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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1972 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1973

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. A. Williams, Minister J. S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1972
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1973
  Victoria, B.C., March 1973.
The Honourable Walter S. Owen, Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1972.
R. A. WILLIAMS
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 The Honourable R. A. Williams,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1972.
J. S. STOKES
Deputy Minister of Forests
   CONTENTS
1. Chief Forester's Report
2. Inventory Division-
Highlights	
Page
.   11
. 15
. 15
Forest Classification and Sampling  15
Unit Standard Inventory  15
Growth and Yield Section  15
Natural Stands .  15
Managed Stands  16
Volume and Decay Section  16
Mapping and Data Processing Section  16
Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1971 Projects  17
3. Research Division  21
Forest Land Classification  21
Provenance and Tree Breeding  21
Seedling Physiology Studies  24
Silviculture  24
Prince George and Prince Rupert Districts  24
Kamloops Forest District  25
Nelson Forest District  26
Vancouver Forest District  26
Data Processing   27
Reforestation Division.
Forest Tree Seed-
  31
  31
Tree-seed Improvement  31
Koksilah Seed Centre  31
Forest Nurseries  32
Reconnaissance and Survey Work ,  35
Planting  36
Co-operation ,  37
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme  37
5. Information Division	
Photography	
Motion Pictures	
Forest Service Library-
Film Library	
  41
  41
  42
  42
  42
Displays  42
Education  42
Signs  43
Forest Service Museum   43
 V 8
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
6. Management Division	
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends.
Stumpage Adjustments	
Page
  47
  47
  47
Sustained-yield Programme  47
Tree-farm Licences  48
Tree-farm Lands  48
Forest Recreation  48
Silviculture    49
Scaling  49
7. Forest Productivity Committee-
8. Grazing Division	
51
53
General Conditions i  53
Range and Pasture Management  53
Range Surveys  54
Range Improvements  54
Co-operation  55
Administration  55
Grazing and Hay Permits  55
Grazing Fees  5 6
Control and Enforcement  56
9. Engineering Division-
Highlights	
Engineering Surveys.
Design	
  59
  59
  59
  59
Management Engineering  59
Construction  60
Reservoir Improvements  60
Building and Marine Services  60
Mechanical  61
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  61
Communications  61
10. Protection Division.
Weather	
  65
  65
Fire-suppression Crews  65
Provincial Forestry Youth Programme  65
Forest-use Restrictions  65
Aircraft  65
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 9
10. Protection Division-
Fires	
-Continued
  66
Occurrence and Cause  66
Cost of Fire-fighting  66
Loss  66
Slash Disposal  66
Snag Disposal  67
Fire-law Enforcement  67
Protection Planning and Research  67
Computer Fire Statistics  67
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  67
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  68
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration  68
Research Projects  68
Service and Co-operation  69
11. Training School  73
Extra Courses and Functions  73
Highlights, 1972  73
12. Accounting Division  77
Fiscal  77
Administration  77
13. Personnel Division
  81
Communications and Training  81
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  81
14. Personnel Directory, 1972-
83
15. Appendix—Detailed Statements to Supplement the Report of the Forest
Service  85
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1972
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
Financial returns to the Forest Service in 1972 exceeded all expectations, with
amounts billed and collected climbing to new records and reflecting substantial
increases over 1971 totals. Conditions at year's end indicated the trend would
continue well into 1973.
The total amount charged against logging operations rose by 60.5 per cent to
$108,659,791. Actual revenue collections reached $102,636,777—68.5 per cent
higher than the 1971 total. Timber sale stumpage (constituting the bulk of the
revenue) increased by 83.5 per cent to $91,180,674.
The total scale of all products in 1972 was 1,963,747,008 cubic feet—a
decrease of 1.6 per cent from the previous year. (The Interior scale increased by
9.8 per cent over the 1971 figure to a record of more than one billion cubic feet
of timber; while the Coast scale dropped by 13 per cent.)
Demand for lumber became relatively strong during 1972, and there was a
significant improvement in the pulp market.
With continuing public concern over use of forest land, the Service's public
relations programme placed heavy emphasis on the "balanced use" concept.
Other highlights of 1972:
• Collection of drift logs under log salvage regulations totalled 9,864,322 cubic feet
—an increase of some 2,800,000 cubic feet over 1971.
• Export of logs, down 60 per cent from 1971, virtually ceased early in 1972 when
log stocks reached a seriously low level. At year's end logs were still in short
supply.
• Stocks of wood chips (a surplus situation earlier in the year) were substantially
reduced.   Some plants even faced shortages.
• There were nine inventory projects undertaken during the year and the area
inventoried was 26,936,336 acres.
• To provide access for replanting the Van Fire area in the Prince Rupert Forest
District, engineering crews completed a bridge across the Babine River and
worked on the first 10 miles of the Nilkitkwa River Forest Road beyond the
bridge.
• Field survey crews completed 255 miles of road location.
• A second shallow-draught "pusher" tug, the Forest Mariner, was commissioned
for pondage-clearance work.
• Nearly 1,000 students and other young people were employed by the Forest Service throughout the summer.
• Site-preparation work on the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir continued
with an additional 1,180 acres treated. Nearly 260 acres were treated in the
Duncan Reservoir area; while Williston Lake reached full pool, ending the pre-
flood programme, and with some 95,700 acres treated. The waterway-improvement programme on the Mica Reservoir continued with the treatment of 10,400
acres.
• There were 1,903 forest fires in British Columbia in 1972. This compared with
2,898 in 1971, and the record number of 4,003 in 1970.    Lightning was the
11
 V 12
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
largest single cause of the 1972 fires, accounting for 583 (30.7% of the total).
Forest Service fire-fighting costs totalled $2,287,710. The cost to other parties
was $1,707,987. The 1972 forest fires burned 64,413 acres—compared with the
10-year average of 229,487 acres.
More than 48,000,000 seedlings were provided for planting projects on a total
of 110,794 acres; and a total of 993,683 lineal feet of seed-beds was sown in
1972. The inventory from 1972 sowing is estimated at 68,128,000 plantable
trees.
In the Service's first operational year in the recreation programme, nearly 300
camping-sites were established or improved, and an estimated 153,000 persons
used the sites.
For the new Forest Productivity Committee, 1972 was the first field season in the
managed-stand yield table programme, with 210 plots established and requiring
the measurement of some 55,000 trees.
Inter-racial crosses with Douglas fir, started in 1963, continued; and there appears
to be no incompatability barrier preventing successful crosses between trees thousands of miles apart.
Intensive research is under way relating to establishment of lodgepole pine plantations and growth control of container stock.
Forage production on most Crown range was above average, while use by domestic
stock declined.   Cattle prices reached record high levels.
 inventory division
SWORDFERN
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V  15
INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
The number of forest inventory projects was increased to nine this year. Due
to the size of the Finlay PSYU, where it was necessary to establish three separate
field parties, and the Liard PSYU, where only half the unit could be completed, only
six and one-half units were inventoried. Nevertheless, the acreage inventoried rose
from 15,547,540 acres in 1971 to 26,936,336 acres in 1972.
The Growth and Yield Section was expanded and two subsections established—
natural stands and managed stands. The latter subsection will collect tree-growth
data for the Forest Productivity Programme.
FOREST CLASSIFICATION AND SAMPLING
Seven of the nine field parties undertaking the classification of forest-cover
types and the sampling of mature and immature types were located throughout the
northern half of the Province. Three of these had to be assigned to the Finlay
PSYU because it was from three to six times as large as any of the other units being
inventoried. One party was headquartered at Germansen Lake, one at Ingenika at
the north end of Lake Williston, and one on a self-contained float camp on the lake.
The barge unit included a helicopter pad.
Due to the almost complete lack of road access in the Liard, Klappan, Finlay,
and Peace projects, and the size of some of the units and the addition of a ninth
project, four helicopters were used for air classification and transportation of
sampling crews and equipment. For the same reasons, a considerable amount of
fixed-wing flying-time was required. Again, because of the lack of road access, river
and lake transportation was used to a great extent, with both powered craft and
rubber rafting.
UNIT STANDARD INVENTORY
Table A—1972 Field Work
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Mature
Immature
389
66
93
47
75
98
55
659
373
164
124
241
238
296
409
77
217
•56
113
116
242
12,282,815
4,453,294
2,006,702
3,831,431
1,463,610
1,775,458
Spallumcheen -	
1,123,026
823
2,095
1,230
26,936,336
GROWTH AND YIELD SECTION
Natural Stands
A total of 153 new permanent growth plots were established in the Nicola,
Similkameen, and Kamloops PSYU's. The remeasurement cycle went into its second
year and 20 permanent sample plots in the Victoria watershed and on the Sechelt
Peninsula were remeasured.
Fifty-one local volume over-age curves were constructed using data collected
in the Eagle, Quesnel, Kingcome (Broughton portion), Takla, Sikanni, Dawson
 V 16 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Creek, and Longworth PSYU's. Diameter over-age curves were also drawn for
these units. Site-index curves based on both 50- and 100-year reference ages
were completed for cedar and spruce on the Coast and spruce in the Interior.
Managed Stands
The main problems encountered in the reconnaissance or location stage were:
(1) Finding suitable areas on aerial photos meeting requirements of
uniform texture, slope, and species composition:
(2) Finding areas in the field from those above that meet soil requirements and (or) have not been thinned or fertilized already (especially a problem in accessible portions of TFL's):
(3) Finding areas that meet all the above specifications but do not have
the uniformity on the ground as seen on the photo (some disturbance
has occurred since the photos were taken, such as snow damage), or
the stand is infected by root rot or mistletoe.
During the summer, 202 square plots 0.05 hectare in size in 17 installations,
and eight square plots 0.10 hectare in size in one installation, were established,
with each plot having a buffer zone of equal size surrounding it. Over 55,000 trees
were recorded.
All measurements were taken in metric units. Each tree 5.0 cm. in d.b.h. and
larger was tagged. Ten sample tree heights and five ages were taken from each plot.
The plots were marked for low-level 70-mm. photography, using white signal
cotton.
Thinning operations commenced in early October and Inventory crews completed measurements on 78 of the thinned plots by December and on 36 plots which
were not due to be thinned. Remaining measurements will be completed next spring.
In September, 70-mm. photography of the plots was undertaken. Considerable difficulty was experienced in locating the plots from a helicopter moving at
about 40 m.p.h. Other methods of plot location or larger helicopters will have to
be checked out next year. The photographs developed to date indicate it may be
necessary to refly some areas next spring.
VOLUME AND DECAY SECTION
The continuing decay studies in the hemlock-cedar wet belt were confined to
the North Arm of Quesnel Lake. A total of 641 hemlock and cedar trees was felled
and measured on nine study areas.
Volume table and loss factor sampling covered six northern units—Finlay, Fort
Nelson, Klappan, Sikanni, Stuart Lake, and Takla PSYU's.
Immature Douglas fir trees selected from the eastern slopes of Vancouver Island
were felled, sectioned, and measured as a start toward the construction of managed-
stand volume tables.
Volume and depletion studies will be extended to far northern units such as
the Liard, Kechika, and Dease PSYU's, while the hemlock-cedar decay studies continue in the Shuswap and Barriere PSYU's.
MAPPING AND DATA PROCESSING SECTION
Eight survey reports were published during 1972 for areas surveyed to unit
standards. These were Aleza Lake Forest Reserve, Dawson Creek SSA, Eagle
PSYU, Broughton portion of Kingcome PSYU, Longworth PSYU, Quesnel Lake
PSYU, Sikanni PSYU (proposed), and Takla PSYU.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 17
Table B—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1971 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area in Acres
Volume in
Cunits for
Crown
Alienated
Total
Mature
Crown Area
3
163
24
91
68
94
206
105
19,665
2,027,696
351,854
1,242,694
1,215,095
2,073,296
•   4,403,067
2,207,269
19,665
3,919,867
387,629
1,343,013
1,261,968
2,131,294
4,417,342
2,227,425
153,5601
1,892,171
35,775
100,319
46,873
57,998
14,275
20,156
3,165,2801
Eagle	
8,326,9401
46,362,9102
31,980,4101
40,952,4601
10,438,5601
37,810,1601
Totals	
754
13,540,636
2,167,567
15,708,203
179,190,280
i Volume at 7.1"+d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
2 Volume at 9.1"-)-d.b.h close utilization less decay.
Requests for 36 inventory summaries were received during the year. Area
involved was 2,773,667 acres and volume at Close "U" was 4,867,468 M c.f.
Land-purchase applications in the Prince George SSA accounted for only three
of the 36 requests, representing an area of 1,420 acres and a volume of 70 M c.f. at
7.1"+C.D.
In June a revised edition of the Forest Inventory Statistics of British Columbia
was published. All field work up to and including 1970 was incorporated.
The number of final forest-cover maps produced during the year dropped
slightly to 754. The number of maps supplied to all departments, however, rose
over 15 per cent to 23,300. The number of map reductions printed in the 1860
Xerox also rose by about the same percentage to 37,600 copies.
Eight Provincial forest reserves were gazetted during the year—Arrowhead,
Eagle, Edgewood, Nakusp, Salmon Arm, Shuswap, Spallumcheen, and Takla. Altogether, 47 forests have been established.
Under the Provincial Forestry Youth Programme, 48 persons were hired for
the summer months and proved invaluable to the Division. About half of them were
employed in making transfer sheets for a volume and depletion programme which
will take four years to complete at the rate achieved this year. About an equal
number were employed in making coloured key maps for unit survey reports. The
remainder were employed on various jobs in the office and at the warehouse.
  research division
FIREWEED
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 21
RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1972 will appear in the
Forest Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
FOREST-LAND CLASSIFICATION
The geology, landforms, and soils of 40,000 acres in Kitimat Valley and 30,000
acres burnt over in the Van Fire were mapped for the Prince Rupert District. The
maps will be used to plan reforestation programmes.
A soil survey was undertaken for the Reforestation Division and a report
prepared on the value and use of alternative sites for a nursery, clone banks, and
seed orchards in the Kamloops Forest District.
Geology-landform-soil and air-photo courses were presented in Prince George
and Victoria through the education facilities at New Caledonia College, University
of Victoria, and Camosun College. These courses were well attended by personnel
from many Government departments and industry.
A bibliography of resource information was prepared for the Prince George
Forest District. It contains illustrative maps, tables, and references on climate, bedrock geology, landforms, forest regions, hydrology, mining, recreation, wildlife, and
fisheries.
A soils compendium is included with detailed information on all soils previously
reported by Federal and Provincial soil survey agencies. A soils compendium for
Vancouver Island is in press.
The response of Douglas fir growing on five major soils to macronutrients and
micronutrients is under investigation in the Sayward Forest, Vancouver Island. Statistical analyses of diameter and height measurements are in progress.
In a study of ecological classifications, vegetation data of 735 plots located from
Sinclair Mills to Smithers in the north central Interior were classified by dissimilarity
analysis—a polythetic hierarchical divisive method. The analysis divided the data
into 45 final groups. The results are being interpreted in terms of habitat factors
related to final groups.
PROVENANCE AND TREE BREEDING
The total heights and diameters at one-third height were measured on all Douglas fir trees at 14 provenance test-sites, totalling 100 acres. Maintenance crews
controlled vegetation, prevented browsing, replaced dead plants, and removed wild
seedlings on 39 acres.
Total heights and diameters at one-third total height were measured on the
eight test-sites planted with intraspecific crosses of Douglas-fir. This represents 34
acres of plantations which have now been measured for the second time since they
were planted. Research Note 55, summarizing the performance of the intraspecific
crosses up to the end of 1971, was published.
Some 30,500 seedlings from crosses within and between inbred lines of Douglas
fir were transplanted in the spring. Root-tip samples were removed throughout the
growing season and prepared for cytological study. The first S3 inbreds germinated
in the seed-beds and have all survived to date.
Crosses of Douglas fir plus trees made in 1971 (E.P. 707), using a factorial
mating design, were sown at Cowichan in the spring of 1972. Twenty-five clones
are represented as female parents, all of which were crossed with the same four male
 V 22
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
testers. The field design calls for 400 seedlings from each cross, and there are now
over 61,000 seedlings at the 1-0 stage.
The objective of a new project (E.P. 708) is to provide material and information through progeny testing and reselection procedures so that Douglas fir seed
orchards incorporating the greatest genetic gain may be established to meet future
reforestation requirements.
The seed produced by controlled pollination in 1971 and not allocated to E.P.
707 is being held in storage until it can be fitted into field testing. Controlled pollination is also being carried out when the opportunity arises to add to this pool of
seed from which test populations will be drawn. Production of strobili was light in
1972, but pollinations were carried, out at the Forest Experiment Station and at
the Tahsis Co. seed orchard in Saanich. MacMillan Bloedel foresters also co-operated actively to produce crosses for this project.
A total of 35,000 filled seeds was obtained, representing 55 crosses.
Field trials of 30 contorta provenances, grown at two nurseries, were planted
in the Nechako and Cranbrook PSYU's in May 1971. Spring and fall assessments,
including second-year height measures, have been completed. Data from Prince
George have been checked and computerized; data from Nelson are due.
Field trials, using surplus stock from a nursery study of variation among 144
provenances, were established in June 1972.
Staff from the Kamloops and Vancouver Forest Districts co-operated in planting 43 provenances in 10 blocks in both the Dewdney and Stum PSYU's. First-
year survival and height growth were recently assessed, the data computerized but
not yet analysed. High mortality (50 per cent) in several blocks is associated with
severe root-pruning, bad planting, and late planting.
Surplus stocks from nursery studies of 780 wind-pollinated families were
planted in the Willow PSYU in September 1971. Their purpose is to permit the
estimation of genetic parameters of breeding stock included in the Red Rock arboretum. Maintenance work in the 65-acre plantation during the current year includes
staking and tagging.
A comparative field test of 153 range-wide provenances in four climatic zones
is being planned to guide racial selection by district reforestation officers. The trials
will also permit long-term study of variation.
Two-year-old seedlings are growing in three randomized blocks at Red Rock
Nursery. During the summer, growth rhythms were estimated and compared by
measuring shoot and needle extension during the growing season. This material also
provided evidence of blight—the first recorded incidence on lodgepole pine of a
disease which has caused significant losses on other species in both forest and nursery
in Europe and the United States. Lodgepole pine provenances from the Wet Belt,
North Cascades, and Sierras appear to be especially susceptible. A manuscript has
been prepared for the Canadian Journal of Forest Research.
October assessments of grafts indicate the "take" of 2,378 ramets of 75 northern plus trees to be 80.2 per cent. Second-year losses were negligible. Clones of
91 plus trees from north central British Columbia were propagated early in 1973.
Eighty-five per cent of 3,955 grafts are healthy.
A 13-acre arboretum comprising 81 coastal, frost-tender provenances is well
established in the North Arm of Lake Cowichan Experiment Station. Although
intended primarily as a reserve of breeding, scientific, and educational material, it
has been laid out in two fully randomized blocks of 30-tree plots to facilitate both
protection and crude statistical evaluation. As a basis for future growth comparisons, height measures were recorded in November, after "beating-up" the less than
1 per cent mortality since planting in April 1972.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 23
Delayed site-preparation, late spring, and access problems necessitated a postponement of the planting of the Red Rock arboretum until spring 1973. This
decision also necessitated the retransplanting of 24.3 thousand pre-bundled and
labelled stock. The decision was fortunate for an opportunity was provided to install
a more informative design for the 780 families and 91 provenances to be included
on the 90-acre tract.  The layout is staked-out and the additional tagging completed.
To evaluate the potential of wide-crossing as a means of obtaining increased
yield in lodgepole pine, seed of 14 intraspecific crosses was sown at Red Rock in
May. The crosses had been made by Dr. A. Fletcher, of the British Forestry Commission, and hybrids include north x south coast, coast x interior, north interior x
south interior.
Two-year-old plants of six diverse shore pine populations have been grown at
Lake Cowichan. Test-sites have been selected in the Kitimat Valley and the Lens
Creek drainage. The latter will use Nelder variable-spacing design. The objective
is to investigate provenance reactions to environmental stresses and to determine the
relationship between initial spacing and individual tree and stand parameters as well
as the interaction with provenance effects.
Forty-nine Sitka spruce seed lots were sown at Lake Cowichan in May, 1972.
They will be planted at three test-sites located on the Queen Charlottes, Kitimat
Trench, and northwest Vancouver Island. These provenances include the 10
"standard" provenances being incorporated by 12 European countries in an international study of geographic variation in this species. Data from these provenances
in the British Columbia tests will permit interpolation and extrapolation from test
data obtained in the more intensive European experiments.
The objectives of a new project (E.P. 702) are to propagate and preserve for
breeding purposes potentially valuable clones of Sitka spruce. In February, some
126 grafts were made with scions from three trees located in a severely weeviled
plantation at Green Timbers. The ortets are believed to be weevil resistant. Survival of the three clones are 2.5, 26, and 52.5 per cent. The ramets have been lined
out in the North Road Nursery.
There has been good progress in the tree-improvement programme for the
Interior spruces, white and Engelmann. At Red Rock Nursery, clone banks contain
grafts from tree selections that have been made in the Prince George, Prince Rupert,
and Nelson Forest Districts. Scions and seeds have been collected from 100 individual trees in each of the three forest districts. Clone banks have been established
and expanded yearly. The first of these clone banks was for the Prince George
Forest District and it is now capable of providing an estimated number of 580
scions for the purpose of establishing a seed orchard.
In the East Kootenay clone bank an additional 127 grafts were planted and the
bank now consists of 292 grafts. The Smithers clone bank (Prince Rupert District)
was established during the year by planting 189 grafts. Ultimately it will contain
approximately 550 grafts, and a further 258 grafts of scions from 27 trees have
been potted in the greenhouse.
Half-sib progeny trials have commenced. A plantation of 11,190 seedlings
from selected trees in the Prince George District was placed on a specially prepared
site at Aleza Lake in May. Survival in October was 97 per cent. Additional test-
sites have been prepared at Barbie Lake, Quesnel, and Red Rock.
Seeds from 110 selected trees in the East Kootenay were sown in the Red Rock
Nursery. Average germination was 80 per cent. The half-sib seedlings are being
grown for field testing in the Nelson District in 1974.
 V 24
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Three hundred and sixty-eight Engelmann x Sitka spruce seedlings were grown
in styroblocks in the greenhouse and transplanted in the nursery at Red Rock in
August. The objective of this experiment is to study the behaviour and performance
of hybrids under central Interior environmental conditions.
Three hundred and thirteen potted exotic spruces were delivered to the Chilliwack picetum.
A picetum was established in the spring at Red Rock. A total of 520 seedlings
was planted, representing 26 seed sources and 13 species. Survival in October was
100 per cent.
Dr. Gene Namkoong visited British Columbia during July and August at the
request of the Research Division. He submitted a report of a consultation on all
the tree-breeding programmes. The report is under study and a second meeting with
Dr. Namkoong will take place early next year.
SEEDLING PHYSIOLOGY STUDIES
Potassium requirements of Douglas fir and Interior spruce, growing on sandy
nursery soils, were investigated by means of frequency and level of application experiments at Red Rock and Surrey Nurseries. Results indicate routine dressings of
potassium, currently used by the nurseries, are adequate for first year's growth.
At the request of the Productivity Committee, the value of foliar analysis for
predicting stand response to fertilizer treatment was examined. A review of the
literature on the subject indicated current methods involving measurement of foliar
nutrient concentrations are of limited predictive value, but that measurement of
specific amino acids could provide more sensitive measures of stand nutrient status.
Research has commenced to determine whether measurement of amino acids in
Douglas fir foliage is a feasible approach.
Frost-hardiness studies were continued to assess the effect of weather conditions, particularly frosts, on development of hardiness in 2-0 Douglas fir. In all
experiments, absolute hardiness has been determined by freezing tests together with
1 kiloherz: 1 megaherz stem impedance ratios in order to establish the general
validity of impedance ratio for rapid hardiness assessment.
An experiment conducted at four nurseries, with the assistance of the Reforestation Division, examined the value of four herbicides for weed control in conifer
seed-beds. Prometone appeared to control weeds as effectively as propazine, but
may affect seedling survival more than propazine. Screening tests further confirmed
that other triazine herbicides are well tolerated by most conifers.
Two Ph.D. graduates were hired, on an annual contract basis, to work on
currently important problems concerning establishment of lodgepole pine plantations
and growth control of container stock. Lodgepole pine establishment is being considered primarily in terms of planting-stock root growth and root regeneration.
Nutrient, water stress, and photoperiod treatments are being tested to assess their
value in controlling growth and inducing dormancy of container-grown conifer
seedlings.
SILVICULTURE
Prince George and Prince Rupert Districts
Consultations were held with Northwood Pulp Ltd. and British Columbia Forest
Products Ltd. on current and proposed silvicultural projects. Assistance was provided to district personnel for a broadcast seeding project at Barbie Lake and a
silvicultural evaluation was made of 400 acres which had been clearcut by Dunkley
Lumber Co. Ltd.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 25
Five provenance experiments were measured for the survival and growth of
Douglas fir, lodgepole pine, and Interior spruce. Field assessments of the survival
and growth of container-grown seedlings and of the performance of white spruce
seedlings planted during the growing season are continuing.
Tap-root malformation is suspected as a major reason for the many toppling
lodgepole pines observed in newly established plantations. Five-year-old sample
trees were excavated for a study of tap-root malformation at four localities of a
previously completed planting trial. Root lengths and root habits were recorded.
Measurements are being compiled as supporting information to the new study.
The critical lifting period for lodgepole pine is being investigated simultaneously
in the Red Rock Nursery. The objectives are: (1) to determine the safe periods for
handling and planting of freshly lifted lodgepole pine stock, (2) to study the
behaviour of cold-stored stock when lifted on two dates in the spring and planted
throughout the summer, and (3) to relate survival, initial growth, frost susceptibility,
and moisture stress with planting date, climatic data, and condition of plants during
the growing season over a period of three years.
A new project has been established to study the root development of nursery-
grown lodgepole pine seedlings in relation to planting techniques, age-class of stock,
root-pruning, tap-root habit of wildings, and soil characteristics on three major pine
site-types in the Prince George Forest District.
Kamloops Forest District
The district forestry crew and student assistants spaced 50 acres of a 10-year-
old natural stand of lodgepole pine. Assistance was provided to select treatments
and plot sites. Thirty-five acres were spaced 8x8 feet in two separate blocks and
the remaining acreage was divided into three 4-acre blocks spaced to 0 feet (control),
10 feet, and 12 feet. The purpose is to provide spaced stands useful for future
growth (simulation) studies.
Plots established in the 1971 direct seeding of Douglas fir and lodgepole pine
in the cedar-hemlock rehabilitation project area near Enderby were re-examined.
Reports were prepared on the quality of alpine fir residuals in clearcut spruce-
alpine fir types and on the post-treatment of lodgepole pine cutover areas. During
1971 and 1972, approximately 40 clearcut blocks, ranging from 10 to 500 acres
and cutover for periods from one to four years, were examined for seed-bed, cone
distribution, and regeneration.
In co-operation with the Grazing Division, the survival and growth of lodgepole
pine on cutover areas that have been seeded to nonrhizomous grass for grazing of
cattle is being monitored closely. Nine areas sown with grass during 1971/72 were
examined for success of sowing. Plot establishment to study effects of grass on
natural and planted seedlings was completed on seven areas and data collected. Two
areas have not been used for observations.
Climatic stations were established on eight of the areas in co-operation with
the climatology sector of the B.C. Land Inventory. These were maintained through
the late spring, summer, and autumn seasons. An additional nine areas in the
Kamloops and Cariboo Forest Districts have been selected for grass sowing and
study in 1973.
Tenth-year measurements of all trees within the 4x4, 8x8, 12x12, 16x16,
and 20 x 20 foot spacings were added to the experimental record of a ponderosa pine
planting trial.
 V 26
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The survival and height of western larch seedlings planted at 6x6, 8x8,
12 x 12, and 16x16 foot spacings in 1-acre blocks were measured five years after
planting.
Nelson Forest District
The second five-year height measurement was made in late fall at both the
Rock Creek and Cherry Creek replications of the ponderosa pine spacing trial
reported under the Kamloops District.
The effectiveness of the district drag scarifier in inducing natural regeneration
of lodgepole pine is being evaluated at Elk and Wuho Creeks in the East Kootenay
and Goathide Creek and Kettle River in the West Kootenay. Regeneration surveys
will be carried out in the fall of 1973.
A 10-year reassessment was made in late October of yellow pine planting trials
planted between 1960 and 1962 (Research Note 41). B.C. Hydro is planning to
run a power-line through the Findlay Creek replications.
All equipment has been removed from the Mosquito Creek location in a study
of seed dispersal and natural regeneration in the Columbia Forest Zone. The area
will be abandoned after the results of a regeneration survey made in summer 1972
are assessed.  The seed catch from the good cone crop of 1971 has been counted.
Assessment of the attempt to record last year's onto-snow seedfall at the experimental location near Murphy Creek is proving to be intractable. There was a poor
cone crop of both cedar and hemlock at Murphy Creek this year, though a few
hemlock cones were collected for germination tests.
Engelmann spruce season of planting trials is nearing completion at three areas
—Cedar Creek, Rodd Creek, and Monk Creek. Preliminary evaluation of the data
suggests the best time to plant is probably in the spring.
The bud-forcing study carried out on spruce and fir from the Golden area
correctly indicated a poor cone crop for 1972.
The cone crop in four permanent study areas was negligible, fairly representing
the cone crop in the central and eastern portions of the district. The western portion
(Kettle and Granby areas) had a better, though still poor, cone crop that was heavily
infested with insects.
The juvenile growth behaviour of 30 lodgepole pine provenances at Negro
Creek appears to be generally excellent. Leader growth of 15 inches was recorded
in second year after planting.
Vancouver Forest District
An analysis of the reforestation problems at high-elevation planting-sites is
being undertaken to identify primary causes of planting failures and to recommend
improved practices. Consideration is also being given to factors affecting natural
regeneration and the place of tree-species such as yellow cedar and mountain hemlock in future reforestation programmes.
Problem areas have been visited and discussions have been held with field foresters and with research foresters in the Canada Forest Service and at the University
of British Columbia. In Northern Washington, noble fir was found to be the most
resistant of the true firs to the balsam woolly aphid and was also the fastest grower
at high elevation. Douglas fir was not planted above 3,500 feet a.s.l., snowbreak
being a seriously limiting factor. Main factors for early survival, however, were
dependent on depth of mineral soil and soil moisture.
It was suggested several years ago that mudpack seedlings could be used to
extend the normal planting season on the Coast into late spring and summer.  To
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 27
assess this possibility, 2-0 and 1-0 mudpacks were planted at four dates, beside
2-0 bare-root seedlings lifted in the dormant condition and those lifted during the
growing season. Plantations were established in two years using 23 plots within
six locations. Plots were distributed to give a good sample of slopes, aspects, soils,
and ground cover.   Five of the six locations were at high elevation.
Third-year results indicated normal bare-root stock was superior to the remaining treatments.
In survival, the bare-root stock was equivalent to, or in many plots superior to,
both 1-0 and 2-0 mudpacks on all planting dates.
In total height, bare-root stock was superior to both mudpack stocks on all
plantings, while even in the third growing season its current growth was also superior.
For the different planting dates, the best results were given for all treatments
in the first two plantings. Summer-lifted stock was shown to be unsatisfactory.
This result was confirmed by the third-year assessment.
The study showed that using criteria of survival and growth, while neglecting
economic aspects, bare-root stock which was well planted could give excellent
results in an extended planting season. However, the distribution and quantity of
summer precipitation will influence success. Neither 2-0 nor 1-0 mudpacks at
this time appear suitable for extending the planting season or offering improved
survival and growth.
Thinning plots established by the Research Division in 1952 at Lake Cowichan
are proving very useful to current tree and stand growth simulation studies. A
schedule of thinnings based upon the system of research suggested by O'Connor at
the 1935 British Empire Forestry Conference in South Africa is now nearing completion.
Stem charts were constructed for 17 plots by plotting to a scale of 5 feet to 1
inch the positions of live trees and tagged stumps still identifiable from previous
thinnings.
At the Cowichan Lake Experimental Station, improvements to grounds and
existing facilities were continued. These included stumping and additional cleaning
of another 12 acres of the previously logged area, clean-up of 2,000 feet of beach
in the vicinity of the camp, installation of new culverts, and widening of the station
road.
Due to the change in nursery practice from bare-root to container-grown seedlings, a study was made to determine the feasibility of producing container-grown
seedlings at the station without the use of a heated greenhouse.
On July 1 the Reforestation Camp at Cowichan Lake was transferred to the
Research Division.
DATA PROCESSING
The numerous checks involved in the design of a seed orchard has initiated a
computerized seed-orchard layout programme that simplifies planning and eliminates
errors. The programme is based on a randomized-block design using two ramets
of each clone within a block with the restriction that ramets of the same clone should
not occur as neighbours within any given block. Although some manual adjustment
may be necessary to fit blocks together, this programme could be useful in seed-
orchard planning, where the above design is accepted.
A new computerized system has been completed to summarize and analyse the
Productivity Committee's fertilizer-thinning treatment trials. The first stage calculates plot basal areas by sectors and plot mean diameters for each installation and
randomly assigns the treatments to each plot. The second stage lists the information
for each tree in a plot and gives the 20 per cent and 35 per cent (±5%) thinning
 V 28
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
restrictions on basal area by sectors. Once the trees to be thinned have been marked,
the third step is implemented which summarizes the thinned plots only, number of
live trees, basal area, mean diameter and d/D ratio for the "before," "thinned,"
and "after" categories. This system will be revised this winter as field experience
to date has altered the requirements of the project.
Another new system has been designed to do the tedious calculations involved
in thinning studies. It requires enough sample diameter and height measurements
for a plot to make it possible to derive a relationship between the two. The final
report is a plot summary giving frequency, the totals for basal area and volume, and
the averages for diameter, height, and volume for the "before," "thinned," "dead,"
and "after" categories of each d.b.h. inch class. Plot totals are given for each category on both a total and per acre basis. This summary can be modified to be suitable
for any number of different species and should prove to be useful for any thinning
programme.
A programme is now available for seedling physiology research which computes
net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, and diffusive resistance to the transfer of water
vapour so that data collected from infrared gas analyses equipment can be processed.
Assistance was given to the Reforestation Division in the evaluation of their
container planting trials, to the Productivity Committee in scheduling various activities in their spacing and fertilizing experiments, to BCLI in their plant sociology
studies, to Management Division in lumber-recovery factor calculations, and to
Forest Engineering in evaluating truck performances.
 EASTER   LILY
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 31
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST TREE SEED
Tree-seed Improvement
At the Koksilah Seed Orchard (Mainland High Elevation), seed strobili
developed on 5 per cent of the trees, but survival of the conelets was poor. This is
likely due to the inability of the young trees to withstand the nutrient drain of cone
production.    Indications are for a poor seed crop in 1973 at this orchard.
At the Campbell River Seed Orchard (Island High Elevation), little flowering
occurred during 1972, due primarily to tree distress prior to graft mortality. Three
controlled crosses were conducted and bulk seed collections made from the remaining trees (yields yet to be evaluated). Commercial fertilizers applied during the
year appeared to increase tree vigour, and urea applied to grafted trees early in
the flushing stage seems to have stimulated reproductive bud formation. Pollen
density sampling was carried out, but results were incomplete.
Planting of the North Coast half-sib seedling orchard (Campbell River) was
completed in 1972 and the orchard now consists of 1,276 seedlings representing
41 family and provenance collections. Flowering occurred on 12 six-year-old
trees and yielded 130 cones.
Crown and private lands were examined in the Ladysmith and Saanich areas
to determine a site for the Dewdney Seed Orchard (Coast-Interior Transition).
Collections of scion material from 88 trees in the source area were made in
the fall, with grafting and rooting planned for next spring.
In the Vancouver Forest District, 36.9 acres of seed-production area were maintained and a further 21.5 acres developed and treated with 3.5 tons of fertilizer.
None of the areas produced a usable cone crop in 1972, and there was only limited
activity on Interior production areas.
On the Coast, a bud survey in the fall indicated a negligible to light crop in
Douglas fir and hemlock in 1973.
Development of the Prince George Seed Orchard continued, with sufficient
land now ready to receive some 18,000 seedlings planned for outplanting next
year. A small lodgepole pine clone bank was established near the Red Rock
administration area and improvements were made to the lower clone bank-site.
Koksilah Seed Centre
Early in the spring the centre weighed and treated 1,319.325 kgm. of seed
for the sowing of bare-root and container nurseries. A further 264.502 kgm. were
prepared for direct seeding.   A total of 802 separate seed tests was conducted.
Although there were no collectable seed crops of major species in 1972,
7,734 bushels of lodgepole pine cones were collected in the Interior; 5,287 bushels
of lodgepole pine and 10 bushels of hemlock were extracted. A total of 18,464.590
kgm. of seed was in storage at the end of 1972.
A new controlled environment germinator and a refrigerator were acquired
for the seed centre and minor changes were made in the seed storage units. The
centre staff carried out studies to improve the efficiency and results of standard testing procedures related to nursery production. An up-to-date table of seed yields
was produced and included in the brochure on lodgepole pine collecting which was
distributed to Forest Service, industry, and other interested agencies.
 V 32 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST NURSERIES
Heavy January snowfalls at all coastal nurseries followed by cool, moist
weather delayed lifting of trees and preparation of land for sowing. In some cases
lifting was delayed to the extent stock started to break dormancy before it could be
lifted. This created problems, with planting also delayed due to snow conditions.
However, most stock reached the planting-sites in good condition.
During the year, more than 48 million seedlings were shipped to planting
projects throughout the Province. Of this total the breakdown by species was
Douglas fir, 65 per cent; Interior spruce, 10.5 per cent; Sitka spruce, 6.4 per cent;
lodgepole pine, 16.5 per cent; and western hemlock, 1.5 per cent.
A total of 993,683 lineal feet of seed-beds was sown in 1972. Some nurseries reported good germination while others experienced difficulty with certain
species or seed provenances. Cool weather during the spring months retarded
growth at most nurseries, but weather improved during the summer and early fall
and adequate seedling growth was achieved. Early fall frosts were prevalent and
some damage was sustained. An outbreak of Arctic air in early December may
have damaged some stock.
The inventory from 1972 sowing is estimated at 68,128,000 plantable trees,
of which 60,869,000 should be available as 2-0 stock in the 1973/74 planting
season, and the remaining 7,259,000 as transplant stock in the 1974/75 season.
These totals will be increased by stock produced for planting in the developing
container nurseries.
In the construction of new facilities and the preparation of additional nursery
space, 1972 was an active year for all nurseries. The highlight of the year was the
decision to develop the Skimikin Nursery site near Salmon Arm. Development
started in early June, and 26 acres were rough-cleared, with 6 acres prepared for
the sowing of seed-beds in spring 1973. Other development work at Skimikin
included fencing, access roads, power-line right-of-way, and drilling of wells. A
number of temporary buildings was erected for storage sheds, a workshop, an
implement shed, and three porta-buildings were set up for offices.
At Surrey Nursery, 78 acres were rough-cleared and a final clean-up was
completed on a further 34 acres. Construction at Surrey included a 13-bay implement shed, sorting building, and two cooler units. Construction of two further
cooler units and a workshop is nearing completion. Approximately 2.6 miles of
road were gravelled and considerable renovation and new installation to the irrigation system were completed.
Twelve acres were cleared and a further 11 acres were prepared for sowing
at the Chilliwack Nursery. A large implement shed was constructed in 1972 and
the nursery office building, sowing shed, and workshop are under construction.
Development at the Campbell River Nursery continued with the clearing of
additional seed-bed areas and construction of sheds and a lunchroom and a start
on construction of a new office building. Work continued on installation of field
drainage and extension of the irrigation systems.
At the Red Rock Nursery, tree-storage facilities were expanded and other
minor construction works completed. Work started on construction of an additional seedling storage unit at Koksilah.
A system of mechanical lifting and indoor sorting of bare-root stock developed
for large-scale nursery operations was tried successfully at Surrey, Chilliwack, and
Red Rock.
No development of additional container-growing facilities was undertaken in
1972 so methods, procedures, and equipment could be evaluated and tested.   For
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 33
Five - month - old Douglas fir seedlings
being grown  in styroblock containers at
Surrey Nursery.
Clear plastic canopy protects these container seedlings at the Forest Service
nursery at Duncan.
 V 34
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 35
this reason production decreased from 7,152,000 seedlings in 1971 to 3,320,000
in 1972.
Seedlings moved from the Surrey Nursery to Interior locations in the fall of
1971 overwintered successfully and appeared to be in better condition for planting
in the spring.
Each year progress continues in container production culture.    For example:
Adjustment of the fertilizer regime to high phosphorus in the spring and
fall has produced seedlings of improved quality.
Removal of excess seedlings in each cavity was undertaken at the germi-
nant stage by pulling, rather than by clipping at a later stage, reducing production costs.
It was found seedlings can be conditioned for fall planting by early removal of
shade cloth and reduced applications of nitrogen.
Test work continued at Vernon, Red Rock, and Telkwa to determine the
feasibility of growing stock in the Interior of the Province.
Results indicate that in the Interior nurseries a combination of both greenhouse and outdoor growing will be necessary to assure plantable quality seedlings
in a one-year crop rotation.
A comparative test of plastic greenhouse and outdoor-grown hemlock was
undertaken at the Koksilah Nursery. Greenhouse-grown stock was found to be
superior in height, diameter, and root growth to outdoor-grown stock.
An assessment of winter storage methods indicated container seedlings may be
stored in cold rooms or under protective cover with good results. Further testing
of storage methods is planned for the fall of 1973.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
As an aid to reforestation planning and work-load distribution, an area-history
record system has been developed to provide an up-to-date summary of outstanding
N.S.R. and its condition, i.e., brushed-in, unburned slash, ready for planting, etc.
During the year, Forest Service personnel, supplemented with student youth
crews, examined 211,150 acres throughout the Province. Of this total, 100,825
acres (48 per cent) were found to be satisfactorily restocked or likely to restock
naturally within a short time. A total of 104,459 acres were classified as not-
stocked and plantable, and 5,866 acres were classified as unplantable because of
rock, swamp, or other condition.
More emphasis must be placed on the location and assessment of suspect
N.S.R. areas in the Interior to effectively plan future sowing and planting operations.
Field studies indicate about one-third. of the area presently not stocked in the
Interior will require site preparation before planting can take place. On the Coast,
the proportion of readily plantable sites is much higher.
During early summer, a comprehensive survey was made of the West Fire
which burned approximately 20,000 acres near Quesnel in 1971. Recommendations were prepared for the rehabilitation of the burned area and work commenced
in the fall of 1972. Similar work was undertaken on the Sue Fire area near Golden.
Orderly and efficient rehabilitation of these large burns is assured now that a
thorough survey has been made and the over-all project planned.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, composite maps are being prepared for
major drainages.   Seven such maps for the Bella Coola area are nearing completion.
Forest Service staff carried out an extensive programme of site preparation
for planting. A total of 8,192 acres was broadcast-burned under prescription, with
residual felling done on 6,073 acres.    A further 8,432 acres were scarified for
 V 36
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
planting or natural regeneration, and slash was windrowed or bunched on 4,881
acres in preparation for burning.
Sanitation and improvement work were completed on 2,748 acres. This included selective felling for control of mistletoe disease, juvenile spacing, pruning,
and plantation release. Most of this silvicultural work was conducted in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.
PLANTING
Clear, cool weather during March and April delayed the melt of the snow-pack
on planting areas. This delay created almost ideal spring planting conditions in the
Interior of the Province. Cool, moist weather was general in that region during
May and June, except in a few isolated areas where planting had to be suspended
temporarily because of high temperatures and lack of soil moisture. These conditions prevailed into July, and should favour plantation survival.
On the Coast the snow-pack delayed spring planting, but with favourable
weather conditions in May and June all projects were completed.
Fall planting was carried out under adverse conditions. Several Interior
operations were interrupted because of snow early in September and soon after
several projects were completely snowed out. On these projects seedling stocks
heeled-in on the site were banked up with snow and left over winter.
Production setbacks experienced by nurseries in 1971 permitted a moderate
increase in the planting programme for 1972. Significant losses of spruce seedlings
at the Red Rock Nursery seriously affected the programme planned for the northern
Interior. Total plantings by all agencies reached a new high of 48,394,000 trees on
110,794 acres, of which crews employed by the Forest Service planted 27,254,800
trees (56.5%) on 57,058 acres (the total does not include some 2,000 acres
replanted on earlier plantations destroyed by fire). A total of 5,221,000 trees
planted were container-grown seedlings (termed "plugs" or "repacks") outplanted
on a production basis. These were removed from the containers at the nursery,
repacked in pliofilm bags (each containing 25 trees), and forwarded to the planting-
site. A total of 2,627,000 was planted in the spring at twice the rate per man-day
that bare-root trees can be planted.
Although survival information has not yet been analysed for publication, results
of earlier experimental trials show a significant improvement in survival when
compared with bare-root stock planted under similar conditions. Growth data
from these trials are equally favourable for container-grown seedlings. It is anticipated container-grown tree production will be increased in 1973 to some 11,000,000
seedlings; with plans to continue planting production and survival field trials on a
larger scale.
The Forest Service awarded 33 planting contracts during the year, and
5,489,000 trees were contract planted on 12,414 acres. This represents 20.2 per
cent of the programme on Crown lands, a slight increase over 1971.
Planting by holders of timber sale harvesting licences increased significantly, a
trend which is expected to continue, particularly in the Interior. Altogether, 17
licensees planted 2,253,600 trees on 4,515 acres.
A total of 15,296 survival sample plots was established in the 1972 plantations
and a further 10,472 plots in earlier plantations were re-examined. In all districts,
survival of plantations varies considerably and a better system of reporting plantation establishment is needed to accurately identify the causes of mortality. In
general, spring planting results in higher rates of survival.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 37
CO-OPERATION
Expansion of the Provincial reforestation programme during a period when
nursery cultural techniques are being refined and mini-container culture is being
developed makes interdepartmental and interagency co-operation essential if the
programme is to succeed.
Forest Service container nurseries are being developed in co-operation with
the Canadian Forestry Service. During 1972 an automatic seeder for the styroplug
containers developed at UBC, under contract to the Canadian Forestry Service, was
successfully tested on a production scale.
The Canadian Forestry Service continued to act in an advisory capacity in
all phases of the container programme, from seed testing to outplanting. This
co-operation has been valuable in the field of equipment design and development
toward automated nursery operation. Co-operative studies continued on fertilizer
schedules, irrigation, the growing media, and conditions of temperature and light
required to produce seedlings of optimum size and quality in mini-containers.
Canadian Forestry Service staff also participated with the Research Division
in studies relating to perennial problems in bare-root nurseries—weeds, disease,
insects, and other factors affecting quantity and quality of stock produced. With
regard to nursery production, a number of reciprocal visits were arranged with
nurserymen and equipment suppliers in the United States, with new ideas and
approaches to problems gained. Two senior nurserymen attended the Western
Forest Nurserymen's Meeting in Olympia, Wash.
Staff and equipment from the Koksilah Nursery prepared a small transplant
nursery at the Cowichan Valley Forest Museum, installed drain tiles and an irrigation system. The Douglas fir plantation on the lower field—the first phase of the
"Continuous Forest"—was re-established after last year's planting failed because
of root rot in heavy clay soil. Drainage of the plantation area was improved to
prevent a recurrence.
All nurseries hosted tour groups throughout the year, most being college and
school classes. Red Rock Nursery again led in this field with 437 persons touring
in 15 separate groups. Nurseries also provided material for various fairs and displays, the largest of which was the Pacific National Exhibition.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL FORESTRY AND CORRECTIONS
CAMP PROGRAMME
During 1972, mechanization was introduced into several phases of the Forestry/Corrections programme, so many worth-while projects were completed despite
reduction in the over-all camp population. The work-release concept, initiated
in 1971, continued with good results and the achievements of these pre-release
inmates working out on a daily basis without Corrections supervision were of a
high standard.
The Stave Lake Waterways Project commenced late in 1971, and continued
through 1972 with a full crew. After a slow start, the men responded to training
and became more adept at operating machines and productivity gradually increased
as they gained experience. A similar operation with men from the Boulder Bay
camp continues at Upper Alouette Lake.
The co-operative programme continued to be of great assistance in the development and operation of our forest nurseries. Inmate crews prepared 41 acres at
three nurseries and assisted in the construction and installation of reservoirs, irrigation systems, field drains, buildings, perimeter fencing, and other works.    A total
 V 38
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
of 487,000 seedlings was transplanted and 506,000 plantable trees were shipped
from two inmate nurseries. Snowdon Nursery stopped production following lifting
in autumn 1971 and was converted to the North Coast half-sib seedling orchard.
The development and maintenance of access in the forestry programme occupies much of the crews' time and each year an increasing mileage of road, together
with bridges, must be maintained and improved. This year four new bridges (including spans of up to 70 ft.) and 2 miles of new road were constructed in addition
to routine maintenance.
Trained and equipped fire-suppression crews from two camps took an active
part in controlling and mopping up a large fire on Cracroft Island. Men from the
Hutda Lake Camp in the Prince George Forest District felled snags on 462 acres
in preparation for burning and assisted in manning a fire lookout during periods
of high hazard.
Inmate crews thinned, pruned, cleaned, or otherwise improved more than
90 acres of immature forest, planted 120,000 trees, and collected over 1,500
bushels of cones. Logs salvaged from these projects, and from the rehabilitation
of Stave and Alouette Lakes, provided raw material for Corrections' sawmills and
other minor product operations. Conversion of this material produced lumber,
timbers, shakes, posts, fuel wood, and other items for the forestry programme.
Work accomplished by these crews and their supervisors continues to be an
important ingredient in both the social and resource programmes of the Province.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 41
INFORMATION DIVISION
New and updated brochures, special displays featuring "balanced use" of
forest land, new sign programmes, and an increased number of television programmes dealing with Forest Service objectives and operations were all a part of
the Service's information programme throughout 1972. There was also a steady
flow of routine news releases and articles to the news media, magazines, and other
publications.
New brochures included The Management of British Columbia's Forest Lands,
Protecting Your Summer Home, The Cottonwood Story, and Williston Lake Timber
Salvage and Clean-up. Newspaper and bill-board advertisements augmented the
usual fire season publicity programme; an estimated 46,000 persons saw the Forest
Service display at the PNE; "Career Day" displays and programmes were presented
at Penticton, Nanaimo, Ladysmith, and Victoria; and a forest management display
was shown throughout the Prince Rupert Forest District and at the Cloverdale
Trade Fair.
The Campbell River cablevision station presented 13 half-hour programmes devoted to personnel and activities of the Service; and by year's end plans were under
way for a similar series for the cablevision outlet at Port Alberni.
Plans were completed for the production of a quarterly magazine, to be entitled Forestalk, and featuring articles and colour photos of Service objectives and
activities.   It's hoped the first issue will appear by the summer of 1973.
PHOTOGRAPHY
There was a drop in over-all print production, but an increase of over 100
per cent in colour print and 35-mm. slide production. Colour processing is still
contracted out because facilities and space do not allow for this work in the section's
single darkroom. Shortage of space was even more noticeable in 1972, with the
employment of three students as photographic assistants during the summer.
Over-all print production was 13,740 (5,592 in colour). Slide production
rose to 6,069—about 5,000 of these being duplicates. The emphasis to colour
was again reflected in additions to the photo library. While only 453 black and
white photos were added, 1,255 colour photos and 683 35-mm. colour slides were
filed.
Slide-show production mainly involved editing and sounding existing shows.
"Why Burn Slash?" was edited and sounded for the Prince Rupert Forest District;
and "Woodland Walk" purchased, duplicated in 12 sets, and sounded, for distribution early in 1973. A start was made on a slide show covering Forest Productivity Committee work.
Major assignments included comprehensive colour coverage of the Okanagan,
Chilliwack, and Sayward Provincial Forests, for use in exhibitions and brochures.
Coverage was given to 15 ecological reserves and many recreational sites.
In the summer one student photographed establishment and installation of Forest
Productivity Committee plots, another gave coverage to Protection Division tests
with primacord, and the third worked on slide duplication. Staff photographers
continued coverage of Williston Lake, Mica and Libby pondage work. Repeat
coverage was given to Red Rock experimental plots, first photographed in 1968.
 V 42
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
MOTION PICTURES
The 15-minute film "Trees Unlimited" was released early in the year with 12
copies in circulation.
Two films were shot during the year. The training film "Four Wheels and a
Winch" was completed to sounding, for release in January 1973. The other, dealing with the Sayward Forest, will be edited and sounded early in 1973.
Several activities, including suppression crew work, lifting and sorting at the
Koksilah Nursery, and classroom tours of the Cowichan Forest Museum, were shot
for television use. The Mica and Libby pondage operations were given progress
coverage.
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY
With still no relief from a space problem, the library continues to expand, with
some 1,500 additional publications added during 1972. The volumes have now
spread out to three additional storage areas. There was a notable increase in the
number of loans to Government and industrial foresters; and an average of 1,700
requests monthly for publications in the library's accession list.
Requests for interlibrary loans increased considerably, and much time was
saved because of co-operation by librarians at the Pacific Forest Research Centre
and the University of Victoria.
The librarian visited the Prince George Forest District library, and assisted
in establishing a library at the Williams Lake headquarters of the new Cariboo
Forest District.
FILM LIBRARY
Throughout 1972 the film library loaned 2,376 films, and they were seen by
a combined adult and student audience of 327,483. This compares with 2,689
loans and 341,320 viewers the previous year.
Twelve films from outside sources were previewed, but none was deemed
suitable. Twelve prints of the new Forest Service film "Trees Unlimited" were
added to the library.
DISPLAYS
In addition to the PNE's Festival of Forestry and career-day programmes, the
Forest Service also presented displays at teachers' professional development programmes at Chilliwack and Sooke; a hotelmen's convention in Vancouver; and
assisted in the Prince George fall fair.
EDUCATION
The direct "education" programme of the Division was varied and widespread.
It included a tour of schools in the Kamloops-Okanagan region, an outdoor classroom session in Vernon, and lectures to British Columbia Government and Chambers of Commerce travel counsellors. Requests from students and schools for
Forest Service information continued at a brisk pace, averaging 200 per month.
Significant assistance was extended to development of outdoor classroom facilities
and programmes at the Cowichan Valley Forest Museum. Personnel of the Division were guest speakers at numerous service and business clubs and other organizations.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 43
SIGNS
A variety of service signs was developed and established during the year.
Such projects included four styles of the "Fire Kills" sign, new components for
ranger station signs, special research sign for an area near Youbou, signs to delineate Provincial forest and forest district boundaries, and standardized plantation
signs.
The Division also developed signs for Productivity Committee research plots,
designed Crown range fence-tags, helped with fire warden magnetic signs, and
continued work on recreation signs.
FOREST SERVICE MUSEUM
Many more items were added to the museum throughout 1972; and the display in the rotunda of the Parliament Buildings was removed, with various artifacts
being returned to the museum collection or to their owners. Several artifacts were
sent to the Provincial Museum on a permanent loan basis.
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 47
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Demand for lumber continued relatively strong throughout the year, and there
was significant improvement in the market for pulp. This made possible continuance of the increase in cut from the Interior where the scale increased 9.8 per cent
over 1971 to a record of over one billion cubic feet of timber. On the other hand,
the Coast cut continued to decline and fell below the billion cut of 1971 by 13 per
cent, partly due to work stoppages in the woods.
Although the Interior scale showed a vigorous increase and for the first time
was greater than the Coast cut, it was not sufficient to compensate for the reduction
on the Coast. As a result, the total cut for the Province was 1,963,747,008 cubic
feet in 1972, a decrease of 1.6 per cent from the 1971 total cut.
The number of close-utilization operations continued to increase throughout
the Interior, influenced by the surging demand for wood for lumber mills and byproduct chips for the Interior pulp-mills. There were 239 timber sale harvesting
licence tenures at year-end, an increase of 36 for 1972, and they accounted for an
approved annual cut of 6,987,300 cunits.
During 1972 there were numerous personnel changes in the Management
Division in Victoria as well as in the forest districts, partly as a result of staffing of
the Cariboo Forest District. Late in the year the appraisal section became a
separate group, reporting through Administration to the Forester i/c Management Division.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Stumpage rates paid for Crown timber in the Interior (tied directly to dressed-
lumber selling prices, which increased steadily all year) again rose significantly as
a consequence of the continued higher demand for lumber. The demand for logs
on the Coast resulted in improved log prices, with consequent increase in Coast
stumpage rates.
The average stumpage prices detail as shown in Table 62 includes the volume
of timber sold at salvage value rates as well as the volumes included in close-utilization licences and cutting permits at a standard rate $0.55 per 100 cubic feet. The
average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet for all species, excluding salvage wood
and close-utilization wood, was $6.22 on the Coast, up from $5.04 in 1971, and
$12.66 in the Interior, up from $5.71 in 1971.
STUMPAGE ADJUSTMENTS
Changes in lumber-selling prices resulted in 6,813 upward adjustments in the
stumpage rates payable for timber cut on cutting permits and timber sales in the
Interior. For timber cut on the Coast there were 2,249 upward adjustments and
297 downward adjustments. Accordingly, the stumpage rates for the timber scaled
at the year-end were significantly higher than the year average.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
(Public Sustained-yield Units)
Again there was no change in the number of public sustained-yield units in
the Province which, as indicated by Table 50, remains at 78, but statistics for some
units have been revised as a result of new forest inventories. Development of railroad transportation into northern areas of the Province is improving the feasibility
 V 48 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
of establishing new industries in that area, thus creating a demand on the forest
resource. Reviews are in progress to establish further sustained-yield units as demand develops.
Some of the newer mills achieved higher capacities during the year and this,
combined with an improvement in the market for lumber, created a strong demand
for increased timber cuts. The close-utilization allowable annual cut has now been
fully committed in 52 public sustained-yield units with significant close utilization
cut commitments in nine additional units. The resulting cut commitment in public
sustained-yield units now stands at 1,322 million cubic feet.
As a result of increasingly strong demands for designation of extensive areas
for single-resource use in the form of parks, wilderness areas, and ecological reserves, etc., it will become progressively more difficult to maintain the allowable
cuts at their present level in developed units, in spite of efforts to exclude better-
site forest land from areas so designated.
An additional eight public sustained-yield units were gazetted as Provincial
forest reserves during the year, bringing the total to 47. All pulp-harvesting forests
have now been converted to this classification.
Again the Forest Service participated in a number of interdepartmental and
interagency field examinations to develop resource and land-use policy and plans
for specific areas within the public sustained-yield units. It is anticipated these
studies will increase in number with development of more intensive resource-use
planning in these units.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
During the year, five working plans were submitted and reviewed, and four
plans were approved. One licence indenture was rewritten, but the proposed
assignment was not completed.
Two detailed land-use plans, one applicable to four major coastal tree-farm
licences, were reviewed. These plans establish licensee guidelines for the integrated
use of the forest lands for wood production, stream protection, recreation, wildlife
and fishery management, and aesthetics.
Contractor operations within the tree-farm licence areas were continued under
the segis of the guidelines established in 1970.
TREE-FARM LANDS
Five working plans for tree farms were submitted, reviewed, and approved.
Several applications for major additions to existing tree farms, and a number
of requests for certification of new tree farms, were held for review subsequent to
an assessment of the enabling legislation.
FOREST RECREATION
Overlay mapping of recreation inventory data in public sustained-yield unit
management plans continued. Six public sustained-yield units were completed,
with 31 other units in various stages of completion.
Recreation planning was completed in the Ashnola PSYU and in progress in
15 other units.
Intensive recreation plans were completed for four areas of high recreation
potential, with 10 other such plans in progress.
The Mica pondage land-use plan was initiated, and a recreation reconnaissance
completed.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 49
Good progress was made in the first operational year of the recreation programme. A total of 286 sites was improved, with efforts directed to minimum site
modification, and installation of facilities for public health and safety needs. Installations included 953 litter barrels and 281 toilets. Servicing was done by temporary help, mainly students, under the direction of ranger staff.
Field reports estimate that 153,000 people and 59,600 vehicles used Forest
Service sites during the summer season. Public comment on the recreation programme was most encouraging.
At year-end plans were well advanced for improvement of 118 more sites and
for continuing inventory work.
Better liaison was developed with other resource departments—Parks, Mines,
and Highways—on matters of mutual interest.
SILVICULTURE
Planning guidelines for logging operations in the coastal region were defined
and circulated to all licensees involved in timber harvesting. Soon after, stream-
protection requirements underwent some changes. Interior guidelines for watershed and stream protection and regional silvicultural policies and practices are issued
by the individual forest districts to cope with variations of climate, soil, and topography that exist between regions.
Scarification for natural regeneration continues to be used as a major adjunct
to planting. The Prince George Forest District, for example, blade-scarified some
2,400 acres and drag-scarified 3,550 acres. There was a considerable reduction in
burning of lodgepole pine slash following the introduction and rapid build-up of
chain-drag scarifiers. Bunching and spot-burning of slash in the southern regions
has also encouraged natural regeneration in certain stands.
Clearcutting continues as the best and only means, in most instances, to ensure
the satisfactory development of a new crop; however, the size, shape, and extent of
openings are being modified to meet requirements of other resource-users.
SCALING
In 1972, additional companies elected to have their production scaled by
weight, as indicated in the following table:
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales at December 31—
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
5
10
27
19
20
4
16
31
20
20
6
20
37
26
22
6
20
42 (37)
.... (12)
33 (26)
29
8
25
44
14
Kamloops	
27
30
Totals	
81         1         91
111
130
148
The figures in parentheses under 1971 indicate what the number would have been if the Cariboo Forest District had existed in 1971.
A computer programme has been developed to calculate sampling intensity,
so interim calculations may be made monthly instead of an annual or six-month
basis; sampling frequency will be controlled more closely, and the accuracy and
efficiency of weight-scaling improved.
I
  forest
productivity
committee
GOATS   BEARD
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 51
FOREST PRODUCTIVITY COMMITTEE
The programme in 1972 concentrated on obtaining a data base for the preparation of managed-stand yield tables; and with experience gained in the methods trial
(E.P. 703) initiated in 1971, a working plan was developed and approved. Reconnaissance to locate areas suitable for balanced installations commenced in April,
followed by plot establishment in May. By the end of the field season, 18 installations with their associated climate stations had been established. This necessitated
the measurement of some 55,000 trees located on 210 plots.
Following plot establishment, the areas were photographed using the Forest
Service 70-mm. fixed-base method. Treatments were then applied to designated
plots. In addition, soil samples were taken for both chemical and physical analysis.
All areas will again be measured and photographed before the 1973 growing season.
In the fall, reconnaissance for the 1973 field programme commenced with 240
plots located by December 31.   Further reconnaissance will be necessary.
In addition to the field programme, considerable progress was made in associated projects. A first draft of a costing manual, prepared under the direction of
Dr. D. Haley, is being reviewed and following approval the new procedures will
be initiated in 1973 on a trial basis.
Work on variable-density yield tables continues, together with research on
climatic cycles. Details of these and other programmes will be reported in the
Forest Productivity Committee's annual report due on March 31, 1973.
Two reports were prepared and distributed in 1972—The Functions and Programme of the Forest Productivity Committee and an Operations Manual outlining
the procedures and standards in use in the balanced installation programme. Revisions are being drafted for the Operations Manual, based on experience gained
during the field season.
  PRICKLY   PEAR   CACTUS
grazing division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 53
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The range live-stock industry experienced extreme conditions, favourable and
otherwise, during 1972. The winter of 1971/72 was prolonged, snowfall extremely
heavy, cold periods lengthy, and in the north quite severe. Winter feed supplies
were strained in some areas and concentrates were required to supplement the low-
quality and costly hay remaining available. Fortunately, an extreme distress situation was avoided and most stock was brought through the winter in reasonable
condition. Horses left to fend for themselves on range were an exemption, particularly in the north, and several prosecutions for neglect of animals resulted.
The spring was cool, the heavy snow-pack disappeared slowly and range forage
growth was retarded. Turnout of stock was considerably delayed in many areas.
In some cases a shortage of winter feed forced premature range use. Summer
moisture conditions were far above normal and forage production was excellent,
particularly on lower elevation ranges. Heavy snow in mid-September forced stock
off higher ranges earlier than normal, but feed on lower ranges was adequate to
support longer than normal fall use. Cattle made good gains and came off the range
in good condition.
Hay production was variable both as to quantity and quality. Wet weather
during the haying season seriously reduced the quality of much of the early cuttings.
In some low-lying areas crops were completely destroyed by flooding, but it appears
that in most of the range area winter feed supplies should be sufficient.
Total losses of stock using Crown range were about average, but timber milk-
vetch, a native toxic plant, was troublesome in several areas. Predatory animals
caused serious losses in the Peace River area, and threatened live-stock production.
A committee comprised of a representative of the Fish and Wildlife Branch, of
Department of Agriculture, and of Forest Service, with two ranchers, was formed
to study and make recommendations on this problem. Radio-equipped rancher
range patrols organized by the police were successful in reducing theft of cattle
in some areas. Industrial and recreational activities are causing increasing disruption in the use of Crown range for grazing purposes.
The market for all classes of cattle was strong throughout the year, with a significant rise in prices. The weighted-average prices received by cattlemen through
the B.C. Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association was $36.30 per hundredweight, compared to $30.87 in 1971—a rise of $5.43.
RANGE AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Efforts continued to adjust the management of Crown range to maintain both
the resource and a viable live-stock industry in the face of other growing (and often
conflicting) uses of the same land. This is a problem of increasing complexity,
requiring attention beyond the capacity of existing staff.
Rotational grazing systems commenced on several additional range units.
Experience has shown that under an appropriate form of rotational grazing, range
condition, production, and utilization can be improved and beef yields increased.
Such systems also allow greater flexibility to integrate grazing of domestic stock with
other range-land uses. However, they require heavy capital inputs for fencing and
the pooling of herds where numerous small operators are involved. Communal
grazing presents live-stock management problems requiring co-operation between
 V 54
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
users. Such co-operation is difficult to foster, and this, together with the high capital inputs required, limits progress in introducing rotational grazing.
Further progress was made in regulating periods of use in accordance with
actual dates of range readiness for grazing and forage production. These vary
widely from year to year and adjustments are required annually. The implementation and enforcement of flexible turnout and removal dates place heavy demands
on staff time and require considerable adjustment by ranch operators. However,
allowing turnout and use based on average dates of range readiness and production
is not satisfactory under the intensive and varied range-use pressures which exist.
Division officers participated in numerous field inspections and management
planning sessions with various other resource management agencies and user groups
to improve integration of range-land uses. Studies to improve knowledge of inter-
effects between range uses were continued in co-operation with other agencies.
These included the inter-relationship between deer and cattle on range on the north
side of Kamloops Lake, cattle-wildlife relationships in the East Kootenay area, and
grass seeding-timber regeneration relationships on clearcut areas in various localities.
Range Surveys
During 1972, field work was undertaken on the following areas: Mount Lolo
Stock Range; Pinantan-Pemberton Stock Range; west portion, Tunkwa Lake Stock
Range; Apex-Nickel Plate area, Keremeos Stock Range; and the Nicola Unit, Nicola
Stock Range.   Maps and reports on these projects are being compiled.
Maps and reports were completed for the following: Naramata Unit, White
Lake Stock Range; Roche Lake-Dardanelles area, Nicola and Monte Hills Stock
Ranges; Dog Creek Unit, Clinton Stock Range; and the Gustafsen Lake Unit,
Clinton Stock Range.
A light fire season permitted an increased number of routine range inspections
by the technical field staff.
Range Improvements
Structural improvements constructed or replaced included 147 miles of trail
and road, 111 miles of fencing, 43 water developments, 10 bridges and culverts, 58
cattle guards, six corrals, four range cabins, and nine enclosures for experimental
studies or demonstration purposes.
A total of 962 acres was cleared of brush and debris in preparation for subsequent treatment. Cultivation of varying intensities was undertaken on 1,048 acres,
and 1,298 acres of previously prepared ground was seeded. A total of 44,670
pounds of grass and legume seed was sown on ground denuded as a result of logging
or other industrial activity and on the above-mentioned cultivated sites. One clear-
cut area of 420 acres was seeded from the air. Prescribed burns to control brush
cover 4,500 acres, mainly in the Peace River area.
Miscellaneous improvements included hazard reduction through removal of
abandoned buildings and garbage, fencing of mudholes, and control of toxic plants.
Limited predator-control measures were undertaken in association with the Fish and
Wildlife Branch on three sites. Small patches of knapweed isolated from main areas
of infestation were also treated.
Assistance to the programme from the Range Improvement Fund amounted to
$203,548. In addition, $20,000 was spent on pasture projects in the Peace River
area from special funds provided for that purpose. Range-users contributed
substantially to most new projects and to maintenance of existing structural improvements.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 55
CO-OPERATION
Effective range management requires close co-operation between permittees
using a common range, and between them and the responsible administrative agency.
Local range live-stock associations are the best medium through which this is
achieved, and there are 66 such associations recognized under the Grazing Act.
Three new associations were approved in 1972 and two more became incorporated
as a prerequisite to recognition. Forest officers attended a total of 203 association
meetings during the year.
Contact was maintained with the British Columbia Cattlemen's Association
regarding items of industry-wide importance. The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association, the industry-owned marketing agency, again supplied the selling-price figures for calculating grazing fees under the sliding scale.
Approximately 56.7 million pounds of beef animals from the range area were sold
through the co-operative during the year.
Canada Department of Agriculture Research Stations involved in range-related
research were helpful with technical problems. They are involved in studies of
importance in the management of Crown range, some being co-operative surveys
with the Forest Service and other agencies. Excellent co-operation also came from
various resource management agencies in dealing with common use problems.
ADMINISTRATION
Establishment of the Cariboo Forest District, the bulk of which lies in the
range area, resulted in a major redistribution of range-administration responsibilities.
The transfer of this large range area from two jurisdictions to a third presented
administrative problems but was accomplished with less disruption than expected.
With district headquarters located closer, administration and management of the
important Cariboo and Chilcotin ranges will undoubtedly become more effective.
The growing complexity of range-land uses produced increased administrative
work loads. Problems of use integration are difficult to resolve and require more
consultation with other resource-management agencies. Increased interest by the
public in land-use decision-making is resulting in considerable time being required
to interact with numerous public groups. Correspondence and meetings with such
groups, often holding conflicting views, now require considerable staff time which
must be diverted from work on management problems. More staff are needed to
give proper attention to both facets.
Grazing and Hay Permits
During the year, 1,968 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 174,617 cattle, 6,166 horses, and 1,432 sheep on Crown range. The number of
permits is up slightly from the previous year. The number of cattle is down by
4,155 head; horses and sheep almost the same. (See Table 70 in the Appendix.)
The decline in cattle numbers was due to miscellaneous causes such as the purchase
of ranches being flooded by the Libby Reservoir and some ranches temporarily
understocked following changes in ownership.
Expressed in animal-unit months—the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month—total use authorized for all classes of stock was 787,589
animal-unit months, 41,748 less than the previous year. This reduction is due to
smaller numbers of cattle and shortened grazing periods.
A total of 176 hay-cutting permits was issued, authorizing the harvesting of
1,916 tons of meadow hay, slightly less than the previous year.
 V 56 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to prices for cattle received by producers the previous year. Except for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area,
grazing fees per head per month were 62 cents for cattle, 77Vi cents for horses, and
15Vi cents for sheep—a slight increase over the previous year. The separate scale
of fees for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area remained at the rate of $1
per head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25 cents for sheep. The hay-
cutting fee remained at $ 1 per ton.
Control and Enforcement
Use of range by domestic stock must be controlled to prevent damage to the
resource and conflict with associated uses. The task of detecting and removing
mobile trespass live stock on the extensive and largely forested Crown range is difficult and time-consuming, particularly where unauthorized animals are intermingled
with others legitimately using the range. Horses, highly mobile and capable of
grazing under adverse conditions, present a special problem. In addition to preventing trespass or excess grazing, proper management practices must be followed
to protect the range. Although most stock-owners appreciate the need for regulated
use, some have no regard for the range resource.
To meet this situation with existing staff, numerous stock counts and range
inspections were carried out during the year, mainly by ranger staff in conjunction
with other duties. Temporary help were engaged in several areas. The usual number of infractions was discovered, and in most cases a warning was sufficient to
correct the situation. It was necessary, however, to take direct action to remove
46 cattle and 189 horses. One range unit was ordered closed to grazing for three
years because of damage suffered as a result of trespass use and lack of compliance
with permit conditions.
 SUMAC
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 59
ENGINEERING DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
To provide access for replanting the Van Fire area in the Prince Rupert District, Forest Service crews completed a bridge across the Babine River and worked
on the first 10 miles of the Nilkitkwa River Forest Road beyond the bridge.
Field crews completed an unusually large mileage of road-location survey with
the help of students under the Accelerated Reforestation Act.
The trend to larger trucks for off-highway log-hauling has led to reconstruction
of numerous forest road bridges (originally designed for loads of 45 to 90 tons) for
loads of 150 tons.
A second shallow-draught pusher tug, the 40-ft. Forest Mariner, was commissioned for pondage-clearance work. The vessel has a square bow and high wheel-
house, enabling her to push either a barge or floating wood.
The trend in small, fast Forest Service boats is toward the proven stock-model
fibreglass and aluminum hulls, taking advantage of the economy of standard moulds
and volume production.
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Field survey crews completed 255 miles of road location, bridge-sites, nurseries, ranger stations, lookout-sites, and railroad and highway crossings.
Field-engineering investigations included access-route studies in 35 public
sustained-yield units, and 340 miles of road evaluations in tree-farm licences, timber
sale harvesting licences, and public sustained-yield units.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for two pressure-creosoted
timber bridges in the Nelson Forest District—one for the White River and the other
for the Duncan River—and for reconstruction of five bridges on the Port Hardy
Forest Road to allow loads to be increased to 150 tons. This reconstruction utilizes
all of the on-site glulam material and most of the sawn timber. A similar redesign
was made for a bridge on the Naver Creek Forest Road.
Other design work included several preliminary bridge sketches and estimates,
load rating of existing bridges, a helicopter boom for fixed air-base stereophotog-
raphy, water supply and reservoir facilities, building foundations, and structural
checks.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Further studies were made on the amounts of logs and debris in the Strait of
Georgia and the lower Fraser River. These included an estimate of the quantity of
wood on beaches and that brought to the Coast by the Fraser River during the spring
freshet.    A preliminary study on loss of logs from booms is nearing completion.
During April and May about two million cubic feet of debris accumulations on
gravel bars in the Fraser River below Hope were burned, preventing it from being
swept into the Strait of Georgia by the unusually high runoff.
Development engineering investigations were completed for the Kwoiek
drainage in Kamloops District; the Peace River area, including Wapiti, Moberly,
Blueberry, and Peace River PSYU's; and a number of other areas. Development
studies were updated in the Chilco, Takla, Stuart, and Klappan PSYU's.
 V 60 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Use was made of computer programmes to solve problems involving large
quantities of data, and assistance was given to other divisions in programming forest
fire cause analysis and the calculation of Forest Inventory data from fixed air-base
photo samples.
CONSTRUCTION
Larger road projects included construction of 8.5 miles of new grade on the
Binta Lake-Cheslatta Lake Forest Road, 18.5 miles of right-of-way clearing on the
Nass River Road, 10 miles of partly completed grade on the Nilkitkwa River Forest
Road, and major reconstruction of a short and narrow section of the Cayoosh-Joffre
Forest Road.
Glulam-girder bridges were built across the Babine River on the Nilkitkwa
River Forest Road and the Chilako River on the Pelican-Holman Forest Road.
Construction started on a glulam-girder bridge across the Duncan River on the
Duncan River Forest Road, and the rebuilding of five bridges on the Port Hardy
Forest Road to carry off-highway industrial loadings of 150 tons.
General maintenance of the forest road system was carried out by crews under
district supervision.
RESERVOIR IMPROVEMENTS
Site-preparation work on the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir continued with an additional 1,180 acres treated. On the Duncan Reservoir, 257 acres
were treated.
Williston Lake reached full pool, bringing the pre-flood programme to an end
with some 95,700 acres treated. Postflood treatment started with disposal of non-
usable residual wood contained in drawdown areas in the Parsnip Reach. In addition, merchantable logs were boomed and sorted in various areas and residual wood
collected and stored for later disposal.
The waterway-improvement programme on the Mica Reservoir continued with
the treatment of 10,400 acres. On the Jordan River power development, the 253-
acre Bear Creek Reservoir was cleared of standing snags.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
A wide variety of buildings was completed in many locations, both by Forest
Service crews and by contract. Offices, warehouses, and residences were constructed
at various ranger stations and a mechanical shop was completed in the Prince George
headquarters compound. Major warehousing facilities were constructed at Green
Timbers and at the Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
Many building and agricultural engineering projects were carried out as a result
of the accelerated reforestation programme. Major buildings and irrigation systems
were added to established nurseries, and extensive exploration work was done to
establish a water supply for the new Skimikin Nursery.
Mobile accommodation continues to be important. During the year, 60 trailers
were purchased, including 35 mobile homes and eight seedling-refrigerator trailers.
A second pusher tug, two boomboats, and a supervisory launch were provided
for log and debris sorting on Lake Williston. A small landing craft was purchased
to replace a similar craft of World War II vintage. Small aluminum and fibreglass
craft were acquired to replace several older wooden boats at various ranger stations.
Materials inspections were carried out on glulam members, ranging from 132-
foot-long bridge girders for the Babine River bridge to small building members. In
conjunction with the Western Forest Products Laboratory of the Canadian Forestry
Service, a technique was developed for the repair of glulam beams by injecting an
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 61
epoxy glue into cracks. This technique was used to repair some glulam roof beams
in a Williams Lake warehouse and a glulam bridge girder, all of which had developed
abnormal cracks as a result of excessive moisture change.
MECHANICAL
A total of 218 vehicles was purchased, of which 153 were replacements for
older, unserviceable units in all districts and divisions. The remaining 65 vehicles
were additions to the vehicular fleet and consisted of 25 new ones for the Cariboo
Forest District, two 1,500-gallon used tanker trucks, 24 of specialized types (e.g.,
Reforestation crew units), and 14 general purpose units.
Two large tractors and three graders were replaced and six smaller farm-type
tractors were obtained as replacements or additions. Miscellaneous nonstandard
equipment purchases included a seedling-harvester, a tree-shaker, a rotary brush-
cutter, three van trailers, and smaller items.
As a result of a light fire season, pump and chain-saw purchases were comparatively small, but there was considerable purchasing and setting up retardant
mixer plants and ancillary equipment such as transfer pumps, and in electrifying
some gasoline-powered units.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Additional warehousing and adjacent grounds improvement were completed
at the depot.
Marine work included overhaul and refit of 40 launches and five jet boats, 80
repairs to launches, and numerous repairs to small craft. Several launches were
updated with electronic, navigation, auxiliary, heating, and propulsion equipment.
New coastal, lake, and river boats were fitted out and completed. Marine craft on
Lake Williston were overhauled and serviced by a crew from the depot. After sea
trials and acceptance, the new 40-ft. pusher tug Forest Mariner was dismantled at
the depot, shipped on Forest Service transport trucks to Lake Williston, and reassembled by a depot crew.
The depot made or assembled 1,562 units, including furniture, tent frames,
property boxes, crates, radio repeater buildings, signs, skidder tanks, retardent
mixers, and light-plant trailers. More than 2,000 hose and pump fittings, nozzles,
and valves were made.
Couplings were installed on 217,200 feet of fire hose; and 293 new pumps,
outboard motors, power-saws, and light plants were tested, stored, or shipped.
Maintenance and overhauls were completed on 845 small mechanical units,
including pumps, outboards, power-saws, light plants, trail cycles, and other equipment. In addition, 301 larger units were overhauled, including tractors, graders,
trucks, trailers, and porta-buildings. Eighty-four new and charter vehicles were
fitted out with Forest Service equipment.
The transport pool hauled 3,244 tons and towed 94 trailer units, travelling
230,000 miles.
COMMUNICATIONS
Of the 503 units purchased in 1972, 319 replaced older, high-maintenance
equipment for a net inventory increase of 184. The modernization programme for
the very high frequency fire portables was completed.
A new operating console in the Kamloops Forest District headquarters aided
the division of the Kamloops system into three zones and resulted in greater use of
the system by ranger districts.  With installation of new equipment in the Cariboo
 V 62
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Forest District Headquarters, the communications link between Williams Lake,
Prince George, and Kamloops was removed and the Cariboo system formed into two
zones.
Nine battery repeaters were installed, one providing extended range aircraft
contact from Smithers, the others giving extended coverage for ranger districts.
Communications coverage in seven other ranger districts was increased by the
remote control of their base stations. Weak signals due to the extended path through
rugged terrain between Terrace and Kitwanga continued to cause interuption in the
Prince Rupert system.
 IP  ■■mm
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  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 65
PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The heavy winter snowfall and cool, wet, spring throughout most of the Province set the pattern for the weather, which continued until mid-July. The exception
was an early season drought from early June to mid-July in the northern portion of
the Fort Nelson Ranger District where lightning fires were difficult to suppress.
In mid-July an unseasonable heavy rain-storm along the southern Coast established new rainfall records and caused flood damage in several areas. At the same
time, general rain spread over the entire Province, preceding the start of a warm,
dry trend. The timely summer showers precluded any serious build-up and reduced
the fire occurrence.
Unseasonable strong winds during July and in October caused some fire-control
problems, especially with slash-burning on Vancouver Island.
Lightning activity was heavier than usual throughout most of the Province. It
was invariably accompanied by rain, and lightning fires were relatively few.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
The combined fire-suppression crew and standby force totalled 332 personnel.
Crews ranged from two to 20 men, and were located at strategic locations throughout
the Province. These crews, along with forestry youth crews, acted on 739 of the
1,903 fires. They were employed on a variety of forestry projects when not fighting
fires.
PROVINCIAL FORESTRY YOUTH PROGRAMME
The success of the 1971 programme was repeated on an expanded scale. A
total of 954 male and female students was employed at numerous locations throughout the Province.
The students performed well in a variety of forestry jobs, with many projects
completed which otherwise would have been deferred.
Female students, for the most part, did clerical and research work.
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
There were no forest-use closures invoked in 1972, but strong winds, after the
termination of the close season on October 13, necessitated a ban on all open fires
in Zones 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9 of the Vancouver Forest District.
The ban was in effect from October 20 to 26 and was invoked to prevent loss
of standing timber as a result of escaped slash fires in the area, and to control smoke
pollution.
AIRCRAFT
Thirty-one aircraft were retained on contract during the fire season for the
detection, supply, and control of forest fires.
Six light aircraft were on fire detection and distributed as follows: Prince Rupert, two; Prince George, two; Cariboo, one; and Kamloops, one.
Three aircraft were on patrol and administrative flying. These aircraft were
located as follows: Vancouver, one (Beaver); Kamloops, one (Cessna 337); Nelson,
one (Cessna 337).
Other forest districts were allotted funds to charter local aircraft as required.
 V 66 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Fifteen airtankers were under contract for initial attack. The distribution of the
tanker aircraft was as follows: Vancouver, one (Canso); Prince Rupert, two
(Canso); Prince George, four (A 26's); Kamloops, five (Avengers); Nelson, three
(Avengers).
Six bird-dog aircraft were used to direct air-attack operations. Bases for these
aircraft, with the type, were as follows: Vancouver, one (Aero Commander); Prince
Rupert, one (Cessna 337); Prince George, one (Cessna 210); Kamloops, one
(Cessna 210); Nelson, one (Cessna 337). One Cessna 210 alternated between
Prince George and Williams Lake.
One Hiller 12E helicopter was under contract to the Vancouver Forest District.
Other forest districts were allotted funds for local charter as required.
Two new airtankers appeared in British Columbia during the summer—the
P2V-7 Neptune and the Douglas D.C. 6. The P2V-7 Neptune was used operationally
on several fires, while the D.C. 6, operational late in August, was only able to show
its effectiveness in demonstration drops.
FIRES
Occurrence and Cause
There were 1,903 fires during the 1972 season, compared with the 10-year
average of 2,410, and less than half the record number of 4,003 fires in 1970.
The largest single cause was lightning, which accounted for 583 fires—30.7 per
cent of the total. Over the past 10 years the annual percentage of lightning-caused
fires has averaged 36.6 per cent.
An estimated 24 per cent of the 1972 fires were started by recreationists and
smokers—a slight increase in the 10-year average of 22 per cent.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Forest Service costs for fire-fighting totalled $2,287,710. The cost to other
parties was $1,707,987.
The average cost to the Fire Suppression Vote per fire was $1,202, slightly less
than half the 10-year average of $2,410.
Loss
The area burned over was 64,413 acres, a significant reduction from the 10-
year average of 229,487 acres. Understandably, the loss decreased in proportion
to the decrease in area of burn.
Slash Disposal
Slash-burning was carried out satisfactorily throughout the Province by industrial operators in spite of the wet season. Some prescribed burning was done by
Forest Service crews.
In the Vancouver Forest District, 955 acres of slash were abated by prescribed
burns, one of which was a spring burn, under Forest Service direction. Industrial
slash-burning started during the second half of August in the northern portion of the
district. Burning in the southern portion of the district was delayed by a minor
hazard build-up until late September in a number of cases, with some burning
deferred until mid-October. Despite the lateness, southern Vancouver Island experienced several damaging escapes. Slash reports covered 67,114 acres of logged-
over land, including 11,374 acres exempted from burning. A total of 41,475 acres
of the instructed areas was satisfactorily abated by logging operators.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 67
In the Kamloops Forest District, 590 acres were abated in prescribed burns by
the Forest Service. Instructed for burning in 1972 were 137 areas, totalling 18,232
acres. Between late August and early October, slash was satisfactorily burned on
14,318 acres.
Slash-burning conditions were good throughout most of the Prince Rupert Forest District during late summer and early fall. One hundred and sixty-one areas of
slash, totalling 25,317 acres, were satisfactorily abated by operators. In addition,
13 areas, totalling 2,489 acres, were abated in Forest Service prescribed burns.
Successful slash-burning was completed on 24,200 acres by industrial operations in the Prince George Forest District. An additional 2,320 acres were abated
by the Forest Service in prescribed burns.
In the Nelson Forest District 49,000 acres of slash were instructed for burning.
Of the instructed areas, 17,555 acres were satisfactorily burned by logging operators.
Satisfactory slash burns were carried out by industry over 7,677 acres of logged-
over land in the new Cariboo Forest District. An additional 309 acres of slash were
abated by the Forest Service in prescribed burns.
Snag Disposal
t
In the Vancouver Forest District, snags on 3,070 acres were felled—655 acres
by contract and 2,415 acres by Forest Service crews.
An additional 4,000 acres of fire-killed snags in the burned area of the 1971
Sue Fire, north of Golden in the Nelson Forest District, were "cabled down" as a
rehabilitation project. The "cabling down" involves stringing a steel cable between
two tractors.
Fire-law Enforcement
Information was laid in 27 violations of the Forest Act. Seventeen involved
burning without a burning permit; five for noncompliance with burning permit conditions; three for failure to render assistance in fire-fighting, and two for miscellaneous offences.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Computer Fire Statistics
Maintenance of fire report data continued and information from 1950 to 1971
(inclusive) is on magnetic tape.
Annual protection statistical tables from 1950 were prepared by computer and
distributed to all forest districts during the year.
Fire Weather Index values were coded and magnetic taped for the 1970-72
period.
The number of programmes prepared for districts and other users about managed unit planning increased heavily, but the main use of the computer is still oriented
to the Provincial detection study.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
One student was employed for the summer in lookout photography, and 13
lookout panoramic sets were completed.
Visibility mapping had low priority pending completion of the Provincial detection analysis. Only one potential lookout-site was examined in the Vancouver
Forest District.
 V 68 REPORT OF LANDS,  FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
The manufacture of fuel-moisture sticks continued.    Of the 1,130 sets distributed, 55 per cent went to industry and 45 per cent to the Forest Service.
Similar production is planned for 1973.
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration
Liaison with other Provincial Government departments, Federal agencies, and
joint Government/industry committees continued on forest insect problems. There
was a general increase in defoliator activity. The false hemlock looper flared up
near Salmon Arm, and tussock moths have appeared in the Okanagan Valley. The
mountain pine bark beetle activity has increased near Hazelton and the spruce bud-
worm areas have increased east of Pemberton. The black-headed budworm is on
Vancouver Island with serious attacks on the north of the island. Amended regulations pertaining to the European pine shoot moth were put into effect.
Pesticide applicator courses were again arranged through the Department of
Agriculture for personnel involved in pesticide use. Chemical treatment plans for
the Forest Service, forest industry, and other users which could affect the forest
environment were reviewed under membership in the Provincial Inter-Departmental
Pesticide Committee.
Research Projects
Major project completions during 1972:
Handbooks—One handbook in the Forest Protection Handbook series was
completed and distributed, Pumping and Delivering Water to Fires, No. 7,
in both standard and pocket edition size.
Detection—The Vancouver Forest District detection analysis was concluded
and recommended deleting 16 of the 32 existing lookouts with the addition
of two specific air patrol routes, one on Vancouver Island and one on the
Mainland.
Wheeled skidder attachments—A universal attachment was developed to provide a cradle arrangement permitting wheeled skidders to carry cylindrical
tanks of water for fire mop-up activities.
Mobile kitchens—A unit was designed with a 125-man capacity. The prototype was field tested and the revised model was built by a trailer manufacturer.   One will go to each forest district.
Explosives for fire-line construction—Comprehensive field tests were carried
out on a 400-grain-per-foot experimental detonating cord for building
fire-line. Results were encouraging and if the recommended product type
can be manufactured for 1973 it will be used in operational tests on actual
fires.
Airtankers—A study was completed for the Vancouver Forest District to determine the best primary and secondary airtanker bases available, using
computer analysis of fire data and on-site investigation.
Major projects active but not completed during 1972:
Handbooks—Two handbooks, Fire Retardants and Large Fire Administration,
are under way.
Detection—The detection analysis for the Kamloops Forest District was almost
completed and some computer aspects were done on the Nelson and
Cariboo Forest Districts.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 69
Three Barnes infrared fire spotters were tested on patrol aircraft during the summer months. Results were unsatisfactory due to the high frequency of false alarms.
Fire weather—In co-operation with the Federal Pacific Forest Research Centre,
the Provincial danger rating system is being refined. Work started on
recalibration and preparation of guidelines for the 1973 season.
A new weather recording form for observations and index calculations is being printed for use in 1973.
Climatological data for all network stations is being resorted, coded,
and made compatible for computer analysis.
Equipment development—Prototypes for an economical wood stove, a collapsible pump carrier, and a hose protector for road crossings are in
various stages of development and testing.
Service and Co-operation
The forest districts were supplied with 576 two-man, two-day emergency fire-
ration packs.
Ten Planning and Research Reports, covering a variety of protection projects,
were published and distributed to field staff and outside protection agencies. There
were numerous requests for the handbook series and reports from other agencies
and libraries in Canada and foreign countries.
Numerous requests for computer printouts were received from the districts and
the training school on information related to fire data and managed unit planning.
The Federal Pacific Forest Research Centre in Victoria, the Federal Fire Research Institute in Ottawa, and the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British
Columbia in Vancouver were supplied with updated duplicate tapes of all fire data
from 1950 to date. They will automatically receive updated data after each season's
data have been coded and edit-checked.
A sixth fire-training simulator was constructed for the new Cariboo Forest
District.
Co-operation continued with the Atmospheric Environmental Service and the
Canada Forestry Service on the Provincial fire weather network, weather forecasts,
and other weather-related problems.
Active representation was maintained with various committees on protection
matters.
During the summer, four students completed the coding of fire data for computer use. Another five students were seconded to the Pacific Forest Research
Centre to help in forest fire and insect problems.
I
  INDIAN   HELLEBORE
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 73
TRAINING SCHOOL
From January 26 to April 14 an experimental advanced training course was
held for selected employees who were graduated in the forestry courses from the
British Columbia Institute of Technology, Selkirk College, and the Northern Alberta
Technical Institute. There were 25 in the class, drawn from the staffs of the forest
districts and the Engineering, Reforestation, Research, and Inventory Divisions.
The curriculum was designed to complement the earlier technical forestry training
of the students with instruction given in Forest Service policies and procedures,
natural resource use administration, and personnel management.
Two Forest Service introductory courses were held for newly employed university and technical institute graduates. The course was given May 15, 16, and 17 to
27 university graduates and June 1, 2, and 3 to 32 technical institute graduates.
The curriculum included lectures in Forest Service organization and procedures,
safety practices, and the Defensive Driving Course.
An advanced class of 24 students commenced on September 18 and will continue to April 1973. The advanced course curriculum has been revised, on a trial
basis, to emphasize training in planning forest-land use and recognizing the effect of
all facets of forest-land use on the total forest-land resource.
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The Inventory Division used the school facilities for three weeks in May for
training its summer field crews.
A two-day course in ecology, presented by the UBC Department of Continuing
Education, was given in June to selected staff of the Victoria divisions and the Vancouver Forest District, with 32 attending.
The three members of the school's instructional staff qualified as Defensive
Driving Instructors and have participated in giving the defensive driving course in
co-operation with the Accident Prevention Division of the Civil Service Commission.
The Canadian Forestry Association outdoor classroom project held in cooperation with the Surrey School Board was presented again at the school in May.
HIGHLIGHTS,  1972
• Total graduates of Forest Service Training School since 1946:
Basic course   243
Advanced course  343
Technical institute graduates' course      25
• Advanced training for technical institute graduates given for first time.
• Revision of advanced course curriculum to emphasize training in planning use of
forest land.
Technical Institute Graduates' Course
(January-April, 1972, Experimental)
Subject Title Periods*
12. Ranger District Organization  17
  Forest Service Organization  12
27. Public Speaking  13
11. Forest Management Policies and Procedures  11
  Resource Use   10
* Three hours in each period.
 V 74 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Technical Institute Graduates' Course—Continued
Course No. and Title Periods*
10. Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  13
33. Mechanical Maintenance and Operation  11
  Man Management      6
14. Fire Suppression   15
Advanced Course (1972/73)
Course No. and Title
Periods*
...    5
_    5
_    5
Mathematics 	
Botany 	
Business English	
Surveying  6
Dendrology  3
Wood Technology   3
Entomology and Pathology  13
Grazing  4
Silviculture  2
Ecology   4
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  7
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  17
Public Speaking  18
Resources, Forest  15
Resources, Other  13
PSYU Planning (Mgt. Prot. Ref.)  27
PSYU Operations (Mgt. Prot. Ref.)  32
Scaling  :.  30
Man Management   10
Ranger District Organization  3
Forest Service Divisions  7
* Three hours in each period.
 FLY   AMANITA
accounting division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 77
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
Financial returns to the Forest Service in 1972 exceeded all expectations, reflecting a continuous escalation of market prices being received for forest products.
The totals of both amounts billed and collected climbed to new record highs, with
substantial increases over 1971 totals. Conditions at the year's end indicated this
trend would continue well into 1973.   ,
Total amounts charged against logging operations rose by 60.5 per cent to
$108,659,791 (see Table 142), with all forest districts registering gains. Comparisons of Prince George and Kamloops Districts totals must make allowance for
the transfer of part of their administration areas to the new Cariboo Forest District,
but they showed increases of 108.7 per cent and 94.9 per cent respectively. The.
Cariboo Forest District itself, which initiated its own billing effective August 1, contributed $4,630,676 to the total. Nelson Forest District was up 118.5 per cent;
Prince Rupert, 21.0 per cent; and Vancouver, 4.2 per cent.
Actual revenue collections reached $102,636,777 (see Table 141), which was
68.5 per cent larger than the 1971 total. Timber sale stumpage, which constitutes
the bulk of the revenue, increased by 83.5 per cent to $91,180,674. Timber sale
rentals and fees declined by 15.6 per cent and cruising and advertising by 15.8 per
cent.
Timber licence rentals and fees decreased by 2.7 per cent, timber berth rentals
and fees by 15.5 per cent, and timber lease rentals and fees by 2.0 per cent. These
old tenures are no longer issued and their acreages are reduced by progressive
elimination of areas logged.
Collections from grazing permits and fees increased by 13.4 per cent to
$532,993. Forest-protection tax showed a modest increase of 5.5 per cent at
$1,185,179.
Miscellaneous collections increased 5.1 per cent to $773,132, while weight-
scaling rose by 32.3 per cent to $2,004,105. The latter represents a full recovery
from the industry of the costs of installing and operating the weight-scaling stations.
Financial tables covering operations for the fiscal year 1971/72 are in the
Appendix. Information regarding expenditures is maintained only on a fiscal-year
basis and details are published annually by the Department of Finance in Public
Accounts.
Additional funds were made available for the Forest Service by the 1972
Session of the Legislature in the form of an Accelerated Reforestation .Fund Act.
This provided a maximum of $10,000,000 for "an accelerated reforestation or forest
improvement programme." In addition to the normal expansion of the reforestation
programme, funds were subsequently allotted for a Summer Youth Programme which
employed 994 young people, additional expenditures on inventory and research
projects, recreation facilities, and planning programmes. Particulars of these expenditures will be published in the 1973 report when 1972/73 fiscal-year totals are
presented.
ADMINISTRATION
Reflecting buoyant market prices, 1972 collections were maintained at a high
and satisfactory level and problem accounts were at a minimum. At the end of
December, accounts receivable totalled a record $21,089,597.
Despite a moderate fire season, expenditure accounting volume continued to
grow as the result of the expansion in spending approved by the Legislature.   The
 V 78
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
staff of the Headquarters Accounts Office was increased by two to cope with the
additional work. Further additions may be necessary to maintain payments on a
current basis.
In the area of fiscal control, plans were initiated to standardize and simplify
allotment procedures and update costing methods. Discussions were held with the
Comptroller-General's office relative to streamlining budgeting procedures and supplying departmental managers with more useful expenditure data. It is hoped
considerable progress will be made in this direction during 1973.
An upsurge in reforestation contract payments and administration developed
as the programme of planting smaller logged-off areas in various parts of the Province
continued to expand.   Minor construction contracts were also more numerous.
Collection of drift logs under the Log Salvage Regulation totalled 9,864,322
cubic feet, an increase of over 2,800,000 cubic feet from 1971. Scarcity of logs on
the market has resulted in acceptance of many logs normally left on beaches. Installation of a log-sorting ground by the receiving station in Howe Sound assisted in the
increase.
Two new beach-clearing licences were issued, bringing the total of current
licences to three, all in the Log Salvage District. During the year, 100,498 cubic feet
of logs were removed from the beaches involved.
Liaison with industry's log losses and wood debris is maintained with the Log
Security Committee and committee studying floating wood debris.
Export of logs, down 60 per cent from 1971, virtually ceased in April 1972,
when log stocks in the Province reached a seriously low level. At year-end, logs
were still in short supply. Stocks of wood chips, in a surplus situation at the start
of the year, were reduced substantially, with some plants facing shortages. Movement of wood chips throughout the Province is being severely hampered by a lack
of sufficient railway chip cars.
 personnel
division
j
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I
TRILLIUM
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 81
PERSONNEL DIVISION
There were several changes in executive positions. Lome F. Swannell retired
as Chief Forester, and was succeeded by Ian T. Cameron. E. L. (Ted) Young
became Assistant Chief Forester (Operations), Peter J. J. Hemphill was named
Director of Services, and Norman A. McRae was appointed Assistant Chief Forester
(Planning and Special Projects). Eric Robinson was named District Forester for
the new Cariboo Forest District.
At the divisional level, R. D. Thomas became Engineer-in-Charge of the Engineering Division, G. C. Warrack was appointed Forester-in-Charge of the Research
Division (succeeding retiring R. H. Spilsbury), and E. (Ted) Knight became Forester-in-Charge of the Reforestation Division. A. M. (Bill) Brand was appointed
Forest Service Personnel Officer.
Staffing of the new Cariboo Forest District was completed in 1972. Forty-two
positions were filled—some of them new, and others involving transfers from the
Kamloops and Prince George Forest Districts.
The organization study relating to Ranger staff positions was implemented on
April 1, 1972, with further in-service reviews conducted as a continuation of the
original report.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
A regular meeting of District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters was held
in Victoria in January. Ranger meetings were held in Prince Rupert, Nelson, and
Prince George.   District Protection Officers met in Victoria in November.
A number of seminars and workshops were attended by various groups throughout the year. One Forester, two Technical Forest Officers, and one Technician were
selected for Class XVII of the public administration course; and three Foresters, one
Engineer, and one Forest Protection Officer graduated from Class XIV of this
course, receiving diplomas in public administration from the University of Victoria.
Three employees graduated from Class 8 of the correspondence course in public
administration, and three employees were selected for Class 9 of this course.
In September, 24 Assistant Rangers commenced the advanced training course
at the Forest Service Training School.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
Continuously employed personnel during 1972 totalled 2,679, including 889
permanently established positions.   A total of 9,191 was seasonally employed.
During the year, 167 persons received Civil Service appointments, and 135 left
the Service. Thirty-three 25-year certificates were awarded to Forest Service personnel.
There were 13 retirements and 100 transfers involving permanent staff personnel. Three Foresters and one Engineer left the organization, while 23 Foresters
and one Engineer were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including temporary-continuous positions, was 11 per cent, with the Kamloops, Prince Rupert, and Prince George Forest
Districts experiencing the highest numbers. This, for the most part, involved female
office personnel.   All areas reported significant turnover increases over 1971.
A total of 2,765 employment applications was processed by the personnel
office, in addition to those handled by district and divisional offices.
 V 82 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Employment and working conditions remained relatively unchanged. A highlight of the year, however, was the study made by a special commission into employer-employee relations in the Provincial Public Service.
A comprehensive report outlining concepts and recommendations for bargaining
rights for Government employees was submitted to the Provincial Secretary.
Co-ordination of safety practices and training are now included in responsibilities of the new Training Officer position.
During the year, 16 B.C. Safety Council awards were earned by various Forest
Service groups—three gold, seven bronze, four silver, and two awards of honour.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 83
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1972
(As of December 31)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J. S. Stokes Deputy Minister of Forests
I. T. Cameron       Chief Forester
W. E. L. Young -------    Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
N. A. McRae Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
P. J. J. Hemphill         Director of Services
Staff Division Heads:
C. Cooper    -----------        Forest Counsel
W. V. Hicks Departmental Comptroller
Operations Branch Division Heads:
W. C. Phillips      --..-.-       Forester i/c Protection Division
J. A. K. Reid Forester i/c Management Division
J. B. Bruce --------        Forester i/c Inventory Division
W. C. Pendray     --------       Director, Grazing Division
Services Branch Division Heads:
E. Knight Forester i/c Reforestation Division
G. C. Warrack     ------- Forester i/c Research Division
E. H. Lyons - Forester i/c Information Division
C. Highsted -----     Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
R. D. Thomas      -------    Engineer i/c Engineering Division
A. M. Brand        - Personnel Officer
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. M. Pogue
L. W. Lehrle
District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
W. G. Howard (Cultus Lake), G. D. Bertram (Hope), J. T. Schmidt (Harrison Lake),
J. N. Nelson (Mission), M. H. Mudge (Port Moody), M. N. Neighbor (Squamish), R. S.
Wilson (Sechelt), K. A. Northrup (Pender Harbour), S. B. Hollinshead (Powell River),
V. J. Doerksen (Lund), G. Stefanac (Campbell River North), W. C. Archer (Sayward),
R. A. Campbell (Port McNeill North), R. D. Moss (Port McNeill), A. J. Teindl (Port
Hardy), T. Brooks (Campbell River), K. Haley (Port Alberni), G. F. Hawkey (Torino),
N. P. Gilgan (Pemberton), D. E. DeHart (Gold River), M. W. Antonelli (Langford).
Prince George Forest District
W. Young
W. G. Bishop
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. W. Graham (McBride), W. E. Hall (Valemount), M. A. McRae (Prince George E.),
G. E. Meents (Prince George N.), L. G. Espenant (Fort St James), H. V. Hopkins (Dawson Creek), J. L. Younghusband (Aleza Lake), H. Osborne (Vanderhoof), V. G. Bate
(Fort St. lohn), P. F. Griffiths (Fort Fraser), D. A. Amonson (Summit Lake), H. L.
Miskovich (Fort Nelson), G. E. Magee (Prince George W.), D. F. Wallin (Hixon), L.
McQueen (Chetwynd), E. W. Hewitt (Mackenzie).
 V 84
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon -
L. B. B. Boulton
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
D. J. Winner (Lumby), M. E. Monteith (Birch Island), O. D. Parsey (Barriere), J. P.
Weinard (Kamloops), V. D. Craig (Chase), R. C. lackson (Salmon Arm), G. G. tones
(Sicamous), D. R. Wood (Lillooet), A. G. Cameron (Vernon), R. W. McDaniel (Pen-
ticton), G. F. M. Baker (Princeton), F. Pearce (Kelowna), J. O. Noble (Ashcroft),
R. K. M. Berard (Merritt), D. Reiter (Blue River), J. Wanderer (Enderby).
Prince Rupert Forest District
W. G. Hughes
R. G. Gill   -
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
V. H. Hernandez (Queen Charlotte City), H. W. Quast (Terrace), W. O. Neros (Kit-
wanga), F. L. Roe (Hazelton), A. R. Pement (Smithers), R. H. Weinard (Houston), W.
C. Waldron (Burns Lake), D. J. Neal (Bella Coola), W. H. tones (Southbank), V. H.
Barge (Lower Post), M. F. Wilkinson (Kitimat), R. N. Keep (Stewart).
J. R. Iohnston
I. A. D. McDonald
Nelson Forest District
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. M. Cartwright (Invermere), I. L. Humphrey (Fernie), S. E. Anderson (Golden), I. B.
Gierl (Cranbrook East), R. G. Trenaman (Creston), H. Thompson (Kaslo), B. L. Custance
(Lardeau), R. E. Robinson (Nelson), C. C. lupp (New Denver), I. H. Raven (Nakusp),
H. R. Wood (Castlegar), P. I. Russell (Grand Forks), W. R. Anderson (Kettle Valley),
H. D. Hamilton (Canal Flats), W. G. Benwell (Mica Creek), W. O. Pistak (Fauquier),
G. F. Dodd (Elko), G. R. Webster (Spillimacheen), L. O. Hamann (Cranbrook West),
J. A. Hogan (Beaverdell), C. N. Bellmond (Salmo), G. L. Benwell (Revelstoke).
Cariboo Forest District
E. W. Robinson
M. G. Isenor
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
I. H. Little (Quesnel), A. P. Petty (Clinton), I. G. Ward (Williams Lake), E. A. Bouchard
(Alexis Creek), G. York (Quesnel), C. Rohn (Quesnel), T. A. Walker (Tatla Lake), J.
F. Lynn (Horsefly), R. W. Donnelly (100 Mile House).
 APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT  THE   REPORT   OF   THE   FOREST   SERVICE,
1972.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 87
CONTENTS
RESEARCH DIVISION
Table
No.
Page
11. Status of Research Projects in 1972     89
12. Research Publications, 1972     89
REFORESTATION DIVISION
22. Summary of Planting, 1963-72	
90
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)     91
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units Over Crown-granted Lands)     91
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     92
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units     92
51. Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During the
Years 1971 and 1972 in Cubic Feet     92
52. Species Cut, All Products Billed in 1972, in Cubic Feet     93
53. Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1972 in Cubic Feet (Segregated by
Land Status and Forest Districts)     93
54. Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During 1972 (by Months and
Forest Districts)     94
55. Number of Acres Operating Under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1963-72     95
Total Scale of All Products From Areas Operated Under Approved
Annual Allowable Cuts, 1963-72     96
Logging Inspections, 1972     97
Trespasses, 1972     98
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting Licences,
1972 99
60. Timber Sale Licence Record, 1972 99
61. Timber Sales and Cutting Permits (Timber Sale Harvesting Licences)
Awarded by Forest Districts, 1972  100
62. Average Stumpage Prices by Species and Forest Districts on Cutting
Permits of Timber Sale Harvesting Licences and Timber Sales
Issued During 1972, per Cunit Log Scale  101
63. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits During 1972 _ 102
64. Timber Cut and Billed From Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences, 1972  103
65. Wood-processing Plants of the Province, 1972   104
56
57
58.
59.
 V 88
Table
No.
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT DIVISION—Continued
66. Export of Logs (in Cubic Feet), 1972  105
67. Shipment of Poles and Other Minor Forest Products, 1972  105
68. Timber Marks Issued, 1963-72  106
GRAZING DIVISION
70. Grazing Permits Issued, 1972	
106
PROTECTION DIVISION
102. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1972  107
103. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1972  107
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  107
105. Fires Classified by Size and Timber Loss, 1972  108
106. Loss of Property Other Than Forests, 1972  109
107. Loss to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1972—Parts I and II	
  109 and 110
108. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Loss, 1972.— Ill
109. Comparison of Loss Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  112
110. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1972 113
111. Areas of Logging Slash Disposed, 1972  114
FOREST ACCOUNTS
141. Forest Revenue, 1968-72  114
142. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1972  115
143. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1971/72____ 116
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1971/72  117
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1971/72  117
146. Scaling Fund   118
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  118
148. Reservoir Waterway Improvements   118
PERSONNEL DIVISION
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1972	
119
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 89
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROIECTS IN 1972
Active at beginning of year    104
Terminated        8
New projects      17
Active at end of year   113
Research Projects by Districts
Subject
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
6
2
8
24
1
3
4
1
10
1
1
5
3
3
4
1
1
1
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
Choice and trial of species	
Planting —	
2
1
2
Management: Economics 	
1
Totals	
60
17
15
10
11
(12)
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1972
1972:  Photo-electric measurements of Douglas fir.
Can.  J. For.  Sci.
Balderston, M. B..
2:3:374-6
Heaman, J. C, and Owens, J. N., 1972: Callus Formation and Root Initiation in Stem Cuttings
of Douglas fir.  Can. J. Forest Res. 2, 121-134
Orr-Ewing, A. L., Fraser, A. R., and Karlsson, I., 1972: Interracial Crosses with Douglas fir.
Res. Note. 55.   B.C. Forest Service.
 V 90
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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<<
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 91
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
(47) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Forest District
Schedule
B
Schedule
A
Total
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver 	
171
61
1
1
7
5
2,990,305
3,539,246
390,933
80,643
726,253
1,379,091
1,152,529
207,125
1,733
671
1,841
42,104
4,142,834
3,746,371
392,666
81,314
728,094
1,421,195
6,819,279
11,046,617
447,946
85,046
776,982
3,325,549
4,345,460
1,687,100
Prince George -	
140,000
44,000
Kamloops   	
Nelson -	
199,310
580,050
34
9,106,471
1,406,003
10,512,474
22,501,419
6,995,920
1 Three tree-farm licences located in both districts.
Schedule B is vacant Crown land.
Schedule A is land for which the tree-farm licence holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by
the tree-farm licence agreement. This may include lands held in fee-simple or temporary tenures, e.g., timber
leases, licences, and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are
transferred to Schodule B.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS (PRIVATE
(48) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-
farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Forest District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
tive
Capacity
(Cunits)
14
1
2
67,443
188
948
222,043
1,033
4,719
35,459
Nil
3,940
324,945
1,221
9,607
364,125
1,280
10.158
329,879
458
4.312
Totals	
17         1    68.579
227,795
39,399
335,773
375,563
334,649
Not Included Within Tree-Farm Licences
22
105.069
298,365
186,511
40,179
108,094
443,613
384,085
482,556
480,301
317,620
10               89,480
94,296
(339,596)
Totals 	
32
194,549
484,876
148,273
827,698
962,857
411,916
(339,596)
49
263,128
712,671
187,672
1,163,471
1,338,420
746,565
(339,596)
Figures in parentheses ( ) are Christmas trees.
 V 92
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
<49) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Crown
Private
Total
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver  	
12
4
6
12
3
5
1,860
1,274
1,397
3,176
698
1,457
220
147
11
580
110
827
2,080
1,421
1,408
3,756
808
2,284
2,887
2,436
1,495
4,340
928
2,434
736
249
PrinceTjeorge     ..
Cariboo    	
Kamloops 	
515
866
185
300
Grand totals	
42
9,862
1,895
11,757
14,520
2,851
(SO)     SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (A
cres)
Total Area
(Including
Nonforest)
(Acres)
Close
Utilization
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(Cunits)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Vancouver  — .-
Prince Rupert (Coast)
Prince Rupert (Interior)...
6
4
7
193
8*
18 =
14
3,270,979
4,327,545
5,750,543
13,432,486
6,808,957
4,776,966
2,779,447
1,553,463
324,254
3,154,641
11,401,047
7,405,483
4,861,466
4,972,013
5,282,630
4,720,399
9,297,931
26,636,742
14,725,577
10,201,575
8,577,603
10,403,812
11,616,283
14,272,760
39,078,171
18,693,232
13,566,511
14,287,482
2,866,2401
2,540,6101
2,544,5002
5,865,2502
Cariboo .  	
Kamloops— 	
Nelson  	
2,440,4902
2,433,7802
2,168,7802
Totals	
78
41,146,923
33,672,367
79,442,457
121,918,251
20,859,650
i Close utilization allowable annual cut (cunits) 9.1"+d.b.h.
2 Close utilization allowable annual cut (cunits) 7.1"+d.b.h.
3 19 units plus Block I portion of the Big Valley PSYU.
i 8 units plus Block II portion of the Big Valley PSYU, plus a portion of the Big Bar PSYU.
5 18 units plus a portion of the Big Bar PSYU.
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(51) DURING THE YEARS 1971 AND  1972 IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1963-72
1972
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
Vancouver... —
Prince Rupert (Coast)...
Totals, Coast....	
Prince Rupert (Interior)
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson  -
Totals, Interior	
Grand totals	
782,825,559 |
135,632,318  |
826,157,819
176,739,025
713,047,185
159,403,357
918,457,877  | 1,002,896,844 |     872,450,542
92,448,796 |
285,611,489
258,308,864 |
163,445,858 |
107,557,355 j
406,980,880 j
292,560,757 |
187,085,336 |
111,655,553
407,512,133
356,134,164
215,994,616
799,815,007  |     994,184,328 | 1,091,296,466
1,718,272,884 |  1,997,081,172 |  1,963,747,008
113,110,634
17,335,668
|   130,446,302
4,098,198
531,253
63,573,407
28,909,280
97,112,138  |
I
33,334,164
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 93
(52)      SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN  1972, IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
Fir       '     Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
Vancouver	
159,553,507
3,360,109
154,589,095
25,372,150
9,729,845
25,411,614
333,522
64,579
250,993,014
73,434,801
113,864,307
29,014,334
4,042,380
2,503
Totals, Coast	
162,913,616|179,961,245| 35,141,459[       398,101
324,427,815 [142,878,6411       4,044,883
Prince Rupert (Interior)
12,568
19,673,753
116,101,469
25,052,068
5,286,856
3,141,215
17,858,925
24,541,725
23,357,597
224,865,333
109,131,470
79,129,257
33,655,148
129,576,899
58,695,342
26,101,988
32,927,446
609,249
10,805,807
19,287,657
14,859,473
27,692,519
33,221,729
28,142,351
21,297
Kamloops _	
Nelson     .
3,144,217
3,504,140
Totals, Interior	
160,839,8581 50,828,721 j436,483,657|248,029,377
63,630,159] 103,916,072|       6,669,654
323,753,474 230,789,966 471,625,116 248,427,478
388.057.9741246.794.7131      10.714.537
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
100,848
13,239,836
557,901
1,208,241
41,956
3,112,763
2,078,359
2,279,827
65,051
713,047,185
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
159,403,357
100,848| 13,797,737
1,250,197
5,191,122|    2,344,878]   872,450,542
    ...1  	
3,782
976,892
377,130
9.139
1.552.3531                330
111,655,553
149
2,655,830
9.156.992
954,827
94,163
406.667
407,512,133
Kamloops — ,	
3,926,474
662,632
5,112
116,496
356,134,164
215,994,616
Totals, Interior	
4,589,106|           5,112
11,812,971|     1,366,943
3,O08,010|       116,826|1,091,296,466
4,689,954
13,802,849
11.R17.971I     7.617.140
8.199.1321     2.461.70411.963.747 008
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN  1972 IN CUBIC FEET
(53) (SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
121,332,819
9,150,474
19,668,697
30,315,650
4,875,569
109,375
182,801,148
139,967,222
12,862,027
29,400,793
252,969
62,149,002
7,825,209
4,149,501
9,190,129
898,462
2,456,997
196,354,993
20,797,600
19,668,697
2,143,415
12,157,457
32,459,065
17,033,026
22,299
73,003,596
33,759,814
56,733
112,296
319,329,352
23,734,604
11,894
277,072,834
24,024,248
76,945
138,402,474
40,983,536
332,809
44,478,497
25,978,385
2,648,677
1,035,087,901
288,447,809
15,567,437
35,104,749
29,400,793
Miscellaneous  —
658
58,006
10,331,385
2,824,455
48,572,222
Subtotals,    Crown
lands	
550,736,743
149,556,091
106,900,448
386,106,210
324,779,991
185,642,869
1,703,722,352
4,312,999
124,002,052
10,106,670
2,962,092
20,926,629
2,545,625
268,744
3,765,199
855,505
2,412,193
681,717
323,611
10,953
135,431
2,843,512
18,092,416
1,458,874
7,991,986
2,101,986
6,396,416
13,404,911
90,688
3,440,286
13,195,294
1,481,114
12,144,365
9,413,514
135,714,021
Crown grants 1887-1906
Crown grants 1906-1914
Crown grants 1914 to date....
220,603
1,421,984
2,430,801
29,525,183
15,960,623
69,411,315
Totals 	
713,047,185] 159,403,357
111,655,553
407,512,133
356,134,164
215,994,616
1,963,747,008
 V 94
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 97
(57)
LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1972
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sale
Licences
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Licences,
Farm
Wood-lot
Licences,
and
Timber Sale
Harvesting
Licences)
Leases,
Licences,
Crown
Grants,
and
Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
Other
Tenures
Total
801
138
385
140
189
168
317
253
664
207
419
302
1,733
668
1,837
321
555
479
2,851
1,059
2,886
668
1,163
949
3,028
2,305
5,404
1,677
1,772
1,972
2,215
1,316
1,587
768
1,789
1,299
5,243
3,621
6,991
2,445
3,561
3,271
Prince Rupert	
Prince George ... ..
Cariboo  ,	
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Totals, 1972	
1,821
2,163
2,881
3,511
4,719
5,118
5,566
6,231
6,557
6,926
2,162
1,609
1,272
876
(!)
(!)
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C1)
C1)
(!)
5,593
6,602
6,230
7,358
7,758
7,431
6,174
6,514
6,560
7,168
9,576
10,374
10,383
11,745
12,477
12,549
11,740
12,745
13,117
14,094
16,158
15,374
16,080
17,518
17,480
17,663
18,593
17,869
17,789
18,021
8,974
10,037
10,112
8,682
10,092
9,488
9,576
6,365
13,311
7,189
25,132
Totals, 1971	
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969.	
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967-	
Totals, 1966	
25,411
26,192
26,200
27,572
27,151
28,169
Totals, 1965  _	
Totals, 1964	
24,234
31,100
Totals, 1963	
25,210
Ten-year average, 1963-72
4,549
I1)
6,739
11,880
17,254
9,383
26,637
1 Figures not available prior to 1969.
 V 98
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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V 99
(59)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES AND TIMBER SALE
HARVESTING LICENCE CUTTING PERMITS, 1972
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(Cunits)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
Etc. (No.)
319
123
165
18
268
156
45,122
40,166
108,319
1,732
150,370
122,292
1,537,051
1,743,512
2,546,280
15,391
5,471,750
3,838,519
6,404
156,045
150
25,000
1,587,192
10,000
Kamloops	
550
565,000
Totals, 1972.	
Totals, 1971	
Totals, 1970... 	
Totals, 1969	
1,049
427
622
732
890
848
998
1,357
1,709
1,862
468,001
112,668
193,737
233,491
314,595
310,325
361,021
496,254
661,821
716,699
15,152,503
2,369,910
4,687,620
4,451,260
6,738,850
5,498,070
6,794,860
9,519,950
11,074,280
11,659,760
1,622,192
9,500
61,400
15,300
3,269,400
6,014,850
3,674,100
2.650,400
2,944,004
3,887,525
7,104
2,520
5,277
13,392
6,769
12,352
25,675
7,616
25,154
32,519
721,045
51,650
225,850
2,910,012
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967.	
Totals, 1966 	
704,950
319,450
837,244
Totals, 1965-	
Totals, 1964.	
Totals, 1963 	
987,100
478,520
656,680
Ten-year average, 1963-72.
1,049
386,861
7,794,706
2,414,867
13,838
789,250
(60)
TIMBER-SALE LICENCE RECORD,  1972
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-
protection
Tax (Acres)
Vancouver	
220
40
71
67
47
249
64
177
155
102
833
185
296
436
207
265,821
77,111
145,621
209,524
189,087
241,664
64,498
87,932
176,615
Nelson.. _.    ,	
162,020
Totals -  	
445
557
747
1,957
887,164
732,729
1.002      1        	
Does not include TSHL's, TSL's (Third Band), or cutting permits.
 V 100
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 (66)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
EXPORT OF LOGS  (IN CUBIC FEET), 1972
V 105
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
under
Permlt2
Fir_	
Cedar.	
Spruce	
Hemlock	
Balsam	
Lodgepole pine	
Cypress	
Hardwood   _...
Cottonwood.......	
Totals, 1972	
Totals, 1971	
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969	
Totals, 1968.	
Totals, 1967	
Totals, 1966	
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964	
Totals, 1963	
Ten-year average
1963-72	
50,416
212,729
208,858
5,660
104,400
135,033
24,392
158,932
738,589
462,391
77,329
592,443
254,569
57,227
412,562
1,719,730
1,842,984
105,717
2,405,602
209,387
717,096
2,874,315
3,222,351
598,829
3,619,562
2,021,374
1,625,172
559,204
624,730
578,164
2,308,645
6,094,192
7,629,924
3,031,347
4,482,835
6,886,800
4,553,790
1,794,367
2,431,755
2,691,635
6,753,209
16,817,090
30,800,174
17,270,817
20,111,753
21,499,239
14,666,899
5,974,462
5,131,602
10,465,035
1,644,080
4,190,529
14,949,028
313,672
95,173
81,619
621,910
2,671,048
2,514,233
313,672
188,706
3,102,445
95,173
598,989
408,845
2,324,425
8,396,211
5,040,281
2,695,646
3,495,473
2,821,874
1,440,105
637,616
1,730,420
10,187,795
28,110,022
50,048,660
25,941,274
30,909,796
33,902,886
23,667,735
9,768,138
8,825,703
15,465,254
41,100
40,519
436,806
185,104
597,255
2,073,793
632,457
1,881,776
178,089
135,583
110,155
78,551
686,383
2,416,062
95,120
53
228,481
370,508
2,899,089
23,682,726
3,005,846
7,181,949
4,630,425
23,479,597
13,455,734
36,592,926
10,655,349
15,285,925
16,265,130
14,644,666
11,418,913
22,483,973
7,348,820
16,318,915
6,458,926
3,309,212
4,741,111
4,084,592
8,518,306
6,946,948
8,649,856
15,032,870
I
1 Export privilege^exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12, 1906, under authority of
section 97 of the Forest Act.
(67)     SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS, 1972
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling -  -.      „
Fence-posts   pieces
Cedar shakes       „
Pulp chips  — units
Prince Rupert—Poles .— lin. ft.
Prince George—
Poles and piling  —cu. ft.
Hop stakes _ — lin. ft.
Posts   pieces
Shakes and shingles squares
Pulp chips  - units
Cariboo—Christmas trees— pieces
Kamloops—
Poles  lin. ft.
Christmas trees   pieces
Nelson-
Poles and piling  —lin. ft.
Corral rails       ,,
Mine timbers      „
Palings and pickets cords
Fence-posts  — —-    „
Shakes and shingles— pieces
Christmas trees _      „
Total value, 1972  _	
Total value, 1971-	
4,097,523
799,419
1,400
14,177,436
458,299
1,960,000
212,550
75,540
152,355
163
13,955
21,118
24,465
114,394
458,816
171,769
120,442
143
1,431
2,165,250
795,028
1,656,906.00
338,500.00
840.00
269,400.00
12,374,000.00
1,568,000.00
425,100.00
18,885.00
60,292.00
4,287.00
165,367.00
17,950.30
20,795.25
97,234.90
18,505.00
5,150.00
18,000.00
11,500.00
85,500.00
325,000.00
63,600.00
17,594,812.45
8,394,023.00
900,695
111,980
491,715
760,000
212,550
75,540
152,355
163
13,955
6,335
24,465
11,498
458,816
119,963
120,442
76
1,422
246,500
141,119
2,983,636
111,785
1,400
13,649,721
458,299
1,200,000
8,870
102,896
51,806
67
9
1,918,750
590,694
213,192
575,654
36,000
5,913
63,215
 V  106
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(68)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1963-72
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
10-year
Average,
1963-72
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887-
1906     _-	
313
125
161
608
141
13
12
18
2,183
97
356
148
164
672
149
7
9
27
2,281
121
328
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
1,614
153
3
341
130
144
679
63
3
10
27
20
1,126
117
12
4
277
147
163
680
61
6
4
11
214
1,149
95
4
1
328
173
190
805
48
9
1
24
347
1,241
101
5
1
361
159
203
781
48
13
11
30
502
1,327
143
2
2
220
82
111
540
19
10
6
14
418
1,199
89
1
197
109
126-
524
7
4
12
384
991
115
280
120
144
561
8
2
1
12
346
1,002
114
2
2
300
134
Crown grants, 1906-
1914 _ _	
Section 58, Forest Act
Stumpage reservations.
Pre-emptions , 	
158
650
68
8
7
Indian reserves 	
Section 24, Forest Act.
Timber sales__ 	
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
20
223
1,411
114
3
Pulp licences	
1
Totals	
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,273
3,582
2,709
2,471
2,594
3,097
Transfers and changes
725
802
740
908
593
773
554
686
548
583
691
(70)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED,  1972
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock Under Permit
Cattle
Horses          Sheep
560
403
317
678
10
78,142
21,047
10,398
64,810
220
605
753
2,007
2,781
20
1,210
10
22
190
Totals, 1972	
1,968
1,920
1,9851
2,018
2,053
2,114
2,244
2,218
2,104
1,951
174,617
178,772
178,332
180,579
188,183
188,126
189,286
188,339
173,677
158,840
6,166
6,186
5,651
5,545
6,338
6,837
6,572
6,677
6,231
5,860
1,432
1,484
2,739
5,106
Totals, 1971—                                      	
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969 -	
Totals, 1968    	
7,090
6,272
8,970
12,509
22,478
25,366
Totals, 1967  —. __	
Totals, 1966  .     ...
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964 - _	
Totals, 1963.	
1 Corrected figure.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V  107
(102)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1972
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver—	
6
7
i
i
13
23
25
35
54
93
59
49
106
34
17
45
60
28
36
66
83
34
122
74
64
119
9
24
166
170
61
45
12
23
20
28
18
45
3
7
6
12
345
178
220
453
378
329
18.1
9.4
11.6
23.8
Nelson  __ 	
Cariboo  	
19.9
17.2
Totals    	
13
0.7
63
3.3
396
20.8
220
11.5
443
23.3
549
28.9
146
7.7
73
3.8
1,903
100.0
100.0
Ten-year-average __
18
0.7
63
2.6
392
16.4
374
15.6
648
26.9
717
29.7
168
6.9
30
1.2
2,410
100.0
(103)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1972
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64
42
27
79
11
1
13
69
3
36
345
18.1
69
12
7
15
9
2
8
20
6
28
2
178
9.4
94
25
7
19
19
8
4
30
14
220
11.6
Kamloops. -	
129
47
46
78
10
2
5
29
22
84
1
453
23.8
177
50
32
30
36
13
34
42
6
15
1
45
9
5
22
19
2
44
54
61
5
5
378
329
19.9
Cariboo	
17.2
Tot als	
583
188
136
267
70
59
44
189
77
277
13
1,903
100.0
30.7
9.9
7.2
14.1
3.6
3.1
2.3
9.9
4.1
14.5
0.6
100.0
Ten-year average,
1963-72-	
882
222
174
303
106
119
53
184
45
290
32
2,410
36.6
9.3
7.3
12.5
4.4
4.9
2.1
7.7
1.8
12.1
1.3
100.0
(104)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1
1971
1
1972
Total
Lightning -	
Recreational (campers, etc.) —	
1
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
646
188
238
374
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
30
255
70
432
27
1,327
211
175
309
129
105
50
205
70
303
14
583
188
136
267
70
59
44
189
77
277
13
8,820
2,218
1,746
3,034
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing)  	
1,064
1,190
Road,   power,   telephone,   and   pipeline  construction	
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)
Incendiary  	
Miscellaneous known causes —	
528
1,838
446
2,895
323
Totals    ...
2,345
1
1,120
2,685
1,967
3,216
1,647
2,318
4,003
2,898
1,903 [24,102
1
 V  108
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
LOSS OF PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS, 1972
V 109
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
$
234,674
21,883
7,542
2,374
502
2,108
$
53,260
10
500
1,600
250
1,300
$
121,000
50
$
3,140
2,118
550
3,300
$
412,074
24,061
8,592
7,274
2,452
5,275
89.7
5.3
1.9
1.5
1,700
0.5
1,867
1.1
Totals	
269,083
58.6
56,920
12.2
122,750
26.8
10,975
2.4
459,728
100.0
100.0
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1963-72
Per cent	
199,587
42.2
66,574
14.1
148,667
31.2
58,784
12.5
473,612
100.0
(107)
LOSS TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
1972—PART Ii
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
KiUed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
KiUed
Present
Value
Acres
723
645
783
206
146
1,122
M Cu. Ft.
2,965
1,198
6,878
695
383
1,863
M Cu. Ft.
895
$
141,439
47,454
38,241
30,697
4,266
88,434
Acres
6,417
88
3,017
80
100
1,436
$
147,702
953
5,264
300
222
98
64,566
2,227
Nelson 	
Cariboo  	
2,442
33,895
Totals	
3,625
5.7
13,982
100.0
6,779
48.4
350,531
49.5
11,138
17.3
251,785
35.1
Ten-year average, 1963-72...
Per cent	
41,519
18.1
95,796
100.0
31,154
32.5
1,898,261
53.1
57,451
25.2
1,530,591
43.6
1 The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Loss to the Provincial economy may be estimated at approximately 10 times the loss values shown.
 V 110
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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V 113
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 V  114 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
OH) AREAS OF LOGGING SLASH DISPOSED, 1972
Forest District
Acres Abated
by Industry
Acres Abated
by Forest
Service
Total
Vancouver..    	
41,475
25,317
24,200
14,318
17,555
7,677
955
2,489
2,320
590
42,430
27,806
26,520
14,908
17,555
7,986
Kamloops 	
309
Totals 	
130,542
6,663
137,205
(141)
FOREST REVENUE,  1968-72
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1968
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1969
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1970
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1971
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1972
$
676,038.52
141,074.38
87,083.55
899,849.28
44,390,570.94
$
703,048.63
128,103.62
90,500.60
882,229.95
78,293,115.07
$
668,254.04
123,123.68
92,895.76
898,484.23
53,524,665.01
$
640,458.88
112,947.83
93,633.27
798,919.11
49,680,565.02
$
623,153.52
95,433.78
91,731.48
674,091.83
91,180,674.04
250,745.80
4,954,555.27
350,351.93
947,389.12
473,324.50
635,742.30
213,844.25
6,329,417.22
384,123.83
993,509.64
428,260.52
1,033,160.25
163,321.01
6,217,109.85
438,003.68
1,006,742.58
669,194.53
1,149,637.48
166,647.42
5,553,861.92
469,636.16
1,123,517.24
735,683.76
1,514,347.62
140,245.57
5,336,035.96
532,992.78
1,185,179.11
773,132.95
2,004,105.62
53,806,725.59
89,479,313.58
64,951,431.85
60,890,218.23
102,636,776.64
Timber licence rentals  and
fees 	
Timber berth rentals and fees
Timber lease rentals and fees
Timber sale rentals and fees-
Timber sale stumpage.— ...
Timber sale cruising and advertising—   —
Timber royalties — 	
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous ....
Weight-scaling..  	
Totals - -	
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
V 115
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 V 116
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972 V 117
(144) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1971/72
$
Timber licence rentals and fees  643,858.89
Timber berth rentals and fees  116,167.93
Timber lease rentals and fees  92,716.77
Timber sale rentals and fees     820,705.13
Timber sale stumpage   63,344,101.89
Timber sale cruising and advertising      164,701.01
Timber royalties   5,620,520.07
Grazing permits and fees  480,763.82
Forest-protection tax     1,373,128.82
Miscellaneous   731,075.64
Weight-scaling       1,641,741.74
Total   75,029,481.71
(145) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1971/72
$
General administration, protection, and management of forests  22,849,623.39
Reforestation and forest nurseries  4,733,885.11
Forest research     222,908.60
Public information and education  87,944.54
Forest Service Training School  173,027.10
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association  17,500.00
Engineering services and forest-development roads  2,972,416.70
Fire suppression    11,022,117.69
Forest inventory   1,549,047.33
Silviculture     1,671,074.23
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1  226,199.24
Peace River community pastures  19,998.44
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme  27,787.05
Total      45,573,529.42
1 Statement provided elsewhere.
 V 118 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(146) SCALING FUND
$
Deficit, April 1, 1971      205,253.13
Collections, fiscal year 1971/72  2,558,993.28
2,353,740.15
Expenditures, fiscal year 1971/72  2,786,023.76
Deficit, March 31, 1972      432,283.61
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1972  1,817,165.65
1,384,882.04
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1972  2,011,329.90
Deficit, December 31, 1972         626,447.86
(147) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
$
Deficit, April 1, 1971    8,390.81
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)      224,691.12
216,300.31
Expenditures, fiscal year 1971/72      226,199.24
Deficit, March 31, 1972   9,898.93
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)      240,381.91
230,482.98
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1972        129,642.44
Surplus, December 31, 1972         100,840.54
(148) RESERVOIR WATERWAY IMPROVEMENTS
$
Expenditures, fiscal year 1971/72    3,742,088.01
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority  1,869,954.46
Balance  1,872,133.55
 (151)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1972
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1972
V  119
Personnel
o
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c o.
ChOS
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Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
2
12
4
1
2
22
23
5
4
3
22
9
58
3
1
3
2
14
2
3
43
2
88
103
2
5
102
8
14
120
6
3
12
2
14
2
1
30
41
35
4
5
33
12
8
82
8
7
13
2
16
2
1
1
35
75
3
1
7
46
11
112
7
9
7
2
15
4
2
1
33
46
4
4
5
31
13
95
8
1
5
2
13
2
2
1
119
42
9
4
29
15
27
1
1
4
5
6
1
4
128
37
3
12
6
14
3
57
9
30
114
8
124
1
88
29
22
97
5
6
1
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers 	
4
12
212
12
47
12
294
2
320
138
6
41
3
67
Nursery Superintendents — 	
9
59
377
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot.     —
8
192
23
582
62
44
Miscellaneous  ,	
141
179
529
297
335
269
272
798
2,679
Seasonally Employed
14
7
39
83
	
	
1
31
1
82
200
3
3
3
33
1
601
62
4
32
13
20
134
6
10
24
2
16
159
16
19
1
41
3
74
6
184
7
30
2
5
3,403
40
103
149
222
633
2
6
165
19
Fire-suppression Crewmen 	
208
4,004
46
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
Forest Assistants .____  	
Foremen  	
Miscellaneous ___   .., ,	
668
452
247
695
143
324
687
219
236
346
4,557
6,512
322
853
984
554
505 |
613 |
5,355
9,191
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1973
3,030-173-966
 

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