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annual report of the DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION for the year ended March 31 1971 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1972

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 annual report
of the
DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
for the year ended March 31
1971
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the year ended March 31, 1971
is herewith respectfully submitted.
L. R. PETERSON
A ttorney-General
Attorney-General's Office, January 1972.
  Department of the Attorney-General,
Corrections Service,
Vancouver, British Columbia,
November 1, 1971.
The Honourable L. R. Peterson, Q.C., LL.D.,
A ttorney-General,
Parliament Buildings,
Victoria,
British Columbia.
Sir,
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections Service for the
12 months ended March 31, 1971.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction
  CONTENTS
Foreword-
Page
.    9
Chapter I. Staff and staff training
Appointments and separations	
Development and training	
Chapter II. Probation	
Chapter III. Offenders in custody
Male admissions	
Female admissions	
Change in juvenile age	
British Columbia Indians	
Drug-users	
Classification	
Remand population	
Community re-entry programmes..
Chapter IV. Regional correctional facilities
Security and discipline	
Education
12
12
13
17
18
18
18
18
19
21
22
23
Academic, Trade training, Social education, Physical education and
recreation  23
Industries
Manufacturing, Agriculture, Forestry  26
Community programmes  28
Construction and works   29
Women's Unit, Lower Mainland Centre
Religious training, Vocational training	
30
Chapter V. Young-adult training centres
Classification	
Young female offenders	
Security and discipline	
  31
  31
  32
  32
  34
  34
  34
  34
  35
Construction and works  35
New developments in training programmes.
Education	
Vocational training	
Forest camps	
Parole and temporary release _
Community projects	
 Chapter VI. Treatment of alcoholics
Page
Admissions  36
Treatment programme  36
Release and after-care  37
Staff  38
Evaluation  38
Construction  38
Twin Maples Farm  3 8
Chapter VII. Chaplains and medical services
Extracts from Senior Chaplains' reports  40
Extracts from Senior Medical Officer's report  41
Chapter VIII. British Columbia Board of Parole  42
Appendices
Population graph  45
Administrative staff    46
Organizational chart  47
Directory of correctional facilities  48
Statistical tables  50
 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
Foreword
In April 1970 the Corrections Act was passed by the Legislature. This Act
consolidated all previous Provincial legislation relating to probation, gaols, and
parole and established a Provincial Corrections Service "to provide probation,
correctional, and parole services throughout the Province."
Section 3 of the new Act defines the purpose of the Corrections Service as
"the correction and treatment of offenders against the law and the protection of the
community," and then goes on to outline how these aims are to be achieved.
The emphasis is placed on prevention. For the first time in any legislation a
Probation Officer is encouraged, before proceedings are taken in a Family Court,
"to endeavour to solve the problems of a child or a family by giving to them such
counsel, advice, and guidance as, in his opinion, are likely to solve the problem."
Gaols are to be known henceforth as "correctional centres," and provision is
made for a prisoner to obtain "leave" for specified periods and purposes, and "to
participate in gainful employment for wages" outside a correctional centre, "in the
interest of his final rehabilitation."
Authority is given to the British Columbia Parole Board to suspend rather than
revoke paroles where the Board has reason to believe that the parolee "has failed to
observe the conditions of his parole or is likely to do so."
In May, an Order in Council was approved designating four regional correctional centres for the Province—one at Prince George, one at Kamloops, one
at Colquitz on Vancouver Island, and one at Burnaby for the Lower Mainland.
Oakalla Prison Farm, after nearly 60 years of service, was renamed the Lower
Mainland Regional Correctional Centre. The Haney Correctional Institution and
New Haven were to be known in future as the Haney Correctional Centre and New
Haven Correctional Centre.
This new Act marks a new step forward in Corrections for the Province and
sets the course for future development. The changes, seemingly perhaps rather
slight, do in fact mark the new emphasis and trend taking place in Corrections aimed
at greater community involvement. Based on the premise that virtually all prisoners
return to the community eventually, it stresses the importance of a controlled re-entry
under the most favourable conditions possible. To return to a suspicious, often
hostile society, with no job, no money, and no friends, other than those facing the
same predicament, is a poor recipe for success.
In the following pages of this Report reference will be made to some of the
changes taking place both within and without correctional institutions in an effort
to bridge this gap between institutional commitment and life in the community.
A most encouraging trend will be discerned toward the greater use of probation,
particularly for adults. The adult case load between April 1, 1970, and March 31,
1971, increased by 40 per cent, and for the first time since probation was instituted
in this Province 30 years ago, the adult case load exceeded the juvenile case load.
The saving in terms of both human resources and financial costs has been immense.
With over 10,000 people under supervision in the community, it has been possible
 Z 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to keep the prison population down to a daily average of 2,124, an increase of only
32 over last year. This has been accomplished in the face of a large influx in population in the Province and rising crime figures.
The resultant strain on the probation staff has been heavy and, although recruitment and training have kept up, the annual drain on experienced officers has not
enabled us to keep pace with the mounting volume of work. It is frustrating to
lose experienced and well-trained officers to the National Parole Service, where
salaries are higher and case loads smaller.
"Juvenile delinquency has no single cause, manifestation, or cure. Its origins
are many, and the range of behaviour which it covers is equally wide. ... it is
probably a minority of children who grow up without ever misbehaving in ways
which may be contrary to the law. Frequently such behaviour is no more than an
incident in the pattern of a child's normal development. But sometimes it is a
response to unsatisfactory family or social circumstances, a result of boredom in
and out of school, an indication of maladjustment or immaturity, or a symptom of a
deviant, damaged, or abnormal personality. Earlier recognition and full assessment
are particularly important in these more serious cases. Variety and flexibility in
the measures that can be taken are equally important if society is to deal effectively
and appropriately with these manifold aspects of delinquency. These measures include supervision and support of the child in the family; the further development of
the services working in the community; and a variety of facilities for short-term and
long-term care, treatment and control, including some which are highly specialized."
The above quotation is taken from the White Paper Children in Trouble,
presented to the United Kingdom Parliament in April 1968. Three points are
particularly noteworthy—delinquency is frequently no more than an incident in the
pattern of a child's normal development; early recognition and assessment are
important; variety and flexibility in the measures that can be taken to combat it are
necessary. The sophisticated, hard-core delinquent, usually from a deprived background and well known to the community, must be recognized, assessed, and measures taken for his proper control and treatment. Since the repeal of the Training-
schools Act in April, Probation Officers across the Province have been concerned
that the measures taken to control the more difficult delinquent are inadequate;
that few effective resources are available for the youth who fails on probation; that
returning him to his home is futile. Where probation has failed, the imposition of
further restrictions and controls, with possibly an additional condition of residence
in a hostel away from home, can be most effective. Some examples of this type
of back-up resource for probation are detailed in the body of this Report. Additional
funds for community treatment of this nature would be money well spent when the
alternative is maintaining the same person at a later date in a correctional centre
for young adults.
Note is taken in the chapter on "Offenders in custody" of the increasing incidence of drug abuse. There has been considerable publicity given to this latest
social phenomenon, which has undoubtedly done much to heighten and sustain the
interest taken in it, particularly on the part of the young. Once any activity can
be developed into an "in-cult," its success can be assured and it is not long before
the criminal subculture moves in to milk the profits. Many of the young involved
with the present upsurge in drugs are undoubtedly experimenters, attracted by the
publicity and anxious to be doing what is considered to be the "in-thing." For
those not in this class, I suggest that one has to look beyond their interest in drugs
as such, to the deficiency for which they are compensating—the boredom with life,
the feelings of inadequacy, lack of confidence, and inability to cope that engender
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 11
the need for withdrawal or escape, on the one hand, and excitement and fantasy on
the other. While there is no single remedy for such malaise, we have been having
some success in weaning young adults from the use of drugs in our Search and
Leadership Training Programmes, where they have found a new purpose and
satisfaction in life through achievement in the face of physical challenge.
The emphasis on probation and special training programmes for young adults
has meant that those adults committed to prison represent a far more difficult group.
To work effectively with these offenders requires patience, a good understanding of
deviant behaviour, and a strong faith and confidence in one's ability to be able to
get through to them. Personal influence and example are perhaps the two most
potent tools the prison officer possesses, for the prisoner will change his behaviour
to some extent to model himself after the man he really respects and admires. Of
almost equal importance is the atmosphere of the prison generated by both staff
and buildings. Over the years, with the assistance of the Department of Public
Works, much has been done to replace and modify some of the harsher, more
repressive aspects of the older prisons. Nelson Gaol was abandoned, the old
Kamloops Gaol razed to the ground, Prince George replaced, and the old wooden
gaol at Oakalla torn down and burned. It is essential that we continue this programme of renovating the older regional correctional centres, updating and modernizing their facilities, to provide an atmosphere more conducive to hope and rehabilitation, an aspect frequently lacking in prisons constructed in the early part of the
century and strongly influenced by Victorian ideas of punishment.
The greatest housing problem with which we are currently faced is the provision of adequate facilities for remand prisoners at the Lower Mainland Centre
and to a lesser extent at Kamloops. Reference is made to the current situation in
the accompanying pages of this Report.
This matter has been raised in successive Annual Reports for a number of
years, when the inadequacy and inappropriateness of the accommodation for these
men and women, many of them as yet untried and unconvicted, has been emphasized.
The waiting-trial or remand wing of a prison is normally the citizen's first contact
with imprisonment. It is here that the unconvicted must await trial; here that the
greatest reassurance is needed to quieten the natural fears and loneliness of weeks,
and sometimes months, of waiting in custody. The United States President's Commission on Law Enforcement remarked that: "Many of the people, juvenile and
adult, with whom Corrections deal are the most troublesome and troubling members
of society: the misfits and the failures, the unrespectable and the irresponsible.
Society has been well content to keep them out of sight." While this is undoubtedly
true, we would do well to heed those famous words of Sir Winston Churchill: "The
mood and temper of the public with regard to the treatment of crime and criminals
is one of the most unfailing tests of the civilization of any country."
 Chapter I.   Staff and staff training
Appointments and separations
During the course of the year, 36 Probation Officers and Probation Interviewers
were trained and appointed to staff. In the same period there were nine separations,
leaving a net gain of 27 for the year.
A total of 70 staff was appointed to the permanent ranks of the correctional
centres and camps to fill retirements and resignations.
Dr. Grant Hollingworth retired as Senior Protestant Chaplain after nearly 20
years in the British Columbia Corrections Service. As the first officially appointed
Chaplain, he was responsible for developing a service which has made an outstanding
contribution to Corrections in British Columbia. Rev. E. J. Hulford, Chaplain at
the Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre, was appointed to succeed him.
Deputy Warden J. Bellis, of the Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre, was appointed Warden of the Haney Correctional Centre on January 10, 1971,
replacing E. W. Epp, who accepted a post with the Ontario Department of Correctional Services.
Development and training
The Staff Training Academy was moved on April 1 to Pierce Creek Forest
Camp in the Chilliwack Valley.
This year, 113 officers completed training courses. With the backlog of training for security courses caught up, the Advanced Training Programme for experienced correctional staff has been expanded and will be further developed next
year.
Staff continued to participate in a wide variety of field training courses and
seminars as well as courses in criminology and corrections at the University of
British Columbia and Vancouver City College. Senior training staff have been
actively involved in planning a programme in corrections at Douglas College. This
extension of our present courses in corrections at the college level is a most welcome
advance.
Three 15-week Orientation Courses for new Probation Officers were held during the year and two refresher courses for trained officers to keep them in touch
with new developments. Two regional meetings were held in each of our five
geographical regions, in which problems common to all Probation Officers were
discussed.
Officers were also encouraged to increase their skills and knowledge through
attendance at special workshops and institutes, and four officers were granted leave-
of-absence and assisted with bursaries to enable them to undertake postgraduate
work in social work and criminology.
12
 Chapter II.   Probation
Probation describes a process whereby offenders are released on suspended
sentence during good behaviour under the supervision of an officer of the Court
acting as friend and adviser.
The success of probation depends upon the degree to which the offender is
able to modify his behaviour. This, in turn, depends upon the techniques and skills
of trained Probation Officers.
It is true that the risks to society, represented by some offenders, are so serious
that, until we know how to understand and control that group in the community,
imprisonment alone must remain the answer.
Probation should not be regarded as a step in the direction of leniency but a
recognition that both society and the offender are best served by a suspended sentence under supervision, not depriving the offender of his liberty entirely. This
provides an opportunity at re-education without committing the offender to an
institution.
In a sense this is an "out-patient" principle which holds that it is good for the
offender to continue living and working in his ordinary everyday life-ways as much
as possible, while seeing his Probation Officer in successive sessions. The hope is
that it may be possible to reintegrate this temporarily suspended individual back
into the mainstream of social life, preferably a life at a higher level than before.
For probation to succeed there are two essential factors—
(1) Proper screening and selection.    (The pre-sentence  investigation
has much to do with this.)
(2) Adequate and proper supervision in the community, adjusted to the
needs of the individual.
Nothing can be achieved if the probationer remains passive, and one of the
primary aims is the development of a sense of personal responsibility. Probation
may not involve punishment but it does demand effort on the part of the probationer.
Only as he is able to gain insight into the nature of his own behaviour will he be
able to make a satisfactory adjustment within himself.
To thus aid the probationer, the supervising officer must employ the same
discernment, common sense, and sincere interest which he used in his pre-sentence
investigation. In addition to skills which require training to develop, the officer
must have a warm personality which inspires confidence, a thorough knowledge of
community resources, and the ability to help a man to help himself. Like a wise
parent, he gives understanding and guidance. He represents authority, but uses
his authority to help the offender become independent of it.
The value of probation has been achieved when the immediate problems of
the probationer have been resolved, when any special conditions of probation have
been met, and when a reasonable degree of stability and responsibility has been
achieved by the probationer.
Review of the year
The statistical statement at the conclusion of this chapter indicates the increasing use being made of probation as an alternative to imprisonment. New
probation cases alone showed an increase of 25 per cent over the previous year.
Two new field offices were opened during the year—at Quesnel and Oliver.
This brings the total number of probation offices throughout the Province to 48.
13
 Z 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Probation Officers are gradually moving into correctional centres. Some are
employed at the Haney Correctional Centre and at Alouette River Unit. In each,
the Probation Officer works with the Housemaster in pre-release planning, and in
addition assists individuals with counselling and guidance. The officers at the
Alouette River Unit, the treatment centre for chronic alcoholics, works closely with
AA and half-way house personnel in the area to which the man is going on release.
Full use has always been made, when possible, of half-way houses, group-living
homes, mental health clinics, Manpower, and appropriate social agencies. In
addition, varied programmes have been established for the treatment of delinquent
youth under the supervision of Probation Officers:
1. A Search and Leadership Training Programme was again operated at
Porteau Cove, 40 miles from Vancouver. This course is of one month's duration
for youths of 14 to 17 who are not responding to probation treatment. Experienced
leaders teach the youths the necessary skills for wilderness survival, first aid, map
and compass work, water safety, mountain climbing, and canoeing. It is felt that
often a favourable climate for counselling and guidance is created by the sharing
of excitement, discomforts, and hazards that the youth encounters under these
circumstances. Challenges are accepted and met, and as achievement is realized
so the individual grows in confidence, ability, and a sense of responsibility.
2. The Metchosin Ranch Programme was in operation again this year. This
setting, near Victoria, is used also for a summer residential programme which
closely approximates the Porteau Cove training and attempts to encourage parental
and community involvement.
3. Week-end programmes for juveniles have been carried on at both these
facilities during the year, and a week-end programme for girls was instituted at
Ruskin Farm with houseparents who, by their understanding help, instill self-
reliance, co-operation, and self-confidence in the participants.
4. Residential resources such as the Probation Hostel at Marpole for juveniles
from inadequate home situations, and the House of Concord, operated by the
Salvation Army at Langley for the 15 to 19-year-old probationer in need of a
structured setting, were both served by Probation Officers who offered valuable
guidance and counselling.
5. The Attendance Centre in Victoria, established in 1969, is a resource to
assist those who are not responding to probation. Participation in the programme
at the centre is a formal condition of probation in these cases, and thus affords the
Probation Officer greater scope to apply varied methods to help the probationer.
Many of the programmes referred to above and many others of a similar nature
could not take place without the active support of the local community. The community is a reservoir of skills which can be orchestrated to probation planning. For
example in the area of direct contact with probationers, volunteers can offer such
services as support-friendship, sincere warmth, behaviour models, and limit-setting.
Community concern too frequently ends with the apprehension of the offender.
Real citizen participation means a concern for prevention and includes a programme
of rehabilitation. There must be an active commitment on the part of the community. The Probation Officer, from the vantage point of his training, experience,
and concern, has a unique opportunity to stimulate citizen participation. For, unless
the community accepts its responsibility and plays a strategic role, successful rehabilitation of the offender will not likely take place.
A good practical example of citizen participation is the Volunteer Sponsors
Programme presently under way in North Vancouver. The objective of this demonstration programme, which has been in operation for about a year, is to prove that
supervision given by volunteer sponsors to juvenile probationers can be effective.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1970/71 Z 15
The programme is sponsored jointly by the Junior League of Vancouver and our
own Service and will be of two years' duration. In the difficult area of recruitment,
sponsors have been obtained through 700 to 800 personal contacts, speeches to
service clubs, and through the Junior League itself. Further sponsors are obtained
through the enthusiasm of current recruits who spread the word to their friends.
The recruits are trained in three evenings of general orientation and are screened
through personal reference and a check with local police records. To date, 74
sponsors have been enrolled and 68 juveniles and one adult have been matched
with sponsors. Only three of this total have been unsuccessful and required institutional care. Many sponsors spend 15 to 20 hours per month of their time in
this programme. Their interest, devotion, and concern in this voluntary service is
highly commendable.
A number of group-living homes, including hostels and half-way houses, have
been operating in the Province, sponsored by both public and private agencies.
Probation Officers work closely with personnel of private agencies and other Government departments so that appropriate selections are made for placement. It is most
encouraging to see the continued growth in the development of these resources by
various societies and self-help groups, especially at a time when there appears to be
an increase in the rate of homeless offenders.
Probation success and failure are very difficult things to define or evaluate. Yet
probation remains a method justified by its outcome. The difficulty, as with all penal
methods, is to judge when it is appropriate. Its avoidance of interruption in normal
living, with its possibilities of change in behaviour patterns of the individual concerned, create a desirable alternative to imprisonment.
Comparative Case Statistics for Years 1969/70 and 1970/71
New probation cases—
Males: 1969/70 1970/71
Under 18 years   2,168 2,234
18 to 24 years (inclusive)   1,133 1,615
25 to 39 years (inclusive)       402 637
40 to 64 years (inclusive)       170 250
65 years and over          4 11
 3,877 4,747
Females:
Under 18 years      209 315
18 to 24 years (inclusive)       149 234
25 to 39 years (inclusive)         65 117
40 to 64 years (inclusive)         48 54
65 years and over    3
 471 723
Totals, new probation cases  4,348 5,470
New parole cases—
National Parole       132 142
Order in Council   3 5
Provincial Parole       725 699
 860 846
New miscellaneous and voluntary cases  3,827 4,197
Grand totals  9,035 10,513
 Z 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Comparison of Probation Activity
1969/70
1970/71
Increase (+)
Decrease (—)
Per
Cent
New probation cases..
New parole cases_
New miscellaneous cases-.
Pre-sentence reports—
Juvenile	
Adult..
4,348
860
3,827
784
1,899
5,470
846
4,197
977
2,093
+ 1,122
—14
+370
+ 193
+ 194
+25.4
—1.6
+9.6
+24.6
+10.2
 Chapter III. Offenders in custody
Male admissions
Male admissions totalling 11,713, were received from the Courts during the
year under review.   This was an increase of 17 per cent over last year.
In spite of this increase, the total daily average population for all male correctional centres rose only by 1.5 per cent, from 2,092 last year to 2,124. The small-
ness of the increase in the daily population figure is an indication of the higher
turnover of prisoners during the year. This is accounted for in part by the change
in legislation which provides for increased remission on all prison sentences which
came into effect during the middle of the last fiscal year.
It is obvious that the growing population of the Province and greater urbanization will contribute to an increase in crime. This points to the necessity for
continued development of preventive services. It is noteworthy that a curtailment
of probation services inevitably leads to an increase in committals to prison. Were
it not for the steady rise in the use of probation, the prison figure for the year
would be far higher.
Although the range of offenders received during the year was as broad and
varied as society itself, certain factors stood out:
(1) Sentences were relatively short—slightly over 50 per cent had less
than six months which, with statutory and earned remission, reduced
the actual time served to four months.
(2) Educational attainment was below average—almost half had an
elementary level education or lower, and a distressing number were
illiterate.
(3) Youthfulness—37 per cent alone were in the 18 to 23-year-old age
category.
(4) The majority were Caucasian—Indians from British Columbia and
elsewhere made up only 15 per cent of the total.
(5) Ninety per cent were Canadian citizens.
(6) Intemperance—well over half were intemperate in their use of
alcohol.
(7) Abusive drugs—over one-quarter (28 per cent) used drugs either in
an infrequent or habitual manner.
(8) The majority were not experienced criminals—slightly over one-half
(53 per cent) had not served a previous term in custody in British
Columbia.
(9) Offences were mainly against property—about one-half had committed offences against property, another 40 per cent were sentenced
for crimes against public order and peace, with a small percentage
for crimes against people or public morals and decency.
The number of offenders with no previous history of imprisonment sentenced
to short sentences is a matter of growing concern. Reference has been made before
in these reports to the ineffectiveness of the short prison sentence which neither
deters nor reforms. In dealing with the minor offender, Courts unfortunately are
limited in available alternatives to imprisonment when probation is not deemed
suitable and the offender has no means with which to pay a fine.   To alleviate this
17
 Z  18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
situation, planning is under way to develop work-release-type programmes so that
the offender with a relatively short sentence, capable of holding down a job, can be
released to employment in the community for the day, returning to the correctional
centre each night.
The legal implications of serving a sentence by instalments, on week-ends
rather than during the working-week, are also being studied, along with other viable
alternatives to short-term imprisonment.
Female admissions
Female admissions to custody increased from 530 last year to 618. However,
the daily average population dropped from last year's total of 76 to 71. Thirty
per cent of all admissions were released at Court, and a further 50 per cent served
sentences of less than six months.
Change in juvenile age
The lowering of the juvenile age from 18 to 17 in October 1970 led to a large
influx of 17-year-olds into adult correctional centres during the latter half of the
fiscal year. This was mainly responsible for the number of admissions in the 15
to 17 age-group, jumping from 251 in 1969/1970 to 415 this year.
The lowering of the age is currently an issue before the British Columbia Court
of Appeal. Should it be decided in favour of retaining the present policy, then
obviously the Corrections Service will have to develop a new range of facilities and
programmes to deal with a very substantial increase in the number of young-adult
offenders in custody.
British Columbia Indians
The number of male British Columbia Indians admitted to custody continues
to drop. This year 1,537, or 13 per cent, of the total intake (compared to 14.5
per cent last year) were admitted to custody.
This decrease was reversed in the female intake figure, where the percentage
admitted to custody rose to 28 per cent, an increase of 2 per cent over last year's
figure.
Drug-users
As shown in the following table and chart, the number of offenders classified
at time of intake as drug-users has increased sharply for the past two years. The
current year in particular has seen a very dramatic increase in the number character-
ized as "habitual."
Drug Offenders (Male)
Correctional
1969/70
1970/71
Centre
Infrequent
Habitual
Infrequent
Habitual
38
44
44
1,098
178
103
18
69
11
124
107
1,615
321
Kamloops	
54
32
Totals              -	
126
1,397
311
2,022
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1970/71
Continued Increase in Drug Use by Male Offenders
Z 19
64/65 65/66 66/67 67/68 68/69 69/70 70/71
Classification
The Central Classification Panel, located at the Lower Mainland Centre, interviews all admissions to this centre with sentences of two months or longer and can
recommend their transfer to any correctional centre in the Province. It also interviews all young-adult offenders sentenced to definite plus indeterminate terms from
any Court in the Province. Each regional correctional centre has its own local
Classification Panel responsible for the allocating of prisoners within the various
units for which it is responsible.
Of the total sentenced population received in the four regional correctional
centres, approximately one-third are transferred to satellite forest camps or special
training institutions for young-adult offenders or chronic alcoholics. Those who
remain in the regional centres are either short-term prisoners, those with severe
medical or psychiatric problems, or those who represent a high security risk. Work
and retraining are geared to their classification, with the objective of developing
such inherent skills as they possess. Considerable time and effort is invested through
training, counselling, and education to prepare them for discharge and return to
society as responsible citizens. The regional centres thus tend to become "maids
of all work," dealing with all types, both sentenced and unsentenced, regardless of
the problems they represent. It is encouraging to note that they managed to cope
with this situation most adequately during the year.
The highest priority in terms of correctional effort is given to the young-adult
offender group (16 to 23 years of age). It comprises the largest single age-category
in custody and this year represented 40 per cent of total admissions. The increasing
proportion of offenders in this age-range reflects the increased percentage they
 Z 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
represent in society at large, and will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future.
With this forecast in mind, deliberate steps have been taken to expand the facilities
available for their placement. With the development of the two short-term training
programmes at Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Camp, the number of young adults
in custody has been reduced substantially through a faster turnover. This, in spite
of the increase in the gross number of admissions in this category.
The Vancouver Island Unit was gazetted on July 30, 1970, as a regional correctional centre and now receives all sentenced prisoners from Courts in the Counties
of Nanaimo and Victoria. This centre continues to administer the two forest
camps (Lakeview and Snowdon) in the Sayward Provincial Forest. Snowdon Camp
had, until November 1970, been used as a facility for first offenders from anywhere
in the Province serving medium to long sentences. With the establishment of the
Vancouver Island Centre as a regional correctional centre responsible for accommodating all Island offenders, more accommodation was required and the first offender
group was transferred from Snowdon Camp to Pine Ridge Camp, a satellite of the
Haney Correctional Centre.
Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre experienced an overcrowding of all
its facilities this year, which resulted in a deterioration in classification. With no
space available in the main centre, many doubtful, and some unsuitable cases, had
to be transferred to Rayleigh and Clearwater Camps. In spite of this situation, only
one group disciplinary incident arose in these two camps. This illustrates the type
of leadership that has been developed by the staff in forest camps over the years.
The dearth of accommodation at Kamloops was a matter of particular concern
to the Warden. He notes in his report: "Seventy-eight inmates had to be transferred
to the Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre because of overcrowding.
These were in addition to those transferred for treatment, appeals, compassionate
grounds, charges in other areas, and transfers to the Penitentiary and Riverview
Hospital. As in previous years, I therefore draw your attention to the fact that
we need increased accommodation for both waiting trial and sentenced inmates at
the main institution. This accommodation for sentenced inmates should be of the
more maximum security type, i.e., cells and workshops, work areas, and recreation
areas where inmates may be under strict control at all times. If and when such
facilities are built, consideration should be given to including a sick bay. This
would make it possible to keep those inmates under observation and those with
contagious diseases separate from the main body."
A factor that has been causing some concern is the growing number of difficult,
hard-to-manage prisoners received into custody. The percentage in this category—
the violent, the angry and hostile, the unstable and unpredictable—has increased
greatly with the present emphasis on keeping more manageable offenders out of
prison and placing them on probation. While this trend is to be highly commended,
it does mean that we are put to it at times to find prisoners suitable for forest camps.
Minimum security accommodation now represents one-third of our total prisoner
capacity of 2,500. This frequently leads to classifying some very marginal cases
to forest camps in the hope that they will be able to survive without creating too
much discord and disruption. At the Chilliwack Camps, the largest single group
of camps within the Corrections Service, accommodating up to 180 men in three
camps, we are planning to construct a 30-man security unit using our own labour
force. It is felt that with such a back-up resource we can avoid having to transfer
men out of the camps as unmanageable by simply removing them to the security
unit for a cooling-off period and allowing them time to work through their problem
in secure surroundings with the help of staff. Last year 63 men had to be transferred from the Chilliwack Camps for either disciplinary or security reasons.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 21
Remand population
Those individuals remanded in custody by the Courts to the four regional
correctional centres continue to be a major concern. As they are not sentenced
they must be housed separately and are not available for employment within the
prison. It is of interest to note that only 40 per cent of them are eventually sentenced, which illustrates the peculiar nature of this group in that they are not convicted of any offence, and in the majority of cases do not receive a prison sentence.
However, while in custody they are, by necessity, housed in cell blocks where they
are locked in cells, or on cell tiers, for up to 20 hours a day.
Remand Prisoners, 1970/71
Correctional
Centre
Remand
Intake
Remand
to Bail
Discharged
at Court
From Remand
to Sentenced
168
601
338
336
3,348
47
127
53
68
884
154
69
46
1,210
116
173
227
220
1,164
Totals                           	
4,791
1,179
1,479
1,900
As will be seen from the above table, the Lower Mainland Centre houses by
far the largest number of remand prisoners—the daily average population for the
year was 278. These prisoners are housed in inadequate and substandard accommodation. The Warden reports: "The continued overcrowding and lack of adequate
facilities in the remand units continues to be our greatest problem and concern. An
added problem, but one which also causes concern, is the general deterioration of
the physical plant, which makes security difficult to maintain."
In July 1970, the situation was worsened by a sit-in staged by 124 remand
prisoners in the West Wing Yard, demanding improved programme facilities. Due
to careful handling by the staff on duty, reinforced by additional officers called in,
there was no violence and the men remained outside till daybreak of the following
day, when they were ushered peacefully to their cells.
Planning for the proposed new remand centre for the Lower Mainland Region
on the Riverview property has progressed during the year. It is hoped the delay
created by siting problems can soon be overcome as the population pressures in
the present units continue and will definitely escalate in the years ahead. Assuming
that all planning and development went according to schedule, it would still be a
minimum of two years before new accommodation would be operational and afford
any relief to the present remand units. When it is considered that there is double
occupancy now in many of the cells for this group, and that the overflow frequently
has had to be accommodated in one of the wings for sentenced prisoners, the growth
rate for the next two years will be critical indeed.
Remand facilities at Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre are also wholly
inadequate, both in quantity and standard of accommodation, and are only suitable
for short holding periods. The addition of recreation space for this unit continues
as a major need, and it is hoped that plans for such a resource can be implemented
in the next fiscal year.
Design work is progressing rapidly on the additions and alterations to the
Vancouver Island Regional Centre, which will upgrade the housing and recreational
facilities available to the remand population at that centre.
 Z 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Community re-entry programmes
A total of 1,507 cases, an increase of 33 per cent over last year, was released
by various authorities for supervision in the community. Over 44 per cent of these
were released by the British Columbia Parole Board and over 35 per cent by probation orders.
There was a slight reduction of National Parole cases, and British Columbia
Parole cases remain much the same as last year.
A total of 203 inmates was granted various types of temporary absence.
Eighty, including 11 women, were granted work release to work in the community
by day and return to an institution at night. Over 88 per cent were successful in
completing work release, and an amount in excess of $17,000 in wages was earned
by the total group. Thirty per cent of the temporary absences was to allow inmates
to receive treatment in community hospitals. Home leaves were granted to over
25 per cent for periods of up to 10 days to strengthen family relationships. Thirty-
two of these were trainees from the Haney Correctional Centre. Only two failed
to return on time and both were returned without any further offences being committed.
Three per cent were granted temporary absence to study in community educational institutions.
An innovation this year was the granting of temporary absence to three young-
adult trainees to perform voluntary services in the local community. Two worked
as instructors in sheltered workshops and one worked as an aide in a hospital for
chronic elderly patients.
 Chapter IV.   Regional correctional facilities
The gazetting this year of the Vancouver Island Unit as the regional correctional
centre for the Island marked a milestone in that it completed the regional organization of correctional facilities throughout the Province which was commenced several
years ago.
Security and discipline
Escapes and walk-aways from all regional correctional centres and their satellite
forest camps totalled 44 during the year. This is a remarkably low rate for the
number of prisoners involved. It is especially significant to note that, in spite of the
hundreds transferred to open forest camps within the various regions, only 24
walked away.
The only major security incident occurred on July 12, 1970, when there was
an attempted "invasion" of the Lower Mainland Regional Centre by a group of
young radicals. The situation was well handled by correctional staff reinforced by
a contingent of police from the Burnaby Detachment of the RCMP. What might
have developed into a serious situation was coolly and calmly handled by the combined prison and police forces co-operating together, and the crowd dispersed without the necessity of any recourse to the use of force.
There was a significant decrease in the number of disciplinary infractions during
the year. This was especially noticeable at the Lower Mainland Centre, where the
Warden noted: "The Male Centre has generally experienced a continuing improvement in behaviour patterns with the accompanying reduction in infractions of
discipline. The greatest factor in this improvement appears to be a more experienced, well-disciplined, and conscientious staff, who handled many offences by
counselling and close supervision."
Clearwater Forest Camp experienced the only major incident of group rebellion. Following a slowdown of work, the men gathered in the camp yard after the
evening meal. Extra staff were moved in and the instigators of the affair were
transferred immediately to the Kamloops Regional Centre, which ended the incident. The overloading of the camp with an excessive number of hostile and uncooperative inmates appeared to be the cause of this incident. The overcrowding at
the Kamloops Centre, referred to earlier on in this Report, led to the transfer of
several prisoners unsuitable for camp placement. Maintaining a balanced population with a preponderance of co-operative inmates capable of exerting a positive
influence is important in camp management. Too large a number of passive or
unco-operative inmates with negative attitudes and outlook can upset the balance
to the point where it is virtually impossible to develop any meaningful relationships
between staff and inmates. At this point communication usually breaks down and
trouble ensues.
Education
Academic
All regional correctional centres have now established academic programmes
in a variety of forms.
23
 f.»
! «   / '•>      » a_i'
Leaving centre in the morning—work release.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 25
Awaiting trial.
At Prince George a full-time classroom operation is in progress under the direction of a Correctional Officer who also supervises correspondence courses. The
same system prevails at the Lower Mainland Centre.
At Kamloops, Chilliwack, and Snowdon Forest Camp, the Adult Education
Division of the local school district provides teachers on a contract basis.
The Vancouver Island Centre has yet another arrangement where two teaching
Sisters from the Order of Saint Anne have conducted the education programme for
the past several years on a most successful basis. This centre also has the services
of a very competent group of volunteer instructors from the community.
As was noted earlier in this report, a lower-than-average education plus a
major number of illiterates characterizes our offender population. This, in a world
that is demanding more and more education from its work force, clearly states the
rationale for the priority placed on education in our institutions and the need for
its continued development.
Trade training
Trade training continues with the emphasis on the development of work skill
through on-the-job training rather than the more formalized vocational courses.
Short sentences and low academic level eliminate many from this programme.
The Kamloops Regional Centre this year established trade training in carpentry, automotive mechanics, and camp cooking. Instruction was given in the
maintenance shops of the centre where the inmates work under the close supervision
of an instructor on projects for the Corrections Service. The camp cooking course
conducted by the Food Service Officer has proven to be particularly valuable in
supplying trained cooks to the forest camps in the region.
 Z 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Social education
Counselling services on both a group and individual basis were carried on by
correctional staff at all centres and camps.
An innovation at the Vancouver Island Centre was a marathon group session
for 30 hours under the direction of professional volunteers from the community.
The results appear favourable and will be watched with interest.
The use of interest and activity groups has also continued as a valuable aid in
the development of inmate involvement and the growth of personal responsibility.
In this we have been most fortunate in receiving considerable help from the participation of such groups as the John Howard and Elizabeth Fry Societies, Job
Therapy, the Seven Steps, the Activators, and a host of similar organizations interested in working with prisoners.
Physical education and recreation
Excellent gymnasium facilities are available at the Lower Mainland Centre,
which has made it possible to organize a full programme of physical education and
sports. Unit league tournaments in soccer, softball, basketball, and floor hockey
took place during the year.
The planned additions at the Vancouver Island Centre include a gymnasium
which, when completed, will give a boost to its programme. This centre has been
particularly fortunate in attracting community volunteers to guide and teach in such
diverse activities as basketball, music, sing-alongs, and various creative art forms.
The Prince George Centre has the use of a basement space for indoor sports.
Phase 3 for the construction schedule of this centre includes a gymnasium which, in
the winter climate of this region, will be a valuable asset.
The Kamloops Centre is undoubtedly the most handicapped in the development
of its programme as it is without any gymnasium or adequate substitute. Although
discussions have taken place on the design of a new correctional centre, it represents
a long-term solution years in the future. An immediate need is a prefabricated type
of gymnasium similar to that planned for the Vancouver Island Centre in the next
year.
Industries
Manufacturing
By the addition of qualified personnel and with the help and assistance of
professionals in the trade, the clothing and bootwear shops are now meeting most
of our requirements.
Under the supervision of qualified tradesmen, the sheet-metal and carpentry
shops manufacture a wide range of articles for the use of other Government departments as well as our own. Future plans call for increasing production to meet more
of our own requirements, at the same time providing useful training to all who work
in these areas.
Agriculture
The development of our four farms has been directed toward growing as much
of our own food as possible. Since meat accounts for a large percentage of the
food budget, considerable effort has been spent in increasing and improving our
beef and swine herds. This has necessitated increased hay and sileage production
in order to support the additional numbers.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71 Z 27
The beef breeding herds are located at Vancouver Island Centre and at Rayleigh Camp near Kamloops. Feeders from the Island are brought to Lower Mainland Centre to be raised and finished for slaughter. The production goal is to fill
the beef requirements for all the Lower Mainland institutions.
The herd at Rayleigh will be developed eventually to supply the Kamloops
Centre and its camps as well as Prince George and its camp.
The piggery at the Lower Mainland Centre has increased to the point where
all pork requirements for the Lower Mainland units can now be met. In addition,
the Lower Mainland Centre provides regular shipments of pork to the Central and
Northern Centres.
The improved food-storage facilities at Haney Correctional Centre have made
it possible to collect surpluses from all units and distribute them where they are
most needed.
Considerable research is being undertaken with the assistance of the Department of Agriculture to determine the most suitable crops for each farm so that we
can develop those crops in quality as well as quantity.
Forestry
Minimum security forest camps continued to make a significant contribution to
reforestation and the development of recreational areas throughout the Province.
Working in co-operation with the Forest Service and Parks Branch, work projects
were selected which were of mutual benefit to both the local community and the
inmates undergoing correctional training. The healthy outdoor aspect of the type
of work not only provided a good medium of communication between staff and inmates but provided challenge for the more radical young-adult offender presently
being received into our care. Forest work also enabled these young adults to gain
experience in an occupational skill which in many instances proved helpful in finding
employment for them on their return to the community.
During the year the three Chilliwack Forest Camps—Mount Thurston, Ford
Mountain, and Centre Creek—contributed a total of 20,198 man-days to forest and
parks projects. Nursery development occupied about one-third of the total man-
days. The work included reforestation projects, maintenance of forest access
roads and trails, development of nurseries, and the maintenance of public camp-sites.
Crews from Centre Creek Camp cut a trail up to Radium Creek and constructed a
log cabin at the 5,000-foot level in preparation for the eventual construction of a
forestry look-out.
The sawmill at Thurston Camp cut 92,843 board feet of lumber from logs
salvaged from areas of no interest to commercial operators.
On Vancouver Island, crews from Snowdon and Lakeview Camps contributed
19,035 man-days to forest and parks projects.
Lakeview Camp sawmill produced 191,467 board feet of lumber from logs
salvaged from cleaning up the shoreline of a number of lakes in the area. In addition to lumber production, large quantities of cedar shakes, stakes, and fence-posts
were produced and distributed to various Government departments.
Kamloops Centre and its satellite camps—Rayleigh and Clearwater—continued
maintenance on forest access roads, parks, and public camp-sites. Work was undertaken on a number of local community projects. Again this year, a 12-man detached
camp under canvas, worked on a number of projects in inaccessible areas fencing,
building cattle guards, and slashing access trails for fire protection.
At Clearwater Camp a large reforestation project was started in a decadent
timber stand at Bear Creek.   A portable sawmill was acquired and installed on the
 Z 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Logging operations, Blue Mountain Forest.
site and is expected to be in operation shortly. As in the past, this camp produced
large quantities of fence-posts, stakes, and fence-droppers for distribution to Government projects.
Crews from the Prince George Centre and Hutda Lake Camp contributed
12,291 man-days to forest projects. The work included reforestation, road maintenance, and development of recreational areas.
The sawmill at Hutda Lake Camp cut 120,626 board feet of lumber from salvaged logs in the area for distribution to the Forest Service, the Departments of
Highways, and Public Works and our own use.
Continued instruction on forest-fire suppression was given to both staff and
inmates of all forest camps. Crews took action on 33 forest fires during the past
summer, 20 of them in the Kamloops District. In one instance crews from the
Sayward Camps were flown from Kelsey Bay to fight a large fire at Call Inlet which
took 21 days to bring under control.
Community programmes
Red Cross Blood Donor Clinics were again set up at all centres and camps this
year.
A wide variety of community projects was completed around the Province,
from carvings for the Provincial Museum to the maintenance of community parks
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 29
and the repair of Christmas toys for needy families. This year the inmates at the
Lower Mainland Centre made a donation from their welfare fund to the CKNW
Orphans' Fund.
Construction and works
To cope with the heavy admissions to the Prince George Centre this year,
trailer units with a capacity for 24 were placed on the grounds. Inmates with less
than one month sentence and those medically unfit for transfer to a forest camp will
be housed in these trailers. Most of them will be employed on farm maintenance
and development.
At the Kamloops Correctional Centre the increased population resulted in
transferring inmates to the Lower Mainland Centre, and on a number of occasions
the police were forced to hold prisoners for extended periods in the Municipal Lockup until space became available at the centre. To alleviate this difficulty and provide at least temporary relief, the only suitable building on the site was converted
to a cellular unit with 12 cells.
To maintain the security level at the Lower Mainland Centre, the locking systems in the cell blocks were rebuilt and extensive renovations were made to the
Admissions Section.
In the Chilliwack Valley, recreation buildings were completed at Mount Thurston and Ford Mountain Camps and the construction started on the new 30-man
security unit.
Sawmill operation, Haney Correctional Centre.
 Z 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Women's Unit, Lower Mainland Centre
Group and lay counselling programmes have steadily developed over the year.
It is noted that group members are now more likely to bring their own personal
problems to the sessions and also to offer suggestions for discussion topics that are
of interest to all. The staff organization has been redesigned in the interests of
better team-work, with a team of three matrons covering all shifts for one group of
inmates. This has enabled the team to co-ordinate its efforts and provide continuity
in studying the needs and problems of its particular group. The result has been
greater job satisfaction on the part of the staff team and an improvement in the
quality of help they provide for their inmates.
The young-offender programme continued in the open setting of cottage life
with the aim of developing work habits and increased community planning, looking
toward the day when these young women will return to the outside world. A
consulting psychiatrist is providing regular assessment and guidance during the
twice weekly counselling sessions, which also have the services of the Senior Chaplain and the Chief Medical Officer.
All programmes are directed toward assessing the inmate's attitude, skills, and
social responsibility to enable constructive planning for a successful transition from
prison to the community. In this respect there are many interested and well-qualified
individuals and organizations who work with the institution in programmes of parole
and after-care.
Religious training
Padres' Hours continue to be well attended. The informal social time afterward has provided an opportunity to discuss personal needs on an individual basis.
Chaplains report increasing demand by inmates for interviews and reading material,
with a view to learning more about Christianity and establishing worth-while objectives in their own lives.
As in years past, welcome events were visits by choirs and other church groups,
a much-needed contact with the community.
Vocational training
Basic cooking and other homemaking skills are continually emphasized. The
women provide their own clothing through the training class in the sewing-room.
They maintain their own grounds and do minor carpentry projects around the unit.
Academic classes were conducted for approximately 40 students, ranging in
age from 16 to 30 years of age, and cover a range of grades from illiterate to Grade
XII.   Special advanced courses, including those at university level, are also available.
 Chapter V. Young-adult training centres
A wide range of training programmes has been developed for young offenders
sentenced to definite plus indeterminate sentences.
All young-adult offenders from any Court in the Province receiving such a
sentence are brought to the Classification Unit at Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre. The only exception to this procedure is that those juveniles under
18 raised to Adult Court are held on remand at the Haney Correctional Centre.
When sentenced they are classified at the Haney Centre rather than being transferred
to Lower Mainland Centre.
Classification
This year, 804 young offenders received definite plus indeterminate sentences,
a drop of 70 from last year but still well above the 1968/69 figure of 658.
Approximately 40 per cent were classified to the Haney Correctional Centre.
The remainder were placed in open training centres at New Haven, Boulder Bay
Camp, Pine Ridge Camp, and Centre Creek Camp.
In October a significantly different classification and orientation programme
was introduced into the Haney Centre, extending over a two-week period. The
primary goal was to provide the new trainee with sufficient information to enable
him to share more fully in making his own decisions with regard to his programme
of training at the centre. Incoming trainees were exposed in group sessions to
information regarding the opportunities offered and were assisted in exploring the
interests and abilities which they brought to the centre. Initial results indicate that
trainees under this new arrangement settled into their training more speedily and
were less vulnerable to the pressures exerted on them by the inmate subculture.
The benefits resulting from the reorganization of the Haney Correctional Centre
into small semiautonomous "Houses" were reflected in the reduced number transferred during the year for security or disciplinary reasons to the Westgate A Unit of
the Lower Mainland Centre. This trend reduced the Westgate Units' intake and
gave the staff an opportunity to focus their attention on individual needs. The results
were most impressive and are an indication of what can be accomplished with this
most difficult group of young offenders. Of the 85 released on parole from this unit,
80 per cent successfully completed, or were close to completing, their parole at the
year's end.
Young female offenders
This was the first complete year since legislation was introduced providing the
definite plus indeterminate sentence for young-adult female offenders. Twenty-two
received this type of sentence and were placed in the special programme developed
for them in Cottage D at the Women's Unit at the Lower Mainland Centre.
A number of established Borstal procedures such as regular staff assessment of
the girls and a greater emphasis upon rewarding good behaviour rather than punishing bad behaviour were included with good results. The main core of the treatment
programme is group therapy. Two sessions of two and one-half hours' duration are
held weekly under the supervision of the Senior Medical Officer, with the Protestant
31
 Z 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Chaplain attending on a weekly basis. The honesty demanded of all who participated in these group sessions did much to establish close relationships between staff
and inmates, which facilitated serious discussion of basic moral and spiritual values.
Security and discipline
Escapes and walk-aways for young-adult offenders totalled 79 during the year,
or approximately 10 per cent of the total admissions. Centre Creek Forest Camp
had a particular problem with escapes (24), most of them occurring in their first
three weeks of training. As this camp operates a demanding programme for the
lower maturity range, the number is not surprising. It is apparent that once they
are absorbed into the programme the problem is minimized. Steps are now being
implemented to attempt greater involvement of the trainee in the initial stage of
training.
Again this year there was a marked decrease in disciplinary infractions. The
disciplinary situation with the young-adult offender group has now progressed to the
point where in one House at Haney Correctional Centre a trainee disciplinary panel
assumes responsibility, under staff direction, to hear cases and make dispositions
where minor infractions are involved. Elected representatives from the House act
as a House governing body and meet with the Trainee Advisory Council representative to discuss and offer suggestions aimed at improving the programme, the relationship with staff, and the general conditions within the House.
New developments in training programmes
Some interesting and imaginative programmes have been initiated by individual
Houses at the Haney Correctional Centre:
• A pre-release group undertook service projects at the United Church Camp
Fircum on Gambier Island.
• Two week-end workshops were organized outside the institution.
• Two Outward Bound expeditions for eleven and nine days respectively were
undertaken.
• Continuing use has been made of sensitivity training.
• Two week-end workshops with gestalt therapy as their focus were held in
the community.
Increasing use is being made of behaviour modification with the development
of a merit system which places emphasis on dependability, self-development, and
co-operation with others.
A Probation Officer is now attached to each House in the Haney Correctional
Centre as well as to the Boulder Bay and Pine Ridge Camps. Each Probation
Officer has a case load of approximately 50 trainees within his House, one-third of
whom are dealt with on a relatively intensive casework basis. In addition, the Probation Officer acts as a consultant working in close conjunction with the Housemaster
and other House personnel.
Some Probation Officers conduct regular group counselling sessions with their
case loads, while others bring in outside agencies with resource personnel to supplement the House programme.
The major portion of the Probation Officer's activity continues to focus upon
release and after-care planning. Close contact is maintained with field offices and
such agencies as the National Parole Service, Children's Aid Society, Canada Manpower Offices, and Indian Affairs and various half-way houses.
 ■    ■
REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 33
On-the-job training—welding shop.
Machine-shop training.
 Z 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Education
In a new and experimental programme, two trainees from the Haney Correctional Centre are completing Grade XII at local secondary schools—one at Garibaldi
for a full academic year and one at Maple Ridge for one semester.
Vocational training
Vocational training is not restricted to teaching a trade but extends to the
development of proper attitudes and the personal fitness necessary to be accepted
and to hold a job in industry.
Continuous contact with industry, the Department of Technical and Vocational
Education, and the Apprenticeship Branch is maintained to keep vocational programmes up to date and to extend the greatest credit possible for training received
at the centre.
New Haven reported that, in spite of the employment situation, a number of
their trainees obtained employment in metal-working and woodworking shops.
Encouraging reports were received on their progress on the job, and in some cases
their success in being promoted to foremen and supervisory levels. Credit was given
to the Borstal Association for their sterling efforts in placing so many of these lads
in employment in these difficult times.
All shops completed a wide variety of major and minor projects for the
Corrections Service and for other Government agencies. Such projects are most
welcome training aids as they help to simulate outside working conditions with production schedules and realistic deadlines to meet.
Forest camps
In July a new detached week-day forest work camp was opened on Blue Mountain as a satellite of the Haney Correctional Centre. This camp operated from July
6 until November 26 with a total of 12 trainees and two staff members. The trainees
worked on a forest reclamation programme laid out by forestry personnel. The
amount of work accomplished exceeded both our expectations and those of the
Forest Service. It is anticipated in view of the success experienced with this camp
that this type of work programme will be expanded in the future.
With the changeover of the Pine Ridge Camp to a camp for short-term first
offenders in November, no changes were made in the work programme. The projects
continued to include road maintenance, reforestation, and the operation of the sawmill. The mill produced 284,238 board feet of lumber during the year from logs
salvaged from Alouette Lake. Finished lumber was delivered to the Forest Service,
the Department of Recreation and Conservation, Colony Farm, and various correctional institutions. Residents of the camp exercised considerable initiative in
developing their spare-time activities.
Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Forest Camps both completed another successful year of the Search and Leadership Training. Both camps continued to distinguish
themselves in search and rescue and forest fire-fighting operations and the parole
performance of those graduating from the training continued to be most favourable.
Parole and temporary release
The number of cases released by the British Columbia Parole Board remained
much the same as last year.
This year saw a most encouraging improvement in the percentage of young-
adult parolees successfully completing their paroles.    The success rate rose from
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 35
Leaving for City College—educational release.
77 per cent for last year to 84 per cent for 1970/71. The staged training programmes at both Westgate A and Haney Correctional Centre, described in last year's
report, appears to have made a major contribution to this improved rate. New
Haven achieved an all-time high of 93 per cent, which was most gratifying.
Thirty-two trainees from the Haney Correctional Centre were granted temporary absences for work, home leave, or to attend community schools. Only two
failed to return on time and both were eventually returned without any further
offences being committed. Three were granted a temporary absence to perform
voluntary service to the local community. Two worked as instructors in sheltered
workshops for the handicapped and one worked as an aide in a hospital for chronic
elderly patients.
Community projects
A wide range of community projects was undertaken by trainees from both
New Haven and Haney Correctional Centre this year. Certainly the most significant has been the development of voluntary service by trainees to patients in mental
health facilities. The purpose was to expose the more retiring lads to a number of
handicapped people who are much worse off than they are. Results were encouraging and all who took part showed significant signs of increased motivation and
improvement in attitude toward their future lives.
Construction and works
Centre Creek Forest Camp lost the kitchen-dining hall and a hobby-storage
building this year through a fire caused by faulty electrical wiring. A temporary
kitchen was immediately established in the recreation building and reconstruction
was well under way by the end of the year.
 Chapter VI. Treatment of alcoholics
The resident population at the Alouette River Unit, a minimum security alcoholic treatment facility for men, exceeded its capacity of 153 in January. The Twin
Maples Farm, the satellite facility for women, on the other hand, operated well below
its capacity of 60.
Admissions
Admissions to the Alouette River Unit came from two sources—those sentenced to imprisonment whose primary problem appeared to be alcoholism (this
group was selected for transfer to the Alouette River Unit by Central Classification)
and those committed direct by the Courts on confirming orders following medical
certification, under the provisions of the Summary Convictions Act.
During the year there were two amendments to the Summary Convictions Act.
The maximum time limit for detention prior to medical examination was extended
from 12 to 24 hours, and an Order in Council was passed designating all areas of
the Province for the committal of women. At present only two areas—Vancouver
and Prince George—have been designated for men.
One significant trend was the number of persons on confirming orders who
resented any interference with their alcohol problem. Some felt that they had been
removed from the community to "dry-out" and regain health, others were too mentally damaged to appreciate the nature of their problem.
There were 190 "walk-aways" (persons leaving the unit without permission),
representing 105 different individuals. It was significant that only three walk-aways
were persons under sentence. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to convince many
of these that they suffer from alcoholism; they either deny, minimize, or evade dealing with their problem. They nevertheless were continually confronted with their
behaviour as they soon gravitated to skid road and were returned to the unit in a
worse condition.
On the positive side, a substantial number of residents were prepared to accept
that they had an alcohol problem and looked upon the Alouette River Unit as a
temporary refuge away from community commitments and pressures, a place where
they could sort out the problems which in the past had denied them a happy and
productive life.
Treatment programme
Some worth-while changes were made in the social education programme during the year. A Staff Co-ordinating Committee, consisting of the complete House
team, was formed, which met weekly to discuss individual cases. The Lay Counsellor then reviewed the findings directly with the resident. Lay Counselling case
loads were rearranged, enabling the Lay Counsellor to conduct group counselling
with the residents assigned to him so that he became more skillful in confronting
residents with such problems as rationalizing, dishonesty, and evading responsibility.
The Alouette River Unit continued to supply manpower for operation of the
British Columbia Forest Service Nursery and took over the Alouette Lake Park
Maintenance Project from the Haney Correctional Centre. A tailor shop was set
up in July which provided useful work for many residents, particularly those who
were only able to work at sedentary jobs.
36
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 37
Group counselling.
Community participation in both the Men's and Women's Unit continued to
give strong support to the programme. Members of Alcoholics Anonymous visited
the units on a regular basis, and a total of 700 residents attended 21 meetings in the
Lower Mainland area. These meetings provided residents with an opportunity to
establish contact with community support organizations prior to discharge.
Release and after-care
Half-way houses in different areas of the Province continued to provide a most
essential service. During the past year, 82 per cent of the discharges from the
Alouette River Unit went to domiciliary care facilities.
The diversity of the houses providing after-care facilities are noted below:
Maple Ridge Half-way House, Haney
Fraser House, Mission	
Burnaby Lodge	
Victoria Half-way House
  62
  9
  24
  13
Home for Recovery From Alcoholism, Victoria  2
  2
  1
  26
  16
  29
Harry Elliot Half-way House, Prince George
Kiwanis House, Kamloops	
Salvation Army facilities	
Native Indian facilities	
Central City Mission	
Total
184
 Z 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Three of these houses (Maple Ridge, Fraser House, and Burnaby Lodge) have
begun group-therapy sessions and the Maple Ridge House is training one worker
to undertake marriage counselling with spouses and residents.
Staff
This year, staff became involved in a much more active training programme.
A group of 38 officers and matrons completed a 60-hour course, the content of
which included understanding alcoholism as an illness, treatment methods, examination of personal values, and the appreciation of what alcoholics go through in
achieving sobriety. Following this, another 25 staff participated in an eight-hour
seminar conducted by the Alcoholism Foundation on alcoholism and social damage.
In March a two-day seminar was conducted by the Hazelden Minnesota Treatment
Foundation. In addition to these courses, officers and matrons were involved in
ongoing staff training for four hours every two weeks from December to the end
of the year.
Evaluation
Success of the present treatment is difficult to evaluate in clear-cut terms.
Achievement can frequently be measured in terms of the individual's ability to
maintain his sobriety over increasingly longer periods.    A survey carried out on
all residents discharged up to the end of the year showed the following results:
37.3 per cent were found to be sober as at March 31, 1971;
47.5 per cent were brought back to the Alouette River Unit for a further
period of training;
15.2 per cent, whereabouts were unknown.
Construction
The building programme designed to increase the unit's capacity in planned
phases continued throughout the year.
The new kitchen-stores building was occupied in February and will be able to
provide double the resident population with no substantial increase in kitchen staff.
Vacating the old kitchen made possible the expansion of the tailor shop and provided space for lecture rooms, work shops, and a tool room. Plans are being completed for an administration and infirmary building urgently needed to provide
adequate care for persons on admission suffering from alcohol withdrawal and undiagnosed health problems.
Twin Maples Farm
In spite of legislation provided for Courts to detain women on a Confirming
Order, the number of residents was never more than 18 during the year.
As a means of developing morale and a better team spirit among staff, matrons
were involved to a greater extent this year in the alcoholism training programme.
At the same time, women residents participated with male residents in counselling
sessions and in the relevant part of the Orientation Course set up at the Men's Unit.
It was found that the mixed groups generally improved the interaction of the meetings. Women residents also attended outside meetings of alcoholics as well as the
monthly meetings held at the Men's Unit. The Native Fellowship Clubs of both
units met jointly on several occasions.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Z 39
Both Roman Catholic and Protestant Chaplains became more involved in the
treatment process this year and were particularly effective in counselling residents.
Since Twin Maples is a farm setting, all residents participated in the garden
work and in the maintenance of a large poultry flock. With such a small population,
they often worked a long working-day, particularly during the growing season. It
is hoped that the tailor shop will shortly be able to take on small orders for other
units of the Service.
Interested persons from the community continued to participate in the life of
the farm. Outside groups came regularly to provide social evenings, hobbycraft
instruction, and short courses on personal grooming.
 Chapter VII. Chaplains and medical services
The following extracts are taken from the Annual Report of the Senior Chaplains: "The majority of inmates have very vague ideas about God and even more
vague ideas about worship. For this reason, several Chaplains are using the Sunday
Worship Period for the purpose of communicating the Gospel in a clear, concise,
and pleasant manner. Some Chaplains hold Padres' Hours immediately after the
service so that the contents of the sermon might be discussed. Bible study groups
and courses, films and recordings, all are used to further the aims of instruction and
discussion.
"The Chaplain, because of the nature of his work, is often required to spend a
great deal of time in contact and counselling outside the institution, mostly with
families of inmates in an effort to hold them together pending the return of the
inmate to society.
"So many of the inmates have a poor relationship with themselves and consequently have many problems in their relationships with others. As many have never
given love or received it in their fives, there is little chance that the idea of loving
God is going to be very meaningful to them. If these people are to be helped, or
retrained, it is necessary to provide them with the opportunity to establish a sound
relationship with a genuinely loving person who can actually give them the experience
of being loved. The Chaplain should certainly be such a person. He indeed must
be the medium of his message and his 'religious programme' should have as its
basic aim the expression of this love.
"At the Haney and Lower Mainland Centres the Chaplains sponsor the M2
programmes. At the Haney Centre this programme has developed considerably
over the past year with 41 volunteer sponsors matched to an equal number of re-
sourceless trainees. The programme has now been expanded to include Y2, or
youth-to-youth participation, and F2, or family participation. The principle behind
the M2, Y2, and F2 programmes is to give the trainee the opportunity to establish
sound relationships with people of high standards in the community. Contact with
such people on a personal level and in a trusting relationship gives the trainee a
valuable opportunity for personal growth. All members in the M2 and Y2 groups
are from churches in the community.
"At the Alouette River Unit and Twin Maples the Chaplains have participated
in planning a programme for the treatment of alcoholics based on the 12 steps of
Alcoholics Anonymous. The Chaplain at A.R.U. writes: 'This of course, is a decidedly spiritual approach in the treatment of alcoholism and, as a Padre, I feel that I
have a key role to fulfil as an interpreter, counsellor, and adviser to both residents
and staff on the various aspects of the programme.'
"The Chaplains at the Alouette River Unit, Twin Maples, Chilliwack Forest
Camps, and Snowdon and Lakeview Camps report that there is a developing team
ministry with their Roman Catholic counterparts. This kind of development should
be encouraged, if for no other reason than the majority of people we serve have no
significant church involvement, making therefore any rigid denominational ministry
somewhat superfluous.
"Where staff-training programmes are undertaken, the Chaplain makes his contribution.   Senior Chaplains are now participating in the Academy programme at
40
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1970/71 Z 41
Pierce Creek Camp. This involves a two-hour session which begins with a talk on
the role of the Chaplain followed by a free-wheeling discussion."
The following extracts are taken from the Annual Report of the Senior Medical
Officer: "The general plan of decentralization of medical care in the Corrections
Service has continued and has shown itself to be convenient and workable. It is,
medically, a very sound way to conduct care, and as a result it is hoped that this
method can be expanded even further in the future. Centralization only leads to
duplication and distribution of responsibility, two highly undesirable effects when
dealing with medical problems.
"During the fiscal year under discussion, extensive use was made of the new
electroencephalograph machine. One hundred and eighty-five electroencephalo-
graphic examinations were carried out during the year on suspected epileptic, head
injury, or brain-tumour cases, as well as those requested by the Court. The Neurological Research Section of the University of British Columbia Medical School has
been interpreting the records and has provided a fine service.
"There has been an alarming number of chronic conditions arising at the Alouette River Unit; chronic cardio-pulmonary disorders and organic brain syndromes
have been the most troublesome. Unfortunately, many of these conditions preclude
an attack on the inmate's drinking problem. There seems to be a lack of due consideration given to these medical conditions prior to the issuing of a Confirming
Order. Attempts will be made to try to make the appropriate authorities aware of
this problem and have them seek a solution other than a confirming order.
"During the year I have been increasingly involved in the various programmes
for training Corrections Service staff. I feel that this is one of the most important
duties I perform. I regularly lecture to the new staff at the Lower Mainland Centre
and during the year held an eight-hour session with one group of new staff. The
eight-hour session was concerned with group counselling and group therapy.
'Three doctors resigned and were replaced during the past year. All three of
the new physicians have shown themselves to be highly competent."
 Chapter VIII.   British Columbia Board of Parole
Composition
Board membership was comprised of C. J. A. Dalton (Chairman), Eric Kelly,
Mrs. T. G. Norris, Dr. G. Kirkpatrick, A. Watts, Q.C. (Vice-Chairman).
The Chairman reports:
"Arnold Webster resigned due to heath reasons. His experience and understanding were a great asset to the Board's activities.
Operation
"Generally the Board operated in panels consisting of the Chairman and two
members. These panels were assigned to the various correctional centres and met
regularly throughout the year at Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre
(including the Women's Unit), once monthly; Haney Correctional Centre, two to
three times monthly; Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre, once monthly;
Chilliwack Forest Camps, once monthly; and New Haven Correctional Centre, once
monthly.
"In addition, monthly meetings were held at Boulder Bay by one or more members of the Board, who then reported on the cases at a meeting of a panel. On
occasion the Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre panel met at Snowdon
Forest Camp.
Function
"The British Columbia Board of Parole's function is to inquire into the cases
under its jurisdiction and to select those felt to be worthy of the privilege of being
granted parole; also to suspend or revoke the parole in cases where the privilege
is abused.
"The responsibilities of the Board are somewhat different from the National
Parole Board because of the principle of the determinate-indeterminate sentence.
The principle of the determinate-indeterminate sentences and particularly the indeterminate period is that there will be sufficient elasticity in that period to permit the
correctional centre to which the inmate is sent to satisfactorily complete a programme
of training toward re-establishment with some time left for parole under supervision
before the conclusion of the indeterminate. Thus, at the point of time which the
correctional centre feels that the inmate is satisfactorily trained would be the normal
time for parole, and all other things being equal the inmate would be then paroled.
In some sense the function of the British Columbia Parole Board is to decide, whether in fact, the correctional centre has accomplished all that can usefully be done
for the inmate, that a workable plan for his return to society is in evidence, and that
there is no overriding evidence that he would be a danger to the community on
release.
Sentencing
"This, of course, is a most difficult area but it does appear that more factual and
current communication of the types of correctional centre available, what they can
and cannot do, the chances of rehabilitation and the time taken to do it, and matters
42
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1970/71 Z 43
of that nature would be useful to the Courts when the sentencing Judge has to
address himself to this particular problem.
"It is clear enough that any rehabilitation programme becomes more difficult as
the inmate becomes more institution-wise. It is noted that in some of the training
correctional centres inmates will be found who have been in the correctional centre
on one or more previous occasions. It is felt that to mix them up with the person
who is in the correctional centre for the first time places an extremely heavy load on
the training programme of the correctional centre and makes the chances of rehabilitation of the first offender that much more difficult.
Indians
"The Board has considerable concern over the position of the native Indians in
the correctional centres. They are almost always model inmates and the correctional
staff speak well of them. But, it is obviously difficult to design a programme for
them and in some instances the difficulties that an Indian from a remote area of the
Province faces in his sudden transportation to a fairly sophisticated correctional unit
are not completely understood. Further consideration should be given to this matter
and advice sought from all available sources.
Suspension of parole
"We have found that "suspension" of parole is an increasingly effective method
of dealing with borderline parolees.
"They seem to react positively to the interest shown in their welfare and
rehabilitation.
"On occasion we have been able to arrange for suspension to be served in local
lock-ups for short periods, week-ends, and sometimes at night only. This results in
a minimum of interference with employment or school. It is less costly than returning parolees to Provincial training centres from distant points and avoids the negative
atmosphere of, for example, the Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre."
 Appendices
Population graph
Administrative staff
Organizational chart
Directory of correctional facilities
Statistical tables
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Population graph
Total Population, Adult Institutional Population and Probation Cases,
April 1,1960, to March 31,1971
Z 45
Population
8,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
7,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
6,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
5,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
4,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
3,000—
900—
800—
700—
600—
500—
400—
300—
200—
100—
2.000—
900—
800—
700—
1.600—
2,400,000
2,300,000
2,200,000
2,100,000 -
2,000,000
1,900,000
1,800,000
1,700,000
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—2,000
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—1,600
* Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Monthly Population Estimates.
 Z 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administrative staff
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS SERVICE
The Honourable L. R. Peterson, Q.C., LL.D., Attorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C., Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson, Deputy Director of Correction
C. D. Davidson, Assistant Chief Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
A. K. Brind-Sheridan Rev. E. J. Hulford
Probation Staff Training Officer Senior Protestant Chaplain
G. R. Bulmer Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Senior Medical Officer Senior Catholic Chaplain
R. E. Fitchett Mrs. M. M. Berg
Staff Officer—Personnel Staff Officer—Services
E. M. Pierce S. A. Thorvaldson
Staff Officer—Correctional Programmes Supervisor of Classification and Research
CORRECTIONAL CENTRE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan W. Scott
Warden, Lower Mainland Regional Warden, Kamloops Regional Correctional
Correctional Centre Centre
J. W. Bellis
Warden, Haney Correctional Centre
S. A. L. Hamblin
Warden, Vancouver Island Regional
Correctional Centre
H. B. Bjarnason
Warden, Prince George Regional Correctional
rentre and Sayward Forest Camps
O. J. Walling g- J- Chapple
Warden, Alouette River Unit Officer-in-Charge, Chilliwack Forest
V. H. Goad Camps
Director, New Haven Correctional Centre
PROBATION ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
K. M. Richardson O. E. Hollands
Supervisor, Vancouver Region Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region
A. E. Jones J. Wiebe
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region Supervisor, Interior Region
R. G. McKellar J. V. Sabourin
Supervisor, Northern Region Supervisor, Parole and Special Services
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
C. J. A. Dalton (Chairman)
Members:
Mrs. T. G. Norris E. Kelly Dr. G. Kirkpatrick A. Watts (Vice-Chairman)
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71
Organizational chart
Z 47
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 Z 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Directory of correctional facilities
Regional Correctional Centres
Lower Mainland Region
1. Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre—This facility serves as the receiving
centre for the Lower Mainland Region, as well as holding remand and appeal cases. In addition, a number of fairly well-defined groups of offenders are classified to this multipurpose
institution:
(a) Drug addicts, mainly hard-core heroin users:
(b) Physically disabled, and other medical and psychiatric cases:
(c) Certain groups of young offenders,
(i)  dull, unstable, or extremely inadequate offenders requiring protection;
(ii) psychopathic, recidivistic, criminally sophisticated, or aggressive offenders requiring close supervision;
(iii) parole suspension cases and those returned to custody having had their
parole revoked:
(d) Overt or aggressive homosexuals:
(e) Miscellaneous short-term cases:
(/) Day parole/work release candidates for the region.
2. Women's Unit of Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre—Serves as the receiving centre for sentenced female offenders from all parts of British Columbia. Young female
offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences are classified to a cottage on the grounds for a
specialized training programme geared to their age-range. One other cottage is used for those
cases with very short sentences. A small number of offenders with sentences of a few months
and a history of alcoholism or problems with alcohol are transferred to Twin Maples Farm.
The remainder is composed mainly of offenders addicted to heroin, security risks, the psychologically unstable, or medical cases.   They are kept in the main building of the unit.
3. Mount Thurston and Ford Mountain Forest Camps—Located in the Chilliwack Valley,
and serve as minimum-security facilities for inmates transferred from Lower Mainland Regional
Correctional Centre. For the most part these camps receive older offenders showing a fair
range of criminal sophistication or inadequacy, but who are not drug addicts, escape risks, or
serious behavioural problems.
Vancouver Island Region
1. Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre—Outside Victoria, which acts as the
receiving centre for sentenced offenders as well as holding remand and appeal cases. As with
Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre, problem cases of a psychological, medical, or
security nature are kept at this institution.
2. Snowdon and Lakeview Forest Camps—Located north of Campbell River, they serve
as minimum-security housing for the region. All inmates are received upon transfer from Vancouver Island Regional Correctional Centre. Lakeview is used for the recidivist in the latter
stages of a sentence, provided his progress has been satisfactory at Vancouver Island Regional
Correctional Centre.
Interior Region
1. Kamloops Regional Correctional Centre—Near the City of Kamloops, takes all sentenced prisoners from the Interior and Kootenay areas. A small number of remand and waiting-
trial cases are kept here.
As the centre itself has a limited capacity, all but the most difficult security and medical
cases are transferred to camps.
2. Rayleigh Camp—Is a short distance outside the city and takes short-sentence inmates.
Most such cases have less than one month to serve, and tend to be nomadic alcoholics.
3. Clearwater Forest Camp—In the Wells Gray Provincial Park, receives all inmates with
longer sentences who are fit for work in the forest.
Prince George Region
1. Prince George Regional Correctional Centre—Performs the same function for the north
of the Province.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1970/71 Z 49
2. Hutda Lake Forest Camp—Thirty miles outside Prince George, receives on transfer
inmates suitable for work in the forest.
3. Farm Trailer Camp—Located on the grounds of the Prince George Regional Correctional Centre and provides housing for those with sentences of less than one month or medical
cases not fit for transfer to Hutda.
Specialized young-offender facilities
Haney Correctional Centre—Is the placement utilized for 40 to 45 per cent of the young
offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences. It offers a broad range of academic, vocational,
work, and counselling programmes, as well as a good level of security for the unstable types.
Most of the juveniles transferred to Adult Court require the security of this institution. Haney
Correctional Centre thus receives a wide range of young offenders from the grossly immature
and disturbed or inadequate to the more stable offender who shows a capacity and motivation
for vocational or academic courses.
Selected short-term offenders are housed in Pine Ridge Forest Camp, a satellite camp of
the Haney Correctional Centre. Many of them return during the day to the main institution
for a course or work placement.
Those offenders who prove to be seriously psychopathic, or whose criminal sophistication
becomes disruptive, are transferred back to the Westgate A Unit of Lower Mainland Centre.
New Haven Correctional Centre—Is a small, open Borstal-type facility in the metropolitan
Vancouver area. The offender's basic stability and capacity for response to an intensive responsibility-type training are key factors to be considered. Apart from this, New Haven accepts a
fairly broad range of delinquents.
Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Forest Camps—Both offer a high-demand type of graded
training programme. The one at Boulder Bay is of four months' duration; at Centre Creek, six
months'. The content of the final training stage includes mountain climbing, wilderness survival,
search and rescue, and forest fire-fighting. Groups from both camps have distinguished themselves in fighting forest fires and finding lost hunters and hikers.
Westgate A Unit of Lower Mainland Regional Correctional Centre—Is utilized as a placement for the most recidivistic or those with a serious level of sexual deviance. The remainder
are those who become serious disciplinary or security problems at any of the young-offender
facilities and have to be transferred to Westgate. This unit offers a secure setting with a vigorous work programme and shops for those who show signs of progress.
Facilities for chronic alcoholics
Alouette River Unit—Accommodates male alcoholics who are held on a detaining order
imposed by the Courts under an amendment to the Summary Convictions Act. Only the Cities
of Vancouver and Prince George have so far invoked the use of this legislation. Men at the
unit undergo a course of treatment in which they are brought face to face with their problems,
discuss them, hopefully gain a greater insight into their behaviour, and learn ways to live full
and useful lives without having to have recourse to alcohol.
All cases are admitted direct to the institution, and the length of the treatment period
depends on the individual's ability to profit from it. Men are released under a probation order
to the community when they are deemed fit.
Twin Maples Farm—Performs the same function for female alcoholics and comes under
the same administration. The legislation for females has been invoked on a Province-wide basis.
In spite of this, the number of admissions is very low.
 Z 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1972
630-372-1810

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