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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1971 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1972

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister J. S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1971
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1972
  Victoria, British Columbia, March 1972.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1971.
R. G. WILLISTON
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1971.
J. S. STOKES
Deputy Minister of Forests
 * xHs*.- ■
• a
  CONTENTS
Pace
1. Chief Forester's Report  11
2. Inventory Division  15
Highlights  15
1971 Progress  15
Developments  17
3. Research Division  21
Tree-improvement Studies  21
Seedling Physiology Studies  22
Soil Classification  23
Ecology  23
Data Processing  23
Silviculture  24
Kamloops  24
Nelson  24
Prince George  25
Prince Rupert  25
Forest Productivity Committee  25
4. Reforestation Division    29
Forest Tree Seed  29
Forest Nurseries  30
Reconnaisance and Survey Work    32
Planting  33
Co-operation  34
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme  35
5. Information Division  39
Photography  39
Motion Pictures    39
Forest Service Library  40
Film Library  40
Displays    40
Education  40
Signs  40
Forest Service Museum  40
7
 AA 8 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
P4CE
6. Management Division  43
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  43
Stumpage Adjustments  43
Sustained-yield Programme  44
Public Sustained-yield Units    44
Tree-farm Licences  44
Forest Recreation  45
Silviculture :  45
Scaling  45
7. Grazing Division  49
General Conditions  49
Range and Pasture Management  49
Range Surveys  50
Range and Pasture Improvements  50
Co-operation^  51
Administration  51
Grazing and Hay Permits  51
Grazing Fees  51
Control and Enforcement  52
8. Engineering Division  55
Highlights  55
Engineering Surveys  55
Design  55
Management Engineering  55
Construction    56
Reservoir Improvements  56
Building and Marine Services    56
Mechanical  56
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  58
Communications  58
9. Protection Division  61
Weather  61
Fires  61
Occurrence and Cause    61
Cost of Fire-fighting  61
Damage  61
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 9
Page
Protection Division—Continued
Fire-suppression Crews  61
Provincial Student Employment Programme  62
Aircraft  62
Mutual Aid, Department of National Defence  62
Roads and Trails  62
Slash Disposal  62
Snag Disposal  63
Fire-law Enforcement  63
Forest-use Restrictions  63
Protection Planning and Research  64
Fire Statistics  64
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  64
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks  64
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration  64
Research Projects  64
Service and Co-operation  66
10. Training School.
69
Extra Courses and Functions  69
Construction  69
11. Accounting Division :  73
Fiscal  73
Administration  73
12. Personnel Division
77
Communications and Training  77
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  77
13. Personnel Directory, 1971 .  79
14. Appendix—Detailed Statements to Supplement the Report of the Forest
Service ;  81
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1971
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
In most respects, 1971 was a good year for the British Columbia Forest Service.
Direct revenues collected from logging operations totalled $67,669,895—an increase
of 8.6 per cent over 1970.
The total scale of all products in 1971 was 1,997,081,172 cubic feet—an
increase of 3.2 per cent over the previous year; and the lumber market improved
considerably throughout the year, with encouraging prospects for 1972. The pulp
and paper sector, however, experienced a "soft" market and was forced to make
cutbacks in production.
Steadily mounting public interest and concern over forest land uses resulted
in the firming-up of "balanced use" policies and special attention to forest recreation
plans and administration.
Other highlights of 1971:
• A record 43,846,400 seedlings were planted on 102,177 acres by the Forest
Service and industry—an increase of 9,835.300 trees over 1970. Planting on
Crown land in the Interior more than doubled.
• The United States continues to be our best customer for forest products—taking
more than 60 per cent of our total production, and some 70 per cent of our
lumber. Japan and the United Kingdom took 12 and 9 per cent respectively,
while Australia remains our fourth best customer.
• Plywood and shingle production showed increases, and reflected increased
housing activity throughout most of North America.
• The greatest single problem for industry was undoubtedly in the pulp and paper
segment, which experienced a "soft" market throughout the year. Production
of chips exceeded demand.
• Capital expenditure committed for the construction of new wood-processing
plants and for additions to existing ones neared the $595 million mark. Approximately $250 million of that amount was for additions to pulp and paper mills.
• There were 2,898 forest fires throughout the Province in 1971, and the direct
cost of fighting them was approximately $11.7 million—the highest cost tag on
record. The fires burned approximately 878,000 acres, which compares with
a 10-year average of 263,000 acres.
• Despite increased demands for divergent use of Crown grazing land, its use by
domestic stock continued at the same level as in 1970. Improved management
increased forage production and integration of grazing with other uses.
• Among major engineering projects completed during 1971 was the construction
of a bridge across the Nass River near Meziadin Lake. It provides access between
the Northern Trans-Provincial Highway and the Stewart-Cassiar Highway, providing the town of Stewart with its first land access to the rest of the Province.
• Pondage clearance operations continued with another 10,000 acres treated at
Williston Lake, bringing the total to 95,000 acres; and plans have been made
for a postflooding clean-up programme to salvage usable timber and dispose of
floating debris.
II
 A A 12
REPORT OF LANDS,  FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
An additional 13.000 acres of the Mica pondage were cleared, bringing the total
to 38.000, with 11 miles of road relocated and constructed. Pre-flood operations
will be completed during 1972. with flooding scheduled for the spring of 1973.
Forest inventory surveys were continued on proposed and approved public sustained-yield units, and detailed information is now available on 115 million
acres—compared to 97 million in 1970.
Forest land in 14 public sustained-yield units was placed under reserve and
gazetted as Provincial forests in 1971. The total land under reserve is now
114,075 square miles, and another nine forest reserves are being processed.
Research continues into the development of stock for the regeneration of harvested areas throughout the Province, and a forest land classification system has
been developed for the mapping of forest land. It will provide a framework for
intensive forest management.
Effective January 1, 1972, all log production in the Province will be measured in
terms of firmwood cubic feet instead of board feet.
The Forest Service's responsibility for forest recreation has been firmly established, with a Recreation Forester appointed in Victoria to co-ordinate the new
function. A small staff has been added to each forest district to implement
recreation plans and procedures, and their initial duties include the compiling of
a recreation inventory for each district.
Close-utilization operations continued to increase, and by year's end an estimated
72 per cent of the total Provincial cut was in accordance with the "close-u"
standard.
Marine hazards were reduced with the collection of more than 7 million cubic
feet of drift logs under the Log Salvage Regulation—an increase of 1.6 million
cubic feet over 1970.
At the request of the Select Standing Committee on Forestry and Fisheries, concentrated investigations were made into the floating and beach wood debris problem, with detailed reports expected early in 1972.
Log exports accounted for 28 million cubic feet (about 1 per cent of the total
Provincial cut), compared with 50 million cubic feet in 1970.
Detailed planning commenced on the formation of a sixth forest district. The
Cariboo Forest District will incorporate the southern portion of the Prince
George District and northern sections of the Kamloops District, and will be
fully operational by 1973. Headquarters will be at Williams Lake.
The Provincial summertime student employment programme saw an additional
560 people employed by the Forest Service. They enabled Rangers to complete
many outstanding projects, and many of the students provided valuable assistance
in fire-fighting operations.
The Service's public relations programme devoted particular emphasis to the
theme of balanced use of forest resources.
 :S
WESTERN  WHITE  PINE
inventory division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA  15
INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
With the continuation of unit standard surveys over approved and proposed
public sustained-yield units (PSYU's), such information is now available on
115,000,000 acres.
Loss-factor work continued in northern British Columbia in the Blueberry and
Moberly PSYU's.
Stand-table information on number of trees per acre by diameter class, snags
per acre, vets per acre in immature, etc., has been provided for all areas surveyed
since 1968.
The remeasurement cycle was commenced on permanent sample plots when
nine 10-year-old plots were remeasured in the Prince George Forest District.
1971 PROGRESS
Classification of forest-cover types, sampling of mature and immature stands,
derivation of loss factors, and determination of the growth and yield of immature
stands continued throughout 1971.
The Division completed field work to unit standard on four public sustained-
yield units and a part of a fifth, one proposed special sale area, one proposed
sustained-yield unit, and the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve. A total of 15,547,540
acres was brought to unit standard.
Table A—1971 Field Work
Unit Standard Inventory
Public Sustained-yield Unit, Special Sale Area, Etc.
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Mature
Immature
3
163
24
90
68
106
2061
105
51
140
173
66
355
234
164
206
8
194
230
85
51
243
218
96
19,666
Dawson Creek SSA               . .
3,897,025
389,456
1,190,748
Longworth	
1,257,779
2,125,169
4,408,092
2,259,605
Totals	
765
1,389
1,125
15,547,540
1 Map scale of 1 inch—40 chains.
remainder 20 chains.
Loss Factor.
5
13
4
15
5
Blueberry.—                 	
Moberly        _____  	
422
....___.
2 Felled samples.
 AA  16 REPORT OF LANDS. FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table A—1971 Field Work—Continued
Growth and Yield
Public Sustained-yield Unit, Special Sale Area. Etc.
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Mature
Immature
Initial measurements—■
6
94
52
14
4
5
Remeasurements—
    i   -	
1753
■"■ Permanent remeasurable samples.
Radio communications improved in northern regions with portable single sideband transceivers being used in fly camps for the first time.
More than 170 personnel were employed on field projects, including 95
seasonal employees.
Three helicopters operated on four-month contracts, logging over 1,100 hours
on field projects, approximately 725 hours on forest classification flights, and nearly
300 hours for transporting sampling crews to remote areas.
Table B—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1970 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area in ACres
Crown
Alienated
Total
Volume in
Cunits for
Mature
Crown Area
Barton Hill
Botanie	
E & N Crown (unregulated)..
Fort St. James SSA_	
Furry Creek SSA        - _.
Kotcho (proposed)  —..
Moberly____	
Nicola —  —	
Stikine (proposed) ;> 	
Stuart Lake —-	
Takla (southern portion)-
Vancouver-	
13
66
47
6
4
244
. .96
59
69
67
33
58
I     1
162,173
,298,414
148,925
24,640
18,984
513,175
889,393
950,883
018,268
,510,800
853,342
550,367
5,692
134,069
25,136
5,905
1,202
127,322
267,342
17,262
27,726
•854
419,988
Totals-
762      |  17,939,364    |    1,032,498
„       I I	
167,865
1,432,483
148,925
49,776
24,889
5,514,377
2,016,715
1,218,225
5,035,530
1,538,526
•854,196
970,355
4,385.
13,024
349
400
659
•2,900
20,738
10,282
26,935
25,591
•10,745
13,279
5401
1001
0902
4101
7802
0001
4201
2501
.8201
.9101
,8001
.3402
18,971,862    j  129,292,460
I
* Estimates.
i Volume at 7.1"+d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
- Volume at 9.1"-(-d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
3 Map scale of 1 inch=40 chains.
Decay studies continued in the hemlock-cedar wet belt of the Kinbasket and
Nakusp PSYU's. Northern units studied included the Moberly and Blueberry
PSYU's with two independent smaller crews.
Local loss-factor groupings for cedar and hemlock in Zones 4 and 6 were
produced:
Zone 4—Longworth-Robson.
Zone 6—Eagle-Okanagan-Salmon Arm-Spallumcheen.
 138°
136°
134c
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
116°
114°
112°
110°
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS   (PS.Y.U's)
P.S.Y.U. 's
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS
IBB Inside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas    |
P.H.A.
NO. 1 Prince George Pulp and Paper Limited
9. Big Valley 43. Naver
15. Carp 44. Nechako
20. Crooked River 52. Parsnip
NO. 2 Kamloops Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.
Adams
Barriere
Barton Hill
Botanie
Eagle .
NO. 3 Northwood Pulp Limited
12. Bowron
37.  Longwor th
NO. 4 Bulkley Valley Forest Industries Limited
4.  Babine 40. Morice
13. Burns Lake
NO,. 5 Cariboo Pulp & Paper Company Limited
17. Cottonwood 42. Narcosli
NO. 7 Intercontinental Pulp Company Ltd.
53. Peace 69.  Takla
45. Nehalliston
46. Nicola
47. Niskonlith
49. North Thompson
39. Monkman
55. Purden
s 1   1
71.
Stua rt Lake
77.
Westlake
79.
Willow River
59.
Raft
63.
Salmon Arm
64.
Shuswap
70.
Spallumcheen
61.
Robson
68.
Smithers
58.
Quesnel Lake
P.S.Y.U.'s I ^ Outside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
29.
Granby
57.
Queen Charlotte
30.
Hecate
60.
Rivers Inlet
31.
Kamloops
62.
Salmo
32.
Kettle
65.
Similkameen
33.
Kinbasket
66.
Skeena
34.
Kingcome
67.
Slocan
35.
Lac la Hache
69.
Soo
36.
Lardeau
72.
Stum
38.
Moberly
74.
Upper Kootenay
41.
Nakusp
75.
Vancouver
48.
Nootka •
76.
Wapiti
50.
Okanagan
78.
Williams Lake
51.
Ootsa
80.
Windermere
56.
Quadra
81.
Yalakom
SPECIAL   SALE AREAS   HHIID
27. Fort St. James (0-I-C 1888/65)
28. Furry Creek (O-I-C 3909/67)
54.  Prince George (O-I-C 2811/62)
TREE  FARM   LICENCES  ■■
T.F.L.
No.
21.
22.
MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.
British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Canadian Cellulose Company, Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
26..    The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27.     British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
30.     Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
32. Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
33. Federated  Co-Operatives  Limited
35. B.C.   Interior Sawmills  Ltd.
36. F.  & R.  Logging Co.   Ltd.
37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
38. Empire Mills Limited
39. MacMillan, Bloedel Limited
41.  Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.
13. Mount Seymour
14. Stone Mountain''
15. Strathcona
16. Tweedsmuir
17. Wells  Gray
18. Yoho
19. Cathedral
58°
56°
54°
52°
50°
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE R. G. WILLISTON, MINISTER
Scale
0 40 Sp Iff)	
40    30    20
MILES
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1971
48°
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
116°
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.  1971 AA  17
The growth and yield section constructed 10 zonal volume-over-age curves,
mostly in Zone 4. In addition, 56 local curves were prepared, using data from the
Fontas, Kotcho, Moberly, Stikine, Stuart, and Vancouver PSYU's. Forty-three
diameter-over-age curves were also drawn for the above-listed public sustained-
yield units. The former curves provide mean annual increment, and the latter
average tree diameters for growth types at any stand age.
Work continued on the compiling of stand-table information for all units surveyed in 1968, 1969, and 1970.
Approximately $24,000 was received from the sale of 18,097 maps, reports,
Xerox prints, and Forest Inventory Statistics 1967, an increase of over $5,000
since 1969.
A total of 19,899 maps was supplied to the Forest Service and other departments; while 32,269 reductions printed in the new 1860 Xerox were supplied to
forest districts, other departments, and the public.
DEVELOPMENTS
In 1971 the forest land in 14 public sustained-yield units was placed under
reserve and gazetted as the Barton Hill, Bell-Irving, Canoe, Kettle, Lardeau, Monk-
man, Nicola, Niskonlith, Okanagan, Parsnip, Salmo, Skeena, Slocan, and Spallum-
cheen Forests.   Another nine forest reserves are being processed.
No 70-mm. photos were taken in 1971 for the Inventory Division. However,
an inventory standing samples system programme was developed to compute standing samples, using 70-mm. photos. Output will include individual tree listing and
individual sample volume statement.
More than 9,000 acres of privately held forest property within the Kingcome
PSYU were examined for real-property assessment by the Inventory Division on
behalf of the Department of Finance.
Volume and depletion studies in wet-belt cedar will be rounded out with
sampling in the Quesnel PSYU. Loss-factor work will be extended in the north in
the Klappan and Finlay PSYU's. Growth and yield work will continue in the
Kamloops Forest District.
It is planned to produce stand-table information for all future unit surveys.
The land-use planner will continue to correlate pertinent ecological and recreational information as unit surveys are conducted.
The Division's warehouse at Green Timbers was destroyed by fire on December
26, with building and equipment losses estimated at $400,000.
  WESTERN  LARCH
research division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 21
RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1971 will appear in the Forest
Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
TREE-IMPROVEMENT STUDIES
The clone-bank area is constantly being improved. Twenty acres of a logged
area at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station and 13 acres on the North Arm
Forest on the opposite side of the lake were cleared by complete stumping and
burning. The fence was extended at the experiment station and is now enclosing
the total area west of Station Road, approximately 210 acres. On the North Arm
clearing a fence was built along the highway.
The office building was remodelled and an additional room was provided for
pollen extraction and cone-drying. A workshop was constructed in the existing
storage shed.
A major thinning for the first time was undertaken in the clone-banks, which
had close spacing between the ramets. Criteria for this thinning was graft compatibility and flower production. On 2 acres of the thinned area, where the ramets were
10 years or older, topping of all remaining ramets at approximately 15 feet height
was conducted. This is an attempt to develop bushy trees that will produce flowers
closer to the ground, thus making controlled pollinations easier.
The anticipated crop of reproductive buds matured on the clone bank at the
Forest Experiment Station and a start was made on a controlled pollination programme. Crosses were made for progeny testing and for use in a second-generation
selection scheme. A total of 8,458 female strobili was isolated from 83 clones,
while 95 pollen lots were handled. A four-pollen tester mating design was used to
provide some comparisons of general combining ability of the plus-tree clones, while
crosses were made on a wider basis for selection and inclusion in the first replacement seed orchards planned by the Reforestation Division. As part of the coordinated approach, Tahsis Company made available the buds of their Saanich
orchard where a further 1,250 female strobili from 34 clones were isolated. Sufficient seed is now available to start the nursery phases.
The Research Division also co-operated with the Reforestation Division to
complete the collection of wind-pollinated seed from trees at high elevations in the
Fraser Valley and Pemberton areas for the Dewdney seed orchard. Collections were
made from 80 trees well distributed over the zone.
A further nine test-sites were planted with racial crosses of Douglas fir on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland in the spring of 1971. This makes a grand
total of 28 established since 1966. The early results from the test-sites planted with
1 + 1 seedlings in 1966 were measured in the autumn of 1971. Some of the progeny
of these crosses are already more than I6V2 feet high.
A limited number of pollinations was made. Investigations into the occurrence
of dwarfing in the Douglas fir is continuing.
Nine test-sites of a provenance study of coastal Douglas fir were planted in the
spring of 1971. Height measurements of 66 provenances were obtained at the Port
Renfrew test-site, and additional test-sites were prepared for planting in 1972.
Studies of genetic variation in Pinus cotttorta continued with a morphometric
examination of needle samples from mature trees and their progeny. Among the
several characters evaluated, stomatal density (the number of stomates per unit
area) appears to be strongly heritable as well as highly correlated with seed source.
 AA 22 REPORT OF LANDS,  FORESTS,  AND WATER  RESOURCES
This trait is now being used taxonomically to evaluate variation in a range-wide
collection of 144 provenances.
The study will eventually incorporate data from tree-ring analyses on an extensive collection of increment cores. Sponsored by the Forest Service, this work is
being carried out at the University of British Columbia under the direction of a
member of the Faculty of Forestry.
First-season survival of 30 contorta provenances, planted at test-sites in the
Prince George, Nelson, and Vancouver Forest Districts, exceeded 99 per cent at all
locations, and marked growth differences between provenances were recorded. Seed
of another 150 provenances has been sown at the Red Rock nursery for more comprehensive field trials.
Plants representing 886 families and provenances have been selected and prepared for planting in breeding arboreta at Red Rock and Lake Cowichan. Part of
the stock remaining from these selections was planted in randomized blocks on a
50-acre test-site near Prince George.
After one season, 81-per-cent average take was recorded among 3,000 ramets
representing 75 plus trees from northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory.
These had been grafted in early spring on three-year-old potted rootstock at Red
Rock. Approximately 5,000 rootstocks have been prepared to receive scions from
another 75 plus trees from north-central British Columbia. Wind-pollinated seed
was collected and has been processed for use in the progeny-trial evaluation of
parent trees.
At the Red Rock Nursery and Research Centre a small laboratory was completed in the basement of the administration building where research seed lots can
be counted, germination tests made, and cold storage provided. Construction of a
lath house was commenced and the foundation was completed in December.
In co-operation with the Reforestation Division, approximately 375 acres of
the 5,000-acre Red Rock Reserve on the west side of the Fraser River were cleared
and prepared for planting of spruce and pine seed orchards and a breeding arboreta.
Some 200,000 Interior spruce seeds were sown from 138 plus trees of the
Smithers Selection Unit. Nearly 20 per cent of the trees from this unit produced
seeds with low germinability.
A plantation-site was prepared for the first progeny test of plus trees in the
Prince George Selection Unit.
Cones were collected from 110 of the 132 plus trees of the East Kootenay
Selection Unit.
Analyses of the heights of the 2-year-old progenies to be used in this test indicated a possible I5-per-cent height-growth gain if only the top 35 per cent of the
seedlings were selected for seed production.
The 13th meeting of the Committee on Forest Tree Breeding in Canada was
hosted by the Research Division in Prince George in August. More than 40 delegates from Canada and the United States attended the four-day convention.
SEEDLING PHYSIOLOGY STUDIES
Field work on the study of N uptake by 10-year-old Douglas fir trees was
completed and chemical analysis of samples commenced. This experiment is an
extension of work which showed that seedlings of Sitka spruce, white spruce, western
hemlock, and Douglas fir tend to grow faster on ammonium sources of nitrogen than
on nitrate sources of nitrogen.
A year-long test has shown that the 1 kiloherz: 1 megaherz impedance ratio
gives a good indication of severity of frost damage in Douglas fir, and the method
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,   1971 AA 23
was used to help the Reforestation Division estimate nursery losses due to "un-
seasonal" frosts on the Coast during September 1970. An electronically controlled
thermostatic device was designed (with assistance from the University of Queensland)
and built to control air temperature to ± 1 °C over the range 8°C to — 25 =C and is
now in use for determining absolute frost-hardiness of seedlings.
Continuing work with herbicides has shown that triazine compounds, particularly '"Propazine," are very effective and economical in controlling weeds in seedbeds at one coastal nursery, where excellent results were obtained on several acres.
A chemical laboratory for soil and plant-tissue analysis was added to the existing laboratory at North Road in Victoria.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
A one-week course was given to approximately 100 Government and company
foresters to facilitate the application of the British Columbia Forest Service Land
Classification System, A Mapping and Interpretation System for the Forested Lands
of British Columbia (Research Note 54).
Assistance was given to Crown Zellerbach, Rayonier, and British Columbia
Forest Products foresters in mapping their land.
Approximately 20,000 acres of the Kitimat Valley were mapped for species
suitability—a framework for species trials and operational reforestation practices.
ECOLOGY
Analyses of vegetational data by the association method of Williams and
Lambert produced promising results, but this method is expensive in computer time
and limited in the quantity of data that can be analysed. Dissimilarity analysis of
Macnaughton-Smith was selected for trial. This method was first applied to synthetic models and then to small lots of data. The resulting classifications are satisfactory, computing time much less, and larger quantities of data can be analysed.
Data from vegetation plots in the Fort Nelson area were analysed and are being
recorded to illustrate the method. Data from 735 vegetation plots in the north-
central Interior have been prepared for analysis.
DATA PROCESSING
A Forest Service request for computer equipment to replace the IBM 1440
system located in the Vancouver Scaling Office led to a series of discussions with systems analysts of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
The desire of the Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce
personnel was to replace the IBM 1440 with a teleprocessing link to their data centre
in Victoria. Equipment in the Victoria data centre was to be upgraded to handle
the extra work load. Forest Service personnel assisted Department of Industrial
Development, Trade, and Commerce systems analysts by explaining the existing
system until the request for an upgrade of equipment was turned down. It was
decided to postpone further systems design until a change of equipment had been
approved.
The Forest Service decided to stop scaling logs in foot board measure and
lumber cubic feet effective January 1, 1972. On October 1, 1971, the selling price
used for calculating Coast stumpage rates was to be reported in firmwood cubic
feet instead of foot board measure. This led to a series of administrative changes
to ensure continued service.    Management officers were assisted in planning the
 AA 24
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
changes in duties of personnel.   New computer programmes were designed to incorporate these changes and to change some data records.
Approximately 27,000 data and programme cards were punched. Most of the
programmes were already developed, except the dissimilarity analysis, which is a
new programme, used to group similar plant communities based on presence and
absence of a maximum of 200 different species.
The calculation of elements used in our soil and tissue analysis tests is also
computerized. A new version of this programme eliminates hand interpolation of
concentration values and accepts readings from new analytical laboratory equipment.
Assistance has been given to reforestation in the evaluation of container
planting trials which involved several thousand survival assessment and growth
measurements.
SILVICULTURE
Kamloops
Three projects were initiated to study aspects of lodgepole pine stand
management.
The first is a long-term project to determine optimum tree-spacing in natural
stands. The second is to observe the effects of logging method, size of clearcut, and
preparation of seed-bed in natural regeneration. The third is a series of short-term
studies to assess the effects of grass sowing on establishment and survival of pine
seedlings within clearcut and clearcut-burned areas.
Container planting trials were completed in the field and previous trials are
being reassessed. The performance of spruce and lodgepole pine is promising, particularly in plugs, but containerized seedlings of Douglas fir failed to survive as well
as bare-root seedlings of this species. It is believed the seedlings were grown too
long in containers prior to out-planting.
There is no significant difference in the cost per stocked spot between mattock-
planted trees and direct seeding of spots using the Panama seeder, even on sites
more arduous to plant that spot-sow. Costs are higher for planting, but these are
offset by the greater number of stocked spots and their better spacing in comparison
with the direct-seeding method.
In connection with the Cedar-Hemlock Rehabilitation project, a tally of surviving seedlings on two areas which had been direct-seeded near Enderby and Golden
indicated broadcast sowing with untreated Douglas fir seed had been successful.
However, spot-sowing on the same sites resulted in unexplainably poorer stocking.
Nelson
A trial of bareroot versus bullet and styroplug stock, using both Douglas fir and
spruce, was established during the fall of 1970 and the summer of 1971 in the
Lardeau District. By the fall of 1971 the spruce styroplugs had the highest percentage survival. The Douglas fir was heavily attacked by rabbits in all three plots,
with the rabbits apparently preferring the containerized stock over the bareroot stock.
A study was initiated into the pattern of cedar and hemlock seed released onto
snow. Previous studies have shown at least 75 per cent of the seeds are released
onto snow, but lack of access prevented investigation into that aspect of their
ecology.  The present location at Murphy Creek is accessible throughout the winter.
A replication of a 30-provenance trial of lodgepole pine was established at
Negro Creek. The provenances represent almost the complete range of pine in the
Province. Other replications are in the Prince George District and on Vancouver
Island.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 25
Prince George
The northern replication of the 30-provenance trial of lodgepole pine was
established successfully at Cluculz Lake.
A number of provenance planting-stock and container planting trials was
reassessed.
The Douglas fir provenances planted at Valemount last year suffered high
mortality.
There was no difference in the height growth of 1 + 1 and 2 + 0 PI stock, but
the survival of the transplants was better five years after planting.
Re-examination of container planting indicated styroplug stocks had the best
survival, followed by bareroot and bullet-planted stock. The survival of spruce was
best on a site where shade was provided by salmonberry.
Prince Rupert
A well-scarified area at Salvus was broadcast seeded with Sitka spruce and
preliminary examination of one of the three seeded blocks revealed promising
results. A full assessment will be done in 1972 to evaluate the effect of reinvading
brush on stocking.
FOREST PRODUCTIVITY COMMITTEE
A major activity of this committee is the co-ordination of research connected
with production of yield tables for stands subjected to specific silvicultural treatments.
A working plan has been prepared for the establishment of approximately 200
experimental installations in the Vancouver Forest District. These installations are
designed to test growth responses of Douglas fir and western hemlock stands to two
thinning intensities and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer application. Combined
thinning and fertilizer treatments will also be tested. It is based on experience
gained in establishment of two pilot installations in the summer of 1971; one was
located in a 60-year Douglas fir mixed stand at the Cowichan Lake Experiment
Station, the other in a 28-year Douglas fir plantation in the Sayward Forest. . It is
intended that, with industry co-operation, both experimental and operational scale
trials will be established.
Further information on the programme of the committee is contained in a
brochure The Functions and Programme of the Forest Productivity Committee.
Local universities and Federal research organizations are being encouraged to
participate in the programme—to include establishment of basic research projects
designed to complement and (or) explain growth-response information from Forest
Service and industry trials. The committee and the UBC Faculty of Forestry have
recently entered into agreement involving four research studies on different aspects
of forest productivity. These studies will involve research in variable density yield
tables, taper-based volume summaries, crown development, and climatic cycles.
The Canada Land Inventory, Climatology Division, is planning a network of
climate stations for the Vancouver Forest District, and has offered to include sites
selected for Forest Service fertilizer/thinning trials in this network. After discussion
and co-ordination through the British Columbia Forest Service Climatology Coordinating Committee, a climate-station programme was designed for the Forest
Productivity Committee and all other British Columbia Forest Service user divisions.
  ion division
SITKA SPRUCE
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 29
REFORESTATION DIVISION
FOREST TREE SEED
Flower and seed crops were generally poor in 1971. The Nelson Forest District, which had a complete crop failure in 1970, produced by far the best crop for
any area during 1971. This is reflected in the cone collections made and summarized as follows:
Cone Collections Made in 1971
(Amount in Bushels)
Forest District
F
s
L
PI.
Total
Vancouver	
362.5
362.5
_
1,798.5
262.5
135.0
18.0
1,798.5
1
262.5
____    ____    1    ____
135.0
Nelson 	
1,966.0
1,359.0
199.5
3,542.5
Totals	
2,328.5
1,359.0
199.5
2,214.0
6,101.0
Extraction and cleaning were completed in December, but yields are not yet
tabulated.
The extraction of the 1970 collections was completed early in 1971 and produced 2,523.315 kilograms of seed.
Yields of Seed From 1970 Collections
Forest
Fir
Hemlock
Spruce
Total
District
Bushels
Kilograms
Bushels
Kilograms
1
Bushels   1 Kilograms
1
Bushels
Kilograms
Vancouver 	
720.0
22.5
231.5
429.0
6.0
138.480
2.060
45.095
88.560
0.825
53.0
1
426.5           109.905
1,146.5
3,807.0
3,475.0
685.0
12.0
248.385
Prince Rupert
Prince George	
20.135
3,199.0
532.51
3,243.5
256.0
6.0
800.980
82.970
1,168.465
64.660
1.180
906.145
1,213.560
Kamloops	
153.220
2.005
Totals
1,409.0
275.020
53.0
20.135
7,663.5     j  2,228.160
1
9,125.5
2,523.315
1 Sitka spruce.
In addition, the winter collection of lodgepole pine during 1970/71 totalled
5,713.5 bushels and produced 399.870 kilograms of seed.
Summary of Winter 1970/71 Collections of Lodgepole Pine Seed
Forest District
Bushels
Kilograms
1,099.5
2,575.5
1,450.5
588.0
54.715
191.915
107.140
Nelson   	
46.100
5,713.5
399.870
 AA 30 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A considerable amount of lodgepole pine is being collected during the winter
of 1971/72 (estimated at 2,500 bushels) and will be extracted early in 1972.
The seed centre at Duncan processed 20,953 bushels of cones.
The amount of seed weighed and treated at the Duncan Seed Centre for sowing
in 1971 amounted to 1,471.672 kilograms (3,238 lb.). In addition, 1,042 seed
tests (209 new, 641 retests, 192 research) were completed. Extra retesting was
required to update seed records following recleaning over the gravity table. All
Forest Service Douglas fir seed lots were recleaned in 1971 and a total of 50 special
requests involving 164 seed lots was processed. A seed-yield study for several
British Columbia conifers was also completed.
Tree seed in storage at the end of 1971 is equivalent to 193/4 tons.
Amount in
Kilograms
British Columbia Forest Service seed  12,812.745
Company and private seed     3,910.895
16,723.640
At the Campbell River Seed Orchard a total of 1,062 female cones were bagged
and 569 full-cross cones were recovered. This poor showing was due to declining
vigour caused by overgrowth of the phloem tissue in two clones. In addition, 70
flowers were bagged at the Koksilah clone bank and 59 cones were collected. The
seed from these crosses will eventually produce trees for testing and the next phase
of the orchard. Routine maintenance was carried out at the Koksilah, Campbell
River, and Snowdon Orchards. A pollen flight study was also undertaken at the
Koksilah Orchard to determine the amount and pattern of pollen flight from wild
trees adjacent to the orchard.
Field collection of seed from selected trees for the Dewdney Seed Orchard was
continued in 1971. Seed for a total of some 138 selected trees (57 collected in
1970) for this orchard will be sown in 1972.
Initial development at the northern seed orchard and access to it was undertaken during the year, and part of the area will receive genetic stock in 1972.
There was no major increase in seed-production areas, but considerable improvement was accomplished in two forest districts. Trials with topping and high
pruning were initiated on two areas in the Prince George District and S.P.A. G-3
(spruce) near Wansa Lake was expanded by 4 acres. No collections were made
from any of the Prince George areas as there was no crop of Douglas fir or spruce
in the north. In the Vancouver District, cleaning and pruning was completed on 5
acres of S.P.A. V-5 (Sechelt) and 7,640 pounds of fertilizer were applied to a total
of 19 acres which were scheduled for treatment this year. A total of 183 bushels of
Douglas fir cones was collected from treated areas, whereas only 164 bushels were
collected from an equivalent but untreated area. No data are available on the relative seed yield per bushel from the treated and untreated areas.
FOREST NURSERIES
Good fallow area preparation plus favourable spring weather led to early
seed-bed preparation and sowing at most nurseries in 1971. Subsequent germination
and growth were excellent and little difficulty is anticipated in attaining the 70 million
trees scheduled for 1973. The total of 939,435 lineal feet (177 miles) of bed sown
in 1971 should provide trees for late 1972 and early 1973 planting projects.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 31
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 AA 32 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
There were production setbacks at several nurseries due to such problems as
insects, water shortages, and unfavourable weather conditions. The 1972 growing
period should overcome these setbacks and, barring serious overwintering losses, the
required number of trees should be available for planting.
Cold-storage difficulties and growth problems in the spring of 1971 resulted
from the mid-September frost in 1970. More damage was sustained than was
realized, with the consequence that vegetative buds failed to burst and stock moulded
in storage. Forest Service nurseries in 1971 produced 52.8 million trees (including
containers), of which.44 million were shipped and 7.8 million were transplanted.
The remainder are presently in cold storage. This is an increase in production of
17.3 million over 1970 (49 per cent).
The development of a container nursery at Surrey was among the highlights of
1971. The volume of container-grown stock was increased from 750,000 in 1970 to
over 7,152,000 in 1971 as a step toward developing the necessary growing techniques, to assess the problems of mass production and transportation, and to replace
1969 sowing losses at Red Rock. Approximately 931,000 containerized seedlings
were grown at Duncan and 6,221,000 at Surrey. Over 4,084,000 of these were
shipped during the year and the balance is scheduled for shipment in 1972. Pilot
container nurseries have been established at Vernon, Teikwa, and Red Rock to test
the feasibility of growing container stock under Interior environmental conditions.
At the request of the Attorney-General's Department and for reasons of economy, the Rayleigh Nursery was phased out during 1971. In addition, the total
inventory of lodgepole pine and larch at this nursery was lost to sulphur fumes
resulting from a train derailment that ignited several carloads of sulphur. The pon-
derosa pine which survived is not considered to be of plantable quality and its size
makes transplanting difficult.
Capital development both for new facilities and additional nursery space continues to be an important part of the reforestation expansion programme. Cold-
storage facilities have been developed to handle 35 million trees. Implement sheds,
water systems, storage buildings, fences, etc., have been constructed as required.
At Campbell River, Surrey, and Chilliwack, approximately 75 acres were
cleared for seed-bed and transplant space, bringing the total productive space available at all nurseries to 460 acres. Approximately IVi miles of nursery road were
constructed, and at Duncan 2 acres were reclaimed and bark-fibre sediment from a
hydraulic barker pond at Lake Cowichan is being tested as a peat substitute for
organic material. Red Rock rough-cleared an additional 10 acres for temporary
transplant space.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Despite demands of the 1971 fire season on field staff, District regeneration
survey crews were able to cover considerable ground. This was due, in part, to a
system of pre-classification of suspect areas which was employed by the Prince
George Forest District. In this method, areas are quickly stratified by means of a
minimum number of well-distributed sample plots. Portions that are found to be
either well stocked or which are definitely understocked are mapped as such with no
further examination. This permits more time examining areas where the degree of
restocking is doubtful. Using this system, Prince George District crews were able to
study some 38,800 acres, an increase of 8,700 acres over 1970. About 5,000 acres
required planting, and of this, 72 per cent will require some form of site preparation.
Elsewhere in the Interior, crews examined a total of 58,508 acres, of which
15,819 acres were unsatisfactorily restocked.   However, only approximately 17 per
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.   1971 AA 33
cent of the nonstocked area is unplantable owing to slash, brush, or other impediment. In summarizing the results of these surveys it is evident there has been a
gradual reduction in the amount of area requiring treatment before planting. This
is thought to be due to the closer utilization and the increase in prescribed burning
of the cutovers in the Interior over the past few years. In most cases crews were
unable to get much work done on the areas burned by large fires in 1971.
In the Vancouver Forest District, survey crews examined 34,566 acres and
found 31,892 acres unsatisfactorily stocked. Of this total. 27,301 are suitable for
planting and will be scheduled for planting in 1972. The balance of the areas examined are either restocked or considered likely to restock by natural means.
In addition to the above areas of current interest, there are many thousands
of acres of backlog area which have, over the years, become brushed-in or poorly
restocked. Most of these older areas will require considerable work before they are
in suitable condition for artificial reforestation, and many of them are presently inaccessible. One such area is the 30,000-acre Van Fire north of Babine Lake and
to which the Nilkitwa Forest Road is being constructed. It is expected planting in
this burn will commence by 1974.
PLANTING
Above-average snow-packs, common at higher elevations in the early spring,
suggested a late start for tree-planting projects in J 971. However, warm and moist
weather during the latter part of March and in early April hastened snow melt so
that, despite a week's delay in getting started, crews were able to commence more
projects concurrently than was anticipated. The hot, dry weather in late April and
early May threatened to shorten the planting season, but spring rains finally arrived,
at least in the southern part of the Province, and continued well into July.
In the case of most forest districts, nursery overruns provided extra stock, and
with the favourable weather planting continued into July in the Interior. These circumstances enabled all agencies to reach a record total of 43,846,000 trees planted
on 102,177 acres. Of this total, Forest Service planting on Crown lands amounted
to 25,076,200 trees (57.3 per cent of the total) on 53,745 acres (Appendix Table
22). It is significant that Crown land planted in the Interior was more than doubled
from the previous year in both number of trees and acres. Not included in the
acreage total is 1,151 acres which were replanted after the West Fire burned
2,300 acres of earlier plantation in the Prince George Forest District. Some replanting of burned plantation in the Sue Fire near Golden was also undertaken.
During the year, 4,523,000 trees were planted by contractors, and this represented about 18 per cent of the Forest Service programme.
The average number of tenders received on each contract increased over 1970,
indicating a healthy interest in these projects. Contract prices compared favourably
with estimated costs. In the spring some difficulty was experienced on several areas
and those contract projects had to be taken over by Forest Service crews. Revisions
of tendering and other procedures are expected to prevent a recurrence of such
situations. Twenty-four contracts, totalling almost three million trees, have been
scheduled for the spring of 1972.
As expected, planting by timber sale harvesting licensees increased noticeably
during 1971. Five licensees planted a total of 825,400 trees on 1,733 acres. Included in the Crown totals shown above are 2,599,000 trees planted by the Forest
Service on older cutovers in timber sale harvesting licences.
Also included in the Forest Service totals are some 1,030,000 container seedlings which were fall-planted.   This was the first fully operational planting of
 AA 34 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
container stock in the Interior. An additional 26,000 container seedlings were
outplanted in the continuing series of field trials, mainly in the Vancouver District.
Interior trials were commenced in the fall and will be continued in spring 1972.
Over two million container seedlings are being held in overwinter storage at various
Interior points. Various companies also planted minor amounts of container stock
in a series of co-operative trials.
In connection with the year's planting operations, district crews established
14,006 survival sample plots, and a further 6,552 plots in older plantations were
re-examined. The northern districts reported a significant increase in browsing of
planted trees by rabbits, and the Fish and Wildlife Branch confirmed that rabbit
populations are now at, or are nearing, their cyclical peak, which occurs every seven
to nine years. No effort was made to control either the rabbit populations or the
damage caused. Survival reports continue to illustrate that good stock, well planted
in the best available microsite, can survive normal summer drought
CO-OPERATION
Co-operative investigations with the Canadian Forestry Service in connection
with the container nursery programme was intensified during 1971. This nursery
system is still considered experimental, and continued basic research is necessary to
determine and confirm optimum container size, mechanization of processes, fertilization schedules, and other facets as well as to deal with the inevitable problems which
arise.   Volume production will be reduced in 1972.
Co-operative research was also continued in the bareroot nurseries where
studies were continued on damping-off, root-pruning, and the control of weeds and
nursery pests. Of more immediate significance is a series of trials at Surrey to determine the susceptibility of young pine seedlings to the European pine shoot moth and
the effect of nursery bed fumigation as a possible control measure.
At the request of the Canadian Forestry Service, this Division arranged, through
two forest districts, for the collection of seed of alpine species by two foresters from
Iceland.
Divisional participation in the Reforestation Board continued to provide regular
contact with industry and other agencies on the progress of reforestation activities.
Current projects concern outplanting of container seedlings and a review of these
and other reforestation systems, and studies on browsing repellents.
The various forest nurseries again played a dominant role in the co-operative
efforts of the Division. Apart from the routine participation in local fairs and other
displays, Green Timbers contributed significantly to the Forest Service display at
the Pacific National Exhibition. In connection with the Cowichan Valley Forest
Museum, the Duncan Nursery staff have undertaken the establishment and maintenance of a 1-acre demonstration nursery and a plantation which will eventually
cover 10 acres. The Seed Centre concluded its role in the germination studies being
carried out on Abies species by the Western Forest Tree Seed Council. Results of
this project are inconclusive. Nursery tours are perhaps the closest contact between
the public and the Forest Service and, despite the time spent, the programme is considered worth while. At Red Rock, for instance, 484 people toured the nursery in
more than 12 groups, and nursery facilities were often used for district, divisional,
and co-operative functions.
The reforestation phase of the cedar-hemlock rehabilitation projects at Golden
and Enderby was completed with the final seeding at Golden and the re-examination
of survival plots at both locations.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 35
Headquarters and Nelson District staff, in co-operation with the Canadian
Forestry Association and local industry, presented a reforestation display at "Skog-
dag '71" held near Cranbrook this year.
In co-operation with the Division, several districts carried out a variety of
silvicultural projects utilizing local unemployed persons and students. Vancouver
District cleaned 465 acres of plantation, spaced 436 acres of natural second growth,
and prepared another 240 acres for planting.
Kamloops District, under the supervision of the Regional Research Officer,
established a spacing trial in 10-year-old lodgepole pine near Lac Le Jeune.
Prince Rupert District crews carried out spacing and sanitation cutting on some
670 acres and completed control of alder on another 200 acres.
In all districts, reforestation training of both Forest Service staff and industry
was continued. This programme is important because of the regular turnover of
technicians and the increasing number of licensees and contractors who are becoming
active in reforestation. Those qualified are encouraged to write the respective Technical Forest Officer examinations. The need for substantially more qualified and
experienced men in the field to cope with supervisory duties is foreseen.
Today's technology is growing and planting trees has become so complex that
interdivisional co-operation must continue to be the keynote in not only the long-
term programme but also in the day-to-day activities. This permits those doing the
job the advantage of the experience, assistance, and advice of those in disciplines
other than their own. In the Forest Service, this spirit of co-operation is exceptionally high.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL FORESTRY AND CORRECTIONS CAMP
PROGRAMME
Under the guidance of trained and experienced correctional officers, this programme continues to grow in size and scope in spite of generally static camp
populations.
One of the most significant advances during the year was the introduction of
the Work Release Programme into forestry activities. This programme provides for
pre-release inmates to work out on a daily basis without corrections supervision.
They receive regular wages for the type of work they do. This year, 10 inmates from
the Hutda Lake Camp were hired for a small planting project which was completed
satisfactorily and with a high standard of planting. It is hoped this programme can
be increased in the future, for the benefit of all concerned.
The rehabilitation of Stave Lake in co-operation with the British Columbia
Hydro and Power Authority commenced in 1971 and promises to become one of the
major projects under this programme. A 30-man camp was constructed near the
work-site and was occupied in October. Actual recovery of salvable material from
the lakeshore got under way early in November.
Operations on the clean-up of floating debris on Alouette Lake continued. This
material covers about 100 acres, and is held behind a log boom at the north end of
the lake.
In conjunction with the nursery expansion programme, inmate crews cleared
and prepared some 70 acres at several nurseries, and assisted in the preparation of
the reservoir-site at Chilliwack. In the production phase, crews lifted almost seven
million trees and transplanted 704,000 seedlings. Other crews planted a total of
150,000 trees on 315 acres in various locations, and collected over 1,000 bushels
of cones.    Hutda Lake Camp provided men for the right-of-way clearing of 5Vi
 AA 36 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
miles of road into the northern seed orchard-site and prepared 80 acres for outplacing of genetic stock.   An additional 320 acres of orchard-site were cleared of brush.
Maintenance and improvement of forest roads in all areas continued to occupy
much of the crews' time. Routine work consisted of slashing brush, clearing ditches
and culverts, repairing bridges, and gravelling. Two bridges, spanning 70 feet and
55 feet, were constructed in the Chilliwack Valley.
Fire-suppression crews were organized under Correctional Officers in each
camp and were trained by local Ranger staff in the use and maintenance of pumps,
chain saws, and other equipment. Due to the moderate fire season within the sphere
of this programme, and the availability of other suppression crews, inmates took
action on only 11 fires. Crews in the Prince George District, however, felled snags
on 973 acres and manned secondary lookouts during short periods of high hazard.
During standby periods these men constructed storage for equipment and hose-
drying racks.
The rehabilitation of brushed-in areas and plantation release and cleaning is a
continuing job in almost all areas. Over 150 acres were cleaned up, and thinning
and pruning projects in second growth were started toward the year's end. Material
salvaged from this work is used for camp fuel.
Sawmills operated by inmate crews convert suitable salvage material into
lumber for camp buildings, bridges, and wharves. Other material produces shakes,
posts, stakes, and other items for project use. Considerable time is also devoted to
range-fencing, camp-site maintenance, search and rescue, fabrication of pallets and
tent frames, and equipment repair. This work is rarely mentioned but nevertheless
is an important part of this co-operative programme.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.   1971 AA 39
INFORMATION DIVISION
Mounting public concern over forest-land uses throughout 1971 resulted in a
more concentrated effort by the Forest Service to "tell its side of the story." This, in
turn, resulted in clearly defined efforts by the Information Division's over-all public
relations programme. The endeavour included special advertisements in more than
100 weekly newspapers and in selected journals.
In addition to routine news releases and special articles for press and other publications, the Division also enjoyed expanded co-operation with various television
outlets—particularly the CBC, CTV, and Cablevision broadcasting stations of Victoria and Vancouver. The Cable 10-TV. station of Vancouver presented a series of
13 half-hour programmes with the over-all title of "The Prime Resource"—all
dealing with personnel and activities of the Service.
By year's end, arrangements were also being made for the Cablevision broadcasting station at Campbell River to include a similar series in its early-1972 schedule. Eight special documentary-interview type programmes were carried (mostly
live) by the CTV outlet in Vancouver.
Several Forest Service publications were revised and updated; and a new
brochure entitled Sustained Yield from British Columbia's Forests was widely
distributed.   The Division also produced the pamphlet Campfire Do's and Don'ts.
The sustained yield and "balanced use" themes were incorporated in various
public displays and presentations.
PHOTOGRAPHY
Total production rose in 1971, and again with an increase in the use of colour.
Because of limited staff and space, some functions continue to be contracted out.
The section produced 17,162 prints (2,270 in colour), more than 900 colour
slides, and 903 (35-mm.) colour transparencies. Duplication of slides was a major
project, with more than 900 copied.
Two slide shows, "Sustained Yield in British Columbia" and "Bridging the
Nass" were produced, both with synchronized sound commentaries. Ten copies of
"Sustained Yield in British Columbia" were distributed throughout the Forest Service.  "Bridging the Nass" will be distributed early in 1972.
Various projects were covered photographically in the Prince Rupert District.
Other major assignments included continued photographic coverage of the Mica
clearing project, recreational aspects, Boot Lake clean-up in the Sayward Provincial
Forest, and detailed coverage of all aspects of the styroblock-container programme
in the Surrey and Duncan Nurseries.
MOTION PICTURES
Production has been completed for the first in a series of reforestation films
entitled "Trees Unlimited," to be released early in 1972. A total of 11,300 feet of
16-mm. colour film was shot on this and other projects.
Coverage was again given to the Mica pondage clearing; and film depicting lady
planters at Hope, correctional camp inmates working in the Haney district, and suppression crews working on fires in Manning Park was produced for television use.
 AA 40 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY
Shortage of space continues to be a critical problem, with the result library
material is now scattered over four separate locations. Some 1,600 additions were
made to the library throughout the year.
Early in the year, the librarian visited the Training School to explain the
benefits of the library to members of an advanced course.
FILM LIBRARY
Throughout 1971 the Forest Service film library loaned 2,689 films, and they
were seen by a combined adult and student audience of 341,320. This compares
with 2,134 loans and 301,520 viewers the previous year.
A large increase was noted in organizations using our films from outside the
Province.
Twenty-one films from outside sources were previewed, of which four were
purchased.   Twelve films were added to the library.
DISPLAYS
The forest-management cycle was featured in Forest Service displays at the
Duncan Boat Show and the Skogdag programme at Cranbrook; while one at the
Quesnel Trade Fair had a Centennial theme. There were also service displays at
"Career Days" at Cranbrook, Vernon, and Kelowna. At the PNE, the research
section was added to the permanent British Columbia Pavilion display to complete
the indoor project.  The pavilion was visited by approximately 600,000 persons.
A totally new display was established in the PNE's Festival of Logging area.
Labelled "A Walk in the Forest," it contains some 200 upright, painted cedar timbers, features enlarged colour photographs depicting the principle commercial trees
of the Province, and is attractively landscaped with living native trees. The display
was visited by more than 33,500 people.
EDUCATION
Personnel of the Division were guest speakers at 30 meetings of various service
clubs, business and school groups, and other organizations. Further assistance was
also provided the outdoor classroom and general development at the Cowichan
Valley Forest Museum near Duncan. There was also a steady flow of Forest Service
information material to teachers, students, and librarians throughout the Province.
SIGNS
It was a busy year for the development and (or) introduction of various Forest
Service signs.
Some highlights: Development of new Forest Road signs, some already in use;
the redesigning of Ranger Station signs; plans for new recreation signs; production of
public sustained-yield unit signs for use along Highway 16 in the Prince George
Forest District; reforestation signs produced for plantations adjacent to major
highways.
FOREST SERVICE MUSEUM
Numerous interesting items were donated to the museum; and considerable time
was spent rearranging the growing collection of artifacts for easy access.
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ALPINE  FIR
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.   1971 AA 43
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
The pulp industry continued to operate below capacity due to a poor market,
but the demand for lumber improved significantly after the first quarter. The improved lumber market made possible a continuing increase in the cut from the
Interior of the Province where the scale increased 8.7 per cent over 1970. Production on the Coast continued to decline, falling 1.5 per cent below the scale for 1970.
The total scale of all products in 1971, Coast and Interior, was 1,997,081,172 cubic
feet, an increase of 3.2 per cent over the 1970 total scale.
During the year, close utilization became compulsory for operation in the
sustained-yield units included in Pulp Harvesting Area 2 to supply raw material for
the expanded pulp-mill under construction in Kamloops. The number of close
utilization operations continued to increase throughout the Interior, although chip
recovery was less than 100 per cent as a result of a continuing chip-car shortage.
By the end of the year it was estimated 72 per cent of the total Provincial cut was at
the close-utilization standard.
Established licensees in public sustained-yield units continued to opt to place
their cutting rights into the new timber sale harvesting licence tenure. At year's end
there were 203 timber sale harvesting licences which account for an annual cut of
6,346,050 cunits.
The Division was reorganized with the creation of a planning section to include
tree-farm licence, recreation, and public sustained-yield unit planning responsibilities
of forest management administration. This change was necessary due to increased
emphasis being placed on forest planning, and there is an increasing need for frequent contact with representative groups from the public and the other resource
departments, both Federal and Provincial.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
The stumpage rates payable for Crown timber in the Interior (tied directly to
dressed lumber selling prices) increased significantly as a result of the improved
market for lumber. However, stumpage rates on the Coast, which are tied to log
prices, were depressed due to the poor pulp market. The average price bid for
Crown timber was $3.87 per 100 cubic feet, compared with $4.28 in 1970. The
average stumpage rates for the years 1965-69, inclusive, were $4.20, $4.25, $3.21,
$6.26, and $9.02 respectively per 100 cubic feet.
The weighted average price per 100 cubic feet for timber authorized for cutting
in the Interior increased from $3.02 in 1970 to $3.75 in 1971, and the comparable
average price on the Coast fell from $8.15 to $4.52.
The average stumpage price detail shown in Table 62 includes the volume sold
at salvage value only rates, plus the volumes included in close-utilization licences
and cutting permits at a standard $0.55 per 100 cubic feet. The average stumpage
price per 100 cubic feet for all species, excluding close utilization and salvage wood,
was $5.04 on the Coast down from $8.87 in 1970 and $5.71 in the Interior, up from
$3.98 in 1970.
STUMPAGE ADJUSTMENTS
Changes in lumber-selling prices resulted in 1,788 downward adjustments and
29,341 upward adjustments in the stumpage rates payable for timber cut on cutting
permits and timber sales in the Interior. For timber cut on the Coast there were
4,442 upward adjustments and 2,451 downward adjustments.
 AA 44 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
As a result of these adjustments, stumpage rates at the end of the year were
significantly higher than the yearly average.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
As indicated by Table 50, the number of public sustained-yield units in the
Province remains unchanged at 78, though there were minor adjustments in acreage
and cuts as a result of new inventories in some units.
Approval was given to distribution of the uncommitted portion of the close-
utilization annual allowable cut in a further eight public sustained-yield units, raising
the number of units approved for close-utilization commitment to 44.
The close-utilization capacity of wood-conversion plants in the Interior continued to expand with the installation of additional close-utilization equipment in
existing plants, replacement of some existing plants by new higher capacity-close-
utilization mills, and construction of new plywood or veneer plants and close-
utilization sawmills to utilize the additional cuts made available by adoption of close
utilization. With increasing demand and improved utilization, operations have also
been permitted to develop into previously uncommitted areas, providing further
wood for plant expansion and construction of new plants.
A number of licensees in Coast units have close-utilization harvesting licences,
and consideration has been given to distribution of the uncommitted balance of the
close-utilization cut in several coastal units. Full distribution has been delayed
because few of the conversion plants, other than pulp-mills, are equipped for full
close utilization. As a result, the cut commitment in public sustained-yield units has
increased from 649 million cubic feet in 1966 to 921 million cubic feet in 1971.
Further progress was made in the preparation of plans for management of individual public sustained-yield units and, since these plans are intended to recognize
and integrate use of all resources of the forest, other resource departments have
co-operated in their preparation. Canada Land Inventory information is also used
where it is available. There has also been improved co-operation between resource
departments in reviewing development proposals for areas within public sustained-
yield units, to ensure they provide adequate protection for other resource values,
and field examinations have been arranged as required to determine how proposals
fit conditions on the area.
Other interdepartmental field examinations were conducted to determine areas
suitable for recreational use and to draw up plans for their development.
Again in 1971, 13 public sustained-yield units were designated as Provincial
Forest Reserves, raising the total to 39. Since five of these units were previously
designated as pulp-harvesting forests, the number of remaining pulp-harvesting forests has been reduced from eight to three.
Tree-farm Licences
In accordance with Order in Council 662, dated March 1, 1968, the Moresby
and Bonanza Lake Blocks were included in Tree-farm Licence 2 as of January
1, 1972.
During the year, six working plans were submitted and reviewed. The trend
toward integrated use has been continued and expanded with policies and procedures
being developed for recreation, stream pollution control, wildlife and fishery protection.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 45
The contracting guidelines developed by the Select Standing Committee on
Forestry and Fisheries, which were adopted in April 1970, have now been in operation for a complete calendar year. Amendments to approved working plans, in line
with the guidelines, have been reviewed and approved for all tree-farm licences, and
the "contractor clause" administration appears to be functioning effectively.
FOREST RECREATION
One forester and one technician were added at each district office to work on
integrating recreation into Forest Service administration.
Priority activity, now well under way, was to inventory and incorporate recreation data into the management plan of a selected pilot public sustained-yield unit in
each district.   Revised mapping procedures for this purpose are also being examined.
A review of all high-public-use recreation locations was initiated, as an aid to
segregating areas of responsibility between the Parks Branch and the Forest Service,
and in setting priorities for operational attention.
Joint Forest Service/tree farm licensee public recreation pilot projects were
completed at two locations in the Nitinat Lake area.
At year-end, work was in progress on standard designs for Forest Service
recreation facilities, and on tourist map brochures.
SILVICULTURE
The trend toward large clear-cuts has continued; however, a preliminary review
has been made and work is proceeding toward the development of guidelines with
respect to size of openings and sequential development.
Rehabilitation projects at the Blaeberry River and in the Noisy Creek drainage
were completed and the final report, embodying benefit-cost analysis, is being
prepared.
SCALING
Conversion to the firm wood cubic scale was completed by December 31, 1971.
Conversion from manual scaling was continued, as illustrated by the number
of weigh scales in use.
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales by December 31—
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
Vancouver  _	
5
8
21
17
4
5
10
27
19
20
4
16
31
20
6
20
37
26
6
20
Prince George —   _ 	
42
33
Nelson 	
20        |        22
29
55         ]         81
91
111
130
Four per cent of Vancouver's 1971 production was weight-scaled, 55 per cent
of Prince Rupert's, 87 per cent of Prince George's, 77 per cent of Kamloops', and
71 per cent of Nelson's.
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 49
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Temperatures were generally moderate during the winter of 1970/71. Hay
supplies were adequate and stock came out of the winter in reasonable condition.
With the exception of the Peace River District, snow-pack was above average in the
range area and soil-moisture conditions were good at the commencement of the
growing season. However, abnormally low spring temperatures retarded forage
growth and turnout of stock had to be considerably delayed on many ranges.
Late spring and early summer rains, followed by high midsummer temperatures,
resulted in above-average forage production for the year. The summer drought
period was severe but short and only a few of the dryer range-sites were adversely
affected. Winter weather with heavy snowfall occurred earlier than usual and curtailed late fall grazing.   Stock came off range in generally good condition.
Hay production was higher than average, but quality variable. Persistent wet
weather extending into July resulted in some spoilage of early crops or over-maturity
due to delayed harvesting. The quality of some late crops, particularly in the Peace
River area, was reduced by early fall rain. However, hay supplies in the range area
appear adequate in spite of the early commencement of winter feeding.
Although predatory animals were particularly troublesome, total losses of stock
to these animals were about average. Toxic plants appeared to take a lower-than-
normal toll, due at least in part to eradication programmes and adjustments in stock
management initiated by the Division. No serious live-stock disease problems requiring adjustments in range use occurred. Intensive industrial activity disrupted
range-use patterns in several areas—a growing problem of serious concern to
range-users.
A strong market prevailed for all classes of cattle, and prices remained reasonably firm at slightly higher levels than in 1970. The weighted average price received
by cattlemen through the British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative
Association was $30.87 per hundredweight, compared to $30.17 in 1970, a rise of
70 cents.
RANGE AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT
The increasing level of associated land uses and the continuing diversion of
range land to totally incompatible uses require that management of the Crown range
be intensified simply to maintain the present level of use by domestic stock and avoid
interuse conflict. Achievement of a satisfactory level of management is rendered
difficult by high labour and material costs, and because there are many small undercapitalized ranch units involved. In many cases off-ranch employment is necessary,
leaving little time for range-management effort by the operator. Nevertheless,
during the year, a number of progressive adjustments were made in periods of use,
stock-distribution patterns, and grazing intensities. Rotational grazing was introduced to several additional range units. A start was made toward regulating use of
Crown lands by horses in the northern areas of the Province.
Efforts toward satisfactory integration of range-land uses were intensified.
Division officers participated in field inspections and management planning sessions
with other resource-management agencies and user groups. Local committees representing resource-management agencies are helping to co-ordinate such activities.
In many situations, existing knowledge of intereffects is inadequate to ensure
most effective use integration. To help correct this situation, several intensive studies
 AA 50 REPORT OF LANDS,  FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
were commenced. A study of the inter-relationship between mule deer and cattle
on a deer winter range on the north side of Kamloops Lake—a co-operative study
with the Canada Range Research Station at Kamloops and the Fish and Wildlife
Branch. The Division is also working with the Fish and Wildlife Branch and Department of Agriculture in a cattle-wildlife relationship study in the East Kootenay area
by the University of British Columbia. This three-year study is in the planning and
equipment-testing stage and will involve the first use of biotelemetric techniques in
this type of work in the Province.
Clear-cut lodgepole pine areas present an opportunity for increased forage
production through seeding of domestic grasses and legumes. To determine the
compatibility of such seeding and subsequent grazing with coniferous regeneration,
1,100 acres of clear cuts were seeded and will be studied over the next three years
in co-operation with the Research and Management Divisions and the Range Research Station.
The teaching and promotion of improved range-management techniques to
range-user groups through illustrated slide talks, field meetings, and other means
was continued.
Range Surveys
During 1971, field work was undertaken on the following areas: Lemon Lake
Unit, Horsefly Stock Range; Naramata Unit, White Lake Stock Range; Roche Lake-
Dardanelles area, Nicola and Monte Hills Stock Range; Gustafsen Lake Unit, Clinton Stock Range; South Ashnola area, Keremeos Stock Range. Maps and reports
on these areas are being prepared.
Maps and reports were completed for the following: Deadman Creek Stock
Range; Allenby and Nine Mile Units, Princeton Stock Range; Scarped and High
Mountain Units, Lillooet Stock Range; Choelquoit Unit, Chilcotin Stock Range.
Maps and reports are nearing completion at the end of the year for: Dog Creek
Unit, Clinton Stock Range; Cahoose and Clesspocket Units, Anahim Stock Range.
Range and Pasture Improvements
Emphasis in the range-improvement programme was placed on the construction
of improvements designed to facilitate control and distribution of stock on the range.
Intensive pasture-development work was limited to completion of projects already
under way and the rebreaking and reseeding of portions of several pastures established several years ago. Assistance to the programme from the Range Improvement
Fund amounted to $189,492, and $20,000 was spent on pasture projects in the
Peace River area.   Range-users contributed substantially to most projects.
Structural improvements constructed or replaced included 110 miles of trail and
road, 108 miles of fencing, 48 water developments, 16 bridges and culverts, 41
cattle-guards, 11 corrals, two breeding pastures, two horse pastures, one holding
ground, and seven enclosures for experimental studies or demonstration purposes.
Routine maintenance was carried out on nine buildings, 88 miles of fencing, 54 miles
of trail and road, and 10 water developments within the Peace River pastures.
Brush-control measures were undertaken on 4,286 acres, of which 256 acres
were treated by mechanical methods and 4,030 acres by prescribed burns, mainly
in the Peace River area. Within pasture projects, 1,545 acres were cultivated for
seeding.
A total of 70,335 pounds of grass and legume seed was sown on ground denuded as a result of wildfire, logging, or other industrial activity and on cultivated
sites.   Seed was applied from the air to 10,500 acres of burned-over or clear-cut
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.   1971 AA 51
forest land. Aircraft designed for this type of work were used for the first time and
were effective.
Knapweed is a serious problem on many ranges. Chemical control on a large
scale is not economically or physically feasible and biological control appears to be
the only practical solution.   A total of 92 acres of knapweed was treated chemically.
Miscellaneous improvements included removal of abandoned buildings, garbage, and other hazards and control of toxic plants. Beaver and predator-control
measures were also undertaken in co-operation with the Fish and Wildlife Branch in
several areas where these animals were particularly troublesome.
CO-OPERATION
Close contact with the industry was maintained through the 63 local Range
Livestock Associations currently recognized under the Grazing Act. Association
activity remained at a high level and 197 association meetings were attended by
Forest Officers. A number of association area boundaries were revised to adjust to
changing range use patterns.
The B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association helped in dealing with a number
of matters of industry-wide importance. The association has changed its name to
"British Columbia Cattlemen." The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Cooperative Association, the industry's marketing agency, again supplied the selling-
price figures necessary for calculating grazing fees under the sliding scale. The cooperative sold approximately 46.8 million pounds of beef animals from the range
area during the year.
ADMINISTRATION
Grazing use of Crown range increased slightly in 1971, reversing the trend of
the past two years. This, together with the need for improved integration of land
uses, increased the administrative work load. Special problems such as the displacement of ranches by the Libby Reservoir and arranging for various research projects
demanded considerable staff time. The need for revised legislation to meet changing
demands on the range and conditions in the industry was explored.
Grazing and Hay Permits
During the year, 1,920 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 178,772 cattle, 6,186 horses, and 1,484 sheep on Crown range. The number of
permits issued is down slightly from the previous year. The number of cattle is virtually the same, horses up slightly, and sheep continued to decline. (See table 70 in
the Appendix.)
Expressed in animal-unit months, the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month, total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to
829,337 animal-unit months, 6,895 more than the previous year.
A total of 195 hay-cutting permits was issued authorizing the harvesting of
1,968 tons of meadow hay, approximately the same as 1970.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to prices received by the producers
the previous year. Except for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area, grazing
fees per head per month were 60 cents for cattle, 75 cents for horses, and 15 cents
for sheep, a considerable increase over the previous year.   The separate scale of
 AA 52 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
fees for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area remained at the rate of $1 per
head per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25 cents for sheep. The hay-cutting
fee remained at $1 per ton.
Control and Enforcement
Routine measures to control use of Crown range during the year included an
increased number of pre-turnout stock counts and range inspections. Although most
stock-owners complied with the regulations and permit conditions, it was necessary
to seize and detain trespassing stock in 20 cases. In addition, two cases were successfully prosecuted in Court. Trespass by horses, particularly in the Cariboo and
Chilcotin areas, continues to be the main problem.
 DOUGLAS  FIR
engineering
division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 55
ENGINEERING DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
• The decision to replant the Van Fire area, in the Prince Rupert Forest District,
led to survey and design for a road into the area from Nilkitkwa Lake, and by
year's end Forest Service crews were mobilizing for construction of the first section, which will include a permanent bridge across the Babine River.
• The large volume of debris and wood of marginal economic usability present in
reservoir lakes, in rivers, in the sea, and on beaches, has received increasing
attention in recent years. Economic studies and proposals for recovery, sorting,
utilization, and disposal are continuing, and pilot projects are being carried out.
The Forest Service, other Government agencies, and industry are working on
these problems.
• The Provincial Student Assistance programme made it possible to accomplish a
number of tasks which might otherwise have been postponed or left undone.
• A member of the Engineering Division was assigned full time to the Joint Coast
Appraisals Committee to review coastal stumpage appraisal methods.
• The Peace Pondage Waterways Improvement Project won the British Columbia
Safety Council Award of Honour for safety in the treatment of 34,000 acres.
This work is hazardous and project operations were spread over 150 miles.
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Field survey crews completed 192 miles of road location, and surveys of bridge-
sites, nurseries, Ranger Stations, lookout-sites, and railroad and highway crossings.
District field engineering included development studies of the Fort Nelson and
Fontas PSYU's, access-route studies in 31 public sustained-yield units, and 600
miles of road evaluations in tree-farm licences, timber sale harvesting licences, and
public sustained-yield units.
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for two pressure-creosoted
timber bridges—one on the Chilako River in the Prince George District and one on
the Babine River in the Prince Rupert District. Design of the latter, which will
provide access for reforestation, required considerable consultation with Federal and
Provincial agencies to ensure no damage to the fishery resources.
Other design work included nine preliminary sketches and estimates for bridges,
three log bridge designs, and numerous smaller jobs.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
A study entitled "Log and Debris Salvage in the Strait of Georgia" was completed and submitted to the Select Standing Committee on Fisheries and Forestry
of the British Columbia Legislature. Investigations are proceeding on control and
disposal of Fraser River debris, loss of logs from log booms, and the amount and
utilization of debris and logs on beaches.
The 70-mm. fixed-airbase photography programme ended abruptly when the
boom and cameras were jettisoned into the Fraser River during an emergency.
Replacement is in progress.
The road recording equipment was improved and 570 miles of road were
"surveyed" in a few days' time. Later, plans and profiles were produced by the
Government computer in minutes.
 AA 56 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A benefit-cost analysis for reforestation of the Van Fire area in Prince Rupert
District was made, and the effect on the forest economy of flood-control dams in the
headwaters of the Fraser River is under study.
CONSTRUCTION
A major bridge of wood and steel construction was built across the Nass River
near Meziadin Lake to provide access for administration and protection of the forests to the north.
The larger road projects included construction of 16.7 miles of the Bull River
Forest Road, a start on upgrading 21 miles of the Hartley-Sulphur-Quinn Creek
Forest Road, and continued construction on the Kootenay Lake East Forest Road.
General maintenance of the forest road system was carried out by crews under
district supervision.
RESERVOIR IMPROVEMENTS
Clearing work on Williston Lake included the treatment of a further 10,600
acres and the burning of debris trapped in areas of drawdown in the Lower Parsnip
region. A feasibility study for chipping of floating timber on Williston Lake was
completed, and a pilot operation for sorting of sawlogs from floating debris was
carried out.
The waterway-improvement programme on the Mica Reservoir continued with
the treatment of 13,300 acres. Site-preparation work on the Canadian portion of
the Libby Reservoir continued with an additional 1,290 acres placed under treatment and a further 2,410 acres completed to final specification.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
Replacement launches were provided for Babine Lake and several coastal
Ranger Districts. A new twin-screw steel tug, with split hull for transportability,
was ordered for debris-sorting work on the Peace and Mica pondages, together with
two additional steel boomboats.
The construction of a new Ranger Office building at Parksville and a Forest
Research Laboratory at Saanich were the major building projects of a busy year.
Forest Service crews built a replacement Ranger Station at Vanderhoof and started
on a new warehouse complex at Nelson. Documents were prepared and contracts
awarded for various major and minor projects.
Some 40 trailers were purchased, including eight mobile homes and eight
seedling refrigerator trailers.
Material for five bridges was inspected. Special steel, welding procedures, and
connections in a major structure crossing the Nass River required detailed inspection
work. Glulam was inspected for the Nelson warehouse, the Vancouver warehouse
extension, the Campbell River refrigerator building, the Prince George Ranger Station, and numerous smaller projects. Eight 10,000-gallon tanks for a new tanker
base at Kamloops and five drag-chain scarifiers were procured. Breaks occurring in
an 8-inch welded main pipe-line serving the Surrey Nursery were investigated.
MECHANICAL
The vehicle inventory of sedans, crew-carriers, panels, pick-ups, crew buses,
dump trucks, and tractor-trailer units increased by 67. Twenty-five vehicles were
purchased for the new Cariboo Forest District—five sedans, five carryalls, 10 pick-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 57
New office building at Forest Ranger Station, Parksville.
Bridge over Nass River, completed in
1971, combines creosoted glulam girders
and steel-truss members in a unique
trussed-girder design. It's the largest
bridge built by the Forest Service.
A powerful tractor downs logging residual on the Upper Canoe in the Mica
Reservoir area.
 AA 58 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
ups, two crew-cabs, one dump truck, one van truck, and one tractor-trailer. Eight
additional crew buses were purchased for the Reforestation Division.
Some older heavy-duty trucks were replaced by four tractor-trailer units and
five 20-ton low-bed trailers, one of each for the Nelson, Kamloops, Prince George,
and Cariboo Districts, the extra trailer going to Prince Rupert District. One used
tanker-truck was purchased and converted for fire suppression in the Kamloops
District.
Five graders and four tractors were replaced, and an additional loader obtained
for the Cariboo District.
A heavy fire season necessitated the purchase of many fire pumps, chain saws,
and allied equipment.
The need for snow toboggans is increasing; 19 were purchased to bring the
total to 83.
Only one all-terrain vehicle was purchased—for the Prince George District.
Interest has waned, in view of some past experience, but the search continues for a
suitable type.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
Maintenance included a new river-front bulkhead, a float and ramp, a ways
carriage, and roofing. Underground air-lines, increases in parking and storage area,
dredging, and other improvements increased efficiency.
Marine work included 32 launch and four jet-boat overhauls, 88 launch and
small-boat repairs, and new electronic, navigation, auxiliary, heating, and main propulsion installations. A number of new boats, including several "Deep V" runabouts, were fitted out for service.
The depot made or assembled 887 units, including lookout buildings, signs,
furniture, crates, radio-repeater buildings, fire-retardant mixers, utility and light-
plant trailers. In addition, 18 portable tanker units were produced and 526 new
pumps, outboards, chainsaws, and similar units were tested and shipped or stored.
Couplings were installed on 384,000 feet of discharge fire hose and 366 pump
suction hoses.
Maintenance and overhaul were carried out on 846 small units, including
pumps, outboards, chainsaws, light plants, and trail-cycles, and on 254 larger units,
including light and transport trucks, tractors, graders, trailers, and porta buildings.
The transport pool hauled 4,260 tons and towed 90 trailers, travelling 240,000
miles.  The warehouse handled 1,170 shipments to and from various projects.
COMMUNICATIONS
Equipment purchased in 1971 totalled 601 units, of which 178 replaced obsolete equipment for a net inventory increase of 423. Emphasis continued on the
portable and mobile fire-equipment programme.
Most repeaters in the Province were changed to newly assigned frequencies
chosen for their compatibility in multifrequency use. The changes permitted the
Prince George system to be divided into three zones capable of interconnection at
headquarters, giving increased flexibility at the Ranger District level.
At a few sites the new frequencies did create on-site interference problems, but
all were resolved by the installation of frequency-selective filters.
Twenty-seven base stations and repeaters were completely overhauled and
three Ranger District repeaters were installed.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 61
PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
A cool spring, with wet weather continuing until mid-July, was general through
most of the Province.
Parts of the north half of the Province experienced a cool but dry spring, during
which time a fire hazard developed. Except for the extreme north and the Peace
River areas, which continued relatively dry, the remainder of the north had near
normal June rains.
In early July the weather changed abruptly to hot and dry, causing high to
extreme hazard conditions over most of the Province. This situation continued until
late August. Cooler wet weather developed in early September and remained until
the fire season ended on October 21.
Lightning activity was heavier than usual through most of the Province.
FIRES
Occurrence and Cause
There were 2,898 fires during the 1971 season, compared with the 10-year
average of 2,374 fires, and considerably lower than the record of 4,003 fires during
1970. Fire problems were intensified with nearly half of them occurring during
August.
The largest single cause of forest fires was lightning, which accounted for 1,327
fires—46 per cent of the total. The 10-year average percentage for lightning fires
is 37 per cent.
An estimated 18 per cent of the 1971 fires were started by recreationists and
smokers, compared with the 10-year average of nearly 30 per cent; and approximately the same as in 1970.
Cost of Fire-fighting
Forest Service costs for fire-fighting totalled $10,294,391, and the cost to other
parties was $1,291,811. The average cost per fire was $3,552—more than double
the 10-year average of $1,456. There were several large and difficult fires to fight
and they were the major cause of the increased average cost.
Damage
The acreage burned during 1971 soared to 868,864 acres, compared to the
10-year average of 227,608 acres. The damage value increased also, but is in line
with the area of burn when compared to the 10-year average.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
In the three southern forest districts, 13 suppression crews of 5 to 10 crewmen,
plus foreman and cook, and 19 two-man crews were employed at strategic locations.
Small initial attack crews were also employed in the Prince George and Prince Rupert
Districts. Suppression crews fought 579 fires, and during low-hazard periods they
worked on other forestry projects.
 AA 62 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
PROVINCIAL STUDENT EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME
This programme, instituted for the first time, was a complete success. A total
of 560 students was employed throughout the forest districts and by the Victoria
divisions during the summer. Their performance was good and numerous outstanding projects were completed which could not otherwise have been undertaken.
The student crews proved particularly valuable for initial attack action on forest
fires. In addition, they were employed on such diversified activities as tree-planting,
timber-cruising, regeneration surveys, juvenile youth growth-spacing projects, developing back-country recreational camp-sites, etc.
Female students provided valuable assistance in clerical work at ranger and
district headquarters.
AIRCRAFT
Aircraft of all types were used extensively during the fire season. The service
rendered in detection, initial attack, and supply contributed significantly to the efficient suppression of many fires.
Six light aircraft were operated under contract for fire detection in the Prince
Rupert, Prince George, and Kamloops Forest Districts, and were supplemented with
locally hired aircraft as required for short-term use.
Three contract aircraft were provided for general flying to the three southern
districts.   In the two northern districts local aircraft were hired as required.
Helicopters were extensively used on fire-control work—the three-place piston
engine and light turbine types continued to fill the majority of needs. One helicopter
was provided under contract to the Vancouver District for the fire season, while in
the remainder of the Province there were sufficient machines to allow local hire.
Three Cansos, eight Avengers, and three A-26 air-tankers were provided under
contract, plus six bird-dog aircraft. The tankers were used mainly on initial attack
and took action on 18 per cent of all fires. Five additional air-tankers were supplied
by contractors during emergencies.
MUTUAL AID, DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE
In mid-August, the fire situation necessitated the use of four-wheel-drive transportation. To alleviate the problem, the Department of National Defence provided
12 units, eight of them four-wheel-drives, and four six-wheel-drives, plus 24 drivers
and two noncommissioned officers for a two-week period.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The road and trail construction programme progressed with emphasis on the
rehabilitation and maintenance of access roads to reforestation projects and the
protection of immature forests.
SLASH DISPOSAL
Successful slash-burning was carried out throughout the Province by industrial
operatoss and the Forest Service.
In the Vancouver District, two prescribed burns, totalling 398 acres, were completed by the Forest Service. No spring burning took place. In August, burning
commenced in the northern sections of the district and along the west coast of Vancouver Island. Those areas along the south end and east coast of Vancouver Island
and the easterly section of the Fraser Valley experienced drought conditions up to
the commencement of the fall rains, which resulted in reduced burning being carried
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 63
out in these areas. Slash reports covered 67,646 acres of logged-over lands, of
which 22,661 acres were exempted from burning. A total of 44,514 acres was
burned successfully by industrial operations.
In the Kamloops District, two large companies made a concerted effort to
reduce the backlog of unburned logging slash with excellent results. A total of
19,714 acres of logging slash was instructed for burning, of which a total of 18,890
acres was burned successfully. The Forest Service burned 756 acres of logging slash.
The Prince Rupert District completed excellent burns, and the total acreage
of logging slash abated was much higher than expected due to weather conditions
throughout the district. No spring burning was undertaken. The Forest Service
burned 1,549 acres, while industrial operations accounted for 20,532 acres. Slash
reports covered 41,783 acres of completed logging, of which 30,770 acres were
instructed to burn and 11,013 acres were exempted.
The Prince George District carried out a limited amount of spring burning.
Severe drying in August prevented late summer burning and only a short period of
favourable weather occurred during September. As a result, satisfactory slash
disposal was carried out on 13,200 acres by industrial operations and 1,430 acres
by the Forest Service.
In the Nelson District a total of 25,230 acres was instructed to be burned, of
which 17,812 acres were burned satisfactorily by industrial operations. The Forest
Service burned 822 acres.
SNAG DISPOSAL
In the Vancouver District, snags on 2,999 acres were felled—863 acres under
contract and 2,136 by Forest Service crews.
In the Prince George District, snags on 857 acres were felled by inmates of the
minimum security camp of the Attorney-General's Department.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
Charges were laid for 58 violations of the Forest Act. Thirty-one involved
burning without a permit, 16 for refusing to render assistance in fire-fighting, seven
for contravening forest-use restriction orders, and the remainder for other offences.
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
Several industrial forest-use restrictions were imposed during the season and
only lasted a short time during extreme high hazardous periods. Details of the
restrictions follow: ,
Forest-use Closures, 1971
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Restricted industrial	
Restricted industrial	
July 27
July 27
July 27
Aug. 10
Zones 1, 5, 6, 8 -    ,
Zones 2, 3. 4, 7	
Entire district	
Restricted industrial	
Aug. 161
Aug. 20^
1 Zones 2-8.
'■ Zones 1,9, 10.
 AA 64 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
Suspension of Campfire Permits
Area
Forest District
Date
Implemented
Date
Terminated
July 27
July 27
Aug.   6
Aug. 10
Aug. 12
Aug. 12
Aug.   4
Aug.   2
Nelson : _	
Vancouver _ _	
Prince George.*.	
Kamloops... 	
Aug. 31
Aug. 161
West of Rocky Mountains 	
Entire district.-   	
Aug. 20-
Aug. 16
Aug. 17
i Zones 2-8. 2 Zones 1, 9, 10.
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
Fire data for 1970 were coded, edit checked, and placed on magnetic tape.
Data are now available for studies from 1950-70, inclusive. The creation of the
new Cariboo Forest District made necessary the re-sort of all data into the now six
forest districts, and this work is in progress. Six computer programmes were run to
satisfy a variety of requests, but the main emphasis was on the Provincial detection
analysis.
Work continued on the Provincial Fire Atlas to update the base maps and overlays to the 2-mile scale for the 1940-59 decades.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
No field work was undertaken in either of these functions, and until the Provincial detection analysis has been completed these activities will be limited.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
Fuel-moisture sticks were preassembled in Victoria, then transported to the
Western Forest Products Laboratory in Vancouver for final trimming. Of the 1,210
sets distributed, 56.4 per cent went to industry, 42.6 per cent to the Forest Service,
and 1 per cent to the Canada Forestry Service.
Production of 1,500 sticks for 1972 started before the end of the year.
Insect, Disease, and Pesticide Administration
Liaison with other Provincial Government departments, Federal agencies, and
joint Government/industry committees was actively maintained on forest insect
problems.
Pesticide applicator courses were arranged through the Department of Agriculture of all forest district and division personnel involved in pesticide use. Forest
Service membership on the Government Pesticide Committee continued, and all
plans for chemical treatment by both the service and the forest industry were reviewed. In addition, all plans by other users which could affect the forest environment now automatically come under Forest Service attention.
Research Projects
Major project completions during 1971:
Handbooks—One handbook in the Forest Protection Handbook series was
completed and distributed, Handbook for Lookoutmen, No. 6.
Pulp c/..'/«^Investigations proved that pulp-chip accumulations along certain
sections of railways are increasing rapidly, constitute a hazard, and sig-
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 65
nificantly increase the problem of fire extinguishment. Car covers appear
the only solution.
Fire-fighting foam — Various foam and foam generators were investigated.
They do not have practical forest application at this time.
Propane-fire camp stoves—A standard Forest Service model was developed
and a supply distributed to all forest districts. The unit is single burner,
24 inches by 24 inches by 13 inches, 20,000 B.t.u., weighs 40 pounds,
and costs $47 to construct, using penitentiary labour.
Pre-cooked frozen fire meals—A satisfactory product was tested from a United
States source. However, the 17^-per-cent duty charges and the recent
Government ruling against food purchase outside the Province leaves no
alternative but to wait for Canadian company interest.
Fire tool-box for utility trailers—A compartmented plywood box that fits the
standard utility trailer for basic initial attack items was developed on suggestions by field staff.
Danger-index calculator—Eighty calculators were developed and distributed to
field staff at those stations not receiving indices on the computer programme. The original working model was submitted by the Prince George
office.
Major projects active but not finalized during 1971:
Detection—The Vancouver Forest District portion of the Provincial detection
analysis is reaching final stages and accounted for the bulk of staff time
during the year. Liaison with the Forest Fire Research Institute in Ottawa
continued on this project.
Wheeled skidder attachments—In co-operation with the Kamloops District
and the Maintenance Depot, skidder attachments were developed, prototype tested, and final design established. The unit will consist of a
universal frame adaptable to all types of skidders with tanker unit and
equipment carrier attachments. Units will be supplied to all districts
in 1972.
Mobile kitchen—A prototype mobile fire camp kitchen was designed and one
unit was built by a commercial producer. The prototype is designed to
feed 125 men, is propane-fired, has its own water-pressure system, light
plant, refrigerator, and air-conditioner. Final modifications are completed
and units will be supplied to all districts in 1972.
Air-ground audio system—A prototype was developed and tested. It has loud
hailer, hooter, and siren capabilities with 100-watt output. Units will be
supplied for all bird-dog aircraft in 1972.
Wet water agents—Comprehensive tests were carried out on 10 wetting agents
to determine the best products for Forest Service use.
Infra-red detection—Two airborne units of different make were tested on fires
during the summer. Results were inconclusive and further testing will
be carried out in 1972.
Ranger pre-organization charts—Pre-organization books were reanalyzed with
all districts and a new, standardized format determined. These will be
made available in 1972.
Analysis of the campftre permit system—A modified permit system was introduced in 1971. Analysis of the results is under way to determine whether
or not a permit system is still valid and, if not, what approach should be
taken.
 AA 66 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Handbook—The preparation of a handbook plus pocket field book on Water
and Pump Use is under way.
Fire-data tables—The preparation of the fire-data tables for district use from
1950 to date has been delayed by the creation of the Cariboo District. The
re-sort of data is under way.
Retardants—Comparative operational tests between Gelgard and Tenogum
were delayed because of the phenol content in the latter product.   When
this was eventually cleared, the air-tankers had been diverted to Alberta.
Testing will be programmed for 1972.
Service and Co-operation
The districts were supplied with 576 two-man, two-day emergency fire-ration
packs, bulk purchased and packaged for distribution in the spring.
Ten Planning and Research Reports, covering a variety of protection projects,
were published and distributed to field staff and outside protection agencies. Considerable numbers of the "handbook" series were requested by libraries and agencies
in Canada and many foreign countries.
Co-operation continued with the Canada Forestry Service and the Atmospheric
Environmental Service on the Provincial fire weather network and the danger rating
system. Two student weather technicians were rehired for the summer months to
assist the field staff in instrument calibration and problems with the index system.
A meeting was held with, and a brief submitted to, the cross-Canada Meteorological
Task Force reviewing forest meteorological requirements.
Liaison with other agencies included representation on various subcommittees
of the National Research Council.
A duplicate tape of the fire data was supplied to the University of British Columbia and computer-oriented studies should be forthcoming from this source in
the future.
Meetings were held in all forest districts to determine up-to-date priority needs
in protection to direct the research efforts.
 SITKA SPRUCE
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 69
TRAINING SCHOOL
Twenty-four men enrolled in the second term of the 16th advanced course (69
days) and they graduated on April 8, 1971. Subjects included scaling, measurements, fire suppression, forest management, navigation, sales and appraisals, public
speaking, public information, engineering, fish and game, personnel, and safety.
The school's 11th basic course (69 days), with 24 students, commenced on
September 9 and ended December 17. Studies included mathematics, surveying,
fire-fighting, photogrammetry, forest management, reforestation, silviculture, mapping, and the maintenance and operation of mechanical equipment.
Since 1946, 243 men have graduated from the school's basic course; and 343
from the advanced training classes.
EXTRA COURSES AND FUNCTIONS
The school provided facilities and some instruction for a course held May 4 to
16 for 78 Inventory Division fieldmen; and introductory courses for new graduates
from technical and professional institutions were held for the first time. A professional group of 21 men took the course between May 17 and 21, and a technical
class of 29 attended from May 31 to June 4.
Training programmes and defensive-driving courses were conducted for personnel of various forest districts and divisions; and 1,700 elementary school students
attended two weeks of outdoor classroom lectures presented by the Canadian Forestry Association.
The Forest Act reading course was updated and distributed to districts and
divisions.
At the peak of the fire season, two instructors assisted the field staff—one at
Kamloops, the other at Nelson.
CONSTRUCTION
An air-conditioning unit was installed in the administration building, and a
sidewalk will soon link the school's parking-lot and dormitory building.
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA 73
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
FISCAL
The conditions affecting Forest Service financial return improved significantly
during 1971—not apparent in the comparative revenue tables in the Appendix to
this Report but reflected in the comparative totals of amounts charged against
operators (see Table 142).
The trend to recovery from the drastic decline experienced in 1970 did not
develop until the latter half of the year, when the benefit of higher market prices
began to be felt. Total collections did not match those of 1970, but monthly totals
from August to December recorded steadily increasing gains.
In spite of the added problems faced by the industry stemming from the world
currency crisis, the total scale of all forest products increased by 3.3 per cent. Prospects for 1972 appeared hopeful, but economic conditions were still unsettled and
numerous labour contracts were due to expire during the year.
The total of amounts charged against logging operations was $67,669,895 (see
Table 142), an increase of 8.6 per cent over 1970. Only the Vancouver Forest
District recorded a reduction, 5.3 per cent. Kamloops District led the increases
with a substantial 42.2 per cent, followed by Prince George with 20.7 per cent,
Nelson with 15.8 per cent, and Prince Rupert with 2.7 per cent.
Direct forest revenue collected in 1971 was less than that of 1970, dropping by
6.2 per cent to $60,890,218 (see Table 141). The major category (timber sale
stumpage) declined 7.1 per cent to $49,680,565. The associated timber sale rentals
and fees were also down by 11 per cent, but timber sale cruising and advertising
showed a minor increase.
Timber royalties, the second major revenue source, continued downward, losing
10.6 per cent for a total of $5,553,861.
Timber licence rentals and fees and timber berth rentals and fees both decreased, by 4.1 per cent and 8.2 per cent respectively, as the elimination of logged
areas from these old tenures progressed. Timber lease rentals and fees were practically unchanged, recording an increase of less than 1 per cent.
Grazing permits and fees again increased, this time by 7.2 per cent to $469,636.
These fees are subject to adjustment annually on a formula related to market prices
being received for stock. Forest-protection tax at $1,123,517 was up 11.6 percent,
probably due to a change of billing method in May on timber sale harvesting licences
to an annual allowable cut basis. Tax on these tenures had formerly been collected
by an acreage charge.
Miscellaneous collections continued to increase the total of $735,683—9.9 per
cent higher than 1970 collections. Recovery of fire-fighting costs incurred during
yet another record fire season was a factor.   Weight-scaling costs rose sharply by
31.7 per cent to $1,514,347 as additional facilities were installed.   These costs are
fully recoverable from the industry.
Financial tables covering operations for the fiscal year 1970/71 are in the
Appendix (Tables 143 to 145). Detailed expenditure information is published
yearly by the Department of Finance in the Public Accounts.
ADMINISTRATION
In spite of the market problems for the industry, collections were maintained at
a good level during the year. Resort to the application of liens to ensure payment
was not unusually frequent and few individual cases were of long duration.
 AA 74 REPORT OF LANDS,  FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
A major problem for both district and headquarters offices was the accounting
for a record fire season. It appeared the final total would approximate $11,000,000.
The special Government summer programme for the employment of young people
($1,129,992) also contributed to increased volume.
In headquarters there was continued growth in the expenditure section due to
preparations to cover all employees for unemployment insurance effective January 1,
1972, the increase in reforestation payrolls resulting from the accelerated planting
programme as well as the effect of the record fire season.
Stumpage adjustments dealt with by the timber sale section increased to 20,775
in 1971 compared to only 12,035 in 1970, reflecting the frequency of price increases
of the various species during the latter part of the year. In 1969, the record year,
there were 21,636 adjustments.
The total of accounts receivable reached a record high of $15,264,606 in
December. Conversely, the total number of billings of annual fees' on timber
licences and leases and pulp licences and leases was down from 2,960 in 1970 to
2,686 in 1971 as these tenures continued to be eliminated as fully logged.
Marine hazards were reduced by collection of 7,058,221 cubic feet of drift
logs under the Log Salvage Regulation, an increase of over 1,600,000 cubic feet
over 1970.
A slightly better market for salvage logs, an increase in returns to permittees,
and the efficient operation of the sorting ground operated by Gulf Log Salvage
(licensee of the Log Receiving Station) account for the increase.
Only one new beach-clearing licence was issued. Located in the Log Salvage
District, its purpose is to determine the minimum size and quality of beach logs
which can be utilized economically as well as the effect of a continuous operation.
By the end of 1971, 64,637 cubic feet were removed from this sale. Production of
283,163 cubic feet from five sales on Queen Charlotte Island beaches meant the
total production from beach-clearing sales was down 474,363 cubic feet from the
1970 figure. Former beach-clearing operations, however, reverted to beachcombing
and produced 300,332 cubic feet in the Queen Charlotte Islands and 822,909 cubic
feet in the Vancouver Forest District, mainly on the West Coast of Vancouver Island.
The Division maintains close co-operation with the forest industry's Log Security Committee in its continued efforts to reduce and prevent log losses.
Export of logs, down nearly one-half from 1970, continued as a safety valve or
outlet for surpluses when log stocks were high. Surpluses of wood chips, accumulating during periods of over-production of pulp in the Province, were also relieved
by export control.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.  1971 AA 77
PERSONNEL DIVISION
The most significant organizational decision involving staff changes was the
establishment of a sixth forest district with headquarters at Williams Lake. Organization of the new Cariboo District commenced in late 1971 and will continue into
1972. In addition, one District Forester and one Division Head retired, and replacements resulted in several promotions and transfers, carrying into 1972.
A classification review of senior clerical and junior administrative positions was
completed by the Civil Service Commission, resulting in some upgrading of our staff
and some recommendations for downgrading on change of incumbent. The in-
service organizational study results were referred to the Civil Service Commission,
which made a further review and submitted recommendations, some of which are to
be implemented on April 1, 1972.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
There was no regular District Foresters' meeting, but the District Foresters and
their assistants from each district visited Victoria headquarters individually to discuss
problems with Victoria divisions. Ranger meetings were held at Vancouver and
Nelson Districts and local and zone meetings were held in Kamloops, Prince George,
and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.
Various divisions in Victoria held special meetings with field and district staff to
resolve problems and standardize operations. The Personnel Officer and Assistant
Personnel Officer took part in vocation day programmes in various secondary
schools, as did other Forest Officers throughout the Province. Numbers of seminars
and work shops were attended by employees throughout the year. One Forester,
one Engineer, one Technical Forest Officer, and the Assistant Personnel Officer were
selected for Class XVI of the public administration course under the Executive
Development Training Plan, and one Forester and one Forest Protection Officer
graduated from Class XIII of this programme, receiving diplomas in public administration from the University of Victoria.
Four employees graduated from the correspondence course in public administration and three employees were selected for Class VIII of this course. Informal
training continued for junior Foresters and junior Engineers, as did formal training
programmes for district field staff. Newly recruited Foresters and Engineers
attended the one-week orientation course at the Forest Service Training School, as
did newly appointed graduates from technological institutes in the Province.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent establishment of the Forest Service increased to 953, most of
which were for the staff of the new Cariboo Forest District, but of special note was
the establishment of a full-time co-ordinator for the Forest Productivity Committee.
Also included were 10 new positions which provided one Forester and one Technical
Forest Officer for each forest district for duties in recreation and environmental
control.
During the year, 136 persons received Civil Service appointments and 127
left the Service. Thirty Forest Service employees received certificates for 25 years'
continuous service. There were 12 retirements and 37 transfers of permanent staff.
Three graduate Foresters and two graduate Engineers left the Service, while 18
graduate Foresters and five graduate Engineers were hired.
 AA 78
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
7.6 per cent, a further decrease from 9.2 per cent in 1970. Vancouver Scaling,
Vancouver District, and Prince Rupert District suffered the greatest disruption with
10.9 per cent, 10.8 per cent, and 10.5 per cent respectively. Prince George District
was next with 9.5 per cent, followed by Nelson District at 7.6 per cent, Victoria
Headquarters at 5.24 per cent, and Kamloops District being lowest at 3.6 per cent.
Professional staff turnover at 1.9 per cent was significantly below the 1970
figure of 5.7 per cent. Technical staff turnover at 4.1 per cent was not too much
improved over the 1970 figure of 4.8 per cent, as was the clerical staff turnover at
14.9 per cent for 1971, compared with 15.7 per cent for 1970.
A total of 2,045 written applications for employment was processed by the
Personnel Office in addition to those handled by district and divisional staff. This
figure is almost double that for the previous year.
Promotional examinations for Draughtsmen were held by the Civil Service
Commission and a number of our employees participated. Oral examinations were
held at panel interviews to fill 46 positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant
Personnel Officer participated in filling 136 other positions, and 377 candidates
wrote the Technical Forest Officer 1 examination for appointment as Assistant
Ranger, in which 182 candidates qualified to fill 39 vacancies. Sixty-six candidates
wrote the Technical Forest Officer 2 examination, of which 31 were successful and
three candidates wrote and qualified on the Technical Forest Officer 3 examination.
Twenty-four employees completed the advance course at the Forest Service Training
School and 24 others completed a basic training course at the same establishment.
Classification reviews were requested for 39 positions. By the end of the year,
22 had been approved and the balance were still under consideration. Nine employees were registered as Professional Foresters.
Working conditions in general remained unchanged, but the Civil Service Commission is conducting a study on the relative isolation of headquarters throughout
the Province to decide if it would be more realistic to provide some method of
isolation pay rather than the present special living allowance for northern areas.
There were 660 accidental injuries suffered by employees, of whom 242 were
temporary fire-fighters. Of the 418 for the regular and seasonal staff, 156 resulted
in time-loss over one day and 262 required medical aid only. Our time-loss frequency was 23.2 accidents per million man-hours worked, as compared with 20.5
for 1970. Time-loss accidents for regular staff were 37.3 per cent of the total
accidents for this group, as compared with 40.2 per cent for 1970.
Fifteen British Columbia Safety Council awards of merit were earned by
various groups in the Service, which included six silver, eight bronze, and one silver
on gold award. Since no district or division won a silver award or better, we were
not qualified (for the first time) for the Prime Minister's Safety Award.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 79
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1971
(As of December 31)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J. S. Stokes   --------- Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell Chief Forester
I. T. Cameron     -------     Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
N. A. McRae       ------- Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
C. Cooper    ----------- Forest Counsel
W. V. Hicks ---------        Departmental Comptroller
Operations Branch Division Heads:
W. C. Phillips       ------- Forester i/c Protection Division
W. G. Hughes       -------    Forester i/c Management Division
W. E. L. Young    -------- Forester i/c Inventory Division
W. C. Pendray      --------        Director, Grazing Division
Services Branch Division Heads:
E. W. Robinson    -------   Forester i/c Reforestation Division
G. C. Warrack      -------- Forester i/c Research Division
E. H. Lyons Forester i/c Information Division
L. W. W. Lehrle Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
P. J. J. Hemphill -------     Engineer i/c Engineering Division
A. E. McKeever   ----------      Personnel Officer
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H.M. Pogue -
J. A. K. Reid
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
W. G. Howard (Cultus Lake), E. J. McArthur (Hope), J. T. Schmidt (Harrison Lake), J. N.
Nelson (Mission), M. H. Mudge (Port Moody), M. N. Neighbor (Squamish), R. S. Wilson
(Sechelt), K. A. Northrup (Pender Harbour), S. B. Hollinshead (Powell River), V. J.
Doerksen (Lund), G. Stefanac (Campbell River North), W. C. Archer (Sayward), R. A.
Campbell (Port McNeill North), R. D. Moss (Port McNeill), A. J. Teindl (Port Hardy), T.
Brooks (Campbell River), H. Norbirg (Parksville), S. J. Sykes (Duncan), R. W. Thomas
(Lake Cowichan), K. Haley (Port Alberni), G. F. Hawkey (Tofino), D. E. Gill (Pemberton),
D. E. deHart (Gold River).
Prince George Forest District
W. Young
W. G. Bishop
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. W. Graham (McBride), W. E. Hall (Valemount), M. A. McRae (Prince George East),
G. E. Meents (Prince George North), L. G. Espenant (Fort St. lames), G. M. York
(Quesnel), H. T. Barbour (Dawson Creek), J. L. Younghusband (Aleza Lake), H. Osborne
(Vanderhoof), V. G. Bate (Fort St. John), P. F. Griffiths (Fort Fraser), D. A. Amonson
(Summit Lake), H. L. Miskovich (Fort Nelson), G. E. Magee (Prince George), D. F. Wallin
(Hixon), J. E. Little (Quesnel), K. Rohn (Quesnel), L. McQueen (Chetwynd), E. W. Hewitt
(Mackenzie).
 AA 80 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon - District Forester
L. B. B. Boulton -    •   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
H. V. Hopkins (Lumby), M. E. Monteith (Birch Island). D. J. Wittner (Barriere), J. P.
Weinard (Kamloops), V. D. Craig (Chase), R. C. Jackson (Salmon Arm), G. G. Jones
(Sicamous), J. Wanderer (Lillooet), A. G. Cameron (Vernon), R. W. McDaniel (Penticton),
F. M. Baker (Princeton), A. P. Petty (Clinton), J. G. Ward (Williams Lake), E. A. Bouchard
(Alexis Creek), F. Pearce (Kelowna), J. D. Noble (Ashcroft), R. K. Berard (Merritt), D.
Reiter (Blue River), I. M. Loomer (Enderby), W. R. Perry (100 Mile North), T. A. Walker
(Tatla Lake), J. F. Lynn (Horsefly), R. W. Donnelly (100 Mile South).
Prince Rupert Forest District
(Vacant)   ------------ District Forester
W. F. Tuttle (Acting District Forester)        - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
F. L. Roe (Queen Charlotte City), O. D. Parsey (Prince Rupert), T. Harvie (Terrace), N. P.
Gilgan (Kitwanga), H. W. Quast (Hazelton), A. R. Pement (Smithers), R. H. Weinard
(Houston), D. B. Doerksen (Burns Lake), D. J. Neal (Bella Coola), W. H. Jones (South-
bank),   (vacant)   (Lower Post), W. C.  Waldron   (Kitimat),  M.  F.  Wilkinson  (Stewart).
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston District Forester
M. G. Isenor  Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
L. G. Taft (Invermere), J. L. Humphrey (Fernie), S. E. Anderson (Golden). J. B. Gierl
(Cranbrook East), A. I. Ross (Creston), G. B. Allin (Kaslo), G. L. Benwell (Lardeau), R. E.
Robinson (Nelson), C. C. Jupp (New Denver), J. H. Raven (Nakusp), H. R. Wood (Castlegar), P. F. Russell (Grand Forks), W. R. Anderson (Kettle Valley), G. M. Cartwright (Canal
Flats), W. G. Benwell (Mica Creek), R. G. Treneman (Fauquier), G. F. Dodd (Elko), G. R.
Webster (Spillimacheen), L. O. Hamann (Cranbrook West), H. B. Thompson (Beaverdell),
C. N. Bellmond (Salmo), H. D. Hamilton (Revelstoke).
 APPENDIX
TARULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLE-
MENT   THE   REPORT   OF   THE   FOREST   SERVICE,
1971.
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.   1971 AA 83
CONTENTS
RESEARCH DIVISION
Tabie Page
No.
11. Status of Research Projects in 1971     85
12. Research Publications. 1971 ,     85
REFORESTATION DIVISION
22. Summary of Planting, 1962-71     86
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)  .     8 7
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units over Crown-granted Lands)     87
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     88
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units     88
51. Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During the
Years 1970 and 1971 in Cubic Feet  ........    88
52. Species Cut, All Products, 1971, in Cubic Feet     89
53. Total Scale of All Products Billed in 1971 in Cubic Feet (Segregated by
Land Status and Forest Districts)     89
54. Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During 1971  (by Months and
Forest Districts)     90
55. Number of Acres Operating Under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts.
1962-71       91
56. Total Scale of All Products From Areas Operated Under Approval An
nual Allowable Cuts. 1962-71  92
57. Logging Inspections, 1971  93
58. Trespasses, 1971  94
59. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1971  95
60. Timber Sale Licence Record, 1971  95
61. Timber Sales and Cutting Permits (Timber Sale Harvesting Licences)
Awarded by Forest Districts, 1971     96
62. Average Stumpage Prices, by Species and Forest Districts, on Cutting Per
mits of Timber Sale Harvesting Licences and Timber Sales Issued
During 1971, per Cunit Log Scale     97
63. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits During 1971     98
64. Timber Cut and Billed From Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences, 1971  99
65. Wood-processing plants of the Province, 1971  100
66. Export of Logs (in Cubic Feet), 1971  _.._ 101
67. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Forest Products, 1971  101
68. Timber Marks Issued. 1962-71  102
 AA 84 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING DIVISION
70. Grazing Permits Issued, 1971  102
PROTECTION DIVISION
102. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1971  103
103. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1971  103
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  103
105. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1971  104
106. Damage to Property Other Than Forests, 1971  105
107. Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1971—Parts
I and II 105 and 106
108. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1971 107
109. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in the Last 10 Years  108
110. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1971 109
111. Areas of Logging Slash Disposed, 1971  110
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 85
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN  1971
Active at beginning of year...     96
Terminated    2
New projects    10
Active at end of year    104
Research Projects by Districts
Subject
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
1
4
2
7
17
3
3
n
9
2
1
1
4
3
3
4
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
Natural regeneration  	
Choice and trial of species	
1
1
Direct-seeding 	
Planting  	
Spacing , _	
3
1
2
1
51
17
13
12
11
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1971
Fraser, A. R., and van den Driessche, Pauline (1970): Triangles, Densities, and Pattern in
Point Populations. Paper submitted to 3rd Conference of Advisory Group of Forest Statisticians, 13 pp.
Orr-Ewino, A. L. (1970): Racial Crossing with Douglas-fir. Pp. 129-130 in papers presented
2nd Meeting Working Group on Quantitative Genetics, Sect. 22, I.U.F.R.O., Raleigh, N.
Carolina, 1969.   Publ.: Southern For. Expt. Stat., New Orleans, Louisiana.
Schmidt, R. L., and Marshall, J. R. (1970): Micrometeorology and Reforestation. Western
Forestry and Conservation Association. Proceedings of Western Reforestation Coordinating Committee, pp. 47-51.
van den Driessche, R. (1970): Influence of light intensity and photoperiod on frost-hardiness
development in Douglas-fir seedlings.   Can. Jour. Bot. 48 (12) :2129—2134.
■ —- (1971):  Growth of one-year-old Douglas fir plants at four spacings.   Ann. Bot. 35
(139):117-126.
  (1971): Response of conifer seedlings to nitrate and ammonium sources of nitrogen.
Plant and Soil 34:421^139.
Connor, D. J., and Tunstall, B. R. (1971): Photosynthetic response of Brigalow to
irradiance, temperature and water potential.   Photosynthetica 5 (3) :210-217.
Connor, D. J., Tunstall, B. R., and van den Driessche, R. (1971): An analysis of photo-
synthetic response in a Brigalow forest.   Photosynthetica 5(3) :218-225.
 AA 86
REPORT OF LANDS.  FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 87
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
(47) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Schedule
B
Schedule
A
Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert -
Prince George .
Kamloops-—	
Nelson —	
Totals
171
51
2
7
5
34
2,671.025
3,512,794
471,576
726,253
1,293,553
"8^675^207
1.050,640
167.853
2,404
1.841
47,833
1,270,57 f
3.721,665
3,680.647
473,980
728,094
1.341.386
6.596,522
10,977,349
532.992 |
776.982  I
3,348,458  |
4.048.610
1,630,00!!
184,000
199,310
512,050
9,945,772
232,303  |    6,573,970
I
1 Two tree-farm licences located in both districts.
Schedule B is vacant Crown land.
Schedule A is land for which the tree-farm licence holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by the
tree-farm licence agreement. This may include lands held in fee-simple or temporary tenures, e.g.. timber leases,
licences, and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are transferred
to Schedule B.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS  (PRIVATE
(4S) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-
farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Produc
Forest District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C.
Total
tive
Capacity
(Cunits)
Vancouver- -	
14
2
70,530 ! 219,417
188 |      1,002
1,499  |      4,719
35,396
31
3,389
325.343
1.221
9,607
364.666
1,280
10.158
330.115
458
4,312
Totals -	
17
71.217  1  225.138
38,816
336,171
376,104
334,885
Not Included Within Tree-farm Licences
22
11
108,354
91.997
303,243
183,318
42.857   |
108,770  j
454,454
384,085
483,790
532.319
379,126
94.296
(346.096)
Totals -     	
33
200,351
486,561
151,627 |
838,539
1,016.109
473,422
(346.096)
50
272,568
711,699
190,443   |
1,174,710
1,392,213
808.307
(346.096)
Figures in parentheses (  ) are Christmas trees.
 AA
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DAT.4. FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
(49) (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Crown
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert..
Prince George -
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals-
13
5
18
4
5
1,961
1,570
4,399
1,115
1,457
258
235
555
146
827
2,219
1,805
4,954
1,261
2,284
45 |    10,502
2,021
12,523
3.086
3,261
5,360
1,420
2,434
15,561
796
332
1.365
260
300
3,053
<S0)  SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Total Area
(Including
Nonforest)
(Acres)
Close
Utilization
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(Cunits)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Vancouver-	
Prince Rupert (Coast).	
Prince Rupert (Interior)
6
4
7
23
24
14
3,270,979
4,327,545
5,750,543
14,942,5343
9,738,543
2,779,447
1,553,463
324,254
3,154,641
13,566,5513
10,604,428-4
4,972,013
5,282,630
4,720,399
9,297,931
30,463,5903
21,356,513^
8,577,603
10,403,812
11,616,283
14,272,760
43,147,3903
28,280,909*
14,287,482
2,866,2401
2,540,6101
2,544,5002
6,649,510 =
Kamloops	
Nelson —	
4,070,5302
2,168,7802
Totals— - -
78
40,809,591
34,175,350
79,698,666
122,008,636
20,840,170
1 Close Utilization Allowable Annual Cut (Cunits) 9.1"+d.b.h.
2 Close Utilization Allowable Annual Cut (Cunits) 7.1"+d.b.h.
3 Area of 23 units plus Prince George part of Chilko PSYU.
* Area of 24 units, including Kamloops part of Chilko PSYU.
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(Sl) DURING THE YEARS  1970 AND  1971 IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1962-71
1970
1971
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
1
779,737,517  |     841,763,523
129,810,297 |     176,445,647
826,157,819
176,739,025
15,605,704
293,378
909,547,814 |  1,018,209,170
1,002,896,844
15,312,326
86,284,708  |     102,832,928
261,074,263  |     375,152,916
244,784,592 |     262,744,626
154.500.444  I      173.688.797
107,557,355
406,980,880
292,560,757
187,085,336
4,724,427
31,827,964
29,816,131
13,396,539
746,644,007
1,656,191,821
914,419,267
994,184,328
79,765,061  |   	
1,932,628,437
1,997,081,172
64,452,735
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.  1971
(52) SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS,  1971, IN CUBIC FEET
AA 89
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C.)„
Totals, Coast...
Prince Rupert (I.) —
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals	
Forest District
Fir             Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
178.127.969174.787.836
in.fKQ.7ftn      i^^^fid
i          i
298,949,9361137,797,9191       4,481,819
84,403,8781 30,151,474]               3,972
4,703,849| 25,209,003| 29,177,966]       303,755
182,831,813] 199,996,839   40,037,746]       427,119
Totals, Coast— -
383,353,814] 167,949,393|       4,485,791
3.314]   6,339,392| 28,521,5781 25,613,086
25,102,173]    2,024,943|228,274,378]122,134,915
116,630,612]  12,674,427] 78.806,383| 46,036,613
17,551,947| 24,921,460| 70.138,041    18,290,205
159,288,046] 45,960,222[405,740,380]212,074,819
29,097,205]  16,055,400
462,149] 26,723,115
8,006,795] 20,315,881
18,900,368| 24,190,270
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson -	
45.541
1,932,167
3,279,879
Totals, Interior	
56,466,517] 87,294,666|       5,257,587
342,119,864(245,957,061 [445,778,126 212,501.938
1                      1
439,820,331 ]255,244,059]       9,743,378
1                      1
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
12,298]  15,634,658).
 -|       628,0831„
Hardwood
Cottonwood
907,742
19,186
12,298|   16,262,741]
926,928
-I-
a|-
..|..
-l
-|
2,505]
4,906,2931 151    3,074,827]
502,814 [ -. j    8,852,587|
~5^409~i07 j 15 j"Tl7929,919f
6,152
2,014,262
128,102
16,790
2,165,306
5,421,405|  16,262,756|  11,929,919]
I I I
3,092,234
2,639,703
2,054,439
Unspecified
Total
1,834,795]
83,420i
826,157,819
176,739,025
4,694,142 j     1,918,215 [ 1,002,896,844
T;885T82T|         25,407| 107,557,355
196,899] | 406,980,880
48,6421 __ ] 292,560,757
440,975 -. — 187,085,336
2,572,337| 25,407|   994,184,328
7,266,4791    1.943,62211,997,081,172
I
(53)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN  1971  IN CUBIC FEET
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences - -	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences. ~
Farm wood-lots —	
Timber sales -	
Tree-farm licences	
Beachcomb, trespass	
No mark visible	
Miscellaneous	
Subtotals, Crown lands
Federal lands-	
Crown grants—
To 1887	
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date -	
Totals -	
139,999,085   53,319,504
11,495,864|  |__
17,606,391| |	
30,407,330|    5,004,968]	
2,674,110 j    8,585,044|	
62,249— --I 7,963
202,322,281| 56,173,678| 60,302,327
173,386,326'   36,210,179]   37,761,304
9,634,8521'    2,284,998|       238,588
36,067,472] |	
449,088| 47,022]       309,529
2,197,975
624,105,048| 161,625,393] 98,619,711
5,276,387|    1,914^4851       824,704
162,630,9421        .24.275J	
12,397,987| 4,802,201]         76,798
2,866,794] 1,249,713|    1,176,779
18,880,661 7,122,958     6,859,363
826,157,819] 176,739,025] 107,557,355
I I
3,214,499
10,643,671
3,910,478
1,683,983
126,146 20,563 22.479
337,221,132 222,220,271 117,950,209
17,317,087]  23,957.298j  39,680,400
 I I
 1 1
37,650,092]    8,301,784     3,950,040
202,641,541
23,823,518
17,606,391
35,412,298
11,259,154
239,400
996,189,898
328,312,594
12,158,438
36,067,472
50,707,555
394,512,432]268,358,086]167,197,589| 1,714,418.259
61,106]      10,707,137
574,149]    2,056,306]
59,700]
1,810,921
10,023,678
4,971,2091
2,156,944]
3,920,923!
11,097,289]
I
1,916,924|
9,018,007]
1,551,784]
7,339,926]
169,603,050
28,451,937
12,576.914
61,323,875
406,980,880^292,560,757:187,085,336] 1,997.081
I I !
172
 AA 90
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1971
AA 93
Type of Tenure Operated
Number of Inspections Made
Forest District
Timber
Sale
Licences
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Licences,
Farm
Wood-lot
Licences,
and
Timber Sale
Harvesting
Licences)
Leases.
Licences,
Crown
Grants,
and
Other
Tenures
Total
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
Other
Tenures
Total
Vancouver-	
Prince Rupert...	
814
177
657
309
292
207
490
.118
1,679
608
2,531
2,785
992
3,678
2,880
2,577
5,795
2,319
1,803
2,312
2,016
1,642
2.630
1,437
5,192
4,593
7,437
4,949
3 240
Prince George „	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
?nfi
■?m       I    1 nio    I      1 dS7
Totals, 1971..-   	
2,163    j      1.609             6.602    ,     10.374
15,374
10,037
25,411
Totals, 1970	
2,881    |      1.272        |    6,230    |    10,383
16,080
10,112
26,192
Totals, 1969	
3,511
876        |    7,358
11,745
17,518
8,682
26,200
Totals, 1968 	
4,719
C1)        |    7,758
12,477
17,480
10,092
27,572
Totals, 1967	
5,118
(!)        |    7,431
12,549
17,663
9,488
27,151
Totals, 1966	
5,566
C1)        |    6,174
11,740
18,593
9,576
28,169
Totals, 1965	
6,231
t1)        |    6,514
12,745
17,869
6,365
24,234
Totals, 1964  	
6,557
C1)        |    6,560
13,117
17,789
13,311
31,100
Totals, 1963	
6,926
C>        |    7,168
14,094
18,021
7,189
25,210
Totals, 1962
7,079
C1)        |    6,645
13,724
18,602
6,353
24,955
Ten-year average, 1961-71
5,075
6,844
12,295
17,499
9,121
26,620
1 Figures not available prior to 1969.
 AA 94
REPORT OF LANDS. FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1971
AA 95
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(Cunits)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.,
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes.
Etc. (No.)
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert _ _
Prince George	
Kamloops .„	
Nelson .„.	
Totals, 1971 ._.
Totals, 1970    	
Totals, 1969       	
Totals, 1968	
Totals, 1967   ._ -	
Totals, 1966-	
Totals, 1965  _
Totals, 1964 	
Totals, 1963	
Totals, 1962	
Ten-year average, 1962-71
185
51
76
51
64
1,132
24,448
15,119
28,30.
12.351
32,445
630,060
504,090
489,330
188,500
556,930
427
112,668
| 2,369.910
622
193,737
| 4,687,620
732
233,491
| 4,451,260
890
314,595
| 6,738,850
848
310,325
j 5,498,070
998
361,021
| 6,794,860
1,357
496,254
j 9,519,950
1,709
661,821
111,074,280
1,862
716,699
111,659,760
1,871
615,500
| 9,217,100
401,611  ] 7,201,166
8.CG0
4,103,456
2.700
1.500
100
48.950
9.500
■ 2.520
51,650
61,400 j
5.277
225,850
15,300 |
13,392
2,910,012
3,269,400 |
6,769
704,950
6,014,850 [
12,352
319,450
3,674,100 |
25,675
837,244
2,650,400 [
7,616
987,100
2,944,004 |
25,154 |
478,520
3,887,525 |
32,519
656,680
18,508,084 |
19,340
564,865
15,061
I
773,632
(60)
TIMBER SALE LICENCE RECORD,  1971
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-
protection
Tax (Acres)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert -
Prince George.-
Kamloops	
Nelson	
214
41
87
76
63
317
55
254
258
102
Totals	
Cash sales 	
Total sales..
481
510
~99T
986
862
209
402
524
262
288,430
90,538
215,817
271,616
264,257
2,259
1,130,658
263,508
76,962
151,278
232,393
240.987
965,128
 AA 96
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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21,715,044.74
15,311,207.7m
5,329,981.58
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200,323,591
56,168,278
60,208,678
337,213,542
221,980,805
117,622,262
900,425,581
804,857,059
714,384,574
619,335,789
712,773,314
728,521,327
729,684,953
713,287,016
645,464,932
756,225.170
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1962 	
it average, 1962-71	
Prince Rupert {
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Kamloops ..
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 A A 100
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 (66)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,   1971
EXPORT OF LOGS  (IN CUBIC FEET),  1971
AA 101
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
under
Permits
Fir 	
20,087
1.653,068
441.319
234.896
290.950
1,677,891
2,318,536
807,806
410,058
1.747,773
6.159.022
4,735,896
721,095
5.078,732
8.918.877
5,778.598
1.776,612
450,348
3.936,357
547.813
901.590
336,528
374,622
477.676
994.734
437.603
69.742
763,093
386.228
790.199
384,567
4.704,110
8,441,201
4.783.864
1.776,612
1.339,009
3,275
183,622
338.048
49,836
946,023
397,237
2,806,712
380,606
Cypress —.. -	
3.173,264
547,813
161,585
3.150
560.392
11 1.391
Totals, 1971	
2,874,315  | 6,094,192
16,817,090
2,324,425
28,110,022
4,630,425
23,479.597
Totals, 1970	
3,222,351  j 7,629,924
30,800,174
8,396,211
50,048,660
13,455.734
36,592.926
Totals, 1969	
598,829 j 3,031,347
17,270,817
5,040,281
25,941,274
10,655,349
15,285,925
Totals, 1968
3,619,562 | 4,482,835
20,111,753
2,695,646
30,909,796
16,265,130
14,644,666
Totals, 1967 _	
2,021,374 j 6,886,800
21,499,239
3,495,473
33.902,886
11,418,913
22.483,973
Totals, 1966
1,625,172  ; 4,553,790
14.666,899
2,821,874
23,667,735
7.348.820
16,318,915
Totals, 1965      	
559,204 ;  1,794,367
5,974,462
1,440,105
9,768,138
6,458.926
3,309,212
Totals, 1964	
624,730 | 2,431,755
5,131,602
637,616
8.825,703
4.741,111
4,084.592
Totals, 1963
578,164 ; 2,691,635
10.465,035
1,730,420
15,465,254
8,518,306
6,946,948
Totals, 1962	
628,956 |  1,869,241
7,691,944
2,306,588
12,496.729
7,375.840
5.120,889
Ten-year average,
1962-71 	
1,635,266
1
4.146.589  I   1504790I
3,088,864
23,913,620
9,086,856
14.826,764
1 Export privilege—exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
-Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12, 1906, under authority of section 97 of the Forest Act.
(67)    SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS,  1971
duct
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Forest District and Pro
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
lin. ft.
4,008,184
90,385
23,420,119
7,621
63,250
22,500
3,515
44,160
228,980
99,923
1,705,447
169,047
129
4.960
12.359,185
746.818
1.418
$
2,889,554.00
90,385.00
2,797,408.00
167,778.00
64,165.00
1,745.00
68.360.00
397,440.00
183,184.00
79,938.00
257.769.00
42,261.75
1.100.00
S.385.00
202.864.00
617.959.25
485.431.70
8,295.30
793,802
90.385
323.135
30.000
43.065
1,500
3.515
15,760
108.780
5.447
1.122.421
169.047
-> .
129
1,580
1.683.810
140.431
1.418
1    2,942,880
271,502
 —pieces
lin ft.
| 23.096,984
45,921
1
20.185
21.000
Prince Rupert—
Prince George—
Posts
 pieces
squares
  .units
lin. ft.
Shakes and shingles	
Pulp chips	
Kamloops—
Poles	
	
|         	
28.400
I
j        120,200
94.476
j       583.026
l
 pieces
lin. ft.
Nelson—
  cords
Palings and pickets .....	
i
j
3,380
'|   10,675.375
606.387
t     - 	
	
Shakes and shingles	
 pieces
Pulp chips 	
 units
Tntal value. 1971
8.394.023.00
[                    .    I         	
Total value. 1970
14,677.76 l.tX)
     :     	
;
 AA  102
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(68)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED,  1962-71
1962  !    1963
I
1965  I   1966 |    1967
1968
1970 I    1971
10-year
Average,
1962-71
Old Crown grants	
Crown grants, 1887—
1906......	
Crown grants, 1906-
1914	
Section 58, Forest Act
Stumpage reservations
Pre-emptions	
Timber berths	
Indian reserves 	
Section 24, Forest Act.
Timber sales 	
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences. 	
Totals 	
Transfers and changes
of marks.	
! I
300 i 313 | 356
150 j 125 j 148
| I
164 ! 161 ! 164
589 j 608 ! 672
109 ; 141 [ 149
9 ; 13 | 7
12 | 12 I 9
20 ( 18 | 27
  !   i 	
1,991 [ 2.183 ! 2,281
! I
90 | 97 j 121
5 I   I —-
2 1  - i 	
3,441 | 3,671 [ 3,934
I
809 |  725
802
150
172
649
133
8
14
24
I      I I
341 ! 277 j  328
I
130 ! 147 I  173
144 j
679 |
63
3 I
10 |
27 I
20 i
163
680
61
6
4
11
214
1,614 j 1,126 j 1,149
190
805
48
9
1
24
347
1,241
1
153  I
117
95  1
101
3 !
12
4 [
5
  1
4
1
1
3,248 j 2.676 I 2,812 I 3,273
740
908 ]  593
773
361 [  220
159 |
I
203 |
781 j
48
'3 !
11
30 |
502 ]  418
1,327 j 1,199
111 \
540 j
19 |
10
6 I
14:
143
89
197
126
524 j
7 |
4 I
12 !
384
991 |
I
115 |
3.582 I 2.709 j 2,471
554
548
302
137
160
653
78
8
8
21
189
1,510
112
3
(70)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED, 1971
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock Under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,131
377
407
5
141,520
22,174
14,976
102
3,176
768
2,240
2
1,433
12
39
Totals, 1971.. ..           -	
1,920
178,772
6,186
1,484
Totals, 1970                 -	
1,9851
178,332
5,651
2 739
Totals, 1-M.O
2,018
180,579
5,545
5,106
2,053
188,183
6,338
7,090
Totals, 19fi7
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
Totals, lOfifi
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Tntals, 19fiS
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Totals, 1964
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963
1,951
158,840
5.860
25,366
Totals, 1967.
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
1 Corrected figure.
 (102)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS, 1971
A A 103
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert-	
Prince George 	
Kamloops	
13
	
7
9
14
37
21
55
62
195
199
46
21
43
28
75
35
94
84
80
199
99
137
22
220
649
314
25
4
9
73
15
2
8
4
341
224
546
1,253
534
11.8
7.7
18.9
43.2
18.4
Totals 	
13
88
557
202
556
1,342
126
14
2,898
100.0
0.4
3.0
19.2
7.0
19.2
46.3
4.4
0.5
100.0
Ten-year average,
1962-71	
21
63
367
387
660
687
165
24
2,374
0.9
2.7
15.5
16.3
27.8
28.9
6.9
1.0
100.0
(103)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1971
Forest District
„
&c
M
.5
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O
SO
« £
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M
» 5 d
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p2
38
29
74
30
7
29
35
15
26
81
69
131
27
55
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.5
U
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el
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aaC-l
a>.9
U»
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George..-	
Kamloops 	
Nelson -	
Totals.	
Per cent	
Ten-year average
1962-71	
Per cent	
103
72
256
597
299
13
12
55
42
7
1
6
34
64
1,327
211
175
309
129
45.8
7.3
6.0
10.7
4.5
885
221
165
293
106
105
3.5
119
37.3 : 9.3 i 7.0 [ 12.3
4.5
5.0
3
3
7
17
20
50
1.7
52
2.2
39 |
21 |
54 |
70 |
21
41
35
41
137
49
205
70
7.1 I 2.4
303
10.5
40
280
7.4
1.7
11.8
341
| 224
| 546
11,253
] 534
11.8
7.7
18.9
43.2
18.4
14  12,898  1100.0
0.5  ! 100.0
37  |2,374
100.0
(104)     NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1962
I
1963 I  1964
I i I
1965 I  1966 1  1967 I  1968
I I
I I
1969 I  1970 I
1971 1 Total
Lightning _ _	
Recreational (campers, hunters, fishermen, etc.) _  	
Railways operating _ -	
Smokers -   ~
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
of-way clearing) -.— -
Range-burning  —
Road, power-, telephone-, and pipeline construction	
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)....
Incendiary - —
Miscellaneous known causes— 	
Unknown causes	
Totals.
615
182
41
162
60
62 |
I
35 1
109 |
25 |
183 j
62 |
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,536 | 2,345 | 1,120
1,000 | 374
|
315 I 230
89 | 170
310 ! 281
89 j
193
I
I
156 |
149 ]
24 !
309 j
44 |
14
292
36
958 | 708
I
288 1 131
455 | 121
464 j 179
128
138
89 |     101 |
223 !    164
93 34
248 126
42 23
348 193
54 14
2,685 [ 1,967 | 3.216 [ 1,647
646
188
238
374 j
I
133|
128 I
206
19
313
21
2,318
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
30
255
70
432
27
I
1,327 ] 8,852
211 | 2.212
175 | 1,651
309 I 2,929
"I
129 j
105 |
I
50 |
205 !
70 1
303 i
14 1
1,054
1,193
519
1.758
394
2,801
372
4,003 i 2,898 !23.735
 AA 104 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 105
(106)
DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  1971
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver.	
$
26,816
24,926
32,770
2,530
27,527
$
2,500
800
6,250
189,790
18,162
$
22,854
400
29,729
200
25,500
$
893
300
61,089
43,114
92,914
S
53,063
26,426
129,838
235,634
164,103
8.7
4.3
21.3
38.7
Nelson „	
27.0
114,569
217,502
78,683
198,310
609,064
100.0
18.8
35.7
12.9
32.6
100.0
Ten-year average, 1962-71
185,583
63,479
145,709
60,983
455,709
40.7
13.9
32.0
13.4
100.0
(107)
DAMAGE TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
1971—PART I
Merchantable Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Acres
301
18,272
49,393
22,584
30,502
M Cu. Ft.
1,189
56,541
123,265
49,032
109,258
M Cu. Ft.
330
774
18,248
9,127
41,621
1
$                  Acres
31.631       1         1.400
$
59,781
919,356
3,025,047
504,696
2,248,869
8,838
151,148
16,033
35,304
794,050
3,731,259
314,116
1,191,272
Totals	
121,052
339,285
70,100
6,729,5991    |    212,723      | 6,090,4781
13.9
100.0
20.7
51.8                  24.4                  46.9
Ten-year average, 1962-71-
41,502
94,796
30,605
1,870,409            56,553      | 1,509,777
18.2
100.0
32.2
53.5
24.9      !           43.1
i The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 AA  106
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS. AND WATER RESOURCES
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 AA 110 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(Hi) AREAS OF LOGGING SLASH DISPOSED, 1971
Forest District
Acres Abated
by Industry
Acres Abated
by Forest
Service
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert...
Prince George.-
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals
44,514
398
44,912
20,532
1,549
22,081
13,200
1,430
14,630
18,890
756
19,646
17,812
822
18,634
114,948
4,955
119,903
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1967-71
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1966
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1967
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1968
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1969
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
1970
Timber licence rentals and
fees.	
Timber berth rentals and fees
Timber lease rentals and fees
Timbersale rentals and fees .
Timber sale stumpage	
Timber sale cruising and advertising  	
Timber royalties	
Grazing permits and fees	
Forest protection tax	
Miscellaneous	
Weight-scaling _	
Totals _.	
825,100.86
13,436.63
76,121.31
881,812.16
34,732,239.51
229,857.61
3,509,720.06
310,718.84
579,928.17
394,388.82
396,894.14
676,038.52
141,074.38
87,083.55
899,849.28
44,390,570.94
250,745.80
4,954,555.27 |
350,351.93
947,389.12  |
473,324.50  j
635,742.30 j
703,048.63
128,103.62
90,500.60
882,229.95
78,293,115.07
213,844.25
6,329,417.22
384,123.83
993,509.64
428,260.52
1,033,160.25
41,950,218.11
53,806,725.59       89,479,313.58
668,254.04
123,123.68
92,895.76
898,484.23
53,524,665.01
163,321.01
6,217,109.85
438,003.68
1,006,742.58
669,194.53
1,149,637.48
64,951,431.85
$
640,458.88
112,947.83
93,633.27
798,919.11
49,680,565.02
166,647.42
5,553,861.92
469,636.16
1,123,517.24
735,683.76
1,514,347.62
60,890,218.23
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
AA 111
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971 AA  113
(144) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR 1970/71
$
Timber licence rentals and fees    680,677.60
Timber berth rentals and fees  108,582.53
Timber lease rentals and fees   94,379.52
Timber sale rentals and fees  864,070.03
Timber sale stumpage  47,596,110.72
Timber sale cruising and advertising  148.008.10
Timber royalties   5,766,639.32
Grazing permits and fees   449,382.25
Forest-protection tax     1,030.555.21
Miscellaneous     755,486.41
Weight-scaling   1,193,970.62
Total   58,687,862.31
(145) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1970/71
$
General administration, protection, and management of forests  18,976,582.75
Reforestation and forest nurseries     3,473,569.85
Forest research         199,597.08
Public information and education  60,538.70
Forest Service Training School          155,118.27
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association   17,500.00
Engineering services and forest-development roads    2,809,264.34
Fire suppression      9,765,199.87
Forest inventory         985,076.13
Silviculture ..     1,309,714.33
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1         210,462.19
Peace River community pastures     19,997.30
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme  17,434.27
Total ..  38,000,055.08
i Statement provided elsewhere.
 AA 114 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(146) SCALING FUND
S
Deficit, April 1, 1970          158,370.92
Collections, fiscal year 1970/71          2,469,230.34
2,310,859.42
Expenditures, fiscal year  1970/71           2,516,112.55
Deficit, March 31, 1971               205,253.13
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1971       1,914,588.59
1,709,335.46
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1971      2,099,162.83
Deficit, December 31, 1971            389,827.37
(147) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1970   11,814.19
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing A ct)           189,819.61
201,633.80
Expenditures, fiscal year 1970/71         210,024.61
Deficit, March 31, 1971       8,390.81
Government contribution (sec. 13, Grazing Act)         224,691.12
216,300.31
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1971         129,836.53
Surplus, December 31, 1971       86,563.78
(148) PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1970/71      3,778,261.24
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority     1,875,377.99
Balance          1,902,883.25
 (151)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1971
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL,  1971
AA   115
Personnel
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Deputy Minister,  Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters— „ .-   	
Division Foresters 	
1
2
2
3
2
15
2
111
2
88
98
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191
Engineers    	
40
10
Technical Forest Officers.      	
645
77
124
187
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants..._ 	
9
41
3
9
60
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers —  	
Superintendent and Foremen,  Forest  Service  Mainte-
338
158
23
167
60
44
108
8  |    496
242
348
335
239
723
2 391
Seasonally Employed
3
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2
31
76
	
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3,153
15
248
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206
120
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156
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks 	
15
206
3,755
35
581
170
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators 	
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides ....
249
322
3  |    260
57
194
940
278
3,781
5,513
11   |     756
1
299
542
1,275
517
4,504
7,904
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1972
3,300-172-600

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