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annual report of the DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION for the year ended March 31 1970 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1971

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 annual report
of the
DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
for the year ended March 3f
1970
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
  To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the year ended March 3f, 1970
is herewith respectfully submitted.
L. R. PETERSON
A ttorney-General
Attorney-General's Office, January 1971.
  Department of the Attorney-General,
Corrections Branch,
Vancouver, British Columbia,
November 1, 1970.
The Honourable L. R. Peterson, Q.C., LL.D.,
A ttorney-General,
Parliament Buildings,
Victoria,
British Columbia.
Sir,
I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Corrections Branch for the
twelve months ended March 31, 1970.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
S. ROCKSBOROUGH SMITH
Director of Correction
  CONTENTS
Corrections—a system	
Chapter I. Staff and staff-training
Probation Service	
Page
.    9
. 18
Gaol Service   1.
Chapter II. Probation
General	
Regional developments.
19
19
Marpole Probation Hostel  20
SALT Programme  20
New resources for probation  20
Chronic alcoholics  21
Family counselling   21
Chapter III. Gaols and forest camps
Treatment of Men
Population  23
Juvenile admissions  23
Special groups of offenders  23
Facilities  23
Discipline and security  24
Social education  24
Specialized institutions  26
Forest camps  28
Treatment of women
Population  28
Social education  30
Religious training  30
Vocational training  30
Twin Maples Farm  3 0
Community re-entry programmes
GeneraL
30
Work release, day parole, and home leave  33
Half-way houses  33
 Chapter IV. British Columbia Board of Parole.
Chapter V. Statistical statements
Population graph	
Page
_  34
38
Probation  39
Institutions  40
Chapter VI. Appendices
Administrative staff	
Organizational chart	
Classification criteria—correctional institutions.
55
56
57
Significant changes in legislation  58
 ANNUAL REPORT OF DIRECTOR
OF CORRECTION
Corrections—a system
A major goal of corrections as a part of the criminal justice system is to
make the community safer by preventing the offender's return to crime. Many
people think of this problem of controlling crime as solely a task for the police,
the Courts, and the correctional services. Crime cannot, however, be adequately
controlled without the interest and participation of the public, for the public's
attitude to crime and the criminal plays a large part in determining the extent
to which the law is upheld, the degree to which the statutes are enforced, the
action taken by the Courts, and the effectiveness of the correctional services.
Crime affects each one of us, either directly or indirectly, for in the final analysis
it is the public that is victimized and the taxpayer who pays the bill. The
prevention of crime and the rehabilitation of offenders must, therefore, be of
prime concern to every citizen.*
To many people, crime and criminals represent a very narrow range of
behaviour. This is not so. An enormous variety of acts and individuals make
up the crime problem. The offender population comprises a heterogeneous group
covering a wide age-range and presenting a spectrum of personality types and
problems. Those in conflict with the law have little in common other than the
fact that they have broken the law. The correctional services have, therefore,
to deal with as wide a diversity of people and problems as the community
manifests. There are no simple causes to criminal behaviour. In one case the
cause may be rooted in the offender's distorted self-image, in the next it may
result from some environmental factor; the list is unending. It takes no special
training to realize that the 17-year-old offender from a small isolated community
in one end of the Province will have quite different needs to his counterpart
living in a crowded Vancouver suburb. The 30-year-old heroin addict, whose life
is dominated by his need for the next "fix," has little in common with the
50-year-old skilled embezzler. In some cases an offender is nothing more than
a nuisance, in others he is dangerous. If he is dangerous to the community, the
community must be protected; if he is dangerous to himself, then he must be
protected from himself.
The diversity of offenders poses immense problems for any correctional system.
It. is obvious that no single formula, no one programme, can deal effectively with
those who come into conflict with the law. Not long ago the main focus of corrections was custody and containment. Every detail of prison life was governed
by considerations of security. Prisoners' clothing was marked with broad arrows
to proclaim the inmate as a fugitive from justice should he even try to regain
the world of free men. Some criminals were obviously dangerous, so all were
treated as if they were dangerous. It is fortunate that the public will no longer accept
this as a solution. Locking all offenders away in a large prison is not only very
expensive but it is largely ineffective and essentially inhuman. If the law-breaker
is to become a responsible citizen, then he must be taught how to behave as one.
This is an extremely difficult and complex task, but it is not necessarily an insurmountable one.
: See Appendix P, "Significant changes in legislation.'
9
 CORRECTIONS: A SYSTEM
Vl-MMyMi
Objective:  To make the community safer by preventing the offender's return to crime.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70 X 11
The first step toward dealing with such a wide and diverse group of problem
people must surely be to attempt to assess and classify each individual according
to type, on the assumption that different types require different forms of treatment
and containment.   As William Temple once wrote:
No man is a criminal and nothing else.    There is always the something else—the
person he was when he was not committing crimes.
The process of classification begins in the Courts, where the presiding Judge
has at his disposal a pre-sentence report prepared by a Probation Officer to assist
him in determining the most appropriate sentence.
There is a growing trend toward dealing with the offender in the community
rather than committing him to an institution, and an increasing number of cases
each year are being placed under probation supervision. Results indicate clearly
that in a large number of cases probation is an effective disposition. From the
communities' point of view it is an unnecessary expense to lock an offender up
unless it serves a useful purpose.
Success on probation depends to a large extent on the Probation Officer's
skill and the available resources in the community. The officer is trained as a
caseworker to deal with individual problem people, to guide, to counsel, to control,
and to direct the probationer along a path that will lead to his eventual restoration
as a useful member of society. But he cannot operate effectively in a vacuum.
He requires all the assistance the community can offer in the way of appropriate
resources. In one case it may mean a suitable recreational outlet, or the opportunity to obtain some trade-training, or a sympathetic employer to provide a job;
another may require some more specialized service such as that offered by a mental
health clinic; or a combination of all four may be necessary. It is not enough for the
officer to be able to analyse an individual's need and prescribe the cure if the community he serves has none of the resources to offer. Probation as a correctional
tool can only operate effectively where the community is alive and aware of its
social needs. Fortunately, there is a growing awareness on the part of the general
public of these needs, and interested groups are promoting the development of
such resources as remand homes for juveniles, supervised recreational centres,
family education programmes, and mental health facilities. Individuals are offering
their services as volunteer probation sponsors, Big Brothers, or assisting in the
running of a boys' club or community centre. In some cases the young probationer
responds more positively to the personal interest of a volunteer than to a professional
caseworker—there is no substitute for the care and concern shown by the man who
lives next door.
Some of the back-up resources required by the Probation Officer are being
developed by the Corrections Service. Summer programmes in leadership training
have been a feature of probation in British Columbia, and three regions are now
operating week-end programmes. The Probation Hostel in Vancouver offers an
example to other communities of a residential programme for difficult young probationers. The young adult whose home situation is intolerable will often settle
down in a group home and with some guidance sort out his goals and find himself.
The Attendance Centre in Victoria, which operates after school and on week-ends,
is another example of the success achieved by guided interaction. Any account of
the community involvement in the promotion of resources for problem youths would
be incomplete without mentioning the Salvation Army's House of Concord, at
Langley. This most successful venture is providing a group-living experience for
youthful probationers from across the Province, many of whom have been unable to
function adequately in their own homes. It is gratifying to learn that the House of
Concord is increasing its facilities and will shortly be able to double its intake.
 REGIONAL gaols
"i
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1
I
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f f
B
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1. Oakalla Prison Farm.    2. Women's Unit, Oakalla.   3. Prince George Regional Gaol.
4. Kamloops Regional Gaol.    5. Vancouver Island Unit.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 13
Although the current ratio of three probationers in the community to every
one person serving a sentence in a Provincial institution is an encouraging one,
probation has by no means reached its full potential. In fact, with the projected
increase in offenders, particularly in the age-group 16 to 24, it is imperative that
greater use be made of probation. To do this will require a substantial reinforcement of facilities. The present force of officers and the resources at their disposal
are at the point where any additional load would only dilute their services to a level
of ineffectiveness, and bring probation into disrepute. Trained Probation Officers
are in great demand across the country. To retain our present force and develop
it we must be able to offer greater inducements in terms of adequate financial
compensation and career satisfaction. At the same time it is equally important
that local communities realize the necessity for expanding their resources, particularly those services designed to meet the needs of young people.
A prime consideration in any system of corrections is the element of control—
the offender must be controlled until hopefully he can be restored as a responsible
member of society. It is an unfortunate fact that there are people in our society
who are beyond the reach of probation and have to be restrained physically. For
these a period of incarceration is the only available resource. Some are irrevocably
committed to criminal careers; others subscribe to the values of a hedonistic, drug-
oriented subculture; still others are aimlessly uncommitted to goals of any kind.
Many are confused, frustrated, and often hostile youths.
To accommodate this diversity of offenders, four regional gaols have been
established across the Province, offering a variety of general-purpose programmes.
These institutions act as receiving prisons for the men and women sentenced by the
Courts in the regions they serve. They have aptly been described as "maids of all
work," for they must hold the unconvicted, respond appropriately to the hostile and
aggressive, protect the backward and immature, guard against the violent, prevent
the illicit smuggling of drugs and weapons, while providing supervision, counselling,
and instruction. To assist them in their task, a wide range of specialized institutions
and minimum-security forest camps has been developed to accommodate those
able to respond to such facilities.
The key to operating this system is the use made of classification.* Oakalla,
the largest of the regional gaols, responsible for the heavily populated Lower Mainland, houses the Central Classification Committee, which acts as a co-ordinating
body for the smaller committees in the other three regional gaols. The classification
procedure consists of the collection and study of all available information gathered
from pre-sentence reports, medical and psychiatric reports, and previous institutional
records. This is followed by a personal interview with each inmate serving a sentence in excess of one month. An offender may be referred by the classification
panel for medical assessment to the prison hospital, for psychiatric evaluation by a
visiting psychiatrist, or a period of close observation by institution staff. On the
basis of all the data available, a decision is then made as to the most appropriate
placement of the individual within the total corrections system.
This could mean a transfer to
(1) a training institution for young adults, such as New Haven, the Haney
Correctional Institution, or the Westgate A Unit at Oakalla (these three
facilities accommodate mainly those sentenced to definite-indeterminate
sentences with a high probability of release on parole under supervision);
(2) one of two wilderness camps for young adults specializing in a high-
intensity training programme of achievement through strenuous physical
challenge;
* See Appendix P, "Classification criteria (correctional institutions)."
 ■   ■■
TRAINING FACILITIES FOR YOUNG OFFENDERS
o ©
1. Haney Correctional Institution. 2. Cottage for Female Young Offenders. 3. Pine
Ridge Forest Camp. 4. Snowdon Forest Camp. 5. New Haven Borstal. 6. Boulder
Bay Forest Camp.    7. Chapel, Chilliwack Forest Camps.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 15
(3) a forest camp for selected male offenders of any age, sentenced by Courts
in the Lower Mainland, who have not previously been committed to
prison;
(4) one of eight forest camps (two of which serve each of the four regional
gaols throughout the Province) for physically fit men who do not require
the control of a secure prison;
(5) a treatment institution for male chronic alcoholics.
Sentenced women are taken direct from the Courts to the Women's Unit
at Oakalla, where they undergo a similar classification process. The Women's Unit
and a small treatment centre for female alcoholics outside Vancouver are the only
two correctional institutions for adult females in the Province. They provide a wide
diversity of programming for a group of under a hundred females.
Perhaps the most significant development in the past year in dealing with
sentenced offenders was an amendment to the Gaol Rules and Regulations, passed
by Order in Council, permitting leaves and work releases to inmates of Provincial
institutions. This type of community programme presents a drastic new approach
to correctional management and has much to commend it, for the offender does not
become institutionalized, nor are his initiative or confidence sapped, as so often
happens when a man or woman has spent much time in a large prison.
The sight of men and women leaving an institution each morning with a lunch
bucket under their arm and returning again in the evening is a novel experience
for those associated with the prison tradition of locking people behind bars. Details
on the extent to which these new possibilities have been used so far are noted elsewhere in this Report. Much work has yet to be done in preparing the public to
accept this type of innovation, in obtaining the co-operation of employers so that
employment opportunities are available, and in establishing a satisfactory method
of control and supervision for those participating in community programmes of
this nature. There is no doubt that the objective of viewing an offender as an
industrious, responsible wage-earner, supporting his family, meeting his financial
commitments, and generally paying his way, is well worth planning and working
toward.
Much is heard nowadays about systems and modern technical expertise and
the necessity for the latest in up-to-date facilities and equipment in conducting any
successful operation. While it would be foolish to turn our backs on the technical
advantages we enjoy over our progenitors, we must not forget that what still counts
for most in correctional work is not physical facilities or systems, but men and
women. "A school is a teacher with a building round him, not a building with a
teacher inside."
The results of recent evaluative research conducted on successful cases indicated that in over half the cases the influence of a staff member was the responsible
factor in their reformation. These officers were not the easy-going, permissive type,
attempting to make "good fellows" of themselves by placing few demands on their
charges and overlooking infringements of the rules—they were frank, fair, considerate men and women who showed a personal interest in those in their care,
without pretention or condescension, and who by their own conduct and example
inspired confidence and respect. The following are some examples taken from
wardens' annual reports:
• An inmate addicted to alcohol and LSD with a history of parental rejection and
a series of foster homes, was admitted for " offensive weapon, theft, and break and
enter." During a group-counselling session with his Correctional Officer, this inmate
expressed concern over his alcohol and drug problem and was particularly worried
as to where he could go and seek help on his discharge. The Correctional Officer,
through his warden, took the inmate home after his discharge at no charge for room
 X 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and board. He behaved well and was assisted with transportation and in finding a job.
In the first 10 days he became drunk, but phoned the officer, who, at 1.30 a.m., picked
him up and took him home. No further problems have been experienced. He now has
a job and his own accommodation, but comes regularly to visit this officer, who commented: "Last week he visited us, told us about his work and that he is finding it
easier to say 'no' to drinks when offered."
• A young inmate was admitted to the special training programme at Centre Creek
Forest Camp. He had served a previous term, when he was described as lazy, belligerent,
and with a poor attitude toward staff.
During the early stages of training his belligerent attitude created many disciplinary
problems for him. Staff persisted in their demands and he progressed slowly. Eventually
he developed a good relationship with his Correctional Officer. As his trust and attitudes
developed, his general effort and performance improved to the point where above-average
reports were recorded.   He often sought advice and help with personal problems.
This inmate graduated from the course on December 15, 1969 on a British Columbia
parole and made a point of thanking each individual staff member with a handshake for
the help he had been given during his six months' stay.
He has kept in contact with the Centre Creek staff and has driven from Vancouver
to Chilliwack to discuss matters of concern to him. He made a point of appearing for
the graduation of Troop 13 on September 27, 1970, and asked if he could say a few
words on his own behalf. He did not know anyone in the graduating troop, but
introduced himself as a graduate of the course and made the statement that if it were
not for the programme and the staff who had put much time and effort helping him,
that he would not have been there to attend this graduation. He stayed for some time
after the ceremony to visit with the staff and introduced the young lady in his company
as his future wife.
He completed his parole and has maintained contact with staff up to this point.
Certainly one of the most encouraging developments in corrections in British
Columbia has been the development by the staff of the treatment programme for
chronic alcoholics at the Alouette River Unit and Twin Maples Farm:
• Harry was admitted on a confirming order, a very nervous man of 49 years who
had lost all confidence in himself. He wrote everything he wanted to say, because, he
said, "I can't remember anything now."
Harry started drinking in 1943 prior to joining the RCAF, and in the next 20 years
he drank anything available. He was in a state of continual intoxication except for
enforced periods of sobriety.   He had been hospitalized frequently.
During his stay at the Alouette River Unit, Harry decided he wanted sobriety and
that AA would be the way of life for him. He did not want to return to Vancouver,
even though he might have existed there on his burnt-out pension. He realized he needed
support, and contacted a brother in Calgary who would help him help himself, not carry
him. On June 24, 1970, Harry was discharged from the Alouette River Unit to Calgary,
with a condition of his release that he would contact his supervisor monthly by mail.
Every month Harry wrote, reporting that he was working and attending AA. The
letters became more lucid and organized. Here is a verbatim extract from his October
letter: "I find that I get along fairly well in Calgary and especially since I always seem
to have something to do. I wonder sometimes about the A.R.U. and if there have been
any changes, or any planned, and, in fact, mentioned a word or two about the theory
of the institution and its purpose and goals—I found some very interested listeners—this
was at the last A.A. meeting—I am and will always be hopeful that it will be a success.
I will close on this note and until next month, I remain, Soberly yours, H.S."
Harry has had only five months' sobriety, but that amounts to 150 days, and
any alcoholic will say that that's a long time without a drink, especially for a
person who has had no more than a few sober days in the past 20 years.
At Twin Maples Farm the staff have developed a comparable programme
for females, again with encouraging results:
• Jane was the subject of a confirming order, March 9, 1970. She was 54 years old,
a tall, untidy, obese woman in dire need of dentures, with a colourful vocabulary. She
had been drinking since she was 9 years old. At the initial classification panel she stated
that she did not have a problem with alcohol, and all she needed was to get back to
Saskatchewan, get a "still," and make her own brew. Jane stated she had been drinking
bay rum because she was a diabetic and it did not contain sugar.    She ended the first
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 17
session by touching her toes a few times to prove alcohol had not been damaging to
her health.   She was bitter at being detained at Twin Maples.
Our impression at that time was that we would not be able to help Jane or involve
her in programme and possibly not sustain her at this unit. However, in less than four
months, Jane had worked out many of her problems and hang-ups with the help of
her lay counsellor; she had participated in the total programme, and made a realistic
release plan which included AA participation.
Jane was discharged in a happy state of mind on July 3, 1970, to live at the Sancta
Maria House. She remained there two months and took an interest in the home. She
was helpful to the other residents, especially the younger ones. Later she moved into
a suite of her own in an older house, with a view of the city, which she appreciates.
She continued with the AA programme, and four months after her discharge she is
still sober.
The work of the Parole Officer in supervising cases in the community after
release is a critical link in the process of reintegrating offenders into the community.
The institution or camp training is, in a sense, a staging ground preparing the
offender for release. The Parole Officer must continue to develop the progress
made within a correctional institution to the point where the individual is capable
of fulfilling the responsibilities of a free citizen.
• Bill was imprisoned for over 15 convictions of fraud and false pretences. In the
past he was regarded as a spoiled, materially oriented young man with little concern
for others. On release, employment was arranged. Counselling by his Parole Officer
was directed to the problems of finances, restitution, relationships with his father and
family, and attempts to modify any further manipulative behaviour. Bill's reaction to
counselling and intervention by his Parole Officer was most favourable. He paid off
his debts and gradually became aware of other people's needs. In terms of maturity,
the Parole Officer was able to bring him to the point where he realized that if he used his
capabilities positively he could do just as well, or better, in life than in the past, when he
had employed criminal tactics to obtain what he wanted.
 Chapter I. Staff and staff-training
Probation Service
Appointments and separations
During the course of the year, 21 Probation Officers and Probation Interviewers
were trained and appointed to staff. In the same period there were 13 separations,
leaving a net gain of eight for the year.
Gaol Service
Recruitment and separations
A total of 156 staff was appointed to the permanent ranks of the Gaol Service
to fill 162 resignations. The remaining six vacancies were dropped from the
establishment to offset the decrease in the inmate population.
The over-all separation rate of institutional staff dropped for the second
consecutive year to 14.2 per cent. Again, this turnover was concentrated in the
Security Officer rank. The low starting salary for this group of staff, combined
with shift work and its adverse effect on family life, continue as major factors
in the extremely high separation rate at this rank.
Recruitment presented fewer difficulties than in previous years, and all institutions were able to fill their requirements.
Dr. R. G. E. Richmond retired in November 1969 as Senior Medical Officer,
ending a long and distinguished career in corrections both in British Columbia and
England.
Development and training
British Columbia Corrections personnel made a major contribution to the
Canadian Congress of Correction held in Vancouver in lune 1969. It was a most
successful conference and attracted experts from many parts of the world.
The Staff Training Academy completed its third year of operation in facilities
at the Vancouver Island Unit, graduating 143 officers. Plans are currently being
developed to move the academy to Pierce Creek Camp in the Chilliwack Valley,
which was closed at the end of this year as an inmate forest camp due to the
reduction in prisoner population. This facility will make an excellent training
centre.
Hundreds of staff participated in the special courses, conferences, and seminars
offered by specialists in Government or outside agencies. This did not include
the considerable amount of in-service training conducted by various institutions
to meet specific training requirements.
The development by the University of British Columbia of a programme of
training leading to a certificate in criminology was welcomed.
It has been most gratifying to note in the reports from institutions that the
results of in-service training are very noticeable. There is a continuing enlargement
of trained and experienced staff who have exhibited a significant increase in morale.
18
 Chapter II. Probation
General
During the year, 4,348 new probationers came under supervision. This figure
indicates an increase of 427 over the previous year. Of the 4,348 cases, 3,877
were males and 471 were females. In respect to the males, 60 per cent were under
the age of 18.   The major increase came in the age-group 18 to 24 years.
The percentage of women placed on probation increased during the year
by 11 per cent.
At the end of the year, the total case-load carry-over was 6,490, an increase
of 943 over the previous year. This works out at an average case load per field
officer of 59.5 cases. In spite of extensive recruiting, training, and the use of
interviewers and volunteers, the case load remains high due to the massive increase
in the use of probation, parole, and voluntary probation supervision. Fortunately,
the success rate remains relatively unchanged.
Regional developments
• All regions reported increased requests from Courts for pre-sentence reports.
Specific increases were noted for reports on persons convicted under the Narcotic
Control Act.
• Family Division Committees have been active in various centres throughout
the year helping to develop a greater variety of placement resources for juveniles,
making the public more aware of the need for local detention facilities for children
before the Courts, establishing group-living homes, organizing lectures and discussions on "family living," promoting attendance centres, and in many other
areas.
• Much greater use was made of volunteers. Plans were under way at the
end of the year for a massive demonstration project in North Vancouver to show
how volunteer probation sponsors can be recruited, trained, and used to assist
in supervising youthful probationers. Small groups of volunteer native Indian
sponsors have been recruited and given supervisory responsibilities in a number
of areas with success. In general, more emphasis is being placed on community
outreach. Increased news coverage helped to publicize the Probation Officer's
job and the need for greater community concern and participation.
• The use of Probation Interviewers to maintain the enforcement of Court
maintenance orders has resulted in regular and prompt receipt of payments by
deserted wives and has reduced the need in many cases of their having to rely on
social assistance.
• Many regions reported special group projects instigated by Probation Officers
—for school drop-outs;
—for deserted teen-age girls;
—to use schools after hours as recreational centres;
—to work with young drug-users.
19
 X 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Marpole Probation Hostel
This hostel, first opened in 1965, is operated by the Probation Service to
provide as normal a home-setting as possible for eight juveniles who either have no
homes of their own or whose homes are not suitable. All those approved for
residence in the hostel are under the age of 18 and have as a condition of their
probation order "a condition of residence."
During the past year there were 17 admissions and 16 discharges, leaving
eight in residence at the end of the year.
The hostel and its residents are fully accepted by the community, and all local
resources are utilized.
The use of illicit drugs is becoming an ever-increasing problem, and most boys
referred to the hostel have had experience with either marijuana, LSD, or glue-
sniffing. Constant vigilance is necessary to detect symptoms of drug-usage during
the first month of residence. However, after a month in the hostel, an improvement
is usually effected, and once a relationship develops between the resident and the
houseparents the attitude to such behaviour changes.
SALT Programme
August 1969 saw the graduation for the sixth consecutive year of another
Search and Leadership Training Programme at Porteau Cove. Thirty juvenile probationers, aged 14 to 17 years, took part in the month-long programme. As in
former years, the basis for selection was failure to respond to normal probation
supervision with the possibility of transfer to Adult Court and committal to an
adult correctional institution.
The youths received instruction in civil defence, first aid, and search and
rescue methods; practised survival techniques in the wilderness; and underwent
a rigorous training programme. This was followed by a tough three-week expedition, where all youths were faced with many challenges requiring a high degree
of stamina and leadership. The course ended with a graduation ceremony to which
parents, Probation Officers, and members of the community were invited. The
Attorney-General presented the boys with their diplomas and certificates.
Statistics over a five-year period clearly indicate that the Search and Leadership Training Programme has much to commend it, both in terms of results and
costs. Some of the Province's most difficult probationers returned to their communities with new-found strengths and attitudes and with a far healthier outlook
on life, which has led to their successful adjustment without further delinquency.
New resources for probation
In November 1969 an Attendance Centre was established in Victoria, providing a treatment resource to assist the fudge and probation staff in dealing with
youngsters not responding to probation. The objective of the attendance centre
is to provide a rehabilitative and preventive programme for youth on probation and
to mobilize available community resources in such a way as to best meet the needs
of these youths.
The Metchosin Ranch Programme was initiated also in November. The ranch,
situated just outside Victoria, operates a week-end and summer residential training
programme, combined with parent education and community involvement. Its objective is to test the feasibility of dealing with the more serious delinquent in the
community and to determine which youngsters respond, or do not respond, to this
type of treatment.   Hopefully, this will eventually allow more accurate classification
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 21
and avoid committing to residential centres those youths who can be dealt with
more effectively within the community.
In early September, probation staff in the Lower Mainland were canvassed to
determine whether they had any probationers who could benefit from a week-end
training programme away from their homes. This survey produced 40 names,
10 of them were teen-aged girls. As a result, an old seven-room, two-story farmhouse, located on a heavily wooded site some 50 miles from Vancouver, was
obtained as a training centre for girls on probation who need a supportive weekend programme away from home. The farmhouse has now been renovated and
will be in operation early in the new fiscal year.
Chronic alcoholics
Supervision of alcoholics in the community following release from care at
the Alouette River Unit was a major factor in the effectiveness of the alcoholism-
treatment programme. Two Probation Interviewers carry out the supervision
in the Vancouver area, while a third works with those released in the Haney-
Mission area, where several half-way houses are established. In other areas,
supervision is given by field Probation Officers. The Probation Interviewers in
Vancouver assist the Court by providing background information on those persons
appearing on confirming order applications, they are to be commended for their
patience and enthusiasm in the face of many failures.
Family counselling
Marriage and family counselling is a preventive measure which Probation
Officers attached to the Family Division of the Provincial Court use to the extent
that time will permit. Often a couple will come to a probation office complaining
that one or more of the children are becoming hard to handle, unaware of the part
their own marital problems are playing in the situation. After attending counselling sessions, it is not unusual to hear one or both parents say that the children
have changed, that they are more relaxed, getting along better with one another
and accepting limits more cheerfully, without being aware that this is the result
of the change in their own outlook, attitudes, and method of dealing with family
problems.
Many marital and family problems have built up over a period of years and,
therefore, are not easily sorted out and resolved. It does become a time-consuming
process. Interviews may run from two to three hours, and on occasion during a
crisis period a couple may be seen twice in one day. However, in terms of what
is accomplished this is time well spent:
• The case of Mr. and Mrs. H. is a good example. They have six children, ranging
in age from 7 to 15. The Probation Officer first saw them in January, at which time
Mrs. H. was planning to leave her husband. There had been one previous separation.
Both had seen a psychiatrist, but Mrs. H. refused to continue to attend any further
sessions, feeling that the psychiatrist "was on my husband's side." Mr. H. was seeing him
occasionally.
The counsellor conducted many joint interviews and a number of individual ones,
working with each of them in order to try and help them sort out the accumulation of
many years of bitterness and frustration. Although outwardly they appeared to be
mature people and were respected in their community, there was alway the complete
breakdown of communication between them due to the neurotic behaviour of both of
them and their lack of insight.
After three months of counselling, Mr. and Mrs. H. are both learning to understand
and accept the needs of the other and also of their family.
 X 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
For a time, as so often happens in these situations, each parent had been using the
children as a weapon in their battle against the other. The children were becoming increasingly disturbed by this and some pre-delinquent behaviour had been observed.
This has now disappeared, and recently Mr. and Mrs. H. bought a trailer and have
spent several week-ends at a nearby lake with the family. The prognosis in this case
is good.
Counselling of this kind is very time-consuming and is one reason why a Probation Officer's case load must be drastically reduced if he is to become more
involved in preventive measures.
 Chapter HE. Gaols and forest camps
Treatment of men
Population
The daily average population of male inmates in institutions and camps was
2,092, a drop of 31 from last year's average of 2,123. This was the second consecutive year in which there was a decrease in the prison population. Oakalla's
population continued to diminish as the other regional prisons across the Province
took more of the load.
In spite of the drop in the daily average population, the total admissions to
prison rose this year to 9,983, an increase of 704 over last year's total.
Alouette River Unit received its first direct admissions from Court this year.
This has proven to be a much more satisfactory procedure than having sentenced
prisoners transferred from Oakalla.
A noteworthy trend was an increase of 30 per cent in the number of cases
released for supervision in the community. This, along with more cases being
transferred to the penitentiary, accounted for the drop in the annual average
population, in spite of an increase in admissions.
Juvenile admissions
The number of admissions received in the Remand Unit at the Haney Correctional Institution increased by 53 per cent. Added to those admitted to regional
prisons, the total amounted to 241, 21 of whom were 15-year-olds. The practice
of remanding juveniles to adult institutions is far from desirable and reflects the
failure on the part of many municipalities to provide adequate facilities for those
juveniles on remand who require some security to contain them.
Special groups of offenders
British Columbia Indians—It has been most encouraging to note the continued
decrease in the number of British Columbia Indians admitted to regional gaols.
Over the past five years this has amounted to a drop of over 50 per cent. In terms
of male intake, the Indian group now represents 14.5 per cent of the total.
Drug offenders—The extensive use of drugs among young people in our society
has been reflected in a substantial increase in admissions for drug offences. In spite
of the general decrease in prison population over the past two years, admissions
for drug offences in the same period rose by over 50 per cent. The point of greatest
concern has been the developing trend, noted by personnel engaged in classifying
prisoners on admission to prison, of previous soft-drug-users turning to the use of
heroin.
Facilities
Remand centre—The design work on a new remand centre to replace the
present facilities at Oakalla has progressed throughout the year. The first contract
for site development has been let by the Department of Public Works, and work
is proceeding. To provide the necessary time for the specification of detail and
design, Warden Mulligan, of Oakalla, was seconded to this project for three months
on a full-time basis.
23
 X 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The present remand wings at Oakalla continued throughout the year in an
overcrowded state. These facilities are quite inadequate and unsuitable for holding
prisoners who are awaiting trial, some of them for extended periods of time.
Units closed—Although the remand population has increased, the sentenced
population has experienced a substantial decrease. This made it possible to close
several small units.
The trailers at Oakalla were moved into that gaol in February 1963 at the
height of its overcrowded condition. With the current decrease in count, these
trailers were closed.
The Narcotic Drug-treatment Unit, established at Oakalla in 1956 as a pilot
drug-treatment unit, was phased out with the development of the Federal Centre
for the treatment of drug addicts at Matsqui. This unit is currently being used
as a work-release facility for Oakalla.
Due to the drop in the number of inmates admitted to Oakalla who were suitable for transfer to camp, Pierce Creek Camp in the Chilliwack Valley was closed
as a camp for inmates and turned into a staff-training academy.
Construction—Progress was made on the kitchen-stores building at Alouette
River Unit. It is expected this building will be ready for operation early in the
new year. Planning is now under way for the next phase of construction—the
administration-hospital building.
The maintenance garage at the Haney Correctional Institution was completed
this year. The transfer of this operation from the main institution has removed
a serious fire hazard.
Discipline and security
The number of escapes and walkaways from institutions and forest camps this
year amounted to a total of 134, a considerable drop over last year's total. As the
30 walkaways from the Alouette River Unit could not be classed as "escapes"
under the new legislation providing for the "detaining" of chronic alcoholics, they
were not charged under the Criminal Code, but were dealt with instead as internal
disciplinary cases.
Infractions against gaol rules and regulations dropped also, especially at the
Haney Correctional Institution. Oakalla Prison Farm, which houses the most
aggressive and dangerous segment of the inmate population, also experienced a
significant decrease.
Assaults on staff dropped dramatically again this year. Only one serious incident occurred. A number of dangerously disturbed inmates facing murder charges
created disturbances and threatened staff while housed in the remand unit at Oakalla.   One officer was held hostage at knife-point for several hours.
The high rate of attempted suicides and self-inflicted injuries, reported last
year, continued at Oakalla, mainly in the remand units. The number of actual
suicides totalled five, though there were some 85 attempts.
On the whole, the state of prisoner morale and conduct was much improved
over last year. There is no question that this has resulted largely from the decrease
in over-all population, the development of staff through extensive training, and the
high calibre of leadership displayed.
Social education
New developments—All young-adult offender training facilities now have fully
developed graded system of training based on progressive advancement from grade
 EDUCATION
- r*
1. Draughting class. 2. Art class. 3. Physical education. 4. Academic classroom.
5. Library and study centre. 6. Vocational shop heavy-duty mechanic. 7. Indian Correctional Officer teaching native skills.
 X 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to grade. Under these systems the trainee has certain goals set for him by those
responsible for each stage in his training. The trainee meets monthly with his
housemaster or lay counsellor for a review of his conduct and application. If satisfactory, he is then promoted to the next grade with greater responsibility and increased privileges. Only when he has completed the requirements of the top grade
can he be considered for release on parole. The continuous "feed-back" to the
trainee on how well, or how poorly, he is achieving his required goals has proven
to be very helpful.
This progressive grade system, which has long been a feature of the training
programme at New Haven, has been found to be equally effective in the new house
programme at the Haney Correctional Institution, in Boulder Bay and Centre Creek
Forest Camps, and even with the hard-core recidivistic young-adult offenders in
Westgate A at Oakalla.
It has been most encouraging to note that the shift in emphasis to setting clear-
cut goals for trainees to achieve, requiring them to earn privileges and increasing
the level of difficulty and demands as they progress from grade to grade, has led
to improved trainee morale and postdischarge success rates.
Education—Along with the shift in emphasis to a more intensive definition of
goals has gone an intensification of the educational programme. Regional gaols
and forest camps now have teachers from the community coming in on a part-time
basis. The Vancouver Island Unit has been especially fortunate in having the
services of two teaching sisters from St. Ann's Academy. Although they concentrate their efforts on teaching illiterates, they have made steady progress and
advanced education on a wide scale to the point where other inmates interested in
upgrading their academic standing have been able to participate to their advantage.
At the Haney Correctional Institution, further emphasis has been given to
remedial classes, and volunteers are being used for tutoring services. Vocational
training at this training centre has continued to adapt to the younger age-group
currently being received.
Religious training—The chaplains throughout the Service continued to make
an outstanding contribution to institutions and camps through their personal counselling, worship, and religious instruction. In keeping with the more searching
approach to religion displayed by the younger trainee age-group, several chaplains
have experimented with special types of church services. These tend to take the
form of open discussions on current religious issues, where there is an interchange
between the chaplain and the inmates. At some, the inmates assist in the service
by playing the music and reading the scripture. With the younger group, attendance
at services has as much as tripled.
Specialized institutions
Alouette River Unit—The amendment to the Summary Convictions Act providing for an indeterminate period of detention of up to one year for chronic
alcoholics, both male and female, became operative in both Vancouver and Prince
George in the early summer. As a consequence, the daily average population of
the unit increased from 90 last year to 114, with a peak of 127.
The development across the Province of an ever-increasing number of half-way
houses for alcoholics, operated by community nonprofit societies, is an indication
of the growing interest of the community in the problem of alcoholism.
Statistics indicate that almost 86 per cent of those males released from the
Alouette River Unit go in the first instance to a half-way house. Here their contact
with the AA programme is strengthened and they are put in touch with local
A A groups.
 TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLICS
1. Dormitories at Alouette River Unit for Alcoholics. 2. Religious discussion session.
3. Classification and planning for new resident. 4. Chapel and office buildings. 5. Group-
counselling session.
 X 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The provision of a detoxication centre for the Lower Mainland where chronic
alcoholics could be detained until sober and their needs properly evaluated and
assessed, prior to any disposition being made, would fill the last remaining gap in
the new system for the treatment of chronic alcoholics. Such a centre would hopefully put an end to the present detention of these unfortunate people in drunk-tanks.
Forest camps
Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Experimental Camps—Boulder Bay camp occupied its newly constructed quarters on Pine Lake (one-quarter mile from the main
body of Alouette Lake) in September 1969. This camp, along with Centre Creek
camp in the Chilliwack Valley, has now completed 22 months of operation under
an experimental programme for young-adult offenders serving definite-indeterminate
sentences who do not require a lengthy period of retraining. Both these camps
have operated along the lines of Outward Bound training, stressing challenge and
achievement. At Boulder Bay the course is of four months' duration, while the
Centre Creek course takes six months to complete. Those successfully completing
the courses are recommended to the British Columbia Parole Board for release
under supervision to the community.
To provide an accurate evaluation of the effectiveness of this training, a
matched control group was sent to the Haney Correctional Institution for a longer
form of training. A comparison will be made between the violation rate for the
experimental group as compared to the control group.
Forestry work and fire-fighting—All forest camps continued to make a major
contribution to the reforestation programme being carried on throughout the Province. Projects ranged from nursery development, tree planting, road and trail and
camp-site construction, and fire-hazard abatement, to the clearing of hundreds of
acres of floating debris on lakes used for public recreation.
All camps provided fire-fighting crews. One crew in the Kamloops region was
called out to 16 fires during the season. The largest fire fought was by trainees
from Centre Creek Camp. This was the "rock fire," east of Campbell River.
It involved 35 trainees and five staff working 16 hours a day for several weeks
before this most difficult and serious fire was brought under control.
Boulder Bay Camp made its particular contribution with the rescue of six
boats on Alouette Lake and the provision of an emergency rescue service for
hikers in Golden Ears Provincial Park.
Centre Creek Camp was also instrumental in several rescues. One particular
case of note, a lost hunter, came to the camp's attention when the police requested
its assistance after a helicopter had failed to reach the injured man due to the rug-
gedness of the terrain. A rescue party of 12 trainees and three staff hiked in, and
the next day carried out the injured hunter in a basket stretcher.
Treatment of women
Population
There was a slight decrease in admissions during the year, and the daily average population dropped to 76. Constant supervision and special medical attention
was necessary to cope with newly admitted women suffering from the effects of
hallucinogenic and other drugs.
Discipline was maintained and at a high level, and there were no offences or
assaults against staff.
 SEARCH AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING FOR YOUNG OFFENDERS
WU&."    -
1. Stream crossing, Chilliwack River. 2. "Burma Bridge," Centre Creek. 3. Confidence climb, Boulder Bay. 4. Obstacle course, Boulder Bay. 5. Rapelling, Boulder
Bay.    6. Early morning swim.    7. Graduation.
 X 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Social education
Counselling and special programmes—Home-making skills continued to be
emphasized and provided much-needed training to women who will hopefully one
day be returning to the community to look after their own homes.
A programme was introduced for the young-adult offenders now coming to
prison as a result of the introduction of the definite-indeterminate sentence for
women. Vocational training and development of work habits along with positive
community planning were the main objectives.
The group system in use at the Women's Unit was employed in all aspects
of institutional life. As much as is possible in a totally female setting, the group
operated as a family, and decisions on everyday living, recreation, hobby projects,
etc., were the result of the democratic, give-and-take discussions held within the
group.
The decision in every case was made as a group and had to be upheld by the
group regardless of the feelings of any individual. Loyalty to the group inevitably
resulted, and it is hoped that in the community a similar loyalty may be developed
toward the inmate's family group.
Religious training
Church attendance remained high. Chaplains encouraged and guided inmates
in expressing their opinions and feelings. They made themselves available to both
staff and inmates whenever needed, with the result that Padre's Hours and discussant
groups were well attended and fruitful.
Vocational training
Women continued to maintain their own grounds and do carpentry repairs as
required. In spite of the reduced numbers, the sewing-room worked on projects
for other units as well as supplying the domestic needs of the building.
Twin Maples Farm
Since its affiliation with the Alouette River Unit, the garden and poultry flock
have been expanded. loint efforts by farm workers from both units resulted in
a worth-while contribution of fresh produce and eggs, which were distributed to
other units in the Lower Mainland area.
With a daily average population of 19, counselling was at a high level, with
every resident receiving individual attention.   Disciplinary problems were very few.
There has been increased interchange of activity between Twin Maples Farm
and the community. Local organizations, Alcoholics Anonymous, and members of
the native Indian community visited regularly.
Community re-entry programmes
General
A total of 1,134 cases, an increase of 30 per cent over last year, was released
by various authorities for supervision in the community. Over half of these were
released by the British Columbia Parole Board, and 25 per cent by the National
Parole Board.
National parole and combined National/British Columbia parole cases remain
much the same as last year. British Columbia parole cases showed a substantial
increase, as did the number of chronic alcoholics with the implementation of the
new legislation.
 FORESTRY OPERATIONS
1. Stream logging, Chilliwack River. 2. Lake clearing, Alouette Lake. 3. Tree
planting, Vancouver Island. 4. Fire-fighting crew, Vancouver Island. 5. Tree nursery,
Chilliwack Valley. 6. Land clearing for nursery development. 7. Clearing road right-of-
way, Golden Ears Park. 8. Fire hazard clean-up, Blue Mountain Forest. 9. Bridge
building for hiking trail.    10. Stand treatment, thinning and pruning.
 TRAINING FOR FEMALE OFFENDERS
1. Hairdressing class.    2. Laundry, Women's Unit.    3. Twin Maples Farm.    4. Sewing
course.   5. Cooking class.   6. Room in Women's Unit, Oakalla.
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 33
Work release, day parole, and home leave
lust under one hundred were granted day parole or work release to work in
the community by day and return to an institution at night. The majority of these
men and women conducted themselves well while they were away from the institution
and were successful in retaining their employment after their sentences were finished.
The total group earned just under $25,000 in wages: Twenty-eight per cent of these
total earnings went to support their families, 24 per cent toward compensation and
debts, 32 per cent to savings, and 16 per cent toward clothing, personal expenses,
and maintenance to help defray costs of imprisonment.
The over-all success rate of those completing work release amounted to 76 per
cent. After release from the institution, three-quarters of these were retained by
their employers.
A total of 47 was granted home leaves for periods of up to 10 days. Thirty-
eight of these were trainees from the Haney Correctional Institution. Only one
leave was revoked for a further offence in the community. All reported back to
their institutions without escort.
Half-way houses
The value of privately operated half-way houses to assist in bridging over the
transition from institutional living to life in the community, always a most difficult
period, cannot be over-emphasized. Over one hundred young adults were admitted
to the Bell-Irving Home, St. Leonard's House, and the other postrelease hostels
throughout the Province during the year. The societies and individuals providing
these facilities are rendering an invaluable public service to the community.
 Chapter IV. British Columbia Board of Parole
During the fiscal year ending March 31, 1970, 730 trainees were released on a
British Columbia order of parole, an increase of 37 per cent over last year's total.
There were 162 revocations, seven cancellations of indeterminate sentences in
accordance with section 634, subsection (6) of the Criminal Law Amendment
1968/69, due to the fact that further infractions were committed, and a sentence of
two years or more in a penitentiary was imposed.
The British Columbia Board of Parole began the operation of suspending
parole during this year. There were 37 suspensions of parole. Seventeen of the
cases suspended resulted in eventual revocation. The remaining 19 have had no
further violations as of the end of the fiscal year. The period of suspension lasted
for an average period of two weeks to one month.
The suspension order is being used for short, sharp, shock treatment where a
minor offence is committed while on parole and the Board feels revocation of parole
is not warranted at that time. During the period of suspension, new release plans
or re-establishment of original release plans are arranged, and the parolee is given
another chance to re-establish himself in the community.
There was one female release from the Women's Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm.
This was the first female serving a definite-indeterminate sentence to be released on
a British Columbia order of parole.
The statistical statements in the following section include detailed information
of the summary above as well as other miscellaneous statistical information.
34
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 35
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 X 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Miscellaneous Statistical Information, Year Ended March 31, 1970
Parolees—                                                                            1968/69 1969/™
Total released on regular order of parole  532 730
Average age (years)     20.5 19.5
Average training period (months)     11.5 10.6
Institutional comparison (months)—
Vancouver Island Unit     15.5 9.7
Chilliwack Forest Camps       8.3 5.1
Oakalla Prison Farm     15.1 15.8
New Haven     11.3 11.8
Haney Correctional Institution     11.1 10.6
Kamloops Regional Gaol     26.6 	
Alouette River Unit       8.5 	
Revokees—
Total revocations   192 162
Cancellation of indeterminate sentences      7
Average age (years)     20.1 20.5
Average training period (months)     12.7 13.5
Average period on parole (months)       5.1 4.7
Occurrence of revocation relative to period  of
parole (per cent)—
During 1 to 4 months     58 58
During 5 to 8 months     28 32
During 9 months or over     14 10
Suspensions—
Number of paroles suspended  37
Average age (years)  19.5
Average length of time on parole before suspension
(months)   4.5
Number of suspensions terminated with no further violations up to March 31, 1970  19
Number of suspensions terminated and further violations resulting in revocation of parole  17
Number of cases pending  1
 Chapter V. Statistical statements
Population graph
Probation
Institutions
37
 X 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
Probation
Comparative Case Statistics for the Years 1968/69 and 1969/70
New probation cases—
Males  1968/69 1969/70
Under 18 years  2,131 2,168
18 to 24 years, inclusive  873 1,133
25 to 39 years, inclusive  359 402
40 to 64 years, inclusive  167 170
65 years and over  6 4
3,536 3,877
X 39
Females—
Under 18 years	
18 to 24 years, inclusive              	
220
94
209
149
25 to 39 years, inclusive	
40 to 64 years, inclusive  	
65 years and over	
58
11
2
65
48
385
471
Totals, new probation cases	
.  3,921
4,348
New parole cases—
National parole 	
Order in Council        	
122
          3
132
3
Provincial parole
       520
725
645
860
New miscellaneous and voluntary cases	
2,976
3,827
Grand totals
    7,542
9,035
Comparison of Probation Activity
1968/69
1969/70
Increase (+)
or
Decrease (—)
Per Cent
New probation cases	
3,921
645
2,976
1,756
2,413
4,348
857
3,827
784
1,899
+427
+212
+ 851
—972
—514
10.9
31 2
New miscellaneous cases — 	
Pre-sentence reports—
Juvenile	
Adult    -	
28.7
55.3
21.3
 X 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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 Chapter VI. Appendices
Administrative staff
Organizational chart
Classification criteria—correctional institutions
Significant changes in legislation
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
Administrative staff
X 55
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
CORRECTIONS BRANCH
The Hon. L. R. Peterson, Q.C., LL.D., Attorney-General
Gilbert D. Kennedy, Q.C., Deputy Attorney-General
SENIOR CORRECTIONS ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
S. Rocksborough Smith, Director of Correction and Chief Probation Officer
M. A. Matheson, Assistant Director of Correction
C. D. Davidson, Assistant Chief Probation Officer
HEADQUARTERS STAFF OFFICERS
F. St. J. Madeley
Probation Staff Training Officer
K M. Richardson
Probation
G. R. Bulmer
Senior Medical Officer
R. E. Fitchett
Personnel
E. M. Pierce
Inmate Training
Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth
Senior Protestant Chaplain
Rev. T. F. M. Corcoran
Senior Catholic Chaplain
S. A. Thorvaldson
Supervisor of Classification and Research
Mrs. M. M. Berg
Catering and Services
GAOL SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
W. H. Mulligan
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm
E. W. Epp
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution
H. B. Bjarnason
Warden, Prince George Regional Gaol
O. J. Walling
Warden, Alouette River Unit
V. H. Goad
Director, New Haven
W.Scott
Warden, Kamloops Regional Gaol
S. A. L. Hamblin
Warden, Vancouver Island Unit
and Sayward Forest Camps
G. J. Chapple
Officer-in-charge, Chilliwack
Forest Camps
PROBATION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
J. M. Armstrong
Supervisor, Vancouver Region
A. E. Jones
Supervisor, Vancouver Island Region
R. G. McKellar
Supervisor, Northern Region
O. E. Hollands
Supervisor, Fraser Valley Region
J. Wiebe
Supervisor, Interior Region
J. V. Sabourin
Supervisor, Parole and Special Services
Mrs. T. G. Norris
BRITISH COLUMBIA PAROLE BOARD
C. J. A. Dalton
Chairman
Members:
E. Kelly Dr. G. Kirkpatrick
A. Webster
 X 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
Classification criteria—correctional institutions
X 57
Lower Mainland Region
1. Oakalla Prison Farm—This facility serves as the receiving gaol for the Lower Mainland
region, as well as holding remand and appeal cases. In addition, a number of fairly well-defined
groups of offenders are classified to this multipurpose institution:
(a) Drug addicts, mainly hard-core heroin users:
(_>)  Physically disabled, and other medical and psychiatric cases:
(c) Certain groups of young offenders,
(i)  dull, unstable, or extremely inadequate offenders requiring protection;
(ii) psychopathic, recidivistic, criminally sophisticated or aggressive offenders requiring close supervision;
(iii) parole suspension cases and those returned to custody having had their
parole revoked:
(d) Overt or aggressive homosexuals:
(e) Miscellaneous short-term cases:
(/) Day parole/work release candidates for the region.
2. Women's Unit of Oakalla—Serves as the receiving centre for sentenced female offenders
from all parts of British Columbia. Young female offenders with definite-indeterminate sentences
are classified to a cottage on the grounds for a specialized training programme geared to their
age-range. One other cottage is used for those cases with very short sentences. A small number
of offenders with sentences of a few months and a history of alcoholism or problems with
alcohol are transferred to Twin Maples Farm.
The remainder is composed mainly of offenders addicted to heroin, security risks, the
psychologically unstable, or medical cases.  They are kept in the main building of the unit.
3. Mount Thurston and Ford Mountain Forest Camps—Located in the Chilliwack Valley,
serve minimum-security facilities for inmates transferred from Oakalla. For the most part these
camps receive older offenders showing a fair range of criminal sophistication or inadequacy, but
who are not drug addicts, escape risks, or serious behaviour problems.
Vancouver Island Region
1. Vancouver Island Unit—Outside Victoria, which acts as the receiving centre for sentenced offenders as well as holding remand and appeal cases. As with Oakalla, problem cases of
a psychological, medical, or security nature are kept at this institution.
2. Snowdon and Lakeview Forest Camps—Located north of Campbell River, they serve as
minimum-security housing for the region. All inmates are received upon transfer from Vancouver Island Unit. A number of young first-offenders, mainly soft-drug-users, have been sent from
the Mainland to Snowdon to segregate them from the main prison population. Facilities for this
group are now being developed on the Mainland, so these transfers will be eliminated next year.
Lakeview is used for the recidivist in the latter stages of a sentence, provided his progress has
been satisfactory at Vancouver Island Unit.
Interior Region
1. Kamloops Regional Gaol—Near the City of Kamloops, takes all sentenced prisoners
from the Interior and Kootenay areas. A small number of remand and waiting-trial cases are
kept here.
As the gaol itself has a limited capacity, all but the most difficult security and medical cases
are transferred to camps.
2. Rayleigh Camp—Is a short distance outside the city and takes short-sentence inmates.
Most such cases have less than one month to serve, and tend to be nomadic alcoholics.
3. Clearwater Forest Camp—In the Wells Gray Provincial Park, receives all inmates with
longer sentences who are fit for work in the forest.
Prince George Region
1. Prince George Regional Gaol—Performs the same function for the north of the Province.
2. Hutda Lake Forest Camp—Thirty miles outside Prince George, receives on transfer
inmates suitable for work in the forest.
 X 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Classification criteria for specialized young-offender facilities
A wide range of training programmes has been developed for young offenders with definite
plus indeterminate sentences. All offenders from any Court in the Province receiving such a
sentence are brought to the Classification Unit at Oakalla Prison Farm. The only exception to
this procedure is that there are juveniles held on remand at the Haney Correctional Institution,
and when sentenced are classified at the Haney Correctional Institution rather than being transferred to Oakalla.
Haney Correctional Institution—Is the placement utilized for 40 to 45 per cent of the young
offenders with definite/indeterminate sentences. It offers a broad range of academic, vocational,
work, and counselling programmes, as well as a good level of security for the unstable types.
Most of the juveniles transferred to Adult Court require the security of this institution. Haney
Correctional Institution thus receives a wide range of young offenders from the grossly immature
and disturbed or inadequate to the more stable offender who shows a capacity and motivation
for vocational or academic courses.
Selected offenders with high motivation are housed in Pine Ridge Forest Camp, a satellite
camp of the Haney Correctional Institution. Many of them return during the day to the main
institution for a course or work placement.
Those offenders who prove to be seriously psychopathic, or whose criminal sophistication
becomes disruptive, are transferred back to the Westgate A Unit of Oakalla.
New Haven—Is a small open Borstal-type facility in the metropolitan Vancouver area.
Due to its lack of security, the possibility of escape is a primary factor in the selection of candidates for training. The offender's basic stability and capacity for response to an intensive
responsibility-type training are other key factors to be considered. Apart from this, New Haven
accepts a fairly broad range of delinquents.
Boulder Bay and Centre Creek Forest Camps—Both offer a high-demand type of graded
training programme. The one at Boulder Bay is of four months' duration; at Centre Creek, six
months'. The content of the final training stage includes mountain climbing, wilderness survival,
search and rescue, and forest fire-fighting. Groups from both camps have distinguished themselves in fighting forest fires and finding lost hunters and hikers.
Westgate A Unit of Oakalla—Is utilized as a placement for the most recidivistic or those
with a serious level of sexual deviance. The remainder are those who become serious disciplinary
or security problems at any of the young-offender facilities and have to be transferred to West-
gate. This unit offers a secure setting with a vigorous work programme and shops for those who
show signs of progress.
Facilities for chronic alcoholics
Alouette River Unit—Accommodates male alcoholics who are held on a detaining order
imposed by the Courts under an amendment to the Summary Convictions Act. Only the Cities
of Vancouver and Prince George have so far invoked the use of this legislation. Men at the unit
undergo a course of treatment in which they are brought face to face with their problems, discuss
them, hopefully gain a greater insight into their behaviour, and learn ways to live full and useful
lives without having to have recourse to alcohol.
All cases are admitted direct to the institution, and the length of the treatment period
depends on the individual's ability to profit from it. Men are released under a probation order
to the community when they are deemed fit.
Twin Maples Farm—Performs the same function for female alcoholics and comes under
the same administration. The legislation for females has been invoked on a Province-wide basis.
In spite of this, the number of admissions are very low.
Significant changes in legislation
1. Criminal Law Amendment Act
Amendments to the Criminal Code, Penitentiary Act, and Prisons and Reformatories Act,
which came into force August 26, 1969, led to a number of procedural changes:
Aggregate of sentences—Section 634 (5), (6) provides that where a person is subject to two
or more terms of imprisonment, each of which is less than two years, but the aggregate two years
or more, that person is to be transferred to a penitentiary. If a definite plus indeterminate sentence is involved, the indeterminate portion is dropped.
While there are obvious advantages to the above amendment, it does require a more careful
co-ordination of multiple sentences where more than one Court is involved. The following case
illustrates the type of problem that has arisen:
 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1969/70
X 59
(1) In March 1970 a prisoner was convicted of rape and sentenced by one Judge to two
years less one day definite plus two years less one day indeterminate.
(2) A week later he was convicted of being in possession of stolen property and sentenced
by another Judge of four months, consecutive.
(3) Two days later he was convicted of robbery and sentenced by a third Judge to 23
months definite plus two years less one day indeterminate, to run concurrently.
Because of the consecutive sentence (No. 2), which brings the aggregate of the definite
portion of his sentence to over two years, he will go to the British Columbia Penitentiary. On
arrival there, under section 634 (6), the indeterminate portion will be deemed not to have been
imposed. Thus, the intent of two Judges in imposing a long definite followed by a long indeterminate sentence will be completely nullified. The prisoner, who, incidentally, is described as
a danger to the community, will receive a far shorter period of imprisonment as a result of going
to the penitentiary, and will not receive supervision by a Probation Officer when he returns to
the community.
Removal of restriction on probation—Section 638 (1) (a) removed many of the former
legal barriers to the use of probation, and gave probation a new status in the Courts through the
introduction of a probation order which replaced the recognizance. The initiation of a new
substantive offence—breach of a probation order—has made much more effective the use of a
period of community supervision in conjunction with a fine, or a period of custody. The ability
to transfer a probation order made in one province to a Court of equivalent jurisdiction in
another province, so that the order has the same status as if it had been made in the Court to
which it is transferred, has provided Probation Officers with the required legal backing to make
realistic demands on a probationer who moves from one province to another. Previously, it
was most difficult to enforce conditions of a recognizance when the person under supervision
moved from one province to another, as municipalities frequently were unwilling to assume the
cost of returning the person under escort to the Court where the recognizance had been initially
acknowledged.
Imprisonment followed by probation—Section 638 (1) (_>) allows a Judge to impose a
period of probation following a term of imprisonment.
This section is most suitable for those offenders who may benefit from the jolt of a short
term in custody and then settle down to a serious effort at rehabilitation upon return to the
community. However, it is not considered a suitable substitute for those young-adult offenders
requiring a definite-indeterminate sentence. It excludes them from participating in the graded
system of training in which the trainee must progress through stages and earn his release through
performance, rather than simply by putting in time.
Transfer to the penitentiary—Section 17 of the Penitentiary Act was amended to provide
for admission to the penitentiary after the end of the 30-day appeal period, whether or not the
prisoner has entered an appeal.
This amendment was most welcome in relieving the remand units of many dangerous cases
who were extending their stay in Provincial institutions through lengthy appeals. The relief on
pressure for space unfortunately was short-lived, as the count in these units has continued to rise
well above their rated capacity.
Remission—Section 17 of the Prisons and Reformatories Act was amended to provide
statutory remission of one-quarter of sentence to every person sentenced to a term of imprisonment in all Provincial institutions. Section 18 of the same Act provides the opportunity for each
prisoner to earn three days' remission per month for industry.
These two sections removed the marked discrepancy between the Federal rates of remission
and those allowed inmates in Provincial institutions. Escapes were, on occasion, effected in the
early stages of a long sentence, the rationale being that even with an additional sentence added
upon recapture, a penitentiary sentence would mean an earlier release because of the greater
remission given in a penitentiary.
Indeterminate sentences—Section 151 of the Prisons and Reformatories Act, as now worded,
reduces the upper age from 23 to 22 for persons sentenced to a definite plus indeterminate sentence. It also removed the lower age requirement. Another major change in this section allows
the application of the definite plus indeterminate sentence to females under 22 years. As a
consequence of the amendment of the above section, 21 15-year-olds were received this year
with definite plus indeterminate sentences. A small group of female offenders has also been
received, and a special programme was established for them in a cottage at the Women's Unit,
Oakalla Prison Farm.
2. Provincial Court Act
In April 1969 a new Provincial Court Act was passed by the Legislature, which came into
force on August 1, 1969.   This Act set up three major divisions of the Provincial Court—the
 X 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
ordinary Adult Court which replaced the Magistrates' Courts, the Family Division which replaced the Family and Children's Court, and the Small Claims Division which replaced the Small
Debts Courts.
In the report for the previous year, reference was made to a special experiment in the
RCMP, Kamloops Subdivision area, whereby juveniles were not automatically charged with
offences which they had committed. Instead, the nature of the complaint and surrounding circumstances were passed on to the Probation Officer, who then interviewed the child and his
parents and subsequently made a recommendation to the prosecutor as to whether the complaint
might be handled on an informal, out-of-Court basis, or formal Court action should be initiated.
In May 1969 this same procedure was initiated in the County of Victoria and was incorporated
into the Family Division section of the Provincial Court Act. These new provisions have placed
increased demands on field Probation Officers, who, when such complaints are referred to them,
prepare what has come to be known as a "Probation Officer inquiry" report. Since August 1,
1969 a total of 3,154 such reports has been prepared, or an average of 394 per month.
3. Child Protection Act
Early in April 1969, through amendments to the Protection of Children Act, the Training
Schools Act was repealed, and the former training schools became child-care resources. As
committal to a training school ceased to be a disposition available to a Judge in respect to a
juvenile, greater use has been made of the power of a Judge to commit a child to the charge of a
children's aid society or to the Superintendent of Child Welfare.
A serious gap presently exists in the community resources available to the young, hostile
delinquent. It is to be hoped that filling this gap will be regarded as a priority in order to avoid
what may well develop into a trend—the raising of juveniles to Adult Court so that they may be
committed to young-adult correctional institutions.
4. Summary Convictions Act
The legislation passed in April 1968 as an amendment to the Provincial Summary Convictions Act (section 64 (a)) changed the approach to the chronic alcoholic from a punitive
legalistic position to one of considering the alcoholic as a person suffering from an illness and,
therefore, requiring care, treatment, and rehabilitative measures to overcome the illness from
which he suffers. The legislation provides that when a person is found in a public place in a
state of intoxication he may be taken into protective custody, and adequate arrangements can be
made for his care and treatment. The person may be released within a 12-hour period. Where
no adequate arrangements can be made for care and treatment, the person may be examined by
a physician who, should he find the person to be a chronic alcoholic and in need of treatment
for his alcoholism, may apply to the Provincial Court for a confirming order. This, in essence,
commits the person to a place of treatment and rehabilitation for a maximum period of 12
months. At any time during such period the person may be subject to a further order, granted
by the Chief Probation Officer, authorizing the release of the person under supervision for the
remanet of the 12-month period.
This legislation, to be operative in any area of the Province, requires designation by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. It was so designated in the City of Vancouver on May 29,
1969 and in the City of Prince George on June 2, 1969. The provisions of this legislation apply
to both men and women. Alouette River Unit has been set up as a treatment facility for men,
while Twin Maples (a separate facility, under the administration of the Warden of Alouette
River Unit) has been established for women. Up to the end of January 1970, 132 confirming
orders were made, most of them in respect to men.
5. Corrections Act
A Corrections Act for British Columbia passed third reading in the Legislature March 24,
1970. Details on this new legislation will be reported next year, when it is expected to be
proclaimed.
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971
530-171-156

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