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Minister of Mines and Petroleum resources PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT for the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1971

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Full Text

 Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
for the Year Ended December 31
1970
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971
 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES
AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES
VICTORIA, BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hon. Frank Richter, Minister.
K. B. Blakey, Deputy Minister.
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector of Mines.
S. Metcalfe, Chief Analyst and Assayer.
R. H. McCrimmon, Chief Gold Commissioner.
Stuart S. Holland, Chief, Mineralogical Branch.
J. D. Lineham, Chief, Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch.
R. E. Moss, Chief Commissioner, Petroleum and Natural Gas.
 Colonel the Honourable J. R. Nicholson,
P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mineral Industry of the Province for the year 1970
is herewith respectfully submitted.
FRANK RICHTER
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources Office,
June 1,1971
L
 Joseph J. Haile, retired Instructor, Inspection Branch, died in Fernie
on January 31, 1970, in his seventy-fifth year. He was born in England and
came to Coal Creek in 1906 where he worked in the coal mines until 1941
when he moved to Fernie to take over the mine-rescue station of the Department of Mines. From 1941 until his retirement on December 31, 1960,
"Joe" Haile trained several hundred individuals in mine-rescue and first-
aid work. As a former mine-rescue captain and as an Instructor with the
Department his teams won numerous competitions both local and Provincial.
Mr. Haile was also an active citizen of Fernie. He was secretary-treasurer
for 20 years of the Fernie Centre, St. John Ambulance Association, a member of Rotary, an alderman for nine years, and vice-president and later
chairman of the Hospital Board. Mr. Haile is survived by his wife, one son,
and one daughter.
 CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
Introduction.
Review of the Mineral Industry..
CHAPTER 2
Statistics	
Page
A6
A7
A 12
CHAPTER 3
Departmental Work    A 56
CHAPTER 4
Petroleum and Natural Gas     A 84
CHAPTER 5
Inspection of Mines.
A 197
A 5
 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER
OF MINES AND PETROLEUM
RESOURCES, 1970
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
A report on the mineral industry in the Province has been published annually
since 1874. From 1874 to 1959 it was the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines,
and since 1960 it has been the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Starting with 1969, the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources contains a review of the mineral industry, and chapters dealing with
Statistics, Departmental Work, Petroleum and Natural Gas, and Inspection of Mines.
Technical reports on geology, mineral exploration, metal mines, placer, industrial
minerals and structural materials, and coal which formerly were included in the
Annual Report are published separately in a volume entitled Geology, Exploration,
and Mining in British Columbia. A new series of annual publications of that name
began with the 1969 volume.
This Annual Report contains a general review of the mineral industry as a
whole. The chapter on Statistics records in considerable detail all phases of the
mineral production of the Province. Current and past practices in arriving at
quantities and in calculating the values of products are described.
The organization of the Department and the work of its various branches are
outlined briefly in the chapter on Departmental Work.
The chapter on Petroleum and Natural Gas contains a general review and
records in considerable detail the development and production statistics of that
expanding industry.
Information concerning mine safety, fatal accidents, dangerous occurrences,
etc., and the activities of the Inspection Branch are contained in the chapter on
Inspection of Mines.
A 6
 Review of the Mineral Industry
By Stuart S. Holland
Production—The value of the 1970 production of British Columbia's mineral
industry amounted to $485,233,614. A new record was established for the ninth
successive year and the previous year's total was exceeded by $20,844,865 or 4.5
per cent.   The total value to date has now reached $7,645,530,896.
The values of the four classes of products are as follows:
Change
1969 1970 (Per Cent)
Metals  $294,881,114 $306,525,445      +3.9
Industrial minerals....      20,492,943 22,106,822      +7.9
Structural materials _.      55,441,528 46,067,211 —17
Fuels        93,573,164 110,534,136 +18
The increase in value of metal production of 3.9 per cent was due to gains
in copper, lead, molybdenum, nickel, and silver which more than compensated for
decreases in cadmium, iron, and zinc. The enormous increase in quantity of
copper produced (39.3 million pounds) was diminished statistically by the fall in
price of copper from an average of 66.66 cents per pound in 1969 to 58.70 cents
per pound in 1970.
The value of industrial minerals increased by $1.6 million or 7.9 per cent
largely due to increased production of asbestos.
The value of structural materials decreased by $9.4 million or 17 per cent due
to the decreased value of sand, gravel, and cement owing to the decline in construction activity.
The value of fuels increased by $17 million or 18 per cent due largely to the
enormous gain in value of coal, $12.7 million or 187 per cent, combined with small
gains in crude oil and natural gas.
During the next several years it is anticipated that the total value of production
will continue to increase, though depending on metal and mineral prices, the rate
of increase may be less than formerly. New production of copper is expected from
several important properties proceeding toward production. The production of
molybdenum is expected to decline in 1971 due to reduced sales and cut backs in
production. Production of coal should continue to increase and petroleum and
natural gas production are expected to maintain a steady growth.
Provincial revenue—Direct revenue to the Provincial Government derived from
the entire mineral industry in 1970 was as follows:
Free miners' certificates, recording fees, lease
rentals, assessment payments, etc.     $1,964,958.07
Royalties on iron concentrates  313,661.04
Rentals and royalties on industrial minerals
and structural materials  282,332.00
Fifteen-per-cent mining tax (received during
1970)      12,723,581.00
Coal licences  94,943.00
Petroleum and natural gas rentals, fees, etc      9,174,447.99
Sale of Crown reserves     16,339,801.19
Royalties on oil, gas, and processed products    13,474,606.62
Miscellaneous   21,843.23
Total _.__  $54,390,174.14
A 7
 A 8
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Expenditure by the industry—Expenditures in 1970 by companies involved in
the exploration, development, and production of metals, minerals, and coal were
$488,866,838.
Expenditures in 1970 by companies involved in the exploration and production
of petroleum and natural gas were $121,110,000.
The total expenditures in 1970 by the mineral industry in exploration, development, and production were $609,976,838.
Metal mining—In 1970, 66 mines produced 40.16 million tons of ore. Nine
produced more than 1,000,000 tons each, and 14 produced between 100,000 and
1,000,000 tons each. Ten open-pit mines produced more than 26.4 million tons
of ore.
In 1970, 37 concentrators were in operation. Concentrators having a total
capacity of 11,730 tons were completed at eight mines, of which the more important
were Granduc, Greyhound, Ruth Vermont, Magnum, and Mount Copeland. Concentrators having a total capacity of 88,510 tons per day were under construction
at seven mines, of which the more important were Lornex, Island Copper, Similkameen (Ingerbelle), Pride of Emory, and Bull River.
During the year mining and concentrating operations were terminated by
Utica Mines Ltd. at the Horn Silver mine and by Greyhound Mines Ltd. at the
Greyhound pit. Coast Copper Company Limited discontinued production of iron
concentrates but continues production of copper from their Benson Lake mine.
The Trail smelter treated 12,850 tons of crude ore and 339,667 tons of
concentrates from British Columbia as well as a large tonnage of concentrates, ore,
and scrap from sources outside the Province. A total of 2,167,548 tons of concentrates was shipped to foreign smelters. Of the total metal production of the
Province, concentrates representing 6.0 per cent of the total value were shipped to
American smelters and concentrates representing 46.7 per cent of the total value
were shipped to Japanese smelters.
Destination of
British Columbia Concentrates in 1970
Smelters
Gold-Silver
Lead
Zinc                Copper
Nickel-Copper
Iron
Trail  _
'1
Tons                   Tons
763       J       151,956
j          9,916
                            771
Tons        |        Tons
186,948             ._ 	
67,301                 7,100
4,321      ]       384,894
1
Tons
Tons
18,950
1,674,293
Most molybdenum is sold as molybdenite concentrate, but Endako Mines Ltd.
convert part of their output to molybdic oxide and ferromolybdenum. Destinations
of British Columbia molybdenum are largely Europe and Japan.
Prospecting for, and exploration and development of, mineral deposits continued at a high level of activity throughout the Province. The chief interest was
in copper, copper-molybdenum, and molybdenum properties in the Kamloops,
Omineca, Cariboo, and Liard Mining Divisions.
The number of mineral claims recorded in 1970 was 69,546, a 17.8 per cent
decrease from 1969. Footage of exploratory diamond drilling was 673,121 feet,
down 65,434 feet or 8.9 per cent, and footage of percussion drilling was 235,883
feet, down 17,566 feet or 6.9 per cent.
About 628 geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports were accepted
in 1970 by the Department for assessment work credit. They represent not less
than $4,412,374 in work done on claims.
 REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY
A 9
The following statistics of expenditures on exploration and development of
coal, mineral and metallic deposits, and mines are summarized from data recorded
on Statistics Canada forms. They represent minimum amounts, but the response
of the industry is sufficiently complete to provide figures that are substantially correct.   Comparable figures for petroleum and natural gas operations are not available.
Exploration and Development Expenditures, 1970
Number
of Mines
Reporting
Physical
Work and
Surveys
Administration,
Overhead,
Land Costs,
Etc.
Total
A. Prospecting and exploration on undeclared mines—
i. Metal mines _	
2. Coal mines -   _	
3. Others  	
481
5
8
$35,655,902
4,160,385
708,638
$10,697,609
757,626
202,470
$46,353,511
4,918,011
911,108
Totals  	
$40,524,925
$11,657,705
$52,182,630
B. Exploration on declared or operating mines—
1. Metal mines  	
18
2     |
5
$1,769,279
622,500
39,279
$255,940
26,800
9,760
$2,025,219
649,300
3. Others                     	
49,039
Totals    	
	
$2,431,058
$292,500
$2,723,558
C. Development on declared mines—■
5
1
1
$60,318,274
19,728,038
251,262
$3,291,536
211,500
24,294
$63,609,810
2. Coal mines	
3. Others    — 	
19,939,538
275,556
Totals    	
$80,297,574
$3,527,330
$83,824,904
D. Development on operating mines—
26
1
3
$45,573,577
43,399,000
8,885,649
$4,337,676
6,479,000
897,284
$49,911,253
2. Coalmines—  	
3. Others   	
49,878,000
9,782,933
Totals  	
        |     $97,858,226
$11,713,960
$109,572,186
E. Total expenditures on exploration and
development—
1. Metal mines—A(l) + B(l) + C(l) + D(l)....
2. Coal mines—A(2) + B{2) + C(2) + D(2)
3. Others—A(3) + B(3) + C(3) -f D(3)   	
$143,317,032
67,909,923
9,884,828
$18,582,761
7,474,926
1,133,808
$161,899,793
75,384,849
11,018,636
.
$221,111,783
$27,191,495
$248,303,278
Exploration includes all work done up to the time when a company declares
its intention of proceeding to production, after that date the work becomes development.
Major expenditures in 1970 by companies involved in the exploration, development, and mining of metals, minerals, and coal were as follows:
Mining operations (metals, minerals, coal)  $185,305,280
Mining operations (structural materials)        13,677,801
Repairs expenditures       41,580,479
Capital expenditures   $121,601,714
Exploration and development     126,701,564
     248,303,278
Total
$488,866,838
Capital and repair expenditures are listed separately because of difficulties in allocating them consistently. Actually most of the repair expenditures should be applied
to mining operations, and most of the capital expenditures to exploration and
development.
Structural materials and industrial minerals—In 1970, additions were made to
the processing plant of Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Limited to increase the fibre
production to 110,000 tons annually.   The new cement plant of Canada Cement
 A 10 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Lafarge Ltd. at Kamloops went into production and a new plant to recover barite
from the tailings of the old Mineral King mine went into operation on Toby Creek.
Crownite Industrial Minerals Ltd. at Quesnel began running-in trials treating diatomite and shale to make pozzolan.
Coal mining—As a result of the availability of large Japanese markets for
western Canadian coking-coals and of the changing world outlook for coal as an
energy source, large investments were made by many companies in 1970 for coal
exploration and coal production facilities. At the end of the year two companies
held 15-year contracts for the shipment of coal to Japanese steel producers. Kaiser
Resources Ltd., whose main contract began on April 1, 1970, has agreed to ship
approximately 5 million long tons per year. Fording Coal Limited, whose contract
begins on April 1, 1972, is to deliver 3 million long tons per year.
The total amount of coal mined (gross production) in 1970 was 3,483,062
short tons, a three-fold increase over 1969. The amount of coal sold and used in
1970 was 2,644,056 short tons valued at $19.6 million, an increase of 1.8 million
tons or 210 per cent. Almost all this production was from the Michel operations
of Kaiser Resources Ltd. The first shipment by unit train to Roberts Bank left
Sparwood on April 28, 1970.
Extensive exploration and development continued during the year in the Elk
River coalfield. On the Fording Coal property, extensive coal reserves have been
established and the property is being prepared for production commencing in 1972.
North of the Fording Coal property, in the vicinity of Aldridge Creek, Emkay
Canada Natural Resources Ltd. carried out exploration which has indicated large
coal reserves. In the south, Crows Nest Industries Limited were active in exploration and it is reported that large reserves of coal have been indicated.
The eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains is another belt that is receiving
intensive prospecting and examination. Brameda Resources Ltd. diamond drilled
an area of 8 square miles near Sukunka River and established reserves of 60 million
tons of high-grade coking-coal. Other companies were undertaking preliminary
exploration elsewhere in the foothills.
The Groundhog coalfield in north central British Columbia received detailed
geological examination. The economic outlook for the region is improving with
the northwestward extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway due to pass
through the coalfield.
A record number of coal licences was issued under the Coal Act in 1970. By
the end of the year 1,442 coal licences covering not less than 685,875 acres were
in good standing.
Petroleum and natural gas—The value of production of the petroleum industry
in 1970 amounted to $90,974,467, up 5 per cent from 1969. For the sixth successive year there has been an increase in production. Natural gas delivered to pipelines from 282 of 725 producible gas wells was 272,554,221 MSCF, an increase of
6.3 per cent in quantity and 6.8 per cent in value over 1969. Crude-oil production
from 259 of 640 producible oil wells remained virtually unchanged at 25,361,333
barrels, an increase of 0.2 per cent in quantity and 3.8 per cent in value. Crude oil
was second only to copper in value. The major gas-producing fields were Yoyo,
Laprise Creek, Sidney, Nig Creek, and Rigel and the major oil-producing fields were
Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan Creek, Inga, and Weasel.
Production and drilling operations in the Province during 1970 recorded only
minor increases over 1969. Over-all drilling operations increased about 3 per cent
over 1969 with notable decreases in development-type drilling. This is indicative
that areas for concentrated development drilling were not available and that oil
 REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY
A 11
companies devoted more of their drilling to seeking new fields.   Drilling objectives
were for gas in the Devonian of the northern part of northeastern British Columbia
and for oil and gas in the Lower Cretaceous and Triassic in the southern part of the
area.   An important discovery of gas was made in the Mississippian in the disturbed
belt of the foothills near Pink Mountain.
Most exploration activity was in proven areas of the Province in addition to
which some work was undertaken in the Fernie and Chilcotin areas, in the Bowser
Basin, and on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Minor expansions were made to processing facilities for petroleum products and
to transportation systems.   A natural gas transmission line to the prolific Beaver
River gasfield was under construction.
Expenditures in 1970 made by companies involved in the exploration and
production of petroleum and natural gas were as follows:
Exploration, land acquisition, and drilling     $54,961,000
Development drilling       12,705,000
Capital expenditures       20,373,000
Natural gas plant operations         3,666,000
Field, well, and pipe-line operations       12,565,000
General (excluding income tax)       16,840,000
Total
$121,110,000
 Statistics
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS
Pagb
Introduction  A 13
Method of Computing Production  A 13
Metals  A 13
Average Prices  A 13
Gross and Net Content  A 14
Value of Production  A 14
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials  A 15
Fuel  A 15
Notes on Products Listed in the Tables  A 15
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year, and Latest Year  A 27
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1970  A 28
Table 3—Mineral Production for the 10 Years 1961-1970  A 30
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1970  A 32
Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Molybdenum,
Graph of Quantities, 1893-1970  A 33
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1970  A 34
Table 7a—Mineral Production by Mining Divisions, 1968 and 1969, and
Total to Date  A 36
Table 7b—Production of Lode Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc by
Mining Divisions, 1969 and 1970, and Total to Date  A 38
Table 7c—Production of Miscellaneous Metals by Mining Divisions, 1969
and 1970, and Total to Date  A 40
Table 7d—Production of Industrial Minerals by Mining Divisions, 1969 and
1970, and Total to Date  A 44
Table 7e—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions, 1969 and
1970, and Total to Date  A 46
Table 8a—Production of Coal, 1836-1970  A 47
Table 8b—Coal Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Mining
Divisions, 1970  A 48
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations of All
Classes  A 49
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-1970  A 50
Table 11—Employment at Major Metal Mines and Coal Mines, 1970  A 51
Table 12—Metal Production in 1970  A 52
A 12
 INTRODUCTION
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected, compiled, and tabulated for
this Report by the Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce, Victoria.
In the interests of uniformity and to avoid duplication of effort, beginning with
the statistics for 1925, Statistics Canada and the Provincial departments have cooperated in collecting and processing mineral statistics.
Producers of metals, industrial minerals, structural materials, coal, and petroleum and natural gas are requested to submit returns in duplicate on forms prepared
for use by the Province and by Statistics Canada.
As far as possible, both organizations follow the same practice in processing
the data. The final compilation by Statistics Canada is usually published considerably later than the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
for British Columbia. Differences between the values of production published by
the two organizations arise mainly because Statistics Canada uses average prices
considered applicable to the total Canadian production, whereas the British Columbia mining statistician uses prices considered applicable to British Columbia production.
Peat, classified as a fuel by Statistics Canada, is not included in the British
Columbia statistics of mineral production being regarded as neither a fuel nor a
mineral.
METHOD OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tabulated statistics are arranged so as to facilitate comparison of the
production records for the various mining divisions, and from year to year. From
time to time, revisions have been made to figures published in earlier reports as
additional data became available or errors become known.
Data are obtained from the certified returns made by producers of metals,
industrial minerals and structural materials, and coal, and are augmented by data
obtained from custom smelters. For placer gold, returns from operators are augmented by data obtained from the Royal Canadian Mint. For petroleum, natural
gas, and liquid by-products, production figures supplied by the Petroleum and
Natural Gas Branch of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources are
compiled from the monthly disposition reports and the Crown royalty statement
filed with the Department by the producers.
Values are in Canadian funds. Weights are avoirdupois pounds and short
tons (2,000 lb.), and troy ounces.   Barrels are 35 imperial gallons.
Metals
Average Prices
The prices used in the valuation of current and past production of gold, silver,
copper, lead, and zinc are shown in the table on page A 26.
The price of gold used is the average Canadian Mint buying-price for fine gold.
In 1970 this was $36.56 per ounce.
A 13
 A 14
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
The price used for placer gold originally was established arbitrarily at $17 per
ounce, when the price of fine gold was $20.67 per ounce. Between 1931 and 1962
the price was proportionately increased with the continuously changing price of fine
gold. Since 1962, Canadian Mint reports giving the fine-gold content have been
available for all but a very small part of the placer gold produced, and the average
price listed is derived by dividing ounces of placer gold into total amount received.
Prior to 1949 the prices used for silver, copper, lead, and zinc were the average
prices of the markets indicated in the table on page A 26, converted into Canadian
funds. The abbreviations in the table are Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New York;
Lond.=London; E. St. L.=East St. Louis; and U.S.=United States.
Latterly the prices of silver, copper, lead, and zinc are average United States
prices converted into Canadian funds. Average monthly prices are supplied by
Statistics Canada from figures published in the Metal Markets section of Metals
Week. Specifically, for silver it is the New York price; for lead it is the New York
price; for zinc it is the price at East St. Louis of Prime Western; for copper it is the
United States export refinery price. However, commencing in 1970 the copper
price is the average of prices received by the various British Columbia shippers.
For antimony the average price for the year and for cadmium, the New York
producers' price to consumers are used. For nickel the price used is the Canadian
price set by the International Nickel Company of Canada Ltd. The value per ton
of the iron ore used in making pig iron at Kimberley is an arbitrary figure, being the
average of several ores of comparable grade at their points of export from British
Columbia.
Gross and Net Content
The gross content of a metal in ore, concentrate, or bullion is the amount of
that metal calculated from an assay of the material, and the gross metal contents
are the sum of individual metal assay contents. The net contents are the gross
contents less smelter and refinery losses.
In past years there have been different methods used in calculating net contents,
particularly in the case of one metal contained in the concentrate of another. The
present method was established in 1963 and is outlined in the following table. For
example, the net content of silver in copper concentrates is 98 per cent of the gross
content, of cadmium in zinc concentrates is 70 per cent of the gross content, etc.
Lead
Concentrates
Zinc
Concentrates
Copper
Concentrates
Copper-Nickel
Concentrates
Copper
Matte
Silver	
Copper 	
Lead   	
Per Cent
98
Less 26 lb./ton
98
50
Per Cent
98
50
90
70
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
Per Cent
85
88
Per Cent
98
Less 10 lb./ton
50
Cadmium	
Nickel	
Value of Production
For indium, iron concentrate shipped to Japan, mercury, molybdenum, and tin
the value of production is the amount received by the shippers.
For gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, some iron
concentrate, and nickel the value of production is calculated from the assay content
 STATISTICS A 15
of the ore, concentrate, or bullion less appropriate smelter losses, and an average
price per unit of weight.
Prior to 1925 the value of gold and copper produced was calculated by using
their true average prices and, in addition, for copper the smelter loss was taken
into account.
The value of other metals was calculated from the gross metal content of ores
or concentrates by using a metal price which was an arbitrary percentage of the
average price, as follows: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per cent.
It is these percentages of the average price that are listed in the table on page
A 26.
For 1925 and subsequent years the value has been calculated by using the true
average price {see p. A 26) and the net metal contents, in accordance with the procedures adopted by Statistics Canada and the Department of Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
In the statistical tables, for gold the values are calculated by multiplying the
gross contents of gold by the average price for the year; for the other metals, by
multiplying the net contents of metals as determined by means of the above table
by the average price for the year.
Industrial Minerals and Structural Materials
The values of production of industrial minerals and structural materials are
approximately the amounts received at the point of origin.
Fuel
The value of production of coal is calculated using a price per ton {see p. A 26)
which is the weighted average of the f.o.b. prices at the mine for the coal sold.
The values of production of natural gas, natural gas liquid by-products, and
petroleum including condensate/pentanes plus are the amounts received for the
products at the well-head.
NOTES ON PRODUCTS LISTED IN THE TABLES
Antimony—Antimony metal was produced at the Trail smelter from 1939 to
1944; since 1944 it has been marketed alloyed with lead. The antimony is a byproduct of silver-lead ores. In 1907 the first recorded antimonial ore mined in British Columbia was shipped from the Slocan area to England. Since then other out-
of-Province shipments have originated in the Bridge River, North Lardeau, Slocan,
Spillimacheen, and Stuart Lake areas. In Table 7c the antimony assigned to individual mining divisions is the reported content of ore exported to foreign smelters;
the antimony "not assigned" is that recovered at the Trail smelter from various ores
received there.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Arsenious oxide — Arsenious oxide was recovered at foreign smelters from
arsenical gold ores from Hedley between 1917 and 1931, and in 1942, and from
the Victoria property on Rocher Deboule Mountain in 1928. No production has
been recorded since 1942.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Asbestos—British Columbia has produced asbestos since 1952 when the Cassiar mine was opened. All British Columbia production consists of chrysotile from
the Cassiar mine near the Yukon border.   This deposit is noted for its high percen-
 A 16 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
tage of valuable long fibre and for the low iron content of the fibre. The original
claims were located at Cassiar in 1950, and the first fibre was shipped two years
later. The fibre is milled from the ore at Cassiar, shipped by truck to Whitehorse,
and then moved by rail to tidewater at Skagway. From 1953 to 1961 the fibre was
valued at the shipping point in North Vancouver, but beginning in 1962 it has been
valued at the mine, and values for the preceding years have been recalculated on
that basis.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Barite—Barite production began in 1940 and has been continuous since then,
coming from several operations in the upper Columbia River valley. Some barite
is mined from lode deposits and the rest is recovered from the mill-tailings ponds of
the former Silver Giant and Mineral King silver-lead-zinc mines. See Tables 1, 3,
and 7d.
Bentonite—Small amounts of bentonite were produced between 1926 and
1944 from deposits in the coal measures near Princeton. There has been no production since 1944.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Bismuth—Since 1929 the Trail smelter has produced bismuth. It is a byproduct of lead refining and thus the production cannot be assigned to specific
properties or mining divisions.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Brick—See Clay and shale products.
Building-stone—Dimensional stone for building purposes is quarried when
required from a granite deposit on Nelson Island and an andesite deposit on Haddington Island. Other stone close to local markets is quarried periodically or as
needed for special building projects.   See Table 7e.
Butane—Butane is recovered as a by-product at the gas-processing plant at
Taylor and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1,3, and 7a.
Cadmium—Cadmium has been recovered as a by-product at the Trail zinc
refinery since 1928. It occurs in variable amounts in the sphalerite of most British
Columbia silver-lead-zinc ores. In Table 7c the cadmium assigned to individual
mining divisions is the reported content of custom shipments to the Trail and foreign
smelters; that "not assigned" is the remainder of the reported estimated recovery at
the Trail smelter from British Columbia concentrates.    See Tables 1,3, and 7c.
Cement—Cement is manufactured from carefully proportioned mixtures of
limestone, gypsum, and other mineral materials. It has been produced in British
Columbia since 1905. Present producers are Ocean Cement Limited, with a 4.8-
million-barrel-per-year plant at Bamberton, and Canada Cement Lafarge Ltd. with
a 3.5-million-barrel-per-year plant on Lulu Island and a 1.2-million-barrel-per-year
plant at Kamloops.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Chromite—Two shipments of chromite are on record, 670 tons from Cascade
in 1918 and 126 tons from Scottie Creek in 1929.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Clay and shale products—These include brick, blocks, tile, pipe, pottery, lightweight aggregate, and pozzolan manufactured from British Columbia clays and
shales. Common red-burning clays and shales are widespread in the Province, but
better grade clays are rare. The first recorded production was of bricks at Craig-
flower in 1853 and since then plants have operated in most towns and cities for
short periods. Local surface clay is used at Haney to make common red brick,
tile, and flower pots. Shale and fireclay from Abbotsford Mountain are used to
make firebrick, facebrick, sewer pipe, flue lining, and special fireclay shapes in plants
at Kilgard, Abbotsford, and South Vancouver. A plant on Saturna Island makes
light-weight expanded shale aggregate and pozzolan clinker from a local shale
 STATISTICS A 17
deposit. A plant at Quesnel makes pozzolan from burnt shale quarried south of
Quesnel. Common clays and shales are abundant in British Columbia, but fireclay
and other high-grade clays are rare. Several hobby and art potteries and a sanitary-
ware plant are in operation, but these use mainly imported raw materials and their
production is not included in the tables.   See Tables 1,3, and 7e.
Coal—Coal is almost as closely associated with British Columbia's earliest
history as is placer gold. Coal was discovered at Suquash on Vancouver Island in
1835 and at Nanaimo in 1850. The yearly value of coal production passed that of
placer gold in 1883 and contributed a major part of the total mineral wealth for the
next 30 years.
First production, by Mining Divisions: Cariboo, 1942; Fort Steele, 1898;
Kamloops, 1893; Liard, 1923; Nanaimo, 1836; Nicola, 1907; Omineca, 1918;
Osoyoos, 1926; Similkameen, 1909; and Skeena, 1912.
The Nanaimo and Comox fields produced virtually all of the coal until production started from the Crowsnest field in 1898. The Crowsnest field contains coking-
coal and prospered in the early years of smelting and railroad-building. Mining
started in the Nicola-Princeton coalfield in 1907, at Teikwa in 1918, and on the
Peace River in 1923. The Nanaimo field was exhausted in 1953 when the last large
mines closed, and only small operations on remnants were left. The colliery at Merritt closed in 1945 and at Coalmont in 1940. The closing of the last large mine at
Tsable River in 1966, and of the last small one, near Wellington in 1968, marked
the end of production from the once important Vancouver Island deposits.
Undeveloped fields include basins in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains north
and south of the Peace River, the Groundhog basin in north central British Columbia, the Hat Creek basin west of Ashcroft, and basins on Graham Island.
The enormous requirements for coking-coal in Japan created great activity in
coal prospecting in various areas of British Columbia since 1968. The signing of
large contracts with the Japanese resulted in preparations for production at several
deposits in the East Kootenays. First shipments to Japan via special port facilities
at North Vancouver and Roberts Bank began in 1970.
All the coal produced, including that used in making coke, is shown as primary
mine production. Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes
material lost in picking and washing. From 1910 the quantity is the amount sold
and used, which includes sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and
company employees; coal used under company boilers, including steam locomotives;
and coal used in making coke.   See Tables 1, 3, 7a, 8a, and 8b.
Cobalt—In 1928 a recovery of 1,730 pounds of cobalt was made from a shipment of arsenical gold ore from the Victoria mine on Rocher Deboule Mountain.
See Tables 1 and 7c.
Coke—Coke is made from special types of coal. It has been produced in
British Columbia since 1895. Being a manufactured product, its value does not
contribute to the total mineral production as shown in Table 1. Up to 1966, coke
statistics had been included in the Annual Report as Table 9, but this table has been
discontinued. The coal used in making coke is still recorded in Table 8b. Coke
statistics are available on request from the Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce, Victoria.
Copper—Copper concentrates are shipped to Japanese and American smelters
because no copper smelter has operated in British Columbia since 1935. Small
amounts of gold and silver are commonly present and add value to the ore, but some
 A 18 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
ores contain important amounts of gold (as at Rossland), silver (Silver King mine),
lead and zinc (Tulsequah), or zinc (Britannia mine). Most of the smelting in
British Columbia in early years was done on ore shipped direct from the mines
without concentration, but modern practice is to concentrate the ore first.
Ore was smelted in British Columbia first in 1896 at Nelson (from Silver
King mine) and at Trail (from Rossland mines), and four and five years later at
Grand Forks (from Phoenix mine) and Greenwood (from Mother Lode mine).
Later, small smelters were built in the Boundary district and on Vancouver and
Texada Islands, and in 1914 the Anyox smelter was blown in. Copper smelting
ceased in the Boundary district in 1919, at Trail in 1929, and at Anyox in 1935.
British Columbia copper concentrates were then smelted mainly at Tacoma, and
since 1961 have gone chiefly to Japan.
Most of the production has come from southern British Columbia—from
Britannia, Copper Mountain, Greenwood, Highland Valley, Merritt, Nelson, Rossland, Texada Island, and Vancouver Island, although a sizeable amount came from
Anyox and some from Tulsequah. During recent years exploration for copper has
been intense, interest being especially directed toward finding very large, low-grade
deposits suitable for open-pit mining. This activity has resulted in the establishment of operating mines at Merritt (Craigmont) in 1961, in Highland Valley
(Bethlehem) in 1962, on Babine Lake (Granisle) in 1966, near Peachland
(Brenda) in 1970, and Stewart (Granduc) in 1971. Large mines near Port Hardy
(Island Copper), Babine Lake (Bell), McLeese Lake (Gibraltar), Highland Valley (Lornex), and Princeton (Ingerbelle) are nearing production. Others are
in an advanced planning stage or under exploration.
After a lapse of many years, copper has been produced comparatively recently on Vancouver Island at Jordan River, Courtenay, Benson Lake, Quatsino,
and also at Buttle Lake together with zinc and silver. At Tasu Harbour on
Moresby Island and at Texada Island copper is produced as a by-product of iron-
mining.
Copper is now the most valuable single commodity of the industry. Production
in 1970 was 206.7 million pounds.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Crude oil—Production of crude oil in British Columbia began in 1955 from
the Fort St. John field, but was not significant until late in 1961, when the 12-inch
oil pipe-line was built to connect the oil-gathering terminal at Taylor to the Trans
Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company pipe-line near Kamloops. In 1970, oil was
produced from 24 separate fields, of which the Boundary Lake, Peejay, Milligan
Creek, Inga, and Weasel fields were the most productive.
In Tables 1, 3, and 7a, quantities given prior to 1962 under "petroleum,
crude" are total sales, and from 1962 to 1965 include field and plant condensate
listed separately. Full details are given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas
chapter of this report.
Diatomite—Relatively large deposits of diatomite are found near the Fraser
River in the Quesnel area, and small deposits are widespread throughout the Province. Small amounts of diatomite have been shipped from Quesnel periodically
since 1928. One plant to process the material locally was built in Quesnel in 1969
and a new one to replace it was completed in 1970.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Field condensate—Field condensate is the liquid hydrocarbons separated and
recovered from natural gas in the field before gas processing. See Tables 1,3, and 7a.
Fluorite (fluorspar)—Between 1918 and 1929, fluorite was mined at the
Rock Candy mine north of Grand Forks for use in the Trail lead refinery.   From
 STATISTICS
A 19
1958 to 1968, small quantities were produced as a by-product at the Oliver silica
quarry.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Flux—Silica and limestone are added to smelter furnaces as flux to combine
with impurities in the ore and form a slag which separates from the valuable metal.
In the past silica was shipped from Grand Forks, Oliver, and the Sheep Creek area.
Today silica from Salmo and limestone, chiefly from Texada Island, are produced
for flux.    Quantities have been recorded since 1911.    See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Gold, lode—Gold has played an important part in mining in the Province. The
first discovery of lode gold was on Moresby Island in 1852, when some gold was
recovered from a small quartz vein. The first stamp mill was built in the Cariboo
in 1876, and it seems certain that some arrastras—primitive grinding-mills—were
built even earlier. These and other early attempts were short lived, and the successful milling of gold ores began about 1890 in the southern part of the Province. The
value of production was second only to that of coal by 1900 and continued to
be very important. At the start of World War II, gold-mining attained a peak yearly
value of more than $22 million, but since the war it dwindled, owing to the fact
that the price for gold was fixed and the cost of mining rose and continues to rise.
In the early years, lode gold came mostly from the camps of Rossland, Nelson,
McKinney, Fairview, Hedley, and also from the copper and other ores of the
Boundary district. A somewhat later major producer was the Premier mine at
Stewart. In the 1930's the price of gold increased and the value of production
soared, new discoveries were made and old mines were revived. The principal gold
camps, in order of output of gold, have been Bridge River, Rossland, Portland Canal,
Hedley, Wells, and Sheep Creek. In 1971 the Bralorne mine in Bridge River closed;
it was the last gold mine in the Province to operate. To date the gold mines have
paid a total of about $82 million in dividends.
As long as the price of gold remains fixed and costs continue to rise, there can
be no increase in the mining of lode gold except as a by-product. With the closing
of the Bralorne mine all is produced as a by-product of copper, copper-zinc-silver,
and other base-metal mining.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Gold, placer—The early explorations and settlement of the Province followed
rapidly on the discovery of gold-bearing placer creeks throughout the country. The
first placer miners came in 1858 to mine the lower Fraser River bars upstream
from Yale.
The year of greatest placer-gold production was 1863, shortly after the discovery
of placer in the Cariboo. Another peak year in 1875 marked the discovery of placer
on creeks in the Cassiar. A minor peak year was occasioned by the discovery of
placer gold on Granite Creek in the Tulameen in 1886. A high level of production
ensued after 1899, when the Atlin placers reached their peak output. Other important placer-gold camps were established at Goldstream, Fort Steele, Rock Creek,
Omineca River, and Quesnel River. The last important strike was made on Cedar
Creek in 1921, and coarse gold was found on Squaw Creek in 1927 and on Wheaton
Creek in 1932.
Mining in the old placer camps revived during the 1930's under the stimulus
of an increase in the price of fine gold from $20.67 per ounce to $35 per ounce in
United States funds. Since World War II placer-mining has declined under conditions of steadily rising costs and a fixed price for gold. Since 1858 more than 5.2
million ounces valued at almost $97 million has been recovered.
A substantial part of the production, including much of the gold recovered
from the Fraser River upstream from Yale (in the present New Westminster, Kam-
 A 20 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
loops, and Lillooet Mining Divisions) and much of the early Cariboo production,
was mined before the original organization of the Department of Mines in 1874.
Consequently, the amounts recorded are based on early estimates and cannot be
accurately assigned to individual mining divisions.
The first year of production for major placer-producing mining divisions was:
Atlin, 1898; Cariboo, 1859; Liard, 1873; Lillooet, 1858; Omineca, 1869.
In 1965, changes were made in the allocation of placer gold to the New Westminster and Similkameen Mining Divisions and "not assigned," to reconcile those
figures with data incorporated in Bulletin 28, Placer Gold Production of British
Columbia.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7a.
Granules—Rock chips used for bird grits, exposed aggregate, roofing, stucco
dash, terrazzo, etc., have been produced in constantly increasing quantities since
1930. Plants operate in Burnaby, near Hope, at Rock Creek, Grand Forks, Sirdar,
Vananda, and Armstrong.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Gypsum and gypsite—Production of gypsum and gypsite has been recorded
since 1911. Between 1925 and 1956 more than 1,000,000 tons was shipped from
Falkland and some was quarried near Cranbrook and Windermere. Since 1956
all production has come from Windermere.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Hydromagnesite—Small shipments of hydromagnesite were made from Atlin
between 1904 and 1916 and from Clinton in 1921.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Indium—Production of indium as a by-product of zinc-refining at the Trail
smelter began in 1942.    Production figures have not been disclosed since 1958.
Iron—Iron ore was produced in small quantities as early as 1885, commonly
under special circumstances or as test shipments. Steady production started in 1951
with shipments of magnetite concentrates to Japan from Vancouver and Texada
Islands.
Most of the known iron-ore deposits are magnetite, and occur in the coastal
area. On the average they are low in grade and need to be concentrated. Producing
mines have operated on Texada Island, at Benson Lake and Zeballos on Vancouver
Island, and at Tasu and Jedway on Moresby Island. At Texada Island copper is a
by-product of iron-mining, and at the Coast Copper mine at Benson Lake iron was
a by-product of copper-mining. The latest operation, and to date the largest, is that
of Wesfrob Mines Limited at Tasu, begun at the end of 1967; copper is produced
as a by-product.
Since January 1961, calcined iron sulphide from the tailings of the Sullivan
mine has been used for making pig iron at Kimberley. This is the first manufacture
of pig iron in British Columbia. The iron occurs as pyrrhotite and pyrite in the lead-
zinc ore of the Sullivan mine. In the process of milling, the lead and zinc minerals
are separated for shipment to the Trail smelter, and the iron sulphides are separated
from the waste rock. Over the years a stockpile had been built containing a reserve
of about 20 million tons of iron ore.
The sulphur is removed in making pig iron and is converted to sulphuric acid,
which is used in making fertilizer. A plant built at Kimberley converts the pig iron
to steel, and a fabricating plant has been acquired in Vancouver. The entire production, credited to the Fort Steele Mining Division in Table 7c, is of calcine. See
Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7c.
Iron oxide—Iron oxide, ochre, and bog iron were mined as early as 1918 from
several occurrences, but mainly from limonite deposits north of Squamish. None
has been produced since 1950.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
 STATISTICS A 21
Jade (nephrite)—Production of jade (nephrite) has been recorded only since
1959 despite there being several years of significant production prior to that date.
The jade is recovered from bedrock occurrences on Mount Ogden and near Dease
Lake and as alluvial boulders from the Fraser River; the Bridge River and its tributaries, Marshall, Hell, and Cadwallader Creeks; O'Ne-ell, Ogden, Kwanika, and
Wheaton Creeks.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Lead—Lead was the most valuable single commodity for many years, but it
was surpassed by zinc in value of annual production in 1950 and in total production
in 1966. The two metals usually occur together in nature although not necessarily
in equal amounts in a single deposit. Zinc is the more abundant metal, but lead ore
usually is more valuable than zinc ore because it contains more silver as a by-product.
For a long time British Columbia produced almost all of Canada's lead, but now
produces only about one-quarter of it. Most of the concentrated ore is smelted and
the metal refined at Trail, but some concentrate is shipped to American and Japanese
smelters.
Almost all of British Columbia's lead comes from the southeastern part of the
Province. The Sullivan mine at Kimberley is now producing about three-quarters
of the Province's lead and has produced about 85 per cent of the grand total. This
is one of the largest mines in the world and supports the great metallurgical works at
Trail. Other mines are at the Pend d'Oreille River, North Kootenay Lake, Slocan,
and southwest of Golden. In northwestern British Columbia less important parts of
the total output have come from Tulsequah, the Premier mine, and several small
mines in the general region of Hazelton.
A small amount of high-grade lead ore is shipped directly to the smelter, but
most of the ore is concentrated by flotation and the zinc content is separated from
the lead. All output from the Sullivan and other mines owned by Cominco Ltd.
goes to the Trail smelter but part of the output of other mines goes to American
smelters. Lead was first produced in 1887, and the total production amounts to
approximately 7.5 million tons.
In 1958, revisions were made in some yearly totals for lead to adjust them for
recovery of lead from slag treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Limestone—Besides being used for flux and granules (where it is recorded
separately), limestone is used in agriculture, cement manufacture, the pulp and
paper industry, and for making lime. It has been produced since 1886. Quarries
now operate at Cobble Hill, near Prince George, and on the north end of Texada
Island.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Magnesium—In 1941 and 1942, Cominco Ltd. produced magnesium from
magnesite mined from a large deposit at Marysville.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Magnesium sulphate—Magnesium sulphate was recovered in minor amounts
at various times between 1915 and 1942 from small alkali lakes near Basque, Clinton,
and Osoyoos.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Manganese—From 1918 to 1920 manganese ore was shipped from a bog
deposit near Kaslo and from Hill 60 near Cowichan Lake, and in 1956 a test shipment was made from Olalla.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Mercury—Mercury was first produced near Savona in 1895. Since then small
amounts have been recovered from the same area and from the Bridge River district.
The main production to date was between 1940 and 1944 from the Pinchi Lake and
Takla mines near Fort St. James. In 1968 the Pinchi Lake mine reopened and
continues in operation.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
 A 22
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Mica—No sheet mica has been produced commercially in British Columbia.
Between 1932 and 1961 small amounts of mica schist for grinding were mined near
Albreda, Armstrong, Oliver, Prince Rupert, and Sicamous.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Molybdenum—Molybdenum ore in small amounts was produced from high-
grade deposits between 1914 and 1918. Recently, mining of large low-grade molybdenum and copper-molybdenum deposits has increased production to the point
that molybdenum now ranks second in importance in annual value of metals produced in British Columbia. The upswing began when the Bethlehem mine recovered
by-product molybdenum from 1964 to 1966. In 1965, the Endako and Boss Mountain mines, followed by the Coxey in 1966, and British Columbia Molybdenum mine
in 1967, all began operations as straight molybdenum producers. In 1970, the
Brenda mine, a combined copper-molybdenum producer, started operating. Large-
scale combined metal deposits at Island Copper, Lornex, and Gibraltar mines are
being prepared for production in 1971 and 1972.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7c.
Natro-alunite—In 1912 and 1913, 400 tons of natro-alunite was mined from
a small low-grade deposit at Kyuquot Sound. There has been no subsequent production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Natural gas—Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954 to supply
the community of Fort St. John. Since the completion in 1957 of the gas plant at
Taylor and the 30-inch pipe-line to serve British Columbia and the northwestern
United States, the daily average volume of production has increased to more than
900,000,000 cubic feet. In 1970 there were 40 producing gas fields of which the
Yoyo, Laprise Creek, Clarke Lake, Jedney, Nig Creek, and Rigel were the most
productive.
The production shown in Tables 1,3, and 7a is the total amount sold of residential gas from processing plants plus dry and associated gas from the gas-gathering
system; that is, the quantity delivered to the main transmission-line. The quantity
is net after deducting gas used on leases, metering difference, and gas used or lost
in the cleaning plant. The quantity is reported as thousands of cubic feet at standard
conditions (14.4 pounds per square inch pressure, 60° F. temperature, up to and
including the year 1960, and thereafter 14.65 pounds per square inch pressure,
60° F. temperature).
Full details of gross well output, other production, delivery, and sales are
given in tables in the Petroleum and Natural Gas chapter of this report.
Nickel—One mine, the Pride of Emory near Hope, shipped nickel ore in 1936
and 1937 and began continuous production in 1958. Since 1960, bulk copper-
nickel concentrates have been shipped to Japan for smelting. See Tables 1,3, and
7c.
Palladium—Palladium was recovered in 1928, 1929, and 1930 as a by-product
of the Trail refinery and is presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 1 and 7c.
Perlite—In 1953 a test shipment of 1,112 tons was made from a quarry on
Francois Lake.   There has been no further production.    See Tables 1 and 7d.
Petroleum, crude—See Crude oil.
Phosphate rock—Between 1927 and 1933, Cominco Ltd. produced 3,842 tons
of phosphate rock for test purposes, but the grade proved to be too low for commercial use. More test shipments were made in 1964 but there has been no commercial production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Plant condensate—Plant condensate is the hydrocarbon liquid extracted from
natural gas at gas-processing plants.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7a.
 STATISTICS A 23
Platinum—Platinum has been produced intermittently from placer streams in
small amounts since 1887, mostly from the Tulameen and Similkameen Rivers.
Placer platinum also has been recovered from Pine, Thibert, McConnell, Rainbow,
Tranquille, Rock, and Government Creeks; from Quesnel, Fraser, Cottonwood,
Peace, and Coquihalla Rivers; and from beach placers on Graham Island. Some
platinum recovered between 1928 and 1930 as a by-product at the Trail refinery is
presumed to have originated in copper concentrates shipped to the smelter from the
Copper Mountain mine.   See Tables 1,3, and 7c.
Propane—Propane is recovered from gas-processing plants at Taylor and
Boundary Lake, and at oil refineries.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7a.
Rock—Production of rubble, riprap, and crushed rock has been recorded since
1909.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Sand and gravel—Sand and gravel are used as aggregate in concrete work of all
kinds. The output varies from year to year according to the state of activity of the
construction industry.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7e.
Selenium—The only recorded production of selenium, 731 pounds, was in
1931 from the refining of blister copper from the Anyox smelter. See Tables 1
and 7c.
Silver—Silver is recovered from silver ores or as a by-product of other ores.
Most of it is refined in Trail, some goes to the Mint in gold bullion, and some is
exported in concentrated ores of copper, lead, and zinc to American and Japanese
smelters.   Silver bullion was produced by the Torbrit mine from 1949 to 1959.
Invariably some silver is associated with galena, so that even low-grade lead
ores if mined in quantity produce a significant amount of silver. Some silver is
recovered from gold ores and some from copper ores, and although the silver in
such ores is usually no more than a fraction of an ounce per ton, even that amount
is important in a large-tonnage operation.
Silver-bearing ores were intensively sought in the early days. A metal of high
unit value was the only one worth finding in regions remote from market, and in the
1880's and 1890's, there was little point in prospecting for ores that did not contain values in silver or gold. Prospecting for silver ores started in southeastern
British Columbia in about 1883, and from 1894 to 1905 British Columbia produced
most of Canada's silver, many of the early ores being mined primarily for their
silver content.
Production of silver began in 1887 from silver-copper and silver-lead ores in
the Kootenays and has continued in this area to the present. Now, most of the silver
is a by-product of lead-zinc ores and nearly all is refined at Trail, although some is
exported with concentrates to American and Japanese smelters, or may go to the
Mint in gold bullion. Today the greatest single source of silver is the Sullivan mine,
which has been in production since 1900. By 1970 the Sullivan mine has accounted
for 47 per cent of the total silver production of the Province. A significant total
amount is contributed by the Lynx, Phoenix, Bethlehem, Granisle, Brenda, and
Tasu mines. The only steady producer that is strictly a silver mine is the Highland
Bell mine at Beaverdell, in operation since 1922. A former important mine, the
Premier near Stewart, produced more than 41 million ounces of silver between
1918 and 1968.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
Sodium carbonate—Sodium carbonate was recovered between 1921 and 1949
from alkali lakes in the Clinton area and around Kamloops. There has been no
further production.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
 A 24 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Stone—Cut stone for building purposes is prepared from rock produced at
quarries in various parts of the Province when required. Two of the most productive quarries have operated on Haddington and Nelson Islands. See Tables 1,
3, and 7e.
Structural materials—In Table 7e the value of $5,972,171 for unclassified
materials is the total for structural materials in the period 1886-1919 that cannot
be allotted to particular classes of structural materials or assigned to mining divisions,
and includes $726,323 shown against 1896 in Table 2 that includes unclassified
structural materials in that and previous years not assignable to particular years.
The figure $3,180,828 in Table 7e under "Other Clay Products" is the value in the
period 1886-1910 that cannot be allotted to particular clay products or assigned
to mining divisions.   See Tables 1, 2, 3, 7a, and 7e.
Sulphur—The production of sulphur has been recorded since 1916. From
1916 to 1927 the amounts include the sulphur content of pyrite shipped. From
1928 the amounts include the estimated sulphur content of pyrite shipped, plus the
sulphur contained in sulphuric acid made from waste smelter gases. The sulphur
content of pyrrhotite roasted at the Kimberley fertilizer plant is included since 1953.
Since 1958, elemental sulphur recovered from the Jefferson Lake Petrochemical Co.
(now Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd.) plant at Taylor has been included. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7d.
Talc—Between 1916 and 1936, talc was quarried at Leech River and at
Anderson Lake to make dust for asphalt roofing. There has been no production
since 1936.   See Tables 1,3, and 7d.
Tin—Tin, as cassiterite, is a by-product of the Sullivan mine, where it has been
produced since 1941. The tin concentrate is shipped to an American smelter for
treatment.   See Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Tungsten—Tungsten, very largely as scheelite concentrates, was produced from
1937 to 1958, first from the Columbia Tungstens (Hardscrabble) mine in the Cariboo in 1937 and during World War II from the Red Rose mine near Hazelton and
the Emerald mine near Salmo. The Red Rose closed in 1954 and the Emerald in
1958. Small amounts of scheelite have been produced from the Bridge River,
Revelstoke, and other areas when demand was high. In 1970 production began
from the Invincible mine near Salmo.
A very small amount of wolframite came from Boulder Creek near Atlin. See
Tables 1, 3, and 7c.
Volcanic Ash—The only recorded production of volcanic ash is 30 tons from
the Cariboo Mining Division in 1954.   See Tables 1 and 7d.
Zinc—Zinc was first produced in 1905. For many years lead was the most
valuable single metal but in 1950 the annual value of production of zinc surpassed
that of lead and in 1966 the total value of zinc production exceeded that of lead.
In 1970 the annual production of zinc is exceeded by that of copper, crude oil,
and molybdenum. Zinc is invariably associated with lead, and most ores are mined
for their combined values in zinc, lead, and silver, and rarely for their zinc content
alone. Some zinc ores contain a valuable amount of gold, and zinc is associated
with copper at the Britannia and Lynx mines. Modern practice is to concentrate
and separate the zinc mineral (sphalerite) from the lead mineral (galena). Most
of the zinc concentrates go to the zinc recovery plant at Trail, are roasted, and are
converted electrolytically to refined metal. Some concentrates are shipped to
American or Japanese smelters.
 STATISTICS
A 25
More than 87 per cent of the zinc has been mined in southeastern British Columbia, at the Sullivan mine, and at mines near Ainsworth, Invermere, Moyie Lake,
Riondel, Salmo, Slocan, and Spillimacheen. Other production has come from mines
at Portland Canal and Tulsequah and is coming from Britannia and Buttle Lake.
The greatest zinc mine is the Sullivan, which has contributed about 75 per cent of
the total zinc production of the Province.
Records for the period 1905 to 1908 show shipments totalling 18,845 tons of
zinc ore and zinc concentrates of unstated zinc content. In 1958, revisions were
made to some yearly totals for zinc to adjust them for recovery of zinc from slag
treated at the Trail smelter.   See Tables 1, 3, 6, and 7b.
 A 26                  MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Prices1 Used in Valuing Production of Gold, Silver, Copper,
Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,
Placer,
Oz.
Gold,
Fine,
Oz.
Silver,
Fine,
Oz.
Copper,
Lb.
Lead,
Lb.
Zinc,
Lb.
Coal,
Short
Ton
1901	
1902.   	
1903.;	
1904       	
$
17.00
-
$
20.67
Cents
56.002 N.Y.
49.55      „
50.78 „
53.36     „
51.33
63.45      „
62.06      „
50.22     „
48.93      „
50.812    „
50.64 „
57.79 „
56.80 „
52.10      „
47.20     „
62.38     „
77.35      „
91.93      „
105.57      „
95.80     „
59.52      „
64.14     „
61.63      „
63.442    „
69.065 „
62.107    „
56.370    „
58.176    „
52.993    „
38.154    „
28.700   „
31.671    „
37.832    „
47.461    „
64.790   „
45.127   „
44.881    „
43.477    „
40.488    „
38.249 „
38.261    „
41.166   „
45.254    „
43.000    „
47.000    „
83.650    „
72.000    „
75.000 Mont.
74.250 U.S.
80.635    „
94.550   „
83.157   „
83.774    „
82.982   „
87.851    „
89.373    „
87.057   „
86.448   „
87.469   „
88.633    „
93.696    „
116.029   ,,
137.965    „
139.458    „
139.374   „
139.300   „
167.111    „
231.049    „
192.699   „
184.927   ..
Cents
16.11 N.Y.
11.70     „
13.24    „
12.82     „
15.59 „
19.28     „
20.00     „
13.20     „
12.98     „
12.738   „
12.38     „
16.341   „
15.27 „
13.60 „
17.28 „
27.202   „
27.18     „
24.63     „
18.70     „
17.45     „
12.50     „
13.38     „
14.42     „
13.02     „
14.042   „
13.795   „
12.920   „
14.570   „
18.107   „
12.982   „
8.116   „
6.380 Lond.
7.454   „
7.419   „
7.795   „
9.477   „
13.078 „
9.972   „
10.092   „
10.086   „
10.086   „
10.086   „
11.750   „
12.000   „
12.550   „
12.800   „
20.390   „
22.350 U.S.
19.973   „
23.428  „
27.700   „
31.079 „
30.333   „
29.112   „
38.276   „
39.787   „
26.031   „
23.419   „
27.708   „
28.985   „
28.288   „
30.473   ,,
30.646   „
33.412   „
38.377   „
53.344   „
50.022   „
54.216   „
66.656   „
58.6982 „
Cents
2.577 N.Y.
3.66 „
3.81     „
3.88     „
4.24     „
4.81      „
4.80     „
3.78     „
3.85     „
4.00     „
3.98     „
4.024   „
3.93     „
3.50     „
4.17     „
6.172   „
7.91     „
6.67 „
5.19     „
7.16     „
4.09     „
5.16     „
6.54     „
7.287   „
7.848 Lond.
6.751   „
5.256   „
4.575   „
5.050   „
3.927   „
2.710   „
2.113   „
2.391   „
2.436   „
3.133   „
3.913   „
5.110   „
3.344   „
3.169   „
3.362   „
3.362   „
3.362   „
3.754   „
4.500   „
5.000   „
6.750   „
13.670   „
18.040   „
15.800 U.S.
14.454   „
18.400   „
16.121   „
13.265   „
13.680   „
14.926   „
15.756   „
14.051   „
11.755   „
11.670   „
11.589   „
11.011 „
10.301   „
12.012 „
14.662   „
17.247   „
16.283   „
15.102   „
14.546   „
16.039   „
16.336 „
Cents
$
2.65
2.63
2.67
2.62
2.70
2.61
3.07
3.11
3.19
3.35
3.18
3.36
3.39
3.46
3.43
3.45
3.48
4.99
4.92
4.72
4.81
4.72
4.81
4.89
4.79
4.84
4.81
4.71
4.74
4.73
4.35
4.04
3.90
4.00
3.95
4.23
4.25
4.01
4.02
4.26
4.15
4.13
4.17
4.25
4.24
4.68
5.12
6.09
6.51
6.43
6.46
6.94
6.88
7.00
6.74
6.59
6.76
7.45
7.93
6.64
7.40
7.43
7.33
6.94
7.03
7.28
7.75
7.91
8.00
7.40
1905..   -
1906	
	
1907	
1908 	
1909	
1910,   „  	
1911       	
4.60E.St.L.
4.90     „
5.90     „
4.80     „
4.40     „
11.25     „
10.88     „
7.566   „
6.94 „
6.24     „
6.52     „
3.95 „
4.86     „
5.62     „
5.39    „
7.892 Lond.
7.409   „
6.194   „
5.493   „
5.3i85   „
3.599   „
2.554   „
2.405   „
3.210   „
3.044   „
3.099   „
3.315   „
4.902   „
3.073   „
3.069   „
3.411   „
3.411   „
3.411   „
4.000   „
4.300   „
6.440   „
7.810   „
11.230   „
13.930   „
13.247 U.S.
15.075   „
19.900   „
15.874   „
10.675   „
10.417   „
12.127   „
13.278   „
11.175   „
10.009. „
10.978   „
12.557   „
11.695   „
12.422   „
13.173   „
14.633   „
15.636   „
15.622   „
14.933   „
14.153   „
15.721   „
16.006 „
 i
1912  	
1913	
1914	
1915  	
1916	
1917 - -
	
1918     ....    	
	
1919	
1920 	
1921   .. -	
1922 	
1923     _	
- i
1924   	
1925 	
1926 	
1927-..-	
1928
	
1929 -	
1930	
	
. 1
1931— _ 	
1932       —	
19.30
23.02
28.37
28.94
28.81
28.77
28.93
29.72
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.66
30.22
28.78
23.47
28.60
34.50
35.19
35.03
34.99
35.18
36.14
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
36.75
35.00
1933	
1934	
1935      	
1936       	
1937 	
1938	
1939—   -
1940 -- -
1941	
1942...  	
1943 - -	
1944 	
1945
1946  	
1947
1948..    	
28.78 ]  35.00
29.60 1   36.00
1949          —
1950 	
31.29
30.30
28.18
28.31
38.05
36.85
34.27
34.42
1951 	
1952 -	
1953      	
1954  .    	
27.52 i   34.07
1955  —
1956	
28.39
28.32
27.59
27.94
27.61
27.92
29.24
29.25
29.31
29.96
28.93
29.08
28.77
29.21
29.37
28.89
34.52
34.44
33.55
33.98
33.57
33.95
35.46
37.41
37.75 I
37.75
37.73
37.71
37.76
37.71
37.69
1 36.56
1957     	
1958	
1959	
1960 -	
1961... 	
19H.7
1063
1964    _	
1965 - 	
1966- - -	
1067
1968            	
1969 -	
1970	
lSee page A 13 fo
2 See page A 14 fo
r detailec
r explana
explan.
tion.
ition.
 STATISTICS
A 27
Table 1—Mineral Production: Total to Date, Past Year,
and Latest Year
Products!
Total Quantity
to Date
Total Value
to Date
Quantity
1969
Value
1969
Quantity
1970
Value
1970
Metals
Antimony   —lb.
Bismuth   lb.
Cadmium  —  lb.
Chromite  - tons
Cobalt - lb.
Copper   lb.
Gold—placer   oz.
,,  —lode, fine  oz.
Iron concentrates - - tons
Lead    lb.
Magnesium   lb.
Manganese   tons
Mercury2  lb.
Molybdenum    lb.
Nickel    lb.
Palladium  oz.
Platinum   oz.
Selenium  lb.
Silver     oz.
Tin      lb.
Tungsten (WO3)  lb.
Zinc  lb.
Others	
Totals	
Industrial Minerals
Arsenious oxide —  lb.
Asbestos    ..tons
Barite _  tons
Bentonite    tons
Diatomite    tons
Fluorspar   —  tons
Fluxes     tons
 tons
Granules 	
Gypsum and gypsite  —tons
Hydromagnesite  tons
Iron oxide and ochre tons
Jade   lb.
Magnesium sulphate 	
Mica
-tons
—lb.
Natro-alunite
Perlite  	
Phosphate rock _
Sodium carbonate .
Sulphur 	
Talc 	
Others 	
..tons
..tons
-tons
-tons
.tons
-tons
Totals
Structural Materials
Cement     tons
Clay products	
Lime and limestone .
Rock 	
Sand and gravel .
Stone 	
.tons
-tons
-tons
-tons
Not assigned .
Totals —
Fuels
Coal  ! tons
Crude oil bbl.
Field condensate , bbl.
Plant condensate  bbl.
Nat'l gas to pipe-line M sx.f.
Butane  bbl.
Propane  bbl.
Totals	
Grand totals
52,566,382
6,746,455
39,421,511
796
1,730
4,254,041,748
5,235,408
17,025,851
26,304,064
15,828,315,846
204,632
1,724
4,171,110
119,634,910
41,681,506
749
1,407
731
485,262,219
18,184,983
16,019,324
14,421,058,870
$
16,881
13,750.
72,327.
32;
1,108,799
96,957
503,792.
238,773.
1,347,940,
88
32
10,447
204,271
37,473
30
135
1
353,174
16,199
38,663.
1,389,884.
33,874,
.213
108
,469
,295
420
,081
,397
.457
655
,476
,184
,668
,358
,452
,210
,462
,008
.389
,747
,240
,751
,751
,870
820,122
62,488
1,141,133
.15,483,531,661
22,019
925
373
35,
4,084,
392,
4,085,
2,
18,
596.
13,
12,822;
1.
3.
10
7,295,
1.
,420
,207
,654
791
718
682
331
.467
,291
,253
,108
,394
.894
050
522
.112
842
.492
699
805
179
3
95
273,201
,412,042
,914,563
16,858
201,892
795,950
575,904
,104,839
425,904
27,536
155,050
531,670
254,352
185,818
9,398
11,120
16,894
118,983
544,071
34,871
5,213
167,415,411
399
117,481
2,074,854
210,072,565
26,597,477
2,979,130
5,760,534
288,427
296,667,033
80,388
30,624
22,342
34,746
280,894
26,332
349,122
309,616,1291-
12,954,060
1,161,879
213,808,313
77,691,583
53,671,899
49,911,302
253,415,606
9,204,354
5,972,171
663,675,228
145,089,102
159,289,278
410,688
10,803,697
1,892,240,528
4,982,947
3,375,928
636,283,545
350,580,748
936,197
5,664,042
192,568,510
1,594,542
1,080,294
795,591
1,911,881
3,756,559
29,132,650
2,177
852,340
25,309,036
78,147
944,111
256,223,244
417,540
327,501
-| 1,188,707,878|.
-|7,645,530,896|_
508,476
288,070
4,016,788
726,474
132,135
939,310
111,592,416
11,720
4,427,506
19,787,845
33,693,539
206,735,343
491
100,179
1,877,209
214,838,525
47,999,442
3,396,208
31,276,497
3,408,203
11,100,491
470,136
6,511,316
263,716
46,639,024
10,949,453
275,590,749
294,881,114|-
14,871,334
248,818
81,917
654,701
764,032
42,635
3,824,593
4,913
86,730
45,320
1,276
31,626
25,198
270,266
262,602
336,659
$
1,104,040
828,486
3,343,944
121,349,512
14,185
3,662,444
17,397,574
35,096,021
52,431,558
4,703,320
12,041,181
421,946
44,111,055
10,020,179
¥067525,445
16,013,827
382,508
26,567
106,533
622,202
736,635
250,256
3,968,294
20,492,943|-
22,106,822
16,604,688
4,550,546
3,237,032
4,456,211
26,553,699
39,352
55,441,528
6,817,155
58,176,213
180,520
263,278
27,897,585
133,613
104,800
601,893
1,867,586
2,692,282
23,155,989
2,644,056
25,361,336
116,637
1,003,138
272,554,221
308,664
420,327
93,573,164|-
464,388,749|-
13,485,549
4,714,368
3,169,665
3,018,242
21,679,387
46,067,211
19,559,669
60,405,941
277,829
253,009
29,803,411
98,772
134,505
110,534,136
485,233,614
1 See notes on individual products listed alphabetically on pages A 15 to A 25.
2 From 1968, excludes production which is confidential.
 a 28 mines and petroleum resources report, 1970
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1970
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Fuels
Total
1836-86-
1887	
1888	
1889	
1890	
1891	
1892	
1893	
1894	
1895	
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901-
1902-
1903-
1904-
1905_
1906-
1907-
1908.
1909.
1910-
1911-
1912_
1913-
1914-
1915-
1916.
1917-
1918-
1919
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924.
1925-
1926.
1927..
1928-
1929-
1930-
1931-
1932-
1933-
1934_
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939_
1940-
1941_
1942_
1943-
1944_
1945-
1946-
1947_
1948-
1949.
1950-
52,808,750
729,381
745,794
685,512
572,884
447,136
511,075
659,969
1,191,728
2,834,629
4,973,769
7,575,262
7,176,870
8,107,509
'11,360,546
14,258,455
12,163,561
12,640,083
13,424,755
16,289,165
18,449,602
17,101,305
15,227,991
14,668,141
13,768,731
11,880,062
18,218,266
17,701,432
15,790,727
20,765,212
32,092,648
27,299,934
27,957,302
20,058,217
19,687,532
13,160,417
19,605,401
25,769,215
35,959,566
46,480,742
51,867,792
45,134,289
48,640,158
52,805,345
41,785,380
23,530,469
20,129,869
25,777,723
35,177,224
42,006,618
45,889,944
65,224,245
55,959,713
56,216,049
64,332,166
65,807,630
63,626,140
55,005,394
42,095,013
50,673,592
58,834,747
95,729,867
124,091,753
110,219,917
117,166,836
2,400
46,345
17,500
46,446
51,810
133,114
150,718
174,107
281,131
289,426
508,601
330,503
251,922
140,409
116,932
101,319
223,748
437,729
544,192
807,502
457,225
480,319
447,495
460,683
486,554
543,583
724,362
976,171
916,841
1,381,720
1,073,023
1,253,561
1,434,382
1,378,337
1,419,248
1,497,720
1,783,010
2,275,972
2,358,877
2,500,799
2,462,340
$
43,650
22,168
46,432
77,517
75,201
79,475
129,234
726,323
150,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
400,000
450,000
525,000
575,000
660,800
982,900
1,149,400
1,200,000
1,270,559
1,500,000
3,500,917
3,436,222
3,249,605
2,794,107
1,509,235
1,247,912
1,097,900
783,280
980,790
1,962,824
1,808,392
2,469,967
2,742,388
2,764,013
2,766,838
3,335,885
2,879,160
3,409,142
3,820,732
4,085,105
3,538,519
1,705,708
1,025,586
1,018,719
1,238,718
1,796,677
2,098,339
1,974,976
1,832,464
2,534,840
2,845,262
3,173,635
3,025,255
3,010,088
3,401,229
5,199,563
5,896,803
8,968,222
9,955,790
10,246,939
10,758,565
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
63,610,965
1,991,629
2,260,129
2,502,519
2,682,505
3,613,902
3,119,314
3,594,851
4,230,587
5,659,316
8,394,053
10,459,784
10,909,465
12,434,312
16,355,076
19,674,853
17,445,818
17,497,380
18,955,179
22,461,826
24,980,546
25,888,418
23,784,857
24,513,584
26,377,066
23,499,071
32,458,800
30,194,943
26,382,491
29,521,739
42,391,953
37,056,284
41,855,707
33,304,104
35,609,126
28,135,325
35,207,350
41,330,560
48,752,446
61,517,804
67,077,605
60,720,313
65,227,002
68,689,839
55,763,360
35,233,462
28,806,716
32,639,163
42,407,630
48,837,783
54,133,485
74,438,675
64,416,599
65,711,189
75,028,294
77,566,453
76,471,329
67,151,016
54,742,315
62,026,901
72,549,790
112,583,082
145,184,247
133,226,430
139,995,418
 STATISTICS A 29
Table 2—Total Value of Mineral Production, 1836-1970—Continued
Year
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Fuels
Total
195t
$
153,598,411
147,857,523
126,755,705
123,834,286
142,609,505
149,441,246
125,353,920
104,251,112
105,076,530
130,304,373
128,565,774
159,627,293
172,852,866
180,926,329
177,101,733
208,664,003
235,865,318
250,912,026
294,881,114
306,525,445
$
2,493,840
2,181,464
3,002,673
5,504,114
6,939,490
9,172,792
11,474,050
9,958,768
12,110,286
13,762,102
12,948,308
14,304,214
16,510,898
16,989,469
20,409,649
22,865,324
29,364,065
26,056,782
20,492,943
22,106,822
$
10,606,048
11,596,961
13,555,038
14,395,174
15,299,254
20,573,631
25,626,939
19,999,576
19,025,209
18,829,989
19,878,921
21,366,265
23,882,190
26,428,939
32,325,714
43,780,272
44,011,488
45,189,476
55,441,528
46,067,211
$
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,161,089
9,005,111
9,665,983
8,537,920
10,744,093
11,439,192
14,468,869
18,414,318
34,073,712
42,617,633
42,794,431
50,815,252
60,470,406
74,141,627
82,870,204
93,573,164
110,534,136
$
176,867,916
1952
171,365,687
IO*.*
152,841,695
1Q54
152,894,663
195*;
173,853,360
i o-.fi
188,853,652
10--7
170,992,829
1958
144,953,549
1959
147,651,217
I960
177,365,333
179,807,321
1961
1Qfi7
229,371,484
255,863,587
lOM
*9fi4
267,139,168
280,652,348
335,780,005
383,382,498
405,028,488
464,388,749
485,233,614
19fi*5
10Kfi
1-H.7
1968 	
1969           	
1970      	
Totals
5,483,531,661
309,616,129
663,675,228
1,188,707,878
7,645,530,896
 A 30
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
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A 31
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 A 32 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
Table 4—Mineral Production, Graph of Value, 1887-1970
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 STATISTICS
A 33
Table 5—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and
Molybdenum, Graph of Quantities, 1893-1970
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
150
100
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 a 34 mines and petroleum resources report, 1970
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1970
Year
Gold (Placer)
Quantity     Value
Gold (Fine)
Quantity       Value
Silver
Quantity        Value
Copper
Quantity
Value
1858-90	
1891-1900.
1901-1910..
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951 __
1952-	
1953	
1954	
1955	
1956	
1957	
1958 _
1959 _
I960-	
1961	
1962	
1963	
1964	
1965	
1966	
1967	
1968	
1969	
1970 __	
Totals
Oz.
3,246,585
376,290]
507,580
25,060
32,680
30,000
33,240
45,290
34,150
29,180
18,820
16,850
13,040
13,720
21,690
24,710
24,750
16,476
20,912
9,191
8,424
6,983
8,955
17,176
20,400
23,928
25,181
30,929
43,389
54,153
57,759
49,746
39,067
43,775
32,904
14,600
11,433
12,589
15,729
6,969
20,332
17,886
19,134
23,691
17,554
14,245
8,684
7,666
3,865
2,936
5,650
7,570
3,847
3,416
3,315
4,620
1,842
866
1,535
891
670
399
491
Oz.
55,192,163
6,397,183
8,628,660
426,000
555,500
510,000
565,000
770,000
580,500
496,000
320,000
286,500
221,600
233,200
368,800
420,000
420,750
280,092
355,503
156,247
143,208
118,711
152,235
291,992
395,542
562,787
714,431
895,058
1,249,940
1,558,245
1,671,015
1,478,492
1,236,928
1,385,962
1,041,772
462,270
361,977
398,591
475,361
200,585
585,200
529,524
598,717
717,911
494,756
403,230
238,967
217,614
109,450
80,990
157,871
208,973
107,418
99,884
96,697
135,411
55,191
25,053
44,632
25,632
19,571
11,720
14,185
632,806
2,322,118
228,617
257,496
272,254
247,170
250,021
221,932
114,523
164,674
152,426
120,048
135,765
197,856
179,245
247,716
209,719
201,427
178,001
180,6621
145,223'
160,836;
146,133!
181,651]
223,589,
297,216
365,343]
404,578]
460,781]
557,522]
587,336]
583,524]
571,026]
444,518
224,403
186,632
175,373
117,612
243,282
286,230
288,396
283,983
261,274
255,789
253,552
258,388
242,477
191,743
223,403
194,354
173,146
205,580
159,821
158,850
154,979
138,487]
117,124]
119,508:
126,157
123,896
117,481
100,179
12,858,353
47,998,179
4,725,512
5,322,442
5,627,595
5,109,008
5,167,934
4,587,333
2,367,191
3,403,811
3,150,644
2,481,392
2,804,197
4,089,684
3,704,994
5,120,535
4,335,069
4,163,859
3,679,601
3,734,609
3,002,020
3,324,975
3,020,837
4,263,389
6,394,645
10,253,952
12,856,419
14,172,367
16,122,767
19,613,624
21,226,957
22,461,516
21,984,501
17,113,943
8.639,516
7,185,332
6,751,860
4,322,241
8,514,870
10,018,050
10,382,256
10,805,553
9,627,947
8,765,889
8,727,294
8,803,279
8,370,306
6,603,628
7,495,170
6,604,149
5,812,511
6,979,441
5,667,253
5,942,101
5,850,458
5,227,884
4,419,0-89
4,506,646
4,763,688
4,672,242
4,427,506
3,662,444
5,235,408]96,957,397
I
17,025,851 503,792,457
Oz.
221,089
22,537,306
31,222,548
1,892,364
3,132,108
3,465,856
3,602,180
3,366,506
3,301,923
2,929,216
3,498,172
3,403,119
3,377,'.
2,673,389
7,101,311
6,032,986
8,341,768
7,654,844
10,748,556'
10,470,185
10,627,167
9,960,172
11,328,263
7,550,331
7,150,655
7,021,754
8,613,977]
9,269,944!
9,547,124
11,305,367]
10,861,578]
10,821,393
12,327,944!
12,175,700
9,677,881
8,526,310
5,705,334
6,157,307
6,365,761
5,708,461
6,720,134
7,637,882
9,509,456
8,218,914
8,810,807
8,378,819
9,826,403
7,903,149
8,405,074
8,129,348
7,041,058
6,198,101
7,446,643
7,373,997
6,189,804
6,422,680
5,269,642
4,972,084
5,549,131
6,180,739
7,130,866
5,760,534
6,511,316
$
214,152
13,561,194
16,973,507
958,293
1,810,045
1,968,606
1,876,736
1,588,991
2,059,739
2,265,749
3,215,870
3,592,673
3,235,980
1,591,201
4,554,781
3,718,129
5,292,184
5,286,818
6,675,606
5,902,043
6,182,461
5,278,194
4,322,185
2,254,979
2,264,729
2,656,526
4,088,280
6,005,996
4,308,330
5,073,962
4,722,288
4,381,365
4,715,315
4,658,545
4,080,775
3,858,496
2,453,293
2,893,934
5,324,959
4,110,092
5,040,101
5,671,082
7,667,950
7,770,983
7,326,803
7,019,272
8,154,145
6,942,995
7,511,866
7,077,166
6,086,«54
5,421,417
6,600,183
6,909,140
7,181,907
8,861,050
7,348,938
6,929,793
7,729,939
10,328,695
16,475,795
11,100,491
12,041,181
Lb.
35,416,069
379,957,091
36,927,656
51,456,537
46,460,305
45,009,699
56,918,405
65,379,364
59,007,565
61,483,754
42,459,339
44,887,676
39,036,993
32,359,896
57,720,290
64/845,393
72,306,432
89,339,768
89,202,871
97,908,316
102,793,669
92,362,240
64,134,746
50,608,036
43,149,460
49,651,733
39,428,208
21,671,711
46,057,584
65,769,906
73,254,679
77,980,223
66,435,583
50,097,716
42,307,510
36,300,589
25,852,366
17,500,538
41,783,921
43,025,388
54,856,808
42,212,133
43,249,658
42,005,512
49,021,013
50,150,087
44,238,031
43,360,575
31,387,441
12,658,649
16,233,546
33,064,429
31,692,412
108,979,144
118,247,104
115,554,700
85,197,073
105,800,568
172,739,548
160,993,338
167,415,411
206,735,343
4,365,210
56,384,783
4,571,644
8,408,513
7,094,489
6,121,319
9,835,500
17,784,494
16,038,256
15,143,449
7,939,896
7,832,899
4,879,624
4,329,754
8,323,266
8,442,870
10,153,269
12,324,421
11,525,011
14,265,242
18,612,850
11,990,466
5,365,690
3,228,892
3,216,701
3,683,662
3,073,428
2,053,828
6,023,411
6,558,575
7,392,862
7,865,085
6,700,693
5,052,856
4,971,132
4,356,070
3,244,472
2,240,070
8,519,741
9,616,174
10,956,550
9,889,458
11,980,155
13,054,893
14,869,544
14,599,693
16,932,549
17,251,872
8,170,465
2,964,529
4,497,991
9,583,724
8,965,149
33,209,215
36,238,007
38,609,136
32,696,081
56,438,255
88,135,172
87,284,148
111,592,416
121,349,512
485,262,219]353,174,747
I
4,254,041,748] 1,108,799,081
 STATISTICS
A 35
Table 6—Production of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum,
and Iron Concentrates, 1858-1970—Continued
Year
Lead
Zinc
Molybdenum
Iron Concentrates
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
1858-90
Lb.
1,044,400
205,037,158
407,833,262
26,872,397
44,871,454
55,364,677
50,625,048
46,503,590
48,727,516
37,307,465
43,899,661
29,475,968
39,331,218
41,402,288
67,447,985
96,663,152
170,384,481
237.899.199
$
45,527
7,581,619
17,033,102
1,069,521
1,805,627
2,175,832
1,771,877
1,939,200
3,007,462
2,951,020
2,928,107
1,526,855
2,816,115
1,693,354
3,480,306
6,321,770
12,415,917
1 R 670 3?q
Lb.
$
Lb.
$
Tons
29,869
13,029
19,553
$
70,879
1891-1900
45,602
1901-1910
12,684,192
2,634,544
5,358,280
6,758,768
7,866,467
12,982,440
37,168,980
41,848,513
41,772,916
56,737,651
47,208,268
49,419,372
57,146,548
58,344,462
79,130,970
98,257,099
142,876,947
145,225,443
181,763,147
172,096,841
250,479,310
202,071,702
192,120,091
195,963,751
249,152,403
256,239,446
254,581,393
894,169
129,092
68,436
1911
1917,
316,139
324,421
346,125
1,460,524
4,043,985
3,166,259
2,899,040
3,540,429
3,077,979
1,952,065
2,777,322
3,278,903
4,266,741
7,754,450
10,586,610
8,996,135
9,984,613
9,268,792
9,017,005
5,160,911
4,621,641
6,291,416
7,584,199
7,940,860
8,439,373
1913-	
1914
1,987
3,618
12,342
6,982
960
662
2,000
20,560
11,636
1,840
1915     .   .
1916
1917.    ..
—
	
1918	
1919
1,000
1,230
1,472
1,010
1,200
243
5,000
6,150
1920
7,360
1921
]
5,050
1922	
1
3,600
1923 -.
1,337
1924
.
1925
1
1926
263,023,936]     17,757,535
282,996,423]     14,874,292
305,140,7921     13,961,412
307,999,153      15,555,189
321,803,725      12,638,198
261,902,228'       7,097,812
252,007,574        5,326,432
271.689.217         fi.497.719
,
1927
,
1928
.
20
1929
1930
1931
1932 _	
■
1-m
1934
347,366,967
344,268,444
377,971,618
419,118,371
412,979,182
378,743,663
466,849,112
456,840,454
507,199,704
439,155,635
292,922,888
336,976,468
345,862,680
313,733,089
320,037,525
265,378,899
284,024,522
273,456,604
284,949,396
297,634,712
332,474,456
302,567,640
283,718,073
281,603,346
294,573,159
287,423,357
333,608,699
384,284,524
335,282,537
314,974,310
268,737,503
250,183,633
211,490,107
208,131,894
231,627,618
210,072,565
214,838,525
8,461,859
10,785,930
14,790,028
21,417,049
13,810,024
12,002,390
15,695,467
15,358,976
17,052,054
16,485,902
13,181,530
16,848,823
23,345,731
42,887,313
57,734,770
41,929,866
41,052,905
50,316,015
45,936,692
39,481,244
45,482,505
45,161,245
44,702,619
39,568,086
34,627,075
33,542,306
38,661,912
42,313,569
34,537,454
37,834,714
39,402,293
43,149,171
34,436,934
31,432,079
32,782,257
33,693,539
35,096,021
1935
1936
1937
291.192.278
14.274.245
1938
298,497,2951       9,172,822
278,409,102]       8,544,375
312.020.6711      10 643 0?fi
1939   	
1940
1941
367,869,579
387,236,469
336,150,455
278,063,373
294,791,635
274,269,956
253,006,1168
270,310,195
288,225,368
290,344,227
337,511,324
372,871,717
382,300,862
334.124.560
12,548,031
13,208,636
13,446,018
11,956,725
18,984,581
21,420,484
28,412,593
37,654,211
38,181,214
43,769,392
67,164,754
59,189,656
40,810,618
34.805.755
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
679
5,472
)
3,735
1949
27,579
1950
1951
113,535
900,481
991,248
535,746
610,930
369,955
357,342
630,271
849,248
1/160,355
1,335,068
1,793,847
2,060,241
2,002,562
2,165,403
2,151,804
2,154,443
2,094,745
2,074,854
1,877,209
790,000
1952
5,474,924
1953
6,763,105
1954
3,733,891
1955
429,198,565|     52,048,909
443,853,004]     58,934,801
449.276.797!      50.206.681
3,228,756
1956
2,190,847
1957
2,200,637
1958
432,002,790
402,342,850
403,399,319
387,951,190
413,430,817
402,863,154
400,796,562
311,249,250
305,124,440
262,830,908
299,396,264
296,667,033
275,590,749
43,234,839
4,193,442
1959
44,169,198
50,656,726
45,370,891
51,356,376
53,069,163
58,648,561
48,666,933
47,666,540
39,248,539
43,550,1811
46,639,024
44,111,055
6,363,848
1960	
1961.  .
5,414
9,500
10,292,847
12,082,540
1962
18,326,911
1963
20,746,424
1964	
1965.
1966
1967
1968.
1969
1970 _	
28,245
7,289,125
17,094,927
17,517,543
19,799,793
26,597,477
31,276,497
47,063
12,405,344
27,606,061
31,183,064
32,552,722
47,999,442
52,431,558
20,419,487
21,498,581
20,778,934
20,820,765
21,437,569
19,787,845
17,397,574
Totals
15,828,315,846]1,347,940,476
1
14,421,058,870j 1,389,884,751
119,634,910
204,271,452
26,304,064
238,773,655
 A 36
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Table 7a—Mineral Production by Mining
Division
Period
Placer Gold
Metals
Industrial
Minerals
Structural
Materials
Quantity
Value
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
Oz.
$
$
18,401,599
15,555,220
117,567,175
13
7
38,047,192
4,175,587
3,910,401
69,284,512
$
$
720,329
363,083
1,617
44
20
735,810
279
346
2,610,353
33,253
1,319
548
17,388,971
8,253
9,908
54,162,645
9,398
3,603,208
3,975
20,325
334,866
3,163,065
26,567
345,372
2,098,224
17,049,253
301,290
561,979
10,171
243,069
848,377
63,604,507
61,290,422
2,160,947,660
162,427
622,488
685,894
18,192,681
1,012,850
1,119,143
11,714,287
4,000
2,531,590
464,845
20,531
468,450
7,974,653
206,873
886,130
62,454,737
8,103,442
8,937,456
180,624,141
28,590,173
30,254,999
149,613,502
303,785
3,154,467
469
11,268
92,154
1,760,629
1,846,785
5,074
115,662
2,327,897
6,590
383
6,540,538
15,784,281
16,426,654
194,638,464
5,237
27,583
220,195
143,355
152,933
1,505,820
407,141
435,000
1,525,831
77,000
66,039
1,479,295
2,096,988
18,931,630
1,702,577
27,595
604,785
5,046,177
5,052,699
1.783.316
1,449,370
147,454,166
14,697,537
14,050,288
195.436,697
8,954,030
7,054,155
338,573.959
4,433,216
5,802,046
45,391,614
24,604,511
19,924,342
181,914,516
49.726,573
40,048,501
225,846,085
1,149,705
26,320,927
81,918,530
1,040,933
50,184
1,248,151
9,098,672
8
92,946
256
1,925,688
75,585
3,022,560
3,734,777
3,567,021
866
19,300
60,146,530
632,674
6,246,442
12,144,104
New Westminster _	
3,586
76
89,026
2.148
31,355
595,910
145,982,522
184,099
234
4,764
10,050
25,438
213,574
274,518
98,392
65,590
6,350.804
1,354,940
1,066,556
117
56,406
3,473
1,502,955
592,819
10,566,511
221,974
235,445
240
5,466
2,651,736
72,647
1,071,796
12,316,427
2,942
109,910
7,582
164,477
2,559,795
393,486
11 6,559
45,507
878,204
120,198,200
31,021,577
30,725,783
318,117,205
7,966,095
9,126,061
262,938,601
1,441,519
1,018,844
18,558
4,028,598
1,698,129
1,038,925
4,603
105,569
1,240,215
13,395,769
203,113
91,384
366
9,397
1,832,373
239,263
200,994
851
24,260
88,811,411
9,406,761
3,283,012
259,574,062
75,130
3,185,928
168,659
82,138
7,066,964
9,869,281
6,981,639
182
5,306
113,639,232
670,781
9,500
13.478
140
290
189.431
2,137,372
2,796,534
55,769,581
563,811
2,732
72,885
331,631
5,914,579
11,561,907
9,787,083
628
15,680
16,687,533
16,731,161
20,755,323
306,623,542
186,615,510
4,071,124
3,225,704
1,525,520
17,262,256
38,093,235
1969
1970
To date
399
491
5,235,408
11,720
14,185
96,957,397
294,869,394
306,511,260
5,386,574,264
20,492,943
22,106,822
309,616,129
55,441,528
46,067,211
663,675,228
 STATISTICS
Divisions, 1969 and 1970, and Total to Date
A 37
Fuels
Coal
Crude Oil and
Condensates
Natural Gas Delivered
to Pipe-line
Butane and
Propane
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Tons                 $                   Bbl.
$
MSCF
$
Bbl.
$
19,121,928
"""_:	
15,918,303
121,213,034
1,332
	
4,530
55,791,354
7,346,905
6,045,100
290
1,100
140,842,882
301,290
561,979
3,785,463
842,865
6,726,731
19,538,505
300,326,522
71,418,571
2,641,625
82,169,592
62,600,177
2,487,909,966
1,219,723
77,334,759
8,282,698
184,828,329
30,443,548
32,352,370
15,087
59,765
175 750,310
26,331,294
26,481,111
170,503,663
68.620,011
60,936,779
357,180,987
256,223,244
272,554,221
1,892,240,528
27,897,585
29,804,411
192,568,510
745,041
728,991
8,358,875
238,413
233,277
2,674,836
104,242,867
113,488,231
99,433
699,521
763,161,840
2,110,188
1,552,794
152,622,609
18,575,669
74,324,471
301,144,744
558,253,091
9,768,803
8,121,829
346,435,258
16,656,468
17,262,408
193,449,341
24,788,610
20,160,785
2,929,584
11.080,836
90,424
21,164
3,412,208
194,365,106
9,475
50,908,991
2,431
40,879,531
241,602,277
1,470,071
501,460
26,621,962
5,008
72,647
15,040,699
396,428
116,559
4,617,442
19,553,725
144,677,285
31,764,708
332,858,874
8,169,208
9,217,445
264,780,371
1,680,782
36
116
92,021,599
19,444,701
10,346,789
380,285,564
6,332,573
11,562,047
9,787,373
203,508,154
22,939,657
26,777,561
417,748,614
852,340
2,644,056
145,089.102
6,817,155
19,559,669
636,283,545
26,331,294
26,481,111
170,503,663
58,620,011
60,936,779
357,180,987
256,223,244
272,554,221
1,892,240,528
27,897,585
29,804,411
192,568,510
745,041|    238,413|    464,388,749
728,991      233,277     485,233,614
8,358,875 2,674,836 7,645,530,896
 A 38
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
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<
 A 44
mines and petroleum resources report, 1970
Table 7d—Production of Industrial Minerals by
Period
Asbestos
Barite
Diatomite
Fluxes (Quartz
and Limestone)
Granules (Quartz,
Limestone, and
Granite)
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Alberni 	
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Tons
$
Atlin —	
Cariboo 	
1,276
8,718
26,567
201,892
48
168
Clinton	
8
30,624
45,320
373,646
80
248,818
382,508
Golden	
3,914,483
3,259
12,612
Greenwood	
200
4,000
1,790,502
1,540,319
200
357
18
625
4,000
Kamloops	
6,590
383
12,230
Liard	
80,388
86,730
925,207
14,871,334
16,013,827
179,412,045
Lillooet	
Nanaimo —	
22,328
31,598
879,152
81,777
106,243
1,262,921
3,226
2,400
16,009
14,540
15,000
53,298
3,500
3,706
102,753
61,578
46,690
242,899
Nelson 	
407,141
435,000
7,601
8,174
1,461,756
77,000
65,039
1,479,295
Nicola	
Omineca	
Osoyoos	
12,923
3,574
179,737
98,392
65,590
802,611
3,699,031
2,319,302
601,019
1,050,722
29,692
418,606
500
500
9,500
9,500
14
28
140
290
187          2.125
9,605
157,080
Not assigned
 1	
Totals
1969
1970
To date
80,388
86,730
925,207
14,871,334
16,013,827
179,412,045
30,624
45,320
373,654
248,818
382,508
3,914,563
22,342
31,626
4,084,331
81,917
106,533
7,575,904
34,746
25,198
392,467
654,701
1,276    26,567
8,718 201,892
622,202
6,104,836
Other: See notes of individual minerals listed alphabetically on pages A 15 to A 25.
i Arsenious oxide.
2 Bentonite.
3 Fluorspar.
4 Hydromagnesite.
5 Iron oxide and ochre.
6 Magnesium sulphate.
 statistics
Mining Divisions, 1969 and 1970, and Total to Date
A 45
Gypsum and
Gypsite
Jade
Mica
Sulphur
Other,
Value
Division
Total
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Tons
$
Lb.
$
Lb.
$
Tons
$
$
$
9,3987
9,398
20,3254
20,325
26,567
10,013,800
143,012
30012
345,372
873
6,236
156,1914 6 10
162,427
64,775
55,538
986,798
622,488
685,894
17,876,883
622,488
685,894
112,878
298,824
764,032
736,635
7,785,916
16,8949
18,192,681
280,894
1,012,850
1,119,143
270,266
2,721,965
1,2765 11
11,714,287
4,000
783,5783
2,327,897
6,590
1,246,918
6,323,178
424,700
2,075
203,0556 10
6,540,538
5,825
5,322
38,370
6,060
14,280
293,267
11,960
44,903
48,028
696,540
900,987
403,728
15,172,873
15,784,281
9,099
53,546
5,237
27,583
215,066
16,426,654
194,638,464
5,237
27,583
5,12911
220,195
143,355
152,933
1,505,820
407,141
435,000
55,9015
1,525,831
	
77,000
65,039
1,479,295
2,407
10,050
10,050
14,447
243,000
264,757
25,438
213,574
263,058
25,438
11,4601 8
274,518
98,392
65,590
1,588,800
25,938
306,5331 3 6
6,350,804
250
1,700
[
16,8582
18,558
1
634,250
10,815
41,624
17,544
6,653
687,596
178,678
168.659
82,138
6,550,969
1,240,215
168 659
1
82,138
97,3895
7,066,964
1
9,500
160,500
3,978
13,478
140
290
30,22611
4,913
189,431
221,900
226,440
4,883,141
2,132,459
2,796,534
55,764,668
2,137,372
2,796,534
4,913
55,769,581
280,894
270,266
764,032
736,635
14,425,904
26,332
262,602
596,394
42,635
250,256
531,670
349,122
336,659
7,295,699
3,824,593
3,968,294
95,544,071
4,913
20,492,943
22,106,822
4,085,291
12,822,050
185,818
1,719,426
309,616,129
1 Natro-alunite.
8 Perlite.
o Phosphate rock,
io Sodium carbonate.
ii Talc.
12 Volcanic ash.
 A 46
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Table 7e—Production of Structural Materials by Mining Divisions,
1969 and 1970, and Total to Date
Division
Period
Cement
Lime and
Limestone
Building-
stone
Rubble,
Riprap,
and
Crushed
Rock
Sand and
Gravel
Clay
Products
Unclassified
Material
Division
Total
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
1969
1970
To date
$
$
$
$
29,700
4,078
329,329
$
690,569
359,005
3,273,879
$
$
$
720,329
363,083
3,603,208
3,975
102,453
206,882
420,042
2,182,728
218,772
393,091
1,252,183
241,000
244,720
2,303,632
1,800
69,000
196,989
1,845
3,975
334,866
1,108
139,485
194,500
495,541
231,305
2,810,698
1,449,182
14,180,697
82,518
168,888
1,279,407
223,845
410,051
5,539,289
200,801
228,435
2,798,451
135,411
92,154
1,189,336
1,032,535
1,120,668
10,103,909
1,309,858
988,491
8,256,121
167,995
47,292
2,077,013
531,072
812,755
7,095,171
346,702
571,074
4,881,366
6,426,303
6,011,305
65,577,769
184,099
225,493
1,179,294
926,312
529,882
8,567,067
210,169
226,370
2,343,416
55,671
78,860
2,096,372
387,778
103,719
3,317,575
1,482,490
975,049
8,604,337
195,999
87,049
1,586,247
238,551
200,469
2,839,005
2,377,515
1,881,350
41,581,033
667,031
563,811
5,322,000
1,814,118
1,447,344
22,211,935
4,055,659
3,100,691
27,283,612
6,000
34,500
190,287
3,163,065
2,098,224
17,049,253
301,290
561,979
2,531,590
464,845
654,771
7,974,653
206,873
303,785
3,154,467
175,256
92,154
1,760,629
1,846,785
2,096,988
Fort Steele
43,873
71,941
15,918
4,272
6,350
107,187
1,000
50,840
38,000
42,560
315
12,752
25,067
134,136
750
273,314
813,185
377,915
8,124,822
392,719
52,442
842,551
153,640
28,293
943,447
379.662
123,679
1,811,380
615
121,283
585,653
585,653
19,800
72,379
18,931,630
1,702,577
1,040,933
9,098,672
321,635
75,585
3,022,560
3,734,777
3,567,021
60,146,530
407,632
632,674
6,246,442
12,144,104
11,395,323
145,982,522
184,099
236,443
1,354,940
1,066,556
592,819
10,566,511
221,974
235,445
2,651,736
72,647
109,910
2,559,795
393,486
116,559
4,028,598
100
2,824,043
2,630,587
46,610,252
59,713
61,600
399,859
196,728
250,190
2,975,267
2,000
3,450,735
602
1,178,992
423,187
520,056
1,521,911
971,659
14,378,058
21,974
3,999,162
4,162,169
63,030,454
20,974
10,950
167,646
138,709
60,701
1,987,322
11,805
9,075
231,528
16,976
31,050
456,848
5,708
12,840
651,597
215,639
63,876
2,988,883
7,114
4,335
129,983
712
525
228,903
64,348
8,000
1,535
2,236
6,848
5,274
43,774
33,018
1,000
5,575
10,500
11,571
24,000
13,355
1,698,129
1,038,925
13,395,769
203,113
1,645,300
144,000
13,249
1.000
115,143
1,832,373
239,263
32,500
85,520
3,185,928
9,869,281
6,981,639
113,639,232
7,427,418
5,100,289
58,729,401
40,885
4,012,560
8,186,761
3,750
1,088,592
563,811
46,499
15,213
17,800
932,397
97,852
286,974
14,194
10,983
497,807
15,465
125,013
836,108
161,254
541,112
511,349
8,490,557
5,914,579
11,561,907
Victoria  	
9,177,270
7,799,607
154,482,759
9,787,083
55
186,615,510
4 071,124
3,225,704
315,498
505,018
Totals	
1969
1970
To date
16,604,688
13,485,549
213,808,313
3,237,032
3,169,665
53,671,899
39,352
4,456,211
3,018,242
49,911,302
26,553,699
21,679,387
253,415,606
4,550,546
4,714,368
77.691,583
55,441,528
46,067,211
663.675.228
I
	
9,204,354
5,972,171
 statistics
Table 8a—Production of Coal, 1836-1970
A 47
Year
Quantityi
(Short Tons)
Value
Year
Quantity1
(Short Tons)
Value
1836-59.
1860	
1861	
1862	
1863	
1864	
1865	
1866	
1867	
1868	
1869	
1870	
1871	
1872-
1873..
1874-
1875-
1876-
1877-
1878..
1879-
1880-
1881-
1882-
1883-
1884-
1885-
1886-
1887-
1888-
1889-
1890-
1891_
1892-
1893-
1894-
1895-
1896-
1897-
1898-
1899-
1900-
1901-
1902-
1903-
1904-
1905-
1906-
1907-
1908-
1909-
1910.
1911-
1912-
1913-
1914„
1915-
41,871
15,956
15,427
20,292
23,906
32,068
36,757
28,129
34,988
49,286
40,098
33,424
55,458
55,458
55,459
91,334
123,362
155,895
172,540
191,348
270,257
299,708
255,760
315,997
238,895
441,358
409,468
365,832
462,964
548,017
649,411
759,518
,152,590
925,495
,095,690
,134,509
,052,412
,002,268
999,372
,263,272
,435,314
,781,000
,894,544
,838,621
,624,742
,887,981
,044,931
,126,965
,485,961
1,362,514
,688,672
,314,749
,541,698
,211,907
713,535
,237,042
,076,601
$149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
8,574,884
11,108,335
8,071,747
10,786,812
9,197,460
7,745,847
7,114,178
1916-
1917-
1918-
1919-
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924-
1925-
1926-
1927-
1928-
1929-
1930-
1931-
1932_
1933-
1934-
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939-
1940-
1941-
1942-
1943-
1944-
1945-
1946-
1947-
1948..
1949-.
1950-
1951...
1952-
1953_
1954-
1955-
1956.-
1957-.
1958-
1959-
1960-
1961_
1962-
1963.-
1964-
1965-
1966...
1967--
1968-
1969-
1970-
583,469
,436,101
,575,275
;,433,540
,852,535
,670,314
726,793
,636,740
,027,843
,541,212
,406,094
,553,416
,680,608
,375,060
,994,493
,765,471
,614,629
,377,177
,430,042
,278,380
352,301
,446,243
,388,507
,561,084
,662,027
,844,745
,996,000
,854,749
,931,950
,523,021
,439,092
,696,350
,604,480
,621,268
,574,006
,573,572
,402,313
,384,138
,308,284
,332,874
,417,209
,085,657
796,413
690,011
788,658
919,142
825,339
850,541
911,326
950,763
850,821
908,790
959,214
852,340
,644,056
$8,900,675
8,484,343
12,833,994
11,975,671
13,450,169
12,836,013
12,880,060
12,678,548
9,911,935
12,168,905
11,650,180
12,269,135
12,633,510
11,256,260
9,435,650
7,684,155
6,523,644
5,375,171
5,725,133
5,048,864
5,722,502
6,139,920
5,565,069
6,280,956
7,088,265
7,660,000
8,237,172
7,742,030
8,217,966
6,454,360
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154,544
8,986,501
9,346,518
7,340,339
5,937,860
5,472,064
5,242,223
6,802,134
6,133,986
6,237,997
6,327,678
6,713,590
6,196,219
7,045,341
7,588,989
6,817,155
19,559,669
Totals-      145,089,102    |$636,2«3,545
l Quantity from 1836 to 1909 is gross mine output and includes material lost in picking and washing.
1910 and subsequent years the quantity is that sold and used.
For
 A 48                   MINES AND PETROLEUM
RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
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0
 STATISTICS
A 49
Table 9—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Operations
of All Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Metal-mining-
Bxploration and development-
CoaL
Petroleum and natural gas (exploration and production).
Industrial minerals..
Structural-materials industry-
Totals, 1970	
Totals, 1969...
1968-
1967-
1966-
1965-
1964..
1963-
1962.
1961-
1960.
1959-
1958-
1957..
1956.
1955-
1954-
1953..
1952.
1951..
1950.
1949-
1948-
1947..
1946.
1945-
1944..
1943-
1942..
1941..
1940-
1939—
1938—
1937	
1936	
1935	
$94,363,110
48,512,581
12,070,551
4,425,662
6,292,420
7,293,958
$172,958,282
123.
113
94,
93,
74,
63,
57,
55,
50,
52,
49,
48,
56,
57,
51,
48,
55,
62.
52,
42,
41,
38
32.
26.
22.
23,
26,
26,
26,
23,
22.
22.
21.
17.
16.
,450,327
,459,219
,523,495
409,528
938,736
624,559
939,294
522,171
887,275
694,818
961,996
933,560
409,056
266,026
,890,246
702,746
543,490
256,631
,607,171
738,035
,023,786
,813,506
,160,338
,190,200
620,975
,131,874
,051,467
,913,160
,050,491
391,330
,357,035
,765,711
,349,690
,887,619
,753,367
$12,885,062
1,806,160
" 1,161,501
3,263,949
$19,116,672
14,554,123
13,818,326
13490,759
12,283,477
11,504,343
10,205,861
10,546,806
9,505,559
8,907,034
7,834,728
7,677,321
8,080,989
8,937,567
9,762,777
9,144,034
7,128,669
8,668,099
8,557,845
7,283,051
6,775,998
7,206,637
6,139,470
5,319,470
5,427,458
7,239,726
5,788,671
7,432,585
7,066,109
3,776,747
3,474,721
3,266,000
3,396,106
3,066,311
2,724,144
2,619,639
$52,474,644
2,288,279
1^6^,553
3,119,894
$59,846,370
43,089,559
38,760,203
34,368,856
28,120,179
30,590,631
27,629,953
12,923,325
14,024,799
17,787,127
21,496,912
17,371,638
15,053,036
24,257,177
22,036,839
21,131,572
19,654,724
20,979,411
27,024,500
24,724,101
17,500,663
17,884,408
11,532,121
13,068,948
8,367,705
5,756,628
6,138,084
6,572,317
6,863,398
7,260,441
6,962,162
6,714,347
6,544,500
6,845,330
4,434,501
4,552,730
Note—This table has changed somewhat through the years, so that the items are not everywhere directly
comparable. Prior to 1962 lode-mining referred only to gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc. Prior to 1964 some
expenditures for fuel and electricity were included with process supplies. Process supplies (except fuel) were
broadened in 1964 to include " process, operating, maintenance, and repair supplies . . . used in the mine/mill
operations; that is, explosives, chemicals, drill steel, bits, lubricants, electrical, etc. . . . not charged to Fixed
Assets Account . . . provisions and supplies sold in any company operated cafeteria or commissary." Exploration and development other than in the field of petroleum and natural gas is given, starting in 1966.
 A 50
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
Table 10—Employment in the Mineral Industry, 1901-70
Year
Metals
Mines
c
.2
a
QJ
§
c
Ih
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Coal Mines
Structural
Materials
oi is
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2
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P. toe.
1901..
1902..
1903..
1904-
1905-
1906..
1907-
1908..
1909..
1910-
1911-
1912..
1913-
1914..
1915..
1916-
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924..
1925-
1926..
1927..
1928..
1929-
1930..
1931..
1932..
1933..
1934-
1935-
1936-
1937..
1938-
1939-
1940-
1941-
1942-
1943-
1944..
1945..
1946..
1947-
1948-
1949-
1950..
1951..
1952-
1953-
1954-
1955...
1956...
1957...
1958...
1959...
1960...
1961...
1962...
1963...
1964...
1965...
1966...
1967...
1968...
1969...
1970...
,736
,219
662
,143
,470
680
.704
,567
,184
472
,435
,472
773
,741
709
357
1,212
1,126
1,088
1,163
1.240
1.303
1,239
1,127
1,070
1.23T
1,159
1,364
1.505
1,433
1,435
2,036
8,
3.290 2,198
,626
513
074
,355
510
,102
353
1,764
1,746
1,605
975
1,239
1,616
1,680
299
415
355
841
425
688
874
1,134
1,122
1.291
1,124
1,371
1,303
1,25
1.004
939
489
212
255
209
347
3G0t
348
303
327
205
230
132
199
103
105
67
75
99
86
74
35
43 1
5
2
212,
  1
 [1
711
 2,
I
2,
2,298 2,840
606
,671
707
,926
316
463
,355
786
796
,740
959
603
,849
905
,923
.901
920
,394
,896
,933
918
024
1,735
1,916
2,469
2,052
1,260
834
900
1,335
1,729
1,497
1,840
1,818
2,266
2,050
2,104
1,823
1.504|
1,609
1,825
1.750
1,817
238
143|2,429
.034J2.724
,309J2,415
785|3.695
171J3.923
,145|2,589
,64412,520
,564|2,553
,637|2,827
,393|2,447
919|1,809
93711,761
78211,959
785|1,582
67711,97*6
713J2.012
839|1,967
752|2,019
270
450
772
786
006I2.296I1.R94
928|2,532
823|2,369
794 2,470
160|3,167
I
1,264
3,990
4,270
4,964
808
854
911
966
832
581
S42
531
631
907
720
1.168
919
996
1,048
1,025 3
960 3
891 2
849 2
822 2
672 2
960 3
1,126 3
1,203 3
1,259 3
1,307 4
1.516 4
1,371 3
1,129 3
1,091 3
1.043 3
838|3
625|3
618|3
64813
62613
949|3
85013
82213
96513
1,01413,
992|3
1.072|3,
1.09913
1,38l|3
-   1
461
,842
,748
948
,197
.157
,036
,436
,890
771
,678
,027
158
187
,944
.072
555
835
,981
834
,813
461
,884
763
759
,044
,120
,901
119
304
,339
,328
081
008
034
118
350
239
,281| 8
,529| 9
654110.
,435|10
283|12,
468113
738 15
948
.345
,750
306
,710
983
,943
,694
254
709
,594
,836
278
,174
144
.393
,488
390
259
679
,330
,749
,618
,033
,138
610
,283
,835
892
605
035
833
088
,046
,915
.197
616
192
138
.019
,821
.939
819
,651
339
220
68.'!
582
724
832
,831
730
.006
412
.512
.846
,006
484
324
,483
,111
,2SS
64
,681
061
864
151
537
101
360
3,041
3,101
3,137
3,278
3.127
3,415
2,862
4,432
4,713
5.903
5,212
5,275
4,950
4,267
3,708
3,694
3,760
3,658
4,145
4.191
4,722
4.712
4,342
3,894
3,828
3,757
3,646
3,814
3,675
3,389|1
2.957|1
2,628|
2,241|
2,050
2,145
2,015
2,286
2,088
2,167
2,175
2,229
1,892
2,240
2,160
1,927
1,773
1.694
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
1.280
1,154
1,076
1,100
968
1,020
826
765
894
705
548
501
446
405
3471
260
195
245
242(1
	
933
910
127
,176
,280
,390
907
641
,705
,855
,661
,855
721
465
.283
,366
410
769
821
158
163
932
807
,524j5
,615|5
565J5
579|5
52015
35315
256|4
125|4
980|3
85313
843 2
826
799
867 3
874 2
809
009
494
468
611
689
503
532
731
872
545
516
463
401
396
358
378
398
360
260
291
28Sil
237
228
247
267
244
267f
197|
358
4551
3,974
,011
,264
.453
.407
,805
,769
,073
,418
,758
,873
,130
,671
,732
,991
,060
,170
,427
,966
,349
,885
,644
,149
,418
,443
,822
,225
.834
.028
.645
,082
,608
,094
,893
.971
,814
,153
,962
,976
,874
,723
,360
.851
.839
.430
,305
,425
,466
.306
.261
,926
,681
,550
,434
,478
,36f>
.380
,0««
,0»r)
,1« '
942
776
748
713
649
614
457
553
700
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1.591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1.909
1,861
1,646
1,598
1,705
1,483
1,357
1,704
1,828
1,523
909
1,293
1,079
1,269
1,309
1,207
1,097
740
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327
295
811
334
413
378
326
351
335
555
585
656
542
616
628
557
559
638
641
770
625
677
484
557
50S-
481
460
444
422
393
372
380
549
647
124
122
120
268
170
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
491
629
634
584
722
854|
474
446
459
589
671
517
528
509
639     441
582     478
584|    507
582|    400
567|   416
827     437
7,922
7,366
7,014
7.769
8,117
8,788
7,712
9.767
9,672
11.467
10,467
10.966
10,949
9,906
9.135
10,453
10,658
9,617
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9,767
9,451
10,581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10.524
11.369
12.985
13.737
14.179
16,129
16,021
15.890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12,314
11,820
11.933
14,899
16.397
16,621
16,612
17,863
18,257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
13,257
11,201
10,779
11,541
11,034
11,560
10,952
11,645
12,283
14,202
13,380
16,212
16,437
19,086
1 Commencing with 1967, does not include employment in by-product plants.
Note—These figures refer only to company employees and do not include the many employees of contracting firms.
 STATISTICS
A 51
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 A 52
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
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Copper  concentrates,  21,410
tons; iron concentrates, 78,-
465 tons
Iron concentrates, 497,639 tons;
copper concentrates, 9,011
tons
Lead concentrates, 1,244 tons;
zinc concentrates, 11,821 tons
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Ronald Endersby and associate,
Fruitvale
D. H. Norcross, Nelson....- 	
F. R. Rotter, Salmo	
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Lead concentrates, 87 tons;
zinc concentrates, 104 tons
Molybdenite concentrates,
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oxide, 5,857 tons; ferro-
molybdenum, 214 tons. Total
content, 15,565,807 lb. of
molybdenum.
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tons
Hand-sorted stibnite containing
13,893 lb. of antimony
Lead concentrates, 21 tons;
zinc concentrates, 21 tons
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CHAPTER 3
CONTENTS
Page
Retirements  A 57
Organization  A 57
Administration Branch  A 59
Mining Titles  A 59
Staff  A 59
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)  A 59
List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders  A 60
Maps  Showing  Mineral  Claims,   Placer  Claims,   Placer-mining
Leases, and Map Indexes  A 60
CoaL  A 60
Gold Commissioners' and Mining Recorders' Office Statistics, 1970 A 61
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles  A 62
Staff.  A 62
Title Transaction Statistics, 1970  A 63
Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1970  A 63
Analytical and Assay Branch  A 63
Staff  A 63
Analytical and Assay Work  A 63
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analyses  A 65
Examinations for Assayers  A 65
Inspection Branch  A 65
Organization and Staff  A 65
Inspectors and Resident Engineers  A 65
Instructors, Mine-rescue Stations  A 66
Staff Changes  A 66
Fig. 1—Index map showing inspectoral districts  A 67
Board of Examiners  A 66
Mining Roads and Trails  A 68
Grub-staking Prospectors  A 69
Mineralogical Branch  A 7 8
Staff  A 78
Staff Changes  A 79
Field Work, 1970 Season  A 79
Publications  A 79
Airborne Magnetometer Mapping  A 80
Rock and Mineral Sets  A 80
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch  A 80
Administration  A 81
Staff  A 81
Headquarters, Victoria  A 81
Field Office, Charlie Lake  A 82
Staff Changes  A 82
Board of Arbitration  A 82
Conservation Committee  A 82
Publications  A 82
A 56
 RETIREMENTS
Mathew S. Hedley retired as Chief of the Mineralogical Branch on May 31,
1970. He was born on May 2, 1905, in Nelson where his father, the late R. R.
Hedley, was manager of the Hall Mine smelter. His primary education was at
private schools in Vancouver and Victoria and in 1923 he matriculated from Vancouver Technical High School. He attended the University of British Columbia
from 1923 to 1925 and 1927 to 1930 graduating with a B.A.Sc. in geological engineering. In 1930 and 1931 he worked as engineer and geologist at the Bell (now
the Mastodon-Highland Bell) mine at Beaverdell. In the autumn of 1931 he went
to the University of Wisconsin for postgraduate work in geology and mining and was
awarded a M.S. in 1932 and a Ph.D. in geology and mining in 1934.
Immediately on graduation he went to work as geologist at the Bralorne mine
leaving there in 1935 to work for a year for the Geological Survey of Canada in
Ottawa before joining the Department of Mines on May 13, 1936 as Resident Mining Engineer for the South Central District, with headquarters in Penticton. His was
the last appointment made under the Mineral Survey and Development Act ol 1917.
He was transferred from Penticton to Victoria in 1940, and was appointed
Geologist in 1950, Senior Geologist in 1954, and Deputy Chief of the Mineralogical
Branch in 1964. Upon the retirement of Hartley Sargent in November 1966 he
succeeded him as Chief of the Mineralogical Branch.
He worked principally in South Central British Columbia, from Princeton eastward to the Kootenays, making studies of numerous gold and base-metal properties
as well as of the Camp McKinney, Whitewater and Lucky Jim, and Sandon mining
areas.
For the 15 years from 1951 to 1966 he was in charge of the technical editing
of the Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources as well
as of the Bulletins published by the Mineralogical Branch of the Department.
He is a member of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and of the
Association of Professional Engineers of British Columbia. He is married and
has one son.
Dewi R. Morgan retired as Senior Inspector of Mines on June 30, 1970. Mr.
Morgan was born and educated in Wales, graduating as a Mining Engineer from Tre-
forest School of Mines. He was employed at coal mines in Wales where he obtained
his first-class certificate of competency in coal mining. He held various managerial
posts in Wales and was mine manager of Ocean Coal Company in Cwmpark when
he came to Canada in 1947 to the Crows Nest Pass Coal Company's Blairmore mine
in Alberta. He was appointed Inspector of Mines and Resident Engineer at Fernie
in 1949. He was transferred to Victoria in 1967 as Senior Inspector, Coal, and in
charge of administering the Department's road and trail programme and the grubstaking of prospectors. He is a member of the Association of Professional Engineers
of British Columbia.
ORGANIZATION
The organization of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources is
displayed in the diagram on page A 58.
A 57
 A 58
MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
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 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 59
ADMINISTRATION BRANCH
The Administration Branch, consisting of three divisions, Mining Titles, Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles, and Accounts, is responsible for the administration of
the Provincial laws regarding the acquisition of rights to minerals, coal, petroleum,
and natural gas, and deals with other departments of the Provincial service for the
Department or for any branch.
Mining Titles
Staff
R. H. McCrimmon Chief Gold Commissioner
E. J. Bowles Deputy Chief Gold Commissioner
J. G. B. Egdell Gold Commissioner, Vancouver
Gold Commisioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders, whose
duties are laid down in the Mineral Act and Placer-mining Act, administer these
Acts and other Acts relating to mining. Mining Recorders, in addition to their own
functions, may also exercise the powers conferred upon Gold Commissioners with
regard to mineral claims within the mining division for which they have been appointed. Similar duties may be performed by Mining Recorders with regard to
placer claims, but not in respect of placer-mining leases.
Recording of location and of work upon a mineral claim as required by the
Mineral Act and upon a placer claim or a placer-mining lease as required by the
Placer-mining Act must be made at the office of the Mining Recorder for the mining
division in which the claim or lease is located. Information concerning claims and
leases and concerning the ownership and standing of claims and leases in any mining
division may be obtained from the Mining Recorder for the mining division in which
the property is situated or from the Department's offices at Victoria, and Room 320,
890 West Pender Street, Vancouver 1. Officials in the offices of the Gold Commissioner at Victoria and the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver act as Sub-Mining
Recorders for all mining divisions. Sub-Mining Recorders, who act as forwarding
agents, are appointed at various places throughout the Province. They are authorized to accept documents and fees, and forward them to the office of the Mining
Recorder for the correct mining division. Officials and their offices in various parts
of the Province are listed on page A 60.
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)
Transcripts of all recordings in Mining Recorders' offices throughout the Province and also the names of lessees of reverted surveyed mineral claims are sent to
the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner in Victoria twice each month. The
records and maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims held by
record and of placer-mining leases may be consulted by the public during office hours
at Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver, Room 320,
890 West Pender Street. The approximate position of mineral claims held by
record and of placer-mining leases is plotted from details supplied by locators.
During 1970, fourteen investigations were carried out pursuant to section
80 of the Mineral Act. Six investigations with regard to certificates of work being
wrongfully or improperly obtained resulted in 165 certificates of work being cancelled. Eight investigations with regard to mineral claims having been located or
recorded otherwise than in accordance with the Mineral Act resulted in 300 mineral
claims being cancelled.
 A 60 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
List of Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders
Mining Division
Location of Office
Gold Commissioner
Mining Recorder
T. S. Dobson 	
D. P. Lancaster — "
D. V. Drew _.
I. Williams -	
B. J. H. Ryley	
W. G. Mundell 	
G. A. Broomfield	
F. J. Sell _	
E. J. Bowles 	
K  T Wfii-
T. S. Dobson.
Atlin.     _
Atlin -     -
Cariboo  	
Clinton	
Fort Steele	
Quesnel  	
Clinton. -  	
D. V. Drew.
I. Williams.
B. J. H. Ryley.
Golden   	
Grand Forks  —
Kamloops  	
Victoria 	
W. G. Mundell.
Greenwood -  ...
Kamloops      	
Liard 	
G. A. Broomfield.
F. J. Sell.
E. A. H. Mitchell.
K. J. Weir.
Nanaimn
Nanaimo - — 	
Nelson -  	
E. B. Offin  _	
G. L. Brodie	
E. B. Offin.
G. L. Brodie.
F. E. Hughes	
L. P. Lean.
Smithers 	
Penticton  	
Revelstoke  - 	
Princeton.- —	
A. W. Milton	
T. S. Dalby 	
T. S. Dalby.
Revelstoke  	
D. G. B. Roberts	
W. L. Marshall   ._	
T. H. W. Harding ,  	
T. P. McKinnon 	
D. G. B. Roberts.
W. L. Marshall.
T. H. W. Harding.
T. P. McKinnon.
Rossland-.     	
W. L. Draper.
J. Egdell
N. A. Nelson 	
E. J. Bowles
E. A. H. Mitchell.
Maps Showing Mineral Claims, Placer Claims, Placer-mining Leases,
and Map Indexes
From the details supplied by the locators, the approximate positions of mineral
claims held by record and of placer-mining leases are shown on mineral reference
maps which may be inspected in the central records offices of the Department of
Mines and Petroleum Resources in Victoria and Vancouver. Copies of these maps
may be obtained on request made to the Chief Gold Commissioner, Victoria (price,
$1.25 per print).
The boundaries of surveyed claims and leases are shown on the reference maps
and other maps of the British Columbia Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources. Indexes to their published maps, reference maps, and manuscript maps
as well as indexes to air photographic cover are available through the Director,
Surveys and Mapping Branch, British Columbia Lands Service, Victoria.
Coal
Information concerning the ownership and standing of coal licences and coal
leases may be obtained upon application to the Chief Gold Commissioner, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps showing location of coal
licences and coal leases are also available upon application and payment of the
required fee.
Coal Revenue, 1970
Licences—
Fees   $39,264.00
Rental     55,679.00
Total
$94,943.00
During 1970, 846 coal licences were issued, totalling 509,566 acres. As of
December 31, 1970, a total of 1,442 coal licences, amounting to 685,875 acres, were
held in good standing.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 61
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 a 62 mines and petroleum resources report, 1970
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles
Staff
R. E. Moss Chief Commissioner
W. W. Ross Deputy Chief Commissioner
This Division of the Administration Branch is responsible for the administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and the collecting of revenue from fees,
rents, dispositions, and royalties. Regulations governing geophysical operations and
petroleum-development roads are also administered by this Division. Information
concerning all forms of tide issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act may
be obtained upon application to the office of the Chief Commissioner, Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Maps showing the locations of all
forms of title issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act are available, and
copies may be obtained upon application to the office of the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Victoria. Monthly land reports and monthly reports
listing additions and revisions to permit-location maps and listing changes in tide
to permits, licences, and leases, and related matters are available from the office of
the Chief Commissioner upon application and payment of the required fee.
During the year, there were four dispositions of Crown reserve petroleum and
natural gas rights resulting in tender bonus bids of $16,339,801.19, a decrease of
$5,306,650.35 from the record high of the previous year. A total of 413 parcels
were offered and bids were accepted on 224 parcels covering 1,990,070 acres. The
average price per acre was $8.21 which is an increase of 20 cents per acre over the
previous year. Average bonus price per acre was respectively: Permits, $5.51;
leases, $52.11; drilling reservations, $10.84.
During the year, 29 geophysical licences were renewed or issued.
During the year, five petroleum-development road applications were received
and processed for approval.
A total of 132 notices of commencement of exploratory work were recorded
during the year. These notices are required prior to the commencement of any
geological or geophysical exploration for petroleum or natural gas.
During the year, three unit agreements and two royalty agreements were approved.
As of December 31, 1970, 29,910,495 acres or approximately 46,735 square
miles, a decrease of 11,646,725 acres over the 1969 total, of Crown petroleum and
natural gas rights, issued under the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, were held in
good standing by operators ranging from small independent companies to major
international ones. The form of title held, total number issued, and acreage in each
case were as follows:
Form of Title Number Acreage
Permits  426 21,379,461
Natural gas licences      	
Drilling reservations  26 292,402
Leases (all types)   3,680 8,238,632
Total  29,910,495
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
Title Transaction Statistics, 1970
A 63
Permits
Leases
Drilling
Reservations
Natural Gas
Licences
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
57
156
369
81
11
38
2,169,837
12,030,080
219
429
3,458
767
51
167
225,454
1,260,649
100,770
96,107
19
24
1
4
19
168,437
236,491
	
654,266
1,725,526
168,437
Petroleum and Natural Gas Revenue, 1970
Rentals and fees—
Permits  $ 1,426,447.58
Drilling reservations  48,156.20
Natural gas licences
Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum and natural gas leases     7,699,844.21
Total rentals and fees
Disposal of Crown reserves—
Permits	
$9,174,447.99
  $9,506,074.09
Drilling reservations,.         1,825,403.90
Leases     5,008,323.20
Total Crown reserves disposal	
Royalties—
Gas  $3,948,355.34
OU     9,483,937.25
Processed products  42,314.03
16,339,801.19
Total royalties
Miscellaneous fees	
13,474,606.62
21,843.23
Total petroleum and natural gas revenues  $39,010,699.03
ANALYTICAL AND ASSAY BRANCH
Staff
S. W. Metcalfe
N. G. Colvin	
R. J. Hibberson____
Mrs. E. A. Juhasz..
F. F. Karpik	
R. S. Young	
Chief Analyst and Assayer
 Laboratory Scientist
 Laboratory Scientist
 Laboratory Technician
 Assayer
 Laboratory Scientist
Analytical and Assay Work
Samples from Prospectors
Between May 1 and September 30 five samples will be assayed without charge
for any prospector who makes application for free assays and who satisfies the
 A 64 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Chief Analyst that prospecting is his principal occupation. A form for use in
applying for free assays may be obtained from any Mining Recorder.
During 1970 the analytical laboratory in Victoria issued reports on 874
samples received from prospectors, 860 spectrographic analyses, and 2,164 assay
determinations were made. A laboratory examination of a sample may consist of
the following: (1) A spectrographic analysis to determine if any base metals are
present in interesting percentages, (2) assays for precious metals and for base
metals shown by the spectrographic analysis to be present in interesting percentages,
and (3) measurement of the degree of radioactivity. The radiometric assays are
not listed in the table below.
The laboratory reports were distributed between general prospectors and prospectors who were grantees under the Prospectors' Grub-stake Act, as follows:
Samples
Spectrographic
Analyses
Assays
790
84
776
84
1,950
214
Totals
874
860
2,164
In addition 14 spectrographic analyses whose results were not reported were
made on prospectors' samples.
Samples From the Mineralogical Branch
Reports of analyses and assays made on 309 samples received from geologists
of the Mineralogical Branch are as follows:
Complete silicate analyses as well as a few trace element determinations were
made on 48 samples;
The potassium content was determined in 21 samples;
Assays for gold and silver and some base metals were made on 132 samples;
Twenty-eight samples of limestone were analysed;
Specific trace elements were determined in six sulphide minerals;
Analyses for both ferrous and ferric iron were made on seven glass beads
obtained by arc fusion;
Sixty-seven samples of a miscellaneous nature were analysed.
A total of 85 spectrographic analyses and 2,216 analytical and assay determinations were made.
In addition, 256 spectrographic analyses, whose results were not reported, were
made on samples submitted by geologists of the Mineralogical Branch.
Other Departmental Samples
Reports on three samples submitted by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch
are as follows: Two were tested for oil and the third was a drill-bit cutting found to
consist of lead.
A report was made on the black coating on pebbles in a sample submitted by
the Inspection Branch.
A sample of ore was assayed for the Minister of Mines and Petroleum
Resources.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 65
Miscellaneous Samples
Reports were issued on 168 miscellaneous samples:
For the Department of Agriculture, Field Crops Branch, one sample of sand
was assayed, and copper was determined in three samples of hay.
For the Department of Finance, Purchasing Commission, reports were issued
on 26 samples of coal submitted for proximate analysis and calorific
value. Two samples of detergents were examined for their phosphorous
pentoxide content, and three samples of soap were identified by measurement of the refractive index of the fatty acids extracted from them.
For the Department of Highways, Materials Testing Branch, two water
samples were examined, and the purity of eleven samples of sodium
chloride was determined.
For the Water Resources Service, Water Rights Branch, two water samples
were examined for iron, and two for arsenic and cyanide, and for the
Pollution Control Branch, 13 samples of water were examined for their
trace metal contents.
For the Forest Service, Forest Protection Branch, hardness and pH were
determined on water samples from seven British Columbia lakes, and
only hardness was determined on water samples from 18 other lakes; in
addition the ammonium sulphate content of a fire-control agent was
determined.
For the Department of Public Works, a smoke-stack condensate was examined.
For the Department of Recreation and Conservation, Fish and Wildlife Branch,
19 water samples were examined for their trace metal contents.
For the City of Victoria, Smoke Inspection, determination was made of the
weights of residue and soluble salts collected in 82 bottles of water placed
in various locations in the city.
For a citizen of the Province a sample of water was analysed.
X-ray Powder Diffraction Analyses
Dining 1970 the X-ray laboratory made 228 X-ray powder diffraction identifications on samples submitted by geologists of the Mineralogical Branch.
Examinations for Assayers
Provincial Government examinations for certificates of efficiency were held in
May and December. In the May examination, 12 candidates were examined, of
whom eight passed, three failed, and one was granted a supplemental. In the
December examination, 12 candidates were examined, of whom two passed, nine
failed, and one was granted a supplemental.
INSPECTION BRANCH
Organization and Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
J. W. Peck, Chief Inspector- Victoria
J. E. Merrett, Deputy Chief Inspector of Mines . Victoria
L. Wardman, Senior Inspector, Electrical-Mechanical Victoria
A. R. C. James, Senior Inspector, Coal; Aid to Securities -Victoria
Harry Bapty, Senior Inspector, Mining Roads Victoria
V. E. Dawson, Inspector, Mechanical Victoria
3
 A 66 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
W. B. Montgomery, Inspector, Reclamation Victoria
S. Elias, Senior Inspector, Environmental Control Vancouver
W. C. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
J. W. Robinson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
R. W. Lewis, Inspector and Resident Engineer Cranbrook
David Smith, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
E. Sadar, Inspector and Resident Engineer Kamloops
B. M. Dudas, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
P. E. Olson, Inspector and Resident Engineer. Nelson
W. G. Clarke, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
A. D. Tidsbury, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince George
W. H. Childress, Technician, Noise Surveys Vancouver
Inspectors are stationed at the places listed above and inspect coal mines, metal
mines, and quarries in the districts shown on the accompanying figure {see p. A 67).
They also may examine prospects, mining properties, roads and trails, and carry
out special investigations under the Mineral Act. The Environmental Control Inspectors conduct dust, ventilation, and noise surveys at all mines and quarries, and
where necessary, make recommendations to improve environmental conditions.
H. Bapty supervises the roads and trails programme and prospectors' grub-stakes.
W. B. Montgomery administers the reclamation sections of the Coal Mines Regulation Act and Mines Regulation Act. A. R. C. James is Senior Inspector, Coal, and
has additional duties as mining adviser to the Securities Commission.
Instructors, Mine-rescue Stations
A. Littler, Instructor, Mine Rescue and First Aid Fernie
T. H. Robertson, Inspector, Mine Rescue and First Aid Nanaimo
J. A. Thomson, Instructor, Mine Rescue and First Aid Kamloops
G. J. Lee, Instructor, Mine Rescue and First Aid Nelson
Staff Changes
In May 1970, D. R. Morgan retired as Senior Inspector, Mining Roads, and
was succeeded in July by H. Bapty, Inspector of Mines, Prince Rupert. B. M.
Dudas transferred in August from Environmental Control inspection to Inspector
of Mines, Prince Rupert.
Board of Examiners
Board of Examiners (Coal Mines Regulation Act)
J. W. Peck, Chairman —_
A. R. C. James, member.
R. W. Lewis, member	
-Victoria
.Victoria
—.Fernie
The Board conducts written and practical examinations for the various certificates of competency under the provisions of sections 25 and 26 of the Coal Mines
Regulation Act, and advises the Minister on the granting of interchange certificates
under this Act. Under the new Act the Board is no longer responsible for issuing
coal miners' certificates; these are now issued after examination by the District
Inspector.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 67
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 A 68 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Board of Examiners (Mines Regulation Act)
J. E. Merrett, Chairman Victoria
A. R. C. James, member. Victoria
W. C. Robinson, member. -Vancouver
The Board conducts written examinations in various mining centres for applicants for underground and surface shiftboss certificates. The Board is also empowered to grant provisional certificates without examination and under such conditions as the Board considers necessary.
Mining Roads and Trails
Provision is made in the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources Act
whereby the Minister may, with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council,
authorize the expenditure of public funds for the construction or repair of roads and
trails into mining areas. Assistance on a half-cost basis may also be provided on
roads and trails to individual properties.
Requests for road and trail assistance must be made to the Department before
the commencement of work. The type of access upon which assistance may be
given depends upon the value of the property, the stage of development, and the
amount of work to be done. A trail is sometimes sufficient for initial exploration,
and a tractor-road may be adequate for preliminary work. Subsequent development
might warrant assistance on the construction of a truck-road. A carefully drawn
sketch or plan of the location of the road is required to be submitted and, where
warranted by the amount of assistance requested, a report on the property by a
professional geological or mining engineer may be required. An engineer from the
Department may be required to report on the property before a grant is made and to
inspect the road after the work has been done.
The total mileages and expenditures under "Grants in Aid of Mining Roads
and Trails" during the 1970/71 fiscal year were as follows:
Roads  Miles Cost
Construction   153.1        $275,513.66
Maintenance  251.6 46,002.74
Trails—
Construction      9 6,000.00
Maintenance       2 3,000.00
Bridges—
Construction      50,000.00
Maintenance        8,800.00
Total  $389,316.40
In addition to the above, work continued on the Stewart-Cassiar road. The
construction is done by contract, and is supervised by the Department of Highways
on behalf of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Road construction was done under Projects 1391 and 1702. Project 1391,
covering 29.08 miles of road between Burrage River and Bob Quinn Lake was completed. This contract let to Ben Ginter Construction Company was started in 1966.
Project 1702 covers the construction of 38.10 miles of road between the south and
north Bell-Irving River. Work by Peter Kiewit Sons Co. of Canada Ltd. began in
1968 and was completed in 1970.   Contracts for two new projects, 2233 and 2234,
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 69
will be let to close the last gap of 27.81 miles of road. Project 2233 is for 16.33
miles between the north crossing of the Bell-Irving River and Beaverpond Creek and
Project 2234 is for 11.48 miles between Beaverpond Creek and Bob Quinn Lake.
A major bridge, a 600-foot crossing of the north Bell-Irving River, was begun.
Two concrete abutments were poured and two river piers were constructed.
Total expenditure on the road to date is $22,675,358.68. The Federal Government's commitment of $7,500,000 was expended by the end of September 1967,
and since that time the whole cost of construction has been borne by the Provincial
Government.
Grub-staking Prospectors
Under the authority of the Prospectors' Grub-stake Act the Department has
provided grub-stakes each year since 1943 to a limited number of applicants able
to qualify. Grub-stakes up to $500 for food, shelter, and clothing, plus a reasonable
travelling allowance, are available to a limited number of qualified prospectors who
undertake to prospect in British Columbia in areas considered favourable by the
Department in accordance with a long-range plan for the development of the Province. Experienced prospectors may be granted a maximum of $300 for travelling
expenses if prospecting is to be done in remote areas where air transportation is
necessary.
Application forms and terms and conditions under which grub-stakes are
granted may be obtained from H. Bapty, Senior Inspector, Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Victoria.
Samples received from grub-staked prospectors are assayed free of charge and
mineralogical identifications may be made on request.
Grub-stake Statistics
Field Season
Approximate
Expenditure
Men
Grub-staked
Samples and
Specimens
Received at
Department
Laboratory
Mineral
Claims
Recorded
1943..
1944-
1945-
1946-
1947-
1948-
1949-
1950-
1951-
1952-
1953-
1954-
1955..
1956-
1957-
1958-
1959-
1960-
1961-
1962-
1963-
1964-
1965-
1966-
1967-
1968-
1969-
1970-
$18,500
27,215
27,310
35,200
36,230
35,975
31,175
26,800
19,385
19,083
17,850
19,989
21,169
20,270
22,000
24,850
21,575
28,115
29,175
26,730
29,000
31,751
24,717
26,787
29,891
31,224
21,758
30,614
90
105
84
95
91
92
98
78
63
50
41
48
47
47
46
47
38
50
47
52
50
53
42
43
47
47
27
39
773
606
448
419
469
443
567
226
255
251
201
336
288
163
174
287
195
358
309
233
150
213
241
224
148
234
151
84
87
135
181
162
142
138
103
95
137
95
141
123
183
217
101
211
202
241
325
189
843
351
219
239
432
402
221
423
 A 70 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Fifty-two applications were received in 1970, and 39 grub-stakes were authorized. One grantee was unable to go out, and his initial payment was returned.
Grantees who were unable to complete the terms and conditions of the grant received
only partial payment. Eighteen prospectors were given grants for the first time.
Four grantees proved to be unsatisfactory.
D. H. Rae interviewed applicants in Vancouver, contacted 25 grantees in the
field, and gave advice and direction to those who needed it. The following notes
comprise Mr. Rae's summaries of the prospecting activities and results. They are
based on observations made by him in the field and from information contained in
the diaries of the grantees.
Alberni Mining Division—Considerable prospecting was done near Kennedy
Lake where a large logged-off area gave easy access for a prospecting party. Some
diamond drilling was done to check the downward continuation of a strong mineralized zone exposed on the surface close to a contact between limestone and granite.
The drill core showed some chalcopyrite. The area appears to be largely underlain
by graphitic schist, limestone, and volcanics. Some mineralization of copper carbonates along a minor fault zone was investigated in the Canoe Creek valley and a
short distance south of the Brynnor mine. Two mineral claims staked to cover these
showings were sold at the end of the season.
Along the Kennedy River, halfway between Port Alberni and Ucluelet, some
work was done on a rock exposure mineralized with copper sulphides and molybdenite.   Heavy pyritization occurred in several places in the same area.
Atlin Mining Division—A fly camp was established about 2 miles east of Mile
88 on the Haines road, and some prospecting was done in the area. Spotty copper
mineralization was reported. In the Datlasaka Creek valley, and near the Datlasaka
Range the geology was reported to be interesting, and some minor occurrences of
copper were investigated. A short distance west of Mile 77 on the Haines road
some sulphide mineralization was noted in a small barite vein.
A short time was spent in an area south of Atlin, east of the Indian reserve, but
nothing of interest was reported.
Cariboo Mining Division—A well-equipped base camp was established at the
southeast end of Cariboo Lake. A boat was used and fly camps were set up at vari-
out locations along the lakeshore. A large area was prospected and the following
information was submitted. Some soil sampling was done at the southeast end of
Cariboo Lake—rubianic acid tests were negative; outcrops of pyritized quartzite
were examined. On a high ridge north of the base camp, outcrops of granite, pegmatite, schist, and quartzite were examined. Some signs of copper were found at
Goose Creek. At the south end of the lake some copper stain was investigated, and
a few barren quartz veins were examined. Near Ladies Creek, pyritized quartzite
outcrops occur; soil sampling gave negative results. At Four Creek, green andesite
showed minor malachite and some pyritization, but soil samples were negative.
From Ladies Creek to Roaring Creek heavy brush was encountered, and some exposures of granite were observed. At Browntop Mountain a large open area of exposed granite was prospected; nothing of interest was found. The east bank of
Roaring Creek is very steep, but outcrops of pyritized schist, quartzite, and barren
pegmatite dykes were examined. West of N'gger Creek more pyritized quartzite
was found, and north of Nigger Creek minor amounts of copper stain were observed
in quartzite. The underlying rock in the Levine Creek area is mainly granite. Sin-
bee Creek flows along the edge of an area in which the main outcrops are limestone;
some minor pegmatite dykes were seen but much of the surface is heavily covered
with debris.    Up Cunningham Creek considerable soil sampling was done and a
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 71
shear zone and narrow quartz veins were examined. Some prospecting was done
up Nolaka Creek but nothing of interest was reported.
In the Brodman Creek area and extending 1 mile west of Fraser River sedimentary rocks were encountered near a mapped aeromagnetic anomaly. Some prospecting was done west of Beaverdyke Creek, but nothing was reported. In the Hixon
Creek valley some outcrops of granite were observed, but most of the terrain is covered with deep overburden. In the vicinity of Lightning and Cottonwood Creeks
heavy debris was found. Some prospecting was done between Stanley and Wells
where pyritized quartz veins were examined. In the vicinity of the old Cariboo
Hudson mine mineralized quartz veins were sampled but the assays were very low.
Clinton Mining Division—A few miles north of Clinton, a shear zone along a
granite contact was examined. At Leon Creek west of Clinton, malachite stain was
found in both limestone and andesite. Near Jesmond, a mixed assemblage of rock
exposures was reported—limestone, diorite, quartz diorite, granite, and volcanics
showing minor copper mineralization. At Mud Lake, in the Lytton area, gossan
exposures were sampled but no values were found. Near Dome Creek, outcrops
of limestone, granite, and slate mineralized with iron pyrites and small garnets were
reported.
Some prospecting was done in the limestone area near Pavilion Range but nothing of interest was reported.
Greenwood Mining Division — Some work was done southwest and west of
Conkle Lake where the exposed rock is mainly coarse granite. Some schist, gneiss,
and greenstone were also seen, and rusty stain along a granite-volcanics contact was
examined. Minor mineralization of molybdenite was seen along several fractures in
the granite. Nothing of importance was reported. An old molybdenite prospect in
the Mud Creek area was examined.
Kamloops Mining Division — Extensive line-cutting and soil sampling were
done on a group of claims directly across Adams Lake from Skwaam Bay. No information on this work is available. The area is underlain by schist, and high up above
the lake a tunnel had been driven on a vein carrying values in gold and silver.
On the west side, near the south end of Adams Lake, pyritized schist was prospected and outcrops of slate, quartzite, and limestone were examined.
Some work was done from a new logging-road leading up to and beyond Thuya
Lake—pyritized granite was sampled; sericite schist, breccia, and serpentine outcrops were examined. Minor mineralization was reported where granodiorite intruded light-coloured volcanics.
Outcrops of limestone were reported in the Salmon River area, and on the
Salmon River flats, north of the river, serpentinized magnetic ultramafics showed
some faulting; farther up the river valley shale and limestone outcrops occur, and
some serpentinization was noticed.
Up the North Thompson River, in the Mann Creek area, shale and volcanics
showing traces of copper mineralization were investigated, and outcrops of vesicular
basalt and skarn were examined. On the north side of Barriere River, exposures
of chert, diorite, and volcanic breccia were found. Five miles east of Barriere, in
the Mount Borthwick area, a large number of rock types were reported. These
included chert, pyritized limestone, jasper showing copper carbonate stain, greenstone, and minor amounts of hematite and amphibole. Some work was done near
both McTaggart and Dunn Lakes but nothing of interest was reported.
Liard Mining Division—A prospector chartered a float plane at Fort Nelson
and established a base camp on Chesterfield Lake, 120 air miles southwesterly from
 A 72 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Fort Nelson. Some prospecting was done in that area, and later near another small
lake a short distance to the northeast. Unfortunately no report has been submitted
on this work.
A party of three prospectors was flown from near Sawmill Point on Dease Lake
to a small lake (now known as May Lake) lying about 80 air miles due east from
Dease Lake, and about 5 miles northwest of the centre of Cry Lake. A base camp
was established there and a large area of fairly open rugged territory was prospected.
An occurrence of molybdenite disseminated in coarse granite received considerable
attention. The mineralization occurs over a wide area, and sampling indicates commercial values across good widths. This mineral zone warrants further work. The
area within a 5-mile radius of May Lake shows a wide range of rock occurrences.
Granite is predominant but outcrops of schist, gneiss, white limestone, andesite, and
light-coloured dykes also occur. Scattered minor mineralization of arsenopyrite and
molybdenite was noted.
A base camp was set up on the southeast side of Cry Lake about half-way up
the lake. Prospecting was done up to 9 miles back from the lakeshore over a fairly
wide area. No specific topographical locations were given for the following reported
rock exposures—granodiorite, limestone, schist, gneiss, pyritized slate, and pyritized
volcanics.   Some pyrrhotite was found associated with several of the outcroppings.
Some prospecting was done a short distance east of Dease Lake, working from
camps along the Cassiar-Stewart road. The following brief information was submitted. In the Laketon area there are schist outcrops with narrow barren stringers
of quartz; at Serpentine Creek the rocks are talcose schist, shale, and serpentine; at
Hotel Creek the rock is schist with much surface debris; at Half moon Creek, schist
and heavy overburden; Half moon Lake, quartz stringers in schist, gabbro, and argillite; along the upper Dease River, outcrops of basaltic rock; up Packer Tom Creek,
granite and basalt; in Beady Creek valley, a mixture of rhyolite, gneiss, quartzite
with minor amounts of magnetite and pyrite, and some basalt; at Porter Landing
Mountain area, a few outcrops of basalt. A few miles east of Dease Lake the Eagle
River area shows many granite outcrops. At the Cottonwood River crossing, outcrops of basalt occur occasionally throughout the heavy overburden.
On Boulder Creek on the west side of Dease Lake, outcrops of rusty granite
and serpentine were examined. In the Thibert Creek valley, and close to Berry
Creek, exposures of serpentine, slate, shale, vesicular basalt, and schist showing
copper stain were reported.
A base camp was established at Meek Lake and a short time was spent prospecting the surrounding area. Basalt, shale with narrow quartz stringers, and some
heavy pyritization were reported.
Eight miles east of Telegraph Creek small garnets and minor copper stain were
observed in volcanic rock, and many outcrops of sedimentary rocks were reported.
Nanaimo Mining Division—Some prospecting was done at the west end of Buttle Lake on a shear zone showing minor amounts of copper carbonates. Basalt
outcrops occur in the area and have associated with them quartz stringers and scattered specks of native copper.
Some work was done in the Nimpkish Lake area where an unsuccessful
attempt was made to trace down the source of molybdenite float found in a creek.
A short time was spent in the vicinity of Muchalat Lake where a claim was staked
on a pyritized zone, but nothing of interest was reported. Near Mount Alston,
mineralized float was picked up but the source of this was not located.
A base camp was established just west of Hushamu Creek which flows into
Holberg Inlet 8 miles west of Coal Harbour. Geochemical sampling and geological
mapping were done on a group of 18 mineral claims.   Later similar work was done
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 73
on another group of 10 claims in the same general area. All the information from
this work was incorporated on maps of the claims. Several interesting anomalous
areas are indicated and further work should be done. A new area on the south
side of Holberg Inlet also received some attention, but nothing of interest was
reported here.
Nelson Mining Division—Some prospecting was done in the Bayonne mine
area, close to both Blazed and Next Creeks, but nothing of interest was reported.
In the Burnette Mountain area much overburden was encountered and outcrops of
granite, diorite, and schist were examined. Along Cultus Creek talus slides showed
much granite and diorite plus some dark-coloured shale and schist. Near Porcupine Creek, outcrops of quartzite and schist were common, and up Active Creek an
old mine diggings was examined where some mineralization occurs in limestone
and quartzite.
New Westminster Mining Division—Some field work was done near Mount
Agassiz where sheared granite shows some mineralization of molybdenite, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite; outcrops of diorite and quartz diorite were also examined.
In the Harrison Lake area outcrops of pyritized limestone were prospected,
and in the Slollicum Creek valley sheared schist and andesite showed some signs
of copper mineralization; outcrops of quartz porphyry were also examined.
About 16 miles east of Hope, close to Ross Lake, an attempt was made to
uncover a vein of high-grade galena, but no progress was possible. At the south
end of Chilliwack Lake heavy overburden interfered with the work that was
scheduled.
Some time was spent in the Boise Creek area (Boise Creek flows into the Pitt
River about 9 miles north of Pitt Lake). Considerable soil sampling was done and
rock chip samples were collected for further study. Results of this work are
encouraging and more work will be done in the area at a later date.
Nicola Mining Division—Near Barton Hill, exposures of serpentine and soap-
stone were examined close to a medium-grained granitic intrusive. Near the headwaters of Nicola River, outcrops of serpentine showed some short fibre asbestos,
and outcrops of coarse-grained granite were prospected.
Omineca Mining Division—Black Mountain, at the headwaters of the west
fork of Byman Creek 8 miles northwest of Perow, was examined from a prospector's
cabin about 1 mile northwest of Perow, and the following brief information was
submitted. On the north slope of Black Mountain, outcrops of red andesite and
dark-coloured basalt showing minor amounts of chalcopyrite and some copper
carbonates were found; in a swampy area on the north side of Black Mountain
outcrops of grey andesite were examined. On the west side of Black Mountain the
area indicated on the aeromagnetic map as anomalous was prospected; minor
mineralization of arsenopyrite and hematite was reported but nothing of importance
was found where outcrops of andesite and dark-coloured basalt occurred. On the
southwest side of Black Mountain commercial exposures of chalcopyrite occur in
grey andesite. On the south slope, interesting dissemination of chalcopyrite and
minor amounts of hematite were found along fractures in the volcanic rocks. The
southeast slopes are covered with heavy undergrowth. The east slopes of Black
Mountain are heavily forested; a few outcrops of red and black andesite showing
minor amounts of chalcopyrite were examined and a few outcrops of greenstone
and basalt were recorded. The slopes of the valley of Byman Creek close to the
west fork show a variety of rocks—porphyritic gabbro, narrow lamprophyre dykes,
and some mixed sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. At the top of Black Mountain, outcrops of altered volcanics occur.
 A 74 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
North of the west end of Chuchi Lake some trail cutting was done, and silt and
soil sampling was completed covering a wide area. Partly as a result of this work
a strong mineralized zone was located. Trenching exposed strong mineralization
of bornite with minor molybdenite in a diorite intrusive, further work found feldspar dykes and quartz stringers with minor chalcopyrite mineralization; the diorite
is heavily pyritized. This discovery, in part made in 1969, is now under development by a mining company.
A short distance westerly from Witch Lake a group of mineral claims has been
staked covering a wide area of disseminated copper mineralization. Several gossans
were opened up, and both stream and soil sampling has been done. (An aeromagnetic anomaly is shown in this area.) Chalcopyrite occurs in tuff and in
fractures in dacite. No sulphides are found in fine-grained andesite. This property
is now under option to a mining company.
Another party staked claims on Chuchi Lake and did some prospecting at the
east end of Witch Lake.   No other information was submitted.
Some exploratory work was done off the road leading from Smithers to Smithers
Landing (on Babine Lake), and the following information was submitted. At
Little Joe Creek, and along McKendrick Creek, disseminated arsenopyrite was found
in highly altered volcanics, and some pyritized slate was examined. On the southwest slope of Mount McKendrick outcrops of volcanics, basalt, andesite, and argillaceous rocks are exposed. From the east slope of Mount Hyland as far as Cronin
Creek the rocks are basic volcanics and pyroclastics; near the top of Mount Hyland,
outcrops of lightly pyritized volcanics and pyritized felsite were examined, and close
to Doris Lake andesitic volcanics and quartz monzonite outcrops were found. Southeast of Smithers Landing much overburden was encountered and a few outcrops of
basic volcanics and porphyry dykes were reported.
Northwest of Smithers Landing outcrops of porphyritic rhyolite occur. On
the west shore of Babine Lake, opposite Newman Peninsula, and as far south as
Bear Island, the rocks are conglomerate, basic volcanics cut by felsite dykes, shale,
and sandstone. Some prospecting was done on the east side of Babine Lake from
just north of Newman Peninsula up to the north end of the lake and including
country adjacent to the Babine River where passable logging roads were utilized
for access. The information submitted is quoted very briefly from prospectors'
diaries. On McKendrick Island, pyritized hornfels and diorite dykes outcrop; south
of McKendrick Island much heavy overburden, outcrops mainly sedimentary with
some volcanics; opposite Newman Peninsula, basic volcanics; farther north, outcrops of dacite porphyry, volcanics, and felsite all gave negative geochemical tests.
Some Granisle-type porphyry and pinkish-coloured volcanics were noted. East of
Morrison Creek there were no rock outcrops and geochemical tests were negative.
At the north end of the lake along the Fort Babine road, exposures of vuggy carbonate rocks, quartz porphyry, and a few medium-sized gossans were examined. North
of French Peak, pyritized porphyry, east flank of French Peak, granite, porphyritic
andesite, and quartz monzonite porphyry were found. Geochemical results were
poor. On the southwest flank of Old Fort Mountain, unaltered shale, sandstone,
and conglomerate were seen with some basic carbonaceous volcanics. Near Nilkitkwa Lake, there were granite, quartz porphyry, some breccia and pyritized hornfels, on which some geochemical work was done. The results were not reported.
The east shoreline of Babine Lake at this point shows felsite porphyry, conglomerate,
shale, amygdaloidal basalt, and 2 miles south of Fort Babine, hornfels porphyry with
some quartzose dykes. The hills between Nilkitkwa and Clota Lakes show outcrops
of sandstone; geochemical results were negative.    North and northeast of Fort
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 75
Babine mostly sedimentary rocks were observed with much overburden. Three
miles west of Nilkitkwa Lake, the outcrops are of granite and pyritized hornfels.
Hills on the west side of Nilkitkwa Lake are all sedimentary rocks, limestone, and
greywacke cut by syenite porphyry dykes. South of Tsezakwa Creek, outcrops are
of gabbro, limestone, greywacke, shale, and volcanics and a few intruding monzonite
porphyry dykes. On the east side of Babine Lake just north of Smithers Landing
there are outcrops of volcanics, agglomerate, felsite porphyry, some sedimentary
rocks, and quartz monzonite porphyry.
Some brief exploratory work was done west of Teikwa and the following information was submitted. In Teikwa River valley as far as Howson Creek there
are coal-bearing sedimentary rocks, some granodiorite float, and no sulphides. West
of Winfield Creek basic volcanics and sandstone are cut by granite porphyry dykes.
In Goathorn Creek valley are coal-bearing sedimentary rocks. Up the valley are
basic volcanics with a few narrow copper-bearing quartz stringers.
Some prospecting was also done in the Tahtsa Lake area; from Nadina Lake
along the Tahtsa Lake forestry access road traces of molybdenite were seen in
bleached porphyry type rock but most rock exposures are volcanic rocks inter-
bedded with siltstone and sandstone. Along the south shore of Tahtsa Lake as far
as Kasalka Creek some pyritized outcrops of quartz diorite were examined. All
inflow creeks on the south side of Tahtsa Lake were silt sampled from Laventie
Creek as far as the narrows but nothing of interest was reported. At both east and
south sides of Rhine Ridge exposures of granodiorite were examined but no sign of
either copper or molybdenite mineralization was found. Between Whiting and
Comb Creeks many outcrops of lightly pyritized porphyritic quartz monzonite
occur, and in Comb Creek valley exposures of andesitic and rhyolitic volcanics were
seen. Iron pyrite is present in fractures in both rock types. Three miles north of
Swing Peak outcrops of pyritized granite, quartz monzonite porphyry, and rhyolite
were examined. Near Twinkle Lake exposures of volcanics, pyritized hornfels, and
pyritized porphyry were prospected, and near Sibola Peak a pyritized feldspar
porphyry stock and several gossans were seen.
Near Tagetochlain Lake a large anomalous area was located south of a quartz
monzonite stock. In the vicinity of Nadina Lake, exposures of pyritized rhyolite,
quartz diorite porphyry, porphyritic basalt flows, and pyritized andesite were reported. At Hill-Tout Lake heavily pyritized volcanics and pyritized porphyry
showing minor copper mineralization were carefully prospected. Between Stepp
Lake and Anzac Lake minor copper mineralization was investigated in a quartz
monzonite stock. North of Tableland Mountain, outcrops of rhyolitic volcanics
are common. Logging access roads in the Shelford Hills area and along the north
side of Whitesail Lake show some exposures of granite.
Some work was done in the Morice Lake area. East of Nanika Mountain
basic volcanics are intruded by coarse-grained granite; on the northwest side of
Morice Lake toward Atna Bay are coarse-grained pinkish granite and some volcanics; opposite Atna Bay, a granite stock and some porphyritic basalt; on the southwest side of Atna Bay, pinkish granite and quartz monzonite; and on a high ridge
above the bay, porphyritic rhyolite; at the northeast end of Morice Lake, outcrops
of acidic volcanics. At Atna Lake west of Morice Lake the rocks were reported to
be pyritized volcanics and heavily pyritized quartz monzonite; granodiorite intrusive
into volcanics and sediments shows pyritization along fractures; nothing of economic
interest was reported. Between Atna Lake and Stepp Lake, coarse-grained volcanic breccia, minor amounts of quartz latite, some fine to coarse-grained granite,
L
 A 76 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
and quartz monzonite outcrops were reported. In the Lamprey Lake area, outcrops
of sedimentary rocks and lightly pyritized volcanics were reported.
A helicopter reconnaissance trip was made from Tahtsa Lake to Clore River
with brief landings for rock specimens and the sampling of gossan areas; no definite
information is available regarding this work.
Another group of prospectors overlapped parts of the area just mentioned, and
the information received from them includes the following brief items. At Shelford
Hills, some soil sampling was done and a granite plug was prospected; where loose
surface rock showed traces of copper mineralization some drilling and blasting were
done, but the results were discouraging; samples were taken from rock exposures
showing mineralization of magnetite and pyrite on the north slope of Shelford Hills
but no values were found; outcrops of basalt, diorite, and andesite showing minor
sulphides were examined.
Near Lindquist Lake, float containing both molybdenite and copper was picked
up but the source of this was not found. Up Lindquist Creek a granite outcrop
snowed minor mineralization of molybdenite in narrow quartz stringers, and at
Mount Bolom a gossan area showing pyrite in narrow quartz veinlets was sampled
but no commercial values were found. At Core Mountain a fault zone showed
sparse copper mineralization. In the Mosquito Hills area, rusty stained outcrops of
basalt were examined, and near Wells Creek numerous exposures of basalt and
several small gossans were noted.
One prospector working from a base near Wistaria furnished the following
information: In Eng Lake area (between Ootsa and Francois Lakes) pyritized
basalt shows some copper stain; between Ootsa and Eng Lakes are basalt and some
perlite; at Sand Creek andesite and granite show minor chalcopyrite.
Along the south shore of Cheslatta Lake volcanic rocks outcrop for several
miles and both agatized and opalized material is common; at the west end of the
lake occurrences of perlite were prospected.
A short trip was made into the Bulkley River valley and geochemical work was
done on the east slope from Kwun Creek to Causqua Creek where a few outcrops of
both sedimentary and volcanic rocks occur in a heavily drift-covered area. Up the
Kispiox valley as far as McCully Creek, outcrops are mainly sedimentary or volcanic rocks. On the road from Hazelton to Kisgegas, along an access road to the
northwest flank of Babine Range, interesting float was found in several creeks.
At the end of the prospecting season certain anomalous portions of the above-
mentioned areas were revisited, further sampling and prospecting were done, and
some mineral claims were staked and recorded.
A base camp was established on a good logging access road at the junction of
Suskwa and Natlan Creeks. This road leads across the Bulkley River a few miles
east of Hazelton. Up Natlan Creek there is much overburden and very few rocks
outcrop. At Thoen Mountain, outcrops of greywacke, conglomerate, siltstone, and
intrusive diorite were examined. Near Netalzul Mountain, greywacke, diorite,
breccia, and volcanic rock outcrops were reported. On the northeast slope of
Blunt Mountain, volcanics and granite porphyry outcrops were examined. In the
Harold Price Creek valley, andesite, tuff, breccia, and rhyolite occur. Close to
Natlan Mountain, outcrops of greywacke, argillite, diorite, and granite were
prospected.
Some exploratory work was done in the Terrace area and the following brief
information was submitted: On Legate Creek, granite, limestone, quartzite, conglomerate, and some sparse mineralization of copper were seen; on Bornite Creek
there is rich copper mineralization; on Granite Creek there is much coarse granite;
on Zymoetz River there is some minor copper mineralization; on the west side of
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 77
Mount Thornhill there is pyritized granodiorite; and on Glacier Creek, granite;
on St. Croix Creek there are argillite, conglomerate, and quartzite. No further information was furnished.
Osoyoos Mining Division—Some prospecting was done in the Trepanier Creek
valley where exposures of quartz diorite, diorite, and granite show some pyritization
with minor traces of copper.
Skeena Mining Division—At mile 73 on the Nass River logging-road north of
Terrace, exposures of barren granite are common. Along the east side of Kitsum-
gallum Lake mainly granite was found, and along the west side iron-stained granite,
argillite, and quartzite were found. Some copper mineralization was observed near
Onion Lake. Near Port Edward, pyritized quartz shows some signs of chalcopyrite.
Just east of Prince Rupert some coarse pyritized quartz was investigated, and at
Kwinitsa, barren granite is common.
Slocan Mining Division—A base camp beside the Lardeau River 42 miles north
of Kaslo was used as a headquarters in prospecting the reachable vicinity. The following general information was submitted: Tenderfoot Creek valley, narrow flat-
dipping quartz stringers in a carbonated matrix show very little mineralization;
heavily leached limonite gossans show considerable faulting and give low values in
lead, zinc, and copper. At Mount Johnson, leached quartz stringers show minor
amounts of molybdenite and spots of siderite and ankerite. The lower Mount Johnson area shows some limestone and quartz stringers with ankerite but no sulphides,
and some oxidized zones in greenstone. Upper Mount Johnson area is underlain
by limestone, and some surface outcrops of shear zones in graphitic shale were examined; at the south end of Mount Johnson are graphitic schists. East of Lardeau
River close to base camp the ridges are mainly greenstone with lesser amounts of
limestone and heavy overburden between outcrops. Near Lake Creek, a pyritized
shear zone was prospected, and exposures of graphitic schist were examined. At
Poplar Creek, granitic dykes were found in an area underlain by greenstone and flat-
dipping sedimentary rocks. In the Cascade Creek area, brownish-coloured pyritized
carbonaceous material was found to carry low gold values. Craig Creek (south end
of Trout Lake) shows outcrops of barren altered serpentine.
Trail Creek Mining Division—Near Mud Lake, 21 miles northwest of Rossland, traces of rare earth minerals were found in rusty stained surface debris. Close
to Nancy Greene Lake, heavy overburden was encountered and traces of copper
were found in a gossan exposed near an outcrop of granite.
Vernon Mining Division — Some work was done in the Bouleau Lake area
where coarse-grained volcanics are common, and where encouraging results were
obtained from silt sampling. In the Salmon River valley many outcrops of volcanic
rocks were seen and some signs of copper were investigated. In several side streams
silt sampling was done, but the results of this work were negative. In Whiteman
Creek valley outcrops of granite and granite porphyry were carefully prospected.
Considerable work was done in an area within a perimeter of 5 miles around
Lightning Peak, and most was done at a high elevation in an alpine environment.
The underlying rocks are mainly coarse-grained granite with minor amounts of
basalt; spotty mineralization of hematite was seen. Parts of this area have been
burned over, and there are many rock exposures. In Rendell Creek valley, outcrops
of granite, sandstone, and limestone were examined; the few quartz veins associated
with the granite were barren. Heavy overburden was encountered in the valley bottoms. Close to Goatskin Creek, a few outcrops of basalt and peridotite were noticed,
and some galena float was picked up, but the source of this was not found. In a
deep gulch close to Rampals Creek, outcrops of granite, andesite, and basalt were
examined, and more galena float was picked up but again the source was not found.
 A 78 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Some prospecting was done near Mabel Lake. The streams along the east side
of the lake as far as Tsuius Creek were sampled and similar work was done along the
road following Wap Creek from Iron Creek past Wap Lake north to South Pass
Creek and on to Three Valley and Highway 1. Along Iron Creek considerable
metamorphism was encountered in both gneiss and schist, and some crystalline
graphite was found in these rocks. Further work is contemplated in the area if soil
and stream sampling results are favourable.
Victoria Mining Division—In the Jack Elliott Creek area (close to Port Renfrew) some drilling, blasting, and sampling were done along a shear zone in volcanic
rocks but assays of samples taken were very low. Some soil samples were also taken
where the underlying rocks were mica schist but the results were poor. Near Harris
Creek copper float was found and some soil sampling was done but nothing of interest was reported. Soil sampling was also done in the Sombrio River area; results
were nil. Up Fairy Creek, slate showing minor copper mineralization was investigated. Near Lizard Lake an outcrop of coarse-grained limestone was drilled and
blasted and outcrops of quarzite were prospected but nothing of interest was reported.
MINERALOGICAL BRANCH
The function of the Mineralogical Branch is to assist in the orderly exploration,
development, and use of the Province's coal and mineral resources, and to provide
information to Government and industry on the quantity and distribution of the
coal and mineral resources of the Province. The Branch makes a variety of geological studies, publishes data concerning mineral deposits, makes mineral potential
appraisals of land, collects, stores, and disseminates geological and statistical data,
and records the activities of the industry. The Branch is capable of making mineral
assessments and of supplying general geological information as well as specific information regarding mineral deposits, mineral resources, and the mineral industry.
It provides rock and mineral identifications, contributes lectures in courses on prospecting, participates in scientific meetings, and arranges educational exhibits.
The Branch recently has been reorganized into a Mineral Resources Section,
an Economic Geology Section, and a Publications and Technical Services Section.
Field work by geologists of the Branch includes areal geological mapping and
study of mineral deposits principally in areas of recognized mineral potential and
examination of properties of current exploration interest. Geologists may also map
areas of unknown potential for the specific purposes of making assessments of
mineral potential prior to establishing mineral reserves for parks or ecological
reserves and for land use decisions. The results of major mapping projects are published in a series of bulletins; shorter reports are published in "Geology, Exploration,
and Mining in British Columbia," a new annual publication first instituted in 1969.
Editing of the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources
and of "Geology, Exploration, and Mining in British Columbia" formerly the responsibility of Stuart S. Holland will be undertaken by J. W. McCammon. Copy
for printing is prepared by and under the direction of Mrs. Rosalyn J. Moir.
Staff
On December 31, 1970, the professional staff included the following geologists:
Stuart S. Holland Chief of the Branch
A. Sutherland Brown Geologist
N. C. Carter Geologist
B. N. Church Geologist
G. E. P. Eastwood Geologist
 1
DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 79
James T. Fyles	
J. A. Garnett	
E. W. Grove	
E.V. Jackson	
J. W. McCammon
W. J. McMillan __
 Geologist
 Geologist
—.Geologist
 Geologist
Geologist
Geologist
K. E. Northcote Geologist
V. A. G. Preto Geologist
A. F. Shepherd Geologist
All but three are registered professional engineers and these have applied for registration. Eight have been awarded a Ph.D. degree and two are completing work for
that degree.
Staff Changes
M. S. Hedley, Chief of the Branch, retired on May 31 after 34 years' service
with the Department.
Stuart S. Holland was appointed Chief of the Branch on June 1.
J. A. Garnett, geologist, a graduate of the University of New Brunswick, joined
the staff on September 3, 1970.
Field Work, 1970 Season
A. Sutherland Brown examined copper-molybdenum properties in various parts
of the Province.
N. C. Carter made 22 property examinations mostly in the Terrace, Smithers,
and Manson River areas.
B. N. Church examined the Dusty Mac and Lexington properties in southern
British Columbia and completed his study of the Owen Lake-Goosly Lake area south
of Houston.
James T. Fyles made a number of property examinations in the Kootenay area
and supervised R. I. Thompson's work in the vicinity of the Wigwam property.
G. E. P. Eastwood examined the Bon property near Bonanza Lake, Vancouver
Island.
J. A. Garnett, for orientation, accompanied N. C. Carter while examining mineral properties in the Manson Creek area.
E. W. Grove began collecting samples for a geochemical study of the Guichon
Creek Batholith and examined properties in the Stewart area.
J. W. McCammon examined gravel pits and quarries on Vancouver Island and
in southern British Columbia and limestone, saline, hydromagnesite, and silica
deposits throughout the Province.
W. J. McMillan with five assistants continued detailed geological mapping of
the Guichon Creek Batholith in the Highland Valley area.
K. E. Northcote, with six assistants, completed the geological mapping of the
area between Rupert Inlet and Cape Scott and examined four mineral properties
elsewhere on Vancouver Island.
V. A. G. Preto examined mineral properties and made a geological reconnaissance in the Bonaparte Lake-Clearwater area.
Sixteen geological field assistants were employed on the various projects.
Publications
Technical reports of the Mineralogical Branch were published in Geology,
Exploration, and Mining in British Columbia, 1970. Bulletin 57, Jordan River
Area by James T. Fyles was also published.
 A 80 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT, 1970
Six scientific reports and papers resulting directly from their work as staff
geologists were also published by officers of the Branch.
Three preliminary geological maps were released in 1970. Preliminary mineral
inventory maps covering 18 N.T.S. sheets were also released during the year. Details
of this material may be obtained from the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria.
Airborne Magnetometer Mapping
The programme of airborne magnetometer mapping, jointly financed by the
Geological Survey of Canada and the British Columbia Department of Mines and
Petroleum Resources, continued in 1970.
The 30 aeromagnetic maps released in 1970 are as follows:
Release Date No. Scale Location
February 25, 1970 20 1 inch=l mile Central British Columbia
May 28, 1970.  10 1 inch=l mile Central British Columbia
The maps as well as index maps showing the coverage by aeromagnetic mapping in British Columbia may be obtained from the British Columbia Department
of Mines and Petroleum Resources, Room 411, Douglas Building, Victoria, or the
Geological Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver 3.
The basic data used in compiling the maps are on open file at the Geological
Survey of Canada in Ottawa, where interested parties may arrange to obtain them
for special processing.
The Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (Earth Physics Branch)
operates a magnetic observatory at Victoria. Services available to geophysical
exploration companies and other interested agencies include:
(a) Three-hour range indices of magnetic activity; these provide a measure
of the intensity of the magnetic disturbance (on a 0-9 scale) for each
three-hour period. The monthly listings of these indices are normally
mailed within a few days after the end of each month.
(b) Copies of magnetograms are available through a local duplicating firm
at a charge of $7.50 for a monthly set. These recordings of the magnetic
field can be used to control field surveys, in particular to correct for the
diurnal changes and magnetic disturbances. The area over which this
control is valid depends on the required accuracy; for ±5 gamma accuracy,
it covers an elliptic region reaching roughly as far as longitude 118 degrees
to the east and latitude 50.5 degrees to the north.
Further details can be obtained by writing to the Officer-in-charge, Victoria
Magnetic Observatory, RR 7, Victoria.
Rock and Mineral Sets
Sets of rocks and minerals are available for sale to prospectors, schools, and
residents of British Columbia. Information regarding them may be obtained from
the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch is responsible for the administration
of Part XII of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1965, and the Drilling and Production Regulations made thereunder.
The regulations provide for the use of efficient and safe practices in the drilling,
completion, and abandonment of wells; for the orderly development of fields dis-
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 81
covered within the Province; and for the conservation and prevention of waste of
oil and natural gas within the reservoir and during production operations.
Every well location must be approved by the Branch before the well is drilled.
All operations related to drilling and production are inspected frequently to ensure
compliance with the provision of all regulations, including such features as facilities
and practices used, adequate plugging of abandoned wells, surface restoration of
well-sites, well-testing and measurement procedures employed, disposal of produced
water, protection of installations against fire, and general conservation.
Investigations are made of complaints of property damage resulting from
drilling and producing operations, and from geophysical work programmes.
Comprehensive records of all drilling and producing operations are maintained
at Victoria and are made available for study, or are published, for the use and
benefit of anyone interested in oil or gas development in British Columbia. Samples
of bit cuttings, as well as all core, obtained from every well drilled in the Province,
are collected and retained at the field office located at Charlie Lake, where they are
available for study. Charlie Lake is adjacent to the Alaska Highway, about 5 miles
northwest of Fort St. John.
Detailed reservoir engineering and geological studies are conducted on the
basis of technical information submitted to the Branch from operating companies,
as well as information acquired through field work by Branch personnel. Estimates
of the reserves of oil and natural gas are made annually, at the end of December.
Crown-owned oil and natural gas rights are evaluated prior to being disposed of by
public tender.
Administration
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch is subdivided for administrative purposes into four sections. These sections and their supervisors are as follows:
Development Engineering, W. L. Ingram; Reservoir Engineering, A. J. Dingley;
Exploration Geology, S. S. Cosburn; and Economic Geology, W. M. Young.
The field office at Charlie Lake, which includes the core and sample laboratory,
is supervised by the District Engineer, D. L. Johnson.
Staff
Headquarters, Victoria
J. D. Lineham.
W. L. Ingram-
.Chief of Branch
-Deputy Chief of Branch
M. B. Hamersley..
J. F. Tomczak	
A. J. Dingley	
B. T. Barber.	
P. S. Attariwala-
P. K. Huus	
W. M. Young	
K. A. McAdam	
T. B. Ramsay.	
J. Y. Smith	
S. S. Cosburn	
and Senior Development Engineer
 Development Technician
 Statistician
Senior Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Engineer
 Reservoir Technician
Senior Economic Geologist
 Economic Geologist
 Economic Geologist
 Economic Geologist
D. L. Griffin (until April 30) _
-Senior Exploration Geologist
 Petroleum Geologist
 A 82 MINES AND PETROLEUM RESOURCES REPORT,  1970
Field Office, Charlie Lake
D. L. Johnson District Engineer
T. B. Smith Field Engineer
D. A. Selby Field Technician
G. T. Mohler Field Technician
W. B. Holland Field Technician
L. A. Gingras Field Technician
Staff Changes
W. M. Young, Senior Economic Geologist, joined the staff on February 23.
D. L. Griffin, Petroleum Geologist, resigned, effective May 1.
K. A. McAdam, Economic Geologist, joined the staff on September 21.
Board of Arbitration
Chairman: A. W. Hobbs, Q.C., Department of the Attorney-General.
Members: S. G. Preston, agrologist, Department of Agriculture; J. D. Line-
ham, engineer, Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
The Board of Arbitration, established under the authority of the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act, 1965, grants right of entry to oil and gas companies upon
alienated land and determines conditions of entry and compensation therefor. It
also terminates the right of entry when a company has ceased to use the land.
In 1970, 29 applications for right of entry were submitted to the Board. Of
these seven were withdrawn, 20 resulted in the issuance of one or more than one
right-of-entry order and two are held on file pending further action by the applicant.
The Board of Arbitration plans a sitting at Fort St. John during the summer
of 1971 after which compensation-award orders will be made which should bring
all of the work of the Board completely up to date.
Conservation Committee
Chairman: K. B. Blakey, Deputy Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources.
Member: M. H. A. Glover, economist, Department of Industrial Development,
Trade, and Commerce.
The Conservation Committee is responsible to the Minister of Mines and
Petroleum Resources and was established originally on October 11, 1957, under
the authority of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act.   Its duties are as follows:
(1) To act as an advisory committee to the Minister on such questions of
conservation that the Minister, in writing, shall refer to the Committee for
consideration and recommendation.
(2) To deal with such questions of conservation and production in the various
fields of British Columbia as may arise between two or more operators in
the same field or between operators and the Branch when appeals on such
questions are made to the Minister and referred by him to the Committee.
The Conservation Committee did not meet in 1970.
PUBLICATIONS
A list of the publications of the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources
is available free on request to the Chief of the Mineralogical Branch or Chief of the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, Douglas Building, Victoria.
 DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 83
Publications that are in print may be obtained from the Department of Mines
and Petroleum Resources, Douglas Building, Victoria, and from the Geological
Survey of Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Current publications may
also be obtained from the Gold Commissioner's Office, Room 320, 890 West Pender
Street, Vancouver.
Publications are available for reference use in the Departmental library, Room
430, Douglas Building, Victoria, in the reading-room of the Geological Survey of
Canada, 100 West Pender Street, Vancouver, in the offices of the Inspectors of
Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert, as well as in some public libraries.
 r
Petroleum and Natural Gas
CHAPTER 4
CONTENTS
Page
Petroleum and Natural Gas Titles    A 87
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch    A 90
General Review    A 90
Field Office    A 90
Geological Section    A 91
Geological Laboratories     A 92
Core and Well Samples     A 92
Core and Sample Examination    A 92
Exploration     A 92
Reservoir Engineering Section    A 94
General     A 94
Oil Allowables, MPRs, and Improved Recovery Schemes    A 94
Associated and Solution Gas Conservation Schemes    A 96
Gas Allowables and Well Tests     A 98
Hydrocarbon and Associated Sulphur Reserves     A 99
Miscellaneous  A 101
Development Section  A 103
Drilling  A 103
Production  A 106
Pipe-lines  A 108
Oil-gathering System  A 108
Oil-transmission System  A 108
Gas-gathering System  A 109
Gas-transmission System  A 109
Gas-distribution System  A 109
Oil Refineries  A 109
Gas-processing Plants  A