will be forthcoming early next year.
Service to Parks Branch
Site development plans were prepared for the following construction projects:
Cypress Park, Sasquatch, 10 Mile Lake, Swan Lake, Nancy Greene, Shawnigan
Lake, Okanagan Lake, Cinnemousun Narrows, Gold River, Pinewoods Flats (Manning Park), Skagit River, Champion Lakes, Premier Lake, Chasm, and Pirates
Cove. Arising out of these specific projects were several designs aimed at innovative approaches to camping.
Concept and preliminary master plans were prepared for Niskonlith Lake,
Mount Robson Corridor, and Cape Scott. Others in progress include Skagit Valley,
Mabel Lake, Ruckle, Carp Lake, Wells Gray, Mount Assiniboine, Conkle Lake,
Kokanee Glacier, Monashee, Muncho Lake, Tatlatui, Liard Hot Springs.
Assistance was also given to Management Division on matters of resource use
in parks including grazing, helicopter use, mineral claims, rights-of-way, park-use
permits.
Interdepartmental assistance was provided on the following: Northeast Study,
Northwest Study, Winter Recreation Study, studying potential impacts on recreation
(highways, hydro development, pipe-lines). Integrated resource studies (Bella
Coola, Adams River, North Island, Nahmint).
Interagency co-operation and assistance was also provided: North Fraser
Study, Federal-Provincial marine study (Parks Canada), assistance to regional and
 DD 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
municipal governments (e.g., East Kootenay Regional Park Study, Golden, and
Kitsumkalum ski areas).
ENGINEERING DIVISION
For the fourth consecutive year a high level of capital development was maintained. In supplying technical support, direct Division employment reached 73 in
July, decreasing to 53 by December. Production was complicated by a move to
new quarters in Nootka Court and the mid-May release of the 1974/75 program.
Administrative difficulties were further compounded by professional and technical
staff resignations and the changing collective bargaining climate. However, by
December, immediate vacancies were largely filled and progress had been made in
achieving harmony between centralized engineering responsibilities and decentralized
district operations. Current emphasis is being placed on more viable design and
project teams, improved commitment control, and strengthened planning-manage-
ment liaison.
Deficiencies in the Division's establishment continued to be underlined by
substantial "outside" referrals. Seven consultant firms were retained on 20 major
projects, including Cypress waterworks-sewerage-chairlifts-electrical, Mount Seymour and Manning electrical, and Kokanee Creek's interpretation centre architecture. Assistance from other agencies of the Government was increased: The Department of Highways provided parking and utility construction with the Cypress road
contracts, Manning road development, Barkerville paving, and various investigations
of which Peace Arch portal dominates; the Department of Public Works investigated
Fort Steele electrical needs and Manning heating problems; the Water Resources
Service investigated Fort Steele's water supply.
Division staff provided substantial administrative technical skills. Electrical
jobs included Bowron Lake, Cottonwood House—Historic, Ten Mile Lake, Gold-
stream, Syringa Creek, Paul Lake, and Skihist. Repair of Peace Arch portal was
reviewed with the State of Washington. Wind generation of power was investigated.
Bridge inspections and investigations and assorted erosion and hydrological schemes
were carried out for Murtle River, Miracle Beach, Brandywine, and Sumallo River.
The Cypress program was reorganized and project engineers were initiated to the
coastal, central, and northern zones. Capital program reporting and control procedures were refined.   Departmental metrication was initiated.
Twenty building assignments were administered. These included completion
of 1973 contracts for Manning Lodge renovations and Thompson Region workshop.
Working drawings were prepared for own-force construction of a volatiles building,
two workshop extensions, and a toilet building. Plans were prepared for the Mount
Robson visitor's centre and a standard regional office. Renovation plans for Gold-
stream's interpretation centre were begun. Contracts were essentially completed for
two Manning residences, two Newcastle public service buildings, Porpoise Bay and
North Thompson workshops, and Charlie Lake workshop extension.
About 60 individual waterworks and sewerage projects were initiated, mainly
for own-force construction. Notable among design assignments were Mount Seymour's sewer system, and Cultus Lake, Lakelse Lake, Kilby Historic, and Kokanee
Creek waterworks. Twenty-five successful drilled wells were established by contract
for handpump use of future pressure system supply. In addition, seven sani-
stations were built. Major expansion projects were completed at Miracle Beach,
Sunshine Coast, Syringa Creek, Skihist, Paul Lake, Purden Lake, and Kikomun
Creek. Manning's water and sewerage systems were extended by contract to serve
increased staff accommodation.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
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—
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 DD 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The Division continued to provide draughting services for drawing, filing,
printing, and distribution of all plans for the Branch, in addition to those directly
associated with engineering projects. A major effort was made to establish a system
of records suitable for distributing and updating information to the district and
regional offices. This included 43 key reference maps which will form the basis for
future park status maps. Production of "as-constructed" plans lagged through staff
shortages, though some relief was achieved by use of outside firms. The first stage
of the micro-filming program was completed.
Although staffing posed some difficulties, Surveys reached a peak employment
of 28 persons in seven crews. Twenty-two topographic mapping projects encompassing 1,350 acres were completed of which the most intensive were Trout Lake,
Skagit River, Ross Lake, and Skagit-Sumallo junction. In addition, district liaison
involved project layouts, road construction control, boundary surveys, minor mapping, utility profiles, and as-built plans. A start was made on metrication with two
maps produced in metres. Reorganization planning was completed to provide a
more decentralized service to district operations.
The workshop at Langford continued at a high level of park furniture manufacture by returning to the double-shift system. At the summer peak 30 persons
were employed. More than 12,000 items in 60 categories were produced. In
addition the workshop operated the headquarters vehicle pool, transported finished
products, and handled several off-yard jobs. Space limitations, however, continued
to inhibit efficient operations and a study to alleviate this and provide a Departmental
service is close to completion. Prototype design of several new products was commenced including a bear trap and a new pit toilet structure.
Mechanical services to the Department were decentralized with the introduction
of superintendents at Vancouver, Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince George. Similar
expansion is planned for Smithers and Nanaimo. The work of this staff in conjunction with its Vancouver headquarters undertook annual inspections of vehicles and
equipment serving both Parks and Fish and Wildlife Branches. In addition, it provided direction on repairs and maintenance, operational research, and specifications
for new components, conformance control and warranty administration, and technical support for ski-lift and electric power projects.
HISTORIC  PARKS AND SITES  DIVISION
Four new staff members were added to the Historic Parks and Sites Division.
The Division moved from the Counting House building into larger offices in
Nootka Court. Over the year, Divisional staff participated in the Federal-Provincial
Parks Conference, the Historic Resources Task Force, the Western Canadian Historic Sites Seminar, the Association of Interpretive Naturalists Regional Annual
Meeting, the Canadian Association's Education Programs Seminar, and a British
Columbia Museums Association Seminar.
Barkerville Historic Park—Park attendance was down slightly to approximately
200,000. The Souvenir-Refreshment Pavilion was completed and put into operation,
50 new campground units in Forest Rose campground were finished by September,
and construction of and renovations to a number of historic buildings were done.
Several displays were completed.
Columbia Village Historic Park—The park was inspected and discussed at
meetings, but no development actions were taken in 1974.
Cottonwood House Historic Park—This park, on the road to Barkerville,
attracted 24,000 visitors in 1974. An Interpretation Centre was started, using an
existing log building.   Ducks, geese, and chickens were introduced, a potato crop
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 83
was planted and harvested, and snake fences were constructed to enclose pasturage
for four horses.
Fort McLeod Historic Park—An inspection by Barkerville staff in July preceded a general clean-up of the park; repair to building roofs and foundations were
done later in the summer.
Fort Steele Historic Park—In 1974, 295,000 visitors, including 2,500 schoolchildren participating in a newly developed Educational Interpretation Program,
visited the park. Finishing, restoration, and landscaping work continued at the
park. A Curator of Collections was appointed in October. A third locomotive, a
1921 Plymouth gasoline-powered machine, was donated to the park railway concession by the West Kootenay Power and Light Company. Two new Clydesdale
foals were added to the Clydesdale herd. In November the Cranbrook Community
Theatre staged a pantomime at the Wild Horse Theatre under a park-use permit.
Fort Steele and Victoria staff are working on a comprehensive park guidebook, to be
completed by the 1976 season.
Kilby Museum Historic Park—Cataloguing of the collection and assisting the
Kilbys in receiving visitors continued. The buildings were repaired and repainted
and a deep well was drilled behind the store. Preliminary research toward a master
plan for Morden Colliery Historic Park continued, but the site will not be developed
until a plan is complete. Provincial involvement with planning for the proposed
Klondike Gold Rush International Historic Park continued, but agreement has not
been reached between the Province and Canada on the future status of Crown lands
under Provincial flooding reserves for a possible hydro development.
DIVISIONAL PROGRAMS
Heritage structures—The Heritage structures section is researching buildings
at Fort Steele for the proposed guidebook, has investigated the Halam House in
Nanaimo for the B.C. Historical Association, Hudson's Bay Company building styles
for the restoration of Fort McLeod, St. Andrew's Church in Courtenay, and the
Emily Carr House, and has advised on restoration of the Peace Arch Portal at Blaine.
Historic Sites Advisory Board Projects—At the request of the Board, reports
and planning recommendations were prepared on the O'Keefe Ranch, the Barkerville Theatre Royal, the Keremeos Grists Mill, and Yale; proposals to the Board
concerning the Fletcher General Store at Ainsworth and the ghost town of Sandon
were initiated.
Historic trails—Clearing work was completed on the Dewdney Trail between
Christina Lake and Paterson and on the 1849 Hudson's Bay Company Brigade Trail
from Peers Creek near Hope over Manson Ridge into the Sowaqua Valley. Location
and recording were completed on the 1858 Harrison-Lillooet Road from Port
Douglas to Pemberton, on the 1866 Seymour Arm-Columbia River trail in the
Ratchford Watershed, and on, the 1806 Hudson's Bay Company Brigade Trail in
the Fort McLeod-Carp Lake area. Traces of the 1812 Hudson's Bay Company
Okanagan Brigade Trail and historic trails in the Fraser Canyon and Manning Park
areas were plotted onto maps. A section of the Dewdney Trail in the Waneta area
likely to be affected by highway and hydro projects was located and reported.
History in parks—The Historic Parks and Sites Division in 1974 supplied historical input to the Planning Division's Shuswap, Chilcotin and Squamish-Lillooet
studies, and to master plans for Wells Gray Park and Gerrard. Research reports
on the West Kootenay Region, Liard Hot Springs, and other park interpretation
Division, and preliminary studies were completed for future human history interpretation in Cape Scott and Newcastle Island Provincial Parks.   Toward the end
 DD 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
of the year, Historic Parks and Sites staff started planning for a major inventory of
historic resources within parks based on priorities set after consultation with other
Divisions of the Branch.
STOP OF INTEREST
Over the year, 10 texts were prepared for proposed markers. A subcommittee
of the Historic Sites Advisory Board was created in December to review these and
future proposals; texts for the Metlakatla Indian Village, the Cassiar Gold Rush,
and the Inverness Canney at Port Edward were approved.
VANCOUVER  ISLAND  DISTRICT
In 1974 the Vancouver Island District was established as a formal administrative unit. It consists of Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and the Mainland coast
from Bute Inlet north to Seymour Inlet.   District headquarters are in Nanaimo.
Two Assistant Regional Supervisors were posted, one in the Malahat Region,
headquartered at Goldstream Park, and a second at the Strathcona Region, headquartered at Miracle Beach Park.
STRATHCONA REGION
Capital development activity of special note was the Elk River Rehabilitation
Project in Strathcona Park, funded by Parks Branch, Fish and Wildlife Branch,
B.C. Hydro, and Elk River Timber Company. Logging debris was removed along
a 7-mile section of the lower Elk River and the adjacent flood-plain to contain the
river channel and reduce erosion and high water flooding damage in the valley
bottoms.
Valuable wintering range for a declining herd of Roosevelt Elk will be preserved.
Hand-pumps were installed in Ralph River and Buttle Lake campgrounds in
Strathcona Park; camping facilities were completed in Elk Falls Park; repairs to the
water distribution system were done in Miracle Beach Park.
ARROWSMITH REGION
Routine maintenance and administrative operations were completed. One
hundred and thirty acres of land on Stirling Arm of Sproat Lake were donated by
Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Ford, of Port Alberni. It will be known as Fossli Park, of
Class A status.
Fifteen boys were employed on the Youth Crew at Little Qualicum Park Camp.
They worked on a number of construction and maintenance projects.
MALAHAT REGION
Additions to existing park facilities were undertaken on Newcastle Island and at
Pirates Cove on Decourcey Island.
Wells were successfully drilled and handpumps installed at John Dean, Matheson Lake, Spectacle Lake, and Beaumont Marine parks.
A loop trail was constructed around Matheson Lake; public toilet buildings
were completed in Ivy Green Park and in the Goldstream Park Day Use area.
Two Class A parks were established: Shawnigan Lake Park is a 14-acre parcel
located on the northwest side of Shawnigan Lake; Ruckle Park is a 1,200-acre tract
located on the southeast corner of Saltspring Island.    Shawnigan Lake will be
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 85
developed in 1975 as a day-use area.   The Ruckle property will be developed for
day-use and walk-in overnight camping.
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
All regions concentrated on the completion of ongoing projects.
ALOUETTE REGION
A highly productive water system was developed in the new campground at
Alouette Lake, doubling the camping capabilities of the park. Horse and hiking
trails were built in co-operation with the Haney Correctional Institute. The regional
office was expanded to accommodate the regional staff.
CULTUS REGION
Most visitors were at Cultus Lake Park, although more of the public are using
more remote and primitive sites such as Chilliwack Lake and Sasquatch Parks.
GARIBALDI REGION
Camping and waterfront facilities at Birkenhead Lake were completed.
Regional office extension was completed at Alice Lake; maintenance and Youth
Crews have expanded and improved the trail system at the Black Tusk. A new
shelter will be built in the Diamond Head area and a system of summer and winter
trails will be developed.
A new garage-workshop and office building were completed at Porpoise Bay
Park.   The floats at Princess Louisa Marine Park were reanchored.
A new workshop was completed at Peach Arch Park. In addition, inspection
work was carried out on the Peace Arch.
Two houses and a trailer court have been installed at Manning Park for staff
accommodation.
In the Pinewoods area, a major road relocation was effected in conjunction
with the widening of the Hope-Princeton Highway. The Horseshoe Run on the
orange chair was improved. Vehicles, skiers, and groups have increased dramatically at Manning Park and Manning Park Lodge.
In the Skagit Valley recreation area, a new 44-unit campground was completed.
MOUNT SEYMOUR REGION
Slashing was completed in the Mount Seymour Region. A sewer-line from the
top of Mount Seymour to the trunk connection at the base of the mountain will be
installed. An equipment shelter by the upper parking-lots was built and extensive
slope grooming was done this summer on ski runs and toboggan hill.
At Cypress Bowl, slope-clearing operations were completed. Two chairlifts
and road, parking, and service year facilities will be operational by autumn 1975.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
The continuing decentralization of various headquarters functions has been
slow to affect this district. In 1974, staff increased by one position, that of a
mechanical superintendent who will service the needs of the Fish and Wildlife
Branch and the Parks Branch.
 DD 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
DD 87
OKANAGAN REGION
District funds (20.8 per cent) were spent in this region. Much of the day-use
area in Okanagan Lake Park will be converted to overnight use. The number of
available units will be reduced, but appearance, utility, and public enjoyment should
be enhanced.
SHUSWAP REGION
District funds (17.1 per cent) were allocated to works at Cinnemousun Narrows and Silver Beach of Shuswap Lake. Building renovations and enlargement
were done and minor works at Adams River "Salute to the Salmon" observations
area were completed.
THOMPSON REGION
District funding (18.9 per cent) was spent in the Kamloops area. The Paul
Lake water system was completed and design problems at Skihist Park were resolved.
CARIBOO REGION
District funds (15.1 per cent) were spent on completion of facilities at Green
Lake. Minor additions and improvements were also undertaken at Lac la Hache,
Big Bar, and Horsefly Lakes.
WELLS GRAY REGION
District funds (28.1 per cent) were allocated to this region. The construction
of a proper regional headquarters was completed in North Thompson River Park.
Camp-sites on Clearwater Lake and improvements to the Clearwater Lake Road
and Murtle River Bridge were formalized.
NELSON  DISTRICT
In 1974, park development and redevelopment were emphasized. Special
attention was given to maintenance of a rapidly expanding park system.
The first Girls Youth Crew in the Province worked on trails in Kokanee
Glacier Park, helped with the maintenance at several parks, landscaped all the
grounds at their new camp in Kokanee Creek Park, and helped with other tasks
associated with Provincial parks. The girls' enthusiasm during work hours and
after hours created a high morale, which affected the whole regional organization.
The Boys Youth Crew Program was located at established camps in Mount
Assiniboine, Wasa Lake, and Champion Lakes Parks. A new camp was established
at the new Kettle River Park. They worked on park maintenance, minor construction works, and trail building.
In the Back Country Ranger Program, rangers were stationed in Mount Assiniboine, Top of the World, Elk Lake, Bugaboo Glacier, and Hamber Parks, and
the new Purcell Wilderness Conservancy. The rangers help wilderness park visitors
to safely use these back country areas; they complete resource assessments of these
new mountain parks.
Major reconstruction of the Champion Lakes campground will provide new
camp-site pads, trails, improved roads, and an additional 17 camp-sites, bringing
the total units to 90. New camp-site construction (22 camping units) and a nature
walk were completed at Nancy Greene Park in the fall.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
In Kokanee Creek Park; a boat launching ramp and sani-station were constructed; 35 tables were installed along the beach, all parking-lots and roads were
regraded, and landscaping of the day-use complex was completed. Two hundred
and twenty trees were planted on the meridians and along the trails and roads.
A major water system was undertaken at Syringa Creek Park. A service yard
and a sani-station were constructed. Several other improvements were made to
trails, stairways, water fountains, etc.
At Premier Lake Park, the old campground was redeveloped, the beach was
sanded, and tables and six toilets were placed. A new boat ramp will be ready for
public use in the spring of 1975.
Deep wells were dug at Kettle River, Blanket Creek, and Premier Lake Parks.
A sewer and power system was installed at Dry Gulch Park. Additional power
installations were undertaken at Kettle River and Kokanee Creek Parks.
Day-use facilities were completed at Norbury Lake Park.
In Mount Assiniboine Park, all but one of the old Alpine Club cabins has
been rebuilt. A new parking-lot was constructed at the end of the road in Bugaboo
Glacier Park and the access road from Canadian Mountain Holiday Lodge was
improved.
Trail construction was undertaken around Gibson Lake in Kokanee Glacier
Park, along the Lussier River in the Top of the World Park, and around the lake
in Nancy Greene Park.
Construction of Kikomun Creek Park on Lake Koocanusa continued. An
underground power-line to the deep well site was completed, a pipe-line was extended from the reservoir to the service year. A proposed workshop, residence,
nature interpretation centre, Surveyor's Lake day-use area, and five drinking
fountains were built. Park roads and trails were covered with crushed rock;
banks were landscaped with topsoil. Two toilet buildings were erected in the
Surveyor's Lake campground and two toilets were erected at the boat-launching
site. Four hundred and twenty-five trees were planted around the three large
swimming-basins.
At the Wardner day-use facility, picnic tables, pump-out toilets, and three
sets of steps were installed. The parking-lot was improved, the beach was sanded,
and the upper slopes of the beach were topsoiled.
PRINCE GEORGE  DISTRICT
In 1974, there was almost a complete turnover in managerial personnel, affecting the following positions: the District Park Officer, the Regional Supervisors in
three of the District's four regions, and the Assistant Regional Supervisors on two
of the regions.
The Smithers District was split from the Northern District, leaving a much
reduced District to be managed out of Prince George.
Administrative responsibility of District and Regional personnel changed radically by the decentralization process of the Branch.
Progress was made in delegating greater operational responsibility to the regional offices. Ultimately, the District Office will control the financial requirements
of developing and operating parks and provide such essential services as surveying,
planning, facility construction, park interpretative programming, and administrative
advice and supervision to the Regions. The regional offices will be responsible
for the management and operational organization within the parks in the regions.
In 1974 a District Construction Section and a Planning Section were established.
 PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
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The District Construction Section will supervise and implement District park
facility construction.    Projects directed and constructed by this section were:
Purden Lake Park—A campground (78 sites), beach (1,000 feet), and
parking-lots (180-car capacity), sani-station, and boat launch site were completed
for 1975 opening.
Ten Mile Lake Park—1,000 feet of beach, picnic tables, playing-field, and
parking-lot were completed. In the fall, construction was started on a new 50-unit
high-density campground designed for overnight use by highway travellers in 1975.
Whiskers Point Park—Restoration of recreational facilities was completed.
High water in the spring had caused considerable damage. A serviced loop of 27
camp-sites was 75 per cent completed and electrical service was brought to the
park service area.
The District Planner worked closely with the District and Regions on facility
design and development of construction projects. Materials and finishes that fitted
the surrounding landscape were used.
PEACE-LIARD REGION
Permanent Staff Increased From Two to Three Persons
Park visits dropped nearly 15 per cent in 1974 due to heavy rains and flash
flooding along the Alaska Highway north of Fort Nelson. The highway was closed
to travel for 10 days in July, with approximately 1,000 tourists stranded at various
points such as Mucho Lake Park. Much flood damage occurred to the facilities
at Kledo Creek Park and half of the campground in Racing River Wayside Park
was washed downstream. Repair work of $10,000 was necessary on the remaining facilities in the parks along this portion of the highway.
Several small construction projects were begun:
Swan Lake Park—Boat-launching facilities, day-use facilities, a well, and a log
picnic shelter were built.
Charlie Lake Park—A well and an extension to the Charlie Lake workshop
was completed.
Spencer Tuck Park—The parking-lot was enlarged and the boat launch ramp
was extended.
Liard River Hotsprings Park—The service yard was improved, living quarters
were provided, and a water well was drilled.
Maintenance of parks along 600 miles of the Alaska Highway was planned
and supervised in co-operation with other Government agencies. Park-use permits
for parks plagued by visitors and residents with a "wild west" attitude toward park
resources are being more closely supervised.
Summer park maintenance funds were supplemented by "Experience '74"
moneys; auxiliary staff maintained park facilities in the region.
No youth crews operational in the Peace-Liard Region; one will be initiated
in Muncho Lake Park in 1975.
BEAR LAKE REGION
Camping in Bear Lake Region parks increased nearly 25 per cent over 1973
figures. Statistics were obtained for the first time in Carp Lake Park. Improved
camping facilities were available in Whiskers Point and Crooked River Parks. Day-
use visitation to the parks was down almost 25 per cent from 1973 due to inclement
weather.
In Crooked River Park, finishing touches were added to major works that were
nearly completed in 1973.   At Beaumont Park, six pump-out toilets were built.
 DD 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Students employed under the Experience '74 Program helped assist regular
maintenance staff. Special management attention was given to Carp Lake Park,
a site of outstanding sport fishery. This was the first year of active operations in
the park by Parks Branch staff. An archaeological survey team from the Department of the Provincial Secretary began a study of the parks prehistoric values in
the fall; it will be completed in 1975.
A long-term study of the trout fishery of the lake was begun by Parks Branch
and Fish and Wildlife Branch. A total of 11 brush fires caused by careless campers
were extinguished by park attendants.
The Youth Crew from Crooked River Park maintained a fly camp in Carp
Lake Park, planted 3,000 seedlings in Crooked River Park, assisted in campground
maintenance, constructed two cabins and a storage shed, and painted the regional
administration buildings. Their educational recreation program included water
safety, canoeing instructions, swimming, fishing, organized sports, and field trips
to the Gordon Shrum Generating Station on the Peace River, historic Barkerville
Park and Mount McKinnon Forest Service lookout tower.
BOWRON LAKE PARK REGION
A winter work program was designed to minimize the use of internal combustion machinery on the canoe circuit during the summer. Boat fuel, supplies,
materials, and firewood for the camp-sites were taken by snowmobile over the
frozen lakes.   This successful program will be applied annually, as weather permits.
Upgrading and maintenance of facilities on the canoe circuit were continued
with help from Experience '74. A Youth Crew camp and new service yard were
constructed by 15 Youth Crew boys. One cook-house, two bunkhouses, and one
small residence were erected. Contracts for a powerhouse, water tank, and electrical installation were completed. Water-line, sewer-lines, and propane distribution-
lines were installed. Inside work on the buildings was continued through the winter
to make the camp ready for use in 1975.
Park visits remained about the same as in 1973. Large groups (over six
people/party) have been discouraged from undertaking the circuit; their social
habits have proved very contrary to the wilderness atmosphere of the park. Toward
the year's end a number of inquiries were received about cross-country ski-ing the
lakes circuit.   This type of recreational use of the park will be carefully monitored.
MOUNT ROBSON PARK REGION
Visitors use of Mount Robson Park was similar to previous years, thus management and operations of the park were similar.
Changes in future development and management programs are anticipated.
A scenic natural corridor concept along the Yellowhead Highway through the park
is being produced. The environmental impact of horse use in the Berg Lake area
is being researched.
Facilities at the Park Headquarters were ungraded; several wood corrals, a
new nature house, nature trail, pumphouse, west portal entrance signs to the park,
and new pit toilets were built.
Parks Branch will take over the maintenance of a scenic highway rest area in
the park from the Department of Highways, Department of Highways tables, toilets,
and signs were replaced.
A Youth Crew of 35 boys maintained a fly camp in the subalpine area of Berg
Lake.   A smaller, more manageable, Youth Crew will be formed in 1975.
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SMITHERS DISTRICT
The Smithers Parks District was one of two new park districts established in
1974. New District headquarters are at Smithers. Major parks and recreation
areas in the Smithers District include Naikoon (Queen Charlotte Islands), Tweedsmuir Park, Mount Edziza Park and recreation area, Atlin Park and recreation area,
and Boya Lake Park.
Tweedsmuir is a new region, with headquarters in Houston. The activation of
this region reflects growing public use in Tweedsmuir Park and growing emphasis
Parks Branch places on administration of our large wilderness parks.
 DD 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Four new staff appointments were made to administer the park and recreational
area resource.
Much of 1974 was spent becoming familiar with the park and recreation areas
resource, surveying, and managing park-use and resource-use permits, forming
management plans for Tweedsmuir Park and Naikoon Park, completing inventory
and analysis report for Naikoon Park, completing inventory and analysis report for
Naikoon Park, managing parks and recreation areas along the Stewart-Cassiar
Highway north of Dease Lake, and managing the problem parks in the Smithers
District.
CAPITAL WORKS PROJECTS
Several projects were completed this past fiscal year. All Smithers Park District projects, with the exception of the rail portage, were completing previous
unfinished work programs.   These projects included:
Babine Region
At Maclure Lake, water in the day-use area of the park was provided, the
electrical system down to the toilet building was completed, electrical inspection of
of the system was approved in December, and the sewerage system for Maclure Lake
Park was completed. The wells begun in 1973 at Topley Landing, Pendleton Bay,
and Ethel F. Wilson Parks were completed.
Tweedsmuir Region
At Rail Portage, drainage around rail-line was improved, rails and ties were
straightened, and a site for a field operations office and residence at Chikamin Bay
was prepared. At the Youth Crew Camp, two new cabins were constructed, a
sewerage system was completed, and the washhouse and kitchen were improved.
At Hunlen Falls Trail, a new bridge was installed at Turner Lake to give access to
Hunlen Falls viewponit. The section of trail from Stillwater to the top of "the
Dome" was improved.
Lakelse Region
The electrical contract for Furlong Bay was 90 per cent completed; the transformer is yet to be installed. A sewerage-line was constructed from the Furlong
Bay changehouse to a new tile field well back of the lake. Materials for a new
water system at Furlong Bay were purchased for the installation of a major water
reservoir in Lakelse Lake Park in 1975.
Experience '74
In Lakelse Region, 32 people worked on maintenance and minor construction
projects for an average of 50 days. In the Babine-Tweedsmuir Regions nine people
worked on maintenance projects in Maclure Lake, Driftwood Canyon, Topley Landing, and Tweedsmuir Parks for an average of 60 days.
Interpretation
A naturalists program was held in Lakelse Region during the spring and summer season. Outdoor naturalist classes with school-children in the Kitimat-Terrace
area were held in May and June. Schools expressed keen interest in this type of
program. During the summer, nature talks and walks were held at Furlong Bay
for park users.
 Provincial Museum
The Provincial Museum Branch is
responsible for the collection and
preservation of specimens and artifacts
which represent the national and cultural
heritage of the Province. It is also
responsible for research and study of these
collections and for making the results of
these studies available to the people of
British Columbia through displays and
publications. Programs of the Museum are
designed to provide not only the best
possible understanding of this heritage but
also the most appropriate and innovative
means of relating this knowledge to the
public.
 DD 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
provincial museum branch
Director
J.B. Foster
Assistant
Director      IU
R.Y. Edwards
Ethnology
P.L. MacNair
A.L Hoover
Archaeology
D.N. Abbott
J.C Haggerty
History
D.T. Gallacher
J.R. Wardrop
Linguistics
B.E. Efrat
R.D. Levine
Conservation
P.R. Ward
R.B. Renshaw-
Beauchamp
Birds & Mammals
CJ. Guiguet
W. Campbell
Botar
A.F. Szczawinski
T.C Brayshaw
Marine Biology
A.E. Peden
P. Lambert
Museum Advisor
J.E. Kyte
Entomology
R.H. Carcasson
B.D. Ainscough
Education
W.A. Wood
S.A. Cuthbertson
Display
J.J. Andre
A. James
The Provincial Museum consists of a series of curatorial staff who represent
the areas of Ethnology, Archaeology, Modern History, Linguistics, Botany, Marine
Biology, Birds and Mammals, and Entomology. These curatorial divisions each
consist of a senior curator with their assistants and technicians and each is responsible for collection, research, and communication in their respective disciplines.
In addition, there is a division of conservation, responsible for the preservation
of the Museum collections and one of display, which is responsible for creating
public displays from the collected specimens and artifacts. A division of education
organizes educational programs both in the Museum and as an extension of it, and
a Museum's adviser provides development assistance to local museums throughout
the Province.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 95
1974  HIGHLIGHTS OF THE  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM  BRANCH
• The number of visitors to the Museum in 1974 was up 30,000 from 1973 for a
total of 1,229,798.   Of these, 43,000 were school classes.
• Preparation for the Museum Train, a travelling exhibit focusing on British Columbia's "Age of Steam," continued. The train will be comprised of a steam
locomotive, a tank car, a boxcar, two flatcars for live steam displays, two exhibit
coaches, a theatre coach, and a crew accommodation car.
• Dr. Bristol Foster left the Provincial Museum at the end of September to take up
the position of Co-ordinator of Ecological Reserves in the Lands Branch.
• Several archaeological projects were carried out in co-operation with native Indian
bands. Among these were the major cultural recovery project of the Hesquiat
Indian Band, and an important research project being carried out in co-operation
with the Songhees Indian Band at the Maple Bank site in Esquimalt. In its first
season this was run jointly with the University of Victoria as a field school for
Indian students.
• The Marine Biology Division participated in the Land Inventory Program in
which specimens and data were collected from the Upper Skeena River area.
• Major new publications produced by the Museum included a History Gallery
Guide Book, and Field Studies of the Falconiformes of British Columbia by
Frank Beebe.
• The Acquisition Fund enabled the Museum to acquire many historical artifacts,
including a $28,000 collection of Indian artifacts returned to this Province from
the United States.
• St. Ann's Schoolhouse was donated by the Sisters of St. Ann and opened in May
after being moved and furnished through the co-operation of the Greater Victoria
Real Estate Board, the Friends of the Provincial Museum, and the Department
of Public Works.
 DD 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A volunteer worker helps a modern schoolboy come to grips with a pioneer's drawknife.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
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Bristol Foster,
Director.
Provincial Museum
The fiscal year 1974/5 saw the British Columbia Provincial Museum continue
to grow and extend its influence. As a museum intended to be provincial in its
main focus, the Museum has recently been given the ability to significantly expand its
roles as keeper of Provincial treasure, researcher into "man in nature" in British
Columbia, and communicator of what we know to the people of the Province. A
visitor has described the Museum as "a 12-ring circus, with more going on in each
ring than anyone can keep up with." By any standards, it must be considered a
lively place.'
During the year the Museum almost doubled its permanent staff, mainly by
taking on many temporary people who were helping to staff several rapidly expanding projects. Most had been paid from funds supplied by the Federal Government
under the National Museum Policy program. Their acquisition brought the Museum
staff, exclusive of security personnel (employed by Public Works) and our many
volunteers, to about 130.
Against this gain are several major losses. Dr. J. Bristol Foster, Director,
resigned in October to take up important duties in the Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources. During his term as Director, Dr. Foster guided the
Museum through some of the most exciting years in its history, as it grew in importance to achieve the stature of one of the nation's major museum institutions.
At about the same time Mrs. Wilma Wood left her post as Head, Division of
Education and Extension. Her enthusiasm and leadership too were a major factor
in helping the Museum catch Canada's attention in the early 1970's.
Again the National Museum Policy program supplied generous funds which
enabled us to increase our scope and effectiveness, mainly in the fields of education
and extension, inventory, and training. In this respect at least two projects have
attracted national attention—the educational kits to travel to schools, originated by
the Division of Education; and the Division of Archaeology's efforts to standardize
terminology for describing Indian artifacts.
Through a generous Acquisition Fund, made available by the Provincial Government, the Museum was able to acquire many important objects, most of them
priceless as historic and artistic creations of Northwest Coast Indian cultures. Often
the objects obtained were in danger of being sold on foreign markets.
 DD 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
In addition, for yet another year the Friends of the Provincial Museum, through
the Heritage Court Society, have given an impressive amount of equipment to the
Museum, and have helped in other ways. Funds are obtained from the Museum's
highly successful Gift Shop which is operated by the Heritage Court Society for
the Friends.
Many volunteers donated their valuable time to the Museum. During the
year about 150 poured their interest and abilities into such diverse projects as card
indexing British Columbia's records of birds, showing children how to make butter,
and selling contemporary Indian jewellery in the Gift Shop. Last, though never least
to any museum, is the interest shown by many people in donating objects of many
kinds to the Museum's collections. If public support is a measure of a museum's
success, this Museum is especially favoured, more than it could ever adequately
acknowledge.
Dominating the year of the Divisions of Display, Archaeology, and Ethnology
were the planning, designing, and partial construction of the new Anthropology
Gallery which will open in 1975. This gallery will complete the top floor of the
Display Building and will leave the entire second floor for the Natural History
displays, now getting under way.
The Museum has been known for decades for the excellence of its publishing
program. The past year was its most productive to date. Two new handbooks on
botany appeared, as did a major work on hawks, a colourful guide to the History
Gallery, a small book on the purposes and organization of the Museum, and several
informative folders, the first of many designed to extend the messages of gallery
exhibits.
The Museum's scientific journal, Syesis, is the finest of its kind in Canada.
Now in its seventh year, the 1974 issue was sent to scientists and learned institutions
around the world. Two supplements to the 1974 Syesis were on archaeology and
ethnobotany.
A few other milestones that come to mind are: Archaeology continued to make
progress with joint projects involving the Indian peoples in researching their past;
Linguistics initiated an ambitious program on many fronts to record, and sometimes
to help teach, the native languages of the Province; Marine Biology undertook
productive explorations of the sea, using the Museum's vessel Nesika to add new
names to the list of Canada's marine fauna; senior people in Display, with typical
dedication and enthusiasm, and anticipating the need sooon to construct marine
exhibits, plunged successfully into learning the art of scuba diving; and the Museum
train, its organization, and first years of operation to be the concern of History,
began to take shape, and will soon help to take the Museum into many towns
throughout the Province.
It was a good year. Most of this report is about what Museum people did.
But these activities are but the means to the end of serving people, and this the
Museum seems to have done well, touching the lives of more than a million people
during the year. The feedback from this contact is the kind that gratifies and
inspires, providing the impetus to do even better in the future.
ARCHAEOLOGY
Douglas N. Abbott, Curator
The Archaeology Division is the main storage and co-ordinating centre for data
relating to British Columbia's archaeological resources. It shares with other institutions the responsibility for protecting those resources and carrying out systematic
research upon them with the object of reconstructing the prehistoric adaptations,
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 99
patterns, and relationships of cultures in British Columbia. It is custodian of the
Provincial archaeological collections which are held in trust for the people in general
and in particular for the native Indian people of the Province. It is responsible
for informing the public regarding that part of British Columbia's cultural heritage
which can be recovered by archaeological means.
In recent years we attempted to meet these multiple responsibilities largely
through outside assistance and with the majority of our staff supported by temporary
funds. The outstanding event of 1974, therefore, has been the absorption of most
of our staff positions into the public service establishment of the Province. This has
enabled us to structure the Division into operational sections for greater efficiency.
The Systems Section continued research and development of computer applications for archaeological data in co-operation with the National Inventory. A
feasibility study on data handling techniques is currently being edited. Staff of the
section have prepared two editions of a Guide and Dictionary for the inventory and
distributed copies to researchers on this continent and in Europe for comment.
Papers on the inventory and our role in it were presented at conferences in Birmingham, England, and Whitehorse, Y.T. The section head made a fact-finding tour on
computer applications in archaeology to England, France, Germany, and Washington, D.C., in January, and in May attended a meeting in Ottawa to finalize format
for the National Inventory of artifacts.
The story line for the Archaeology Gallery is complete and we have almost
finished editing the text for each of the display sections. Our casting program was
almost totally concerned with projects for the new display. The second of the pair
of "monoliths" (large vertical sections excavated from midden sites) was taken
from Galiano Island early in the spring. Preparation and installation of these
continued throughout the year. Field crews also made moulds of several of the
unique petroglyphs (prehistoric rock carvings) from 27 sites along the Coast,
working closely with the Indian bands. For this work we developed a new moulding
technique which has proven so successful that it has aroused a great deal of interest
at other institutions. In November we assisted Washington State University to
mould several petroglyphs in the Snake River Canyon. The technique was also used
to mould key pieces of decorative plaster from the historic Birks Building in Vancouver prior to its demolition.
The Cultural Recovery Project of the Hesquiat Band on the west coast of
Vancouver Island continued into its fourth summer of field investigations, once
again, at the band's request, under the Assistant Curator's direction. In addition
to archaeology recovery, the summer's work involved photography of all burial boxes
and initiation of a dendrochronological study by which the wooden artifacts and
structures may be accurately dated and a climatic history established. Analysis of
soils, faunal remains, and other recovered materials continues at the Museum.
At the invitation of the Songhees Band and with their participation, another
major excavation was begun at Maple Bank Reserve on Esquimalt Harbour. During
this first season the project was run jointly with the University of Victoria as a field
school for Indian students and was supported by the Department of Labour's
"Careers '74" program, the Museum, and the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board.
The Indian Band and their archaeologist completed the gravehouse salvage
project on the Nakina which we had helped them initiate. They also undertook a
major site survey in Atlin territory. At the request of the Archaeological Sites
Advisory Board the Division organized a site survey along highway construction
rights-of-way in northeastern British Columbia.
 DD 100       BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
A young bull northern sea lion (Eumatopius jubata) strikes a pose, on Second Beach
near Pachena Point, similar to the model which will soon be a feature of the Hall of the Sea
in the Museum's Coast Forest diorama now under construction.
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
Charles J. Guiguet, Curator
The Birds and Mammals Division is responsible for the maintenance and
pertinent enlargement of collections, and disseminating knowledge, in the field of
higher vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. It is also
responsible for planning, collecting, and processing material for display, extension,
and education. The Division is also active in zoological exploration and the publication of scientific and popular material.
While displays currently demand most attention, with research a close second,
the Division continues to be active providing information and identification for the
public, professionals, colleagues, and other institutions.
In 1973/74, the Division was assigned 10 students and commensurate expenses
for four months under the "Careers '74" program. Aided in this with vehicles
donated by the Ford Motor Company, the following projects were carried out:
1. Northern Inventory—Two students were assigned to the Secretariat to assist
in a northern inventory of birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. Operations
were centred in the Bulkley Valley. Series of mammals, birds, amphibians, and
reptiles were collected for the distributional record, for identification, and to fill gaps
in the Museum's scientific study collections.   Transects were established and data
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 101
gathered from May through August. Analyses have been carried out and qualitative
inventory reports are now being written.
2. Four students, supervised by museum personnel, collected on the Queen
Charlotte Islands for 10 days in May to provide specimens of indigenous species of
birds and mammals for the proposed Queen Charlotte Island display. Scientific-
study collecting was also carried out during the period. Series of specimens were
collected, including all indigenous species except the scarce Queen Charlotte Island
weasel and Saw-Whet Owl.
3. A long-term program of zoological exploration dealing mainly with small
mammals was initiated this year on islands lying between Vancouver Island and
the Mainland. Crews using inflatable boats worked the following islands: Saltspring,
Sidney, Forrest, James, Darcy, the Penders, Saturna, Mayne, and Galiano. We
hope that a number of islands can be explored annually north to the Goletos Channel. A total of 300 small mammals was collected. The bulk of this work was
carried out successfully by two students.
4. Four students and the Curator, carried out small-mammal transplants from
Vancouver Island to Doyle Island on the Gordon Group in Goletos Channel. This
exercise is designed to stimulate apparent post-Pleistocene invasions of mice to
smaller islands, where observed morphological differences indicate evolution to the
species level. Series of mice were snap-trapped from both Doyle and Vancouver
Islands and specimens were released alive on Doyle. Hopefully this work will
result in some answers to evolutionary processes and distribution of insular mammals on the British Columbia Coast.
5. A seabird colony inventory was carried out during the breeding season on
islands between Victoria and Campbell River. In total, 100 islands were surveyed
and a census of birds, nests, and eggs was taken for the following species; Glaucous-
winged gull, double-crested cormorant, pelagic cormorant, pigeon guillemot, and
black oystercatcher.   Several new colonies were discovered.
6. During the same period, cataloguing, card-indexing of field notes, specimens
and compilation of published material dealing with British Columbia avi-fauna were
carried out.
During the year, our taxidermist processed 34 specimens for the initial phase
of the Natural History displays. Species to the size of the grizzly bear and sea lion
were prepared. Collecting and processing for the Coast Forest, Hall of the Sea,
and Queen Charlotte Island areas is almost completed; the Puget Sound Lowlands,
including the Fraser Estuary, is yet to be done.
The scientific study material prepared, including skins and osteological specimens, numbered 584. Many of these are "pick ups" donated by the general public,
birds killed against windows, telephone, and power-lines, automobiles, and the like.
BOTANY
Adam F. Szczawinski, Curator
The Botany Division has four main functions—to maintain a herbarium as a
filing system for a collection of British Columbia plants which is accessible as a
reference for botanical research and from which exchanges with other institutions
can be made; to conduct research and to provide facilities for research carried out
by outside scholars; to provide information both oral and written, on the results of
this research through journals, periodicals, Museum Handbooks and Occasional
Papers, and through public lectures; and to advise and assist the artists and technicians of the Display Division on the botanical aspects of displays.
 DD  102        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
In 1974 the Curator was heavily involved in co-ordinating work with the Environment and Land Use Committee, and with the Ecological Reserves Program.
In November he acted as Director. With Dr. R. J. Bandoni, of the University of
British Columbia, he revised the Museum Handbook Mushrooms of British Columbia, and with Dr. J. H. Soper, of the National Museum, he prepared a booklet on
the Wildflowers of Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National Parks.
The Division continued its floristic inventory of Northern British Columbia
and collected in several remote areas including the northern Cassiar Range, the
Liard Plateau, and the Pettitot River area. Collections were also made at Bam-
field, Triangle Island, and on the Trial Islands. About 2,000 specimens were
collected.
The Assistant Curator, in co-operation with the Provincial Parks Branch, has
been studying the floras of Manning and Mount Robson Provincial Parks and a
publication on the wildflowers of Manning Park is planned. So far, 1,300 specimens have been collected in this project.
Two technicians completed the multiple collection of the flora of Vancouver
Island, collecting 12 replicates of each of 142 species, Dr. Nancy Turner, under
contract, continued her work on the ethnobotany of the native people of the Interior.
This year, 5,185 specimens were added to the herbarium bringing the total
collection to more than 66,000 specimens. Among the collections received from
collectors outside the Museum staff were those of J. Carter (from Kokanee Glacier
Provincial Park), G. W. Douglas (from Kluane National Park), G. Mendel (from
Kokanee Glacier Provincial Park), R. T. Ogilvie (from Pacific Rim National Park),
J. Risse-Sawiski (from Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park), B. Slough (aquatic
plants from the Smithers area), and G. Stanley (from the Powell River area).
Research on the catkin-bearing plants by the Associate Director has been completed and a publication on this group is now being prepared as a Museum Occasional Paper. Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, under contract, has been engaged in research
on the sedge, pink, and crucifer families for publications in the Museum Handbook series.    His manuscript on the sedge family is nearly completed.    The very
A dwarf trillium formerly thought to be a separate species but now considered a form
of the common Trillium ovatum.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 103
large family, the composites, has been receiving the attention of Dr. G. W. Douglas.
His voluntary research into this group is expected to result in a Museum publication
in 1977.
A study of the moss and lichen flora of the Province is being carried out by
an Assistant Curator and a new collection, comprising of some 400 specimens, has
been opened to house the cryptogamic material related to this work.
The Division's illustrators have completed the plates for a handbook on the
crucifers, and most of the work on another set, those of the sedges, has been done.
Meanwhile work has just started on what will be a monumental task, the production
of the illustrations for the composites.
The representation of British Columbia plants in the Native Plants Garden
around the Museum, continues to expand. A number of additions to the garden,
collected ih 1974 by the Associate Curator, have been carried over the winter in
greenhouses in Victoria and are scheduled to take their place in the garden in 1975.
Among visiting researchers this year was Dr. K. G. Dore, of the Biosystematics
Research Institute, Ottawa, who spent some time here in September while studying
west coast grasses.
ENTOMOLOGY
Robert H. Carcasson, Curator
The Division was established in 1973 to assemble and maintain collections of
insects and arachnids as representative of the fauna of the Pacific Northwest as
possible. It is hoped that eventually the Division will become an important focus
for studies in the systematics and biogeography of the terrestial arthropods of the
area.
At the beginning of the year, 100 new insect storage drawers were received
making it possible to complete the amalgamation and to incorporate the Coleptera
(beetles) and the Hemiptera (bugs). A good start has been made on the rearrangement of the Diptera (flies and mosquitoes) and the Hymenoptera (wasps, bees,
ants, etc.). The smaller orders, such as the Orthoptera, Odonata, Neuroptera, and
others, remain to be dealt with. The determinations of the Cicindelidae (tiger
beetles) were checked by a visiting specialist.
The collection of Pacific Northwest Uropodine soil mites received attention
during the year and now comprises some 3,000 mounted specimens and some
30,000 specimens in spirits. Other groups of soil organisms were collected and
roughly sorted with a view to eventually establishing a centre for the study of
Pacific Northwest soil arthropods. Some 50 soil samples, collected in various
localities by the Divisional staff and by other members of the Museum staff, were
received and processed.
The Curator had a successful collecting trip to the Interior and was also able
to collect much useful material during a holiday in Alaska. The Curator would
like to express his gratitude to the Keeper and staff of the Department of Entomology, British Museum (Natural History), for facilities afforded him for the study of
faunal affinities with Eurasia, during a private visit to London.
The Associate Curator had a successful collecting trip to Washington and
Oregon.
Much time was spent in the preparation of illustrations for a Museum Handbook on the Butterflies of British Columbia. The Curator acknowledges the fine
work of Ron Long of the Biology Department of Simon Fraser University, in pro-
 DD 104       BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
HOHOQ mask by Charlie Walkus.
Carved and painted chest by Vernon Stephens.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 105
ducing several hundred superb colour transparencies of our local butterflies, and
expresses his appreciation to Prof. G. Scudder of the University of British Columbia
for the loan of the specimens.
Prof, and Mme Henri Bertrand, of Paris, world authorities on aquatic Coleop-
tera, visited the Division while travelling in this area.
ETHNOLOGY
Peter L. Macnair, Curator
Several significant projects were undertaken by the Division in 1974. The
major undertaking was that of preparing the permanent Indian History exhibit.
During the year the objects to be displayed were selected and prepared with the
assistance of the Conservation Division. Texts and labels were written. Construction of the house of Kwakiutl Chief Jonathan Hunt, of Fort Rupert, which will be
a feature exhibit, was completed.
A project to recatalogue the entire ethnological collection, which consists of
some 9,000 specimens, was begun. In time, this will mean that far more accurate
and significant information about the collection will be added. Objects were measured in metric units and improved descriptions were written. Early collectors'
notes proved an invaluable source of additional information, especially the field
records of C. F. Newcombe. Newcombe who collected widely for this Museum
in the second decade of this century usually recorded the name of the individual
from whom he collected an object as well as information about its specific use. A
thorough examination of his papers, held by the Provincial Archives, enabled us
to add this important data to our catalogue. In time we expect to computerize our
collection data so that it can be shared widely by Indians, students, and scholars
across the country.
The Provincial Archives were also an important source for further information about our collection of ethnohistoric photographs. Using field notes, published
works and, most importantly, Indian informations, some 12,000 photographs of
Indian villages, economic activities and ceremonies, were catalogued.
The staff photographer and his assistant helped with this project. In addition
to processing public requests, the photographic staff photographed a collection of
contemporary British Columbia Indian Art for a proposed catalogue and began the
large task of properly photographing the entire ethnographic collection.
The major task undertaken by the Thunderbird Park carving program was the
completion of the Kwakiutl house mentioned earlier. After more than 20 years of
service, Chief Carver Henry Hunt resigned to carve independently. His contribution
to the development of the Museum during his employment has been invaluable and
the staff as a whole join in wishing him well in his new venture. Ron Hamilton
who was apprenticed to Henry during the past three years also left to return to his
home in Alberni. Richard Hunt, Frank Puglas, and Francis Williams continue the
carving program.
As in the past, the staff engaged in field work, mainly the recording of Kwakiutl
potlatches. Our methods have improved to the point where we can now present
the potlatch giver with a written, taped, and photographic record of high quality
of his ceremony.
Because of substantial financial support, the Division was able to add significantly to its ethnographic collections in 1974. About 500 objects were purchased,
among them several important collections. Without question the most important
of these was the Macdonald-Collison collection.   Most of the 42 specimens in the
 DD  106        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The Ethnology Gallery under construction.   It is scheduled to open in July 1975.
Mrs. Alice Paul, of Hesquiat, taping information with the Curator of Linguistics.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
collection were obtained in the latter part of the 19th century by the pioneer missionary the Rev. William Henry Collison. In 1876, Collison was posted to Masset
on the Queen Charlotte Islands and remained there until ca 1890 when he was
transferred to the Mainland where he subsequently ministered at Metlakatla and
Kincolith. The collection was obtained from Collison's grandson, Dr. J. Mac-
donald, of Qualicu.n Beach. The Museum is greatly indebted to Dr. Macdonald
and his family who were so determined to have this important collection remain
in the Province.
LINGUISTICS
Dr. Barbara Efrat, Curator
In 1974 the Division grew from one staff member in July 1973 to four. This
increase has enabled the Division to formulate and effect definite direction for its
efforts both within the Museum structure and beyond, with service to the public
and to the scholarly community.
The Division has pursued its two museum-centred goals, display and collections. The story-line for the permanent Linguistics display has been finished and
the preparation of tapes and graphics is in progress. The display is designed to
bring to the visitor's attention some of the fascinating variety of native language
structures within the Province. The Division's tape collection has grown, supplemented largely by the field-work of the two curators. Within the next year the
Division expects to prepare an ethically and legally valid set of guidelines to protect
the privately owned contents of the tapes.
The Division is currently conducting an inquiry into the state of the native
languages of the Province—the degree to which each still functions as a means of
communication, the number of speakers, the number of dialects, and past and
present research conducted on them. Once the information is assessed and priorities
for research established, the Division hopes to encourage and direct research into
those languages most in need of immediate critical attention. The Division thus
hopes to be able to offer a much needed publishing outlet within a linguistic series
for grammars in a number of British Columbia languages.
The Division, concerned almost exclusively with the native languages of the
Province, is firmly committed to the view that it is only with the co-operation and
concerted effort of the Indian people and with renewed interest and revived pride
in their own fascinating and valid cultural heritage that much of the imperiled
language data will be preserved. Thus, the Division has participated with Indian
people in several projects run and designed by Indians themselves. The main
native-organized program in which the Division takes part is the Hesquiat Cultural
Project for which the senior curator this year helped to gather information on place
names and aboriginal land use at the request of the band, as well as supervising the
assembling of a Hesquiat colouring book and calendar. Both place-name material
and folktales are currently being transcribed from the tapes made for the band's
own archives. The Curator also collaborated with Dr. Nancy Turner and the
Hesquiat elders on an intensive investigation of the ethnobotany of the Hesquiat
area. The continuing and productive co-operation between the band and the
professional as well as between the different generations of Hesquiats provides a
model of responsible and relevant research which other native groups are starting
to emulate. Another such cultural effort to which the Division contributed information and technical know-how was the Saanich Cultural Heritage Project, organized
by the Saanich Indian School Board.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
The Division has also been taking an active role in workshops sponsored by
native groups, such as the one for land claims' field-workers interested in practical
alphabets run by the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs in February, and the workshop
and conference, sponsored by the Fish Lake Cultural Centre in Williams Lake,
designed to encourage those native people who are producing practical materials
in Shuswap, Chilcotin, and Carrier. To the latter conference the Curator contributed a talk on native languages for the school teachers of the area.
With a view to having staff with as diverse native language expertise as possible,
Robert D. Levine was appointed Assistant Curator in October. His recent investigation into the structural intricacies of the Skidegate dialect of Haida has led to a
request by the Queen Charlotte City system for a series of graded lessons in that
language. He has also commended a detailed study into the grammar of Kwakw'ala,
southern Kwakiutl. Other staff employed included two summer students—one
catalogued Salish language data, and the other collected examples of native language
curriculum materials from Canada and the United States.
A division representative was invited to attend the B.C. Native Teachers
Association Conference in May and the B.C. Homemakers' Conference in June.
In March the Curator gave a Heritage Court lecture at the Museum, "Telling It
Like It Is."
MARINE BIOLOGY
Alex E. Peden, Curator
By definition, work in this Division centres on collections of marine life. Without such collections the Marine Biology Division ceases to function as a significant
part of the Museum. In contrast to the collections of most other museum divisions,
aquatic collections cannot be kept as specimens for public exhibits. Because marine
life becomes so altered after preservation, models or photographs must be used to
portray living animals for the layman. During 1974, Marine Biology continued a
program that has accumulated several thousand underwater photographs; however,
it still has only one-third of those required for the planned permanent exhibits.
Preserved marine specimens find their greatest use in research, however museums emphasizing marine biological collections are sadly lacking in the Pacific
Northwest. For many marine animal groups, competent taxonomists and quality
invertebrate collections cannot be found any closer than California, Ontario, or
Washington, D.C. Although, the Provincial Museum has an excellent reputation in
display and other curatorial areas and was collecting marine biological specimens
as early as 1889, its national and international reputation in curation of marine life
has not kept pace. As a partial step to establish stability for collections that are of
international, as much as national or regional value, application was made for
membership in the Association of Systematics Collections. Such a membership
should help to co-ordinate research efforts between institutions and ensure official
recognition of international standards for our collections in the marine biology
section.
Since quality research or educational programs require accurate knowledge
of the number and kinds of organisms encountered in the environment, the Division
continues to survey lesser-known areas and animal groups whose species status and
taxonomy are in doubt. For example, the Division's summer survey in northern
marine waters of the Province indicated 20 per cent of the approximately 125 inshore
fish species found were previously unknown from the region. Studies on Lycodapus
(type of eel-pout) also indicated that current literature had attributed the wrong
 DD 109
Head of male Adams River sockeye salmon.
habitat for one species and provided an excess of species names for another form.
These studies also revealed a species new to science.
The Division's participation in the Land Secretariat's Land Inventory Program
was also in the spirit of basic exploratory work. Because marine life is so diverse,
it is impossible to hire all the experts needed. However, judicious use of contracts
will increase productivity as was exemplified by the curation of polychaete worms
and production of identification keys by Mrs. Katherine Hobson. During the year,
progress was made toward future handbooks on echinoderms (i.e., starfish) and
nudibranchs (sea slugs).
With few museums curating marine life in the Pacific Northwest, the Division
is becoming a regional museum for certain animal groups. The American Association of Systematics Collections has strongly urged regional museums for systematic biology to the Canadian National Museum Program. Such synergistic concepts
are badly needed to co-ordinate the biological research effort in the Pacific Northwest, therefore, the Division intends to work toward either filling the vacuum or
supporting institutions capable of filling this need. Since many agencies work with
British Columbia's faunal resources, especially marine life, participation in methods
of pooling data and providing sound basis to develop services are needed.
 DD  110        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Toward this end the Division must
(1) determine the needs of biologists working on British Columbia's
aquatic and marine fauna for identification services, storage facilities
for specimens and data, and for information retrieval systems;
(2) plan the growth and development of the facilities to meet these needs;
(3) develop the exchange of specimens with other institutions;
(4) encourage researchers—particularly those from abroad—with specimen loans;
(5) provide, where possible, material support for visiting researchers;
(6) encourage completion of research aquaria in the Curatorial Tower;
(7) support local initiatives for public aquaria as educational and research
facilities;
(8) work closely with the Educational Division to create programs which
not only satisfy the public's curiosity about marine and aquatic life,
but also instil a sense of objective appreciation of how this life
interacts with our environment.
MODERN  HISTORY
Daniel T. Gallacher, Curator
Those familiar with the Provincial Museum's organization may wonder if
another division—Modern History—has been established. Actually, it is simply
a new name for the History Division which was created in 1967 to cover human
activity in the Province from the years of European contact to the present. Among
the hoped-for results of this name change will be a clarification in the minds of
persons who make use of our curatorial services; modern history provides sharper
definition in the face of the Museum's four divisions concerned with natural history
and the three devoted to Indian history. Moreover, the new name will plainly
associate this division with the British Columbia Modern History exhibits created
between 1969-72.
The Division's internal organization was also modified in 1974. Whereas in
the past curators tended to study, collect, and interpret essentially in chronological
terms, they now concentrate upon specific collections. As well as making for
more operational efficiency, this change should bring our staff into closer harmony
with their counterparts in other major museums.
Of special note is the emphasis now given to technicians. The rapid growth
experienced by all divisions since the late 1960's has had a profound effect upon
staff relationships. The traditional pattern of technicians always being subordinate
to curators has been upset by the advent of two purely technical divisions, Conservation and Display. Collective bargaining, introduced this year, is bound to alter
staff relationships even more. Thus, more emphasis must be placed upon understanding and defining the roles and contributions of curatorial technicians. For
this Division, the problem should not be difficult since the recent internal reorganization provdies for a well-defined "technical support section" capable of both assisting
curators in the latter's activities and performing independent technical work.
Demand for collections, research, information, interpretation, and services
exists in each area defined as a section, and in light of the Provincial Government's
current emphasis upon acquiring new historical assets—collections, sites, structures,
documents, museums—the Division is being increasingly called upon to assist other
agencies which do not yet have the expertise to cope with their ever-growing
responsibilities. And this in turn places severe strains upon our own capacity to
fulfil the tasks at hand.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
CPR consolidation type 2-8-0 locomotive No. 3716 being restored in Vancouver for the Museum Train.
 DD 112        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Haida totem pole from the Queen Charlotte Islands being removed from a temporary
location at Prince Rupert for storage in Victoria. It will eventually be returned to the
Queen Charlottes;.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD  113
Considerable progress was achieved in 1974, particularly in collections, cataloguing, storage capacity, and restoration. By mid-December, upwards of 40 per
cent of our collections were catalogued, photographed, and cross-referenced, mainly
as a result of the Federally funded Catalogue Assistance Program.
Temporary exhibits have been another highlight, in that the Division's curators
and technicians made material available for several displays which were located in
the Modern History galleries. Indeed, the temporary exhibit has proven to be an
excellent form for training curators as well as a method highly useful for strengthening and livening the permanent displays.
Several major field projects were completed in 1974. Part of June was spent
making on-site video recordings of gold panning and hydraulic monitoring activity
near Atlin. As part of their research for the Museum Train exhibits, two curators
travelled extensively through southern British Columbia and into some American
states to investigate and record various railroad, industrial, and maritime sites.
There were periodic visits to Vancouver to choose material from Birk's Building
during its demolition, and to supervise the transfer of the resulting accessions to
Victoria. The chief curator visited major museums in Britain, Ontario, Manitoba,
and Saskatchewan.
Work on the Museum Train, a project which includes both a major restoration
of historic rolling stock and a Province-wide travelling exhibit program for 1975/76,
filled much of the Division's time. The Train will include a steam locomotive, tank
car, boxcar, two flatcars for live steam displays, two exhibit coaches, a theatre
coach, and a crew-accommodation car. Inside exhibits will focus chiefly upon
"British Columbia's Age of Steam, 1830's-l 950's."
CONSERVATION
Phillip R. Ward, Curator
The Conservation Division is responsible for the physical welfare of the
Museum's collections, with special concern for those in the field of human history.
This embraces the preventive procedures necessary to the care of the collections
during storage, study, and display; the provision of guidance and assistance to other
divisions to ensure safe handling and transportation; and the cleaning, consolidation,
and repair of the permanent collections. The Division develops improved techniques
on all these fields and conducts technical examinations of objects in support of the
research programs of other divisions. It also maintains the Museum's Collections
Condition Record, provides professional liaison with other institutions concerned
with the conservation of antiquities, and offers as advisory service to other museums
and to the general public.
The year's most important event was the Government's decision to rationalize
the Museum's organization by establishing on a permanent basis those staff positions
which had been previously provided from various temporary sources. This had a
profound effect on the Conservation Division, which at last has a balanced permanent staff compatible with its responsibilities.
Of the many interesting projects with which the Division has been concerned
during the year, the consolidation of waterlogged artifacts excavated by UBC at
Musqueam, which commenced last year, proved the most rewarding. This work was
undertaken without foreknowledge of the exceptional importance of the artifacts,
 DD 114        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
but simply because no other conservation laboratory in Western Canada had the
experience or facilities to provide the early treatment without which these artifacts
would have rapidly disintegrated. It was therefore, especially gratifying when, early
in 1974, radio-carbon analysis revealed that, at an age of approximately 3,000
years, these were by far the earliest perishable artifacts ever recovered on the Northwest Coast.
The treatment of excavated artifacts was not confined to the discoveries at
Musqueam, however. Other material treated during the year came from sites at
Little Qualicum River, Fanny Bay, Hesquiat, Maple Bank, and Buckley Bay.
On the principle that "nature abhors a vacuum," the Conservation Division, as
the Provincial Government's only source of expertise in the conservation of antiquities and works of art, has become increasingly concerned with the demands of the
many Government agencies which lack such expertise but which now are active in
the preservation of cultural resources.
During 1974, such services were provided to nine Provincial Government
departments and agencies, the National Museum of Man, four universities, and 10
other regional and local museums and historical organizations.
Although the demands of the Museum's permanent display program dictated
the general limitation of external services to consultations, some 22 objects which
were in urgent need of repair were treated.
Throughout the year much work was generated by the Museum's travelling
exhibit program, for which the Conservation Division examined and prepared condition records of every object borrowed or loaned by the Museum. In many cases,
the objects were also cleaned, repaired, or fumigated and in some instances packing
and unpacking was also done by the Division's staff.
The routine conservation treatment of the Museum's collections was greatly
accelerated, and at the end of the year the preparation of objects for the permanent
anthropology displays was almost complete—approximately six months ahead of
schedule. In all, 285 objects from the Museum's collections received major
treatment.
Programs of original research was also initiated into the uses of BISRA con-
solidant on leather; the use of conifer resins for the repair of native artifacts; the
consolidation of lignite; and the deterioration of opercula in contact with organic
oils.
DISPLAY  DIVISION
John J. Andre, Chief
During 1974 the Display Division, which is responsible for all exhibits, completed the structural framing for the new Ethnology, Archaeology, and part of the
Natural History galleries.
The Archaeology and Ethnology exhibits, which are due to open in July 1975,
began to take shape this year with the Kikili Pit House now completed to form the
focal point of the Archaeology exhibit. The lumber for this house was collected by
the Parks Branch in Manning Park.
The large soil profile which was collected last year from the Glenrose Cannery
dig is now in place and ready for the surrounding showcases. Another soil profile
was taken from the Galiano Island dig, but this dig had to be re-excavated. This
will also be used in the Archaeology exhibit.
During the summer, Archaeology and Display technicians, in collaboration
with local Indians bands, made moulds of all important petroglyphs in the Province.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 115
Casts from these moulds will be used to build two 45-foot panels in the Ethnology
exhibit.
Due to the imminent demolition of the Birks Building in Vancouver, arrangements were made for moulds to be made of some of the interior detailing of the
building.  This was very successful and was featured in the Vancouver newspapers.
The Natural History casting group constructed a tide pool, complete with flora
and fauna, for a schools travelling exhibit. This provided good experience in
developing this technique because many such pools which will be required for the
Natural History exhibits.
During the summer the same crew made geological and botanical moulds for
the Coast Forest and Marine dioramas. A Display Division crew, together with
people from Marine Biology, Botany, and Birds and Mammals, also made a reconnaissance trip to Triangle Island to familiarize themselves with the part of the
foreshore of that island to be used in this diorama.
Research continued into ways to duplicate whale bones. A system has now
been devised, but locating a blue whale skeleton that we can use for experiments is
proving to be a problem.
Several members of the Display Division were able to visit the Spokane World's
Fair. Some of the equipment in use in the British Columbia Pavilion will be
available to the Museum for its exhibit program. This trip provided an opportunity
for a highly significant study of new audio/visual techniques.
During the year the Display Division was able to obtain additional equipment
such as a Typositor, Diazo Printer, a metal lathe and vacuum chamber, which has
made us less dependent on outside contractors.
EDUCATION  AND  EXTENSION  SERVICES  DIVISION
Shirley Cuthbertson, Acting Chief
The Education and Extension Services Division of the Museum provides general museum information, interpretive programs for visiting groups, and maintains
contact with communities throughout the Province by circulating the Museum's
travelling exhibits and school programs. A particularly eventful year was 1974.
The teacher contact and travel program expanded, while the in-Museum school
and adult programs were maintained. Summer children's programs increased,
with four summer teachers giving 14 short courses, while four tour guides spoke
to many of the 662,000 visitors entering the Museum in June, July, and August.
Approximately 80 docents gave their time (3,481 hours of it!) to teach the
43,000 school students whose teachers booked the Museum's school programs.
The ratio of docent to children is usually 1 to 10 or less on most programs. To
present such programs curatorial staff contribute ideas, content, and docent training,
while museum educators assess school needs and fit program content to age and
interest level. Program development and co-ordination, and group logistics are
handled within the Division, for both school and adult programs.
Adult tours, lectures, and workshops, including teacher in-service workshops,
were presented to approximately 5,000 people in 1974. Highlights of the evening
programs were the multicultural music and dance series, presented while the
National Museum Exhibit Cherished Traditions was here, and the Heritage Court
Presents series of lectures.
 DD 116        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
"How to Use the Museum as a Resource" was a teacher workshop presented
many times during the year to local teacher groups at conferences, to individual
student teachers, and to Faculty of Education classes. It is necessary for many
teachers who cannot book museum programs to know how to use their museum
visit effectively, and staff have helped many teachers to plan their own programs.
In September, 20 student teachers worked in groups to plan, prepare, and teach
museum programs for their first teaching practicum of the year.
For the people of the Province who cannot come to the Museum, Extension
Services reached into nearly all regions in 1974. Exhibits, originated in the Provincial Museum under the National Museums Program, have been shown in 10
community museums. Two exhibits on British Columbia History and Marine
Biology, with activities planned for school classrooms, circulated throughout Dawson Creek, Cranbrook, Prince Rupert, the Queen Charlottes, and Prince George.
A teacher from Prince George was seconded by the Department of Education to
travel with one kit. Because the kits are adapted to the average classroom, any
town with a school can use them. Frequently, the school has been opened in the
evening so that students could guide parents and interested members of their community through the exhibit. Another travelling school program "Son of Raven,
Son of Deer," has travelled with its teacher, Mrs. Emma Hunt, to schools in many
Today's children learn the ways of the past in yesterday's schoolhouse.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
DD 117
districts on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley. All of the travelling programs have had very favourable receptions, as borne out in an evaluation report
on the National Museums "kits" by the Education Institute of British Columbia.
Highlights for staff during the year included several special programs such
as the docent-led tour for 30 wheelchair patients from a local hospital, and the
opening of St. Ann's Schoolhouse in May. The schoolhouse, donated by the Sisters
of St. Ann, was moved and furnished through the co-operation of the Greater Victoria Real Estate Board, Friends of the Provincial Museum, and the Department
of Public Works. Conferences on education ih museums, a growing field all over
the world, were attended by division staff in Quebec City, Copenhagen, and Vancouver during 1974. Conferences on environmental education were also attended
in San Francisco and Surrey. Reports on the school travelling activity exhibits
were presented to the Canadian Museums Association Conference in Newfoundland,
and to the Association of Science Centres at Portland. There scope and impact was
of considerable interest to museums elsewhere.
MUSEUMS ADVISER  DIVISION
John E. Kyte, Museums Adviser !
During 1974 the Museums Adviser Division continued its program of assistance
to museums and galleries throughout the Province. With.expertise from all disciplines of the Provincial Museum tied into training, display assistance, and technical
advisory services covering small museum operation, local institutions were encouraged to improve their facilities and position in the community. The scope
of the Division was expanded through an increased emphasis on museum training
and the introduction of a much-needed program to provide assistance in the
management of archival and photographic collections. The three-day seminar,
adopted over the years as a basic museum training unit, has been revised and streamlined to provide a greater flexibility for scheduling to outlying areas of the Province.
The development of a one-day "mini-workshop" proved highly successful and these
will be used in areas where longer seminars are not practical.
Direct "services" to community museums and galleries formed the main thrust
of Division planning for the year, but other less-obvious activities of municipal, provincial, and national involvement provided an opportunity for the interchange of
ideas over the wider spectrum of cultural development. In November, at Winnipeg,
provincial museums advisers from all parts of Canada met to discuss common problems and establish guidelines for the exchange of information, operating policies,
and procedures. Membership on Advisory Committees of the Canadian Conservation Institute (Pacific Region), the Training Section of the Canadian Museums
Association, the B.C. Community Recreational Facilities Fund, the B.C. Arts
Board, and similar organizations provided direct and indirect benefits to the museum
community. Throughout the year, a close-working relationship was maintained
with the B.C. Museums Association and active participation by all advisory personnel in the three-day BCMA seminar and Annual General Meeting provided the
opportunity to meet with museum people from British Columbia, the Yukon, other
Canadian provinces, and the United States.
The lack of adequate financial support, inherent in museum and gallery operation, constitutes a major problem, particularly for smaller and often isolated institutions. However, some capital-cost funding, made available through the provincial
Community Recreational Facilities Fund and the National Museums of Canada,
 DD  118        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
enabled several new museums to open their doors to the public and others to obtain
improved facilities. As in the previous year, municipal involvement in local cultural
affairs continued to expand to strengthen museum growth in the Province.
Though by no means affluent, some museums and galleries reflected improved
conditions, particularly in community and municipal relations, but many small institutions still face the prospect of museum operation without adequate resources.
However, the outlook generally was one of optimism and confidence in the future.
FRIENDS OF THE  PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
St. Ann's School, one of the Friends' first projects, was moved to its permanent
location opposite Helmcken House in January. It was officially opened on May 21
and is now being used by the Education Services Division of the Provincial Museum.
Landscaping is still in progress and some interior repairs are still to be made. The
Education Services Division is looking for schoolbooks and artifacts representing
the period the schoolhouse was in use.
Associate membership in the Friends now stands at 395, including Gift Shop
workers.
The Dr. G. Clifford Carl Memorial Reading Room, which was sponsored by
the Friends, was opened at the University of Victoria in October.
One of our early projects was the establishment of the G. Clifford Carl bursary
at the University of Victoria, to be awarded annually to a student majoring in marine
Biology.   David Citron was the winner of the $300 bursary this year.
During the year, donations from foundations, industry, and others included:
$
Estate of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Benzie Moore  2,128
Hudson's Bay Company  4,000
Council of B.C. Forest Industries  5,000
B.C. Cultural Fund  1,500
Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation      500
Acquisitions for the year included:
St. Ann's Schoolhouse  1,000
Kawa 6 camera      672
Stereomicroscope and accessories  1,648
Photo Typositor  4,042
10 metal storage cabinets  4,399
MR 12 Plessey radar  2,940
HERITAGE COURT SOCIETY
The Heritage Court Society, through its operation of the Gift Shop, had another successful year due mainly to the efforts of Mrs. D. A. Ross and her staff and
the able assistance of a band of volunteer workers.
Our first venture in publishing was undertaken by the printing of a Historical
Guide Book for the Museum's third-floor Modern History exhibit at a cost of
$47,000.
In November a banquet was held at the Faculty Club of the University of
Victoria for Gift Shop volunteer workers and the Directors of the Heritage Court
Society.
A donation of $18,000 was made to the Friends of the Provincial Museum for
use in the Provincial Museum during 1975.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
The efforts of the volunteer workers are sincerely appreciated; the operation
of the Gift Shop would not be so successful without their help.
PUBLICATIONS
Abbot, D. N.   Forward to: Indian Petroglyphs of the Pacific Northwest Coast by
Beth and Ray Mill (Hancock House).
Ainscough, B. D.    "Insects Other Than Lepidoptera."    In: Natural History of
Thetis Lake Park.
Banse, K., and K. D. Hobson.   Benthic Errantiate Polychaets of British Columbia
and Washington.   Bulletin Fisheries Research Board of Canada 185:111.
Campbell, R. Wayne, M. G. Shepard, and B. A. MacDonald.   Vancouver Birds.
Vancouver Natural History Society Special Publication No. 5: 96 pp.
  and L. A. Sibbard.   British Columbia Nest Records Scheme: Nineteenth
Annual Report, 1973.   F.B.C.N. Newsletter 12(1) :3-5.
  First records of brambling for British Columbia.   Canadian Field-Naturalist
86(4):315.
  Rusty Blackbirds prey on sparrows.    Wilson Bulletin 86(3):291-293.
  Brown Thrasher on the Coast of British Columbia.    Canadian Field-
Syesis
Naturalist, 88(2) :235.
Carcasson, R. H.   The Swallowtail Butterflies of British Columbia.    The Victoria
Naturalist, 31(2).
Chuang, Ching-Chang.    Lewisia tweedi: A Plant Record for Canada.
7:259-260.
Cuthbertson, Shirley.    Using Your Museum.    L.E.A.R.N.    Vol. 6(3) :7.
Edwards, R. Y.   Christmas in Museums.   Museum Round-up 53:30-34.
  Sketches of winter seabirds in Victoria.   Nature Canada 3(1):25-27.
  City of Oaks.    Wildlife Review 7 (1): 15.
  Togetherness in the IBM trap.   Museum Round-up 54:27-29.
  What Is the Provincial Museum?    Provincial Museum, Victoria, 28 pp.
  Wildness on Creston Flats. Creston Valley Wildlife Management Authority, Creston, B.C. 36 pp.
  Of Moose and Museums.   Newsletter: Friends of the Provincial Museum,
Victoria, 2 pp.
  Two wishes for your museum.   Museum Round-up 56:20-22.
  Eagles by the Sea.   The Young Naturalist 16(10):6-9.
Efrat, B., and M. Mitchell. The Indian and the Social Scientist: Contemporary
Contractural Arrangements on the Pacific Northwest Coast. Human Organization, 33(4):405-407.
 , L. C. Thompson, and
M. Terry Thompson.   Some Phonological Developments in Straits Salish.    International Journal of American Linguistics,
40(3):182-196.
French, D.  The Taku Recovery Project.   Historical Archceology Newsletter, June,
1974:pp. 33-34.
  The Significance of Otoliths for Identification of Fish Species in Archaeological Sites.   Th& Midden, June, VI(3) :7.
Gallacher, Daniel T.    British Columbia Modern History: 1740's-1970's: Exhibit Guide.   Friends of the Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Gee, Maureen.  Teachers Manual—Journey Through Time, Book 1, 32 pp.
  Teachers Manual—Journey Through Time, Book 2, 36 pp.
Guiguet, Charles J.   A qualitative inventory of insular mammalian faunas from
the west coast of Vancouver Island.   Syesis 7:11-11.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
  Bobcat.    Wildlife Review VII(4): 13-15.
Haggarty and G. Boehm.    The Hesquiat Project.    The Midden, June, VI(3),
pp. 2-12.
Hobson, K.   Orbiniella nuda, New species (Orbiniidae) and nine new records of
other sedentariate polychaets annelids from Washington and British Columbia.
Canadian Journal of Zoologists, 52(I):69-75.
Isaacson, Mary.   Teachers Guide: Marine Biology Teaching Kit, 49 pp.
Kiddie, G.   Review of: Artifacts of the Northwest Coast by Hilary Steward.   B.C.
Studies 22(Summer):pp. 78-82.
Lambert, P., and P. A. Dehnel.   Seasonal variations in biochemical composition
during the reproductive cycle of the intertidal gastropod  Thais lamellosa,
Gmelin (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia).   Canadian Journal of Zoologists 52(3):
305-318.
Loy, T. H.   Data Processing and the timely interpretation of complex sites.   Syesis
7:63-69.
 , R. Powell, and R. Sketchley.   National Inventory Project, Archaologi-
cat Data Processing, Part II, Dictionary of Terms: 64 pp.
National Inventory Project, Archaeological Data Processing, Part I, Users
Guide: 37 pp.
Lundy, D. M.   Introduction to: Indian Petroglyphs of the Northwest Coast by Beth
and Ray Hill (Hancock House).
Macnair, Peter L.    Kwakiutli Winter Dances,    artscanada "Stones, bones and
skin: Ritual and Shamanic Art," 184/187:94-114.
  Potlatch at Alert Bay.   artscanada "Stones, bones and skin: Ritual and
Shamanic Art" 184/187:115-118.
Northwest Coast Artists Today,    artscanada "Stones,  bones and skin:
Ritual and Shamanic Art" 184/187:182-189.
Parker, David N.   "Those Daring Young Men," a review of Goggles, Helmets and
Airmail Stamps by G. Vachon (Clarke Irwin, Toronto) Daily Colonist, December, 29:7.
  "Vancouver Island Was Not Quite Like This" a review of Vancouver
Island: Portrait of a Past by R. Touchie (Douglas, Vancouver) Daily Colonist,
December, 5:7.
Peden, A. E.   Rare fishes including first records of 13 species from British Columbia.   Syesis 7:47-62.
  West Coast Sticklebacks.    Victoria Naturalist, 30(8): 113-114.
  Review: A Guide to the Freshwater Sport Fisheries of Canada by D. E.
McAllister and E. J. Crossman, Transactions of American Fisheries Society
(in press).
Review: Freshwater Fishes of Canada by W. B. Scott and E. J. Crossman.
Syesis, 7:261-262.
  Review: Pacific Fishes of Canada by J. L. Hart, Syesis, 7:262-264.
Renshaw-Beauchamp, R. B.   Another Use for Beva.   AlC Bulletin 15(1):59—60.
Szczawinski, A. F.   Mushroom Dilemma.   Forestalk, 2(3):3-4.
  and T. M. C. Taylor. Trilliums of Western North America. Royal Horticultural Society, London, England.
Taylor, K. A birders guide to Victoria, British Columbia. Friends of the Provincial Museum 26 pp.
Taylor, T. M. C, and A. F. Szczawinski. Trillium ovatum Pursh forma hibber-
sonii Taylor et Szczawinski.   f.nov.   Syesis, 7:250.
Taylor, T. M. C. The Pea Family of British Columbia. B.C. Provincial Museum
Handbook No. 32.
 PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
The Figwort Family of British Columbia.   B.C. Provincial Museum Hand
book No. 33.
Turner, Nancy J. Plant Taxonomic Systems and Ethnobotany of Thre Contemporary Indian Groups of the Pacific Northwest (Haida, Bella Coola, and
Lillooet).   Syesis 1, Supp. 1: pp 104.
Turner, Robert D. "Return to the Royal Hudson" Pacific News August, 14:
16-18.
Ward, P. R.   Hand in Glove.   Museum Round-up, January, 53:30-40.
  Nil Desperandum.   Museum Round-up, January, 53:30-40.
  The Cost of Excellence.   Museum Round-up, October, 56:4-5.
  Keeping the Past Alive.   British Columbia Provincial Museum, Travelling
Exhibit Pamphlet.
Wood, Wilma A.   Article for The B.C. Teacher, 56(6) :201-202.
UNPUBLISHED  REPORTS
Condrashoff, N.   Longhouse at Panquachin Village.   2 pp.
Cooper, Alfreda.   A preliminary report on Native Language Projects in British
Columbia.   Summer 1974.
French, D.   The Description of Eight Beads from IgUg6, Northwestern British
Columbia.   ASAB File Report 1974-16:9 pp.
  Results of Test Excavations at Four Sites on the Nakina River in Northwestern British Columbia.   ASAB File Report 1974-16:9 pp.
  Survey of the Silver Salmon River between Kuthai Lake and the Nakina
River in Northwestern British Columbia.   ASAB File Report 1974-16:9 pp.
  Results of trip to Central Coast Communities Concerning Petroglyph Casting Project.   ASAB File Report 1974-3:5 pp.
Hoover, Alan L.   Socketed Harpoon Heads from the Northwest Coast.    M.A.
thesis.   Simon Fraser University 320 pp.
Levine, Robert D.   Report on the programs of the Linguistics Division (to the
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation) December 1974.
Loy, T. H.   Raven Brings Light—The Study of a Myth: 38 pp.
  Report on Late Pleistocene and Holocene Land and Sea Movements in
Southwestern British Columbia: 10 pp.
Lundy, D. M.   The Rock Art of the Northwest Coast.   M.A. thesis, Simon Fraser
University.
Parker, David N.  The Maritime Museum of British Columbia:
and Value.   14 pp.
  Telegraphy in British Columbia: 1860's-1910's.   6 pp.
 ■ and R. D. Turner. B.C.E.R. Interurbans: Condition Report and Appraisal.   6 pp.
Wardrop, James R. The Development of Government Policy on Maintenance of
Colonial Roads.   A Case Study: The Cariboo Road.   25 pp.
Wood, Wilma A.   Report on Copenhagen conference of I.C.O.M.    100 pp.
History, Inventory
 DD 122        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
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 Marine Resources Branch
The Marine Resources Branch provides
Provincial representation in the protection,
management, and utilization, both
commercial and recreational, of British
Columbia's marine resources. It is
responsible for the Provincial administration
of appropriate sections of the Fisheries and
Fish Inspection Acts, including the
inspection and licensing of fish, shellfish,
and marine plant processing operations. In
addition, the Branch conducts research and
acts as a Provincial partner in management
planning and environmental impact
evaluation for the protection of commercial
and sport fisheries. This has led to an
important liaison role between Federal
fisheries agencies and Provincial land and
water management agencies. The Branch
also represents Provincial commercial
fishery interests through the compilation of
harvesting statistics and the provision of
timely and factual information on the
management of marine resources to the
general public.
 DD  124        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
marine resources branch
Director
.G. McMynn
Licensing and
Enforcement
J.F. Kemp
D.S. McCaw
Shellfish
D.W. Smith
F.G. Cope
•
Fin
T.R. /
Fish
Andrews
Marine Plants
L.M. Coon
Adminii
P.O. M
M.E.
stration
orberg
Hills
In keeping with its responsibilities, the Marine Resources Branch is divided
into four sections. The Aquatic Plants Section is responsible for the supervision of
seaweed harvesting and processing activities along with appropriate aquatic plant
research. The Fish Inspection and Licensing Section regulates industry operations
through licensing and inspection of facilities. The shellfish section researches and
manages both commercial and recreational shellfish activities, while the Fin Fish
Section provides Provincial input to marine fishery management and supplies statistical data on the fisheries industry.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD  125
Bob McMynn,
Director.
Marine Resources Branch
(Commercial Fisheries)
GENERAL
The Province's resolve to develop a strong and effective voice in the management and conservation of British Columbia's marine resources was reflected in 1974
by increased funding for research and the filling-out of a core group of professional
biologists to head the resource management sections. A new section was created to
serve as a Provincial voice and research body in the marine sector of fin fish management and to advise and provide support, particularly logistical, for Canadian delegations in bilateral and multilateral fisheries negotiations. The past year was one of
development, with emphasis being placed on definition of objectives and planning
research programs to fulfil the objectives. Particular progress was made in this
regard in the Marine Plant and Shellfish Sections.
Commercial and recreational demands on the Province's marine resources are
continuing their escalation as measured by the increasing and diverse demands
placed on Branch services by industry in the marine resources sector, the general
public, and many Federal and Provincial resource agencies. The Branch is now
taking a greater role in assisting the marine resource-based industries, through consultation, by jointly funding with the Federal Government industrial product and
gear development and management assistance. We are barraged by requests from
the public for our bulletins and pamphlets and by prospective entrepreneurs and
students requesting information on the fishing industry. As the Branch's professional contingent has grown we have taken a greater role in interagency program
referrals in matters related to the marine environment.
The Law of the Sea Conference in Caracas, Venezuela, provided the ideal
forum for expressing Canadian concerns regarding the 200-mile economic control
zone and several other major maritime issues. The Branch was represented on the
Canadian delegation to speak for the Province on these issues since the resolutions
eventually passed by this international body will undoubtedly have important repercussions to British Columbia.
 DD  126        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
MARINE PLANT SECTION
The hiring of a biologist in the fall of 1973 set the stage for the Province's first
active role in the management of a resource which is not only one of primary significance to the nearshore oceanic environment but one with a large, but still
undeveloped, potential for enhancing the Provincial economy in the marine resources sector. The Province's marine plant resources are vast; standing stocks of
the bull kelp Nereocystis and the giant kelp Macrocystis alone have been estimated
at 1,000,000 tons.
A management objective has now been outlined as a guide to our research
effort; the objective is the same for all species of commercially valuable marine
plants:
". . . to develop, through critically planned, executed, and evaluated
research programs, an information base sufficient in breadth and scope to
permit and control the commercial harvest of a given species on a maximum sustained yield basis."
For each species this objective will be reached by phased program planning
using the following general outline: A study of the biochemical make-up and how it
varies seasonally and geographically; inventories of available stocks; studies of the
growth and reproductive cycles and the effect of experimental harvesting on re-
growth and stock recruitment; studies of the impact of larger scale harvesting on
associated plant and animal species; and, where and when applicable, development
of cultivation and enhancement technologies.
A certain amount of pertinent information is available for most if not all commercially valuable species; this base will be built upon as research funding and
manpower permits. Studies have been commissioned on those species most likely
to receive harvesting pressure. Commercial harvesting has been extremely light to
date, the licensed firms being in a research and development stage paralleling that of
the Section. However, as a safety factor and cognizant that existing legislation did
not provide adequate control, a Federal-Provincial working group was struck to
draft new legislation to govern the harvesting of marine plants.
The Section also provides a consulting service to the new and developing
industry. Requests have been made for information on general plan design,
mechanical harvesters, and product development and diversification.
MACROCYSTIS
INTEGRIFOUA
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD  127
PROJECTS
COST-SHARED PROJECTS
1. Under contract, a University of Victoria team extended their inventory of
the valuable carrageenin-containing red alga Iridwa to the northern portion of the
Strait of Georgia. Known harvestable stocks in the strait total 2,800 tons annual
yield. The team continued studies of seasonal growth and reproduction and of the
effect of hand-harvesting on regrowth.
2. Under contract, a University of British Columbia team developed a standard
method for inventorying stocks of the floating kelps Nereocystis and Macrocystis.
The team subsequently applied their method to kelp beds in the Port Hardy-Malcolm
Island area, finding some 13,500 tons.
3. Under contract, a second University of British Columbia research team
conducted an evaluation of locally produced kelp meal as a ration component for
sheep and swine. Preliminary results show that kelp meal is a beneficial food
additive, primarily for its high mineral content.
Branch Project
A research team under the supervision of the Section Head initiated a study of
the growth and reproduction of the giant kelp Macrocystis. An investigation was
also made of regrowth after hand-harvesting. Preliminary results indicate that
Macrocystis may be harvested twice during the summer-fall period.
SHELLFISH  SECTION
The role of the Shellfish Section over the last year has increased and changed
substantially with new objectives being defined in areas of management, development, enhancement, and extension services. These objectives are designed to provide for an increase in production and growth of the oyster industry, and to provide
for the preservation and enhancement of the recreational shellfish resource.
During 1974, considerable progress was made toward the immediate objectives
of this section. Major accomplishments included the assessment and enhancement
of recreational shellfish areas. These assessments indicated the drastic reduction of
oyster stocks in recreational areas, and initiated an enhancement program of relaying stocks from contaminated or inaccessible areas to designated recreational sites.
Coinciding with these relays, inspection and evaluation of additional sites to determine suitability as recreational reserves was initiated.
Shellfish management activities were expanded, with resource inventory surveys
being conducted throughout the Province. The results of these surveys will supply
a biological data base for input into management decisions. The spatfall monitoring
program in Pendrell Sound and Ladysmith Harbour continued to provide valuable
additions to the information base necessary for the management and development
of its resource.
Development activities entailed projects such as an oyster-seed development
program, a tray culture project, and evaluation of suspension techniques for raft-
cultured oysters. Information derived from these studies will provide additional
biological and technical assistance to the industry.
The extension service activities of this section to the oyster industry consisted
of continuing support under a joint Federal-Provincial cost-shared program.   This
 DD  128        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
program retains the services of a secretary-manager who is endeavouring to establish
a co-operative type of industry organization.
Biological and technical assistance was provided to the oyster industry and
lease assessment and environmental impact surveys were conducted for different
government agencies.
PROJECTS
Enhancement of Recreational Shellfish Areas
As a direct result of oyster population assessment conducted in 1973/74, an
immediate need was determined for the enhancement of several areas used by recreational oyster harvesters and the establishment of additional areas to be used for
recreational areas.
The recreational reserves must have good public access, approved shellfish-
growing water quality with no immediate threat of contamination, and sufficient
acreage of foreshore suitable for oyster-growing. So far, eight areas have been
found suitable for this purpose and they are having map reserves placed over them
for the use of recreational harvesters. These areas are Heriot Bay, Francisco Point,
Union Bay, Nanoose Bay, Boulder Point, Yellow Point, Mill Bay, and Patricia Bay.
The enhancement program, which commenced on November 1, 1974, consists
of relaying mature oysters from areas inaccessible to the public because of contamination or geographic location to recreational reserves. As of this date, 20.5 tons of
oysters representing 3,170 recreational limits (25 oysters per person per day) have
been relayed to these reserves:
Recreational Shellfish Reserves
Location
Amount Relayed
Area Status
2 tons
Nil
8.5 tons
6 tons
4 tons
Nil
Nil
Nil
Milt Bay               	
Poorly stocked.
Adequately stocked.
Yellow Point             	
Nanoose Bay                                                 	
Marginally stocked.
Union Bay.—                                                                          	
Adequately stocked.
Adequately stocked.
Heriot Bay              	
Adequately stocked.
Signs have been constructed and will be erected to designate the recreational
shellfish reserves and to inform the public what the daily limits are on clams and
oysters.
A brochure explaining the biology of the oyster and the proper method of
shucking as well as a map showing the locations of the recreational reserves has been
written. This will be made available to the public through the Marine Resources
Branch and other agencies of the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
Oyster Stock Assessment
Biological information on stock size and potential yield is necessary of management and regulation of the oyster resource. During 1974, assessments were
conducted in areas where both recreational and commercial interests were active in
harvesting shellfish. These areas included Quadra Island, Cortes Island, Desolation
Sound, Baynes Sound, Denman Island, Nanaimo Harbour, Nanoose Harbour, and
Ladysmith Harbour.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD  129
Food of Oysters for Relay to Recreational Area
The Marine Resources Branch during 1974 issued 90 Commercial Harvesting
Permits, an increase of five over the previous year. These permits realized a production of 1,145 tons of shellstock, a decline of 455 tons over 1973. The tonnage
harvested by permit from Crown foreshore represented 27 per cent of the oyster
production for British Columbia, which totalled 4,292 tons of shellstock or 107,302
U.S. gallons of shucked meats. This represents a total decrease of 974 tons or
24,347 gallons of shucked meats compared to 1973.
This drastic decline in production (18.5 per cent) can mainly be attributed to
a softening of the market demand for soup oysters and a.shortage of marketable
shellstock for the table trade.
PACIFIC OYSTER-BREEDING,   1974
Pendrell Sound
In 1974 the research and monitoring programs in Pendrell Sound were greatly
expanded over those of the previous five years. The main purpose of these expanded
programs, which include both biological and oceanographic studies, is to determine
whether the oyster industry can continue to rely on Pendrell Sound for their seed
and whether the prediction service can be improved. Results of these studies will
be published as the data are analysed.
Physical conditions in Pendrell Sound in the early part of the summer of 1974
were generally unfavourable for Pacific oyster-breeding, but improved markedly in
mid-summer to provide favourable water temperatures and salinities. A commercial oyster set was predicted and occurred in August. Water temperatures and
salinities were monitored at six stations in the sound and at six stations in waters
around East Redonda Island. Surface water temperatures were cool until mid-July
and then increased because of better weather; mean surface water temperatures of
 DD  130        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
20°C or higher were recorded from July 24 to September 6, except for a seven-day
period, August 20-26. Surface salinities remained above 15 per cent throughout
the breeding period. Unlike the previous two years, no heavy phytoplankton blooms
were observed in the sound once the surface layer was established.
Spawning first occurred in late July; a few 2-day-old larvae were observed in
surface plankton tows made on July 26. Extensive spawning occurred on July 26
or 27 since large numbers of straight-hinge larvae were found in plankton tows made
on July 29. Growth and survival of larvae from this spawning was excellent and
they provided the major part of the commercial set. Light sporadic spawning continued until mid-September.
Spatfall was monitored at eight locations; Stations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 east, 6 west,
and 10. Initial settlement was recorded during the 24-hour period, August 13 and
14; maximum setting occurred August 21 and 22. All experimental cultch was
removed and examined on September 17. Mean spat counts at all eight stations
were over 40 per piece of Pacific oyster shell cultch; the maximum count was 298
spat per piece of cultch. Heaviest spatfalls were observed at Stations 4 and 5 in the
central part of the sound. The larger spatfall at these two stations probably occurs
because of the strong currents which pass by Stations 4 and 5 and hence bring more
larvae in contact with the cultch than at the other stations. In future the industry
should consider the possibility of exposing cultch at these two stations rather than
at the head of the sound. The maximum length of spat on September 17 at the eight
stations ranged from 8-13 mm; the average spat length was less than observed in
previous years but commercial cultch removed later in the fall showed the spat had
grown considerably during the fall. The average spat count on commercial cultch
ranged from 20-25 spat per piece of shell. A total of 300,000 strings of Philippine
oyster cultch and about 75,000 strings of Pacific oyster cultch or equivalent was
exposed by five companies.
Hotham Sound
Observations of Pacific oyster-breeding in Hotham Sound were continued in
1974 to determine whether the industry could use this area for seed collection, particularly if breeding failed in Pendrell Sound as in 1973.
Surface water temperatures were lower here in 1974 than in 1973. Average
daily surface water temperatures of 20°C or more were not recorded until July 29
and then they occurred only sporadically until August 11. Salinities were above 16
per cent during the period of observations.
Small numbers of straight-hinge Pacific oyster larvae were found in plankton
tows taken on July 30, indicating minor spawning occurred about July 27. On
August 9, moderately large numbers of 4 to 5-day-old straight-hinge larvae were
found in plankton tows which must have come from an extensive spawning on
August 4 and 5. On August 21 the number of Pacific oyster larvae was greatly
reduced and most were in the mid-umbone stage. The numbers of larvas in these
tows were too few to produce a commercial set but a light set was expected.
Experimental cultch was exposed on August 21 and removed on September 16.
The average number of spat on this cultch was four per piece of oyster shell.
No commercial cultch was exposed in Hotham Sound in 1974.
Ladysmith Harbour
No commercial set of Pacific oysters was recorded in Ladysmith Harbour.
Surface water temperatures of 20°C or higher were recorded from July 28 to
August 11.   Although no spawning was reported, modest numbers of 4-day-old
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD 131
Oyster Seed Panel Demonstration
straight-hinge larvae were found in surface plankton tows on July 30. On August 6,
moderately large numbers of straight-hinge and early umbone larvae were found.
On August 13 and 15, scattered populations of Pacific oyster larvae in all developmental stages were found in surface plankton tows at six stations and a light set (up
to five spat per shell) was expected. However, no spat was found on cultch exposed
at the marina but some isolated light spatfall has been reported in the harbour.
Newsletter
The newsletter, which is intended to inform the British Columbia oyster
industry of Pacific oyster-breeding in the Province and assist with seed collection
operations, was continued in 1974; 13 editions were issued.
Oyster-seed Development Project
Roughly 200 million seed oysters are required each year to sustain a three-year
rotation on oyster leases in British Columbia. Local oyster' shell is readily available
and is used by the oyster industry as a collecting medium for spat. This shell is
heavy and costly to suspend in seed collecting areas, also, the strong bond between
the young oysters and the mother shell causes mortalities of up to 25 per cent when
clusters are broken up as yearlings.
Cement-coated wood veneer has proved superior to shell cultch when tested
under research conditions. The purpose of this project was the further testing of
veneer cultch on a semicommercial scale and under a wide variety of conditions.
Five hundred bundles of veneer cultch bearing about eight million seed oysters,
averaging one quarter inch in length, was purchased with Federal-Provincial funds.
More than one-half of the seed was distributed in May to 14 members of the oyster
industry, the remainder is being cultured by Marine Resources Branch for eventual
disposal to recreational areas.
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Seed-rearing operations by the Branch were carried out in Sooke and Ladysmith Harbours. The seed panels were wired together in pairs and laid out, tent
fashion, over light polypropelene rope supported by 2 by 2-inch stakes. In Sooke,
oysters have reached a mean length of 1.5 inches with a few dominant oysters up
to 3 inches. Minor mortalities occurred from silting on the lower parts of the
panels. In Ladysmith, predation from oyster drill and seastars caused moderate
losses and required labour to hand-pick the pests from panels. Growth of the
oyster-seedlings in Ladysmith is slightly lower than Sooke.
Early reports from industry participants in the project indicate good growth
and negligible losses in this vulnerable first year of culture.
Assessment of veneer cultch, as a possible alternative to local shell, will be
made early in 1975 when overwinter mortalities can be determined.
Oyster Tray Culture Project
This three-year Federal-Provincial cost-sharing project has completed its
second year of operation. Sabine Seafoods Ltd., of Lasqueti Island, the contractor
assigned to evaluate the feasibility studies on tray culture of oysters, has released
an interim report on the studies progress, with some observations on production
problems, seed acquisition, and tray design along with some preliminary estimates
of probable yield from tray culture.
Problems have been encountered with the tray design as it does not provide
suitable circulation for oyster growth and also, it requires repeated cleaning to
prevent fouling. New ideas as to the tray design or modifications to the present
tray are being evaluated. Other aspects of the production procedure are continually
being modified either to improve the efficiency of method or to reduce direct costs.
The marketing of the production has been extremely successful. Reports are
most encouraging with comparisons being made to the more popular European
variety in the half shell trade.
To the present time, 1,800 dozen oysters have been marketed ($1.65-$2.00
per dozen F.O.B. Vancouver) with a further 320 dozen available for immediate
sale. By June 1975, 1,500 dozen will be available to market and a further 2,500
dozen by October 1975.
The major problem is meeting the increased demand from the existing markets
because by January 1975, 400 dozen oysters will be needed per week over a 10-
month period every year. This represents a market in excess of 16,000 dozen per
10-month year with a gross yield of $30,000 per year.
Raft Development for Shellfish Raft Culture
This project was initiated to examine alternatives for suspension of shellfish
grown by raft-culture techniques. Traditionally, floatation has been provided by
cedar logs. Such logs, of limited durability and recently inflated purchase costs,
are being compared with rafts using aluminum pontoons, steel drums and plastic
drums as floatation.
The contractor, Westcoast Mariculture Inc., is making an economic assessment
on criteria of durability, susceptibility to fouling, maintenance and anchorage
requirements, and general handling suitability.
Preliminary results of this study indicate that floatation is still a major charge
against raft-culture operations. Plastic drums appear most favourable of the
floatation materials tested.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD 133
Comparison of Floatation Methods for Raft Culture
Type of Floatation
Characteristics
Maintenance
Costs
Durability
Fouling
Cedar logs     ___	
Moderate
Minimal
Moderate
Minimal
Low
High
Low
Moderate
Fair
Good
Poor
Excellent
Heavy
Plastic drums      ____	
Oyster Growers Management Assistance
The Federal and Provincial fisheries agencies have retained the services of a
secretary-manager for an additional two years to provide direction concerning
marketing, quality control, and product diversification for the oyster industry.
Consulting engineers were engaged to provide plans for a central processing
plant capable of producing a wide variety of finished oyster products. A plant site
in the Union Bay area was given first preference by a working committee of oyster-
growers. Present cost estimates, for a plant equipped to handle annually 275,000
gallons of oysters, is about $2.6 million.
Major efforts have been toward assuring an oyster-seed supply for the industry.
A co-operative venture in seed collecting in Pendrell Sound yielded about 12,000
strings of well-seeded cultch, a further 22,000 strings were purchased from a commercial seed producer. This total will satisfactorily seed about 80 acres of foreshore. Necessary handling equipment and floatation materials were purchased to
increase seed collecting potential in future years.
Recent developments in the area of marketing shellfish is the establishment of
brokerage outlets in California to market British Columbia produced shellfish. This
new market area has shown great promise and early shipments have demonstrated
favourable economic return to British Columbia producers.
FIN  FISH  SECTION
ABALONE—SEA URCHIN SURVEY
Under a Federal-Provincial cost-sharing arrangement, a survey of the densities
and age structure of abalone and sea urchin populations was conducted on the lower
east and west coasts of Vancouver Island from Nanaimo to Tofino. D. C. Miller,
of Nanaimo, conducted the survey. In the final report, recreational and commercial
management strategies for both species were recommended on the basis of this
and previous studies. It was recommended that abalone size limits be clarified,
and that densities of abalone in the area covered by the survey, especially the lower
east coast of Vancouver Island were not sufficient to support a significant commercial
fishery.
For sea urchins, the present size limit of 4 inches diameter was felt to be adequate. However, the effects of commercial harvesting and slow growth and erratic
recruitment of these animals suggest that current management strategies should be
re-examined. Two alternatives were suggested and will be discussed further with
appropriate Federal fisheries staff.
 DD 134       BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
PRAWN SURVEY
This Federal-Provincial cost-shared project was initiated to assess the potential
for commercial prawn-harvesting in the central coastal region of British Columbia.
A commercial fisherman was contracted to conduct the exploratory fishery under the
direct supervision of scientists from the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. As a
result of this survey, two new areas were discovered which could support a commercial fishery. These two areas are in Fish Egg Inlet south of Namu and in
Kwatna Inlet southwest of Bella Coola. Sustainable yields from these and secondary
areas is estimated at 75,000-100,000 pounds annually.
IMPACT OF LOG HANDLING ON THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
This study has been initiated to quantitatively assess the impact of various log
handling practices on the marine environment, particularly shellfish and organisms
serving as food for fishes. One site, Buckley Bay, was examined with the assistance
of Careers '74 funding, in the summer of 1974. Definite impacts were observed in
this study, most notably shifts in sediment composition and faunal make-up. These
changes are, in large part, directly attributable to the log dumping and storage
operation in this bay. Expansion of this impact assessment is planned for the
future and recommendations will be prepared for protection of the marine environment.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES
Salmon
In addition to attendance at the annual meeting of the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission, this Branch represented the Province at advisory and
planning sessions and at the formal negotiations with the United States on salmon
problems centred around the interception of each other's salmon. Little progress
was made at these formal negotiations and as a result a major Canadian position review with respect to these negotiations was completed in November. Branch staff
actively participated in this review and in preparations for further negotiations with
the United States tentatively scheduled for 1975.
FISHING  INDUSTRY  PRODUCTION
Figures for 1974 were not complete at the time of printing, but some preliminary figures were available and indicative of some trends worthy of mention. Preliminary value of all fish landed bv British Columbia fishermen in 1974 was
$93,000,000 compared with the figure of $130,000,000 for 1973.
SALMON CANNING
Commercial
The canned salmon pack for 1974 was 1,427,414 48-pound cases, being
126,167 cases less than the 1973 pack of 1,553,581 cases. The sockeye pack was
again high, but unlike 1973, when the chum pack was the highest for many years
the total pack declined in 1974 by 183,020 cases.
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1974. The locations were
as follows: Skeena River-Prince Rupert area, five; Central area, one; Vancouver
Island, three; Fraser River-Lower Mainland area, six.
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH DD 135
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1973 1974
Sockeye   652,692 707,662
Chinook   11,022 20,453
Steelhead   996 1,557
Blueback   705 2,727
Coho   113,860 157,312
Pink   360,623 307,040
Chum   413,683 230,663
Sport
Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught fish operated during 1974.
They were located at Brentwood, Nanaimo, Quadra Island, and Victoria. Production to the end of December 1974 was 215,618 cans, an increase of 108,811 cans
over the previous year's total. A total of 5,194 sportsmen used these facilities, of
whom 4,798 were residents and 396 nonresidents. The following number and
species of fish were canned: Chinook, 7,567; coho, 15,648; pink, 216; chum, 384;
sockeye, 955; steelhead, 53; and trout, 373.
HALIBUT FISHERY
Halibut production in 1974 was the lowest in over 60 years. In 1972, production peaked at 70 million pounds. In 1974, this fell to 21 million. Areas 2 and 3
had catch limits imposed of 13 and 12 million pounds respectively; these quotas
were not reached.
Prices paid to fishermen were fairly high, averaging 71 cents, they were, however, less than prices in 1973 so the total value of the fishery declined from a dock-
side figure of $24 million to $15 million. Although the low catch and value mainly
reflected poor stock conditions and the restrictions imposed by the International
Pacific Halibut Commission, the decline in catch was also influenced by the reduction in fishing effort as many halibut fishermen chose to enter other fisheries, chiefly
herring and salmon.
HERRING FISHERY
Approximately 49,000 tons of herring were harvested in British Columbia
waters between January and June 1974. The estimated landed value was about
$12 million. In this same period, 8,406,000 pounds of roe were produced in
addition to 19,708,000 pounds of round-roe herring. The roe-fishery accounted
for nearly all of the production value as the food-fishery did not get under way in
the early part of the year due to the failure of some fishermen and the processors
to agree on prices.
Herring Products Manufactured in British Columbia
January to June 1974
Tons Value
$
Food and bait  625 125,000
Roe   4,203 18,913,500
Roe herring   9,854 4,927,075
Fish meat  3,703 1,851,300
Oil (gallons)   104,408 104,408
Totals  122,793 25,921,283
 DD  136        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
REVIEW OF  FISHERIES PRODUCTION,  1973
GENERAL
The wholesale value of all British Columbia fish products marketed reached
a record $285 million, compared to the 1972 figure of $159 million, the previous
high record for the Province.
Never before have returns to both fishermen and processors been so high.
Favourable markets and continuing high prices for all types of fish combined to
make 1973 a record year.
As marketed.wholesale, the principal species were salmon, with a value of
$221.6 million, herring valued at $34.6 million, and halibut with a value of $9,613
million.
Until late in 1971, only small quantities of herring were taken for human
consumption. However, with increasing demands for herring roe fishermen
landed 123 million pounds of herring for which they received a record $11 million,
about $3.6 million more than the previous record set in 1959. The wholesale
value of all herring products was $34.6 million, the highest value ever, surpassing
the 1972 record by more than $22 million. Herring roe accounted for 70 per
cent of the total wholesale value, herring frozen for food 20 per cent.
In 1973 the total wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $4,394 million.
The value of the clam production was $393,000; oyster production $1,081 million;
and crab and shrimp production $2,920 million.
Tuna landings of 2.799 million pounds valued at $1,224 million were 5
million pounds and $6.6 million less than 1972.
FISHING-VESSELS
During 1973 the fishing fleet of British Columbia was comprised of drum
seiners, 271; table seiners, 12; gillnetters, 2,233; trailers, 1,662; trawlers, 11; and
longliners, 37.
SALMON-CANNING
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1973. The locations
were as follows: Skeena River-Prince Rupert area, five; Central area, one; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River-Lower Mainland area, six. The new Oceanside
Cannery in Prince Rupert was built to replace the original Oceanside Cannery
destroyed by fire in 1971.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1973, amounted
to 1,550,114 cases, an increase of 377,362 over the 1972 pack of 1,172,752 cases.
Sockeye salmon—The 1973 sockeye pack was 642,601 cases. This was an
increase of 329,694 over 1972's total of 312,907 cases.
Sockeye fishermen had a bumper year in 1973 with more than a 150 per cent
increase in the landed weight over the previous year at 47.4 million pounds round
weight landed. This compares with 20.9 million pounds landed in 1972. The
increase in sockeye prices gave more than a 250 per cent increase in wholesale
value.   Sockeye was by far the largest pack in 1973.
Pink salmon—Pink salmon landings declined from 39.9 million pounds in
1972 to 29.3 million pounds in 1973.    But with the average price per pound for
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH DD 137
pinks increasing from 16.6 to 26.9 cents per pound from 1972/1973 this kept the
landed value up at $7.8 million from $6.6 million in 1972. Wholesale value moved
from 20.6 million in 1972 to $27 million in 1973.
This year's pack of 355,695 cases was 129,469 down from the previous year's
pack of 485,164 cases.
Chum salmon—Chum salmon showed a good increase again in 1973. Not
the tremendous increase of 1972 stemming from the large return to the Nitinat but
a respectable jump from 66.5 million pounds in 1972 to 72.2 million pounds in
1973.
The 1973 pack was 423,364 cases, 144,913 more than the 1972 pack of
278,451 cases.
Coho salmon—Coho landings were up slightly from 23.2 million pounds in
1972 to 24.8 million pounds in 1973. The average price rose from 47.6 to 76.2
cents per pound. This jumped the wholesale value from $16.6 million to $27.8
million.
The 1973 pack was 116,197 cases an increase of 32,442 cases over the 1972
pack of 83,755 cases.
Chinook salmon—Landings of Chinook salmon declined from 18.4 million
pounds in 1972 to 16.6 million in 1973. The 1973 pack of 11,258 cases was
worth $776,449 compared to 1972's 11,608 cases worth $463,882.
Steelhead—The 1973 steelhead pack amounted to 999 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each year, principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
OTHER CANNERIES AND PROCESSORS
Shellfish and specialty products—In 1973, seven shellfish canneries were
licensed to operate in British Columbia and produced the following packs: Clams,
53 cases; crabs, 771 cases; clam chowder, 7,981 cases; oyster soup, 46 cases; oyster
stew, 8,798 cases. Sundry processing plants produced the following: Creamed
salmon, 30,894 cases; salmon chowder, 4,223 cases; creamed tuna, 3,713 cases;
salmon milts, 109,744 pounds; sea urchin roe, 56,264/10-ounce plates; herring
in oil, 34,151 cases; herring in tomato sauce, 211 cases; fish and chips, 73,238/20-
ounce packages and 194,973 cases; breaded oysters, 12,000 pounds; breaded
herring, 768 pounds.
Fish-curing—Twenty-five smokehouses processed the following: Herring
(kippered, 39,850 lb.; plain, 37,114 lb.; snax, 775 lb.); cod, 724,427 pounds;
salmon, 989,190 pounds; oysters, 262 cases; steelhead, 299 pounds; trout, 23
pounds; mackerel, 10,000 pounds; eels, 300 pounds.
Pickled herring—Pickled herring production in 1973 amounted to 19,233
cases of 12/12-ounce jars; 886 cases of 12/16-ounce jars; 4,038 cases of 12/32-
ounce jars; 2,619 cases of 6/56-ounce jars; 2,704/128-ounce jars; 47/10-pound
pails; 1,260/20-pound pails; 81/50-pound pails.
Miscellaneous production—Herring roe, 8,503,000 pounds; mild-cured salmon, 489,000 pounds; salmon eggs packed in salt, 4,715,000 pounds; frozen food
herring, 27,566,000 pounds; herring-oil, 2,438,000 pounds; herring-meal, 4,716
tons.
 DD 138        BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
SUMMARY TABLES,  1969-73
Table I—Total Landings and Effort
E  200
150
Landed Value of Fish
and Fish Products
$
1969  44,565,000
1970  56,909,000
1971  55,664,000
1972  70,817,000
1973  130,400,000
S 300
E  200
=
Wholesale Value of Fish
and Fish Products
$
1969  83,000,000
1970  123,280,000
1971  120,100,000
1972  159,132,000
1973  285,000,000
1969
Number of Licensed Boats
1969  7,181
1970  6,975
1971  6,698
1972  6,670
1973  6,589
1971
1973
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD 139
1
Number of Licensed Fishermen
1969  10,942
1970  11,647
1971  11,015
1972  9,902
1973  11,717
1973
Table II—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1970-74, Inclusive
Licence
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery	
Herring cannery	
17
3
19
64
7
3
5
2
358
2
3
51
1
107
309
$
6,800
14
" 3
23
63
6
1
5
1
300
2
3
51
131
250
$
5,600
15
2
3
27
67
7
2
4
324
2
3
25
94
153
$
6,000
25
800
300
3,825
2,900
700
200
200
15
1
2
3
30
91
7
2
4
1
352
2
4
27
1
2
1
85
149
$
6,000
25
800
300
4,075
5,300
700
200
200
25
17,600
50
100
1,350
200
100
25
850
3,371
15
1
3
3
38
117
6
1
5
1
407
2
4
11
2
1
92
388
$
6,000
25
300
3,550
2,500
600
100
250
25
15,000
50
75
2,550
1,200
Tierced salmon	
300
3,275
2,320
700
300
250
50
17,900
50
75
2,550
200
300
4,975
Fish-processing	
Shellfish cannery 	
Tuna cannery 	
8,090
600
100
250
Herring dry-saltery	
Fish-buyers 	
25
16,200
50
75
1,250
20,350
50
Sport-caught fish cannery
Aquatic plant harvesting
100
550
100
25
Oyster-picking permits
Province of B.C. receipts
1,070
2,313
1,310
3,014
940
1,751
920
2,787
Totals	
951
38,153
853
34,924
729
35,216
779
41,271
1,097
46,447
Table III—Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1969-73, Inclusive
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
$
57,982,000
559,000
13,814,000
2,460,000
920,000
937.000
$
99,597,000
682,000
14,025,000
1,775,000
1,038,000
752.000
$
96.926,000
2,256,000
11,367,000
1,303,000
1,003,000
1,299,000
575,000
1,829,000
219,000
503,000
1,499,000
1,310,000
$
114,349,000
12,612,000
16.904,000
1,730,000
981,000
3,428,000
798,000
1,504,000
806,000
759,000
3,088,000
2,173,000
$
221,642,000
Herring 	
Halibut _	
34,641,000
12,963,000
2,920,000
1,266,000
Grey cod	
3,128,000
Oysters    	
Sole 	
856,000    1           590,000
1,352,000    [         1,819,000
775 000                  226000
1,081,000
1,796,000
896,000
Clams	
226,000
1,090,000
2,488,00
457,000
984,000
1,335,000
393,000
1,618,000
2,653,000
Totals 	
82,959,000    |    123,280,000    |    120,089,000
1                           1
159,132,000
284,997,000
 DD  140        BRITISH COLUMBIA  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Table IV—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1969-73, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases)
1969
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
253,458
1,402
l,446i/2
656
2951/2
2,146
39,046!/2
109,830
36,212
106,149!/2
5731/2
823/2
400
289/2
359,607/2
1,9751/2
2,270
1,056
Steelhead                	
Blueback	
585
2,146
Coho	
16,7541/2
44,358
10,312
55,801
154,188
Pink    _   	
46,524
Totals   	
444,492/2
179,660/2
624,153
1970
279,009/2
826
4,966
2,205/2
225
2,881
62,489
212,996
100,411
116,5961/2
348
1,037
641/2
306
395,606
1,174
6,003
2,847
531
2,881
Coho      -	
49,185
447,781
141,978!/2
111,674
Pink..	
660,777
242,389/2
666,009
757.873 W     1     1.423.8821/2
1971
439,031
521/2
5,571
2,802/2
727
5,608
174,640
359,041/2
24,207/2
129,725
506/2
1,630/2
621/2
574
568,756
1,028
7,201/2
3,424
1,301
5,608
Coho	
41,215
143,282/2
74,300/2
215,855
Pink     _                       	
502,324
98,508
Totals                                  	
1,012,150
391,855/2
1,404,005/2
1972
Sockeye __ ____ _ __ 	
199,890/2
927
4,292
3,024/2
393/2
113,016/2
874/2
2,047/2
442/2
473/2
312,907
1,801/2
6,339/2
3,467
867
Coho       	
52,878/2
225,502
187,415
30,877
259,662
91,036
83,755/2
Pink                                                                           	
485,164
278,451
Totals ...             	
674,323
498,429/2
1,172,752/2
 MARINE RESOURCES BRANCH
DD 141
Table IV—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1969—73, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
(48-pound cases)
1973
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
470,960
367
4,783/2
3,552
788/2
705
98,610/2
280,047/2
305,732
171,640/2
548
1,65614
351/2
210/2
642,600/2
915
6,440
3,903/2
999
705
Coho                        	
16,881/2
75,647/2
117,631/2
115,492
Pink              	
355,695
423,363/2
Totals            	
1,165,546
384,567/2
1,550,113/2
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1975
 

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