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Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT for the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1972

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Full Text

 Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
for the Year Ended December 31
1971
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1972
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES
AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hon. Frank Richter, Minister.
K. B. Blakey, Deputy Minister.
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector of Mines.
S. Metcalfe, Chief Analyst and Assay er.
R. H. McCrimmon, Chief Gold Commissioner.
Stuart S. Holland, Chief, Mineralogical Branch.
J. D. LlNEHAM, Chief, Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch.
R. E. Moss, Chief Commissioner, Petroleum and Natural Gas.
 Colonel the Honourable J. R. Nicholson,
P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mineral Industry of the Province for the year 1971
is herewith respectfully submitted.
FRANK RICHTER
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Office,
June 1,1972
  CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
Introduction^
Review of the Mineral Industry,.
CHAPTER 2
Statistics	
CHAPTER 3
Departmental Work.
CHAPTER 4
Petroleum and Natural Gas.
CHAPTER 5
Inspection of Mines	
Page
A 6
A 7
A 12
A 56
A 78
A 200
A 5
 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER
OF MINES AND PETROLEUM
RESOURCES, 1971
Introduction
CHAPTER 1
A report on the mineral industry in the Province has been published annually
since 1874. From 1874 to 1959 it was the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines,
and since 1960 it has been the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Starting with 1969, the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources contains a review of the mineral industry, and chapters dealing with
Statistics, Departmental Work, Petroleum and Natural Gas, and Inspection of Mines.
Technical reports on geology, mineral exploration, metal mines, placer, industrial
minerals and structural materials, and coal which formerly were included in the
Annual Report are published separately in a volume entitled Geology, Exploration,
and Mining in British Columbia. A new series of annual publications of that name
began with the 1969 volume.
This Annual Report contains a general review of the mineral industry as a
whole. The chapter on Statistics records in considerable detail all phases of the
mineral production of the Province. Current and past practices in arriving at
quantities and in calculating the values of products are described.
The organization of the Department and the work of its various branches are
outlined briefly in the chapter on Departmental Work.
The chapter on Petroleum and Natural Gas contains a general review and
records in considerable detail the development and production statistics of that
expanding industry.
Information concerning mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences,
etc., and the activities of the Inspection Branch are contained in the chapter on
Inspection of Mines.
A 6
 1971
Change
(PerCent)
$299,908,645
— 3.2
21,909,767
-0.5
59,940,333
+30.1
145,053,094
+ 31.2
Review of the Mineral Industry
By Stuart S. Holland
Production—The value of the 1971 production of British Columbia's mineral
industry amounted to $526,811,839. A new record was established for the 10th
successive year, for the first time the annual production exceeded half a billion
dollars, the previous year's total was exceeded by $38,206,214 or 7.8 per cent, and
the cumulative value to date has now reached $8,175,714,746.
The values of the four classes of products are as follows:
1970
Metals   $309,981,470
Industrial minerals 22,020,359
Structural materials 46,069,660
Fuels      110,534,136
The outstanding features of the year were the enormous gains in production of
copper and coal, a significant gain in quantity of cement, and important gains in
production of zinc and tungsten. On the other hand there was a very large decline
in production of molybdenum, as well as declines in production of mercury and
several other minor metals.
The decrease in value of metal production of $10 million or 3.2 per cent was
due to decreased production of all metals except copper, zinc, tungsten, and iron and
a significant decrease in the price of copper. The main decline in production was
of molybdenum from $52.56 million to $36.95 million. The impact of the
enormous increase in copper production (66.1 million pounds) was diminished by
the continuing fall in price of copper from an average of 58.698 cents per pound in
1970 to 46.696 cents per pound in 1971.
The slight decrease in value of industrial minerals of $111,000 resulted because
the decline in value of sulphur produced was somewhat greater than the gain of
$1.8 million for asbestos.
The value of structural materials increased by $13.87 million or 30.1 per cent,
almost entirely due to increased activity of the construction industry and consequent
increased use of cement, sand, and gravel.
The considerable increase in the value of fuels produced, $34.52 million or
31.2 per cent, was very largely due to increased coal production (a gain in value of
$26.24 million) and to a lesser extent increased production of crude oil and natural
gas.
During the next several years it is anticipated that the total value of production
will continue to increase despite current uncertainties about metal prices and cutbacks in sales contracts for molybdenum and possibly for those of copper concentrates. In 1972, production is expected from six new copper mines, in addition to
which there will be a full year's production from the Island Copper mine operating
at 33,000 tons per day. Production of coal should also continue to increase sharply
and petroleum and natural gas production are expected to maintain a steady growth.
However, the production of molybdenum is expected to continue to decline in 1972
as a result of a further cutback in production at the Endako mine, to the closure of
the Boss Mountain mine by Noranda Mines, Limited (Boss Mountain Division) late
in 1971, and to the closure early in 1972 of the Coxey mine by Consolidated Canadian Faraday Ltd. (Red Mountain Mines Division), and of the British Columbia
Molybdenum mine.
A 7
 A 8 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Provincial revenue—Direct revenue to the Provincial Government derived
from the entire mineral industry in 1971 was as follows:
Free miners' certificates, recording fees, lease
rentals, assessment payments, etc  $1,655,858.61
Royalties on iron concentrates  253,048.59
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals
and structural materials  403,687.00
Fifteen-per-cent mining tax (received during
1971)   4,978,917.00
Coal licences  264,423.82
Petroleum and natural gas rentals, fees, etc  9,428,322.51
Sale of Crown reserves  22,186,250.58
Royalties on oil, gas, and processed products.- 14,667,966.44
Miscellaneous petroleum and natural gas fees 35,604.37
Total   $53,874,078.92
Expenditure by the industry—Expenditures in 1971 by companies involved in
the exploration, development, and production of metals, minerals, and coal were
$652,201,332.
Equivalent expenditures by companies involved in the exploration and production of petroleum and natural gas were $149,064,000.
The resulting total expenditures in 1971 by the mineral industry for exploration, development, and production therefore were $801,265,732.
Metal mining—In 1971, 52 mines produced more than 42.57 million tons of
ore. Eleven produced more than 1 million tons each and all but four of these were
open-pit mines. In total, 11 open-pit mines produced about 32.84 million tons of
ore.   Twelve mines produced between 100,000 and 1 million tons each.
In 1971, 31 concentrators were in operation, two of which were new. At the
Island Copper mine near Port Hardy, a new mill with a daily capacity of 33,000
tons was completed and at the Pride of Emory mine near Hope a new mill of 1,500
tons per day capacity was completed to replace one destroyed by fire. Concentrators having a total daily capacity of 96,250 tons were under construction at the
following eight mines: Alwin, Bell (Newman), Bull River, Gibraltar, Lornex, Silver
Queen (Nadina), Similkameen (Ingerbelle), and Sunro.
During the year, mining operations were terminated at the following mines:
Bralorne (Bralorne Can-Fer Resources Limited), Bluebell (Cominco Ltd.), Boss
Mountain (Noranda Mines, Limited), Golconda (Trent Resources Ltd.), Magnum
(Churchill Copper Corporation Ltd.), Ruth Vermont (Copperline Mines Ltd.),
and True Fissure (Columbia Metals Corporation, Limited). Of these, the Boss
Mountain, Magnum, and Ruth Vermont are being maintained in condition to recommence operation.
The Trail smelter treated 6,589 tons of crude ore and 388,222 tons of concentrates from British Columbia mines as well as a large tonnage of concentrates, crude
ore, and scrap from sources outside the Province. A total of 2,469,595 tons of
concentrates was shipped to foreign smelters. Of the total metal production of the
Province, concentrates representing 50.4 per cent of the total value were shipped to
Japanese smelters and 6.5 per cent of the total value were shipped to smelters in the
United States.
 review of the mineral industry
Destination of British Columbia Concentrates in 1971
A 9
Smelters
Lead
Zinc
Copper
Nickel-
Copper
Iron
Tungsten
Trail	
Tons
167,151
Tons
221,071
67,487
8,884
Tons
Tons
Tons
Tons
4,923
19,023
507,393
22,810
14
7,044
14,487
1,844,1%
1,081
Totals	
174,195
297,442
531,339
14,487
1,867,006
1,095
Destinations of molybdenum as molybdenite concentrate, molybdic oxide, and
ferromolybdenum are largely in Europe and Japan.
Prospecting for and exploration and development of mineral deposits throughout the Province continued at a slightly lower level of activity than in 1970.
Although the total funds expended were markedly less, the number of properties
on which exploratory work was done and the number of certificates of work recorded were about the same.
Recording of claims was most active in the Kamloops, Liard, Omineca, and
Similkameen Mining Divisions. The discovery of zinc-lead mineralization at Robb
Lake in the Liard division and of copper in the vicinity of the Afton property in the
Kamloops division accounted for large recordings of claims. The number of mineral
claims recorded in 1971 was 57,778, a 16.4-per-cent decrease from 1970. Footage
of surface and underground exploratory diamond drilling was 461,791 feet, a decrease of 211,330 feet or 31.3 per cent, and percussion drilling was 81,934 feet,
a decrease of 153,949 feet or 65 per cent.
About 652 geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports were accepted in
1971 by the Department for assessment-work credit. They represent not less than
$3,827,000 in work done on claims.
The following statistics of expenditures on exploration and development of
coal, mineral, and metallic deposits, and mines are summarized from data recorded
on Statistics Canada forms. They represent minimum amounts, but the response of
the industry is sufficiently complete to provide figures that are substantially correct.
Comparable figures for petroleum and natural gas operations are not available.
Exploration includes all work done up to the time when a company declares its
intention of proceeding to production, after that date the work is classed as development.
Major expenditures in 1971 by companies involved in the exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal were as follows:
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)   $203,935,369
Mining operations (structural materials)        18,878,901
Repairs expenditures       55,063,940
Capital expenditures  $294,562,094
Exploration and development ____      79,761,028
     374,323,122
Total
$652,201,332
Capital and repair expenditures are listed separately because of difficulties in allocating them consistently. Actually most of the repair expenditures should be applied
to mining operations, and most of the capital expenditures to exploration and
development.
 r
A 10 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1971
Number
of Mines
Reporting
Physical
Work and
Surveys
Administration, Overhead, Land
Costs, Etc.
Total
A. Prospecting and exploration on undeclared mines—
407
1
$29,081,729 |    $9,972,415
929,424 |         521,090
335,847 |           37,240
$39,054,144
1,450,514
3    Other'
373,087
Totals
419
$30,347,000 | $10,530,745
$40,877,745
B. Exploration on declared or operating mines—
21
2
3
I
$2,642,706          $552,358
912,511              21,362
31,748 j            9,000
$3,195,064
933,873
3. Others  ,	
40,748
Totals                        	
26
$3,586,965 |       $582,720
$4,169,685
C. Development on declared mines—
1. Metal mines   ...
2. Coalmines
3. Others .
1
$230,650,849
26,638,553
101,374
$1,496,677
639,507
250
$232,147,526
27,278,060
101,624
Totals
12
$257,390,776 |    $2,136,434 | $259,527,210
D. Development on operating mines—
19
1
4
$33,618,309       $5,616,590
26,229,444                  375
4,269,164 |           14,600
$39,234,899
26,229,819
4,283,764
2. Coal mines—    _.
3. Others
Tnt-ls
24
$64,116,917 |    $5,631,565
1
$295,993,593 | $17,638,040
54,709,932 |      1,182,334
4,738,133 ]           61,090
$69,748,482
$313,631,633
55,892,266
4,799,223
E. Total expenditures on exploration and development—
1. Metal mines—A(l) + B(l) + C(l) + D(l)	
2. Coal mines—A(2) + B(2) + C(2) +D(2)	
3. Others—A(3) + B(3) + C(3) + D(3)
	
S . . .-.-.1 .. .«   I   *1SR81-_fi4
$374,323,122
Structural materials and industrial minerals—Exploration for industrial minerals extended from the newly discovered fluorite deposit near Liard Hot Springs in
the north to the Mount Brussilof magnesite deposit in the south. In regard to operations, the following should be noted: The Cassiar Asbestos mine mill expansion was
completed to a capacity of 110,000 tons of fibre annually, trial runs continued at the
Crownite diatomite-pozzolan mill at Quesnel, barite recovery plants in the Columbia
Valley continued to operate, but sales declined, and rock chips for granules and
aggregates were produced at a variety of plants in southern British Columbia.
Coal mining—The total amount of coal mined (net production) in 1971 was
4,637,012 short tons, of this 3,912,154 tons was from open-pit mines and 724,858
tons was from underground mines. The total net production was a 46.6-per-cent
increase over that of 1970 and is the largest amount of coal ever produced in any
year in British Columbia. All came from Kaiser Resources Ltd. mines at Michel
and Sparwood.
Kaiser Resources Ltd. were successful in renegotiating their sales contract with
Mitsubishi Metal Mining Co., Ltd. to an annual delivery to 1985 of 4.4 million long
tons of clean coal.
Work continued in preparing the property of Fording Coal Limited to deliver
3 million long tons of metallurgical coking coal annually to Japanese consumers.
Exploration continued in the East Kootenay coalfield and also in the northeastern coalfield which extends along the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains
from the Alberta boundary south of Narraway River northwestward for more than
200 miles.
 REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY
A 11
Development work is well advanced at the Sukunka property of Brameda Resources Ltd., where a reserve of more than 65 million tons of high-grade coking-coal
has been established by drilling of the Chamberlain seam.
Several other companies have been exploring coal licences both north and south
of the Peace River.
In 1971, 840 new coal licences were issued and 192 old licences were forfeited.
At year end, 2,090 coal licences, totalling 1,188,749 acres, were in good standing.
Petroleum and natural gas—The value of production of the petroleum industry
in 1971 amounted to $99,251,158, up 9.1 per cent from 1970. Crude-oil production was 25,154,122 barrels, only slightly less than the 1970 total, but increased to
a value of $66,471,856, a gain of 10 per cent. The major producing fields, all
under water-flood programmes, were Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan Creek, Inga,
and Weasel.
Natural gas delivered to pipe-lines was 291,188,481 MSCF, an increase of
6.8 per cent and increased to a value of $31,946,372, a 7.2-per-cent gain. The
major gas-producing fields were Clarke Lake, Yoyo, Laprise Creek, Rigel, Nig
Creek, and Jedney.
For the third successive year the footage drilled increased over the previous
year and in 1971 was 989,650 feet, an increase of 10 per cent over 1970.
All drilling was in the northeastern corner of the Province, except for one
wildcat venture on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Despite the
search for significant new petroleum or natural gas finds, the last major success was
the discovery of the Inga field in 1966.
The gas transmission-line delivering gas from the Beaver River field to West-
coast Transmission Company Limited at Fort Nelson was put into operation. West-
coast Transmission Company increased capacities of their gas transmission-lines
between Fort Nelson and Taylor, and also between Taylor and the Lower Mainland.
The dehydration plant at the Beaver River field was completed during the year.
Expenditures in 1971 by companies involved in the exploration and production
of petroleum and natural gas were:
Exploration, land acquisition, and drilling  $60,749,000
Development drilling  8,923,000
Capital expenditures  41,384,000
Natural gas plant operations  4,310,000
Field, well, and pipe-line operations  13,315,000
General (excluding income tax)   20,383,000
Total   $149,064,000
 Statistics
CONTENTS
Introduction	
Method of Computing Production
Metals	
Average Prices	
Gross and Net Content _
Value of Production	
CHAPTER 2
Pace
A 13
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials-
Fuel	
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables	
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year..
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1971	
Table 3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years 1962-1971	
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1971	
Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Molybdenum,
Graph of Quantities, 1893-1971	
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1971	
Table 7a—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1970 and 1971, and
Total to Date	
Table 7b—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc by
Mining Divisions, 1970 and 1971, and Total to Date	
Table 7c—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1970
and 1971, and Total to Date	
Table 7r>—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1970 and
1971, and Total to Date	
Table 7e—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1970 and
1971, and Total to Date	
Table 8a—Production of Coal, 1836-1971	
Table 8b—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1971	
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes	
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1971	
Table 11—Employment at Major Metal Mines and Coal Mines, 197 L
Table 12—Metal Production, 1971	
A 13
A 13
A 13
A 14
A 14
A 15
A 15
A 15
A 27
A 28
A 30
A 32
A 33
A 34
A 36
A 38
A 40
A 44
A 46
A 47
A 48
A 49
A 50
A 51
A 52
A 12
 INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated for
this Report by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce, Victoria.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning with
the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial departments have cooperated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production published by
the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses average prices
considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
METHOD OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors become known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For placer gold, returns from operators are augmented by data obtained from the Royal Canadian Mint. For petroleum, natural
gas, and liquid by-products, production figures supplied by the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Branch of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources are
compiled from the monthly disposition reports and the Crown royalty statement
filed with the Department by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds. Weights are avoirdupois pounds and short
tons (2,000 pounds), and troy ounces.   Barrels are 35 imperial gallons.
Metals
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page A 26.
The price of gold used is the average Canadian Mint buying-price for fine gold.
In 1971 this was $35.34 per ounce.
A  13
 A 14
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold. Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and the average
price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total amount received.
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average
prices of the markets indicated in the table on page A 26, converted into Canadian
funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New York;
Lond.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Latterly the prices of silver, copper, lead, and zinc are average United States
prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices are supplied by
Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it is the New York price; for lead it is the New York
price; for zinc it is the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper it is the
United States export refinery price. However, commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers.
For antimony the average price for the year and for cadmium, the New York
producers' price to consumers are used. For nickel the price used is the Canadian
price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. The value per ton
of the iron ore used in making pig iron at Kimberley is an arbitrary figure, being the
average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British
Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
that metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents
are the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross
contents less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents,
particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another. The
present method was established in 1963 and is outlined in the following table. For
example, the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross
content, of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc.
Lead
Concentrates
Zinc
Concentrates
Copper
Concentrates
Copper-Nickel
Concentrates
Copper
Matte
Silver    	
Copper .,
Lead _
Zinc 	
Per Cent
98
Less 26 Ib./ton
98
50
Per Cent
98
50
90
70
Per Cent
98
Less 10 Ib./ton
Per Cent
85
88
Per Cent
98
Less 10 Ib./ton
50
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate shipped to Japan, mercury, molybdenum, and tin
the value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production is calculated from the assay content
 STATISTICS
A 15
of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an average
price per unit of weight.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on page
A 26.
For 1925 and subsequent years the value has been calculated by using the true
average price (see p. A 26) and the net metal contents, in accordance with the procedures adopted by Statistics Canada and the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
In the statistical tables, for gold the values are calculated by multiplying the
gross contents of gold by the average price for the year; for the other metals, by
multiplying the net contents of metals as determined by means of the above table
by the average price for the year.
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
Fuel
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per ton (see p. A 26)
which is the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES ON PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE TABLES
Antimony-—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a byproduct of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then other out-
of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lardeau, Slocan,
Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 7c the antimony assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to foreign smelters;
the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter from various ores
received there.   See Tables 1,3, and 7c.
Arsenious oxide — Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Asbestos—British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the Cassiar mine was opened. All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile from
the Cassiar mine near the Yukon border.   This deposit is noted for its high percen-
 A 16
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
tage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre. The original
claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped two years
later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar, shipped by truck to Whitehorse,
and then moved by rail to tidewater at Skagway. From 1953 to 1961 the fibre was
valued at the shipping point in North Vancouver, but beginning in 1962 it has been
valued at the mine, and values for the preceding years have been recalculated on
that basis.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
is mined from lode deposits and the rest is recovered from the mill-tailings ponds of
the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines. See Tables 1,3,
and 7d.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone — Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Table 7e.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7a.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 7c the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign
smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated recovery at
the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates.    See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are Ocean Cement Limited, with a 4.8-
million-barrel-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd. with
a 3.5-million-barrel-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 1.2-million-barrel-per-year
plant at Kamloops.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 670 tons from Cascade
in 1918 and 126 tons from Scottie Creek in 1929.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Clay and shale products—These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery, lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in plants
at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant on Saturna Island makes
light-weight expanded shale aggregate and pozzolan clinker from a local shale
 STATISTICS
A  17
deposit. A plant at Quesnel makes pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of
Quesnel. Common clays and shales are abundant in British Columbia, but fireclay
and other high-grade clays are rare. Several hobby and art potteries and a sanitary-
ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported raw materials and their
production is not included in the tables.   See Tables 1,3, and 7e.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island in
1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that of
placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for the
next 30 years.
First production, by Mining Divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains coking-
coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building. Mining
started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Telkwa in 1918, and on the
Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the last large
mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the last large mine at
Tsable River in 1966, and of the last small one, near Wellington in 1968, marked
the end of production from the once important Vancouver Island deposits.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains north
and south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British Columbia, the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and basins on Graham Island.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created great activity in
coal prospecting in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of
large contracts with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several
deposits in the East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities
at North Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 1, 3, 7a, 8a, and 8b.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
See Tables 1 and 7c.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 9, but this table has been
discontinued. The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 8b. In 1971,
113,545 pounds of cobalt were shipped from the Pride of Emory mine at Hope.
Copper—Copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese and American smelters
because no copper smelter has operated in British Columbia since 1935. Small
amounts of gold and silver are commonly present and add value to the ore, but some
 A 18
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
ores contain important amounts of gold (as at Rossland), silver (Silver King mine),
lead and zinc (Tulsequah), or zinc (Britannia mine). Most of the smelting in
British Columbia in early years was done on ore shipped direct from the mines
without concentration, but modern practice is to concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver
King mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at
Grand Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).
Later, small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and
Texada Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper smelting
ceased in the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935.
British Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and
since 1961 have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Rossland, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During resent years exploration for copper has
been intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley
(Bethlehem) in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland (Brenda)
in 1970, Stewart (Granduc) and near Port Hardy (Island Copper) in 1971. Large
mines near Babine Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lor-
nex), and Princeton (Ingerbelle) are nearing production. Others are in an advanced planning stage or under exploration.
After a lapse of many years, copper has been produced comparatively recently on Vancouver Island at Jordan River, Courtenay, Benson Lake, Quatsino,
and also at Buttle Lake, together with zinc and silver. At Tasu Harbour on
Moresby Island and at Texada Island copper is produced as a by-product of iron-
mining.
Copper is now the most valuable single commodity of the industry. Production
in 1971 was 278.5 million pounds.   See Tables 1,3,6, and 7b.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the 12-inch
oil pipe-line was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans
Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company pipe-line near Kamloops. In 1971, oil was
produced from 28 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan
Creek, Inga, and Weasel fields were the most productive.
In Tables 1, 3, and 7a, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, and from 1962 to 1965 include field and plant condensate
listed separately. Full details are given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas
chapter of this Report.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. One plant to process the material locally was built in Quesnel in 1969
and a new one to replace it was completed in 1970.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Field condensate—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and
recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing. See Tables 1,3, and 7a.
Fluorlte (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the
Rock Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery.   From
 STATISTICS
A  19
1958 to 1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica
quarry.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and form a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
Today silica from Sheep Creek and limestone, chiefly from Texada Island, are
produced for flux. Quantities have been recorded since 1911. See Tables 1, 3,
and 7d.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province. The
first discovery of lode gold was on Moresby Island in 1852, when some gold was
recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo
in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras—primitive grinding-mills—were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. The
value of production was second only to that of coal by 1900 and continued to
be very important. At the start of World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly
value of more than $22 million, but since the war it dwindled, owing to the fact
that the price for gold was fixed and the cost of mining rose and continues to rise.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland Canal,
Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River closed;
it was the last gold mine in the Province to operate. To date the gold mines have
paid a total of about $82 million in dividends.
As long as the price of gold remains fixed and costs continue to rise, there can
be no increase in the mining of lode gold except as a by-product. With the closing
of the Bralorne mine, all is produced as a by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver,
and other base-metal mining.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream
from Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery
of placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer
on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the discovery of
placer gold on Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1886. A high level of production
ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort Steele, Rock Creek,
Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike was made on Cedar
Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in 1927 and on Wheaton
Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II, placer-mining has declined under conditions of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold. Since 1858, more than 5.2
million ounces valued at almost $97 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kam-
 A 20
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
loops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was:
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold to the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia.   See Tables 1, 3, 6 and 7a.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby, near Hope, at Rock Creek, Grand Forks, Sirdar,
Vananda, and Armstrong.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956 more than 1,000,000 tons was shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956
all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.    Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipments. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Moresby Island. At Texada Island copper is a
by-product of iron-mining, and at the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is that
of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is produced
as a by-product.
Since January 1961, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings of the Sullivan
mine has been used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This is the first manufacture
of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and pyrite in the
lead-zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead and zinc
minerals are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron sulphides are
separated from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile had been built containing
a reserve of about 20 million tons of iron ore.
The sulphur is removed in making pig iron and is converted to sulphuric acid,
which is used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converts the pig iron
to steel, and a fabricating plant has been acquired in Vancouver. The entire production, credited to the Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 7c, is of calcine. See
Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7c.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
 STATISTICS
A 21
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika, and
Wheaton Creeks.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed in value of annual production by zinc in 1950, by copper in 1966,
and in total production by zinc in 1966. Lead and zinc usually occur together in
nature although not necessarily in equal amounts in a single deposit. Zinc is the
more abundant metal, but lead ore usually is more valuable than zinc ore because
it contains more silver as a by-product. For a long time British Columbia produced
almost all of Canada's lead, but now produces only about one-quarter of it. Most
of the concentrated ore is smelted and the metal refined at Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American and Japanese smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of the
Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about three-quarters
of the Province's lead and has produced about 85 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works at
Trail. Other mines are at the Pend d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
and southwest of Golden. In northwestern British Columbia less important parts of
the total output have come from Tulsequah, the Premier mine, and several small
mines in the general region of Hazelton.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines owned by Cominco Ltd.
goes to the Trail smelter, but part of the output of other mines goes to American
smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to
approximately 8 million tons.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, at Kamloops, and on the north
end of Texada Island.   See Tables 1,3, and 7e.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque,
Clinton, and Osoyoos.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920 manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then small
amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River district.
The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi Lake and
Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine reopened and
continues in operation.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
 A 22
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
I
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961 small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined near
Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the point
that molybdenum now ranks third in importance in annual value of metals produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine recovered
by-product molybdenum from 1964 to 1966. In 1965, the Endako and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia Molybdenum mine
in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. In 1970, the
Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer, started operating, and
Island Copper in 1971. Large-scale combined metal deposits at Lornex and Gib-
ralter mines are being prepared for production in 1972.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7c.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 400 tons of natro-alunite was mined from
a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. Since the completion in 1957 of the gas plant at
Taylor and the 30-inch pipe-line to serve British Columbia and the northwestern
United States, the daily average volume of production has increased to more than
950,000,000 cubic feet. In 1971 there were 43 producing gas fields, of which the
Yoyo, Laprise Creek, Clarke Lake, Jedney, Nig Creek, Beaver River, and Rigel
were the most productive.
The production shown in Tables 1,3, and 7a is the total amount sold of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the gas-gathering
system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line. The quantity
is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas used or lost
in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as thousands of cubic feet at standard
conditions (14.4 pounds per square inch pressure, 60°F temperature, up to and
including the year 1960, and thereafter 14.65 pounds per square inch pressure,
60°F temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas chapter of this Report.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. Since 1960, bulk copper-
nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan for smelting. See Tables 1,3, and
7c.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a by-product
of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates
shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine.    See Tables 1 and 7c.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1,112 tons was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.    There has been no further production.    See Tables 1 and 7d.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3,842 tons
of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964 but there has been no commercial production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Plant condensate—Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from
natural gas at gas-processing plants.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7a.
 STATISTICS
A 23
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery is
presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the
Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 1,3, and 7c.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7a.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7E.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work of all
kinds. The output varies from year to year according to the state of activity of the
construction industry.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Selenium-—The only recorded production of selenium, 731 pounds, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 1
and 7c.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, some goes to the Mint in gold bullion, and some is
exported in concentrated ores of copper, lead, and zinc to American and Japanese
smelters.   Silver bullion was produced by the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores, if mined in quantity, produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Silver-bearing ores were intensively sought in the early days. A metal of high
unit value was the only one worth finding in regions remote from market, and in the
1880's and 1890's there was little point in prospecting for ores that did not contain values in silver or gold. Prospecting for silver ores started in southeastern
British Columbia in about 1883, and from 1894 to 1905 British Columbia produced
most of Canada's silver, many of the early ores being mined primarily for their
silver content.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters, or may go to the
Mint in gold bullion. Today the greatest single source of silver is the Sullivan mine,
which has been in production since 1900. By 1971 the Sullivan mine has accounted
for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total
amount is contributed by the Lynx, Phoenix, Bethlehem, Granisle, Brenda, and
Tasu mines. The only steady producer that is strictly a silver mine is the Highland
Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A former important mine, the
Premier near Stewart, produced more than 41 million ounces of silver between
1918 and 1968.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
 A 24 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Stone—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from rock produced at
quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands. See Tables 1,
3, and 7e.
Structural materials—In Table 7e the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions,
and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 2 that includes unclassified
structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular years.
The figure $3,180,828 in Table 7e under "Other Clay Products" is the value in the
period 1886-1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products or assigned
to mining divisions.   See Tables 1, 2, 3, 7a, and 7e.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Canadian Occidental Petroleum
Ltd. plant at Taylor has been included.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. The tin concentrate is shipped to an American smelter for
treatment.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced from
1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton and
the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald in
1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas when demand was high. In 1970 production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 1,3, and 7c,
Volcanic ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 30 tons from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Zinc—-Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal, but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of zinc production exceeded that of lead.
In 1971 the annual production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper and crude oil.
Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most ores are mined for their combined
values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for their zinc content alone. Some zinc
ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated with copper at the
Lynx mine. Modern practice is to concentrate and separate the zinc mineral
(sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most of the zinc concentrates go to
the zinc-recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are converted electrolytically to
refined metal.   Some concentrates are shipped to American or Japanese smelters.
More than 87 per cent of the zinc has been mined in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines near Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake,
 STATISTICS
A 25
Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillimacheen. Other production has come from mines
at Portland Canal and Tulsequah and is coming from Buttle Lake. The greatest zinc
mine is the Sullivan, which has contributed about 75 per cent of the total zinc production of the Province.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 18,845 tons of
zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1958, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
 A 26
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
Prices1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Gold,
Placer,
Fine,
Oz.
Oz.
Silver,
Fine,
Oz.
Copper,
Lb.
Lead,
Lb.
Zinc,
Lb.
Coal,
Short
Ton
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917—__
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942.—	
1943	
1944	
17
1945...
1946-
1947-
1948-
1949...
1950...
1951...
1952...
1953-
1954...
1955...
1956-
1957-
1958-
1959...
1960-
1961-
1962._
1963-
1964-
1965-
1966-
1967-
1968...
1969-
1970-
1971..
19,
23.
28,
28.
28.
28,
28.
29.
31,
31,
31,
31,
31
31,
30,
28,
28
29.
31,
30.
28
28.
27.
28.
28
27.
27,
27,
27,
29.
29.
29.
29:
28
29:
28,
29.:
29
28.
26.:
30
02
37
94
81
77
93
72
66
66
66
66
66
66
22
78
.78
60
29
30
18
31
52
39
32
59
94
61
,92
24
25
31
96
93
08
77
21
37
89
25
$
20.67
23.47
28.60
34.50
35.19
35.03
34.99
35.18
36.14
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
36.75
35.00
35.00
36.00
38.05
36.85
34.27
34.42
34.07
34.52
34.44
33.55
33.98
33.57
33.95
35.46
37.41
37.75 I
37.75
37.73
37.71
37.76
37.71
37.69
36.56
35.34 |
Cents
56.002 N.Y.
49.55
50.78
53.36
51.33
63.45
62.06
50.22
48.93
50.812
50.64
57.79
56.80
52.10
47.20
62.38
77.35
91.93
105.57
95.80
59.52
64.14
61.63
63.442
69.065
62.107
56.370
58.176
52.993
38.154
28.700
31.671
37.832
47.461
64.790
45.127
44.881
43.477
40.488
38.249
38.261
41.166
45.254
43.000
47.000
83.650
72.000
75.000 Mont.
74.250 U.S.
80.635    „
94.550    „
83.157   „
83.774    „
82.982   „
87.851    „
89.373    „
87.057   „
86.448   „
87.469   „
88.633    „
93.696 „
116.029 „
137.965 „
139.458 „
139.374 „
139.300 „
167.111 „
231.049 „
192.699 „
184.927 „
155.965 „
Cents
16.11 N.Y.
11.70 „
13.24 „
12.82 „
15.59 „
19.28 „
20.00 „
13.20 „
12.98 „
12.738 „
12.38 „
16.341 „
15.27 „
13.60 „
17.28 „
27.202 „
27.18 „
24.63 „
18.70 „
17.45 „
12.50 „
13.38 „
14.42 „
13.02 „
14.042 „
13.795 „
12.920 „
14.570 „
18.107 „
12.982 „
8.116 „
6.380 Lond.
7.454 „
7.419 „
7.795 „
9.477 „
13.078 „
9.972 „
10.092 „
10.086 „
10.086 „
10.086 „
11.750 „
12.000 „
12.550 „
12.800 „
20.390 „
22.350 U.S.
19.973 „
23.428 „
27.700 „
31.079 „
30.333 „
29.112 „
38.276 „
39.787 „
26.031 „
23.419 „
27.708 „
28.985 „
28.288 „
30.473 „
30.646 „
33.412 „
38.377 „
53.344 „
50.022 „
54.216 „
66.656 „
58.6982
46.6962
Cents
2.577 N.Y.
3.66 „
3.81 „
3.88 „
4.24 „
4.81 „
4.80 „
3.78 „
3.85 „
4.00 „
3.98 „
4.024 „
3.93 „
3.50 „
4.17 „
6.172 „
7.91 „
6.67 „
5.19 „
7.16 „
4.09 „
5.16 „
6.54 „
7.287 „
7.848 Lond.
6.751 „
5.256 „
4.575 „
5.050 „
3.927 „
2.710 „
2.113 „
2.391 „
2.436 „
3.133 „
3.913 „
5.110 „
3.344 „
3.169 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.754 „
4.500 „
5.000 „
6.750 „
13.670 „
18.040 „
15.800 U.S.
14.454 „
18.400 „
16.121 „
13.265 „
13.680 „
14.926 „
15.756 „
14.051 „
11.755 „
11.670 „
11.589 „
11.011 „
10.301 „
12.012 „
14.662 „
17.247 „
16.283 „
15.102 „
14.546 „
16.039 „
16.336 „
13.950 „
Cents
4.60E.St.L.
4.90 „
5.90 „
4.80 „
4.40 „
11.25 „
10.88 „
7.566 „
6.94 „
6.24 „
6.52 „
3.95 „
4.86 „
5.62 „
5.39 „
7.892 Lond.
7.409 „
6.194 „
5.493 „
5.385 „
3.599 „
2.554 „
2.405 „
3.210 „
3.044 „
3.099 „
3.315 „
4.902 „
3.073 „
3.069 „
3.411 „
3.411 „
3.411 „
4.000 „
4.300 „
6.440 „
7.810 „
11.230 „
13.930 „
13.247 U.S.
15.075 „
19.900 „
15.874 „
10.675 „
10.417 „
12.127 „
13.278 „
11.175 „
10.009. „
10.978 „
12.557 „
11.695 „
12.422 „
13.173 „
14.633 „
15.636 „
15.622 „
14.933 „
14.153 „
15.721 „
16.006 „
16.286 .,
$
2.65
2.63
2.67
2.62
2.70
2.61
3.07
3.11
3.19
3.35
3.18
3.36
3.39
3.46
3.43
3.45
3.48
4.99
4.92
4.72
4.81
4.72
4.81
4.89
4.79
4.84
4.81
4.71
4.74
4.73
4.35
4.04
3.90
4.00
3.95
4.23
4.25
4.01
4.02
4.26
4.15
4.13
4.17
4.25
4.24
4.68
5.12
6.09
6.51
6.43
6.46
6.94
6.88
7.00
6.74
6.59
6.76
7.45
7.93
6.64
7.40
7.43
7.33
6.94
7.03
7.28
7.75
7.91
8.00
7.40
10.03
i See page A 13 for detailed explanation.
2 See page A 14 for explanation.
 STATISTICS
A 27
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year,
and Latest Year
Products!
Total Quantity
to Date
Total Value
to Date
Quantity,
1970
Value,
1970
Quantity,
1971
Value,
1971
Metals
.. .lb.
_   lb.
-lb.
rVihalt
_   lb.
Ih.
,,  —lode, fine 	
Iron concentrates    .
oz.
tons
-   lb.
-lb.
Manganese     	
tons
Ih.
lb.
lb,
lb.
Tin    	
Jb.
Tungsten (WO3)    	
. ..lb.
Ih.
r>thpr«
Totals      	
Industrial Minerals
Arsenious oxide
lb.
Diatomite 	
Fluorspar    	
. tons
tons
Granules 	
Gypsum and gypsite 	
-tons
-tons
Iron oxide and ochre .	
-tons
lb.
Magnesium sulphate	
-tons
 lb.
..tons
Perlite    	
-tons
Sodium carbonate	
..tons
Talc           ...
nth(>r«
Totals         _   	
Structural Materials
Clay products
Lime and limestone	
Rock-
-tons
-tons
Stone
-tons
Not assigned
Totals	
Fuels
Coal	
Crude oil	
Field condensate _
Plant condensate __
..tons
-.bbl.
_bbl.
..bbl.
Nat'l gas to pipe-line MSCF
Butane bbl.
Propane bbl.
Totals .	
Grand Totals
I
52,889,907
6,828,976
40,458,224
796
115,275
4,538,186,651
5,235,585
17,111,968
28,235,788
16,076,243,537
204,632
1,724
4,171,110
141,519,639
44,225,084
749
1,407
731
492,916,634
18,503,982
17,355,132
14,726,510,113
17,124,
14,138,
74,338,
32,
103,
,242,159,
96,962,
506,836,
256,921
,382,526,
88.
32,
10,447.
241,356,
40,970.
30,
135
1
365,112,
16,620
41,676
,439,630
39,649
,827
782
692
295
519
863
044
942
,576
,389
,184
,668
358
,536
630
,462
,008
,389
,955
,319
,291
,540
,062
726.474
132,135
939,310
212,371,731
491
100,809
1,879,065
214,838,525
31,276,497
3,408,203
6,511,316
263,716
275,590,749
|5,786,896,331|.
22,019,420
1,012,325
394,921
791
10,268
35,682
4,111,071
418,856
4,430,086
2,253
18,108
764,154
13,894
12,822,050
522
1,112
3,842
10,492
7,583,927
1,805
273,
197,232,
4,094,
16,
239,
795,
7,674,
6,528,
15,356,
27,
155,
728.
254,
185,
9
11
16
118
97,681,
34,
5,
,201
,451
,018
,858
,772
,950
330
317
,252
,536
,050
,002
,352
,818
,398
,120
,894
,983
,097
,871
,213
86,730
45,320
1,276
31,626
22,349
270,266
262,602
336,420
331,439,433|.
13,860,527
1,164,321
235,437,698
83,673,368
56,709,121
53,581,885
279,028,002
9,215,765
5,972,171
723,618,010
149,654,344
184,415,614
510,313
11,917,836
2,183,429,009
5,301,142
3,844,804
682,085,481
417,052,604
1,223,978
5,957,329
224,514,882
1,696,364
1,230,334
601,893
1,867,586
2,692,282
23,155,989
175
2,644,056
25,333,550
107,254
1,003,138
272,554,221
308,664
420,327
11,333,760,972|-
:,175,714,746|-
I
1,104,040
828,486
3,343,944
124,657,958
14,185
3,685,476
17,391,883
35,096,021
52,561,796
4,703,320
12,041,181
421,946
44,111,055
10,020,179
323,525
82,521
1,036,713
243,614
388,674
2,011,223
113,545
278,508,515
177
85,487
1,929,868
247,927,691
103,099
130,052,336
4,647
3,021,453
18,153,612
34,585,913
21,884,729
2,543,578
36,954,846
3,497,420
7,654,415
318,999
1,335,808
305,451,243
11,938,208
421,079
3,012,540
49,745,789
5,774,192
309,981,470)-
-| 299,908,645
16,033,827|
382,5081
I
87,118|    17,800,406
21,267 179,455
26,567|
1,550
106,533|
526,4911
736,635
26,740
29,238
344,795
250,256
3,957,542
167,760
288,467
37,830
98,426
519,192
930,348
196,332
2,147,778
22,020,359|_
I    21,909,767
13,485,549
4,714,368
3,169,665
3,018,242
21,679,387
2,449
906,467
1,819,549
3,668,244
29,320,104
2,267
21,629,385
5,981,785
3,037,222
3,670,583
25,612,396
8,962
46,069,660|_
59,940,333
19,559,669
60,405,941
277,829
253,009
29,804,411
98,772
134,505
4,565,242
25,154,122
109,008
1,114,139
291,188,481
318,195
468,876
45,801,936
66,471,856
287,781
293,287
31,946,372
101,822
150,040
110,534,136|-
145,053,094
488,605,6251.
526,811,839
1 See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages A 15 to A 25.
2 From 1968, excludes production which is confidential.
 a 28 mines and petroleum resources report, 1971
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1971
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Fuels
Total
1836-86
1887	
1888 -	
1889	
1890	
1891	
1892	
1893	
1894	
1895 _
1896.	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901-
1902-
1903.
1904-
1905.
1906.
1907
1908
1909
1910.
1911..
1912.
1913..
1914.
1915...
1916.
1917.
1918...
1919...
1920.
1921 .
1922..
1923 ..
1924 .
1925..
1926 ..
1927 ..
1928 .
1929
1930-
1931 —
1932..
1933-
1934 -
1935-
1936-
1937...
1938-
1939-
1940-
1941..
1942
1943-
1944.
1945-
1946.
1947..
1948_
1949-
1950-
$
52,808
729
745
685
572,
447
511
659,
1,191
2,834
4,973,
7,575.
7,176,
8,107,
11,360,
750
381
794
512
SS4
136
075
969
728
629
769
262
870
509
546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216.049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673,592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
2,400
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497.720
1,783,010
2,275,972
2,358,877
2,500,799
2.462,340
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
726.323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400.000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270.559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018.719
1,238,718
1.796.677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3.401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10.246,939
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7.114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722.502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502,519
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8,394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434,312
16,355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17,497,380
18,955,179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513,584
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26,382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056.284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207,350
41,330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67,077,605
60,720,313
65,227,002
68,689,839
55,763,360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133.485
74,438,675
64,416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76,471,329
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,430
139,995,418
 STATISTICS A 29
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1971—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Fuels
Total
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954—
1955	
1956—
1957—
1958—
1959—.
1960—
1961..
1962_
1963.
1964-
1965..
1966-
1967-
1968-
1969-
1970.
1971-
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565
159,627.
172,852,
180,926
177,101
208,664.
235,865,
250,912.
294,881,
309,981,
299,908,
,774
,293
,866
,329
,733
003
,318
026
,114
,470
645
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,020,359
21,909,767
Totals .
5,786,896,331
331,439,433
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,069,660
59,940,333
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,161,089
9,005,111
9,665,983
8,537,920
10,744,093
11,439,192
14,468,869
18,414,318
34,073,712
42,617,633
42,794,431
50,815,252
60,470,406
74,141,627
82,870,204
93,573,164
110,534,136
145,053,094
176,867,916
171,365,687
152,841,695
152,894,663
173,853,360
188,853,652
170,992,829
144,953,549
147,651,217
177,365,333
179,807,321
229,371,484
255,863,587
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
405,028,488
464,388,749
488,605,625
526,811,839
723,618,010    |  1,333,760,972
8,175,714,746
 A 30
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
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3,899,634
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28,693,662
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138,814,144
477,990
358,776
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23,396,716
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A 31
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 A 32 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1971
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 STATISTICS
A 33
Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, Graph of Quantities, 1893-1971
_
 A 34 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1971
Year
Gold (Placer)
Quantity     Value
Gold (Fine)
Quantity        Value
Silver
Quantity        Value
Copper
Quantity
Value
1858-90	
1891-1900-
1901-1910..
1911	
1912 ___.
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916- —
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938 	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943 	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949 _..
1950— _.
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958 —
1959	
1960 	
1961— _
1962	
1963 _,
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967 	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
Oz.
3,246,585 55
376.290   6
507,580
25,060,
32,680,
30.000,
33.240
45,290
34,150
29,180
18,820
16.850',
13.040,
13,720]
21,690
24,710
24,750
16.476
20,912
9,191
8,424
6,983,
8,955,
17,176
20,400
23,928
25,181
30.929
43,389
54.153
57.759
49,746
39,067
43,775
32,904
14,600
11,433
12.589
15,729,
6.969,
20,332,
17,886
19,134
23.691
17,554
14,245
8.684,
7.666'
3,865,
2.936
5,650,
7,570
3,847
3,416
3,315
4,620,
1,842,
866
1-535)
891,
670
399;
491
177
$
192,163
397,183
,628.660
426,000
555,500
510,000
565,000
770,000
580,500
496,000
320,000
286,500
221,600
233,200
368,800
420,000
420,750
280,092
355,503
156.247
143,208
118,711
152,235
291,992
395,542
562,787
714,431
895,058
,249,940
,558,245
,671,015
,478,492
,236.928
,385,962
,041,772
462.270
361,977
398,591
475,361
200,585
585,200
529.524
598,717
717,911
494,756
403,230
238,967
217.614
109,450
80,990
157,871
208,973
107,418
99,884
96,697
135,411
55,191
25.053
44,632
25,632
19,571
11,720
14,185
4,647
Oz.
632.806
2,322,118;
228,617,
257,496;
272,254,
247,170
250,02i:
221,932
114,523
164,674j
152,426
120,048
135,7651
197,856;
179,245,
247,716
209,719
201,427
178,001,
180,662]
145,223
160,836
146,133;
181,651'
223,589;
297,216;
365,343,
404,578,
460,781
557,522'
587,336!
583,524
571,026
444,5181
224,403;
186,6321
175,373|
117,612]
243,282,
286,230,
288,396'
283.9831
261,274;
255,789]
253,552
258,388|
242,477,
191,743]
223,403|
194,354;
173,146'
205,580!
159,821
158,850
154,979]
138,487]
117,124;
119,508
126,157
123,896
117,481
100,809
85,487
TotalS-
5,235,585196,962,044
12.858,353
47,998,179
4,725,512
5,322,442
5,627.595
5,109,008
5,167.934
4,587.333
2,367.191
3,403,81!
3,150,644
2,481,392
2,804,197
4,089,684
3,704,994
5,120.535
4,335,069
4,163,859
3,679,601
3,734,609
3,002,020
3,324,975
3,020,837
4,263,389
6,394,645
10,253,952
12,856,419
14,172.367
16,122,767
19,613,624
21.226,957
22,461,516
21,984,501
17.113,943
8.639,516
7,185,332
6,751,860
4,322,241
8,514,870
10,018.050
10,382,256
10,805,553
9.627,947
8,765,889
8,727.294
8,803,279
8,370,306
6,603,628
7,495,170
6.604,149
5,812,511
6,979,441
5,667,253
5,942,101
5,850,458
5,227,884
4,419,089
4,506,646
4,763.688
4,672,242
4.427,506
3,685,476
3,021,453
17,111,968 506,836,942
Oz.
221.089
22,537,306] 13
31,222,548 16
1,892.3641
3,132,108,
3,465.856;
3,602,180]
3,366.506
3,301.923]
2,929,216,
3,498,172
3,403,119
3.377.8491,
2,673,3891
7,101.311,
6,032,9861
8,341,768]
7,654.844]
10,748.556
10,470.185]
10,627,167
9,960,172
11,328,263]
7,550,3311
7,150,655]
7,021,754]
8,613,977)
9,269,944,
9,547,124]
11,305,367]
10,861,578]
10,821,393]
12,327.944]
12,175.700]
9,677,881|
8,526,310]
5,705,3341
6,157.307|
6,365,761]
5,708,461
6,720.1341
7,637,262|
9,509,456,
8,218,914,
8,810,807]
8,378,819]
9,826,403]
7,903,149]
8,405,074]
8,129,348,
7,041,058,
6,198,101]
7,446,643]
7,373.997]
6,189,804]
6,422,680
5,269,642|
4,972,0841
5,549,131
6,180,739,
7,130,866
5,760,534]
6,511,316'
7,654,415| 11
4927916,634|365
S
214,152
,561,194
,973,507
958,293
810,045
,968,606
,876,736
,588,991
,059,739
265,749
,215,870
,592,673
,235,980
,591,201
,554,781
,718,129
,292,184
,286,818
,675,606
.902,043
182,461
,278,194
,322,185
,254,979
264,729
,656,526
,088,280
,005,996
,308,330
,073,962
,722,288
,381,365
,715,315
,658,545
,080,775
,858,496
,453,293
,893,934
324,959
110,092
,040,101
,671,082
,667,950
770,983
,326,803
,019,272
154,145
,942,995
,511,866
,077,166
,086,854
,421,417
,600,183
,909,140
,181,907
,861,050
,348.938
,929,793
,729,939
,328,695
,475,795
100,491
,041,181
,938,208
Lb.
35,416,069
379,957,091
36,927,656
51,456,537
46,460,305
45,009,699
56,918,405
65,379,364
59,007,565
61,483,754
42,459,339
44,887,676
39,036,993
32,359,896
57,720,290
64,845,393
72,306,432
89,339,768
89,202,871
97,908,316
102,793,669
92,362,240
64,134,746
50,608,036
43,149,460
49,651,733
39,428,208
21,671,711
46,057,584
65,769,906
73,254,679
77,980,223
66,435,583
50,097,716
42,307,510
36,300,589
25,852,366
17,500,538
41,783,921
43,025,388
54,856,808
42,212,133]
43,249,658
42,005,512,
49,021,013
50,150,087
44,238,031
43,360,575
31,387,441
12,658,649
16,233,546
33,064,429
31,692,412
108,979,144
118,247,104
115,554,700
85,197,073
105,800,568|
172,739,548]
160,993,338|
167,415,411]
212,371,731|
278,508,515|
4,365,210
56,384,783
4,571,644
8,408,513
7,094,489
6,121,319
9,835,500
17,784,494
16,038,256
15,143,449
7,939,896
7,832,899
4,879.624
4,329,754
8,323,266
8,442,870
10,153,269
12,324,421
11,525,011
14,265,242
18,612,850
11,990,466
5,365,690
3,228,892
3,216,701
3,683,662
3,073,428
2,053,828
6,023,411
6,558,575
7,392,862
7,865,085
6,700,693
5,052,856
4,971,132
4,356,070
3,244,472
2,240,070
8,519,741
9,616,174
10.956,550
9,889,458
11,980,155
13,054,893
14,869,544
14,599,693
16,932,549
17,251,872
8,170,465
2,964,529
4,497.991
9,583,724
8,965,149
33,209,215
36,238,007
38,609,136
32,696,081
56,438,255
88,135,172
87,284,148
111,592,416
124,657,958
130,052,336
112,955
4,538,186,65111,242,159,863
 STATISTICS
A 35
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1971—Continued
Lead
Year
Quantity
Value
Zinc
Quantity
Value
Molybdenum
Quantity       Value
Iron Concentrates
Quantity       Value
1858-90...
1891-1900
1901-1910
1911	
1912.. _.
1913.- -
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
19*59	
1960	
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
Totals.
Lb.
1,044,400
205,037,158
407,833,262
26,872,397
44,871,454
55,364,677
50,625,048
46,503,590
48,727,516
37,307,465
43,899,661
29,475,968
39,331,218
41,402,288
67,447,985
96,663,152
170,384,481
237,899,199
263,023,936
282,996,423!
305,140,792
307,999,153
321,803,725
261,902,228
252,007,574
271,689,217
347,366,967
344,268,444
377,971,618
419,118,371
412,979,182
378,743,663
466,849,112
456,840,454
507,199,704
439,155,635
292,922,888
336,976,468
345,862,680
313,733,089
320,037,525
265,378,899
284,024,522
273,456,604
284,949,396
297,634,712
332,474,456J
302,567,640
283,718,073]
281,603,346
294,573,159
287,423,357
333,608,699
384,284,524
335,282,537
314,974,310
268,737,503
250,183,633
211,490,107
208,131,894
231,627,618
210,072,565
214,838,525
247,927,691
16,076,243,537
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2,175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1,526.855
2,816,115
1,693,354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
18,670,329
17,757,535
14,874,292
13,961,412
15,555,189
12,638,198
7,097,812
5,326,432
6,497,719
8,461,859
10,785,930
14,790,028
21,417,049
13,810,024
12,002,390
15,695,467
15,358,976
17,052,054
16,485,902
13,181,530
16,848,823
23,345,731
42,887,313
57,734,770
41,929,866
41,052,905
50,316,015
45,936,692
39,481,244
45,482,505
45,161,245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542,306
38,661,912
42,313,569
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402,293
43,149,171
34,436,934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693,539
35,096,021
34,585,913
1,382,526,389
Lb.
12,684,192
2,634,544
5,358,280
6,758,768
7,866,467
12,982,440
37,168,980
41,848,513
41,772,916
56,737,651
47,208,268
49,419,372
57,146,548
58,344,462
79,130,970
98,257,099
142,876,947
145,225,443
181,763,147
172,096,841
250,479,310
202,071,702
192,120,091
195,963,751
249,152,403
256,239,446
254,581,393
291,192,278
298,497,295
278,409,102
312,020,671
367,869,579
387,236,469
336,150,455
278,063,373
294,791,635
274,269,956
253,006,(168
270,310,195
288,225,368
290,344,227
337,511,324
372,871,717
382,300,862
334,124,560
429,198,565|
443,853,004]
449,276,797|
432,002,790
402,342,850
403,399,319
387,951,190
413,430,817
402,863,154
400,796,562
311,249,250
305,124,440
262,830,908
299,396,264!
296,667,0331
275,590,749|
305,451,243|
894,169
129,092
316,139
324,421
346,125
1,460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
3,278,903
4,266,741
7,754,450
10,586,610
8,996,135
9,984,613
9,268,792
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,416
7,584,199
7,940,860
8,439,373
14,274,245
9,172,822
8,544,375
10,643,026
12,548,031
13,208,636
13,446,018
11,956,725
18,984,581
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654,211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
59,189,656
40,810,618
34,805,755
52,048,909
58,934,801
50,206,681
43,234,839
44,169,198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48,666,933
47,666,540
39,248,539
43,550,181
46,639,024
44,111,055
49,745,789
Lb.
1,987
3,618
12,342
6,982
960
662
2,000
20,560
11,636
1,840
28,
7,289,
17,094,
17,517,
19,799,
26,597,
31,276,
21,884,
	
	
5,414
9,500
245
125| 12
4971 52
729| 36
47,063
,405,344
,606,061
,183,064
,552,722
,999,442
,561,796
,954,846
14,726,510,113 1,439,630,540
141,519,639 241,356,536
Tons
29,869
13,029
19,553
1,000
1,230
1,472
1,010
1,200
243
113,535
900,481
991,248
535,746
610,930
369,955
357,342
630,271
849,248
1,160,355
1,335,068
1,793,847
2,060,241
2,002,562
2,165,403
2,151,804
2,154,443
2,094,745
2,074,854
1,879,065
1,929,868
$
70,879
45,602
68,436
5,000
6,150
7,360
5,050
3,600
1,337
20
679
5,472
3,735
27,579
790,000
5,474,924
6,763,105
3,733,891
3,228,756
2,190,847
2,200,637
4,193,442
6,363,848
10,292,847
12,082,540
18,326,911
20,746,424
20,419,487
21,498,581
20,778,934
20,820,765
21,437,569
19,787,845
17,391,883
18,153,612
28,235,788|256,921,576
 A 36 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
Table 7a—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Plac
er Gold
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Quantity
Value
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1070
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1070
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To late
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
0_.
$
$
15,555,220
13,592,004
131,159,179
7
$
$
303,083
432,472
Atlin	
1,617
20
4
735,814
346
148
2,610,501
33,253
548
141
17,389,112
0,908
3,781
54,160,426
9,398
4,035,680
3,975
3,375
38.047,192
3,910,401
2,734,101
72,018,013
20,325
26,567
37,830
383,202
338,241
2,098.224
3,150,193
20,199,446
561,979
270,282
10,171
243,069
848,377
61,290,422
64,064,434
2,225,012,094
886,130
1,017,942
63,472,679
8.855,865
7,765,475
188,308,025
30,254,999
25,096,722
174,710,314
5,046,177
6,183,725
11,236,424
1,449,370
713,090
148,107,256
14,050,288
16,997,484
212,434,181
7,054,155
8,685,162
347,259,121
5,802,040
4,312,143
49,703,757
22,904,573
18,768,216
203,002,903
40.475,048
27,441,963
253,715,195
20,451,105
24,199,868
106,248,636
1,071,790
1,615,109
13,931,536
162,427
685,894
609,564
18,802,245
1,119,143
1,109,803
12,824,090
2,801,872
654,771
581,641
Golden	
20,531
468,450
8,556,294
303,785
246,678
409
11,268
3,401,145
	
5,074
115,662
2,327,897
383
1,935,954
2,096,988
27,595
604,785
6,540,538
16,435,902
18,224,832
212,872,544
27,583
102,900
323,095
152,933
168,196
1,674,016
339,289
281,843
1,711,963
65,039
52,330
1,531,625
23,408,427
1,040,933
50,184
8
1,248,151
256
10,474,507
92,946
1,925,688
3,186,804
3,507,021
4,109,496
64,250,026
	
866
19,300
3,586
89,026
6,799,103
14,107,989
160,090,511
31,355
595,910
234
117
25
56,431
4,764
3,473
725
1,503,680
10,050
213,574
85,660
360,178
65.590
73,019
6,423,823
1,647,903
1,158,738
11,725,249
447,910
3,099,646
109,910
240
5,466
7,582
164,477
2,754,378
               1            	
45,507
878,204
120,198.200
30,725,783
42,949,118
361,006,323
9,126,061
10,054,179
272,992,780
1,018.844
950,904
89,762,315
3,283,012
8,042,080
267,016,142
18,558
4,150,383
1,038,925
1,738,301
15,134.070
4,603
105,569
1,240,215
366
9,397
1,939,289
200,994
139,259
3,325,187
851
24,260
82,138
182
5,300
7,060,964
9,500
42,000
55,478
290
230
189,061
2,796,534
1,121,560
56,891.141
123,772,105
563,811
3,482
335,113
2,732
72,885
6,720,220
9,787.083
	
13,492,425
628
15,080
16,687,533
20,755,323
14,716,797
321.340,339
200,107,935
1,525,520
17,262,256
39,757.575
1970
1971
To date
491
177
5,235,585
14,1 8 5
4,647
96,962,044
309,067,285
299,903,998
5,689,934,287
22,020,359
21,909,767
331,439,433
46 069,660
69,940,333
723,618,010
 statistics
Divisions, 1970 and 1971, and Total to Date
A 37
Fuels
Division
Total
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipe-line
Butane and
Propane
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1
Tons                   $
 1	
1
Bbl.                   $
 ]	
MSCF
$
Bbl.
$
$
15,918,303
14,024,476
135,237,510
4,530
3,516
55,794,870
6,045.100
5,925,905
140,768,787
561,979
270,282
4,055,745
82,169,592
111,057,575
2,598,967,541
2,309,058
2 374,423
79,709,182
8,948,019
7,940,800
192,687,538
32,352,370
29,573,519
205.323,829
113,497,479
125,035.550
888,206,638
1,552,794
980,234
153,602,843
17,770,242
21,275,176
579,528,267
8,028,567
9.517,217
355,859,213
17,262,408
18.472 462
211,921,803
23,141,016
19,061,239
210,400,576
41,306,678
28,687,086
270,716,510
26,752,200
24,720,797
115.782.579
1,181,706
1,809,692
16,850,391
116,559
121,785
144,799,070
31,764,708
44,687,419
377,546,293
9,217,445
10,161,095
274,941,460
1,219,838
1,090,163
93,111,762
10,346,789
18.174,953
398,460,517
573,311
851,123
7,183,696
9,787,373
13,492.655
217,000,809
26,777,561
17,502,697
435,251,311
 1 	
 |	
 I	
1
 I	
2901              1.100
2,641,625
19,538,505
45,801,936
346,128,458
4,565,242
67,165,419
|
 I	
  I	
 |	
 1	
  |
 |	
          1
15,087
59,765
 I	
26,443,942|   60,936,779
26,377,269]   67,052,924
196,843,763|424,233,911
272,554,221
291,188,481
2,183,429,009
29,804,411
31,946,372
224,514,882
728,991
787,071
9,145,940
233.277
251,862
2,926,698
99,433
699,521
  |	
74,324,471
301,144,744
 |	
 |	
	
2,929,584
11,080,836
21,164
2,431
|
501,460
3,412,208
|
 |	
1,122|              5,008
 |.
 - |	
 |	
 |.
          |
 1.
  |	
 1.
 |.
 |	
 |	
 j	
  |	
36
116
 |	
  [	
   |	
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 |.
 |.
	
             |
 |.
  ]... .
 |.
 |	
j
 |	
i
 |	
 |	
  |	
 |	
 1	
 1	
2,044,056
4,565,242
149.654,344
19,559,669
45,801,936
682,085,481
26.443,9421   60.936,779
26,377,2691   67,052,924
196,843.7631424,233,911
1
272,554,221
291,188,481
2,183.429,009
29,804,411
31,946,372
224,514,882
728,9911    233,277
787,071      251,862
9,145,946|2,926,698
I
488,605,625
526,811,839
8,175,714,746
 A 38
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
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A 43
10,883,333
7,629,532
18,513,885
1,071,796
1,615,109
2,872,149
129,186
19,113,446
18,403,536
95,180,015
315,978
197,868
5,698,491
1,017,303
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6,030,464
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 a 44 mines and petroleum resources report, 1971
Table 7d—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Period
Asbestos
Barite
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
V   Value
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
Tons
$
Tons
	
$
Tons
$
Tons
 !
$
Tons
$
Atl'n
Atlin     	
1,276
1,550
10,268
26,567
37,830
239.722
48!             168
Fort Steele —
8
45,320
21,267
394,913
80
382,508
 !.	
4,093,938
3,259
12,612
Greenwood—
	
	
1,790,502
	
1,540,319
200
18
4,000
Kamloops	
	
383
	
	
	
625
12,230
86,730
87,118
1,012,325
16,033,827
17,800,406
197,232,451
	
  	
	
	
	
Nanaimo
 1
31,598
26,719
905,871
106,243
2,400
3.000
46,690
70,000
312,899
Nelson	
...
339.289
....
13,4401    281,843
7,601
8,174
63,889 1,647,888
New Westminster
	
3,706        65,039
....
3,210        52,330
105.96.. 1 .531.625
....
	
	
	
3,574
8.456
05,590
	
  |	
73.019
802,61113,699,031
     |	
188.19312.392.321
Similkameen
...
    |	
..
 1	
	
601,019
1,050,722
Vancouver
...
..
	
29,692
500
1,132
1,632
418 606
....
9,500
42,000
....
 |	
...
51,500
Victoria	
 |
	
28
21
208
290
230
2,355
 |	
| ,
1
 |	
|	
9,605
157,080
Not assigned
 |	
t	
|
 1	
I	
 1 1 1	
Totals
1970
1971
To date
86,7301  16,033,827
87,1181   17,800,406
1,012,325|197,232,451
45,320|    382,5081  1,276| 26,567
21,267[    179,45B|   1,550]   37,830
394,921 4,094,018110,268 [239,722
1                     1               1
31,626|    106.5331   22,349|    526,491
26,740'      98,4261   29,238     519,192
4,111,07117,674,330 [418,85 616,528,317
1                 1
Other: See notes of individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages A 15 to A 25.
1 Arsenious oxide.
2 Bentonite.
3 Fluorspar.
4 Hydromagnesite.
5 Iron oxide and ochre.
6 Magnesium sulphate.
 STATISTICS A 45
Mining Divisions, 1970 and 1971, and Total to Date
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Tons
$               Lb.
$
Lb.
$
Tons
$
1
$               |           $
|                	
 I	
1
 |	
9,3987
9,398
 1	
20,3254
20,325
 |	
26,587
...|  	
37,830
|     .
10,013,8001143,012
30012
383,202
I    	
1	
873
6,236
156,1914 6 10
162,427
	
 |	
55,5381       685,894
685 894
....    1 1	
80,7371       609,564
1.067.535118.486.447
609,564
298,824
736,635
930,348
8,716,264
16,8949
18 802 245
1,119,143
3 066,760
1,2765 11
12,824,090
783,5783
2,327,897
383
|
 1 1	
	
1,246,918
6,323,178
424,700|     2,075
5,322
3,993
42,363
11-80
9.099
7,772
61,318
9.7 583
47,789|      392,976
59,1791      416,654
755,480|15,578,775
I	
16,435.902
18,224,832
212,872.544
27.583
102.900
|
44.8671102.900
338,134
317,986
152,933
168,196
1,674,016
!
1
|
 .1 1	
55,9015
1,711,963
52,330
1,531,625
 1 1	
2,407
10,050
243,000
118,900
383,657
213,574
85,660
348,718
11,46018
360,178
73,019
6,423,823
 I
1,588,8001   25,938
306,5331 3 6
250
1,700
16,8582
18,558
1
  .1 1	
634,250
10,815
41,624
6,653
178,678
82,138
1,240,215
82,138
            |
              |
1
687,596
6,550,969
97,3895
7,066.964
9,500
42,000
55,478
160,500
3,978
 |	
 1	
30,22611
 !	
226,440
148.551
2,796,534
1.121.560
2,796 534
  |
4,913
 1	
5,031,692[56,886,228
56,891,141
270,266
736,6351262,602
930.3481167.760
250,256
196,332
728,002
336,4201   3,957,542
288.4671   2.147.778
22,020,359
21,909,767
331,439,433
344,795
4,430,086
15,356,252
764,154
12,822,0501185,818
7,583,927
97,681,097
1,719.426
7 Natro-alunite.
8 Perlite.
n Phosphate rock.
1" Sodium carbonate.
ii Talc.
12 Volcanic ash.
 A 46
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
Table 7e—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions,
1970 and 1971, and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
1970
1971
To date
$
$
$
$
4,078
5,013
334,342
3,975
$
359,005
427,459
3,701,338
$
$
	
$
363,083
432,472
4,035,680
3,975
3,375
234,680
1,449,182
2,391,205
16,571,902
168,888
269,294
1,548,701
410,051
410,774
5,950,063
228,435
230,680
3,029,131
92,154
3,375
1,108
194,500
293,400
788,941
	
102,453
420,042
391,518
2,574,246
393,091
988
1,253,171
244,720
170,867
2,474,499
69,000
5,498
202,487
338,241
34,500
74,070
264,357
2,098,224
3,150,193
20,199,446
561,979
270,282
2,801,872
654,771
581,641
43,873
71,941
15,918
6,350
10,500
8,556,294
303,785
246,678
1,000
50,840
117,687
	
3,401,145
92,154
4,000
138,136
5,160
278,474
377,915
392,255
8,517,077
52,442
460,573
1,303,124
28,293
93,903
1,037,350
123,679
166,165
1,355,501
1,120,668
1,289,533
11,393,442
988,491
915,262
9,171,383
47,292
70,341
175,325
42,560
12,752
121,283
1,935,954
585,653
2,795,009
3,380,662
2,096,988
4,476,797
25,067
19,800
72,379
23,408,427
1,040,933
1,375,835
10,474,507
75,585
164,244
100
2,630,587
2,496,269
49,106,521
61,600
90,018
489,877
250,190
138,945
3,114,212
2,000
3,186,804
812,755
1,025,926
8,121,097
571,074
430,587
5,311,953
6,011,305
7,751,450
73,329,219
225,493
272,915
1,452,209
529,882
1,006,989
9,574,056
226,370
426,864
2,770,280
78,860
167,548
3,567,021
587,301
1   2 398 681
4,109,496
3.450.735
1,178,992
64,256,026
2,449|	
4,9621         24,645
430.598          544 701
635,123
550,212
21,974
4,162,169
5,117,878
68,148,332
971,659
1,099,716
11,395,323
14,107,989
160,090,511
	
20,974
15,477,774
10,950
20,108
187,754
60,701
149,249
2,136,571
9,075
21,046
252,574
31,050
27,035
483,883
12,840
236,443
8,000
1.647,963
2,238
2,500
9,348
1,158,738
5,274
11,725,249
Osoyoos	
447,910
43,774
33,018
109,910
194,583
1,000
5,575
2,263,920
103,719
121,785
3,439,360
975,049
1,595,021
10,199,358
87,049
106,106
1,692,353
200,469
139,169
2,978,174
1,881,350
2,518,610
44,099,643
563,811
757,641
6,079,641
1,447,344
1,472,175
23,684,110
3,100,691
1,645,522
28,929,134
2,754,378
116,559
121,785
10,500
11,571
24,000
651,597
63,876
143,280
3,132,163
4,335
810
130,793
525
90
228,993
13,355
4,150,383
1,038,925
1,738,301
1,645,300
144,000
13,249
15,134,070
91,384
106,916
1,000
115,143
1,939,289
200,994
139,259
32,500
85,520
3,325,187
5,100,289
7,614,263
66,343,664
6,981,639
10,132,873
40,885
4,012,560
8,186,761
1,088,592
123,772,105
563,811
48,000
334,974
10,983
4,710
502,517
125,013
18,818
854,926
805,641
46,499
17,800
16,090
948,487
97,852
161,254
511,349
779,337
9,269,894
6,720,220
7,799,607
11,220,113
165,702,872
9,787,083
13,492,425
55
200,107,935
3,225,704
1,664,340
315,498
505,018
3,180,828
5,972,171
39,757,575
1970
1971
To date
13,485,549
21,629,385
235,437,698
3,169,665
3,037,222
56,709,121
2,449
8,962
9,215,765
3,018,242
3,670,583
53,581,885
21,679,387
25,612,396
279,028,002
4,714,368
5,981,785
46,069,660
59,940,333
83,673,368
5,972,171
723,618,010
 statistics
Table 8a—Production of Coal, 1836-1971
A 47
Quantityl
(Short Tons)
Value
Year
Quantityl
Value
(Short Tons)
2,583,469
S
8.900,675
2,436,101
8,484,343
2,575,275
12,833,994
2,433,540
11,975,671
2,852,535
13,450,169
2,670,314
12.836,013
2,726,793
12,880,060
2,636,740
12,678,548
2,027,843
9,911,935
2,541,212
12,168,905
2,406,094
11,650,180
2,553,416
12,269,135
2,680,608
12,633,510
2,375,060
11,256.260
1,994,493
9,435,650
1,765,471
7,684,155
1,614,629
6,523,644
1,377,177
5,375,171
1,430,042
5,725,133
1,278,380
5,048,864
1,352,301
5,722,502
1,446,243
6,139,920
1,388,507
5,565,069
1,561,084
6,280,956
1,662,027
7,088,265
1,844,745
7,660,000
1,996,000
8,237,172
1,854,749
7,742,030
1,931,950
8,217,966
1,523,021
6,454,360
1,439,092
6,732,470
1,696,350
8,680,440
1,604,480
9,765,395
1,621,268
10.549,924
1,574,006
10,119,303
1,573,572
10,169,617
1,402,313
9,729,739
1,384,138
9,528,279
1,308,284
9,154,544
1,332,874
8,986,501
1,417,209
9,346,518
1,085,657
7,340,339
796,413
5,937,860
690,011
5,472,064
788,658
5,242,223
919,142
6,802,134
825,339
6,133,986
850,541
6,237,997
911,326
6,327,678
950,763
6,713.590
850,821
6,196,219
908.790
7,045,341
959,214
7,588,989
852,340
6,817,155
2,644,056
19,559,669
4,565,242
45,801,936
149,654.344
682,085,481
1836-59-
1860	
1861	
1862	
1863	
1864	
1865	
1866	
1867	
1868	
1869	
1870-—
1871	
1872	
1873	
1874	
1875	
1876	
1877	
1878	
1879	
1880	
1881	
1882	
1883	
1884	
1885	
1886	
1887	
1888	
1889	
1890	
1891	
1892	
1893	
1894	
1895	
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
41,871
15,956
15,427
20,292
23,906
32,068
36,757
28,129
34,988
49,286
40,098
33,424
55,458
55,458
55,459
91,334
123,362
155,895
172,540
191,348
270,257
299,708
255,760
315,997
238,895
441,358
409,468
365,832
462,964
548,017
649,411
759,518
52,590
925,495
,095,690
134,509
,052,412
,002,268
999,372
263,272
435,314
,781,000
,894,544
,838,621
,624,742
,887,981
044,931
126,965
,485,961
,362,514
,688,672
,314,749
,541,698
,211,907
,713,535
,237,042
,076,601
149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745.847
7,114,178
1916-
1917—
1918—
1919—
1920-
1921—
1922—
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945____
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959	
1960 ...
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
Totals-
i Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.   For
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
 A 48
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
REPORT,  1971
•o
\_>
OJ
m
u_
°v
D
_;
■o
M
«■  1
c
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■<t
2
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6
c
3
O
CS
C       d
O        ,_r
flj
£
H      so
O
<
rf
H
r~
©
a.
tn
Tons
,346,00
Z
g
55
rt
EQ
ert        O
u
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O      rC
P
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H       ©
z
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Z
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at
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cn
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Z
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H
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c      "
w
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OS
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1-1
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ca
U
a
rt
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"      -.
>
U
■S3
§     3
M
•Se
H     S
z
■c 3
o
cao
u
H
D
2
2
1
Tons
212,035
H
CO
Q
•a
3
Q
Z
o
<
u
U C u    .
■o « a> u
1     °
z
o
H
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H     -
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Q
O
il
s  s.
O       r-
H    r2
Ph
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si
Tons
,602,00C
oo
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it
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1 Mining Divisi
esources   L
Colliery	
R
hel
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ft. _<!
 STATISTICS
A 49
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining-
Exploration and development	
Coal	
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production)-
Industrial minerals  	
Structural-materials industry-
Totals, 1971	
Totals, 1970—
1969..
1968—
1967-
1966-
1965—
1964-
1963-
1962-
1961-
I960—
1959-
1958...
1957-
1956-
1955...
1954-
1953...
1952-
1951_
1950....
1949—
1948—
1947-
1946...
1945...
1944—
1943—
1942—
1941—
1940...
1939—
1938—
1937—
1936—
1935—
98,161,050
42,538,468
16,259,000
5,304,802
7,432,128
9,480,244
14,636,565
2,171,000
1,448,558
4,910,781
58,173,812
3,353,000
2,300,256
4,487,876
179,175,692      |      23,166,904 68,314,944
172,958
123,450,
113,459,
94,523
93,409,
74,938
63,624,
57,939,
55,522.
50,887,
52,694.
49,961,
48,933.
56,409,
57,266,
51,890,
48,702,
55,543,
62,256,
52,607.
42,738,
41,023.
38,813,
32,160,
26,190,
22,620,
23,131.
26,051,
26,913,
26,050,
23,391,
22,357,
22,765,
21,349,
17,887,
16,753,
,282
327
,219
,495
528
,736
,559
,294
,171
,275
,818
,996
,560
056
026
,246
746
490
,631
171
035
,786
,506
338
200
975
874
467
160
491
330
035
711
690
619
367
19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13490,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962 lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964 some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include " process, operating, maintenance, and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 A 50                   MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry
1971
,1901-71
a
o
ei
£
Metals
Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
2.2
=s
•a ca
13
3
rt     _.
Z„o
O ii
IP
to <_
ii g'OJ
gwQ
« « a
"rt
O
S-
Year
Mines
1 1
2 o
Co >
* gH
o
rt
l_
C
ii
u
a
0
U
"53
s
*rt
O
H
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u
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c
D
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o
Si
<
*5
• 5
E£
I'
VI
a
rt
£
v
•o
G
D
U
0
_-
<
1901	
2.736
2,219
1,662
2,143
2,470
2,680
2.704
1,212
1,126
1,088
1,163
1.240
1,303
1.239
I
3,948
3.345
2.750
3,306
3,710
3,983
3.943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3.836
4,278
4,174
4,144
5,393
5,488
4.390
4,259
3,679
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
6,138
7,610
8,283
8.835
8,892
7.606
6,035
4,833
6.088
8,046
7,916
8,197
9,616
10.192
10.138
10.019
9.821
8,939
7.819
7,551
7,339
7,220
9,683
10,582
10 724
3.041
3.101
3,137
3.278
I
933 3.974
7.922
7.356
7,014
7,759
8.117
8,788
7,712
9.767
9,672
11,467
10.467
10,966
10,949
9,906
9.135
10,453
10,658
9,817
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9.767
9,451
10,581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10,524
11,369
12,985
13,737
14,179
16,129
16,021
15.890
15.705
15.084
13,270
12,448
12.314
11.820
1902	
910
1.127
1.175
4,011
4,264
4.453
4,407
4.805
1903	
1904	
1905	
3,127|1.280
3.41511.390
1906	
1907	
2.8821    90713.769
1908	
2,667|1,127
2,184|1,070
2,472|1,237
2,43511.159
2.472|1.364
2,77311,505
2,741|1,433
2,70911.435
3.35712.036
3 2BOI2.1B8
4,432|1.641
4.713|1.705
5,903|1.865
6,212|1,661
5.27511,855
4.950|1.721
4.26711 465
6,073
6.4)8
7,768
6,873
7,130
6,671
5.7S_
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
:.::::..
 ._.
1915	
3,70811.28314,991
3.694|1.36615,06H
3.76011,41015.170
3.65811,76915.427
4,14511,82115,966
4.19112,15816.34!!
4.72212.16316,885
4.712|1.932|6.644
4.342|1.807|6.149
3.894|1,52415,418
3.82811.61515.443
3,757|1.56..|5,S2_
3.64611,57915.225
3.814|1.520|5.S..4
3.675I1.353I5.0-K
3.38911.25614 645
1916	
1917	
1918	
2.626
2,513
2,074
1.355
1.510
2,102
2.353
2.298
2,606
2,671
2.707
2.926
2.316
1,463
1,355
1,786
2,796
2,740
2,959
3 803
1,764
1,746
1.605
975
1.239
1,516
1,680
2.840
1,735
1.916
2.469
2.052
1.260
834
900
1,335
1.729
1.497
1,840
1 818
1919	
	
1920	
	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
808
854
011
2,461
2,842
1926	
299
415
355
341
425
688
874
1,134
1,122
1.291
1,124
1,371
1.303
1.252
1.004
939
489
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
636
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,861
1,646
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
909
1,293
1.079
1,269
1,309
1,207
1,097
740
846
324
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
311
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
508
481
460
444
422
393
372
880
549
647
794
124
122
120
268
170
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
686
679
889
754
626
660
491
629
634
584
722
854
474
446
459
589
571
517
528
509
639
582
584
582
667
627
666
1927	
1928	
—
1929	
90012,948
832|3.197
681|S,157
642|2,036
53112.436
631J2.890
907|2,771
720|2.678
1930	
1931	
2.95711   125
4.0R2
3.608
3.0B4
2.893
2,971
2.814
3,153
2,962
2.976
2.874
2.723
2,360
2,861
2,889
2,430
2.305
2,425
2,466
2,306
2,261
1,925
1,681
1,550
1,434
1,478
1,366
1.3R0
1,086
1,064
1,3 82
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
1,275
1,457
1932	
2,628
2,241
2,050
2.145
2,015
2,286
2,088
2.167
2,175
2,229
1,892
2,240
2,150
1.927
1.773
1.694
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
1.280
1,154
1.076
1,100
968
1,020
826
765
894
705
548
501
446
405
347
260
980
853
843
826
799
867
874
809
699
494
468
611
689
503
532
731
872
545
516
463
401
396
358
378
398
360
260
291
288
237
228
247
267
244
267
197
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1938	
3,849|2,266
3,905|2,050
3,923|2,104
3,901|1.823
2.92011.504
919
996
1,048
1,025
960
891
849
822
672
960
1,126
i 'm
3,158
3,187
2,944
3,072
3,655
2.835
2,981
2,834
2,813
3.461
3,884
3 763
1940	
1941 . .
1642	
1943	
21212.39411.699
1944	
255
209
347
360
348
303
327
205
230
132
199
103
105
67
75
99
86
74
35
43
6
2
2
1,89611,825
1,933|1.750
1,918 1,817
3,024|2,238
3,14312.429
3,034|2,724
3,39912.415
3.785|3,695
4,171|3,923
3,145|2,589
2,64412,520
2,564|2,553
2,63712,827
2,393|2,447
1,919|1,809
1,93711,761
1,78211,959
1,78511,582
1,67711,97.1
1,713|2,012
1,839|1,967
1,752|2,019
2,00612,296
1.92812. RS2
1945	
1946   . .
11,933
14,899
16,397
16,621
16,612
17,863
18,257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11,034
11,560
10,952
11,645
12.283
14,202
13.380
194 7	
	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1  .10714 044
12,831
13,730
11,006
9,412
9.51"
1952	
1.616
1,371
1.129
1,091
1.043
4,120
3,901
3,119
3.304
1953 ..
1954	
1955	
1956
3 3391   9 846
1957	
838|3,328|  9,006
625|3,081|  7,434
618I3.008I  7,324
648|3,034|  7,423
626I3,118|  7,111
949|3,356|   8.228
85013,2391  8,264
822I3,281|   8,681
96513,5291 9.061
1,01413,654|10.864
992|3,435|10,151
1.07213.283112.537
1958 	
1959	
1960 ,
1961	
1962	
27"
450
772
786
1.R94
1.264
1963 	
1965	
1966 	
1967	
441
478
507
1968	
1.82312. SAB'S. 990
1951   358
245)   455
242|1,033
444 jl ,013
I
400115.659
1969	
7
1,794|2,470
2,160|3,167
2.O73I3.058
4,270
4,964
4.040
1,099|3,468
1,331|3,738
1,513 3,481
I
13,101
15,360
14,165
416
437
495
16.487
19,086
18.423
1970 _.
1971	
1              I
1
i Comme
Note—TI
ing firms.
ncing with 1967, does not include employment
tiese figures refer only to company employees
in by-product plants
and do not include
the mi
iny em
ployees of contract-
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A 51
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 A 54
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
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A 55
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19,549
44,152
360
25,364,400
3,381
10,202
43,581
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426
133
4,875,873
65
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87,383
49,670
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29,328,800
2,099
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25,687
199
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10,854
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281,759
1,195
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1,470
311
2,105
15,153
149
681,407
167
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93,485
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Lead   concentrates,   53   tons;
tailings, 36 tons; crude ore,
38 tons
1
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tons; zinc concentrates, 24,-
944 tons
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tons;    zinc    concentrates,
3,998 tons
4
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Molybdenite   concentrates,
959,244 tons containing 574,-
971 lb. of molybdenum
Copper   concentrates,   29,742
tons
127
920
260,343
58
17
97
25
8
10
105
33
39,154
72
191,715
720,964
33
Surf side   Explorations
Ltd.
Arlington Silver Mines
Ltd.
Thomas Eccles, Rossland
c
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Iskut Silver Mines Ltd..
W.  Wingert  and  L.  M.
Fried, New Denver
Van Hansen, New Denver
Clarence Thickett, Slocan
Clarence Thickett, Slocan
Pamicon Developments
Ltd.
Denu Mines & Development Ltd.
Kam-Kotia and Burkham
Joint Venture
Larch   Mining  Ltd.,   W.
H. McLeod, Silverton
Eastmont   Silver Mines
Ltd.
Consolidated Canadian
Faraday   Ltd.   (Red
Mountain Mines Division)
Anaconda Britannia
Mines,   Division   of
Anaconda American
Brass Ltd.
Silverton	
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Britannia mine 	
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 Departmental Work
CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS
Organization 	
Administration Branch	
Mining Titles	
Staff 	
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)	
List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders	
Maps Showing Mineral Claims and Placer Leases	
Coal	
Gold Commissioners' and Mining Recorders' Office Statistics,
1971 	
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles	
Staff 	
Title Transaction Statistics, 1971 	
Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1971	
Analytical and Assay Branch	
Staff 	
Analytical and Assay Work	
Petroleum and Natural Gas Samples	
Miscellaneous Samples 	
Mineralogical Branch Samples	
X-ray Powder Diffraction Analyses	
Examinations for Assayers	
Inspection Branch 	
Organization and Staff
A
A
A
Page
57
57
57
A 57
A 57
Inspectors and Resident Engineers	
Fig. 1—Index map showing inspectoral districts
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Stations	
Staff Changes 	
Board of Examiners	
Mining Roads and Trails	
Grub-staking Prospectors 	
Mineralogical Branch 	
Staff 	
Staff Changes	
Field Work, 1971 Season	
Publications and Reports	
Aeromagnetic Surveys and Magnetic Surveillance	
Rock and Mineral Sets	
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch	
Administration 	
Staff 	
Headquarters, Victoria	
Field Office, Charlie Lake	
Staff Changes	
Board of Arbitration	
Conservation Committee	
Publications 	
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
59
59
59
60
61
61
62
62
62
62
62
63
63
63
64
64
64
64
64
65
66
66
66
66
68
72
72
73
73
73
74
74
74
75
75
75
76
76
76
76
77
A 56
 ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is displayed in the diagram on page 58.
ADMINISTRATION BRANCH
The Administration Branch, consisting of three divisions — Mining Titles,
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles, and Accounts—is responsible for the administration of the Provincial laws regarding the acquisition of rights to minerals, coal, petroleum, and natural gas, and deals with other departments of the Provincial service
for the Department or for any branch.
Mining Titles
Staff
R. H. McCrimmon Chief Gold Commissioner
E. J. Bowles Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
J. G. B. Egdell Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders, whose
duties are laid down in the Mineral Act and Placer-mining Act, administer these
Acts and other Acts relating to mining. Mining Recorders, in addition to their own
functions, may also exercise the powers conferred upon Gold Commissioners with
regard to mineral claims within the mining division for which they have been appointed.
Recording of location and of work upon a mineral claim as required by the
Mineral Act and upon a placer claim or a placer-mining lease as required by the
Placer-mining Act must be made at the office of the Mining Recorder for the mining
division in which the claim or lease is located. Information concerning claims and
leases and concerning the ownership and standing of claims and leases in any mining
division may be obtained from the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which
the property is situated or from the Department's offices at Victoria, and Room 320,
890 West Pender Street, Vancouver 1. Officials in the offices of the Gold Commissioner at Victoria and the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver act as Sub-Mining
Recorders for all mining divisions. Sub-Mining Recorders, who act as forwarding
agents, are appointed at various places throughout the Province. They are authorized to accept documents and fees, and forward them to the office of the Mining
Recorder for the correct mining division. Officials and their offices in various parts
of the Province are listed on page A 59.
Central Records Offices ( Victoria and Vancouver)
Transcripts of all recordings in Mining Recorders' offices throughout the Province, and also the names of lessees of reverted surveyed mineral claims, are sent to
the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner in Victoria twice each month. The
records and maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims held by
record and of placer-mining leases may be consulted by the public during office hours
at Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver, Room 320,
890 West Pender Street. The approximate position of mineral claims held by
record and of placer-mining leases is plotted from details supplied by locators.
During 1971, 12 investigations were carried out pursuant to section 80 of the
Mineral Act. Nine investigations with regard to certificates of work being wrongfully or improperly obtained resulted in 156 certificates of work being cancelled.
Four investigations with regard to mineral claims having been located or recorded
otherwise than in accordance with the Mineral Act resulted in 182 mineral claims
being cancelled.
A 57
 A 58
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
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List oj Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders
A 59
Mining Division
Location of Office
Gold Commissioner
Mining Recorder
Alberni.  	
Port Alberni-	
T. S. Dobson	
T. S. Dobson.
Atlin.  	
Atlin	
Quesnel.	
D. V. Drew	
D. V. Drew.
I. Williams 	
B. J. H. Ryley	
W. G. Mundell	
Fort Steele      	
B. J. H. Ryley.
Golden	
Grand Forks _	
Kamloops- 	
Victoria—	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo 	
Nelson.	
New Westminster	
W. G. Mundell.
Kamloops.	
N. R. Blake	
E. J. Bowles  —.
K. J. Weir 	
E. B. Oflin	
G. L. Brodie	
N. R. Blake.
E. A. H. Mitchell.
Lillooet 	
Nanaimn
K. J. Weir.
E. B. Offin.
G. L. Brodie.
F. E. Hughes—	
L. P. Lean	
A. W. Milton	
T. S. Dalby 	
D. G. B. Roberts	
W. L. Marshall—	
T. H. W. Harding	
T. P. McKinnon -	
W. L. Draper	
J. Egdell   	
A. W. Milton.
Osoyoos -  	
Penticton	
Revelstoke	
Princeton . 	
Prince  Rupert	
Kaslo -
Rossland - _	
Vancouver -  -
Vernon	
Victoria—	
T. S. Dalby.
D. G. B. Roberts.
Similkameen _.	
Skeena-	
Slocan...  .. 	
Trail Creek	
W. L. Marshall.
T. H. W. Harding.
T. P. McKinnon.
W. L. Draper.
N. A. Nelson —	
E. J. Bowles	
E. A. H. Mitchell.
Maps Showing Mineral Claims and Placer Leases
Maps showing the approximate locations of placer-mining leases, mineral
leases, and mineral claims held by record may be seen at the Central Records Offices
at Victoria and at Room 320, 890 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Prints are obtainable on request made to the Chief Gold Commissioner at Victoria, and accompanied by the proper sum. The charges are $1.25 per sheet. The maps conform
to the reference maps issued by the Legal Surveys Branch, Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources, in size and geographical detail.
The Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is now engaged in replacing the above-mentioned maps with maps based on the National Topographic System of mapping. The new sheets cover 15 minutes of longitude and 15 minutes of
latitude, and are available from this Department at 50 cents per sheet at a scale
approximately VA inches to 1 mile, or $1 per sheet at a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile
(including tax).
It is advisable to order claim maps from an index, which will be supplied on
request.
Coal
Information concerning the ownership and standing of coal licences and coal
leases may be obtained upon application to the Chief Gold Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps showing location of coal
licences and coal leases are also available upon application and payment of the
required fee.
Coal Revenue, 1971
Licences—
Fees      $46,904.00
Rental     217,519.82
Total   $264,423.82
During 1971, 840 coal licences were issued, totalling 467,869 acres. As of
December 31, 1971 a total of 2,090 coal licences, amounting to 1,188,749 acres,
was held in good standing.
 A 60
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
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A 61
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles
Staff
R. E. Moss
Chief Commissioner
W. W. Ross Deputy Chief Commissioner
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles, under the direction of the Chief Commissioner, is responsible for the administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,
1965, which includes all matters related to and affecting title to Crown petroleum
and natural gas rights and includes the collection of revenue from fees, rents, dispositions, and royalties. Regulations governing geophysical operations and petroleum-
development roads are also administered by the Chief Commissioner.
Information concerning all forms of title issued under the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, 1965, may be obtained upon application to the office of the Chief
Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps
showing the locations of all forms of title issued under the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act, 1965 are available, and copies may be obtained upon application to the
office of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Monthly
land reports and monthly reports listing additions and revisions to permit-location
maps and listing changes in title to permits, licences, and leases, and related matters
are available from the office of the Chief Commissioner upon application and payment of the required fee.
During the year, there were four dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum
and natural gas rights resulting in tender bonus bids amounting to $22,186,250.58,
an increase of $5,846,449.39 from the previous year. This sum was higher than
any previous yearly total by $539,799.04. A total of 415 parcels was offered and
bids were accepted on 259 parcels covering 2,367,731 acres. The average price
per acre was $9.37, which is an increase of $1.16 per acre over the previous year.
Average bonus price per acre was respectively—permits, $7.23; leases, $36.95; and
drilling reservations, $16.48.
During the year, 23 geophysical licences were renewed or issued.
During the year, two petroleum-development road applications were received
and processed for approval.
A total of 135 notices of commencement of exploratory work was recorded
during the year. These notices are required prior to the commencement of any
geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum or natural gas.
During the year, two unit agreements and two royalty agreements were approved.
As of December 31, 1971, 26,763,316 acres or approximately 41,818 square
miles, a decrease of 3,147,179 acres over the 1970 total, of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights, issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, were held
in good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to major
international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage in each
case were as follows:
Form of Title
Permits 	
Natural gas licences _
Drilling reservations
Leases (all types) _.
Number
430
33
3,693
Acreage
18,726,137
337,656
7,699,523
Total
26,763,316
 A 62 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Title Transaction Statistics, 1971
Permits
Leases
Drilling
Reservations
Natural Gas
Licences
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
82
87
305
128
6
62
2,502,458
4,892,326
256
243
3,340
986
73
170
260,240
664,469
27
20
4
7
27
242,679
197,425
—
Cancelled or surrendered	
	
262,456
2,030,354
134,878
94,698
Crown reserve dispositions
242,679
Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1971
Rentals and fees—
Permits   $1,615,619.07
Drilling reservations   79,119.60
Natural gas licences     	
Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum and natural gas leases____ 7,733,583.84
Total rentals and fees      $9,428,322.51
Disposal of Crown reserves—
Permits   $14,688,570.48
Drilling reservations        2,486,762.52
Leases         5,010,917.58
Total Crown reserves disposal     22,186,250.58
Royalties-
Gas      $4,209,793.04
Oil      10,415,656.54
Processed products   42,516.86
Total royalties      14,667,966.44
Miscellaneous fees  35,604.37
Total petroleum and natural gas revenues  $46,318,143.90
ANALYTICAL AND ASSAY BRANCH
Staff
S. W. Metcalfe..
N. G. Colvin_„.
R. J. Hibberson_
R. S. Young	
Mrs. E. A. Juhasz_.
F. F. Karpick	
L. E. Shepard	
-Chief Analyst and Assayer
 Laboratory Scientist
 Laboratory Scientist
 Laboratory Scientist
 Laboratory Scientist
.Assayer
Crusherman
Analytical and Assay Work
During 1971 the chemical laboratory in Victoria issued reports on 573 samples
from prospectors and Departmental engineers.   Between May 1 and September 30
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 63
only, five samples will be assayed without charge for a prospector who makes application for free assays and satisfies the Chief Analyst that prospecting is his principal
occupation during the summer months. A form for use in applying for free assays
may be obtained from the office of any Mining Recorder. A laboratory examination
of a prospector's sample generally consists of the following: (1) A spectrographic
analysis to determine if any base metals are present in interesting percentages; (2)
assays for precious metals and for base metals shown by the spectrographic analysis
to be present in interesting percentages. (The degree of radioactivity is measured
on all samples submitted by prospectors and Departmental engineers; these radiometric assays are not listed in the table below.)
The laboratory reports were distributed in the following manner among prospectors who were not grantees, prospectors who were grantees under the Prospectors'
Grub-stake Act, and Departmental engineers:
Samples
Spectrographic
Analyses
Assays
Prospectors (not grantees) _
Prospectors (grantees)	
Departmental Engineers	
Totals	
267
19
287
262
19
113
573
3941
575
40
1,672
2,287
l An additional 98 spectrographic analyses were done for Departmental engineers, but the results were not
reported.
Petroleum and Natural Gas Samples
Reports were issued on 10 samples, 7 of which were formation waters and the
remainder crude oils.
Miscellaneous Samples
Reports were issued on 117 samples of a miscellaneous nature:
For the Purchasing Commission, reports were issued on 20 samples of
coal submitted for proximate analysis and calorific value.
For the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Services, Pollution
Control Branch, four ore samples were assayed for nine elements
each. For Forest Research, a sample of quartz was analysed for
potassium and phosphorus pentoxide.
For the Department of Highways, Geotechnical and Materials Branch,
two soil samples were analysed for their sulphate content, one clay
sample was analysed for its chloride content, and a sample of sand
was spectrographed.
For a citizen of the Province, one water sample was tested for oil and a
limestone sample was analysed for calcium oxide content.
For the City of Victoria, Smoke Inspection, the weights of residue and
soluble salts collected in 85 bottles of water placed in various locations in the city were determined, and a sample of siliceous material
was examined.
Mineralogical Branch Samples
Forty-three rock samples were analysed for their major oxide content, and
trace elements were determined on some of the samples.
Twenty-two bead samples obtained by arc fusion were analysed for both ferrous and ferric oxides.
 A 64 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Six complete limestone analyses were performed.
Sixty-two samples of sediments were analysed for certain trace elements.
Ten samples were analysed for both acid soluble and total nickel.
The balance of the samples was analysed for a variety of elements and oxides.
X-ray Powder Diffraction Analyses
One hundred and seventy-two analyses of this type were performed for identification purposes.
Examinations for Assayers
Examinations for assayers were held in May and December. In the May
examination, 12 candidates were examined, of whom eight passed, three failed, and
one was granted a supplemental. In the December examination, 12 candidates were
examined, of whom two passed, nine failed, and one was granted a supplemental.
INSPECTION BRANCH
Organization and Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector Victoria
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines Victoria
L. Wardman, Senior Inspector, Electrical-Mechanical Victoria
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector, Coal; Aid to Securities Victoria
Harry Bapty, Senior Inspector, Mining Roads Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Inspector, Mechanical Victoria
J. Cartwright, Inspector, Electrical Victoria
W. B. Montgomery, Inspector, Reclamation Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control Vancouver
D. I. R. Henderson, Inspector, Environmental Control Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nanaimo
R. W. Lewis, Inspector and Resident Engineer Fernie
David Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
E. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
P. E. Olson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nelson
W. G. Clarke, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
W. H. Childress, Technician, Noise Surveys Vancouver
Inspectors are stationed at the places listed above and inspect coal mines, metal
mines, and quarries in the districts shown on Figure 1. They also may examine
prospects, mining properties, roads and trails, and carry out special investigations
under the Mineral Act. The Environmental Control Inspectors conduct dust, ventilation, and noise surveys at all mines and quarries, and, where necessary, make recommendations to improve environmental conditions. H. Bapty supervises the roads
and trails programme and prospectors' grub-stakes. W. B. Montgomery administers
the reclamation sections of the Coal Mines Regulation Act and Mines Regulation
Act. A. R. C. James is Senior Inspector, Coal, and has additional duties as mining
adviser to the Securities Commission.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 65
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 A 66 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Co-ordinators, Mine-rescue Stations
E. C. Ingham, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Prince George
G. J. Lee, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Nelson
A. Littler, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Fernie
T. H. Robertson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Nanaimo
J. A. Thomson, Co-ordinator, Rescue Training Kamloops
Staff Changes
On July 13, J. Cartwright, P.Eng., joined the staff in Victoria as Inspector,
Electrical. On August 2, D. I. R. Henderson joined the Vancouver office staff as
Inspector, Environmental Control, and E. C. Ingham joined the Prince George
office as Co-ordinator, Rescue Training. On December 15, W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer, was transferred from Vancouver to Nanaimo.
Board of Examiners
Board oj Examiners (Coal Mines Regulation Act)
J. W. Peck, Chairman Victoria
A. R. C. James, member Victoria
R. W. Lewis, member Fernie
The Board conducts written and practical examinations for the various certificates of competency under the provisions of sections 25 and 26 of the Coal Mines
Regulation Act, and advises the Minister on the granting of interchange certificates
under this Act. Under the new Act the Board is no longer responsible for issuing
coal miners' certificates; these are now issued after examination by the District
Inspector.
Board oj Examiners (Mines Regulation Act)
J. E. Merrett, Chairman Victoria
A. R. C. James, member Victoria
W. C. Robinson, member Nanaimo
The Board conducts written examinations in various mining centres for applicants for underground and surface shiftboss certificates. The Board is also empowered to grant provisional certificates without examination and under such conditions as the Board considers necessary.
Mining Roads and Trails
Provision is made in the Department oj Mines and Petroleum Resources Act
whereby the Minister may, with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
authorize the expenditure of public funds for the construction or repair of roads and
trails into mining areas. Assistance on a half-cost basis may also be provided on
roads and trails to individual properties.
Requests for road and trail assistance must be made to the Department before
the commencement of work. The type of access upon which assistance may be
given depends upon the value of the property, the stage of development, and the
amount of work to be done. A trail is sometimes sufficient for initial exploration,
and a tractor-road may be adequate for preliminary work. Subsequent development
might warrant assistance on the construction of a truck-road. A carefully drawn
sketch or plan of the location of the road is required to be submitted and, where
warranted by the amount of assistance requested, a report on the property by a
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 67
professional geological or mining engineer may be required. An engineer from the
Department may be required to report on the property before a grant is made and to
inspect the road after the work has been done.
The total mileages and expenditures under "Grants in Aid of Mining Roads
and Trails" during the 1971/72 fiscal year were as follows:
Roads— Miles Cost
Construction      53.8 $176,714.14
Maintenance   279.0 77,677.59
Trails—Construction        5.0 1,000.00
Bridges—
Construction        25,748.02
Maintenance        14,675.86
Total  $295,815.61
In addition to the above, work continued on the Cassiar-Stewart road being
built under the "Roads to Resources" agreement between the Governments of Canada and British Columbia. The construction is done by contract, and is supervised
by the Department of Highways on behalf of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Road construction was done under Projects 2233, 2234, and 763.    Project
2233 covers 16.33 miles between the north crossing of the Bell-Irving River and
Beaverpond Creek. The contract was awarded to Peter Kiewit Sons Co. of Canada
Ltd. in May 1971 and 5.5 miles of new road was completed at year-end.    Project
2234 covers 11.48 miles of road between Bob Quinn Lake and Beaverpond Creek.
This contract was awarded to Keen Industries Ltd. in March 1971 and 7.5 miles of
new road was completed at year-end. The remaining gap of 14.81 miles is expected to be completed in 1972 to allow vehicular traffic to flow from Stewart, British
Columbia, to the Alaska highway. Project 763 was awarded to Barnett-McQueen
Ltd. to construct the Stikine River bridge, which will be opened for traffic late in
1972. Work on the north Bell-Irving River and Devil Creek bridges progressed
favourably.
Total expenditure on the road to date is $27,179,481.89. The Federal Government's commitment of $7,500,000 was expended by the end of September 1967,
and since that time the whole cost of construction has been borne by the Provincial
Government.
The Omineca road, now completed for 175 miles northwest from Fort St.
James, was extended an additional 20 miles past Aiken Lake toward Johanson Lake.
Further construction will be undertaken.
During the past winter, heavy freight was moved over the road between Fort
St. James and Takla Landing to assist in the British Columbia railway construction.
The road has withstood the increased weight, but some of the bridges show signs of
having been overloaded.
To encourage the development of petroleum and natural gas resources in the
northeastern part of the Province, it was decided, in conjunction with the Department of Highways, to build vehicle access approaches to the new British Columbia
railway bridge over Fort Nelson River. One approach extends from the Alaska
Highway at Mile 293.7 to the Clarke Lake Oilfield. The cost of this new work
totalled $171,643.18. The former access bridge was destroyed by flooding on June
16, 1971.
 A 68
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Grub-staking Prospectors
Under the authority of the Prospectors' Grub-stake Act the Department has
provided grub-stakes each year since 1943 to a limited number of applicants able
to qualify. Grub-stakes up to $500 for food, shelter, and clothing, plus a reasonable
travelling allowance, are available to a limited number of qualified prospectors who
undertake to prospect in British Columbia in areas considered favourable by the
Department in accordance with a long-range plan for the development of the -Province. Experienced prospectors may be granted a maximum of $300 for travelling
expenses if prospecting is to be done in remote areas where air transportation is
necessary.
Application forms and terms and conditions under which grub-stakes are
granted may be obtained from H. Bapty, Senior Inspector, Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
Samples received from grub-staked prospectors are assayed free of charge and
mineralogical identifications may be made on request.
Grub-stake Statistics
Field Season
Approximate
Expenditure
Men
Grub-staked
Samples and
Specimens
Received at
Department
Laboratory
Mineral
Claims
Recorded
1943—
1944—.
1945—
1946...
1947—
1948—
1949 -
1950 —
1951	
1952	
1953—
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958	
1959—
I960—
1961	
1962—
1963—
1964	
1965	
1966—
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970	
1971	
$18,500
27,215
27,310
35,200
36,230
35,975
31,175
26,800
19,385
19,083
17,850
19,989
21,169
20,270
22,000
24,850
21,575
28,115
29,175
26,730
29,000
31,751
24,717
26,787
29,891
31,224
21,758
30,614
21,081
90
105
84
95
91
92
98
78
63
50
41
48
47
47
46
47
38
50
47
52
50
53
42
43
47
47
27
39
23
773
606
448
419
469
443
567
226
255
251
201
336
288
163
174
287
195
358
309
233
150
213
241
224
148
234
151
84
29
87
135
181
162
142
138
103
95
137
95
141
123
183
217
101
211
202
241
325
189
843
351
219
239
432
402
221
423
348
Forty-three applications were received, and 23 grub-stakes were authorized.
Grantees unable to complete the terms and conditions of the grant received only
partial payment. Five prospectors were given grants for the first time. Three
grantees proved to be unsatisfactory.
E. R. Hughes interviewed applicants in Vancouver and contacted 16 grantees
in the field, giving advice and direction to those requiring additional guidance. Personnel in offices of Government Agents and local Mine Inspectors throughout the
Province assisted in administering the programme.  The following notes comprise
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 69
summaries by Mr. Hughes of the prospecting activities and results. They are based
on observations made by him in the field and from information contained in diaries
of the grantees.
Alberni Mining Division—West of Strathcona Park, in the Donner Lake area,
bornite, chalcopyrite, and magnetite were found. Some good copper assays were
obtained, with small fractions of 1 per cent of zinc, nickel, and cobalt, and traces of
molybdenum. Work here was continued until late in the season. Mineral claims
were located and drilling was contemplated.
Chalcopyrite, silver, and galena mineralization was reported on Canoe Creek,
and some chalcopyrite was encountered in an area southeast of Kennedy Lake.
Cariboo Mining Division—Between Willow River and Bowron River, and south
of Purden Lake it was reported that pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and arsenopy-
rite had been found. Traces of nickel were reported in the Tumuch Lake area.
Clinton Mining Division—A few exposures of andesitic and basaltic volcanic
rocks are exposed on a hill west of the road between Hanceville and Fletcher Lake,
but the area is mostly veneered with glacial overburden. East of the road similar
rocks were seen along a bluff that extends into the Chilcotin Valley. The area examined on the south flank of Piltz Peak is underlain by coarse-grained granodiorites
and quartz diorites which are exposed on hilltops and steep slopes. No sulphides
were seen on the south flank, but fractures and alteration were observed in southernmost exposures near Hungry Valley. The west flank was observed to be largely
unmineralized, although minor pyrite occurs with quartz in shear zones as much as
50 feet but more commonly 2 to 3 feet wide and great distances apart. Geochemical
samples collected for about 3.5 miles along the base of the north slope of Vedan
Mountain gave negative tests for copper by the rubeanic acid method. Examination
of the south and west flanks of the mountain also gave negative results.
Northeast of Choelquoit Lake some interesting fractured and locally highly
altered and mineralized dioritic rocks were found, but because of the limited amount
of exposure the mineralized area was reported to be too small to be of economic
significance. Trace amounts of chalcopyrite were found in vesicular olivine basalt
outcropping south of Scum Lake, west of the Taseko Lakes road.
North of McKay Creek, on the west Pavilion road, it was reported that chalcopyrite, bornite, and molybdenite were found. Gold and platinum were reported in
pan sampling.
Kamloops Mining Division—In an area north of Lac des Roches, from Wavey
Lake to north of Mount Heger, near the western boundary of the mining division,
two base camps were established. The regional geology of the area is shown on
Geological Survey of Canada Map 3-1966 (Campbell and Tipper). There is extensive, generally shallow overburden and outcrops are scarce. Creek beds and road
rock-cuts were examined. Exposures of andesite breccia and syenite were found.
A minor amount of bornite was found and a few specks of chalcopyrite were seen in
float. Twelve mineral claims were located south of Mount Heger.
Between Thuya Lakes and Patrick Lake, fault zones were traced and some
trenching was done, but nothing of interest was found.
In the Whitewood Creek-Fishtrap Lake area some reconnaissance work was
done. Greenstones, phyllites, and argillites of the Cache Creek Group were found
cut by granitic dykes. Quartz veining was found to be well developed in many
areas. Pyrite and pyrrhotite appeared to be associated with the granitic rocks. Sulphides in both Poison and Fishtrap Creeks appear to warrant further investigation
upstream. In the Wentworth Creek area some quartz veins and fractures were
encountered but no significant mineralization was seen.   Silt-sampling was done in
 A 70
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
creeks flowing into the east end of Bonaparte Lake and bedrock exposures were
examined. Several types of granitic rocks, ranging from coarse-grained pink granite
to granodiorite, were found, but no mineralization was seen in either bedrock or
float.
Water and silt-sampling was done in the Maiden Creek area and 12 mineral
claims were located.
Mapping and sampling were done in an area about 8 miles north of the south
end of Adams Lake, on the east side, where a zone of lead and zinc mineralization
had been found.
Liard Mining Division—Soil-sampling by a three-member team gave negative
results near the north end of Dease Lake. Shattered jade boulders were seen on
Seywerd Creek. Traces of molybdenite were found in granitic rocks north of Cry
Lake. Minor amounts of chalcopyrite and malachite were reported to have been
encountered on the north side of Thibert Creek. An assay of a sample from this
area showed 0.15 per cent nickel, with traces of copper and cobalt. A sample taken
from the south side of the creek showed 0.10 per cent nickel, with traces of copper
and cobalt.
Minor amounts of bornite and chalcopyrite, finely disseminated in granodiorite,
were found near the contact of intrusive and volcanic rocks south of Lingwell Creek
on Yehiniko Creek. Minor chalcopyrite was found on a ridge near Coffee Crater.
Three small boulders of solid arsenopyrite were found in a creek bottom below
Edziza Peak, and some chalcopyrite was found in an adjacent area; the source of
the arsenopyrite was not determined. Minor chalcopyrite was found in quartz and
quartzite near the head of a small creek draining into Allan Lake, about 12 miles
east of Cassiar townsite.
Lillooet Mining Division—In the Donelly Creek area, southwest of Bralorne,
volcanic and sedimentary rocks were found cut by fine-grained quartz porphyry
dykes. Pyrite occurs along fractures within and adjacent to the dykes and also
within bleached and highly altered portions of them and the wallrocks. Bedrock and
float were examined north of the junction with Hurley River and some geochemical
testing was done; sulphides were reported to be generally sparse.
Nanaimo Mining Division—In the Bigtree Creek area, about 30 miles northwest of Campbell River, Karmutsen rocks are intruded by granites. Chalcopyrite
mineralization was found along fractures and disseminated over a wide area, although in some parts the mineralization is slight. At the south end of Mohun Lake
the rocks contain much iron stain and minor amounts of copper. Native copper was
found alongside of a logging-road in the same area. Pyrite and chalcopyrite were
found disseminated in the rock at the south end of Brewster Lake. Much mineralization was seen in the Boot Lake area, about 13 miles west of Campbell River.
Here, chalcopyrite and chalcocite were found disseminated and in amygdales. Magnetometer surveying, mapping, and geochemical sampling were done. Surveying
was done on the east side of Mount Menzies where chalcocite mineralization was
reported.
Native copper was reported in an X-ray-drill hole in the Buttle Lake area.
Nelson Mining Division—East of Trail and south of Nelson numerous outcrops
and areas of stain were investigated contiguous to Porcupine, Archibald, Erie, and
Tillicum Creeks, and at Blizzard Mountain. The results were inconclusive. On
Stewart Creek, sampling indicated the presence of zinc and gold, and four mineral
claims were located.
New Westminster Mining Division—Silt sampling in the drainage area between
the main forks of Stoyama Creek was negative.    Quartz-feldspar porphyry was
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 71
encountered south of Stoyama Creek; some of this rock was lightly pyritized but
gave no geochemical response for valuable metals.
Omineca Mining Division—Very good work was done by a two-member team
using a floatplane in areas adjacent to Albert, Chuchi, Ahdatay, and Witch Lakes,
and 82 mineral claims were located. Coarse diorite, with micaceous dykes, syeno-
diorite, syenite, small fractures with malachite and chalcopyrite, and some disseminated chalcopyrite, was found north of Chuchi Lake. Numerous outcrops of coarse
andesite and pyrite were found near the north shore of Witch Lake. Chalcopyrite
and pyrite in greenstone, and some green nickel silicate were found near the east
shore of Albert Lake. An old burned-off area west of Ahdatay Lake was traversed
and several streams were sampled. In this area some coarse to medium-grained
diorite was found, as were several areas of fractures filled with epidote, some large
quartz veins, and minor amounts of chalcopyrite and bornite.
A quartz porphyry showing was investigated in the Sibola Range area, east of
Twinkle Lake, where sparse pyrite was found disseminated and in fractures. The
rocks appear to be lithologically similar to those associated with copper-molybdenite
mineralization at other nearby properties. Geochemical tests indicated generally
low copper and molybdenite concentrations and no further work was done.
Some geochemical work was done near Grizzly Lake, southwest of Houston.
Rusty weathered conglomerate, red shales, and siltstones were found in a creek
draining into the lake, and exposures of epidote-veined volcanic rocks were seen on
a ridge east of the lake. A small stock of heavily pyritized quartz porphyry with
minor molybdenite was found in this area. Three pyritized quartz porphyry dykes
(15 to 30 feet wide) associated with minor chalcopyrite mineralization in volcanic
wallrocks were found north of the east end of Poplar Lake, and minor stibnite was
found in a quartz-sericite vein in fractured quartz porphyry dyke material. Many
exposures of basic volcanic and pyroclastic rocks were found and several small,
quarter-inch wide veins with chalcopyrite-quartz mineralization were seen in this
area. Some massive sulphide float, mainly pyrite, was found north of Hazelton; the
local source may be glacial overburden. Bedrock exposures along the lower slope
include sedimentary and volcanic rocks which are fractured and sheared, but not
altered nor mineralized.
In the Fredrickson Lake area, a long season of conventional prospecting resulted in the finding of minor galena in float about 2 miles north of the lake, and
minor chalcopyrite about 3 miles west of the lake. Some chalcopyrite float was
also found near Snowslide Creek.
A three-man team did soil and silt sampling on a grid in an area north and
south of Tetachuk Lake. Rock outcrops were few and those seen were chiefly
andesite and intrusive rock. No mineralization was found. Soil sampling in one
area on the north side of the lake indicated interesting quantities of molybdenum.
Slocan Mining Division—In the area drained by the Wilson, Keene, Monitor,
and Burkitt Creeks, east of Slocan Lake, some work was done in an effort to find
nickel in the serpentines. Minor chalcopyrite and molybdenite mineralization was
found on Wilson Creek, but nothing significant was reported.
Vancouver Mining Division—In the Ashlu Creek area, north of Squamish,
some copper mineralization was reported. Copper and molybdenum mineralization
was reported northeast of Sechelt, and 14 short plugger-drill holes were drilled and
blasted. Pyrite, molybdenite, and chalcopyrite mineralization was reported in an
area north of Sechelt, and some short plugger-drill holes were drilled and blasted.
Vernon Mining Division—In the Bouleau Lake area, near the headwaters of
Salmon River, some soil, silt, and water-sampling was done, but the results were
 A 72
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1971
negative. Galena float was found in a logged-off area southeast of Cherryville, and
fine-grained disseminated sulphides were seen in bands and veinlets. Soil-sampling
indicated the presence of zinc.
On the east side of Mabel Lake, in the vicinity of Latewhos Creek, recent logging-road construction work exposed outcrops of limestone, quartz, and granitoid
gneiss.   No significant mineralization was found.
MINERALOGICAL BRANCH
The principal function of the Mineralogical Branch is to assist in the orderly
exploration, development, and use of the Province's coal and mineral resources,
and to provide information to Government and industry on the quantity and distribution of the coal and mineral resources of the Province. The Branch makes a variety
of geological studies; publishes data concerning mineral deposits; makes mineral
potential appraisals of land; collects, stores, and disseminates geological and statistical data; and records the activities of the industry. The Branch is capable of making mineral assessments and of supplying general geological information as well as
specific information regarding mineral deposits, mineral resources, and the mineral
industry. It provides rock and mineral identifications, contributes lectures in courses
on prospecting, participates in scientific meetings, and arranges educational exhibits.
The Branch consists of three sections—an Economic Geology Section, a Mineral Resources Section, and a Publications and Technical Services Section. In effect
the Laboratory and Assay Branch functions as a fourth section of the Mineralogical
Branch, for they report to the Deputy Minister through the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch.
The Economic Geology Section, under the direction of Dr. A. Sutherland
Brown, is responsible for scientific investigations related to mineral deposits. The
work commonly involves detailed geological mapping and study of mineral deposits
principally in areas of recognized mineral potential or in mining districts.
The Mineral Resource Section, under the direction of Dr. James T. Fyles, is
concerned with the documentation of current exploration and mining activity, compilation of an inventory of mineral deposits of all sorts, and appraisal of the economic
mineral potential of areas for various purposes.
The Publications and Technical Services Section, under the direction of J. W.
McCammon, is responsible for production and editing of manuscripts and maps.
The library, lapidary, photographic, transport, and equipment services are part of
the function of this section and these services extend to the other branches of the
Department.
Staff
On December 31, 1971, the professional and technical staff included the following:
Stuart S. Holland, Ph.D., P.Eng Chief
A. Sutherland Brown, Ph.D., P.Eng Deputy Chief
James T. Fyles, Ph.D., P.Eng Senior Geologist
J. W. McCammon, P.Eng Geologist
N. C. Carter, P.Eng Geologist
B. N. Church, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
J. A. Garnett, P.Eng Geologist
E. W. Grove, P.Eng Geologist
E. V. Jackson, B.Sc Geologist
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 73
W. J. McMillan, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
K. E. Northcote, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
V. A. Preto, Ph.D., P.Eng Geologist
A. F. Shepherd, P.Eng Geologist
R. I. Thompson, Ph.D Geologist
Miss E. M. Balicki, B.Sc Research Officer (Geology)
Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir Manuscript Supervisor
K. S. Crabtree Draughting Supervisor
R. E. Player Lapidary and Photographer
Staff Changes
R. I. Thompson, geologist, a graduate of Queens University, joined the staff
on December 23, 1971.
Miss E. M. Balicki, research officer (geology), a graduate of Acadia University,
joined the staff on September 15, 1971.
Field Work, 1971 Season
A. Sutherland Brown visited copper and molybdenum properties in various
parts of the Province.
J. T. Fyles made park-appraisal studies of the Okanagan Mountain, Chilliwack
Lake, Conkle Lake, and Nancy Greene Lake areas.
J. W. McCammon examined industrial mineral properties and quarries in
southern British Columbia.
N. C. Carter examined mining properties in the Nass River, Terrace, Smithers,
and Toodoggone River areas.
B. N. Church made detailed examinations of mines in the Greenwood, Smithers,
and Tahtsa Lake areas.
J. A. Garnett began a detailed study of the geology and mineral deposits in the
Hogem batholith in the Omineca.
E. W. Grove completed reconnaissance geological mapping in the Stewart area
and virtually completed a geochemical sampling of the Guichon Creek batholith as
part of Dr. McMillan's project described below.
W. J. McMillan continued his detailed study of the Guichon Creek batholith;
90 per cent of the mapping is complete. C. A. Ager carried out a gravity survey
of the batholith as part of the project.
K. E. Northcote examined and mapped mining properties on Vancouver Island.
V. A. Preto examined copper properties in the Racing River-Gataga River
area of the northern Rocky Mountains.
Three senior geological field assistants and 10 junior assistants were employed
on the various projects.
Publications and Reports
Technical reports of the Mineralogical Branch were published in Geology, Exploration, and Mining in British Columbia, 1971. Bulletin 58, Geology and Mineral
Deposits oj the Stewart Area, by Edward W. Grove, was also published, although
its release was delayed because of technical problems. Index No. 5, Numerical List
oj Geological, Geophysical & Geochemical Reports, accepted for assessment from
1947 to the end of 1970, was also published.
Three scientific reports and papers resulting directly from their work as staff
geologist were also published by officers of the Branch.
 A 74
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Three preliminary geological maps were released in 1971. Preliminary mineral inventory maps covering 41 NTS sheets were also released during the year,
bringing the total to 66 and completing the preliminary programme. Details of this
material may be obtained from the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch, Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria.
In addition, during the year, mineral potential appraisals were made of two
large areas of the Province for land-use and planning purposes, and the mineral
potential of about 45 large and small areas proposed for parks and ecological reserves were assessed.
Aeromagnetic Surveys and Magnetic Surveillance
The programme of airborne magnetometer mapping, jointly financed by the
Geological Survey of Canada and the British Columbia Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources, continued in 1971, but without any new maps released during the year.
Maps released in former years as well as index maps showing the coverage by
aeromagnetic mapping in British Columbia may be obtained from the British Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria, or the Geological Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver 3.
The basic data used in compiling the maps are on open file at the Geological
Survey of Canada in Ottawa, where interested parties may arrange to obtain them
for special processing.
The Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (Earth Physics Branch)
operates a magnetic observatory at Victoria. Services available to geophysical exploration companies and other interested agencies include:
(a) Three-hour range indices of magnetic activity; these provide a measure of the intensity of the magnetic disturbance (on a 0-9 scale) for
each three-hour period. The monthly listings of these indices are
normally mailed within a few days after the end of each month.
(b) Copies of magnetograms are available through a local duplicating
firm at a charge of $7.50 for a monthly set. These recordings of the
magnetic field can be used to control field surveys, in particular to
correct for the diurnal changes and magnetic disturbances. The
area over which this control is valid depends on the required accuracy; for ±5 gamma accuracy, it covers an elliptic region reaching roughly as far as longitude 118 degrees to the east and latitude
50.5 degrees to the north.
Further details can be obtained by writing to the Officer-in-charge, Victoria
Magnetic Observatory, RR 7, Victoria.
Rock and Mineral Sets
Sets of rocks and minerals are available for sale to prospectors, schools, and
residents of British Columbia. Information regarding them may be obtained from
the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, under the direction of the Chief of
the Branch, is responsible for the administration of Part XII of the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, 1965 and the Drilling and Production Regulations made thereunder.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 75
The regulations provide for the use of efficient and safe practices in the drilling,
completion, and abandonment of wells; for the orderly development of fields discovered within the Province; and for the conservation and prevention of waste of
oil and natural gas within the reservoir and during production operations.
Every well location must be approved by the Branch before the well is drilled.
All operations related to drilling and production are inspected frequently to ensure
compliance with the provisions of all regulations, including such features as facilities
and practices used, adequate plugging of abandoned wells, surface restoration of
well-sites, well-testing and measurement procedures employed, disposal of produced water, protection of installations against fire, and general conservation.
Investigations are made of complaints of property damage resulting from
drilling and producing operations, and from geophysical work programmes.
Comprehensive records of all drilling and producing operations are maintained
at Victoria and are made available for study, or are published, for the use and
benefit of anyone interested in oil or gas development in British Columbia. Samples
of bit cuttings, as well as all core, obtained from every well drilled in the Province,
are collected and retained at the field office located at Charlie Lake, where they are
available for study. Charlie Lake is adjacent to the Alaska highway, about 5 miles
northwest of Fort St. John.
Detailed reservoir engineering and geological studies are conducted on the
basis of technical information submitted to the Branch from operating companies,
as well as information acquired through field work by Branch personnel. Estimates
of the reserves of oil and natural gas are made annually, at the end of December.
Crown-owned oil and natural gas rights are evaluated prior to being disposed of by
public tender.
Administration
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch is subdivided for administrative purposes into four sections. These sections and their supervisors are as follows: Development Engineering, W. L. Ingram; Reservoir Engineering, A. J. Dingley;
Exploration Geology, S. S. Cosburn; and Economic Geology, W. M. Young.
The field office at Charlie Lake, which includes the core and sample laboratory,
is supervised by the District Engineer, D. L. Johnson.
Staff
Headquarters, Victoria
J. D. Lineham Chief of Branch
W. L. Ingram Deputy Chief of Branch
and Senior Development Engineer
M. B. Hamersley Development Technician (Engineering)
J. F. Tomczak Statistician
A. J. Dingley Senior Reservoir Engineer
B. T. Barber Reservoir Engineer
P. S. Attariwala Reservoir Engineer
P. K. Huus Reservoir Technician (Engineering)
W. M. Young Senior Economic Geologist
K. A. McAdam (until June 30) Economic Geologist
T. B. Ramsay Economic Geologist
J. Y. Smith Economic Geologist
R. Stewart Economic Geologist
S. S. Cosburn Senior Exploration Geologist
 A 76 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Field Office, Charlie Lake
YD. L. Johnson District Engineer
T. B. Smith Field Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician (Engineering)
G. T. Mohler Field Technician (Engineering)
W. B. Holland Field Technician (Engineering)
L. A. Gingras Field Technician (Engineering)
(until December 15)
Staff Changes
K. A. McAdam, Economic Geologist, resigned, effective June 30.
R. Stewart, Economic Geologist, joined the staff on November 15.
L. A. Gingras, Technician (Engineering), resigned, effective December 15.
Board of Arbitration
Chairman: A. W. Hobbs, Q.C.
Members: S. G. Preston, Agrologist; J. D. Lineham, Engineer, Department of
Mines and Petroleum Resources.
The board of Arbitration, established under the authority of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965, grants right of entry to oil and gas companies upon
alienated land and determines conditions of entry and compensation therefor. It
also terminates the right of entry when a company has ceased to use the land.
In 1971, four applications for right of entry were submitted to the Board and
three were carried over from 1970.   One application was withdrawn.
One right of entry order was issued, one was terminated, and 14 were withdrawn.
Three right of entry orders and four applications were outstanding at the end
of the year.
A hearing was held on April 27 at Fort St. John. Of the 12 cases scheduled
to be heard, five resulted in compensation awards, six were adjourned, and one
was settled by agreement.
Conservation Committee
Chairman: K. B. Blakey, Deputy Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Members: M. H. A. Glover, Economist, Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce, and one to be named.
The Conservation Committee is responsible to the Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources and was established originally on October 11, 1957, under
the authority of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965.   Its duties are as follows:
(1) To act as an advisory committee to the Minister on such questions of
conservation that the Minister, in writing, shall refer to the Committee for consideration and recommendation.
(2) To deal with such questions of conservation and production in the
various fields of British Columbia as may arise between two or more
operators in the same field or between operators and the Branch
when appeals on such questions are made to the Minister and referred by him to the Committee.
The Conservation Committee did not meet in 1971.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 77
PUBLICATIONS
A list of the publications of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources
is available free on request to the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch or Chief of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria.
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria, and from the Geological
Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may
also be obtained from the Gold Commissioner's Office, Room 320, 890 West Pender
Street, Vancouver.
Publications are available for reference use in the Departmental library, Room
430, Douglas Building, Victoria, in the reading-room of the Geological Survey of
Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver, in the offices of the Inspectors of
Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert, as well as in some public libraries.
 Petroleum and Natural Gas
CONTENTS
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles	
CHAPTER 4
Page
     A 81
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch    A 84
General Review _
Field Office	
A 84
A 86
A. General     A 86
B. Laboratories     A 86
C. Inspections     A 87
Geological Section	
A. General	
B. Reservoir and Regional Mapping.
  A 87
  A 87
  A 88
C. Drilling Highlights-   A 89
D. Exploration  A 90
Reservoir Engineering Section  A 90
A. General  A 90
B. Oil Allowables, MPRs, and Improved Recovery Schemes  A 90
C. Associated and Solution Gas Conservation Schemes  A 93
D. Gas Allowables and Well Tests  A 95
E. Hydrocarbon and Associated Sulphur Reserves  A 96
F. Miscellaneous  A 98
Development Engineering Section  A 101
A. General  A 101
B. Drilling  A 102
C. Production  A 104
D. Pipe-lines, Refineries, and Gas Plants  A 106
E. Well Records  A 107
F. Reports and Publications  A 109
Statistical Tables—
Table 13—Exploratory and Development Wells Completed, January
to December 1971  A 112
Table 14—Geophysical Exploration, 1971  A 113
Table 15—Surface Geological Exploration, 1971  A 116
Table 16—Project and Individual Well MPR Data at December 31,
1971  A 132
Table 17—Gas-well Test and Allowable Data, December 31, 1971  A 137
A 78
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 79
Petroleum and Natural Gas—Continued
Table 18-—Hydrocarbon  and  By-products  Reserves,  December   31,
1971	
Table 19—Oilfield Reservoir Fluid Data	
Table 20—Gasfield Reservoir Fluid Data	
Table 21—Wells Drilled and Drilling, 1971	
Table 22—Oilfields and Gasfields Designated at December 31, 197L___
Table 23—Number of Capable and Operating Wells at December 31,
1971
Table 24—Monthly Crude-oil Production by Fields and Pools, 1971
Table 25—Monthly Natural Gas Production by Fields  and Pools,
1971
Table 26—Summary of Drilling and Production Statistics, 1971	
Table 27—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Con-
densate/Pentanes Plus, 1971	
Table 28—Monthly Supply and Disposition of Natural Gas, 1971	
Table 29—Monthly Production and Disposition of Butane, Propane,
and Sulphur, 1971	
Table 30—Monthly Gross Values to Producers of Crude Oil, Natural
Gas, Natural Gas Liquids, and Sulphur, 1971	
Table 31—Crude-oil Pipe-lines, 1971	
Table 32—Crude-oil Refineries, 1971	
Table 33—Natural Gas Pipe-lines, 1971	
Table 34—Gas-processing Plants, 1971	
Table 35—Sulphur Plants, 1971	
Page
A
159
A
160
A
163
A
168
A
174
A
180
A
184
A
186
A
189
A
190
A
192
A 194
A
195
A
195
A
196
A
197
A
199
A
199
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Drawings
Figure
2. Footage drilled in British Columbia, 1954-71  A 102
3. Oil and gas fields of northeastern British Columbia, 1971  A 103
4. Oil production in British Columbia, 1954-71  A 104
5. Gas production in British Columbia, 1954-71  A 105
6. Oil and gas pipe-lines, 1971  A 106
Map
1. Union Oil project, Gething zone, Aitken Creek field  A 117
2. Monsanto project, Charlie Lake zone, Bear Flat field  A 117
3. Triad Oil project, Halfway zone, Beatton River field  A 118
4. Pacific Petroleums project, Baldonnel zone, Beg and Beg West fields ____ A 118
5. Pacific Petroleums project, Halfway zone, Beg field  A 119
6. Pacific Petroleums project, Debolt zone, Blueberry field  A 120
7. Boundary Lake zone projects, Boundary Lake field  A 120
8. Pacific Petroleums project, Baldonnel zone, Bubbles field  A 121
9. Union Oil project, Halfway zone, Bulrush field  A 121
 A 80
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Petroleum and Natural Gas—Continued
Map
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
Drawings—Continued
Pacific Petroleums project, Slave Point zone, Clarke Lake and Clarke
Lake South fields	
Union Oil Unit 1, Halfway zone, Crush field	
Pacific Petroleums Unit 1, Halfway zone, Currant field	
Pacific Petroleums Unit 1, Charlie Lake zone, Fort St. John field	
Inga zone units, Inga field	
Pacific Petroleums projects, Baldonnel and Halfway zones, Jedney
field-	
ARCo projects, Baldonnel and Halfway zones, Julienne field	
Pacific Petroleums project, Halfway zone, Kobes-Townsend field	
Baldonnel pool project, Laprise Creek field	
Union Oil Unit 1, Halfway zone, Milligan Creek field	
Texaco Exploration project, Baldonnel zone, Nig Creek field-
Pacific Petroleums project, Wabamun zone, Parkland field —
Halfway zone projects, Peejay field	
Dunlevy pool project, Rigel field	
Monsanto Conservation projects, Dunlevy zone, Rigel field.
Halfway zone units, Weasel field	
Wainoco Unit 1, Halfway and Belloy pools, Wilder field	
Union Oil project, Halfway zone, Wildmint field	
Page
A
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A
122
A
123
A
123
A
124
A
125
A
125
A
126
A
126
A
127
A
127
A
128
A
128
A
129
A
129
A
130
A
130
A
131
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 81
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS TITLES
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles, under the direction of the Chief Commissioner, is responsible for the administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,
1965 which includes all matters related to and affecting title to Crown petroleum
and natural gas rights and includes the collection of revenue from fees, rents, disposition, and royalties. Regulations governing geophysical operations and petroleum-
development roads are also administered by the Chief Commissioner.
Information concerning all forms of tide issued under the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act, 1965, may be obtained upon application to the office of the Chief
Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps
showing the locations of all forms of title issued under the Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act, 1965 are available, and copies may be obtained upon application to the
office of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Monthly
land reports and monthly reports listing additions and revisions to permit-location
maps and listing changes in title to permits, licences, and leases, and related matters
are available from the office of the Chief Commissioner upon application and payment of the required fee.
During the year, there were four dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum
and natural gas rights resulting in tender bonus bids amounting to $22,186,250.58,
an increase of $5,846,449.39 from the previous year. This sum was higher than
any previous yearly total by $539,799.04. A total of 415 parcels were offered and
bids were accepted on 259 parcels covering 2,367,731 acres. The average price
per acre was $9.37 which is an increase of $1.16 per acre over the previous year.
Average bonus price per acre was respectively—permits, $7.23; leases, $36.95; and
drilling reservations, $16.48.
During the year, 23 geophysical licences were renewed or issued.
During the year, two petroleum-development road applications were received
and processed for approval.
A total of 135 notices of commencement of exploratory work were recorded
during the year. These notices are required prior to the commencement of any
geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum or natural gas.
During the year, two unit agreements and two royalty agreements were approved.
As of December 31, 1971, 26,763,316 acres or approximately 41,818 square
miles, a decrease of 3,147,179 acres over the 1970 total, of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights, issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, were
held in good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to
major international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage in
each case were as follows:
Form of Title Number Acreage
Permits       430 18,726,137
Natural gas licences            	
Drilling reservations         33 337,656
Leases (all types)   3,693 7,699,523
Total  26,763,316
 A 82 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
Title Transaction Statistics, 1971
Permits
Leases
Drilling
Reservations
Natural Gas
Licences
No.
Acres
No.     '       Acres
No.         Acres
No.
Acres
Issued	
Cancelled or surrendered
82    1    2,502,458
87    ;    4,892,326
305    :            _
256
243
3,340
260,240
664,469
27    i    242,679
20    :    197,425
4    [          	
~
128
62
986
73
170
7    j     	
262,456
2,030,354
134,878
94,698
Crown reserve dispositions
27    |    242,679
	
Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1971
Rentals and fees—
Permits   $1,615,619.07
Drilling reservations   79,119.60
Natural gas licences   	
Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum and natural gas leases._ 7,733,583.84
Total rentals and fees      $9,428,322.51
Disposal of Crown reserves—
Permits   $14,688,570.48
Drilling reservations   2,486,762.52
Leases    5,010,917.58
Total Crown reserves disposal     22,186,250.58
Royalties—
Gas   $4,209,793.04
Oil  10,415,656.54
Processed products  42,516.86
Total royalties      14,667,966.44
Miscellaneous fees   35,604.37
Total petroleum and natural gas revenues  $46,318,143.90
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 83
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 A 84 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, under the direction of the Chief of the
Branch, is responsible for the administration of Part XII of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965 and the Drilling and Production Regulations made thereunder.
The regulations provide for the use of efficient and safe practices in the drilling,
completion, and abandonment of wells; for the orderly development of fields discovered within the Province; and for the conservation and prevention of waste of oil
and natural gas within the reservoir and during production operations.
Every well location must be approved by the Branch before the well is drilled.
All operations related to drilling and production are inspected frequently to ensure
compliance with the provisions of all regulations, including such features as facilities and practices used, adequate plugging of abandoned wells, surface restoration
of well-sites, well-testing and measurement procedures employed, disposal of produced water, protection of installations against fire, and general conservation.
Investigations are made of complaints of property damage resulting from drilling and producing operations, and from geophysical work programmes.
Comprehensive records of all drilling and producing operations are maintained
at Victoria and are made available for study, or are published, for the use and
benefit of anyone interested in oil or gas development in British Columbia. Samples
of bit cuttings, as well as all core, obtained from every well drilled in the Province,
are collected and retained at the field office at Charlie Lake, where they are available for study. Charlie Lake is adjacent to the Alaska highway, about 5 miles
northwest of Fort St. John.
Detailed reservoir engineering and geological studies are conducted on the
basis of technical information submitted to the Branch from operating companies,
as well as information acquired through field work by Branch personnel. Estimates
of the reserves of oil and natural gas are made annually, at the end of December.
Crown-owned oil and natural gas rights are evaluated prior to being disposed of
by public tender.
GENERAL REVIEW
Except for a slight decline in the oil production, all aspects of the exploration,
drilling, and production operations were increased during 1971. Geophysical and
drilling activities gained 25 and 10 per cent respectively over the 1970 accomplishments. Production of natural gas retained its consistent annual rise of 7 per cent,
while the annual oil production was down by less than 1 per cent.
Development and outpost drilling, both undertaken to extend existing fields,
increased 12 and 36 per cent respectively, but wildcat drilling in areas far from
proven production recorded a 14-per-cent decrease. The over-all footage drilled,
989,650 feet, and the number of wells drilled, 197, each increased by 9.5 per cent.
Successful drilling ventures resulted in 40 gas wells and 46 oil wells with 103
locations abandoned and six other wells drilled for the purpose of water injection
to aid production or as a means to dispose of unwanted produced water. Two wells
awaited evaluation at year-end.
No discoveries were made that could be considered major finds, but several
wells indicated interesting and potential anomalies that warrant further exploration.
Declined petroleum production resultant from the lack of new discoveries and
gradual depletion of the producing fields were reported during 1971. Additional
pipe-line facilities to potential gas-producing areas, which included the major extension to the Beaver River area, were responsible for the increased gas production.
During 1971 there were 25,154,122 barrels of crude oil and 336,765,259
MSCF of natural gas produced.
 PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
A 85
Plate I. Exploratory wildcat well Union Port Louis c-28-L, drilled on Queen Charlotte Islands
by Union Oil Company of Canada.
 A 86
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1971
At the end of 1971 the Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch estimates
reserves were as follows:
Proved crude oil  183,176    MSTB
Probable crude oil  147,584    MSTB
Established raw gas       9,908.7 BSCF
Established residue gas       8,604.0 BSCF
Natural gas liquids  111,838    MSTB
Sulphur       4,046    MLT
of
A. General
FIELD OFFICE
The Field Office is responsible for enforcement of all sections of the Drilling
and Production Regulations which pertain to field operations throughout the entire
Province. The staff are hea