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REPORT of the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE DECEMBER 31 1971 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1972

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Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister V. Raudsepp, Deputy Minister of Water Resources
of the
Printed by K. M. MacDonald,
Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
Guarding the purity and ecological balance of countless waterways such as Reed
Lake has become a rapidly growing aspect
of the Water Resources Service's work.
  Victoria, British Columbia, February 1, 1972.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the year ended December 31, 1971.
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 Victoria, British Columbia, February 1, 1972.
The Honourable Ray Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Dear Sir: I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the 12 months ended December 31, 1971.
Deputy Minister of Water Resources
December 31, 1971
V. Raudsepp, Deputy Minister and Chairman, Pollution Control Board
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister
Water Rights Branch
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
Water Investigations Branch
B. E. Marr, Chief Engineer
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer
Pollution Control Branch
W. N. Venables, Director
Chemistry Laboratory
A. J. Lynch, Chief Chemist
Inspector of Dykes Office
W. R. Meighen, Inspector of Dykes
W. S. Jackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
L. A. Pinske, Supervisor
Accounting Division*
M. B. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller
Personnel Office*
R. C. Webber
Mail and File Roomj
D. S. Preston, in Charge
Public Information Officer
J. McCrossan
* Service shared with Lands Service.
t Service shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Report of the Deputy Minister       9
Water Rights Branch—
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights  15
Water Licensing Division  17
District Engineers Division  21
Improvement Districts Division  32
Power and Major Licences Division  40
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Chief Engineer  49
Report of Assistant Chief Engineer  51
Water Supply and Investigations Division  55
Hydrology Division.  67
Groundwater Division  72
ARDA and Construction Division  77
Basin Planning and Power Division  84
Projects Division  89
Ecology Division  91
Records Compilation and Reports Section  92
Draughting Office  93
Pollution Control Board  9 9
Pollution Control Branch  103
Chemistry Laboratory  119
Inspector of Dykes  127
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  131
Personnel Office  135
Accounting Division  137
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng.
Deputy Minister of
Water Resources
The year 1971 saw the Water Resources Service entering its tenth year as a
separate Service within the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
The Service has charge of the management of British Columbia's water resources
and, under the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources Act, the Deputy
Minister has jurisdiction over all matters pertaining to the water resources of the
There are three main Branches of the Water Resources Service—(1) Water
Rights Branch, which controls the use of surface water under authority of the Water
Act and supervises the administration of improvement districts incorporated under
the Water Act; (2) Water Investigations Branch, which deals with technical water
resources matters not falling directly under the terms of the Water Act; (3) Pollution Control Branch, which administers the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
A fourth major organizational development occurred in April 1971, with the
transfer to the Water Resources Service of the Health Branch's Chemistry Laboratory, located in Vancouver. As some 95 per cent of the laboratory's work load is
for Pollution Control Branch, the transfer was a logical move. Some conception of
the laboratory's increasing involvement in water and waste-water sampling can be
gained from the average of 6,700 chemical analyses performed per month during the
last quarter of 1971, compared with the 3,100 average monthly analyses undertaken
during the year's first quarter.
In addition to the above, (5) the Pollution Control Board deals with pollution
control standards and appeals from decisions of the Director of the Pollution Control
Branch; (6) the Inspector of Dykes administers the Dykes Maintenance Act; and
throughout the year (7) the Supervisor of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project;
(8) the Personnel Officer; (9) the Departmental Comptroller; and (10) the Mail
and File Room, all continued with their important functions. The Service's library
completed its task of cataloguing 2,797 textbooks for use by main-Branch staff and
on loan to external libraries.
In terms of availability of water supply, 1971 was a good year with stream-
flows across the Province generally well up to average. Flows were above normal
in the Kootenays and Okanagan but somewhat below average late in summer in the
Cariboo, Chilcotin, and Vancouver Island areas. Because of the generally good
supply, the year's demands for water-use regulation were below average.
The total of water-licence applications of all types showed an increase over
1970, causing the backlog of outstanding applications to grow to 2,827. Applications
for licence amendments increased markedly. Advances were made in updating the
water rights maps—some over 40 years old and in poor condition—to assist future
speeding-up of application processing. The year 1971 saw completion of an upward
revision of application fees and annual licence rentals to help offset increased administration costs and to underline increasing awareness of the value of the Province's
water resources.
The Water Rights Branch continued with a high level of participation in the
administration and engineering fields for the improvement districts, which operate
local community water supply, irrigation, drainage, sewerage, and other works. The
Branch's District Engineers reported substantial work-load increases during the
year, much of this being attributable to their close involvement with the growing
activities of the Province's regional districts.
Estimated electric energy generation in the Province during 1971 was 28,535
million kilowatt-hours, a rise over the previous year. Of this total, some 143
million was net export to the United States. Work continued on the installation by
the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority of further generation units at
the Peace River power development, and Water Rights staff increased their coordination and liaison role in implementing power projects under the Columbia
River Treaty—notably on the Kootenay Canal Plant project, the Whatsan Plant,
Mica Dam, and the Jordan River development serving southern Vancouver Island,
which became operational at the year's end. Preparation for flooding of Lake
Koocanusa (formerly known as the Libby Reservoir) went ahead, with 7,450 acres
cleared by the end of 1971 and initial flooding expected in May 1972.
The Province's undeveloped hydro-power potential continued under study by
Water Investigations Branch, including further evaluation of the Liard River's
Considerable strain was placed during the year on Water Investigations Branch's
senior staff through growing participation in the work carried out under joint Federal-Provincial agreements. Among the latter is the Fraser River Flood-control
Programme, involvement with the Fraser River Ecology Committee, further implementation of the Okanagan Basin study, and the ARDA (Agricultural and Rural
Development Act) programme, for which 46 of the planned 62 Provincial water
projects reached completion by 1971.
During 1971 the Water Investigations Branch staff also launched into a water-
quality management study of the Kalamalka-Wood Lake watershed. This will be
on a more intensive basis than the Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin study.
Nowhere was the pace of the Water Resources Service's expansion and development reflected more strongly in 1971 than in the growth of the Pollution
Control Branch, which increased its personnel from 45 to 85. This growth was
expected, as the discharge-registration date requirements of the Pollution Control
Act, 1967 made 1971 the first year in which a clear picture could become apparent
of the enormity of the task facing the Province in correcting the environmental
mistakes of a century of development.
All discharges to land and water required registration by the end of 1970,
and by that date 1,752 registrations were received. During the summer of 1971
an inventory carried out by the Branch's district staffs revealed a further 2,105
unregistered discharges.   With December 31, 1971, as the deadline for registration
of air-contaminant emissions, the Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
and the Pollution Control Branch, took special measures to publicize this requirement, and 3,155 air emissions were duly registered by the year's end.
A major advance in facilitating more rapid processing of permit applications
occurred in the fall of 1971 with the recommendation by the Director of Pollution
Control Branch to the Pollution Control Board of three sets of objectives and
requirements for the handling of wastes of similar characteristics.
The first covered "pollution control objectives for the forest products industry"
(resulting from the Director's 1970 inquiry into that industry's technology). Then
followed "requirements for disposal of municipal and domestic waste waters to
surface waters" and "operational guidelines for the discharge of refuse to land."
All three sets of standards were officially adopted as policy by the Pollution Control
Board. During the year it was announced that further major industry inquiries
would be forthcoming in 1972 to arrive at other future common pollution control
During 1971, financial support by the Water Resources Service continued
for a programme of graduate studies and extensive research projects into water
resource and pollution control subjects. At the University of British Columbia,
projects included methods of handling solid wastes, recycling, landfill studies, decomposition of wood residuals, operation of remote flood-control reservoirs, and
improved flood-forecasting techniques—with detailed studies of wood-waste burning and other aspects of pulp-mill pollution control technology. At the British
Columbia Research laboratories, research was concentrated on the removal of
colour from pulp-mill liquid effluents.
The Branches and other sections of the Water Resources Service give their
annual review of operations on the following pages. A review of the implementation
of the Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood-control Agreement of 1968 is given
The Fraser River Flood-control Programme was initiated through an agreement reached in May 1968 between Canada and the Province of British Columbia.    Under this Agreement, each Government is prepared to contribute up to
$18,000,000 in a " joint undertaking of a program of studies and works
for flood control aimed at substantially reducing the flood threat to this area."
Local beneficiaries will participate in financing the improvements to dyking,
drainage, and bank protection wherever projects within their area of jurisdiction
received the approval of the two senior Governments. This local contribution to
the cost of works is determined in accordance with a formula wherein the local
authority pays 10 per cent of the dyking costs, 5 per cent of the bank-protection
costs, and 20 per cent of the expenditure on drainage improvements, with a minimum over all of 10 per cent.
Applications for projects must be made to the Province of British Columbia
by a recognized local authority and, to date, 16 applications have been received
and forwarded by the Province to the Federal-Provincial Joint Programme Committee which is responsible under the terms of the Federal-Provincial Agreement for
the planning and development of projects. Improvements to dyking and drainage
in the Municipality of Kent were completed under the programme during 1971,
and a bank-protection project will be finished in early 1972. The total cost of the
work in Kent is now estimated to be $2,185,825, of which the local authority's
share will be approximately $218,600, depending on actual final costs.
During the latter part of 1971, a dyking, drainage, and bank-protection programme, estimated to cost in the order of $2.3 million, was started in the Matsqui
area. The Matsqui Dyking District, which had been under the administration of
the Inspector of Dykes for many years, was dissolved, and its assets transferred to
The Corporation of The District of Matsqui. The municipality will henceforth
operate and maintain the improved works.
In addition to the two areas described, applications being reviewed by the
Federal-Provincial Joint Programme Committee relate to works in the following
District of Pitt Meadows;
Township of Richmond;
Township of Chilliwhack;
District of Delta;
District of Mission;
District of Sumas;
District of Surrey;
City of New Westminster;
City of Port Coquitlam and the District of Coquitlam;
District of Burnaby;
Village of Harrison Hot Springs;
District of Maple Ridge,
plus one application relating to dykes on the Coquitlam River and another pertaining to bank protection on Seabird Island.
Plans for the Chilliwhack area were finalized late in the year and the proposals
should receive ministerial approval early in 1972. The shareable costs for this
dyking and drainage improvement and bank-protection programme, exclusive of
works on the Vedder River, are expected to amount to over $5 million. A programme for improvement of works in Richmond will be finalized in 1972.
Rising costs and differing standards from those contemplated when the Federal-
Provincial Agreement was signed are leading to project costs well in excess of the
estimates used during the negotiations for that Agreement. The availability of
funds as the programme develops will have to be considered in terms of the requirements of the time.
In addition to the improvement of works in the Lower Fraser Valley, the
Agreement makes provision for a review of proposals for upstream flood storage.
A programme of studies relating to possible reservoirs on the Fraser River system
was developed during the year and a considerable number of these studies and their
related investigations were initiated.   The object of this programme is:
". . . to develop an integrated plan for further flood protection, utilization
and control of the water resources of the Fraser River Basin, with particular emphasis on flood protection for the Lower Fraser Valley, through utilization of dykes,
upstream storage reservoirs and diversions."
It is anticipated that the studies and investigations, for which an allocation of
$1 million has been made, will be reviewed for progress and direction in early 1972,
and should be completed in 1974.
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right of the
Province. The common law principle of riparian water rights has been abolished.
(2) Prospective users of water must file applications for water licences. There is a
procedure for notifying the Deputy Ministers of Agriculture and Recreation and
Conservation and all those whose rights might be affected, all of whom have a right
of objection to water applications.
(3) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions of
the water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences have
priority over licences issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water, payment
of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the Water Act.
(5) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(6) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land, he
can expropriate the land reasonably required if a voluntary agreement cannot be
reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire a
permit to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist
in the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the
Water Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, fire protection, and
several other purposes. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body
administered by elected Trustees. The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed
by Provincially guaranteed debenture issues.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights
and his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices at Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and New Westminster.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers of other
resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water.
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H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch is responsible for the administration of all use of
water in British Columbia under the provisions of the Water Act. For this purpose
a licensing system has been developed over the course of the last century, from its
origin in the Gold Fields Act of 1859 through a gradual evolution to the first Water
Act of 1909 and on to the present version of the Water Act, which dates from 1939.
In addition to providing for the administration of water use, the Water Act also
provides for the incorporation of improvement districts which provide local services in water-related and other fields. The Water Rights Branch also carries out
a great number of engineering studies on water matters, including water supply,
erosion, and flood protection and dam safety.
The year 1971 was generally good for water-supply availability. Stream-flows
were above normal in the Kootenay and in the Okanagan, where the inflow to
Okanagan Lake was 137 per cent of average. Elsewhere in the Province, summer
stream-flows were about average, except in the Cariboo, Chilcotin, and Vancouver
Island areas where stream-flows were below normal in the later part of summer.
Demands for water-use regulation by the staffs of district offices of the Water Rights
Branch were below average.
In the field of water licensing the total number of applications of all kinds again
showed an increase, although the number of applications for new water licences was
down slightly from last year's peak. The total of licence applications received during
the year was 1,733 and the number of applications outstanding increased to 2,827.
The number of applications for water-licence amendments increased sharply, resulting in a substantial increase in the number of such applications outstanding.
The water rights maps maintained in our Administrative Draughting Room
are probably the most essential of the working records used in water-resource administration. In addition to their use for recording water licences and applications,
they are also used in clearance procedures for applications under the Pollution
Control Act, 1967, the Land Act, and the Forest Act. Administrative procedures
are made more difficult because coverage of the Province by maps of this series is
far from complete and because many of the water rights maps in use are more than
40 years old and in very bad condition. For this reason it is gratifying to be able
to report that the Draughting Office was able to produce 110 new water rights maps
in 1971, compared with an average annual production of only 48 maps over the
preceding five years.
A most significant feature of Water Act administration is the important role
assigned to the field staff stationed at the district offices of the Water Rights Branch.
In dealing with applications for new licences, the main burden rests on the District
Engineer who is responsible for the inspection of every application. Objectors are
contacted to ensure that they fully understand the application and that they have
an opportunity to fully state their objections. The engineer makes a firm recommendation on each application, and for practical reasons these recommendations
are usually accepted by the Comptroller. The work load resulting from new applications has greatly increased in recent years, not only because of the increase in the
number of applications, but also because of the increasing complexity of many of
these applications and the increasing number of objections. At the same time there
has been a steady increase in the variety and complexity of the other responsibilities
of district office staffs resulting from such problems as flooding and erosion, resource-
use conflicts, and the greatly increasing scope of the activities of regional districts
in which the District Engineers participate as members of the technical planning
This year saw the completion of a general upward revision of application fees
and annual rentals payable by the holders of water licences. Rentals for industrial,
mining, and waterworks purposes had been revised late in 1970, taking effect from
January 1, 1971, and the remainder of the fees, rentals, and charges were revised
by Order in Council on September 21, 1971, to be effective January 1, 1972. The
previous fee schedule had been in effect since 1961. The most significant features
of the changes were a tenfold increase in annual rentals for most categories of mining and industrial purposes and an increase in the minimum annual rental for
domestic and irrigation purposes from $2 to $5. The purposes of the increased
licence rentals were to reflect the increasing public awareness of the value of our
water resources, to partially offset increased costs of administration, and to improve
administrative efficiency by encouraging licence-holders who may be making little
or no use of their licences to abandon them voluntarily.
Activity in the Improvement District Division continued at a high level during
the year, both in administrative and technical fields. Feasibility studies for a number of proposed water-supply systems were carried out, and final design and supervision of construction were provided for several projects under which improvement
district water systems were being rehabilitated with the assistance of the Federal
and Provincial Governments under the Agricultural and Rural Development Act.
The general administration of improvement districts is kept under review, and capital
undertakings are given careful scrutiny, both with regard to economic feasibility
and engineering adequacy.
The Power and Major Licence Division continued to be occupied during the
year with various aspects of the Columbia River Treaty development and other
major power projects in the Province. A particularly high level of activities resulted
in licensing and other problems arising from the Canal Plant project on the Kootenay
River, which will take advantage of regulated flows in the Kootenay River resulting
from Columbia River Treaty projects in Canada and the United States.
The preparation of the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir is being
carried out by several departments of the Government of British Columbia. The
Water Resources Service has been assigned a co-ordinating role in this work, both
with respect to the departments directly involved and those with interests in the
results of the project. Liaison is also carried out with the United States authorities.
Staff work on this project is being provided by the Power and Major Licences Division. Impoundment of water in the Libby Reservoir is expected to commence
in 1972.
Because of the wide seasonal variation in stream-flows in British Columbia,
the storage of water is one of the most significant features of water management
in the Province. About 600 storage dams of all sizes are now under licence in
British Columbia. In some circumstances such dams are capable of imposing
a severe hazard to life and property, particularly in the mountain valleys of British
Columbia. For this reason a programme of inspection of storage dams is carried
on, based on the powers of the engineer and the Comptroller under the Water Act.
This programme is divided between the staff of the district offices and the headquarters staff of the Power and Major Licences Division.
Technical services were supplied by this Division to support the Provincial
representative on the Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board and
the Canada-British Columbia Columbia River Liaison Committee and its advisory
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1971 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the separate divisions of the Branch in the following pages.
W. R. Tuthill, Chief of Division
The Comptroller of Water Rights administers the Water Act, under which
rights to the diversion of water within the Province are granted for almost every
conceivable use. Licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining,
industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few
exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or government
agency uses water from any surface-water source.
The Licensing Division is responsible for the processing of new applications
for licences and amendments to existing licences. In order to maintain complete
records, the Division is divided into two offices—the General Office, which handles
the clerical aspects of licensing, and the Draughting Office, which handles the
mapping requirements. These offices are responsible for maintaining the many
files, indexes, maps, and other records required for the orderly processing of new
and pending applications and keeping track of the rights granted under existing
licences and amendments thereto. Close liaison is required with the District Engineers Division and its six district offices, situated at strategic locations in the Province, for field investigations and reports on applications and amendments.
An Order in Council was passed in September 1971, revising upward the fees
and rentals for applications and licences for domestic, fluming, hydraulicking, irrigation, land improvement, lowering-water, mineral-trading, and river improvement
purposes; right-of-way permits over Crown land and miscellaneous fees and charges.
The revisions will take effect January 1, 1972.
Considerable time has been spent on updating, enlarging, and consolidating
the data processing system in order to obtain more information pertaining to the
uses of water in the Province and to streamline the records of the Branch.
Compilation of new water rights maps for the recording of water licences
received special attention, with emphasis on the Kelowna and Nelson areas. A
total of 110 large-scale maps showing subdivisions, roads, railways, watersheds,
etc., were produced during the year.
The work load of the Licensing Division remained high during 1971, as shown
in the following reports of the General and Draughting Offices.
General Office
Probably as a result of increased precipitation in the summer of 1971 com'
pared with that of 1970, the number of applications for new water licences has
fallen somewhat from the record 1970 total. This reduction, coupled with an increase in the number of reports on new licence applications received from our
District Engineers, has enabled us to prepare more new licences than in former
years; however, as the number of new applications exceeds the number of reports
received, this has not reduced the total of outstanding applications, which now
stands at 2,827.
Applications for approvals under section 7 of the Water Act, to authorize either
changes in and about streams, or the temporary use of water for a period not exceeding 90 days, have increased slightly over 1970.
Objections to applications have fallen considerably below the 1970 total of
616, although it is probable that the large 1970 number was considerably inflated
by several controversial applications that captured the public interest.
Applications for the amendment of existing licences, by apportionment, transfer of appurtenancy, or change of works or purpose, continue to arrive at a rate
greater than that at which we can process them and, as a result, the outstanding
total has risen by almost 50 per cent.
A total of 270 licences that became subject to cancellation for failure by the
licensee for three years to pay the rental due the Crown in respect of the licence
have been processed, and in 171 cases either the rentals have been paid or the
licence has been abandoned or cancelled.  Action on the remainder is continuing.
Pollution control permit applications are now being examined to determine
whether any water licences or licensable water sources may be affected by the
applicant's proposals, and our findings are brought to the attention of the Pollution
Control Branch.    Since May 1971, 137 such applications have been processed.
Water-users' communities incorporated under the Water Act now total 87,
with an additional one being proposed.
The colour-coded fifing system introduced during 1970 has proved most successful, and has effected considerable savings in the time spent in searching for files.
Work is proceeding on an enlarged data processing system, and it is hoped
that this improvement to our record-keeping will further reduce the time spent in
obtaining information concerning water licences.
Staff changes in the General Office during the year under review include one
resignation and two transfers to other departments and, as a result, there have been
several promotions with consequent time spent in staff-training.
The present staff establishment comprises one Clerk 7, two Clerks 5, three
Clerks 4, three Clerks 3, two Clerks 2, two Clerks 1, one Clerk-Stenographer 3,
one Clerk-Stenographer 2, and one Clerk-Typist 2.
The table following, which shows the principal activities of the General Office in
the 12-month period ending November 30, 1971, together with the same data for
the five preceding years, has been changed slightly from previous years in order to
present the same information in a more easily understandable form.
X 19
Applications for—
Rights-of-way —  	
Issues of—
Changes of works and extensions of time	
218   1
Changes of address, ownership, etc 	
t1)      1
8,249   i
1 No record.
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office is staffed by a Chief Draughtsman, a
Supervising Draughtsman, four Draughtsmen 3, three Draughtsman 1, a Clerk 5,
and two Clerks 3. The main functions of this office are checking the legal status and
clearing of water applications; compiling, revising, and maintaining water rights
maps; preparing plans for water licences; clearing land applications for the Lands
Branch; timber sales for Forest Branch; pollution control permits for Pollution
Control Branch; checking petitions and preparing legal descriptions for improvement districts; and attending to requests for maps and various information from our
district offices, other departments of Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. In most cases this work
entails a search of records of other departments of Government, such as Land
Registry Office, Surveyor of Taxes, Lands Branch, Department of Highways, etc.
Upon completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water rights maps
and in the stream registers, which together form a record of all pertinent data regarding all water licences and applications within the Province.
The Draughting Office is responsible for checking all petitions received requesting incorporation into an improvement district. Checking petitions involves searches
of records of the Land Registry Office and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct
property descriptions. When the petitions to incorporate an improvement district
have been checked and found correct, a plan showing all lands within the boundaries
of the proposed district is drawn up and a legal description defining the boundaries
of the district is prepared. During 1971, six new districts were incorporated and
the boundaries of 51 districts were amended.
The table which follows illustrates the work which the Draughting Office has
handled during the last six years:
 X 20
New  water-licence  applications  cleared  and
plotted on maps 	
Final and conditional licence plans prepared—
District Engineers' reports processed	
New water rights maps compiled and traced —_
Water rights maps revised— 	
New   improvement   districts   described   and
plans   prepared. 	
Improvement districts descriptions and plans
Reference maps renewed	
Apportionments   and   transfers   of   appurte-
nancy— — -. 	
Changes of works and extensions of time	
Approvals -	
Rights-of-way over Crown land  	
Changes of ownership and cancellations	
Land clearances (purchases, leases etc.)—	
Pollution control permit clearances	
Forest Branch clearances (timber sales, etc.)
X 21
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief of Division
To facilitate administration of the water resources under the Water Act of
British Columbia, the Province is divided into 27 water districts, the divisions between districts mainly following major watershed boundaries. District offices of
the Water Rights Branch are located at Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, New Westminster, Prince George, and Victoria. Each district office is in the charge of a
District Engineer who is responsible for administration of the Water Act within
the several water districts under his jurisdiction.
The staff situation at district offices remained reasonably stable during the
year, the vacant positions of Assistant District Engineer at New Westminster and
Engineering Assistant at Kamloops being filled relatively early in the season. One
resignation only, that of technician at New Westminster, occurred, and that position
is in process of being refilled at this writing. The moving from its former location
at Mission City to new quarters at 313 Sixth Street in New Westminster should be
more convenient for the staff of our district office responsible for the Vancouver
and New Westminster Water Districts and for the public served by this office.
The advantage of having senior district staff members with sufficient job experience to have developed a good knowledge of their work requirements and ability
to operate with a minimum of supervision is reflected in the very large output delivered by the district offices this year. In the applications sector of work alone, a
total of 1,549 reports was submitted by the six district offices, reducing the total
of outstanding applications at these offices from 1,590 at this time last year to 1,493
at this date. Although this is a reduction of only 6.1 per cent in the total number
of applications outstanding, it still represents a considerable achievement in view
of the opposite trend that has persisted over the last several years, and the fact that
a near-record number of new applications was received.
Several of the District Engineers have made mention, in their annual reports,
that new functions that have been added to their responsibilities, coupled with the
requirement of administering an ever-increasing number of water licences within
their areas, is imposing such a demand on the available time of existing district
office staff that only the most urgent of matters can receive prompt attention. Added
to this is the fact that District Engineers are required to accept more direct responsibility in their resolution of problems involved in the administration of the Water
Act with less supervision or assistance from senior headquarters staff than ever
before. A strong recommendation has been put forward requesting a reclassification of the position of District Engineer, Water Rights Branch, to a grade higher
than that allocated in the past, in recognition of the high degree of responsibility
imposed upon, and accepted by, the incumbents in this position. The solution to
cope with the larger volume of work being experienced lies in increasing the numbers of available staff, and representation has been made in this regard.
Because of the original low standard of design and construction of many water-
storage dams constructed under relatively primitive conditions 40 or more years ago,
normal deterioration that has taken place since the structures were put into service,
and the fact that considerable agricultural and residential development has occurred
on some streams downstream from these storage structures, many water-storage
dams are in urgent need of critical review to determine requirements to put them in
safe operating condition or if they should be removed. Many irrigation improvement districts in the Okanagan Valley area have taken advantage of the financial
assistance available under the joint Federal-Provincial ARDA programme to reha-
 X 22
bilitate or replace their water-storage dams, thus removing anxiety with respect to
many of the major structures in that area. The District Engineer at Kelowna has
instituted a vigorous programme of dam inspections for other storages within his
administrative area, following up with appropriate action which has resulted in the
upgrading or replacement of several privately owned structures, and removal or
breaching of others. We have also received considerable assistance from the Power
and Major Licences Division, which has taken over review and ordering of repairs
on several of the major structures, particularly the concrete dams operated by various utilities and industrial concerns, and engineers of that Division, on several occasions, have given me and our District Engineers the benefit of their expertise in the
review of designs or examination of existing structures. Much work remains to be
done in the examining and assessing the safety of existing water-storage structures
within the various water districts in order to insure that hazards or any failures are
eliminated, so far as is humanly possible.
The District Engineers have listed their work achievements in their individual
reports which follow. The table shown below indicates the activity during the year
and the current position with respect to applications for new water licences at the
various district offices at the end of the report period, October 31, 1971, and summarizes the activity connected with recording new water licences received and reporting on applications for amendment of existing licences.
Summary of Water-licence Application Situation and Licence Amendments Reported
on by District Offices for Period November 1,1970, to October 31, 1971
District Offices
Applications for water licences—■
On hand November 1, 1970 	
Received during year 	
Cancelled or abandoned—	
Inspected and reported on	
On hand October 31,1971	
Applications for approvals under Water
Act, section 7, reported on	
Water licence amendment reports—
Total licence amendment reports
New conditional water licences	
1 Amended by recount of applications on hand.
Kamloops District Office
D. E. Smuin, P.Eng., District Engineer
The region administered by the Kamloops District Office extends from Anahim
Lake at the westerly end of the Chilcotin plateau easterly to Sicamous at the easterly
end of Shuswap Lake, and from Soda Creek on the Fraser River south to Boston
Bar. This area, approximately 50,000 square miles in extent, is made up of the
Kamloops, Ashcroft, Nicola, and Cariboo Water Districts.   Staff attached to the
X 23
Kamloops District Office consist of a District Engineer, two Assistant District Engineers, one technician, one engineering assistant, one clerk-stenographer, and one
clerk appointed on a temporary-continuous basis. In addition, one or more engineering aides are engaged each season on a temporary basis to assist in carrying out
surveys during the summer period.
As reported in previous years, the greatest use of water within the districts
administered by this office is for irrigation; however, the demand for water for other
uses, such as for waterworks and domestic use, and for industrial use in mines and
pulp-mills, continues to increase in keeping with development trends within specific
During the report year, water supply was average for the Kamloops-Nicola
areas, but deficiencies in the Cariboo-Chilcotin areas resulted in receipt of numerous
complaints of excessive diversion or misuse of water from streams in which shortages occurred. Investigation of these complaints, and necessary remedial action,
made an appreciable demand on our administrative staff and reduced the time available for attention to applications for new water licences and other administrative
duties. Our backlog of applications requiring attention continues to increase. It is
also becoming increasingly evident that a vigorous programme of dam inspections
must be established in the very near future, and means to institute this are being
Involvement on the technical planning committees of the various regional districts within our area is a further item that has made a very large demand on the
time of our administrative staff. The importance of water in the development of
land coming under the jurisdiction of the regional districts is recognized, and many
problems associated with this item are referred to Water Rights Branch members on
the technical planning committees for research and advice. This is a relatively recent
development and, as yet, we have had no increase in staff to assist in meeting this
Engineers of this office have continued to assist the various improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act in their administrative and technical problems and have attended many evening meetings with their elected trustees in this
Apart from accomplishments in connection with normal duties reported to the
Chief of our Division and included in his report, 35 Land Registry Office searches
were made for other Water Rights Branch offices and 1,008 registered plans were
obtained and forwarded to headquarters office at Victoria, and to other branch
offices. Inspections of 21 dams were made, 39 meetings of improvement district
trustees and other groups were attended, and 45 complaints involving water matters
were investigated.
D. J. Cummings was appointed to fill the vacant position of Engineering Assistant during the year, and Mrs. J. Stewart replaced Miss P. George as Clerk II on
our office staff.
Kelowna District Office
E. D. Anthony, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office is responsible for the administration of the Water
Act in the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage basins; the Shuswap River
drainage basin above Sicamous; and that part of the Columbia River drainage area
from its confluence with the Canoe River downstream to Arrow Lakes. For administrative purposes these watersheds have been divided into the Grand Forks, Princeton, Fairview, Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts.
 X 24
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An unusual drilling device used to construct a culvert under Highway 97 as part of
Larkin Waterworks District construction work supervised by the District Engineer, Kelowna. The 12-inch-diameter auger cuts under the highway without disturbing the pavement.
The District Office is staffed with a District Engineer, two Assistant District
Engineers, a technician, an engineering aide, and a stenographer. In addition, temporary staff, usually university students, are employed to assist in surveys during
the summer months.   There were no staff changes during the past year.
This year the District Office was moved to larger quarters on the second floor
of the Courthouse in Kelowna.
The above-average snow-pack recorded on April 1 at snow courses located
in the various watersheds within the area resulted in a total volume of spring run-off
substantially above average. Cool weather during May and June reduced the rate
of snow-melt, resulting in peak flows lower than expected in many streams. Notwithstanding this effect, a large number of reports of flooding required inspection.
Grand Forks, Cawston, Otter Lake, and Cherryville were the areas most seriously
Net inflow to Okanagan Lake, April 1 to July 31, was approximately 440,000
acre-feet, or 137 per cent of average. Okanagan Lake reached a peak of 1,123.58
feet A.M.S.L. on July 15, 0.21 foot below the authorized full storage level of
1,123.79 feet.
The above-normal run-off resulted in the majority of reservoirs in the Okanagan
Valley becoming filled, and an adequate supply of water was available during the
irrigation season. Very few complaints of water shortage were received, and my
staff were able to concentrate on reducing the backlog of administrative items.
The dam-inspections programme initiated in 1969 was continued this year.
A total of 80 dams was inspected and repairs were ordered on 37 storage structures.
Dams were rebuilt on Jewel Lake near Greenwood, Missezula Lake near Princeton,
X 25
and Industry Brook near Kelowna. New storage works were built on Ripley Lake
near Oliver, McCall Lake near Peachland, and Fish Hawk Lake and Moore (Bul-
man) Lake near Kelowna. An unauthorized dam on Echo Lake near Winfield was
ordered permanently breached to eliminate a hazard. There were no reports of
damage caused by the failure of any licensed storage structure during the heavy
spring run-off.
The work load associated with the technical planning committees of the regional
districts increased sharply this year. It is expected that this demand upon my staff
will increase as the regional districts undertake additional functions. The District
Engineer was appointed Chairman of the Technical Planning Committee of the
Central Okanagan Regional District.
Although no water-supply engineering reports were completed this year, progress was made on a number of major reports currently under preparation.
The most gratifying effect of our efforts this year was the reduction in our backlog of outstanding water licence applications, which now stand at 167, the lowest
level in a number of years. A summary of the number of water licence applications
processed by this office during the past 10 years is shown on the following table:
Summary of Water Licence Applications Processed by Year
or Abandoned
1966  _ 	
1969 _	
As well as the engineering work indicated in the following listing and in the
investigating and reporting on water licence applications, staff of the Kelowna District Office carried out 80 inspections of various water-storage dams, adjudicated in
35 water-use disputes, made 39 miscellaneous field inspections in connection with
licence or water-use administration, sampled one snow-observation station, maintained observations on 17 groundwater-observation wells, monitored one hydrology
station, and attended 74 meetings of improvement district trustees and others.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Supervised the installation of the waterworks system and storage tank at Larkin
Waterworks District near Armstrong.
Designed and supervised the construction of a main conveying ditch for the
irrigation system of the Okangan Mission Water-users' Community near Kelowna.
Co-operated with the Department of Highways in flood-prevention work carried out on Mission Creek, Cherry Creek, Keremeos Creek, and Similkameen River.
Designed and located several irrigation-ditch revisions for Brent Davis Irrigation District near Kelowna.
Nelson District Office
T. H. Oxland, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson, Kaslo, Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden Water Districts, located in
the southeast part of British Columbia and containing some 26,000 square miles,
are administered by the Water Rights District Office in Nelson. This area comprises the upper drainage basins of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
District Office personnel consist of a District Engineer, two Assistant Engineers, a technician, and a clerk-stenographer. In addition, a survey assistant is
retained on a continuing basis to keep office records up to date, and two student
engineering aides are employed to assist with final licence surveys during the
summer months.
Stream-flows throughout the districts were generally above normal, even
through the hot-weather period occurring during July and August, a result of an
above-average snow-pack and a cool, wet spring, supplemented by above-average
An average number of water-sharing complaints were received, but these were
usually associated with inadequate works rather than shortage of water in the
source.   Several flooding and erosion problems of a minor nature were investigated.
In addition to usual work, a considerable amount of staff time was required in
assisting improvement districts and water-users' communities, as well as attending
technical planning committee meetings for the three regional districts, and attending
the Inter-Sector Committee of the Environmental and Land Use Committee. A total
of 67 meetings was attended during the year.
A record number of 422 applications were disposed of this year; however, some
333 new applications were received, leaving a backlog of 358 applications still requiring attention. Although the backlog of applications was reduced from last
year, it appears, if the prevailing interest in new licences continues, that a large
backlog will be normal for this office until additional staff is obtained to cope with it.
The value of the experience possessed by our existing staff is reflected in the favourable work output during the year.
One major difficulty experienced during the year arose from the necessity of
processing outstanding licence amendments before many new applications could be
reviewed. In many cases the work involved in amending existing licences associated
with subdivision of land was more laborious than dealing with the applications.
The change-over of our office filing system to correspond with that employed
at Victoria was completed during the year, a job which involved two staff members
for approximately six months. The higher efficiency of the new filing system contributed to the large volume of work completed this year. There is still a considerable amount of work required to update subjective files and the reference library,
and it is planned to complete this work early in the new year.
The bar graph included with last year's report has been extended to include
this year's work achievement, and is appended hereto. The totals shown are based
on an actual count of applications in the office as of October 31, 1971.
As well as the investigation of, and reporting on, applications for new water
licences, amendment of existing licences, and the work represented in the following
listing of engineering investigations and studies, 67 meetings of improvement district trustees and other groups were attended, 69 miscellaneous field investigations
were carried out, and 15 snow-course measurements were made.
X 27
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Engineering Investigations and Projects
Assistance was given to the Improvement Districts Division in field surveys
and supervision of the ARDA project for Slocan Park Improvement District and for
the waterworks project constructed by the Ootischenia Improvement District. Both
of these projects are now completed.
Investigations were made of 19 water-sharing complaints, chiefly in the Castlegar and Golden areas. Some 14 complaints of minor flooding were also investigated. Pollution complaints arising from logging and mining operations were investigated on 12 watersheds.
The long-standing flooding problem involving Mackay Slough and Taylor Mill
Slough near the City of Kimberley was resolved this year. Staff designed and
supervised the installation of culverts which permit these sloughs to drain into Mark
The silt impoundment dam on Harmer Creek near Sparwood was completed
this fall. The dam is designed to settle suspended materials from run-off from the
coal-strip mine in the watershed to protect the Elk River from pollution. A similar,
but smaller, impoundment was also constructed on Clode Creek on the Fording
Two engineering reports were initiated during the year—one dealing with
water-level control on Wasa Lake for the Wasa Lake Improvement District, and
one for domestic-water supply for the proposed improvement district at Glade.
Several division tanks were designed and constructed this year on small creeks
where water-sharing has been a problem.
New Westminster District Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The administration of the Vancouver and New Westminster Water Districts
was managed from Victoria until 1961 when a new office was established on the
Lower Mainland at Mission in June of that year. In March 1971 the office was
moved from Mission to New Westminster, resulting in an improvement in the
efficiency of operation and providing better accessibility for the public. The area
administered remains the same, comprising the Vancouver and New Westminster
Water Districts in the southwest portion of the Province.
Generally, there was adequate rainfall during the past summer to sustain good
stream-flows. As a result, only scattered complaints of water shortages were received and little regulation of water use was required. With continuing increase in
water licence applications, it may soon become necessary for new applicants,
especially on some streams in the Lower Fraser Valley, to provide water storage to
supplement low flows in these streams or investigate alternate sources of water supplies. Since a duty of water of only 12 inches is normal in this area, storage volumes will not have to be as large as those required by Interior water-users; however,
the difficulty will be to find suitable storage-sites within the relatively steep watersheds prevailing for most streams.
There has been a considerable increase in the number of water applications
received and in inquiries regarding water use for recreation purposes, especially in
relatively remote areas such as Nelson Island, where summer homes predominate,
and in the Anahim Lake-Bella Coola area where guest lodges and guide facilities
are increasing. Water use at Bella Coola will increase substantially if a pulp-mill,
now proposed, becomes established there.   There are good water supplies in that
area which should be capable of supporting a considerable demand for future
An increasing interest in the use of hot spring water for various purposes is
evidenced by the several inquiries that have been received regarding hot springs in
the Harrison Lake and up-Coast areas. Some applications for water licences on
these springs investigated have involved proposed use for the usual purposes of
baths and bottling of mineral waters. One of the hot springs near Bella Coola seems
to be attracting attention because of its reputed exceptional mineral content, and
one applicant for a water licence proposes to bottle the water and export it to
foreign markets. Another applicant proposes to barge fresh water from glacier-fed
streams near Powell River to United States and overseas markets. In support of
his applications for water licences he points out that he will not be contributing to
pollution if one of his barges sinks! Another unusual use of water proposed is for
aquaculture or meraculture purpose for the raising of salmon and trout in captivity
in sea farms, similar to the raising of trout on land farms, except that both fresh and
salt water will be used. One such farm is already proposed in the Sechelt area and
there are others in the discussion stage, which indicates we may expect to receive
applications for water licences for that new form of farming in this area in the near
It is expected that the recent completion of the Sunshine Coast Regional District water system will result in the abandonment and (or) cancellation of many of
the water licences for individual domestic use from the small streams in this area
and that the number of complaints of water shortages will be reduced in the future.
Personnel changes and shortages of staff continue to interfere with office output.
D. P. Meyer was appointed to the vacant position of Assistant District Engineer in
April of this year. We are now engaged in reviewing applications for the position
of technician, which became vacant on the resignation of D. C. Danard on
October 31.
Prince George District Office
C. E. Wilson, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George District Office administers the Water Act in the Prince
George, Quesnel, Peace River, Liard, Fort Fraser, Hazelton, Prince Rupert, and
Atlin Water Districts, which make up the northerly two-thirds of British Columbia.
These districts include the drainage basins of the Taku, Stikine, Nass, Skeena, and
Fraser Rivers draining to the Pacific, and the huge Liard and Peace systems draining
to the Arctic.
The Prince George District Office staff during 1971 consisted of a District
Engineer, an Assistant District Engineer, an engineering technician, and a clerk-
stenographer, all full-time employees. During the survey season, two students were
employed as a final licence survey party.
Precipitation recorded in the north-central area was close to average following
a winter snowfall of some 96 per cent of the long-term average on the Upper
Fraser and 115 per cent of the long-term average in the middle and lower part of
the Fraser. The heavier-than-average snow cover at lower elevations resulted in
relatively high run-off flows in most streams during May, taxing many of the culverts
in the district and causing some erosion problems. There were no water shortages
reported during this year.
The Nechako River once again jammed with ice at its confluence with the
Fraser River at Prince George and remained in this condition throughout the winter.
The initial jamming occurred during the first week of December last year and,
because of this timing, few problems were experienced from this cause.
 X 30
The record number of new applications for water licences received during the
year, 199 compared to the 175 during the preceding year, reflected a continuing
trend in this direction. The number of applications requiring attention at the Prince
George Office has risen to 181 as of October 31, 1971. In addition to our increasing responsibilities with regard to normal duties, a total of 40 working-days was
taken attending the meetings of technical planning committees of the regional districts within our area. The heavy increase in work requirements, with resulting acute
backlogs in some areas of work, has prompted me to request an increase in staff for
the Prince George District Office.
Members of staff continued liaison with Blackburn and other improvement
districts, particularly Buckhorn and Lafreniere Improvement Districts. Construction of the water-supply system for Buckhorn Improvement District was commenced
in October and was expected to be completed by mid-November. Our engineering
technician was loaned to the Improvement Districts Division for a six-week period
to supervise the installation of water and sewer systems at Fort Nelson. Direction
and assistance was given to the Beaverley Improvement District in its incorporation
and current investigation of the feasibility of providing a water-supply system. In
total, 47 improvement districts' meetings were attended during the year.
Of the six regional districts within the Prince George District Office area, technical planning committee meetings of five were attended regularly, a total of 25
meetings being attended. The District Engineer was appointed Chairman of the
Fraser-Fort George Regional District for a second term and acts on two ancillary
committees, one for a study of Greater Prince George area services and one for
co-ordinating land use on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
The complete clean-up of Eaglet Lake, arising from an order issued under
section 37 of the Water Act during 1970, was supervised by the District Engineer.
Measurements of groundwater levels and of snow courses was continued for
the Groundwater and Hydrology Divisions, and a comprehensive programme of
stream measurements on various water-short streams was initiated this year.
Industry has continued to increase in the central Interior, with a comparable
growth in water demands. The construction of a new pulp-mill was commenced in
Quesnel this year and the new pulp-mill at Mackenzie was nearly completed.
The following table shows a comparison in the numbers of applications for
water licences received and dealt with and the number of outstanding applications
on hand for the nine-year period, 1963 to 1971, inclusive:
Reports on
or Abandoned
Disposed of
1965 ... ■    _   	
1971....                                         ..             -	
In addition to normal water licence administration duties and the engineering
endeavours listed in the following paragraph, 35 reports of flooding and erosion
problems were investigated, 19 stream-flow measurements made, 9 dams inspected,
41 measurements made of groundwater level in observation wells, 24 samplings of
snow courses completed, and 110 meetings attended.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Flooding and erosion problems were investigated at Eaglet Lake near Giscome,
Cottonwood Island, Gouchie Creek, and Summit Lake, all near Prince George; at
Charlie Lake at Fort St. John; Quesnel River near Gravelle Ferry; Tchesinkut Lake
near Burns Lake; and Honeyburn Creek south of Quesnel.
Two incidents of unauthorized works were investigated, one at Stuart Lake
and the other at Eight Mile Lake near Barkerville.
An extensive study was carried out of the weir on the Nautley River at the outlet of Fraser Lake to determine whether its condition was deteriorating and causing
the level of Fraser Lake to be abnormally low.
Two feasibility studies were conducted through the year, one for the Buckhorn
Improvement District near Prince George and the second for the unincorporated
Sturdy Creek Water Board at Queen Charlotte City on Graham Island, Queen
Victoria District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers the Water Act throughout the Victoria,
Nanaimo, and Alberni Water Districts, covering Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands,
and adjoining islands.
In 1971 the office staff was comprised of a District Engineer and one Engineering Assistant, the latter assisting the District Engineer in inspecting and reporting
on applications for water licences, licence amendments, and complaints of water
shortages and water damage. Two university students were employed during the
summer months to carry out final licence surveys and other field work under the
supervision of the Engineering Assistant. Clerical and stenographic services were
provided by the Water Licence Division.
Snow was experienced at all elevations early in January, but temperatures rose
sufficiently by the end of the month to result in rains which removed the snow from
low elevations. As a result, some flooding was experienced from high flows in the
Cowichan River. Cool weather during the early season delayed maximum run-off
from mountain snows in the region until June. Warmer weather finally arrived in
mid-July, lasting into September. Even this relatively short period of warm weather
resulted in water shortages being reported in many areas, indicating to what extent
many smaller streams are becoming fully licensed.
The Victoria District Engineer represents the Water Resources Service on the
technical planning committees of five regional districts located in the Vancouver
Island Region. With much new development taking place on the islands, the regional districts are becoming rapidly involved with planning, by-laws, and land-use
contracts. The technical planning committees are required to advise the regional
districts on planning matters, to provide liaison with Government departments, and
to make recommendations to the districts on any of their proposals requiring legislative action. The performance of these duties, in which the District Engineer has
become involved, should contribute toward achievement of economic and social
goals within the regional district.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Investigations were made, action taken, or reports forwarded on the following:
Complaints of flooding and land erosion in the Cassidy, Comox, Cowichan
Lake, Harewood, Langford, Metchosin, Nanoose, and Parksville areas.
Noteworthy in this respect are Cat Stream at Harewood, Langford Lake
at Langford, Long Lake at North Wellington, Haslam Creek at Cassidy,
and Robertson River at Cowichan Lake.
Complaints of obstruction of streams and watercourses on Saltspring Island,
at Sooke, Nanaimo, and Parksville.    Development of new subdivisions
was the major cause of these complaints.
Complaints of pollution of streams at Maple Bay, Langford, Nanoose, Salt-
spring Island, Malahat, and Central Saanich.   Again, the development of
new subdivisions was responsible.
Complaints of unauthorized works involving dams, dugouts, stream-channel
diversions, and deepening of lake outlets.   Seven orders were issued as a
result of inspections of such works.
Complaints of interference with authorized use of water from Alf and Auld
Springs at Nanoose, involving proposed expropriation of right-of-way for
Inventory made of available records of Langford Lake levels.    Surveys and
profiles made of Langford Lake outlet and report prepared.
Surveys and profile made of drainage into Patrolas Creek from swampy land
near Peter's Road, Cowichan Station, and report prepared.
Proposed extension of new Cowichan Lake Highway to Cowichan Lake Village
was inspected with Department of Highways' officials, relative to licensed
works and use of water from streams affected by the right-of-way.
The effect of storm drains bordering City of Duncan on lands within North
Cowichan Municipality, inspected and reported on.
The operation of a dam on Young Lake at Sooke, and its effect on lake levels
was investigated, and tentative lake regulations prescribed.
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., Chief of Division
There are now 299 improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act.
During 1971 the following new districts were incorporated: Irvines Landing Waterworks District, Little Qualicum Waterworks District, Bowen Bay Improvement District, Beaverley Waterworks District, Nasookin Improvement District, Orde Creek
Improvement District. The following districts were dissolved: Cumberland Street
Lighting District, Langdale Waterworks District, Lions Bay Improvement District,
Fort Nelson Improvement District, Needles Waterworks District.
The territorial boundaries of an improvement district and the object or objects
for which the district is incorporated are set out in its Letters Patent. Upon petition
of the trustees, the Letters Patent may be amended to include new lands within the
district or exclude land, or to include extra objects. The Letters Patent of 39 improvement districts were amended in 1971, most changes being boundary amendments.
Many districts which were originally incorporated for one purpose now have
several objects. Over 90 per cent of the districts supply domestic water; about 50
per cent fire protection; 30 per cent street lighting; and 20 per cent irrigation water.
To a lesser extent the districts provide garbage collection, dyking and drainage, sewers, parks, and a dozen other services.
It is present Government policy not to incorporate new districts under the
Water Act with objects other than domestic and irrigation water supply, dyking and
drainage, and land improvement, except where it is infeasible for a municipal corporation to provide the required service. Nor is it Government policy to expand
the objects of an existing improvement district incorporated under the Water Act
with objects other than the foregoing, again except in special circumstances.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue
by the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases, and by the
imposition of tolls and other charges. They are also empowered to issue debentures
to obtain funds for capital purposes. In many cases, improvement districts' debentures and interest thereon are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act. There are now $12,445,900 of such guaranteed debentures outstanding, of which $5,514,900 are serial debentures and
$6,931,000 are term debentures. Sinking funds for redemption of the term debentures are held by the Province in the amount of $436,100. During 1971, debentures of $1,843,000 were guaranteed.
Engineering Services
The Improvement Districts Division provides a technical service to improvement districts, or communities considering incorporating as improvement districts,
throughout the Province. This service is variously concerned with domestic water-
supply schemes, irrigation projects, or drainage and sewerage works. The nature
of assistance provided falls generally into three categories.
Where new schemes or rehabilitation of existing works are contemplated, the
Division carries out an engineering investigation, and then prepares a report giving
technical recommendations, cost estimates, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of the scheme.
Once the decision to initiate a project has been made, the district then submits
plans, specifications, and details of proposed financing methods for checking and
approval. Frequently, details of a project are discussed with the district's consultants, and revisions or modifications recommended. Sound engineering and economic feasibility are prerequisites to a recommendation for a Government-guaranteed loan.
In some circumstances, the Division assumes full responsibility for the engineering of a project. After the preliminary surveys and investigations have been
completed, the Division prepares final design drawings, specifications, and contract
documents, and finally provides supervision of construction. Advice is also given
to districts regarding operational problems, or modifications and repairs to existing
Throughout the year, personnel from the Division travelled extensively in the
Province, holding meetings with district trustees, organization committees, municipalities, and other groups concerned with problems of development. About 70
improvement districts were visited regarding their administration alone.
Reports Prepared and Under Preparation
Eagle Cliff Improvement District — This district, on Bowen Island in Howe
Sound, supplies water to what were originally summer week-end cottages, but which
are now increasingly being used as year-round homes. Additional field investigations have been done, including a geological reconnaissance by the Groundwater
Division of the Water Investigations Branch, to try to locate a feasible source of
domestic water with a greater yield than the present source, Carkner Brook.   A re-
port is being prepared on proposed rehabilitation of this system with upstream storage on Carkner Brook.
Larkin Waterworks District—ARDA Project 89003 for a farm domestic-water
supply to this district, which includes a plywood mill as a major user, is now 90 per
cent complete. Water is pumped into the new system from a deep, drilled well in
a thin, artesian aquifer. The pumping system, however, has not been operating as
designed. Addendum 2 to the approved 1969 report, "Larkin Waterworks District
Proposed System Rehabilitation," has been written to recommend drilling a second
well and equipping it with a pump as a standby source. This addendum has been
submitted to the ARDA authorities for approval.
Rutland Waterworks District—The number of service connections in this district increased by 39 per cent in 1969, 33 per cent in 1970, and 21 per cent in 1971
to approximately 1,600. Under the direction of a consultant, the district continued
to explore for groundwater sources to replace its present pumped supply from Mission Creek. A production well was completed with a proven capacity of 1,200
U.S. g.p.m., but, because the water is hard and contains excessive iron, was not put
in service pending investigation of treatment required. A test well was drilled at
another site, where the water quality was found to be good but the aquifer of
relatively low transmissibility. Drilling has commenced at the third of four sites
planned in the exploration programme. The district has tried unsuccessfully to
negotiate with Hollywood Dell Estates, Ltd., first for a bulk water supply from the
utility and, second, for the purchase of the utility's waterworks, including wells.
A report was prepared on economics of the proposed take-over of the utility. Cost
estimates were also prepared for various alternative sources of water supply. Unless
the district is successful in locating aquifers of good-quality groundwater, where
large-capacity wells can be constructed, a gravity supply from Mission Creek via the
Black Mountain Irrigation District's system—which has always been recommended
—would be the most economic major source of domestic water for Rutland.
Village of Cumberland and Royston Improvement District—Difficulties arose
over the existing supply of water in bulk by Cumberland to Royston. The Regional
District of Comox-Strathcona became involved and the Water Rights Branch was
requested to study the problem and make recommendations. This Division investigated alternative approaches to local and regional water supply, and reported its
findings that the most satisfactory approach would be the purchase and operation by
the regional district of the supply works currently owned by Cumberland.
Village of Fort Nelson—A report on alternative sources of water supply for
Fort Nelson was completed. This recommended groundwater from a proposed
drilled well near the Muskwa River would require treatment for iron and manganese
removal. Test and production sized holes were then drilled, under supervision of
the Water Investigations Branch. The hardness and iron content of these wells was
found to be far higher than anticipated. The village pumped the well water, using
a temporary pump and pipe-line, to their storage reservoir to supplement their supply from the Muskwa River until they could pump from the river in winter. The
possibility of sequestering the iron by the addition of sodium silicate was studied,
but the results of field tests were inconclusive. Further work on development of a
well-water supply is likely to await the appointment by the village of a consulting
engineer specializing in water treatment.
Design and Engineering Services
Canyon Waterworks District—This district, located 3 miles north of Armstrong, installed the existing works in 1965 under the ARDA programme. Recently
the trustees have had several requests for additional connections from farmers and
subdividers. Prior to determining district policy, the trustees were advised to make
a survey of their existing water use. This Division prepared installation drawings
for a bulk meter to be installed at the well-head imminently.
Christina Waterworks District—This district, on Christina Lake 13 miles east
of Grand Forks, is beginning to develop as a recreational area. The number of
both permanent residences and summer homes is increasing. The district gets its
water by gravity from Moody Creek. The existing supply and distribution pipelines are generally old and of inadequate capacity for the growing number of consumers. The trustees were advised on pipe-line renewals required to improve low
operating pressures at high extremities of the system. New components were installed as recommended, which successfully corrected present problems.
Deroche—A settlement of some 30 homes at Deroche, 12 miles east of Mission,
is supplied with domestic water by a public utility company. The system, which
consists of an intake on Deroche Creek, 1,500 feet of wood-stave main and 5,000
feet of small iron pipe-lines, was inspected at the owner's request. The economic
life of the pipes having been expended, the gravity system needs extensive renewals,
or perhaps to be replaced with a pumped supply from a well. Advice was given on
temporary modifications to the intake, to eliminate some of the operating problems
at minimum cost.
Fanny Bay Waterworks District—This district provides domestic water to a
small community approximately 14 miles south of Courtenay. The original works,
previously owned by a shingle-mill, are now largely expended and the district, with
meagre resources, is faced with rehabilitation. The Division provided the design
and detailed drawings of new works successfully installed to supply a proposed
subdivision. These works will form a major part of the rehabilitated system.
Further construction will depend on successful negotiation of rights-of-way.
Grandview Waterworks District—The water system serving this farm community near Armstrong was installed under ARDA during the period 1966-69.
Subsequently, the buried, low-voltage cable controlling the deep-well pump was
extensively damaged by rodents and the automatic control became inoperative. This
cable, some 9,300 feet long, was renewed in 12 hours using a "Ditch-Witch" cable-
laying plough supplied by the Okanagan Telephone Company.
Larkin Waterworks District—Construction of ARDA Project 89003 is now
90 per cent complete and the system is in operation. The system installed to date
comprises a drilled well with submersible pump, a 32,400 imperial gallon, concrete
reservoir, and 30,000 feet of distribution piping, which includes 14,000 feet of
4-inch P.V.C. pipe. The Division, assisted by staff from the Kelowna District Engineer's office, has provided the design and construction supervision for this project,
which should be completed early in 1972.
Ootischenia Improvement District — A number of proposals for supplying
domestic water to the scattered homes in this district near Castlegar have been put
forward. All were costly. Preliminary estimates by the Division indicated that
the most economical proposal included using P.V.C. pipe in 6, 4, 3 and 2-inch sizes.
The accepted scheme included a deep-well pump, 67,000 imperial gallon, circular,
concrete reservoir and 47,000 feet of distribution piping for a total estimated cost
of $167,000. The project is 95 per cent complete. Although the distribution
piping has been increased to 53,000 feet, the final cost of the job is now expected
to be about $135,000. This system was installed by direct labour, with design and
construction supervision by the Division, assisted by staff of the Nelson District
Engineer's Office.   The project will be completed in 1972.
Olalla Improvement District—This small district, 4 miles east of Keremeos,
supplies irrigation and domestic water by gravity from Olalla Creek. The works
were inspected and advice given on extension of the distribution system to serve an
area outside the present boundaries, where land-owners have petitioned to join the
Mountain View Waterworks District—A total of 12 rural homes, smallholdings,
and farms are served by this district, 3 miles north of Armstrong. The Division
designed and supervised the installation of a new water system which has for its
sources of supply a gravity intake on Kendry Creek, supplemented by pumping from
a deep, drilled well of low yield. The works, installed by local, direct labour, cost
around $7,000.
Slocan Park Improvement District—ARDA Project 29043, for the installation
of a new irrigation system in this settlement in West Kootenay, is complete. The
pumping equipment and controls for the irrigation and domestic wells were installed early in 1971. An underwater pipe-line crossing of the Slocan River was
required in order to serve a few consumers on the west bank. This was accomplished by ploughing 4 feet deep into the river bed a 4-inch, welded, steel pipe-line
attached to the ripper blade of a large tractor. The completed system comprises
two deep, drilled wells equipped with submersible pumps, a 20,000-imperial-gallon
concrete reservoir, 16,000 feet of distribution piping, of which 9,000 feet was 4-inch
P.V.C. The Division provided design and construction supervision, assisted by
staff of the Nelson District Engineer's Office. This was the first of the projects for
which the Division has assumed full engineering responsibility where P.V.C. pipe
in sizes larger than 2-inch has been extensively used. The experience with installing
this pipe was satisfactory.
South West Extension Waterworks District—Located some 4 miles south of
Nanaimo, this district serves water to a small, former coal-mining community.
Under pressure from prospective subdividers, the trustees requested engineering
assistance in preparing plans and estimates for the necessary system extensions.
This Division submitted a scheme under which those petitioning for water service
would defray the capital cost of the works required. The applicants failed to respond to the proposals and the scheme is in abeyance.
Village of Fort Nelson—The Division designed, prepared contract documents
for, and, assisted by staff of the Prince George District Engineer's Office, supervised
construction of extensions to the village water and sewer systems to serve 48 lots in
a new Crown subdivision. Total cost of the installation was over $70,000. Advice
was given to Westcoast Transmission Company Ltd. on the design of water and
sewer extensions to service their new subdivision, and a booster pump and control
equipment was selected for them. A new, main distribution pump, together with
controls and meter, was selected and the necessary alterations to the existing pump-
house piping designed.
Walhachin Waterworks District—The small community of Wafhachin, 5 miles
west of Savona, obtains a precarious water supply from extensive works originally
installed in 1907. Following an unsuccessful test-well drilling programme conducted by the Groundwater Division of the Water Investigations Branch, it was
decided to retain the existing source of supply, Jimmies Creek, in the system rehabilitation design being prepared by this Division. Intake and pipe-line surveys
have been completed by the Water Investigations Branch. The Division expects to
prepare final design drawings for possible construction next summer, which will
depend on availability of financing.
Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals Reviewed
X 37
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
North Saanich..
Improvement Districts
Bluewater Park  _.
Campbell-Bennett Bay~
New Hazelton..
Proposed Deadman Creek-
Triangle Mountain	
Irrigation Districts
B.C. Fruitlands	
East Creston	
Scotty Creek and Ellison..
Waterworks Districts
Christina ..
East Latoria Road-
Hopkins Landing.—
Irvines Landing-
Kemp Lake	
Lighthouse Point-
Little Qualicum	
North Cedar	
North Saltspring-
Silver Star	
Traders Cove-
Long range policies..
Domestic-water system —
Master plan for development of domestic-water system
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system
Domestic-water system 	
Sewer system
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system
Extension of domestic-water system —
Sewer system - 	
Irrigation storage-
Extension of domestic-water system..
Domestic-water system	
Modifications to Block A irrigation
Extensions of water and sewer systems
Preventive measures against disbond-
ing of asphalt pipe-lining
Balancing storage reservoirs for
Blocks B and C
Renewal of main pipe-line	
Joint domestic-water system	
Balancing storage reservoir-
Extension of domestic-water system..
Domestic-water system 	
Relocation of intake and main pipeline
Balancing storage reservoir. _ _.
Extension of domestic-water system ...
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system
Domestic-water system._ -	
Water system improvements and extensions
Extension of domestic-water system....
Rehabilitation of domestic-water system
Domestic-water system 	
Extension of domestic-water system-
Extension of domestic-water system-
Extension of domestic-water system	
Proposed take-over of Public Utility
water system
Extension of domestic-water system.....
Extension of domestic-water system....
Domestic-water system	
Under construction..
In abeyance —
Under construction~
Under construction 	
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage
In abeyance	
Planning stage _	
Preliminary planning stage.
Under construction 	
Preliminary planning stage.
Planning stage-
Planning stage-
Planning stage-
Under construction..
Under construction 	
Preliminary planning stage-
Under construction-
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage
Preliminary planning stage
Construction completed	
Under construction	
Construction completed	
Planning stage	
Construction completed	
Planning stage	
Planning stage	
Under construction	
Under construction	
Under construction	
In abeyance 	
Planning stage 	
Planning stage	
 X 38
The Mica Dam on the Columbia River 85 miles north of Revelstoke under construction
during 1971. At 800 feet above bedrock, the completed dam will be the highest in Canada
and second highest in the world.
The Jordan River's new 430-foot-wide Elliott Dam.   The dam controls a holding pond feeding water through an intake structure, tunnel, and penstock to Jordan River powerhouse.
X 39
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....   ■        .   . .    ...
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Site-clearing for the Mica Dam's 172-square-mile reservoir is being co-ordinated by the
Water Resources Service.   This partly cleared section is on the Canoe River.
::\:.;...'■'"■■■■   " ' ■     . "■;-:■■ -
New powerhouse and 4,650-foot steel penstock snaking up a mountainside form part
of the Jordan River hydro-electric redevelopment on southern Vancouver Island. The
project became operational at the end of 1971.
H. M. Hunt, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The year 1971 was one of growth for the Division owing to increased participation in preliminary planning and associated negotiations relating to major hydroelectric power developments in the Province. Having outgrown the available head
office space, a transfer to larger accommodation in the International House, 880
Douglas Street, was undertaken in June.
Perhaps the most important assignment dealt with the Kootenay Canal project,
a 500-mw. development which was authorized by the Treasury Board in April and
which will utilize the improved river-flow regulation made available by Columbia
River Treaty impoundments at Libby and Duncan Dams. The negotiations between
the Government, British Columbia Hydro, and Cominco/West Kootenay Power and
Light leading toward a formal agreement for construction, operation, maintenance,
and distribution of energy production have been protracted and quite complex.
Preparation of the area to be flooded by Lake Koocanusa, previously called
"Libby Reservoir," continues toward initial filling in May of 1972. Negotiations
for land acquisition have been more difficult than was first anticipated and expropriation proceedings have been instituted in certain key properties to maintain scheduled
deadlines. Co-ordination of this project has continued to be a major assignment
for the Division.
Toward the end of the year, the 150-mw. Jordan River hydro-electric project
was declared operational, and first power flowed into the southern Vancouver Island
transmission network.   Construction of the Mica Dam continued on schedule.
The programme of inspection of existing dams throughout the Province was
maintained with the object of ensuring that all major impoundments are in a safe
condition. These regular inspections are conducted in conjunction with the district
It should be noted that, in addition to the following report, the Annual Review
of Power in British Columbia, dated July 1971, provides further details on power
developments and should be referred to where noted.
Major Licensing Administration
Power Licence Applications
During the past year, three noteworthy water licence applications were received, all concerned with power development. The largest referred to the proposed 500-mw. Kootenay Canal Plant, which had been the subject of previous study
by the Division. Western Mines Ltd. also applied for licences to modify its previous
proposal at Tennent Lake and to generate additional power from stored water. The
third was an interesting application in connection with the development of 900
kilowatts on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet—this plant, which is to be named Walden
North Plant, will supply power for an electronics research laboratory.
Approval of Plans
Review of plans and construction progress concerning major water licence
applications and approvals, particularly those dealing with power developments, is
undertaken for the Comptroller of Water Rights by this Division. During 1971,
such projects included W. A. C. Bennett Dam, Mica Dam, Jordan River, Whatshan,
and Kootenay Canal projects as well as other smaller projects. To assure the Comptroller that these projects were being constructed in accordance with approved
plans, Divisional staff visited Mica project, Jordan River Redevelopment, and
Kootenay Canal Plant site twice each during the past year, and made visits to several
smaller projects to ensure that rehabilitation or reconstruction work required by the
Division were being carried out according to approved plans. Work was progressing
favourably on both Mica and Jordan, though the latter project had been delayed
somewhat by strike action. Mica Dam is now about 75 per cent complete, while
Jordan River was declared operational in December. On the Peace River Development, Units 6, 7, and 8 (227 megawatts each) are being installed in the G. M.
Shrum Powerhouse. Contracts have been awarded to Russian and Japanese manufacturers for the first four 595,000-h.p. turbines at Mica Powerhouse while the
matching 435-mw. generators will be built by a Canadian company. The British
Columbia Hydro and Power Authority has commenced clearing the site for the
Kootenay Canal Plant and is taking steps to construct an access bridge across the
river near Cominco's South Slocan Plant. The Authority's Whatshan plant is being
rebuilt to a capacity of 50 megawatts and is expected to re-enter service in November 1972.
A more detailed report on the construction progress of the major projects
named above appeared in the 1971 Annual Review of Power in British Columbia.
Power Rentals
The administration of all major power licence rentals is supervised by this
Division. Billing is done with computer assistance; a tabulation of rentals, together
with the percentage change from each previous year, is shown below. It will be
noted that the reduction in hydro power generated during 1970 resulted in a drop
in rentals in 1971.
Per Cent
Year Total Billed Change
1962  1,720,588 	
1963  1,808,748 +5.12
1964  2,042,612 +12.92
1965  2,146,805 +5.10
1966  2,135,593 -0.53
1967  2,290,985 +7.27
1968  2,467,329 +7.69
1969  3,207,607 +30.00
1970  3,546,858 +10.57
1971  3,510,014 — 1.04
Average annual change     +7.20
Power Policy Planning
The Division is frequently required to advise Government on technical aspects
of proposed developments. During the past year, studies of this nature have been
made on further development at Kemano, feasibility of a large block of firm power
by hydro or coal-fired thermal generation, the effects of Ross reservoir on the
Skagit River, and development of the Kootenay Canal Plant.
Flood-control Operations
Although snow-pack conditions were generally slightly above average, the cool
weather experienced during the early part of the summer prevented dangerous
flood-peak stages on the major rivers of the Province.   Special flood-control operations were not required.
Undeveloped Power in British Columbia
Previous investigations—A summary of known undeveloped power-sites appear
in Table V of the 1971 Annual Review of Power in British Columbia. As the
data were compiled from reports dating back, in some cases, to the 1920's, they
cannot be accepted as definitive with any confidence. During the past year the
Division has undertaken a number of studies to determine feasibility under present-
day conditions.
Generation and Load Growth
Interim Estimate for Past Year
During 1971, Provincial power requirements returned to normal again, and
the results of a quick year-end survey are tabulated below. It has been customary
to give the percentage rate of change of the report year's generation in British
Columbia over that of the preceding year; however, since 1970 was a year of
adverse economic conditions, it would be misleading to quote only the 1970-71
change, which averaged 11.7 per cent, without pointing out that the 1969-70
change averaged 3.5 per cent.
The following tabulation, which must be considered provisional, gives gigawatt
hours (gwh.) or millions of kilowatt-hours:
Generated by utilities—
Hydro   16,263
Thermal         615
Subtotal  16,878
Generated by industries—
Hydro   10,107
Thermal      1,550
Subtotal  11,657
Combined generation—
Hydro   26,370
Thermal      2,165
Total   28,535
Export (net)        143
Total load in British Columbia during 1971 __ 28,392
Long-term Growth
A 10-year analysis of growth in power requirements appears in the Annual
Review of Power in British Columbia. For the period 1960-70 the mean annual
rates of growth were: Total generated, 6.68 per cent; and total required within
British Columbia, 6.49 per cent. The difference in the two growth rates is due to
imports and exports which vary substantially from year to year, but which indicates
a growth in over-all net export over the period.
A graph showing peak and average energy requirements from 1930 to date is
included herein, and it will be noted that over the past 15 years, on the average, a
fairly constant rate of growth has been maintained.
X 43
1930 to
9,0 00
7,0 00
5,0 00
1,000 s
9 00 >
eoo -.
7 00 H
600 *"
3 00
British Columbia Energy Board Projection to 1990
This Division has a representative on the standing committee to the British
Columbia Energy Board. This year, as a result of the Government's instructions
that the Board undertake a survey of power needs to 1985, the aforementioned
committee was expanded and assigned the task of determining the probable energy
requirements for the next 20 years. The new committee, known as the "Advisory
Committee of the Power Market," recently released its report in which it forecast
that the Provincial load would continue to grow at an average rate of 7.6 per cent
for the reasonably foreseeable future. The projected figures for the year 1990 are
19,984 megawatts (peak) and 12,800 megawatts (average), as compared with
4,615 megawatts and 2,950 megawatts respectively in 1970.
Columbia River Treaty
Permanent Engineering Board
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for providing technical
support to the Permanent Engineering Board of the Columbia River Treaty. Among
the several functions required under the terms of the Treaty, the Board has to report
to the Governments of Canada and the United States of America on progress being
achieved under the Treaty, to assist in reconciling differences between the development agencies of the two nations (termed the "Entities"), and to assemble flow
records of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers at the International Boundary.
The Chief of the Power and Major Licences Division is the nominated alternate member to A. F. Paget, who retired from the position of Deputy Minister of
Water Resources in 1969 and who is one of the two members representing Canada.
Responsibilities of the alternate member include assisting the member in the performance of his duties and taking his place at Board meetings in his absence. In
addition, the Chief of the Division is a member of the Permanent Engineering Board
Committee, whose function is to assist the Board in considering proposals and
operating plans received from the Entities.
The Division Chief attended two meetings of the Board during 1971 and participated in an inspection tour of facilities under construction, which included Mica
Dam, Libby Dam, as well as a visit to Hanford Project in Washington. A joint
meeting with the Canadian and United States Entities in Portland was also attended.
Kootenay Lake
The regulation of Kootenay Lake will be substantially affected by the operation
of Libby Dam, and studies to determine how this may be of best advantage to both
nations have been under way for some time.
Libby Reservoir Preparation
Under the terms of Article XII of the Columbia River Treaty, the United States
elected to construct Libby Dam in Montana; and Canada is, by this article, required
to prepare the portion of the reservoir in British Columbia. This task is being undertaken by several departments of the Provincial Government, with the over-all work
being co-ordinated by the Water Resources Service.
Of the total of 9,500 acres of private property to be acquired by the Government, some 3,724 acres have been purchased to date. To ensure that clearing will
be completed before the reservoir is filled, expropriation proceedings have been
instituted in several cases and will be followed by others as required. A total of
7,450 acres of land has been cleared completely and a further 1,650 acres remain
to be cleared.
The new Canadian Pacific rail-crossing of the Kootenay River north of the
reservoir at Fort Steele and the relocation of track between Cranbrook and Fort
Steele are complete and the old bridge at Wardner has been removed. The third of
four instalments of $800,000 was made on April 15 to Canadian Pacific Railway to
compensate for the loss of the Wardner Bridge. The engineering study to evaluate
the track modifications between Fort Steele and Wardner made necessary by the
reservoir is now finished, and this work will be undertaken early in 1972.
Of the 29.4 miles of new road necessitated by the flooding, 16 miles are now
complete. The completed sections are the new Wardner Bridge approaches, 3.2
miles of the Wardner-Newgate road and the Sand Creek to Baynes Lake section of
the Jaffray-Waldo road. The remaining 13.4 miles, comprised of the Kikomun
Creek Bridge approaches and the Gold Creek section of the Wardner-Newgate
road, are well under way and should be complete by the spring of 1972. Wardner
Bridge and the Canadian Pacific Railway overpass at Wardner are almost finished,
Kikomun Creek Bridge piers are complete, and construction of the Gold Creek
Bridge substructure has begun. AU four bridge projects are on schedule.
Mapping showing safelines for the reservoir perimeter has been produced for
private and Crown land and is being used by the Government in its programme of
land acquisition.
Design of three waterfowl-holding ponds opposite Wardner is complete and
construction may begin next year.
Parks Branch planners have been working on the Wardner waterfront area and
have also completed preliminary plans for a 1,390-acre park south of Kikomun
X 45
Creek. The first of several planned stages of development consists of 50 campsites near Surveyor's Lake and parking and boat-launching by the reservoir. The
eventual size of the park is expected to be 5,250 acres.
A meeting was held in October 1971 with the United States Corps of Engineers,
the authority responsible for construction of Libby Dam and reservoir preparation in
Montana, to discuss progress and items of common interest and concern.
Operation of Additional Storage
As in previous years, the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority applied
to the Comptroller of Water Rights for permission to store water in Arrow Lakes between elevations 1,444 and 1,446, for the purpose of generating downstream power
benefits in the United States over and above those obtainable under the Treaty.
In addition to making reservoir storage space available in Arrow Lakes, the
Authority was able to make similar use of its storage in Whatshan Lake while the
power plant was out of service.
The Authority received approximately $616,000 from the United States in
payment for the above services and paid $138,400 to the Minister of Finance in
respect of water licence fees.
Benefits in Canada
The Columbia River Treaty provides that the Comptroller of Water Rights,
as the authority in Canada having jurisdiction, must approve the use of improvements in Kootenay River flow arising in British Columbia from Libby storage
releases when this dam becomes operational. Earlier approval to make use of
Duncan releases until Libby regulation was effected was given by the Provincial
Government in 1967 to Cominco Limited and West Kootenay Power and Light
Company Limited, who own plants on the Kootenay River, on the understanding
that the additional power so developed would be shared with the licensee for Duncan
Dam (i.e., British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority). As already reported
herein, British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority have obtained a licence to
construct the Kootenay Canal plant, which will develop up to 500 megawatts of
power from upstream storage releases.
In addition to power benefits, there are substantial flood-control benefits from
the regulation provided by the Treaty reservoirs. During 1971 the operation of
Duncan reservoir reduced the peak stage of Kootenay Lake by about 1.3 feet, while
the Arrow and Duncan projects reduced the peak stage of the Columbia River at
Trail by about 7 feet below the levels that would have occurred had these two dams
not been constructed.
Dam Inspection
During 1971 the dam-inspection programme, instituted in 1967, was continued
with a total of 11 field trips being made. Twenty-seven major dams were inspected
for adequacy and safety, as well as nine smaller structures. Of these structures,
Mica Dam and Elliott Dam were inspected while under construction to ensure
compliance with the previously approved plans. Other dams recently completed,
such as Bulman Dam and Sooke Lake Dam, were inspected to ensure that their
initial operation had proceeded satisfactorily and without incident. Most of the
remaining visits were made as part of the continuing schedule of inspections to
ensure that adequate maintenance was being carried out and that no adverse conditions had developed. As a result of these inspections recommendations were made
to the owners of several of the dams concerning improvements in maintenance
practices, and rehabilitation work was requested at one dam.   Follow-up visits were
made to ensure that the rehabilitation was being properly implemented.
In addition to the inspection of the structures in the field, a continuing programme of studies is being followed in the office, during which various aspects of
dam safety are investigated such as dam stability, flood-handling capability, and
reservoir-bank stability. Also, during 1971, a start was made on a study of instrumentation techniques applicable to large dams with a view to the setting of minimum
standards for new construction.
Use of Electronic Computing Equipment
For some years this Division has been maintaining records of water licence data
on the IBM-360 computer and earlier equipment, while accounting records have
been maintained by the Data Processing Division of the Department of Industrial
Affairs, Trade, and Commerce. This arrangement was found to be unsatisfactory
and, as a result of a request initiated by the Power and Major Licences Division, a
study was undertaken to see how the two sets of data could be combined. A scheme
developed by the Data Processing Division of the Department bf Finance, involving
reprogramming the entire system, has been initiated and is expected to be operable
early in 1972.
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief Engineer,
are to deal with technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the Province not directly
connected with the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967. These
functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, are briefly summarized below.
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise
in the development and maintenance of water-supply projects.
(_>) Surveys and mapping in connection with water-resource planning, investigations, and construction.
(2) Hydrology Division:
(a) Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utilization
of water supply.
(_>) Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydro-
meteorological data for use in planning, engineering studies, and related purposes.
(3) Groundwater Division: Collection of existing groundwater data and investigation
and evaluation of groundwater potential to encourage and guide the future use and
conservation of this source of water supply.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division:
(a) Development of plans for water conservation on regional basis with an
immediate aim to indicate possibilities of augmenting the existing water supply.
(b) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential
of the Province.
(5) ARDA and Construction Division: Processing of water-project proposals made under
the Agricultural and Rural Development Act, and investigation, design, and supervision of projects. Supervision of construction of projects under the Fraser River
Flood Control 1968 Agreement.
(6) Projects Division:
(a) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering
advice and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(_>) Preparation and review of proposals under the Canada-British Columbia
Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
(7) Ecology Division: To undertake and direct limnological and ecological surveys in
connection with water-resource planning, investigations, and development projects.
(8) The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation
and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better
use of water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic
development of the Province.
 X 48
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B. E. Marr, P.Eng.
Chief Engineer
The Water Investigations Branch was created in December 1962, and deals
with technical matters related to the water resources of the Province, which matters
are not directly connected with the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution
Control Act, 1967.
To carry out Branch functions, seven divisions have been formed and a detailed
account of their activities in 1971 is given in the following pages. Also included
are reports on the operation of the Draughting Office, Records Compilation and Reports Section, and the Reports Library. The latter two offices also perform certain
services for the other branches of the Water Resources Service.
The Branch continued at a high level of activity through 1971, with considerable strain on senior staff members due in part to involvement in Joint Canada-
British Columbia Agreements.
Senior Branch staff continue to be involved in the Joint Federal-Provincial
Board and Committee set up to administer the Fraser River Flood Control 1968
Agreement. The Province is responsible for implementing the construction aspects
of this programme and, to date, agreements have been reached with the District of
Kent ($2,300,825) and the District of Matsqui ($2,283,600) for construction of
works involving dyking, river-bank protection, and internal drainage work. An
office was opened in New Westminster in 1970 to control field operation under this
programme, and now has a staff of nine. This is in addition to Head Office staff in
Victoria. The total estimated expenditures over the 10-year life of the Agreement
is $40,000,000.
The Agreement also calls for a review of the upstream storage proposals outlined in the Final Report of the Fraser River Board, dated 1963, and the Branch
has been given responsibility for certain aspects of these studies, including ecology,
updating costs, and special studies. This will involve a great deal of co-operation
with other Provincial and Federal agencies in the resources field, and, to assist in the
ecological aspects, the Fraser River Ecology Committee has been formed, bringing
together seven branches of Government, both Federal and Provincial. Studies will
include such things as archaeology, park use, fisheries, wildlife, forestry, mining, and
The Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement, signed in October
1969, involves the first major study in the field of comprehensive river-basin planning
attempted in Canada. The Branch is represented on the Board and Committee set
up to administer the Agreement and is also involved in a number of studies under
the Agreement; these are outlined in some detail by the Assistant Chief Engineer
in the body of this report.
The Branch continues to be involved in water projects under the Federal-
Provincial ARDA programme (Agricultural and Rural Development Act) with a
new ARDA agreement being signed in early 1970 covering the period 1970-75.
The total number of Provincial water projects now stands at 62 and 46 have been
completed, leaving 16 presently under construction. Total expenditures authorized
since 1963 under these projects is $32,400,000, of which some $29,000,000 has
been actually expended, with a further $1,660,000 expended on projects for which
official approval is pending.
A major water-management study in the Kalamalka-Wood Lake watershed was
recently announced, and this will be undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch.
This involves a study of the total water system, including biology, limnology, hydrology, geology, engineering, and economics. The study will be more intensive than
that being undertaken under the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement and arrangements have been made for a full exchange of information between
the two groups. In carrying out this study, the Branch will be calling upon the
resources of other branches of Government as well as outside agencies. The study
is scheduled for completion within a two-year period.
Work is continuing on the inventory of the undeveloped water-power potential
of the Province. This includes further investigation of power potential of the Liard
River, with the objective of limiting damage to upstream communities and to limit
flooding beyond the boundaries of British Columbia. In the Yukon area, mapping is
now being appraised to allow a more detailed evaluation of the Yukon-Taku diversion proposal as an alternative to previously suggested schemes involving diversion
to Taiya in Alaska.
The fourth phase of the ongoing erosion and flood-control project in the Squamish Valley was completed this year with the expenditure of some $267,000. Further
work is scheduled for 1972 and this will include the co-ordination of a river-training
project (on behalf of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway) to reclaim a portion of the
Squamish River delta. The estimated cost of this channel relocation and associated
dyking work is $2,500,000.
Studies continued on a number of other major flood and erosion problems
during the year, including the Pemberton Valley, Kitimat River, and the Kettle-
Granby Rivers in the Grand Forks area.
The general water-supply picture in 1971 varied from above average in the
southern region of British Columbia to below average in the north, with some
flooding problems being experienced in the former area, particularly along the
Kettle River. In contrast, Williston Lake recorded a below-average inflow for
the fourth year in a row. To assist in the prediction of run-off and in the operation of
water-control structures throughout the Province, the snow-course system continues
to expand and now consists of 218 stations, and information on these, together
with prediction of run-off, are given in the Snow Survey Bulletin published six times
per year.
Work continues in the collection of groundwater data, with a network of 94
long-term observation wells now being in existence. An inventory of water wells is
also maintained, and a further 2,000 well records were obtained through the cooperation of well-drilling contractors alone, bringing the total listed to well over
20,000. There has been considerable use of these data by outside agencies.
Of particular interest in the groundwater field is the study of the hydro-
geology of the Gulf Islands initiated in 1971. To date, this has been limited to the
collection of data on existing wells and some limited pump-testing to determine
quantity and quality of the groundwater resource. However, this study will expand
through 1972 and will lead to a better understanding of the groundwater resources
in this water-short area.
The Branch acknowledges the assistance received during the year from other
Government specialists and outside services in the carrying-out of its functions in
the investigation, planning, and development of the Provincial water resources.
Special mention is made of the continued co-operation with the Civil Engineering
Department and the Agricultural Engineering and Botany Departments of the
University of British Columbia, the British Columbia Research Council, and the
University of Waterloo.
Senior members of the Water Investigations Branch continued to participate
in a number of committees dealing with water-resource matters, including ARDA
committees, the National, Provincial, and Screening Committee for the International
Hydrological Decade, the IHD Hydrology Subcommittee of the National Research
Council, Co-ordinating Committee for Hydrometeorological Networks, the Board
and Committee in connection with the Fraser River Flood Control Agreement, the
Board and Committee in connection with the Okanagan Basin Agreement, Land
Use Working Committee, Mines Reclamation Act Technical Committee, Sea Use
Council, and the Advisory Committee on Fisheries to the British Columbia Energy
At year-end, the Water Investigations Branch staff consisted of 66 permanent
and 58 continuous temporary positions. Among these, there were 37 civil engineers,
four geological engineers, one hydrometeorologist, and two biologists. There were
three vacant positions.
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Assistant Chief Engineer
Since the signing of the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement
on October 29, 1969, the Water Investigations Branch has been actively engaged
in a co-operative programme with other Federal and Provincial agencies in implementing the terms of the Agreement, including the completion of a final report in
October 1973.
At the beginning of the year, the Okanagan Basin Study Information Brochure
was published and distributed to the public. Following this, a seminar was held in
Penticton in February 1971, where the various participating agencies and local
officials discussed the objectives and progress of the study plan.
Later in the year, further information was made available through the distribution of the Okanagan Study Committee Annual Report for the year ending March
31, 1971.
A list of the agencies responsible under the Agreement as of December 1971,
is shown below.
Agencies Responsible Under the
Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement
Canada-British Columbia Consultative Board
Canada British Columbia
Dr. A. T. Prince (Co-Chairman), Director, B. E. Marr (Co-Chairman), Chief Engineer,
Inland Waters Branch, Department of the Water Investigations Branch, Water Re-
Environment, sources Service.
Dr. E. R. Tinney, Director, Policy and Plan- h. D. DeBeck, Comptroller, Water Rights
ning Directorate, Department of the En- Branch, Water Resources Service.
„ vir°nment- . W. N. Venables, Director, Pollution Con-
K.   C.  Lucas,  Assistant  Deputy  Minister, trol Branch Water Resources Service.
Environmental Protection Service, Department of the Environment.
 X 52
Okanagan Study Committee
Dr. J. O'Riordan (Co-Chairman), Policy
and Planning Branch, Department of the
F. Boyd, Chief, Environmental Quality Unit,
Fisheries Service, Department of the Environment.
Dr. J. L. Mason, Head, Soil Science Section,
Summerland Research Station, Department of Agriculture.
British Columbia
T. A. J. Leach (Co-Chairman), Assistant
Chief Engineer, Water Investigations
Branch, Water Resources Service.
E. H. Vernon, Chief, Fisheries Management,
Fish and Wildlife Branch, Department of
Recreation and Conservation.
M. Slezak, Chief, Projects and Research
Division, Pollution Control Branch, Water
Resources Service.
Study Director: A. Murray Thomson
Study Office: 264 Westminster Avenue, Penticton.
An over-all study plan was prepared by the Committee, and this received formal
approval by the Consultative Board on June 1970.
Agreement was then reached with the following Federal and Provincial Government agencies to assume responsibility for the various portions of the study:
Responsible Agency Study Task Responsibility
British Columbia Water Resources Service—
Water Investigations Branch Water quantity.
Pollution Control Branch Water quality and waste treatment
Environment Canada—Fishery  Research
Board Fresh Water Institute Limnology.
Environment Canada and British Columbia Water Resources Service	
Study Director's Office, Penticton Co-ordination study.
It will be noted that in the case of the socio-economic studies that the programme has been shared by the Federal and Provincial Governments, since both
agencies have specialized staff in this field.
Further, it should be emphasized that while the above agencies are charged
with certain responsibilities, they are assisted in a number of instances by specialists
outside their staff.
In the case of the Water Investigations Branch, the following work has been
completed under Water-quantity Studies:
Water-quantity Studies
Description of Area
The Okanagan Basin in the south-central portion of British Columbia has one
of the most favourable climates in the Province, which, when water is available,
permits the raising of many heat-sensitive crops. While apples are by far the
major crop, pears, peaches, prunes, cherries, and apricots contribute to the economy,
and in recent years the grape industry has developed to meet winery requirements.
In addition to agriculture, both forestry and mining are important primary activities.
With improved transportation, the tourist industry is increasing very rapidly and
the valley has become a popular retirement area.
The extreme dryness of the region is reflected in the valley-bottom precipitation, which varies from 11 inches in the south at Oliver to about 17 inches in the
north at Armstrong.    These valley precipitations are, of course, not indicative of
X 53
the average precipitation over the basin, which ranges in elevation from 900 feet
to 6,000 feet. With the average elevation of watershed in Canada at 3,800 feet,
it is estimated that the average precipitation is about 24 inches. Less than one-
quarter of this precipitation appears in the form of run-off originating mostly as
snow-melt above elevation 4,000.
About 80 per cent of the annual run-off of the watershed in Canada occurs
within the Okanagan Lake Basin. About 70,000 acre-feet of run-off are consumed
in the lake tributaries in irrigating some 47,000 acres, as well as providing industrial,
municipal, and domestic needs. Inflow to Okanagan Lake is controlled by a concrete storage dam at Penticton within a normal range of 4 feet between elevations
1,119.8 and 1,118.8. This 4-foot lake range represents some 340,000 acre-feet
of storage, which is almost equal to the average annual net inflow of 364,000 acre-
feet. (Maximum net inflow to Okanagan Lake for the period of study (1921-70)
occurred in 1948 and amounted to 740,000 acre-feet, while the minimum net inflow
occurred in 1931, resulting in only 80,000 acre-feet.)
While Okanagan Lake, with a surface area of 84,200 acres, provides a high
degree of regulation, the loss from evaporation is estimated at between 200,000 and
300,000 acre-feet. Thus, the observed average net inflow to Okanagan Lake of
364,000 acre-feet is only about one-half the gross yield of the basin.
The Okanagan Lake Dam at Penticton and the improved 4 miles of Okanagan
River channel running south and discharging into Skaha Lake are part of the
Okanagan Flood-control Project which was constructed jointly by the Federal and
Provincial Governments during the period 1952 to 1958 under the Okanagan Flood-
control Act. While the name could imply a single purpose objective, it is essentially
a multipurpose scheme which provides not only flood control and water conservation but in addition, meets the needs of recreation, wildlife, and fisheries.
The project also includes a second concrete dam at Okanagan Falls, which
regulates Skaha Lake (surface area, 4,710 acres) within a 2-foot range between
elevations of 1,107.6 and 1,109.6 feet. The discharge of Skaha Lake flows southward through the improved Okanagan River channel for 3.3 miles to discharge into
Vaseux Lake (surface area 690 acres). In this section of the river there are four
drop structures.
Below the small diversion dam at Vaseux Lake, the Okanagan River is unimproved for some 4 miles and a portion of this reach, together with Wenatchee
Lake in the State of Washington, form the two major spawning areas for the sockeye
salmon in the Columbia River Basin.
In its lower reaches, Okanagan River has been improved from just north of
Oliver downstream for some 10 miles to Osoyoos Lake at elevation 912 feet. In
this section of the river there are 13 drop structures, each designed for a fall of 3 feet.
Water-quantity Model
Through the use of the computer, a water-quantity model of the main river
and lake system has been developed. Thus, it is possible, using the historic inflows
for the past 50 years, to impose present and future water requirements to test the
adequacy of the supply for those diversions taking water directly from the main
lake or river system.
The extension of this model into the tributaries, which is now under way, will
complete this particular task of "matching supply with demand." Finally, the
effect of the various lake levels and flows must be evaluated with respect to water
supply, recreation, fisheries, wildlife, and aesthetics in arriving at the benefits or
disbenefits of a certain type of water regulation.
The necessary field data for these evaluations was collected during the past
summer in co-operation with the Socio-Economic Working Group. At the same
time, some tentative conclusions were made with respect to minimum flows and
consumptive use along the Okanagan River through to Osoyoos Lake. Such operations would require improved intake conditions, and estimates of the cost of these
changes and improved flood-control protection have been completed. Plans are
also under way to test the system under minimum flow conditions in the coming
Groundwater Hydrology
In 1970, exploration of groundwater by seismic methods followed by the
drilling of a number of deep exploratory holes was carried out within the main valley
in the north as well as in the south at Okanagan Falls and near the confluence of
Mclntyre Creek.
During 1971 the work has been limited to a cleaning-out of selected test wells
where pump tests were carried out at seven locations in the north. Following this,
instrumentation was placed in eight of the test wells to provide a record of future
water fluctuations.
Prior to the field tests and since that time, a Federal-Provincial Groundwater
Review Board has been studying the existing information to determine whether
groundwater could provide an appreciable supply in times of drought. A summary
report was prepared in June and it is expected a final report will be available about
April 1972. Further details on groundwater can be found under the Groundwater
Division portion of the Annual Report.
Main Stem and Basin Hydrology
The detailed matching of supply and demand in the various tributaries has
required modifications to the historic inflows to arrive at natural conditions. The
first computations were based primarily on a simple relationship between latitude
and elevation in arriving at precipitation, evapotranspiration, and run-off. The
run-off from the various tributaries was then equated to the total natural inflow to
Okanagan Lake and River and through a number of iterations, the monthly flows at
the mouths of each tributary stream were computed for the period 1920 to 1970.
A somewhat more basic approach in arriving at the natural run-off in the
tributaries has been the use of the grid-square technique in determining average
annual yield of the basin. This work is now nearing completion and will serve as
a check on the more empirical solution described above.
Finally, because of the importance of detailed information on precipitation and
evaporation, the Federal Atmospheric Environment Service has been working on
evaporation estimates of the main valley lakes as well as precipitation and evapotranspiration for the years 1971 and 1972. It is hoped that the new climatic
stations constructed under the Okanagan study programme will, in the brief period
of operation before the end of the study, provide some reasonably accurate figures
with which to check certain tentative assumptions made in the earlier studies. In
addition, the continuation of these stations after the completion of the study will
provide better data for the future operation of the system.
Development of a Forecasting Model
The development of a water-quantity model, using the last 50 years of historic
data and described earlier in this report, provides a means of comparing supply with
However, this model in itself is of no use in forecasting freshet inflow, which
information is needed if improved operations are to be effected. Some preliminary
work has already been done in the development of a forecasting model by the
Department of Civil Engineering at the University of British Columbia, using such
parameters as snow-survey data, temperature, precipitation, etc. It is hoped that
a model can be developed to a point where it can be used in forecasting the freshet
inflow from week to week or even for shorter periods of time.
Wood-Kalamalka Lake
In July 1971 the Okanagan Study Committee initiated an investigation into the
Wood-Kalamalka alga, problem and prepared a report with a number of appendices
which essentially was a review of available information.
This problem has been taken over by the Water Investigations Branch, although
the Okanagan Study Committee will continue to carry out a portion of the programme with the mutual understanding that there will be a full exchange of information between the committee and the Water Investigations Branch.
Mines Reclamation Committee
In 1969 the Mines Reclamation Committee was formed under the chairmanship
of the Chief Inspector of Mines, with representation from the Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources Services, the Department of Agriculture, and the Fish and Wildlife
Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
The Chief Engineer of the Water Investigations Branch represents the Water
Resources Service on this committee, and in his absence the Assistant Chief Engineer
has attended.
Details of mines reclamation can be found under section 8 of the Coal Mines
Regulation Act and section 11 of the Mines Regulation Act, which are identical.
During the last year a number of new reclamation proposals and plans have been
studied by the Committee and the Inspector of Mines and Reclamation, and recommendations have been made with respect to these applications.
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., B.C.L.S., Chief of Division
The functions of the Water Supply and Investigations Division can be divided
into two main divisions—(a) investigation of irrigation, domestic-water supply, and
flood-control projects; and (b) major field surveys required by the various divisions
of the Water Investigations Branch.
During the past year, investigations were continued or initiated on nine water-
supply projects. Construction was continued on five water-supply projects under
the ARDA programme, involving the preparation by this Division of final design,
including contract documents.
Of the five ARDA projects under construction, one has been completed, three
are nearing completion, and the fifth project is to be completed by the end of 1972.
The total estimated capital cost of the projects under construction, with which this
Division is involved, is approximately $6,700,000.
 X 56
X 57
Vernon Irrigation District
Left: Two 150-h.p. vertical centrifugal pumps with variable speed magnetic couplings at
South BX No. 1 Pumphouse.
Right: District crew laying 50-inch-diameter main-line concrete pipe from Headgates Dam.
Bottom: Headgates Dam and screening works under construction, with temporary spillway
at right.
Technical staff attached to the Division were responsible for field surveys for
the projects under construction for both the attainment of engineering data and the
layout of design, and the supervision of construction.
The main projects dealt with in 1971 are summarized below:
Water-supply Projects
Black Mountain Irrigation District
The Black Mountain Irrigation District, which includes the community of Rutland, is one of the major fruit-growing districts in the Okanagan Valley, consisting
of approximately 5,000 acres of irrigable lands.
At the request of the district, an engineering study was carried out on a combined irrigation and domestic water-supply system to replace the existing open
flume and ditch system. A report prepared by the Water Investigations Branch in
1965 outlined a new water-supply system to supply water under pressure to some
4,550 acres of irrigable lands, and 530 farm domestic connections from the proposed
Gopher Flats Reservoir, supplied from the existing intake on Mission Creek through
3.5 miles of open canal. The proposed project, with an estimated capital cost of
$3,030,000, was approved for ARDA assistance in 1966.
In view of the continuing development of the area, the district subsequently
expressed concern over possible contamination of its water supply in the 3.5 miles
of open canal, and of possible alga, problems associated with the proposed Gopher
Flats Reservoir. An alternative scheme was therefore investigated, proposing the
construction of a large settling-basin at the Mission Creek intake and providing a
closed system from the intake to the distribution system. The revised scheme, which
effected considerable changes in the distribution-system layout and provided for
higher operating pressures and a larger peak carrying capacity, was accepted by
the district and approved by ARDA authorities.
The new system will provide irrigation water to approximately 4,900 acres of
farm lands and year-round supply to over 600 domestic connections in the district.
Four years had been estimated to complete the project, which involve considerable
improvements and repairs to the district's storage and diversion works, in addition
to the construction of the settling-basin and distribution system. The latter consists
of over 40 miles of pipe-line in sizes from 4 to 48-inch diameter, several pressure-
reducing stations, three booster-pump stations, and a chlorination and flow-recording
station. Domestic and irrigation water will be provided from Mission Creek with
emergency and (or) standby winter domestic supply from two wells in the Rutland
The distribution system in the Rutland Flats area, which consists of approximately 14 miles of 4 to 24-inch-diameter pipe and 350 service connections, was
installed in 1968. The Nichel Road Pump Station, completed during the fall of
1968, supplied this area with domestic water through the winter of 1968/69. A
20,000-gallon storage reservoir, the Cornish Road Pumping Station, and two booster
pumps, all constructed in 1969, completed the standby domestic-water supply works.
During the winter of 1970/71, the district was provided with domestic water through
the newly completed part of the water system.
The settling-basin, intake, most of the control works, the main supply line, and
the two largest pressure-reducing stations were constructed in 1968 and 1969. The
construction of the distribution system in the northeastern part of the district, which
consists of approximately 16 miles of 4 to 20-inch-diameter pipe and 300 service
connections, was completed in 1969. The combined booster-pump and chlorinator
station and another four pressure-reducing stations were completed for the 1970
irrigation season. The remainder of the control works was completed following the
1970 season. One booster pump station was in operation during the latter part of
the 1970 irrigation season and both stations operated during the 1971 season.
The distribution system in the Belgo area, which consists of approximately 12
miles of 4 to 20-inch-diameter pipe and 200 service connections, was installed in
1971. Three pressure-reducing stations were completed and put into operation.
One small station remains to be constructed.
The existing gravity diversion system between the settling basin on Mission
Creek and the distribution system which consisted of approximately 9,400 feet of
X 59
earth and concrete-lined canal and three interconnecting tunnels, was replaced by
a closed system.
The main tunnel, 3,300 feet in length, is immediately upstream of the 48-inch-
diameter pipe-line on the lower end of the system. With the exception of a connecting steel liner at each end, this tunnel did not require lining. The remaining
two tunnels of 240 feet and 340 feet in length respectively were lined with ob-
rounded steel pipe to provide maximum carrying capacity. The existing canal was
replaced by a cast-in-place concrete arched conduit, 4 by 6 feet 3 inches in size.
Constructed under contract, work commenced in September 1970 and the conduit
and related works were completed prior to the 1971 irrigation season.
With the exception of the cast-in-place conduit, the new distribution system
was installed by the district's own forces. The system has now essentially been
An application made by the district to the ARDA authorities for assistance in
the construction of a new office complex, not included in the original project, has
been approved.
The district's storage supply has been increased by about 1,700 acre-feet
through construction of the Fish Hawk Lake storage reservoir in 1970 and 1971,
under a separate ARDA project.
Studies are presently being carried out in connection with proposed improvements to storage works on Graystoke Lake and Ideal (Belgo) Lake. Following
a review of water requirements, it is expected that further storage development may
be considered in conjunction with rehabilitation of these works.
Peachland Irrigation District
The Peachland Irrigation District is situated within the Okanagan Valley,
approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of Okanagan
Lake. The boundaries of the district enclose a total area of about 1,480 acres, of
which 640 acres are classified as suitable for agriculture.
The original system was installed in 1906 by the Peachland Townsite Company.
However, as the service and the gravity water supply from Peachland Creek proved
to be inadequate, the land-owners purchased the system in 1920 and subsequently
the area was incorporated into the Peachland Irrigation District under the British
Columbia Water Act.
The district carried out improvements to the system and supplemented the
irrigation supply from Peachland Creek by the development of storage in Peachland
Lake and Wilson Lake Reservoirs. Domestic water was supplied from individual
springs and wells, or from cisterns filled from the irrigation system.
However, in 1965, recognizing that the system had reached the end of its useful
life, and, in addition, it did not meet the present requirements of the district for the
supply of irrigation and domestic water, the Board of Trustees requested that a
study be carried out to consider the feasibility of replacing the existing system with
a combined irrigation and domestic-water supply system. Following the completion
of a preliminary report by the Water Investigations Branch in July 1968, financial
assistance under the ARDA programme was secured in June 1969, and construction
commenced soon after.
A short description of the new water-supply system, which will be completed in
early spring of 1972, is as follows: The intake on Peachland Creek consists of a
concrete screening chamber and an earthfill dam 19 feet high, creating a headpond
with a capacity of 16 acre-feet.   The distribution system consists of approximately
60,000 feet of pipe-line of sizes 4 to 24-inch diameter, two booster pump stations,
seven pressure-reducing stations, and a chlorination station.
With the exception of the screening and spillway structures, which were constructed under contract, the major portion of the intake and the distribution system
was constructed by the district's own work force.
Constructed at a cost of approximately $811,000, the new system is presently
serving about 556 acres of agricultural land and 150 domestic users. In addition,
the new system provides emergency water supply to the Municipality of Peachland
in the event of a pumping failure.
Sion Improvement District Extension
In 1970 the Branch completed a report on the Sion Improvement District at
Grand Forks on the feasibility of extending service to properties in District Lot 700,
a section of land lying between the two areas that form the present district. A
preliminary design was prepared for a water-supply system to supply 115.5 acres
of irrigable land and 93 domestic connections.
The North Grand Forks and South Grand Forks areas of the Sion Improvement District are served by independent water systems, installed in 1968. Under
the above proposal, the properties within Lot 700 would be served by an extension
from the North Grand Forks system, with the addition of a new well and pumping
station, and would be interconnected with the present South Grand Forks system.
The total capital cost of the proposed extension was estimated to be $106,500.
Subsequently, at the request of the district's trustees, alternative designs were
considered (a) for a combined irrigation and domestic system serving a smaller
area, and (b) a domestic system only to serve some 40 dwellings within Lot 700.
However, in each case the estimated cost appears to be higher than the district is
willing to accept.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
South East Kelowna Irrigation District, incorporated as an improvement district
under the Water Act in 1920, contains an area of about 8,627 acres, with over 3,000
acres under irrigation, mainly in tree fruits. The original works were installed by
private companies during the period 1905 to 1911.
Gravity water is supplied to the district by two irrigation systems of about equal
size in area, and one domestic system. The irrigation system to the east is commonly
referred to as the K.L.O. system, with an intake on Canyon (K.L.O.) Creek, while
the irrigation system to the south is known as the S.K.L. system, with an intake on
Hydraulic Creek. The domestic system, with an intake on Canyon Creek and serving
about 200 farm connections, supplies the central area within the K.L.O. irrigation
system. The remaining areas are served by springs or cisterns.
Commencing in 1964 and continuing through 1968, partial renewals financed
under the ARDA programme have been carried out under three projects, work
being mainly done on the S.K.L. system, with lesser expenditures on the K.L.O.
and farm domestic systems.
A fourth project under the ARDA programme was initiated in June 1967,
when the South East Kelowna Irrigation District requested the Water Investigations
Branch to prepare a preliminary report for the proposed rehabilitation of the main
concrete ditch and steel siphon across Canyon Creek and to survey a proposed
storage reservoir for farm domestic supply. This project was expanded in January
1968 when the district requested engineering studies be carried out on the rehabilitation of the existing Canyon Creek dams, the development of additional storage at
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the Turtle Lake Reservoir site, and reconstruction of No. 9 Dam on Hydraulic
Creek, and further replacements in the diversion and distribution systems.
Subsequently, it was proposed to establish a new intake on Hydraulic Creek and
to construct a fully pressurized combined irrigation and domestic system. Following the completion of field surveys in 1969, a preliminary report "Proposed
Rehabilitation of the South East Kelowna Irrigation System—Fourth ARDA Project
Proposal" was completed in January 1970. The proposed project, with an estimated
capital cost of $3,600,000, was approved for ARDA assistance in June 1970.
The new system will provide irrigation water to approximately 4,335 acres of
farm lands and domestic water for approximately 660 connections.
The proposed rehabilitation of the system will include the replacement of the
major portion of the distribution system. Final design and supervision of construction of this part of the rehabilitation will be carried out by the ARDA and Construction Division. Rehabilitation of storage works will be carried out under the
supervision of the Water Supply and Investigations Division. To provide the annual
water requirement of about 12,700 acre-feet, McCulloch Reservoir storage works
will be reconstructed to provide additional storage. In addition, storage works on
three existing reservoirs will be improved or replaced to maintain present storage.
Additional reservoir inflow will be obtained by constructing a 4 V2 -mile-long diversion ditch from Pooley Creek, which drains an area of approximately 10 square
miles, and by improving the existing Myra Ditch. In addition, the major portion
of the Stirling Creek drainage area will be diverted into the Pooley Creek and Myra
Ditch system in place of improving the existing Stirling Creek diversion works.
During 1970, construction consisted of enlarging the Myra Ditch to accommodate the flow from the Pooley Creek diversion, the construction of 6 miles of new
access roads, the improvement of 14 miles of existing access roads, and the clearing
of the present flooded area of McCulloch Reservoir.
During 1971, approximately one-third of the proposed rehabilitation of the
district's storage works was completed. Briefly, the 1971 construction programme
consisted of both work under contract and by district forces. Under contract, the
main components of McCulloch Reservoir are being rehabilitated, namely, the
reconstruction of four dams, the construction of a new spillway, and the enlargement
of an existing ditch connecting Haynes, Minnow, and Hydraulic Lakes. These lakes
form the major portion of McCulloch Reservoir. Approximately 25 per cent of
this work was completed during 1971. Work carried out by district forces during
the period consisted of clearing, burning, and stripping the Pooley Creek diversion
ditch right-of-way, diverting Stirling Creek into Pooley Creek-Myra Ditch system,
and clearing the new flooded area of McCulloch Reservoir.
It is anticipated that the rehabilitation of the storage works will be substantially
completed by the end of 1972.
Westbank Irrigation District
Westbank Irrigation District, which includes the Townsite of Westbank, is
situated approximately 7 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of
Okanagan Lake.
During the period 1958 to 1963, the district carried out partial rehabilitation of
the existing distribution system by financing renewals from the Renewal Reserve
Fund. However, in 1964, faced with immediate and costly replacement of the
remaining portions of the distribution system, including major improvements to the
storage works, the district applied for ARDA assistance.
The construction of a concrete intake dam and screening works, and the installation of 7,000 feet of 34-inch-diameter steel pipe-line, represented the first phase
of rehabilitation of the district's works under the ARDA programme. This project
was completed in April 1966 at a capital cost of $160,000.
The second phase of rehabilitation includes the replacement of the district's
distribution system to provide approximately 1,500 acres of irrigable land with a
combined irrigation and farm domestic supply. The 1,500 acres of irrigable land
are composed of approximately 1,000 acres within the original Westbank Irrigation
District and 500 acres within the Powers Creek Water-users' Community, which
has now been incorporated into the Westbank Irrigation District.
Formerly, the settlement of Westbank and a number of farms within the
irrigation district were being provided with domestic service from a system
installed by the Westbank Waterworks District and supplied from the Westbank
Springs. With the amalgamation of the Waterworks and Irrigation Districts, this
area is now being served from the new system.
With the exception of the combined booster pump and chlorination station
(which will be constructed before the spring of 1972), the entire distribution system,
which also includes approximately 75,000 feet of 4 to 24-inch-diameter pipe and
seven pressure-reducing stations, was completed by the end of 1971.
Originally it was proposed to rehabilitate the district's six existing storage
reservoirs to provide the required storage supply. However, based on more recent
hydrologic information, it was possible to develop the required storage in Lambly
(Bear) Lake and Jackpine Lake, two of the district's existing reservoirs.
Approximately 2,560 acre-feet of storage have been developed on Lambly
Lake, an increase of over 1,900 acre-feet. Reconstruction of the storage works
included the replacement of the North Dam, approximately 1,400 feet in length,
raising of the South Dam and reconstruction of the outlet works, construction of a
new spillway, and the diversion of Paddle Creek into Lambly Lake to augment the
reservoir inflow. The storage works on Jackpine Lake were replaced to maintain
the existing storage of about 1,000 acre-feet. Combined impact basins and measuring weirs were installed at the outlets of both Lambly and Jackpine Reservoirs.
The major portion of the storage works was completed in 1970, allowing catchment of the 1971 reservoir inflow, the remaining works being completed in the
fall of 1971.
The total cost of the project is estimated to be about $1,407,000.
Glenrosa Area, Westbank Irrigation District
The Glenrosa area is situated to the south of Powers Creek, adjacent to the
west boundary of the Westbank Irrigation District. Basically an agricultural area,
the land is presently being dry-farmed for use as pasture or the growing of hay crops.
In 1969, the land-owners within the study area submitted a petition to the
Westbank Irrigation District requesting that the new ARDA system be extended
to provide the area with both irrigation and domestic services.
A study is presently being carried out to consider the possibility of the proposed
extension, and it is anticipated that a report should be completed by early 1972.
Trepanier Area, Municipality of Peachland
The Trepanier area, which lies mainly within the Municipality of Peachland,
is situated approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side
of Okanagan Lake. Basically an agricultural area, it occupies the northern portion
of the municipality.
The existing system, which is administered by the Trepanier Water-users'
Community, consists of ditches, flumes, and low-head pipe-lines, and is no longer
considered to be adequate for present-day irrigation and domestic requirements.
The system is supplied by gravity from Trepanier Creek.
In September 1970, a request was received from the municipality, on behalf of
the water-users within the area, to carry out a study to consider the possibility of
installing a combined irrigation and domestic-water supply system.
Preliminary field surveys were carried out in 1970, and the study was initiated
in early 1971. The area under study consists of about 960 acres, of which 550 acres
have been classified as suitable for agriculture. In addition, domestic water could
be supplied to about 170 connections. Present studies indicate that storage supply
would be required to supplement the district's diversion from Trepanier Creek
during the low-flow season.
A tentative design and estimate of cost have been prepared based on present
information. However, prior to completing the report, further field information
will be required.
Water-storage Reservoir Inventory
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the southern
Interior of the Province of British Columbia was initiated by this Division in 1964.
The principal areas included under this programme are the Okanagan and Similka-
meen Basins. The surveys have included both existing storage reservoirs and potential reservoir-sites, and the information has been used in the investigation of water
supply in the water-deficient areas, and has assisted in the administration of water
rights. This information has also been the basis of design in the reconstruction of
a number of existing storage dams under the ARDA programme.
Reservoir maps are being prepared by photogrammetry and from field surveys.
Subaqueous information is being obtained by the use of echo-sounding equipment.
Of the approximately 150 storage reservoirs presently under licence in the
Okanagan Basin, about 1.15 reservoirs are presently in operation. The capacity of
these reservoirs varies from a minimum of about 1-acre-foot to a maximum of about
12,000 acre-feet, which is to be developed in McCulloch Reservoir under the South
East Kelowna Irrigation District ARDA project.
A large percentage of the reservoirs in operation with a capacity of 100 acre-
feet and over have been surveyed, including 16 lakes surveyed in 1971. However,
approximately 20 reservoirs require to be mapped to complete the information on
those already surveyed. It is estimated that an additional 30 reservoirs will require
surveys and mapping to complete the Okanagan Basin storage inventory.
Information obtained up to the end of 1971 for the Okanagan Basin has been
summarized in the form of a list of reservoirs in the valley with appurtenant information and a set of maps showing the location of the reservoirs.
The mapping programme for the Similkameen Basin includes about 11 existing
and potential reservoir sites.
Flooding, Drainage, and Erosion Projects
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
Under the tripartite agreement among the Pemberton Valley Dyking District,
the Federal Government, the Provincial Government, and the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA), Canada Department of Agriculture, carried out
certain dyking and drainage works in the Pemberton Valley from 1946 to 1953.
As a result of these works, some 12,000 acres of fertile land were reclaimed
or protected from flooding. Area 2, however, in which the Village of Pemberton is
situated, and which extends from Green River to Miller Creek, still has flooding
problems during the high water. As a result, a request was received from the
district for assistance under the ARDA programme to further improve the area.
These improvements would allow reclamation of farm lands and increased agricultural production, involving about 2,000 acres.
Following the completion of field surveys in 1965 and 1966, a preliminary
report was completed in 1967.    Two alternative schemes were investigated—
(a) drainage by gravity, by diverting One Mile Creek into the Green River; and
(b) drainage by pumping at the confluence of the canal draining Area 2 and One
Mile Creek.
The pumping scheme, with an estimated capital cost of $103,000 and annual
cost of $5,604, was recommended because it would provide better protection against
Following completion of the report, further reports of flooding and erosion
were received and, at the request of the district, the area of investigation has now
been expanded to include the section of Pemberton Valley extending from Tenasse
Lake, downstream of Lillooet Lake, to about 22 miles upstream of Lillooet Lake.
Additional surveys have now been carried out to further the investigation, including
detailed office studies. A topographic map, based on 1971 air photography, will
be prepared in 1972 to complement the report.
The feasibility of lowering the outlet of Lillooet Lake to improve flooding conditions upstream of the lake was considered. This proposal was found to be too
costly and to have limited benefits.
Two other flood-control schemes are being considered—Scheme 1 includes
the Indian reserve lands that lie within the boundaries of the Pemberton Valley
Dyking District; additional dyking, bank erosion control, improved land drainage
and erosion control and confinement of the Lillooet River to its main channel
would be required. Scheme 2, which excludes the Indian reserve lands, would
require similar improvements.
It is anticipated that the report will be completed early in 1972.
Salmon Arm Wharf Channel, Shuswap Lake
In September 1971, field surveys were carried out for the purpose of investigating the silting problem in the channel leading to the Salmon Arm wharf on
Shuswap Lake, immediately south of the outlet of Salmon River, as a result of a
request received from the local Salmon River Study Committee. These surveys
involved extensive sounding of Shuswap Lake in the vicinity of Salmon Arm and
the outlet of Salmon River, river-channel sections, and ground-control for mapping
of the area between Shuswap Lake and the main highway.
Engineering studies have now commenced, and the feasibility and cost of
rediverting the Salmon River channel into its original channel, or alternatively,
constructing a training-wall to control the river sediment, is being investigated.
It is expected that a report on the project will be completed early in 1972.
Miscellaneous Surveys
During the summer season the field survey staff attached to this Division
carried out a number of field surveys required by the several divisions of the Water
Investigations Branch in connection with water-supply, erosion, flood-control, and
drainage studies. During 1971, there was an appreciable increase in survey assignments, with a total of over 25 major surveys and several miscellaneous surveys
being carried out during the field season.
Some of the major surveys which were carried out in 1971 for this purpose
are summarized below.
Fraser River Dyking System
In connection with the proposed improvements to be carried out to the Fraser
River dyking system under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser River Flood-control
Agreement, typical channel sections and other related information were required
covering certain sections of the Fraser River.
In 1970 an "as constructed" survey was carried out for the purpose of assessing
the channel improvements made along Buck Creek and the Bulkley River during
the spring of that year.
To complete the flood-control study, additional field information was obtained
in the fall of 1971.
Spences Bridge
At the request of the Water Rights Branch, a proposed pipe-line route from
the Murray Creek intake to the community of Spences Bridge was profiled and
mapped, and the community area controlled for photogrammetric mapping.
Municipality of Summerland
In connection with a rehabilitation study being carried out on the existing
water-supply system of the Municipality of Summerland for assistance under the
ARDA programme, 14 lakes in the municipality's storage-reservoir system were
The 14 lakes were controlled for photogrammetric mapping with 10 of the
lakes being tied into the Provincial trigonometric system. In addition, all lakes
were sounded for computations of storage capacities and detailed information obtained on the existing storage structures.
The above information will be included in the Okanagan Basin Water-storage
Reservoir Inventory.
Mamquam River
In connection with proposed bank-protection work to be carried out on the
sections of the Mamquam River extending from the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
bridge to a point approximately 1,000 feet above the confluence of Mashiter Creek
some 2V_t miles upstream, the required topographic and bathometric data for design
purposes was obtained.
That data consisted of 26 cross-sections across the valley floor, including an
investigation of the downstream end of Mashiter Creek involving four cross-sections
and related topography.
Black Mountain Irrigation District Hydrology
A metering and gauging programme was established in the district's water-
supply drainage areas on Mission Creek for the purpose of assessing their potential
Recording gauges were installed in the outlet channel and spillway channel at
Graystoke Reservoir, and staff gauges and measuring weirs constructed on Ideal
 X 66
Snow surveyors taking a water-equivalent reading of the Mount Hood snow-
pack (6,000-foot elevation) near Blue
River on the North Thompson watershed.
International Hydrological Decade
mountain-transect meteorological station on the Beaufort Range on Vancouver Island.
Black Mountain Irrigation District—the water-level recorder at the Graystoke Reservoir
spillway outlet (ARDA project).
X 67
and Hilda Creeks, which are diverted into Ideal (Belgo) Lake to supplement the
reservoir inflow.
The above information will be used to estimate the district's storage requirements under the ARDA project, and to assess the economics of rehabilitation or
reconstruction of the Graystoke Lake and Ideal Lake structures.
Similar information was obtained for an evaluation of South East Kelowna
Irrigation District's water supply from the Canyon (K.L.O.) Creek drainage area.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
In connection with the reconstruction of the storage works on McCulloch
Reservoir, presently being carried out, and the proposed construction of the Pooley
Creek diversion canal and related works, to be carried out in 1972, extensive topographic site surveys were required.
In summary, these surveys covered the existing Myra Diversion Ditch, the
ditch connecting Haynes Lake and Minnow Lake to Hydraulic Lake (McCulloch
Reservoir), the South Dam of McCulloch Reservoir, the CPR embankment, the
new diversion ditch from Stirling Creek into the Pooley Creek-Myra Ditch diversion
system, the Pooley Creek diversion route and intake, and the establishment of the
flooded area of McCulloch Reservoir for clearing.
H. I. Hunter, Hydrometeorologist, Chief of Division
Snow-course Network
During the 1971 sampling season, snow surveyors made 983 trips to mountain
snow courses to gather snow-depth and snow-water equivalent data. These measurements were completed during the accumulation and depletion periods near the
regular sampling dates of February 1, March 1, April 1, May 1, May 15, and June 1
by personnel of Federal, Provincial, and private co-operating agencies as well as
by local people recruited by the Water Investigations Branch. Most were made
near the key dates of March 1, April 1, and May 1 for input to and to coincide with
the issuance of quantitative volume forecasts covering the snow-melt period for
British Columbia rivers.
In 1971, six new snow courses were added and four deleted from the network,
with details applicable to each of these shown in the following table. A total of
218 courses will be operational in 1972.
1971 Revisions to the British Columbia Snow-course Network
Number and Name
235 Hudson Bay Mountain 2
236 Yanks Peak 	
50° 12'
British Columbia
British Columbia..
British Columbia
238 Kirbyville Lake	
239 Orchid Lake
Upper Columbia.
240    Fort Nelson A	
28   Burwell Lake
89B Whatshan (Lower)
The Division's technicians visited 71 snow courses during the winter of 1971
to provide snow surveyors with instruction in care and maintenance of sampling
equipment, measurement techniques, and in the recording and transmission of the
data to Victoria. As part of their regular summer work routine, 62 courses were
brushed and cleaned up in preparation for the coming sampling season.
Snow Pressure-pillow Network
Two new pressure-pillow measurement sites for the continuous recording of
snow-pack water equivalent were established in 1971—one near the McBride snow
course in the Upper Fraser and the other near the Moyie Mountain snow course
in the East Kootenay region. At the McBride installation, a Sacramento-type
storage-precipitation gauge and Stevenson screen, complete with hygrothermograph,
were also established to provide precipitation and temperature data. The Moyie
pillow was established at the request of the United States Entity, Columbia River
Treaty, for use in the future operation of Libby Dam.
With the two new additions, there are now six pillows in active operation on
selected snow-fed basins. The others are located near the snow courses at Mission
Creek (Okanagan Lake), Blackwall Peak (Similkameen), Mission Ridge (Bridge),
and Barkerville (Upper Fraser).
The Barkerville and Mission Creek sites were improved with the addition of a
storage-precipitation gauge at the former and a totalizing anemometer and a continuous recording precipitation gauge at the latter. The rubber pillow at Mission
Ridge was damaged by some unknown animal. It was removed, repaired, and reinstalled. To combat such damage in the future, all rubber pillows were covered with
a protective coating of hardware cloth. The experimental metal pillow at Mission
Creek developed a leak during the winter and was repaired this past summer. Readings to date in the accumulation period are comparable to those recorded at the
nearby rubber pillow.
Stream-flow Forecasting
In 1971, a new format was developed and implemented for the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin. The major revision was division of the publication into
four Provincial regions with each containing a snow-course location map, a listing
of snow-course measurements, graphical presentation of hydrological data, quantitative volume stream-flow forecasts, and a written summary of snow-pack and run-off
conditions. The six issues (February 1, March 1, April 1, May 1, May 15, June 1)
of the Bulletin were distributed to a mailing-list of some 800 subscribers.
Volume run-off forecasts for the spring and summer period were made for
most of the major rivers of the Province. The 1971 forecasts called for above-
average run-off for Okanagan, Similkameen, Kettle, and South Coastal Rivers and
average to slightly above average for the Fraser and Columbia Rivers. In the
northern region of the Province, below-average run-off was forecast for the Skeena
River and for the inflow to Williston Lake. Preliminary stream-flow data, as supplied by the Water Survey of Canada, show that observed flows were in close agreement with those forecast.
During the freshet period a close watch was kept on those rivers and lakes
subject to either flooding or water deficiencies. Daily readings of stream-flow and
meteorological data were plotted and used to assess and estimate fluctuations in
daily run-off. Because of the heavier-than-usual snow-pack and the resultant
above-average-volume forecasts in the southern region of British Columbia, the
rivers in this region were watched closely for potential excessive run-off conditions.
Following three days of unusually hot weather in the first half of May, flows in the
Similkameen, Kettle, and some creeks feeding the Okanagan system rose to the
near-flood stage. Fortunately, the hot weather was replaced by cooler weather,
resulting in a significant drop in river levels. No freshet flow problems were
reported on other major rivers, although daily flow reached fairly high levels on the
Slocan, South Thompson, and Thompson Rivers.
For the fourth year in a row, Williston Lake has recorded a below-average
inflow. Expressed as a percentage of the 1953-67 average, these April-September
inflows are: 1968, 91 per cent; 1969, 78 per cent; 1970, 80 per cent; and 1971,
90 per cent.
Development of new and updating of old volume-flow forecasting procedures
is an important function. In 1971, procedures for 16 forecast stations were revised,
using the snow-course weighting technique developed by the Division. Statistical
coefficients show that the new equations are superior to the old ones, and, hence,
will be used for making the 1972 forecasts.
Hydrology Studies
Engineers attached to the Division carry out special studies related to water
supply and other hydrological problems. The following list describes the major
studies completed or in progress during 1971:
1. Powers Creek (near Kelowna)—A final report was completed on estimates
of inflow to Westbank Irrigation District storage reservoirs as well as water yield at
the district's intake.
2. Mission Creek (near Kelowna)—A review was made of the Water Supply
and Investigations Division report on run-off estimates for Canyon and Hydraulic
Creek basins tributary to Mission Creek, in connection with South East Kelowna
Irrigation District water supply.
3. Shuswap Lake—An office investigation was made of minimum lake levels
at Sorrento for the period 1924-70.
4. Thompson River (at Kamloops Lake)—An investigation was made of
peak water-levels at Kamloops and in Kamloops Lake in connection with possible
degradation of the channel at the outlet of Kamloops Lake.
5. Duteau Creek hydrology study—A report was completed detailing the
analysis of flow data and storage requirements for this heavily used stream.
6. Run-off in the North Coast Region—A mean annual run-off relationship
was derived for this region.
7. Reverse flows into Osoyoos Lake—During periods of high flows on the
Similkameen River (as experienced in May 1971), water backs up and flows into
Osoyoos Lake. A relationship between Osoyoos Lake level, Similkameen River
flows, and the reverse flow was developed.
8. Stumaun Creek (near Prince Rupert)—An estimate of mean annual runoff and minimum daily flow was made in order to check the result of an outside study.
9. Okanagan Lake inflow probability and Okanagan Basin precipitation
probability—A statistical study encompassing 50 years of historical data was completed in order to determine drought-recurrence intervals.
10. Fraser Basin forecasting errors—A study of forecast errors for the period
1948 to 1971 based on those forecast equations presently in use was carried out
for water-management studies.
11. Vernon Creek hydrology study—This study began in late 1971 as part
of the Provincial Wood Lake-Kalamalka Lake study.    Intensive stream and lake
gauging was recommended, resulting in the installation of the required discharge
and lake-level stations. Analysis of available hydrometric data on both Vernon
Creek and nearby basins has begun.
12. Review of Water Investigations Branch Okanagan Basin reports for hydro-
logical content—All relevant information was extracted and presented in tabular
form for the future use of Water Resources Service engineers.
International Hydrological Decade Projects
The Hydrology Division is involved in two such projects, and these are:
1. Okanagan Study Basin (near Carrs Landing)—The primary objective of
this project was to investigate the interaction between the various components of
the hydrological cycle to obtain a quantitative description of them. A final analysis
of data collected for four years in the study basin was published in June 1971 as an
IDH report under the title "An Analysis of the Carrs Landing Watershed and Its
Significance to the Okanagan Valley Water Supply."
This report discusses the results of a research programme which began in 1966
and was terminated in June 1971. This programme has made it possible to assess
the relative importance of different sub-basin parameters in the evaluation of the
regional run-off situation. The research study has pointed to the potential value of
groundwater-recharge measurements in the intermediate elevation range, and has
led to the rational development of a new method for the direct evaluation of the
run-off potential in the Okanagan Valley.
A listing of all available data obtained from 1966 through 1970 has been prepared and data for the period up to June 1971 when the project was terminated
are in the process of being listed.
With the exception of selected precipitation, temperature, and groundwater
measurements, all other hydrological measurements have been discontinued on this
2. Mountain Transects (Beaufort Range, Vancouver Island)—Our co-operator on this project is the Federal Agency, the Atmospheric Environment Service.
Throughout 1971, the 10 meteorological stations were visited at 20 to 25-day
intervals to collect data and to service the instruments. Our co-operator advises
that data collected to date are in the process of analysis and that a report will soon
be available. The project's objective is to develop reasonably accurate estimating
methods for determining precipitation and temperature distributions in mountainous
Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement
The following summarizes the work carried out by the Division under this
Federal-Provincial study:
1. Inventory of storage and diversion and their effect on flow records in the
Okanagan River Basin—This report provides an accounting of all relevant storage
and licensed data and their effect on stream-flow records.
2. Regionalization of sub-basin hydrology—In connection with the grid-square
technique for making estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and run-off,
the following work was completed or in the process of completion:
(a) Completed extraction, checking, key-punching, and computer calculations
of climatological station physiographic variables.
(b) Completed extraction, checking, and key-punching of meteorological and
snow-course data and then summarized them into five time-period study
X 71
(c) Completed the preliminary report titled "Application of the Grid Square
Method for Estimating Okanagan Sub-basin Run-off." It includes a
description of the method in its original form as well as its modification
and application to the Okanagan Study. It provides the resulting first
estimates of mean monthly temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspir-
ation for each 5-kilometer grid square in the basin. In addition, it provides a first estimate of mean annual run-off for each square.
3. Sub-basin analyses—Physiographic parameters were chosen and computed
for selected Okanagan gauged sub-basins to assess the possibility of estimating
run-off characteristics for ungauged sub-basins by the extrapolation of data from the
gauged sub-basins using physiographic characteristics as run-off indices.
4. Kalamalka-Wood Lake Study—Prepared "Preliminary Report on 1971
Run-off Conditions in the Kalamalka-Wood Lake Drainage Basin" in connection
with "Proposed Review of 1971 Wood Lake Problems." This report compared
1971 run-off with previous years at various gauging stations in the Vernon Creek
watershed to assist in assessing the pollution problem which occurred in Kalamalka-
Wood Lake during 1971. Recommendations were made for improvement of the
stream-gauging network to obtain data for a detailed hydrological study of the
5. Trout Creek Pilot Study—Prepared "Preliminary Report on Available
Hydrometeorological Data in the Trout Creek Watershed." This report consists
of a compilation of all available hydrometric meteorological and snow-course data
for this basin as part of the "hydrology studies" task of the Trout Creek Pilot Study.
6. Computer programmes—
(a) A series of six computer programmes was written to extract temperature
and precipitation data and to compute monthly and annual means for the
five time-periods. In addition, two programmes were written to extract
snow-course data from the snow-survey tape in order to compute means
for three measurement dates for the five time-periods.
(b) A programme was written to compute mountain precipitation values for
each grid square. These were previously derived by Dr. M. Danard,
using meteorological theory, but for a range of latitudes and longitudes.
(c) A regression analysis programme was written to determine the dependence of monthly and annual precipitation and temperature with respect to
the meteorological station physiographic variables. The equations obtained are to be used in the iteration programme, now being developed,
which will ultimately provide the run-off estimates required.
The booklet A Summary of Snow Survey Measurements, 1935—70, British
Columbia was published and distributed to interested people and agencies.
The Division's hydrometric and meteorological data libraries were updated and
the data used by staff members of the Water Resources Service in their studies. As
Water Resources Service co-ordinator for unpublished hydrometeorological data,
many requests were made to outside agencies for such information.
The Hydrology Division acts as co-ordinator for stream-gauge installation
requests under a Federal-Provincial agreement. In 1971, an all-year station priority
list of 35 stations and an irrigation list of 81 stations were compiled and submitted to
the Federal agency responsible for stream-gauging installations.
Personnel of the Division continue to be active as members of working committees. These include British Columbia Hydrometeorological Networks Co-ordinating Committee, National Research Council Hydrology Subcommittee, Columbia
Basin Forecast Committee, Program and Local Arrangements Committee for
the "International Symposium on the Role of Snow and Ice in Hydrology" which is
to be held in Banff in September 1972, and the Western Snow Conference Executive
Committee. As General Chairman of the Western Snow Conference, the Chief of
the Division was responsible for the many details associated with its administration,
including the handling of the annual meeting which was held in Billings, Mont., in
J. C. Foweraker, Ph.D., P.Eng., Chief of Division
Water-well Inventory
A programme for collecting information on water wells, results of well tests,
and groundwater use in British Columbia continued during the year through the
co-operation of Government agencies, well-drilling contractors, and consulting
groundwater geologists. This year, 2,000 well records were obtained from well-
drilling contractors alone. This represents an increase of 700 well records over
last year's total.
Additional detailed "door-to-door" water-well inventories involving field
reconnaissance work were completed in the Pemberton Valley, Sunshine Coast
area, and Gulf Islands. Approximately 950 well records were completed or updated from these detailed inventories.
Water-well Maps
A total of 79 new water-well maps was compiled during the year. These new
maps cover areas in the following districts:
Number of
District New Maps
Cowichan (replaces old mapping)   31
Kamloops  12
Lillooet  10
Nanaimo (replaces old mapping)  7
New Westminster  15
Yale  4
Total     79
Observation Wells
Observation-well Network
Collection and compilation of observation-well network data continued during
the year.
Five additional observation wells were incorporated into the network in the
Coastal, Lower Mainland and northern watersheds in 1971. Two of these were
previously maintained by the Inland Waters Branch of the Federal Government,
two were existing wells taken over by the Division, and one new well was installed
near Charlie Lake in connection with the Division's continuing Peace River groundwater assessment.
An analysis of the observation-well hydrographs obtained to date is presently
being undertaken with the aims of increasing the use of these data for hydrogeo-
logical purposes and formulating a programme for possible future expansion of the
network. The quality of data is continuing to be improved by more extensive use
of automatic water-level recorders. The operation and maintenance procedure for
the network recorders has been improved and minimum servicing procedures
adopted. Instructions and procedures for network observers have been revised.
During October a circuit of the observation-well network was undertaken to obtain
water temperatures and samples.   A total of 68 wells was visited.
The observation-well network at the year-end consisted of the following:
Coastal watersheds  5
Fraser watershed and Lower Mainland  44
Okanagan and Similkameen watersheds  33
Columbia watershed  2
Northern watershed  10
Total     94
Observation Wells for Special Projects
An additional nine observation wells were completed in 1970 for a special
project under the Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin Study Agreement. This brings
the total number of observation wells for special projects to 109, distributed as
Athalmer       3
Okanagan Valley "study areas"     34
Kootenay River Flats, near Creston    63
Okanagan Basin      9
Total  109
Equipment for Recording Data on Observation Wells
A total of 24 automatic groundwater-level recorders is currently installed on
observation wells. Eight of these are in wells within the network and 16 are
installed in wells for special projects.
Water-well Drilling and Testing Operations
Peace River Area
Investigations into the groundwater potential in the Peace River area continued.
During 1970, efforts were directed toward evaluating the potential yield of bedrock
aquifers in a selected area (NTS 94-A-7) near Fort St. John. Test wells and
observation wells were constructed at three sites, in sandstone units of the Upper
Cretaceous Dunvegan Formation. Maximum depth investigated was 600 feet.
Cores were obtained in more favourable zones, and these were analysed for porosity
and permeability. Calibrated geophysical logs were run to provide correlation and
porosity indications and the wells were subsequently pump-tested by Division
personnel using a portable submergible pump. A report summarizing the known
hydrogeology of the selected area is presently being prepared.
The Division supervised construction and testing of four wells to service three
outlying parcels in the Keremeos Irrigation District. The work was carried out for
the ARDA and Construction Division on behalf of the Keremeos Irrigation District.
The rated capacities of the four wells constructed totalled 1,100 U.S. gallons
per minute, all wells were completed in the essentially unconfined aquifer which
exists in postglacial gravels in this part of the Similkameen Valley.
The Division continued to supervise the development of groundwater sources
for the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District's 2 and 3 Systems near Oliver.
Early in 1971, the second of two large-capacity wells was completed for System
2. The combined rated capacity of the two wells is 2,300 U.S. gallons per minute.
Two wells were constructed during the year for System 3. Combined rated capacity
of the two wells is 950 U.S. gallons per minute.
Village of Fort Nelson
The Groundwater Division provided consultative services on the development
of a groundwater source for the Village of Fort Nelson.
A test hole and a 500 U.S. gallon per minute production well were completed
and tested. The water-quality analyses showed a high iron content. A report was
completed on this project.
The Groundwater Division provided consultative services on well-site selection,
drilling, and construction for four domestic water wells at Wardner as a part of the
Waterfront Development Scheme at Wardner.
Field Investigations and Office Studies
Gulf Island Groundwater Inventory
Hydrogeological and hydrochemical data from a comprehensive well-inventory
and water-quality analyses programme have been compiled on records, tables, and
maps for the outer Gulf Islands. Work on Saltspring Island continues.
Pumping tests of one to three days' duration were carried out in five selected
wells by Division personnel using Division test equipment. Two wells were tested
on Mayne Island, two on Saturna Island, and one on Galiano Island.
The pumping test results, together with additional test results obtained from
several sources in the private sector, will be used with other inventory data in further
hydrogeological studies of the islands. A progress report on a preliminary hydro-
geological study of Mayne Island is currently being prepared.
Ellison-Wood Lake Area
A preliminary hydrogeological study of the Ellison-Wood Lake area has been
carried out. This was entirely an office evaluation based on available information.
Its specific objective was an appraisal of the role of groundwater in nutrient input
into both Ellison and Wood Lakes.
In order to understand the problem a study was made of the geology and
groundwater hydrology of the area. The basic water-well data, lithologic- and elec-
X 75
trie-logs on file were plotted and analysed, and plan view maps and cross-sections
were drawn on the aquifers and of the water-level readings. Results of chemical
analyses of groundwaters collected under the Okanagan Valley Water-quality Data
Collection Programme, Interim Federal-Provincial Subcommittee 2, and results of
28 water samples of groundwaters collected specially for this study were reviewed
to obtain an idea of the amount of contaminants in different aquifers. The possible
quantity of nutrient input to the lakes was based on ranges of theoretically calculated
groundwater flow combined with a range of concentration for a given constituent.
Kootenay River Flats, Near Creston
The operation of the Libby Dam and the possible changes in the level of
Kootenay Lake will affect the future regime of the Kootenay River. The Groundwater Division, in co-operation with a continuing programme of the Basin Planning
and Power Division, carried out limited studies to determine the effects of changes
in the river regime on the water-table in Kootenay Flats near Creston. The Division
continued to collect data on piezometric pressures from a network of piezometers
set in sands and silts, thought to be in hydraulic connection with the Kootenay River.
The Division also continued to collect data on water-table fluctuations in shallow
observation wells set in the overlying clays.
A computer programme has been used to solve the problem of predicting
changes in the piezometric surface in the silts and sands due to changes in river
stage. However, due to the low permeability of the clays, changes in the river stage
do not appear to directly affect the water table in the overlying clay, but indirectly
affect the water table through changing the piezometric surface in the silts beneath
the clay.   A progress report has been completed.
Fraser Valley Trout Hatchery, Near Abbotsford
A final groundwater report was completed on the results of an eight-day field
pumping test of two large-capacity wells for 1,300 and 2,000 U.S. gallons per
minute. A report was also completed on recommendations for development of a
groundwater aquifer at the hatchery. The Division continued to collect groundwater
data in the aquifer, which will be utilized to supply the hatchery.
Occasional consultative services were supplied to the Department of Public
Works on this project.
In response to a request from the Water Rights Branch, a short field investigation was undertaken to examine the surficial geology in the Hedley area with a
view to recommending possible well-sites for a domestic supply for the town. A
report was completed.
Princeton Area
A field inspection and report were completed for the Department of Highways
on high artesian flows associated with a slide near Princeton.
Wright Creek, Salmon Valley
A preliminary groundwater investigation and a report including well construction costs were prepared for the Salmon Valley Farmers' Institute.
Priest Creek, Southeast of Kelowna
A preliminary investigation and report were made of the effects of diversions
from Priest Creek on shallow wells and springs located nearby.  The investigation
was undertaken for the Water Rights Branch.
Langley Area
The Groundwater Division provided technical consultation to the Department
of Public Works on sealing off leakage around the casing of an artesian well near
Langley. A preliminary report on the groundwater potential and well interference
in the immediate area has been prepared.
Indian Reserves
The following is a list of the services which the Groundwater Division carried
out for the Indians of the Province during the year:
Final report on groundwater investigations for Nuuautin Indian Reserve 2 and
Siska Flats Indian Reserve 3. Preliminary groundwater investigations and report
for Fort Nelson Slave Band Indian Reserve and Coryatsaqua Indian Reserve 1.
The above investigations were completed at the request of the Department of
Indian Affairs.
The Division Chief attended a meeting at Duncan with representatives of the
Cowichan Indian Band and the Department of Indian Affairs to discuss groundwater problems and the implementation of a previous report prepared by the Division.
Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin Study Groundwater Programme
The groundwater programme forms part of the water-quantity studies being
undertaken by the Water Investigations Branch.
By early spring of 1971, Progress Report 1, entitled "A Hydrogeological
Reconnaissance Study of the Okanagan River Basin," with reconnaissance study
reports of six sub-basins, had been prepared on work conducted in 1970. The work
covered by the report was divided into three separate tasks, namely, 38, 39, and 40,
and the salient findings are briefly presented below:
Task 38—Sub-basin hydrogeological reconnaissance studies: two of the sub-
basin reports were done by Federal Government Inland Waters Branch personnel;
the remaining four were completed by Division personnel. Report findings, mainly
of a qualitative type, showed generally low base-flows for the streams. There is
probably little groundwater discharge from the sub-basins which is not measured as
Task 39—Seismic exploration of groundwater resources: This project consisted
of a seismic survey along six selected valley cross-sections. Four sections were run
to the north and two to the south of Okanagan Lake. A revised final report using
data from test drilling produced only minor changes from the original interpretation.
Task 40—Groundwater exploration in the main valley, deep and medium-
deep rotary test holes and observation well installations: Under two contracts, a
total of nine holes was drilled, ranging from 120 to 1,890 feet deep. Eight of these
were left completed as observation wells ranging from 320 to 1,215 feet deep.
Analysis of data in the report from Task 39 and 40 combined with existing
information was used to make a preliminary interpretation of the regional geology
and groundwater hydrology.
Task 41—In the summer of 1971, well cleaning, well development, test pumping, and instrumentation of the eight holes left completed as observation wells were
carried out. The data obtained have not yet been fully analysed.
Hydrograph records are now being obtained following upon instrumentation
of the wells under Task 41.
X 77
Preliminary groundwater inspections were made to Lighthouse Point and
Campbell-Bennett Bay Improvement Districts, on Mayne Island, and to Eagle Cliff
and Blue Water Park Improvement Districts on Bowen Island, at the request of
the Improvement Districts Division, Water Rights Branch.
A short investigation and report were completed for the Water Rights Branch
on the possibilities of interference by a proposed new well with existing yields of
municipal wells and the flow of springs under licence.
The following meetings were attended by Division personnel: A meeting in
Penticton of task force members engaged on the Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin
Study; a section meeting at Calgary University of the Geological Society on borehole geophysics; meetings of the Okanagan Basin Groundwater Review Board in
Victoria and Vancouver.
The Division Chief delivered an address to the annual convention of the Britsh
Columbia Water Well Drilling Association on current groundwater programmes
and new techniques required in groundwater investigation.
In addition to the activities outlined above, considerable staff time was spent on
numerous inquiries concerning all matters dealing with ground water in the Province.
Groundwater personnel, on a number of occasions, met with local representatives at their request to discuss specific groundwater problems in the field, including
Pemberton Valley, Saltspring Island, and Duncan area.
J. D. C. Fuller, P.Eng., Chief of Division
J. V. Eby, P.Eng., Construction Engineer
The ARDA and Construction Division was formed in 1963 for the purpose of
investigating water-project proposals and preparing submissions under the Federal-
Provincial Agricultural and Rural Development Act (ARDA) assistance programme. A large part of work carried out by the Division comprises the design
and construction of certain projects, including the processing of claims and maintenance of records relating to ARDA water projects.
Since 1970, however, an enlarging responsibility of the Division has included
implementation of construction of projects approved under the Lower Fraser Valley
Flood-control Programme. At the same time, studies are being undertaken regarding secondary drainage schemes in the Lower Fraser Valley which would complement main drainage provided under the flood-control programme.
Regarding the ARDA programme, the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture is charged with over-all administration. Under an interdepartmental
co-operative arrangement, the British Columbia Water Resources Service is responsible for implementation of ARDA water projects, which responsibility has been
delegated to the Water Investigations Branch. The third Federal-Provincial ARDA
Agreement, signed in 1970, covers projects over the period 1970 to 1975.
Projects varying in cost from $10,000 to over $8,000,000 have been completed
or are being constructed under the ARDA programme. Construction periods vary
from under a year to five years or more. Construction is generally carried out by
district forces, with some specialized items such as dams and pumphouses generally
let out to contract. Design and construction supervision of projects has been
undertaken by various organizations, including the ARDA and Construction Divi-
sion and Water Supply and Investigations Division of the Water Investigations
Branch, the Water Rights Branch, the Federal Government Indian Affairs Branch,
and PFRA organization, and consulting engineers.
Up to 1970, almost all of the ARDA water projects concerned the rehabilitation of irrigation systems and storage facilities, the majority of which are located in
the Okanagan Valley. With these largely complete, work of the Division is changing
toward drainage, flood control, and similar reclamation-type projects.
Since the start of the ARDA water-projects programme in British Columbia in
1963, a total expenditure of $32,400,000 has been authorized, and some
$29,000,000 actually expended on approved ARDA water projects. In addition, a
further $1,660,000 has been expended on projects for which final approval is
Actual and potential water projects under the ARDA programme total 96 in
number, and of these, 64 have requested or received assistance, and 34 are under
study prior to a possible proposal submission, or awaiting approval.
Provincial and Federal authorities have approved 62 proposals to date and 46
of these have been completed, leaving 16 presently under construction.
Of the projects under construction, none were brought into operation during
the year and may be considered complete in the construction sense. The 16 incomplete projects mostly have construction periods exceeding one year, some of which
will not be completed until 1973 or later. Some of the 46 completed projects have
still to submit final claims for reimbursement in respect of such items as contractor's
holdback and legal or survey costs pending.
Project descriptions following will be given only for those which are actively
under study or where significant changes have taken place during 1971.
ARDA Projects Essentially Completed During the Year
1. Okanagan Falls Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29035 and 29035(S))
—This project involved replacement of the previous unsatisfactory water supply
from Skaha Lake with a new groundwater pumping system at a cost of about
$168,000. Water is pumped from two wells to a 40,000-gallon concrete reservoir
and is delivered to the separate townsite area through a newly constructed pressure-
reducing station. Approximately 5,000 feet of pipe-line in sizes 4 to 48-inch has
been constructed by district crews.
2. Black Mountain Irrigation District rehabilitation (ARDA Project 29018)—
Construction has been completed on replacement of the previous open gravity
system with a new pressurized system, supplying irrigation and rural domestic water
to approximately 5,000 acres. The project is more fully described in the section of
this report given by the Water Supply and Investigations Division.
3. Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29017,
29017(S) and 89008)—Construction of this project began in 1966 and was completed by the summer of 1971. The new system supplies irrigation water to 2,113
acres and domestic water to about 350 homes. The project included rehabilitation
of storage dams on Swalwell and Crooked Lakes, replacement of distribution system
and main line, and construction of a new intake and screening works on Vernon
Creek. Construction continued in the spring of 1971 by district crews to complete
minor work remaining on the distribution system, chlorinator station, and screening
works. The system was put into operation for the 1971 irrigation season. Final
cost of the project is about $2,240,000.
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4. Glenmore Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29020 and 29020(S))—
This project replaced an open gravity distribution system with a closed-pipe pressurized system which also supplies domestic water. Final cost of the project is
$1,026,000. The system, which includes several booster pump stations varying from
5 to 250 installed horsepower, was constructed mainly by district forces, with design
by ARDA and Construction Division, assisted by consulting engineers for electrical
work. The project was completed by the construction during the year of the domestic
water tank and a workshop and storage building.
5. Westbank Irrigation District, second project (ARDA Project 29042)—This
project is more fully described under the activities of the Water Supply and Investigations Division, which is responsible for the design and construction supervision.
The intake works and main supply pipe-line were constructed under the first ARDA
project. The second project involved replacement of the distribution system and
storage dams. Work was carried out by district forces.
6. Peachland Irrigation District (ARDA Project 29047)—Construction of
the new pressurized irrigation and domestic-water supply system, now essentially
completed, replaces the previous open ditch and flume system. The project is
more fully described in the Water Supply and Investigations Division section of this
7. Black Mountain Irrigation District additional storage (ARDA Project
29050)—A more detailed description of this project is given in the report for the
Water Supply and Investigations Division. Construction of this project will develop
an additional storage of about 1,700 acre-feet on Fish Hawk Lake to supplement
the district's existing storage.
8. Slocan Park Improvement District water-supply system (ARDA Project
29043)—Design and construction supervision of this project has been provided by
the Water Rights Branch. The system, costing $87,700, provides pressurized irrigation and domestic water supply to some 120 acres of land from two groundwater
9. Larkin Waterworks District system rehabilitation (ARDA Project 89003)—
This project supplies rural domestic water from groundwater source to about 48
farm units within an area of about 2,800 acres. The Water Rights Branch has
provided engineering services.    Final cost of the project is about $130,000.
ARDA Projects Under Construction or Study
1. Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 10010,
29041, 29041 (S), and 29051)—This rehabilitation programme was implemented
to upgrade the existing 5,000-acre irrigation system of the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project which is presently Provincially administered. Domestic water to rural areas
is also included in the programme. Water is diverted to the system from Okanagan
River near the south end of Vaseux Lake by means of a concrete-lined canal. Systems 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 pump from the canal, whereas Systems 8 and 9 and 9a pump
from Osoyoos Lake. It is estimated that the final cost of the project will be about
During 1971, Systems 2 and 3 with 185-h.p. and 55-h.p. pumping capacity
respectively were completed. Both systems acquire water from wells. Some 16,000
feet of distribution mains ranging in size from 4- to 16-inch were laid. Concrete
balancing tanks of 7,500-gallon capacity were constructed for Systems 2 and 8
Work was concluded on Flumes 1,2, and 3 for the 1971 irrigation season and
Hester Creek spillway was completed at System 6. Canal lining commenced in
the spring of 1971 to remedy areas of the canal where the structure was leaking
badly.   Rehabilitation of the canal will be continued in 1972.
Studies are being carried out to review the possibilities of increasing the capacity of Systems 1, 4, and 9. Construction was principally completed by project
forces with the exception of Flumes 1 and 3 which were done under contract.
Dole flow-control valves are proposed for the total 5,000 acres, which will involve the installation of some 18,000 valves for the complete system.
2. Kaleden Irrigation District supplementary (ARDA Project 89002)—The
major part of this irrigation and domestic-water supply project, serving some 535
acres, was constructed during 1966/67, under ARDA Projects 10013, 29015, and
29015(S). The supplementary project under construction during 1971 involves
replacement of remaining sections of short-life pipe-lines in the distribution system.
Design has been carried out by the ARDA and Construction Division, with construction by district forces.
3. Keremeos Irrigation District (ARDA Projects 29027 and 89007)—This
project replaces the original open gravity system, drawing water from the Ashnola
River and Keremeos Creek, by pumping from two batteries of wells, into the east
and west systems to provide irrigation and farm domestic water to some 1,220 acres
of land. During the year, ARDA approval for supplementary works was received,
and construction of separate well systems to serve outlying lots to the west of the
district commenced. The cost of the project is approximately $660,000. Design
is by ARDA and Construction Division, assisted by consulting engineers for electrical work, and construction is mainly by district forces.
4. Vernon Irrigation District rehabilitation (ARDA Projects 29004 and
29004(S))—The construction of a new irrigation and rural domestic-water supply
system for the Vernon Irrigation District began in July 1966, and was essentially
completed in 1971 with the exception of repairs to upstream storage work which
are scheduled for 1972. The new distribution system, supplying water to some
10,000 acres, was in full operation for the first time during the 1971 irrigation
season. The system includes over 100 miles of new pipe-lines, 12 pumping stations,
three chlorinating stations, and several pressure-reducing stations. The final project
cost will be about $8,000,000.
Work completed during 1971 included the following:
(a) Replacement by district crews of the remaining section of main canal
from the diversion dam at Headgates with approximately 15,000 feet of
50-inch-diameter pressure pipe.
(b) Construction by contract of Headgates dam, chlorinator station, and
auxiliary-power generating station. Screening works consist of two travelling water screens.
(c) Completion of three major pumping stations under contract, two of
which are equipped with variable-speed electric pump drives.
(d) Completion by district crews of remaining distribution pipe-lines, valve
chambers, and several underground booster pumping stations.
5. Osoyoos Irrigation District supplementary (ARDA Project 29012,
29012(S), and 29012 (S2)—This project was completed in 1967 and supplies
irrigation and rural domestic water to about 430 acres from a pumping station on
Osoyoos Lake.   A study of water use indicated that additional pumping capacity
was required and the district increased the capacity of their plant after the 1971
irrigation season.
6. South East Kelowna Irrigation District, fourth project (ARDA Project
29053)—ARDA Project 29053 was initiated in June 1967, when subsequent to
rehabilitation of minor portions of the distribution system, the district requested the
Water Investigations Branch to prepare a report on the rehabilitation of the main
supply canal and storage reservoirs.
A report was subsequently prepared by the Water Supply and Investigations
Division which outlined a proposal for complete rehabilitation of the entire water-
supply system to deliver irrigation water under pressure to 4,335 acres of irrigable
land and domestic water to 300 farm homes at an estimated cost of $3,600,000.
The report was adopted by the district and formed the basis for an application for
assistance under the ARDA programme. Approval for the project was granted in
June of 1970.
The main features of the water system are upstream storage works to provide
the annual requirement of approximately 12,700 acre-feet of water; a diversion
dam and settling pond on Hydraulic Creek; a 42-inch-diameter supply main,
19,000 feet long; and two distribution systems containing about 150,000 feet of
pipe, ranging from 4-inch diameter to 36-inch diameter, and 23 pressure-reducing
stations. Design of the upstream storage works is being done by the Water Supply
and Investigations Division and the works are more fully described under the section
for that Division.
During 1971, designs were completed by the ARDA and Construction Division
for Phases I and II of the project. Construction consisted of completion of a new
administration building and a storage-workshop structure, and installation of part
of the distribution system (Phase II) to supply the south part of the District
(S.K.L. system). This phase of the project includes 70,000 feet of pipe from sizes
4-inch to 18-inch and nine pressure-reducing stations. It is expected to have this
section completed and in operation by April 1, 1972.
Design work was also started on the diversion dam and the main supply line
from Hydraulic Creek to the distribution systems. The diversion dam on Hydraulic
Creek will be a low-head dam to provide a reservoir for balancing storage and
settling pond. The earthfill dam will also include concrete gravity spillway, intake
works, and a concrete screening structure. The main line will consist of about
19,000 feet of 42-inch-diameter pipe. Construction will begin on these works
early in 1972. The entire system is scheduled to be completed and in operation by
7. Robson Irrigation District, third and fourth projects—The Robson Irrigation District provides irrigation water to 110 acres of land and domestic water to
about 45 farms and 260 residential water-users. During 1968 and 1969 the district completed the first two phases of reconstruction of their works under ARDA
Projects 29029, 29029(S), and 29039. This work involved replacement of approximately 10,000 feet of 12-inch pipe-line and improvements to the intake works.
The third phase of the project, which consisted of replacement of about 5,000
feet of 10-inch-diameter pipe-line, was completed by contract in 1971. The district anticipate construction of the final-phase replacement of remaining pipe-lines
during 1972. Final cost of rehabilitation under the four projects is estimated to
be $216,000.
8. Otter Lake Waterworks District system rehabilitation (ARDA Project
89004)—Construction of a new farm domestic-water supply system for the Otter
Lake Waterworks District commenced under contract in late 1971 and is expected
to be completed early in 1972.   The system supplies farm domestic water to about
40 farms from a groundwater well.   The approved project cost is $99,000.
Other Studies—Irrigation
1. Lakeview Irrigation District extension—In order to cope with increased
demand, especially from industrial and suburban development, Lakeview Irrigation
District requested a study to increase their boundaries by 1,000 acres, from 1,200
acres to 2,200 acres. The conclusions of the report, completed during 1971, were
that the district could increase their boundaries by 125 acres with the present system.
Further development would involve the construction of a dam on Terrace Meadows
with a capacity of 2,000 acre-feet. It was also found that it would be necessary to
lay an 18-inch-diameter main line parallel to the existing 24-inch-diameter main for
the main supply.   Estimated cost of project, $760,000.
2. Corporation of the District of Summerland water-supply system rehabilitation—The Corporation of the District of Summerland supplies irrigation water to
about 3,600 acres of land and provides domestic water to about 2,000 connections.
During the period 1965 to 1969, the district completed reconstruction of four of
their ten storage dams and replaced parts of their major flumes under ARDA
Project 10029. The storage reservoirs provide about 10,500 acre-feet of storage
from the watersheds of Trout Creek and Eneas Creek.
The major part of their irrigation supply system consists of open flume and
ditch, which is in need of replacement. A feasibility study was therefore undertaken
in 1971 to determine extent and costs for rehabilitation of the district system, including work required on the remaining storage dams.
A field inventory and study of the distribution works has been made by the
ARDA and Construction Division.
Consideration will be given to the possibility of incorporating their existing
separate domestic-water supply system with the proposed works, as well as including the supply of water to the Trout Creek Irrigation District from the system.
A hydrology study of the watershed is being prepared by the Hydrology Division.
Soils surveys and reports have been completed by the British Columbia Department
of Agriculture, Soils Division, at Kelowna.
3. Okanagan Mission Irrigation District rehabilitation—A feasibility report has
been prepared by the ARDA and Construction Division on the rehabilitation of the
Okanagan Mission Irrigation District system. The proposal considers supply of
irrigation and domestic water to an area of about 860 acres, part of which is outside the present district boundaries. About 500 residential dwellings would be
supplied with domestic water. The proposed system involves replacement of all
existing works, including construction of a new pumphouse on Okanagan Lake,
approximately 60,000 feet of pipe-lines from 4- to 18-inch diameter, a booster
pumping station, and two concrete reservoirs.
4. Coldwater Indian Band—A review was made of a project proposal for construction of storage dams and an irrigation system for the Coldwater Indian Band
near Merritt. The proposed project would develop approximately 1,500 acre-feet
of storage for irrigation of some 800 acres.
5. Deadman Creek irrigation storage project—A review and project outline
was prepared for a proposal to construct a storage dam on Deadman Creek at the
outlet of Snohoosh Lake. The project would provide about 4,000 acre-feet of
storage for irrigation of some 1,800 acres of land, 1,050 acres of which belong to
the Deadman Creek Indian Band.
Lower Fraser Valley Flood-control Construction Programme
Work connected with construction aspects of the Federal-Provincial Fraser
River Flood-control Programme, while not growing as fast as expected, formed a
considerable part of the Division's activities during the year.
The majority of construction is carried out by contract, with field supervision
by either staff of this Division or consulting engineers. Assisting Victoria staff with
both over-all administration of the construction phase and field supervision, a staff
numbering nine by the end of 1971 has been established on the Lower Mainland,
with an office in Abbotsford.
During the year, work continued at the District of Kent, and in November,
contracts were awarded for construction at Matsqui, the second project to reach the
construction stage. In addition, preparations for construction, including assembly
of documents for early contracts, are well advanced for the Districts of Chilliwhack
and Richmond.
Three contracts were awarded during the year, totalling $1,800,000, and
claims for construction work totalling $900,000 were processed.
The following descriptions are given for projects under way:
District of Kent—This project was approved on December 12, 1969, at a
construction cost of $2,003,825, and an agreement for cost-sharing between the
Province and local authority signed on February 20, 1970.
Main features of the project comprise some 7,000 feet of new bank protection,
20,000 feet of bank-protection repair work, 62,000 feet of dyke reconstruction, and
complete reconstruction of two pumphouses having a combined installed horsepower
of approximately 207. In addition, the project includes for some relatively minor
ditch, floodbox, and culvert rehabilitation work.
Construction during 1971 included the completion, prior to the spring run-off,
of major contracts for dyke reconstruction and bank-protection works, awarded the
previous year. The two pumphouses were also completed for partial operation at
that time, as well as most of the internal drainage work, which was carried out by
district forces.
Also prior to the spring run-off, the last major contract comprising bank-
protection work was awarded and the portion adjacent to the Pitt River completed
as a matter of urgency.
By the end of 1971, dyke reconstruction was complete, bank protection under
the last major contract well advanced, and pump stations and other minor works
substantially complete.
District of Matsqui—This project was approved on June 28, 1971, at a construction cost of $2,283,600, and an agreement for cost-sharing between the Province and local authority was signed on October 29, 1971.
Main features of the project comprise some 38,000 feet of dyke reconstruction
with a relief trench and drainage system along most of its length, riprap repair work
to some 2,700 lineal feet of river bank, and internal drainage works. The drainage
works include the replacement of two pumphouses with combined floodbox and
pumping facilities having a total installed horsepower of approximately 850.
In November, two contracts totalling $1,024,000 were awarded, covering the
majority of dyke and relief trench work and all of the bank protection. By the end
of the year, work had commenced on both contracts, that for dyke work being supervised in the field by consulting engineers.
Other Studies—Drainage
In addition to implementing construction in the Lower Fraser Valley under
the Fraser River Flood-control Programme, staff of this Division has been employed
on studies of secondary drainage proposals designed to complement main drainage
provided for under the Fraser River Flood-control Programme. Such studies have
been undertaken as a result of requests for ARDA assistance from the areas concerned.
The first such study concerns a combined drainage and irrigation proposal
covering some 2,000 acres south of the Nicomekl River in the Municipality of Surrey. This is a high-yield area for vegetable crops with high potential benefits from
such improvements. The proposal includes both new ditches and improvements
to existing ditches, floodboxes, and two pumphouses with installed capacity of about
450 horsepower.
A second similar study is under way, covering some 1,500 acres of land immediately north of the Nicomekl River. This proposal also includes for new ditch
work and improvements, with the construction of two pumphouses with a combined
capacity of some 300 horsepower.
A third study concerns the drainage of some 2,200 acres of land in the Castle-
man Road area of Chilliwhack. Initial work has been confined mainly to establishing run-off criteria for the area. This study is likely to be enlarged to revise
previous studies and encompass a proposal for secondary drainage for the entire
Chilliwhack area, to fit in with the current Flood-control Programme.
J. D. Watts, P. Eng., Chief of Division
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions—
(1) the development of plans for water management on a regional or watershed
basis, with the immediate aim of improving surface-water supplies in areas where
readily available supplies have been exhausted; and (2) the inventory of the undeveloped water-power potential of the Province. The following work has been done
during the past year:
Water-management Studies
Creston Flats Monitoring Programme
Construction of Libby Dam on the Kootenai River in the United States is now
nearing completion and it is anticipated that partial filling of its reservoir will be
achieved in 1972. From this time onward, changes will take place in the flow pattern of the river downstream in British Columbia. A more even distribution of
annual river flows is assured which will greatly reduce the threat of spring flooding
to the 21,000 acres currently protected by dykes at Creston. However, if British
Columbia is to take full advantage of the improved river regime, in increased power
production by hydro-electric plants on the Lower Kootenay River, possible changes
in storage levels on Kootenay Lake must be considered. Investigation of the consequences of changes in river regime and possible changes in lake storage levels on
the dykes areas in Creston is the subject of an extensive monitoring programme
commenced in 1969.
To date, the following work has been done:
1. In co-operation with the Groundwater Division, 63 observation wells, usually in the 10-30 feet depth range, were installed within the dyked areas in late
1969. Most of these wells (44) penetrate a clay layer and measure pore pressure
in the sand beneath. Data from these 44 wells is evaluated by the Groundwater
Division. The remaining 19 wells are short and indicate by direct measurement
the level of the local water-table. A resident well-reader made a total of 42 circuits
of the well system in 1971 with a frequency of reading varying from monthly in
winter to daily during the freshet period. Data collected are tabulated and plotted
in preparation for comparison with future years.
2. In order to expand the network of short, water-table measuring wells at
minimum cost, eight observation wells installed around 1950 were rehabilitated and
included in the monitoring programme in mid-1971. For the year, the well-reader
made 21 circuits of these old wells.
3. Each of the four dyking districts is protected by two pumping stations. In
co-operation with the station operators, data on pumping time and power consumption are being collected on a continuing basis.
4. Air photography, soils analyses, river and lake levels, local precipitation,
and other information is being collected, correlated, and evaluated in conjunction
with data provided by the observation wells.
5. A comprehensive progress report was prepared in February 1971.
It is anticipated that this continuing programme will indicate the behaviour of
the water-table under varying conditions and its effect, if any, on crops.
Okanagan Basin Agreement Studies
The 1969 Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement states that
its purpose is "to develop a comprehensive framework plan for the development and
management of water resources for the social betterment and economic growth in
the Okanagan Basin." This Division has made the following contribution to water-
quantity studies associated with the Agreement:
1. A preliminary report entitled "The Cost of Diverting Water From Shuswap
River to Okanagan Lake" was prepared in September 1971. This report prepared
preliminary design and cost estimates for a number of capacities of diversion
schemes, estimated the water demand of potentially irrigable areas along the route
of the diversion canal, and estimated a generalized cost for local irrigation systems
at varying heights above the canal.
2. A preliminary report entitled "Major Water Users and Irrigable Lands in
the Trout Creek Watershed" was prepared in November 1971. This report looks
at the first of eight sub-basins within the Okanagan Lake watershed which are
scheduled for study. Consideration is given to the location and extent of irrigable
lands, their present and potential future water requirements, and the availability of
an adequate water supply from local, gravity-fed sources. In addition, the report
provides a structure for the type of investigation which is required in the other
Fraser River Agreement Studies
The following tasks under the Fraser River Upstream Storage study were
assigned to the Water Investigations Branch and carried out under the direction of
this Division.
Task 1 is to update the cost estimates of System E projects proposed in the
Final Report of the Fraser River Board, 1963, including, where necessary, further
field investigations and revised designs.
Progress to date is as follows:
1. General—Using the designs prepared by the Fraser River Board, the cost
estimates for System E projects were updated to 1971 price levels by G. E. Crippen
and Associates Limited, Consulting Engineers. Modifications in the design of the
Lower McGregor Project, suggested by International Power and Engineering Consultants Limited in a 1967 report, were included in the cost updating. The results
of this work are contained in a report entitled "Estimate of Capital Costs, Fraser
River Storage—System E Projects, May 1971."
2. Lower McGregor project—A programme of field exploration work was carried out under the supervision of G. E. Crippen and Associates Limited, Consulting
Engineers to the Service, as follows:
(a) A drilling programme was carried out to assess conditions in the buried
channel west of the proposed dam. A contract for this work was awarded
to Inspiration Drilling, Division of Dresser Industries Canada Limited.
Five holes were drilled, totalling 1,482 lineal feet in overburden and 199
lineal feet in bedrock.   Results of this work are presently being assessed.
(b) A bulldozer cut was made along the right bank upstream from the dam-
site, and exposures of unconsolidated materials and bedrock were mapped.
Results of this work will be assessed in conjunction with those of the
drilling programme.
(c) Due to the consideration of using an impervious blanket at the entrance
to the buried channel, which was not included in the scheme prepared by
the Fraser River Board, explorations were carried out to locate needed
additional quantities of impervious glacial till. A bulldozer trench was
cut adjacent to the Woodall Creek till deposits, previously proposed as
the source of glacial till for the dam core, samples were taken for analysis,
and an estimate made of the quantity of till which could be recovered.
Further sources of till have been exposed by road cuts recently made in
the area and will require additional investigation.
(d) A portion of the proposed reservoir was examined to determine its susceptibility to the occurrence of slides following impounding. This study
was confined to the main reach of the reservoir extending from the dam-
site upstream to the junction of the Herrick Creek and Fontoniko Creek
valleys, and the James Creek valley, from its junction with Herrick
Creek to Arctic Lake. It was considered that slide-induced waves from
other portions of the reservoir would present no hazard to the dam.
The study consisted of an air-photograph analysis, together with field
examination of certain geological features by means of a helicopter and
ground reconnaissance. A preliminary assessment of the results of the
study indicate that slides should not present a hazard to the dam.
(e) A programme of geological mapping was carried out in the area of the
Pacific Lake-Arctic Lake divide, through which diversion flows to the
Parsnip River headwaters would pass in presently proposed schemes for
the Lower McGregor project. As those schemes include no other spillway, the stability of the diversion channel is important to the safety of
the dam.
The purpose of this mapping was threefold—
(i) to determine major features affecting the stability of the
valley walls;
(ii) to determine, if possible, the likelihood of excessive erosion of the valley bottom occurring under diversion flows;
(iii) to determine the nature of any additional field investigation which might be required.
Geological traverses and surficial mapping of exposures was carried
out in the area extending from the northwest end of Arctic Lake to the
southeast end of Pacific Lake and from lake level to elevation 4,000 feet
approximately. In addition, soundings were taken in Arctic, Portage, and
Pacific Lakes.
A preliminary assessment of these investigations indicates the desirability of carrying out some additional mapping, both at higher elevations
and southeast of Pacific Lake in the James Creek valley, as well as drilling
of the apparent slide-debris fans which separate the three lakes.
3. Hemp Creek project—A programme of field exploration work was carried
out under the supervision of G. E. Crippen and Associates Limited, Consulting
Engineers to the Service, as follows:
(a) Under a contract awarded to Midwest Drilling, Division of G.N.C. Industries Limited, one drill-hole was drilled at a location some 1,800 feet east
of the left abutment of the proposed dam. The purpose of this hole was
to investigate conditions in the buried valley and overlying basalt which
lie on the east side of the Clearwater Valley near the dam-site. The hole,
which was drilled to a depth of 932 feet, was terminated without having
encountered the bottom of the buried valley. The hole passed through
15 feet of overburden at the surface, 231 feet of basalt, and 686 feet of
underburden.   The results of this work are presently being assessed.
(b) A programme of geological mapping of exposures of the basalt and underburden, both upstream and downstream of the dam-site, was carried out.
The objective of these investigations was to determine the need for, configuration of, and cost of controlling seepage through the basalt and underburden formations.
Task 2 requires that a benefit-cost analysis be made of upstream dyking requirements necessary to provide protection against design floods. To this end, the
Basin Planning and Power Division has undertaken the tasks of preparing preliminary designs and cost estimates for dykes which may be necessary in the Kamloops,
Prince George, and Quesnel areas, and of obtaining survey data for use in determining the flood-control benefits.
Progress to date is as follows:
1. Kamloops—A total of 116,500 feet (22 miles) of dyke is involved. Preliminary field survey has been completed and data for 120 cross-sections made available for plotting. Preliminary design is in progress. Spot elevations in flood-prone
areas at Kamloops have been obtained by Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands
Service, for use in determining the economic benefits to be derived from flood
2. Prince George—Preliminary field survey for a total of 24,500 feet of dyke
has been completed.
3. Quesnel—Preliminary field survey for a total of 12,900 feet of dyke has
been completed.
Task 38 is to develop power values and load forecasts for study components
that will be realistic in terms of British Columbia's power needs.
Discussions have been held with the engineering consultants to the British
Columbia Energy Board concerning their present study regarding electrical load
requirements of the Province.    It is anticipated that results of their study will be
made available so that realistic values will be obtained without duplication of effort.
1. A system of review of applications for Crown land purchases, leases, and
reserves, to determine possible water-resource management conflicts, was established
and many of these applications were reviewed.
2. Assistance was provided to the Technical Land Use and Environmental Subcommittee by providing information on water-resource problems for inclusion in the
Resource Atlas of the East Kootenay Area.
Hydro-power Investigations
Liard River
Detailed office studies of the hydro-power potential of the Liard River in British
Columbia proceeded during the year. These studies covered two alternative schemes
of development which would limit the maximum level of the upstream reservoir to
prevent flooding of the community of Lower Post and limit flooding of the Yukon
to approximately 600 acres. The first scheme consists of dams at Site J, near Mile
505 of the Alaska Highway, and at Site A, some 30 miles upstream from the mouth
of the Fort Nelson River. The second scheme is comprised of dams at Site A and
Site E, located 17 miles downstream from Lower Crossing. A dam and appurtenant
structures at Site X, located some 10 miles downstream from the mouth of the Fort
Nelson River, is being studied as a possible downstream addition to the two-dam
development schemes outlined above. No geological field work was undertaken this
Yukon River
Office studies to evaluate alternative proposals for utilization of the water
resources of the Upper Yukon River for hydro-electric power development were
continued. Large-scale topographic mapping of several of the main structure areas,
provided by the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Lands Service, permitted a more
detailed evaluation of some elements of an alternative Yukon-Taku diversion proposal, referred to as the Yukon-Taku (Silver Salmon) scheme. The feasibility of
this scheme will be further assessed when large-scale mapping of the Taku Valley
becomes available.
Unit costs of dams and appurtenant structures required for large hydro-electric
power developments were prepared during the year.
Assistance was given to the British Columbia Energy Board in its present study
regarding electrical load requirements of the Province by the assembly and provision
of technical information on potential hydro-electric power developments.
Other Activities
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Fraser River Joint Programme
Committee, established by the Agreement between Canada and the Province to
undertake a programme of studies and works for flood control in the Fraser Valley.
The Committee has been active throughout the year, having held 11 meetings.
P. M. Brady, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The Projects Division has as its main function the investigation, review, and
implementation of major flood-control, land-reclamation, erosion-control, and drainage projects. This includes studies and designs for projects to be constructed under
the 1968 Fraser River Flood Control Agreement.
In addition, the Division designs and supervises construction of water-damage
prevention projects, either directly or under agreements with local authorities or
Lower Fraser Valley
The signing in May 1968 of the Federal-Provincial Agreement for the implementation over a 10-year period of a major flood-control programme for the Lower
Fraser Valley has resulted in an appreciable involvement of Projects Division staff
both in studies and design.
The Fraser River Joint Programme Committee, of which the Chief of the
Division is the current Vice-Chairman, was formed under the terms of the Agreement to plan and co-ordinate the implementation of the programme projects. Staff
of this Division is involved in work groups that provide technical assistance to the
Committee's Programme Director, and in studies and designs assigned to the
Work-group functions include the assessment of dyke standards and design,
and the river-erosion studies necessary to establish the scope of bank-protection
works. Detailed bank-protection studies have been completed for the Municipalities of Kent, Matsqui, Pitt Meadows, the Townships of Richmond and Chilliwhack
and the Queensborough area of the City of New Westminster, and have been initiated in several other areas. A general study to assess the bank-protection requirements throughout the valley is under way.
Work being carried out on assignment to the Province includes the internal
drainage and hydrology studies necessary to establish the pumping, floodbox, and
main-drain capacities, and the detailed design of all bank-protection works. Internal
drainage and hydrology studies have been completed for the Municipal Districts of
Kent, Pitt Meadows, Matsqui, and Mission, the Township of Chilliwhack, and the
Corporation of Delta, and are under way in several other areas. Final design of
bank-protection works for the District of Matsqui was completed and final designs
were initiated for the Townships of Chilliwhack and Richmond.
Lower Squamish Valley
In 1965 a report was prepared on flood and erosion control in the Lower
Squamish Valley. The estimated total cost of the flood and erosion-control measures outlined in this report was originally estimated to cost $2,000,000 and the
works were intended to be constructed with Federal and Provincial funds under the
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act. This project is being constructed in
stages without Federal assistance with the cost of stage four constructed this year
amounting to approximately $267,000.
The scope of the original programme was expanded this year to include the
construction of river-training works necessary for reclamation of a portion of the
Squamish River estuary.   The construction of the basic components of these works,
consisting of a relocated river channel and river-control dyke, estimated to cost
$2,500,000, were initiated late this year.
Next year's programme will consist of completion of the river-training works
and construction of a portion of the flood and erosion-control works required along
the Mamquam River.
Alberni Flood Control
Construction of the flood-control works along River Road, the Somass River,
and Kitsucksus Creek and associated internal drainage works was completed this
year. Total cost of these works constructed under the Canada-British Columbia
Joint Development Act and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act
amounted to $1,550,795.64.
Bella Coola Valley
A comprehensive study pertaining to river damage and prevention on the Bella
Coola River and side streams between Bella Coola and Hagensborg, initiated in
1969, was continued on a very limited basis.
Cowichan River Flooding
A preliminary report on flooding and erosion by the Cowichan River at Lake
Cowichan and in the Lower Cowichan Valley was completed in 1967. Any further
action on the proposals contained in this report awaits the results of studies by the
Federal Fisheries Service on the economic value of the Cowichan River as a fishery
Kitimat River
A study of flooding and erosion problems along the Kitimat River at Kitimat
was initiated, and the subsequent report, proposing dyke improvements and extensions, bank protection, and river controls, is nearing completion.
Bank protection and dykes along Duteau Creek within the Village of Lumby
were completed this year at a cost of $35,696, as part of the flood-control programme proposed in the flood-control report prepared in 1969.
Grand Forks
As a result of flooding and erosion in and adjacent to the City of Grand Forks
during May of this year, a comprehensive study of these problems and engineering
solutions to them was initiated.
North and West Vancouver Flood-control Projects
In 1967 an agreement was signed under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act providing for a major flood-control project, totalling $2,301,480, in both
the District of North Vancouver and the District of West Vancouver. While the
North Vancouver components involving control of Mosquito Creek and bank-
protection work in Capilano River were completed in 1967, there has been no
request from the District of West Vancouver concerning implementation of the
balance of the work.   The completed works were inspected during the year.
X 91
Minor Projects
Heavy run-off in several watersheds located in the southern part of the Province resulted in a number of requests for assistance in constructing flood- and erosion-
control works. As a result, field and office assessments were made for 16 different
Based on available funding and the benefits and costs of required remedial
works, assistance was offered to eight property-owners. At the end of this year, two
of the associated projects were complete.
During 1970, technical assistance and advice were provided to other Provincial
Government agencies in connection with road and bridge construction and the sale
of land.
R. J. Buchanan, Ph.D., Senior Biologist
The Ecology Division was able to expand substantially in its activities with
the appointment of a biologist as a technician in late June. An additional biologist
joined the Division as a temporary university student assistant from May through
The senior biologist provided assistance to the Canada-British Columbia Consultative Board under the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement
through his tenure as Provincial Co-Secretary to the Board. He was also a member
of the two-man Okanagan Basin Study Review Team which conducted a mid-course
review of the study. Other administrative duties have included acting as secretary
to the Fraser River Ecology Committee which is conducting the review of ecological
factors related to upstream storage under the Fraser River Flood Control Programme.
During the year, several technical reviews were completed. The subjects of
the reviews were
(a) biological aspects of water-level control in Windermere Lake;
(b) downstream water-quality effects of hydro-electric dams;
(c) effectiveness of stream-borne silts in removing phosphorus from lake
(d) possibilities of weed control in Langford Lake; and
(e) water-quality aspects of forested watershed management.
The site of the proposed Kootenay Canal power project was inspected, and a
report was prepared on possible ecological effects.
Other investigations, initiated in response to citizen appeals, have included
(a) a site investigation relating to a proposal to breach the causeway at Okanagan Falls Beach;
(b) an office investigation into the possible factors relating to degradation of
Tie Lake, in the Rocky Mountain Trench; and
(c) extensive and intensive field and office investigations into the ecology
and control of aquatic weeds in Windermere Lake.
The studies in Windermere Lake have involved investigations of the kinds of
weeds, their distribution in the lake, the nature of the sediments, water depth, water
chemistry, the rate of exchange of lake water, and the kinds of animals present.
These are being accomplished through field work including SCUBA diving, and
through a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on weed biology and
In August, the Deputy Minister of Water Resources announced the intentions
of the Water Resources Service to conduct a comprehensive water resource management study of the Kalamalka Lake drainage basin. The Water Investigations
Branch will manage this study and the Ecology Division will be responsible for the
design of those aspects of this study which relate to water quality and limnology.
The Division is expected to have a significant role in the execution of these parts
of the study during the next two years.
A. S. Stencel, R.I.A.
The main functions performed by this Section during 1971 included the assembly of engineering reports, operation of the Reports Library, collection and compilation of technical and cost records, operation of the Branch car-pool, and general
duties for the Branch.
A brief review of the statistics of the Section will indicate that the year 1971
has again been one of growth. This continues a trend that has been evident since
the Water Investigations Branch was created in December 1962.
Reports Library
The Reports Library is responsible for the reproduction, registration, and distribution of all engineering reports required as well as the records showing to whom
these reports were issued. During the course of the year the Reports Library received 105 new engineering reports for assembly and registration. The total of
available reports amounts now to over 1,800. In addition to the new reports, over
450 other copies of reports have been prepared and distributed. Set out below is a
numerical and percentage summary of reports written during 10-year periods:
Periods (Years)
Number of
of Total
Totals  1,808 100.0
Of the present total of 1,808 reports in the Library, 1,087 reports have been
prepared by the Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the number of such reports and the various fields which they cover:
X 93
Technical Reports in Library, Prepared by Water Resources Service Staff
as of December 31,1971
Period (Years)
1911-20.  .
1936-40  _.
1946-50.. .
During the past year the Library continued the programme of report microfilming with the filming of almost 400 reports. It is anticipated to have an additional 200 reports filmed by the Central Microfilm Bureau next year.
Throughout 1971 the Reports Library also handled over 500 requests for
report loans and copies of other publications.
General Office
In order to meet the 1971 needs of all seven divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, 355 requisitions covering purchases and (or) repairs of equipment,
furniture, machinery, materials, and supplies were prepared and almost 1,600 invoices from suppliers processed for payment.
As in previous years, the General Office staff assisted in the processing of
claims for various water projects under construction and in the collection and compilation of technical and cost records.
In addition, the General Office provided messenger service to all divisions,
handled the shipping of instruments and supplies to field parties and the sorting and
distribution of mail, and operated the 35-vehicle car pool. A review of the motor-
vehicle records shows that Branch units travelled in the past 12 months more than
400,000 miles on over 350 assignments.
During the month of March the Branch vacated the 859 Devonshire Road
Warehouse and moved its equipment to Warehouse 2, 517 Esquimalt Road, and its
motor-vehicles to the Government Warehouse at 937 View Street. At the time of
writing, the Branch motor-vehicles are being moved to a new storage area—the
Provincial Service Centre at 3285 Oak Street.
B. Varcoe, Chief Draughtsman
The year 1971 has been to the Water Investigations Branch Draughting Rooms
a year of many bits and pieces of projects, mainly those covering the tail-end of the
large ARDA projects and the starting of the smaller projects of the Fraser River
Flood Control Programme, plus larger amounts than in previous years from the
Projects and Hydrology Divisions.
A relatively large proportion of this year's work was done for the Hydrology
Division. The outstanding part of this work has been the change of format for the
1971 Snow Bulletin and a further change completed for the 1972 issue. In addition, a Snow Survey Summary, using pages revised from the Snow Bulletin, was
Mapping, both of topography and cadastral survey, formed a considerably
larger part than normal of our work for the Water Supply and Investigations Division this year. However, much of this work is still incomplete as they are preliminary drawings for new projects, not yet completely underway.
The following list shows a compilation of the number of drawings produced
for each Division, broken down into types:
Water Supply and Investigations Division—
Construction drawings—
New                             _ -   	
As constructed revisions	
Mapping                      _        __ _
__        33
Mosaics made         -_-___
Groundwater Division—
Well-location maps—
New                       -    -        	
Revised      _ —.        — _    	
Geological reoort drawings 	
Hydrology Division—
Snow-survey course location plans, new and revised    45
Snow Survey Bulletin—
New basic sheets      56
New overlays      47
Total revision of overlays for six editions  132
Snow Summary, 1971—
Sheets revised       6
Overlays revised     24
Hydrological report drawings     13
Meteorological instrument stand and securing device
plans      11
Projects Division—
River-improvement and bank-protection drawings     22
Fraser River Flood-control project drawings     46
Basin Planning and Power Division—Project drawings     14
ARDA and Construction Division—
ARDA project drawings—
New   165
As constructed      66
Fraser River Flood-control project drawings     67
Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement—
Study drawings      18
Additions to existing maps and mosaics sheets    34
Miscellaneous unfinished drawings (except mapping) from
all divisions
X 95
The Lands Service Reproductions Office has again turned out for this Branch
a tremendous volume of prints, films, photostats, etc.; this to the amount of more
than $16,000 worth for the past year.
The Air Photo Processing Laboratory has produced 2,690 air photos from the
flying requested by this Branch for 1971. In addition, from 75 requisitions from
this office, the laboratory has processed 2,518 reprints, 139 reprints to be used
specifically for mosaics, 25 paper enlargements, and 25 film positive enlargements.
F. S. McKinnon
Chairman (January-May 1971)
V. Raudsepp
Chairman (since May 1971)
The principal functions of the Pollution Control Board are to act in an advisory
capacity to the Government, to set standards for controlling pollution, to act as an
appeal tribunal in case of an appeal from an order of the Director of Pollution
Control Branch, and to consider acceptability of the objections to applications for
permits which under the provisions of the Pollution Control Act cannot be made
directly to the Director of the Pollution Control Branch.
During the year 1971 the Board held 14 meetings, at which a total of some
100 items of business received attention. Concerning pollution control standards,
the Board issued Minimum Requirements for (a) Refuse Disposal to Land and (b)
Municipal and Domestic Waste-water Disposal to Surface Waters. In addition, the
Board approved, with amendments, the Pollution Control Objectives for Forest
Products Industry in British Columbia, which objectives the Director of the Pollution Control Branch had compiled, based on a public inquiry.
The Board heard five appeals from the orders of the Director of the Pollution
Control Branch, of which on two occasions the Board decided against the Director
and allowed the appeals.
A number of objections to applications for permit (a total of 48) were reviewed
by the Board under section 13 (6) of the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
W. N. Venables, P.Eng.
The Pollution Control Branch, under the Director of Pollution Control, is
responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967,
which, as amended in 1970, provides the powers and procedures necessary for the
control of solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes to the land, water, and air of British
Pollution problems result primarily from the uneconomic by-products of our
technology, hence the control of pollution is largely a matter of waste management,
that is, the reduction or elimination of wastes at their source, the reuse of wastes,
and the introduction or distribution of wastes into the receiving environment with
consideration for economic and (or) technological limitations.
Waste management in British Columbia is carried out through the permit system, by which waste dischargers negotiate the various aspects concerned in waste
production, control, treatment, and disposal before a permit is issued authorizing the
discharge of waste materials within terms and conditions set by the Director of
Pollution Control.
Early in 1970 it was realized that, in order to improve the efficiency of the
Branch in bringing under controlled waste management the large number of discharges existing in the Province, a co-ordinated and equitable approach had to be
applied to the management of wastes of similar characteristics. This approach was
initiated by the Director in July 1970 with a public inquiry into the activities of the
forests products industry with regard to waste management. In 1971 the recommendations of this inquiry were presented to the Pollution Control Board, which
adopted the requirements, with minor amendments, as its objectives for waste treatment and disposal from the forest products industry in British Columbia.
This procedure, the first of its kind in Canada, involving any and all segments
of industry, government, and the public, has already demonstrated its equitability
and usefulness. In view of its success, it is intended to hold, in 1972, similar
inquiries into the activities of the mining, milling, and smelting industries and also
of the petroleum and chemical industries. It is anticipated that these procedures
will be expanded to other wastes such as those from the food-processing industry.
Further, it is intended that the established objectives would be upgraded by subsequent inquiries at five-year intervals to provide for changes in technology, economic
conditions, and public attitude.
As an aid to placing the control of waste discharges on a proper management
basis, data processing and evaluation of accumulated technical information are
currently being investigated, and these will provide the tool to co-ordinate waste
management with regional environmental quality.
Envisaged for the future as additional waste-management responsibilities are
increased involvements of district staff in resolving operating problems associated
with treatment and disposal of wastes and education of the public, other civil servants, and treatment-works operators as to their responsibilities and duties to control
During 1971 the Pollution Control Branch also prepared, and presented to the
Pollution Control Board, proposed requirements for disposal of municipal and
domestic waste waters to surface waters in British Columbia, both of which were
adopted in October 1971 by the Board as minimum requirements. In addition, the
Pollution Control Board Minimum Requirements for Refuse Disposal to Land
were complemented by "Operational Guidelines for the Discharge of Refuse to
Land," prepared and issued by the Pollution Control Branch.
The basic organizational structure of the Branch remained unchanged in 1971.
However, it was substantially strengthened by the addition of 40 persons, primarily
at the working-level, to bring the total Branch establishment to 85.
Of the total staff, 56 are professional positions filled by engineers and biologists,
and the remaining 37 positions are occupied by technicians, clerks, stenographers,
draughtsmen, and a chemical analyst.
During the past year there have been three public hearings held relative to
specific applications for permits. The procedure initiated in 1970 wherein applicants are advised of the objections filed with the Director has been continued as it
has significantly encouraged communication and improved relations between the
applicant and the objector.
During 1971, 205 applications for permits and 34 applications for permit
amendments were received. A total of 99 permits was granted, 41 amendments to
permits were issued, 7 applications for permits or permit amendments were refused,
and 22 were voluntarily withdrawn, leaving 215 pending applications which are
being processed or awaiting resolution of administrative or technical details. In
most instances, permits granted required the applicant to provide additional facilities
and controls to those set out in his original application.
The Act, as amended, also requires that a certificate be obtained from the
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for the construction of sewerage
works. A total of 403 requests for such certificates has been received by the Minister
and referred to this Branch for advice. Of that total, 388 certificates have been
issued, while 93 are still pending, awaiting additional technical or administrative
In response to the requirement of the Act for registration of discharges by
December 31, 1970, 1,286 registrations covering effluent and 466 solid-waste registrations were received.
During the summer of 1971 the District Division staff undertook an inventory
of unregistered effluent and solid-waste discharges throughout the Province, and
999 effluent and 1,106 solid-waste discharges were recorded. It is of interest to
note that many of the unregistered solid-waste discharges were of refuse for which
responsibility of discharge could not be determined.
A. J. Chmelauskas, P.Eng.
Upon establishment of the Chief Engineer's position in 1970, the initial responsibility specifically assigned this position was to see the processing of all applications
through to the permit stage and develop a procedure for speeding the processing of
Subsequent in-depth review of processing procedures disclosed various apparent deficiencies. The first involved a restraint to efficiency due to the absence of
comprehensive discharge standards in British Columbia against which to readily
measure the acceptability of a discharge or its impact on environmental quality.
The lack of such standards meant each application had to be judged on its own
merits starting from first principles—an ideal system where the number of applications for permit is limited, but very time-consuming and incompatible with the
rapid growth and development taking place in the Province. Secondly, it was
found that individual merit assessments were inequitable and there was a tendency
to place emphasis on local rather than regional considerations. Thirdly, there was
very little available monitoring information on existing waste discharges and the
receiving environment to constitute a basis for developing any long-range environmental planning.
The public inquiry into the activities of the forest products industry held by
the Director in 1970 and finalized in 1971, solved these constraints and, on the
basis of the objectives adopted by the Pollution Control Board, negotiations are
under way with all existing pulp and paper industries which are not currently within
the technological limits of the objectives.
A revision of all application forms and permit forms was also undertaken in
1971, including the preparation of forms and procedures for processing applications
to emit gaseous wastes to the atmosphere.
The Chief Engineer was also involved in holding and attending meetings, on-
site inspections, presentation of talks, participation in a public hearing, the final
recommendation to the Director respecting the technical acceptability of all applications for permit or permit amendment, and acting on behalf of the Director in his
M. W. Slezak, P.Eng., Chief of Division
During 1971 the Division continued to expand to form a multidisciplined group
with a total staff of 12 people, consisting of Environmental Engineers, a Solid Waste
Engineer, an Air Pollution Engineer, biologists, meteorologists, a chemist, a draughtsman, a laboratory-technician, and a stenographer. The past year has been extremely
active as the Division took on a multifunction role as in-house consultants to the
Director and other Branch staff by offering assistance as required in the processing
of applications, development of monitoring programmes, development and supervision of studies at International, Federal-Provincial, and Provincial levels, review
and assessment of reports, reporting on in-house research, advising on technical
matters as related to environmental control, serving on panels at Pollution Control
Branch hearings, as well as representing the Branch on committees and task forces.
As of January 1, 1971, authority was given to the Pollution Control Branch
to regulate air emissions, and this direct responsibility within the Branch was delegated to the Projects and Research Division. One of the first functions in this
regard was to assist in preparing registration, application, and permit forms in order
to comply with the 1970 amendments to the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
Considerable effort was directed to analysing and itemizing the type of emissions which would be exempt from registering and applying for a permit under the
Act.   Interim in-house guidelines were prepared by a committee co-ordinated by
Projects and Research. The intent of these guidelines was to provide a basis of
evaluation for the processing engineers.
Ambient-air monitoring programmes were initiated in the Lower Mainland
and other parts of the Province in relation to stack emissions. In this regard,
assistance was given to district office personnel in the location and erection of
sampling equipment. Projects and Research, in consultation with the Water Resources Service Water Chemistry Laboratory personnel, selected equipment for
inclusion in a mobile van to monitor gaseous and particulate contaminants, as well
as meteorological parameters.
Division Engineers continued to assist the Industrial and Municipal processing
Divisions in the processing of effluent and refuse applications. An aerial photographic inventory initiated by Projects and Research has proven to be a valuable tool
in application processing in addition to showing gross effect on the receiving environment from major existing municipal and industrial discharges.
Considerable assistance has been given by Projects and Research biologists
and engineers in the field of environmental and permit discharge (solid and liquid)
monitoring relative to industrial and sanitary waste discharges. This involvement
normally begins at the application stage in negotiating various aspects of a monitoring programme which may take into consideration physical, chemical, biological,
and health aspects related to the proposed discharge.
Limnological and oceanographic programmes mainly consider the ecological
factors which may influence the diversity, abundance, and distribution of aquatic
life, as well as those factors which may influence or affect the health of man.
Leachate and groundwater monitoring programmes normally are specified
with each refuse permit issued, and the development of such programmes usually
involves the Solid Wastes Engineer in Projects and Research.
Throughout the past year, guidance was given to district office personnel by
the biologists and engineers of the Projects and Research Division in developing
and implementing biological and water-quality monitoring. Instructional supervision was given on the use of equipment and on sampling techniques. In most
instances, surveys involving Projects and Research staff were undertaken with the
co-operation of district office personnel.
Two studies which have considerable scope and which have had substantial
input from Projects and Research staff are the Federal-Provincial Okanagan study
and the British Columbia-United States of America Libby Dam study.
Under the Federal-Provincial Okanagan study, the Pollution Control Branch,
represented by Projects and Research, is responsible for supervising and implementing task assignments under the water-quality and waste-treatment programmes. The
objectives of the tasks in each of these programmes include data collection, interpretation and assessment of data, generation of data through applied research, and
evaluation of the data collected in terms of water-management alternatives. In
addition, the tasks which are contracted to outside agencies, receive general supervision and direction from Projects and Research staff.
The Projects and Research Division is involved in the Libby Dam water-quality
study. In co-operation with district office personnel in the Kootenay District, a programme was developed, implemented, and co-ordinated with United States agencies
to collect physical, chemical, and biological data. The emphasis of the study in
its initial stages was placed on monitoring the Kootenay River, upstream and downstream of the reservoir and the major tributary streams. Post-impoundment studies
are currently being developed for future implementation.
Projects and Research is presently establishing and assessing the design and
operational criteria for lagoons which will be used as a basis for assessment by the
Municipal Division engineers in relation to the "Minimum Requirements for Disposal of Domestic Wastes."   Other such projects include
(a) development of methodology for colour measurement in relation to salt
and fresh waters and industrial effluents;
(b) development of design criteria for disposal of effluents to the ground
(joint project with the Department of Agriculture);
(c) determination of the requirement for either total or dissolved cyanide
analyses in effluents;
(d) continuous review and assessment of all known physical, chemical, and
biological waste-treatment methods;
(e) determination of the rate of oxidation of cyanide and xanthate reagents
in mining disposal systems;
(/) assessment and interpretation of bioassay tests;
(g) effect of seawater on coliform counts.
The Projects and Research Division was designated the co-ordinating body to
develop, in co-operation with the Data Processing Centre, a storage retrieval system.
The objective is to develop a system which will store and create a historical record
for all permits issued as well as provide storage for permit and other monitoring
data. Projects and Research staff assisted directly in the preparation of computerized forms to facilitate reporting and processing of data.
The Division has the responsibility of co-ordinating laboratory services for
the Branch with the Water Chemistry Laboratory of the Water Resources Service.
In this regard, agreement is also reached on laboratory and sampling procedures
with other Government agencies to ensure compatability of the data generated.
H. P. Klassen, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The function of the Industrial Division of the Pollution Control Branch is to
process applications for pollution control permits from the industrial sector of the
Province. This includes the manufacturing portion of the forest products industry,
the mining and milling industry, the petroleum refining and processing industry,
agriculture and food-processing operations, chemical manufacturing, and all miscellaneous manufacturing and servicing operations that have potential discharges
to air, water, or land of waste products other than domestic wastes and traditional
farming wastes.
In the assessment of applications, a thorough inplant examination of the plant
or operation is made to reduce, and eliminate where possible, the sources of wastes
and to determine where wastes may be effectively reused. Subsequently, outplant
treatment and reuse or disposal of the wastes are investigated to determine whether
or not they can be discharged into the receiving environment in accordance with the
policies and objectives established by the Pollution Control Board.
After the Pollution Control Board's adoption in September 1971 of the "Pollution Control Objectives for Forest Products Industry of British Columbia," negotiations were recommenced with pulp-mill firms whose applications were being
held in abeyance.
 X 108
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Pollution Control Act, 1967 effluent-treatment requirements in action. Top: Sampling
from a reclamation ditch for a mining operation at Merritt. Bottom: An effluent clarifier
under construction for a pulp-mill at Quesnel.
Numerous meetings were held by Branch staff with applicants and permittees
to discuss pollution controls for new discharges and upgrading existing discharges
outlined under the reports from the three industrial sections. Field trips were made
in a number of cases to investigate and inspect both proposed and existing works.
The requirements under the Act for permits from the Director for emission of
contaminants to the air for all new discharges has resulted in the planning and design
of extensive air-improvement systems for the major new industries in the Province.
Furthermore, existing industries are developing their priorities and designs to accomplish the maximum environmental improvement relative to all their discharges of
wastes on a scheduled plan.
In co-operation with the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources,
effective improvements have been achieved in ensuring that the works being constructed to retain mine tailings are adequately designed to provide protection from
structural failures. The incidence of dyke failure should be substantially reduced,
thus affording environmental protection in the future.
Registrations were tabulated and are being assessed for effluent and solid wastes.
A total of 777 registrations requires processing by this Division. Registrations of
air emissions by December 31, 1971, are expected to be just as numerous.
Mining and Mineral Products Section
To date, 26 permits have been issued to 24 operations in conjunction with
activities in this Section. Another 35 applications are currently in various stages of
processing, while another 50 effluent and refuse discharges have been registered.
It should be noted that 13 of the 25 effluent permits issued involve closed systems
in which liquids are recycled. This method of operation has been encouraged as
it minimizes pollution and provides for maximum use of water resources. It should
also be noted that eight of the above operations under permit are for large plants
which are, or will be, processing more than 15,000 tons of ore per day.
The Pollution Control Act, 1967 gives authority to the Director of Pollution
Control Branch to hold hearings. In this regard, a hearing was held on a major
application for a permit to discharge effluent into Rupert Inlet. Subsequent to that
hearing, a permit was issued which required, among other things, that an independent agency be appointed and a monitoring programme be carried out. The
company involved has retained the services of the University of British Columbia
as the independent agency, and the monitoring programme has been initiated as
During the past year, this Section has increased its emphasis on requiring mining operations to carry out sampling and monitoring programmes.
The world economic situation has had a significant impact on activities of the
mining industry. This impact has been reflected in some operations reducing activities and several smaller operations having temporarily suspended operations. In
addition to market problems, one company which had a problem with tailing-pond
freezing has provided a completely new tailings-disposal facility which is now under
permit. Development has continued in the Highland Valley area in particular, and
several large mills are in various stages of development, construction, or production.
This continued activity has been reflected in the submission of several applications
for pollution control permits for large operations in a small area.
Two coal-processing plants located in the Kootenays are now under permit.
During the past year, one of these companies encountered operating difficulties due
to cold weather, design, and other factors. These operating difficulties, which were
contributing to environmental problems in the area, have now been rectified. As in
1969, continued emphasis has been placed on requesting operations to recycle
effluents wherever possible.
Forest Products Section
During 1970, 19 new permits comprising 12 effluent, 6 refuse, and 1 air emission were issued to various segments of the forest products industry. Existing and
new pulp-mills presently under construction accounted for 9 of these, with 5 effluent
and 4 refuse permits. Currently, 21 applications, made up of 11 effluent, 7 refuse,
and 3 air emissions are under review. In connection with the above, this Section
participated in 33 meetings and 15 plant inspections.
As a result of the adoption of the Pollution Control Objectives for the Forest
Products Industry by the Pollution Control Board, applications from the pulp- and
paper-mills, which were held in abeyance pending results of the above, are again
under active review. The applicants not proposing to meet the appropriate objectives
have been directed to submit new applications which are consistent with the objectives. Those that meet objectives involving staged improvement of discharge have
been directed to submit a schedule outlining a staged programme designed to meet
the higher objectives.
General Section
This Section processes applications for permits from industries outside of the
mining and forest industry.
Industries discharging waste effluents into Burrard Inlet continued to receive
priority in 1971. All of the petroleum refineries and two chemical manufacturers
are now under permit, while most of the remaining chemical and miscellaneous
industries have applications in the advanced stage of processing. In addition to the
refineries located on Burrard Inlet, all other refineries and natural gas treating
operations have submitted applications for permits to discharge effluents.
Another major group of industries covered by this Section are the food-processing operations, including fish and fruit canneries, breweries, wineries, and distilleries. Those industries which discharge effluents into Brandt's Creek in Kelowna
were ordered by the Director of Pollution Control to meet certain effluent characteristics or remove their discharges from the creek. As a result, application has been
filed for the discharge from a proposed joint trade waste-treatment plant which will
biologically treat these wastes to the degree required.
Many permits issued in the past are being amended to reflect the increased
effluent-quality requirements. Sampling and monitoring programmes to be conducted by the industry or an independent agency are being required for most
permits issued or amended. In addition to providing the Branch with a comprehensive inventory of contaminants discharged, the permittee is kept aware of the
effectiveness of the treatment facilities.
During the past year, 16 permits were issued and three applications were
refused. At present, there are approximately 45 active applications on hand in
various stages of processing.
J. E. Dew-Jones, P.Eng., Chief of Division
During the last two years the work of assessing applications for amending permits and applications for discharge of refuse has steadily grown, and these now
constitute more than half the applications processed by the Division. Early in 1970,
this work was augmented by the processing for the Minister of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources, of requests for certificates to construct sewerage works, following
from amendments to the Act at the time. Further changes in emphasis are to be
anticipated in the future in accordance with the large number of existing effluent
and solid-waste discharges now known to exist throughout the Province. It is
anticipated this may more than double the work load, even on a long-term programme. Emphasis is now being placed on monitoring, and there will be a rapid
and continuous growth of information available to the Division to allow more
detailed assessments of discharges to be made in the future.
Minimum requirements of the Pollution Control Board for disposal of refuse
to land and for disposal of municipal and domestic waste waters to surface waters
have already assisted both permit applicants and the Municipal Division itself in
expediting the processing of permit applications.
A number of developments within the Province during the last 12 months are
of particular interest. First, the results of the extensive monitoring programme
extending over the 12 months prior to discharge commencing from the new Macaulay
Point outfall in Esquimalt are now available. This body of information regarding
existing conditions will form a basis for assessing effects of the discharge in the
future. The first such assessment should be made before the end of 1972 and
should cover health aspects, .esthetic aspects, fisheries interests, and general ecological considerations. This discharge is a mile from shore and the monitoring results
are expected to provide information as to the adequacy of long sea outfalls for the
disposal of comminuted sewage into Juan de Fuca and Georgia Straits. Secondly,
after a major investigation, a permit was issued in March for a discharge from a
proposed primary treatment plant on Annacis Island to serve an area extending
from White Rock in the south to Port Moody in the north. A major monitoring
programme has been initiated and the design allows for provision of secondary
treatment when shown necessary. A third scheme of interest is the authorization
for the discharge of a major municipal effluent to land by spray irrigation at Vernon,
which forms part of the experimental programme under the Federal-Provincial
Okanagan study. Lastly, this year has seen the commissioning of the first plant in
British Columbia incorporating facilities for removal of phosphates. This plant is
at Penticton and may be a forerunner of other tertiary treatment plants in British
Columbia in the future.
The Division's processing of certificates has included further work toward
completion of the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District's $80,000,000
programme, and a number of municipal schemes in the $1,000,000 range, in addition to numerous smaller schemes, both public and private.
The number of applications for permits and amendments processed during the
year was 95, the applications in hand have increased from 70 to 80, and the number
of certificate requests processed was approximately 400.
R. H. Ferguson, P.Eng., Chief of Division
During 1971 the District Division expanded its activities considerably with an
increase in staff to a total of 38 persons, 24 more than were authorized in 1970.
Staff in most district offices now consists of an engineer or biologist as the
District Manager and Assistant District Manager, and other engineers, biologists,
technicians, engineering assistants, and stenographers.
Early in 1971 the post of Manager for the North District, previously left vacant
by the transfer of J. W. Thomas to manage the Coast District, was filled by the
appointment of M. K. Baillargeon, P.Eng.
In 1971 the position of assistant to the Chief of the District Division was established and G. G. Soellner was selected to assist in the day-to-day co-ordination of
District office administrative and operational requirements.
The routine District work load of site and works inspections, waste and receiving environment monitoring, and enforcement of the requirements and conditions of
pollution control permits was increased substantially, resulting in additional staff
During the summer of 1971 the District staff were engaged in a Province-wide
inventory of liquid- and solid-waste discharges. This programme was intended to
provide information for use in determining the magnitude of the existing waste-
disposal problem in the Province in order to allow assessment of future work load,
the need for assigning priorities in handling certain waste-disposal problems, and
to evaluate the response by the public and industry in registering their discharges
in accordance with the requirements of the Pollution Control Act, 1967. In addition to the assistance of Forest Service personnel in providing information on existing unregistered refuse-disposal sites, 11 summer students were temporarily employed in the districts to secure waste-inventory data.
During 1971, greater emphasis was placed on establishing and strengthening
water-quality monitoring programmes. Activities related to air pollution matters
involving District staff were limited primarily to complaint investigations, site inspections, and evaluations for new emissions, as the Pollution Control Act, 1967 allows
registration of existing emissions to be made until December 31, 1971.
Reports for each district are as follows:
Coast District
J. W. Thomas, P.Eng., District Manager
The Coast District office administers the Act in the Regional District of Alberni-
Clayoquot; Capital Regional District; Regional Districts of Comox-Strathcona, Cowichan Valley, Mount Waddington, Nanaimo; Ocean Falls and Powell River Regional
Districts. During the year, new office accommodations were obtained separate from
the main offices of the Branch. Additions to the district staff included an engineer,
a technician, an engineering assistant, and a full-time clerk-stenographer for a total
staff of five. One summer student was employed to complete the solid- and liquid-
waste inventory, which totalled 181 unregistered discharges over and above the 441
registered discharges. At the present time there are 82 effluent and five refuse permits issued in the district, an increase of 22 over the total administered in 1970.
Twenty applications for permits are being processed, including two for gaseous
emissions. Inspection and sampling of effluent-treatment facilities under permits
were intensified and, in addition, a monitoring programme on the major Island
rivers and lakes was instituted.
Registrations of effluent and refuse discharges in the Coast District during 1970
totalled 441. An inventory of unregistered discharges during 1971 employed one
summer student. With the assistance of the Forest Service, an additional 181 discharges were found.
As well as site inspections in connection with applications, an average of two
or three complaints per week were investigated during the year, including an
increasing number concerning gaseous emissions.
Kootenay District
L. N. Adamache, P.Eng., District Manager
The Kootenay District boundaries were changed in 1971 to conform to regional district boundaries and now include the Regional Districts of East Kootenay,
Central Kootenay, and Kootenay Boundary.
The district office was relocated in new premises to accommodate increased
staff and functions. A laboratory is now included in the district office. The district
suboffice was maintained and its staff of one technician increased with the addition
of an engineering assistant. To the small staff of the District Manager, a part-time
secretary and a technician in Nelson, the following were added: Assistant District
Manager, a biologist, two Engineer Assistants (BCIT), and a stenographer.
In addition to the permanent staff increase, two students were hired for the
summer period to complete the inventory of liquid- and solid-waste discharges which
resulted in locating 235 unregistered discharges in addition to the 133 registered
Twelve new pollution control permits were issued in the Kootenay District in
1971. Subtracting the permits transferred to the Okanagan District as a result of
the district boundary change, there are now a total of 38 active permits in this
district. Of the 38 permittees, 34 have constructed or are now in the process of
constructing works authorized by the permits.
As of December 1, 1971, there were 30 applications for permits outstanding,
many of which were in the final stages of processing.
The Elk River study, initiated in 1969 to determine the effect to the coal-
resource developments on the Elk River, was continued with an increase in the
number of sampling stations to match increased resource development and exploration.
The Libby Reservoir study, initiated in 1969, was continued. At present it
consists of a stream-sampling programme co-ordinated with several United States
agencies to determine the relationships between water quality and the Libby Dam.
A limnological study of Kootenay Lake initiated in 1970 to monitor water quality
in the lake was continued with an increase in the number of sampling stations.
This programme will be closely co-ordinated with the Libby programme to determine any changes in water quality that may result from Libby Dam operation.
New stream-sampling stations were added this year to include the Kettle River
basin and provide surveillance of new waste discharges. At the request of the
Director, a water-quality study of Windermere Lake was included to bring the total
number of sampling stations to 87.
Ambient air-monitoring stations in the Trail-Castlegar area were taken over
from the Health Branch, and monitoring is continuing under Kootenay District
North District
M. K. Baillargeon, P.Eng., District Manager
The North District office was responsible for the administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967 in the Regional Districts of Bulkley-Nechako, Fraser-Fort
George, Kitimat-Stikine, Stikine, Peace River-Liard, and Skeena A.
During the year a professional engineer, a biologist, a technician, and an engineering assistant were added to the district office staff.  A clerk stenographer was
employed full time. The senior technician qualified and registered as a professional
engineer, and now fills the position of Assistant District Manager. The additions in
1971 increased the district staff to a total of six persons.
During the summer, two university students were employed on a temporary
basis to undertake an inventory of unregistered solid and liquid waste discharges
in the North District. A total of 453 unregistered discharges were found to exist over
the total of 291 discharges registered in the district in 1970.
The sampling programme on the Upper Fraser River watershed was evaluated
and modified to 21 sampling stations on the Fraser River and its tributaries. Profile
sampling was initiated at five Fraser River sampling stations. Biological studies
included in the revised sampling programme are under organization and scheduled
to begin early in 1972. Activities related to air pollution matters were limited primarily to complaint investigations.
During the year, 18 site investigations were conducted and 21 new permits
issued in North District by the Director, bringing the total to 79. The additional
staff enabled the district office to undertake more intensive monitoring and administration of discharges.
South Central District
H. H. Henderson, B.Sc, District Manager
The South Central District office was relocated from temporary quarters in
Vernon to permanent quarters in Kamloops on July 5, 1971. This office is responsible for administration of the Pollution Control Act, 1967 in the Thompson-Nicola
and Cariboo Regional Districts. The staff in the Kamloops office was increased
in 1971 and consists of a District Manager, Assistant District Manager, engineering
assistant, and a part-time clerk-stenographer.
In 1971 a total of 41 pollution control permits was administered by the South
Central District office, 17 of which were issued during 1971. Inspection and sampling of waste-treatment facilities under permit was conducted on a regular basis.
A total of 18 site-inspection reports for pollution control permit applications was
prepared and 13 new applications are now being processed.
An inventory of solid- and liquid-waste discharges in the district was conducted, and 247 unregistered discharges were recorded in addition to the total of
85 registrations made in 1970.
A water-quality monitoring programme on the Fraser River system within the
district was initiated in November. A total of 17 stream-sampling stations and 10
major outfalls is now sampled on a regular basis.
Numerous complaints were investigated and many requests for information
and advice were received during the year.
Okanagan District
W. A. Kastelen, P.Eng., District Manager
During 1971 the Okanagan District office administered the Pollution Control
Act, 1967 in the Regional Districts of Okanagan-Similkameen, Central Okanagan,
North Okanagan, and Columbia-Shuswap (area east of Revelstoke taken over from
the Kootenay District in August 1971). The Okanagan District office in Vernon
also served as the district office for the South Central District until July 1971, when
the South Central District office was established in Kamloops.
During the course of 1971 the Okanagan District permanent staff were increased from two to seven persons and as of November 30, 1971, consisted of a
District Manager, and an Assistant District Manager, a biologist, two technicians,
an engineering assistant, and a clerk-stenographer. Two summer students were
employed as temporary help to compile an unregistered waste-discharge inventory
which found 594 unregistered discharges compared to a total of 129 registered
effluent- and solid-waste discharges for the Okanagan District.
The Federal-Provincial Okanagan Basin study outfall-sampling programme was
largely completed and the Shuswap Lakes drainage basin water-quality monitor
ing programme (which in the previous year consisted of testing for chemical parameters in streams and outfalls) was expanded to include sampling of the lakes for
chemical and biological parameters. A special water-sampling programme in the
Naramata Watershed was instituted and carried out during the year. A general
water-quality monitoring programme was instituted for the whole district and air
pollution monitoring on a limited basis was commenced in the district for the first
In 1971, 10 new pollution control permits and seven amendments to existing
pollution control permits were issued in the Okanagan District for a total of 49
active permits. During this same period, 35 applications for permits or amendments
to permits were received by the Okanagan District office. At the present time, three
permits are inactive due to nondevelopment of works covered by permit, two permits
are inactive due to closure of works under permit, and seven permits have been
Many requests for information were received and numerous complaints were
investigated throughout the year.
Lower Mainland District
W. G. Hamilton, P.Eng., District Manager
The Lower Mainland District office is responsible for administration of the
Pollution Control Act, 1967 within the Greater Vancouver and Central Fraser Valley Regional Districts; Regional Districts of Dewdney-Alouette and Fraser-Cheam;
Squamish-Lillooet and Sunshine Coast Regional Districts.
This office was established in temporary quarters in September 1970, and was
staffed by the District Manager and his secretary. In February 1971 the office
moved to permanent quarters with sufficient space to accommodate a staff of seven,
and in 1971 the staff was increased to include the Assistant District Manager (biologist), one engineer, two technicians, and an engineering assistant.
In 1970, 12 additional permits were issued for discharges in the Lower Mainland District, bringing the total number of permits to be administered by district
staff to 125. In addition, district staff have been involved in investigation and evaluation of sites for 53 permit applications, an increase of 31 over 1970.
A regular programme of inspection and sampling discharges under permit
within the district was initiated in May 1971, and will continue on a quarterly basis.
A similar programme related to general surface water quality on major streams and
lakes and in marine waters of the Gulf of Georgia is now under way. The water-
quality programme initially is comprised of 108 separate sampling stations, including field measurement and laboratory analysis to determine up to 30 parameters.
The district office compiled an inventory of all solid- and liquid-waste discharges not under permit or registered in accordance with the Act.   Three summer
students spent approximately 328 man-days on this project, with 426 nonregistered
discharges being recorded over the 658 registered discharges. Further special projects undertaken during the summer related to the dredging of Burnaby Lake and
the effects of the discharge of the dredging spoil to the Fraser River, and a severe
pollution problem in a small stream.
Eighteen air-monitoring stations previously established as a special project of
the Health Branch were placed under the jurisdiction of the Lower Mainland office.
These have been consolidated to 12 stations, and an additional three stations were
established to provide a broader approach to general information on the current
air pollution situation in the Greater Vancouver area. Most of the stations now
provide information on dustfall, particulate in the air, soiling index, and a measurement of certain sulphurous components in the air.
The district office responded to numerous requests for assistance in regard to
air-registration requirements and transmitted several thousand registration forms to
industry on request.
Complaints and reports related to discharges were handled on a routine basis,
as were meetings with municipalities, industries, small businesses, and the general
public. The district office actively supported and took part in training programmes
at the British Columbia Institute of Technology and in conjunction with professional
and technical organizations in the Lower Mainland.
General Office
Stephen J. Hives, Senior Clerk
Under the supervision of the Senior Clerk, this section now comprising a staff
of eight stenographers, five clerks, and two typists, is responsible for providing the
necessary stenographic and clerical support for the administration of the Pollution
Control Branch. Because of growth of the Branch, the work load of this section
has greatly increased. As required in the Pollution Control Act, 1967, registration
of existing discharges of pollutants to the atmosphere was required by January 1,
1972. The necessary administrative procedures, including advertising through the
news media, to effect registration were put in motion in order to review and prepare
lists of all discharges requiring permits in accordance with the Act. In addition,
the requirements for registration of existing discharges of effluent and solid wastes
has been extended to March 31, 1972, and those registrations already received are
being reviewed.
The Central Registry, responsible for processing all mail and care of files, is
being expanded to cope with the increased volume and administration placed upon
it. The colour-code filing system is being put into effect, which will reorganize the
filing system along the lines now established by other branches of the Department.
A. J. Lynch, B.Sc, M.P.H.
The Chemistry Laboratory, established this year in the Water Resources Service, performs chemical analyses on samples of water, waste water, and air. In
April the staff and equipment from the Public Health Chemistry Section of the
Division of Laboratories, Health Branch, were transferred to the Water Resources
Service. Initially, the Chemistry Laboratory operated in two locations in Vancouver, the British Columbia Research Building, 3650 Wesbrook Crescent, and the
Provincial Health Building, 828 West Tenth Avenue. Following installation of
additional laboratory benches and services in the British Columbia Research Building, the Chemistry Laboratory was consolidated in September. In 1971 the Chemistry Laboratory provided analytical services to the Pollution Control Branch, Water
Investigations Branch, Water Rights Branch, and the Departments of Health Services and Hospital Insurance (Health Branch), Recreation and Conservation, and
Approximately 95 per cent of the Chemistry Laboratory work load is for the
Pollution Control Branch. Samples, from air and water discharges under permit
or investigation, and background monitoring stations, are submitted by the district
offices to provide technical information for enforcement of the Pollution Control
Act, 1967. The over-all work load in the Chemistry Laboratory increased by approximately 125 per cent between January and December. The consolidation of
the laboratory and the new facilities greatly increased efficiency; however, a large
backlog of work developed in the summer due to the increased activities of the
Pollution Control Branch. To further increase the output, the establishment of the
Chemistry Laboratory was increased in December from 25 to 32.
In conjunction with the Data Processing Centre and the Pollution Control
Branch, the data-handling system was revised to make the laboratory results compatible for entry into a computer data storage and retrieval system. New laboratory
requisitions and report forms were developed and codes defined for all parameters,
sampling methods, sample preservation methods, and analytical test methods. The
Data Processing Centre is also conducting a study into automated data-capture
methods for laboratory instruments.
In September the Classification Division of the Civil Service Commission completed a study of the classifications of laboratory personnel. The Chemistry Laboratory was reorganized into a Water Quality Division with three sections—an Air
Quality Division, with one section and a Field Services Section. Civil Service Commission competitions were held for senior laboratory scientist and technician positions, with the resultant promotions or reclassifications of eight staff members.
In addition to the routine tests listed in Tables I and II, the Chemistry Laboratory engaged in a number of projects designed to improve technical performance.
A modern pollution-orientated laboratory is under constant pressure to increase
the laboratory output, increase the number of tests available, and to increase the
 X 120
Water analysis at the Chemistry Laboratory in Vancouver. Top: Distillation and
digestion of ammonia and organic nitrogen. Bottom: Analysis of phosphate compounds
with the use of auto-analysers.
sensitivity and specificity of the analyses. Obtaining an efficient balance between
these requirements promises to be an even greater challenge in the future as additional chemical contaminants are "discovered."
Water Quality Division
Mrs. I. Kalnins, Head of Division
The function of the Water Quality Division is to perform chemical analyses on
water and waste-water samples. The routine tests presently available are given in
Table I. In 1970 the number of tests increased from an average of 3,100 per month
in the first quarter to 6,700 per month in the last quarter. This represented an increase in work load of 115 per cent. The increased work load provided little time
for investigation of new methods and other projects; however, time was spent on the
following improvements and studies:
(1) Introduction of automated procedures for the analyses of nitrite, nitrate,
and silica.
(2) Introduction of procedures for the determination of total organic carbon.
(3) Evaluation of methods for the analyses of seawater samples.
(4) Improvements in the determination of inorganic mercury in water.
During 1971, three sections were formed in the Water Quality Division to
expedite the increased work load. The laboratory is now comprised of the Spectro-
photometric, Atomic Absorption, and General Services Sections. Three new supervisory positions and two senior laboratory technician positions were established for
the sections.
New laboratory instruments purchased in 1971 in the Water Quality Division
were a total organic-carbon analyser, a recording spectrophotometer, a second
atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and an additional three channels of auto-
analyser units.
To augment the scope of the regular quality-control work, the laboratory participated in four series of round robin studies on water-quality parameters conducted
by the Environment Canada, Inland Waters Branch laboratory in Ottawa. The
series of tests included total hardness, nutrients, and metal analyses.
Air Quality Division
H. See, Head of Division
The Air Quality Division provided analytical services to the Pollution Control
Branch air-monitoring programmes. Air samples were received from studies in the
Lower Mainland, Trail, Castlegar, Victoria, Creston, Enderby, Lumby, and Kelowna. In addition, analyses were performed on samples taken at 15 locations in
the Okanagan.   This programme is part of the Federal-Provincial Okanagan study.
Air quality analytical services were also provided to the University of British
Columbia, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology. Financial support for
this project was obtained from a National Health Research Grant.
The work load of the Air Quality Division increased from 125 tests per month
serving 14 air-quality stations in January 1971 to 500 tests per month serving 62
air-quality stations in December.
The routine tests performed by the Air Quality Division are given in Table II.
In addition, special studies were performed on air and vegetation samples. During
1971, progress was made on the following projects:
 X 122
Stability, absorption efficiency, and precision of the West-Gaeke method
for the determination of sulphur dioxide in air.
Introduction of microscopic particle-sizing techniques.
Modification of procedures for the sampling and analyses of dustfall in air.
Study of the efficiency of various methods for the determination of lead
in air.
Field Services Section
The functions of the Field Services Section are to
(1) provide liaison between the Chemistry Laboratory and field staff;
(2) supply chemicals and special sample bottles to staff in the Water Resources
(3) provide an instrumentation calibration and repair service to the Pollution
Control Branch.
In 1971, the move to larger facilities greatly improved the scope and services
of this section. In addition to the routine procedures, the Field Services Section
was also involved in the following:
(1) Development of new procedures for the supply of reagents to field offices.
(2) Study of bottle-contamination problems.
(3) Calibration of continuous air monitors by the permeation-tube technique.
(4) Design and construction of low-volume sampling trains for the determination of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter in air.
(5) Introduction of improved techniques for the calibration of pump flows.
Table I-
Carbon: Total organic.
Hardness: Total.
Total Kjeldahl.
-Routine Water and Wastewater Tests Performed by
the Chemistry Laboratory in 1971
Oil and grease.
BOD (five-day).
Total (105°C).
Total fixed (550°C).
Filterable (105°C).
Nonfilterable (105°C).
Fixed nonfilterable (550°C).
Volatile nonfilterable.
Specific conductance.
Sulphide: Total.
Tannin- and lignin-like compounds.
Temperature: On arrival.
X 123
Table II—Routine Air-quality Tests Performed by
the Chemistry Laboratory in 1971
Dustf all-
Total solids.
Soluble solids.
Insoluble solids.
Total Kjeldahl nitrogen.
Total phosphate.
Total organic carbon.
Total inorganic carbon.
Impinger solutions-
Sulphur dioxide.
Sulphation index.
Soiling index.
Suspended particulate matter—
Glass fibre filter.
Total solids.
Membrane filter.
Total solids.
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
The spring run-off of the Fraser and other major rivers was of average proportions and did not present any major problem to the valley dyking systems in the
During the year the Matsqui Dyking District was dissolved and its functions
were transferred to the Municipality of Matsqui.
Work proceeded on the Fraser Valley Flood-control programme in accordance
with the Federal-Provincial Flood Control Agreement, 1968.
Project Supervisor
The Southern Okanagan Lands Project, administered through its office in
Oliver, provided irrigation water from its system to orchardists and other users
during the irrigation season and domestic water throughout the 12-month period.
The old gravity irrigation system is being replaced by a new pressure system to
which has been added a domestic supply, drawing on groundwater in the Okanagan
River system for supply. This renewal programme is being carried out under the
Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia) Act.
Project staff continued to be engaged during 1971 on the reconstruction of the
irrigation system, which should be completed in the very near future. At that time
the irrigation and the new domestic systems will be turned over to the Southern
Okanagan Lands Irrigation District.
By March, the last of 19.9 inches of snow had disappeared, but cool weather
persisted until late June. Beginning in the middle of July, the Okanagan Valley
experienced six weeks of extremely hot, dry weather. Heavy to excessive demands
in the orchards taxed the new systems, and a few areas high on the upper levels
sustained lowered pressures for some portion of the peak demand periods. Field
inspections were conducted during the height of the extreme demand period and
indications were that worn nozzles, leakage in orchard systems, and excess application were the principal reasons for low pressures in these areas.
Irrigation service commenced April 28 and terminated on September 30.
Ditch-riding service was extended as usual and by agreement to the Black Sage
Irrigation District.
Annual Revenue to December 7,1971
Irrigation collections  111,383.78
Land sales (principal)      10,947.12
Sundries (gravel, maps, payments from irrigation
districts, interest, and lease rentals)      92,441.43
R. C. Webber
Personnel Officer
A total of 81 positions was added to the establishment of the Water Resources
Service during 1971. The Pollution Control Branch received 40 of these new positions, which were primarily engineers, technicians, biologists, and clerks. Early in
the year, 23 employees were transferred from the Health Branch to form the Water
Resources Service Chemistry Laboratory, and nine other positions have subsequently
been added to their establishment. As well as a solicitor position added to the
Water Resources Service establishment, the Water Rights Branch and the Water
Investigations Branch each received four new positions. At the end of the year
there were 278 permanent or continuous employees, and 64 temporary employees
on staff.
As the following table indicates, there has been a substantial increase in personnel activity during the past year. Although turnover is little changed from last
year, recruitment of continuous and temporary employees is up 121 per cent and
100 per cent respectively, and transfers from other departments are up 108 per cent.
As well as the increase in recruitment activity, the Personnel Office has experienced
a 162 per cent increase in job reclassifications during 1971.
Difficulty in recruiting was experienced with the more specialized engineering
positions, in particular with those requiring pollution control experience, and other
specialists such as biometeorologists and laboratory scientists experienced in pollution-analysis techniques.
Principal promotions during the year include J. M. Tregear, promoted to Engineer 4, Power and Major Licences Division, Water Rights Branch; H. H. Nesbitt-
Porter, promoted to Engineer 4, Projects Division, and R. W. Nichols, promoted to
Engineer 4, Basin Planning and Power Division, both of the Water Investigations
During the year the Water Resources Service hired a Public Information Officer,
J. McCrossan, to work exclusively for the Service.
Retirements of two long-service employees occurred in 1971. They were Mrs.
A. S. Huhtala, Clerk 5 in the Inspector of Dykes Office, after 44 years of service,
and J. H. Hallett, General Foreman, Southern Okanagan Lands Project, after 30
years of service.
Three members of the Water Resources Service are presently attending the
Executive Development Training Plan. They are T. H. Oxland, Water Rights
Branch (third year); K. N. Pleasance, Water Investigations Branch (second year);
and S. J. Hives, Pollution Control Branch (first year).
M. B. Maclean
Departmental Comptroller
The activities of the Accounting Division continued to increase as a result of
expansion in several areas of Water Resources Service—notably Pollution Control,
Chemistry Laboratory, and the Fraser River Construction Programme. Vouchers
processed and payroll activity increased 20 per cent to 25 per cent during the year.
In order that this Division may be able to cope with the increased work load, an
increase in personnel is mandatory.
At the request of the Accounting Division, the Data Processing Centre of the
Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce was requested to
review the accounting aspects of the present system in order to provide a more useful and permanent record of the accounts. After some preliminary investigation it
was decided that the entire system be revised to provide not only improved accounting records but also general records and statistical data which would be useful to
the Licensing Division as a whole. By early December a new programme had been
developed, trial runs were made, and the resulting necessary adjustments carried
out.   The 1972 billing was produced under the new programme.
In addition to the implementation of a new data processing programme, the
upward revision of licence rentals and fees was completed for those purposes which
had not been revised in the previous year.
Following is a statement of Water Rights revenue by major purposes for 1971,
and also a statement of comparative revenue over the past 10-year period:
Domestic, incidental use, and fees      484,932
Waterworks         46,378
Irrigation  5,628
Power   3,422,134
Funds received on application      117,526
Total  4,076,598
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1962-71, Inclusive
$ $
1962  2,115,738 1967  2,431,010
1963  1,935,778 1968  2,749,848
1964  2,175,223 1969  3,364,577
1965  2,251,025 1970  3,716,932
1966  2,285,932 1971  4,076,598
 Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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