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Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT for the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly

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 Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
for the Year Ended December 31
1973
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
In right of the Province of British Columbia.
1974
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES
AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. Leo T. Nimsick, Minister.
J. E. McMynn, Deputy Minister.
J. D. Lineham, Associate Deputy Minister, Petroleum Resources.
A. J. DiNGLEY, Chief Engineer.
W. M. Young, Chief Geologist.
R. E. Moss, Chief Commissioner.
James T. Fyles, Associate Deputy Minister, Mineral Resources.
Stuart S. Holland, Chief Geologist.
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector.
E. J. Bowles, Chief Gold Commissioner.
 The Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mineral Industry of the Province for the year 1973
is herewith respectfully submitted.
LEO T. NIMSICK
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Office,
March 31, 1974
 CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1
Introduction      A 5
Review of the Mineral Industry.      A 6
CHAPTER 2
Statistics    A 13
CHAPTER 3
Departmental Work    A 57
CHAPTER 4
Petroleum and Natural Gas    A 82
CHAPTER 5
Inspection of Mines  A 212
A 4
 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER
OF MINES AND PETROLEUM
RESOURCES, 1973
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
A Departmental report on the mineral industry in the Province has been published annually since 1874. From 1874 to 1959 it was the Annual Report of the
Minister of Mines, and since 1960 it has been the Annual Report of the Minister of
Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Starting with 1969, the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources contains a review of the mineral industry, and chapters dealing with
Statistics, Departmental Work, Petroleum and Natural Gas, and Inspection of
Mines. Technical reports on geology, mineral exploration, metal mines, placer,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal which formerly were included
in the Annual Report are published separately in a volume entitled Geology, Exploration, and Mining in British Columbia. A new series of annual publications
of that name began with the 1969 volume.
This Annual Report contains a general review of the mineral industry. The
chapter on Statistics records in considerable detail all phases of the mineral production of the Province. Current and past practices in arriving at quantities and in
calculating the values of products are described.
The organization of the Department and the work of its various branches are
outlined in the chapter on Departmental Work.
The chapter on Petroleum and Natural Gas contains a general review and
records in considerable detail the development and production statistics of that
important industry.
Information concerning mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences,
etc., and the activities of the Inspection Branch are contained in the chapter on
Inspection of Mines.
A 5
 Review of the Mineral Industry
By Stuart S. Holland
Production—It seems appropriate in the 100th year of publication of the
Annual Report to record that for the first time the annual value of mineral production of the Province has exceeded $1 billion.
In 1973 the value of British Columbia's mineral production amounted to
$1,113,580,034. A new record was established for the 12th consecutive year and
the previous year's total was exceeded by $477,362,258 or 75 per cent. The cumulative value to date now amounts to $9,926,698,273, 11.2 per cent of which was
contributed in 1973.
The values of the several classes of products are as follows:
1972 1973
Change
(Per Cent)
Metals  .              . 372,032,770 808,155,982 +117.2
Industrial minerals      25,764,120 27,969,664 +8.6
Structural materials ____    66,745,698 73,447,031 +10.0
Coal       66,030,210 87,976,105 +33.2
Petroleum and natural
gas   105,644,978 116,031,252 +9.8
The outstanding feature of the year was the enormous gain (53.0 per cent)
in quantity of copper produced, 1973 being the climax year for all the porphyry
copper mines recently brought into production. There were significant increases
in amounts of gold, molybdenum, zinc, coal, and natural gas. On the other hand,
production of lead and crude oil diminished although their values were up.
Metal prices increased during the year and their higher average values were
an important factor contributing to the record total production. Notable increases
were gold from $57.52 to $97.41 per ounce, silver from $1,663 to $2,566 per
ounce, copper from 44.84 cents to 83.23 cents per pound; lead from 14.87 cents
to 16.28 cents per pound; and zinc from 15.58 cents to 20.66 cents per pound. The
average price received for molybdenum increased from $1.54 to $1.72 per pound
primarily because discounts below the established list price were gradually reduced
and an increased proportion was sold as molybdic oxide.
The increase of $436,123,212 or 117.2 per cent in value of total metal production was largely due to the enormous increase in quantity and value of copper.
It is the most important commodity produced, contributing 73.6 per cent of the
value of all metal production and 53.4 per cent of the value of the total mineral
production. There were significant increases in values of zinc, gold, and molybdenum production as a result of increased quantities and average price of these
metals.
The increase of $2,205,544 or 8.6 per cent in total value of industrial minerals
was largely the result of increased sales of sulphur.
The increase of $6,701,333 or 10.0 per cent in value of structural materials
is the result of the increase in value of cement, sand, and gravel.
The value of coal increased by $21,945,895 or 33.2 per cent because of increased volume of sales and a small increase in price received. Coal, next to copper, is the second ranking mineral commodity and its production is expected to
continue to rise.
A 6
 REVIEW of the mineral industry A 7
The value of petroleum and natural gas increased by $10,386,274 or 9.8 per
cent, both crude oil and natural gas were up in total value despite an actual decrease
in quaitity of crude oil produced.
It is anticipated that the total value of mineral production should increase further in 1974. Any possibility of a slight decline in copper production should be
compensated by a higher average price. Higher average prices for the other major
metals are also anticipated. Production and average unit value of coal are expected
to rise during the year, and increased prices of crude oil and natural gas should
enhance the value of these commodities in 1974.
Provincial revenue—Direct revenue to the Provincial Government derived from
the entire mineral industry in 1973 was as follows:
Free miners' certificate, recording fees, lease $
rentals, assessment payments, etc.  1,663,859.29
Royalties on iron concentrates  156,292.47
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals and
structural materials  386,606.27
Fifteen-per-cent mining tax  6,071,613.00
Coal licences and annual rentals  453,094.31
Petroleum and natural gas rentals, fees, etc.  8,103,408.00
Sale of Crown reserves  17,776,441.00
Royalties on oil, gas, and processed products  20,647,546.00
Miscellaneous petroleum and natural gas fees ___ 27,028.00
Total  55,285,888.34
Expenditure by the industry—The total expenditures in 1973 by the mineral
industry for exploration, development, and production were $653,650,160. Companies involved in the exploration, development, and production of metals, minerals,
and coal spent $507,265,160 and companies involved in the exploration and production of petroleum and natural gas spent $146,385,000.
Metal mining—In 1973, 66 mines produced more than 91.75 million tons
of ore. Fifteen, of which 11 were open-pit mines, produced more than 1 million
tons each, and eight, of which two were open-pit mines, produced between 100,000
and 1 million tons each. The 13 open-pit mines produced 81.875 million tons of
ore or 89 per cent of the total tonnage of ore mined.
During the year, mining operations were terminated by Placid Oil Company
at their Bull River copper mine at Wardner, by Canex Placer Ltd. (Tungsten Division) at their Invincible and East Dodger tungsten mines at Sahno, by the Bradina
Joint Venture at the Silver Queen mine at Owen Lake, and by King Resources
Company at their Mount Copeland molybdenum mine near Revelstoke.
During the year, Noranda Mines, Limited in December reopened their Boss
Mountain molybdenum mine which had been closed since December 1971; Cominco
reopened their HB zinc lead mine at Salmo which had been closed since November 1966; Consolidated Churchill Copper Corporation Ltd. in November reopened
their Magnum copper mine on Delano Creek which had been closed since October
1971; and Consolidated Columbia River Mines Ltd. reopened the Ruth Vermont
mine in October, but the concentrator was closed for the winter to resume milling
early in 1974.
 A 8
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
The Trail smelter treated 8,174 tons of crude ore and 370,488 tons of concentrates from British Columbia mines as well as a large tonnage of concentrates,
crude ore, and scrap from sources outside the Province. A total of 2,858,065
tons of concentrates was shipped to foreign smelters. Of the total metal production of the Province, concentrates representing 74.7 per cent of the total value
were shipped to Japanese smelters and 4.8 per cent of the total value were shipped
to smelters in the United States.
Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1973
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Nickel-
copper
Iron
Tungsten
Trflil
Tons
143,050
Tons
227,438
Tons
Tons
7,982
~6/764
Tons
Tons
30,681
37,291
1,214,598
4,578
53,196
210,661
1,291,478
13,577
4,223
41,162
32,647
803
283
Other foreign  .
	
Totals.
147,273
301,247      ]      1,287,148
1
14,746
1,568,912
1,086
Exploration and development—Since 1968 the trend of prospecting activity
and exploration for coal, mineral, and metallic properties is displayed by the following tabulated statistics.
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
Exploration cost-
Number   of  companies   or
properties	
Claims recorded	
Certificates of work-
Free miners' certificates-
Individual	
Companies-
$34,665,000
389
60,384
66,229
9,305
761
$44,378,000
422
84,665
88,954
9,880
1,060
$52,182,630
493
69,546
118,633
10,034
911
$40,877,745
419
57,778
106,704
9,351
930
$39,066,798
403
78,901
97,573
9,032
927
$38,087,571
363
35,659
128,641
7,084
563
The number of mineral claims located in 1973 was 35,659, a decrease of
43,242 claims or 54.8 per cent from 78,901 in 1972. The most active area was
in the Omineca Mining Division, where copper mineralization in volcanic rocks
at the head of Sustut River received considerable attention. Claim staking was
done in every mining division of the Province and especially so in Kamloops and
Liard Divisions.
Footage of surface and underground diamond drilling was 777,040 feet, an
increase of 363,696 feet or 80.0 per cent, and of percussion drilling was 206,950
feet, an increase of 42,155 feet or 25.6 per cent.
About 715 geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports were accepted
in 1973 by the Department for assessment work credit. They represent approximately $4.6 million in exploration work done on claims.
 REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY
A 9
The following statistics of expenditures on exploration and development of
coal, mineral and metallic deposits, and mines are summarized from data recorded
on Statistics Canada forms. They represent minimum amounts, but the response
of the industry is sufficiently complete to provide figures that are substantially correct. Comparable figures for petroleum and natural gas operations are not available.
Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1973
Number
of Mines
Reporting
Physical
Work and
Surveys
Administration, Overhead, Land
Costs, Etc.
Total
A. Prospecting and exploration on undeclared mines—
352
6
5
$
29,724,158
406,497
124,164
$
7,613,314
179,315
40.123
$
37,337,472
585,812
3   Others
164,287
Totals
363
30,254,819
7,832,752 |      38,087,571
B. Exploration on declared or operating mines—
19
3
2,775,290
1,749,497
845,885
491,327
3,630,175
2,240,824
3. Others     -                       	
Totals   	
22
4,524,787
1,346,212 |         5,8/0,999
C. Development on declared mines—
i
 	
3. Others
665,000
665,000
Totals
l
665,000
665,000
D. Development on operating mines—
21
1
5
37,450,195
11,371,568
9,026,693
1,412,760
38,862,955
11,371,568
3   Othp.rs
24,490
9,051,183
Totals
27
57,848,456 |      1,437,250 |      59,285,706
E. Total expenditures on exploration and development—
1. Metal mines—A(l)+B(l)+C(l)+D(l)
2. Coalmines—A(2)+B(2)+C(2)+D(2)	
3. Others—A(3)+B(3)+C(3)-|-D(3)	
	
69,949,643
13,527,562
9,815,857
9,880,959
670,642
64,613
79,830,602
14,198,204
.         1      93.293.062
10,616,214
103,909,276
1
Exploration includes all work done up to the time when a company declares
its intention of proceeding to production, after that date the work is classed as
development.
Major expenditures in 1973 by companies involved in the exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal were as follows:
$
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   292,657,005
Mining operations (structural materials)     23,421,523
Repairs expenditures     87,277,356
Capital expenditures	
Exploration and development
$
47,219,711
56,689,505
103,909,276
507,265,160
 A 10 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Capital and repair expenditures are listed separately because of difficulties in allocating them consistently. Actually, most of the repair expenditures should be
applied to mining operations, and most of the capital expenditures to exploration
and development.
Industrial minerals and structural materials—Activity in the industrial minerals
and structural materials sector of the mining industry was about normal in British
Columbia in 1973.
New work reported consisted of exploration of barite deposits along the Alaska
Highway, exploration of an asbestos showing in the Menatatuline Range 75 miles
southeast of Atlin, some diamond drilling on limestone deposits on Texada Island
and near Kelly Lake, some trenching on pyrophyllite near Princeton, and geological
examinations of silica near Greenwood and of talc near Keefers.
Coal mining—Total raw coal producing during 1973 was 10.85 million short
tons, which at aggregate minehead value of $87.97 million ranked second after
copper in terms of British Columbia mineral commodity value. These coal production and value figures represent increases of 20 per cent and 33 per cent respectively, compared to 1972 output, which in itself had established all-time records
for the Province. The effect of a national railway strike during August and September, and problems with port handling equipment during the latter part of 1973,
curtailed product output during the year.
Five companies operated coal mines in the Province during 1973; of these,
however, two companies (Kaiser Resources Ltd. and Fording Coal Limited) accounted for 99 per cent of output. Mine production statistics are stated on Table
8B (page A 48); several of the more significant factors derived from these are as
follows:
(1) Eighty-eight per cent of raw coal production was derived from surface mining operations, with the balance of 12 per cent from underground mines.
(2) Clean coal output, which totalled 7.77 million short tons, averaged
71 per cent of total raw coal mined. This average recovery compares closely with that for 1972 (70 per cent) but differs in detail.
(3) Increased minehead value for 1973 coal sales ($87.97 million) resulted principally from increased product output, combined with an
average value increase of 5 per cent.
(4) About 96 per cent of total coal product output was exported to
Japan. Domestic coke production, which accounted for some 3 per
cent of output, represented the second largest market.
The principal British Columbia coal producer, Kaiser Resources Ltd., continued surface mining operations at the Harmer Ridge open-pit complex north of
Sparwood, and in the North and South Balmer colliery at Michel. Surface mining
accounted for 82.4 per cent of total raw coal production of 7.00 million tons;
underground output of some 1.24 million tons was derived mostly from the South
Balmer hydraulic mine, where continued experience and success with this technique
resulted in increased productivity.
For the first time since commencement of export shipments in 1970, the
Company's financial position stabilized during the latter part of 1973. This improvement resulted from major equity refinancing, increased export price, and
improved operational profitability. An extensive exploration programme for evaluation of Crows Nest Industries' lands continued through most of the year.
Open-pit operations of Fording Coal Limited, situated some 40 miles north
of Sparwood, attained total raw coal production of some 3.8 million short tons,
 REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY A 11
yielding 2.4 million tons product coal. The latter output, representing over 100
per cent increase compared to 1972, nevertheless fell short of the 3.4 million short
tons export commitment. General start-up problems associated with full mine
production and preparation plant throughput were experienced; however, the main
factors affecting shortfall in offshore shipments were rail transportation, and particularly port handling equipment shut-downs. Contract price, effective at year-end
and retroactive to April 1, 1973, was $21.55 per long ton FOB Roberts Bank terminal.
Production at Fording Coal Limited is derived from two major synclinal limbs,
each containing up to 10 Kootenay Formation seams of significant thickness. The
westerly Greenhills pit is mined by dragline and the easterly Clode pit by truck-
shovel method. Exploration and development work during 1973 concentrated on
extension of reserves in the vicinity of these pits.
Coleman Collieries Ltd. was a relatively minor producer in British Columbia
during 1973. Production of 65,735 tons was taken from the westerly portion of
the Tent Mountain open pit which straddles the British Columbia-Alberta boundary.
The property of Coalition Mining Limited occurs in high relief foothills terrain, east of the Sukunka Valley, some 38 miles by road south of Chetwynd. Exploration of two seams of metallurgical grade coal which occur in the Upper Geth-
ing Formation has been proceeding since 1971. During 1973 a three-entry slope
was advanced to about 2,500 feet in the Chamberlain seam. Coal produced during this trial mining programme (32,674 tons) was stockpiled at the mine. Although proven mineable reserves are in excess of 45 million short tons, development
work was terminated, and the property put on a caretaker basis, pending resolution
of financing and infrastructure development.
Bulkley Valley Coal Sales Ltd. operates a small underground mine near
Telkwa, and produces a limited amount of coal during winter months for local
domestic consumption.
Although the metallurgical coking coal market accounted for almost the entire sales volume during 1973, growing demand for thermal power requirements
resulted in improved market outlook for steam coal. In response to this, Byron
Creek Collieries commenced development of the Coal Mountain deposit at Corbin,
and at year-end had negotiated sale of a 250,000-ton test shipment to Ontario
Hydro.
Exploration work in the East Kootenay and northeastern Foothills areas continued at a fairly steady level during 1973. In addition to Kaiser and Fording development programmes previously noted, Rio Tinto Canadian Exploration Limited
carried out a drilling and bulk-sampling programme at their Cabin Creek prospect
in the Flathead district, and Byron Creek Collieries commenced drilling at Corbin.
In northeastern British Columbia, Utah Mines Ltd. carried out an extensive drilling
programme at their Carbon Creek prospect, and to a limited extent, in the Mount
Gething and Dunlevy areas near Lake Williston. Further south, Denison Mines
Limited reactivated their Quintette property with a detailed drilling and trenching
programme at Babcock Mountain, and Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited commenced geological mapping and limited trenching in the Kinuseo Creek area.
At year-end, 1,562 coal licences, covering approximately 900,000 acres, were
held by some 32 companies or partnerships.
Petroleum and natural gas—The values of production of oil and natural gas
increased substantially during 1973, up 10 and 12 per cent respectively over 1972.
Crude oil production was 21,189,758 barrels, down 11 per cent. The major oil-
producing fields, all decreased from 1972 and all under active water-flood programmes, were Boundary Lake, Peejay, Inga, and Milligan Creek.
 A 12
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Natural gas delivered to pipe-lines was 427,586,208 MSCF, an increase of 12
per cent, and the value to gas producers was $46,688,912. The major gas-producing fields were Clarke Lake, Yoyo, and Beaver River, although the latter field
experienced production problems during the second half of the year.
Footage drilled decreased 24 per cent, the first annual decline in four years.
All the drilling operations were conducted in the northeastern corner of the Province, except for one abandonment in the Bowser Basin area and a wildcat venture
near Fernie that was still drilling at year-end. Considerable interest was evident
in a shallow Mississippian gas play north of Fort Nelson, with only limited success
reported.
Expenditures in 1973 by companies involved in the exploration and production of petroleum and natural gas were:
$
Exploration, land acquisition, and drilling     81,608,000
Development drilling       8,068,000
Capital expenditures       9,245,000
Natural gas plant operations     15,794,000
Field, well, and pipe-line operations       5,327,000
General (excluding income tax)      26,325,000
Total .._.   146,385,000
 Statistics
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  A 14
Method of Computing Production  A 14
Metals  A 14
Average Prices  A 14
Gross and Net Content  A 15
Value of Production  A 15
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials  A 16
FueL  A 16
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables  A 16
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year____ A 27
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1973  A 28
Table 3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years 1964-1973  A 30
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1973  A 32
Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Molybdenum,
Graph of Quantities, 1893-1973  A 33
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1973  A 34
Table 7A—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1972 and 1973, and
Total to Date  A 36
Table 7B—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc by
Mining Divisions, 1972 and 1973, and Total to Date  A 38
Table 7C—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1972
and 1973, and Total to Date  A 40
Table 7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1972
and 1973, and Total to Date  A 44
Table 7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1972
and 1973, and Total to Date  A 46
Table 8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1973  A 47
Table 8B—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1973  A 48
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes  A 49
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1973  A 50
Table 11—Employment at Major Metal Mines and Coal Mines, 1973  A 51
Table 12—Metal Production, 1973  A 52
A 13
 INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated for
this Report by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce, Victoria.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning with
the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial departments have cooperated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production published by
the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses average prices
considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
METHODS OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors become known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For placer gold, returns from operators are augmented by data obtained from the Royal Canadian Mint. For petroleum, natural
gas, and liquid by-products, production figures supplied by the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Branch of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources are
compiled from the monthly disposition reports and the Crown royalty statement
filed with the Department by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds. Weights are avoirdupois pounds and short
tons (2,000 pounds), and troy ounces.   Barrels are 35 imperial gallons.
Metals
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page A 26.
The price of gold used is the average Canadian Mint buying-price for fine gold.
In 1973 this was $97.41 per ounce.
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold. Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and the average
price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total amount received.
A 14
 STATISTICS
A 15
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average
prices of the markets indicated in the table on page A 26, converted into Canadian
funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New York;
Lond.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Latterly the prices of silver, copper, lead, and zinc are average United States
prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices are supplied by
Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it is the New York price; for lead it is the New York
price; for zinc it is the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper it is the
United States export refinery price. However, commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers.
For antimony the average price for the year and for cadmium, the New York
producers' price to consumers are used. For nickel the price used is the Canadian
price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. The value per ton
of the iron ore used in making pig iron at Kimberley is an arbitrary figure, being the
average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British
Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concencrate, or bullion is the amount of
that metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents
are the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross
contents less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents,
particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another. The
present method was established in 1963 and is outlined in the following table. For
example, the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross
content, of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc.
Lead
Concentrates
Zinc
Concentrates
Copper
Concentrates
Copper-Nickel
Concentrates
Copper
Matte
Silver	
Per Cent
98
Less 26 lb./ton
98
50
Per Cent
98
50
90
70
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
Per Cent
85
88
Per Cent
98
Copper 	
Less 10 lb./ton
50
Zinc,	
Cadmium  	
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate, mercury, molybdenum, rhenium, and tin the
value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production is calculated from the assay content
of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an average
price per unit of weight.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per cent.
 A 16 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on page
A 26.
For 1925 and subsequent years the value has been calculated by using the true
average price {see p. A 26) and the net metal contents, in accordance with the procedures adopted by Statistics Canada and the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
In the statistical tables, for gold the values are calculated by multiplying the
gross contents of gold by the average price for the year; for the other metals, by
multiplying the net contents of metals as determined by means of the above table
by the average price for the year.
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
Fuel
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per ton {see p. A 26)
which is the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES ON PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE TABLES
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a byproduct of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then other out-
of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lardeau, Slocan,
Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 7C the antimony assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to foreign smelters;
the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter from various ores
received there.   See Table 1,3, and 7C.
Arsenious oxide—Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Asbestos—British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the Cas-
siar mine was opened. All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile from
the Cassiar mine near the Yukon border. This deposit is noted for its high percentage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre. The original
claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped two years
later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar, shipped by truck to Whitehorse,
and then moved by rail to tidewater at Skagway. From 1953 to 1961 the fibre was
valued at the shipping point in North Vancouver, but beginning in 1962 it has been
valued at the mine, and values for the preceding years have been recalculated on
that basis.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley.   Some barite
 STATISTICS A 17
is mined from lode deposits and the rest is recovered from the mill-tailings ponds of
the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines. See Tables 1,3,
and7D.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 1,3, and 7C.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Table 7E.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7A.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 7C the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign
smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated recovery at
the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7C.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are British Columbia Cement Company
Limited, with a 700,000-tons-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement
Lafarge Ltd. with a 612,500-tons-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 210,000-
tons-per-year plant at Kamloops.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 670 tons from Cascade
in 1918 and 126 tons from Scottie Creek in 1929.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Clay and shale products—These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery, lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, f acebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in plants
at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant on Saturna Island makes
light-weight expanded shale aggregate and pozzolan clinker from a local shale
deposit. A plant at Quesnel makes pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of
Quesnel. Common clays and shales are abundant in British Columbia, but fireclay
and other high-grade clays are rare. Several hobby and art potteries and a sanitary-
ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported raw materials and their
production is not included in the tables.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island in
1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that of
placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for the
next 30 years.
 A 18 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
First production, by Mining Divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains coking-
coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building. Mining
started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and on the
Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the last large
mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The colliery at Mer-
rit closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the last large mine at
Tsable River in 1966, and of the last small one, near Wellington in 1968, marked
the end of production from the once important Vancouver Island deposits.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains north
and south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British Columbia, the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and basins on Graham Island.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created great activity in
coal prospecting in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of
large contracts with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several
deposits in the East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities
at North Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 1, 3, 7A, 8A, and 8B.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
In 1971, 113,545 pounds of cobalt were shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at
Hope.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 9, but this table has been
discontinued.   The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 8B.
Copper—Copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese and American smelters
because no copper smelter has operated in British Columbia since 1935. Small
amounts of gold and silver are commonly present and add value to the ore, but some
ores contain important amounts of gold (as at Rossland), silver (Silver King mine),
lead and zinc (Tulsequah), or zinc (Britannia mine). Most of the smelting in
British Columbia in early years was done on ore shipped direct from the mines
without concentration, but modern practice is to concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver
King mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at
Grand Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).
Later, small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and
Texada Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper smelting
ceased in the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935.
British Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and
since 1961 have gone chiefly to Japan.
 STATISTICS A 19
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Rossland, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During recent years exploration for copper has
been intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley
(Bethlehem) in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda)
in 1970, Stewart (Granduc) and near Port Hardy (Island Copper) in 1971, near
Babine Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lornex), and
Princeton (Ingerbelle) in 1972.
After a lapse of many years, copper has been produced comparatively recently on Vancouver Island at Jordan River, Courtenay, Benson Lake, Quatsino,
and also at Buttle Lake, together with zinc and silver. At Tasu Harbour on
Moresby Island and at Texada Island copper is produced as a by-product of iron-
mining.
Copper is now the most valuable single commodity of the industry. Production
in 1973 was 714.648 million pounds.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7B.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the 12-inch
oil pipe-line was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans
Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company pipe-line near Kamloops. In 1973, oil was
produced from 27 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan
Creek, and Inga fields were the most productive.
In Tables 1, 3, and 7A, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, and from 1962 to 1965 include field and plant condensate
listed separately. Full details are given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas
chapter of this Report.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. A plant to process the material locally is located in Quesnel. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Field condensate—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and
recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing. See Tables 1, 3, and
7A.
Fluorite {fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the
Rock Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery. From
1958 to 1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica
quarry.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and form a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
Today silica from near Oliver and Sheep Creek and limestone, chiefly from Texada
Island, are produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province. The
first discovery of lode gold was on Moresby Island in 1852, when some gold was
recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo
in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras—primitive grinding-mills—were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province.   The
 A 20 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
value of production was second only to that of coal by 1900 and continued to
be very important. At the start of World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly
value of more than $22 million, but since the war it dwindled, owing to the fact
that the price for gold was fixed and the cost of mining rose and continues to rise.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland Canal,
Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River closed;
it was the last gold mine in the Province to operate. To date the gold mines have
paid a total of about $82 million in dividends.
With the closing of the Bralorne mine, all lode gold is produced as a by-product
of copper, copper-zinc-silver, and other base-metal mining. See Tables 1, 3, 6,
and 7B.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream
from Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery
of placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer
on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the discovery of
placer gold in the Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1885. A high level of production ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak output. Other
important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort Steele, Rock
Creek, Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike was made on
Cedar Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in 1927 and on
Wheaton Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II, placer-mining declined under conditions
of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold but is showing sign of revival in
response to freely floating gold price since 1972. Since 1858, more than 5.2
million ounces valued at almost $97 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kam-
loops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was:
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold to the New Westminister and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia.   See Tables 1, 3, 6 and 7A.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby and near Grand Forks, Sirdar, Vananda, and
Armstrong.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
 STATISTICS A 21
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956 more than 1,000,000 tons was shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956
all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 1,3, and 7D.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.    Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipment. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Moresby Island. At Texada Island copper is a
by-product of iron-mining, and in the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is that
of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is produced
as a by-product.
From January 1961 to August 1972, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings
of the Sullivan mine was used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This was the first
manufacture of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and
pyrite in the lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead
and zinc minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron
sulphides are separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile had been
built containing a reserve of about 20 million tons or iron ore.
The sulphur was removed in making pig iron and was converted to sulphuric
acid, which was used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converted
the pig iron to steel, and a fabricating plant was acquired in Vancouver. The iron
smelter at Kimberley closed in August 1972. The entire production, credited to
the Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 7C, is of calcine. See Tables 1, 3, 6,
and 7C.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika, and
Wheaton Creeks.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
and in total production by zinc in 1966. Lead and zinc usually occur together in
nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single deposit. Zinc is the
more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable than zinc ore because
it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British Columbia produced
almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces only about one-quarter of it. Most
of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American and Japanese smelters.
 A 22 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of the
Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about 93 per cent
of the Province's lead and has produced about 86 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works at
Trail. Other mines are at the Pend d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
and southwest of Golden. In northwestern British Columbia less important parts of
the total output have come from Tulsequah, the Premier mine, and several small
mines in the general region of Hazelton.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines in British Columbia owned
by Cominco Ltd. goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines
goes to American smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to approximately 8 million tons.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7B.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920 manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then small
amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River district.
The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi Lake and
Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine reopened and
continues in operation.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961 small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined near
Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous.   See Tables 1, 3, 7D.
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the point
that molybdenum now ranks third in importance in annual value of metals produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine recovered
by-product molybdenum from 1964 to 1966. In 1965, the Endako and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia Molybdenum mine
in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. In 1970, the
Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer, started operating, and
Island Copper in 1971. Large-scale combined metal deposits at Lornex and Gibraltar mines were brought into production in 1972.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7C.
 STATISTICS A 23
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 400 tons of natro-alunite was mined from
a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent production.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. Since the completion in 1957 of the gas plant at
Taylor and the 30-inch pipe-line to serve British Columbia and the northwestern
United States, the daily average volume of production has increased to more than
1,200,000,000 cubic feet. In 1973 there were 37 producing gas fields, of which the
Yoyo, Clarke Lake, and Beaver River were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 1,3, and 7A is the total amount sold of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the gas-gathering
system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line. The quantity
is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas used or lost
in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as thousands of cubic feet at standard
conditions (14.4 pounds per square inch pressure, 60°F temperature, up to and
including the year 1960, and thereafter 14.65 pounds per square inch pressure,
60°F temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas chapter of this Report.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. Since 1960, bulk copper-
nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan for smelting. See Tables 1,3, and
7C.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a by-product
of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates
shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 1 and 7C.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1,112 tons was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.   There has been no further production.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3,842 tons
of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964 but there has been no commercial production.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Plant condensate—Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from
natural gas at gas-processing plants.   See Tables 1,3, and 7A.
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery is
presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the
Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 1,3, and 7C.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1,3, and 7A.
Rhenium—Rhenium occurs in significant quantities only with molybdenite
associated with porphyry copper deposits. It was first produced in 1972 by the
Island Copper mine and is extracted as rhenium oxide from fumes produced during roasting of the molybdenite concentrate.
 A 24 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work of all
kinds. The output varies from year to year according to the state of activity of the
construction industry.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 731 pounds, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 1
and7C.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, some goes to the Mint in gold bullion, and some is
exported in concentrated ores of copper, lead, and zinc to American and Japanese
smelters.   Silver bullion was produced by the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores, if mined in quantity, produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Silver-bearing ores were intensively sought in the early days. A metal of high
unit value was the only one worth finding in regions remote from market, and in the
1880's and 1890's there was little point in prospecting for ores that did not contain values in silver or gold. Prospecting for silver ores started in southeastern
British Columbia in about 1883, and from 1894 to 1905 British Columbia produced
most of Canada's silver, many of the early ores being mined primarily for then-
silver content.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters, or may go to the
Mint in gold bullion. Today the greatest single source of silver is the Sullivan mine,
which has been in production since 1900. By 1973 the Sullivan mine has accounted
for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total
amount is contributed by the Lynx, Silmonac, Phoenix, Bethlehem, Granisle, Brenda,
and Granduc mines. The only steady producer that is strictly a silver mine is the
Highland Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A former important
mine, the Premier near Stewart, produced more than 41 million ounces of silver
between 1918 and 1968.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7B.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Stone {see Building-stone)—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from
rock produced at quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of
the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Structural materials—In Table 7E the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions,
and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 2 that includes unclassified
structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular years.
The figure $3,180,828 in Table 7E under "Other Clay Products" is the value in the
 STATISTICS A 25
period 1886-1910 that cannot be alloted to particular clay products or assigned
to mining divisions.   See Tables 1, 2, 3, 7A, and 7E.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Canadian Occidental Petroleum
Ltd. plant at Taylor has been included.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7D.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. The tin concentrate is shipped to an American smelter for
treatment.   See Tables 1,3, and 7C.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced from
1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton and
the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald in
1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas where demand was high. In 1970 production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo, which closed in 1973.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7C.
Volcanic Ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 30 tons from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.   See Tables 1 and 7D.
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of zinc production exceeded that of lead.
In 1972 the annual production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper, coal, and crude
oil. Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most ores are mined for their
combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for their zinc content alone.
Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated with copper
at the Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate the zinc mineral
(sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most of the zinc concentrates go to
the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are converted electrolytically to
refined metal.   Some concentrates are shipped to American or Japanese smelters.
More than 86 per cent of the zinc has been mined in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines near Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake,
Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillimacheen. Other production has come from mines
at Portland Canal and Tulsequah and is coming from Buttle Lake. The greatest zinc
mine is the Sullivan, which has contributed about 74 per cent of the total zinc production of the Province.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 18,845 tons of
zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1918, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7B.
 A 26
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Prices1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Placer,
Oz.
Gold,
Fine,
Oz.
Silver,
Fine,
Oz.
Copper,
Lb.
Lead,
Lb.
Zinc,
Lb.
Coal,
Short
Ton
1901_
1902-
1903-
1904-
1905-
1906-
1907-
1908-
1909-
1910-
1911-
1912-
1913-
1914.
1915-
1916-
1917-
1918-
1919.
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924-
1925-
1926-
1927-
1928-
1929-
1930-
1931-
1932-
1933-
1934-
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938.
1939-
1940-
1941_
1942-
1943-
1944-
1945-
1946-
1947..
1948-
1949-.
1950-
1951 _
1952-
1953...
1954-
1955-
1956-
1957-
1958-
1959...
1960-
1961-
1962-
1963-
1964_
1965...
1966-
1967-
1968-
1969_
1970_
1971-
1972-
1973-
17.00
20.67 |
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
19.30
23.47
23.02
28.60
28.37
34.50
28.94
35.19
28.81
35.03
28.77
34.99
28.93
35.18
29.72
36.14
31.66
38.50
31.66
38.50
31.66
38.50
31.66
38.50
31.66
38.50
31.66
38.50
30.22
36.75
28.78
35.00
28.78
35.00
29.60
36.00
31.29
38.05
30.30
36.85
28.18
34.27
28.31
34.42
27.52
34.07
28.39
34.52
28.32
34.44
27.59
33.55
27.94
33.98
27.61
33.57
27.92
33.95
29.24
35.46
29.25
37.41
29.31
37.75 i
29.96
37.75
28.93
37.73
29.08
37.71
28.77
37.76
29.21
37.71
29.37
37.69
28.89
36.56
26.25
35.34
38.94
57.52
81.32
97.41 |
Cents
56.002 N.Y.
49.55
50.78
53.36
51.33
63.45
62.06
50.22
48.93
50.812
50.64
57.79
56.80
52.10
47.20
62.38
77.35
91.93
105.57
95.80
59.52
64.14
61.63
63.442
69.065
62.107
56.370
58.176
52.993
38.154
28.700
31.671
37.832
47.461
64.790
45.127
44.881
43.477
40.488
38.249
38.261
41.166
45.254
43.000
47.000
83.650
72.000
75.000 Mont.
74.250 U.S.
80.635    „
94.550    „
83.157    „
83.774    „
82.982    „
87.851    „
89.373    „
87.057   „
86.448   „
87.469    „
88.633    „
93.696 „
116.029 „
137.965 „
139.458 „
139.374 „
139.300 „
167.111 „
231.049 „
192.699 „
184.927 „
155.965 „
166.324 „
256.620  „
Cents
16.11 N.Y.
11.70 „
13.24 „
12.82 „
15.59 „
19.28 „
20.00 „
13.20 „
12.98 „
12.738 „
12.38 „
16.341 „
15.27 „
13.60 „
17.28 „
27.202 „
27.18 „
24.63 „
18.70 „
17.45 „
12.50 „
13.38 „
14.42 „
13.02 „
14.042 „
13.795 „
12.920 „
14.570 „
18.107 „
12.982 „
8.116 „
6.380 Lond.
7.454 „
7.419 „
7.795 „
9.477 „
13.078 „
9.972 „
10.092 „
10.086 „
10.086 „
10.086 „
11.750 „
12.000 „
12.550 „
12.800 „
20.390 „
22.350 U.S.
19.973 „
23.428 „
27.700 „
31.079 „
30.333 „
29.112 „
38.276 „
39.787 „
26.031 „
23.419 „
27.708 „
28.985 „
28.288 „
30.473 „
30.646 „
33.412 „
38.377 „
53.344 „
51.022 „
54.216 „
66.656 „
58.6982
46.6962
44.8392
83.2342
Cents
2.577 N.Y.
3.66 „
3.81 „
3.88 „
4.24 „
4.81 „
4.80 „
3.78 „
3.85 „
4.00 „
3.98 „
4.024 „
3.93 „
3.50 „
4.17 „
6.172 „
7.91 „
6.67 „
5.19 „
7.16 „
4.09 „
5.16 „
6.54 „
7.287 „
7.848 Lond.
6.751 .,
5.256 „
4.575 „
5.050 „
3.927 „
2.710 „
2.113 „
2.391 „
2.436 „
3.133 „
3.913 „
5.110 „
3.344 „
3.169 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.754 „
4.500 „
5.000 „
6.750 „
13.670 „
18.040 „
15.800 U.S.
14.454 „
18.400 „
16.121 „
13.265 „
13.680 „
14.926 „
15.756 „
14.051 „
11.755 „
11.670 „
11.589 „
11.011 „
10.301 „
12.012 „
14.662 „
17.247 „
16.283 „
15.102 „
14.546 „
16.039 „
16.336 „
13.950 „
14.876 „
16.283 „
Cents
4.60E.St.L.
4.90 „
5.90 „
4.80 „
4.40 „
11.25 „
10.88 „
7.566 „
6.94 „
6.24 „
6.52 „
3-95 „
4.86 „
5.62 „
5.39 „
7.892 Lond.
7.409 „
6.194 „
5.493 „
5.385 „
3.599 „
2.554 „
2.405 „
3.210 „
3.044 „
3.099 „
3.315 „
4.902 „
3.073 „
3.069 „
3.411 „
3.411 „
3.411 „
4.000 „
4.300 „
6.440 „
7.810 „
11.230 „
13.930 „
13.247 U.S.
15.075 „
19.900 „
15.874 „
10.675 „
10.417 „
12.127 „
13.278 „
11.175 „
10.009. „
10.978 „
12.557 „
11.695 „
12.422 „
13.173 „
14.633 „
15.636 „
15.622 „
14.933 „
14.153 „
15.721 „
16.006 „
16.286 „
15.579 „
20.657 „
$
2.65
2.63
2.67
2.62
2.70
2.61
3.07
3.11
3.19
3.35
3.18
3.36
3.39
3.46
3.43
3.45
3.48
4.99
4.92
4.72
4.81
4.72
4.81
4.89
4.79
4.84
4.81
4.71
4.74
4.73
4.35
4.04
3.90
4.00
3.95
4.23
4.25
4.01
4.02
4.26
4.15
4.13
4.17
4.25
4.24
4.68
5.12
6.09
6.51
6.43
6.46
6.94
6.88
7.00
6.74
6.59
6.76
7.45
7.93
6.64
7.40
7.43
7.33
6.94
7.03
7.28
7.75
7.91
8.00
7.40
10.03
10.96
11.53
i See page A 14 for detailed explanation.
2 See page A 15 for explanation.
 STATISTICS
A 27
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year,
and Latest Year
Products i
Total Quantity   Total Value
to Date to Date
Quantity
1972
Value
1972
Quantity
1973
Value
1973
Metals
.....lb.
 lb.
„     . lb.
Cobalt     .
 lb.
.     .lb.
Gold—placer 	
lode, fine	
Iron concentrates
 oz.
 oz.
tons
.       lb.
lb.
 tons
.   lb.
Molybdenum    	
lb.
 lb.
 lb.
Silver	
Tin       	
    lb.
Tungsten (WO3)
Zinc	
lb.
 lb.
Others      .
Totals 	
Industrial Minerals
Arsenious oxide   lb.
Asbestos   tons
Bentonite tons
Fluxes     tons
Granules  tons
Gypsum and gypsite tons
Hydromagnesite   tons
Iron oxide and ochre tons
Jade   lb.
Magnesium sulphate tons
Mica  lb.
Natro-alunite .
Perlite	
 tons
 tons
Phosphate rock _  tons
Sodium carbonate  tons
Sulphur  tons
Talc    tons
Others	
Totals ...
Structural Materials
Cement  tons
Clay products   	
Rubble, riprap, crushed
rock       tons
Lime and limestone  tons
Sand and gravel tons
Building-stone  tons
Not assigned	
Totals
Coal-
Coo/
-sold and used 	
tons
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Crude oil bbl.
Field condensate  bbl.
Plant condensate   bbl.
Nat'l gas to pipe-line .... MSCF
Butane     bbl.
Propane   _ bbl.
Totals 	
Grand totals
55,229,839
6,925,647
41,964,653
796
311,921
5,721,958,926
5,240,107
17,419,872
31,061,008
16,458,073,374
204,632
1,724
4,171,110
199,952,170
49,933,039
749
1,407
731
507,543,315
19,159,752
20,040,128
15,297,732,440
18,735,987
14,476,457
79,049,923
32,295
376,661
2,047,380,171
97,300,473
531,960,049
281,470,018
1,441,949,395
88,184
32,668
10,447,358
336,877,117
49,347,348
30,462
135,008
1,389
396,374,754
17,691,492
48,087,713
1,549,368,185
47,023,282
679,601
93,820
695,650
155,739
467,012,694
691
121,624
1,256,308
194,249,571
28,041,603
3,240,483
6,926,036
351,043
1,273,196
268,347,996
6,968,236,389|.
22,019,420
1,227,098
791
4,188,899
490,335
5,183,650
2,253
18,108
1,162,130
13,894
12,822,050
522
1,112
3,842
10,492
8,197,669
1,085
273,201
239,205,584
16,858
7,839,947
8,143,884
17,557,457
27,536
155,050
1,270,028
254,352
185,818
9,398
11,120
16,894
118,983
104,175,417
34,871
5,876,819
105,807
31,600
37,158
388,315
243,725
297,707
385,173,217|-
15,702,225
1,164,719
163,313,793
281,387,434
94,527,407
61,774,442
63,735,329
347,223,788
9,224,579
5,972,171
890,926
3,321,764
2,026,309
34,826,518
194
863,845,1501
836,091,796
229,436,516
741,353
14,068,549
2,990,984,716
6,327,982
4,948,717
548,525,353
1,908,854
6,507,612
312,820,618
2,015,537
1,573,747
873,351,721
6,026,198
23,831,144
104,531
1,018,012
379,969,499
340,904
480,047
-|9,926,698,273]
$
419,042
324,617
1,759,995
155,739
209,403,822
26,905
6,995,448
11,642,379
28,896,566
1,660,331
2,851
810,779
40,907
714,648,946
3,831
185,986
1,568,912
186,680,656
43,260,349
4,601,486
30,390,928
2,467,472
11,519,660
473,908
2,167,663
7,681,514
304,727
1,411,800
47,172,894[ 302,874,331
3,212,297
372,032,770
20,870,241
59,246
757,924
1,087,196
235,218
2,306,933
447,362
1,192,118
13,058
2,951,236
117,403
594,830,904
311,524
18,117,268
12,906,063
30,400,945
52,260,232
3,775,232
19,712,301
597,265
4,243,759
62,564,751
4,161,923
108,966
46,228
34,321
365,249
154,251
808,155,982
21,102,892
106,371
857,643
1,114,009
306,808
316,035|       4,187,387
 I      ~ 294,554
25,764,120|..
27,969,664
21,014,112
5,263,749
4,032,548
3,357,927
33,076,196
1,166
950,772
2,843,010
2,153,936
33,898,934
204
24,935,624
5,590,290
4,160,009
3,633,870
35,119,590
7,648
66,745,698| .
73,447,031
66,030,210
63,166,717
277,069
327,820
41,616,824
106,533
150,015
105,644,978
7,633,251
21,189,758
126,509
1,132,701
427,586,208
685,936
623,866
87,976,105
68,306,032
407,807
222,463
46,688,912
212,640
193,398
116,031,252
636,217,7761.
|1,113,580,034
1 See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages A 16 to A 25.
2 From 1968, excludes production which is confidential.
 A 28
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1973
Year
Metals
1836-86-
1887	
1888	
1889	
1890	
1891	
1892	
1893	
1894	
1895	
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921...
1922..
1923...
1924...
1925 _
1926-
1927...
1928-
1929-
1930..
1931-
1932...
1933-
1934..
1935-
1936.
1937.
1938 .
1939..
1940-
1941-
1942..
1943-
1944-
1945 -
1946.
1947-
1948.
1949.
1950.
52,808,750
729,381
745,794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7,575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
11,360,546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673,592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
2,400
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497,720
1,783,010
2,275,972
2,358,877
2,500,799
2,462,340
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
726,323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018,719
1,238,718
1,796,677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10,246,939
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
Total
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502,519
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8,394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434,312
16,355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17,497,380
18,955,179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513,584
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26,382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056,284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207,350
41,330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67,077,605
60,720,313
65,227,002
68,689,839
55,763,360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133,485
74,438,675
64,416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76,471,329
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,430
139,995,418
 STATISTICS A 29
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1973—Continued
Year
Metals
Minerals
Industrial
Structural
Materials
Coal
Petroleum
and
Natural Gas
Total
1951-
1952-
1953-
1954.
1955-
1956..
1957..
1958.
1959-
1960...
1961.
1962..
1963-
1964-
1965-
1966.
1967-
1968.
1969..
1970..
1971..
1972..
1973-
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865,318
250,912,026
294,881,114
309,981,470
301,059,951
372,032,770
808,155,982
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020,359
21,909,767
25,764,120
27,969,664
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,104,071
59,940,333
66,745,698
73,447,031
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
45,801,936
66,030,210
87,976,105
6,545
18,610
319,465
1,197,581
4,806,233
5,967,128
9,226,646
11,612,184
27,939,726
36,379,636
36,466,753
44,101,662
54,274,187
67,096,286
75,281,215
86,756,009
90,974,467
99,251,158
105,644,978
116,031,252
176,867,916
171,365,687
152,841,695
152,894,663
173,853,360
188,853,652
170,992,829
144,953,549
147,651,217
177,365,333
179,807,321
229,371,484
255,863,587
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
405,028,488
464,388,749
488,640,036
527,963,145
636,217,776
1,113,580,034
Totals..
6,968,236,389 I   385,173,217
863,845,150 |   836,091,796
873,351,721
9,926,698,273
 A 30
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
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 A 32                  MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1973
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Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, Graph of Quantities, 1893-1973
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1900
1905
1910
1915
1920
1925
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
I960
1965
1970
 A 34 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1973
Year
1858-90	
1891-1900	
1901-10	
1911	
1912	
1913 .
1914	
1915	
1916 -
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922_	
1923_
1924_
1925-
1926._
1927-
1928_
1929_
1930_
1931-
1932-
1933-
1934_
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939-
1940_
1941-
1942-
1943-
1944-
1945-
1946-
1947...
1948-
1949-
1950-
1951-
1952-
1953-
1954-
1955-
1956-
1957-
1958-
1959...
1960-
1961...
1962-
1963-
1964-
1965...
1966...
1967-
1968-
1969_
1970-
1971-
1972_
1973...
Totals..
Gold (Placer)
Quantity     Value
Oz.
3,246,585'
376,290
507,580
25,060,
32,680
30,000
33,240
45,290|
34,150
29,180
18,820
16.850
13,040
13,720
21,690
24,71 o;
24,750|
16,476,
20,912
9,191
8,424
6,983
8,955
17,176
20,400
23,928
25.181J
30,929;
43,389
54,153
57,759
49,746
39,067
43,7751
32,904
14,600|
11,433,
12.589;
15,729|
6,969
20,332
17,886
19,134
23,691
17,554
14,245,;
8,684!
7,666:
3,8651
2,936|
5,650
7,570
3,847,
3,416
3,315;
4,620;
1,842
866
1,535
891
670
399
491
177
691
3,831
5,240,107
55,192,163
6,397,183
8,628,660
426,000
555,500
510,000
565,000
770,000
580,500
496,000
320,000
286,500
221,600
233,200
368,800
420,000
420,750
280,092
355,503
156,247
143,208
118,711
152,235
291,992
395,542
562,787
714,431
895,058
1,249,940
1,558,245
1,671,015
1,478,492
1,236,928
1,385,962
1,041,772
462,270
361,977
398,591
475,361
200,585
585,200
529,524
598,717
717,911
494,756
403,230
238,967
217,614
109,450
80,990
157,871
208,973
107,418
99,884
96,697
135,411
55,191
25,053
44,632
25,632
19,571
11,720
14,185
4,647
26,905
311,524
97,300,473
Gold (Fine)
Quantity        Value
Oz.
632,8061
2,322,118;
228,617
257,496,
272,254
247,170[
250,021
221,932
114,523
164,674
152,426
120,048
135,765
197,856
179,245
247,716
209,719
201,427
178,001
180,662
145,223
160,836
146,133
181,651
223,589,
297,216!
365,343|
404,578;
460,7811
557,522j
587,336|
583,524;
571,026;
444,518|
224,403
186,632
175,373
117,612
243,282
286,230;
288,396;
283,983
261,274
255,789
253,552
258,388
242,477
191,743
223,403
194,354
173,146
205,580
159,821
158,850
154,979
138,487
117,124[
119,508;
126,157|
123,896;
117,481
100,809
85,781
121,624
185,986
12,858,353
47,998,179
4,725,512
5,322,442
5,627,595
5,109,008
5,167,934
4,587,333
2,367,191
3,403,811
3,150,644
2,481,392
2,804,197
4,089,684
3,704,994
5,120,535
4,335,069
4,163,859
3,679,601
3,734,609
3,002,020
3,324,975
3,020,837
4,263,389
6,394,645
10,253,952
12,856,419
14,172,367
16,122,767
19,613,624
21,226,957
22,461,516
21,984,501
17,113,943
8.639,516
7,185,332
6,751,860
4,322,241
8,514,870
10,018,050
10,382,256
10,805,553
9,627,947
8,765,889
8,727.294
8,803,279
8,370,306
6,603,628
7,495,170
6,604,149
5,812,511
6,979,441
5,667,253
5,942,101
5,850,458
5,227,884
4,419,089
4,506,646
4,763,688
4,672,242
4,427,506
3,685,476
3,031,844
6,995,448
18,117,268
17,419,872|531,960,049
Silver
Quantity        Value
Oz.
221,089)
22,537,306
31,222,548,
1,892,364
3,132,108
3,465,856
3,602,180
3,366,506
3,301,923
2,929,216
3,498,172
3,403,119;
3,377,849
2,673,389
7,101,311
6,032,986
8,341,768
7,654,844
10,748,556
10,470,185
10,627,167
9,960,172
11,328,263
7,550,331
7,150,655
7,021,754
8,613,977
9,269,944
9,547,124
11,305,367
10,861,578
10,821,393
12,327,944
12,175,700
9,677,881
8,526,310
5,705,334
6,157,307
6,365,761
5,708,461
6,720,134
7,637,822
9,509,456
8,218,914
8,810,807
8,378,819
9,826,403
7,903,149
8,405,074
8,129,348
7,041,058
6,198,101
7,446,643
7,373,997
6,189,804
6,422,680
5,269,642
4,972,084
5,549,131
6,180,739
7,130,866
5,760,534
6,511,316
7,673,546
6,926,036
7,681,514
$
214,152
13,561,194
16,973,507
958,293
1,810,045
1,968,606
1,876,736
1,588,991
2,059,739
2,265,749
3,215,870
3,592,673
3,235,980
1,591,201
4,554,781
3,718,129
5,292,184
5,286,818
6,675,606
5,902,043
6,182,461
5,278,194
4,322,185
2,254,979
2,264,729
2,656,526
4,088,280
6,005,996
4,308,330
5,073,962
4,722,288
4,381,365
4,715,315
4,658,545
4,080,775
3,858,496
2,453,293
2,893,934
5,324,959
4,110,092
5,040,101
5,671,082
7,667,950
7,770,983
7,326,803
7,019,272
8,154,145
6,942,995
7,511,866
7,077,166
6,086,854
5,421,417
6,600,183
6,909,140
7,181,907
8,861,050
7,348,938
6,929,793
7,729,939
10,328,695
16,475,795
11,100,491
12,041,181
11,968,046
11,519,660
19,712,301
507,543,315 396,374,754
Copper
Quantity
Lb.
35,416,069
379,957,091
36,927,656
51,456,537
46,460,305
45,009,699
56,918,405
65,379,364
59,007,565
61,483,754
42,459,339
44,887,676
39,036,993
32,359,896
57,720,290
64,845,393
72,306,432
89,339,768
89,202,871
97,908,316
102,793,669
92,362,240
64,134,746
50,608,036
43,149,460
49,651,733
39,428,208
21,671,711
46,057,584
65,769,906
73,254,679
77,980,223
66,435,583
50,097,716
42,307,510
36,300,589
25,852,366
17,500,538
41,783,921
43,025,388
54,856,808
42,212,133
43,249,658
42,005,512
49,021,013
50,150,087
44,238,031
43,360,575
31,387,441
12,658,649
16,233,546
33,064,429
31,692,412
108,979,144
118,247,104
115,554,700
85,197,073
105,800,568
172,739,548
160,993,338
167,415,411
212,371,731
280,619,150
467,012,694
714.648,946
5,721,958,926
Value
4,365,210
56,384,783
4,571,644
8,408,513
7,094,489
6,121,319
9,835,500
17,784,494
16,038,256
15,143,449
7,939,896
7,832,899
4,879,624
4,329,754
8,323,266
8,442,870
10,153,269
12,324,421
11,525,011
14,265,242
18,612,850
11,990,466
5,365,690
3,228,892
3,216,701
3,683,662
3,073,428
2,053,828
6,023,411
6,558,575
7,392,862
7,865,085
6,700,693
5,052,856
4,971,132
4,356,070
3,244,472
2,240,070
8,519,741
9,616,174
10,956,550
9,889,458
11,980,155
13,054,893
14,869,544
14,599,693
16,932,549
17,251,872
8,170,465
2,964,529
4,497,991
9,583,724
8,965,149
33,209,215
36,238,007
38,609,136
32,696,081
56,438,255
88,135,172
87,284,148
111,592,416
124,657,958
131,037,918
209,403,822
594,830,904
2,047,380,171
 STATISTICS
A 35
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and
Iron Concentrates, 1858-1973—Continued
Year
Lead
Quantity
Value
Zinc
Quantity
Value
Molybdenum
Quantity      Value
Iron Concentrates
Quantity      Value
Lb.
1,044,400
205,037,158
407,833,262
26,872,397
44,871,454
55,364,677
50,625,048
46,503,590
48,727,516
37,307,465
43,899,661
29,475,968
39,331,218
41,402,288
67,447,985
96,663,152
170,384,481
237,899,199
263,023,936
282,996,423
305,140,792
307,999,153
321,803,725
261,902,228
252,007,574
271,689,217
347,366,967
344.268,444
377,971,618
419,118,371
412,979,182
378,743,663
466,849,112
456,840,454
507,199,704
439,155,635
292,922,888
336,976,468
345,862,680
313,733,089
320,037,525
265,378,899
284,024,522
273,456,604
284,949,396
297,634,712
332,474,456
302,567,640
283,718,073
281,603,346
294,573,159
287,423,357
333,608,699
384,284,524
335,282,537
314,974,310
268,737,503
250,183,633
211,490,107
208,131,894
231,627,618
210,072,565
214,838,525
248,827,301
194,249,571
186,680,656
Totals.
16,458,073,374
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2,175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1,526,855
2,816,115
1,693,354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
18,670,329
17,757,535
14,874,292
13,961,412
15,555,189
12,638,198
7,097,812
5,326,432
6,497,719
8,461,859
10,785,930
14,790,028
21,417,049
13,810,024
12,002,390
15,695,467
15,358,976
17,052,054
16,485,902
13,181,530
16,848,823
23,345,731
42,887,313
57,734,770
41,929,866
41,052,905
50,316,015
45,936,692
39,481,244
45,482,505
45,161,245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542,306
38,661,912
42,313,569
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402,293
43,149,171
34,436,934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693,539
35,096,021
34,711,408
28,896,566
30,400,945
Lb.
12,684,192
2,634,544
5,358,280
6,758,768
7,866,467
12,982,440
37,168,980
41,848,513
41,772,916
56,737,651
47,208,268
49,419,372
57,146,548
58,344,462
79,130,970
98,257,099
142,876,947
145,225,443
181,763,147
172,096,841:
250,479,310
202,071,702
192,120,091
195,963,751
249,152,403
256,239,446
254,581,393
291,192,278
298,497,295
278,409,102
312,020,671
367,869,579
387,236,469
336,150,455
278,063,373
294,791,635
274,269,956
253,006,168
270,310,195
288,225,368
290,344,227
337,511,324
372,871,717
382,300,862
334,124,560
429,198,565|
443,853,004|
449,276,7971
432,002,790
402,342,850
403,399,319
387,951,190
413,430,817
402,863,154
400,796,562
311,249,250
305,1124,440
262,830,908
299,396,264
296,667,033
275,590,749
305,451,243
268,347,996
302,874,331
1,441,949,395
15,297,732,440 1,549,368,185
894,169
129,092
316,139
324,421
346,125
1,460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
3,278,903
4,266,741
7,754,450
10,586,610
8,996,135
9,984,613
9,268,792
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,416
7,584,199
7,940,860
8,439,373
14,274,245
9,172,822
8,544,375
10,643,026
12,548,031
13,208,636
13,446,018
11,956,725
18,984,581
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654,211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
59,189,656
40,810,618
34,805,755
52,048,909
58,934,801
50,206,681
43,234,839
44,169,198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48,666,933
47,666,540
39,248,539
43,550,1811
46,639,024
44,111,055
49,745,789
47,172,894
62,564,751
Lb.
1,987
3,618
12,342
6,982
960
662
2,000
20,560
11,636
1,840
5,414
9,500
28,245
7,289,125
17,094,927
17,517,543
19,799,793
26,597,477
31,276,497
21,884,729
28,041,603
30,390,928
47,063
12,405,344
27,606,061
31,183,064
32,552,722
47,999,442
52,561,796
36,954,846
43,260,349
52,260,232
Tons
29,869
13,029
19,553
1,000
1,230
1,472
1,010
1,200
243
20
679
5,472
113,535
900,481
991,248
535,746
610,930
369,955
357,342
630,271
849,248
1,160,355
1,335,068
1,793,847
2,060,241
2,002,562
2,165,403
2,151,804
2,154,443
2,094,745
2,074,854
1,879,065
1,929,868
1,256,308
1,568,912
$
70,879
45,602
68,436
5,000
6,150
7,360
5,050
3,600
1,337
3,735
27,579
790,000
5,474,924
6,763,105
3,733,891
3,228,756
2,190,847
2,200,637
4,193,442
6,363,848
10,292,847
12,082,540
18,326,911
20,746,424
20,419,487
21,498,581
20,778,934
20,820,765
21,437,569
19,787,845
17,391,883
18,153,612
11,642,379
12,906,063
199,952,170 336,877,117
31,061,008
281,470,018
 A 36                  MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 7A—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
-
Quantity
Value
1972
1973
To date
„   1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
Oz.
$
t
13,346,043
21,420,321
165,925,543
15
$
$
253,026
269,777
1,617
66
33,253
1,848
9,398
4,558,483
735,880
505
17,390,960
21,066
38,047,207
33,965,284
102,763,548
208,747,445
20,325
52,073
9,526
444,801
338,241
3,511,618
3,257,752
2,611,006
54,187,492
26,968,816
773,614
265,564
10,171
243,069
848,377
65,467,594
81,813,892
2,372,419,075
162,427
676,439
1,335,105
20,813,789
1,482,485
1,114,009
15,420,584
3,841,050
610,689
549,098
20,531
468,450
9,716,081
163.141
694,430
64,167,109
6,605,315
11,485,998
206,399,338
38,791,982
150,640,027
364,142,323
15
144,956
469
11,268
3,709,242
250,704
140,114
5,074
115,662
2,327,897
2,326,772
5,166,348
5,879,052
27,595
112
604,785
3,732
6,540,538
21,182,310
21,464,462
255,519,316
142,800
7,200
473,095
141,336
137,379
1,952,731
506,465
719,592
2,938,020
80,000
34,453,827
1,289,689
1,356,571
50,296
1,251,883
11,236,439
13,120,767
62,059
87,709
92,946
1,925,688
148,167,256
43,036,964
102,993,184
358,464,329
7,075,391
15,124,539
369,459,051
5,752,173
5,222,754
60,678,684
21,296,539
32,257,587
257.217,089
84,330,377
96,240,750
384,286,322
33,895,391
48,486,539
189,656,377
1,029,821
489,380
15,450,737
9,975,651
37,326,864
167,500,715
33,266,658
74,483,155
468,816,136
1,798,497
1,063,873
275,855,150
523,542
61,209
90,347,066
8,838,521
12,495,830
288,950,493
3,336,572
4,252,048
6,072,086
866
19,300
73,580,160
642,903
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
723,622
3,586
89,026
8,200,039
14,849,901
18,729,144
31,355
595,910
1,611,625
193,669,556
266,451
130,386
234
4,764
10,050
88,729
295,101
744,008
89,159
73,678
6,586,660
2.044,800
1,096,719
811,027
56,431
1,503,680
13,632,995
718,952
402,232
240
5,466
4,220,830
153,939
308,698
7,582
164,477
3,217,015
81,535
90,986
45,507
878,204
18,558
4,322,904
1,867,340
1,801,043
4,603
105,569
1,240,215
18,802,453
80,129
238,592
366
9,397
2,258,010
270,434
53,506
851
24,260
3,649,127
10,010,701
11,658,387
182
5,306
7,066,964
145,441.193
1,140,765
4,046
339,159
381,993
3,701,997
20,771,523
12,628,099
9,074,535
343.042,973
32,584
88,062
210
495
190,366
1,322,114
2,780,533
60,993,788
955,658
2,732
72,885
8,816,643
14,477,864
17,184,268
6'2~8
8
3,831
1,529,359
15,680
259
311,524
17,574,039
231,770,067
4,755,129
3,336,803
47,849,507
Totals	
1972
1973
To date
691
3,831
5,240,107
26,905
311,524
97,300,473
372,005,865
807,844,458
6,870,935,916
25,764,120
27,969,664
385,173,217
66,745,698
73,447,031
863,845,150
 STATISTICS                                                         A 37
Divisions, 1972 and 1973, and Total to Date
Petroleum and Natural Gas
Division
Total
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipe-line
Butane and
Propane
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity   |   Value
Tons
$
Bbl.
$
MSCF
$
Bbl.
$
$
13,599,069
21,690,098
170,526,677
1,863
55,796,733
37,550,041
106,030,826
290,349,654
773,614
265,564
5,094,923
132,663,762
171,670,984
2,903,427,782
290
1,100
6,014,035
65,909,040
87,972,889
500,010,387
7,632,983
80,812,437
1,645,626
1,953,395
83,308,203
6,856,019
11,626,112
211,169,669
43,958,330
156,519,079
405,801,238
128,237,594
138,852,285
1,155,296,517
204,859
94,909
153,902,611
47,430,348
108,202,649
735,161,264
8,224,759
16,567,753
380,686,136
20,682,074
23,951,898
256,555,775
21,562,990
32,387,973
270,357,539
35,520,125
97,350,094
403,586,729
34,703,502
48,962,449
200,474,341
1,183.760
798,078
18,832,229
10,057,186
37,417,850
192,274,106
35,133,998
76,284,198
488,964,489
1,878,626
1,302,465
278,122,557
793,976
114,715
94,020,453
18,849,222
24,154,217
441,463,956
1,140,765
992,288
9,316,749
14,860,067
20,886,760
252,747,636
18,705,601
15,503,396
469,460,307
15,087
59,765
116,870
11,687
24,953,687
22,448,968
244,246,418
63,771,606
68,936,302
556,941,819
379,969,499
427,586,208
2,990,984,716
41,616,824
46,688,912
312,820,618
820,951
1,309,802
11,276,699
256,548
406,038
3,589,284
111,120
816,391
74,324,471
301,144,744
2 929 584
11,080,836
476
4,300
3,216
3,419,724
268
502,204
5,008
4,617,442
19,553,725
116
6,026,198
7,633,251
163,313,793
66,030,210
87,976,105
836,091,796
24,953,687
22,448,968
244,246,418
63,771,606
68,936,302
556,941,819
379.969,499
427,586,208
2,990,984,716
41,616,824
46,688,912
312,820,618
820,951
1,309,802
11,276,699
256,548
406,038
3,589,284
636,217,776
1,113,580,034
9,926,698,273
 A 38
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
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A 43
18,501,277
19,591,463
56,606,625
1,029,821
450,847
4.352.817
129,186
8,571,198
8,268,369
112,019,582
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 A 44                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 7D—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Division
Period
Asbestos
Baritei
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Atlin	
1,475
565
12,308
52,073
9,526
201,321
I
48
168
Fort Steele
8
44,237
80
395,289
Greenwood
Kamloops	
439,150
4,489,227
3,259
12,612
1,790,502
1,540,319
200
4,000
625
12,230
105,807
108,966
1,227,098
20,870,241
21,102,892
239,205,584
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster
31,579
42,986
980,436
59,036
75,476
1,495,629
3,800
3,068
25,877
18,747
26,799
109,435
3,706
82,300
61,903
457,102
506,465
719,592
2,873,945
80,000
7,601
8,174
109,669
1,611,625
3
3
10,905
4,283
203,381
286
286
89,159
73,678
2.555,158
Similkameen...
802,611
3,699,031
 1	
Vancouver
Vernon	
601,019
1,050,722
29,692
418,606
3,200
3,200
21
42
271
30,400
30,400
210
495
3,060
168
1,800
2,184
53,684
Not assigned
Totals
9,605
157,080
 1	
	
1972
1973
To date
105,807
108,966
1,227,096
20,870,241
21,102,892
239,205,584
44,237
395,289
1,475
565
12,308
52,073
9,526
301,321
31,600
46,228
4,188,899
59,246
106,371
7,839.947
37,158
34,321
490,335
757,924
857,643
8,143,884
439,158
4,489,307
i From 1972, excludes production which is confidential.
Other: See notes of individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages A 16 to A 25.
2 Natro-alunite.                                       4 Volcanic ash.                                        6 Sodium carbonate.
8 Hydromagnesite.                                5 Magnesium sulphate.                         t Phosphate rock.
 STATISTICS                                                             A 45
Mining Divisions, 1972 and 1973, and Total to Date
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Tons
$
Lb.
$
Lb.
$
Lb.
$
$
$
	
9,3982
9,398
20,3253
20,325
52,073
9,526
444,801
10,013,800
143,012
3004
873
6,236
156,1913 6 6
162,427
676,439
1,335,105
20,813,789
1,482,485
1,114,009
15,420,584
81,597
89,007
1,238,139
676,439
1,335,105
20,497,991
112,878
388,315
365,249
3,820,324
298,824
1,087,196
1,114,009
16,8947
10,917,469
1,2768 9
783,57810
2,327,897
1,246,918
6,323,178
424,700
2,075
203,0555 6
6,540,538
21,182,310
21,464,462
255,519,316
142,800
7,200
473,095
141,336
137,379
1,952,731
506,465
719,592
2,938,020
80,000
2,934
3,444
48,741
192,450
28,050
558,634
3.689
4,793
69,800
142,800
7,200
467,966
56,627
308,380
356,777
16,243,932
60,661
872,768
5,1299
55,9018
1,611,625
2,407
10,050
10,050
88,729
295,101
744,008
89,159
73,678
6,586,660
48,341
122,757
554,755
88,729
294,815
732,262
11,4601112
1,588,800
25,938
306,5335 10 11
250
1,700
16,85813
18,558
634,250
10,815
41,624
178,678
1,240,215
687,596
6,550,969
97,3898
7,066,964
32,584
160,500|     3,978
 |	
88,062
210
495
30,2269
190 366
 |	
159,483
166,367
5,357,542
1,322,114
2,495,505
60,703,847
1,322,114
2,780,533
60,933,788
285,028
289,941
 |	
388,315
365,249
5,183,650
1,087,196
1,114,009
17,557,457
243,725
154,251
1,162,130
235,218
306,808
1,270,028
1
297,707
316,035
8,197,669
2,306,933
4,187,387
104,175,417
25,764,120
27.969.664
285.028
^2,822,0501185,818
1
2,004,454              385,173,217
8 Iron oxide and ochre.                         io Fluorspar.                                         12 Perlite.
9 Talc.                                                   11 Arsenious oxide.                               13 Bentonite.
 A 46                  MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Table 7E—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions,
1972 and 1973, and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
1972
1973
To date
$
$
*
$
5,168
6,136
345,646
$
247,858
263,641
4,212,837
$
$
$
253,026
269,777
4,558,483
Atlin	
1,108
224,853
235,229
1,249,023
102,453
382,149
350,433
3,306,828
530,614
70,124
1,853,909
102,430
49,260
2,626,189
6,453
36,723
245,663
234,680
2,836,516
2,672,090
22,080,508
243,000
195,440
1,987,141
508,259
499,838
6,958,160
153,801
100,648
3,283,580
250,504
140,114
1,746,119
1,675,934
1,453,023
14,522,399
1,137,309
1,100,474
11,409,166
32,501
54,214
2,234,069
1,184,398
1,697,781
11,003,276
436,970
424,200
6,173,123
9,185,040
11,921,903
94,436,162
266,451
130,386
1,849,046
939,347
688,002
11,201,405
650,454
384,547
3,805,281
124,245
236,854
2,625,019
76.285
90,986
3,606,631
1,740,392
1.741.428
338,241
68,100
3,511,618
3,257,752
332,457
26,968,816
773,614
265,564
3,841,050
610,689
549,098
43,873
71,941
15,918
2,887
7,585
128,159
9,716,081
163,141
144,956
1,000
50,840
200
3,709,242
250,704
140,114
42,560
138,336
278,474
872,572
602,509
9,992,158
152,380
256,097
1.711,601
29,558
33,495
1,100,403
261,617
397,390
3,057,688
1,418
3,172
549,291
991,023
1,515,500
17,984,297
121,283
2,326,772
2,617,842
3,823,520
9,822,024
5,166,348
5,879,052
25,067
19,800
72,379
34,453,827
1,289,689
1,356,571
13,120,767
62,059
87,709
100
2,806,033
2,976,915
54,889,469
203,549
293,802
1,021,639
102,175
102,523
3.318,910
2,000
3,336,572
4,252,048
5,072,086
3,450,735
966
2,448
434,012
1,178,992
73,580,160
642,903
723,622
21,974
4,571,663
5,189,218
77,909,213
8,200,039
14,849,901
18,729,144
20,974
193,669,556
266,451
130,386
8,000
187,754
154,253
119,450
2,410,274
68,498
17,685
338,757
29,694
66,644
580,221
5,250
2,044,800
3,119
3,575
16,042
1,096,719
811,027
5,274
13,632,995
718,952
402,232
43,774
33,018
4,220,830
153,939
5,200
10,775
308,698
1,000
3,217,015
81,535
10,500
11,571
24,000
656,847
126,948
59.615
13,355
4,322.904
1,867,340
1,801,043
1,645,300
144,000
3.318.726    13.681.178
13,249
18,802,453
80,129
810
20,457
152,060
150,000
2,400
381,393
6,561
466,271
8,659,593
59,430
79,319
218,135
1,989,807
120,434
51,106
3,149.714
3,320,186
4,572,852
51,992,681
1,081,335
955,658
8,116,634
2,108,725
2,267,915
28,060,750
4,676,933
3,258,355
238,592
2,258,010
1,000
115,143
270,434
53,506
3,649,127
32,500
85,520
6,683,954
6,619,264
79,646,882
10,010,701
11,658,387
145,441,193
40,885
4,012,560
1,088,592
1,140,765
955,658
46,499
18,198
21,826
988,511
97,852
394,404
17,526
8,200
528,243
78,196
78,448
1,011,570
161,254
621,099
393,487
10,284,480
8,816,643
11,712,316
14,492,840
191,908,028
14,477,864
17,184,268
55
231,770,067
4,755,129
3,336,803
315,498
505,018
36,864,422
3,180,828
5,972,171
47,849,507
Totals	
1972
1973
To date
21,014,112
24,935,624
281,387,434
3,357,927
3,633,870
63,735,329
1,166
7,648
9,224,579
4,032,548
4,160,009
61,774,442
33,076,196
35,119,590
347,223,788
5,263,749
5,590,290
94,527,407
 |
66,745,698
73,447,031
863,845,150
	
5,972,171
1
 STATISTICS
Table 8A—Production of Coal, 1836-1973
A 47
Year
Quantity!
(Short Tons)
Value
Year
Quantity1
(Short Tons)
Value
1836-59                 	
41,871
15,956
15,427
20,292
23,906
32,068
36,757
28,129
34,988
49,286
40,098
33,424
55,458
55,458
55,459
91,334
123,362
155,895
172,540
191,348
270,257
299,708
255,760
315,997
238,895
441,358
409,468
365,832
462,964
548,017
649,411
759,518
1,152,590
925,495
1,095,690
1,134,509
1,052,412
1,002,268
999,372
1,263,272
1,435,314
1,781,000
1,894,544
1,838,621
1,624,742
1,887,981
2,044,931
2,126,965
2,485,961
2,362,514
2,688,672
3,314,749
2,541,698
3,211,907
2,713,535
2,237,042
2,076,601
2,583,469
2,436,101
$
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
1918 	
2,575,275
2,433,540
2,852,535
2,670,314
2,726,793
2,636,740
2,027,843
2,541,212
2,406,094
2,553,416
2,680,608
2,375,060
1,994,493
1,765,471
1,614,629
1,377,177
1,430,042
1,278,380
1,352,301
1,446,243
1,388,507
1,561,084
1,662,027
1,844,745
1,996,000
1,854,749
1,931,950
1,523,021
1,439,092
1,696,350
1,604,480
1,621,268
1,574,006
1,573,572
1,402,313
1,384,138
1,308,284
1,332,874
1,417,209
1,085,657
796,413
690,011
788,658
919,142
825,339
850,541
911,326
950,763
850,821
908,790
959,214
852,340
2,644,056
4,565,242
6,026,198
7,633,251
$
12,833,994
1860	
1919	
11,975,671
1861	
1862
1920	
1921...	
13,450,169
12,836,013
1863    .                     	
1922	
1923. 	
12,880,060
1864
12,678,548
1865	
1924    _
1925    	
1926.     .     ....
1927    	
1928	
9,911,935
1866	
1867 -	
1868	
1869 	
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
1870	
1871...	
1872
1929 ..    	
1930 	
1931 	
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
1873.    	
1932	
1933   	
1934 	
1935	
1936 ■	
6,523,644
1874	
1875 	
5,375,171
5,725,133
1876
5,048,864
1877
5,722,502
1878
1937 -	
6,139,920
1879	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941
1942 	
1943...   _
1944	
5,565,069
1880...   -
6,280,956
1881...	
7,088,265
1882     .	
7,660,000
1883  ..
1884 	
1885
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
1886
1945
6,454,360
1887
1946..	
6,732,470
1888
1947	
8,680,440
1889 	
1948 	
1949	
1950  	
1951	
1952 	
1953	
9,765,395
1890-.            	
10,549,924
1891  	
1892    .
10,119,303
10,169,617
1893	
9,729,739
1894    ....
9,528,279
1895.    -.
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356.866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8.484,343
1954	
1955..	
1956	
1957	
1958	
9,154,544
1896	
1897	
8,986,501
9,346,518
1898 	
7,340,339
1899
5,937,860
1900 	
1901 ..   	
1902	
1903 -
1904	
1959 	
1960             	
1961    	
1962.....	
1963 -    	
1964	
1965 	
1966
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
1905 "	
1906	
6,327,678
6,713,590
1907
6,196,219
1908	
1967 	
1968	
1969 _	
1970	
1971 _
7,045,341
1909.  	
1910  	
1911	
1912	
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
45,801,936
1913	
1972- 	
66,030,210
1914	
1973 	
87,976,105
1915 	
1916               	
Totals   ....
163,313,793
836,091,796
1917	
i Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
For
 A 48
MINES
AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
T3                                                           ON r-        CI                                 VO   in
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u
6
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51,016
90,206
30,848
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Colliery	
I
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U
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id
q |
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'ort Steele Mini,
Dleman Collie
Tent Mountain
ording Coal Ltd
aiser   Resour
Michel Colliery
Liard Mining
oalition Mining
Omineca Minin
ulkley Valley C<
Totals. .
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 STATISTICS
A 49
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining.. 	
Exploration and development-
Coal  	
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production)-
Industrial minerals	
Structural-materials industry..
Totals, 1973... 	
Totals, 1972..
1971...
1970..
1969-
1968-
1967-
1966...
1965_
1964..
1963..
1962..
1961-
1960-
1959-
1958.
1957...
1956_
1955.-
1954-
1953-
1952-
1951-
1950.
1949..
1948-
1947-
1946.
1945-
1944..
1943-
1942..
1941..
1940..
1939-
1938-
1937-
1936.
1935-
129,861,201
40,310,892
25,921,971
6,079,535
7,734,832
11,969,164
221,877,595
199
179
172.
123
113
94
93
74,
63
57.
55,
50,
52.
49
48
56.
57.
51,
48,
55,
62.
52.
42,
41
38
32.
26.
22,
23.
26.
26
26
23
22,
22
21
17
16
.351,449
175,692
958,282
450,327
459,219
,523,495
,409,528
,938,736
,624,559
,939,294
,522,171
887,275
,694,818
,961,996
,933,560
,409,056
.266,026
890,246
702,746
543,490
.256,631
,607,171
,738,035
,023,786
,813,506
,160,338
,190,200
.620,975
,131,874
,051,467
,913,160
,050,491
,391,330
,357,035
,765,711
,349,690
,887,619
753,367
24,571,180
4,891,996
2,175,990
5,111,545
36,750,711
31,115,621
23,166,904
19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13,590,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
89,177,645
5,824,199
2,497,991
6,340,814
103,840,649
77,092,955
68,314,944
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962 lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964 some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include "process, operating, maintenance, and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 A 50
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1973
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1973
Year
u
u
u
CO
s
Metals
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
■a a
'£.2
•a co
's
tH
s
«cS
1*1
MSo
B o*q3
3"o>
owQ
3>8e
Ph 60 CO
e2
Mines
1     I
I    1
a-a >
w So
tH
0
H
C
u
u
a
o
Q
ce
tH
O
s
CO
"co
(2
u
B
'ES
ll
OcO
q
co
£
H
g
O
jo
<
"3
o
H
CO
■a
a
13
u
>
o
<
1901	
1
2.736 1,212
1
3,948
3,345
2,750
3,306
3,710
3,983
3,943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3,836
4,278
4,174
4,144
5,393
5,488
4,390
4,259
3,679
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
5,138
7,610
8,283
8,835
8,892
7,605
6,035
4,833
6,088
8,046
7,915
8,197
9,616
10,192
10,138
10,019
9,821
8,939
7,819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10,724
10,832
12,831
13,730
11,006
9,412
9.512
9,846
9,006
7,434
7,324
7.423
3,041
3,101
3,137
3,278
3,127
3,415
2,862
4,432
4,713
5.903
5,212
5,275
4,950
4,267
3,708
3,694
3,760
3,658
4.145
4,191
4.722
4,712
4,342
3,894
3,828
3,757
3,646
3,814
3,675
3,389
2.957
2,628
2,241
2,050
2,145
2,015
2,286
2,088
2,167
2,175
2,229
1,892
2,240
2,150
1,927
1.773
1,694
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
1,280
1,154
1,076
1,100
968
1,020
826
765
894
705
548
501
446
405
347
260
195
245
242
444
214
265
933
910
1,127
1,175
1,280
1,390
907
1,641
1,705
1,855
1,661
1,855
1,721
1,465
1,283
1,366
1,410
1,769
1,821
2,158
2,163
1,932
1,807
1,524
1,615
1,565
1,579
1,520
1,353
1,256
1,125
980
853
843
826
799
867
874
809
699
494
3,974
4,011
4,264
4,453
4,407
7,922
7,356
7,014
7,759
8,117
8,788
7,712
9,767
9,672
11,467
10,467
10,966
10,949
9,906
9,135
10,453
10,658
9,817
10,225
10,028
9.215
9,393
9,767
9,451
10.581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14.032
12,171
10.524
11,369
12.985
13,737
14,179
16,129
16,021
15.890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12,314
11,820
11,933
14,899
16,397
16,621
16,612
17,863
18,257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11,034
11,560
10,952
11,645
12,283
14,202
13,380
15,659
16,437
19,086
18,423
19,470
19,922
1902	
2.219
1,662
2,143
2,470
2,680
2.704
2,567
2,184
2,472
2,435
2,472
2,773
2,741
2,709
3,357
3,290
2,626
2,513
2.074
1,355
1,510
2,102
2,353
1.126
1,088
1,163
1,240
1,303
1,239
1.127
1,070
1,237
1,159
1,364
1,505
1,433
1,435
2,036
2,198
1,764
1,746
1,605
975
1,239
1,516
1,680
2,840
1,735
1,916
2,469
2,052
1,260
834
900
1,335
1,729
1,497
1,840
1,818
2.266
2,050
2,104
1,823
1,504
1.699
1,825
1,750
1,817
2,238
2,429
2,724
2,415
3.695
3,923
2,589
2,520
2,553
2,827
2,447
1,809
1,761
1,959
1,582
1,976
2,012
1.967
2,019
2,296
2,532
2,369
2,470
3,167
3,058
3,463
4,005
4,805
3,769
6.078
6,418
7,758
6,873
7,130
6,671
5,732
4.991
5,060
5,170
5,427
5,966
6,349
6,885
6,644
6,140
5,418
5,443
5,322
5.225
5,334
5,028
4,645
4,082
3,608
3,094
2,893
2,971
2,814
3,153
2,962
2,976
2,874
2,723
808
854
911
966
832
581
542
531
631
907
720
1,168
919
996
1,048
1,025
960
891
849
822
2,461
2,842
2,748
2,948
3,197
3,157
2,036
2,436
2.890
2,771
2.678
3,027
3,158
3,187
2,944
3,072
3,556
2.835
2,981
2.834
2,298
2,606
2,671
2,707
2,926
2,316
1,463
1.355
1,786
2.796
2,740
2,959
3,603
3,849
3,905
3,923
3,901
2,920
2,394
1,896
1,933
1,918
3,024
3,143
3,034
3,399
3,785
4,171
3.145
2,644
2,564
2,637
2.39!
299
415
355
341
425
638
874
1,134
1,122
1,291
1,124
1,371
1.303
1,252
1,004
939
489
212
255
209
347
360
348
303
327
205
230
132
199
103
105
67
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,861
1,646
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
900
1,293
1,079
1,269
1,309
1,207
1,097
740
846
1,116
898
324
138
368
644
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
508
481
460
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
794
800
802
124
122
120
268
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
	
61112 851
689
503
532
731
872
546
516
463
401
396
358
378
398
360
260
291
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
358
455
1.033
1.013
1,771
1,951
2,839
2,430
2,305
2,425
2,466
2,306
2,261
1,925
1,681
1,550
1,434
1,478
1,366
1,380
1,086
1,056
1,182
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
1,275
1,457
1,985
2,216
1946
672 2.813
960
1,126
1,203
1,259
1,307
1,516
1,371
1,129
1,091
1,043
838
625
618
648
626
949
850
822
965
1,014
992
1,072
1,099
1.331
3,461
3,884
3,763
3,759
4,044
4,120
3,901
3,119
3,304
3,339
3,328
3,081
3,008
3.034
491
529
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
682
567
627
666
527
667
1952	
1953 	
1954	
1955  	
1956	
1957     	
1958
7511,919
9911,937
8611.782
1959
1960
1961
74
35
43
1,785
1,677
1.713
3.11R    7.111
1962
270
450
772
786
1,894
1,264
3,990
4,270
4,964
4,040
4,201
3,392
3,356
3,239
3,281
3,529
3,654
3,435
3,283
3,468
3.738
8,228
8.264
8,681
9,051
10,864
10,151
12,537
13,101
15,360
14,165
14,584
14,885
1963
511.R3S
1965	
2
2
7
1,752
2,006
1,928
1,823
1,794
2,160
2,073
1,833
1,704
441
478
507
400
416
437
495
458
454
1966	
1969	
1970
1971 	
1972	
1973	
	
1.513|3,481
1,734|3,353
2,39413,390
i Comme
Note—Tl
ing firms.
icing with 1967, does not include employment in by-product plants,
lese figures refer only to company employees and do not include
the m:
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 Departmental Work
CHAPTER 3
Page
Appointments   A 58
Retirement  A 58
Organization  A 58
New legislation  A 60
Petroleum Resources Branch  A 60
Staff  A 61
Engineering Division  A 61
Geological Division  A 62
Titles Division  A 62
Board of Arbitration  A 62
Conservation Committee  A 63
Mineral Resources Branch  A 63
Geological Division  A 63
Staff A 64
Organization  A 65
Resource Geology Section  A 65
Economic Geology Section  A 66
Analytical Services Section  A 67
Publications and Technical Services Section  A 69
Aeromagnetic Surveys  A 69
Inspection and Engineering Division   A 70
Staff  A 70
Board of Examiners   A 72
Mining Roads and Trails  A 72
Grub-staking Prospectors   A 73
Titles Division  A 78
Staff  A 78
List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders  A 79
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)  A 79
Maps Showing Mineral Claims and Placer Leases  A 79
Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders   A 80
Office Statistics, 1973  A 80
Coal  A 81
Coal Revenue, 1973  A 81
Publications .  A 81
Rock and Mineral Sets  A 81
A 57
 A 58 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
APPOINTMENTS
John E. McMynn was appointed Deputy Minister of the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources on May 1, 1973.
Dr. J. T. Fyles was appointed Associate Deputy Minister, Mineral Resources
Branch, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, on September 1, 1973.
John D. Lineham was appointed Associate Deputy Minister, Petroleum Resources Branch, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, on September 1,
1973.
RETIREMENT
Stanley W. Metcalfe retired as Chief Analyst and Assayer on May 17, 1973,
after serving 29 years with the Analytical Branch. Mr. Metcalfe was born in
Nelson, where he received his early schooling. He attended the University of
British Columbia and graduated with a master's degree in chemistry. While at
university he did research work on explosives for the National Research Council.
Prior to graduation he worked for the Department as an apprentice assayer and
holds a certificate of efficiency in the practice of assaying. He was mine assayer
at Zeballos and at Bayonne Consolidated Mines Ltd. He was employed as an
assistant chemist by the British Columbia Cement Co. Ltd. He joined the Analytical Branch on May 15, 1944, as Senior Analyst and was promoted to Chief Analyst
in 1958, a position he held until his early retirement. He is a member of the
Chemical Institute of Canada and the American Chemical Society.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
displayed in the chart on page A 59. A major reorganization of the Department
took place in 1973 and the establishment of new staff positions continued into
1974. The Department was divided into two branches, the Petroleum Resources
Branch and the Mineral Resources Branch, with an Associate Deputy Minister in
charge of each. The Petroleum Resources Branch assumed the work of the former
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch and Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles of the
office of the Chief Commissioner. The Mineral Resources Branch became responsible for the former Inspection Branch, the Mineralogical Branch, and the office of
the Chief Gold Commissioner, which were renamed Inspection and Engineering
Division, Geological Division, and Titles Division, each directed by a Division
Chief. Similar divisions were established in the Petroleum Resources Branch as
indicated in the accompanying chart. Sections within these divisions, which had
been informally recognized previously, were formally established under a Senior
Geologist, Inspector, or Engineer.
Two new divisions created at the time of reorganization of the Department
in the latter part of the year are the Mineral Revenue Division and the Economics
and Planning Division, to become fully operative in 1974. The Director of Mineral Revenue is H. Horn and the Director of Economics and Planning is J. S. Poyen.
The function of the Mineral Revenue Division is to collect royalties under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, and Mineral Royalties Act to be introduced in
1974, and to collect taxes under the Mineral Land Tax Act. The purpose of the
Economics and Planning Division is to be responsible for the collection, compilation, and analysis of statistical data for the mineral industry. This function, related
to solid minerals, was formerly carried out by the Bureau of Economics and Statistics of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce. The
Economics and Planning Division will also compile data on mineral commodities,
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 59
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 A 60 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
corporate structure and financing, and the marketing of minerals. It will initiate
a variety of economic studies in both the solid mineral and petroleum and natural
gas fields.
It is expected that a third new division under the Deputy Minister, called the
Administrative Services Division, will be formed in 1974 and will complete the
reorganization.
The reorganization was introduced to place greater emphasis on the technical
aspects of petroleum and natural gas administration, to consolidate the collection
of direct revenue from mineral development in one division of this Department,
and to change the role of the Department.
MEW LEGISLATION
Iron Bounty Act and Copper Bounty Act—Both of these Acts were repealed
at the Spring Session of the Legislature.
Mineral Land Tax Act—This Act, introduced at the Spring Session of the
Legislature, came into effect in January 1974. It provides for the taxation of land,
the mineral rights to which are held by owners other than the Crown. Primarily
this land consists of Crown-granted mineral claims and the railway land grants in
which minerals are held by the grantee.
Three levels of taxation are imposed, one on nondesignated land, another on
designated production areas, and a third on designated production tracts. On
nondesignated land, owners will pay from 25 cents to $1 per acre, depending on the
size of their holdings. On production areas, a tax of $2 per acre is levied, and
on production tracts the tax is assessed at a mill rate specified by Order in Council
but not exceeding 25 mills. This assessed value is related to value of production
from within the tract. Provision is made for the surrender of mineral lands to the
Crown.
Geothermal Resources Act—This Act, introduced at the Fall Session of the
Legislature, reserves to the Crown the right to all geothermal resources within the
Province.
PETROLEUM RESOURCES BRANCH
The Petroleum Resources Branch was established pursuant to the Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources Act, as amended during the Fall Session of the
1973 Legislative Assembly. In effect, the former Petroleum and Natural Gas
Branch and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles Section of the former Administration Branch were combined to bring all matters concerning petroleum and natural
gas under a single branch. The one exception is the administration of the royalty
regulations, which was assumed by the Mineral Revenue Division of the Department.
The Petroleum Resources Branch, under the direction of the Associate Deputy
Minister of Petroleum Resources, is responsible for the administration of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 and the regulations made thereunder, including the Drilling and Production Regulations, the Geophysical Regulations, the
Drilling Reservation Regulations, and the Development Road Regulations. It also
administers the Underground Storage Act, 1964. In general, the Branch is responsible for all matters related to the disposition of Crown-owned petroleum and
natural gas rights, and for the regulation of exploration, development, and production activities conducted by the oil and gas industry.
The Branch is organized into three divisions, the Engineering Division, the
Geological Division, and the Titles Division, which are supervised on an interim
basis by A. J. Dingley, W. M. Young, and R. E. Moss respectively.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 61
STAFF
On December 31, 1973, the professional and technical staff included the following:
Headquarters Staff
J. D. Lineham, P.Eng Associate Deputy Minister and Chief of Branch
A. J. Dingley, P.Eng Chief Engineer
W. L. Ingram, P.Eng Senior Development Engineer
B. T. Barber, P.Eng Senior Reservoir Engineer
P. S. Attariwala, P.Eng Reservoir Engineer
P. K. Huus Reservoir Technician (Engineering)
M. B. Hamersley, C.E.T Development Technician (Engineering)
W. M. Young, P.Eng Chief Geologist
S. S. Cosburn, P.Eng..
T. B. Ramsay, P.Eng..
J. Y. Smith, P.Eng	
R. Stewart, P.Eng	
R. E. Moss	
W. W. Ross	
Economic Geologist
..Economic Geologist
..Economic Geologist
-Reservoir Geologist
..Chief Commissioner
Assistant Commissioner
Field Office, Charlie Lake
D. L. Johnson, P.Eng	
T. B. Smith, P.Eng. (until Sept. 19)_
D. A. Selby_	
G. T. Mohler	
W. B. Holland, C.E.T.
J. W. D. Kielo	
G. L. Holland	
J. L. Withers	
.District Engineer
.Field Engineer
-Field Technician (Engineering)
-Field Technician (Engineering)
-Field Technician (Engineering)
-Field Technician (Engineering)
 Field Technician (Engineering)
-Geophysical Technician (Engineering)
Staff Changes
G. L. Holland, Field Technician (Engineering), joined the staff on January
22. T. B. Smith, Field Engineer, resigned effective September 19. J. L. Withers,
Geophysical Technician (Engineering), joined the staff on October 15, W. W. Ross,
Deputy Chief Petroleum and Natural Gas Commissioner, transferred to the Mineral
Revenue Division as Assistant Director on December 5.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The Engineering Division, under the direction of A. J. Dingley, Chief Engineer,
consists of a Reservoir Engineering Section supervised by B. T. Barber and a Development Engineering Section supervised by W. L. Ingram.
The Reservoir Engineering Section is responsible for determination of reservoir and production characteristics of oil and gas pools in the Province. This involves interpretation of reservoir pressure, rock and fluid properties, and production
data. These parameters are used to forecast ultimate recoveries obtainable from
oil and gas accumulations in the Province, and the rates at which these volumes
will be produced. The Section maintains files of reservoir data, obtained from
both industry and Branch sources, and reviews such data for quality. Oil and gas
allowable rates are set by the Section, and recommendations concerning proposed
 A 62 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
improved recovery and produced fluid disposition schemes are made. The Section
is concerned with technical aspects of matters affecting conservation and correlative
rights.
The Development Engineering Section is responsible for all matters related
to the location, drilling, completion, and abandonment of wells in the Province.
This involves the assurance that operators of all wells drilled conform to the requirements of the Drilling and Production Regulations, which includes the submission of prescribed forms and information.
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
The Geological Division, under the direction of W. M. Young, is responsible
for the preservation and evaluation of certain well data and the administration of
the Branch well evaluation requirements. Data resulting from the drilling of wells,
geophysical surveys, and other related sources in the Province in search for and
development of accumulations of oil and gas are supplied to the Branch. These
data are made use of by staff geologists as a basis for reports on, and maps and
cross-sections of, the economically important sedimentary rocks of the Province.
The Division is responsible for providing data and opinion to attract and encourage
the exploration and development of the petroleum resources of the Province.
All geological and geophysical reports submitted to the Branch in support of
work requirements are assessed to ensure that the Department receives full value
for credits or other benefits granted.
TITLES DIVISION
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles Division, under the direction of R. E. Moss,
Chief Commissioner, is responsible for the administration of the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, 1965, which includes all matters related to and affecting title to
Crown petroleum and natural gas rights and includes the collection of revenue
from fees, rents, disposition, and royalties. Regulations governing geophysical
operations and petroleum-development roads are also administered by the Chief
Commissioner.
Information concerning all forms of title issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 may be obtained upon application to the office of the Chief
Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps
showing the locations of all forms of title issued under the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act are available, and copies may be obtained upon application to the office
of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Monthly land
reports and monthly reports listing additions and revisions to permit-location maps
and listing changes in title to permits, licences, and leases, and related matters are
available from the office of the Chief Commissioner upon application and payment
of the required fee.
BOARD OF ARBITRATION
Chairman: A. W. Hobbs, Q.C.
Vice-Chairman: S. G. Preston, P.Ag.
Member: J. D. Lineham, P.Eng.
The Board of Arbitration, established under the authority of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965, grants right-of-entry to oil and gas companies upon
alienated land and determines condition of entry and compensation therefor. It
also terminates the right-of-entry when a company has ceased to use the land.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 63
In 1973, three applications for right-of-entry were submitted to the Board.
Two right-of-entry orders were issued and three were terminated after the
parties reached agreement.
A hearing was held on December 11 at Fort St. John. The six cases scheduled
to be heard were disposed in 1973 as follows: One compensation award order was
issued; one award order was issued but the compensation quantum was set aside
until both parties are heard in 1974; one compensation award order was pending
at the end of the year awaiting inspection of the site; one compensation award order
was pending awaiting establishment by the Board of the compensation; and two
cases were set aside until 1974, one by request of the land-owner involved and the
other due to the absence at the hearing of the land-owner.
Six cases were outstanding at the end of the year. These involve one where
the award will be determined after weather conditions permit inspection of the
site; one where the award will be determined after both parties have been heard again
in 1974; one where both parties have been heard but the award has not been
established; two where the cases were set aside to be heard in 1974; and one application received late in the year.
CONSERVATION COMMITTEE
The Conservation Committee, established on October 11, 1957, under the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, is responsible to the Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources.   Its duties are as follows:
(1) To act as an advisory committee to the Minister on such questions
of conservation that the Minister, in writing, shall refer to the Committee for consideration and recommendation.
(2) To deal with such questions of conservation and production in the
various fields of British Columbia as may arise between two or more
operators in the same field or between operators and the Branch
when appeals on such questions are made to the Minister and referred by him to the Committee.
No officers are currently named for the Committee and it did not meet in 1973.
MINERAL RESOURCES BRANCH
GEOLOGICAL DIVISION
The function of the Geological Division is to provide information on the quantity and distribution of the coal and mineral resources of the Province and to assist
in the orderly discovery, exploration, development, and use of these resources. To
achieve these objectives the Division conducts the following major programmes:
(1) Produces and publishes geological maps and related laboratory
studies of regions of high and moderate mineral potential.
(2) Examines and studies mineral and coal deposits.
(3) Collects, collates, stores, and disseminates geological and statistical
data recording the activities of the industry in exploration and
production.
(4) Makes mineral evaluation assessments of land and produces maps
showing these evaluations for land use and planning purposes.
(5) Provides chemical analyses for Departmental studies and for bona
fide prospectors.
 A 64 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
(6) Supplies both general and specific information regarding mineral
deposits, mineral resources, and the mineral industry to government,
the general public, and to the industry.
Information produced or gathered by the Division is made available through
a series of publications and also through public access to open files.   The most important publications produced include the following:
(1) Geology, Exploration and Mining in British Columbia, an annual
publication, includes summaries of all known exploration activities
in the Province, developments at mines, and reports by departmental
geologists on projects investigated by them. It includes chapters on
metal mines, placer deposits, industrial minerals and structural
materials, and coal.
(2) Bulletins produced at irregular intervals are authoritative reports
by Division geologists prepared after completion of a mapping
project and its related laboratory and office studies.
(3) Preliminary maps are issued to show significant progress on geological projects that are of current interest for exploration.
(4) Mineral Inventory maps showing the location of all known mineral
deposits and commodities present.
(5) Mineral Deposit-Land Use maps which show an interpretation of
the relative exploration potential of regions.
(6) Aeromagnetic maps produced co-operatively with the Geological
Survey of Canada which are useful as a guide to prospecting and
to interpreting geology.
Staff
The professional staff are highly qualified academically, are experienced in
the industry, and many are widely acknowledged experts in their fields. On December 31, 1973, the professional and technical staff included the following:
Stuart S. Holland, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief Geologist
A. Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng Deputy Chief Geologist
N. C. Carter, M.Sc, P.Eng Senior Geologist
E. W. Grove, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
W. M. Johnson, Ph.D Chief Analyst
P. F. Ralph, L.R.I.C Deputy Chief Analyst
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng .Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
J. A. Garnett, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
J. W. McCammon, M.A.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. Panteleyev, M.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
D. E. Pearson, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. F. Shepherd, B.A.Sc, P.Eng Geologist
R. I. Thompson, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
G. P. E. White, B.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Kamloops
T. G. Schroeter, M.Sc, P.Eng District Geologist, Smithers
G. L. James Research Officer (Geology)
Miss Judith Winsby, B.Sc. Research Officer (Geology)
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 65
N. G. Colvin Laboratory Scientist
R. J. Hibberson, B.Sc Laboratory Scientist
B. Bhagwanani, B.Sc Laboratory Technician
M. A. Chaudhry Laboratory Technician
F. F. Karpick Assayer
L. E. Shepherd Laboratory Technician
Mrs. V. V. Vilkos, Ph.D Laboratory Technician
In addition to the staff, the Division has contracted for the services of G. L.
Bell, M.Sc, P.Eng., as Coal Consultant, and of W. D. McCartney, Ph.D., P.Eng.,
and A. H. Matheson, B.Sc, to prepare the Mineral Deposit-Land Use maps.
Staff Changes
Dr. E. W. Grove, a graduate of the University of British Columbia and McGill
University, was appointed Senior Geologist, Economic Geology Section, in October
1973.
Dr. D. E. Pearson, a graduate of the University of Wales and University College, Swansea, a former member of the Geological Survey of Saskatchewan, joined
the staff in April 1973.
G. P. E. White, a graduate of the University of New Brunswick, joined the
staff as District Geologist, Kamloops, in September 1973.
T. G. Schroeter, a graduate of the University of Western Ontario, joined the
staff as District Geologist, Smithers, in October 1973.
Miss Judith Winsby, a graduate of the University of British Columbia, joined
the staff as Research Officer (Geology) in May 1973.
George James joined the staff as Research Officer (Geology) in May 1973.
The Analytical Laboratory had a large turnover of staff in 1973. Stanley
Metcalfe retired from his position as Chief Analyst, his secretary, Mrs. Lillian
Collins, also retired, and Mrs. Elizabeth Juhasz transferred to the Engineering
Division within the Forest Service.
Dr. Wesley M. Johnson took over as Chief Analyst and Paul Ralph joined the
staff in May as Deputy Chief Analyst. Three new technicians were hired, one as
a replacement for Mrs. Juhasz, and two to fill new positions created to cope with
the expanding work load of the laboratory. The new personnel are Dr. Verna
Vilkos, B. Bhagwanani, and M. A. Chaudhry.
Organization
The Geological Division, Mineral Resources Branch, was called the Mineralc-
gical Branch prior to the reorganization of the Department in 1973. The present
name more closely defines its role. The Division consists of four sections, two
operational and two service sections. These are the Economic Geology and Resource Geology Sections, supported by the Analytical Services and Publication and
Technical Services Sections.
Resource Geology Section
The Resource Geology Section, under the direction of N. C. Carter, undertakes office and field studies concerned with resource appraisal. The importance
of this section is that it provides an inventory of the mineral resource, monitors its
activity, and appraises its potential.   Adequate planning and administration of the
3
 A 66 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
resource are impossible if these functions are not adequately performed.   To fulfil
these functions, in 1973 the Section conducted the following major programmes:
(1) Documentation of current exploration and mining activity and preparation of short reports for Geology, Exploration and Mining in
British Columbia (by E. V. Jackson, Judith Winsby, and G. L.
James).
(2) Compilation and updating the inventory of mineral deposits of the
Province. The inventory now consists of approximately 6,500 deposits plotted on 1:250,000, or 1 inch equals 2 miles maps with
data concerning individual deposits entered on %XA by 11-inch cards.
The inventory is considered to be about 70 per cent complete.
(3) Preparation of Mineral Deposit-Land Use maps. These maps are
based on the British Columbia Mineral Inventory plus interpretative
appraisal of regional geology so as to produce maps at a scale of
1:250,000 of the varying mineral potential of the land. They are
useful for planning purposes and as guides for exploration. Maps
are finished for that part of British Columbia north of latitude 54
degrees and west of the Rocky Mountain Trench and for selected
parts of the south (Dr. McCartney and A. H. Matheson).
(4) District Geologists assist in documenting current exploration activity
in their districts, carry out selected field studies, provide liaison with
Government intersector committees and with industry, as well as
provide information and advice to prospectors (G. P. E. White and
T. G. Schroeter). These District Geologists were only appointed
in the autumn of 1973, but already have proved to be very effective
in their roles.
(5) Appraisals of coal and nonmetallic mineral deposits are made by
G. L. Bell and J. W. McCammon respectively. Field work for
coal appraisal was carried out by Bell at all active coal properties
and by McCammon at all sand and gravel pits on the Lower Mainland.
(6) Appraisals of 715 reports on mineral deposits submitted for assessment credits were carried out by Dr. G. E. P. Eastwood,
(7) Appraisals of proposed Park and Ecological Reserves were carried
out by office and field studies by N. C. Carter with the aid of geologists familiar with specific areas. About 25 park proposals and 35
ecological reserves were dealt with. Two potential parks, Schoen
Lake-Tsitika on Vancouver Island and Fish Egg Inlet on the central
Mainland coast, required extensive field appraisals by Dr. Northcote
and Dr. Pearson respectively.
Economic Geology Section
The Economic Geology Section, under the direction of Dr. E. W. Grove, is
concerned with geological mapping and related laboratory and office studies of
areas of moderate and high mineral potential. With nonrenewable resources such
as mineral deposits, discovery must equal exploitation if the resource is not to be
depleted. Most of the obvious outcropping ore deposits probably have been found,
consequently, the discovery of the many additional covered, buried, or obscure ones
will require sound geological deductions and advanced exploration techniques.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 67
The importance of the studies of this Section is to provide maps and ideas necessary
for intelligent and successful prospecting and exploration.
The Section consists of nine geologists who worked on the following major
projects in 1973:
B. N. Church started mapping the volcanic rocks and the stratiform copper
deposits of the Sustut area.
J. A. Garnett completed mapping of the southern Omineca intrusions and their
copper and molybdenum deposits.
E. W. Grove continued a comparative study of massive sulphide deposits, with
mapping at Granduc mine.
W. J. McMillan completed mapping of the Guichon Creek batholith and the
porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits of the Highland Valley. On the same
project, E. W. Grove completed the detailed sampling of this, the most copper-rich
intrusive body known in the Province, to study the chemistry in relation to the
origin of the known ore deposits and discovery of others.
K. E. Northcote continued his detailed study of the mineral deposits of Vancouver Island.
A. Panteleyev continued mapping the volcanic rocks, syenitic intrusions, and
copper deposits of the Stikine area.
D. E. Pearson took over from R. I. Thompson in mapping of the volcanic
rocks west of Harrison Lake and their copper deposits.
V. A. Preto continued mapping volcanic and intrusive rocks between Princeton and Merritt that are noted for their abundant copper prospects.
R. I. Thompson completed mapping of the area and zinc deposits near Robb
Lake in the northern Rocky Mountains.
In addition, N. C. Carter completed his studies of the age and nature of
porphyry copper and molybdenum deposits of west central British Columbia and
A. Sutherland Brown mapped the Gibraltar mine. A number of smaller projects
and preliminary work on future major projects were also conducted.
Analytical Services Section
The Analytical Services Section has functioned under the direction of the
Chief of the Mineralogical Branch since January 1970, but was not fully integrated
into the Geological Division until the reorganization of .1973. The laboratory,
under the direction of Dr. W. M. Johnson, underwent considerable change in
1973, it being the culmination of three years of modernization, reorganization, and
modest expansion. Chemical analyses for metals, major oxides, and trace elements for a most important part of information used by geologists of the Economic
Geology Section and the capability of the new laboratory enables that Section to
carry on an effective programme. The laboratory also performs analyses for other
Government agencies and a limited number of analyses for prospectors.
The laboratory is equipped with an X-ray diffraction spectrometer, an emission
spectrograph, two absorption spectrophotometers, and other analytical instruments.
It also has the facilities to do both classical wet chemical analyses and noble metal
analyses, using fire assaying techniques.
The laboratory, in its primary role of providing chemical data for the Economic Geology Section, is involved in two silt geochemical surveys and several
large rock geochemical surveys, including the Guichon Creek batholith project.
Other services for the geologists include X-ray mineral identification, mineral separations for age dating by K-Ar analysis, arc fusion for refractive index determinations,
quantitative quartz and other mineral analyses, quantitative and semiquantitative
 A 68
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
spectrochemical analyses, as well as the normal functions of total silicate, major
oxide trace element, base and noble metal analyses.
Other work of the laboratory includes free assays for prospectors under the
Prospectors' Grub-stake Act and up to five free analyses for any bona fide prospector.
The work load of the laboratory increased dramatically over the previous year,
as can be seen in the following tabular summary.
WET AND FIRE ASSAY LABORATORIES
Prospectors
Nongrantees
Grantees
Number of
Samples
Number of
Determinations
Number of
Samples
Number of
Determinations
Number of
Samples
Number of
Determinations
i<m
137
156
267
311
295
575
88
62
19
203
125
40
916
301
287
10,293
i<m
1,677
1971
2,287
EMISSION SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
Semiquantitative
Prospectors
(not reported)
Departmental Geologists
Quantitative
Departmental Geologists
Nongrantees
Grantees
Reported
Not Reported
Number of
Samples
Number of
Determinations
197.:
137
150
262
88
62
19
237
47
113
347
78
98
312
98
3,080
197?
680
1971   _
X-RAY LABORATORY
(Departmental Geologists)
Per Cent
Quartz
1973   1,284
1972       460
1971  .   	
Mineral
Identification
310
165
172
In addition, three samples of barite were analysed in the emission spectrographs and the wet chemical laboratories for the Treasury Department. Several
miscellaneous samples were identified for members of the general public who
brought samples into the laboratory. There were 543 samples crushed and arc-
fused in preparation for refractive index measurements.
The increase in productivity of the laboratory during the year has been very
large. This has been effected by new instrumentation, new methods and direction,
and a modest increase in staff. Increased production occurred in every category
and over all ranged from a 160-per-cent increase in output of determinations in
prospectors' samples to 565 per cent for Departmental geologists. The laboratory
is stiE very poorly housed, but were it to be accommodated in an efficient laboratory, increased productivity and even better accuracy could be expected. During
the year many alternative plans for a new laboratory were considered without a
final decision being reached by the Department of Public Works.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 69
The laboratory also began participation in the Canadian Standard Reference
Materials Project, which is co-ordinated by the Mineral Science Division of the
Department of Energy, Mines, and Resources, Ottawa. The project involves the
distribution of samples of chosen reference materials to participating laboratories
for the analysis of specified elements. This is a continuing programme with new
reference materials being established as the need arises. The laboratory is also
participating in a similar project sponsored by the Institute of Geological Sciences
of the United Kingdom.
Examinations for Assayers
Board of Examiners
W. M. Johnson Secretary
N. G. Colvin Member
F. F. Karpick Member
Examinations were held in June and December. In June, 12 candidates were
examined, of whom four passed and eight failed. In the December examination
there were four candidates, two of whom were passed, one was failed, and one was
granted a supplemental examination.
Publication and Technical Services Section
The Publication and Technical Services Section, under Dr. A. Sutherland
Brown, carried out a variety of tasks to service the operation sections and laboratory; its main function nevertheless is to produce and publish maps and reports
from manuscripts prepared by geologists whose labour is wasted unless put in
permanent and reproducible form.
The following material was produced in 1973: Geology, Exploration and
Mining in British Columbia, 1972*; Bulletin 61, Geology of the White Lake Basin,
by B. N. Church; Preliminary Map No. 10, Preliminary Geological Map of Aspen
Grove Area, by P. A. Christopher; Preliminary Map No. 11, Preliminary Geological Map of the Buck Creek Area, by B. N. Church; Preliminary Map No. 12,
Preliminary Geological Map of the Northern Babine Lake Area, by N. C. Carter;
Preliminary Maps No. 13, Geological Map of Owen Lake-Goosly Lake Area, by
B. N. Church, and Petrochemical overlay maps "a" to "g" for the same area, by
J. Barakso and B. N. Church.
Manuscript and map preparation for the above and other publications produced outside the Department were under the direction of Mrs. R. J. Moir and K.
S. Crabtree respectively.
Technical services under the direction of A. F. Shepherd included the Departmental library, equipment, and lapidary service. Lapidary and photographic
work is done by R. E. Player.
Aeromagnetic Surveys
The programme of airborne magnetometer mapping, jointly financed by the
Geological Survey of Canada and the British Columbia Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources, continued in 1973. Twenty-eight map sheets lying between
latitudes 49 degrees and 50 degrees 45 minutes north and longitudes 116 degrees
and 120 degrees west were released during the year.
Maps released in former years as well as index maps showing the coverage
by aeromagnetic mapping in British Columbia may be obtained from the British
* Delayed in publication.
 A 70 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Room 418, Douglas
Building, Victoria, or the Geological Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street,
Vancouver.
The basic data used in compiling the maps are on open file at the Geological
Survey of Canada in Ottawa, where interested parties may arrange to obtain them
for special processing.
INSPECTION AND ENGINEERING DIVISION
Inspectors stationed at the places listed below inspect coal mines, metal mines,
and quarries in the districts shown on Figure 2. They also may examine prospects, mining properties, roads and trails, and carry out special investigations under
the Mineral Act. The Environmental Control Inspectors conduct dust, ventilation,
and noise surveys at all mines and quarries and, where necessary, make recommendations to improve environmental conditions. H. Bapty supervises the roads and
trails programme and prospectors' grub-stakes. J. D. McDonald administers the
reclamation sections of the Coal Mines Regulation Act and Mines Regulation Act.
A. R. C. James is Senior Inspector, Coal, and has additional duties as mining adviser
to the Securities Commission.
Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector Victoria
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Senior Inspector, Electrical-Mechanical Victoria
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector, Coal; Aid to Securities Victoria
Harry Bapty, Senior Inspector, Mining-roads  Victoria
J. Cartwright, Inspector, Electrical Victoria
J. D. McDonald, Senior Inspector, Reclamation  .Victoria
John Dick, Reclamation Inspector  Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control .Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nanaimo
R. W. Lewis, Inspector and Resident Engineer Fernie
David Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
E. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
R. Heistad, Inspector-Technician, Mechanical Kamloops
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
P. E. Olson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nelson
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
J. F. Hutter, Inspector and Resident Engineer Smithers
W. H. Childress, Technician, Noise Surveys Vancouver
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Stations
E. C. Ingham, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Prince George
G. J. Lee, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Nelson
A. Littler, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Fernie
T. H. Robertson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Nanaimo
J. A. Thomson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Kamloops
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 71
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 A 72 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
Staff Changes
In March, John Dick, Reclamation Inspector, joined the headquarters staff,
and in April, J. D. McDonald, Senior Reclamation Inspector, rejoined the staff
to replace W. B. Montgomery on his retirement. In August, J. F. Hutter replaced
W. G. Clarke as Inspector and Resident Engineer in Smithers. In October, R.
Heistad joined the staff as Inspector of Mines-Technician, Mechanical, and resident
at Kamloops.
T. M. Waterland was transferred to the Kamloops office to organize a survival
rescue course and to revise other mine-rescue training course details.
Board of Examiners
Board of Examiners (Coal Mines Regulation Act)
J. W. Peck, Chairman Victoria
A. R. C. James, member Victoria
R. W. Lewis, member Fernie
The Board conducts written and practical examinations for the various certificates of competency under the provisions of sections 25 and 26 of the Coal
Mines Regulation Act, and advises the Minister on the granting of interchange
certificates under this Act. Under the new Act the Board is no longer responsible
for issuing coal miners' certificates; these are now issued after examination by the
District Inspector.
Board of Examiners (Mines Regulation Act)
J. E. Merrett, Chairman Victoria
A. R. C. James, member  .Victoria
W. C. Robinson, member Nanaimo
The Board conducts written examinations in various mining centres for applicants for underground and surface shiftboss certificates. The Board is also empowered to grant provisional certificates without examination and under such conditions as the Board considers necessary.
Mining Roads and Trails
Provision is made in the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources Act
whereby the Minister may, with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
authorize the expenditure of public funds for the construction or repair of roads
and trails into mining areas. Assistance on a half-cost basis may also be provided
on roads and trails to individual properties.
Requests for road and trail assistance must be made to the Department before
the commencement of work. The type of access upon which assistance may be
given depends upon the value of the property, the stage of development, and the
amount of work to be done. A trail is sometimes sufficient for initial exploration,
and a tractor-road may be adequate for preliminary work. Subsequent development might warrant assistance on the construction of a truck road. A carefully
drawn sketch or plan of the location of the road is required to be submitted and,
where warranted by the amount of assistance requested, a report on the property
by a professional geological or mining engineer may be required. An engineer
from the Department may be required to report on the property before a grant is
made and to inspect the road after the work has been done.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 73
The total mileages and expenditures under "Grants in Aid of Mining Roads
and Trails" during the 1973/74 fiscal year were as follows:
Miles Cost
Roads— $
Construction      27 269,549.94
Maintenance   281 174,485.03
Bridges—
Construction   38,503.11
Maintenance   36,094.95
Total  518,633.03
Construction was completed under Project 763 (Barnett-McQueen Ltd.)—
Stikine River bridge. This completes the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources' participation in the Stewart-Cassiar Road built under the "Road to Resources" agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of
British Columbia. The construction was done by contract under the supervision
of the Department of Highways on behalf of the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources. All future responsibility for the road has been transferred to the Department of Highways.
Total expenditure on the road to this date is $31,665,296.82. The Federal
Government's commitment of $7,500,000 was expended by the end of September
1967, and since then the whole cost of construction has been borne by the Provincial Government. The financing of the Stewart-Cassiar Road has been a remarkable achievement for our Department.
Project 763 for $323,223.29 completes 400 miles of north-south road connecting our most northerly saltwater port of Stewart on the Alaska-British Columbia
boundary to Mile 648 on the Alaska Highway. This road opens a whole new part
of northwest British Columbia to water and road transportation.
The Omineca Road, extending 240 miles northwest of Fort St. James, was
advanced an additional 22 miles to Moosevale airstrip. This portion of new road
will be completed and further construction will be undertaken to Thorne Lake.
Logging interests improved 31 miles of road to Sylvester Creek, and logs are being
hauled over the road 60 miles to Fort St. James.
During the year the British Columbia Parks Board designated four new park
areas along the Omineca Road. The road is becoming a popular area for recreation, fishing, and hunting. Consequently, many requests are received to upgrade
the road above the standard required for mine exploration and development. The
cost of road maintenance has increased as the road receives greater use and heavier
traffic.
For the purpose of encouraging the development of the petroleum and natural
gas resources in the northeastern part of the Province, an additional grant of
$17,000 was provided to maintain vehicle approaches to and over the British Columbia railway bridge across the Fort Nelson River.
Grub-staking Prospectors
Under the authority of the Prospectors' Grub-stake Act the Department has
provided grub-stakes each year since 1943 to a limited number of applicants able
to qualify. Grub-stakes up to $500 for food, shelter, and clothing, plus a reasonable
travelling allowance, are available to a limited number of qualified prospectors
who undertake to prospect in British Columbia in areas considered favourable by
 A 74                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
the Department in accordance with a long-range plan for the development of the
Province.    Experienced prospectors may be granted a maximum of $300 for
travelling expenses if prospecting is to be done in remote areas where air transportation is necessary.
Application forms and terms and conditions under which grub-stakes are
granted may be obtained from H. Bapty, Senior Inspector, Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
Samples received from grub-staked prospectors are assayed free of charge and
mineralogical identifications may be made on request.
Grub-stake Statistics
Field Season
Approximate
Expenditure
Men
Grub-staked
Samples and
Specimens
Received at
Department
Laboratory
Mineral
Claims
Recorded
1041
I
18,500          1           90
27,215          |          105
27.310           1             84
773
606
448
419
469
443
567
226
255
251
201
336
288
163
174
287
195
358
309
233
150
213
241
224
148
234
151
84
87
135
181
162
142
138
103
95
137
95
141
123
183
217
101
211
202
241
325
189
843
351
219
239
432
402
221
423
348
ion
1044
1945                                            .-           ...
1046
35,200
36,230
35,975
31,175
26,800
19,385
19,083
17,850
19,989
21,169
20,270
22,000
24,850
21,575
28,115
29,175
26,730
29,000
31,751
24,717
26,787
29,891
31,224
21,758
30,614
21,081
20,838
21,146
95
91
92
98
78
63
50
41
48
47
47
46
47
38
50
47
52
50
53
42
43
47
47
27
39
1<>47
104R
1040
1050
1951                                                        	
105?.
1051
1954.                      	
1955
1957....
1958-.   -                    	
1050
106(1
lOfil
1962                                                     	
1963
1964    '                                                           .    	
1Q6S
1966.. -.         -	
1967 	
1968
1969           .	
19711
1971
1972	
23           |            29
27          1            64
1073
22          |            89          |            47
Totals    	
845,372
1,729          I       8,628
1
6,923
Thirty-one applications were received, and 22 grub-stakes were authorized.
Grantees unable to complete the terms and conditions of the grant received only
partial payment.    Four prospectors were given grants for the first time.    Two
grantees proved to be unsatisfactory.
E. R. Hughes interviewed applicants and contacted grantees in the field, giving
advice and direction to those requiring additional instruction and field guidance.
Personnel in Government Agents' offices and local Mine Inspectors throughout the Province generously assisted in administering the programme.    The following notes comprise summaries by Mr. Hughes of prospecting activities in the
various mining districts.   These summaries are from field observations and from
information contained in diaries submitted by grantees.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 75
Alberni Mining Division—An intrusive north of the west side of Saunders
Creek, near Gold River, contains pyrite, arsenopyrite, and minor amounts of copper.   Rocks seen in the area are limestone and granite.
In the Donner Lake area, west of Strathcona Park, creeks were mapped and
56 samples of water were collected for analysis. A grid was laid out for soil sampling and 171 soil samples were taken. The rocks in the area are granite, porphyry,
limestone, and dolomite. Copper was seen in porphyry. Pyrite and minor amounts
of zinc were also found in the area. Two mineral claims were staked, and 101
feet 6 inches of diamond drilling was done. One sample taken in the area assayed
gold, 0.01 ounce per ton; silver, 0.2 ounce per ton; copper, 0.19 per cent; lead,
0.005 per cent; zinc, 0.03 per cent. A grab sample assayed a trace of gold and a
trace of silver.
A two-man team spent the season on Brooks Peninsula. On Gold Creek,
which flows into Amos Creek, tiny specks of gold were recovered by panning.
Several quartz veins were observed in granodiorite, but no mineralization was seen.
A calcite vein, 6 feet wide, contains massive pyrite. Eight samples taken in the
area assayed a trace in gold and silver.
On Amos Creek, above Gold Creek, iron boulders were seen and a substantial
deposit of iron was found. It is reported to be 400 feet wide and was traced on
the surface for a length of 800 feet. A semiquantitative spectrochemical analysis on
a sample indicated in excess of 20 per cent iron.
Clinton Mining Division—From a base camp near Mosley Creek, south of
Bluff Lake, some prospecting was done westward along Clay Creek and through
the steeply walled Clay Creek canyon. The sedimentary rocks, including siltstone,
sandstone, shale, and conglomerate, were reported to be underlain by igneous
intrusions. Large amounts of fragmental porphyritic andesite and basalt, as well
as greywacke and quartz diorite, were found in the bed of the creek. Two water
samples were taken for analysis.
On Deer Creek, near its confluence with Mosley Creek, fossil leaf impressions
were seen in siltstone. Approximately 5 miles easterly from Mosely Creek the
channel of Deer Creek deepens and cuts through shale and sandstone. The waters
of the small creeks feeding into Deer Creek are high in iron. Quartz and basalt
fragments are abundant on the north and south slopes of the valley. Some fragments contain minor pyrite, chalcopyrite, and arsenopyrite. Narrow quartz veins
were seen in the lower cliffs and large gneiss boulders were found near a dried-up
drainage channel. Folded beds of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are exposed
at higher elevations, but no mineralization was seen. Veins and pockets of pyrrho-
tite and pyrite were found on Butler Creek, east from Bluff Lake.
On Blackhorn Mountain, about 15 miles southwesterly from Bluff Lake, some
prospecting was done in the area adjacent to the site of the abandoned Homathko
gold mine where some development took place during 1937, 1938, and 1939.
Chalcopyrite and bornite are abundant in float and some gold is present in quartz
boulders. Samples from narrow quartz veins, from large boulders, and from the
old mine adit gave encouraging assay results in gold and silver.
Some prospecting was done south of Tatlayoko Lake and adjacent to the
former Morris gold mine where there was some activity during 1935 to 1938. No
mineral claims were recorded and no new discoveries were reported.
Kamloops Mining Division—The creeks draining into Eakin Creek, west of
Little Fort, were panned and total heavy metals tested for over a distance of approximately 5 miles with negative results. No mineralization was observed. In the Lac
des Roches, Birch Lake, and Thuya Lake area, the rock types encountered were
 A 76 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1973
granite, diorite, and porphyry. Panning and testing for total heavy metals gave
negative results. South of Thuya Lake, minor amounts of chalcopyrite and malachite were found in float. The walls of some creeks exposed massive unaltered
granite.
On a newly constructed logging-road, about 8 miles northwest of Avola, excavation for the right-of-way exposed rocks previously covered by heavy overburden.
In 1 mile of construction, three rock cuts were examined. In the centre cut was a
narrow discontinuous vein containing a minor amount of chalcopyrite. Numerous
samples were submitted for assay from this area. Three samples assayed 0.95 per
cent, 0.79 per cent, and 0.39 per cent copper. Thirty other samples assayed traces
of gold and silver.
Liard Mining Division—A search was made for the extension of a gold-bearing quartz vein on Table Mountain, east of Cassiar. Quartz veins up to 6 feet wide
were seen, but they contained no mineralization. On the west side of Blackfox
Mountain, in an area underlain by rocks of the Sylvester Group, samples containing
minor amounts of native silver, lead, and zinc were taken from a narrow quartz
vein. Blowpipe tests of samples taken in this area show minor amounts of lead
and copper and appreciable amounts of silver.
On Needlepoint Mountain, southeast of Cassiar and east of the Stewart-Cassiar road, several narrow veins were seen containing minor amounts of bornite,
chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and silver. On the southwest side of Needlepoint Mountain, two granodiorite stocks were seen intruding the sediments. Samples collected near the stocks contained pyrite and pyrrhotite in dolomite. East of the
British Columbia Railway right-of-way, south of Dease Lake, a camp was made
near the Tanzilla River bridge. A sedimentary-granite contact was examined, but
no significant mineralization was found.
Nanaimo Mining Division—In the Upper Quinsam Lake-Iron River area,
some prospecting was done along a metamorphic-volcanic intrusive contact. Some
trenching and searching for rock exposures was done in and adjacent to old open-
cuts on abandoned logging-roads and on the hillsides. Minor amounts of pyrite,
arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite were seen in several places.
Nelson Mining Division—Some work was done in the Blazed, Summit, and
Jersey Creek areas where the Aldridge, Creston, Kitchener, Mount Nelson, Irene,
Toby, Dutch, and Horsethief Formations were examined. Quartz lenses were
observed, but these were found to be barren. Minor amounts of sulphides were
seen in stained boulders. Some brown-stained outcrops of argillaceous quartzite
were seen about 1 mile north of the confluence of Blazed and Summit Creeks.
Blowpipe tests on samples collected in this prospecting work did not indicate any
significant mineralization.
New Westminster Mining Division—Negative results were reported in soil
sampling in the 13, 17, and 30-mile areas near the Skagit River road, south of Hope.
Minor sphalerite was found on the west side of Shawatum Mountain. Minor
amounts of arsenopyrite were seen near Ten Mile Creek.
North of the abandoned Coquihalla branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway
right-of-way, 13 to 17 miles east of Hope and in the higher elevations between
Ladner Creek and Boston Bar Creek, some conventional prospecting was done.
The rocks encountered were diorite, granite, argillite, slate, and conglomerate. The
mineralization seen included minute flakes of molybdenite and minor amounts of
pyrite.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 77
Omineca Mining Division—Some prospecting was done in the Mount Greer-
Hallett Lake area. Three samples were sent for assay and some soil and silt sampling was done. A wide variety of rock was encountered near the contact of the
Takla Group volcanic rocks and the Topley intrusions, with some younger rhyolitic
dykes. Much pyrite was seen in coarse-grained diorite north of Hallett Lake. Four
mineral claims were located north of Hallett Lake.
North of Germansen Lake, much pyrite was seen in dacitic rocks. South of
Germansen Lake, some detailed sampling was done. Some pyrite was found in
fine-grained sedimentary rocks. A small amount of float containing chalcopyrite
was seen.
Some chalcopyrite and molybdenite were reported and six mineral claims
were located north of Chuchi Lake. Trail work was done to provide access to the
claims.
An area of gossans was prospected south of Germansen Lake near a batholith
and volcanic contact. Several small quartz veins were found and small amounts of
pyrite and sphalerite was seen. Six mineral claims were located near a breccia
pipe on Nation Mountain. A long traverse was made west of Ahdatay Lake and
an occurrence of chalcopyrite in limestone near an instrusive contact was examined.
An insignificant amount of sulphide was found in diorite.
North of Woodcock and west of Kitwanga, the tailings dump from an old adit
was found to be well mineralized with galena, pyrite, and sphalerite. Two mineral
claims were staked over the old workings. All the creeks running into the east
side of Kitwanga River were tested with negative results. Shales and dolomites
were encountered adjacent to Moonlit Creek. Results of panning in the creek and
testing for total heavy metals were negative.
A two-man team was flown to Spinel Lake adjacent to the northern boundary
of the Omineca Mining Division. On the east side of Spinel Lake, large mica-rich
granite float was seen and at higher elevations mica schist was found overlain with
a skarn zone carrying massive pyrrhotite. In the Flat Top Mountain area, garnets
were plentiful in creek pannings. In tributaries of Kechika River, mica schist,
quartzite, skarn, and many quartz veins and stringers were seen.
South of Spinel Lake, quartz-calcite veins were seen containing chalcopyrite
and malachite. Eighteen mineral claims were located in the vicinity of a vein approximately 300 feet long and from 4 inches to 4 feet wide. The over-all copper
mineralization is approximately 1,000 feet in strike length, but is not continuous
and in parts is up to 6 feet wide. A narrow quartz stringer in shale, well mineralized
with galena and sphalerite, was found between Spinel Lake and Obo River. Two
mineral claims were located to cover the exposure.
Osoyoos Mining Division—Near Mile 4 on the Ashnola River forest access
road, black sand concentrate containing some small red garnets and minor amounts
of scheelite was panned. Small garnets and minor scheelite were also found near
Mile 30. Pegmatite, skarn, and small red garnets were seen in float near Easygoing
Creek that flows easterly into the Ashnola River. Limestone and sandstone float
was also found on Easygoing Creek. Minor pyrite, quartz, chert, and argillite
float were seen on Ewart Creek.
Similkam