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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1973 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1974

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. A. Williams, Minister J. S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1973
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
  Victoria, B.C., March 1974.
The Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1973.
R. A. WILLIAMS
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 The Honourable R. A. Williams,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1973.
J. S. STOKES
Deputy Minister of Forests
 The Canoe River snakes its way through the "clean shaven" valley being flooded to serve
the Mica Dam some 90 miles north of Revelstoke.
  CONTENTS
Page
.    9
Chief Forester's Report	
Inventory Division  13
Highlights  13
Forest Classification and Sampling  13
Natural and Managed Stands  14
Growth and Yield Section  14
Volume and Decay Section  15
Low-level and Fixed-base Air Photography  15
Mapping and Data Compilation  15
Final Forest Cover Maps for 1972 Projects  16
Research Division  19
Biology and Environmental Factors  19
Silviculture  20
Tree Improvement  20
Forest Mensuration  22
Biometric Services  22
Integrated Resource Management  22
Public Relations  22
Research in Other Divisions  23
Inventory and Reforestation  23
Forest Productivity  25
Reforestation Division  29
Forest Tree Seed  29
Seed Centre  29
Seed-production Orchards  29
Forest Nurseries  30
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme  32
General Planting  33
Interior Planting  34
Coast Planting  35
Contract Planting ■.  35
Special Planting Studies  3 5
Regeneration Surveys and Prescriptions  36
Site Preparation and Rehabilitation Projects  36
Plantation Management  37
Information Division  41
Photography  41
Motion Pictures  41
Forest Service Library  41
Film Library    42
Displays  42
Education  42
Signs  42
Forest Service Museum  42
Management Division  45
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  45
Stumpage Adjustments  45
Tree-farm Licences  45
Tree-farm Lands  46
Sustained-yield Programme  46
Forest Recreation  46
Operations  46
Planning  47
 Management Division—Continued
Silviculture 	
Scaling	
Export (Logs)	
Log Salvage	
Grazing Division	
General Conditions	
Range and Pasture Management	
Range Surveys and Range Improvements.
Co-operation	
Administration	
Grazing and Hay Permits	
Grazing Fees	
Control and Enforcement	
Engineering Division	
Engineering Surveys	
Design	
Management Engineering	
Construction	
Reservoir Improvements	
Building and Marine Services.
Mechanical	
Maintenance Depot	
Communications	
Protection Division 	
Weather  	
Fire-suppression Crews	
Forestry Youth Programme	
Forest-use Restrictions	
Aircraft	
Fires  	
Occurrence and Cause	
Cost of Fire-fighting	
Loss  	
Slash Disposal	
Snag Disposal	
Fire Law Enforcement	
Protection Planning and Research	
Computer Fire Statistics and Weather Data	
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks	
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration-
Research Projects	
Service and Co-operation	
Training School-
Accounting Division-
Fiscal 	
Administration-
Personnel Division	
Personnel Directory, 1973-
Page
. 47
. 47
. 48
. 48
. 51
. 51
. 51
. 52
. 52
. 53
. 53
53
. 54
. 57
. 57
. 57
. 57
. 57
. 58
. 58
. 58
. 59
. 59
. 65
. 65
. 65
. 65
. 65
. 65
. 66
. 66
66
. 66
. 66
_ 67
_ 67
. 67
. 67
. 68
. 68
. 68
. 68
. 69
. 73
. 77
. 77
. 77
. 81
. 83
Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement the Report of the
Forest Service   „   85
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1973
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
With demand and market prices for forest products continuing to escalate
through 1973, financial returns to the Forest Service reached unprecedented highs
for the second consecutive year.
Amounts charged against logging operations jumped to $267,268,202—an
increase of 146 per cent over 1972. Revenue collections reached an all-time high
of $244,845,256—an increase of 138.6 per cent over the previous year.
Timber sale stumpage, which comprised more than 94 per cent of the total,
contributed $230,648,895—a gain of 153 per cent over 1972.
A new record was also established for timber scaled, with the total timber cut
and scaled throughout the Province increasing by 24.2 per cent over 1972 to
24,768,581 cunits; and, for the second consecutive year, the Interior scale was
higher than that of the Coast.
Other 1973 highlights:
• In mid-October the new End Product Appraisal System was implemented
in the Interior, with a similar system slated for the Coast.
• The new public sustained-yield units, the Kluskus and Fort Nelson, were
established. There are now 80 such units.
• During the year an additional 321 forest recreation sites were developed,
bringing to 607 the total for the past two years. A further 298 similar sites
are planned for 1974. Public use of the sites increased from 153,000 visits
in 1972 to an estimated 385,000 in 1973.
• A total of 1,138,850 lineal feet of seed-bed was sown in Forest Service
nurseries—equivalent to 1,500 miles of drill. Hopefully the sowing will
produce some 73,500,000 seedlings.
• There were 2,863 forest fires in the Province in 1973. They covered more
than 82,500 acres, caused a forest-cover loss of $5.2 million, and the fire-
fighting cost to the Service exceeded $8.5 million. Lightning accounted
for 810 fires (28 per cent of the total); while 769 were caused by recrea-
tionists and smokers.
• Nine forest inventory survey projects were completed, and they involved
more than 21 million acres. Nearly 830 forest cover maps and reports
were produced, dealing with the 26 million acres surveyed in 1972.
• An increase in personnel enabled the Research Division to expand studies
in the integrated resource management and biological fields. Studies started
on high-elevation species.
• Drought and other adverse conditions presented a host of problems for
Crown rangeland and hindered the range improvement programme.
• Reservoir clearing and improvement projects were carried out at six different
locations—Williston Lake, McNaughton Lake, Duncan Lake, Jordan River,
Nechako Reservoir, and the Libby Reservoir. Engineering crews completed
138 miles of route surveys.
• The new Special Studies Division was created—staffed by specialist professionals in economics and resource management.
• The Service's new quarterly publication ForesTalk was launched and by
year's end had a distribution of 36,000.
  ZELLER'S  ARMILLARIA
inventory
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 13
INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
Nine forest inventory field-survey projects were completed in 1973. Of these,
seven consisted of "unit standard" surveys (Bell-Irving Public Sustained-yield Unit
and proposed Boundary PSYU south half, Carp PSYU, Creston PSYU, Crooked
River PSYU, Williams Lake PSYU, proposed Kechika PSYU, and proposed Liard
PSYU west half), and two consisted of "unit reinventory standard" surveys (Fernie
PSYU and Nehalliston PSYU).   In total, over 21 million acres were surveyed.
The two subsections of the growth and yield section completed an expanded
field-survey programme. The natural stands subsection established 141 new permanent-growth plots in the Nelson Forest District and remeasured 140 permanent-
growth plots in the Vancouver Forest District. The managed stands subsection
established 234 sample plots on the lower coast and completed dormant season
measurements on 140 plots initially established in 1972 and early in 1973.
The volume and decay section conducted its main survey programme in the
north, where 3,194 trees were felled and measured, and continued its study in the
interior wet belt, where 682 trees were felled and measured.
The low-level fixed-base air photography field programme was expanded and,
to make the necessary office photo measurements, a Zeiss Jena Topocart B plotter
and a Model 5305 Gradicon Digitizer were purchased. Photographs were taken to
assist the growth and yield managed-stands studies, four PSYU inventory projects,
and several multidisciplinary planning studies in the Vancouver Forest District.
Office mapping, data compilation, and publishing sections produced 827 forest
cover maps, statements, and reports for the 26 million acres which were surveyed in
1972.
FOREST CLASSIFICATION AND SAMPLING
With the end of the first cycle of "unit standard" forest inventories in sight,
1973 saw the completion of the reinventory planning and field-testing phases for the
next Province-wide forest inventory.
During the planning phase, advice was sought from each forest district and
division of the Forest Service and from other natural resource departments. Once
budgetary and staff limitations were established, field procedures were developed to
satisfy as many requests as possible with the resources available.
To test the planned field procedures, "unit reinventory standard" surveys were
conducted in two PSYU's. One of these units, the Fernie, was chosen because of
its rugged topography and the fact it had been subject to numerous disturbances since
its previous "unit standard" survey in 1963. The other unit, the Nehalliston, which
had received its previous "unit standard" survey in 1965, was chosen because it was
representative of Interior units which contain large areas of relatively small-diameter
lodgepole pine.
Although future reinventory survey procedures are still under study, the following modifications and additions to the survey system are proposed:
(1) Greater emphasis will be placed on the collection of local data in the
production of decay, waste, and breakage loss factors, volume-age
curves, and average volume-per-acre estimates.
(2) The forest district staff, aided by other natural resource agencies, will
provide direction in the locating of environmentally fragile areas for
 S 14 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
reasons of soil, steepness, recreation, water, fisheries, wildlife, and
other critical factors.
(3) With the assistance of district staff, inventory crews will ground check
as many areas of doubtful stocking as possible to confirm NSR (not
satisfactorily restocked) classification. Disturbed areas which are
not confirmed as NSR or stocked, will be classified as DSD (disturbed stocking doubtful).
(4) The number of stocking classes will be doubled in mature lodgepole
pine stands to better delineate average tree size and quantity.
(5) Increased emphasis will be placed on the use of low-level photography and ground work to verify the forest classification information.
(6) More tree-quality data will be collected on mature and older immature samples to better forecast the likely end products of logging
and milling.
(7) Five-hundred-foot contour lines will be displayed on final forest cover
maps.
(8) Allowable annual cuts will be calculated for several levels of forest
land use.
GROWTH AND YIELD SECTION
Natural Stands
A total of 141 new permanent-growth plots were established in the Creston,
Granby, Kettle, and Salmo PSYU's.
This was the first full year of plot remeasurement work since the permanent-
sample programme was started in 1962. One hundred and forty permanent-sample
plots, established in the Dewdney PSYU 10 years ago, were remeasured.
A large number of new volume, diameter, and site index curves were drawn.
A total of 79 local and zonal volume-over-age curves was constructed in PSYU's
which had been surveyed in 1972 in Zone 9. Diameter-over-age curves were
drawn to accompany the new local volume-over-age curves. In addition, site-index
curves based on 50-year reference age were prepared for coastal balsam and interior
Douglas fir and western larch.
Managed Stands
An expanded field programme was conducted in the growth and yield managed
stands section.
In the spring, reconnaissance crews completed examination of proposed 1973
field work areas and in the fall, reconnaissance crews located plot centres for much
of the proposed 1974 field work.
Dormant season measurements were made on 96 plots initially established in
1972 and on 44 plots established early in 1973.
Student crewmen under the direction of permanent staff established 234 plots
which contain more than 82,500 trees.
A new system of plot identification from the air was developed to aid in the
location of low-level air photography. Tree-climbing crews attached an aluminum
pole with a cotton flag to the top of a tall tree near the centre of each plot.   The
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 15
flags were readily visible and were very helpful to the helicopter-borne air photography crew.
Low-level helicopter photographs were taken of all plots established in 1972
and 1973.
VOLUME AND DECAY SECTION
Field-survey crews were mainly located in the northern half of the Province,
but in addition, surveys were conducted in the Interior Wet Belt and on the lower
Coast.
In the north, volume table, loss factor, and age-height correction measurements
were centred in the western half of the proposed Liard PSYU and in the Cassiar
region of the proposed Dease PSYU. In all, 3,194 trees were felled and measured.
Fixed-wing aircraft, river-boats, and four-wheel-drive vehicles were used to transport
the crews to their samples.
In the interior wet belt, studies on decay in hemlock and cedar were concentrated in the Barriere Lakes and Seymour River areas, where a total of 628 trees
were felled and measured.
In the Johnstone Strait area, hemlock trees for use in immature volume tables
were selected from samples established by the managed stand growth and yield
section. After the trees were felled and measured selected sections of the main
stem were sent to the University of British Columbia for further analysis of form
and growth.
LOW-LEVEL FIXED-BASED AID PHOTOGRAPHY SECTION
The low-level fixed-base air photography field programme was expanded and,
to make the necessary office measurements, a Zeiss Jena Topocart B Plotter and a
Model 5305 Gradicon Digitizer were purchased. Photographs were taken to assist
the growth and yield managed stand studies, four PSYU inventory surveys, and
several multidisciplinary planning studies in the Vancouver Forest District.
MAPPING AND DATA COMPILATION SECTION
Six unit survey reports were published during 1973 for PSYU's which had
been surveyed in 1972. These were: Finlay, Klappan, Lac la Hache, Morice,
Peace, and Spallumcheen PSYU's.
In addition to the regular compilation of the Division's field-survey projects, 31
inventory summary requests were received. Of these, 24 requests involving
20,434,324 acres, and a total close utilization volume of 151,186,970 cunits was
compiled.   The remaining seven requests will be completed when time permits.
The number of final forest-cover maps produced during the year rose to 827,
compared to the 754 produced in 1972.
In addition to the usual heavy demand for paper prints of forest-cover maps
and planimetric base maps, there has been an increased demand for map prints on
reproducible transparencies. This year, 1,400 20-chain maps were printed on 3-mil
mylar film for two forest districts which are adopting the reproducible history map
system. Also, three forest districts were supplied with half-scale clearprint copies
of planimetric base maps.
A variety of land-use planning requests were processed during 1973. Twenty-
two ecological reserve requests were summarized with recommendations favouring
13 and disfavouring nine. Much work was done on proposed forest reserves, but
no new reserves were established and the work has been set aside pending policy
 S 16
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
clarification.   Land-use review reports were summarized for all the 1972 unit survey
projects and forwarded to the recreation forester.
Under the Provincial forestry youth programme, 55 persons were hired for the
summer months and proved invaluable to the Division. Of this number, 30 were
employed as clerical staff working on loss-factor transfer sheets and 25 were employed as field-survey assistants.
  136°
134°
132°
126°
122°
120°
116°
114°
112°
110°
BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE
I   INVENTORY DIVISION      "
UNIT SURVEYS 1961+   #
COMPLETED I  B(1961-72 Fieldwork)
1. Adams
2. Arrowhead
3. Ashnola
5. Barriere
6. Barton Hill
8. Big Bar
9. Big Valley
10. Blueberry
11. Botanie
12. Bowron
13. Burns Lake
16. Chilko
17. Cot tonwood
18. Cranbrook
21. Dean
22. Dewdney
23. Eagle
24. Edgewood
26. Finlay
27. Fort St. James S.S.A.
28. Furry Creek S.S.A.
29. Granby
30. Hecate
31. Kamloops
32. Kettle
33. Kinbasket
34. Kingcome (Broughton,
Seymour, Klinaklini,
Kyuquot)
35. Lac La Hache
36. Lardeau
37. Longworth
38. Moberly
39. Monkman
40. Morice
41. Nakusp
42. Narcosli
43. Naver
44. Nechako
46. Nicola
47. Niskonlith
48. Kootka
49. North Thompson
50. Okanagan
51. Ootsa
52. Parsnip
53. Peace
54. Prince George S.S.A.
55. Purden
56. Quadra
57. Queen Charlotte
58. Quesnel Lake
59. Raft
60. Rivers Inlet
62. Salmo
63. Salmon Arm
64. Shuswap
65* Similkameen
66. Skeena
67. Slocan
68. Smithers
69. Soo
70. Spallumcheen
71. Stuart Lake
72. Stum
73. Takla
74. Upper Kootenay
75. Vancouver
76. Wapiti
77. Westlake
79. Willow River
80. Windermere
81. Yalakom
84. Dawson Creek S.S.A.
Proposed
86. Fontas
87. Fort Nelson
89. Klappan Proposed
90. Kotcho Proposed
92. Sikanni
93. Stikine Proposed
AVAILABLE INFORMATION (1961-72 Fieldwork)
(a) Maps - at a scale of 20 or 40 chains-to-the-inch.
(b) Statements - area and volume statements for each map.
(c) Reports - for each P.S.Y.U., a unit survey report.
i  f^Mx
IH PROGRESS (22223(1973 Fieldwork)
7.
83.
IS.
Bell-Irving
Boundary Proposed
(Southern Portion)
Carp
19.
20.
88.
Creston
Crooked River
Kechika Proposed
91.
78.
Liard Proposed
(Western Portion)
Williams Lake
PLANNED
|        1(1974+ Fieldwork)
Grand? \
trim
4.
14.
34.
Babine
Canoe
Kingcome
(Cape Scott)
61.
82.
83.
Robson
Alsek Proposed
Boundary Proposed
(remainder)
85.
94.
Dease Proposed
Taku Proposed
54°
52°
50°
58°
56°
54°
52°
50°
BRITISH COLUMBIA :
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE ROBERT WILLIAMS, MINISTER
Scale
40 80 Iff) 160 MILES
40    3,0   20    10
PROGRESS OF FOREST-COVER MAPPING
BASED ON UNIT SURVEYS
OF AREAS UNDER PUBLIC MANAGEMENT
AS AT DECEMBER 31,1973
Chp" Flo',erV^
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
°f-racA^TR^r
124°
122°
120°
118°
116°
 WAXY   LACCATA
research
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 19
RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1973 will appear in the Forest
Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
BIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
A project was initiated to study high-elevation soil stability and stand-regeneration problems resulting from the application of present forest-harvesting methods.
The first phase of the study consisted of a reconnaissance tour of critical areas
in each forest district; and concluded with discussions involving the application of
special problem-solving management techniques.
The second phase was concerned with more intensive studies in five high-
elevation areas in the Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts. Investigations were
made of important parameters such as slope angle, moisture regime, soil properties,
and different forms of harvesting disturbance.
A dissimilarity analysis of 735 vegetation plots from the north central Interior
encountered difficulty over the characterization of grouping. This was resolved with
computer assistance. Not only can group descriptions now be made with confidence, but also the extraction of "indicator species" associated with habitat factors
is a distinct possibility.
A study was made of the reproductive cycle of yellow cedar. Pollen and seed
cones are initiated during the summer of the year preceding pollination. This two-
year developmental cycle results in both mature and immature seed cones of equal
size being borne on the same branch during the time of cone collection.
Both pollen and seed cones of yellow cedar have been induced on 1 and 2-
year-old juvenile trees by the plant hormone gibberellin A3, applied as a foliar spray.
The value of electrical resistance, measured at different frequencies, has been
established for assessing plant survival after freezing tests. Some progress in
developing a nondestructive electrical method, for assessing seedlings' frost-hardiness, has also been made.
The magnitude of foliar analysis differences due to provenance in coastal
Douglas fir, and the possible effect of these differences on foliar analysis interpretation, have been examined. Levels of the free amino acid proline, in foliage and in
branches, have been shown to indicate immediately previous moisture stress history
of Douglas fir plants.
Relationships between levels of free arginine, proline, and guanidino amino
acids in tissue, and the mineral nutrient status of 2-year-old Douglas fir, were
reported on at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations Symposium on Forest Fertilization, at Paris, in December.
A study of the induction of dormancy in container-grown western hemlock was
completed. Early dormancy was induced by short photoperiod, low temperature,
water stress, the withdrawal of the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and by the withdrawal of nitrogen alone. Among all these, short photoperiod
could be the best treatment because it produced seedlings which, compared with
the others, had dark-green foliage, high nitrogen concentration, and complete and
early attainment of terminal bud dormancy.
Experiments are being conducted to determine the response of Douglas fir to
growth inhibitors and retardants, and to determine the effects of storage temperature
on the physiology and survival of bare-root and container-grown Douglas fir seedlings.
 S 20 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Physiological experiments were done on lodgepole pine seedlings to determine,
among other things, rates of photosynthesis at various levels of needle temperature.
Twelve selected populations of lodgepole pine seedlings were also compared over
the growing season. Significant differences in physiological processes were found
among provenances.
Studies were initiated to determine the optimum balance and level of nutrients
for growth of lodgepole pine. Other studies to determine the effect of spacing, root
pruning depth, and frequency on food reserves, nutrient uptake, and distribution of
dry matter, were established at the Red Rock Nursery.
A detailed test of the currently recommended potassium fertilizer levels and
times of application for the Red Rock and Surrey Nurseries showed them to be
adequate.
SILVICULTURE
The project on high-elevation reforestation problems in the Vancouver Forest
District has been completed. In the final report, recommendations were made concerning the need for specific fields of research and changes in forest practice. The
Reforestation Board of the Tree Farm Forestry Committee is currently reviewing the
recommendations of the report with a view toward initiating appropriate research
projects.   Guidelines for high-elevation cutting practices are being formulated.
Reassessment of planting trials of yellow pine in the East Kootenay region has
shown that site preparation had a definite effect on both the survival and growth of
planted seedlings. Ploughing the ground before planting the seedlings produced an
increased survival rate.   Growth over 12 years was doubled.
A similar reassessment of a spruce-planting trial at Rodd Creek in the West
Kootenay area showed the dates of planting that give the best survival rate (early
spring and late fall) also resulted in the best growth.
In the Prince George Forest District, consultations were held with Northwest
Pulp and Timber Ltd., Rustad Brothers Ltd., and Eurocan Pulp and Paper Ltd. on
current and proposed silvicultural projects and on stand treatment.
The lodgepole pine stock and season planting trial at Chapman Lake and Nine
Mile Mountain was assessed for height and growth. Six planting dates, using four
stocks from two nurseries, are being compared.
The first five-year measurements were made on the lodgepole pine spacing
trial near Dog Creek.   Four spacing regimes are being compared.
A study on conifer-grass relationships in the Kamloops Forest District was
hampered by poor grass germination, affected by a cool spring and dry summer.
However, considerable progress was made in determining the effects of grass and
of cattle grazing on conifer germination and survival, which can be seriously affected
in areas where cattle grazing is not controlled.
TREE IMPROVEMENT
Dr. Gene Namkoong completed his contract on tree-breeding strategy formulation.   Breeding options have been examined and a desirable approach was chosen.
Although 1973 was a year of few reproductive buds in Douglas fir, a first
attempt was made to implement the programmes. All available material at the
Cowichan Lake clone bank and in the Tahsis Company seed orchard was brought
into these programmes and over 120 crosses were attempted involving 4,000 cones.
Sites were selected in the Greater Victoria watershed and at the Forest Experiment Station for a factorial progeny test already under way. The stock from 100
Tosses had been transplanted into "styro 8" plugs in December 1972, and 3,600
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 21
of these were planted in the fall. This provided valuable experience in handling
the type of stock which will be used in future progeny tests.
Height and diameter measurements were made on 10 test-sites of a Douglas
fir racial crossing programme, initiated in 1963. Widespread occurrence of natural
regeneration on the sites made maintenance work essential, and much remains to
be done.
Limited self-pollinations on both selected plus trees and S2 progenies were
made in the spring.
Five additional test-sites comprising a total of 56 acres were established in the
coastal Douglas fir provenance study.
A progress report summarizing the performance of 66 provenances at three
test-sites in contrasting climates was presented at Nancy, France, at a meeting of
the working party on Douglas fir provenances.
Two series of Sitka spruce provenance tests were established in the Queen
Charlotte Islands with 10,000 seedlings. The first series involved the planting of
38 bulked provenances on 22 test-sites of 1 acre each; the second series involved
the study of five families from each of 15 provenances at two test-sites of 2Vi acres
each.
A progeny trial of 49,000 seedlings from 175 white spruce trees was planted
at three test-sites in the Prince George selection unit.
A statistical analysis of the 2+0 seedlings from plus trees in East Kootenay
indicated that those growing on the west side of the Kootenay River produced taller
progeny than those from the east side.
An investigation to study spacing and provenance effects upon growth and
development of shore pine was started at north and south Coast localities.
Sixty sites throughout the Interior were selected, prepared, and staked for the
trials of 153 lodgepole pine provenances scheduled to begin in 1974.
One hundred and sixty-six selected lodgepole pine phenotypes have been
propagated and established in clone archives at the Red Rock Nursery. They will
be used for controlled crossing experiments.
A 90-acre pinetum was planted near Prince George. It contains 144 populations (780 families) of gene pool samples encompassing the natural range of
lodgepole pine.
A 6-acre clone bank, to provide large quantities of lodgepole pine scions for
seed orchards, was planted within the Red Rock Arboretum.
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, about 200 acres were cleared for
arboreta, clone banks, and experimental plantations, primarily for the improvement
of Douglas fir.
A greenhouse was built with a floor area of 4,600 square feet for the growing
of container seedlings.
Existing clone banks were maintained and an additional 250 1-year-old grafts
were planted. An assessment was made of all Douglas fir clones grafted before
1967 to distinguish compatibility and to check correlation between graft compatibility and latitude or age of the mother tree.
The Douglas fir breeding arboretum was completed and is expected to provide
a wide gene pool for racial crossings in future years. It contains some 216 provenances and 121 clones from the Interior of the Province, Alberta, United States,
and Mexico, which have been collected over a wide range of elevations and climates
ranging from latitude 19°40' in the south to latitude 55°05' in the north.
 S 22 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST MENSURATION
During the field season a further 254 plots were established in Douglas fir and
western hemlock stands in connection with the managed stand yield table project of
the Forest Productivity Committee, making a total of 500 plots. All sites conforming to the required standards of homogeneity have now been sampled, but large
areas of immature stands in the Vancouver Forest District remain unsampled due
to their extreme heterogeneity. To allow adequate sampling of all existing strata of
immature Douglas fir and western hemlock in the district, some relaxation in the
required standards of site uniformity was made and it is proposed to establish a
further 200 plots.
In the fall, 26 plots were established in stands prior to chemical spacing, to
allow future assessment of growth response. It is hoped to extend this sampling of
operational treatments in 1974, and procedures are being devised to allow establishment of 100 plots in stands, to be operationally spaced, thinned, or fertilized.
BIOMETRIC SERVICES
No major computer programmes were written in the past year, but some modifications to existing programmes were made to improve accuracy or to aid the interpretation of existing output.
A programme acquired from North Carolina University was used for variance
component calculations of Douglas fir height, diameter, and volume data obtained
from intraspecific crossings.
The programme estimates components of variance for balanced or unbalanced
designs and provides estimates of variance of the genetic sources, which in turn are
profitably used in the formulation of optimum breeding and test programmes.
INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
The first phase of the Chilliwack Forest Integrated Resource study has been
completed. In addition to the existing bedrock-geology and other resource informa-,
tion, soils and vegetation maps of the area have been prepared. A booklet titled
Chilliwack Forest—Phase 1—Basic Resources is under preparation.
A joint programme was initiated with the Vancouver Forest District to develop
an integrated resource management model to be used at the operational level by the
Vancouver Forest District management staff. The Toquart River and Chapman
Creek watersheds were selected as sample study areas.
All resources having a realistic potential in both watersheds were represented
by the appropriate Federal or Provincial agency. Model components, which were
assessed, included inventory requirements, data format, data storage and retrieval,
interpretations, planning and potential implementation. A range of alternatives for
each component was explored to identify the component which best met the requirement of each resource for management purposes.
The final model should provide the necessary mechanisms for the consideration
of all available resource information in future development plans.
PUBLIC RELATIONS
During the summer the Division employed 43 students, 14 of whom were
employed at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. Guided tours of the station
were given to 450 visitors, including members of the Select Standing Committee in
Forestry and students from colleges and high schools.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 23
The Division presented five courses in 1973 which included instruction on
geology, landforms, soils, and airphoto interpretation of landforms and tree species.
RESEARCH IN OTHER DIVISIONS
Inventory
The use of fixed-base low-level photography for the Forest Productivity Committee's project for the production of managed stand yield tables was continued.
The purpose of the photography is to obtain specific crown measurements plus the
height and co-ordinates of all trees. One of the major problems encountered is the
locating of the plot centre from the travelling helicopter to include the whole plot
in the photo. This has been done by climbing the tree closest to the centre and tying
an aluminum pole with a flag to the top. Tests have been made with the Trisponder
system, but difficulties were experienced in flying the helicopter and trying to line
up two sets of digits as well. Further tests will be conducted in the spring using the
Trisponder, but incorporating needles instead of the digits to locate the centre of
the plot.
Low-level photography was also carried out on four of the inventory projects
during the summer to obtain low-level photographs of timber types not readily
accessible for ground sampling. The photos will assist the classifier in identifying
tree species and in determining tree heights. Such photography will only be an aid
and will not replace the present sampling and classifying methods.
As a pilot project for multidisciplinary planning in the Vancouver Forest District, continuous low-level strip photography was carried out for the Toquart River
and Chapman Creek watercourses.
Reforestation
Nursery Trials
Surrey Nursery
Banded fertilization of white spruce—Banding 11-55-0 in U/2 inches deep
on each side of drills at time of sowing gave a 19-per-cent increase in height and an
average 19-per-cent increase in number of plantable 2-0 white spruce over the
control treatment (broadcasting 0-20-0 and disking in). Best results were from
200 pounds per acre of banded 11-55-0 in the loamy-sand soil of this nursery.
Soil fumigation—Development trials with soil fumigants Methyl bromide
vapour and A.W.K. have continued.
Skimikin Nursery
Covering soil—Comparison between local sand, imported sand (from Chilliwack River), nursery soil, and Silva fibre mulch indicated no difference between the
two sands, both being better than nursery soil. Fibre mulch shows some promise
in earlier germination but is cumbersome to apply and considerable work is required to develop satisfactory equipment for this purpose.
Koksilah Nursery
Bark mulch—Comparison of seedlings grown on bark mulch from fresh water
and salt water at 100 cubic yards per acre rate showed little difference in height or
root collar diameter at either the 1—0 or 2—0 stage.
Damping-off control—Neither Captan seed soak in 0-2% 50 WP Captan
solution nor a Captan soil drench 10 days after sowing was effective in controlling
 S 24
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
early or late type damping-off.   Captan seek soak adversely affects germination,
particularly of Douglas fir.
Winter damage—On September 12 and 13, 1970, an unseasonable cold, dry,
polar outbreak penetrated the south Coast area of British Columbia. Temperature
at the Koksilah Nursery dropped to 26°F (Screen). Damage was caused to 2—0
Douglas fir and in one seed lot this was considerable. A trial was set up to determine the damage and find the best method of handling such damaged stock.
General conclusion: Such damaged stock should be planted in the spring directly
from the nursery, without cold storage.
Green Timbers
Band fertilization of Douglas fir and Sitka spruce—Band application of 200
pounds per acre of 11-55-0 at 2Vi-inch depths was carried out on both Douglas fir
and Sitka spruce at time of sowing. This rate gave good response with Sitka spruce
but may be excessive for Douglas fir in the heavier soil at Green Timbers, where an
application of 90 pounds per acre is indicated.
Container Nursery Trials
Skimikin (Vernon Section)—Comparison trials using Copper Tan Quartzite
and No. 2 Granite Grit (normally used) indicated no difference in germination and
only slight increase in height and stem diameter for the former. In view of the 47-
per-cent higher cost of the quartzite, this difference is not deemed sufficient to
change from the current use of No. 2 Granite Grit.
Surrey—Further comparisons between Copper Tan Quartzite and No. 2 Granite Grit in the Surrey container facility indicated no difference in germination or
growth. However, the former had a desirable effect on pH and salinity of the
growing medium.
Seed Centre (Duncan)
Lodgepole pine extraction trials—These trials continued. Seed extraction
results show an improved trend probably due to (a) a change in the method of
dewinging the seed, with the modified chicken plucker replacing the vacuum method;
and (b) more supervision over cone collections, with improvement in the type and
quality of cones being picked.
Germination trials—The following is a summary of work done:
Seed lots of Douglas fir, hemlock, lodgepole pine, and spruce were retested following the rules of the Association of Official Seed Analysts and using the newly acquired controlled environment germinator with lights and fluctuating temperature.
Lodgepole pine showed a remarkable increase in germination with over 50 per cent
increase in some seed lots. Douglas fir and spruce showed a small but general
increase in total germination, whereas hemlock showed no difference.
The seed colourant Amaranth dye was found to depress germination of spruce
and pine seeds.   Stratified seed was affected more than dry seed by the dye.
Captan soak treatment was found to be detrimental to germination of Douglas
fir and spruce seeds.
Seed Orchards
Phenology of Douglas fir seed orchard trees—The times of reproductive and
vegetative bud burst were determined for clones or families in each orchard. These
were compared to the behaviour of nearby natural trees and to counts of trapped
pollen to ascertain the seriousness of local pollen contamination in each orchard.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 25
There was considerable overlap of conelet receptivity with local pollen release,
permitting serious contamination of the seed crop.
Comparison of Douglas fir seed yield with method of pollination—A trial was
established in the Koksilah orchard to determine methods of increasing seed yields
from orchard trees. Seedlings bearing sufficient strobili were selected for the trial
and pollen sources of three kinds used; natural open pollination, and a mix of
pollens to bagged or unbagged strobili. Seed yields from each method will be
compared.
Douglas fir cone induction with nitrogenous fertilizers—A fertilizer trial was
established in the Quinsam seed orchard to test the efficiency of calcium nitrate and
ammonium nitrate at different levels on cone induction given at the time of vegetative bud break.   Early assessment indicates little, if any, response.
Reproductive bud survey—Branch samples have been inspected since the
winter of 1967/68 to assess the prospects of cone crops in the Prince George Forest
District. This project was expanded to include the entire province during 1972/73.
Branches were submitted by ranger staffs to nurseries at Duncan, Vernon, and Prince
George. Interior material was forced to burst buds, whereas coastal material was
checked intact. Nearly 350 samples were received and they indicated the poor
crop that developed.
Western hemlock cone bud survival—During the cone bud survey, no information was available on the degree of carry-over between conelet appearance and
cone maturity for western hemlock, nor on the parameters indicating a good cone
crop. Vigorous young trees bearing cone buds were selected at Campbell River
and Lake Cowichan, the intensities of cone versus reproductive buds were determined for marked branches on each tree, and the same branches checked for mature
cones in autumn. In general, few cone buds did not produce strobili, and few
conelets aborted.
Mean survival of conelets was 73 per cent, with most of the loss due to
squirrel-cutting. Data will be analysed to determine the sample size necessary to
obtain a reliable stand crop estimate per area. Seedlings from these trees may be
screened for genetic markers useful in selling studies of western hemlock.
Rootstock development trial, Douglas fir—Controlled crosses were conducted
to provide families for screening as possible superior "grafters." Cone and pollen
parents with known superior, average, or inferior graftability were intercrossed.
FOREST PRODUCTIVITY
The programme in 1973 concentrated on obtaining information for the development of managed-stand yield tables. In all, 250 plots were established and
treated following directions outlined in the operations manual, which was revised
and redistributed early in the year.
Testing of the cost collection procedures continued and the data are being
analysed.   Recommendations will be available early in 1974.
A computerized planning system, developed by the committee, was demonstrated in December with further demonstrations planned prior to further work
being initiated.
A preliminary report on the nutrient cycling project is being evaluated, and the
nutrient leaching project is nearing completion.
  FOREST  AGARIC
reforestation
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 29
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST TREE SEED
Seed Centre
The extraction plant processed 10,759 bushels of lodgepole pine cones, some
of which were collected in 1972. These cones yielded 1,103 kilograms of seed or
0.102 kg. per bushel. An additional 450 bushels of other Interior species yielded
98.6 kgs. of seed. Seed received from companies for testing and storage at the
centre totalled 290.4 kgs. The inventory in cold storage at year-end was 14,006
kgs. of Forest Service seed and 3,992 kgs. of company seed for a total of 17,99*8
kgs. (39,600 pounds).
A further 3,689 bushels of lodgepole pine cones were received during the early
winter and will be processed next year.
Cone-bud surveys begun in the Prince George District during the winter of
1967/68 to assess the possibility of cone crops the next summer were extended in
1973 to cover the whole Province for Douglas fir, western hemlock, and Interior
spruces. A total of 347 twig samples was sent in by the ranger staff. Those for the
Interior were forced in greenhouses at Red Rock and Vernon so cone flowers could
be identified. Cone buds were identified on twigs without forcing for the Coast.
The survey failed to indicate a collectable crop that occurred in seed zones 503
(McBride region) and 703 (Fort Nelson region). This indicates that possibly more
thorough sampling is required.
The seed laboratory prepared 1,409 kgs. of seed for nursery sowing and
shipped out 202 kgs. for broadcast or direct seeding. In all, 104 requests were
filled for seed for other than nursery use. Tests were completed on 1,060 seed lots.
A new refrigerator, a controlled environment germinator, and a seed X-ray unit
were added to the laboratory equipment.
SEED-PRODUCTION ORCHARDS
The Reforestation Division is now responsible for all future seed-orchard
establishment, and it will establish several orchards each year until all the seed zones
are covered by major species orchards. These will be production orchards designed
to produce regular crops to meet the forecast requirements of the respective zones.
When improved and tested breeds of trees are produced by the Research Division
they will be incorporated into this seed-production programme.
A start was made in reserving blocks of good-quality timber as seed stands and
to provide good parent trees for seed-orchard establishment in the future.
Permission was obtained to use green belt lands for seed orchards, but only
two were suitable for seed-orchard use. Studies were made to locate areas for
future seed-orchard development, including a soil survey on 1,200 acres of the Red
Rock Forest Reserve. Most of the area was found to be more suitable for progeny
testing, outplanting trials, etc.
Further development work in the cleared clone-bank area of the Red Rock
Forest near Prince George involved 13,200 feet of fencing and 50 hours with a D-8
tractor and rome disk to control aspen sprouts on 180 acres. Twenty-five thousand
spruce and lodgepole pine grafts and provenance collections were planted out.
These will be used in future tree-breeding and seed-orchard establishment.
 S 30
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Plans were made for the development of a spruce-seed orchard to serve the
region northwest of Prince George. This represents an area of high harvesting
activity in the Takla-Stewart-Williston Lake drainages (seed zones 501 and 701).
Thirty-seven parent trees have already been selected. These and others will be
established in the clone bank by planting of both grafter stock and seedlings, and
later will be used to establish the production orchards.
On the Coast, routine checks continued on three established Douglas fir
orchards. No significant cone crops materialized. Seedlings are now ready for
planting in the Dewdney Orchard (Coast-Interior transition, high-elevation Douglas
fir), and some work was done to prepare an area in Central Saanich (near Victoria)
for planting.
FOREST NURSERIES
There was extensive damage to seedlings at most Coast nurseries, due to low
temperatures accompanied by strong winds, and low humidities which damaged or
killed many terminal buds. Most of the seedlings recovered, but many will have to
be transplanted for another year to attain plantable quality. Interior nurseries experienced a light snow cover, which left many seedling tops exposed to freezing,
drying winds, which again caused considerable damage.
A total of 1,138,850 lineal feet of seed-bed was sown in all nurseries. Since
each seed-bed consists of seven drills or rows, this is equivalent to over 1,500 miles
of drill. The sowing was designed to produce 73,500,000 plantable seedlings. A
cool spring caused good germination on the Coast but retarded germination and
early growth in the Interior. An inventory of 1-year-old seedlings indicates the
designed total should be achieved, provided there are no serious overwintering losses.
An additional 8,327,000 seedlings were produced in B.C./Canadian Forestry
Service styro 2 containers at four nurseries. These have either been planted;
extracted from blocks, packaged, and placed in cold storage; or stored under snow
in the Interior.
In the spring a total of 9,132,000 1-year and 2-year-old seedlings were transplanted mainly with new Holland transplant machines.
The first sowing at the new Skimikin Nursery near Salmon Arm produced
5,400,000 1-year-old seedlings grown in 76,000 lineal feet of bed.
Several types of equipment were purchased and tested to speed up seedling
lifting. A Love Seedling Lifter lifted most of the trees at Surrey Nursery in the
spring. While the machine performed well, production at 400,000 per shift was not
up to expectations. Several modifications have been made to improve the quality
of the job and increase versatility.
The Grayco Seedling Lifter has been given extensive trials at the Red Rock
and Chilliwack Nurseries. This machine, modelled after a two-row potato-digger,
had a better production per shift at 500,000, but leaves the trees in a jumbled condition, which slows down subsequent sorting and grading.
The Love machine, plus supporting tractors, trailers, etc., is more expensive
but requires only nine supporting persons. The Grayco system, although more
economical in total equipment costs, requires many more supporting persons.
Shortages and slow supply of materials hampered the construction programme,
but considerable progress was made. A total of 43 acres was cleared and 102 received final cultivation in preparation for sowing next year. Improvements to
irrigation systems at five nurseries involved the laying of 18,600 feet of mains and
construction of two large reservoirs with accompanying pump-houses. One 12-
inch well was completed during 1973. Buildings completed were two nursery
offices, four cold storage units, two implement sheds, one of which was the replace-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 31
ment of a former shed destroyed by fire on February 13 with a loss of some
$80,000 in building and equipment. One supply storage building and one oil and
gasoline shed were also completed. Numerous other buildings were under construction but had not been completed by year-end. In addition, 6,000 feet of road
was constructed, 14,500 cubic yards of earth moved in levelling operations, and
10,580 feet of fence erected.
In the container nursery development programme, two greenhouses of the
Arch II type (42 by 108 ft.) were completed at Koksilah Nursery; and one quon-
set type (24 by 128 ft.) was completed at Red Rock Nursery. The container
facility at Surrey Nursery was improved by black-topping an area sufficient for the
production of 7 million seedlings in styroblocks. Six-acre sites were prepared for
container facility construction at the Green Timbers and Skimikin Nurseries. A
container nursery-site with a desirable climate and acceptable water quality was
located near Nelson.
Co-operation
Close co-operation continued between the British Columbia Forest Service
and Canadian Forestry Service personnel of the Pacific Forest Research Centre
in the development of an operational container-nursery-planting system.
The BC/CFS styroblock 2 has been modified to utilize space formerly occupied by cross-bars, so the number of cavities per block is now 240. The cavities
are the same size as in styroblock 2 but the block is 23% inches long and has in-
BC/CFS styroblock system showing the styroblock 2 containing 192 cavities each of
2-cubic-inch capacity filled with Coast Douglas fir; a Douglas fir "plug"; a package of 25
"plugs" after extraction from the styroblock and wrapped in Vitafilm, ready for placing in
a waxed carton for cold storage and (or) shipping; the type of dibble with screefing blade
used to plant "plugs."
 S 32 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
dexing slots along each side. The new block has been designated styroblock 2a.
A fourth design is also being produced in limited quantities for growth trials.
This block, designated styroblock 4, has 150 cavities which hold 4 cubic inches
of peat-vermiculite mix. Outside dimensions are the same as the 2a, 13% by
23% inches. The automatic seeders have been modified to seed 2, 2a, and 4
blocks by mounting the appropriate seed-drum, and automatic granite-gritters
are being coupled to the seeders. Much of the work on these machines was done
by the Agricultural Engineering Department at UBC.
The Canadian Forestry Service continued to advise and assist the bare-root
and container nursery programmes on disease and insect problems.
All nurseries hosted increased tour groups of primary and secondary schools,
colleges, universities, and visiting foreign foresters. Koksilah hosted 678 persons
in 24 groups, and Red Rock had 25 groups totalling 731 persons.
The Division continued to assist the British Columbia Forest Museum at
Duncan and maintenance of the Forest Service exhibit at the Pacific National
Exhibition.
The Forest Service, summer student programme continued to be well received
by all nurseries.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL FORESTRY AND CORRECTIONS
CAMP PROGRAMME
The Forestry/Corrections Programme now involves some 15 camps, centres,
and installations throughout the Province. Most camps recorded an increase in
population early in the year, but counts dropped off in the summer and curtailed
some projects. The trend toward mechanization continued with inmates receiving training in the use of power-saws and operation of tractors and sawmill equipment.
The "work release" concept was expanded in most areas with good results.
This programme involved over 2,000 man-days in stand improvement, tree-
planting, nursery work, fire-fighting, and logging, and the inmates performed com-
mendably.
Additions of two 190-h.p. diesel power units, a reconditioned edger, planer,
and a shake band mill to sawmill installations increased productivity and diversity.
The sawmill at Hutda Lake Camp burned down in June and will be replaced.
A total of 708,500 board feet of lumber (75,000 f.b.m. dressed) was produced from
salvaged material in the five mills. The Corrections Branch purchased a heavy-
duty logging truck equipped with self-loading device and this considerably increased the capability for salvaging logs and other material in the Lower Mainland areas. Other products manufactured from reclaimed material (secured mostly
from rights-of-way or land-clearing operations) included 22,275 fence posts (16,500
of which were treated), 60,200 4-foot stakes, 941 squares of cedar shakes, 740
cords of firewood, and 50 prefabricated toilets for campsites. Other activities involved construction of 4V2 miles of road and two 40-foot bridges, 20.5 miles of
roadside slashing and beautification, clearing 100 acres of the Stave Lake bed,
and falling 667 acres of dead trees (snags and residuals).
Reforestation work included planting 37,000 trees, collection of 1,020 bushels
of cones, lifting and packaging 521,000 trees at the Alouette Nursery, transplanting 550,000 trees, and constructing 11,300 feet of fence. Inmate crews also
fought 25 fires, constructed 5 miles of trail, and thinned and pruned 10 acres of
dense natural regeneration.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 33
This work forms a significant contribution to reforestation, forest protection,
and recreation in the Province as well as to the training and rehabilitation of the
inmates.
GENERAL PLANTING
The Province's reforestation programme continues to expand with the objective of planting unstocked backlog areas and keeping abreast cutover areas
where natural regeneration is not expected or where immediate stocking of high
sites is warranted. A total of 1,038,000 acres has been planted since this reforestation method was started in the late 1920's (see Table 22, Appendix). Nearly
half of the total Provincial acreage planted to date was accomplished in the last
five years, while 76 per cent of the total Interior planting was achieved in the same
period.
Planning, scheduling, and supervising all facets of this burgeoning programme
will require increased attention. In particular, adequate planting-site prescriptions and preparation of planting-sites are essential to achieve annual objectives.
As backlog areas are reforested and planting is directed mostly to current denuded
areas, there will be fewer "safety valve" alternate plantable areas available to
handle seedlings originally allocated to an area not prepared for planting as originally scheduled.
Figure 1 indicates the progress made in annual acreage planted during the
past 10 years:
SUMMARY   OF  PLANTING - 1963-1973
Coast and Interior-All Agencies Combined
By Acres planted  (Thousands)
140
120
100
a>   80
c
a
D.
u>
0)   60
o
<
40-.
20
1
/
/
/
/
•
s
s
1
Coast-Interior./
Combined/
/
/
/                    _..
/y
/
^--/Coost                              /
 /
/
/
/
Interior   ^~
^'
 -*
__    s
1963
65
67
69
Year
1973
 S 34
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
In 1973, 56,206,000 seedlings were planted on 124,667 acres by all agencies;
87 per cent of this acreage was on Crown land with costs borne by the Province.
A total of 28.3 million was planted by Forest Service crews or through Forest Service planting contracts and nearly 3,300 people were seasonally employed as tree-
planters.
Planting in 1973 on Crown and Crown-granted lands by various agencies is
depicted below:
Area   Planted   in  Acres
Crown    Lands     108,592  Ac.
( 49.6 Million trees )
Crown
Granted
16,075 Ac.
(6.6 MM trees)
Total   Area   Planted   124,667 Ac.
( 56.2 Million trees)
Licensee planting on timber sale harvesting licences increased from 2.2 million seedlings in 1972 to slightly over 7 million in 1973.
Contract planting continued to play a significant role in the Forest Service
reforestation programme. Fifty-two tendered contracts were awarded to plant
7,485,600 trees, an increase of approximately two million over 1972.
Complete details of 1973 planting by forest district, planting agency, and
ownership status are depicted in Table 6 in the Appendix.
Provincially, all agencies combined, Douglas fir was the major species planted,
comprising 51.4 per cent of the total, followed by lodgepole pine (17.8 per cent),
Interior spruce (15.7 per cent), Sitka spruce (10.3 per cent), and hemlock (3.1
per cent). Cottowood, yellow pine, larch, and other species made up the balance
of 1.7 per cent.
Over eight million container-grown seedlings were produced for outplanting
and were distributed between Forest Service and company projects. Because
the demand for this type of stock greatly exceeded the supply, facilities are being
expanded for production of some 16 million plantables in 1974.
A total of 2,100,000 bare-root seedlings was mudpacked commercially for
Forest Service projects, primarily in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Districts.
Examination of plantations continued with the establishment of 15,660 survival plots in areas planted in 1973 and re-examination of 11,976 plots established
in earlier plantations.
INTERIOR PLANTING
Weather conditions for spring planting were normal in most of the Interior,
although reduced snowfall resulted in lowered soil moisture as the season progressed. Warm, dry weather continued into September and caused considerable
delay in the hardening of nursery stock and fall planting. This resulted in the
Kamloops District curtailing all Forest Service planting projects planned for the
fall.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 35
Seedlings from nurseries were generally in good condition; many had been
lifted from Lower Mainland nurseries during the dormant period and cold-stored
until shipment in the spring. Major species planted in the Interior were spruce
(38.7 per cent), lodgepole pine (39.1 per cent), and Douglas fir (22.2 per cent).
More female planters than male were hired for Forest Service Interior planting projects. In the Prince George District approximately 80 per cent of the labour
force was female. Women have taken to this programme extremely well, and as
techniques change from planting bare-root stock using heavy mattocks, to planting container-grown stock with dibble or gun-line equipment, women will undoubtedly continue to make even greater inputs to the planting force.
In the late spring an outbreak of the black army cutworm (Actebia fennica)
occurred in a number of planting areas throughout the Interior. The voracious
feeders inflicted severe damage to some plantations established only a few weeks
before, and in some cases totally destroyed all seedlings.
Larval counts indicate significant populations may be active again in 1974,
and planting will be delayed on areas where high insect population is anticipated.
COAST PLANTING
On the Coast, favourable spring weather permitted a prompt start on the
planting programme. Approximately 85 per cent of planting was carried out in the
spring. In the Vancouver District, the Forest Service planted 12 million seedlings;
the largest project was on Cracroft Island, where over one million trees were
planted under contract.
In the Coast portion of the Prince Rupert District, Forest Service planting
exceeded two million trees. This, with over four million planted in the interior,
represented the largest planting programme yet undertaken in this district, nearly
double that of 1972.
The breakdown percentage of species planted in the Coast districts by all
agencies was as follows: Douglas fir (71.2 per cent), Sitka spruce (17.4 per cent),
hemlock (5.3 per cent), lodgepole pine (3.4 per cent), Interior spruce (2.3 per
cent); other species made up the small balance.
The Forest Transporter, a self-propelled steel barge soon to be launched, will
provide the necessary capability for transporting camps, trees, and heavy equipment for planting projects in remote coastal areas in the Vancouver District.
CONTRACT PLANTING
Contract planting is a useful system in the reforestation programme but there
are some problems relating particularly to fall contracts. In some cases, contractors have over-extended their capabilities; others through inexperience, tend to bid
too low for site conditions and quality of planting expected, or have insufficient
experience in handling crews. On occasion, Forest Service staff have been unable
to cope properly with the increased work load in adequately supervising and inspecting contracts to ensure that planting quality is maintained. Competent trained
field staff are essential in administering and maintaining the quality control for the
greatly expanded reforestation programme. Contract administration and inspection
procedures have been revised and will be implemented in the spring of 1974.
SPECIAL PLANTING STUDIES
Mudpack stock—During the year, comparisons of mudpack and bareroot stock
were made in 44 plantations throughout the Province.   Although data were not
 S 36 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
compatible between the two types of stock in all plantations examined, results
indicated that mudpacking technique used in 1973 should give better survival than
the earlier "packs." It was concluded that mudpacks may have a role in areas
where it is difficult to plant bareroot seedlings, and sufficient container-grown seedlings are not available. Accordingly, a contract was let to have three million bare-
root seedlings mudpacked for spring 1974 planting. Studies will be continued
and results re-evaluated.
Planting labour productivity—A special planting crew undertook the planting
of 266,375 trees of various types on a variety of sites in seven locations throughout the Nelson District. This work was carried out in connection with the planting
labour productivity study begun in 1972 in co-operation with the Canadian Forestry
Service. Intensive planting-time studies were conducted and monitoring of regular district crews was carried out concurrently in the same project areas. Objectives of the study were to establish a system of classifying site conditions to
predict planter performance and thereby improve estimation of planting costs and
set performance targets for planting supervisors.
Shovel planting lodgepole pine—Because of the concern over the toppling of
lodgepole pine plantations, the technique of shovel planting was prescribed for almost all planting of that species. The drain-spade type of shovel was used with
considerable success, but some modifications are necessary to improve results.
In most cases planters preferred shovels rather than mattocks, providing the ground
was suitable, and production was comparable to that using mattocks with an improvement in planting quality. Use of the drain spade will continue in 1974. An
early assessment will be made of the 1973 results.
REGENERATION SURVEYS AND PRESCRIPTIONS
Continued emphasis was placed on acquiring planning information on denuded
areas. During the year, district field staff examined 250,792 acres throughout the
Province. Of this total, 130,381 acres were found to be satisfactorily stocked.
Arrangements were made with Inventory Division crews to provide up-to-date
regeneration information where possible, for PSYU's being inventoried in 1973.
Increased effort has been made to implement the area-history record system
on denuded areas, and to incorporate subsequent treatments as they occur. Comprehensive data on the NSR situation can only be achieved when this information-
gathering system has been instituted throughout the Province. Most districts have
placed a high priority on recording this information.
SITE PREPARATION AND REHABILITATION PROJECTS
Because of hazardous fire conditions, prescribed burns were curtailed on
a number of areas requiring this treatment before planting. In some cases, mechanical techniques have been applied as an alternate preparation method. (In the
Vancouver District, 764 acres were prepared by mechanical means compared to
84 the previous year.) Costs of this method, however, greatly exceed those involved in prescribing burning.
Restocking of cutovers to satisfactory levels may be seriously hampered if
large backlogs of unprepared areas continue to develop. Modification of silvicul-
tural methods and development of mechanical site preparation techniques are essential. In the latter case a committee was formed under the direction of the Research
Division to investigate and test mechanical equipment for site preparation in spruce-
balsam types, particularly in the Prince George District.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 37
The Forest Service continued an extensive programme of site preparation for
planting. In addition to broadcast burning, residual felling was done on 1,600
acres, ,3,500 acres were windrowed preparatory to burning, and approximately
1,000 acres were prepared mechanically in addition to those done in the Vancouver District.   These do not include major rehabilitation projects outlined below.
Progress continued on the rehabilitation of some major burns, where natural
restocking was insufficient.
Van Fire (Prince Rupert)—Construction of access to this large burn north
of Babine Lake continued under the direction of the Engineering Division. The
main road was completed to the Nilkitkwa River and 19 miles of tote roads constructed into planting areas. A permanent crossing over the Nilkitkwa River remains
to be constructed as well as several miles of road into the burned area west of the
river.
It is estimated that 13,000 acres will require planting to ensure adequate
stocking. To date, 185 acres have been planted. With access available, the programme will be accelerated; 644,000 seedlings are scheduled for spring planting
and 1.2 million for fall 1974 and spring 1975.
Sue Fire (Nelson)—The process of knocking down unsalvageable dead trees
was continued by "cabling" on 9,670 acres. Debris on 7,436 acres was bunched
for burning and 10,952 acres were burned. This year 959 acres were planted,
bringing the total Sue Fire planting to 2,683 acres. Direct seeding is planned on
approximately 400 acres in 1974 in addition to the regular planting programme.
West Fire (Cariboo-Prince George)—Rehabilitation of this 1971 burn has
proceeded according to the plan developed in 1972. Planting commenced in the
fall of 1971 and, to date, approximately 7,200 acres have been completed by the
Prince George and Cariboo Districts. It is estimated that all areas requiring planting will be completed by the spring of 1975.
Eden Fire (Kamloops)—Extensive regeneration surveys will be conducted in
1974 to develop an appropriate reforestation plan. As a start, 400 acres will be
planted in the spring of 1974 and container facilities are being developed at nearby
Skimikin Nursery to provide additional stock as required.
PLANTATION MANAGEMENT
As the acreage of plantations increases, more attention must be given to
managing this new crop; juvenile spacing and release from brush competition need
action. In the Vancouver District 1,834 acres were brushed out, using student
crews, Human Resources Rehabilitation crews, and Corrections' crews. This work
will increase in the Vancouver Forest District during 1974.
  BLEWIT
information
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 41
INFORMATION DIVISION
Highlights of the year for the Information Division included introduction of
the Forest Service's new glossy quarterly publication ForesTalk, which by year's
end had a distribution of nearly 36,000. Eighteen television shows, depicting
various functions of the Service, were presented on the CBC, CTV, and various
cablevision outlets; news releases and special articles went to daily and weekly
newspapers, magazines, and other publications; and the fire season publicity campaign included special radio, TV, and billboard advertisements.
Photographic production continued to increase; and there was a steady demand
for various pamphlets and brochures produced by the Division.
PHOTOGRAPHY
There was a slight increase in print production and this has stabilized over the
past few years in the 13,000 to 15,000 range, with use of colour continuing to
increase. The greatest increase was noted in 4 by 5 or smaller sizes, with 8,460
prints made, mainly for field personnel illustrating projects and reports. Colour
lab work is still done in commercial labs.
Additions to the photo library included 326 black and white negatives, 1,146
colour negatives, and 799 colour 35-mm slides.
Slides were produced to update the Inventory Division's training slide show
on helicopter safety, and the slide show "Productivity—the Key to Forest Management" was released, with 10 copies distributed.
Major assignments included two trips to the Sue Fire, near Donald, to cover
chaining, piling, burning, and planting; the Eden Fire at Salmon Arm; the use of
detonating cord in fire control; and continued coverage of the Mica pondage project.
All of them had full coverage wjth still-colour photos, 35-mm slides, and 16-mm
film.
Staff photographers obtained illustrations for ForesTalk, with additional photos
taken for the magazine while they were on regular assignments.
Processing and printing 70-mm black and white fixed-base photographs presented problems due to lack of facilities. About 2,000 feet were processed in
Vancouver and hand-printed as diapositives in our darkroom (approximately 6,000
exposures).
MOTION PICTURES
A 15-minute film, "The Day the Sayward Died," with narration in ballad form,
was edited and released in June. The training film "Four Wheels and a Winch" was
released in February. Other film projects included helicopter fixed-base 70-mm
photography, snag-falling and fire-fighting. Much of this footage was used for
television. A training film dealing with safety in river rafting was shot and scripted
and will be released early in 1974.
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY
An additional 1,460 publications were added to the library during 1973 in
the form of annual reports of many countries, station papers, books and journals,
plus accession lists from other libraries.
The library's monthly accession list goes to nearly 500 individuals, and results
in about 2,000 requests per month. Full use was made of interlibrary loans from
other institutions.
 S 42 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FILM LIBRARY
Nearly 2,470 film loans were made to schools, industry, and youth organizations, compared with 2,376 in 1972. Eleven films were previewed and two were
purchased. Twelve prints of "The Day the Sayward Died" and nine copies of
"Four Wheels and a Winch" were added to the library.
DISPLAYS
Forest Service displays were presented in special day events in many areas,
including Chilliwack, Lardeau, Sooke, Fairmont, and Crawford Bay; and careers
displays were used extensively. A major change is being considered for the Service's display at the PNE.
EDUCATION
Liaison was carried out with education officials in many areas, with heavy
accent placed on environmental matters. Printed material and staff help were made
available for the programme.
SIGNS
A major study of Forest Service signs was undertaken, with results going to
the Service's Executive Committee for discussion and implementation. Two special
designs were developed for interim use until the major sign programme gets under
way.
FOREST SERVICE MUSEUM
The museum is still in storage, but it is planned to include it with the British
Columbia Forest Museum at Duncan (formerly the Cowichan Valley Forest
Museum).
 L_
!
995 ^ ' 91
CHANTERELLE
monagemei
division
"
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 45
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
With increased demands for lumber, pulp, and paper, a new record was established for timber scaled in 1973. The total timber cut and scaled in the Province
increased by 24.2 per cent over 1972 to 24,768,581 cunits.
For the second year, the Interior scale was higher than that on the Coast. The
timber scaled in the Interior increased by 17.8 per cent, while the timber scaled on
the Coast increased by 32.4 per cent (see Table 51).
Conversion to the timber sale harvesting licence tenures by established licensees
in public sustained-yield units has now peaked. Established licensees who have not
converted to this form of tenure are those with small annual allowable cuts or unable
to comply fully with requirements. There were 248 timber sale harvesting licences
at the end of 1973, and the scale from them was 7,847,531 cunits.
All districts were involved in studies with other resource agencies to determine
areas that should not be logged for environmental reasons. When results of these
studies are known, the annual allowable cut in many public sustained-yield units will
undoubtedly be reduced.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Stumpage rates paid for Crown timber in the Interior are tied directly to the
dressed-lumber selling prices which continued upward into the first half of 1973 then
declined gradually. The general lumber price level was significantly better than in
1972 resulting in much higher stumpages. Log prices on the Coast showed some
improvement in the first half followed by a slight drop.
Average stumpage prices shown in Table 60 include the volume of timber sold
at salvage rates as well as volumes included in close-utilization licences and cutting
permits, the small wood component of which is set at a standard rate of $0.55 per
cunit. The average stumpage price per cunit for all species, excluding salvage wood
and the close-utilization component, was $17.14 on the Coast, up from $6.22 in
1972; and $25.52 in the Interior, up from $12.66 in 1972.
The End Product Appraisal System was implemented in the Interior on October 15. The new system includes the values of pulp chips (and pulp logs where a
market for pulp logs exists) as well as dressed lumber in the total price base, and
extends the appraisal to the volume in the close-utilization component which formerly carried a set rate of $0.55 per cunit. Immediate effects of the new system
were not discernible at year-end.
STUMPAGE ADJUSTMENTS
Changes in lumber-selling prices resulted in 45,783 upward and 14,682 downward adjustments in stumpage rates payable for timber cut on cutting permits and
timber sales in the Interior. For timber cut on the coast there were 12,123 upward
adjustments and 7,332 downward.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
Annual allowable cuts for two tree-farm licences were recalculated to the close-
utilization standards. All tree-farm licence operation are now on this level of
utilization.
 S 46
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Five working plans were approved and eight working plans were submitted for
review late in the year.
Contractor operations within the tree-farm licence areas continued in accordance with guidelines issued in 1970.
TREE-FARM LANDS
Several applications for certification of new tree-farms and requests for additions to existing tree-farms were held for review pending enabling legislation.
Two working plans were submitted, reviewed, and approved; and annual allowable cuts for two tree-farms were recompiled to close-utilization standards and
approved.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
(Public Sustained-yield Units)
Two new public sustained-yield units, the Kluskus and Fort Nelson, were established during 1973. The Kluskus lies within an area deleted from the northern part
of the Chilko PSYU, and statistics presented in Table 50 of the Appendix have been
adjusted accordingly. This unit will be administered by the Prince George Forest
District as a Forest Service operating unit.
It encompasses an area of 956,916 acres, and a close-utilization annual allowable cut of 112,780 cunits has been approved. Since the Fort Nelson PSYU is
included in the Northeast Study Area, determination of a cut has been postponed.
This is a unit of complex forest types which require careful analysis and knowledge
of probable demands by industrial plants likely to be established, before determining
the cut. There are now 80 public sustained-yield units in the Province.
The annual allowable cut has been fully committed in 53 public sustained-yield
units. Reviews are under way to ensure these cuts can be sustained, and to determine annual cuts for the remaining units. Ten major parks and a large Park Act
recreation area were created during the year, but inventories and annual allowable
cuts have not yet been adjusted in public sustained-yield units affected. Further
map notations were made to cover sensitive areas within public sustained-yield units,
to ensure particular care in planning resource development in such areas.
Forest Districts and regional offices of other departments have developed
procedures for assembling information for interdisciplinary assessment of areas
proposed for forest development, to ensure that other resource values are recognized in forest development plans. There have also been further interagency
special studies of areas where resource use conflicts exist or are likely to develop,
FOREST RECREATION
Operations
The field programme expanded significantly with 321 new sites developed.
These, added to the 286 sites developed in 1972, gave a total of 607 serviced
forest recreation sites at year-end.   A further 298 new sites are planned for 1974.
The low-key approach, stressing the rustic type of site development, was
again followed in 1973. Modifications to terrain and ground cover were kept to
a minimum, and facilities were installed only for sanitation and public safety needs.
Public opinion about this approach was most favourable. Criticism centred
on two issues—not enough picnic tables, and not enough map brochures. Both
issues are under review.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 47
Public use of the sites increased from 153,000 visits in 1972 to a reported
385,000 visits in 1973. This latter figure is conservative, due to incomplete tallies
at most sites.   A more accurate method for making visitor counts is being sought.
Servicing was handled by temporary summer help, under the direction of
local ranger staff, and students performed a valuable role.
A large camp-site near Mica Creek was developed co-operatively by British
Columbia Hydro, Parks Branch, and the Forest Service.
Planning
Recreation planning for the Ashnola PSYU is now under final review. In 27
other public sustained-yield units, recreation planning is in various stages of completion.
Twenty-five intensive recreation plans were initiated for specific areas, 18 of
which are now completed.
Identification of sight zones in forest land along major highways has been
started.
Recreation input was made into three Environmental and Land Use Committee resource studies—the Skagit River, Mica Pondage, and Purcell Range studies.
Increased interdepartmental liaison was evident in 1973. Reviews of park
proposals, referrals regarding recreation reserves, joint administration of historic
trails, the All-terrain Vehicle Committee, are cited as examples.
SILVICULTURE
Mature timber clearcutting will remain prominent as the best available harvest-regenerative practice for most coniferous forests. Shelterwood treatment, by
marking or diameter limit, where appropriate, is a treatment standard usually applied to Douglas fir-larch-pine complexes under Interior dry-belt conditions. Increasingly greater attention to size, location, and patterns of cutting will assure a
better integration of forestry with other resource requirements. Opening size reductions in high-risk areas (recreation, wildlife zones, for example) has resulted
in a dispersal of logging operations throughout some watersheds and managed
units.
Empasis will continue to focus on the need to adjust logging equipment to
suit the ground environment. Cable-logging techniques in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, particularly on steep or wet ground, proved useful in maintaining soil stability. A reasonably rapid build-up of "high-lead" capability is expected in these regions.
Scarification, "cat-blade or chain-drag," for natural regeneration, increased
during 1973. Much of the work, especially "chain-drag" heavily oriented to lodgepole pine site preparation, was undertaken by licensees. During 1973, Forest Service drag equipment was fully utilized as were several machines built and operated
by industry. More than 30,000 acres were scarified in the Interior as part of the
over-all site-preparation programme for artificial and natural regeneration (see
Reforestation).
SCALING
Scaling activity increased significantly in 1973 over 1972, as indicated by the
figures in Table 51 of the Appendix. Thirty-five new weigh scales were installed
and activated during the year.
 S 48 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Where logs are transported by water, scaling prior to watering is being insisted upon, if feasible, to improve the accuracy of log measurements, and to avoid
revenue loss due to log escapement before water scaling. Companies have been
co-operative in making the change, and have usually introduced dry land sorts at
the place of scaling.
Licensed scaler examinations were held throughout the Province and 216
candidates were successful.
EXPORT (LOGS)
The shortage in log stocks continued from 1972 and there was no log export
until a quantity of low-quality pulp and small cypress logs became surplus in
September.
The sawmill by-product, wood chips, continues in a surplus situation on the
lower Coast but the needs of industry control the volume of export and keep it at a
minimum level.   Export of wood chips dropped 4.2 per cent from the 1972 level.
LOG SALVAGE
Salvage of drift logs totalled 101,560 cunits, an increase of 3 per cent over
1972. A buoyant market in salvage logs carried over from the previous year,
though it fell off mid-year building an inventory of unsold booms, but these logs
were later sold and salvage continued at a firm pace.
Two new receiving-station sorting grounds began to accept salvage logs at
McRae Cove near Powell River and at Bold Island near Campbell River. These,
with the two existing sorting grounds in Howe Sound and the Fraser River, account
for an increase in the collection of lower quality and low floating logs.
The three beach-clearing licences in the Log Salvage District expired during
the year and were not renewed. Collection under these licences totalled 1,002
cunits in the year.
The Log Security Committee (an industry committee) and the Log and Debris Committee (a group representing government, industry, harbours, tow-boats,
and ecology) are pursuing methods of preventing losses of logs and floating wood
and debris.
 SHAGGY  MANE
grazing
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 51
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Weather had a profound effect on range conditions and other facets of ranch
operation in 1973. Throughout most of the range area snowfall was lighter than
average during the winter of 1972/73. Mild spells which bared the ground at
lower elevations were followed by low temperatures, deep frost penetration, and
icing conditions. Final snowmelt was meagre and penetration impeded by frozen
ground. Retained soil moisture was below normal at the end of the winter. This
was followed by a cool, dry, spring and severe summer drought.
These conditions resulted in delayed and distastrously curtailed forage growth
on both low and high elevation ranges. For example, measured growth on one grass
land range in good condition was less than 40 per cent of the 15-year average.
Growth terminated and forage dried up early. This situation, the worst in about
70 years, was misinterpreted by many as being the result of grazing mismanagement.
The drying-up of normally reliable stock watering-places and extreme heat
frustrated attempts to achieve proper live-stock distribution on many ranges. A
number of water developments and trails into normally unused areas were constructed on an emergency basis in an effort to relieve the situation. Stock were
removed early from many Crown ranges, with weight gains less than normal. Even
earlier removal of stock was indicated in many cases, but such action, together with
a crisis winter-feed situation, would have forced sale of cow herds and curtailed
future beef supplies.   Most permittees co-operated as fully as possible.
The erratic winter conditions resulted in severe damage to hay fields. In
some cases alfalfa stands were 90 per cent killed, and the cool spring limited the
success of rehabilitation efforts. Crops which were expected to be light were further
curtailed by shortage of irrigation water in some areas. Production from nonirri-
gated hay land was a small fraction of normal. The final results were astronomical
hay prices and severe culling of herds. Fortunately, moisture conditions were better
in the north and some surplus hay was available, particularly in the Peace River area.
Strident demands to prohibit cattle grazing on many Crown ranges were made
by some single-use advocates during the year. Most conflicts can be largely eliminated by a co-operative interdisciplinary effort toward improved integration of the
various rangeland uses. Before eliminating the use of Crown ranges by cattle, full
consideration must be given the impact on meat production and the social implications of depriving a substantial number of primary producers of both their income
and way of life.
Various import-export controls exercised by the Governments of Canada and
the United States, a beef price freeze in the United States and rail strikes in Canada
resulted in confused live-stock marketing conditions and artificial price fluctuations.
However, record high prices prevailed most of the year for cattle. The weighted
average price received by cattlemen through the B.C. Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was $45.43 per hundredweight compared to $36.30 in 1972, a rise
of $9.13. This favourable situation was largely offset by generally higher operating
costs and abnormal winter feed prices.
RANGE AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Heavy demands of a severe fire season on the technical field staff, a continuing
shortage of professional staff, and the pre-occupation of permittees with critical
 S 52 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
feed shortages and crop-land rehabilitation hampered management of Crown range
this year.   Nevertheless, some progress was made.
Flexible turnout and removal dates related to variations in range readiness and
production were more general than in previous years. Rotational grazing systems
were implemented on several range units. Studies continued on the intereffects
between cattle and wildlife and on grass seeding-timber regeneration relationships.
Integration of these uses is improving.
Range Surveys
Field work was undertaken on the following areas: Criss Creek Stock Range;
Promontory Unit, Nicola Stock Range; East portion, Tunkwa Lake Stock Range;
Lumby Unit, North Okanagan Stock Range; balance of Nicola Unit, Nicola Stock
Range; and the Skinner Mountain Unit, Chilcotin Stock Range. Maps and reports
on these areas are being prepared.
Maps and reports were completed for the following: Lolo Mountain Stock
Range; Pinantan-Pemberton Stock Range; west portion, Tunkwa Stock Range
(map only);  and the Apex-Nickel Plate area, Keremeos Stock Range.    *
The above programme is far short of what is required to bring range inventory
information up to a desirable current level.
Range Improvements
In addition to usual improvements on Crown range, two pasture development
projects under the ARDA programme were undertaken in 1973, one at Giscome,
east of Prince George, and one at Sunset Prairie in the Peace River area. The
Giscome pasture involved installation of fencing and other structural facilities to
permit use of natural range. The Sunset Prairie Project involved development of
2,000 acres of cultivated pasture and will be completed in 1974. The following
statistics include work done on the above pasture projects and on other Crown range.
Structural improvements constructed or replaced included 103 miles of trail
and road, 130 miles of fencing, 75 water developments, 11 bridges and culvers, 70
cattleguards, 14 corrals, one range cabin, and nine enclosures for experimental
studies or demonstration purposes.
A total of 1,746 acres was cleared in preparation for subsequent treatment.
Cultivation was undertaken on 2,028 acres and 1,330 acres of previously prepared
ground were seeded. A total of 45,440 pounds of grass and legume seed was sown
on ground denuded as a result of logging or other industrial activity and on the
above-mentioned cultivated sites. Unfortunately, some spring seedings appear to
be failures due to drought conditions. Prescribed burns to control brush covered
4,467 acres, mainly in the Peace River area.
Assistance to the programme from the Range Improvement Fund amounted
to $262,181, and from ARDA funds, $83,641. In addition, $20,000 was spent
on maintenance of existing pasture projects in the Peace River area from special
funds provided for that purpose. Except for Peace River pastures, range-users
contributed to most new projects and were responsible for routine maintenance.
Co-operation
Local live-stock associations are the most practical means through which
Crown range-users may participate in the development of effective range-management plans.  They are the medium through which co-users of common range can
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 53
carry out such plans on a co-operative basis. There are now 67 range live-stock
associations recognized under the Grazing Act. Forest Officers attended a total of
256 association meetings during the year.
Items of industry-wide importance were discussed with the British Columbia
Cattlemen's Association. The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative
Association, the industry-owned marketing agency, again supplied selling-price
figures for calculating grazing fees under the sliding scale. Over 62 million pounds
of beef animals from the range area were sold through the co-operative during
the year.
ADMINISTRATION
There was a greatly increased administrative work load in 1973. Growing
range land use pressures required more time and effort toward liaison with other
interested agencies and groups, and generated considerable correspondence and
many meetings. The situation diverted professional staff time from urgent management planning.
Extremely poor range forage production necessitated numerous adjustments
in grazing permits and other emergency measures. Direction of two pasture development projects approved under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act,
and investigation of new proposals placed a heavy load on the Prince George District.
Arrangements were made with Department of Agriculture officers for greater participation in this specialized activity.
A brief on the Forest Service role in range management was submitted to the
Select Standing Committee on Agriculture during the summer. District officers
also assisted the committee on range field trips. New range-management courses
were developed for the Forest Service staff-training programme, and two additional
professional range-management staff positions were approved.
A Rangeland Management Task Force was formed to make recommendations
on the structure, staffing, and legislation for a revised range land management unit
to deal with current problems.
Grazing and Hay Permits
During the year, 1,696 permittees were issued 1,920 grazing permits for
177,785 cattle, 5,748 horses, and 1,616 sheep on Crown range. The number of
permits is down slightly from the previous year. The number of cattle is up by
3,168 head (see Table 70 in the Appendix).
Expressed in animal-unit months (the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month), total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to
783,677 animal-unit months, 3,912 less than the previous year. The reduction, in
spite of larger cattle numbers, was due to shortened grazing periods.
A total of 140 hay-cutting permits was issued authorizing the harvesting of
1,99*3 tons of meadow hay, slightly higher than the previous year.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to prices for cattle received by
producers the previous year. Except for cultivated pastures in the Peace River
area, grazing fees per head per month were 73 cents for cattle, 91^ cents for
horses, and 18V4 cents for sheep, a marked increase over the previous year. The
separate scale of fees in effect for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area
 S 54
REPORT OF LANDS, FOFESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
remained at the rate of $1 per head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25
cents for sheep. The hay-cutting fee remained at $1 per ton.
Control and Enforcement
-t
The usual number of infractions of regulations or permit conditions were discovered. In most cases infractions were corrected promptly by warning the owner
of the offending stock. Seizure action was necessary in a number of instances—a
total of 159 horses and 16 cattle was removed from the range. Two serious cases
involving cattle were prosecuted in Court, where one conviction was obtained. The
second case is pending with a temporary injunction obtained requiring the defendent
to remove his stock from Crown range.
A considerably stepped-up educational and enforcement programme is required
to ensure proper range management. Outright trespass grazing is difficult to detect
and correct on extensive forest ranges. An even more difficult problem relates to
the complex management programmes now required to ensure properly integrated
range land use and maintenance of the resource. An adequate educational effort
would help this situation, but enforcement will be required. In this connection a
systematic method of reducing permits in relation to the seriousness of deviations
from prescribed management conditions was implemented on a trial basis in one
district. It appeared to have a salutory effect on that minority of careless permittees.
 PINK   CORAL   FUNGUS
engineering
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 57
ENGINEERING DIVISION
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
A total of 138 miles of route surveys completed by field crews included new
road location and right-of-way surveys of new and existing roads through alienated
land. Other work involved relocations of existing forest roads, as-built surveys,
site surveys for bridges, forest nurseries, ranger stations, lookout, airtanker bases,
mountain-top communication facilities, and crossings of railroads, pipe-lines, and
highways.
The Land Titles office conducted many investigations into the status of land
and improvements for roads, rights-of-way, and reserves for various purposes, as
well as negotiating for and acquiring land for administrative use and for the establishment of forest roads.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared and materials inspected
for two pressure-creosoted timber bridges, one on the Nazko River in the Cariboo
Forest District and one on the McLeod River in the Prince George Forest District.
Drawings were made for the reconstruction of small bridges to heavier loading
standards and for a four-span log bridge on the Nilkitkwa Forest Road.
Tentative sketches and estimates, for programme-planning purposes, were
made for 18 possible bridge-sites. Miscellaneous work included examination and
evaluation of industry-proposed bridges on forest roads.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Studies on problems of water quality and floating debris included water-quality
studies in Comox and Prince Rupert harbours, debris surveys on the Lower Fraser,
Squamish, Lillooet, and Skeena Rivers, and a debris study on lakes and streams.
The preliminary study on log losses from booms was completed.
Surveys were undertaken to estimate the volume of floating wood on Gordon-
Pascha Lakes and on Lake Williston. The reports provide the volumes by quality
classes. A survey of the areas requiring treatment on Ootsa Lake has been completed to assist in the planning of proposed operations.
A report has been submitted to the Fraser River Ecology Committee on the
effect of the "System E" dams on forestry. Development engineering investigations
were undertaken on the Kwoiek Creek, Stein River, and Torpy River drainages.
Computer programmes continue to assist in analysis of field data on subgrade
design, debris surveys, volume calculations, and forest fire and weather data. New
applications include personnel records and mechanical equipment operating and
maintenance cost records.
CONSTRUCTION
Larger road projects included a 4-mile extension of Suskwa Forest Road, an
8-mile extension of Nilkitkwa Forest Road, and relocation of short sections of
Cayoosh-Joffre Forest Road. Glulam-girder bridges were completed across the
Duncan River, on the Duncan River Forest Road, and across the Nazko River, on
Public Road 59. On Port Hardy Forest Road, five existing glulam-girder bridges
were strengthened from 90-ton loading to 150-ton loading.
 S 58 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
RESERVOIR IMPROVEMENTS
Postflood treatment on Williston Lake continued with disposal of some 220,000
cunits of waterborne debris, primarily in the Parsnip Reach. In addition, marketable logs were sorted and held for sale in booms.
Flooding behind the Mica Dam, forming McNaughton Lake, started on April 1,
1973. The pre-flood programme is virtually complete with a total of 49*,900 acres
cleared along the perimeter of the lake. On the Duncan Reservoir, 1,300 acres
were treated, including preparation of a navigation channel from the former Duncan
Lake to the north end of the reservoir.
On the Jordan River power development, 210 acres were treated in the diversion reservoir and disposal of nonmarketable wood started on the Bear Creek
Reservoir.
A pilot clearing opeartion started on the Nechako Reservoir to experiment with
underwater cutting and disposal of debris on shoreline by tractors. On the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir, 194 acres were treated, almost completing site-
preparation work.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
A programme of updating administrative accommodation was continued. New
sites are in process of acquisition or were acquired for administration centres at the
ranger level. A district warehouse in Prince George was started and major projects
started last year were completed.
The Reforestation Capital Construction Programme concentrated on the newer
nurseries at Surrey and Skimikin (15 miles west of Salmon Arm).
Miscellaneous assignments included ARDA sawmill construction programmes,
provision of temporary housing for residents of the Eden Fire area (at Salmon
Arm), and office accommodation planning in the Victoria precinct.
The programme of replacing vintage marine transportation was continued by
awarding a contract for the construction of a steel-hulled ramp-loading transporter
for use in coastal waters. A smaller transporter acquired from the Department of
Highways was put into service in reforestation programmes for the Prince Rupert
Forest District. Preliminary designs were completed for floating equipment on
Williston and Ootsa Lakes.
Trailers and portable buildings continue to provide valuable mobile accommodation in many locations, and 34 units were added to the fleet, including refrigerated,
staff quarter, ablution, office, and family residence units.
The material supply for projects undertaken by Forest Service crews was good
during the first part of the year, but shortages with greatly increased prices appeared
in the second half.
MECHANICAL
A total of 242 vehicles was purchased, of which 206 were replacements for
older unserviceable units in all districts and divisions. The remaining 36 were additional units to the fleet, most for reforestation use in the forest districts, four heavy-
duty units and one used fuel tanker for reforestation nurseries, and the remainder
for general purposes. Two older heavy-duty gravel trucks were replaced with
tandem-axle units for use in the Prince George Forest District.
Five large crawler tractors, one grader, and one truck-mounted backhoe were
replaced. Twelve wheel-type farm tractors were obtained. Miscellaneous nonstandard equipment purchases consisted of one large track-type all-terrain unit,
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1973 S 59
three large generating sets, two 40-ton equipment lowbeds, a large fork lift, and
a 110-hp. logging skidder. The usual pumps and power saws were purchased
during the year.
MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Major alterations and repairs were made to several buildings to cope with
increased work programmes and storage of materials. Many new boats, 60 new
and rental vehicles, and 440 new small machines such as pumps, saws, motors,
light plants, and motor-cycles were tested or fitted out.
Major overhauls, renovations, and installations were carried out on launches,
engines, and equipment, including a crew speeder for the British Columbia Forest
Museum, a tree planter, and tree shaker for harvesting cones. A depot crew nearly
completed the rebuilding of the 64-foot launch Oliver Clark II. At Lake Williston,
they overhauled all craft, extensively renovated the pusher tug Forest Mariner, and
disassembled the sectional tug Forest Engineer for transport to the Mica clearing
project. There, on McNaughton Lake, they reassembled and ran her through
trials.
Routine maintenance overhauls were performed on many boats, some 800
small machines, and 260 larger units, including tractors, graders, trailers, portable
buildings, and trucks.
The depot manufactured special Forest Service equipment such as radio repeater buildings, planting boxes, equipment boxes, and hose fittings.
The usual service functions, including truck and marine transport and warehousing, were continued. Transport-pool vehicles hauled 5,873 tons and towed
79 trailer units, travelling 240,000 miles.
COMMUNICATIONS
The programme of equipment modernization and replacement instituted several
years ago was continued. A total of 401 radio units of various types was purchased,
and 76 obsolete units were traded in or otherwise disposed of, a net increase of
325 units.
Seventeen battery-operated mountain-top repeaters were purchased to provide
improved coverage for various ranger districts, but because of slow delivery only 11
were installed.
By year-end all six forest districts had resident Communications Supervisors
responsible for maintenance and operation of district communication systems.
New control consoles were designed to provide increased flexibility of control
of the Prince Rupert and Nelson Forest Districts' radio systems.
 S 60
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 61
Stages of construction
of the Forest Service
bridge which spans the
Nazko River west of
Quesnel.
  GEMMED   PUFFBALL
protection
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 65
PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The northern half and coastal area of the Province recorded normal seasonal
temperatures with above-average precipitation during much of the year precluding
the development of any serious hazard build-up.
Late frosts and below-normal winter precipitation produced a severe drought
situation and mid-fire season hazard conditions by early May throughout much of
the central and southern Interior.
The cool cloudy weather during May and June gave temporary respite, but
by mid-July, when the usual summer weather became established, hazard build-up
in the southern portion of the Province was unseasonably high.
Clear weather prevailed through most of August, but minimal lightning activity
prevented a serious fire situation from materializing in most areas.
The drought conditions ended with substantial rainfall late in September.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Nearly 400 youths, in crews ranging between two and 20, were employed as
fire-fighters and stationed at strategic locations throughout the Province. They
helped fight 1,265 fires and worked on a variety of projects in the ranger districts.
FORESTRY YOUTH PROGRAMME
Achievements of the Forestry Youth crews proved again the value of this
worth-while programme.   A total of 1,099 young people was employed during 1973.
For the first time the minimum age for the crews was lowered to 16 years.
Some 36 youths in this age category were hired, with encouraging results.
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
During the fire season, five forest-use restriction orders were issued in the
Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, together with a number of campfire suspension orders (see tables).
AIRCRAFT
Thirty-seven aircraft were retained on contract during the fire season. Distribution of these aircraft was as follows:
Detection aircraft (six)—Vancouver District, two Cessna 182; Kamlops District, two Cessna 180; Cariboo District, one Cessna 180, one Piper PA 18.
Patrol and administration aircraft (three)—Vancouver District, one Beaver;
Kamloops District, one Cessna 337; Nelson District, one Cessna 337.
Helicopters (three)—Vancouver District, one Hiller 12E; Prince Rupert District, one Hiller 12E; Nelson District (Mica Pondage), one Bell 47G3B-1.
Airtankers (18)—Vancouver District, one Canso; Prince Rupert District, two
Canso; Prince George District, four A-26; Kamloops District, two A-26, two
Avengers; Nelson District, four Avengers; Cariboo District, two A-26 (for May
and June only) and three Avengers for July and August.
Bird-dog aircraft (seven)—Vancouver District, one Aero Commander; Prince
Rupert District, one Cessna 337; Prince George District, one Cessna 210 (May to
June only) and one Aerostor (July and August); Kamloops District, two Cessna
210; Nelson District, one Cessna 337; Cariboo District, one Cessna 210.
 S 66
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The districts not provided with contract aircraft for detection, administration,
or helicopter flying were allotted funds to hire these aircraft locally as required.
Co-operation between the forest districts for the interchange of airtankers was
very effective, making optimum use of the aircraft that were available. The DC-6
was used on fires for the first time and proved to be highly effective.
The year was marred by two aircraft tragedies. One involved a contract
helicopter which crashed while on a routine inspection flight, killing the pilot and
two Forest Service employees. The other involved a bird-dog aircraft which
crashed while manoeuvring near a fire, killing the pilot and one Forest Service
employee.
FIRES
Occurrence and Cause
There were 2,863 forest fires during the 1973 season compared to the 10-year
average of 2,462 fires. This was a large increase over the 1,903 fires which occurred
in 1972, but still well below the record occurrence of 4,003 fires in 1970.
The largest single cause of fires was lightning, which accounted for 810 fires
(most in the Nelson district) (28 per cent of the annual total). The 10-year
average percentage of lightning fires is 33 per cent.
Almost 27 per cent of the 1973 fires (a total of 769 fires) were reported as
caused by recreationalists and smokers, an increase from the 10-year average of
23 per cent for these categories.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Forest Service costs for fire-fighting totalled $8,585,593 and the costs to other
parties was $2,326,366. The average cost per fire to the Fire Suppression Vote
was $3,000, which is well above the 10-year average of $1,806. Because of extreme
drought conditions in the southern part of the Province in late summer, greater use
of airtankers was required for fast initial action on fires. Expanded use of airtankers
plus the increase in fire-fighters' pay rates were the main reasons for increased average cost of fires.
Loss
The area burned during 1973 was 82,524 acres, compared to the 10-year
average area burned of 68,260 acres. The value of loss of forest cover is estimated
at $5,276,975, which is well above the 10-year average of $4,135,240.
Slash Disposal
Slash-burning throughout most of the Province was on a reduced scale, reflecting concern because of extended drought conditions in the southern half of the
Province during late summer and early fall.
In the Vancouver Forest District, 489" acres were abated in Forest Service
prescribed burns. Slash-burning by industrial operators started in August on the
northern part of Vancouver Island. Most of the slash-burning accomplished was
in that portion of the forest district, as dry hazardous conditions continued through
September in the southern part of the Vancouver Forest District. All slash-burning
was suspended in mid-September as a result of serious "escapes" at Salmon Arm
and other areas of the Province. Instructions for burning were issued on 52,323
acres of logging slash. A total of 11,245 acres was abated by burning and 1,491
acres were abated by other means.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 67
In the Prince George Forest District, 51,821 acres were instructed for burning,
including 3,293 acres of windrowed slash. Most of the instructions were issued for
spot-burning of accumulations. Satisfactory abatement was accomplished by industrial operators on 28,100 acres of the instructed areas, including 2,573 acres of
windrowed slash. An additional 2,155 acres of slash were abated by the Forest
Service in prescribed burns. In addition to the areas noted above, the slash hazard
was greatly reduced on 8,346 acres through drag scarifications.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, 39,700 acres were instructed for burning,
but only 1,277 acres were abated, all by industrial operations.
In the Kamloops Forest District 36,701 acres of slash were instructed for
burning and satisfactory abatement obtained on 7,156 acres by industrial operations.
The Nelson Forest District issued instructions on 51,000 acres. Satisfactory
abatement was obtained on 29,000 acres by industrial operations. In addition to
the instructed areas, satisfactory abatement was achieved in Forest Service prescribed burns on an additional 12,500 acres.
Of the 12,757 acres instructed in the Cariboo Forest District, satisfactory abatement was obtained on 3,940 acres by industrial operations.
The major escape from slash-burning on the Fly Hills near Salmon Arm on
September 11 resulting in the Eden Fire was responsible for the suspension of all
burning during most of September and part of October.
Snag Disposal
In the Vancouver Forest District, snag-falling was on a lesser scale than in
former years. A total of 1,877 acres was felled—650 acres by contract and 1,227
acres by the district snag-falling crew.
In the Cariboo Forest District, 400 acres of snags were felled by the Forest
Service.
Fire Law Enforcement
Charges were laid for 57 violations of the Forest Act—17 involved burning
without a burning permit, 19 for contravening a forest closure, seven for contravening a forest restriction order by having campfires during a period in which they were
banned, eight for failing to render assistance in fighting forest fires, five for contravening burning permit conditions, and one for leaving a campfire unattended.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Computer Fire Statistics and Weather Data
Maintenance of fire report data continued and information from 1950 to 1972
(inclusive) is on magnetic tape.
Annual protection statistical tables, routine now that the backlog has been
overcome, were prepared and distributed for 1972 data.
The Fire Weather Indices for the total fire weather network (approximately
80 stations) for the years 1970-72, inclusive, are on tape. Starting in 1973 all
weather data collected from all stations will also be placed on tape.
 S 68
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
No visibility mapping was undertaken due to the Provincial detection analysis
now under way.
One forestry student was employed for lookout photography and 25 panoramas
were taken, one in the Vancouver Forest District, 12 in Kamloops, and 12 in Nelson.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
A total of 1,090 sets was shipped out to users—55 per cent went to the forest
industry and 45 per cent to the Forest Service.
The co-operation and use of facilities at the Western Forest Products Laboratory in Vancouver is gratefully acknowledged.
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration
Liaison was maintained with other Provincial Government departments and
Federal agencies, and representation was continued on joint Government/industry
committees working on forest insect problems. The general increase in insect defoliator activity continued throughout the Province. Black army cutworm caused severe
damage to plantations in several Interior locations. Spruce budworm defoliation
activity increased in the Vancouver and Kamloops Forest Districts. In the Nelson
Forest District, western hemlock looper, filament bearer, larch casebearer, and larch
budmoth were active. Black-headed budworm infestations on Vancouver Island subsided in early summer, but populations increased in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Mountain pine beetle infestations continued in the Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince
Rupert Forest Districts, and spruce beetle remained active in the Kamloops District.
The Douglas fir tussock moth expanded its range in the dry Okanagan area.
Two co-operative aerial spray projects were undertaken against the following
insects:
Black-headed budworm—Treatment of 28,800 acres in the Port Alice area
on Vancouver Island was conducted under the auspices of the Pest Control Committee, using Fenitrothion in two spaced treatments of 2 ounces
per acre in a very fine spray.
False hemlock looper—An experimental treatment was conducted in the Salmon Arm area, using Bacillus thuringiensis on 400 acres, as a co-operative
Canada Forest Service/B.C. Forest Service/chemical company project.
Pesticide applicator courses were again arranged through the B.C. Department
of Agriculture for personnel involved in pesticide use. Chemical treatment plans
for the Forest Service, forest industry, and other users which could affect the forest
environment were reviewed under membership in the Provincial Inter-departmental
Pesticide Committee. All proposed Forest Service herbicide treatments using 2,4-D
and 2,4,5-T were suspended by the Chief Forester pending findings and recommendations of the Royal Commission of Inquiry on Pesticides and Herbicides
appointed in 1973.
The Protection Division submitted a brief, on behalf of the Forest Service, to
this Royal Commission.
Research Projects
Major project completions during 1973:
Detection—The detection analyses for the Kamloops, Nelson, and Cariboo
Forest Districts were concluded. The Kamloops study recommended
retention of 16 of the original 21 primary lookouts, five to be deleted, two
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 69
to be retained as secondary lookouts, and six defined air patrol routes.
The Nelson study recommended the retention of 29 of the original 41
primary lookouts, seven to be abandoned, five relegated to secondary
status, and nine air patrol routes. The Cariboo study indicated the retention of nine of the original 13 lookouts, two to be abandoned, two relegated to secondaries, with four new air patrol routes.
Fire camp wood stove—An easily constructed stove using 45-gallon drums
was designed which permits recycling of old barrels into a useful product
capable of feeding up to 21 men.
Removable tractor light—A tractor light and attachments, using shelf items,
was designed to accommodate equipment hired for night-time fire-fighting
where the equipment does not have lights.
Major projects active but not completed during 1973:
Handbooks—Two new handbooks, Fire Retardants and Large Fire Administration, and two revisions of existing handbooks, Air Tankers and Use of
Bulldozers, are in various stages of completion.
Detection—Detection analyses for the Prince George and Prince Rupert Forest
Districts are nearing completion.
Fire weather indices—Indices are being recalibrated and improved danger-
rating guidelines are under review for implementation in 1974.
Fire weather network—Reporting weather stations, weather zones, and danger-
rating zones are being reviewed for improvement of the total system.
Airtankers—Evaluation forms from 1970-72 have been analysed by computer
techniques and further analysis is under way to compare aircraft types,
ground and fire conditions to assess comparative effectiveness.
Burning indices—In co-operation with the Pacific Forest Research Station a
system is being devised to supply improved guidelines for prescribed burns,
using applicable indices and related to fuel types and topography.
Explosives for fireline construction—Further tests under real fire situations
were conducted on a prototype detonating cord of 800-grains-per-foot
capacity, with retardant additive to overcome fire starts. Good results
were obtained and this study will be expanded with use in five ranger districts in 1974 to obtain a wider evaluation of potential field application.
Equipment development—Prototype of a collapsible pump carrier, a hose protector for road crossings, and a fire camp shower are in various stages of
development and testing.
Products testing—Six new wet-water agents and Tenogum, a short-term retardant, were comparatively tested and are in the report stage.
Service and Co-operation
The forest districts were supplied with 576 two-man, two-day emergency fire-
ration packs.
Six Planning and Research Reports, covering a variety of projects, were published and distributed to field staff and outside protection agencies. There were
numerous requests for the handbook series and project reports from other agencies
in Canada and foreign countries.
 S 70
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Considerable time and effort was spent in satisfying the requests from the
forest districts for fire overlay copies of the Provincial Fire Atlas as an aid in the
managed-unit planning currently under way.
Two fire weather two-week training courses were arranged and co-operatively
conducted with the Atmospheric Environment Service for field personnel.
Assistance in training weather instrument technicians was given to Prince
Rupert and Vancouver Forest Districts.
 RED  GILLED   CORTINARIUS
training school
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 73
TRAINING SCHOOL
MAJOR EVENTS
Advanced Class 17 of 24 persons graduated from the school on April 6.
Introductory courses for newly employed university graduates and technical
institute graduates were held May 1 to 3, May 23 to 25, and June 4 to 6 for 11, 10,
and 27 persons respectively.
The Inventory Division used the school facilities in May for its spring training
programme for seasonal field employees, and during the fall a course in personnel
supervision was presented for senior field supervisors from districts and divisions.
The latter course consisted of two three-week sessions with 24 trainees in each. Two
collective bargaining seminars for senior personnel from districts and divisions were
also held. Also in this period, a course in television interview techniques was held
for 12 senior personnel from Victoria and the districts. The courses were presented
in co-operation with the Extension Division of the British Columbia Institute of
Technology.
During the year, school facilities were also used for several meetings and Vancouver Forest District training courses. The annual outdoor classroom project,
sponsored jointly by the Surrey School Board and the Canadian Forestry Association, was held again at the school.
TRAINING PROGRAMME REVISION
Graduation of Advanced Class 17 marked a turning point in the Forest Service
training programme. After April 6, the school staff investigated current training
needs in co-operation with districts and divisions and submitted a brief to the
Forest Service Executive Committee, which gave it approval in principle. Excerpts
from the brief were published under the title of Outline of Recruitment, Training
and Promotion Programme. Responsibility for further development of the programme was delegated to the Forester-in-charge of the Training School.
MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION
Three students were employed to assist with painting, general building maintenance, and grounds maintenance.
HIGHLIGHTS, 1973
Total graduates of Forest Service Training School since 1946:
Basic course (Classes 1 to 11)  243
Advanced course (Classes 1 to 17)  367
Technical institute graduates' course (Class 1)     25
Introduction of new Forest Service training programme, co-ordinated from the
Training School.
  WITCHS'   BUTTER
accounting
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 77
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
Market prices for forest products continued to escalate in 1973 as anticipated,
but reached levels much higher than estimated. The resultant reflection in stumpage
rates brought the totals of both amounts billed and collected to unprecedented highs.
There were indications of a downward trend in prices at the close of the year, but
it was estimated the financial return to the Forest Service would remain high in 1974.
Amounts charged against logging operations in 1973 (see Table 142 in the
Appendix) rose sharply to $267,268,202, an increase of 146 per cent. All forest
districts registered substantial gains. Cariboo District led with 612.7 per cent, but
this was their first full billing-year. Prince Rupert District rose an impressive 267.7
per cent, Vancouver District was next with 151.2 per cent, followed by Nelson
District with 127.9 per cent, Kamloops District with 92.4 per cent, and Prince
George District with 80.9 per cent.
Revenue collections totalled $244,845,256 (see Table 141), an increase of
138.6 per cent. Timber sale stumpage, which comprises over 94 per cent of the
total, contributed $230,648,895, a gain of 153 per cent over 1972. Timber sale
rentals and fees increased by 9.2 per cent, while cruising and advertising declined
by 5.7 per cent.
Timber licence rentals and fees, timber berth rentals and fees, and timber lease
rentals and fees all declined by 6.0 per cent, 8.3 per cent, and 8.0 per cent
respectively.
Revenue from timber royalties rose by 28.9 per cent. This reflected an increase
in cut from these tenures, as royalty rates were unchanged. Collections from grazing permits and fees increased slightly by 1.7 per cent, while forest-protection tax
showed a minor decrease of 3 per cent.
Miscellaneous revenue collections increased substantially by 36.6 per cent,
mainly due to heavier billing of fire costs resulting from an active fire season.
Collection of weight-scaling costs, fully recoverable from the industry, again rose
by 32.8 per cent as the change to this method of scaling in coastal areas continued.
A new fully recoverable category, collection from industry of the costs of maintaining fire-fighting standby crews in timber sale harvesting licence areas, contributed
$282,597.
Additional financial tables covering operations for the 1972/73 fiscal year are
in the Appendix. Detailed expenditure information is maintained only on a fiscal
year basis and is published annually by the Department of Finance in Public
Accounts.
An Accelerated Reforestation Fund was established in 1972 in the amount of
$10,000,000 to finance "an accelerated reforestation or forest improvement programme." A further $5,000,000 was provided by the Legislature in 1973 (see
Table 149).
This left a balance of $4,349,557 at March 31, 1973, to which $5,000,000
was added by amendment to the Accelerated Reforestation Act at the 1973 Spring
Session of the Legislature for expenditure in the 1973/74 fiscal year.
ADMINISTRATION
Accounts receivable at December 31 totalled $43,273,526, which was 51.3
per cent larger than the 1972 figure. The increase was mainly the reflection of an
increase of 24.2 per cent in the volume of timber harvested coupled with the
 S 78 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
higher stumpage rates in effect. A further factor, particularly in the Cariboo and
Prince George regions, was the shortage of railway cars, which prevented operators
from keeping their inventories at an economic volume. The situation appeared
to be easing at the year's end.
Expenditure accounting volume continued at a high level, both to cope with
increased activity in various programmes and the heavy fire costs. Anticipated
changes to modernize budgeting procedures were not implemented, but preparations
were made to introduce them in 1974.
Effective April 1, 1973, a change was made in the Division's responsibilities
as the administration of the Log Salvage Regulation and the export sections of the
Forest Act were transferred to Management Division. Any comment on these
activities will appear in that division's report.
 WHITE   JELLY   MUSHROOM
personnel
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 81
PERSONNEL DIVISION
The Special Studies Division, with R. D. Thomas as manager, was formed in
1973, and will be staffed by professionals in the fields of economics and resource
management.
In staff-training, C. Highsted was named Co-ordinator of Training and Training
Supervisors will be named for each Forest District. A new training/promotional
programme will allow more flexibility for employees to take required courses and
examinations for promotion. Special seminars were held for management personnel covering topics involved in collective agreements. Training courses for
supervisors were attended by district and divisional personnel. Ranger meetings
were held at Vancouver, Nelson, and Williams Lake. One Engineer and two
Technical Forest Officers were selected for Class XVIII of the Public Administration Course, and two Foresters, one Technical Forest Officer, and one Forest
Protection Officer graduated from Class XV and received diplomas in public
administration from the University of Victoria. Three employees graduated from
Class 9 of the correspondence course in public administration, and four employees
were selected for Class 9 of the course.
The permanent establishment of the Forest Service during 1973 was 997
(including 122 in Vancouver Scaling and 46 new positions). There were also 338
temporary continuous and limited-term positions for a total of 1,336. The
Personnel Division processed 390 requisitions, giving a turnover (including new
appointments, transfers and in-service promotion) of 29 per cent. A total of 180
Public Service employees left the Service, the majority in junior clerical classifications, but also including nine Foresters and a number of technical employees.
Employment and working conditions remained relatively unchanged except
for an increase in vacation leave for employees with 10 to 20 years' service.
Legislation allowing bargaining rights for public servants, and a new Public Service
Act, were passed in the Legislature.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 83
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1973
(As of December 31)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J. S. Stokes  -       - Deputy Minister of Forests
I. T. Cameron Chief Forester
W. E. L. Young Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
P. J. J. Hemphill Director of Services
Staff Division Heads:
C. Cooper Forest Counsel
W. V. Hicks -       Departmental Comptroller
Operations Branch Division Heads:
W. C. Phillips Forester i/c Protection Division
J. A. K. Reid Forester i/c Management Division
J. B. Bruce -------- Foreser i/c Inventory Division
W. C. Pendray Director, Grazing Division
Services Branch Division Heads:
E. Knight Forester i/c Reforestation Division
G. C. Warrack Forester i/c Research Division
E. H. Lyons Forester i/c Information Division
C. Highsted Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
L. W. Lehrle Engineer i/c Engineering Division
A. M. Brand Personnel Officer
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. M. Pogue -
L. W. Lehrle (to Oct. 14, 1973)
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
W. G. Howard (Cultus Lake); G. D. Bertram (Hope); J. T. Schmidt (Harrison Lake);
J. N. Nelson (Mission); M. H. Mudge (Port Moody); M. N. Neighbor (Squamish); R. S.
Wilson (Sechelt); K. A. Northrup (Pender Harbour); S. B. Hollinshead (Powell River);
V. J. Doerksen (Lund); T. Brooks (Campbell River North); W. C. Archer (Sayward);
B. D. Horning (Port McNeill North); R. A. Campbell (Port McNeill); A. J. Teindl (Port
Hardy); Vacant (Campbell River); K. Haley (Port Alberni); G. F. Hawkey (Tofino);
N. P. Gilgan (Pemberton); D. E. DeHart (Gold River); M. W. Antonelli (Langford);
H. Norbirg (Parksville); S. J. Sykes (Duncan); R. H. Thomas (Cowichan Lake).
Prince George Forest District
W. Young
W. G. Bishop
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. W. Graham (McBride); W. E. Hall (Valemount); M. A. McRae (Prince George East);
G. E. Meents (Prince George North); L. G. Espenant (Fort St. James); H. V. Hopkins
(Dawson Creek); J. L. Younghusband (Aleza Lake); H. Osborne (Vanderhoof); V. G.
Cornwallis-Bate (Fort St. John); P. F. Griffiths (Fort Fraser); T. A. Walker (Summit
Lake); H. L. Miskovish (Fort Nelson); G. E. Magee (Prince George West); D. F. Wallin
(Hixon); L. McQueen (Chetwynd); E. W. Hewitt (Mackenzie).
 S 84
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon District Forester
C. A. MacPherson - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
D. J. Wittner (Lumby); M. E. Monteith (Birch Island); O. D. Parsey (Barriere); J. P.
Weinard (Kamloops); V. D. Craig (Chase); R. D. Jackson (Salmon Arm); G. G. Jones
(Sicamous); G. Stefanac (Lillooet); A. G. Cameron (Vernon); R. W. McDaniel (Pentic-
ton); G. F. M. Baker (Princeton); F. Pearce (Kelowna); J. O. Noble (Ashcroft); R. K. M.
Berard (Merritt); V. H. Barge (Blue River); J. Wanderer (Enderby).
Prince Rupert Forest District
W. G. Hughes
R. G. Gill   -
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
V. H. Hernandez (Queen Charlotte City); H. W. Quast (Terrace); W. O. Neros (Kit-
wanga); F. L. Roe (Hazelton); A. R. Pement (Smithers); D. J. Neal (Houston); W. C.
Waldron (Burns Lake); S. E. Hansen (Bella Coola); W. H. Jones (Southbank); J. P.
Dunlop (Lower Post); M. F. Wilkinson (Kitimat); R. N. Keep (Stewart); W. O. Johnston
(Prince Rupert).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston
J. A. D. McDonald
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. M. Cartwright (Invermere); J. L. Humphrey (Fernie); S. E. Anderson (Golden); J. B.
Gierl (Cranbrook East); R. G. Trenaman (Creston);'H. Thompson (Kaslo); B. L. Cus-
tance (Lardeau); R. E. Robinson (Nelson); C. C. Jupp (New Denver); J. H. Raven
(Nakusp); H. R. Wood (Castlegar); R. J. Russell (Grand Forks); W. R. Anderson (Kettle
Valley); H. D. Hamilton (Canal Flat); W. G. Benwell (Mica Creek); W. O. Pistak (Fauquier); E. W. Hewitt (Elko); G. R. Webster (Spillimacheen); L. O. Hamann (Cranbrook
West); J. A. Hogan (Beaverdell); C. N. Bellmond (Salmo); G. L. Benwell (Revelstoke).
Cariboo Forest District
E. W. Robinson
M. G. Isenor
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
J. H. Little (Quesnel); A. P. Petty Clinton); J. G. Ward (Williams Lake); E. A. Bouchard
(Alexis Creek); F. A. Folliet (Quesnel); C. Rohn (Quesnel); F. W. Hendy (Tatla Lake);
J. F. Lynn (Horsefly); R. W. Donnelly (100 Mile House); P. O. Holitzki (Likely).
 APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 87
CONTENTS
Table
No. Page
1. Unit Standard Inventory, 1973 Field Work  89
2. Production of Final Forest Cover Maps for 1972 Projects  89
3. Status of Research Projects in 1973   90
4. Research Publications   90
5. Summary of Planting, 1964-73  91
6. Planting by Forest District  92
7. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)      9 3
8. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units Over Crown-granted Lands)      93
9. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     9 3
10. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units  94-95
11. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia, 1972 and 1973 (in
Cunits)      9 6
12. Species Cut, All Products (in Cunits)      96
13. Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1973 (in Cunits) (Segregated by Land
Status and Forest Districts)     97
14. Number of Acres Operating Under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1964-73      9 8
15. Total Scale of All Products From Areas Operated Under Approved An
nual Allowable Cuts, 1964-73  99
16. Logging Inspections, 1973   100
17. Trespasses, 1973   101
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting Licence Cut
ting Permits, 1973   102
19. Timber Sales and Cutting Permits (Timber Sale Harvesting Licences)
Awarded by Forest Districts  103
20. Average Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest Districts on Cutting Per
mits of Timber Sale Harvesting Licences and Timber Sales Issued
(per Cunit Log Scale)   104
21. Average Stumpage Prices Received by Species and Forest Districts on
Timber Scaled From Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits  105
22. Timber Cut and Billed From Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences   106
23. Wood-processing Plants of the Province  107
24. Export of Logs (in Cubic Feet)   108
25. Exports From the Province of Minor Forest Products  108
26. Timber Marks Issued, 1964-73   109
27. Number of Weigh-scales by District  109
28. Grazing Permits Issued, 1973   109
29. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1973  110
30. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1973  110
31. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  110
32. Fires Classified by Size and Timber Loss, 1973  111
33. Loss of Property Other Than Forest, 1973  112
34. Loss to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1973—Part I  112
35. Loss to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1973—Part II  113
36. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Loss, 1973  114
 S 88
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table
No. Pace
37. Comparison of Loss Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  115
38. Fires Caused by Forest District, and Cost of Fire-fighting  116
39. Forest-use Restrictions   117
40. Suspension of Campfires   117
41. Forest Revenue, 1969-73   117
42. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1973  118
43. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1972/73   119
44. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1972/73  120
45. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1972-73  120
46. Scaling Fund   121
47. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  121
48. Reservoir Waterway Improvements  121
49. Accelerated Reforestation Fund   121
50. Distribution of Personnel, 1973   121
 (1)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
UNIT STANDARD INVENTORY
1973 FIELD WORK
S 89
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Mature
Immature
28
49
73
36
42
81
104
56
26
52
105
126
91
115
87
109
366
136
120
116
11
4
139
258
226
231
144
114
180
218
1,571,597
3,038,153
1,523,144
Creston  „,. 	
779,469
675,662
Fernie    -	
1,538,861
7,044,746
3,742,166
415,227
956,588
547
1,371
1,525
21,285,613
(2)    PRODUCTION OF FINAL FOREST COVER MAPS FOR  1972 PROJECTS
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area in Acres
Volume in
Cunits for
Mature
Crown Area
(Close "U")
Finlay ..„	
Klappan (proposed)	
Lac la Hache ._..	
Liard (proposed) (east half)
Morice— 	
Peace-  	
Spallumcheen ___ „_.	
Totals^ „.	
390
66
95
47
75
99
55
11,652,835
4,482,605
1,779,099
3,831,431
1,420,877
1,744,883
980,584
570,670
714
232,215
44,598
45,713
185,386
12,223,505
4,483,319
2,011,314
3,831,431
1,465,475
1,790,596
1,165,970
827
25,892,314
1,079,296
26,971,610
93,607,370
15,348,460
22,949,580
(!)
28,082,330
22,478,140
16,371,610
198,837,490
i Not available at time of publication.
 S 90 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(3) STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN  1973
Active at beginning of year      113
Terminated  1
New projects  15
Active at end of year  127
Subject
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Cariboo
Land classification	
5
3
9
33
1
3
4
1
10
1
5
1
5
3
3
4
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
Direct seeding	
Planting ,	
1
1
Statistics - -	
Management: Economics	
Integrated Resource Management	
Totals	
75
17
13
9
10
3
(4)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Cheung, K. (1973): Induction of Dormancy in Container-Grown Western Hemlock (Tsuga
heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.).   B.C. For. Serv. Research Note 59.
Illingworth, K. (1973): Variation in the Susceptibility of Lodgepole Pine Provenances to
Siroccocus Shoot Blight.   Can. J. For. Res. (accepted for publication).
Keser, N., and St. Pierre, D. (1973): Soils of Vancouver Island. A Compendium. B.C. For.
Serv. Research Note 56.
Orr-Ewing, A. L. (1973): The Douglas Fir Arboretum at Cowichan Lake, Vancouver Island.
B.C. For. Serv. Research Note 57.
Schmidt, R. L. (1973): A Provenance Test of Coastal Douglas Fir in British Columbia—
Preliminary Results at 6 Years. A paper presented at the I.U.F.R.O. Working Party of
Douglas Fir Provenances, Gottingen, West Germany.
van den Driessche, R. (1973): Prediction of Frost Hardiness in Douglas Fir Seedlings by
Measuring Electrical Impedance in Stems at Different Frequencies. Can. J. For. Res.
3(2):256-264.
   (1973): Foliar Nutrient Concentration Differences Between Provenances of Douglas Fir
and Their Significance to Foliar Analysis Interpretation.   Can. J. For. Res. 3(2):323-328.
  (1973): Different Effects of Nitrate and Ammonium Forms of Nitrogen on Growth and
Photosynthesis of Slash Pine Seedlings.  Australian Forestry 36(2): 125-137.
 , Webber, J. E., and Knight, B. I. (1973): Relationship Between Levels of Some Free
Amino Acids in Tissue and Nutrient Status of Douglas Fir.   A paper presented at the
I.U.F.R.O. Symposium on Forest Fertilization, Paris, France.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 91
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LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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992.
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063.
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456.
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227.
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 93
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
C) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Forest District
Schedule
B
Schedule
A
Total
Cut
(Cunits)
171
61
1
1
7
5
2,963,433
3,539,246
390,933
80,643
726,253
1,378,970
1,144,438
207,125
1,733
671
1,841
42,104
4,107,871
3,746,371
392,666
81,314
728,094
1,421,074
6,818,872
11,046,617
447,946
85,046
776,982
3,325,428
4,607,653
1,769,100
149,000
Cariboo 	
44,000
199,310
560,650
34
9,079,478
1,397,912
10,477,390
22,500,891
7,329,713
1 Three tree-farm licences located in both districts.
Schedule B is vacant Crown land.
Schedule A is land for which the tree-farm licence holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by
the tree-farm licence agreement. This may include lands held in fee-simple or temporary tenures, e.g., timber
leases, licences, and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are
transferred to Schedule B.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS  (PRIVATE
(8) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-
farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Produc
Forest District
Mature     mamre
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
tive
Capacity
(Cunits)
14
1
2
63,585 1 225,439
141 |      1,033
530 |      4,719
35,921
47
4,358
324,945
1,221
9,607
364,070
1,280
10,158
330,140
Prince George	
458
4,312
17
64,256 | 231,191
40,326
335,773
375,508
334,910
Not Included Within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver	
Nelson...	
22
10
100,565
86,834
302,861
185,838
39,215
111,091
442,641
383,763
481,423
480,301
318,579
94,296
(339,596)
32
187,399
488,699
150,306
826,404
961,724
412,875
(339,596)
49
251,655
719,890
190,632
1,162,177
1,337,232
747,785
(339,596)
Figures in parentheses (  ) are Christmas trees.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
(9) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual
Crown
Private
Total
Cut
(Cunits)
12
5
4
10
3
5
1.860
220
2,080
1,805
972
3,233
794
2,284
2,887
3,261
1,007
3,796
794
2,391
851
1.570    1         235
367
972
2,803
691
1,457
430
103
827
400
Cariboo	
746
Kamloops	
223
Nelson	
316
39
9,353
1,815
11,168
14,136
2,903
 S 94
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 S 96
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
(11) 1972 AND  1973  (IN CUNITS)
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1964-73
1972
1973
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
Vancouver— „	
Prince Rupert (Coast)..
Totals, Coast	
Prince Rupert (Interior)
Prince George*	
Cariboo2-.- —	
Kamloops1 —	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior	
Grand totals 	
8,075.
1,450.
9,525
1,037
3,099.
184.
2,623.
1,744.
184.37
505.34
689.71
973.55
293.91
887.51
833.38
295.79
7,130,
1,594.
8,724.
1,116.
4,373.
471.85 |
,033.57  |
.505.42
.555.53  |
,234.02
3,561
2,159.
.341.64
946.16
9,547.
2,009
11,557
1,820
4,010
1,848.
2,957
2,573.
106.98
909.98
016.96
355.26
602.51
875.13
948.08
783.21
8,690,284.14 |   11,211,077.35  |  13,211,564.19
18,215,973.85 |   19,935,582.77     24,768,581.15
2,416,635.13
415,876.41
2,832,511.54
703,799.73  |
1,848,875.13 j
413,837.05
|    362,631.51
603,393.56
2,966,511.91  1    966,025.07
4,832,998.38
1 Includes Cariboo District in previous years.
2 Reported by Kamloops and Prince George Districts in previous years.
(12)
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS  (IN CUNITS)
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver -	
Prince Rupert (Coast) —
Totals, Coast ....
Prince Rupert (Interior)
Prince George 	
Cariboo —
Kamloops —
Nelson 	
Totals, Interior.
Grand totals	
I I I
1,871,037.42|2,063,143.08|    124,992.95|      10,388.60
32,117.90|   303,954.91|   336,243.31]       2,185.36
3,449,607.23jl,689,702.84
934,160.631   323,398.29,
1,903,155.32|2,367,097.99[   461,236.26       12,573.96
2.60 87,374.85|   439,664.74    445,183.43
102,439.231 31,667.49 2,232,879.78] 1,256,051.98
516,384.31] 19,796.00]   566,815.37]   657,838.89
711,118.71| 223,443.85]   901,145.13]   466,179.70
249,059.20] 371,543.90|   805,811.22    377,945.86
1,579,004.05]   733,826.09|4,946,316.24]3,203.199.S
931,313.53 [1,390,340.18
3,482,159.37|3,100,924.0815,407,552.50|3,215,773.82
I !
5,315,081.39 3,403,441.31
55,612.34
33.78
4,383,767.86|2,013,101.13]       55,646.12
491,630.80
308,828.04|
2,941.88
4,653.83
342,016.74!
164,55
1,533.16
79,668.63]
172.44
149,227.56
361,855.36]
37,184.20
284,268.18
297,971.41'
42,702.30
83,165.37
138,811.49
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (Coast) —
Totals, Coast	
Prince Rupert (Interior).
Prince George	
Cariboo 	
Kamloops	
Nelson _.	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals	
1,752.67
227,059.94|.
20,142.281.
519.48|-
52,414.64]
8,155.78|..
94.20]
 I
6.58|
.11]
30,148.48]
121,395.12|
61,089.90
62,842.57|   247,296.42]
I I
14,675.31
378.69
1,752.67]   247.202.22j — |     15,054.00
3,443.12
12,300.43
953.12
11,259.45
299.02
94.20|    151,550.29]     28,255.14
151,550.29|     43,309.14
30,411.641
56,661.80
8,722.96,  9,547,106.98
633.03] 2,009,909.98
87,073.44]       9,355.99] 11,557,016.96
41,277.80|
23,235.01|
283.37]
2,653.56]
5,861.28]
8.00]
5,186.89]
4,910.25
11,223.24]
8,769.94]
1,820,355.26
4,010,602.51
1,848,875.13
2,957,948.08
2,573,783.21
73,311.02]     30,098.32] 13,211,564.19
160,384.46      39,454.31 [24,768,581.15
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 97
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1973  (IN CUNITS)   (SEGREGATED BY
(13) LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Timber licences .....
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences	
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
Timber   sale   harvesting licences n
Tree-farm licences
Beachcomb,  trespass -	
Miscellaneous	
Subtotals,
Crown lands
Federal lands	
Crown grants to
1887	
Crown   grants,
1887-1906—	
Crown   grants,
1906-1914	
Crown grants to
date	
Totals .
1,882.
124.
246.
345.
104.
958.
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
,689.99    597,141.11
.315.43J _
.939.16] ._
842.761
,213.82
933.84
,413.40
10,242.67
104,672.51
163,680.80
1,319,923.53    373,739.96
1,920,952.10]   537,818.33
160
4.
339.30|     29,503.09
645.48 69.72
7,069,208.8111,816,868.19
46
1,995
92
56
286.
.846.20; 41,861.71
I
297.74] 675.78
127.18| 80,988.27
I
638.6L 18,260.00
988.44] 51,256.03
9,547,106.98|2,009,909.98
I      	
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
J    142,868.62
Cariboo
-i-
286.02]             55.46] 1,565.36
296,749.83; 1,443,186.70| 544,272.72
I I
848,790.70] 1,683,941.74] 989,446.13
566,7I6.92|    141,984.38! 59,234.99
767.33
424.93
362,725.45!
0,395.14
1,713,735.7313,774,762.35
1,674,914.34
1,236.421       2,216.41 7,186.42
 |           433.84, 8,862.92
I I
2,008.98]  ] 7,200.03
23,767.27|     46,595.46. 3,468.01
I
79,606.86]    186,594.45| 147,243.41
1,820,355.2614,010,602.5111,848,875.13
Kamloops
58,275.08
104,314.72
Total
36,614.18] 2.
111,168.14]
3.21]
676,172.77i
I
1,497,729.39; 1
269,715.63|
473.71
507,860.42   4
,133,959.58] 7.
456,737.48] 3.
I
45,999.14]  46,665.55]
.717,588.98
339,798.29
246,939.16
356,085.43
208,886.33
3,317.60
590,336.64
847,531.03
953,159.83
190,609.72
540,925.41
2,652,209.94 2,293,479.06:20,995,178.42
26,215.37
92,616.58
10,514.46!
57,541.20]
118,850.53]
2,285.35]
I
18,743.61, 2
I
118,492.22]
20,787.12
119,995.85
I
127,847.88
,116,630.47
311,331.14
227,057.67
990,535.57
2,957,948.08 ]2,573,783.21 ]24,768,581.15
I I	
i Previously included under "Timber Sales."
 S 98
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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M
 S 100 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(16) LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1973
Forest District
Type of Tenure Operated
Timber
Sale
Licences
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Leases,
Licences,
Licences,
Farm
Crown
Wood-lot
Grants,
Licences,
and
and
Other
Timber Sale
Tenures
Harvesting
Licences)
363
1,995
206
565
750
1,131
Total
Number of Inspections Made
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver——  	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George.	
Cariboo    -	
Kamloops 	
Nelson.. -  	
Totals, 1973	
Totals, 1972......	
Totals, 1971 	
Totals, 1970 ..__	
Totals, 1969- _	
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967	
Totals, 1966.	
Totals, 1965-	
Totals, 1964—	
Ten-year average, 1964-73
793
134
338
145
218
144
212
509
417
531
609
927
3,151
905
2,219
888
1,336
1,488
2,738
2,916
4,720
1,284
1,957
2,448
1,772
1,821
2,163
2,881
3,511
4,719
5,118
5,566
6,231
6,557
2,457
2,162
1,609
1,272
876
f1)
(!)
(!)
I1)
(l)
5,758
5,593
6,602
6,230
7,358
7,758
7,431
6,174
6,514
6.560
9,987
9,576
10,374
10,383
11,745
12,477
12,549
11,740
12,745
13,117
16,063
16,158
15,374
16,080
17,518
17,480
17,663
18,593
17,869
17,789
2,167
2,943
1,756
626
1,760
1,179
10,431
8,974
10,037
10,112
8,682
10,092
9,488
9,576
6,365
13,311
4,034
6,598
11,469
17,059
9,707
4,905
5,859
6,476
1,910
3,717
3,627
26,494
25,132
25,411
26,192
26,200
27,572
27,151
28,169
24,234
31,100
26,765
1 Figures not available prior to 1969.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 101
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2
 S 102
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(18)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES AND TIMBER SALE
HARVESTING LICENCE CUTTING PERMITS,  1973
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Logs
(Cunits)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
Etc. (No.)
Vancouver .._  	
Prince Rupert —	
Prince George 	
Cariboo -	
Kamloops. —	
Nelson	
Totals, 1973	
Totals, 1972	
Totals, 1971	
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969	
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967	
Totals, 1966	
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964 	
Ten-year average, 1964-73
288
103
202
17
271
168
1,049
1,049
427
622
732
890
848
998
1,357
1,709
968
27,506
48,581
138,064
15,544
166,833
92,817
489,345
468,001
112,668
193,737
233,491
314,595
310,325
361,021
496,254
661,821
364,126
447,931
2,282,219
3,365,152
26,384
2,432,262
2,622,634
11,176,582
15,152,503
2,369,910
4,687,620
4,451,260
6,738,850
5,498,070
6,794,860
9,519,950
11,074,280
7,746,388
14,000
2,447,100
9,965
10
1,292
729
I
17,750
134,832
21,020
2,461,100
1,622,192
9,500
61,400
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6,014,850
3,674,100
2,650,400
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2,520
5,277
13,392
6,769
12,352
25,675
7,616
25,154
173,602
721,045
51,650
225,850
2,910,012
704,950
319,450
837,244
987,100
478,520
2,272,225
11,786
740,942
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S 107
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 S 108 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(24) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN CUBIC FEET)
Species
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
Under
Permits
Fir	
Cedar	
Spruce.. .„_	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
Lodgepole pine	
Cypress	
Hardwood	
Cottonwood....	
Totals, 1973-	
Totals, 1972 _
Totals, 1971  .-
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969	
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967	
Totals, 1966    	
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964	
Ten-year-average
1964-73	
1,072
4,465
100,257
48,745
190
62,539
39,045
330,344
192,007
5,817
8,219
633,956
241,319
659,904
1,153,921
135,862
449,675
53
154,729
717,096
2,874,315
3,222,351
598,829
3,619,562
2,021,374
1,625,172
559,204
624,730
637,971   |
| 2,308,645
6,094,192
7,629,924 |
3,031,347 |
4,482,835
6,886,800
4,553,790
1,794,367
2,431,755
1,601,736
3,985,163
3,274,690
6,753,209
16,817,090
30,800,174
17,270,817
20,111,753
21,499,239
14,666,899
5,974,462
5,131,602
  -   i 697,567
  | 284,829
   | 1,090,505
   | 1,394,673
441,357 i 441,357
  | 141,679
  j 458,084
242,099 | 242,099
 - I 53
683,456 | 4,750,846
408,845 | 10,187,795
2,324,425 | 28,110,022
8,396,211 j 50,048,660
5,040,281 | 25,941,274
2,695,646 | 30,909,796
3,495,473 | 33,902,886
2,821,874 I 23,667,735
1,440,105 | 9,768,138
637,616 | 8,825,703
254,959
280,002
1,081,195
965,503
237,726
97,297
111,272
240,042
3,267,996
3,005,846
4,630,425
13,455,734
10,655,349
16,265,130
11,418,913
7,348,820
6,458,926
4,741,111
14,229,994
2,794,393 I  22,611,286
8,124,825
442,608
4,827
9,310
429,170
203,631
44,382
346,812
2,057
53
1,482,850
7,181,949
23,479,597
36,592,926
15,285,925
14,644,666
22,483,973
16,318,915
3,309,212
4,084,592
14,486,461
1 Export privilege—exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown lands granted after March 12,  1906, under authority of section 97 of
the Forest Act.
(25)
EXPORTS FROM THE PROVINCE OF MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS
Forest District
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value
F.O.B.
Vancouver-
Poles	
Piling..
..lin. ft.
Stakes and sticks - -pieces
Cedar shakes -     „
Pulp chips   - units
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling  - lin. ft.
Shakes.— - pieces
Shingles  -     „
Ties -     „
Prince George—
Poles - - pieces
Posts      „
Rails     „
Shakes squares
Shingles       „
Pickets bundles
Cariboo—Christmas trees - pieces
Kamloops—
Poles  lin ft.
Christmas trees pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling  - lin. ft.
Corral rails - -     „
Mine timbers -     „
Palings and pickets   cords
Fence-posts    „
Shakes and shingles - pieces
Christmas trees - „.     „
Pulp chips units
Total value, 1973 ,	
Total value, 1972  _	
3,401,681
42,169
350
8,907,463
405,893
240,000
867,500
586,000
500
647
11,546
400 |
463 |
103 |
800 |
43,800 |
I
11,002 |
89,176 i
I
1,938,045  I
191,819 I
132,713  |
458
3,854
383,600
753,638
6,444
1,425,559.70
16,867.60
8.75
1,567,713.50
8,036,681.40
1,800,000.00
95,000.00
47,000.00
1,000.00
25,000.00
4,588.00
300.00
16,466.00
3,000.00
1,500.00
87,000.00
6,781.70
75,799.60
78,720.00
5,800.00
15,000.00
3,700.00
150,000.00
20,000.00
650,000.00
96,000.00
14,229,486.25
17,594,812.45
Where Marketed
Canada
632,725
42,169
264,089
120,000
227,500
48,500
500
United
States
Other
Countries
2,130,639
350
8,643,374
405,893
60,000
640,000
538,000
439 |
11,546 |
400 j
463 j
103 |
  I
4,065 |
5,862
15,926
,938,045
151,159
132,713
458
3,816
234,350
138,327
i
208
800
10,035
5,140
73,250
38
149,250
615,311
6,444
638,317
29,700
J
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 109
(26)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1964-73
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
10-year
Average,
1964-73
356
148
164
672
149
7
9
27
2,281
121
	
328
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
1,614
153
3
	
341
130
144
679
63
3
10
27
20
1,126
117
12
4
277
147
163
680
61
6
4
11
214
1,149
95
4
1
328
173
190
805
48
9
1
24
347
1,241
101
5
1
361
159
203
781
48
13
11
30
502
1,327
143
2
2
220
82
111
540
19
10
6
14
418
1,199
89
1
197
109
126
524
7
4
2
12
384
991
115
280
120
144
561
8
2
1
12
346
1,002
114
2
2
328
150
188
828
9
6
1
24
362
1,510
90
1
302
Crown grants, 1887-
1906	
137
Crown grants, 1906-
1914	
160
Section 58, Forest Act..
Stumpage reservations..
672
54
7
6
Indian reserves	
Section 24, Forest Act
21
259
1,344
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
114
3
1
Totals	
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,273
3,582
2,709
2,471
2,594
3,497
3,080
Transfers and changes
802
740
908
593
773
554
686
548
583
506
669
(27)
NUMBER OF WEIGH-SCALES BY DISTRICT
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales at December 3
1—
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
4
16
31
20
20
6
20
37
26
22
6
20
42 (37)
.... (12)
33 (26)
29
8
25
44
14
27
30
11
35
Prince George	
Cariboo	
47
18
Kamloops     ....
35
37
Totals	
91        1      111        1      130
148
183
(28)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1973
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock Under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Kamloops	
Nelson .  _ _ _ _ _ _	
597
332
328
652
11
78,202
20,041
11,179
68,131
232
547
774
1,935
2,490
2
1,120
12
33
Cariboo _	
451
Totals, 1973	
Totals, 1972   _ _ _ _
Totals, 1971.  _ _ _ _	
Totals, 1970	
1,920
1,968
1,920
1,9851
2,018
2,053
2,114
2,244
2,218
2,104
177,785
174,617
178,772
178,332
180,579
188,183
188,126
189,286
188,339
173,677
5,748
6,166
6,186
5,651
5,545
6,338
6,837
6,572
6,677
6,231
1,616
1,432
1,484
2,739
Totals, 1969..__ _ _ _ _ _
Totals, 1968 _ _ _ _ __.
Totals, 1967 	
Totals, 1966	
5,106
7,090
6,272
8,970
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964	
12,509
22,478
i Corrected figure.
 S 110 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(29) FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1973
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
	
1
22
2
20
5
3
62
23
24
38
23
66
122
52
103
17
17
9
145
59
84
74
18
48
175
232
64
107
33
67
250
384
99
84
6
26
90
114
68
13
1
4
2
353
103
221
870
872
444
12 3
3 6
7 7
Kamloops	
Nelson.-	
Cariboo	
30.4
30.5
15.5
Totals.—	
25
0.8
137
4.8
404
14.1
331
11.6
611
21.4
940
32.8
388
13.6
27
0.9
2,863
100.0
100.0
Ten-year average-
18
0.7
70
2.9
390
15.9
377
15.3
663
26.9
731
29.7
183
7.4
30
1.2
2,462
100.0
	
(30)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1973
so
a
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Vancouver.,- -
28
74
23
94
13
1
1
56
62
1
353
12.3
6
20
2
16
10
I
5
16
25
2
103
3.6
Prince George 	
46
47
12
30
28
16
4
19
7
10
2
221
7.7
Kamloops	
172
111
60
180
47
25'
12
65
19
173
6
870
30.4
Nelson  	
468
46
109
79
20
1
8
42
9
87
3
872
30.5
Cariboo  	
90
40
12
32
27
34
8
26
64
105
6
444
15.5
810
338
218
431
145
78
38
224
99
462
20
2,863
100.0
28.3
11.8
7.6
15.0
5.0
2.7
1.3
7.8
3.4
16.1
1.0
100.0
Ten-year    average
1964-73	
849
233
190
325
113
117
54
192
48
311
30
2,462
34.5
9.5
7.7
13.2
4.6
4.8
2.2
7.8
1.9
12.6
1.2
100.0
(3D     NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST  10 YEARS
Causes
i      i
1964 I 1965 I 1966
I     I
1967
1968
1969 I 1970
I
1972 I 1973 | Total
I I
Lightning ..._ ___ _	
Recreational (campers, etc.) —
Railroads operating	
Smokers __ „
Brush-burning    (not   railway
or right-of-way clearing)	
Range-burning.	
Road, power, telephone, and
pipe-line construction.—	
Industrial    operations    (logging, etc.)	
Incendiary	
Miscellaneous known causes-
Unknown causes	
Totals	
277
1,000
374
144
315
230
51
89
170
129
310
281
66
89
156
79
193
149
11
89
101
81
223
164
45
24
14
178
309
292
59
44
36
1,120
2,685
1,967
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
3,216
708 646
131 188
121 j 238
179 I 374
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
1,647
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
2,318
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
30
255
70
432
27
4,003
1,327
211
175
309
129
105
583 810
188 338
136 | 218
267 1 431
70
59
145
78
50
44
38
205
189
224
70
77
99
303
277
462
14
13
20
8,486
2,335
1,899
3,245
1,127
1,173
542
1,921
483
3,107
302
2,898 | 1,903
I
2,863 | 24,620
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 111
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 S 112 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(33) LOSS OF PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  1973
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver	
$
100,123
3,195
$
100
$
141,700
$
650
$
|      242,573
3,195
15.777
23.0
0.3
10,712
5,000
300
53,637
65
1.5
7,505
29,576
3,747
672,325
800
8,710             688,840
18.615      1       102.628
65.1
9.7
3,747
0.4
144,146            683,937
13.6      |            64.7
200,637
19.0
28,040      j   1,056,760
2.7      |          100.0
100.0
Ten-year average, 1964-73
211,957      |      128,283
38.0                  23.0
155,365
28.0
61,103             556,708
11.0      1          100.0
(34)     LOSS TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,  1973—PART I1
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Acres
848
91
380
5,946
12,707
1,512
M Cu. Ft.
6,673
92
2,931
8,323
36,583
4,000
M Cu. Ft.
4,425-
5
1,362
4,406
16,227
451
$
523,031
4,320
230,251
894,433
2,969,408
80,621
Acres
1,249
72
1,163
15,782
10,158
|        2,025
$
78,348
1,542
32,127
Kamloops	
81,481
242,597
46,111
21,484
26.4
58,602
100.0
26,876
45.9
4,702,064
89.1
|      30,449
|           37.4
482,206
9.1
Ten-year average, 1964-73
43,356
18.6
100,861
100.0
33,507
33.2
2,355,203
58.4
|      59,900
25.7
1,567,760
38.8
i The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Loss to the Provincial economy may be estimated at approximately 10 times the loss values shown.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
S 113
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S 115
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
S 117
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
Restricted industrial	
Travel and recreation
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 3
Sept. 12
Aug. 27
Aug. 221
Aug. 242
Aug. 19
Zones Kl, Nl	
Kamloops, Nelson	
Travel and recreation.	
Sept. 19
1 Zones N7, N8.
2 Remainder of forest district.
(40)
SUSPENSION OF CAMPFIRES
Area
Forest District
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
Kamloops.— -	
Nelson — —	
July 13
July 19
July 19
July 19
July 19
July 19
Aug. 1
Aug. 1
Aug. 1
Aug. 3
Aug. 10
Sept. 14
Sept. 14
Sept. 14
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
July 231
Zones VI, V2, V3, V7, V8, V9, V10	
Vancouver -	
July 23
July 23
July 23
Kamloops	
Aug. 27
Zones C2, C3	
Aug. 17
Zones VI, V2, V7, V8, V9, V10	
Vancouver  	
Prince George 	
Cariboo.—  	
Vancouver  	
Kamloops....	
Aug. 17
Lying south of Goat and Morkill Rivers  _
Zone CI - 	
Zones VI, V9, V10	
Aug. 17
Aug. 17
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
i Except Penticton Watershed.
(41)
FOREST REVENUE,  1969-73
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1969
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1970
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1971
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1972
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1973
Timber licence rentals and fees	
Timber berth rentals and fees.—	
Timber lease rentals and fees 	
Timber sale rentals and fees	
Timber sale stumpage — 	
Timber sale cruising and advertising ....
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees -	
Forest protection tax '...-	
Miscellaneous 	
Weight-scaling	
TSHL fire-fighting costs standby crews
Totals —
I
$ |
703,048.63
128,103.62
90,500.60
882,229.95
78,293,115.07
213,844.25
6,329,417.22
384,123.83
993,509.64
428,260.52
1,033,160.25
89,479,313.58
668,254.04
123,123.68
92,895.76
898,484.23
53,524,665.01
163,321.01
6,217,109.85
438,003.68
1,006,742.58
669,194.53
1,149,637.48
$
640,458.
112,947.
93,633
798,919
49,680,565
166,647.
5,553,861.
469,636
1,123,517.
735,683.
1,514,347.
.83]
,27|
,11|
.021
,42|
.92
.I6J
24
,76|
.62
623.
95.
91.
674.
91,180.
140,
5,336.
532.
1,185,
773.
2,004.
153.52
,433,78
.731.48
,091.83
.674.04
,245.57
035.96
.992.78
179.11
132.95
,105.62
64,951,431.85
60,890,218.23 102,636,776.64
585
87
84
736
230,648
132
6,879
542.
1,149
1,056
2,660
282.
616.72
545.48
405.30
,073.92
895.04
227.44
,851.39
.090.28
528.61
014.21
,410.57
596.87
244,845,255.83
 S 118
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 S 120
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(44) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1972/73
$
Timber licence rentals and fees  —   597,272.65
Timber berth rentals and fees .„     100,097.03
Timber lease rentals and fees    85,719.36
Timber sale rentals and fees   685,560.88
Timber sale stumpage      121,956,225.89
Timber sale cruising and advertising  148,430.48
Timber royalties  5,634,109.20
Grazing permits and fees    508,324.74
Forest-protection tax      1,196,563.81
Miscellaneous      893,818.18
Weight-scaling    2,265,787.50
Total        134,071,909.72
(45)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1972/73
General administration, protection, and management of forests   24
Reforestation and forest nurseries            5
Forest research 	
Public information and education   	
Forest Service Training School   	
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association 	
Engineering services and forest-development roads        3
Fire suppression      2
Forest inventory        1
Silviculture       1
Grazing Range Improvement Fund * 	
Peace River community pastures 	
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme 	
Special Warrant 25—Employment of Coast Scalers 	
067,398.19
532,598.85
236,428.67
88,692.51
169,441.29
25,000.00
,021,573.31
,675,204.83
750,675.81
,780,047.28
228,792.36
18,396.50
24,656.26
17,501.75
Total      39,636,407.61
i Statement provided elsewhere.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1973 S 121
(46) SCALING FUND
$
Deficit, April 1, 1972          432,283.61
Collections, fiscal year 1972/73   2,575,614.85
2,143,331.24
Expenditures, fiscal year 1972/73      2,741,134.04
Deficit, March 31, 1973        597,802.80
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1973       2,171,867.01
1,574,064.21
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1973   2,084,559.45
Deficit, December 31,  1973           510,495.24
(47) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
$
Deficit, April 1, 1972            9,898.93
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)         240,381.91
230,482.98
Expenditures, fiscal year 1972/73          228,792.36
Surplus, March 31, 1973     1,690.62
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)         254,162.37
255,852.99
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1973       192,012.97
Surplus, December 31, 1973  __.          63,840.02
(48) RESERVOIR WATERWAY IMPROVEMENTS
$
Expenditures, fiscal year 1972/73   2,876,122.39
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority  1,183,896.30
Balance      1,692,226.09
(49) ACCELERATED REFORESTATION FUND
$
Government contribution, April 1, 1972     10,000,000.00
Expenditures, fiscal year 1972/73   5,650,443.03
Surplus, March 31, 1973     4,349,556.97
Government contribution, April  1973     5,000,000.00
9,349,556.97
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1973     7,605,106.22
Surplus, December 31,  1973     1,744,450.75
 S 122 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(SO) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL,  1973
Personnel
0
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3
O
o
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a
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Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters 	
2
16
4
2
2
24
28
4
8
30
16
64
4
2
4
	
2
18
2
2
44
2
89
83
2
4
5
104
........
14
18
158
11
5
9
2
14
2
30
1
42
5
4
36
11
7
80
7
3
9
2
17
2
1
39
75
5
7
52
........
16
123
12
10
9
2
17
4
2
2
36
55
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5
7
34
13
	
97
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1
2
15
2
2
1
42
47
7
1
4
39
	
13
	
106
2
3
4
5
7
1
4
120
1
26
2
21
........
-----
8
15
3
26
9
42
124
8
113
126
25
25
85
5
7
1
4
12
217
13
Engineers  	
37
12
236
2
240
180
8
51
3
36
9
77
419
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Mainte-
8
196
Launch Crewmen 	
25
754
69
Foremen...  	
49
120
210
572
254
372
296
290
796
2,790
Seasonally Employed
Technical Forest Officers	
13
2
37
30
78
10
4
11
1
74
6
218
........
9
2
21
1
958
7
67
1
1
	
	
28
	
15
........
2
250
4
2
12
17
4
91
113
16
14
	
1
41
1
40
10
275
14
35
11
4
3,283
32
140
195
232
664
11
5
131
13
Fire-suppression Crewmen....  	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc.—	
257
4,277
51
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
1,063
307
Foremen 	
268
714
Totals, seasonal personnel	
170
325
1,056
313
255
417
4,561
7,097
Totals, all personnel 	
380
897
1,310
685
551
707
5,357
9,887
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
3030-1273-830

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