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REPORT of the BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE DECEMBER 31 1974 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1975

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. A. Williams, Minister B. E. Marr, Associate Deputy Minister
of Water Resources
REPORT
of the
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
DECEMBER 31
1974
Printed by K. M. MacDonald,
Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1975
COVER
The Snow Survey Bulletins published monthly February-June each year by Water
Investigations Branch's Hydrology Division serve as a vital indicator of probable summer
stream-flows. In 1974 the bulletins reported record snow-packs over southern British
Columbia, creating a major flood risk. Snow-level and quality readings are gathered
by field staff from 244 snow courses and eight snow-pillow stations. Access to these
remote measuring stations is by helicopters, snowmobiles, snowshoes, skis, feet, and
sliding posteriors.
  March 25, 1975.
To Colonel the Honourable Walter Stewart Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the year ended December 31, 1974.
ROBERT A. WILLIAMS
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 March 25, 1975.
The Honourable Robert A. Williams,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the 12 months ended December 31, 1974.
B. E. MARR
Associate Deputy Minister of Water Resources
 BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
December 31, 1974
B. E. Marr, Associate Deputy Minister
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister
Water Rights Branch
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
Water Investigations Branch
P. M. Brady, Director
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Director
Pollution Control Branch
W. N. Venables, Director
R. H. Ferguson, Assistant Director
A. J. Chmelauskas, Assistant Director, January-June
Chemistry Laboratory
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
Inspector of Dykes
W. R. Meighen, Inspector of Dykes, January-November
K. J. Chisholm, Inspector of Dykes, December
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
W. J. Stephenson, Supervisor
Accounting Division*
M. B. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller
Personnel Office*
R. C. Webber, Director of Personnel
Mail and File RooMf
D. S. Preston, in Charge
Public Information Officer
J. McCrossan
* Service shared with Lands Service.
t Service shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
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 CONTENTS
Page
British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Report of the Associate Deputy Minister  9
Water Rights Branch—■
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights  15
Water Licensing Division  16
Regional Engineers Division  19
Power and Major Licences Division  25
Improvement Districts Division  33
Water Utilities Division  3 6
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Director  41
Hydrology Division    45
Planning and Surveys Division  53
Environmental Studies Division  59
Engineering Division  63
Record Compilation and Reports  75
Pollution Control Board  81
Pollution Control Branch—
Report of the Director  85
Industrial Division  87
Municipal Division  90
Regional Division  93
Projects and Research Division  98
Chemistry Laboratory ._.  105
Inspector of Dykes  115
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  119
Personnel Services  125
Accounting Division    129
  BRITISH COLUMBIA
WATER RESOURCES
SERVICE
B. E. Marr, P.Eng.
Associate
Deputy Minister
The year 1974 was one of change for the Water Resources Service,
both in added responsibilities and in organization, bringing new challenges
and opportunities for staff to play their part in water resources and environmental management.
Early in the year it became apparent from our snow surveys that we
were again facing a potential flood situation, particularly in the southern
half of the Province; however, very favourable weather conditions during
the snow-melt period, together with early implementation of flood warning
and control systems, and the construction of certain emergency works
allowed the existing flood protection works to operate satisfactorily with
only limited flood damage being sustained in the critical Lower Fraser
Valley and Kamloops area. However, many home-owners and small businesses did experience losses and about $1,500,000 was paid out by the
Province to assist those affected.
It is apparent that reliance on structural solutions alone to reduce
potential future flood damage is not a satisfactory situation and much more
use must be made of nonstructural possibilities including floodplain zoning
and floodproofing. A recent amendment to the Land Registry Act requires
approval by the Water Resources Service for all new subdivisions within the
floodplain, and a program of floodplain mapping and the establishment of
flood-proofing guidelines is now under way as part of a long-range program
to develop sound floodplain management policies.
The Lower Fraser Valley flood control program under the Canada-
British Columbia agreement was stepped up during fiscal 1974/75 with
anticipated expenditures in the order of $10,000,000. In addition, some
55 smaller flood-protection projects were completed at various locations
throughout the Province in co-operation with local authorities or individual
landowners. Following the 1974 run-off period, a number of stream-
clearing projects were undertaken to reduce flood-damage potential. The
review of storage possibilities on the Upper Fraser River system for flood
control and hydro power generation continues under the Canada-British
Columbia flood-control agreement with considerable emphasis on the environmental impact and the effect of such development on other resources
of the area.
 U 10 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In tune with other natural resource departments, efforts continued
toward decentralization of certain functions of the Water Resources Service
to provide a larger role for the Regional offices of the Water Rights Branch
and Pollution Control Branch, including the establishment of district laboratories under the Water Resources Chemistry Laboratory. As part of this
program, the Pollution Control Branch has held a number of site meetings
between applicants and objectors under the Pollution Control Act where it
was felt that clarification of the issues would avoid the need for formal
hearings.
Reorganization within the Service has included the strengthening of the
Pollution Control Branch's policing, monitoring, and permit-issuing functions as well as continuing involvement in the establishment of Pollution
Control Objectives. The Branch is also responsible for the day-to-day
administration of the Litter Act and SAM program (crushing and removing
derelict automobiles throughout the Province), transferred from the Department of Recreation and Conservation and is establishing an advisory service
to assist local governments in the operation of municipal waste treatment
facilities. The Water Investigations Branch has been expanded by the
transfer of the projects and research component of the Pollution Control
Branch to form a new Environmental Studies Division. This division will
be responsible for environmental and water management studies undertaken
by the Service. A major environmental baseline study has been announced
for the Kootenay area and the Kalamalka-Wood Lake water management
study begun in 1972 is now in final draft stage.
The Pollution Control Branch continues to give priority to bringing
under permit all discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes to the
environment and the total of 677 permits and amendments issued this year
is the greatest for any single year since the Branch was established. The
increased monitoring and policing work load associated with the expanding
permit system places a strain on existing staff and the number of routine
environmental tests increased to 171,000 from 128,000 in 1973. Fortunately the Branch has operational a sophisticated computer data storage
and retrieval system on which is recorded over one-half million test results
and other resource data. Recently the system has been extended to assist
in the management of the Water Resources Service Chemistry Laboratory
as well as provide a water quality information system to the Health Branch
and the Water Investigations Branch. As a measure of the effectiveness of
pollution control policies, it is interesting to note that for the pulp and
paper industry over the period 1973—75, capital expenditures for environmental protection in British Columbia was 53 per cent of the Canada total
in contrast to British Columbia's 24 per cent share of total production.
The Pollution Control Board adopted as policy in 1974, the Objectives
for the Chemical and Petroleum Industry and has before it the proposed
Objectives for the Food-processing, Agriculturally Oriented and Other
Miscellaneous Industries and the Objectives for Municipal-tvpe Waste Discharges. This will complete the objectives for major industrial and municipal activities in British Columbia. The Board has been instructed by
Government to review and update the Forest Industrv Objectives established
in 1971, and it is anticipated that this process will be repeated with the
other objectives on a five-year rotating basis.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  11
The Service undertook discussions with officials representing the
Government of Alberta to assess the environmental effect in the downstream
province of the proposed Site 1 hydro power development on the Peace
River in British Columbia. As a result of these discussions it was determined
that Site One would have no adverse environmental effects in Alberta and
this was reported to the two Governments prior to the initiation of site
development by B.C. Hydro and Power Authority.
On December 4, 1974, the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation
District assumed full responsibility for the operation of the district. This
officially brings to an end over 50 years' administration of the area by various
departments of the Provincial Government, including a close association
with the Water Resources Service going back to 1964 when rehabilitation
of the irrigation system was initiated under the ARDA program.
The year was marked by the retirement of several long-service employees and special note is made of W. R. (Bill) Meighen, the Inspector
of Dykes, who retired after 28 years' service, and Humphrey W. Mellish,
who was recently transferred to the Service after 37 years in Government,
mainly with the former Public Utilities Commission.
While organizational changes can be unsettling, it is particularly gratifying to report the ready acceptance and, indeed, initiation of changes by
senior staff within the Service.
As usual, we are indebted to other departments of the Provincial
Government, and to the universities for their co-operation and assistance
during the year, sentiments that we believe to be reciprocated.
PROVINCIAL MAJOR DISASTER FUND
Although the 1974 spring thaw did not bring river and lake levels to the
heights experienced in 1972, both the snow-melt run-off and early and
severe spring rainstorms did cause undue hardship to many people in widely
separated areas of British Columbia. In August the Province initiated steps
to assist individuals and small businesses hit by damaging snow-melt run-off
or severe rainstorms between January and July.
As in 1972 the services of the Canadian Independent Adjusters Conference were obtained to appraise damages and adjust claims. In all,
approximately 700 claims were handled by the Conference and processed
by the Water Resources Service. Payments totalling just under $1,500,000
will have been made from the Provincial Major Disaster Fund when all
approved claims have been finalized. Unlike 1972, however, there was no
Federal participation because the total assistance provided by the Province
did not meet the senior Government's requirements for financial support
for disaster situations.
  WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time
in any stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the
Right of the Province. The common law principle of riparian water rights has
been ab61ished.
(2) Prospective users of water must file applications for water licences. There is a
procedure for notifying the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture and Recreation
and Conservation and all those whose rights may be affected, all of whom have
a right of objection to water applications.
(3) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences
have priority over licences issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the
Water Act.
(5) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or
undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(6) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land,
he can expropriate the land reasonably required if a voluntary agreement cannot
be reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire
a permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist
in the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the
Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, and several other purposes. An
improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected Trustees.
The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed by Provincially guaranteed debenture issues.
A third major function was assigned to the Water Rights Branch on July 15, 1973, when
the Comptroller of Water Rights assumed responsibility for the administration of Water
Utilities under the provisions of the Water Utilities Act and the Energy Act.
The administration of the Water Act and the Water Utilities Act is carried out by the
Comptroller of Water Rights and his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria
and district offices at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and New Westminster.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand. Much of the vast industrial
expansion of recent years in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water.
13
 U  14
B.C. WATER
RESOURCES
SERVICE
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 WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch is organized into five divisions as shown on the
organization chart included in this Report.
The Licensing Division is responsible for maintaining a complete record of
all water licences in effect and for processing applications for new licences or for
amendment of existing licences.
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible to the Comptroller of
Water Rights for supervision of the licensing of all power applications and major
licences for other purposes. In both cases this becomes a continuing responsibility
and includes approval of plans, inspection of the works during construction, assisting with environmental studies, determining annual rentals, and other related duties.
The Improvement Districts Division assists the Comptroller with his responsibilities under the Water Act for the administration of improvement districts. It
also provides administration and engineering advice to improvement districts and
other authorities providing water services to small communities.
The Water Utilities Division provides the staff support for the Comptroller for
the regulation of public utilities under the terms of the Water Utilities Act and
Energy Act.
The Regional Engineers Division comprises regional engineers and their
staffs at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, New Westminster, Prince George, and
Victoria. The function of this division is to provide on-the-spot investigation and
determination which has been a guiding principle in the administration of the
Water Act for many years. In accordance with a general Government program of
regionalization of resources management, increased emphasis has been given to
the involvement of regional office staff in some phases of the work of all divisions
of Water Rights Branch and Water Investigations Branch. Of particular importance
is regional liaison with other Government departments through regional resource
management committees and other personal contacts. In order to carry out these
new functions in addition to the regular responsibilities of Water Act administration,
it has been necessary to obtain increased staff during 1974 at all regional offices.
The 1974 water-year was a flood-year in the southern half of the Province,
but the flood potential which had been indicated by the exceptionally heavy accumulation of snow was fortunately dissipated by a very favourable weather sequence
during the snow-melt period. As a result serious flooding occurred only in localized
areas in the Okanagan and Kootenay areas. During the flood-threat period, regional
and Victoria staff of the Water Rights Branch worked in close liaison with the
Hydrology Division of Water Investigations Branch in flood precautions and surveillance work. Water availability for use in 1974 was generally good, although
some shortages were experienced in the August to October period.
15
 U  16 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The number of new applications remained high, but less than the 1973 record
year. The total number of water licences in effect as of November 1974 was 28,598.
The work load resulting from new applications has greatly increased in recent years,
not only because of the increase in the number of applications but also because of
the increasing complexity of many of these applications. At the same time there
has been a steady increase in the variety and complexity of the other responsibilities
of district office staffs resulting from such problems as flood'ng and erosion, resource-
use conflicts, and the greatly increasing scope of the activities of regional districts
in which the Regional Engineers participate as members of the technical planning
committees. Due to the increased volume of such other work in 1974, the number
of water licence applications awaiting adjudication increased slightly to 3,156.
The present water licensing system covers only surface waters but the need
to extend this system to include groundwater is becoming increasingly apparent.
During 1974 a senior official was assigned to review this situation on a full-time
basis, including discussion with other jurisdictions, and the consideration of possible
amendments to the Water Act and regulations required to put groundwater licensing
into effect.
Activity in the Improvement Districts Division continued high during the year.
A number of feasibility studies were carried out with regard to proposed new
systems, or the rehabilitation of old ones, and final design and supervision of construction were provided for several small projects where special circumstances warranted such assistance. Many proposals prepared by consultants were reviewed
with respect to both technical suitability and economic feasibility.
By agreement with the Federal Government, the Province assumes the responsibility for the proper operation and maintenance of all irrigation and farm domestic
water systems constructed with Federal and Provincial funds under the ARDA
program, in order to assure compliance with the intent of the statutes involved and
the agreements made under them. A program of continuing surveillance of these
systems was instituted by the Water Rights Branch in 1972. The program is still in
an early stage of development and is limited by the availability of manpower, but the
need for this kind of follow-up has been clearly demonstrated.
Licences were issued during the year authorizing the construction of hydro
power projects at Site One on the Peace River near Hudson's Hope and at the Seven
Mile Site on the Pend-d'Oreille River near Trail. The Site One application was
uncontested, but a public hearing was required by the Comptroller to hear objections
to the Seven Mile Project.
The year under review, 1974, was the first full year of the jurisdiction of
the Comptroller over water utilities, formerly the responsibility of the Public Utilities
Commission. The main purpose of this administration is the regulation of rates
charged for water and standards of service. To ensure continuing satisfactory service
for the protection of the public, increasing use has been made of the establishment
of trust funds to ensure adequate operation and maintenance and to provide for the
replacement of obsolete system components.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1974 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the individual divisions of the Branch in the pages following.
WATER LICENSING DIVISION
Water licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining, industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few exceptions before any person, company, corporation, community, or Government agency
uses water from any surface water source.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  17
As of November 30, 1974, the number of water licences in effect totalled
28,598, each of which authorizes the use of water for one or more purposes. There
were 16,837 licences authorizing the use of water for domestic purposes, 1,214 for
waterworks; 11,326 for irrigation; 308 for power, and 1,677 for storage purpose.
The total quantity authorized to be stored was 95,776,306 acre-feet.
Applications for approvals under section 7 of the Water Act, either for the
use of water for a period not exceeding six months (the former period of 90 days
was amended in 1974) or to authorize changes in and about a stream dropped to
126 from 149 in 1973. Applications for the amendment of existing licences by
apportionment, transfer of appurtenancy, or changes of works or purpose have
increased over last year's total and there are now 585 amendment applications
pending. There are 95 water-users communities incorporated under the Water Act
compared to 93 in 1973.
The following tables show the staff establishment for the licensing division and
the principal activities of the General and Draughting offices in the 12-month period
ending November 30, 1974, together with the activity data for the five preceding
years:
Licensing Division
Staff, 30; November 1974
Administrative Officers, 3; Total staff, 31
General Office     Draughting Office
Administrative Officer 1  1
Clerk 6  2
Clerk 5  _                   1
Clerk 4  3                   1
Clerk 3  3                  2
Clerk 2  2
Clerk 1  2
Clerk-Stenographer 3  1
Clerk-Stenographer 2  1
Clerk-Typist 2  1
Technician 2  ....                    1
Draughtsman 4  ....                   1
Draughtsman 3  ___                   2
Draughtsman 2  ....                   4
Draughtsman 1   ....                   2
16 14
 U 18
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
General Office
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
Application for—
Licences	
Rights-of-way -
Apportionments 	
1,503
227
75
119
270
50
1,767
243
60
104
278
81
1,733
263
96
159
243
88
1,515
122
91
137
307
91
1,892
246
103
162
327
149
1,708
303
130
130
452
Approvals	
126
2,224
2,533
2,582
2,263
2,879
2,844
187
211
215
189
240
237
Issues of—
1,103
444
45
206
356
258
1,447
298
75
164
478
271
1,343
286
85
182
474
207
1,746
359
96
236
524
313
1,131
400
132
168
478
315
1,544
393
Approvals.   -	
109
239
389
331
Totals  	
2,412
2,733
2,577
3,274
2,624
3,005
Average monthly issues- -  	
201
228
215
273
219
250
Changes of address, ownership, etc. 	
2,701
399
493
2,272
340
616
1,796
338
359
2,803
359
206
2,608
427
274
3,534
356
Objections to applications __ _	
262
Annual over-all totals -	
8,249
8,494
7,652
8,905
8,812
10,001
2,400
2,628
2,827
2,522
3,115
3,156
Draughting Office
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
New water licence applications cleared and plotted on maps
Final and conditional licence plans prepared  -	
Regional Engineers' reports processed	
New water rights maps compiled and traced -	
Water rights maps revised       	
New improvement districts described and plans prepared ....
Improvement districts descriptions and plans amended	
Reference maps renewed._.__. -	
Apportionments and transfers of appurtenancy  	
Changes of works and extension of time „■_ 	
Approvals ~. —- - -	
Rights-of-way over Crown land
Changes of ownership and cancellations- ._
Land clearances (purchases, leases, etc.)-	
Pollution control permit clearances —	
Forest Service clearances (timber sales, etc.)..
Totals    	
1,448
1,961
51
7
8
31
48
194
270
50
356
3,100 |
8,623  I
1,623
1,955
858
65
5
3
46
24
164
278
81  j
478
2,612  |
6,990  |
 -   I
358 |
1,702
2,106
1,326
110
5
50
36
255
243
88
404
2,134
5,431
16i
1,867
1,400
2,463
1,197
107
5
12
65
19
228
313
95
528
3,162 |
4,362 !
434
1,738   i
2,001
2,125
1,168
152
2
7
48
41
265
327
149
478
3,035
3,812
716
2,338
1,682
2,017
953
109
1
8
33
122
255
452
126
303
3,890
3,595
507
1,556
16,147  |  15,540 |   15,919
i      I
16.629 ! 16,664 | 15,609
I      I
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  19
REGIONAL ENGINEERS DIVISION
In keeping with their changing role which reflects greater involvement in
resource management and allocation decisions and increasing responsibility in
management of the water resource under the Water Act of the Province, the title of
"District Engineer" was changed early in the year to "Regional Engineer." This is
also in keeping with plans to establish common regional boundaries and regional
centres for the several departments of Government having jurisdiction in the resource field. The title of "Chief of District Engineers Division" was also changed
to "Assistant to Comptroller of Water Rights" to reflect the expansion in his
responsibilities to include assistance to the Comptroller in administratve matters.
Staff increases, including five technicians to assist in duties related to water utilities
and 11 technicians and one engineer to assist in normal administrative duties and
engineering investigations, will alleviate staff deficiencies of long standing in the
regional offices. The new staff positions were still in process of being filled at the end
of the year.
Staff of most of the regional offices were involved in flood preparations in
co-operation with other municipal and Provincial Government agencies in the early
part of the season in anticipation of large-volume water flows indicated by the heavy
snow-pack in most areas of the Province. Although flood peaks were not as high
as expected, relatively high flows were experienced, particularly in the regions
administered by the Nelson and Prince George offices, and considerable stream
bank and channel erosion and some flooding occurred. A stream-clearing program
authorized by the Minister and aimed at removing log jams and other hazards resulting from the 1974 high water was undertaken and engaged a large percentage of
regional office staff time during the fall months.
Normal water licence administrative work was continued at a relatively high
level in spite of extraordinary commitments connected with the occurrence of a
high-flow year. Action on applications for water licences, however, still did not
keep pace with the number of new applications received.
The table below summarizes the work associated with water licence administration.   Reports of the six Regional Engineers follow.
Staffing of Regional Engineers Division
Regional Offices
Kamloops
Kelowna
New Westminster
Prince
George
Victoria
Totals
Engineer 5_ .._.
Engineer 4 _	
Engineer 3 _..
Technician 3	
Technician 2	
Technician 1 	
Engineering Assistant
Engineering Aide	
Clerk-Stenographer ...
Clerk -	
14
4
2
10
5
1
10
5
8
6
2
53
1 The Technician 3 position, one Technician 1, and one Engineering Assistant position at Nelson office remain
not filled at the date of this Report.
 U 20
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Summary of Water Licence Application Report Situation and Reports for Licence
Amendments and Related Activities as Reported by Regional Engineer for
the Period November 1, 1973, to November 30, 1974.
District Offices
Total
Kamloops
Kelowna
Nelson
New Westminster
Prince
George
Victoria
Applications for water licences—
On hand, November 1, 1973	
590
486
389
86
601
18
99
32
30
44
11
2
398
75
104
249
158
23
172
14
20
14
23
11
4
1
269
36
498
361
153
34
672
20
76
26
25
28
3
16
293
41
159
248
240
39
128
26
44
8
13
15
7
45
177
76
240
237
117
61
299
23
110
4
3
1
73
5
86
98
88
226
222
13
79
16
64
20
14
11
39
2
237
83
1,679
1,807
Inspected and reported on	
Cancelled or abandoned	
On hand, November 30, 1974   	
1,279
256
1,951
Applications for approval under Water
117
Reports for final water licences _	
Water licence amendment reports—
413
104
Transfer of appurtenancy	
108
Change of works.    _	
111
137
Other   	
71
1,460
New final water licences	
409
Kamloops Regional Office
Water supply in the region varied during 1974 with most shortages occurring
in the Cariboo-Chilcotin area, generally on streams lacking water-storage facilities.
Precipitation during the growing season was approximately 65 per cent of normal,
resulting in reduced forage crop production. This was in contrast to the serious
flood threat which existed over most of the Fraser-Thompson watershed during the
early part of the season.
As a result of the serious flood potential indicated within the Thompson River
watershed, field staff were diverted from their normal duties to carry out special
flood studies and provide technical advice to land owners undertaking to protect
their properties from flooding. Assistance was given the City of Kamloops in
constructing flood protection works under the Kamloops Emergency Flood Control
Act.
Administrative effort was directed to the instigation of a regional dam inspection program, commencement of regional administration of water utilities; undertaking of engineering projects with respect to river improvements, and the usual
functions with respect to the allocation of water under water licences and administration of the Water Act.
A large increase in the number of new applications received resulted in a
further increase in the backlog of applications awaiting attention in spite of the
number of application reports being up 18 per cent over the previous year.
Title searches numbering 408 were carried out at the Kamloops Land Registry
office and 1,327 official plans were obtained for other Water Rights Branch offices,
72 complaints involving field investigations were attended to.
Kelowna Regional Office
The well-above-average snow-pack raised Kalamalka Lake level to an elevation
of 1,286.55 feet on June 8, which is 1.62 feet above the normal operating level and
some shoreline damage occurred.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U 21
The Similkameen River at Nighthawk peaked at 31,000 cfs on June 17, compared to 45,800 cfs in the 1972 flood year. Minor flooding occurred along the
Similkameen River and Keremeos Creek near Cawston and around the shoreline of
Osoyoos Lake which is affected by high flows in the Similkameen River.
The inflow to Okanagan Lake from April 1 to June 30 was 618,260 acre-feet
compared to 636,400 acre-feet in 1972 and 579,200 acre-feet in 1948. The lake
rose to elevation 1,124.11 feet on June 27, which is 0.32 foot above the normal full
operating level. Some minor flood damage was reported around the perimeter of
Okanagan Lake.
Reports of flooding were investigated at Sicamous, Enderby, Grinrod, Armstrong, Summerland, Kelowna, Princeton, Tulameen, Oliver, and Grand Forks.
Damage from flooding during the 1974 freshet season was significantly less than
anticipated. Factors which tended to minimize damage from flooding were favourable weather conditions during the melt period, close co-ordination of the Government agencies involved, and the active public information program. Major water-
storage reservoirs were inspected prior to snow run-off to indicate and correct any
hazards from this source.
Water licence applications processed by this office by year, during the past
10-year period are summarized in the following table:
Summary of Water Licence Applications Processed, 1965 to 1974
Year
Applications
Reports
Cancelled or
Total
Received
Submitted
Abandoned
Disposed of
1965	
187
145
13
158
1966 	
196
165
35
200
1967	
209
156
27
183
1968    ...
229
209
24
233
1969  	
230
149
55
204
1970	
272
249
30
279
1971 _ .	
246
301
23
324
1972	
199
263
254
238
16
17
270
1973 	
255
1974.. -     ....
244
147
20
167
The 245 licensed storage dams within the Kelowna region are inspected
regularly to ensure that they are being properly operated and maintained. Ninety-
seven storage dams were inspected during 1974 and substantial repairs were
ordered on 16 structures. Two new dams were constructed, one on Christian Creek
near Princeton and one on Greystoke Lake near Kelowna.
A Senior Technician was added to the staff to assist in the responsibility of
reporting to the Comptroller on new water utility companies, inspecting installation
of new works, and assisting in the administration of existing utility companies.
There are 51 existing water utilities in the Kelowna region and 11 new applications
currently are being processed.
A "Source Investigation Program" was developed and implemented in the
Kelowna Regional office to compile and analyse data on controversial watersheds.
This involves the study of hydrology, existing water use, existing and potential
storage sites, other agency interests, and possible future water demands in a number
of watersheds. The data collected will be used to more effectively manage the water
resource within the watersheds.
 U 22
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Engineering Investigations and Reports
Project
Description
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District-..
City of Kelowna -	
Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Study .
Obtained data on existing water system and suggested improvements to up-grade water service.
Documented location and nature of drainage problems in area
recently included within City boundaries and prepared a
report recommending solutions.
Documented existing water licensing and water use within the
basin for inclusion in the study report.
Nelson Regional Office
Staffing for this office was adjusted during the year to respond to the extra
duties associated with regional responsibilities under the Water Utilities Act as
well as to be able to deal with the increase in applications.
The 1974 run-off within the Columbia-Kootenay River systems was extreme
and there was flooding and erosion damage on both the mainstems of rivers as well
as on tributary streams. The Regional Engineer was involved with the Department
of Highways and the Emergency Measures Organization on a local flood committee
which focused efforts on forecasting danger areas on large streams and directing
flood-fighting on smaller streams. During the summer and fall, regional staff was
active in directing flood-repair work on some 22 streams.
Stream-flows in the region were adequate to meet demands during most of the
season but a period of warm dry weather in the latter part of August and in September did result in a minor amount of regulation being required on some streams.
WfTER    RIGHTS    BRANCH
jraph   Showing1 I. Relation   Between   Water  Licen
 From    iqfil   tn   1374	
NELSON    REG
Applications    Filed   An 1
IONAL   OFFICE
Reported	
2. No. of   Water   Licence   Ammendments   Reported   Since   1967
LEGEND;
Water   Licence applications   carried over  from  prev
Water   Licence applications   received   during the yea
Water   Licence applications   reported   during   the  1
Ammendments to   w^ter    licences   reported	
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U 23
The regional office was involved in special studies including the reinventory
of the forestry resources in the Windermere PSYU, a task force study of the
proposed new highway crossing of the Lardeau River at Trout Lake, and examination of the possible impact on various resources of a proposed natural gas pipe-line.
Engineering Investigations and Reports
Project
Description
Glade Improvement District.	
Prepared engineering feasibility study for rehabilitation of District's water supply system.   Provided lay-out and supervision
services for construction.
tribution system.   Work was approximately 80 per cent completed and will be continued next season.
Water Utilities. . _ .	
Stream-clearing Program.-   	
the community's domestic water system.
Field surveys to determine location of works  of three water
utilities companies were conducted and several utilities were
investigated.
Twenty-two stream-clearing projects related to stream channels
damaged during the 1974 freshet, were completed.
New Westminster Regional Office
The serious flood potential existing in the spring of 1974 required considerable involvement of staff with the Lower Fraser Valley Flood Organization preparations. Fortunately, flooding during the freshet period was minimal and conditions
returned to normal at an early date. Good stream flows were sustained well into
August, but low flows were experienced on some streams as dry weather continued
into September and October, resulting in receipt of some complaints of water
shortages.
Prince George Regional Office
In anticipation of abnormally high freshet flows a number of gauges were installed at various points on the Skeena River in the Terrace area to record high-
water levels as a basis for establishing future floodplain zoning.
Anticipated high-water levels at Prince George and on the main stem of the
Fraser River downstream from its confluence with the Nechako River were appreciably modified by manipulation of the Nechako Reservoir and control of outflow
through its spillway during the high-water period. Staff of the Prince George
office assisted in this control by maintaining continuous surveillance of conditions
on the Nechako River and forwarding pertinent information to the Comptroller as
required.
The Prince George Regional office set up a system for obtaining data on the
magnitude and downstream progress of flood crests on the Nechako and Upper
Fraser Rivers and made this information available to Governmental agencies and
private organizations concerned with possible flooding.
Severe flooding which resulted from an exceptional rain and hail storm which
swept the Peace River district during early July was investigated. Relative to this,
the general erosion and siltation problems prevalent in the Peace River district and
which are having a damaging effect on established farmlands, were subject of study
and a report recommending the establishment of a pilot water and soil conservation
project for the Rolla Creek watershed in which conditions are typical.
 U 24 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Prince George Regional Engineer received instructions to investigate a
devastating flash flood on the Skeena River and its tributaries in the Terrace area
resulting from mid-October precipitation of unprecented magnitude. A report
was prepared describing the nature and extent of damage which resulted from flooding and measures were recommended to prevent or minimize future damage in the
event of a similar occurrence.
Assistance to the Hydrology Division of Water Investigations Branch in its
snow-course measurement program continued with new stations being added in
the Upper North Thompson area.
The demand for water in the northern Interior has continued to increase with
the growth in population. In order to put water allocation on a firm basis, a stream-
flow measurement program was instituted and 145 stream measurements made.
Surveys were conducted at Dragon Lake and at Bouchie Lake, near Quesnel,
to establish minimum and maximum water levels on the lakes; staff involvement in
the Maxan Lake multi-resource use study was continued; emergency work was
organized and supervised on the Bowron River to reduce the level of Bowron Lake;
construction of dyking and revetment works on the Fraser River in the Village of
South Fort George was supervised; an extensive debris removal project was undertaken and completed on the Salmon River north of Prince George in the fall.
Victoria Regional Office
In the 1974 water-year winter weather came early with snow falling throughout Vancouver Island on November 13, 1973. Heavy rainfall occurring January
12 to 16, 1974, produced exceptionally high stream flows, with resultant flooding
of adjacent lands, in Craigflower Creek, Cowichan River, Chemainus River, Nanaimo River, Diver Lake, Englishman River, and Little River. Periodic rainfall
persisted until August, resulting in good growing conditions and a minimum number of complaints of shortages of water. The months of August, September, and
October, however, were exceptionally sunny and dry. Rainfall in these three
months amounted to 1.1 inches, the lowest since 1904.
Investigations were made, remedial action taken, or report completed on 72
complaints of flooding of residential lands. Many of these complaints recur in the
same areas from year to year and are largely a result of the continuing subdivision
of low-lying lands subject to flooding. Areas from which complaints are consistently received are Greater Victoria, Lake Cowichan, Cassidy-Cedar, Parksville,
including the Errington-Coombs area, Port Alberni, Comox, and Campbell River.
Where in past years, instances of flooding requiring investigation were experienced
coincident with the winter season, they now occur throughout the year in increasing
numbers. New regulations in force, pertaining to the subdivision of lands subject
to flooding, will hopefully reduce the incidence of future water damage.
Land erosion problems were inspected on lands adjacent to Robertson River,
Chemainus River, Haslam Creek, Chase River, Koksilah River, Waterloo Creek,
Stewart Creek, DeMamiel Creek. Twenty-two instances of obstruction of streams
were investigated, resulting in 12 orders for removal. Two unauthorized small dams
were removed by office staff. Four water-shortage and eight pollution problems
were investigated and resolved. Inspections and inventories of licensed and unlicensed use of water were made on nine water sources to determine the availability
of unrecorded water for further licensing, to advise applying for licences where
indicated and to cancel unused licences.
In the fall of 1974 work was arranged, and supervision provided for emergency
stream clearing of log jams and gravel bars on Haslam Creek, Robertson River,
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U 25
Meade Creek, Koksilah River, and Nanaimo River, the total cost of the work
being approximately $30,000. The entire effort of engineering staff was occupied
to the limit on this program during the fall months necessitating postponement of
regular work.
POWER AND MAJOR LICENCES DIVISION
Power Licence Applications
In addition to the major power applications described below some applications were received to develop smaller power plants.
Seven Mile Project—A conditional water licence was issued to the British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority to develop 700 mw. at the Seven Mile site
on the Pend-d'Oreille River, near Trail. The licence was granted following a
public hearing, at which environmental and social impact studies and briefs were
presented. Special clauses were included in the licence to ensure that the development will proceed with minimum detrimental effects to the natural environment.
Site One—An application to develop a 700-mw. plant at Hudson's Hope on
the Peace River was received from the British Columbia Hydro and Power authority and since little objection was expressed to the proposal, a licence was issued
without holding a hearing. However, special clauses were inserted in the licence
requiring the Authority to take special measures for the protection of the environment.
Environmental Studies
Seven Mile—Although environmental and social impact studies carried out by
private consultants and Government agencies indicated that detrimental effects
associated with the development were not sufficiently severe to warrant refusal of
a water licence, several issues remained unresolved by the end of the year, such as
the location of the main access road, wildlife management during and after construction, wildlife mitigation, recreation access and facilities, impact and location
of substation and transmission-lines, effect of reservoir operation on water-related
recreational activities, and reservoir clearing standards.
Site One—Subsequent to the issuing of a water licence, plans for location of
labour camps, site offices, storage areas, construction areas, and borrow-pit locations were received from British Columbia Hydro and approved. A review of
proposed recreational facilities and clearing standards is continuing.
Mica—Following completion of Mica Dam early in 1973, a study of the
effects of the reservoir on the resources of the Mica Region was commissioned by
the Environment and Land Use Committee. The Division's input to this study may
occur on the floodplains of the Columbia and the Kicking Horse River which
threatens Golden, and the Canoe Hot Springs, south of Valemount, which will be
submerged.
Approval of Plans
During 1974, Mica Dam and Kootenay Canal project were visited twice by
Divisional staff. In addition to site visits continuing reviews were carried out covering such subjects as reservoir slope surveillance, dam instrumentation, monitoring of
seismic activity, reservoir filling program, regional resource studies, and geologic
factors as they affect site selection. Visits were also made to several smaller projects either to ensure that construction was proceeding according to approved plans,
or that rehabilitation or reconstruction work required was being carried out.
 U 26 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Work is progressing satisfactorily on both the Mica and Kootenay Canal projects. At Mica, project work on the dam and spillway was completed in 1973, and
work in 1974 was concentrated in the powerhouse. Excavation work is virtually
complete with the exception of a small amount remaining in the tailrace tunnels,
and the emphasis has now shifted to concrete placement and machinery installation.
The close of 1974 at the Kootenay Canal plant should see the completion of the
canal and intake structure; the powerhouse intake headworks and the penstocks
should be nearing completion with the main work being carried out on machinery
installation in the powerhouse.
A more detailed report on the construction progress of the major projects
named above appears in the Annual Review of Power in British Columbia produced
in July of each year.
Power Rentals
A tabulation of rentals for the past 10 years, together with the percentage
change from each previous year, is shown below.
Per Cent
Year Total Billed Change
$
1964   2,042,612 	
1965   2,146,805 +5.10
1966   2,135,593 -0.53
1967   2,290,985 +7.27
1968   2,467,329 +7.69
1969   3,207,607 +30.00
1970   3,546,858 +10.57
1971   3,510,014 -1.04
1972   3,978,448 +13.34
1973   4,345,060 +9.21
1974   4,720,432 +8.63
Average annual change      +8.74
Flood Control
Operations During the Past Year
Early forecasts of volume of run-off from snow-melt indicated a fairly high
probability of damaging floods occurring during the summer. In view of this certain precautions were taken by Provincial authorities, and the Power and Major
Licences Division ordered the lowering of reservoirs to take best advantage of the
storage available.
In the Fraser Basin the procedures that were earlier developed and applied
successfully for the 1972 flood were reinstituted. The anticipatory storage in
Nechako Reservoir was increased by means of a preflood drawdown, commencing
on March 21. In addition, the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority
lowered the Bridge River Reservoirs and undertook to maintain some emergency
storage space in the Stave Lake Reservoir.
Cooler than normal spring and summer weather retarded the snow-melt to a
considerable extent with the result that flows in the Fraser River itself were not of
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U 27
a damaging order of magnitude.  Tributary flooding did take place in a number of
areas and is reported elsewhere.
As in 1972, it was considered that more than adequate storage space was available in the Columbia basin; however, the Division staff monitored daily reservoir
levels and discharges throughout the high-run-off season. A full report on flood-
control operations appears in the section on the Columbia River Treaty which
follows.
Studies in Progress
Lake Williston—Studies have been continuing in co-operation with British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority on a method of operation designed to optimize
flood control downstream on the Peace River without jeopardizing the power
production.
Maximum Probable Floods—A study evaluating maximum probable floods
for all rivers in the Province having significant years of stream-flow records was
undertaken. Flood values were derived using the "Hershfield Method" based on
mean annual flood peaks and standard deviations, determined by computer programs
and tabulated by regions.
Kootenay Lake Board of Control
Kootenay Lake exceeded the maximum allowable elevations on several days
in January, caused by an unprecedented inflow to the lake which was about three
times higher than any January flow in the 45 years of record. Without Libby and
Duncan storage, this inflow would have been even higher.
A meeting of the several international boards having jurisdiction along the
British Columbia/United States boundary was held in Seattle on February 14. A
tour of inspection of the Kootenay Lake Board of Control's area of jurisdiction was
conducted in September. In addition, construction progress at the Mica Creek,
Libby, and Kootenay Canal Projects was observed and a tour of the H. L. Keenley-
side Dam undertaken.
Ice Studies
Nechako River—Ice jams are an intermittent problem at Prince George and
a study was initiated to determine if a cure could be achieved by manipulation of
releases from the Nechako Reservoir. Advice was sought from other parts of
Canada and the Division is particularly indebted to J. B. Bryce, of Ontario Hydro,
D. M. Foulds, of Environment Canada (Ontario Region), and W. Nemanishen, of
Water Survey of Canada (Calgary).
Peace River—The Town of Peace River in the Province of Alberta, in most
years, has experienced ice-jams at the end of the winter season. At a meeting in
Vancouver on March 20, 1974, representatives of Alberta, British Columbia, and
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority established a Joint Task Force to
report on measures taken to alleviate ice-jams during the 1974 break-up. By plowing the snow cover, grooving the ice sheet, and dusting the cleared track with sand
in late March and early April, the ice sheet was weakened in advance of the
break-up and it is believed that this helped considerably in reducing the flood
potential. Further protection was provided by the British Columbia Hydro and
Power Authority who cut back on power flows from the G. M. Shrum Generating
Station during the ice break-up period.
 U 28
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Generation and Load Growth
Interim Estimate for Past Year
During 1974 the consumption of electricity within the Province rose marginally
(1.67 per cent) over the amount used during 1973. Labour problems in the
Province accounted for the relatively small increase. Cominco, for instance, was
plagued by a very lengthy strike with a considerable drop in production.
It will be noted that the utilities generation is 1723 Gwh. lower than last year;
however this is due to a reduction in (net) exports amounting to 2,500 Gwh.
The Division's customary year-end survey is tabulated below. More accurate
data will appear in the 1975 Annual Review of Power in British Columbia.
1974
Change
Generation by utilities—
Hydro	
Thermal	
Subtotal _	
Generation by industries—
Hydro.	
Thermal	
Subtotal..
Total generation in British Columbia
Exports (net).
Total electric load in British Columbia .
(Gwh.)
22,629
3,041
(Gwh.)
23,590
357
(Per Cent)
+4.25
-88.3
25,670
23,947
-6.71
10,738
1,361
10,526
1,297
— 1.97
—4.70
12,099
11,823
—2.28
37,769
35,770
-5.29
4,813
2,263
32,956
33,507
+ 1.67
Notes—1 gigawatt-hour  (Gwh.):
in the above figures.
: 1,000,000 kilowatt-hours.    Hydro-mechanical generation is not included
Long-term Growth
A 10-year analysis of growth in power requirements appeared in the July 1974
Annual Review of Power in British Columbia. For the period 1963—1973 the
mean annual rates of growth were—total generated, 9.27 per cent; and total required within British Columbia, 7.82 per cent. The difference in the two growth
rates is due to the imbalance of imports and exports with 1973 being a year of
substantial net export.
Two graphs, one showing peak and average energy requirements and the other
the installed capacity, 1930 to date, are included. It will be noted that on the
average, while a fairly constant rate of load growth has been maintained since
1955, for a few years installed capacity outstripped the peak requirements.
Power Exports
The occurrence of power surpluses in good water years is a characteristic of
hydro power systems. During the first half of 1974 exports of power were not
substantial. However, during the last six months the rates of flow increased quite
markedly as a result of a high volume of run-off which provided a substantial surplus of hydro power. In addition, the strike at Cominco's Trail Smelter made large
blocks of power available, some of which has been transmitted as far as San Diego,
California.
Project Studies
Brilliant II—A study assessing the cost of additional capacity and energy at
Brilliant Dam on the Kootenay River, made available by increased regulation upstream at Libby and Duncan Dams, was completed.   The study indicates that the
 PEAK
AND AVERAGE
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS -
1930
to
DATE
U 29
9,000
8,000
6,0 00
5,000
4,000
• '
3,0 00
y
2,000
PEAK--.
_
m
Ct
>
1,000 4
9 00  >
600-1
7 00 H
w
6 00
5 00
400
y
-
-AVERAGE
300
2 00
1930                1935                 1940                1945                1950                 1955                 I960                1965                1970                 1975
TOTAL   INSTALLED  CAPACITY - 1930  to DATE
9,000
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
j
A
r
i
r
r
J
r j-
J
£
m
CD
>
1,000 s
900 >
1
J-1
J
r
"^_
<-f
eoo"
500
J*
T
300
2 00
100
75
19
30                  1935                    1940                  1945                    1950                   1955                    I960                   1965                   1970                    19
 U 30 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
optimum development would include a surface powerhouse downstream of the
existing plant with an installation of approximately 100 mw, producing 430 Gwh.
at a cost of 10 mills per kwh.
Homathko—A study investigating alternative methods of diverting Taseko and
Chilko waters to the Homathko for power development downstream was nearing
completion by end of year. The studies were undertaken as a result of strong objections by fisheries interests to earlier diversion proposals, particularly with respect to important sockeye runs to the Chilko system.
Coquitlam—Cost-benefit studies were completed of a dual-purpose project
providing both additional peaking to the British Columbia Hydro system and flood
control for the Coquitlam area. The power would be provided by a new 100-mw.
powerplant on Indian Arm, supplied by a tunnel from Coquitlam Lake. Provision
of crest gates on the existing spillway at the outlet of Coquitlam Lake would greatly
reduce flooding the lower Coquitlam Valley, and this information will be incorporated in a Basin Water Management Study now being undertaken by the Water Resources Service.
Joint Alberta/British Columbia Studies of Peace River Power—A meeting
between the Governments of Alberta and British Columbia and the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority was attended on September 26 to discuss the
mutual benefits of the power potential of the Peace River between Site One in
British Columbia and Dunvegan in Alberta. Various sites were discussed and it
was decided that future studies in British Columbia will be undertaken by British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority in co-operation with the Water Resources
Service; Alberta's program will be co-ordinated by Alberta Environment in co-operation with Energy Resources Conservation Board.
Columbia River Treaty
Mica Reservoir
Now in its second year of operation, Mica Dam impounded water to a maximum pool elevation of 2,409 during the summer of 1974. This represents a volume
of over 13 million acre-feet, less than 2 million short of the target of 15 million
required by the time of first power operation which is scheduled for the fall of 1976.
This success is due to an exceptionally high volume of run-off this year. Ultimately,
Mica Reservoir will hold up to 20 million acre-feet consisting of—8 million dead
storage, 7 million committed for Treaty purposes (but usable for generation in
Canada), and 5 million for Canadian use only. The underground powerplant, now
being built, will eventually house six units totalling 2,610 mw. Construction is
proceeding on schedule.
Benefits in Canada
Kootenay Canal Plant—This project is being built in order to develop the
additional generating capability available in Canada by the construction and operation of Libby and Duncan Dams. The project comprises a canal, with its intake
at Corra Linn Dam, supplying water to a powerhouse just downstream from South
Slocan Dam. In one step this plant will generate more power than is produced by
the five existing plants which will be bypassed. Four units of 132-mw. rates
capacity each will develop power from the peak flow of 27,000 cfs. through a net
head of 245 feet. The first two units will be on-line in the fall of 1975 and the
balance in 1976.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U 31
The underground powerhouse under construction just below the downstream face
of the Mica Dam on the Columbia River.
Penstocks being installed at the Kootenay Canal hydro-electric project.   First two
generating units come into service during 1975.
 U 32 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Flood of 1974—The Treaty reservoirs were an unqualified success in containing this year's run-off. The combination of Arrow, Duncan, Libby, and Mica held
back a flood which was larger than the 1961 flood during which extensive damage
occurred, and even approached the magnitude of the 1894 flood. It was determined that, without this regulation, the level of Kootenay Lake would have been
nearly 10 feet higher and the level of the Columbia River at Trail would have been
21 feet higher. In the United States, the regulated flow at the Dalles did not exceed 600,000 cfs., the point at which damage commences; without regulation it
would have equalled the disastrous flood of 1948, peaking in excess of 1,000,000
cfs.
Libby Reservoir
Lake Koocanusa, which is formed behind Libby Dam on the Kootenai River
in Montana, filled for the first time on July 25, 1974, flooding to a maximum depth
of 140 feet at the border.
The Government of British Columbia undertook the Canada-British Columbia
Agreement of 1963 to prepare the reservoir area in Canada for flooding, and the
Water Resources Service was assigned the role of co-ordinating agency. The Division was responsible for maintaining control over field progress, budget expenditure,
and liaison between all agencies engaged in the program.
All roads, bridges, and rail relocations were completed earlier and power and
telephone services have been disconnected or relocated as necessary. The property
acquisition program is nearing completion with four settlements outstanding. The
British Columbia Forest Service has cleared all but about 10 acres of the original
9,240 acres of forested land and, as soon as property acquisition is concluded,
clearing will be completed.
A meeting was held on September 19, 1974, in Victoria with representatives
of the United States Corps of Engineers, the authority responsible for construction
of Libby Dam and reservoir preparation in Montana, to discuss progress and items
of common interest and concern.
Dam Inspection
The dam inspection program during 1974 was expanded to include the inspection of smaller dams (those over 10 feet in height). This year the small dams
on Vancouver Island were inspected as a pilot for a future program to undertake
small structure inspections elsewhere in the Province. The scope of the program
was also enlarged to include the inspection of all underwater installations by two
qualified scuba divers on the Division's staff.
Twenty-eight major dams and 30 smaller structures were inspected as part of
the continuing program to ensure that adequate maintenance was being carried out
and that no adverse conditions had developed. Several major dams under construction were also visited during the year to ensure compliance with previously approved plans.
A technical report presenting the optimum goals for the dam inspection program was completed and may be initiated in the spring of 1975. It represents an
expanded surveillance program and a classification system for dams from which
inspection frequency and standards may be derived. Other investigations on aspects of dam safety were undertaken during the year; these included dam-stability
studies, flood-handling capability, and reservoir-bank stability.
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Metric Conversion
U 33
The task of co-ordinating the conversion for Water Rights to the international
system of units was assigned to this Division. A tentative schedule covering a
two-year period has already been drawn up and is being reviewed.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS DIVISION
There are now 270 improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act
and administered by the Comptroller of Water Rights. During 1974 the following
districts were incorporated and dissolved:
Districts Incorporated
Wolfe Waterworks.
Sutherland Creek Waterworks.
Valhalla Ridge Improvement.
Ptarmigan Flats Drainage.
Tugulnuit Lake Improvement.
Missezula Lake Waterworks.
Nicomen Island Improvement.
Districts Dissolved
Todd Hill Irrigation.
West Nicomen Dyking.
East Nicomen Dyking.
Bluebird Bay Waterworks.
Crozier Waterworks.
Administration of the following improvement districts incorporated under the
Water Act, lying wholly within the area to be included within the Cities of Prince
George and Nanaimo on January 1, 1975, was transferred to the Department of
Municipal Affairs:
Districts in Nanaimo
Departure Bay Waterworks.
Harewood Improvement.
Northfield Fire Protection.
North Wellington Waterworks.
Petroglyph Waterworks.
Districts in Prince George
Airport Hill Improvement.
Blackburn Improvement.
Charella Gardens Waterworks.
Clear Acres Improvement.
College Heights Improvement.
Lafrenier Improvement.
Nechako Improvement.
Parkridge Heights Improvement.
Starlane Waterworks.
Western Acres Improvement.
The Letters Patent of 40 other improvement districts were amended in 1974,
most changes being boundary amendments.
There are now $15,704,100 of improvement districts' debentures guaranteed
by the Province under the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act, of which
$4,416,100 are serial debentures and $11,288,000 term debentures. Sinking funds
for redemption of the term debentures are held by the Province in the amount of
approximately $1,051,200. During 1974, debentures of $2,177,000 were guaranteed.
Engineering Services
During the year both engineering and administrative staff of the Division
travelled extensively throughout the Province, meeting with district trustees, municipal officials, organizing committees, and land developers. About 200 visits were
made to 101 districts regarding technical and administrative problems.
2
 U 34
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Reports Prepared and Under Preparation
Community
Subject
Status of Report
at End of Year
Avola.
Balfour Irrigation District 	
Beck's Lake _   	
Blackburn Improvement District	
Braemar Heights Waterworks District and
Triangle Mountain Improvement District
Coldwater Improvement District	
Deep Cove Waterworks District —
Edgewater Improvement District 	
Hillcrest Waterworks District 	
Louis Creek    _
Village of New Denver..
Ootischenia Improvement District-
Radium Sewerage District	
Rutland Waterworks District	
Sorrento Waterworks District	
Twan Creek   	
Vananda Waterworks District	
All improvement districts	
All small communities	
All communities	
Windermere Improvement District
Proposed rehabilitation of a domestic-water system
Additional domestic-water reservoir	
Flooding _ _	
Water consumption.	
Domestic-water-system capacity 	
Appraisal of domestic-water system - -...	
Hydraulic analysis of domestic-water system	
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system..- __
Alternative sources of domestic-water supply	
Proposed rehabilitation of a domestic-water system
Metric conversion	
Proposed rehabilitation of a domestic-water system
Alternative sources of domestic-water supply_	
Extension of sewerage system and upgrading of
treatment
Hydraulic analysis of domestic-water system	
Domestic-water system capacity and proposed
extensions
Proposed irrigation system	
Proposed rehabilitation of a domestic-water system
Water charges  -  	
Water supply  	
Water-use characteristics   _	
Appraisal of domestic-water system _	
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Study continuing.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Study continuing.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Study continuing.
Completed.
Design and Engineering Services
Community
Project
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Camp Barnard, Sooke 	
Domestic-water system for Scout Jamboree
Completed.
Completed.
Substantially completed.
Completed.
$
10,000
64,000
Walhachin Waterworks District.
Rehabilitation of domestic-water supply
system
Hydro-pneumatic pumping system	
39,400
10,000
Water Supply, Sewerage, and Other Proposals Reviewed
District
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Improvement Districts
Barriere	
Buckhorn  	
Reconstruction of domestic-water intake
and pumping system
Extension of domestic-water system. -
Planning stage.
Construction completed.
Planning stage.
Construction completed.
Under construction.
Construction imminent.
$
14,000
21,000
232,700
Nakusp 	
Improvements to domestic-water system	
344,000
530,000
Domestic-water reservoir	
180,000
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U 35
Water Supply, Sewerage, and Other Proposals Reviewed—Continued
District
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Estimated
Cost
Waterworks Districts
Brentwood	
Copperwill (proposed)	
Domestic-water reservoir. -	
Domestic-water reservoir—	
Domestic-water system -	
Booster pump and domestic-water reservoir
Domestic-water reservoir ..—	
Domestic-water reservoir,  supply  main,
and modification of pumphouse
Well and pump installation	
Under construction.
Planning stage.
Under construction.
Construction completed.
Construction completed.
Construction completed.
Construction completed.
Construction completed.
Under construction.
Construction completed.
Under construction.
Under construction.
Construction completed.
Preliminary planning.
Preliminary planning.
$
325,000
60,000
Cowichan Bay„_.	
110,000
251,725
Heffley Creek..-     _ 	
Kemp Lake 	
30,000
19,604
35,000
Lower Nicola ...	
15,000
North Cedar	
Extension of domestic-water system    ....
Domestic-water reservoir and extension
of system
Domestic-water reservoir _--- -
Stage 1 rehabilitation of domestic-water
system
Domestic-water reservoir and extension
of distribution system
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system...
62,000
Rayleigh	
Silver Star _
South Pender Harbour 	
85,000
40,537
208,000
Specified Areas
101,000
ARDA System Supervision
In the Federal-Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Agreement
under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act
the Province has responsibility for the proper operation and maintenance of all
works constructed under ARDA programs. The ARDA Section, Improvement
Districts Division, carries out routine inspections of ARDA systems completed by
improvement districts in British Columbia to ensure compliance with the intent of
the Act. Section staff advise and assist on technical and administrative problems
that arise concerning the ARDA project.
Improvement District Involved in ARDA Program
Districts
Completion Date
of Original
ARDA Projects
Remarks
1964/72
1964/65/73
1964/69
1964/70
1964
1965
1965
1965/71
1965/71
1966
1966/73
1966/73
1969
1969
1969
1969
1969/73
1970
1970
1970
South End Kelowna Irrigation	
Westbank Irrigation	
Osoyoos Irrigation  _ 	
Lakeview Irrigation	
West Bench Irrigation	
 U 36
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Improvement Districts Involved in ARDA Program—Continued
Districts
Completion Date
of Original
ARDA Projects
Remarks
1970
1970
1971
1971
1971
1972/73
1972/73
1972
1973
1973
1973
1974
Wood Lake Improvement __	
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation	
Staff limitations have so far prevented the implementing of a consistent routine
inspection program and it has been necessary to concentrate on those ARDA Improvement Districts whose developing problems are of an immediately urgent nature.
The following studies were undertaken:
District
Study
Status of
Study at
End of Year
Naramata Irrigation	
Okanagan Falls Irrigation
Kaleden Irrigation.- 	
Sion Improvement     _„.
Grandview Waterworks __-
Oyama Irrigation	
West Bench Irrigation	
Westbank Irrigation	
Boundary Line Irrigation.
Crozier Waterworks	
Larkin Waterworks	
Eagle Rock Waterworks...
Wood Lake Improvement
Proposed extensions of water system  _____
Proposed rehabilitation of water system in townsite area	
Proposed supplementary works to serve residential development
Appraisal of water-system capacity ___ _ ___ _.
Proposed supplementary works to serve additional connections
Proposed booster pump ___ _ _. _ „
Proposed modifications to water system to serve additional
connections
Effect of subdivisions on system capacity _.  - 	
Effect of proposed boundary expansion
Proposed rehabilitation of domestic-water system	
Amalgamation of Larkin and Crozier Waterworks Districts	
Emergency water-supply interconnection between Larkin and
Eagle Rock Waterworks District
Intake and sedimentation basin performance  - 	
Land-use policy.— _ 	
Completed.
In hand.
In hand.
In hand.
Completed.
Completed.
In hand.
In hand.
In hand.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
In hand.
Completed.
WATER UTILITIES DIVISION
With the repeal of the Public Utilities Act on July 15, 1973, regulation of
privately owned and municipally owned water utilities was transferred to the Comptroller of Water Rights under the Water Utilities Act and the Energy Act. The
Water Utilities Division was created within the framework of the Water Rights
Branch to assist in the administration of the new Acts. This Report covers the
first full year of the Comptroller's jurisdiction.
The staff of the Division, which includes engineers, accountants, administrative
officers, and supporting clerical and stenographic staff, was partly decentralized by
the recent appointment of senior engineering technicians to regional offices throughout the Province. The technicians are now conducting a wide variety of on-the-spot
investigations on behalf of the Division, and are also providing excellent liaison
between the Division and the public particularly with regard to complaints by ratepayers' groups and others regarding rates and adequacy of utility service.
The work of the Division continued to expand at a vigorous rate. There are
80 applications before the Comptroller for authorization to create new private
 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U 37
utilities and to extend existing systems to supply additional areas, which indicates
a high level of activity when compared with the total figure of 266 utilities presently
subject to the Comptroller's supervision. For the most part these applications are
by land developers seeking to make water service available at their projects. Prevailing high rates of interest for borrowed capital and rapidly escalating costs for
materials and labour resulted in strong pressure by the applicants for approval of
their proposals.
An important function of the Division is to ensure that new utility systems are
designed and constructed in accordance with acceptable standards of engineering
practice. A review was commenced of the standards employed by the Division for
this purpose taking into account foreseeable demands for domestic water, and the
need for consistency with the standards observed by municipalities, regional districts, improvement districts, and other agencies of Provincial and Local Government.
Boundary extensions by municipalities (e.g., Kamloops) resulted in the
assimilation of some privately owned water utilities under municipal management.
There are also indications that a few regional districts are taking steps to acquire
ownership of water utilities within their boundaries.
Inflationary trends precipitated a large number of applications for substantial
increases in rates, there being 26 rate applications remaining to be dealt with at
year-end. For example, Elk Creek Waterworks Co. Ltd., which supplies the City
of Chilliwack and surrounding area, clearly demonstrated at a recent public hearing held by the Comptroller that an increase in revenue of approximately 40 per
cent was required to enable the company to maintain service and to attract capital
necessary for improvements.
With the current shortage of funds available for lending and high rates of interest, lending institutions have become most reluctant to lend funds for the purpose
of improvements to the works of small utilities. In the result, small utilities are
tending to make application for approval of rates sufficient in amount to enable
the cost of capital improvement programs to be charged to operating expenses—
a practice which is not usually considered to be in the best public interest. In the
face of this dilemma and the compelling need for the applicants to improve their
systems, the Comptroller approved rates somewhat higher than might otherwise
have been justified, but in doing so also required by order that the portion of
revenue needed for improvements should be accumulated in a special replacement
fund from which disbursements may not be made without the Comptroller's consent.
Taxes applicable to private water utilities works under the Taxation Act increased significantly in the last several years due to amendments in the assessing
procedures and practices of the Province. A number of new utilities and utilities
in early stages of development with very few customers connected reported that
their revenues are not sufficient to meet this obligation.
The policy of requiring all new utilities to establish maintenance reserve funds
was continued during the year. These funds are held indefinitely to and for the
sole discretion of the Comptroller of Water Rights against any unforeseen operating
contingency. The total amount on deposit in the various funds now exceeds SIVz
million and may be released in whole or in part by the Comptroller if and when
the systems become self-supporting.
A number of public hearings were held by the Comptroller of Water Rights
during the year, one of unusual interest being held on an application by Inter-
Island Utilities Ltd. to abandon its right to supply water to a residential subdivision
of some 117 lots on Mayne Island, which were sold by Surfside Park Estates to lot
 U 38 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
purchasers with a promise of water. The applicant utility proposed to continue
service to lot purchasers in the subdivisions of its parent company, Gulf Land
Corporation Limited.
The application was refused by the Comptroller who declared both Surfside
Park Estates and Gulf Land Corporation to be water utilities under the Water
Utilities Act. An order was subsequently registered as a Judgment of the Comptroller of Water Rights against all the lands owned in the Province by Surfside Park
Estates and Gulf Land Corporation Limited. The order was partially complied
with at year-end, both parties having until January 15, 1975, to complete their
applications.
The major problem confronting new utilities (which usually have few or no
customers) continues to be lack of an assured source of revenue, and the main
problem facing small older utilities is the virtual impossibility of borrowing funds
for essential improvements.
Statistical data relating to the activities of the Water Utilities Division is given
below:
Certificates of public convenience and necessity and amendments
thereto granted  48
Tariffs and amendments to tariffs accepted for filing  45
Orders requiring maintenance reserve funds and other special funds
to be created  44
Orders approving transfer and sale of water utilities to new owners     5
Complaints dealt with regarding rates and adequacy of service  42
 WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Director, are
the evaluation, control, planning, and management of water resources of the Province where
these do not directly come under the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967. These functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations
Branch, are briefly summarized below.
(1) Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to facilitate flood prevention measures and to guide judicious utilization of water supply.
(b) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydro-
meteorological data for use in planning, engineering studies, and related purposes.
(c) Hydrologic studies as components of interdisciplinary studies pertaining to
multi-resource planning and management and environmental protection.
(d) Collection of existing groundwater data and investigation and evaluation of
groundwater potential to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of
this source of water supply.
(2) Planning and Surveys Division:
(a) Development of floodplain and flood-hazard maps in concert with management planning and control of floodplain development.
(b) Surveys and mapping in connection with water-resource planning, investigations, and construction.
(c) Data collection in connection with water quality, water quantity, and reservoir storage-site investigations.
(3) Environmental Studies Division:
(a) To undertake environmental and management studies for purposes of preserving the quality of the water resource and ensuring its judicious usage.
(b) To carry out limnological and ecological surveys and studies directed toward resolving existing problems and facilitating water-resource planning.
(4) Engineering Division:
(a) Processing of water-project proposals made under the Agricultural and
Rural Development Act, and investigation, design, and supervision of projects.
(b) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise in
the development, planning, and management of water-supply projects.
(c) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
advice and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(d) Implementation of projects under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser
River Flood Control Agreement.
(5) The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Typing Pool as well
as a Records Compilation and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better use of the
water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic and social
development of the Province.
39
 U 40
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
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 WATER
INVESTIGATIONS
BRANCH
P. M. Brady, P.Eng.
Director
The Branch was reorganized in late 1974 in order to effectively meet changing
demands and environmental concerns. Existing personnel, plus 17 staff members,
transferred from the Pollution Control Branch were consolidated into four divisions
as indicated in the organization chart. The activities under these divisional responsibilities and the administrative and technical support facilities are described
in the following pages.   A brief overview of Branch activities is presented below.
FLOODING AND FLOOD CONTROL
A major factor affecting Branch activities in 1974 was high run-off and associated problems which occurred over much of the Province.
While flooding problems were caused by heavy rains on Vancouver Island
and the west-central area of the Province, the major problems resulted from the
high snow-pack which formed over the southern half of the Province. The snow
survey network operated by the Branch inventoried this growing pack and through
the use of computer models and other methods, prepared long- and short-range
forecasts of river flows.
This information was passed to local emergency flood committees through a
communication system established for this purpose. The knowledge gained from
this information was instrumental in establishing priorities for flood-protection
measures undertaken at the local level which, in turn, resulted in protection where
most needed and avoided in many cases the construction of unnecessary temporary
works.
Large-scale flooding, the potential for which was indicated by the snow-pack,
did not materialize because of favourable weather conditions. A weather pattern
such as that which occurred in 1948 would have triggered a major disaster.
In anticipation of high run-off, the Branch mobilized all its available resources
to provide technical and financial assistance to a number of individuals, groups of
farmers and communities in the construction of river protection works of a permanent nature. In addition, the Branch provided the technical input for the construction of some $850,000 worth of dykes and bank protection at Kamloops pursuant to the Kamloops Emergency Flood Control Act passed by the Legislature on
May 9, 1974. The majority of these works will remain in place and will form a
part of a more adequate flood-protection system for the City of Kamloops which
will be constructed in the future.
The heavy snow-pack in the Okanagan necessitated careful operation of the
Okanagan Flood Control System. Okanagan Lake was drawn down to 0.3 foot
below its minimum operation level prior to peak run-off and filled to 0.3 foot above
its maximum operating level. In addition, careful outflow regulation controlled the
level of Osoyoos Lake. The reduction in flow at the critical time prevented the
lake from peaking approximately Wi feet higher which would have caused considerable damage.
41
 U 42 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
In recognition of the fact that many areas in the Province are prone to eventual
flooding, the Branch expanded its efforts toward structural and nonstructural measures to minimize future flood damage and hardship. The following were undertaken in this regard:
(a) Acceleration of construction of works under the 1968 Federal-
Provincial Agreement covering a plan for flood control in the Fraser
Valley. Expenditures under this program will approach $10 million
this fiscal year compared to $6.1 million and $2.4 million in fiscal
years 1973/74 and 1972/73, respectively. An amount of $14.6
million has been budgeted for fiscal year 1975/76. The Federal-
Provincial Agreement was amended in 1974 to include the Kamloops area and to provide additional funds in the amount of $30
million in view of rapidly escalating construction costs, inclusion of
the Kamloops area, and elimination of local share of capital costs.
Projects have been completed or are under way for the District of
Kent, Oak Hills area at Kamloops, District of Surrey, Nicomekl-
Serpentine Dams, Township of Chilliwhack, District of Matsqui,
Corporation of Delta, and the Township of Richmond. Engineering
and design are at the advanced stage for the Mission City area, City
of New Westminster-Queensborough area, and District of Pitt Meadows. Design is well under way in connection with projects for the
City of Port Coquitlam and the District of Surrey South Westminster
area.
(b) Expanded program of technical and financial assistance to individuals and communities in the construction of minor river protection
works. Many of the projects undertaken were for the protection
of agricultural land. In all, 55 projects were constructed having a
total construction cost of $524,000. This compares with 19 projects last year and 12 the year before with the value of construction
amounting to $397,000 and $161,000, respectively. In addition,
flood-protection works costing a total of $575,000 were completed
by the Branch on Trout Creek, near Summerland, and in the Bella
Coola Valley.
(c) In conjunction with the Water Rights Branch, a program of channel
clearing was initiated, consisting of removing log jams and gravel
bars formed as a result of high run-off and which, if left in place,
would cause considerable flooding and erosion problems. The program, which was intiated in the fall of 1974, has resulted so far in
the removal of some 31 channel blockages at a total cost of approximately $115,000.
(„) Intensification of the floodplain surveys and mapping program to
delineate flood-lines and flood-depths necessary for the planning and
control of development within our floodplains and for any flood
insurance program that may eventually be implemented. During
the year, a field survey party, formed specifically for this purpose,
went into full operation. Some 1,300 man-days of survey work
were completed along some 170 miles of river valleys, 78 miles of
lakeshore, and having a total adjacent floodplain area of approximately 280 square miles.
(e) Passage of the Land Registry Amendment Act, 1974, and implementation of its requirements to control subdivisions within flood-
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH U 43
plains and therefore minimizing future hardship and damages.
Some 50 subdivision proposals were reviewed and either rejected
or agreed to usually subject to conditions designed to minimize
damage and the potential for damage claims.
(/) Review of zoning by-laws to facilitate inclusion of requirements
directed toward control of building in areas which could be subject
to flood damage. Some 90 zoning by-laws were reviewed and in
addition, advice on floodplain planning and flood-prevention measures was provided to local authorities and individuals.
Resource Inventory
The major hydrometric network within the Province is operated by the Water
Survey of Canada in consultation and with limited financial support from Departmental funds. During 1974, an extensive review of the network was carried out in
anticipation of a formal cost-sharing agreement with the Federal Government for
the operation of the network.
The Branch operates an independent network of short-term hydrometric stations on small streams and lakes for operational purposes and specific studies. Dur-
the year, the number of stations in the network was expanded from 52 to 74.
Groundwater information was collected and monitored throughout the Province
and particularly in water-short areas in order to inventory this limited and valuable
resource and to assist in its development. A total of 3,109 well-logs was collected,
64 new water-well maps produced, 156 observation wells monitored, and over 200
outside inquiries for groundwater information answered.
Hydrology Assessments and Studies
A total of 20 studies on surface water hydrology was undertaken or completed.
Of these 20 studies, 11 were for Branch purposes, four were at the request of the
Forest Service, three for the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat,
and two for the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
A total of 18 groundwater studies was undertaken in critical areas throughout
the Province. The majority of these were undertaken to fulfil the purposes of the
various branches of the Water Resources Service; however, these 18 studies include
those requested by the Lands Service, Department of Public Works, Forest Service,
Department of Agriculture, Department of Highways, and the Department of
Municipal Affairs. In addition, 26 reports submitted to the Water Rights Branch
as back-up for applications for a certificate of public necessity and convenience
were reviewed.
Water-supply Projects
Studies and designs for a total of 21 water-supply projects were under way
during the year. Of these, 17 were in connection with ARDA projects, nine of
which were at the construction stage. The remaining four studies were for bulk
water supply to large areas and for community supplies.
The total expenditure for construction of projects under the ARDA program
amounted to approximately $1.7 million. The Branch is responsible for administering the implementation of these projects.
 u 44 b.c. water resources service
Environmental Studies
During the year, the Water Resources Service was reorganized to concentrate
specific expertise in one division of the Branch in order to undertake studies to
preserve the environment of the water resource and facilitate its prudent use.
Studies for this purpose had been undertaken within the Branch prior to the
formation of this division. These included the Okanagan Basin Study, the Kalamalka-
Wood Lakes Study, and the co-ordination of the environmental impact overview for
System E diversion and storages on the Fraser River system for flood-control and
power purposes. The reports for the Okanagan and Kalamalka-Wood Lakes studies
were completed during the year and a task force, of which the Assistant Director is
a member, was formed to prepare an implementation program based on the results of
these studies.   Considerable progress toward this goal was achieved during the year.
The newly formed Environmental Studies Division will complete certain studies
transferred from the Pollution Control Branch and continue research programs such
as that investigating the aquatic weed growth problems in the Okanagan Valley
lakes. The major emphasis, however, will be on studies where water-use and environmental concerns are greatest.
A major study to assess the air and water environment of the Kootenay area
was initiated late in the year. The results of this study will provide information
essential for preserving the environment of this area against the adverse effects of
existing and future development.
A second major study is being designed to provide a management framework
for the control and use of water in the Coquitlam River Basin.
Review of terms of reference and results for environmental impact studies
prepared for major developments affecting the air and water resources are being
carried out within the new division, and, in addition, environmental impact studies
for similar developments will be undertaken.
At year-end, the Water Investigations Branch staff consisted of 140 permanent
and 20 continuous temporary positions.
Officers of the Water Investigations Branch participated in a number of committees and co-ordinating groups concerned with water-resource matters. These
include:
The National Committee for the International Hydrological Decade.
The Co-ordinating Committee for Hydrometeorological Networks.
Fraser River Joint Advisory Board.
Fraser River Ecology Committee.
Mines Reclamation Act Advisory Committee.
Carnation Creek-Study Co-ordinating Committee.
Babine Lake Watershed Change Committee.
Environmental Liaison Committee.
Okanagan Implementation Task Force Working Committee.
British Columbia Interdepartmental Metric Conversion Committee.
Interdepartmental Meeting on Surveys and Mapping.
Engineering Science Lead Committee.
Ecological Reserves Committee.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
HYDROLOGY DIVISION
U 45
The Branch reorganization in late 1974 resulted in amalgamation of the former
Hydrology Division and Groundwater Division into an enlarged Hydrology Division.
The two main sections are Surface Water and Groundwater, with Modelling and
Data Bank Section acting as the co-ordinating link. The Division organization is
illustrated on the organization chart.
Chief
H. I. Hunter
Head
Surface Water
Section
Operations
Subsection
Head
Groundwater
Section
Watershed
Subsection
Modelling and
Data Banks
Subsection
Mapping and
Special Projects
Subsection
Engineering
Projects
Subsection
The major responsibilities of the Hydrology Division include operation of snow
course, hydrometric and observation well networks, streamflow forecasting, publication of the British Columbia Snow Bulletins, regulation of the Okanagan Flood
Control System, special hydrological studies for both design and environmental purposes, and hydrogeological engineering projects associated with the investigation
and evaluation of groundwater potential.
Surface Water Section
1974 Run-off Conditions
The February 1, March 1, April 1, and May 1 snow surveys indicated a progressively increasing above-average mountain snow-pack throughout the southern
half of the Province. In the northern half, the snow-pack remained close to average.
The following table lists April 1 seasonal run-off forecasts and the subsequent
observed 1974 run-off for key regional streamflow stations.
7974 Volume Run-off—April 1 Forecasts and Observed Run-off
Forecast Station
Forecast
Period
Forecast Observed
1,000 Acre-feet
Per Cent of
Average
Fraser River near Marguerite!.....	
Fraser River at Hope*   _
Thompson River near Spences Bridge
Nechako Reservoir inflow	
Arrow Lakes inflow*...  	
Kootenay Lake inflow!	
Duncan Lake inflow	
Okanagan Lake inflow
Similkameen River near Hedley
Upper Campbell Lake inflow	
Williston Lake inflow..	
Skeena River at Usk 	
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Juiy
Apr.-July
Apr.-July
Apr.-Sept.
Apr.-Sept.
35.080
67,650
19,170
4,507
28,600
21,830
2,480
580
1,413
1,147
24,590
19,860
35,420
65,340
19,340
3,900
28,560
23,370
2,459
668
1,535
1,041
24,970
19,530
123
118
120
98
110
128
111
201
141
126
107
99
1 Adjusted for upstream storage and diversion.
 U 46 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The observed seasonal volume run-off ranged from twice average for Okanagan
Lake to average for both the Skeena River and Nechako Reservoir.
Volume run-off forecasts are made with the assumption that weather conditions during the forecast period will be close to normal. Total precipitation during the
summer of 1974 was generally close to average except for the Upper Fraser, Thompson, and Upper Columbia River basins where precipitation was below normal. Runoff forecasts gave an excellent early indication of spring and summer stream-flow.
During the freshet period, a close watch was maintained on those rivers subject
to snow-melt floods. Daily stream-flow and meteorological data, provided by the
Department of the Environment using a Telex installed for this purpose, and additional snow-course measurements on May 15, June 1, and June 15 were used to
assess snow-pack depletion and developing flow situations.
The heavy mountain snow-pack and the well-above-average volume forecasts
for southern regions gave an early indication of potential flooding. The weather,
especially the daily temperature sequence during the 1974 freshet period, was such
that it did produce a favourable run-off sequence with the occurrence of a minor
amount of flooding. Water levels peaked in late June at relatively high levels for all
uncontrolled rivers. Although levels were high, the Kootenay River was the only
major river to produce record high river levels.
Networks
1. Snow survey network—A total of 1,206 snow surveys were made at 233
snow courses by diversion personnel, co-operating agencies, and part-time local
employees, and immediately relayed via Telex, telegraph, or telephone to Hydrology
Division headquarters in Victoria.
The snow-survey data, along with forecasts, up-to-date written and graphical
descriptions of snow-pack, precipitation, temperatures, and run-off, were published
in the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin. The bulletins were issued February
1, March 1, April 1, May 1, May 15, June 1, and June 15 and widely distributed
to a mailing list of some 1,000 individuals and agencies with an interest in snow
and run-off conditions, flood or drought potential, hydro-power operation, and
water management.
The Division's technicians made 85 snow-course visits during the winter to
provide at-site instruction in measurement technique and 47 visits during the summer for maintenance purposes.
Five new snow courses were established, one deleted, and one reactivated
in 1974.
The snow pillow network will remain unchanged with eight installations operational for the 1974/75 winter. These devices continuously record snow-water
equivalent during the build-up and depletion periods.
The 1974 fieldwork totalled 250 man-days, with the section's technicians
travelling 23,800 miles by vehicle, 4,200 miles by helicopter, and 130 miles by
oversnow machine.
2. Hydrometric network—During 1974, the Provincial hydrometric network
was expanded, with 74 stations operational, a net increase of 22 over the preceding
year. Stream-flow is monitored at 51 stations, with the remainder monitoring
reservoir of lake levels. Of these stations, 13 have recording devices and 61 have
manually read staff gauges.
The network's emphasis is on small streams and lakes where data is required
for either operational purposes or for special studies. Most stations are located in
the Similkameen, Okanagan, and Shuswap regions.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 47
Sampling on Molson Creek snow course.
Apalmer Creek—Measuring weir and precipitation gauge installed in connection
with Salmon Arm Basin Study.
 U 48
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Hydrology Studies
Hydrology studies carried out by the Surface Water Section during 1974 are
shown in the following tabulation:
Area
Reason for Study
1. Kalamalka-Wood Lakes
Basin
2. Duteau Creek near Vernon
3. Deadman Creek near Kam
loops
4. Nanaimo River    _	
5. Williston Lake Basin.	
6. Coquitlam River.—	
7. Salmon Arm Burn area	
S. Southwest Mainland B.C. .„.
9. Toquart River near Ucluelet
10. Chapman Creek near Sechelt
11. Nahmint   River   near   Port
Alberni
12. Chilliwhack Forest area	
Input to Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Water Resource Management Study.
To determine storage requirements for irrigation, domestic-water supply, and
downstream fisheries.
To determine storage requirements for irrigation and the downstream fishery
resource.
Extreme rainstorm run-off in January 1974.
Continuous update of stream-flow, snow-course, and meteorological data for
volume run-off forecasting.
Input to water management study initiated within the Environmental Studies
Division.
To determine the effects of forest fire on watershed hydrology.
To determine the magnitude of high flood-flows from available stream-flow data;
to derive a method of determining flood-flows of ungauged streams in this
region of the Province.
To develop methods of formulating cutting plans to reduce the impact of logging on other resources. Information required for B.C. Forest Service integrated resource studies.
To assess annual and peak flows based on available data. Information required
for B.C. Forest Service integrated resource studies.
As for Study 9 above. The methods developed in the Toquart Study have been
refined and used operationally in the Nahmint Study.
To assess stream-flow regime based on historical hydrometric data. Information
required for B.C. Forest Service integrated resource studies.
In November 1974, work commenced on a study of 38 watersheds in the
Vancouver Forest District which require water-resource assessments as input to the
integrated resource project approach. These watershed studies will be restricted in
scope because of staff limitations, and for the same reason it is doubtful that assessments will be completed for more than a few of the watersheds listed below:
Study Title
Requesting
Agency
Details
1. Williston Lake Potentials .
2. Springbrook Biophysical
Land Classification Project
3. Squamish-Lillooet Outdoor
Recreation Study
4. MacMillan Park Study..
5. Salmon River Hydrology
Study
6. Grasmere Area Irrigation
Potential
7. Johnson Creek Hydrology
Study
8. Ideal and Fish Hawk Lake
Peak Flow Study
ELUC Secretariat
ELUC Secretariat
Parks Branch,
Department of
Recreation and
Conservation
Parks Branch,
Department of
Recreation and
Conservation
Water Rights
Branch
Water Resources
Service
Water Resources
Service
Water Resources
Service
Inflow forecasting and basin hydrological studies as input to
an examination of all potential uses of the Williston Reservoir and shoreline areas to determine management procedures for optimizing this resource potential.
Input is to estimate flow of variability and assess snow-pack
conditions, present water use, water-quality problems, and
effects of various use practices on water quantity and quality.
Inventory of available hydrometeorological data in the
Squamish, Lillooet, and Seton River watersheds. Information was provided on 200-year flood-levels, flow velocities,
lake-level data, water used by hydro-electric power plants,
and typical daily hydrographs for average, high, and low
run-off years.
Total study is to assess the present state of the park forest
cover and determine the extent to which it is being influenced by natural phenomena and man's activities within
and adjacent to the park. A comprehensive park management plan will be prepared.
In collaboration with Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department
of Recreation and Conservation, to define the roles of surface water flow, groundwater flow, licensed water withdrawals and fishery requirements in order to manage the
water resource in a manner satisfactory to all users.
Study to provide data on the groundwater recharge potential
of a series of small basins on west-facing slopes of the
Grasmere Valley.
Run-off estimates for a proposed domestic and irrigation water-
supply system for the Sinmax Water Users' Community.
Estimation of peak outflow and confirmation of spillway
capacity for two reservoirs in the Mission Creek headwaters.
 water investigations branch u 49
Groundwater Section
Collection and Compilation of Basic Data
Water-well Data
Logs and other information on wells drilled by British Columbia drillers are
collected by Groundwater Section Staff or are mailed in by drillers. A total of 3,109
logs was collected for wells drilled in 1973, and part of 1974. Reports on groundwater resource-use and evaluations in the Province were collected from private
consultants and Government agencies.
Water-well Maps
A total of 64 new water-well maps was compiled in the early part of the year
and preparation of replacement maps for the Saanich Peninsula was initiated.
Observation-well Data
A publication was printed in 1974 entitled Groundwater Observation Wells of
British Columbia.
As of December 31, 1974, the Groundwater Section was monitoring 156
observation wells, 60 of which comprise a network of continuing observations with
15 having automatic recorders. Ninety-six observation wells are special projects
on a short-term basis, 37 of which have automatic recorders. Water-chemistry
data were collected at continuing network wells in May and September and those
with automatic recorders were inspected and serviced twice in 1974.
Two observation wells of the continuing network were discontinued and three
were added.
The special study in Glenmore was completed and the wells abandoned. Four
wells for the Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Study were discontinued and nine added for
the Salmon River Study. Three wells belonging to Sidney Waterworks are being
monitored for salt-water contamination.
At the end of December, the distribution by watershed of observation wells in
the continuing network was as follows:
Coastal watershed  11
Fraser watershed and Lower Mainland  30
Okanagan and Similkameen watersheds  12
Columbia watershed     3
Northern watershed     4
Total  60
Present plans are to expand the continuing network coverage in the 1975
program.
Groundwater Chemistry Data
During the 1974 field season, approximately 250 water samples were collected
from North and South Pender, Saturna, Hornby, Denman, and Gabriola Islands.
The samples were analysed by the Water Resources Laboratory in Vancouver. A
computer program developed by the Division was used to process the laboratory
data so that it was expressed in a form suitable for plotting on hydrochemical maps.
The results of a chemical analysis of groundwaters obtained from a collection
program in the Kootenay district have been processed and a brief report has been
prepared, together with hydrochemical information map sheets.
 U 50 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Inquiries
The following is a very approximate percentage breakdown of over 200
recorded routine inquiries handled by the Groundwater personnel over the past
year:
Inquiries made by
Per Cent
(a) Provincial Government  27
(b) Municipal governments   7
(c) Consulting firms  23
(d) Private individuals   33
(e) Industry (including water-well contractors)   10
Water Utilities' Well-test Reports
This year, the Groundwater Section undertook a review of all well-test reports
submitted to the Water Utilities Division of the Water Rights Branch in support of
applications for a certificate of public convenience and necessity. During the year,
a total of 26 reports were reviewed in depth, the findings of 23 reports were
accepted, two were rejected, and a decision on one was deferred until additional
information was made available. At year-end, a pamphlet was being prepared to
give applicants details and procedures of pumping-test requirements.
Flowing Artesian Well-location Maps
Work was initiated on a manuscript and 40 flowing artesian well-location maps.
Special Projects
1. Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Basin Study—The objective of the groundwater
program was to try to determine the role of groundwater in nutrient input to Wood
and Ellison Lakes and parts of Kalamalka Lake. The final groundwater report
under this study was completed in March.
2. Salmon River Basin Study of the Shuswap Lakes System—The objective
of the groundwater part of the program is to determine the groundwater component
of flow and groundwater return flow from irrigation.
Gulf Islands Groundwater Study
1. Mayne Island—An evaluation of the groundwater resources of Mayne
Island was completed and records presented in three reports. The study included
an investigation of the island's groundwater potential, distribution quality, and
quantity. Report 1 outlined the geography and geology of the Island. Report 2
gave a detailed account of the hydrochemistry of Mayne Island and Report 3, an
analysis of the 1973 test-well drilling program, pumping test, and down-hole geophysics completed on the Island.
2. Other Gulf Islands—During the summer, well inventory and 250 water
samples were collected from wells located on Saltspring, Galiano, Hornby, Denman,
Gabriola, Saturna, North and South Pender Islands. The hydrochemistry and well-
inventory information will provide basic data for further groundwater studies on
these islands.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Groundwater Engineering Projects
U 51
During 1974, investigations and evaluations of groundwater potential were
made for the following:
Comments
1. Whistler Mountain area,	
2. Cherryville       	
3. Vernon Arm of Okanagan Lake	
4. S'cotty Creek Irrigation District	
5. Okanagan and Cariboo Fish Hatcheries
6. Grand Forks  _ 	
7. Scott Point Waterworks District	
8. Brentwood Waterworks District	
9. Alert Bay, Cormorant Island	
10. Marysville Observation Well	
11. Pouce Coupe...-  	
12. Yellow Point, Cedar District-	
13. Deep Cove Waterworks District	
14. Dease Lake Townsite Well ._	
15. East Kootenay (Libby Reservoir)	
For municipal water supply in this area.
Effects of logging operations on groundwater.
Well interference problems.
Groundwater prospects for irrigation wells.
Information for location of fish hatcheries.
Groundwater research project.
Groundwater supply problems on Saltspring Island.
Groundwater potential for future development.
Test drilling for groundwater potential.
Drilling to evaluate high water table.
Test well drilling.
Groundwater potential for proposed subdivision.
For water supply.
Investigation and well development.
Possible irrigation from groundwater.
•     mi
|f J^PP""
■ jflfel
Bail-testing of Cormorant Island well.
Modelling and Data Bank Section
Hydrologic Modelling
The record-breaking snow-pack which covered the southern half of the Province in the spring, and the resultant threat of major flooding, meant that the majority of the section's energy in the early months of the year was devoted to developing
a package of tools to assist in making short-term forecasts. An analysis of the
various models that might be of assistance in forecasting on the Fraser River had
been conducted by a British Columbia Hydrometeorological Networks Co-ordinating Committee subcommittee and this had led to the conclusion that the only deterministic model readily available and calibrated for the Fraser River was the University of British Columbia Watershed Model.   However, in the time available, it
 U 52 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
was not possible to install the model of the Government computer and it was necessary to rely on the Civil Engineering Department at the university to initialize,
calibrate, and run the model. Subsequently, the latest version of the model has
been received from the university and placed on the Government computer system.
A flow-routing program called "SIMPAK", developed by the Pacific Region
of the Inland Waters Directorate and calibrated for the Fraser River system, was
adapted to provide one-through-four-day forecasts at Prince George, Quesnel,
Kamloops, Hope, and Mission, and was run on the Government computer.
A further one-through-three-day forecasts of flows at Hope and Mission was
made by the Water Survey and Canada and made available to this section.
These three forecasts, from the University of British Columbia, SIMPAK, and
Water Survey of Canada, were then analysed and assessed and a composite short-
term forecast made for flows and levels at Prince George, Quesnel, Kamloops, Hope,
and Mission. These were given on a daily basis to the regional offices of the Water
Rights Branch.
During the period when the backwater effect of the Similkameen River was
causing flooding around Osoyoos Lake, daily forecasts were made of the anticipated
change in Osoyoos Lake level in the next 24 hours. These forecasts were relayed
to the Okanagan and made available to the public through radio and press releases.
Development of hydrologic modelling techniques is continuing.
Okanagan Lake Operation
The principal storage in the Okanagan Valley and the key to the successful
operation of the main stem system is Okanagan Lake. Snowcourse measurements
at the beginning of March indicated a very heavy snow-pack and, in anticipation of
above-average run-off, a start was immediately made on drawing down the lake to
provide as much storage as possible. In fact, Okanagan Lake reached its lowest
recorded elevation of about 1,119.5 feet above mean sea-level, or 0.3 foot below
its normal lower operating level in the middle of April. Releases from Okanagan
Lake were kept at a high level throughout the spring except for a cut-back lasting
about 12 days to relieve flooding around Osoyoos Lake. Despite this, as a result
of an inflow more than twice the historic average, Okanagan Lake peaked at about
1,124.1 or 0.3 foot above its normal upper operating level. Had it not been necessary to reduce the releases from Okanagan Lake for 12 days to relieve flooding
around Osoyoos Lake, it would have been possible to contain the high run-off
without Okanagan Lake going above its normal upper limit. It is estimated, however, that this reduction in flow resulted in Osoyoos Lake peaking at about Wi
feet lower that would have been the case had no reduction been made. This extra
\Vi feet would have caused considerably increased damage in the Osoyoos Lake
area.
Flood Frequency Analyses
Work on the development of computer programs to calculate flood frequency
probabilities continued throughout the year. In connection with floodplain definition several requests were received for the values of flows having a return period
of 200 years. Rivers analysed or in the process of being analysed include the
Courtenay, Vedder, Coquitlam, Squamish, Cheakamus, and Lillooet Rivers as well
as Shuswap Lake. Apart from floodplain definition, requests for frequency analysis
have arisen from a full hydrologic study of the Coquitlam River Basin currently
under way and for the Squamish-Lillooet Outdoor Recreation Study initiated by the
Department of Recreation and Conservation.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH U 53
Data Handling
Routine work on the updating and processing of snow-course, meteorological,
and hydrometric measurements continued throughout the year. The major part
of this continues to be the snow-course data and the production of the computer
output necessary for the Snow Survey Bulletin and subsequent summaries.
The preparation of data held by the Groundwater Section for computer-bank
storage is a major task facing this section. In preparation, a survey is being undertaken of the various systems developed elsewhere to determine which is the most
suited to the needs of the Province. Once a system has been decided upon, the
task of transferring the data currently held on well-log cards to computer-readable
form will be undertaken.
Miscellaneous Studies
1. Ocean Falls—A cut-back in production at the paper mill of the Ocean Falls
Corporation due to a shortfall in the water supply occurred at the beginning of the
year.   A study of this situation was undertaken, and a report prepared.
2. Osoyoos Lake—A study was completed on the various factors affecting the
levels of Osoyoos Lake. Interest in the controls was heightened during the year
because of high lake levels caused by large releases from Okanagan Lake, and by
flood flows in the Similkameen River. Later in the year the partial failure of a dam
in Oroville, Washington, on the Okanagan River just south of Osoyoos Lake resulted in very low lake levels.
Miscellaneous
During 1974, meetings were held with Water Survey of Canada officials to
categorize Federally operated hydrometric stations in appropriate responsibility
classification listings. These listings will form the basis for a Federal-Provincial
cost-sharing agreement which is to commence in the 1975/76 fiscal year.
PLANNING AND SURVEYS DIVISION
This division of the Water Investigations Branch was created in November
1974 by the amalgamation of the former Basin Planning and Power Division and
the Water Supply and Investigations Division. These former divisions are now
known respectively as the Planning Section and the Surveys Section of the new
Division. It is intended that this consolidation will provide more effective co-ordination for mapping the floodplain areas in the Province, which initially is the most
important single function of the new division. Each section has additional functions. The Planning Section is responsible for the administration Of floodplain
regulations, for providing administrative support to the Task Force on Multiple
Use of Community Watersheds, and for providing water-resource input to numerous regional studies initiated by the ELUC Secretariat and other agencies. The
Surveys Section also provides survey data in support of other divisions; is responsible for a water-storage inventory program; for establishing and maintaining Provincial hydrometric stations for water-yield and research purposes; for river regime
and sediment studies; for preliminary dam-site and soil stability investigations in
connection with potential storage reservoirs; and for water-supply availability
studies.
 U 54
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Head
Planning Section
(Vacant)
Chief
(J. D. Watts)
Head
Surveys Section
(R. G. Harris)
Floodplain
Basin
Field
Reservoir
Regulation
Studies
Surveys
Development
Subsection
Subsection
Subsection
Studies
Subsection
Planning Section
The functions of the Planning Section relate to the control of land use in the
floodplains of the Province, and to the study of river basins in regard to the protection of community water supplies, and over-all resource management. From
these functions arises a large volume of administrative work dealing with flood-
control regulations which affect land use, and in regard to applications for the use
of Crown land, which may conflict with established reserves for hydro-electric projects or community watersheds.
This section also provides professional staff as members of many study groups
or task forces established to undertake studies of a regional and interdisciplinary
nature.
The Floodplain Regulation subsection is responsible for the calculation of the
200-year flood profile of rivers and the delineation of the floodplain on suitable
mapping; for the preparation of regulations controlling development in floodplains;
for the review of zoning by-laws affecting lands in floodplains; and appeals arising
from the flood-control provisions in zoning by-laws; and for the review of land
subdivision applications which are referred to the Deputy Minister of Water Resources under the Land Registry Act.
The Basin Studies Subsection is responsible for providing major support to
the Task Force on Multiple Use of Community Watersheds; assistance in regard
to the Fraser River Upstream Storage Study; evaluation of potential hydro-electric
power developments; water management studies; and provision of water-resource
input to regional studies.
Floodplain Regulation Subsection
Administration
Following the request in 1973 by the Department of Municipal Affairs to all
municipalities and regional districts to introduce flood-control requirements into
their zoning by-laws, a considerable effort has been demanded in various aspects
of the implementation of these requirements. The subsection has reviewed some
90 zoning by-laws from a flood-control viewpoint under a referral system from
the Department of Municipal Affairs. Numerous recommendations on appropriate flood-control provisions were also made on request to municipalities, regional
districts, and individuals.
Following the enactment of the Land Registry Amendment Act, 1974, some
50 proposed plans of subdivision were reviewed in regard to the flood hazard in
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 55
accordance with the new section 93 (3) of the Land Registry Act. Appropriate
flood-control provisions were recommended in each case to the Deputy Minister
of Water Resources as conditions to be incorporated in restrictive covenants running with the land under section 24a of the Land Registry Act.
Floodplain Regulation
As part of a program to develop suitable structural and nonstructural flood-
control measures throughout the Province, several regions where topographic and
bathymetric data existed were selected as areas for which advance floodplain maps
could be produced. The bulk of the work was done in 1973, but the final maps
were issued in early 1974. River for which floodplain maps have been prepared
are as follows:
(1) Kettle and Granby Rivers near Grand Forks (one inch=400 feet)
7 sheets.
(2) Lillooet River from Lillooet Lake upstream past Pemberton Meadows (one inch=400 feet) 10 sheets.
(3) Similkameen River from Princeton downstream to the Canada-U.S.
border (one inch=400 feet)  17 sheets.
(4) Nicola and Coldwater rivers at Merritt (one inch=200 feet)  3
sheets.
(5) North Thompson River, Kamloops to Vavenby (one inch=500 feet)
31 sheets.
Floodplain definition projects started this year include the following:
(1) Thompson River, Kamloops Lake to Kamloops.
(2) South Thompson River, Kamloops to Chase.
(3) North Thompson River, Kamloops to Vavenby—this is to up-date
river conditions from present mapping which was prepared in 1953.
(4) Lower Fraser Valley—field surveys started which will take several
years to complete.
(5) Coquihalla River, Hope upstream about 10 miles.
(6) Eagle River, Shuswap Lake- upstream 10 miles.
(7) Osoyoos Lake.
(8) Courtenay River, near Courtenay.
An additional activity this year was the work required in handling and coordinating air-photo requests for the various rivers as they approached flood peaks.
This work was instigated due to the record snow-packs which developed in the
spring. The air-photos obtained will be used in floodplain studies as the various
rivers are brought under investigation. Coverage on 17 rivers was obtained
through the co-operation of the Hydrology Division and the excellent work of the
Field Operations Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands Service.
Computer program HEC-2, "Water Surface Profiles," developed by the
Hydrologic Engineering Centre, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, has been adapted
to the section's requirements and has been placed in the Users' Library at the
Provincial Data Processing Centre. A Users' Manual has been prepared and will
shortly be available for distribution. This program replaced program WBP001,
"Hydraulic Gradients Computation," due to its versatility in handling the effects
of hydraulic structures such as bridges, culverts, weirs, and embankments.   Also,
 U 56
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
the HEC-2 program facilitates simulation of modified channel conditions such as
channel-clearing, dyking, and flood bypasses. Over 200 miles of river have been
modelled using the HEC-2 program.
Floodproofing Regulations
Following the issuance of the Flood-control Requirements through the Department of Municipal Affairs to regional districts and municipalities throughout British
Columbia in 1973, an interdepartmental committee consisting of two members from
the Department of Municipal Affairs and two members from the Water Resources
Service was set up to prepare floodproofing and floodplain development regulations.
Two committee meetings, together with a hearing of floodplain problems in the
Osoyoos area, have resulted in the preparation of a set of draft floodplain development guidelines. Pending final checking and final input from concerned Government agencies, together with that from several local agencies, it is anticipated that
these guidelines will be available early in 1975.
A second task in conjunction with the development of floodproofing regulations
was a study of the flooding and development problems for the Town of Golden.
Staff of the Planning Section, Planning and Surveys Division, travelled to Golden
in August at the request of the Golden Flood Control Committee, to inspect flooding
problems in the town. A brief was subsequently prepared indicating that both
structural and planning solutions could be utilized to minimize flood danger.
Floodplain Studies
Four floodplain studies were carried out:
Area
Purpose
1. Village of Pemberton  -	
2. Williston Lake                 	
Review of floodplain regulations and growth pattern for the village.
Determine extent of floodplains that could restrict potential development around the lake and tributaries.
200-year flood profile of Cowichan River.
Basin Studies Subsection
Multiple Use of Community Watersheds
In support of the Task Force on Multiple Use of Watersheds of Community
Water Supplies, the subsection continued to carry out various functions during the
year as follows:
(1) Background information was provided for specific watershed areas
where multiple-use problems necessitated discussions by interested
individuals and organizations.
(2) A program to classify the community watersheds in the Province
was commenced, using available data which includes drainage area
size, land status, land use, and topographic information.
(3) The 28 regional districts throughout the Province were notified of
the progress of the task force study, including the establishment and
significance of map reserves on community watershed areas. Maps
showing the locations of the watersheds and data sheets indicating
the water users, population served, and the supply source, were also
supplied to each regional district.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 57
(4) The subsection reviewed approximately 90 land-lease applications
referred by the Lands Service, and 50 timber-sale proposals referred
by the Forest Service, which involved the proposed use of Crown
lands located in community watersheds.
Fraser River Agreement Studies
The following assignments related to the Fraser River Upstream Storage Study
were carried out under the Planning Section:
(a) Preliminary designs and cost estimates for dykes to protect flood-
prone lands in the Kamloops, Prince George, and Quesnel areas.
(b) Possible improvements to the outlet of Kamloops Lake and the
effect these would have on reducing flood stages on the Thompson
River upstream at the City of Kamloops.
(c) The feasibility of providing a reduction in flood levels at Kamloops
by the development of negative storage (i.e., storage below normal
high-water levels) on five major lakes in the Clearwater Basin.
Creston Flats Monitoring Program
The Creston Flats monitoring program was continued in 1974, which was
another high-flow year.    Data from 71 observation wells were obtained.
Bella Coola Regional Study
A report was prepared detailing water resource parameters in the study area.
Overview of Trout Creek Watershed
During the implementation of the construction of the Trout Creek flood-control
program, there was an expression of local concern over the environmental impact
of the project, the potential for channel blockage by a landslide and the preservation
of the watershed in general. An overview of these matters was initiated with input
from other Government agencies as well as local bodies and individuals. At year-
end, a draft report for public discussion was being completed.
Surveys Section
The Surveys Section carries out major surveys required by the Water Investigations Branch for
(a) mapping of floodplains;
(b) water supply feasibility studies and construction projects;
(c) flooding, drainage, and erosion control projects; and
(d) mapping of major water-storage reservoirs.
Field Surveys Subsection
During the 1974 field season, 33 survey projects were completed. A total of
35 survey projects, including a number carried out prior to 1974, was listed for data
processing during the year. All data processing is expected to be completed by the
end of March 1975, subject to completion of photogrammetric mapping.
 U 58
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
1974 FIELD SURVEYS
Area
Description
Floodplain Mapping Program
1. North and South Thompson River Valleys
2. Lower Fraser Valley-
3. Coquihalla River Valley.,
4. Eagle River Valley..
5. Osoyoos Lake 	
6. Vernon Arm, Okanagan Lake~
7. Kalamalka-Wood Lakes	
Hydrometric Program
1. Metering existing hydrometric stations..
2. Wood Lake-
3. Salmon Arm Integrated Resource Study..
4. Naramata Irrigation District  _	
5. Nahmint Integrated Resource Study	
Storage Inventory Program
1. Vinsulla Irrigation District... 	
2. Deadman's Creek and Snohoosh Lake..
3. Major storage sites in Similkameen Basin
and Okanagan Basin
General Branch Surveys
1. Eagle River near Sicamous	
2. Fraser River Dyking System	
3. Similkameen Riv_r   	
Mapping required from Kamloops Lake to Little Shuswap Lake
along the Thompson and South Thompson River valleys, and
from Kamloops to Vavenby along the North Thompson River
valley. Total distance over 100 miles. All surveys for mapping
control completed in 1974. Data now being processed for the
North Thompson section. River surveys for computing the 200-
year design flood level were carried out along the South Thompson River.
Over 400 square miles of Lower Fraser Valley floodplain, including
the Serpentine-Nicomekl area, to be mapped. Surveys in late
1973 covered 60 square miles in the Chilliwack area, and field
data was processed in 1974.
Ten miles upstream from Hope cross-sectioned in 1974 for computing the 200-year flood level. Floodplain area was controlled
for floodplain mapping.
Control for photogrammetric mapping completed in 1974 between
Sicamous and Perry River (19 miles).
Work commenced in 1974 on defining the 200-year flood level (elevation 921 G.S.C. datum) and the 1972 flood level (elevation
916.8 G.S.C. datum) around the shoreline of Osoyoos Lake.
Establishing flood level contours.
Using existing field information, elevation 1,288 and 1,300 (G.S.C.
datum) contours were plotted on air-photo enlargements of the
shorelines of these lakes.
Metering was continued on 14 stations in the South East Kelowna
Irrigation District, 9 stations in Peachland Irrigation District,
17 stations in the Similkameen River Basin, and 7 stations in the
Salmon Arm Burn area.
Measuring weirs constructed on Ribbleworth Creek, La Fleche
Creek and Trewhitt Creek.
A network of 11 stations was established, maintained, and metered.
Established and metered 17 hydrometric stations.
Two water-level recorders and one chain-operated gauge were established in 1974.
Bathymetric and topographic surveys for storage capacity and dam-
site information at Badger Lake, Hutt Lake, and Martin
Meadows.
Storage survey to confirm design storage capacity.
Surveys were completed in 1974 on the following lakes: Wolfe,
Issitz, Lome, Otter, Davis, Missezula, Yellow, Nickel Plate,
Allison, Lightning, Postill, South, Moore, Garnet, Munro, Mar-
ron, Eneas, Farleigh, and Brent Lakes.
Cross-sections, longitudinal channel and surface profiles for 23
miles between Shuswap Lake and Kay Falls were surveyed for
proposed bank protection work.
Survey of south side bank for 12.5 miles between Matsqui and West
Langley was carried out in 1974.
Cross-sections were surveyed over 8 miles of the Similkameen
River near Keremeos for a flood-protection study of the lower
reaches of Keremeos Creek.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 59
Tellurometer Traverse Station for floodplain surveys in North Thompson Valley.
RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES SUBSECTION
The following studies were undertaken by this subsection during 1974:
Description
1. Similkameen Basin-
2. Trepanier area, Municipality of Peachland
3. Community of Telegraph Creek 	
4. Glenrose Area Extension, Westbank Irrigation District
5. Peachland Irrigation Districts	
6. Proposed Water Supply for East Kootenay Valley area
7. Lake Windermere Control -....
Assessment of potential storage within the Similkameen Basin for
water licensing purposes. Field surveys were completed in 1974
for reservoir mapping, water-quality sampling, dam-site and
material investigations, and lake-front property inventory. Study
due for completion in 1975.
Preliminary engineering report of a study of a combined irrigation
and water-supply system replacement completed in December
1974.
Appraisal of improvements to the present water-supply system for
Telegraph Creek and possible extension to serve the entire community.
Studies completed in late 1973 and engineering report forwarded to
the Westbank Irrigation District in 1974.
Design of dyking system to isolate intake and headpond from the
main flow in Peachland Creek and of regulating works for intake
screens.
Preliminary investigation of feasibility of irrigated forage production on benchland east of the Libby Reservoir.
Preliminary report on water-level control for Lake Windermere is
nearing completion.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES DIVISION
The Environmental Studies Division was created in September by amalgamation of the Ecology Division with 17 people from the Pollution Control Branch—
two from the Industrial Division, and 15 from the former Projects and Research
Division. As presently constituted, the Environmental Studies Division includes
specialists in hydraulic engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, agricultural engineering, soils, and a diverse range of specialties in fresh-water
and marine biology.
 U 60
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Division will contain three loosely organized sections:
(1) Environmental Assessment—for assembling information on existing
conditions and assessing the implications for water-resource preservation and management.
(2) Environmental Impact—for assessing the impact of proposed development projects.
(3) Water Management—for conducting investigations into problems
and alternatives and recommending on management strategies.
Chief
Dr. R. J. Buchanan
Head
Environmental
Impact Studies Section
(Dr. L. Regan)
Head
Management
Studies Section
(Vacant)
Head
Environmental
Assessment Studies Section
(R. J. Rocchini)
Study Personnel
Projects carried out by the Environmental Studies Division may be initiated in
several ways. Studies may be undertaken in response to representations by such
nongovernment bodies as citizens' groups, water improvement districts, or other
licensed water users. They may also be initiated at the request of local government
agencies such as municipal governments and regional districts. Requests for investigations may originate in other Provincial agencies such as the ELUC Secretariat
or other Government departments. Many projects are initiated to assist the
Comptroller of Water Rights and the Director of Pollution Control in their mandates
to administer water use and to regulate waste disposal, respectively.
Since most of the work carried out by division staff during 1974 was done
prior to reorganization, the following account includes projects under their previous
organizational headings.
ECOLOGY DIVISION (WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH)
Project
Description
1. Serpentine-Nicomekl Watersheds	
2. Williston Reservoir Potentials Study..
3. Salmon Arm Burn Study 	
4. Studies on Aquatic Weeds..
Design of a program to evaluate water quality and ecological implications of a proposal to use these rivers as water sources for
intensive agriculture.
Limnological aspects of the multi-agency study of Williston Reservoir potentials initiated and co-ordinated by the Environment and
Land Use Committee Secretariat.
Water-quality aspects of joint study to determine the nature and
extent of the effects of the "Eden" forest fire of September 1973
on the water resource. Sampling, stream-gauging, and analysis
will continue until results indicate that the watersheds have
returned to "normal."
Continuing studies in weed biology and control. Participation in
an interagency experiment on control of nuisance weeds at Kin
Beach on Vernon Arm of Okanagan Lake by harvesting and use
of chemical herbicides. Computer programming necessary to
establish a data file for sediment and biological data, and statistical analysis of compiled data.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
ECOLOGY DIVISION (WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH)—Continued
U  61
Project
Description
5. Studies on Algse in the Kalamalka-Wood
Lakes Basin
6. Heavy Metals in Langford Lake 	
7. Lillian Lake Water Quality	
8. Nahmint Watershed Study _	
9. Land and Stream Quality Monitor Studies
10. Arrow Lakes Water Quality-
Studies carried out in co-operation with the B.C. Research Council
for the Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Basin Management Study.
Study resulting from reports of high lead content in fish in Langford Lake.
Study of present condition of Lillian Lake near Invermere and
development of recommended means to prevent deterioration,
with special regard to domestic waste disposal.
Field investigations for the interagency study.
Study of various means of sampling, and data analysis, and use of
various kinds of organisms for water-quality monitoring purposes. Various monitoring and conventional limnological sampling in 14 widely scattered lakes having diverse conditions of
climate,  size,  shape, hydraulics, history,  and biology.
Review of available data to describe the present condition of the
water and make a prognosis for the future, to assist in appraisal
of water-supplv options for the lower Columbia area between
Castlegar and Trail.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES DIVISION
Project
Description
1. Environmental Effects of Electric Generating Stations
2. Steel Mill Feasibility Study - _.
3. Oil Refinery Feasibility Study..
4. Environmental Impacts of Northern Highway Construction
5. Kootenay Regional Environmental Quality Assessment Study
6. Coquitlam River Basin Water Management Study
Development of impact-study guidelines for power stations, for the
ELUC Secretariat. Includes all aspects of hydro-electric plants,
air emission aspects of thermal plants, and effects on water by
coal and nuclear-fired thermal plants.
Study co-ordinated by the ELUC Secretariat and the Department
of Economic Development. Consideration of water supply,
drainage, and various aspects of atmospheric and aquatic environment affected by a steel-mill development in several potential
sites.
Consideration of effects of transportation facilities, water supply,
and atmospheric and aquatic discharges. Multi-agency investigations co-ordinated by the ELUC Secretariat.
Review of environmental implications of highway from Fort Nelson, British Columbia to Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories,
particularly in connection with drainage, erosion, and water
quality.    Co-ordinated by ELUC Secretariat.
Study of impacts on air and water of major industrial waste discharges in the region. Development of recommendation for correcting environmental damage and planning long-range environmental management.
Assessment of present and future water demands within the Coquitlam River Basin and environmental implications.
PROJECTS AND RESEARCH DIVISION  (POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH)
Project
Description
1. Thompson River Study	
2. Naramata Watershed Study..
3. Canadian   Cellulose   Company   Effluent
Evaluation, Prince Rupert
4. Prince George Sludge Disposal Study..	
5. Health Aspects of Land Disposal of Sewage Effluents and Sludges
6. Pollution Control Objectives	
Investigation of cause of colour, foam, and algal proliferation in
the Thompson River and Kamloops Lake. A Federal-Provincial
Study.
Follow-up to 1971 Pollution Control Branch Study of effects of
cattle on quality of Naramata water supply, to determine the
effectiveness of livestock control measures that were implemented.
Evaluation of effluent from pulp-mill and zone-of-in flue nee conditions concurrent with effluent upgrading measures, including
changes in intertidal biota.
Determination of the impact of sewage sludge on soils, vegetation,
and water. Development of guidelines for sludge disposal on
land in British Columbia.
An interagency study with the Department of Health and Agriculture.
Preparation of 13 background reports and Pollution Control Branch
reports on effluence objectives for the food processing, agricultural, and miscellaneous industries.
 U 62 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Other Major Projects
1. Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Basin Water Resource Management Study—The
Environmental Studies Division also participated in the 2V_-year Water Investigations Branch study of the water resources of the Kalamalka-Wood Lakes Basin.
The study was directed primarily toward water-quality problems, but the work
included other aspects of the total water system, including biology, limnology,
hydrology, water use, geology, recreation, engineering, and economics. A public
involvement program was initiated in the autumn of 1973 to assure that the study
recommendations reflected the wishes and concerns of the residents of the basin.
2. Fraser River Upstream Storage Studies—The Division has been involved
in a review of the program of upstream storage set out in the 1963 Final Report of
the Fraser River Board. Updated construction cost estimates were developed for
each project. Benefits and disbenefits were evaluated in both qualitative and
quantitative terms for various combinations of storage and diversion projects, and
weighed against their potential for flow regulation and flood control.
The Review Report required under the terms of the 1968 Federal-Provincial
Fraser River Flood Control Agreement was compiled under the direction of a four-
member committee with equal representation from Environment Canada and the
Water Investigations Branch. Work was carried out by agencies of both senior
Governments and several consulting firms.
A special subcommittee was formed to evaluate the ecological and other
consequences of the proposed upstream storage developments, and 13 separate
reports documenting the ecological impact were prepared. A summary of these
background reports was prepared by the Water Investigations Branch.
Consultative Services
Staff of the Environmental Studies Division has provided advice on a wide
variety of subjects to the public and to other Government agencies. Some subjects
dealt with are:
(1) The use of aquatic vegetation to stabilize peaty dredge spoil in
Burnaby Lake.
(2) Aspects of sewage disposal related to alga; and aquatic weeds, and
protection of lakes.
(3) Ecological effects of lowering Ikt Lake by the Forest Service, to aid
road construction.
(4) Sediment nutrient control in Coldstream Creek and storm drainage
from Coldstream Municipality.
(5) Implications of using chemical, bacteriological, and viral agents to
control forest pests.
(6) Means of controlling aquatic weeds.
(7) Means to maximize the fishery potential of hydro-electric pondages.
(8) Water-quality information on various water bodies, and interpretation of its meaning.
(9) Ecological implications of various residential and industrial developments.
(10) Diving inspection of Vernon City water intake in Kalamalka Lake,
regarding obstruction by algae.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 63
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Under the November 1974 reorganization, the former ARDA Division and
Projects Division were amalgamated to form the Engineering Division of the Branch,
thus bringing together engineering functions concerning water supply, drainage, and
river works into a new Water Supply Section and a Rivers Section. (See Table 1
for organization.)
Water Supply Section
The main work of this section during 1974 has involved investigation and
implementation of water-supply and drainage projects under the third Federal-
Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Act (ARDA) program, which
covers the period 1970 to 1975.
The majority of ARDA water projects have been concerned with the rehabilitation of irrigation systems and storage works, the majority of which are located in
the Okanagan Valley. Recently, investigations or projects involving drainage and
other similar reclamation-type projects, particularly in the Lower Fraser Valley,
have been undertaken. Work carried out by the Water Supply Section includes
design and construction supervision of certain projects as well as processing of
claims and maintenance of records relating to ARDA water projects. Since the
start of the ARDA water-projects program in British Columbia in 1963, a total
expenditure of $44,011,000 has been authorized, and $35,560,000 actually expended on approved projects. In addition, approximately $270,000 has been
expended on projects for which final approval is awaited. Fifty-eight projects have
been completed under the program, and 13 additional projects have been approved
and are under various stages of design or construction. Two new projects are currently awaiting final approval, and several other projects are under study prior to
a possible proposal submission.
Project descriptions following will be given only for those which are actively
under study or where significant changes have taken place during 1974.
TABLE 1—ORGANIZATION OF ENGINEERING DIVISION
Chief
(J. D. C. Fuller)
-Clerk
Water Supply Section
(J. V. Eby, Head)
Design
Rivers Section
(Vacant)
Field
Fraser River Flood Control
Program Subsection
Fraser River Flood
Control Program
Co-ordinators
Contracts
Abbotsford
Office
Design       Minor Projects
Subsection       Subsection
 U 64 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Approved ARDA Projects Under Construction or Study
ARDA
District
Project
Numbers
Cost
Notes
South Okanagan
$
Lands Irrigation
10010
3,552,300
Rehabilitation of system serving 5,400 acres of agricultural land
District
29041(S)
and 600 farm domestic users.   Design for all works completed.
29051
Construction will be finished in 1975 to complete rehabilitation.
89043
South East
29053
4,720,000
Rehabilitation of system serving 4,336 acres of agricultural land
Kelowna Irriga
89031
and 660 farm  domestic  users is essentially  complete  at the
tion District
end of 1974.
Corporation of
89044
5,138,183
Project approved in June 1974.    First contract for 36,000 feet
District of
estimated
of pipe at cost of about $350,000 was awarded in November
Summerland
total
1974.
Black Mountain
89042
1,600,000
Project  approved  October   1973  for rehabilitation  of  upstream
Irrigation
storage works.   New 64-foot-high dam complete at Graystoke
District
Lake; Belgo Lake dams and diversion ditches near completion at end of 1974.
Black Mountain
89049
101,000
Project approved in September 1974 for installation of mechani
Irrigation
cal screens at intake.
District
Grand Forks
89047
135,000
Research project to determine groundwater potential approved in
Irrigation
August 1974.    Data required to check feasibility of irrigating
District
farms from groundwater.
Glenmore and
89046
855,411
Project   approved  in  August   1974.     Includes  rehabilitation  of
Ellison
shared  diversion  works  with  new  mechanical   screening,  re
Irrigation
placement  of Glenmore  main  transmission  flume  with  pipe,
Districts
and installation of two laterals. Construction planned mainly
for 1975.
Chase Irriga
89039
82,500
Rehabilitation of main line, intake, and storage works approved
tion District
November 1973. Main line and intake works completed in
1974.    Pillar Lake dam construction scheduled for fall 1975.
Deadman Creek
89021
126,000
Project  approved  in  August   1973   for  construction   of  storage
Irrigation
estimated
dam on Snohoosh Lake for both irrigation and fisheries pur
District
poses. Preliminary investigations and design indicate further
studies are needed and an over-all review is under way which
will likely result in a revised project submission.
Township of
89025
195,000
Drainage improvement scheme for approximately 300 acres  of
Chilliwhack
agricultural land was approved in August 1974.    Final design
(Castleman
is under way and construction scheduled for summer 1975.
Road area)
Reconstruction of section of Main Canal upstream of No. 1 Flume near Gallagher Lake,
South Okanagan Lands Irrigation District.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 65
Graystoke Dam and Spillway, Black Mountain Irrigation District.
Construction of intake works on Chase Creek, Chase Irrigation District.
 U 66
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Projects Under Study for Possible ARDA Proposal
During the year, the Water Supply Section carried out feasibility studies on
several possible projects. The majority of these studies resulted from requests or
inquiries regarding possible projects under the ARDA program. The project
descriptions following cover the more detailed studies carried out for both water-
supply and drainage improvement projects.
District
Description
1. Sinmax Creek Water Users' Community..
2. Fairview Heights Irrigation District-
3. Grand Forks Irrigation District..
4. McCoy Lake Drainage-	
5. Oregon Jack and Upper Hat Creek..
6. Coldstream Creek ——	
7. Saar Creek, District of Abbotsford..
8. District of Surrey   __.
Feasibility study and report completed on proposed upstream storage and pressure pipe-line distribution system. Report recommendations not acted on as anticipated costs to local residents
appeared excessive.
The District requested ARDA assistance for rehabilitating its existing distribution system, and utilizing groundwater as a supply
instead of the Similkameen River. Feasibility study and report
will be completed in 1975.
Economic feasibility report prepared on rehabilitation of a large
portion of the District's system utilizing groundwater as the
source of supply. It indicated that a system could be installed
to serve some 1,200 acres for about $27 per acre per year.
Adequacy of groundwater supplies needs to be determined, and
an ARDA research project was approved for this purpose.
Assistance requested for reducing flood damage in low-lying area
adjacent to McCoy Lake near Alberni. Preliminary remedial
measures and environmental concerns are under consideration.
Engineering study under preparation on the feasibility of supplying
irrigation water to up to 2,000 acres of Thompson River bench-
lands near Ashcroft. The project would involve diversion of
water from Upper Hat Creek and development of storage on
Langley Lake for release into Oregon Jack Creek and delivery
to the irrigated lands.
A study was commenced of erosion problems along Coldstream
Creek within the Municipality of Coldstream, with a view to
obtaining ARDA assistance.
Engineering study of possible drainage project for about 1,500
acres of farmland was continued in 1974.
Continued study of possible drainage and irrigation schemes for
the floodplains of the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers, and the
effects these might have on fisheries, recreation, and other resource interests. A monitoring program was established during
1974.
Other Studies
Area
Description
1. Lower Columbia..
2. Mission Creek near Kelowna
3. Vernon Creek—-	
4. West Osoyoos Bench	
Preliminary study of regional water supply for the area between
Keenleyside Dam and the City of Trail was completed. The
study determined the cost of supplying bulk domestic water to
all communities in the area, utilizing either the Lower Arrow
Lake or the Columbia River immediately downstream of the
Keenleyside Dam.
Assessment of Mission Creek channel capacity and dyke system
and recommendations for improvements to increase the factor
of safety against failure to contain peak flows and to minimize
annual maintenance costs.
Studies were commenced in 1974 on erosion problems along Vernon
Creek, between Kalamalka and Okanagan Lakes.
A study of seepage problems in about 100 acres of agricultural
lands was started in 1974, with a view to recommending drainage
works.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 67
Rivers Section
The Rivers Section functions to investigate, review, and implement flood-
control, land-reclamation, and erosion-control projects. The principal activities of
this section during 1974 comprised the following:
(1) Continued implementation of design and construction under the
1968 Federal-Provincial Lower Fraser Valley Flood Control Agreement.
(2) Investigation and construction concerning other major flooding and
erosion projects.
(3) Investigation and construction concerning minor flooding and erosion
projects.
(4) Technical advice to different agencies concerning flooding and
erosion aspects of different projects.
An exceptionally high 1974 spring snow-pack resulted in an unusually large
number of requests for assistance; however, cool weather resulted in a gradual
run-off with no widespread flooding problems.
Details of principal activities during 1974 follow.
Lower Fraser Flood Control Program
While the target expenditure of $12.6 million for 1974 was not achieved, good
progress on program design and construction was made during the year. To date,
applications for assistance with flood-control works under the program have been
received from the following municipalities or local authorities:
Local Authority Date of Application
1. District of Kent March 1969 (C*)
2. District of Pitt Meadows March 1969 (R)
3. Township of Richmond March 1969(C)
4. District of Matsqui May 1969 (C)
5. Township of Chilliwhack August 1969(C)
6. Corporation of Delta August 1969 (C)
7. District of Mission August 1969 (R)
8. District of Sumas (Abbotsford) May 1969 (C) (part)
9. Harrison Hot Springs February 1969 (D)
10. District of Surrey May 1969 (C) (part)
11. New Westminster, Queensborough December   1970 (R)
12: District of Burnaby November  1970
13. District of Langley March 1972
14. City of Port Coquitlam April 1970 (D)
15. District of Maple Ridge October 1969
16. Department of Public Works,  Colony
Farm August        1970
17. Department of Indian Affairs, Seabird
Island October 1971 (C) (part)
18. South Dewdney April 1973
19. Nicomen Island Improvement District-^ February 1974
20. City of Kamloops, Oak Hills October 1973 (C*)
21. Glen Valley Dyking District February 1974
(C*) Project essentially complete.
(C) Project under construction.
(R) Project report complete.
(D) Preliminary designs under way.
 U 68
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Principal design activity centred around the Chilliwhack, Delta, Richmond,
and Queensborough projects. A start was also made on design for the Coquitlam
and Surrey (South Westminster) projects.
Construction work took place mainly at the Chilliwhack, Delta, Richmond,
and Surrey (Nicomekl-Serpentine dams) project.
With total approved funds amounting to $61 million, shared 50-50 Federal-
Provincial, total program expenditure for the year was $8.9 million, bringing the
total program expenditure to $20.5 million by the end of 1974.
During 1974, contracts totalling $8.5 million were awarded ($4.9* million in
1973) and contract payments totalling $7.5 million ($2.6 million in 1973) were
processed under the program. Design costs amounted to $854,000 ($550,000 in
1973) with site supervision and miscellaneous costs amounting to $540,000.
Due to unforeseen high escalation in construction costs, the final costs of these
projects were forecast to equal, if not exceed, the $61 million in funds approved.
At the end of 1974, work was awaited from the Federal Government regarding
approval of further projects which would involve a commitment of funds in excess
of those authorized. The construction of further projects, including Pitt Meadows,
South Westminster (Queensborough), and Mission City, may therefore be delayed.
The following descriptions are given for projects on which significant activity
occurred during 1974:
District
Description
1. District of Kent..
2. District of Pitt Meadows..
3. Township of Richmond..
4. District of Matsqui..
Project approved in December 1969 at a cost of $2,003,825. To
cover rising costs and additional work, $553,382.50 has since
been authorized. Construction of a landside gravel berm to
counteract seepage was completed just prior to the 1974 freshet.
Other small items needed to complete the project will be done
in 1975.   Expenditure in 1974 was $250,000.
Final design recommenced in July 1974 after being stopped in 1970
upon confirmation that the local authority wished to proceed
under the revised cost-sharing agreement. Main features of the
project will be reconstruction of 21 miles of dyke, four pump
stations (two with floodboxes, two without), a new pump station
with a floodbox and upgrading of main drains to protect 9,300
acres of floodplain within the Maple Ridge Dyking District and
the Pitt Meadows No. 2 dyked area.
The Local-Provincial Agreement for Richmond was concluded in
October 1973, and funds totalling $11,290,000 were approved for
construction in April 1974. Escalation is expected to increase
the cost of this project substantially. Main features are—rehabilitation of 40 miles of dyke on Lulu Island, reconstruction
and repair of 3 miles of riverbank protection, and internal drainage works comprising construction of 14 new drainage discharge
structures and repair to 8 other drainage structures at the dyke.
Construction commenced in June, and by the end of 1974, four
contracts had been awarded to a total value of $4,048,827.
Expenditure on the project in 1974 was about $950,000.
Project approved in June 1971 at a construction cost of $2,284,600.
Main features comprise rehabilitation of 7 miles of dyke, 0.5
of riverbank protection, reconstruction of two drainage pump
station floodbox structures, and upgrading of main drains. Dyke
and pump station contracts were completed in 1974. Expenditure
was approximately $3,280,000 to the end of 1974, with final cost
expected at approximately $4 million.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 69
District
Description
5. Township of Chilliwhack-
6. Corporation of Delta..
7. District of Surrey-
City of Port Coquitlam and District of
Port Coquitlam
9. City of Kamloops, Oak Hills-
10. Emergency Bank Protection, Nicomen
Island
11. Emergency Bank Protection, District of
Pitt Meadows
Project approved in December 1971 at a construction cost of
$5,315,850, and an agreement between the local authority and
the Province was signed in February 1973. Main features are
rehabilitation of some 20 miles of dyke, 8.7 miles of bank
protection works, including the Greyell Slough flow control, and
internal drainage comprising the construction of three pump
stations (two combined with floodboxes), the upgrading of a
fourth pump station, and improvements to main drains. Project
expenditures in 1974 were approximately $3.3 million.
Project approved in August 1973 at a construction cost of
$10,523,700. Agreement between local authority and the Province
signed in September 1973. Escalation is expected to increase
the cost of this project substantially. Main features are rehabilitation of some 40 miles of dyke, 4.5 miles of bank protection and internal drainage, including the rehabilitation or
reconstruction of 11 pumping facilities, 25 floodboxes, and upgrading of main drains. During 1974, six contracts were awarded
at a total contract value of $2,379,605. Project expenditures
amounted to $1,443,000.
Application to upgrade the dykes of the South Westminster Dyking
District, the Serpentine and Nicomekl River dykes, including the
dams at the mouths of the two rivers and the flood-protection
and wave-protection works at Mud Bay was submitted to the
Province in May 1969. Rehabilitation of the Serpentine and
Nicomekl Dams was approved in November 1973 at a construction cost of $1,095,000. Construction was completed in 1974
with expenditure during the year of $1,149,000. Final design for
South Westminster was commenced in October 1974, the project
to comprise rehabilitation of 4 miles of dyke, reconstruction of
four pump stations and improvements to main drains. Expected
cost is $3.5 million. Clarification regarding dyking requirements
at the lower end of the Serpentine-Nicomekl Valley is being
sought before a decision on reconstruction of the Mud Bay sea
dykes is made. Reconstruction of the Serpentine and Nicomekl
River dykes, which generally protect valley-bottom farm and
pasture land from flooding by winter rains, was not found to be
economic and no further work to these dykes is proposed under
the 1968 Federal-Provincial Agreement.
Final design was started on a project to reconstruct 8 miles of
dyke, four pump stations, and main drains of the Coquitlam
Dyking District (which lies within city and district boundaries).
Expected cost is about $8.6 million.
The Oak Hills subdivision, about 4 miles north of Kamloops City
centre, was inundated by high-water of the North Thompson
River on June 2, 1972. In 1973 and 1974, 6,000 lineal feet of
dyke was reconstructed, and foundation seepage works and a
permanent pump station were installed. The requirements for
additional pumping at higher river levels has been assessed and
pumps are to be purchased for delivery before the 1975 freshet
to assist in drawing down the groundwater table during higher
river levels. On April 26, 1974, this project was approved for
inclusion under the Fraser River Flood Control 1968 Agreement
at a cost of $1,116,000. To date, $1 million has been spent on
the project, $409,000 of this amount being spent during 1974.
Prior to the 1974 freshet, emergency bank protection was constructed at Nicomen Island, with $100,000 of rock riprap protection at two sections where serious erosion was taking place, and
an additional $50,000 was spent on stockpiling rock riprap for
future emergency bank protection work. Funds for this work
were approved on May 27, 1974.
Emergency bank protection work costing $40,000 was constructed
by the District of Pitt Meadows prior to the 1974 freshet. There
were two locations of serious erosion, on the bank of the Fraser
River and on the bank of the Alouette River.
 U 70
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Project 3—Township of Richmond, Contract 1: Sea Dyke Improvement.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 71
foO-l
Emergency bank protection at Pitt Meadows.
Reconstructed dyke and control structure at entrance to Greyell Slough.
 U 72
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Drilling of wells for underseepage treatment under Vedder Canal Dyke.
McGillivray pump station under construction.
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
Major Flooding and Erosion Projects
U 73
Description
1. Lower Squamish Valley..
2. Bella Coola Valley..
3. Cowichan River.-
4. Keremeos Creek  _	
5. KamloopS-
6. Grand Forks_ 	
7. Trout Creek...._ .._ 	
8. Slocan Valley, Lemon Creek
Upon representation by the District of Squamish, $500,000 was
authorized for construction of 10,000 lineal feet of dykes and
bank protection to extend earlier flood protection and bank
stabilization works along the Squamish and Mamquam Rivers
into the Brackendale area.
As a result of heavy rainfall in late 1973, training works and bank
protection were constructed on Thorsen Creek, Nooklikonnik
Creek, and on a section of the Bella Coola River at a total cost
of $195,000. A report on flooding and erosion by the Lower
Bella Coola River and sidestreams has been completed. Recommendations concerning a course change in the Bella Coola River
near Firvale, 20 miles upstream, which caused damage to a farm
and threatened the highway were forwarded to the Department
of Highways.
Late in 1973 and early in 1974, heavy rainfalls combined with high
tides produced extensive flooding in the lower Cowichan and
Koksilah Rivers delta. A private dyke was breached, flooding
many acres of farmland. The dyke was repaired in co-operation
with the Department of Highways at a cost of $12,000. Log
jams again caused the accumulation of gravels in the lower
Cowichan River. The log jams and gravels were removed under
direction of Engineering Division staff with the co-operation of
the Cowichan Indian Co-operative Asssociation. The Association
also constructed some dykes on the Indian Reserve. The cost
of this work was $47,000.
Some channel-clearing was carried out in the lower reaches of
Keremeos Creek on a cost-sharing basis with the regional district,
in view of the heavy 1974 snow-pack which threatened to cause
extensive flooding in the Cawston area. The cost of the work
was $4,000. During the year, a report giving possible solution
to the flooding along the lower Keremeos Creek was completed
and submitted to the regional district.
A record snow-pack in the Thompson River drainage area gave
cause for concern that the City of Kamloops might experience
extreme high-water during during the spring run-off in 1974.
The City was unable to take appropriate action due to a labour
dispute, and the Provincial Government passed the Kamloops
Emergency Flood Control Act under which the strengthening and
raising of dykes was undertaken. The work was carried out by
the Department of Highways, with technical assistance provided
by the Division, at a total cost of $850,000.
Flood profile and dyke alignment studies of the flood-control scheme
on the right bank of the Granby River at Grand Forks were
completed during 1974 and construction of Phase 2 of the
scheme is expected to commence during 1975.
Dyking, channel improvements and erosion protection initiated in
1973 was completed at cost of approximately $380,000.
Arrangements were made for a consultant's review of the flooding
and erosion problems in the Slocan Valley related to the formation of the Lemon Creek fan. The draft report was submitted1 in
December 1974.
Minor Flooding and Erosion Projects
During the spring and early summer, many communities, organizations, and
industries throughout the Province were bracing themselves for possible major floods
on account of the record snow-packs reported in many areas. This threat resulted
in a very large number of requests being received for dyking and erosion-control
works during the early part of the year.
In most areas of the Province, with the exception of the East Kootenay region
where floods reached record levels, prolonged high flows were experienced, with little
resultant damage to protective works. Approximately 117 new requests for assistance under the 75-per-cent Provincial 25-per-cent landowner cost-sharing program
were received during the year which as may be seen in Table 2 represents a steady
 U 74
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
increase in the demand which is being made on this program. Of the projects on
hand at year's end, 30 have reached report stage, 19 require further investigation,
and 38 remain to be inspected.
Table 2—Requests for River Improvement Assistance
200
150
too
50
*    (117)
•■
'    (87)
'    (91)
■■
<    (36)
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
Year
Offers of assistance were made in 63 cases. Fifty-four construction projects
were completed at a total cost of $520,000.
The distribution of expenditure throughout the Province, listed in general by
watersheds, was as follows, the number of separate projects being indicated by
brackets: *
Boundary Creek  4,000 ( 2)
Fraser River   59,000 ( 3)
Lillooet River  15,000 (  1)
North Thompson River  56,000 ( 5)
Shuswap Drainage Basin  30,000 ( 3)
Vancouver Island  164,000 (15)
Columbia River  22,000 ( 3)
Kettle River  44,000 ( 3)
Okanagan Valley  50,000 ( 7)
Similkameen River  76,000 (12)
Channel-clearing Program
Heavy fall and winter rains and high summer freshet flows created channel
blockages in watercourses throughout the Province.   This blockage, in many cases,
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 75
would, if not removed, cause relatively serious flooding and erosion problems. In
the fall of this year, a Province-wide program was initiated to remove jams in
instances where the cost of works is justified by the damage potential. At the end
of the year, 31 projects had been completed at an estimated cost of $115,000.
Other Activities
During 1974, technical assistance and advice were provided to Provincial Government and other agencies in connection with road, railway, and bridge construction, sale of land, and other developments within or near floodplains.
Closing of break in dyke along Koksilah River.
RECORDS COMPILATION AND REPORTS SECTION
Reports Library
During the year, 171 new engineering reports were received by the Library for
registration. In addition to the new reports, over 700 other copies of reports were
prepared and distributed.
Set out below is a numerical and percentage summary of reports written during
10-year periods:
Number of Reports Percentage of Total
Periods (Years) Available Available
1911-20  36 1.6
1921-30  190 8.4
1931-40  30 1.3
1941-50  156 6.9
1951-60  583 25.9
1961-70  788 35.0
1970-74  472 20.9
Totals  2,255 100.0
 U 76
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Of the present total of 2,255 reports in the Library, 1,313 reports have been
prepared by the Water Resources Service staff. The main fields which they cover
are as follows—water power, water supply, flooding, drainage, dyking, groundwater,
and hydrology.
Throughout 1974, the Reports Library responded to over 650 requests for
report loans and copies of other publications.
General Office
In order to meet the 1974 Branch requirements, over 400 requisitions covering
purchases and (or) repairs of equipment, furniture, machinery, and supplies were
prepared, and over 2,300 invoices from suppliers processed for payment.
The General Office staff assisted in the processing of claims for various construction and survey projects and in the collection, compilation, and maintenance
of technical, cost, and inventory records.
In addition, the General Office provided a central service for mail, messenger
and shipping functions, and operated the Branch motor-vehicle pool. During the
past 12 months, Branch units travelled over 450,000 miles.
The Accident Prevention Division of the Public Service Commission again conducted the Defensive Driving Course and in 1974, 13 Water Investigations Branch
employees successfully completed it. This brings the total of Branch employees
who have taken the course since its inception to 20.
The Administrative Officer attended meetings of the Interdepartmental Safety
Committee, the Resources Building Steering Committee, and served as a member of
other interbranch and interdepartmental study groups.
I400H
l20°-       DRAWINGS   PRODUCED
1000-
=:   800-
ct
Q
li_
O
CC
UJ
m
600-
400-
200-
Draughting Room
The Draughting Room serves all divisions as illustrated below.
TOTAL
REVISIONS-^     '*
-1400
-1200
-1000
-800
/ -
1 I \
1964       1965       1966      1967
1968
"~i r~
1969       1970
-600
-400
tn
o
<
cc
Q
Ll
O
CC
LU
CO
-200   2
1971
1972       1973
1974
 WATER INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH
U 77
ENVIRONMENTAL   STUDIES
FRASER RIVER  ENVIRONMENTAL   COMMITTEE
KALAMALKA - WOOD   LAKE STUDY
MISCELLANEOUS
ENGINEERING
HYDROLOGY
OKANAGAN  BASIN STUDY
PLANNING   AND   SURVEYS
~i 1 1 r
30 40 50 60
PERCENTAGE
70
TOTAL   1974
DISTRIBUTION
OF  DRAWINGS
i
80
90
100
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
79
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BOARD
B. E. Marr, Chairman
The Pollution Control Board, as set up under section 3 of the Pollution Control Act, consists of a Chairman and eight members representing Government,
university, and private interest.
The main functions of the Board are to act in an advisory capacity to the
Government, to set standards for controlling pollution, to act as an appeal tribunal
when an order of the Director of the Pollution Control Branch is appealed. The
Pollution Control Board also hears appeals from the decisions of the Director of
Pollution Control (Air) of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. This agency
assumed responsibility in 1972 for issuance of air emission permits within the
boundaries of the Greater Vancouver Regional District.
The Pollution Control Board was enlarged in 1974 to include two new members.  The membership of the Board is as follows:
B. E. Marr, Chairman.
B. D. Caine,
Assistant Director of Environmental Engineering.
Department of Health, Victoria.
Howard English, retired farmer and conservationist.
Dr. C. J. G. Mackenzie,
Head, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology,
Faculty of Medicine,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Dr. J. E. McInerney,
Department of Biology,
University of Victoria, Victoria.
R. J. Miller,
Director, Special Services,
Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
J. W. Peck,
Chief Inspector of Mines,
Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
J. S. Stokes,
Deputy Minister of Forests, Victoria.
E. H. Vernon,
Associate Deputy Minister,
Department of Recreation and Conservation, Victoria.
81
 U 82
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
During 1974, the Pollution Control Board heard 12 appeals from the decision
of the Director of Pollution Control, including one from the decision of the Director
of Pollution Control of the Greater Vancouver Regional District relating to the issuance of an air emission permit.
Where public interest warranted it, the Board held the hearings in the communities concerned—Campbell River, Ganges, and Burnaby. This practice will
continue as public concern and participation increase in matters bearing on the
protection of the environment.
The Pollution Control Board upheld the decision of the Director of Pollution
Control on eight of the appeals; allowed or allowed in part three of the appeals;
and reserved judgment on one appeal pending further information.
Two decisions by the Pollution Control Board were appealed to the Supreme
Court of British Columbia, one of which was later withdrawn. Two rulings of the
Pollution Control Board were appealed to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
(Cabinet) which resulted in one decision of the Board being reversed and the other,
to do with interpretation, being upheld.
The Pollution Control Board received and reviewed the chemical and petroleum
objectives, as recommended by the Director of Pollution Control following a public
inquiry in May of 1972. After some revision, the objectives were adopted by the
Board and now constitute Board policy for pollution control in British Columbia's
chemical and petroleum industries.
 POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
83
  POLLUTION
CONTROL
BRANCH
W. N. Venables
Director
DIRECTOR'S REPORT
As of April 1, 1974, the Branch took over the administration of the Litter Act
and the Environmental Conservation (Project SAM) activities of crushing and
removing derelict automobiles throughout the Province.
In 1974, the major thrust of Branch efforts continued toward bringing under
formal control all discharges of liquid, solid, and gaseous wastes to the water, land,
or air environment of British Columbia. In order to aid both applicants for pollution control permits and the Director in resolving the requirements to be imposed on
waste discharges to the environment, the Branch continued with its program leading
to the establishment of objectives for wastes from the major industrial activities as
well as municipal activities within the Province. In this respect, the Director completed the public inquiry into Pollution Control Objectives for Municipal-type Waste
Discharges in British Columbia, and has put recommendations before the Pollution
Control Board on these objectives for the Board's ratification. The Director also
referred to the Board his recommendations regarding the Pollution Control Objectives for Food-processing, Agriculturally Oriented, and Other Miscellaneous Industries of British Columbia. Staff of the Branch commenced applying the Pollution
Control Objectives for the Chemical and Petroleum Industries of British Columbia
upon their acceptance by the Pollution Control Board on March 19, 1974.
The productivity of the Branch for 1974 is illustrated by the following statistics:
Permit applications received  776
Permit applications refused     16
Permit applications withdrawn     96
Permits issued1  582
Amendments to permits1     95
Approvals issued     '91
Certificates requested   499
Certificates issued  402
Prosecutions initiated     14
1 The total of 677 permits and amendments issued in 1974 covers 1,132 discharges.
The Director's office in 1974 held two public hearings related to applications
for pollution control permits and three appeal hearings from orders issued by the
Regional Managers of the Branch. In turn, 14 appeals from decisions made by the
Director of Pollution Control were registered with the Pollution Control Board. As
during 1973, the majority of the appeals were from the recipients of permits or
orders.
85
 U 86
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
During 1974 the Branch devoted considerable attention toward decentralizing
authority for day-to-day administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, to its
staff in Regional offices. In order to aid in the decentralization and to provide for
the consolidation, within the Water Resources Service, of all staff engaged in special
investigations of an environmental nature the reorganization of the Branch was
effected.
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE  (PRIOR TO SEPTEMBER 1974)
POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
Water Resources Service
Chief Projects and Research
Division
(M. W. Slezak, P.Eng.)
Assistant Director
(Tech.)
(A. J. Chmelauskas, P.Eng.)
Director
(W. N. Venables, P.Eng.)
Chief Municipal
Division
(J. E. Dew-Jones, P.Eng.)
Chief Industrial
Division
(H. P. Klassen, P.Eng.)
Assistant Director
(Admin.)
(R. H. Ferguson, P.Eng.)
-Ecology Section
-Land Section
-Water Section
-Air Section
-Southern Interior Section
-Coastal Section
-Northern and Central
Interior Section
-Forestry Section
-Mining Section
-General Section
Chief Regional
Division
(A. A. Hayman, P.Eng.)
-Coast Region
-Lower Mainland Region
-South Central Region
-Okanagan Region
-Kootenay Region
-North Region
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 87
ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE  (AFTER SEPTEMBER 1974)
POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
Water Resources Service
(J.
Chief Municipal
Division
E. Dew-Jones, P.Eng.)
(H
Chief Industrial
Division
P. Klassen, P.Eng.)
Assistant Director
Services
(Vacant)
Director
(W. N. Venables, P.Eng.)
Chief Interior
Division
(M. W. Slezak, P.Eng.)
Chief Coastal
Division
(A. A. Hayman, P.Eng.)
Assistant Director
Regional
(R. H. Ferguson, P.Eng.)
Environmental Conservation
(Project SAM)
(A. J. Hetherington)
Litter Act
Administration
-Services Section
-Interior Section
-Coastal Section
-Air Services Section
-General Section
-Mining Section
-Forestry Section
-South Central Region
-Okanagan Region
-Kootenay Region
-North Region
-Lower Mainland Region
-Coast Region
INDUSTRIAL DIVISION
During 1974, some 543 applications for pollution control permits were resolved
resulting in the issuing of 414 new permits, 63 amendments to permits, 10 refusals,
and 56 withdrawals. It is worthy to note that a permit may cover numerous discharges or emissions. In addition Branch staff made in excess of 95 field inspections
and held 250 meetings pursuant to applications.
It is most significant that the British Columbia Pulp and Paper Industry has
surpassed the industry in the rest of Canada in its pollution control effort. In the
period 1973 to 1975, the capital expenditures for environmental protection works
are estimated at $94,692,000 of which 60 per cent is for effluent improvement and
 U 88 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
40 per cent for air emission control. In contrast Ontario in that same period
has an estimated cost of $27,873,000, Quebec $44,240,000, and all Canada
$179,115,700. It must be noted that British Columbia mills produce only 24 per
cent of pulp and paper products, but are currently spending 53 per cent of the total
environmental costs. All mills in British Columbia discharging to fresh water provide or are committed to secondary treatment. Only one mill in Ontario and none
in Quebec now provide this degree of treatment.
Industrial Division staff are participating on task forces set up by the Federal
Government for the establishment of national guidelines, standards, and (or) regulations.   The specific discharges being dealt with at present are
(1) natural gas processing air emissions;
(2) petroleum refinery air emissions;
(3) chlor-alkali effluent discharges;
(4) base metal, uranium, and iron-ore mining effluent;
(5) coke oven air emissions;
(6) review of existing national guidelines and regulations with respect to
pulp-mill effluent.
In September of this year Air Section, previously under Projects and Research,
became a part of Industrial Division. Incomplete projects initiated by Air Section
staff under Projects and Research Division are being continued under Industrial
Division. Major expansion has been achieved during the year in the sampling
and monitoring of ambient air, both in numbers of stations and sophistication of
equipment.
Since Air Section has been taken into this Division, the following activities have
been undertaken:
(1) A continuous sulphur dioxide monitor was installed in Kamloops.
(2) A mobile lab (Unit 3) was moved to Crofton.
(3) Ringelmann courses were held in Vancouver, Kamloops, Cranbrook,
and Kelowna. Approximately 120 candidates participated in the
program.
Forest Products Section
During 1974 a total of 188 applications for permits and amendment applications to permits were resolved. This has culminated in the issuance of the following
permits—85 for air, 44 for refuse, 14 for effluent, 42 amendments, and 3 refusals.
Negotiations are currently in progress with all the major pulp-mills in the Province
with respect to placing their air emissions under permit. Scheduled programs to
improve the quality of the emissions consistent with meeting the objectives have
been received and are now in their final stages of review.
Three pulp-mills in the Prince George area have requested amendments to their
effluent permits to meet the Level A objectives. In order to meet these objectives,
modifications entailing a total expenditure of approximately $9,000,000 are scheduled for completion by the end of 1976. In addition, upgrading programs are
planned for improving emission quality to meet Level B by 1976 at a cost of
approximately $3,000,000. Finlay Forest Products at Mackenzie is expanding
their effluent treatment facilities in line with the mill expansion. Crestbrook Forest
Products is currently in the process of carrying out the instructions embodied in the
Director's order of August 12, 1971, part of which entails upgrading the quality of
the mill effluent to Level A by August 12, 1975.
B.C.F.P., Victoria Plywood Mill, have been ordered to install secondary air-
control equipment to provide for the removal of 80 per cent of all particulate matter
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 89
larger than 0.3 microns in size. An electrostatic precipitator at an estimated cost
of $2,000,000 has been purchased and is to be in operation by December 31, 1975.
The older Coastal mills such as CanCel, Ocean Falls, Gold River Pulp,
Rayonier Woodfibre, C.F.P. Port Mellon, C Z. Elk Falls, B.C.F.P. Crofton, and
MacMillan Bloedel Mills at Port Alberni, Harmac, Powell River all have scheduled
programs to upgrade the quality of their respective mill effluents to Level B by 1978.
The programs entail in-plant recovery systems for recovery of chemical and fibre,
removal of suspended solids through clarification systems and submerged outfalls,
and diffuser systems for dispersion of effluent. The total costs to the above mills is
estimated to be in the order of $50,000,000. The sulphite mill of Rayonier Canada,
Port Alice Division, has embarked on a $32,000,000 program which entails the
installation of a chemical recovery system by mid-1976. This should reduce the
pollution load by approximately 65-70 per cent to Neroutsos Inlet. During the
interim period during the summer months, barging of the red liquor with discharge
of effluent to open seas is carried out. This should permit them to meet permit
conditions with a minimum of production curtailment.
The three paper product mills in the Lower Mainland area have submitted
programs which should enable them to meet Level A requirements for effluent by
1977.
A fibre-moulding mill in the Victoria area has installed a wood-dust collecting
and wood-waste incineration system utilizing the generated heat for drying of their
products in the mould drying kilns, at an estimated cost of $400,000. The quality
of the emission discharges will be upgraded to the Level A.
Scheduled programs for improvement to emission discharges from the Coastal
and Interior pulp-mills are currently under review. These programs involve improvements for control of operations, primary dust collectors, secondary chemical precipitators, installation of weak and strong black liquor oxidation systems—new
recovery chemical and hog fuel boilers, and associated dust collection systems, and
incineration of malodorous gases. Estimated expenditures undertaken for the above
are in the order of $60,000,000. Due to the energy situation and the high cost of
fossil fuels the pulp-mills are directing their attention to better and maximum
utilization of hog fuel as a source of steam and power.
Mining and Mineral Products Section
Eighty-two permits and four amendments to permits were issued by the Mining
Section during 1974. These included eight permits and amendments for effluent,
twelve permits and amendments for emissions, and six refuse permits, all to mining
companies. Eleven effluent permits were issued to placer operators. Twenty-nine
effluent and 20 air permits were issued to gravel plants and ready mix operations.
Placer mining represented the area of greatest activity in mining during the
year. It is estimated that there are over 500 placer claims upon which some
exploration or mining was done. These operations are being examined as rapidly
as possible to ensure that pollution control measures are incorporated where
required.
Serious contamination of Wolfe Creek below the Similkameen tailing impoundment was prevented by the installation of a groundwater interceptor and pumping
system located downstream of the east tailing dam.
The completion of the recycle system at the Kimberley Fertilizer Plant has
been delayed for a year due to the four-month strike which occurred during the
construction season.   A problem with high groundwater in Marysville forced a
 U 90 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
modification to the iron roaster plant calcine effluent treatment system which
reduces the total quantity of water discharged.
The assessment of pollution control measures employed by the Trail smelter
complex has been completed. As part of the on-going program at Trail major
pollution control works on the main stacks, scheduled for installation by 1977, are
expected to improve concentrations of sulphur dioxide and particulate matter in
the atmosphere around the City of Trail.
The section participated in three joint Federal-Provincial Task Forces charged
with setting National Pollution Control Objectives. The task forces covered
effluent objectives for base metal, uranium and iron ore mines, emission objectives
for the coke industry, and emission objectives for the asbestos industry.
The setting of pollution control objectives for the British Columbia-Japanese
integrated iron and steel complex has been assigned to the section as part of a
three-phase feasibility study to be completed by October 31, 1975.
General Section
The General Section completed the processing of approximately 248 applications in 1974, resulting in 189 permits, and 11 permit amendments with 7 applications being refused. In addition, 41 applications were withdrawn as a result of the
discharges being eliminated or connected to a municipal sewerage system. The
permits issued were equally distributed among the oil and gas industries, food and
agriculturally oriented industries, and a large variety of miscellaneous industries.
Approximately half of the permits were for emissions to the air.
Applications for almost all registered discharges have been or are being processed. The remainder represent a number of minor emissions which in the future
may be covered by regulations rather than by permits.
The Pollution Control Board adopted objectives for the chemical and petroleum
industries. As a result, negotiations were started with various petroleum and natural
gas companies to upgrade air emissions to meet the new requirements.
Discussions were held with industry representatives and consultants with respect
to requirements for discharges from three proposed new petroleum refineries.
One application for a permit amendment which was refused resulted in an
appeal by the applicant to the Pollution Control Board which upheld the Director's
decision.
General Section personnel participated in three Government/Industry Task
Forces established by the Federal Government. These task forces are involved in
establishing regulations and (or) guidelines relative to effluents from the alkali and
related products industries, air emissions from the natural gas processing industry,
and air emissions from the petroleum refining industry.
MUNICIPAL DIVISION
Since the introduction of the Act in 1967, over $200 million has been spent
by municipalities in provision of sewers, sewage treatment, and refuse disposal
facilities, or about $100 for every man, woman, and child in the Province. In
particular, during 1974, over 200 applications were processed, resulting in 168 new
permits being issued. Sixty-eight of them were for effluent discharges, mostly entailing secondary treatment, and 90 for refuse, entailing sanitary landfills, the remainder imposing controls on discharges to the air. Thirty-two applications were
for amendments to existing permits, usually to increase quantity or improve quality.
Six applications were refused and 40 were withdrawn.   Four hundred and two cer-
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 91
tificates to construct sewers were processed, compared with 468 in the previous
year. In addition to the above, preparatory work was carried out for two public
hearings arising from objections to applications and evidence provided in regard to
eight appeals to the Pollution Control Board against Director's decisions. Two-
thirds of the registered discharges are now resolved, the remainder having to await
finalization of "objectives" following the Public Inquiry into Municipal-type Waste
Discharges. Many of these registered discharges have been resolved by requiring
cessation of the discharge rather than by issuance of permits.
A new "Services Section" has been founded to remedy shortcomings indicated
from past experience. Firstly, this service has introduced a pollution control assistance team to help municipalities who find difficulty in meeting permit requirements
and, in particular, to report on problems arising from poor operator techniques or
inadequate facilities. Secondly, it is intended to make a start in providing technical
information and environmental news to keep the public informed of work regarding
pollution control. Thirdly, an environmental chemist for the Branch has been
assigned to the Service Section and additionally has major responsibilities regarding
input and output of monitoring data to the computer. Fourthly, information and
advice regarding recycling of refuse or other waste management techniques will be
made available. It is anticipated this Section's work will broaden to encompass
reports on particular problems and act as liaison with such agencies as the ELUC
for municipal waste matters.
There is much interest in spray-irrigating of sewage effluent accompanied by
a growing realization that this technique has limitations and may be expensive.
Refuse disposal is a particular problem in the Metropolitan area of Vancouver
and studies are under way under the auspices of the various municipal governments.
One Vancouver Island community elected to build a new refuse incinerator principally because there were no suitable landfill sites available within a reasonable
haul distance. Many refuse permits were issued for small quantities in remote areas
for such operations as logging camps.
During the year the first permits were issued for a large modern incinerator and
also for an incinerator specially designed for disposal of sewage. Dechlorination
of chlorinated effluents was required for the first time, affecting three discharges.
A major sewerage feasibility study was undertaken for the first time for another
Government agency.
While it is not practical to itemize all the matters attended to during the year,
the following reports from the Sections itemize their involvement in items of particular interest.
Coastal Section
One Capital Regional District and the Municipalities of Tahsis, Ucluelet,
Tofino, Lake Cowichan, Porty Hardy, Sechelt, and Fort Nelson are currently engaged in work involving new sewage collection and treatment facilities or in upgrading their existing facilities. This work in many cases is aimed at consolidating
and treating a number of existing unsatisfactory sewage outfalls.
Several stages of the large West Vancouver collection system have received
recent approval. Certificates have been issued to the City of Vancouver authorizing separation of sanitary sewage from roof and road drainage in existing combined
sewers. This is part of a program encompassing the West End and Downtown
Vancouver costing some $25 million.
The City of Vancouver is presently installing a sanitary system throughout the
industrial area on False Creek Flats east of Main Street to eliminate unsatisfactory
 U 92 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
discharges. They are also constructing a separate sewer system to serve the city's
new subdivision on the south side of False Creek between Granville Island and the
Cambie Street Bridge.
The Municipality of Delta recently commissioned a comprehensive study of
the impact of discharges from proposed sewage facilities on the local environment
and are proposing to construct a new treatment plant with discharge to the mouth
of the Fraser. This is the last major component in a clean-up program for the
Metropolitan Vancouver area which started with the adoption of the original Rawn
Report in 1953.
The Imperial Oil Company has agreed to install a one-half-mile outfall to
Boundary Creek from their facilities at Goodlow near Fort St. John to eliminate
discharge to an open ditch.
The Village of Clinton was authorized to dispose of its sewage effluent by spray-
irrigation with the option of continuing discharge to a creek as previously authorized.
The village council was interested in utilizing the water in a productive way that
would otherwise be wasted.
A number of Interior regional districts have undertaken to provide refuse disposal services to outlying areas. For example, Thompson-Nicola were issued
eight permits in the last year. Refuse disposal sites were authorized for Kamloops,
Gold River, and Alberni, while Kitimat is seeking a permit for a similar operation.
The Regional District of Cowichan Valley has been issued a permit for a
modern incinerator to dispose of municipal refuse at a total cost of about $200,000.
A permit was issued to a private company for an incinerator for the destruction of sewage. This was in conjunction with a European concept in sewage collection in which sewage is transported by vacuum through relatively small plastic
pipes. This system largely negates the normal stringent grade requirements and
results in much smaller treatment volumes.
Interior Section
The Municipalities of Hope, Lumby, Salmo, Invermere, and Revelstoke are
currently engaged in work involving new sewage collection and treatment facilities or
in upgrading their existing facilities. Langley has applied to divert the Aldergrove
effluent from Bertrand Creek to the Fraser River in the interests of fishery protection.
The District of Coldstream have assumed the responsibility for operation and
maintenance of the sewer system and treatment plant previously operated by the
developer of a small subdivision at Lisheen Estates.
The Village of Keremeos have submitted an application to sewer the village
and construct a treatment plant with an outfall to the Similkameen River. Following
various objections to the principle of the river outfall, Section staff have spent time
with the village in consideration of alternative methods of disposal.
The possibility of ground disposal of treated effluent has been raised by a
number of municipalities, including Salmon Arm, Kelowna, and Cranbrook. The
Okanagan Study and the Municipal Inquiry revealed that ground disposal may on
occasion be an optimum solution but will not necessarily prevent lake eutrophication
in every case and costs may be high. Detail site-specific studies are therefore being
undertaken.
Various applications have been processed for discharge of septic tank clean-out
waste.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 93
The Municipality of Nelson, Fernie, Kimberley, and others are having difficulty
in substantiating application quantities because of groundwater infiltration which
may entail costly remedial measures.
Section staff were involved in a feasibility study for a community sewerage
system for the Whistler Mountain area and an environmental study in the Queen
Charlottes.
Following issuance of a permit to Tamarisk Development Ltd. for a condominium development in the Whistler area, Section staff produced evidence at a
subsequent appeal.
An application by Hemlock Valley Recreations Limited for a ski resort development, including tertiary treatment is under investigation, being the first such proposal in the Province for such a small discharge volume.
Under the auspices of the Regional District of East Kootenay a mobile crew
and equipment are providing a very satisfactory covering program for small municipal landfill operations throughout its district. Others are being encouraged to
follow this example of economical pollution control.
Services Section
Further progress in development of the computer data storage and retrieval
system was made in co-operation with the Computer and Consulting Services of the
Department of Transport and Communications and with the Chemistry Laboratory.
This system now handles permit and descriptive data together with monitoring data
for all applications and permits for both the Pollution Control Branch and Water
Investigations Branch. Approximately half-a-million monitoring result values in
addition to other data are being added annually, which is a measure of the extent
of the monitoring being undertaken to meet Branch requirements.
Staff participated in various tasks, including the following:
The ELUC Sewage Disposal Task Group investigating septic-tank problems arising from subdivision of land.
The International Nitrogen Task Group examining the effect of super-
saturation below power dams on fish.
Work is near finalization on development of a computer model to simulate
waste-treatment plant performance to assist the Pollution Control Assistance Team
in optimizing plant performance.   This team is proceeding with work at plants for
the City of Kelowna and the Town of Merritt and other municipalities are awaiting
this service.
A study to determine use of certain metal-industry wastes for removal of
nutrients is being undertaken at the City of Penticton's treatment plant.
Work is in hand on preparation of information bulletins on aspects of pollution
control in the Province for release to the public.
REGIONAL DIVISION
The Pollution Control Branch's decentralization program was advanced during
1974 by the transfer of six technical positions from the headquarters establishment
in Victoria to the Regional Division. These positions were being filled in various
locations at year-end and this has enabled the regional offices to take on the
responsibility for processing permit applications at the local level. At year-end
the regional offices were processing a total of 36 applications for permit.
 U 94
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
To ensure that the Pollution Control Branch service is accessible throughout
the Province, the Regional Division has six established regional offices together
with seven field offices, the newest of which was opened at Revelstoke late this year.
During the past year the regional staff were able to increase their service to the
public by assisting local municipal authorities in locating and advising on suitable
waste-disposal sites and facilities and they have accepted membership on technical
planning committees of regional districts and special study committees established
by the Environment and Land Use Committee Secretariat in various areas of the
Province.
During 1974 the Regional Division processed and made recommendations to
the Director for the issuance of 91 approvals for temporary discharges under section
5 (c) of the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
By year-end, there was a total of 1,626 discharge permits being administered
by the divisions. Enforcement of permit conditions and necessary measures to
abate problems involved the issuance of 44 orders and the initiation of 14 prosecutions, 7 of which were successful, and 6 which were subjudice at year-end.
In the latter part of the year, efforts were initiated to decentralize authority to
regional staff. In order to facilitate the decentralization program, the Division was
reorganized into two groups with the Lower Mainland Region, the North Region,
and the Coast Region making up the Coastal Division, and the South Central
Region, the Okanagan Region, and the Kootenay Region comprising the Interior
Division.
Okanagan Region
A comparative summary of the Okanagan Region work load is shown by the
statistics in the following table:
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
Permits administered—
Effluent discharges—   - _ __
50
8
69
163
193
55
57
5
35
3
1
27
22
72
305
276
16
9
4
19
2
1
68
16
3
45
11
18
3
3
85
32
202
318
444
11
48
48
2
41
6
3
99
24
17
168
15
25
5
0
156
40
181
137
356
17
78
78
40
17
7
4
1
129
33
Air emissions      __     __    __	
55
89
28
Approval applications received - - - 	
Orders served  ___         ____          	
41
7
0
Pollution complaints investigated    .— -
Certificates administered   - —  	
Pollution monitoring—
Outfalls sampled:
89
55
273
68
Stream stations sampled:
Chemical analysis, _ __    	
Biological analysis     _	
Lake stations sampled:
Chemical analysis _   _	
Biological analysis-.   _	
780
79
52
52
83
Dnstfall stations operated
20
7
4
Stack-sampling surveys conducted  -  	
4
In addition to the above work, the Okanagan regional staff conducted a smoke
opacity measurement training course in Kelowna.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 95
Coast Region
The increasing work load in the Coast Region is indicated by the following
statistics:
1972 1973 1974
Permits administered  112 160 270
Permit inspections  203 377 450
Permits sampled  112 183 245
Background sites sampled  175 377 397
Complaints investigated  100 86 102
Approvals issued       4 10 20
Orders issued       2 13 7
Court actions  1 4
A program of sampling and testing fish from certain lakes for heavy metals
was continued during the year. In addition, some preliminary sampling and testing
of conditions in Ucluelet Harbour was carried out by the biological staff.
The processing of permit applications was undertaken during 1974. To date,
one permit has been issued, and five are at various intermediate stages.
Lower Mainland Region
The following statistics refer to permits in force and applications outstanding
in the Lower Mainland Region and reflect the work load related to this responsibility.
1970
1971
1972
1973
112
121
137
195
1
4
13
38
5
20
20
43
60
130
2
7
20
25
3
7
22
—
1974
Effluent permits.	
Refuse permits —	
Air permits  _	
Effluent applications 	
Refuse applications 	
Air applications  	
Approvals granted current year	
Orders of Regional Manager current year
271
58
47
122
29
20
10
25
Site investigations and subsequent reports related to applications continues to
comprise a substantial portion of the District work load. The regular program of
sampling and (or) inspection of all discharges on a quarterly basis continued and
areas of noncompliance with permit conditions were noted and brought to the
attention of the permittee. Legal action has been initiated where flagrant violation
of permit conditions continues. The surveillance program includes zone of influence
sampling in areas where discharges might affect changes in the receiving media.
A general surface water-quality program covering major lakes and streams and
some salt-water inlets was expanded to include approximately 142 sampling stations.
Frequency of sampling varies with 28 stations sampled two times per year, 64 stations four times, and 45 stations six times per year. The biological program has
expanded to cover specific monitoring of six lakes, some areas in Howe Sound, and
selected streams.
The air-quality trailer at Squamish was moved out of the Region in May 1974
and two satellite stations supporting the trailer have been shut down. The Branch
has recently installed more specific instrumentation to record chlorine and mercury
levels in the Squamish area.
Investigation of coal dust from rail transport in the Fraser Valley was carried
out during the summer and is to be continued in the summer of 1975. As a result
of experimental dust-control techniques some improvement of this problem has
been realized.
 U 96
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Fifteen air-quality stations continue to be serviced by this office to provide
data on one or more of the standard air-quality parameters. (Dustfall, suspended
particulate, soiling index, sulphur compounds.)
Kootenay Region
In mid-1974 the administrative headquarters for the Kootenay Region was
transferred from Cranbrook to the new Government building in Nelson in accordance with the Government decision to consolidate regional resource agencies in
common locations. Of the fifteen staff in this Region, seven were retained in the
Cranbrook office to continue programs of surveillance, enforcement, and other day-
to-day functions of the Branch in the area east of Kootenay Lake.
During 1974 the number of permits issued by the Branch for discharges in the
Kootenay Region increased by 114 to bring the total number of permits administered by the Region to 258. In addition to inspection and sampling of waste-treatment facilities under permit, stream, lake, and groundwater samples were collected
at 177 locations and air samples were taken at 45 locations.
Staff of the Kootenay Region also evaluated and made recommendations regarding 25 requests for short-term discharge approvals. Some of the more interesting activities involving the Kootenay Region staff were a forest industry sawmill
survey in the Nelson Forest District to determine the quantity of woodwaste generated, continuation of the program of monitoring and data analyses of the Libby
reservoir post impoundment study, and the continuation of the operation of the
mobile air monitoring laboratory located in the City of Trail.
In the latter part of the year, the Region became involved in the Kootenay
Study by Water Investigations Branch which will continue through 1975.
North Region
During 1974, 103 new permits and 17 amendments to permits were issued,
bringing the total number of permits in the North Region to 320. One hundred and
eighteen site investigations reports were submitted to the Industrial and Municipal
Divisions in Victoria. Six charges were laid as a result of contraventions of orders
made under the Act.   Ten approvals were issued.
In line with the Pollution Control Branch policy of decentralizing Branch
functions, the North Region commenced processing eight permits through the
Prince George office.
In addition to inspection and sampling of waste-treatment facilities under permit, the following environmental monitoring programs were initiated and (or) continued from previous years:
Monitoring Program
Number of
Stations
Number of
Parameters
Frequency
(Times per Year)
Year
Initiated
A. River Studies—
21
8
19
8
6
11
6
10
6
6
3
3
34
33
33
18
18
18
18
18
5
5
1
1
4
3
3
6
6
6
6
6
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
Continuous
1971
1972
1974
B. Lake Studies—
1973
1973
1974
1974
5. Charlie Lake.-  	
C. Ambient Air Studies—
1974
1972
1974
1973
1973
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 97
The North Region was called upon to provide a consultative service for the
Prince George Zone Emergency Program Co-ordinator in regard to a number of
accidental oil and chemical spills.
Field sampling is all in the day's work for Pollution Control Branch regional staff.   This
technician is measuring the flow over a V-notch weir in the North Region.
South Central Region
The Regional office is responsible for the administration of approximately 185
permits. A regular program of sampling and inspection of all discharges was
carried out in 1974. The surveillance program was expanded to include zone of
influence studies of seven streams where it was considered that discharges may
deleteriously affect the receiving environment. Legal action was initiated where
flagrant violation of permit conditions was suspected.
In 1974, approximately 120 applications for permits were received and in
excess of 160 site inspections carried out. A total of nine approvals were issued
and several permits processed.
The general surface water-quality monitoring program of major lakes and
streams was expanded to approximately 33 lake stations and 155 stream stations.
Several intensive studies on sensitive water courses were initiated and included
assessment of both chemical and biological conditions.
The Federal-Provincial interagency study of the Thompson River system continued throughout 1974. The Regional office staff was involved in co-ordination
and sampling for the study. In addition, the Regional office staff undertook a survey
of litter along the highways in the Interior of the Province.
The ambient air-monitoring program was increased to include approximately
37 stations. Several special short-term air-monitoring studies relating to specific
problems were carried out as was an investigation of the meteorological conditions
within the Region.
 U 98 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
The Regional office staff responded to numerous requests for interpretation of
application and permit requirements. Over 70 complaints concerning pollution
matters were handled and several accidental oil and chemical spills were investigated.
PROJECTS AND RESEARCH DIVISION
As part of the reorganization movement within the Water Resources Service,
the Projects and Research Division was disbanded in September of 1974 with the
activities of the Division Chief for the remainder of the year devoted to completion
of projects in hand. Twelve personnel were allocated to the Environmental Studies
Division in the Water Investigations Branch; five to the Municipal Division; and
the Air Section, in total, was absorbed by the Industrial Division.
A total of approximately 80 projects was undertaken by the Projects and
Research Division during 1974, some of which are listed below:
Air Section
(1)  A mbient A ir-monitoring Programs—
Stationary Stations:
Expansion of the monitoring program in Kimberley by the addition
of two continuous SOa analysers and an impinger train for ammonia.
Established monitoring stations in Cassiar to determine the asbestos
particulate in the ambient air.
During 1974, two continuous sulphur dioxide analysers were allocated to Trail in addition to the analyser contained in the Unit 2 Mobile
Lab. One of these analysers was installed at the Butler Park site where
monitoring for heavy metals, arsenic, and fluorides has been carried on
for a number of years. The second analyser plus additional equipment for
monitoring heavy metals, arsenic, and fluorides were installed on Duncan
Flats. A continuous chlorine analyser was purchased during 1974 and
has been installed in Squamish to monitor the air quality in the vicinity
of the chlor-alkali plant there. Should this analyser prove satisfactory,
it is planned to install additional analysers of this type in other areas of the
Province where these plants are operating.
Expansion of the monitoring program in Taylor by the addition of
one continuous SOa analyser.
Mobile Laboratories:
Unit 1 operated in Squamish until May 1974, measuring sulphur
dioxide, chlorine, suspended particulate, and wind speed and direction.
Subsequently, it was moved to Kamloops but is not operational due to
equipment malfunctions. It is expected to be operational in January
1975, and will measure wind speed and direction, total sulphur, sulphur
dioxide, and hydrogen sulphide.
Unit 2 operated in Trail throughout 1974, measuring sulphur dioxide,
total oxidants, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, particulate, and wind speed and direction.
Unit 3 was delivered in February 1974, and was checked out in
Victoria. In May, the unit was sent to the Taylor gas plant area where it
operated for six weeks. The unit then returned to Victoria for further
evaluation of the equipment and the establishment of operating procedures.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U 99
Stack gas sampling and analysis is a regular part of Pollution Control Branch's continuous
monitoring of air emissions.
 U  100 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(2) Pollution Control Objectives—
Objectives for Municipal-type Wastes and Food-processing and Miscellaneous Industries:
These projects have been continuing since 1972 and the proposed
objectives were placed before the Pollution Control Board in December,
1974.
Following the public inquiry on municipal waste discharges, technical
assistance was provided to the Municipal Division in developing the
Pollution Control Objectives for the discharge of contaminants to the
atmosphere from municipal waste treatment processes.
(3) Lower Mainland Study—Air Services Section provided the Technical
Co-ordinator for the Lower Mainland Study undertaken by B.C. Hydro. The
purpose of the study was to determine the quality of the ambient air under varying
meteorological conditions.
(4) Ringelmann Training Program—Ringelmann number is used to monitor
modified wood-waste burners. The Ringelmann number observation provided a
technique to visually determine the quality of an emission discharged to the atmosphere. In order to provide the necessary training to observe Ringelmann number,
courses were held in Victoria, Vancouver, Agassiz, Kamloops, Prince George,
Williams Lake, and Kelowna during the spring of 1974. Approximately 200 candidates received this training and were certified as Ringelmann number observers.
Land and Water Section
(1) Pollution Control Objectives—The report on objectives for the food
processing, agriculturally orientated, and miscellaneous industries was prepared.
(2) Heavy metals discharged in the Lower Fraser River—Sources of heavy
metals such as copper, aluminum, mercury, nickel, and zinc, within the Greater
Vancouver Regional District were investigated. Metal-plating operations were
investigated. Metal-plating operations were estimated to be a significant source
of heavy metals to the sewer system. Soluble metal ions are absorbed by suspended
organic material, and this process assists the removal of heavy metals from raw
sewage by primary sedimentation.
(3) Use of coal to treat wastewaters—A study on the use of coal to treat
wastewaters was concluded. Results showed that coal may have an application in
the removal of heavy metals at relatively high concentrations. There was no evidence that coal possesses any special properties for the removal of organics or
nutrients from wastewaters.
(4) Guidelines for land disposal of septic tank pumpage—A report was issued
jointly by the Pollution Control Branch and the Environmental Engineering Division
of the Health Branch. Site selection, preparation, operation, and maintenance
guidelines were presented.
(5) Health aspects of effluent irrigation—A review of the risks to public
health associated with effluent irrigation was initiated through Projects and Research
Division of the Pollution Control Branch in 1973. A multidisciplinary approach
involving the Provincial Departments of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Agriculture, and Health was required to assess and integrate the public health,
agricultural, and engineering aspects of land-disposal systems. Federal Department
of Agriculture personnel in the Okanagan are participating as well. A report should
be finalized early in 1975 as a result of the review by the committee representing the
participating agencies.
 POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
U  101
(6) Phosphorus removal studies at Penticton—The City of Penticton Engineering Department has been undertaking phosphorus removal studies with the
financial and technical assistance of the Pollution Control Branch. These studies
commenced in August 1973 under the over-all direction and supervision of the
Projects and Research Division of the Pollution Control Branch. Various chemical
coagulants such as lime, alum, ferric chloride have been used with considerable success. Operational problems have been encountered with sedimentation of the
coagulated solids fraction, sludge handling, and digestion. Efforts to resolve some
of these operational problems are continuing into 1975 through the combined
efforts of staff from the Pollution Control Branch and the City of Penticton.
(7) Naramata Watershed Study—This study was initiated in 1971 to determine the effects of cattle grazing on the water quality of the Naramata Water Supply.
No definitive conclusions could be drawn as to the impact of cattle on the quality
of water in the watershed. Subsequently as a result of discussions on the report
by concerned agencies and interested organizations, certain livestock-control measures were implemented. A follow-up study was undertaken in September 1973
to determine the effectiveness of these control measures in enhancing water quality.
Sampling for this secondary phase was completed in October 1974, and its is expected that report will be finalized early in 1975.
(8) Thompson River Study—The Thompson River study was initiated in the
spring of 1973 to investigate the source of colour, foam, and algal growth in Kamloops Lake and the Thompson River. Both the Federal and Provincial Governments are participating. A preliminary report was prepared in May 1973. Since
that time a data collection program has been under way and will continue until
April 1975. Co-ordination of Provincial Government input is through the Pollution Control Branch. All major point-source discharges have been determined and
evaluated. Studies continue to be undertaken to determine the nutrient(s) which
are essential to primary productivity and algal growth in the system. This information is necessary before recommendations can be made on improvements. Biological and water chemistry data, as it is collected by the various agencies, will be forwarded to Pollution Control for assessment. A progress report will be prepared
during the early part of 1975 followed by the production of a final report during the
summer of 1975.
(9) Federal Task Force on Revising Pulp and Paper Effluent Regulations—
In June 1974 a staff member of the Projects and Research Division was appointed
on behalf of the Provincial Government to participate on a Federal-Provincial Task
Force to review and draft effluent regulations for the pulp and paper industry.
Work is currently continuing on this program.
(10) Prince George Sludge Disposal Study—A study was initiated in the
spring of 1974 by the Projects and Research Division to assess the effect of sludge
disposal to land in relation to soils, vegetation, and water quality and is continuing.
Ecology Section
(1) Comox and Prince Rupert Harbour Studies—The Provincial Interagency
Evaluations of water quality of Comox Harbour and Prince Rupert Harbour were
completed in September 1974. The evaluations involved task reports of the Department of Health, Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Lands Branch, and the Projects and Research Division. Tasks concerning
water quality and beach biota were undertaken by the Ecology Section.
(2) Joint Canadian Cellulose-Pollution Control Branch Study—The 1974
beach-biota sampling program was completed for the joint Canadian Cellulose-
 U  102 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Pollution Control Branch evaluation of effluent upgrading at the Prince Rupert
pupl-mills. A beach-biota report for 1974 is pending contract approval for the
analysis of samples.
(3) Objectives for Food-processing, Agriculturally Orientated, and Other
Miscellaneous Industries—Participation provided in the drafting of the Panel Report
to the Director, concerning Pollution Control Objectives for Food-processing,
Agriculturally Orientated, and Other Miscellaneous Industries of British Columbia.
This section was also responsible for the production of the following works:
A Guide to Some Biological Sampling Methods.
A Report on Results of a Monitoring Program for Dissolved Gases in
Selected Waters of British Columbia, 1972/73.
A nnotated Extracts of Some Papers Dealing With the Measurement and
Solubility of Dissolved Atmospheric Gases, With Nitrogen Gas
Supersaturation, and With Gas Bubble Disease in Fish.
Reports were prepared for the Air Section on the following topics:
Vegetation and Air Pollution for the Greater Vancouver Airshed Study.
Effect of Gas Emissions on Vegetation at Taylor, B.C.
Vegetation Damage in Relation to Sulphur Dioxide Emissions at Cominco
Kimberley Operations.
Additional work was involved in preparation and design of the Kootenay Study
of the Water Resources Service and in continued development of the data storage
system for permit and monitoring data.
Environmental Conservation
(Project SAM)
Project SAM continued its environmental conservation efforts of removing
abandoned and derelict motor-vehicles and other scrap-metal materials from roadsides, recreational, and industrial areas throughout the Province and providing for
their reuse in the metal industry.
Two new tractor units were purchased as replacements to haul compacted hulks
to shredding facilities. A separate office-shop was leased as a headquarters area and
to provide space for servicing and repair of vehicles and heavy equipment.
During 1974, emphasis was placed on removing crushed hulks which had been
stored at various depots throughout the Province. Utilizing B.C. Rail, private
haulers, and Project SAM transport facilities, a total of 14,934 tons of crushed
metal goods were hauled to a shredding plant in Vancouver. It is anticipated that
for the first time since its inception in 1971, the Project SAM operation may yield
sufficient revenue to offset its operating costs. In the same period the two crushing
crews compacted 18,226 automobile hulks, plus innumerable old stoves, fridges,
freezers, water tanks, washers, dryers, etc. This service was performed at 86 depots
in 52 communities within 20 regional districts throughout the Province.
 CHEMISTRY
LABORATORY
103
  CHEMISTRY
LABORATORY
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
In 1974 the total number of routine environmental tests performed by the
Laboratory increased to 171,000 from 128,000 in 1973, an increase of 34 per cent.
Figure 2 shows the increase in Chemistry Laboratory work load for the period 1971
to 1974. This type of growth in output is expected to continue for another five years
as additional environmental monitoring programs are implemented.
Planning for new laboratory facilities was initiated in 1974. The Chemistry
Laboratory is presently occupying space in the B.C. Research Building in Vancouver.
This space, which has been leased on a short-term basis, will be required by B.C.
Research in 1976. The Department of Public Works engaged consultants to develop
a functional program design for new facilities. This stage of planning was completed
in December 1974.
In December, installation of a terminal to the computer facilities of the Data
Processing Centre, Department of Transport and Communications in Victoria was
completed. The laboratory result files and reporting procedures have been redesigned to be operated by this computer facility. This is the first time in Canada
that an environmental laboratory has used computer facilities for complete recordkeeping and reporting functions. The laboratory results are also stored on an
environmental data storage and retrieval system operated by the Data Processing
Centre.
Water Quality Division
In 1974 the Water Quality Division performed 160,000 tests, an increase of
36 per cent over 1973. As there was no increase in the number of permanent staff
for the Chemistry Laboratory in 1974, 15 temporary positions were approved in
September to cope with the increased work load. Ten of these positions were
designated to the Water Quality Division.
Throughout the year, the staff of the Data Centre in Victoria and the staff of
the Water Quality Division worked in close association in documenting the requirements for the computer facility. For the Water Quality Division the computer programs provide the following:
(1) Efficient system of record-keeping.
(2) Routine quality control checks on test results.
(3) Printing of final Water Quality Reports.
(4) Weekly statistics.
The introduction of these programs has facilitated prompt reporting of results
to the submitting agencies.
In addition to the routine analytical work, the following projects were completed :
(1) Reports entitled
(a) Preservation of Seed for BOD Determination.
(b) Interpretation of Water Quality Analyses.
(2) Evaluation and automation of ammonia nitrogen analysis.
105
 U 106
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
(3) Compilation of the second edition of A Laboratory Manual for the
Chemical Analysis of Waters, Wastewaters, Sediments and Biological
Materials.
During the year the Water Quality Division continued to receive samples for
possible legal action. In cases where legal action was taken, the legal scientist was
required to give evidence pertaining to sample security, analytical results, and
methodology.
PERCENTAGE OF CHEMISTRY LABORATORY WORK LOAD
BY SAMPLING AGENCY
<1%
Dept. of
Agriculture
a
Water Rights
Branch
Other
 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY                                           U 107
CHEMISTRY LABORATORY WORK LOAD
1971 TO 1974
175,000
v/
150,000
1
125,000
' / / )
CO
r-
2 loo.ooo
u.
o
or
UJ
S°    75,000
///
50,000
|
|
V//
25,000
P
V
V
0
///
///
///
W/
1971              1972            1973             1974
 u 108 b.c. water resources service
Air Quality Division
In 1974, 11,000 air-quality analyses were performed. In addition to the
routine analyses, special analyses such as floride and sulphate in vegetation, metals
in high-volume samples, and particle analyses in dustfall were performed by this
Division.
Projects completed in 1974 include the following:
(1) Introduction of methods and procedures for the determination of
mercury in air.
(2) Evaluation and operation of a continuous air monitor for the
determination of free chlorine in air.
(3) Investigation and introduction of methods for the determination of
metals in high volume and slag samples.
(4) The article Investigation of the Analysis of Sulfation Plates was
revised and published in the Journal of Analytical Chemistry, September issue, 1974.
Methods Development Section
Twenty-one projects were completed during 1974 dealing with analytical
procedures for air, water, sediment, and vegetation samples. Typical of the scope
of the projects are the following reports:
7334—The Ultra-Violet Determination of Cyanide in Water and Wastewater.
7414—Evaluation of an Induction Furnace and a Carbon Analyser for
the Determination of Carbonaceous Matter in Sediments.
7418—The Determination of Elemental Sulphur in Soils and Dustfall
Using Gas Chromatography.
In addition, development work on the analysis of sediments which was continued from the previous year has been completed for nine parameters. Further
development work is continuing in the field of gas chromatography as it applies to
environmental monitoring, particularly with respect to organic compounds. The
section has also been involved in the introduction of new instrumentation in the
form of an analyser for total sulphur and total carbon in solid samples and a "micro-
videomat" for microscopic analysis of air and water particulates.
Field Services Section
In 1974, 11,800 water and 2,000 air samples were received, logged, and transferred to the analytical sections. During the year, 1,050 shipments of chemicals and
supplies were made to submitting offices.
In addition to routine services, the following projects and changes have been
completed:
(1) Four Water Resources Service Regional Laboratories operated successfully throughout 1974:
(a) One thousand seven hundred water samples processed and
tested.
(b) Senior laboratory technicians relocated and confirmed for
the Regional Laboratories in Kamloops, Prince George, Victoria, and
Vernon.
(c) New quarters obtained and renovations designed to alleviate overcrowding in Kamloops and Prince George Laboratories.
 CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
U 109
Microscopic identification of dustfall particles at the Chemistry Laboratory.
Note the TV monitor.
  CHEMISTRY LABORATORY U 111
(2) A complete revision of the sample handling system in conjunction
with Data Centre staff has been developed and implemented.
(3) A system of stock control has been introduced to supply chemicals
and equipment to all Provincial agencies. Any office with occasional
requirements for equipment for its own use may order and receive the
equipment quickly from the Chemistry Laboratory without reference
to chemical catalogues and suppliers.
In 1974 the Instrumentation Services Section calibrated and serviced 425
instruments and performed 150 routine services. The work load of the Section
has increased by approximately 20 per cent due to the additional Chemistry Laboratory equipment and the purchase of complex air monitoring equipment by the
Pollution Control Branch. During 1974 the Instrumentation Services Section
acquired additional electronic test equipment and air-monitoring calibration equipment.
In addition to the above work load time was spent on the following projects:
(1) Annual preventive maintenance programs for Regional Laboratories.
(2) Investigation of methods for calibration of environmental instrumentation.
(3) Development of an instrument maintenance manual for all Pollution
Control Branch and Chemistry Laboratory equipment.
(4) Major servicing of out-of-town air-monitoring stations.
(5) Instrument work related to the Lower Mainland air study.
(6) Installation and start-up of air-monitoring equipment in a Kootenay
air study.
  INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
113
  INSPECTOR
OF
DYKES
K. J. Chisholm, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
During the year, the process of consolidation and transfer continued with the
following changes in management or operation of dyking areas:
(a) East and West Nicomen were dissolved and consolidated as Nicomen
Island Improvement District under the Water Act.
(b) North Nicomen reverted from an Improvement District under the
Water Act in voluntary receivership administered by the Inspector
of Dykes to an Improvement District under the Water Act administered by its own trustees.
Negotiations continued with a view to having Dewdney, Albion, Nicomen
Island, and Trethewey Edge Improvement Districts assume responsibility for their
own administration and this responsibility will be passed over to these districts in
January 1975.
Negotiations were also continued with the municipalities concerned for the
transfer to municipal control of Sumas and Coquitlam Dyking Districts.
In August, W. R. Meighen retired from the position of Inspector of Dykes and
was replaced by K. J. Chisholm in December. W. S. Jackson acted as Inspector
of Dykes in the intervening period.
115
  SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
117
  SOUTHERN
OKANAGAN
LANDS
PROJECT
W. J. Stephenson
Supervisor
HISTORY
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project was formed in 1919 with the purchase
by the Provincial Government of some 22,000 acres of land located in the southern
end of the Okanagan Valley. The object of the purchase was the rehabilitation,
under the Soldiers' Land Act, of veterans of the First Great War. The Project lands
are located in the only intrusion into Canada of the Upper Sonoran Faunal Area
in the Upper Austral Zone. This area supports several unique species of flora and
fauna which have survival limits established primarily by the climate. Summer
temperatures in excess of 100° Fahrenheit or 38° Celsius, combined with very low
amounts of precipitation create an arid, semi-desert environment.
Water was diverted from the Okanagan River downstream of Vaseaux Lake
into a concrete canal which was constructed with a hydraulic gradient of 1:4000
over a distance of 22.3 miles. Water finally reached the southern extremity of the
Project lands at the United States Border in 1925.
During construction, the Government operated its own sawmill 12 miles east
of Oliver to produce timber needed in the flume sections of the canal. The Government also operated its own pipe plant to manufacture approximately 42 miles of
concrete pipe varying from 4 to 24 inches in diameter.
In the mid-1920's large tobacco plantings were developed. The Government
built four large tobacco drying sheds with the hope of establishing a stable industry.
Unfortunately, the quality of the tobacco was not good and by 1929 this industry
was abandoned. Cantaloups, tomatoes, and zucca melons were grown successfully
in the 1930's and Oliver was once referred to as the "Cantaloup Capital of Canada."
However, as more and more land was being planted in tree fruits it was impractical
to grow field crops between the rows of trees.
Mining was also carried out over the years in the area. Gold was retrieved
from the Fairview Mines located west of Oliver and from Camp McKinney to the
east. An open pit mine located just north of Oliver has been producing silica rock
for a number of years. Many Crown-granted mineral claims still dot maps of the
area.
Construction of the Okanagan Flood Control channel, which was completed in
1957, changed the topography of the bottom lands and lowered the water table
several feet. As a result, a considerable acreage which originally consisted of waterlogged sloughs has now been rendered arable.
In 1964 the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District (SOLID) was
formed as an Improvement District under the Water Act for the purpose of transferring the irrigation works to local autonomy.    Rehabilitation of the irrigation
119
 U  120 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
system was then commenced under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development
(British Columbia) Act. With the virtual completion in 1974 of the rehabilitated
irrigation system under ARDA, the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District
assumed full responsibility for the irrigation works. The transfer agreement was
formally ratified by His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor by Order in Council dated
December 4, 1974.
The District will be responsible for the distribution of irrigation water to
approximately 5,500 acres of heavily cultivated land, 4,800 acres of which receive
pressurized water directly from District pipe-lines. The canal, which now extends
only to the north end of Osoyoos Lake, is still the main source of water for the
system. However, water is also pumped from numerous wells and directly from
Osoyoos Lake. Total pumping capacity is approximately 4,500 U.S. gallons per
minute, and over 3,000 horsepower is required to lift this water to the highest
cultivated lands. In addition, the District has assumed responsibility for providing
chlorinated domestic water to more than 600 residents within its boundaries.
The dominant crop within the District is tree fruits, although production of
grapes and field crops has increased markedly in recent years. In 1974, this relatively small farming community produced 62 million pounds of apples, 22 million
pounds of peaches (out of a Province-wide total of 27 million pounds), 4.5 million
pounds of pears, 4 million pounds of prunes, 4 million pounds of cherries, and
1.5 million pounds of apricots. The gross value of this crop to the farmer is estimated
to be over $9,500,000. It is difficult to estimate the value of this crop to the
economy of the region. However, it can be conservatively estimated that the
revenue from service industries, packing plants, wineries, canneries, etc., would
increase the value by three-fold, or to over $33,000,000.
Operation
While final terms of the takeover were being negotiated, it was deemed advisable
for the District to accept responsibility for operation and maintenance of the irrigation system. To achieve this end all Project personnel except office and survey
staff were transferred to the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District. This
transfer was accomplished prior to the start of the irrigation season so that the
District could gain the maximum possible experience from their new responsibilities.
Under the ARDA program work was completed on the interconnection of
Irrigation Systems 2 and 6. Construction was commenced on the relocated Pump-
house No. 5 late in the year. Because of delays in the delivery of materials this
pumphouse is not expected to be in use until the 1976 irrigation season. Tenders
have been invited for the lining of approximately 1,800 feet of canal. The construction of the above works will use the remaining funds authorized under ARDA
Project 89043.
From the start of the spring run-off, the Project office was plagued with complaints regarding the flooding of orchard land and several reports were received
concerning loss of crops and trees due to the high water table. The run-off was the
most protracted and extensive on record, presumably as a result of the heavy
snowfall reported the previous winter. Those orchards located below the Strawberry
Creek watershed received the most damage and several emergency measures were
undertaken to relieve flooding problems in this area. An engineering study has
been undertaken by the Department to find a satisfactory long-range solution for
this particular problem area and a report on the matter will be available early in
1975.
 SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT
U  121
The Project continued to collect water taxes during 1974 and this revenue will
be transferred to the District. The annual revenue of the Project for the year 1974
was as follows:
$
Irrigation rates  204,611.91
Land sales  130.00
Lease rentals        5,188.05
Sundries       15,730.04
225,660.00
With the formal transfer of the irrigation system from Government ownership
and operation to the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District a period of some
50 years of direct service to this limited part of the Okanagan Valley by the Province
comes to an end.
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
AND
ACCOUNTING
DIVISIONS
123
  PERSONNEL
SERVICES
R. C. Webber
Director
Activities of the Personnel Office have increased considerably during the year,
which started off by moving into new quarters in Harbour Towers. The advent of
collective bargaining, with two master agreements and 11 component agreements,
has meant that a great deal of time and effort has been demanded of this office at
meetings and bargaining sessions, as well as in the everyday interpretation of policies
and contracts to Departmental staff. Reorganization of the Water Investigations
Branch and the Pollution Control Branch and regionalization studies for Pollution
Control Branch have also required this office's services. A major classification
review of the Pollution Control Branch Engineering Technician series is nearing
completion.
The following table summarized the principal Water Resources Service activities of this office in 1974, and provides a comparison with the previous three years:
1971
1972
1973
1974
Recruitments for continuous staffs - - -	
84
55
14
2
9
27
21
2
56
141
40
44
4
7
14
40
3
77
80
45
36
5
18
31
65
1
69
84
42
26
22
Promotions and transfers to other departments  __.-	
26
12
55
4
151
Labour Relations
Two of the three bargaining units established under the Public Service Labour
Relations Act have a major influence on the Water Resources Service's staff. The
first of these to get under way was the British Columbia Government Employees
Union which signed a master agreement on June 28, 1974. This office was involved
to a limited extent with management's input into the master agreement, but became
fully involved with several of the eight component agreements, particularly the
Engineering Technical and Inspectional; the Environment, Resource and Conservation; and the Educational and Scientific Services components. Other British Colum-
bit Government Employee Union Components affecting the Service are Hospital
and Allied Services, Operational Services, Administrative Fiscal and Regulatory,
and Administrative Support.
Additionally, the British Columbia Government Professional Employees' Association started negotiating its master agreement in July and at year-end the first
contract had not yet been signed. As the British Columbia Government Professional
Employees' Association agreement covers a high percentage of the Service's employees, namely engineers, senior accountants, agriculturists, and geologists, many
hours of the Director's time were spent in providing management input into these
negotiations.
125
 U 126
B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment of continuous staff increased slightly; however, short-term appointments of temporary and summer staff greatly increased (118.8 per cent) over 1973.
The increase was largely due to the Department of Labour's Careers '74 and Experience '74 Programs which provided funds to take on summer help in addition
to that which had been budgeted by the Service.
Difficulties were encountered in recruiting for some professional and technical
positions such as engineers, accountants, economists, and technicians experienced in
pollution control. The major reason for this difficulty was the large differential that
existed between external and Provincial salaries brought about by protracted negotiations prior to the signing of the various collective agreements.
Nevertheless, many hard-to-recruit positions were filled by advertising across
Canada and in professional journals and bulletins.
New Positions Established
The Personnel office:
Director, Personnel Services
(R. C. J. Webber)
Personnel Officer
(Vacant)
Personnel Officer
(R. M. Renaud)
Clerk 2
(D. Reichert)
Clerk 4
(J. Bond)
Clerk-Steno 2
(M. Sledz)
Clerk-typist 1
(C. Wong, temporary)
Water Resources Increase in Establishment
Water Rights Branch—Twelve new positions were established (One Engineer
3, 11 Technician l's) as a result of a Public Service Commission Study of Regional
Office organization and staff requirements.
Water Investigations Branch—The establishment of the Water Investigations
Branch was increased by three Senior Officer 2 positions as a result of a reorganization, which decreased the number of divisions from seven to four, each now headed
by a Senior Officer 2.
Pollution Control Branch—Ten positions were transferred from the Department of Recreation and Conservation for Project SAM. One Clerk-Typist position
was also established.
Current Service Establishment
Operational
Professional       Technical Clerical Services
Number  of  permanent
employees   178 192 108 15
Number    of    auxiliary
employees        2 18 3
Number of vacancies .._    35 22 6
Total   215 232 117 15
Total service establishment, 579 positions.
 PERSONNEL SERVICES AND ACCOUNTING DIVISION
U 127
Turnover Rate by Classification Category
1972 1973 1974
Professional  7.3 13.1 7.0
Technical   11.7 13.9 15.4
Clerical   24.8 15.5 24.6
Operational services   8.3 8.7 26.71
Water Resources average  12.5 14.3 15.0
Government-wide average  16.3 17.2 (2)
i The percentage does not reflect the transfer of seven employees with the Southern Okanagan Lands Project
(SOLP), as a result of the project takeover by the regional district.
2 No percentage available.
Reclassifications
There was no significant change in the number of reclassifications over 1973.
A Pollution Control Branch Engineering Technician series review is nearing completion and this office has had input into a major Government-wide Draughtsman
series review and other major organization and classification reviews.
Staff Training
Executive Development Training Plan—One employee graduated from this
course in 1974. Seven employees are currently taking the course, two of whom are
in the third and final year.
Correspondence Course in Public Administration—One employee graduated
from this course in 1974, and three are currently taking the course.
Defensive Driving Course—This course is available to all Provincial Government employees whose work involves a significant amount of driving. Although
the number of classes held in 1974 was less than in previous years, 20 Water Resources employees took the course, thereby bringing the total since its inception
in 1972 to 60 Water Resources employees.
Staff Training Assistance
In June 1973, staff training funds were made available through the Public
Service Commission's Staff Training Division. Approximately 60 employees had
their tuition fees reimbursed for courses taken in 1974.
Sick Leave
The average number of days sick leave taken by Water Resources employees
increased slightly over the 1973 rate. The average is also slightly higher than the
Government-wide average for 1973.
Sick Leave in Days per Employee
1971
Water Resources Service   4.2
Government-wide average  6.2
1972
1973
1974
4.3
5.0
5.3
6.7
5.1
C1)
1 Not available.
Safety
The Water Resources Service was awarded the Premier's Safety Trophy "On
Target Award" for larger departments, for having less than five time-loss accidents
per million man-hours in the preceding 12 months. This is the second year in succession that the Water Resources Service has received this award.
 U 128 B.C. WATER RESOURCES SERVICE
Retirements
Four Water Resources Service employees retired during the year.
Twenty-five- and Thirty-five-year Service Awards
Service Awards were presented to the following employees at a dinner in
Government House:
25-year Service Awards
A. O. Ferguson, Administrative Officer, Water Rights Branch.
S. J. Hives, Administrative Officer, Pollution Control Branch.
Mrs. G. M. MacNutt, Clerk, Pollution Control Branch.
P. G. Odynsky, Engineer, Water Rights Branch.
35-year Service Awards-
L. F. Macrae, Draughtsman, Water Investigations Branch.
H. W. Mellish, Administrative Officer, Water Rights Branch.
B. Varcoe, Technician, Water Investigations Branch.
D. White, Clerk, Water Rights Branch.
 ACCOUNTING
DIVISION
M. B. Maclean
Departmental Comptroller
The enlarged Data Processing system implemented in 1972 has the licence
record on magnetic tape, which is the single master record for the system. It provides for the calculation of yearly rentals; the printing of annual statements for the
majority of the licences, and for the programmed calculation of yearly rentals after
the entry of adjustments from the annual returns from improvement districts, municipalities, towns, and villages.
There has been a noticeable increase in the demand for statistical data by the
Licencing Branch, other Government Departments and Federal Agencies. This
demand has been met by the implementation of additional programs. A continuing
function is the constant up-dating of existing records and the collection and coding
of data for new records.
Following is a statement of Water Rights revenue for 1974 by major purpose
and also a statement of comparative revenue for the past 10-year period.
Domestic, incidental use, and fees      569,742
Waterworks       195,426
Irrigation         18,394
Power   5,170,179
Funds received on application      333,401
Total  6,287,142
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1965-74, Inclusive
$ $
1965   2,251,025 1970   3,716,932
1966   2,285,932 1971   4,076,598
1967   2,431,010 1972   4,923,346
1968   2,749,848 1973   5,404,106
1969   3,364,577 1974   6,287,142
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1975
2,030-375-5425
129
 

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