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REPORT of the WATER RESOURCES SERVICE DECEMBER 31 1969 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1970

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Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister V. Raudsepp, Deputy Minister of Water Resources
of the
.eration of effluent for secondary treat-
it in pond. Crestbrook Forest Indus-
•> Ltd. pulp-mill at Skookumchuck.
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
  Victoria, British Columbia, February 11, 1970.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources for the year ended December 31, 1969.
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
 Victoria, British Columbia, February 11, 1970.
The Honourable Ray Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Dear Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British
Columbia Water Resources Service of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources for the 12 months ended December 31, 1969.
Deputy Minister of Water Resources.
British Columbia Water Resources Service— PAGE
Report of the Deputy Minister       9
Water Rights Branch—
Report of the Comptroller of Water Rights  15
Water Licensing Division  17
District Engineers Division  21
Improvement Districts Division  29
Power and Major Licences Division  34
Water Investigations Branch—
Report of the Chief Engineer  45
Water Supply and Investigations Division  50
Hydrology Division  59
Groundwater Division  65
Basin Planning and Power Division  71
ARDA Projects Division  74
Projects Division  79
Records Compilation and Reports Section  82
Draughting Office  83
Pollution Control Board  87
Pollution Control Branch  91
Inspector of Dykes  101
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  105
Personnel Office  109
Accounting Division  111
  McCulloch Reservoir:   Main reservoir in background (Hydraulic Lake),
Minnow Lake in foreground; Southeast Kelowna Irrigation District.
December 31, 1969
V. Raudsepp, Deputy Minister.
G. E. Simmons, Assistant Deputy Minister.
A. F. Paget, Consultant.
F. S. McKinnon, Chairman, Pollution Control Board.
H. D. DeBeck, Comptroller of Water Rights.
A. K. Sutherland, Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights.
B. E. Marr, Chief Engineer.
T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer.
W. N. Venables, Director.
W. R. Meighen, Inspector of Dykes.
W. S. Iackson, Assistant Inspector of Dykes.
L. A. Pinske, Supervisor.
M. B. Maclean, Departmental Comptroller.
K. M. Hanson, Personnel Officer.
D. S. Preston, In Charge.
R. A. V. Jenkins.
* Services shared with Lands Service.
t Services shared with Lands Service and Forest Service.
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng.
Deputy Minister of
Water Resources
The Water Resources Service, being one of the three Services of the Department
of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, was created in 1962, and Mr. A. F. Paget,
Comptroller of Water Rights, became the first Deputy Minister of the British Columbia Water Resources Service. Mr. Paget, after a distinguished career in British
Columbia water administration, resigned due to ill health, effective April 1, 1969,
and was appointed to the position of Consultant.
The Water Resources Service is in charge of the management of the British
Columbia water resources. Under the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources Act, the Deputy Minister of Water Resources has jurisdiction over all
matters pertaining to the water resources of the Province.
The Water Resources Service is still undergoing development and expansion.
It consists of three main Branches—(1) Water Rights Branch, which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act and supervises generally the administration of improvement districts which have been incorporated under the Water Act. The first Water Act was passed in 1909 after a gradual
evolution from water-use regulations that originated from the Gold Fields Act of
1859. (2) Water Investigations Branch, which was formed in 1962, deals with
technical water resources matters which are not directly connected with the administration of the Water Act or with the Pollution Control Act, 1967. (3) Pollution
Control Branch, which administers the Pollution Control Act, 1967, was added to
the Water Resources Service in 1965.
In addition to these three Branches, (4) the Pollution Control Board, under its
Chairman, deals with pollution control standards and appeals from the decisions of
the Director of the Pollution Control Branch; (5) the Inspector of Dykes is in
charge of the Dykes Maintenance Act; (6) the Supervisor of Southern Okanagan
Lands Project; (7) the Personnel Officer; (8) the Departmental Comptroller; and
(9) the Mail and File Room, are carrying out their respective functions.
The spring of 1969 had good snow packs in the lower coastal and southern
watersheds and well below-average snow accumulation in the central and northern
regions. Flooding occurred in many of the smaller valleys in the southern Interior,
resulting from the combination of heavy snow pack, local storms, and an early
 GG 10
period of hot weather. The worst such flood was at Trail, where damage exceeded
a million dollars. The Province provided technical and financial assistance to the
flood victims and the City of Trail.
All the Branches and officers of the Water Resources Service experienced
increased activities in 1969 as a result of continuous expansion of the economy of
the Province. The increased demand for water licences, pollution control permits,
engineering and administrative advice and supervision, exceeded from time to time
the capabilities of individual offices, and backlogs of incomplete assignments or
outstanding applications showed an increase in all the three Branches. High staff-
turnover rate in professional and draughting positions was also a factor contributing
to the increase in unfinished assignments.
The Water Rights Branch received a total of 2,244 applications under the
Water Act, of which some 1,500 were new water-licence applications. A total of
1,100 new licences were issued in 1969.
Technical advice on water matters to the general public and communities continued at a high rate through the Victoria and district offices. Supervision of dam
construction and inspection of the existing structures from a public safety point of
view was intensified.
The demand for electric energy in the Province showed in 1969 an over-all
increase of approximately 8.8 per cent, based on preliminary hydro and thermal
general statistics. The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority experienced
an annual load growth of 11 to 12 per cent in 1969.
The Peace River power development has now five of its ultimate ten units totalling 2.3 million kilowatts installed, bringing the total Provincial hydro-electric installed capacity slightly over 4 million kilowatts. The total thermal capacity is 1.3
million kilowatts, giving an aggregate British Columbia electric generating capacity
of 5.3 million kilowatts.
The developments under the Columbia River Treaty included the continuing
co-ordination of Libby Reservoir preparation, which activities must be completed by
1972.  Arrow Lakes dam was officially dedicated as Hugh Keenleyside Dam in June.
Implementation of the Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement, which was signed in May, 1968, continued and tenders for the first project
will be called in early 1970. A Federal-Provincial agreement for Okanagan Basin
study was signed in October.
The Water Investigations Branch continued to be in charge of ARDA water
projects programme. The total cost of the approved projects is $26 million, of which
$20.5 million has actually been expended.
Co-operation with the University of British Columbia and the B.C. Research
Council was continued with an aim to intensify teaching and interdisciplinary research programmes involving water resources. Hydrological research is also being
continued by the staff members of the Water Investigations Branch and other outside
A number of stream-improvement proposals or projects received attention.
Potential hydro-electric power studies in the northern portion of the Province are
continuing, with an emphasis on the Liard River.
The Pollution Control Board completed its air-pollution study and forwarded recommendations to the Cabinet. Effluent treatment standards received
The Pollution Control Branch staff was substantially strengthened and its internal reorganization and interdepartmental lines of communication received further
refinement. The Director received 162 applications for pollution control permits and
GG 11
issued 59 permits. Studies are continuing on the existing effluent and waste discharges with an aim to bring these under permit as soon as possible.
Mr. C. J. Keenan, Director of Pollution Control, in charge of the Pollution
Control Branch, resigned, and was replaced by Mr. W. N. Venables, who had occupied the position of Assistant Director, effective September 1st.
A more detailed description of activities is given in the reports of separate
Branches and offices, which follow.
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Consultant
This office was created on April 1, 1969.
Work went forward on the Kootenay Lake Board and agreement was reached
to use a modified formula to compute discharges in future years.
Meetings were held and agreement was reached to prepare a report to the
United States and Canadian Governments by the Board of Engineers, Columbia
River Treaty, on the operation of the Columbia River Treaty.
The Consultant served on a special committee relative to the flood damages
in Trail caused by creek flooding. Approximately 1 million dollars was raised and
paid out for individual damages. A report was prepared for the committee by Mr.
T. H. Oxland, Water Rights District Engineer, setting out the corrective measures
to prevent further flooding.   This report was given to the Government.
The Consultant acted with the Lands Service to see if remedial action could
be taken to protect the cliffs around the University of British Columbia.
Many meetings were held and discussion took place on subjects relating to
The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government which administers
the control and use of surface water under the authority of the Water Act.
The main principles of the Water Act regarding the use of water are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all the water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in right of the Province.   The common-law principle of riparian water right has been abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions of the
water licence issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Earlier licences have priority over licences issued later.
(3) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water, payment
of the water-licence rentals, and observance of the regulations of the Water Act.
(4) A water licence is generally made appurtenant to a parcel of land, mine, or undertaking, and it will pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof.
(5) If it is necessary that a water licensee construct works on another person's land, he
can expropriate the land reasonably required if a voluntary agreement cannot be
reached. If the works will be on Crown land, the water licensee may acquire a permit
to occupy Crown land for such purpose.
The second major function of the Water Rights Branch is to generally supervise and assist
the administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the Water
Act for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, dyking, street-lighting, fire protection, and several
other purposes. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body administered by elected trustees. The undertaking of an improvement district can be financed by Pro-
vincially guaranteed debenture issues.
The administration of the Water Act is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights and
his staff, who are located at a headquarters office in Victoria and district offices at Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, Prince George, and Mission City.
Water is a natural resource which often has a controlling influence on economic development of other resources and, therefore, is in competitive demand by the utilizers of other
resources. Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of communities have been
incorporated into improvement districts under the Water Act to operate community projects and
provide essential amenities.
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H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng.
Comptroller of Water Rights
The Water Rights Branch is responsible for the administration of all use of
water in British Columbia under the provisions of the Water Act. For this purpose
a licensing system has been developed over the course of the last century, from its
origin in the Gold Fields Act of 1859 through a gradual evolution to the first Water
Act of 1909 and on to the present Water Act. In addition to providing for the
administration of water use, the Water Act also provides for the incorporation of
improvement districts which provide local services in water-related and other fields.
The Water Rights Branch also carries out a great number of engineering studies
on water matters, including water supply, erosion, and flood protection. The capital
undertakings of improvement districts are given careful scrutiny, both with regard
to economic feasibility and engineering adequacy, and some engineering services
are provided to improvement districts and to groups proposing to organize districts
for water-supply purposes. During 1969 a large number of water-supply feasibility
studies were carried out, and final design and supervision of construction were provided to improvement districts by both headquarters and district engineering staff.
In terms of water supply, the year 1969 was noteworthy for serious flooding
conditions on many of the smaller streams in the southern Interior of the Province.
These floods resulted from the combination of a heavy snow pack, local storms, and
an early period of unusually hot weather. The worst such flood was that on Trail
Creek, which passes through the City of Trail, where damage to property exceeded
a million dollars. The staff of Water Rights Branch district offices was called upon
in many instances to investigate causes of floods and recommend measures to guard
against recurrence of flood damage.
In the field of water licensing, activity continued at a high level during 1969.
Although the total of new applications received was less than the record of 1,624
new applications in 1968, it was still nearly 10 per cent above the total for the
highest previous year. Because of a shortage of engineering staff in the district
offices, which exceeded 25 per cent for most of the year, it was not possible to
carry out the necessary field investigations for the flood of applications received
in 1968 and 1969. As a result, the number of applications outstanding reached
a new high of 2,400 at the end of November. This represents a serious reduction
in the standard of service to the public and it is to be hoped that the availability of
staff in 1970 will be sufficiently improved to permit a substantial reduction in the
number of outstanding applications. Because water licences, once issued, are permanent, all applications are carefully investigated, both on the ground and through
the office record system. Since no corners can be cut in carrying out this work, there
is little flexibility in dealing with an increased work load in this most important phase
of water resource administration.
The Improvement Districts Division continued to be active during the year.
Ten new improvement districts were incorporated and 14 were dissolved, mostly
for the purpose of amalgamation with other districts or incorporation as municipalities under the Municipal Act. Boundary extensions were authorized by Order in
Council for many districts. The number of improvement districts in existence at
the end of 1969 was 300.
The Improvement Districts Division also carried out feasibility studies for a
number of proposed water-supply systems and provided final design and supervision
of construction for several projects under which improvement district water systems
are being rehabilitated with the assistance of the Federal and Provincial Governments under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development (British Columbia)
Act. The engineering and economic feasibility of water-supply projects being
undertaken by improvement districts was also studied by this Division.
The Power and Major Licences Division continued to be occupied during the
year with work associated with approval of plans and other aspects of the Columbia
River Treaty projects and other major power projects in the Province. Work was
completed during the year on the Arrow Lakes project, which had been declared
operational late in 1968 and was formally opened on June 9, 1969. Construction
work on Mica Dam reached full scale in 1969 and will continue at a high level for
several years. At the Peace River project, units 4 and 5 were placed in service,
bringing the installation up to half its ultimate capacity, and contracts were let in
1969 for units 6, 7, and 8. Lake Williston, the reservoir, continued to fill and
reached elevation 2,143 feet, which is 67 feet below full pool. Filling was slow
during 1969 because of a very low inflow and high demand for power. Construction
commenced during the year on the Jordan River project, at which the plant is being
rebuilt for peaking service.
The preparation of the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir is being
carried out by several departments of the Government of British Columbia. The
Water Resources Service has been assigned a co-ordinating role in this work, both
with respect to the departments directly involved and those with interests in the
results of the project. Liaison is also carried out with the United States authorities.
Staff work on this project is being provided by the Power and Major Licences
Because of the wide seasonal variation in stream flows in British Columbia,
the storage of water is one of the most significant features of water management in
the Province. About 600 storage dams are now under licence in British Columbia.
In some circumstances, such dams are capable of imposing a severe hazard to life
and property, particularly in the mountain valleys of British Columbia. For this
reason a programme of inspection of storage dams is carried on based on the powers
of the engineer and the Comptroller under the Water Act. This programme is
divided between the staff of the district offices and the headquarters staff of the
Power and Major Licences Division.
Technical services were supplied to support the Provincial representative on
the Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board and the Canada-British
Columbia Columbia River Liaison Committee and its advisory subcommittee.
The year 1969 was marked by a large number of staff changes, most of
which involved engineering staff. In the district offices, Mr. R. J. Talbot left his
position as District Engineer at Kelowna to become Programme Director for the
Fraser Valley Joint Programme Committee, and was replaced by Mr. E. D. Anthony,
who had been Assistant District Engineer at Kamloops. Mr. F. Mueller left his
position on the engineering staff of the Mission office and Mr. S. B. Carroll and
Mr. W. M. Cheney left the engineering staff of the Kelowna office at the end of
1969. Engineering staff vacancies in the district offices were filled by Mr. H. Van
Camp at Kamloops, Mr. J. M. Anderson at Prince George, and Mr. L. R. Lewis
at Nelson. At the end of the year there were four engineering vacancies in the
district offices, one more than at the end of 1968.
In the Victoria engineering staff, Mr. P. J. Leslie resigned as Chief of the
Improvement Districts Division and was replaced by Mr. R. A. Pollard, who transferred from Water Investigations Branch; Mr. J. W. Ngai transferred from the
Power and Major Licences Division to Water Investigations Branch, and Mr. N. I.
Cross resigned from that Division to return to England.
Mr. E. J. Folwell retired as Administrative Officer in the Improvement Districts
Division and has not yet been replaced.
The activities of the Water Rights Branch for 1969 are recorded in greater
detail in the reports of the separate divisions of the Branch in the following pages.
W. R. Tuthill, Chief of Division
The Comptroller of Water Rights administers the Water Act, under which
rights to the diversion of water within the Province are granted for almost every
conceivable use. Licences are issued for domestic, waterworks, irrigation, mining,
industrial, power, storage, and other purposes. Licences are required, with few
exceptions, before any person, company, corporation, community, or government
agency uses water from any surface-water source.
The Licensing Division is responsible for the processing of new applications
for licences and amendments to existing licences. In order to maintain complete
records, the Division is divided into two offices—the General Office, which handles
the clerical aspects of licensing, and the Draughting Office, which handles the mapping requirements. These offices are responsible for maintaining the many files,
indexes, maps, and other records required for the orderly processing of new and
pending applications and keeping track of the rights granted under existing licences
and amendments thereto. Close liaison is required with the District Engineers
Division and its six district offices, situated at strategic locations in the Province,
for field investigations and reports on applications and amendments.
Applications for water licences were down slightly from the 1968 record.
However, the number of applications pending increased by some 300. The number
of licences issued remained almost constant.
Several changes in routine were initiated in the General Office to speed up the
application procedure. Changes were also made in the Draughting Office in order
to give additional emphasis to updating of water-rights maps.
The main functions and details of activities for 1969 of the General and
Draughting Offices are contained in their reports, which follow.
General Office
Although the number of new applications for water licences has fallen off
somewhat from the record total for 1968, staff shortage in our district offices have
reduced the number of reports on applications received by us, and, as a result, the
number of applications pending has increased over the 1968 figure of 2,019.
The implication, contained in our 1968 report, that the number of new applications had a bearing on the number of objections received does not appear to be
correct, as with a reduced number of applications we have had an increased number
 GG  18
of objections. Many of these objections are to a few very controversial applications
and it is of interest to note that many objectors are basing their objections on possible
pollution grounds rather than on matters which come under the jurisdiction of the
Comptroller of Water Rights.
No particular new trends are discoverable from this year's final figures. Applications for licences to authorize the use of water on subdivisions and for various
mining purposes continue to arrive at a rate comparable with previous years, and
liaison is maintained with the Public Utilities Commission and with the Mines
Reclamation Committee where applicable.
A number of licences for the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Authority are being processed, and the issue of these in the near future should enable
the Authority to make an early start on its conservation projects in the Kootenay
River Valley, near Creston.
Staff changes in the General Office have been fewer than in recent years, there
having been two staff members promoted and transferred to other sections of the
Branch, two promotions within the General Office, one transfer from another department, and one resignation. Two new members have joined the staff. The present
establishment of the General Office comprises one Clerk 7, two Clerks 5, three
Clerks 4, three Clerks 3, two Clerks 2, two Clerks 1, one Clerk-Stenographer 3, one
Clerk-Stenographer 2, and one Clerk-Typist 2.
The principal activities of the General Office in the 12-month period ended
December 31, 1969, are shown in the following table, together with the same data
for the five preceding years:—
Applications for—
Transfers of appurtenancy	
1 No records kept.
Note.—■" Extension of time orders " have been consolidated with
1964 to 1966, inclusive.
applications for change of works," for
Administrative Draughting Office
The Administrative Draughting Office is staffed by a Chief Draughtsman, a
Supervising Draughtsman, four Draughtsmen 3, three Draughtsmen 1, and three
clerks. The main functions of this office are checking the legal status and clearing
of water applications; compiling, revising, and maintaining water-rights maps; preparing plans for water licences; clearing land applications for the Lands Branch;
GG 19
checking petitions and preparing legal descriptions for improvement districts; and
attending to requests for maps and various information from our district offices,
other departments of Government, and the public.
Applications for water licences and amendments to licences received by the
Licensing Division are cleared through the Draughting Office, and a complete check
is made of the legal status of every application received. In most cases this work
entails a search of records of other departments of Government, such as Land
Registry Office, Surveyor of Taxes, Lands Branch, Department of Highways, etc.
Upon completion of this work, all applications are entered on the water-rights maps
and in the stream registers, which together form a record of all pertinent data regarding all water licences and applications within the Province.
The Draughting Office is responsible for checking all petitions received requesting incorporation into an improvement district. Checking petitions involves searches
of records of the Land Registry Office and Surveyor of Taxes to obtain correct property descriptions. When the petitions to incorporate an improvement district have
been checked and found correct, a plan showing all lands within the boundaries of
the proposed district is drawn up and a legal description defining the boundaries of
the district is prepared. During 1969, eight new districts were incorporated and the
boundaries of 31 districts were amended. Considerable time was also spent by the
staff on draughting work for the Improvement District Division and the Power and
Major Licences Division.
The table and charts which follow illustrate the work which the Draughting
Office has handled during the last five years:—
New water-licence applications cleared and plotted on maps.
New improvement districts described and plans prepared    .
Improvement districts' descriptions and plans amended 	
Reference maps renewed   , — —
Extensions of time, apportionments, transfers of appurtenancy..
Land clearances (purchases, leases, Crown grants, etc.)—	
Totals —	
 GG 20
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M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief of Division
For administrative purposes, the Province of British Columbia is divided into
27 water districts. Water Rights Branch district offices, each in the charge of a
District Engineer, are located at Kamloops, Kelowna, Mission City, Nelson, Prince
George, and Victoria, each district office being responsible for administration of the
Water Act within a number of water districts. The accompanying map sheet shows
water district boundaries and areas administered by district offices.
The effort to cope with the increasing number of applications for water licences
requiring investigation and reporting on has continued, although all district offices
except Prince George have lost ground in this respect. The effort has been hampered
in most cases by our inability to hold staff at the Assistant District Engineers' level
(Engineer 3) in the face of the more favourable salaries being offered in the private
sector. A considerable amount of District Engineers' time was required also in the
investigation and reporting on local floods which occurred in the south-central and
southeasterly parts of the Province as a result of rapid runoff of the above-average
winter's snow pack and storm conditions experienced in some areas. In particular,
the District Engineer at Nelson was involved in the investigation of conditions leading to the disastrous flood which occurred in Trail on April 24th, and prepared a
report containing a preliminary design of works recommended to provide adequate
capacity for Trail Creek flood flows and to eliminate the probability of occurrence of
future flooding from this source. He also prepared a report recommending construction of works designed to reduce future flooding in the Kimberley area.
The District Engineers' reports indicate that good water-supply conditions prevailed generally throughout the Province, with adequate flows being maintained in
most streams, with very few exceptions, well into the normally dry season. This did
have the effect of greatly reducing conflicts over water use normally demanding
attention by the district offices and allowed them to direct the effort of available staff
to more constructive endeavour.
The District Engineers serve on the Technical Advisory Committees of the
regional districts contained within their administrative areas. They are also called
upon to advise and assist the staffs of other departments of Government in problems
involving stream flows or water supply. They are involved in supplying field assistance in the way of recording water levels in observation wells and sampling snow
courses for the Groundwater and Hydrology Divisions of the Water Investigations
Branch, and have undertaken various phases of projects being carried out by our
Improvement Districts Engineering Division.
As in the past, the district offices have produced a limited number of water
supply feasibility studies, including design of waterworks for various groups or
existing improvement districts within their areas and they have organized and supervised the construction of river-bank protection or flood-prevention work in several
instances where governmental assistance has been given owners in the carrying out
of projects.
The following table summarizes the state of the water-licence application situation at the respective district offices at the end of the report period and records the
activity connected with amendment of existing licences and new water licences
added to their files:—
 GG 22
Summary of Water-licence Application Situation and Licence Amendments Reported
on by District Offices for Period November 1, 1968, to October 31, 1969
District Offices
Applications for water licences—■
On hand, November 1, 1968 _	
Received during year_	
Cancelled or abandoned _	
On hand, October 31, 1969 -	
Applications for approvals under Water
Act, section 7, reported on	
Water-licence amendment reports—
Extension of time — ..	
New conditional water licences entered....
 I |	
separate reports of the respective District Engineers follow
Kamloops District Office
D. E. Smuin, P.Eng., District Engineer.
The Kamloops District Office administers the Water Act in the Kamloops,
Ashcroft, Cariboo, and Nicola Water Districts within the Fraser River drainage
basin in the south-central part of the Province, an area comprising some 50,000
square miles.
Water supply and the demand therefor varies considerably within the four
districts administered. In some areas the available flow in many streams has been
fully appropriated for established use, and additional development is hindered by
lack of further readily available water. On the other hand, in some sparsely settled
areas, particularly in the Chilcotin area, there is still a surplus of this vital resource.
During the report year, despite a severe staff shortage, many water-use problems received attention. The weather was favourable in that rainfall was sufficient in
most areas for good crop production, although some sections of the Cariboo experienced excessive moisture, particularly during hay-cutting periods.
Shortage of staff was a continuing condition which worsened in 1969 as both
Assistant District Engineers' positions were vacant from May to September, the
period of the year when most problems requiring investigation occur. District technical staff was utilized whenever it was possible to do so but, needless to say, many
controversies received only minimal attention.
After the very successful accomplishments by this office in 1968, it is disheartening to note the ground lost during 1969 as a result of the severe shortage of staff.
During the year the Kamloops office lost the services of Assistant District
Engineer E. D. Anthony, who was promoted to the position of District Engineer at
Kelowna. Engineering Aide R. W. McPetrie resigned to accept other employment.
Mr. H. Van Camp joined the staff to fill one of the two Assistant District Engineer
vacancies and Mr. J. E. Fetters joined as engineering assistant.
GG 23
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Prepared a report on probable effects of a proposed channel improvement in the
lower Salmon River.
Carried out supervision of construction of Smith and Yook Lake dams.
Supervised the construction of channel improvements in Peterson Creek at
Supervised the excavation, by the water-users community, of the outlet channel
from Monte Lake.
Inspected the site of a recurring drainage problem at the outlet of Moutell
Creek, Salmon Arm area.
Prepared a report on the possible diversion from Walloper Creek to augment
irrigation water supplies in the Knutsford area.
Assisted personnel of the Pollution Control Branch in connection with their
Canim Lake pollution study.
Prepared a feasibility report for Hillcrest Waterworks District to determine the
economic feasibility of developing groundwater to augment their present surface
Inspected obstruction of Williams Lake River caused by the collapse of a
railway culvert, and made suggestions to alleviate basement flooding caused by high
water levels in Williams Lake.
Inspected and ordered removal of causeway remnants in flood channel of
North Thompson River.
Conducted an investigation of water use by Brenda Mines and silting of water
resulting from construction of tailings-dam, in co-operation with staff of Kelowna
District Office.
Kelowna District Office
E. D. Anthony, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District Office administers the Water Act in the Fairview, Grand
Forks, Princeton, Revelstoke, and Vernon Water Districts, which comprise the
Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage basins, the Shuswap River drainage
basin above Sicamous, and the portion of the Columb'a River basin from its confluence with the Canoe River down to the north end of the Upper Arrow Lake.
While an average snow pack and normal soil-moisture contents indicated an
anticipated average spring run-off, heavy rainfalls and mild temperatures during the
melt period resulted in near record peak flow in many of the streams in the northern
portion of the Okanagan basin. Flooding occurred around Kalamalka and Swan
Lakes and along Vernon and BX Creeks. High flows in Duteau Creek flooded
portions of Lumby. Studies are now under way to determine a more accurate
method of forecasting run-off in the Kalamalka Lake and BX Creek watersheds.
Although the spring run-off approached record proportions, there were no
reports of damage caused by failure of any licensed storage structures. An unlicensed storage dam failed near Rutland in May, causing considerable damage.
In September, a tailing-pond failed, causing damage in the City of Greenwood. It
is proposed, next summer, to update our data on licensed storage structures in order
to assess more accurately the safety of these works.
The majority of the storage reservoirs were filled to capacity by the above-
average spring run-off. Okanagan Lake peaked at 1,123.56 feet G.S.C. datum on
June 12, 1969, bringing the lake level to within 0.23 feet of full allowable storage.
Ample storage water and normal summer precipitation resulted in very few complaints of water shortages being received.
 GG 24
In April, 1969, Mr. R. J. Talbot, P.Eng., District Engineer, accepted a position
with the Fraser River Flood Control Programme and was replaced by Mr. E. D.
Anthony, P.Eng.
Despite numerous changes in staff, a record number of final-licence reports was
submitted and 204 water-licence applications were processed.
With the continued development in the district, the problems involved in water
resources development become more complex. The number of requests to attend
meetings of regional district planning boards, improvement districts, and the general
public increased markedly during the past year.
A summary of the water-licence applications processed by this office during
the past 10 years is shown in the following table:—
or Abandoned
1962   -
1963    -
1965 —                    	
1968           . _..	
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Supervised the reconstruction of the irrigation system of the Wood Lake Irrigation District.
Prepared a feasibility study of the installation of a domestic-water system for
the Brash Creek Local Improvement Area of the Regional District of North
Prepared a report on the use of Lambly Creek water by Lakeview Irrigation
Prepared a report on the availability of unrecorded water in the Kalamalka
Lake watershed and the effect of the proposed industrial development at Winfield on
the water availability.
Prepared a cost estimate of proposed channel improvements to Boundary Creek
for erosion and flood control.
Prepared a cost estimate of proposed drainage works in the Ambrosi Subdivision for the Regional District of Central Okanagan.
Mission City District Office
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Mission District Office assists the Comptroller of Water Rights in the
administration of the Water Act in the Vancouver and New Westminster Water
Districts, an area of approximately 40,000 square miles in southwestern British
Columbia. Most attention is required in a 1,000-square-mile portion of the Lower
Fraser Valley and Sechelt-Powell River areas.
Fortunately, water during the year was in good supply and only a few complaints of shortage required attention. This made it possible to devote more time to
the inspection of applications for water licences. The increase in population, as well
as the general expansion and development within the two water districts, have been
reflected in an increased demand for water, and again this year a record number of
GG 25
applications for water licences was received, along with a proportional number of
objections thereto, all of which required investigation. The increase in number of
applications for amendments to water licences also continued this year. An above-
average number of applications for apportionments and transfers of appurtenancy
were received as changes were made in land use or as land was subdivided.
There has also been an increase in the number of complaints, both from individuals and groups or organizations, regarding the use of chemicals for spraying
road and transmission-line rights-of-way, and in the use of pesticides which may
affect streams. Complaints have also been received in connection with gravel-
washing operations and similar works near streams, which interfere with or destroy
fish and waterfowl. Many investigations and discussions with interested individuals
and groups have taken place in attempting to resolve some of those problems at a
local level.
Personnel changes and a continued shortage of staff has had an effect on production during the year. Normally there are six full-time employees on the Mission
District Office staff, comprising a District Engineer, Assistant District Engineer,
technician, two engineering aides, and a clerk-stenographer. No replacements have
so far been obtained for the Assistant District Engineer and two engineering aides
who resigned during the summer, consequently the office has been operating at reduced strength. Until recently it has been possible to cope with the routine office
business which has been continually increasing since the office was established in
1.961, but recently investigations of applications for water licences, final-licence
surveys, and other matters have unavoidably fallen behind. Participation in the
technical planning committee meetings of regional districts and attention to the
increased numbers of requests from ratepayers' groups, small municipalities, improvement districts, and others for assistance in improving waterworks systems and
other works has made additional demands on the office.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Assisted Lindell Beach Residents' Association with design and construction of
new water intake in Spring Creek.
Investigated and advised residents at Irvines Landing regarding water supply.
Assisted Town of Hope in completing construction of dykes on Coquihalla
Advised Blue Water Park Improvement District regarding extension of water
Nelson District Office
T. H. Oxland, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson, Kaslo, Cranbrook, Fernie, and Golden Water Districts, which
contain some 26,000 square miles in the southeast corner of British Columbia, are
administered by the Water Rights District Office at Nelson. This office is presently
staffed by a District Engineer, two Assistant Engineers, a technician, and a clerk-
stenographer, all permanent employees. During the summer, two survey assistants
were employed to help with final-licence surveys and with field work for miscellaneous engineering studies.
The work this year has been dominated by the investigation of flooding and
erosion problems which resulted from the high-volume run-off from the record snow
pack which occurred in the southwest section of the district. The major flood in
Trail Creek in April this year, which caused heavy damage within the City of Trail,
resulted primarily from heavy rain on a melting snow pack.   In Kimberley, the same
rain-storm caused flooding in residential areas adjacent to the city. In the Creston
area, normally intermittent watercourses caused local flooding of orchard areas. In
the Castlegar area, slides in several small mountain creeks damaged property and
blocked the main highway. Reports on these floods have been prepared and implementation of flood-control works is presently under study by the parties concerned.
A cool, wet spring and summer followed the extremely cold winter, with the
result that good stream-flow was maintained during most of the year. The number
of water-use complaints, therefore, were minimal as compared to flood, erosion, and
pollution complaints.
The request for assistance from improvement districts and water-users communities decreased this year, and the backlog of outstanding reports requiring
attention has been reduced to one. The feasibility report for the Mirror Lake area
was abandoned after water users evidenced a lack of interest in formation of an
improvement district.
The Technical Planning Committee meetings for the three regional districts
within the Nelson District were attended throughout the year.
The applications for water licences received continues to outnumber the reports
submitted for applications inspected. The staff time involved in inspecting flooding
problems and preparation of reports, particularly in the preparation of the report
covering the Trail Creek flood at Trail, was the chief cause for lower output in
other directions this year. The applications for water licences, particularly in the
settled areas, also requires more staff time, since extensive investigation is necessary
when many of the suitable water sources are already fully committed under existing licences.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Only one feasibility report initiated last year remains to be completed, that is
the report for the Oasis Improvement District. Feasibility reports for water supply
were completed for the Ootischenia Improvement District, the Slocan Park Improvement District, and Ainsworth Townsite.
A report was prepared for the Trail Flood Disaster Committee which contained
recommendations for flood control on Trail Creek within the municipal boundaries
of both Trail and Warfield.
A report was also prepared on the flooding that occurred at Kimberley.
Two domestic-water storage dams for the City of Trail were inspected and
recommendations for the operation of these storages were worked out with the city.
Construction of a temporary spillway for the Violin Lake dam was also approved.
In addition to the above, 30 flood and erosion problems, most of which were
within the Creston, Trail, and Castlegar areas, received attention in varying degree,
depending upon their severity.
Seventeen pollution problems were investigated in the West Kootenay area.
The major cause of these problems was faulty construction of logging-roads, which
interfered with normal drainage patterns.
Nine complaints of unauthorized diversion of streams and seven water-sharing
complaints were also investigated.
Rehabilitation of the borrow area for the High Arrow Dam and the control of
drainage through this area was undertaken by British Columbia Hydro during the
early fall. This work was based on proposals agreed upon during meetings of the
District Engineer with officials of British Columbia Hydro this year.
One river-bank protection project to arrest erosion on the Elk River near Hos-
mer was completed this year, in co-operation with the Water Investigations Branch.
Prince George District Office
C. E. Wilson, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George, Quesnel, Peace River, Liard, Atlin, Fort Fraser, Hazelton,
and Prince Rupert Water Districts, which contain approximately two-thirds of the
area of British Columbia, are administered by the Prince George District Office. The
staff is made up of a District Engineer, an Assistant District Engineer, an engineering
technician, and a clerk-stenographer. Normally one student is employed during the
summer to assist in the draughting and survey duties of the office. However, this
past year the position of Assistant District Engineer was vacant. An additional
student was hired to allow use of the engineering technician for more pressing
Unusual sub-zero weather prevailed through the latter few days of December
and all of January, except for the second week. Temperatures reached a low of
45° F. below zero.
Frasil ice formed in the Nechako River and piled up at the confluence with
the Fraser. Within hours the entire Nechako River through Prince George was
choked with ice, causing the river level to rise, resulting in extensive flooding in the
Island Cache and lumber storage-yards in the industral area.
The run-off in the area generally was much less than normal, except for the
Upper Nechako watershed, thus causing little flooding. Some frozen culverts were
reported in the Quesnel and Giscome areas, but this problem was generally taken
care of by the Department of Highways.
During the months of May and June, this area had extremely hot and dry
weather and a water-shortage problem developed on Vienna Creek, south of Prince
George. The remainder of the summer was cool and wet and no further water-
shortage problems were experienced.
The Lafreniere and Willow River Improvement Districts were incorporated.
Lafreniere for waterworks and Willow River for road-building purposes.
The District Engineer attended meetings of the Technical Planning Committees of the Regional Districts of Bulkley-Nechako and Fraser-Fort George. The
Cariboo Regional District Technical Planning Committee had its first meeting in
October. A number of meetings sponsored by the Regional District of Fraser-Fort
George were attended when water-supply and sewage-disposal proposals for the
Greater Prince George area were discussed.
The District Engineer visited the Queen Charlotte Islands and discussed various
problems with local residents.
Meetings were attended at Fort St. John, Chetwynd, Quesnel, Lafreniere Subdivision, College Heights Improvement District, Charella Gardens, and Port
Clements Improvement Districts to discuss water problems.
Water-level observations for test-wells in the Prince George area were continued for the Groundwater Division.
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Inspected erosion damage at McBride, Valemount, Chilako River, and on the
Nechako River in Prince George. Channel improvements were carried out on
Dore Creek at McBride and Swift Creek at Valemount.
Inspected alleged flooding damage in Giscome area on Eaglet Lake, winter
ice-flooding in the Cottonwood Improvement District area adjacent to Prince George,
and flooding due to high levels on Cluculz Lake.
 GG 28
Inspected dams on Vandenberg Creek at Telkwa, Wolf Creek at Port Edward,
Pickard Creek at McLeese Lake, and Vienna Creek at Red Rock.
Prepared report, including design and cost estimate, covering possible protection of Island Cache area at Prince George by dykes, and investigated feasibility
of construction of an earth-fill dam and water supply for Halltray Farms north of
Vanderhoof. Engineering information was collected for future feasibility studies
at Hazelton and Moberly Lake near Chetwynd. The completed water supply feasibility study was reviewed with the residents of Endako, but they decided not to
proceed with construction at this time.
Inspected the widening of the old channel built by Canadian National Railways
in 1914 between the two parts of Burns Lake.
Assisted the Improvement Districts Division in engineering work for the Pine-
view and Blackburn Improvement Districts.
A summary of the water-licence applications processed by this office during
the past seven years is shown in the following table:—
or Abandoned
Victoria District Office
P. G. Odynsky, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District Office administers the Water Act throughout Vancouver
Island, the Gulf Islands, and adjacent islands. This area comprises the Victoria,
Nanaimo, and Alberni Water Districts.
The office staff in 1969 consisted of a District Engineer and one engineering
technician, in addition to which two university students were hired during the summer to carry out final-licence surveys and assist with draughting and clerical duties.
Weather conditions varied widely during 1969. Heavy snowfalls with freezing
temperatures established new records throughout the island region during January,
the temperature falling to 4° F. for Victoria and —4° in Nanaimo on December 30,
1968. Snow lay at sea-level until the end of January. In March and April most
island snow courses reported new record high-water equivalents. Warm day temperatures and cool nights in April and May caused run-off to be extended well into
June, without significant flooding. Some shortage of water began to develop in
July. Rainfall in August ended the long period of warm, dry weather which began
in April.
The steadily increasing demands made on the water resource as a result of
the increase in population in the islands region has increased the work load of the
Victoria District Office to the point where difficulty is experienced in completing the
necessary inspections and administering normal water-resource use. The Victoria
District Office will soon require additional engineering or technical staff in order to
fulfil effectively its technical, administrative, and public-relations responsibilities
throughout the islands region.
GG 29
Engineering Investigations and Projects
Investigations were made and action taken or reports forwarded on complaints
of water damage due to flooding or erosion on the following streams: Robertson
River at Mesachie Lake, Black Brook at Qualicum Bay, Nanoose Creek near
Nanoose Bay; unnamed surface run-off in the Happy Valley and Saanich areas,
Sproat Lake and McCoy Lake near Port Alberni; surface storm run-off in Harewood District, Nanaimo, Langford Lake, Chase River at South Wellington, York
Lake at Cedar, Mason Spring at Cordova Bay, Miller Brook at Esquimalt, Annie
Creek at Qualicum Bay, and Michael Lake at Cedar.
Supervision was provided for the Cowichan River bank-protection project
undertaken by the Village of Lake Cowichan.
Investigations were made of the following complaints of pollution of streams:
Bilston Creek by a slaughter-house; Bird Creek at Mill Bay by silt; Menzies Creek
by silt resulting from highway construction; Heyd Brook near Tofino, resulting from
construction of a youth hostel.
Other miscellaneous investigations were carried out as follows: Use of water
under licences on Utility Brook at Youbou inspected and reported on; storage
dams on Oliphant Lake and China Lake, Malahat District, inspected together with
licensed use of water from Bamber and Oliphant Creeks; inspected and reported
on water system proposals of Garnett Creek Water-users Community at Cherry
Point; investigations made, meetings held and reports forwarded for licensing use
by the Greater Victoria Water Board and by municipalities in Victoria area; investigations made, meetings held, and report forwarded for licensing storage of
water on Young Lake at Sooke; water shortage investigated in South Taggard
Creek near Mill Bay, Cypress Springs at Deep Cove, Averill Creek at Somenos,
Chris Spring at Esquimalt Lagoon, and French Spring at Maple Bay; inspected the
existing water system from Mercantile Creek for the Village of Ucluelet; investigated licensed use of water from Enos Lake at Nanoose Bay; investigated complaints of unauthorized dams on Metchosin Creek and Hewitt Creek in the Metchosin
area; investigated proposed use of water for mining and milling copper ores from
Marble River, Alice and Victoria Lakes in the Port Hardy area; investigated complaints of obstructions and unauthorized works in the Robertson River at Mesachie
Lake; inspected complaint of removal of topsoil from lands adjacent to the Nanaimo River, possibly resulting in the river flooding a drilled well in the area;
inspected complaints of obstructions in Millstream Creek at Langford; inspected
complaint of obstruction by landfill of drainage from a spring-fed swamp at Qualicum Bay.
R. A. Pollard, P.Eng., Chief of Division
There are now 300 improvement districts incorporated under the Water Act,
four less than a year ago. During 1969 the following new districts were incorporated: Blue Water Park Improvement District, Campbell-Bennett Bay Improvement
District, Lafreniere Improvement District, Lake Kathlyn Improvement District,
Mountain View Waterworks District, North Gabriola Fire Protection District,
Stardel Waterworks District, Triangle Mountain Improvement District, Wasa Land
Improvement District, and Willow River Forest Improvement District. The following districts were dissolved: Arnold Waterworks District, Asp Creek Irrigation
District, Chase Waterworks District, Hillside Waterworks District, Mission Dyking
District, Port Hardy Improvement District, Selma Park Improvement District,
Sicamous Improvement District, Silverdale Dyking District, Sumas No. 3 Road
Irrigation District, Valleyview Irrigation District, Westbank Waterworks District,
West Lantzville Waterworks District, and Western Latoria Road Waterworks District.
The territorial boundaries of an improvement district and the object, or objects,
for which the district is incorporated is set out in its Letters Patent. Upon petition
of the trustees, the Letters Patent may be amended to include new lands within the
district or exclude land, or to include extra objects. Many districts which were
originally incorporated for one purpose now have several. The activities for which
the districts are responsible include irrigation, waterworks, dyking, drainage, and
land improvement. The Letters Patent of 34 improvement districts were amended
in 1969, most changes being boundary amendments.
All improvement districts are empowered by the Water Act to raise revenue
by the levying of a tax or taxes upon one or more of a number of bases and by the
imposition of tolls and other charges. They are also empowered to issue debentures
to obtain funds for capital purposes. In many cases, improvement district debentures
and interest thereon are guaranteed by the Province pursuant to the Improvement
Districts Assistance Loan Act. There is now $9,394,500 of such guaranteed debentures outstanding, of which $1,766,000 was guaranteed during 1969.
Engineering Services
The Engineering Section of the Improvement Districts Division provides a
comprehensive technical service to improvement districts, or communities considering incorporating as improvement districts, throughout the Province. This service
is variously concerned with domestic water-supply schemes, irrigation projects, or
drainage and sewerage works. The nature of assistance provided falls generally
into three categories.
Where new schemes or rehabilitation of existing works are contemplated, the
Section carries out an engineering investigation, and then prepares a report giving
technical recommendations, cost estimates, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of the scheme.
Once the decision to initiate a project has been made, the district then submits
plans, specifications, and details of proposed financing methods for checking and
approval by the Section. Certain requirements must be met before a recommendation for Government guarantee of a loan will be made. In many instances, details
of a project are discussed at length with the district's consultants, and revisions or
modifications recommended.
In some circumstances the Section assumes full responsibility for the engineering of a project. After the preliminary surveys and investigation have been completed, the Section then prepares final design drawings, specifications, and contract
documents, and finally provides supervision of construction.
Advice is also given to districts regarding operational problems, or modifications and repairs to existing systems.
Throughout the year, personnel from the Division travelled extensively in the
Province, holding meetings with district trustees, organization committees, municipalities, and other groups actively concerned with problems of development. About
50 improvement districts were visited regarding their administration alone.
Reports Prepared and under Preparation
Brash Creek Area.—Following a request from a small community located near
Brash Creek, 4 miles east of Enderby, an investigation into water-supply possibilities
GG 31
was carried out. The ensuing report indicated that the provision of a water system
to serve this area was not economically feasible.
Campbell-Bennett Bay Improvement District.—This district was formed in
order to acquire and operate works formerly owned by Mayne Island Water Co. Ltd.
An interim report was prepared in which the existing works were appraised and the
administrative implications of the proposed take-over by the district were outlined.
Following completion of current ownership negotiations, it is intended to prepare a
second report in which recommendations regarding system modifications and future
policies will be made.
Covert Irrigation District.—Situated about 3 miles west of the City of Grand
Forks, this is an old established district which has experienced considerable subdivision into small parcels. There is a conflict of interest between the large landholders
and the small parcelholders, who are mainly part-time farmers. To satisfy its requirements for water, the district has recently drilled a well to supplement the
gravity supply from July Creek. Two reports were prepared during the year proposing extensions of the pipe-lines to ensure adequate distribution of the well water
and covering different supply areas, but these proposals cannot be implemented until
the conflict is resolved.
Cranberry Fire Protection District.—Having recently amended their Letters
Patent to include water supply, the Cranberry Fire Protection District, located 4
miles south of Nanaimo, desired to have the cost aspects of water supply investigated.
The subsequent report showed that the density of existing development was inadequate to support the cost of a community water-supply system.
Elko.—Following receipt by the Comptroller of a petition by two groups of
landowners in Elko, one to form an improvement district and the other a water-users
community, an investigation was made of possible sources of water supply for Elko.
A memorandum/report was prepared which concluded that a new water system for
an improvement district was not at present economically feasible. Applications to
form a water-users community would therefore be considered.
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—Demands on the Fort Nelson Improvement District for new water and sewer services in the area have continued during
1969. At the request of the district, two reports were prepared on proposed water
and sewer system extensions—(1) water and sewer service for First Avenue NE. and
part of Second and Third Avenues NW.; and (2) water service for Third Avenue
NE. It was shown that these extensions could not be financially self-supporting
under the district's present tax and toll structure without a capital contribution from
each benefiting landowner.
Grand Forks Irrigation District.—This district covers a large area to the south
and east of the City of Grand Forks. The present low-pressure pumping system was
designed and constructed by the Lands Department in the early 1920's and still
operates effectively. Most farmers have abandoned furrow irrigation, however, and
find that the old system is too expensive when the extra cost of pumping to produce
pressure for sprinkler irrigation is added. A pilot area of about 1,000 acres within
the district is being studied to see if it is feasible to replace the existing works with a
high-pressure system fed from wells.
Haslam Lake.—Powell River Eduction Pipe-line: In response to requests by
local property owners, the pipe-line from Haslam Lake which supplies the District
of Powell River was inspected and a memorandum/report prepared on the possible
hazard of flooding in the event of a rupture of this pipe-line between the lake and
surge shaft. It was concluded that the chance of pipe-line failure is remote and, even
if it should occur, there would be no danger to life or property.
Hutchinson Cove Area.—At the request of local property owners, a report was
prepared on the technical and financial aspects of providing a water system to serve
the Hutchinson Cove area near Sooke on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The
ruggedness of the local terrain and the long lengths of pipe-line required would make
the cost of the scheme exceptionally high. The report, therefore, concluded that the
proposal was not economically feasible at this time.
Larkin Waterworks District.—Composed mainly of dry-land farms, Larkin is a
rich agricultural area to the south of Armstrong in the Okanagan Valley. Farm
activities have been hampered for a great many years by an irregular water supply
from a small creek. A report was prepared recommending a well source feeding an
enlarged distribution system to a somewhat extended area. Subsequently, the well
was drilled and has proved to be adequate. The district has resolved to proceed with
the construction of the scheme in 1970.
Otter Lake Waterworks District.—Otter Lake is a rich agricultural area to the
west of Armstrong which takes a bulk supply of water from the city. Because
Armstrong is at a generally lower level than Otter Lake, the district has suffered
pressure difficulties and water shortages in dry summers. A report has been prepared recommending the replacement of the old system with a modern water supply
fed from a high-capacity well which exists to the southeast of the district.
Quadra Island.—At the request of land owners on the southern part of Quadra
Island, a study was made of the possibilities for a community water supply for the
area. Earlier investigation had indicated that the only economically feasible source
could be groundwater, if available in quantity, to serve the settlements of Quathiaski
Cove and Heriot Bay. The Groundwater Division, Water Resources Service, studied
the surficial geology of the area and recommended rotary test-drilling to locate suitable aquifer material. A report was prepared proposing a separate water system
for Quathiaski Cove and Heriot Bay on the tentative assumption of a suitable well in
each settlement.
Vananda Waterworks District.—At the request of the trustees, the district's
gravity domestic water system was inspected and a report prepared with recommendations for improving the system. Two schemes were proposed—Scheme A, to cost
$86,000 for a new gravity pipe-line along the old route, with booster pumping to
high parts of the district; and Scheme B, to cost $72,000 for pumping from Priest
Lake to a reservoir, and thence via a new, shorter, gravity pipe-line to Vananda.
Design and Engineering Services
Fort Nelson Improvement District.—At present this district obtains its water
supply from the Muskwa River by pumping during the winter months through a
6,000-foot-long pipe-line into a 40,000,000-gallon reservoir near the community
for use during the entire year. During the summer freshet the Muskwa carries too
heavy a sediment load for domestic use of the raw water. A study is being made on
obtaining a new, year-round source of water for the district, either by constructing a
new open water intake on the Muskwa, together with a sedimentation pond, or from
groundwater with provision for any treatment which may be required to improve the
chemical quality of the water. The Water Supply and Investigations Division and
the Groundwater Division of the Water Investigations Branch have assisted in this
work. A topographic survey was made by the Investigations Division of a proposed
new intake area on the Muskwa River. With technical advice from the Groundwater
Division, cable-tool, test-well drilling was conducted on an alluvial bar of the
Muskwa River near Fort Nelson under an $8,600 contract supervised by the Improvement Districts Division.  This exploration proved up an aquifer of sufficient
GG 33
capacity to supply this growing district. However, the chemical quality of the raw
groundwater may not be good. Samples pumped from a successful test well are
presently being analysed.
Grandview Waterworks District.—ARDA Project 29044, namely, the second-
stage rehabilitation of the farm water-supply system serving the Grandview Waterworks District, was commenced in April, 1969, and completed by November. The
work, involving modifications to the intake and approximately 20,000 feet of pipelines and service pipes, was carried out by the district, using direct labour. Engineering services for both design and supervision were provided by this Division. The
final cost will be substantially below the original estimate of $57,000.
Quinsam Heights Waterworks District.—This district is part of the Greater
Campbell River Water District and contains some of the highest developed ground
in the Greater Water District. Low-pressure problems have developed in high areas,
partly as a result of head loss in the Greater Water District's mains. The problem
was examined and recommendations made for immediate and future action to be
taken to correct the situation.
Slocan Park Improvement District.—An application for ARDA assistance in
reconstructing the Slocan Park water system has been accepted by the Federal and
Provincial Governments and the design of the new system has commenced.
Steele Springs Waterworks District.—The existing system which provides water
to this agricultural community had developed pressure problems. The trustees were
given advice on how to determine the source of their troubles and, after effecting
some repairs, have removed the immediate problem. A long-term shortage exists,
however, and further work will be needed to make the system adequate in all respects.
Wood Lake Improvement District.—ARDA Project 29008, namely, rehabilitation of the Wood Lake irrigation works, commenced in 1967 and was essentially
completed in 1969. The new system operated throughout the 1969 irrigation season.
The new works have resulted in a much reduced consumption of water by the district,
which suggests that the irrigated area could be extended, thereby broadening the
revenue base. Water supply and use during the 1970 irrigation season, at least,
must be observed before this can be confirmed.
Walhachin Waterworks District.—The water system serving the Walhachin
Waterworks District was originally installed in 1907 and is now generally in very
poor condition. This Division is investigating alternative sources of supply, in addition to other aspects of system operation, with a view to assisting the district with
the urgent problem of system rehabilitation.
Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals Reviewed
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Approximate Estimated Cost
B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation
Blackburn Improvement District
Installation of sanitary sewer system _
Installation of domestic-water system
Installation   of  sanitary   sewers   and
domestic-water system
Major   extensions  to   existing  water
Installation of domestic-water system...
Renewal of syphon	
Preliminary planning stage
Well completed, other works
postponed until next year
Clearbrook Waterworks District
Clearwater Improvement District
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage
Fort Fraser Waterworks District
Installation of sanitary sewer system
and sewage lagoon
Construction completed	
Water Supply and Sewerage Proposals Reviewed—Continued
Description of Proposal
Status of Project
at End of Year
Approximate Estimated Cost
Hagensborg Waterworks District
Lafreniere Improvement District
Mill Bay Waterworks District
Nechako   Improvement   District
Major   water   system   extensions   to
serve Hagensborg (West)
Installation   of  sanitary   sewers   and
domestic-water system
Extension of water system to a new
Installation of sanitary sewer collection system
Construction of additional well and
miscellaneous pipe-line extensions
Installation of domestic-water system;
groundwater sources
Installation of domestic-water system..
Preliminary planning stage
Preliminary planning stage —
Preliminary planning stage....
Ootischenia Improvement District
Pineview   Improvement   District
Saltair Waterworks District.__
Traders    Cove    Waterworks
Preliminary planning stage ...
Construction completed	
Major   modifications   to   distribution
Installation of domestic-water systems
Installation of domestic-water system..
Extension to sewer system  	
Construction completed	
Preliminary planning stage—.
ment District
Westbank Irrigation District...
Preliminary planning stage.-.
H. M. Hunt, P.Eng., Chief of Division
Major Licensing Administration
Activities on such major developments as the Duncan and Arrow Lakes projects during 1969 consisted mainly of reservoir cleanup as aftermaths to the previous
years of vigorous construction activity on the dams and ancillary works. On the
other hand, work at Mica dam-site maintained its fast pace toward the scheduled
initial filling date in April, 1973. Progress on the massive Peace River project continued to be entirely satisfactory, and units 4 and 5 were put into commercial
service, thereby completing the installation of half of the ultimate capacity of
2,300 MW of the Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station.
Much of the Division's time was spent co-ordinating the work of preparing
Libby Reservoir for the flooding deadline of May, 1972.
Inspections of dams throughout the Province were undertaken, including existing structures and such new works and reconstruction of old dams as those included
in the Jordan River Hydro Electric project, with a view to determining their adequacy from a safety standpoint and to ensure that construction was proceeding in
accordance with the design assumptions.
Flood-control Operations
Generally, inflows to the various reservoirs in the Province during 1969 were
below average. For example, Nechako reservoir fell short of filling by three-tenths
of a foot. However, both Duncan and Arrow reservoirs were full by mid-July and
draughting from storage for power operations was commenced in August. Williston
reservoir continued to fill, but not as rapidly as anticipated.
In view of these circumstances, special operations for flood control were not
GG 35
Power-policy Planning
Specific fields of study in connection with power-policy planning include the
compilation of historical electric-power generating records and the preparation of
forecasts of future load growth, studies of international power-system developments
such as the Columbia River, review of other benefits available to the public at
hydro-electric developments, and preparation of an inventory of available undeveloped power resources.
Undeveloped Water Power in British Columbia
The Water Rights Branch of the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water
Resources, Government of British Columbia, in conjunction with the Inland Waters
Branch of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Government of Canada,
has prepared an Index of Undeveloped Hydro-electric Power Sites in British Columbia which is part of a study covering the whole of Canada. Many of the sites
have received only a cursory examination, and further sources of energy, although
not yet fully explored, are known to exist. The index lists the figures derived by
many investigators over the course of 30 years or so, and reference should be made
to their original work in order to assess the current validity and relevance of their
Planning, Kootenay and Pend-d'Oreille Rivers
Of more immediate concern, studies are under way at present to determine
the most suitable methods of developing the additional potential made possible on
these two rivers by implementation of the Columbia Treaty. Consideration is being
given to developing the extra capability that will be provided by improved control
of stream-flow by operation of Libby reservoir, and the most promising scheme is
that known as the Kootenay Canal plant. This project could contribute in excess
of 200 megawatts (average) of additional power at a most attractive cost.
The possibility of developing the Pend-d'Oreille River between the headwaters
of Waneta plant and the International Boundary is also being studied, and a power
plant of around 500 megawatts capacity appears to be feasible.
Hydro-electric Power Projects under Construction
Additional Installations at Existing Plants
The City of Revelstoke is increasing its reservoir storage, thereby firming up
the available energy at the Walter Hardman Plant, by raising Coursier Lake dam
some 22 feet.
Peace River Development
The year 1969 saw the completion of virtually all the major works in progress.
The completion of all work on the switchyard, control building, and the installation
of units numbers 4 and 5 allowed these two units to go into commercial operation
during the year, thus marking the end of work on the first half of the powerhouse.
Excavation and initial concrete placements were also completed for the second half
of the powerhouse. With the exception of the award of a contract for the installation
of units 6, 7, and 8, no new work was contracted out during 1969.
Columbia River Development
Arrow Lakes Dam.—While the dam was declared operational on October 10,
1968, it was not until June 9, 1969, that Premier W. A. C. Bennett officially dedicated the dam and named it the " Hugh Keenleyside Dam " in honour of the retiring
Chairman of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. Since that time
all contract work has been completed, with the exception of some minor site-cleanup,
and no new contracts have been issued.
Mica Creek Dam.—This dam, towering 800 feet above bedrock, will be the
highest in Canada and the second highest of its type in the world. The diversion
tunnels, which were completed in 1967, continued to be successfully used to divert
the Columbia River around the dam-site to permit the Guy F. Atkinson, Arundel
International, L. E. Dixon International, Commonwealth Construction, and Dillingham Corporation consortium to continue their work under the $136,262,000 main
dam contract. Construction progress to date has been good, and the contractors'
earnings have been approximately $40,000,000.
Work under this contract includes not only the main dam which, with the
placement of over 10,000,000 cubic yards of fill material is now complete to elevation 1,980 feet, but permanent outlet works which are proceeding well and spillway
excavation which has advanced to the point where control structure concrete pours
are now being made. Good progress has also been made on such related work as
foundation treatment, drainage tunnels, transformer-bench excavation, power-intake
excavation, diversion-tunnel modification, and reservoir-clearing.
Libby Reservoir.—The construction of a dam on the Kootenai River in Montana, U.S.A., near the town of Libby, is the last major works to be authorized under
the Columbia River Treaty. The reservoir formed by the dam will extend some
42 miles into Canada and will be over 150 feet deep at the border. It is anticipated
that impoundment of water will commence during the spring of 1972.
By an Order in Council, the responsibility for preparing the reservoir for flooding was assigned to various branches of the Government: Property acquisition,
road relocations, and replacement of highway bridges were assigned to the Department of Highways, while flood-line marking, topographic and cadastral surveys,
timber cruising and removal, and the various hydraulic and flowage studies associated with such large-scale inundation of private properties and Crown-owned land
were delegated to the Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources. The
function of co-ordinating the several activities was assigned to the Water Resources
Service, and more specifically to the Power and Major Licences Division.
During 1969, merchantable timber mosdy from Crown land was removed from
the area to be flooded. Logs were decked and periodically sold by public auction.
By the end of 1969, 2,300 acres were cleared to specification while 3,800 acres
were under treatment; the total area to be cleared is 9,000 acres.
Acquisition of property to be flooded has proceeded rather slowly owing to
the protracted nature of negotiations. However, work has commenced on the approaches to the new highway bridge at Wardner; a contract valued at $1,073,170
was let in September for this purpose. The replacement for the existing Waldo
bridge, to be relocated at Kikomun Creek, is at the design stage and is scheduled for
construction during 1970; it will form part of the future Southern Trans-Provincial
Highway. Survey work for the 22 miles of roads to be relocated in the area is
complete and construction will take place during 1970.
Negotiations were concluded between the Province of British Columbia and
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company by the signing of an agreement in March,
1969, that the Province would compensate the company in the amount of $3,200,000
for flooding the railway bridge and track at Wardner. The first of four instalments
of $800,000 was made on April 15th.
A report from a recreational consultant was received toward the end of 1969.
The report indicated the high recreational potential of the reservoir, and suggested
 Libby dam.
.-■"'■'   -:..:
Hugh Keenleyside dam—official dedication, June 9, 1969.
 Henriette Dam on Howe Sound.
lordan River Dam reconstruction.
GG 39
specific areas which could be developed for marinas, beaches, picnic-grounds, and
parkland. Project cost appraisals will be submitted by the Parks Branch early in
1970 for the prime recreational sites recommended for development.
A joint meeting was held in October, 1969, with the U.S. Corps of Engineers,
the authority responsible for Libby development in Montana, to discuss progress
and items of common interest and concern.
A soils and geological survey undertaken during the year has revealed that
although there may be one or two areas of potential slide, they should not occur
suddenly or be large enough to create damaging waves.
Jordan River Redevelopment
The main purpose of the Jordan River redevelopment, which is located some
40 miles west of Victoria and which will add 150 megawatts of plant capacity to the
Vancouver Island supply, is to supply Greater Victoria and other Island centres
during periods of peak demand.
The redevelopment will extend over three years and includes rehabilitation of
two dams, Bear Creek dam and diversion dam, and the construction of a new 117-
foot-high 430-foot-long concrete gravity dam at the Elliott site. Water will be
diverted from Elliott dam through an 18,100-foot-long power tunnel and a 5,350-
foot-long penstock to a new 150-megawatt turbine and generator unit on the right
bank of the river, 1,000 yards from the ocean.
In addition to the $7,498,000 tunnel contract let in 1968 to Emil Anderson
Construction Ltd., several contracts were let in 1969 and are tabled below: —
Nissho-Iwai Co. Ltd.  _—	
Emil Anderson Construction Ltd.
JR 4
Generator __ _ _ ___
Contracts have now been let for over two-thirds of the $27,500,000 redevelopment project. As well as the contract work being done by outside contractors,
considerable rehabilitation work on the two existing dams is being carried out by
British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority's own forces. Work is proceeding
on all phases of the project and it is expected that the project will be on line in
October, 1971.
Dam Inspection
During 1969 the dam inspection programme, instituted in 1967, was continued, and a total of 13 field trips was made. Twenty-six major dams and a
number of smaller structures were inspected for adequacy and safety, and reported
upon. A number of these dams, for instance, Mica Dam, Coursier Lake Dam,
and Peachland Dam, were inspected while under construction to insure compliance
with the previously approved plans. Other dams such as Fulton Lake Dam and
Penticton Dam were inspected to ensure that initial operations produced no harmful
or unexpected effects. The majority of the remaining visits were made as part of
the continuing schedule of visits to ensure that adequate maintenance is bemg carried out and that no untoward conditions develop.    As a result of these visits,
 GG 40
recommendations were made to the owners of several of the dams concerning improvements in maintenance practices. Several visits were also made to review the
progress of rehabilitation operations being carried out at two dams where such
action was considered necessary following the 1967 and 1968 inspections.
Whatshan Plant Rebuilding
On February 2, 1969, the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority closed
down the Whatshan Plant as it was soon due to be flooded out by the rising waters
of Arrow Lakes reservoir. Design work is now under way for the construction of
a new and enlarged powerhouse at a higher elevation, and it is expected that the
plant will resume operation in 1972.
Generation and Load Growth
Interim Estimate of Electrical Generation in 1969
It is estimated that the total amount of electrical energy produced in British
Columbia during 1969 was 26,539 gigawatt-hours.* As is shown by the tabulation
below, this total is 12.8 per cent greater than that of 1968; however, due to the
fact that a net import of energy during 1968 has given way to a net export of energy
during 1969, the percentage increase in load amounts to 8.75 per cent (\Vi per cent
above the 10-year average).
It will also be noted that the tabulation shows a very considerable shift in
emphasis from thermal generation to hydro generation. This is due entirely to the
commencement of operations at the Gordon Shrum plant on the Peace River. This
plant has now taken over much of the load previously supplied by the Burrard
thermal plant.
The tabulation shows that generation by utilities increased by 17.4 per cent
during the year; but, when allowance is made for transfers of energy to and from
other systems, the rate of load growth is believed to be around 11-12 per cent.
The exact figure will not be known until the British Columbia Energy Board's next
biennial survey has been completed some time in 1970.
Generation in Gwh.*
Per Cent
1,497 (S)
9,743                 10,530
1,415 (P) 1        1,484 (P)
11,158          |      12,014
23,531                26,539
(P)=Preliminary (based on D.B.S.).
(S)=Station service requirements for British Columbia Hyd
plants have been deducted from this figure.
ro's Burrard, Georgia, and Port
Mann thermal
* 1 gigawatt-hour (gwh.)__:l,000,000 kilowatt-hours.
GG 41
Growth during Previous 10-year Period
The tabulation below shows statistics for generation and load in the Province
over the 10-year period ending in 1968. This shows the over-all percentage increase
for the full period and the average growth rates. It should be noted that the latter
are compounded rates.
Electrical Generation in Gwh.
Net Import
or Export
Total Electrical Load
Per Cent
1959    -	
I960—      -	
4,263 (P)
20 (E)
456 (I)
27 (E)
999 (I)
800 (I)
24,331 (P)
— 1.8
(E) =Net export to other provinces and (or) United States.
(I) =Net import from other provinces and (or) United States.
(P)=Preliminary figure subject to revision.
Gwh.=:gigawatt-hour=l million kilowatt-hours.
Mw. —1 thousand kilowatts (average output).
Use of Electronic Computing Equipment
Programming for the maintenance of licence and file records on the I.B.M. 360
computer is now complete; however, occasional improvements are being made as
found necessary.
A programme for determining the daily spillway discharge under design flood
conditions was developed during the past year. Contemplated studies include the
compilation of electrical generation statistics, and analysis of backwater effects of
dams and reservoirs.
Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board
The Power and Major Licences Division is responsible for providing technical
support to the British Columbia member of the Permanent Engineering Board.
Among the several functions required under the terms of the Columbia River Treaty,
the Board has to report to the Governments of Canada and the United States of
America on progress being achieved under the treaty, to assist in reconciling differences between the development agencies of the two nations (termed the " Entities "),
and to assemble flow records of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers at the International Boundary.
The Chief of the Power and Major Licences Division is the nominated alternate
member to Mr. A. F. Paget, the member representing the Province, with responsibility to assist the member in the performance of his duties and to take his place at
Board meetings in his absence. In addition, the Chief of the Division is a member
of the Permanent Engineering Board Committee, whose function it is to assist the
Board in considering proposals and operating plans received from the Entities.
 GG 42
A meeting of the Board was held in Victoria in May, 1969, to discuss progress
of project construction and of Entity studies; a joint meeting was held with the
Entities on the same day to review study progress. The Board visited the Mica and
Libby projects in August to assess construction progress.
Statistical Analysis of Water Licensing
As these statistics are generally not subject to changes of any appreciable consequence from year to year it is proposed that tabulations indicating licensed water
volumes and rates of flow for various uses by the various districts in the Province be
prepared every alternate year, or as often as appears desirable. Accordingly, the
tabulations shown in the 1968 Annual Report of the Water Resources Service may
be referred to for current usages. Agencies having need of more detailed information may apply to the Comptroller of Water Rights.
The Water Investigations Branch was formed in late 1962 as a consequence of the creation
of an independent British Columbia Water Resources Service.
The functions of the Water Investigations Branch, which is headed by the Chief Engineer,
are to deal with technical matters pertaining to the water resources of the Province not directly
connected with the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution Control Act, 1967. These
functions, carried out by various divisions of the Water Investigations Branch, are briefly summarized below.
(1) Water Supply and Investigations Division:
(a) Irrigation and domestic water-supply investigations to assist and advise the Department and general public in the development and maintenance of water-supply
(_>) Flooding, drainage, and stream-erosion investigations to give engineering advice
and assistance in solving water-damage problems.
(2) Hydrology Division:
(a)  Snow surveys and snow-melt run-off forecasting to guide judicious utilization of
water supply.
(£>)  Hydrologic studies of the Province to compile and evaluate basic hydrometeoro-
logical data in such a form as to make them readily adaptable.
(3) Groundwater Division: Collection of existing groundwater data and investigation and
evaluation of groundwater potential to encourage and guide the future use and conservation of this source of water supply.
(4) Basin Planning and Power Division:
(a) Development of plans for water conservation on regional basis with an immediate
aim to indicate possibilities of augmenting the existing water supply.
(_>) Investigation and inventory of undeveloped hydro-electric power potential of the
(5) ARDA Division: Processing of water-project proposals made under the Agricultural
and Rural Development Act and investigation, design, and supervision of projects.
(6) Projects Division: Preparation and review of proposals and projects under the Canada-
British Columbia Joint Development Act and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act and Fraser River Flood Control Agreement. Design and supervision of
construction of water-damage prevention projects.
(7) Water Survey Division: To undertake and direct limnological, ecological, hydraulic,
and construction surveys in connection with water-resource planning, investigations,
and development projects.
(8) The above divisions are supported by a Draughting Office and a Records Compilation
and Reports Section.
The above functions are carried out in co-operation with a number of other Governmental
agencies with an aim to enable the British Columbia Water Resources Service to foster better
use of water resource, which is one of the principal physical foundations of the economic development of the Province.
 GG 44
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B. E. Marr, P.Eng.
Chief Engineer
The Water Investigations Branch was created in December, 1962, and deals
with technical matters related to the water resources of the Province, which matters
are not directly connected with the administration of the Water Act and the Pollution
Control Act, 1967.
To carry out Branch functions, a number of divisions have been formed and a
detailed account of their activities in 1969 is given in the following pages. Also
included are reports on the operation of the Draughting Office, Records Compilation
and Reports Section, and the Reports Library. The latter two offices also perform
certain services for the other Branches of the Water Resources Service.
A major change in personnel occurred in 1969 with the appointment on April
1st of Mr. V. Raudsepp to the position of Deputy Minister of Water Resources. Mr.
Raudsepp had been Chief Engineer of the Water Investigations Branch since its formation in 1962, and under his direction the Branch has grown and matured in meeting the challenges associated with water-resource management in British Columbia.
The Water Investigations Branch continued to be involved in water projects
under the Federal-Provincial ARDA programme {Agricultural and Rural Development Act). The total number of approved projects in this category now stands at
56, with an aggregate construction cost of $26,000,000. Of these, 31 have been
completed at a cost of $20,500,000 and 25 are under construction. A further 31 are
under various stages of study.
The Water Investigations Branch is responsible for processing and implementing approved projects under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act by
providing engineering services and by inspection of project execution. The three
projects approved to date involve some $4,400,000 of construction work, with contracts in the amount of approximately $1,400,000 being let in 1969.
The signing of the Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement
in May, 1968, has resulted in a considerable increase in Branch activity in this
field. Under the Agreement, senior staff members are involved in the Joint Federal-
Provincial Board and Committee set up to administer the Agreement, and also in
special study groups established to set design criteria. The Province is responsible
for implementing the construction aspects of the programme, and this will involve
expenditures in the order of $40,000,000 over the 10-year life of the Agreement.
It is anticipated that the first construction contract will go to tender early in 1970.
Over the past several years, Mr. T. A. J. Leach, Assistant Chief Engineer, has
directed studies on a proposal to augment Okanagan Valley water supply by diverting water from the adjacent Shuswap River basin. This has resulted in several
preliminary reports on alternative possible diversion arrangements and their downstream results. This work has continued in 1969 and the importance of the Okanagan Basin water resource problems was given added and broader recognition by
 GG 46
the signing of the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement on October
29, 1969. This Agreement provides for testing of water-resource planning techniques for comprehensive studies in the Okanagan River basin on water quality and
quantity under a Federal-Provincial Consultative Board and Study Committee. In
anticipation of the signing of the Agreement, the Water Investigations Branch has
been active in some preliminary work related to these studies.
The Water Supply and Investigations Division, under Mr. R. G. Harris, continues to carry a heavy work load. In addition to its field survey work and flooding
and erosion studies, the Division has been involved in the rehabilitation of a number
of irrigation systems under the ARDA programme. Among major construction
projects now under way is the final design and construction of the Black Mountain
irrigation system with Mr. L. A. Bergman, engineer in charge, assisted by Mr. K. N.
Pleasance, and the rehabilitation of the Winfield and Okanagan Centre irrigation
system with Mr. P. W. Newson being assisted by Mr. J. C. Kwong. A major project
under preliminary study by Mr. J. H. Doughty-Davies is the South East Kelowna
Irrigation District system. The year 1969 also saw a start being made on the Peachland Irrigation District system and the construction of the second phase of the rehabilitation of the Westbank Irrigation District system. Staff changes in 1969 included
the resignation of Mr. J. H. Morley, Hydraulic Engineer, who returned to university,
with Mr. J. C. Ngai and Mr. E. V. Payne joining the Division as Hydraulic Engineer
and Assistant Hydraulic Engineer respectively. Mr. S. B. Mould continued to work
out of the field office at Oliver.
The Hydrology Division, under Mr. H. I. Hunter, continues to expand the
snow-survey network providing basic data for the good management of the water
resources of the Province. The performance of the field technicians in the installation and servicing of remote stations in mountainous regions is particularly noteworthy. The run-off forecasting procedures that have been developed are of great
value in the operation of water facilities throughout the Province. Hydrology studies
both on a basin and regional basis are becoming an increasingly important aspect
of the Division's work and this trend is expected to continue. Mr. A. Pipes left the
Division to take up an appointment on the research staff at the University of British
Columbia and was replaced by Mr. D. E. Reksten, Hydraulic Engineer. Mr. C. H.
Coulson, Hydraulic Engineer, is responsible for the preparation of the Snow Survey
Bulletin which is issued six times each year. The Hydrology Division was responsible for local arrangements in connection with the Seventh Canadian Hydrology
Symposium held in Victoria in October.
The Groundwater Division, under Dr. J. C. Foweraker, continued the expansion of the groundwater-observation network and water-well inventory, and data now
available from this Division is much used by outside agencies. Another important
aspect of the Division's activity is advising and assisting other Departments of
Government on their groundwater problems. The added work load of preliminary
drilling and water-quality sampling in the Okanagan Valley preparatory to the
signing of the Okanagan Basin Agreement has kept the Division fully occupied this
year. The available manpower was stretched to the limit with the resignation of Mr.
J. P. Parry, Geological Engineer, to take up an overseas appointment, and a continuing engineering vacancy from the previous year. Mr. P. L. Hall joined the
Division late in the year and Mr. D. M. Callan was promoted to Senior Hydraulic
The Basin Planning and Power Division, under Mr. J. D. Watts, has continued
field investigations and office studies of the hydro-power potential of the Liard River
as its major project this year.  Work has also progressed on a number of planning
GG 47
and other studies in connection with water use throughout the Province. The Division lost Mr. R. A. Pollard through promotion to another Branch and late in the year
Mr. R. W. Nichols joined the Division as a Hydraulic Engineer. Mr. J. C. Bunge
was promoted, joining Mr. W. W. K. Smyth as Senior Hydraulic Engineers.
The ARDA Projects Division continues to handle ARDA water projects, under
Mr. J. D. C. Fuller as Division Chief and Mr. J. V. Eby, Construction Engineer.
The Division lost Mr. N. I. Guild through resignation but was strengthened by the
addition of Messrs. E. W. D. Bonham and G. S. Sutherland, who join Mr. N. M.
Morison and Mr. H. H. Nesbitt-Porter as Hydraulic Engineers and Mr. J. P.
L'Aventure, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer. Six ARDA projects were essentially
completed during the year and major projects in the process of construction include
the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District rehabilitation and the Vernon Irrigation District system. The work of the Division now includes the construction of
projects under the Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement, and
this has placed an additional load on senior staff.
The Projects Division was very active this year in the design and construction
of a number of river-training and flood-control projects. This Division is also deeply
involved in the Fraser River flood-control programme and has prepared a number
of studies in establishing design criteria. Senior staff members have the additional
responsibility of serving on committees and study groups in connection with this
flood-control programme. Mr. P. M. Brady was appointed Division Chief in May,
1969. There was a staff loss with the resignation of Mr. A. A. MacTaggart, while
Mr. B. J. W. Taylor and Mr. R. H. Cameron joined Mr. W. Tempest as Hydraulic
Engineers, and Mr. J. Wester continued as Senior Hydraulic Engineer.
The Water Investigations Branch has been involved in a number of water-
quality studies and this has led to the appointment to the staff of Dr. R. J. Buchanan,
Biologist, in the newly formed Water Surveys Division.
The draughting services of the Water Investigations Branch, under Mr. B.
Varcoe, Chief Draughtsman, have continued on a high level although this section
has been plagued by a high staff-turnover. The Records Compilation and Reports
Section handled an increased volume of work. Mr. A. S. Stencel, who has general
supervision over this Section as well as his duties as Administrative Officer for the
Branch, is assisted by Mr. D. R. B. Lyttle and staff. The Water Investigations
Branch is now in the process of establishing a library for the Water Resources Service, and Miss D. Cogswell is fully occupied in this task.
The Branch acknowledges the assistance received during the year from other
Government specialists and outside services in the carrying-out of its functions in the
investigation, planning, and development of water resources.
In addition to the activities of the Water Investigations Branch staff, cooperation was continued with the Civil Engineering Department and the Agricultural
Engineering and Botany Departments of the University of British Columbia. The
Civil Engineering Department receives financial support from the Water Resources
Service and is intensifying its teaching and research programme in the field of water
resources. The Water Investigations Branch has assisted in this programme whenever possible by providing field facilities and holding discussions with University of
British Columbia staff members. A water-quality and alga, survey is being carried
out jointly by the Agricultural Engineering and Botany Departments. The facilities
of the British Columbia Research Council, Biology Division, have also been called
upon from time to time throughout the year in connection with water-resource
The increase in joint Federal-Provincial activities recorded in 1968 continued
in 1969. The implementation of the Fraser River Flood Control Agreement has
involved a number of meetings and discussions. Discussions have also been held on
a number of occasions with the Federal Department of Energy, Mines and Resources
in connection with the Okanagan Basin Study Agreement which was finally signed
on October 29th. A market study in connection with the hydro-electric potential
of the Yukon River by diversion to tidewater in Alaska or British Columbia has
involved meetings with representatives of Canada and the State of Alaska.
The issuing of the Letters Patent in connection with the formation of the
Okanagan Basin Water Board is noted. This Board, being a local policy body, is
expected to act in an advisory capacity in connection with water problems in the
Okanagan Basin.
Senior members of the Water Investigations Branch continued to participate
in a number of committees dealing with water-resource matters, including ARDA
committees, the National, Provincial, and Screening Committee for the International
Hydrological Decade, the IHD Hydrology Subcommittee of the National Research
Council, Co-ordinating Committee for Hydrometeorological Networks, the Board
and Committee in connection with the Fraser River Flood Control Agreement, the
Board and Committee in connection with the Okanagan Basin Agreement, Land Use
Working Committee, and Mines Reclamation Act Technical Committee.
At year-end, the Water Investigations Branch staff consisted of 62 permanent
and 44 continuous temporary positions. Among these there were 33 civil engineers,
four geological engineers, one hydrometeorologist, and one biologist. There were 11
vacant positions.
Water Requirements in the Okanagan and South Thompson River Basins
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Assistant Chief Engineer
The 1966 preliminary report on the Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake water-
supply canal and the subsequent report of 1967 dealt with the effects on the discharges of the Shuswap River and South Thompson River under present water-use
A third report, completed in July, 1968, entitled " Present, Future, and Ultimate Water Requirements in the South Thompson Watershed and Their Effects in
Combination with the Shuswap River-Okanagan Lake Water Supply Canal Diversion (Scheme 3)" extended this examination to a time when consumptive use
within the northern watersheds would be many times that presently occurring. The
conclusions were, however, that even with a maximum total consumption in a
drought-year under the ultimate development of about 900,000 acre-feet (including
the canal diversion of 300,000 acre-feet), there remains a residual drought flow of
12Vi million acre-feet in the Thompson River through Kamloops, which exceeds
the future water-supply needs of this region of the Province. The effect on fishery
of such development was not assessed.
Subsequent to the release of the above-mentioned report, the Lumby Chamber
of Commerce and Agriculture and the Lumby District Agriculture Society submitted a petition to the British Columbia Minister of Agriculture for an economic
and feasibility study of the development of storage in Sugar Lake rather than Mabel
Lake which, in turn, was referred to the British Columbia Water Resources Service,
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
The petition also proposed the construction of an irrigation system using Sugar
Lake storage for irrigation under pressure to Cherryville, Mabel Lake, Lumby,
Lavington, Vernon, and Armstrong areas.    In effect, the petition proposed an
GG 49
entirely new system with storage at Sugar Lake and a gravity canal from Sugar Lake
to the Okanagan via Lumby and Lavington, with a feeder-line to Armstrong and
The inclusion of an investigation of the feasibility of a canal directly from
Sugar Lake expanded the original objectives of the Water Resources Service study.
This investigation had been initially limited to a replacement of all or part of Mabel
Lake storage by a reservoir at Sugar Lake, while still retaining the same canal location between Enderby and Okanagan Lake.
It will be noted that with storage at Sugar Lake, a further third location for
the canal should also be considered, namely, a pumped water supply from the fore-
bay of the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Shuswap Falls Plant. The
pumped water flowing westward through Lavington Pass would follow the same
location in this reach as the gravity canal from Sugar Lake.
The following schemes, therefore, have been investigated with respect to the
Shuswap River diversion:—
Canal Location
Storage Reservoirs                               Remarks
Enderby   to    Okanagan    Lake    by
gravity   or   low-lift  pumping   (35
Shuswap   Falls   to   Okanagan  Lake
Watershed   by   high-lift   pumping
(380-foot static head)
Sugar    Lake    to    Okanagan    Lake
Watershed by gravity
Mabel    Lake    and     (or)
Sugar Lake
Sugar Lake storage
Sugar Lake storage
Variations of previous
Scheme 3.
New scheme.
New scheme as proposed by
Lumby brief.
Under the three diversion locations at Enderby, Shuswap Falls, and Sugar Lake,
varying storages have been assumed for Sugar Lake by itself (including the present
storage of 100,000 acre-feet) as well as in combination with storages on Mabel Lake
in an attempt to meet the same objectives as obtained under Scheme 3, namely:—
(1) Provide water each year for the North Okanagan in the amount of approximately 100,000 acre-feet.
(2) In addition to the basic requirements in (1), to supply additional supplementary water to Okanagan Lake in years with below-average inflow up
to 200,000 acre-feet in an extreme drought-year.
(3 )  Provide adequate minimum residual flows in the Shuswap River at Enderby, particularly during the irrigation season (April to September, inclusive), after meeting the above objectives as well as providing for the
future and ultimate water requirements within the Shuswap River Watershed.
(4)  Where possible, to create additional benefits, including flood control and
in the case of the double reservoir schemes with storage limited to 100,000
acre-feet at Mabel Lake, to regulate the water fluctuations there much as
they have occurred in the past for the benefit of recreation.
In the case of the Sugar Lake or Shuswap Falls diversions, the cost of serving
water from the proposed canal to the Lumby area has been compared with the cost
of servicing these areas from local sources.   The latter information originally determined in 1961 in the British Columbia Water Resources Service Report 593, entitled " North Okanagan Irrigation and Domestic Water Supplies, Volumes 1 and
2," has been revised to conform with 1968 prices and interest rates.   Similarly, the
Hilton gravity supply-project costs as well as the North Armstrong project have
been re-estimated to illustrate typical irrigation costs in these regions.
All scheme operations have been examined over a 40-year period (1921—
1940 and 1947 to 1966) and under the projected future and ultimate consumptive
use within the Shuswap River watershed. In addition, the degree of flood control
afforded by the various reservoir combinations as well as their effect upon the
hydro-power generation at Shuswap Falls have been determined.
Low-elevation air photography at approximately 500 feet to 1 inch was obtained during the first week of June, 1969, of the Shuswap River, which will form
a basis for the evaluation of flood-control benefits that might be realized from the
various schemes.
From preliminary figures, it is evident that any diversion from Sugar Lake or
Shuswap Falls would be several times the cost of the equivalent diversion from
Enderby under Scheme 3. Further to this, the servicing of irrigable land within the
Shuswap River Basin can best be done from local water sources at costs no greater,
and in many cases less, than a diversion from the proposed Sugar Lake canal.
Federal-Provincial Okanagan Joint Planning Study
During the latter part of 1968 the Province accepted a proposal by the Federal
Department of Energy, Mines and Resources to undertake a joint planning study
of the Okanagan Basin water resources which the Federal agency wished to carry
out to gain experience in water-resource planning.
In order to expedite this work prior to the signing of an agreement, three committees were formed early in the year. Through this early planning it was possible
to start an inventory of water-quality input to the Okanagan Basin and to expand
the previous work along this line initiated several years ago by the British Columbia
Water Resources Service.
On October 29, 1969, the Canada-British Columbia Okanagan Basin Agreement was signed by the Federal Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources and the
Provincial Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources.
The agreement calls for the expenditure of two million dollars over the next
four years, equally shared between the two governments. It is stated that " the
purpose of this Agreement is to develop a comprehensive framework plan for the
development and management of water resources for the social betterment and
economic growth in the Okanagan Basin."
It goes on to state that " the study will also embrace any areas likely to be
affected by the adoption of the various alternative solutions, including, but not
limited to, the possibility of diverting water from the Shuswap-Thompson Basin."
Discussions are now under way to implement this Agreement.
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., B.C.L.S., Chief of Division
The functions of the Water Supply and Investigations Division can be divided
into two main divisions—(a) irrigation and domestic water-supply projects; and
(b) flood- and erosion-control and drainage projects. In addition, this Division
is responsible for the major field surveys required by Water Investigations Branch
During the past year, investigations were continued or initiated on five water-
supply projects and seven flood- and erosion-control projects. Of the water-supply
projects, construction was continued or initiated on five under the ARDA programme, involving the preparation by this Division of final design, including con-
GG 51
tract documents. The total estimated capital cost of the projects under construction,
with which this Division is involved, is approximately $6,500,000.
Technical staff attached to the Division were responsible for field surveys for
the projects under construction for both the obtaining of engineering data and the
layout of design, and the supervision of construction.
The main projects dealt with in 1969 are summarized below.
Water-supply Projects
Black Mountain Irrigation District
The Black Mountain Irrigation District, which includes the community of
Rutland, is one of the major fruit-growing districts in the Okanagan Valley, consisting of approximately 5,000 acres of irrigable lands.
At the request of the district, an engineering study was carried out on a combined irrigation and domestic-water supply system to replace the existing open
flume and ditch system. A report prepared by the Water Investigations Branch in
1965 oudined a new water-supply system to supply water under pressure to some
4,550 acres of irrigable lands, and 530 farm domestic connections from the proposed Gopher Flats reservoir, supplied from the existing intake on Mission Creek
through 3.5 miles of open canal. The proposed project, with an estimated capital
cost of $3,030,000, was approved for ARDA assistance in 1966.
In view of the continuing development of the area, the district subsequently
expressed concern over possible contamination of its water supply in the 3.5 miles
of open canal, and of possible alga? problems associated with the proposed Gopher
Flats reservoir. An alternative scheme was therefore investigated, proposing the
construction of a large settling-basin at the Mission Creek intake and providing a
closed system from the intake to the distribution system. The revised scheme, which
effected considerable changes in the distribution-system layout and provided for
higher operating pressures and a larger peak carrying capacity, was accepted by the
district and approved by ARDA authorities.
The new system, at the original estimated cost of $3,030,000, will provide
irrigation water to approximately 4,900 acres of farm lands and year-round supply
to over 600 domestic connections in the district. Four years have been estimated
to complete the project, which involves considerable improvements and repairs to
the district's storage and diversion works, in addition to the construction of the
settling-basin and distribution system. The latter consists of over 40 miles of pipeline in sizes from 4- to 48-inch diameter, several pressure-reducing stations, three
booster-pump stations, and a chlorination and flow-recording station. Domestic
and irrigation water will be provided from Mission Creek, with emergency and (or)
stand-by winter domestic supply from two wells in the Rutland area.
The distribution system in the Rutland Flats area, which consists of approximately 14 miles of 4- to 24-inch-diameter pipe and 350 service connections, was
installed in 1968. The Nickel Road Pump Station, completed during the fall of
1968, supplied this area with domestic water through the winter of 1968/69. A
20,000-gallon storage reservoir, the Cornish Road Pumping Station, and two
booster pumps, all constructed in 1969, completed the standby domestic-water
supply works. During the winter of 1969/70, approximately one-half of the district
will be provided with domestic water through the newly completed part of the water
system. This alternate source of domestic supply will permit construction to proceed during the winter of 1969/70 on some of the components of the gravity supply
v     ...,'■■;,*
' __
Intake tower.
GG 53
The settling-basin earthwork, most of the control works, the main supply line
and the two largest pressure-reducing stations were constructed in 1968 and 1969.
The construction of the distribution system in the northeastern part of the
district, which consists of approximately 16 miles of 4- to 20-inch-diameter pipe
and 300 service connections, commenced in 1969. The chlorinator-booster pump
station, another four pressure-reducing stations, and two booster pump stations,
along with the 16 miles of distribution pipe, are scheduled for completion for the
1970 irrigation season.
The construction of the new system is being carried out by district forces and
will require approximately another two years to complete.
Peachland Irrigation District
The Peachland Irrigation District is situated within the Okanagan Valley,
approximately 13 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of Okanagan
Lake. Primarily a fruit-growing area, the district presently supplies irrigation
water to about 500 acres of farm lands. The boundaries of the district enclose a
total area of about 1,480 acres, of which 640 acres are classified as suitable for
The original system was installed in 1906 by the Peachland Townsite Company.
However, as the service and water supply proved to be inadequate, the land-owners
purchased the system in 1920 and subsequently incorporated the area into an improvement district under the British Columbia Water Act.
The Peachland Irrigation District is supplied with irrigation water from Peachland Creek by a gravity system, supplemented by upstream storage released from
Peachland Lake and Wilson Lake reservoirs. Domestic water is supplied from
individual springs and wells, or from cisterns filled from the irrigation system. In
general, the system has reached the end of its useful life, and, in addition, it does
not meet the present requirements of the district for the supply of irrigation and
domestic water.
In July, 1965, the district requested that a study be carried out to consider the
feasibility of replacing the present irrigation system with a combined irrigation and
domestic system. Field surveys were carried out in 1966, and subsequent mapping
of the district and storage reservoirs was completed in 1967. The preliminary report
in 1968 indicated that the capital cost for a new water system would be approximately $648,000. Financial assistance under the ARDA programme was secured
in June, 1969.
A short description of the proposed water system is as follows: The intake on
Peachland Creek consists of an earth-fill dam 17 feet high, creating a headpond with
a capacity of 16 acre-feet. The distribution system consists of approximately 62,000
feet of pipe-line of sizes 4- to 24-inch diameter, two booster stations, five pressure-
reducing stations, and a chlorinator.
The first phase of construction, comprising the clearing of the intake site and
the grading of the main supply-line, commenced in July of 1969. By the end of
1969 excavation of the pond area was completed and the material used to construct
the earth-fill dam.   In addition, a portion of the main supply line was also completed.
The construction of the new system is being undertaken by the district's own
work force and will require approximately two years to complete.
Sion Improvement District
In 1969 the Branch prepared a report for the Sion Improvement District at
Grand Forks on the feasibility of extending service to properties within Lot 700, a
section of land lying between the two areas that form the present district. Service
would be provided to 88 acres of irrigable land and 77 residential connections.
The North Grand Forks and South Grand Forks areas of the Sion Improvement
District are served by independent water systems, installed in 1968. The properties
within Lot 700 could be served by an extension from the North Grand Forks system
which, in addition, could provide an interconnection to the South Grand Forks system of the improvement district. The interconnection would be a desirable feature
for balancing demands between the two existing systems and for allowing over-all
demand to build up over a longer period before additional well capacity is required.
Because of the present small demand on the existing systems, a two-stage development is indicated. Stage One would cover the construction of the distribution
system for Lot 700 and the interconnection to South Grand Forks, and would cost
an estimated $58,900. Stage Two, which may not be required for a number of
years, envisions the construction of a new well and pumphouse when the demand of
the combined system grows beyond the present supply capability. It is estimated
that Stage Two could be implemented in 1980 for about $66,000.
South East Kelowna Irrigation District
The South East Kelowna Irrigation District, incorporated as an improvement
district under the Water Act in 1920, contains an area of about 8,627 acres with
over 3,000 acres under irrigation, mainly in tree fruits. The original works were
installed by private companies during the period 1905 to 1911.
Gravity water is supplied to the district by two irrigation systems of about equal
size in area and one domestic system. The irrigation system to the east is commonly
referred to as the K.L.O. system with an intake on Canyon (K.L.O.) Creek, while
the irrigation system to the south is known as the S.K.L. system with an intake on
Hydraulic Creek. The domestic system, with an intake on Canyon Creek and serving
about 200 farm connections, supplies the central area within the K.L.O. irrigation
system.  The remaining areas are served by springs or cisterns.
Commencing in 1964, and continuing through 1968, partial renewals financed
under the ARDA programme have been carried out under three projects, work
being mainly done on the S.K.L. system, with lesser expenditures on the K.L.O. and
farm domestic systems.
In 1967 engineering assistance was requested for the design of a settling-basin,
which has been included in the estimates for the third ARDA project. The purpose
of the basin was to desilt the water being diverted from Canyon Creek for use in the
K.L.O. system. During freshet periods, Canyon Creek carries a heavy bed load of
sand and silts, causing excessive wear on irrigation equipment. The basin, which
was constructed during the latter part of 1968, accommodates a maximum design
flow of 50 cubic feet per second.
The fourth project under the ARDA programme was initiated in June, 1967,
when the South East Kelowna Irrigation District requested the Water Investigations
Branch to prepare a preliminary report for the proposed rehabilitation of the main
concrete ditch and steel siphon across Canyon Creek and to survey a proposed
storage reservoir for farm domestic supply. This project was expanded in January,
1968, when the district requested engineering studies be carried out on the rehabilitation of the existing Canyon Creek dams, the development of additional storage at
the Turtle Lake reservoir-site, and reconstruction of No. 9 Dam on Hydraulic Creek,
and further replacements in the diversion and distribution system.
Subsequently, it was proposed to establish a new intake on Hydraulic Creek
and to construct a fully pressurized combined irrigation and domestic system.
GG 55
In connection with this latter proposal, field surveys have been carried out
covering the main diversion systems and storage reservoirs, including all existing
reservoirs supplying storage water to the district.
Processing of this information was completed by November, 1969, and it is
expected that a preliminary report with estimates of cost will be completed in early
Westbank Irrigation District
The Westbank Irrigation District, which includes the Townsite of Westbank,
is situated approximately 7 miles south of the City of Kelowna, on the west side of
Okanagan Lake.
During the period 1958 to 1963, the district carried out partial rehabilitation
of the existing distribution system by financing renewals from the Renewal Reserve
Fund. However, in 1964, faced with immediate and costly replacement of the
remaining portions of the distribution system, including major improvements to the
storage works, the district applied for ARDA assistance.
The construction of a concrete intake dam and screening works, and the installation of 7,000 feet of 34-inch-diameter steel pipe-line, represented the first phase
of rehabilitation of the district's works under the ARDA programme. This project
was completed in April, 1966, at a capital cost of $160,000.
The second phase of rehabilitation includes the replacement of the district's
distribution system with about 70,000 feet of pipe-line, to provide approximately
1,500 acres of irrigable land with a combined irrigation and farm domestic supply.
To provide the annual water requirement of 4,200 acre-feet, Lambly (Bear) Lake
and Islaht (Horseshoe) Lake dams will be reconstructed to provide additional
storage. In addition, Dobbin Lake, West Lake, Paynter Lake, and Jack Pine Lake
dams will be improved to provide adequate freeboard and capacity.
The 1,500 acres of irrigable land is composed of approximately 1,000 acres
within the Westbank Irrigation District and 500 acres within the Powers Creek
Water-users Community, which is to be incorporated into the Westbank Irrigation
At the present time, the settlement of Westbank and a number of farms within
the irrigation district are being provided with domestic service from a system installed by the Westbank Waterworks District. This district has now been amalgamated
with the Westbank Irrigation District, and the domestic service will be provided
from the new system.
During 1969, approximately 38,000 feet of pipe-line was installed, including
the main supply-line and distribution system for the area formerly served by the
Powers Creek Water Users' Community and the major portion of the main supply
line for the area within the Westbank Irrigation District.
In addition, the reconstruction of storage works on Lambly (Bear) Lake reservoir, including the diversion from Paddle Creek, was nearly completed.
It is expected that reconstruction of the storage works and replacement of the
distribution system will be completed in 1970.
Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District
The irrigation and domestic system now operated by the Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District was constructed in 1909 by a private company. Incorporated in 1930, the district took over the system in 1949. To provide additional
irrigation supply over the original entitlement of 1 acre-foot per acre from Vernon
Creek, in 1931, the district developed 2,445 acre-feet of storage in Crooked Lake,
and in 1944 reconstructed Swalwell Lake dam to provide an additional 9,585 acre-
feet of storage to supply approximately 1,900 acres of orchard land and about 300
domestic connections.
Following approval of a preliminary report by the Water Rights Branch in
1965, which recommended extensive replacements, the district was granted financial
assistance under the ARDA programme. The renewal plan was amended in February, 1968, to accomodate changes which were found necessary in the course of
final design by the Water Investigations Branch. The revised scheme, which will
include a new intake and screening works, at a site about 1 mile upstream from the
existing intake, will provide irrigation water for 2,113 acres, and domestic water
for 350 connections.
The first phase of construction, comprising the rehabilitation of Swalwell Lake
and Crooked Lake storage dams, was completed in 1967. Additional work included
the improvement of 4,000 feet of diversion channel in Vernon Creek and the building of a new office. By the end of 1968, the distribution system, consisting of 95,000
feet of 4- to 16-inch pipe-line laterals, and about 8,000 feet of 24- to 32-inch main
supply-line, was completed.
In 1969, the remaining 28,000 feet of 30-inch main supply-line was installed.
At the site of the new intake on Vernon Creek, the clearing and most of the pond
excavation have been completed. In addition, a 100-foot-long diversion tunnel,
which carries the main supply-line and provides a sluiceway for draining and flushing
out the intake pond, was also completed. The tunnel was lined with corrugated
metal pipe, pressure-grouted on the outside to seal the pipe, and gunited on the
inside for protection of the pipe. A contract has been let for the construction of the
concrete intake and screening works.
It is anticipated that this project will be completed by mid-1970.
Fort Nelson Water Supply
In connection with a proposed new water-supply system for Fort Nelson, topographic surveys were carried out along a 1-mile reach on the left bank of the Muskwa
River immediately downstream of the Alaska Highway, to ascertain a location for
a settling-basin. The survey was carried out for the Improvement Districts Division,
Water Rights Branch, which is undertaking the engineering study.
The feasibility of using groundwater as a source of supply, as an alternative
to pumping from the Muskwa River, was under investigation by the Groundwater
Division of the Water Investigations Branch, which selected locations and supervised the drilling of six test wells in the same general area as the possible settling-
basin. Horizontal position and geodetic elevations for these wells were established
by the survey party for the Groundwater Division.
Water-storage Reservoir Inventory
A programme of mapping major water-storage reservoirs in the Southern Interior of the Province was initiated in 1964. Areas presently included under this
programme are the Okanagan and Similkameen Basins and a portion of the Kamloops and Nicola areas. The surveys have included both existing storage reservoirs
and potential reservoir-sites. This information has assisted in the administration of
water rights and the carrying out of water-supply augmentation studies in the water-
deficient areas. It has also been the basis of design in the reconstruction of a number
of existing storage dams under the ARDA programme.
GG 57
Reservoir maps are being prepared by photogrammetry and from field surveys.
Subaqueous information is being obtained by the use of echo-sounding equipment.
Of the approximately 118 storage reservoirs presently under licence in the
Okanagan Basin, about 100 reservoirs are in operation. Of the total, adequate information is available on 73, mapping is nearing completion on an additional 8,
surveys and mapping are pending on 15, and the remaining 23 reservoirs are considered to be too small to be included in the programme. Approximately 16 reservoir-sites have either been abandoned or have not been developed.
The mapping programme for the Similkameen Basin includes about 11 existing
and potential reservoir-sites, of which surveys have been completed on the 11 and
mapping on 5.
Flooding, Drainage, and Erosion Projects
Okanagan Flood Control
In 1964, an extensive survey was made of the Okanagan flood-control works
and a report on suggested rehabilitation of the works was prepared. In 1967 this
report was revised with the costs updated and this year's run-off conditions presented
a further opportunity to study the hydraulics of the Okanagan River.
The high 1969 spring run-off, particularly on some of the major side creeks,
raised the flow in the Okanagan River higher than in the previous study-years.
Accordingly, the flow in various sections of the Okanagan River channel was
metered and the water-surface profile was observed with particular emphasis on the
portions of the channel which had been improved. From this field data calculations
were made to test the assumptions of the roughness factor for various bottom and
side-slope conditions as used in the 1967 report.
It was found that except where there were stop-logs in some of the drop-structures (which gave an artificial back-water curve), the water slopes as observed were
very close to the high-water profiles predicted in the 1967 report. Thus, it was
possible to conclude that the original roughness factors were correct and a recalculation of the high-water profile was not required.
Lake Windermere
Following representations made by a number of residents living along the shoreline of Lake Windermere in the vicinity of Athalmer, an investigation was made to
consider the feasibility and cost of constructing a dam at the outlet of Lake Windermere to control the low water level of the lake to facilitate the launching of boats
during the latter part of the summer.
As Lake Windermere has a maximum depth of just over 20 feet and contains
numerous shallow bays, the extensive growth of aquatic weeds also presents a
problem to boating.
A bathometric survey was carried out along the developed sections of the
shoreline of the lake, and the position of the main boathouses was noted on air
photographs. In order to study the backwater effect from Toby Creek on the outflow from Lake Windermere during the spring run-off, four gauging-stations were
established on the Columbia River between the lake outlet and the confluence of
the Columbia River and Toby Creek. Two gaug:ng-stations were established on
Toby Creek as well. The area extending from Lake Windermere to Toby Creek was
controlled for photogrammetric mapping in order to study the effect of flooding of
low-lying lands from the construction of the proposed control dam.
It is expected that a report will be completed early in 1970.
Miscellaneous Surveys
During the summer season, the field survey staff attached to this Division
carried out a number of surveys required by the Projects Division of the Water
Investigations Branch in connection with erosion, flood-control, and drainage studies.
The main surveys carried out in 1968 for this purpose are summarized below.
Cottonwood Island Flooding
In connection with the flooding problem on the Cottonwood Island area at
Prince George, surveys were carried out to gain more information on the nature of
this problem. Eleven cross-sections and a thalweg profile were obtained along a 3-
mile reach of the Nechako River from the new John Hart Highway bridge to the
confluence of the Fraser River. Intensive topography was also obtained in critical
areas of the Cottonwood Island Improvement District.
Fraser River Dyking
In connection with the proposed improvements to be carried out to the Fraser
River dyking system under the Canada-British Columbia Fraser River Flood Control
Agreement, typical channel cross-sections were required covering certain sections
of the Fraser River and tributaries, as follows: 58 cross-sections extending over a
58-mile section of the Fraser River, from Barnston Island to Agassiz, and 10 cross-
sections covering sections of the Vedder Canal, Alouette River, and Nicomen Slough.
Kettle and Granby Rivers
River cross-sections and profiles were taken on the Kettle and Granby Rivers
in connection with flooding problems in the Grand Forks area.
The river sections covered included the Kettle River from the United States'
Boundary to a point 20 miles downstream, and the Granby River from the confluence with the Kettle River to a point 7.Vi miles upstream. Nine gauges previously
established by the Projects Division were tied to Geodetic Survey of Canada Datum.
In addition, discharge measurements were taken on both rivers, and evidence of
flooding and erosion was noted on air photographs.
Pemberton Valley Dyking District
In connection with flooding problems from the Lillooet River and its tributaries
in the vicinity of the community of Pemberton, a mapping programme, including
detailed surveys, was carried out in 1965 and 1966 by this Division, followed by the
preparation of a report in 1967 entitled " Preliminary Report on Pemberton Valley
Dyking District Drainage Proposals."
In 1968, the area of investigation was expanded to include the sections of
Pemberton Valley extending from the outlet of Lillooet Lake to a point about 16
miles upstream from Pemberton, a distance of approximately 36 miles.
In 1969, to carry out a more detailed analysis of the flooding on the Lillooet
River system, including Lillooet Lake, additional hydrometric data were obtained by
field surveys, as follows: Location and monumentation and survey of cross-sections
of a 22-mile section of Lillooet River extending upstream from Lillooet Lake, and of
a 5V!_-m_le section of the Birkenhead River extending upstream from Lillooet Lake;
surface and thalweg profiles on Lillooet River for a 22-mile section extending upstream from Lillooet Lake; a bathometric survey of the upper and lower narrows
downstream of Lillooet Lake;  obtaining water-surface profile for a section of the
GG 59
Lillooet River below Lower Tenasse Lake; establishing a control network between
Lillooet Lake and Lower Tenasse Lake for photogrammetric mapping; and obtaining other miscellaneous information.
Squamish River
Early in 1965 a report entitled "Erosion and Flood Control in the Lower
Squamish Valley " was completed, presenting a preliminary proposal for channel
stabilization, erosion, and flood-control works in the Lower Squamish Valley, from
the Cheakamus River junction south to Howe Sound and including the lower
Mamquam River.
In connection with this project, profiles and cross-sections were obtained along
the left bank of the Squamish River, extending from the confluence of the Mamquam
River to a point 5 miles downstream for proposed dyking of the bank.
H. I. Hunter, Hydrometeorologist, Chief of Division
Snow-course Network
The British Columbia snow-course network continued its expansion in 1969
with the establishment of 24 new and two reactivated courses. With deletion of three
courses, the network will have 205 in active operation this coming sampling season.
New additions included five in the heavy water-producing Fraser and Thompson
headwater regions, one each at the low-level Meteorological Branch weather-reporting stations at Burns Lake and Puntzi Mountain, and one in the Chilcotin region at
Big Creek. The six new Columbia sampling-sites include five in Kootenay National
Park, where the Federal Parks Branch have initiated a special ecological study in a
large burn area, and one on Jordan River drainage close to Revelstoke. Further
north, one course was established on Parsnip and one on the Toad River watersheds.
On Mainland coastal drainage, courses were located on the Squamish, Toba, Hom-
athko, Wannock, and Bella Coola watersheds, and on Vancouver Island three were
located on the Campbell River watershed. Those reactivated were Precipice on the
Bella Coola and Elk River on the Campbell River catchments. Courses deleted
from the network were Shalalth on the Bridge River and June Lake and Memory
Lake on the Puntledge River basins. See following table for details of the 1969
revisions to the snow-course network.
Local snow surveyors representing Provincial, Federal, and private agencies
made 733 snow-course measurements at fixed sampling dates during the 1969 buildup and depletion periods with these measurements published in the February 1st,
March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and June 1st issues of the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin. In addition to this total, 78 special measurements
were made prior to and between the six regular sampling dates. Helicopter, light
ski-equipped aircraft, over-snow machine, skis, and snowshoes were used to reach
the more isolated sampling-sites.
1969 Revisions to the British Columbia Snow-course Network
Precipice (reactivation)
Elk River (reactivation).	
June Lake (deletion)	
Memory Lake (deletion)
Shalalth (deletion)
52° 26'
49° 51'
49° 29'
49° 35'
50° 45'
50° 03'
51° 43'
52° 08'
51° 06'
58° 28'
51° 35'
54° 14'
53° 47'
53° 16'
52° 37'
52° 45'
54° 32'
52° 31'
51° 46'
51° 21'
50° 41'
49° 42'
49° 42'
49° 44'
51° 12'
51° 13'
51° 13'
51° 13'
51° 12'
125° 38'
125° 49'
125° 15'
125° 23'
122° 14'
123° 00'
123° 02'
124° 06'
118° 28'
125° 22'
119° 23'
125° 44'
120° 22'
119° 28'
119° 43'
120° 34'
121° 48'
126° 38'
126° 04'
124° 58'
123° 54'
125° 40'
125° 41'
125° 42'
116° 04'
116° 04'
116° 04'
116° 04'
116° 06'
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
Bella Coola.
Whistler Mountain	
Bums Lake 	
Azure River 	
Penfold Creek .....
Bella Coola	
Bella Coola.
Toba River-	
Wolf River (middle)	
Wolf River (lower)	
Vermilion River No. 1	
Vermilion River No. 2	
Vermilion River No. 3	
Vermilion River No. 4	
Vermilion River No. 5	
Last winter the Division's three technicians visited 37 courses to provide at-site
snow-sampling instruction to local snow surveyors and during the summer completed maintenance work at 56 courses. This field work involved 234 man-days of
technician time.
Snow Pressure-pillow Installations
This past summer three new pressure-pillow installations were made, with one
located at the Mission Creek snow course in the Okanagan, one at the Mission Ridge
snow course in the Bridge River region, and one at Seymour Mountain on Vancouver's North Shore watershed. The latter was established for the University of British
Columbia's Department of Civil Engineering as part of a snow-melt field research
Pillows used by the Division are made of neoprene, 12 feet in diameter, and
are 8 inches thick when filled with a 350-gallon mixture of methyl alcohol and water.
A rubber hose connects the pillow to a manometer on which a float-actuated recorder
is installed. Accumulation of snow on the pillow increases its internal pressure
which, in turn, is transferred to manometer and recorder to provide a continuous
record of snowpack water equivalent. In addition to the pillow, a thermograph is
located at each site which provides a continuous record of temperature. These measurements are expected to prove very useful in the development of forecast procedures for both long- and short-term river flow.
Stream-flow Forecasting
Several volume forecast procedures were revised and updated, including those
for East Kootenay and Upper Columbia stream-gauging stations and for inflows to
Powell and Upper Campbell Lakes.   Because of future inundation of the Wardner
GG 61
and Newgate stations by Libby Reservoir, a forecast procedure was developed for
Kootenay River at the new Fort Steele gauging-station.
The investigation of hydrometeorological factors affecting Fraser River stream-
flow, begun in 1967, was continued. Its objective is to improve both seasonal and
daily run-off forecasting methods for use in water-resource management and flood-
control operations. Studies completed in 1969 include derivation of spring-summer
forecast procedures for several Fraser and Thompson River gauging-stations and
derivation of a method for predicting daily flows during the critical snow-melt period.
The daily-flow technique is still in a preliminary stage, but has been applied to historical flows for the Fraser River near Marguerite and Thompson River, near Spences
Bridge gauging-stations. As a result of these studies, a number of snow courses were
installed in areas of the Fraser basin where basic data had previously been lacking.
Just prior to snow-melt run-off last spring, the general snow pack distribution
was such that heavier-than-usual snow lay on the lower coastal and Vancouver Island
mountain ranges and on watersheds close to the International Boundary, with these
snow packs decreasing with increasing latitude and becoming below to well-below
average in the central and northern regions of the Province. Accordingly, the quantitative volume forecasts published in the April 1st and May 1st bulletins followed
this pattern with above-average snow-melt run-off from the central and northern regions. Stream-flow measurements for the forecast period show that actual volumes
were in general agreement with those predicted.
During the freshet period, daily stream-flow data were received for key stream-
gauging stations from the Water Survey of Canada, Department of Energy, Mines
and Resources. Hydrographs and associated meteorological data were plotted and
assessment made of the expected short-term stream-flow. For the important Fraser
gauging-stations, the annual peak was lower than usual with this attributed to the
below-average basin snow pack and the controlled sequence of melt during the freshet
The six issues of the Snow Bulletin were distributed to a mailing-list of some
800 subscribers. In addition to snow-course measurements, these publications contain a written and graphical description of current watershed snow packs, quantitative run-off volume forecasts, and assessment of potential high water on those rivers
subject to flooding.
International Hydrological Decade Projects
The primary objective of the International Hydrological Decade Study, near
Carrs Landing in the Okanagan Valley, is to investigate the interaction between the
various components of the hydrological cycle to obtain a more quantitative description of them. In excess of three years of daily hydrological and meteorological data
have now been collected, and a complete and up-to-date data listing is being prepared. These records have allowed the development of a fairly comprehensive computer simulation of the fluctuations in the components that describe the daily pattern
of water movement on the watershed. The promising results from the synthesis have
led to the critical evaluation of the watershed data and permitted revision to the data-
collection schedule that should allow further improvement to be made to the analyses.
The ultimate objective of the project is to use the water-balance information,
especially during the hydrologically active snow-melt run-off season, to fulfil broader
regional water management objectives. Considerable efforts have been made to
assess the significance and representativeness of the study in the evaluation of the
regional hydrological regime.   Application of selected parameters for regional fore-
 Snow surveyors en route to Old
Glory snow course, elevation 7,000
Meteorological instrumentation at a summit station on the Beaufort Mountain Range (International Hydrological Decade Project).
Pressure-pillow installation showing pillow and recorder and a Stevenson screen which
houses a hygrothermograph and maximum and minimum thermometers. Mission Creek
snow course, 6,000 feet, on Okanagan Lake watershed.
GG 63
cast of water resources has been greatly assisted by the knowledge of the relationship
of the parameter to its hydrological environment.
The " Mountain Transect " International Hydrological Decade project with the
Federal Meteorological Branch as co-operator, continued in 1969. It was initiated
to gain knowledge relative to the distribution of precipitation and temperature over
mountainous terrain and hopefully to develop horizontal and vertical relationships
which would have regional application.
Meteorological stations have been and are being located along two transects at
varying elevations on both windward and leeward slopes of the Beaufort Range on
Vancouver Island. This past summer three new stations were established, one each
at the low-elevation windward and summit-sites of the second transect and one
at an upwind-site in the Kennedy Lake area. Instrumentation at the two transect
stations include a digital precipitation-recording gauge, Sacramento precipitation-
storage gauge with bubbler system, and a totalizing wind anemometer. At the Kennedy Lake site only a precipitation-storage gauge was installed. A total of nine stations are now operational with eight serviced by helicopter at 20-day intervals
throughout the year. The ninth is serviced by ground access and on a monthly basis.
In 1969, office studies included abstraction by Toronto headquarters Meteorological Branch personnel of twice-daily measurements of precipitation and temperature from three transect and from four permanent low-level meteorological stations
for period November 1, 1967, to October 31, 1968. Abstracted from nearby rawin-
sonde stations were 850 and 700 millibar temperatures, relative humidities, components of wind direction and speed, large-scale vertical motion, stability, and precipi-
table water factors. These data were forwarded to Victoria where they were transferred to IBM data-sheets, key-punched, and used as input in the Division's multiple
regression programme. Because of malfunctioning of precipitation recorders due to
both mechanical and adverse weather conditions, there were large gaps in the transect
station precipitation record. Analyses of results indicate significant relationships for
ground temperatures, especially when using radiosonde temperatures as a predictor,
but not too significant for precipitation. However, more data are required before
these relationships can be properly assessed.
Hydrological Data Compilation and Processing
Our existing hydrometric library, which was compiled manually, is now in the
process of revision to a machine listing of each stream-gauging station's historical
data. This is required to make the data compatible with the new and corrected tape
file of the Water Survey of Canada, the Federal agency responsible for stream-gauging in British Columbia. When completed, an immediate and updated reference
print out hydrometric data library will be available for use by Water Resources Service engineers and technicians. Each year the Division co-ordinates all of the Service's
new stream-gauging station installation requests and assigns priorities. Maps (1 inch
to 10 miles) showing the location of active and inactive all-year stations have been
completed for the Province. The Division is the repository for historical hydrometeorological information, which is updated monthly and used by Water Resources
Service Personnel. In addition, the Division handles all requests for non-published
data. The Deputy Minister and Chief Engineer are responsible for the operation of
Okanagan Lake, and to assist them in making outflow decisions a continuous graphical plot is made of Okanagan Lake levels and outflows.
In 1969, the programmer analyst has written or partially written the following
(1) In order to increase operating speed, all of the Division's programmes
which make use of tape or disk storage were rewritten to utilize these devices in the unformatted mode.
(2) A graphical weighting procedure, using the calcomp plotter, has been
added to the correlation-analyses programme for developing the best
weighting of independent variables. Based on multiple-correlation coefficient values, this procedure plots the relationships between any dependent variable and any three independent variables. This technique was
developed by C. H. Coulson, engineer attached to the Division, and will be
the subject of an original paper to be presented at the 1970 annual meeting
of the Western Snow Conference.
(3) A programme has been written to generate appropriate snow-course data
from the tape file for use in the Snow Bulletin.
(4) A programme has been written to convert Water Survey of Canada's hydrometric tapes to a form compatible for use in the local computer. In
conjunction with this, the programmer is currently working on a revision
of the tape data format to a form more suitable for our use, a retrieval
programme to extract and print any station's historical data, and development of a mini-tape for use in other programmes.
(5) In the process of preparation is the programme to list and print the complete back record of each station's data for permanent storage in the Division's hydrometric file. A programme is also being written to list annual
revisions and updates to this file.
(6) In the test stage are programmes to update and correct the snow-course
measurement tape file and to list and update the Carrs Landing International Hydrological Decade Study basin basic-data tape file.
Special hydrology studies were completed for Upper Campbell Lake on Vancouver Island and for 21-Mile Creek in the Alta Lake region north of Squamish. The
objective of the Upper Campbell study was to improve the reliability and accuracy of
volume run-off forecasts for this important hydro-electric basin and for 21-Mile
Creek to estimate water yield for domestic water supply to the Whistler Mountain
resort area.
The Chief of the Division is a member of several active working committees
which include the National Research Council Sub-committee on Hydrology, Western
Snow Conference Executive Committee, British Columbia Hydrometeorological Networks Co-ordinating Committee, Columbia Basin Forecast Committee, and ARDA
Agro-Climatology Committee. He is also a member of the Programme Committee
for the forthcoming " International Symposium on the Role of Snow and Ice in
As Chairman of the Arrangements Committee for the Seventh Canadian Hydrology Symposium, the Chief of the Division was responsible for planning and implementing a technical meeting on " Instrumentation and Observation Techniques,"
which was held October 8 and 9, 1969, in the Empress Hotel. In attendance were
some 150 Canadian instrument specialists, representing Federal and Provincial
agencies, university science faculties, and private enterprise. Also, preliminary work
has been spent in the planning and preparation for the annual meeting of the " Western Snow Conference," which is to be held this coming April in Victoria.
GG 65
Two technicians attended a " Snow Surveyor's Conference " at Jackson, Wyoming, which was sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture's Soil
Conservation Service and the State of Wyoming.
J. C. Foweraker, Ph.D., P.Eng., Chief of Division
Water-well Inventory
Data on existing water wells and groundwater use continue to be collected by
field reconnaissance and through co-operation with government agencies and well-
drilling contractors.
Additional inventory work was also carried out in the following areas: Chetwynd to Dawson Creek, Quesnel, Edgewater, Metchosin-Sooke area of Vancouver
Island, Saanich Peninsula, and Gulf Islands.
Water-well Maps
A total of 104 new water-well maps was compiled during the year. These new
maps cover areas in the following districts:—
Coast, Range 5
Number of New
.... 5
___- 56
___.    15
Lillooet  .     12
Osoyoos      13
Similkameen       3
During the year, all water-well maps were reindexed.
Observation Wells
Observation-well Network
Data continued to be collected and recorded on existing observation wells. During the year, a number of new observation wells were added to the network. Three
observation wells were completed at Walhachin, three were completed at Chetwynd,
and four at Groundbirch in the Peace River Area. All the above-mentioned observation wells are of small 2-inch diameter, except one 4-inch well constructed at
Chetwynd. New observation wells equipped with well screens and 6-inch casing
have been completed in several areas of the Province. Two wells were installed at
Keremeos and one at Williams Lake in order to monitor the effect on local groundwater levels by pumping from nearby recently completed large-capacity production
wells. The observation well at Williams Lake replaces an earlier small-diameter well
installed in 1967.
Two additional observation wells were added to the International Hydrological
Decade Study Basin near Carrs Landing on the Okanagan watershed. Both of these
wells were drilled into bedrock. One well was completed using small-diameter plastic casing and the second well completed with 6-inch-diameter casing. The larger
diameter well is equipped with water-level recording equipment.
Power tongs being used on night-
shift to remove 800 feet of locked drill
rod    (exploratory   hole    near   Arm-
W     strong).
Null balance equipment for recording groundwater temperatures in wells.
The Observation Well Network at the year-end consisted of the following: —
Coastal watersheds     3
Fraser watershed and Lower Mainland  45
Okanagan and Similkameen watersheds  31
Columbia watershed      2
Northern watershed      8
Total  89
Three observation wells to be completed at Athalmer in December are not included in this year's network total.
Two observation wells were destroyed by vandals. One was located southwest
of Westwold and the other, a high-altitude observation, was located on Morfee
Mountain, north of Prince George.
Equipment for Recording Data in Observation Wells
Groundwater-level recording equipment using compressed air has been further
modified by the staff of the Groundwater Division. This equipment continues to be
used on four observation wells, and satisfactory results have been obtained at temperatures down to 40 degrees below zero.
Water-level recording equipment is at present installed on seven wells. This
year, recording equipment was removed from three observation wells where adequate
records have been obtained over a number of years. Monthly readings will, however, continue to be taken on these wells. This recording equipment has been installed on three other observation wells where more detailed records are required.
Work has been completed on a new publication entitled " Groundwater and
Geology of the South Prince George Area, Central British Columbia." This work
was carried out under ARDA Research Project 10014. The main objectives of the
investigation were:—
(1) To discover and outline high-yield aquifers in the arable but water-short
Pineview and Beaverley Districts in the southern part of the Prince George
area that would be suitable for agricultural development.
(2) To determine the costs of installations of water-wells in these same two
(3) Clarification of the Tertiary stratigraphy of the Upper Fraser River Drainage Basin.
A consulting geologist was engaged to finalize the report.
Water-well Drilling and Testing Operations
Okanagan Falls Irrigation District
Limited assistance, mainly in pumping tests and analyses of results, has been
given to the Okanagan Falls Irrigation District during their large-capacity well-drilling and well-construction programme being carried out under the current ARDA
rehabilitation programme. The contractor experienced considerable difficulties in the
construction of his first large-scale well, which was designed with a long sand-packed
louvered screen. The contractor drilled a second well near the first site. This second
well was tested for 24 hours at over 1,200 gallons per minute; data from this test are
currently being analysed.
Fraser Valley Trout Hatchery near A bbotsford
Considerable technical assistance and guidance have been given to the Department of Public Works on a groundwater-development programme to supply the
Fraser Valley Trout Hatchery project near Abbotsford. Two large-capacity test-
production wells and a series of small-diameter test-holes have been completed this
year at the site. The first large-capacity 16-inch-diameter well encountered varied
but predominantly fine materials and the section from 88 to 150 feet was sand-
packed, using 10-inch pipe size, 30-slot stainless-steel screen. Blank sections were
placed opposite the finest materials at 118 to 125 feet and 135 to 140 feet. A 72-
hour pumping test was then run at a constant rate of 1,290 U.S. gallons per minute.
The second large-capacity 16-inch-diameter test-production well encountered
very variable but coarser materials. A 12-inch-diameter, 100-foot-long pipe size,
specially designed multiple-slot stainless-steel well screen with blank section, was set
between 116 and 216 feet. A 72-hour pumping test was then run at a constant rate
of 2,000 U.S. gallons per minute. The results of this test are currently under study.
Both of these large-capacity wells performed very well under test, and together
with a well constructed earlier at the site, give a combined capacity of 8Vi cubic feet
per second.
Fort Nelson Improvement District
The Groundwater Division gave technical assistance and guidance to the Improvement Districts' Division of the Water Rights Branch in the search for, and
development of, a groundwater supply for the Fort Nelson Improvement District.
Six 6-inch shallow-cased test-holes were drilled in silts and gravels by cable-tool
method near the Muskwa River. Two of these holes were completed with short
screens as observation wells, and a third hole was completed as a test well. A 6-
inch-diameter, 8-foot-long well screen was installed between 36 and 44 feet. A successful pumping test was run on this well for 24 hours at a constant rate of 225 U.S.
gallons per minute. The iron content of the water was high, however there was a
sharp drop in the iron content of a sample of this water left standing in air for
48 hours.
Test-holes and Observation Wells Completed by
the Rotary Drilling Method
This year, the Groundwater Division has carried out a number of rotary drilling
programmes to obtain information on subsurface geology and groundwater potential
and movement. These programmes are outlined below.
Village of Chetwynd
Six exploratory shallow test-holes were drilled at Chetwynd in shallow alluvial
deposits of Windrem Creek. Observation wells were constructed in three of the
holes, including a 4-inch-diameter low-capacity test well.
Although the test-hole results showed the groundwater potential to be limited,
the village is proceeding with plans for the construction of a 6-inch-diameter test
well early in 1970. Guidance and technical assistance will be provided by the
Groundwater Division.
Groundbirch ARDA
Four test-holes, one reaching a depth of 680 feet, were drilled near Groundbirch
in the Peace River area. The test drilling provided some new information on waterbearing sand and gravel deposits and on subsurface geology.
Observation wells were completed in all four test-holes in order to record
groundwater fluctuations and movement in various zones within a buried channel
located in this area.
Fort Nelson Improvement District
Two test-holes were drilled near the Muskwa River by rotary method to obtain
information on groundwater potential and geology. One test-hole penetrated 450
feet of unconsolidated deposits in the Muskwa Valley bottom before encountering
bedrock. This rotary test-hole programme was part of a programme of groundwater
exploration and development being carried out with the Improvement Districts
Division, Water Rights Branch, for the Fort Nelson Improvement District. The
results of this work are currently being studied.
Walhachin Water Works District
In response to a request from the Improvement Districts Division, Water Rights
Branch, a programme of groundwater exploration was undertaken by the Groundwater Division for the Walhachin Water Works District. Five test-holes were
drilled, and three of the holes were subsequently used for the construction of observation wells. The results of this test drilling programme are currently under study.
Kootenay River Flats near Creston
Between 50 and 100 observation wells are being constructed during the 1969/
70 winter on the Kootenay River Flats near Creston. Data on groundwater levels
and on seepage in this area are being collected so that quantitative relationships
between changes in level of Kootenay River in this area and the groundwater table
and seepage can be established. Recorders are to be installed in some of the
observation wells.
A thalmer
A number of observation wells are currently being installed in Athalmer, near
Invermere. Data on groundwater-level fluctuations obtained from these wells will
be studied in relation to changes in the level of Lake Windermere. Recorders are
to be installed on two wells.
North Okanagan Valley Deep Rotary Test-hole Drilling
Three deep rotary test-holes were drilled through unconsolidated valley-floor
deposits on the west side of the north end of the Okanagan Valley, south of Armstrong. The holes were drilled to obtain information on subsurface geology and on
location of aquifers. Over 1,000 feet of unconsolidated deposits, including 800 feet
of sand, were encountered in one hole. Complex drilling-fluid mixtures, special
drilling techniques, and equipment were used to overcome the many difficulties
associated with drilling deep, uncased holes in great thickness of sand. In one hole
the contractor had 800 feet of drill rod stuck down the hole; however, this was
finally pulled out using special equipment.
An experimental hole was also drilled, using a special foaming agent in place
of conventional drilling fluids. Further work will be required to complete the subsurface assessment of this area.
Observation-well Construction Completed under the Okanagan
Valley Water Quality Data Collection Programme
Thirty-four observation wells not included in the regular network were completed by the Groundwater Division in four selected " study areas " in the Okanagan
Valley. These areas are located near Osoyoos, Summerland, and in the Glenmore
Valley. This project was included as part of the 1969 programme of field work
recommended by an interim Federal-Provincial sub-committee, responsible for
studying land and agricultural aspects of the above-mentioned programme. The
observation wells will be used for the dual purpose of collecting samples of groundwater for water-quality analyses, and for recording data on groundwater-level fluctuations and movement.
Preliminary Field Investigations of Groundwater Potential
and Geology
This year, Groundwater Division personnel carried out preliminary field investigation in many areas of the Province on one or more of the following problems:—
(a) Groundwater potential.
(b) Geology.
(c) Feasibility of test drilling.
The investigations were carried out in response to requests for technical assistance from a number of agencies and from the Department. A list of the preliminary
investigations is as follows:—
Fraser Valley Trout Hatchery Site near Abbotsford.
Village of Chetwynd.
Groundbirch Area in the Peace River Block.
Walhachin Water Works District.
Kootenay River Flats, near Creston.
Athalmer, near Invermere.
Fort Nelson Improvement District.
Larkin Improvement District.
83-Mile Creek, near Green Lake.
Edgewater-Vermilion Irrigation District.
Quadra Island—Quathiaski Cove and Heriot Bay.
Cormorant Island—Alert Bay.
Keremeos Irrigation District.
Osoyoos " Study Areas."
Summerland " Study Area."
Glenmore Valley " Study Area."
Shutdeworth Creek Improvement District.
Okanagan Valley Water Quality Data Collection Programme
An interim Federal-Provincial sub-committee was formed to study land and
agricultural aspects as they may affect water quality in the Okanagan Lakes system,
and to make recommendations for a feasible programme for the 1969 field season.
The Chief of the Groundwater Division was appointed chairman of this sub-committee. Two meetings were held prior to the commencement of the field season,
and a programme of work which could be carried out with the limited funds and
staff available was agreed upon.
Groundwater Division personnel are engaged in the following projects associated with the field programme recommended by this sub-committee:—
(1) Water-well inventory survey in the Okanagan Valley.
(2) Collection of groundwater samples, four times a year, from approximately
75 domestic-water wells for nutrient analyses and bacteriological analyses.
GG 71
(3) Collection of groundwater samples from approximately 20 water wells for
full chemical analyses.
(4) Compilation of existing geological information on the Okanagan Valley.
(5) Assistance in the selection of four "study areas" for detailed investigations.
(6) Drilling and construction of 35 observation wells within the above-mentioned four " study areas " for groundwater analyses of nutrients, etc., and
recording of groundwater-level fluctuations.
(7) Collection of groundwater samples, four times a year, from 15 tile drains
located in two of the " study areas " for nutrient analyses.
(8) Collection of surface-water samples and observation of flow in ditches
and creeks within the selected " study areas."
In addition to the activities of the Division outlined above, it should be noted
that there has been an increase in 1969 in the number of inquiries concerning all
matters dealing with groundwater.
During the field season, two trainees from Afghanistan and one from the
U.S.S.R. spent a part of their Canadian tour with Groundwater Division personnel
in British Columbia. The Canadian tours were arranged through the Canadian
Development Agency and the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources.
The trainees were shown various aspects of the Division's work, including
current field operations in British Columbia.
J. D. Watts, P.Eng., Chief of Division
This Division of the Water Investigations Branch has two main functions—
(1) the development of plans for water management on a regional or watershed
basis, with the immediate aim of improving surface-water supplies in areas where
readily available supplies have been exhausted;  and (2) the inventory of the undeveloped water-power potential of the Province.
The following work has been done during the past year:—
Water-management Studies
Nicola-Kamloops Area
Under the agreement between the Civil Engineering Department of the University of British Columbia and the British Columbia Water Resources Service,
work has continued by faculty members, with student and graduate assistance, on
the water-resources planning study of the Nicola-Kamloops area, encompassing
some 3,800 square miles.
A report entitled " Water Resources of the Nicola-Kamloops Area, Report
No. 1—Preliminary Appraisal," published by the university during the year, outlines the proposed planning process and gives a preliminary appraisal of the water
resources and related industries of the area.
A study was made of flood irrigation in the Nicola area to assess the water
requirements of crops grown under this irrigation system.
A related study, using a test area elsewhere, is attempting to develop a hydro-
logic technique to determine the areal distribution of run-off.
Work is in progress on a soil survey for the Canada Land Inventory which can
be expected to lead to a fuller understanding of the land-use capability of the area
and an assessment of the potential water demand for agriculture.
Shuswap River Diversion
As a supplement to the main proposal to divert Shuswap River waters to the
Okanagan via Enderby, study was made of the economic feasibility of two main
(a) Gravity-flow diversion by canal from Sugar Lake to Okanagan Lake and
North Okanagan irrigable areas via Lumby:
(b) A pumping scheme diverting water at Shuswap Falls and feeding into a
canal system flowing via Lumby to Okanagan Lake and North Okanagan
irrigable areas.
Each of the alternatives and their variations have been demonstrated to be
much more expensive to construct and maintain than the initial diversion proposal
via Enderby.
In addition to the above, an estimate and report was made on the cost of
developing three local irrigation projects, namely:—
(a) North Armstrong:
(b) Lumby:
(c) Hilton.
Each of these areas has different characteristic problems and each was investigated
in relation to the various major diversion schemes.
It was concluded that the cost of providing a basic irrigation water supply
would be in the general order of $100 per acre served per year. Development of
an irrigation system in either the Hilton or Lumby area was considered to be uneconomic at this time. Development of the North Armstrong project was considered to be marginal and perhaps economic if high-yield crops can be produced
in the warmer climate.
Creston Flats Area
When Libby Dam, now under construction on the Kootenai River in the
United States, goes into operation, considerable changes will take place in the flow
pattern of the river downstream in British Columbia. The flow will be more evenly
distributed throughout the year, removing the threat of spring floods to the dyked
areas at Creston. However, the change in flow pattern and possible changes in
permitted Kootenay Lake storage-levels to allow greater power production at Lower
Kootenay River hydro-electric plants have made necessary a programme of observation of the dyked areas to determine the damage, if any, to lands under cultivation.
A programme of probable five-year duration has been commenced. Large-scale
air photography, including infra-red colour photography, has been obtained as a
base for field observation of crop productivity and delineation of areas damaged by
an excessively high local or general water table. A number of groups of observation
wells have been installed to provide data of water-table elevations. Collection and
interpretation of pumping records of the eight pumping stations within dyked areas
will commence next year. It is anticipated that this continuing programme will
indicate the behaviour of the water table under varying conditions.
1. In response to a request from the Atlin District Board of Trade, a preliminary study was made of the feasibility and probable cost of a water supply and
sewerage system for the settlement of Atlin, a small community without municipal
organization, which serves as the administrative centre of a vast undeveloped region
in northwestern British Columbia. The study concludes that the cost of such services in this northern region, with severe climatic conditions, is extremely high.
2. Preliminary benefit-cost studies were prepared jointly with personnel from
the Projects Division for three dyking districts in the Lower Fraser Valley, in order
to assess the feasibility of amalgamation of West Langley and Derby Dyking Districts, and East Langley and Glen Valley Dyking Districts. Derby and East Langley
Dyking Districts have no flood-protection works constructed at the present time.
It was determined that preliminary design should proceed for West Langley and
Derby Dyking Districts on an amalgamated basis, and for East Langley Dyking
District as a separate project.
Hydro-power Investigations
Liard River
Preliminary design studies of possible developments at three sites on the Liard
River were continued. These sites are Site A, 30 miles upstream from the mouth of
the Fort Nelson River; Site E, 16 miles downstream from Lower Crossing; and Site
G, near Mile 552 on the Alaska Highway. It is anticipated that a report on these
developments will be available early in 1970.
Geological advice and assistance were again provided by Dolmage, Campbell
and Associates. A summer field crew obtained additional geologic mapping at Site
E, as well as preliminary mapping at a potential spillway for the Site G development
in the Hillgren Lakes area. A ground search for sufficient, suitable construction
materials in the area of Site G was also carried out by this crew.
Further subsurface information was obtained this year from two seismic-
refraction surveys undertaken by Canjay Exploration Ltd., under the general supervision of Dolmage, Campbell and Associates. The first survey programme in April
explored the river channel, upstream and downstream from the axis of the proposed
dam at Site G, for possible sources of construction material. The size of the deposits
defined by this survey proved insufficient to provide the total requirements for the
proposed dam. Seismic refraction was also undertaken near previous overburden
drill-hole sites to ascertain whether this method could distinguish effectively between
bedrock, compacted till, and the unconsolidated gravel, sand, and silt deposits.
Good correlation between the overburden drill-hole logs and the seismic profile permitted the authorization of a second programme.
In August, a second seismic programme was undertaken by Canjay Exploration
Ltd. involving work at Sites G, E, and X. At Site G, the survey was designed to
determine the bedrock profile across the Leguil Creek seepage path, and to explore
and define possible construction-material sources adjacent to Mile 548 on the Alaska
Highway. At Site E, some 12 miles downstream from Lower Crossing, determination of the bedrock profile on the left abutment, and a construction-materials search
were carried out. At Site X, approximately 10 miles downstream from the junction
of the Liard and Fort Nelson Rivers, the seismic survey sought to establish the
bedrock profile along the axis of a possible fourth dam and power development.
Sufficient quantities of locally available materials have now been located to
ensure that an earth-fill dam can be constructed at Site A. However, further exploration will be necessary in the vicinity of Sites E and G to identify additional quantities of gravel. Preliminary results from the seismic survey at Site X indicate that
considerable depths of overburden cover the bedrock in the river channel and on
the left bank.
A final report from the consultants on the results of the August programme is
expected shortly.
New topographic mapping of the Liard River and its tributaries, the Fort
Nelson and Kechika Rivers, was completed by the Surveys and Mapping Branch of
the Lands Service for use in the power studies. Further new mapping of the upper
Liard River and the Dease River is in progress.
Yukon River
Office studies to evaluate alternative proposals for utilization of the water
resources of the Upper Yukon River system for hydro-electric power development
were continued. The catchment area involved lies partly in British Columbia and
partly in Yukon Territory. Possible diversion schemes include one in which the
power-generation facilities would be located in the Taiya Valley, close to Skagway,
Alaska, and another in which those facilities would be located in the Taku Valley in
British Columbia. The diversion structures for both major schemes would be located
in Yukon Territory.
Topographic mapping of the Taku Valley and of possible tunnel routes from
Atlin Lake to the Taku Valley is in progress by the Surveys and Mapping Branch of
the Lands Service.
Other Activities
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Fraser River Joint Programme
Committee, established by the agreement between Canada and the Province of
British Columbia to undertake a programme of studies and works for flood
control in the Fraser Valley. The Committee has been very active throughout the
year, having held 12 meetings of the full committee in addition to sub-committee and
other related meetings. Ten applications to participate in the programme have been
received from municipalities. These are being processed through the phases of soils
investigation, detailed design and estimates, and preparation of contract documents.
The design of the flood-control works for the District of Kent has been completed
and construction is expected to commence early in 1970.
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Upper Yukon Power Market
Study Committee, comprised of representatives from the Governments of Canada,
the United States, and British Columbia. This committee has also been active during
the year and is expected to report in mid-1970 to the governments represented on
the potential markets for hydro-electric power which may be produced from the
waters of the Upper Yukon River catchment.
The Chief of the Division is a member of the Rural Development Planning
Committee and has participated in its meetings during the year.
J. D. C. Fuller, P.Eng., Chief of Division
J. V. Eby, P.Eng., Construction Engineer
The ARDA Projects Division was formed in 1963 for the purpose of investigating water-project proposals and preparing submissions under the Federal-Provincial
Agricultural and Rural Development Act (ARDA) assistance programme. The
Division is also responsible for the design and construction supervision of certain
approved projects. The British Columbia Department of Agriculture is charged with
the over-all administration of the ARDA programme. Under an interdepartmental
co-operative arrangement, the British Columbia Water Resources Service is respon-
GG 75
sible for implementation of ARDA water projects, which responsibility has been
delegated to the Water Investigations Branch.
Since the inception of the ARDA programme, many of the requests for assistance have been approved and successfully completed, while others are in various
stages of construction. In some instances, especially where construction has been
carried out by contract, supplementary assistance has been requested to cover rising
costs and complete the projects.
Since the start of the ARDA water-projects programme in British Columbia in
1963, a total expenditure of $26 million has been authorized and $20.5 million actually expended on ARDA water projects.
Actual and potential water projects under the ARDA programme total 92 in
number, and, of these, 56 have requested or received assistance, 31 are under study
prior to a possible proposal submission, and 5 are in abeyance for various reasons.
Provincial and Federal authorities have approved 56 proposals to date, and 31
of these have been completed, leaving 25 presently under construction.
Of the projects under construction, six were brought into operation during the
year and may be considered completed in the construction sense. The 25 incomplete
projects are mostly multi-year projects, some of which may not be completed until
1971 or later.
Some of the 31 completed projects have still to submit final claims for reimbursement in respect of such items as contractors' holdbacks and legal or survey
costs pending.
Project descriptions will be given here only for those of the 92 projects where
significant changes have taken place during 1969. A description of the remaining
projects may be found in the reports covering the period 1964 to 1968.
Engineering services for projects are being provided by the Water Investigations
Branch and by the Water Rights Branch, as well as by consulting engineers.
Projects Essentially Completed during the Year
1. Sion Improvement District Rehabilitation—-ARDA Project 29010.—This
project has been carried out under contract, with design by consulting engineers.
The works comprise three separate well systems, each with a large irrigation pump
and small domestic water pump. Operation during 1969 revealed only a very small
irrigation demand for that year.
2. Lakeview Irrigation District Diversion Works—ARDA Project 29040.—
This project involves the supply of irrigation water and domestic water for farm use
and includes the replacement of a diversion dam on Lambly Creek, main flume, and
canal with more permanent works. Design was carried out by consulting engineers
with construction by contract.
3. West Bench Irrigation District-—ARDA Project 29038.—The Prairie Farm
Rehabilitation Administration, Canada Department of Agriculture, has been responsible for the design of the project, which includes a new intake into deep water in
Okanagan Lake, and construction of a concrete storage reservoir.
4. Boundary Line Irrigation District—ARDA Projects 10035, 29024, and
29024(S).—The original irrigation project was extended to include the provision of
domestic water. Later, under Project 29024(S), an increase was made in pumping
capacity.   Construction was carried out by district forces.
5. Wood Lake Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Projects 29008 and
29008(S).—This project comprises a gravity-fed distribution system for irrigation
and domestic water, with intake and chlorination facilities. Construction was by
district forces and included some work on storage dams.
6. Surrey Drainage Project at Halls Prairie Road—ARDA Project 29019.—
Provides drainage and flood protection in the Surrey Dyking District within the
Municipality of Surrey.   Design was carried out by consulting engineers.
Projects under Construction or Study
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Projects 10010 and 29041.—The basic purpose of these projects is to rehabilitate the
existing irrigation supply system of the Southern Okanagan Lands project, a Pro-
vincially operated system, and in addition provide a supply of domestic water for
rural users.   New works are being constructed over a period of about six years.
Since the start of construction in 1964, Systems 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with a
combined installed horsepower of 2,575, have been completed. Pipe-distribution
works have also been installed for all of these systems. During 1969, construction
included completion of pump systems 4 and 6 with a combined horsepower of 650,
and a start of work on number 1 system, which will have an installed capacity of 175
horsepower. Work on the number 4 system included installation at the pumphouse
of a rotating screen, which operated successfully during the irrigation season.
Other construction included further flume rebuilding and a start on rehabilitation of the 3,500-foot-long 78-inch-diameter main Oliver siphon, involving part
relining and part pipe replacement.
Design work included the number 1 distribution system and pumphouse,
scheduled for operation in 1970. Proposals were finalized, in conjunction with
consultants, for the replacement of flumes 1 to 5. Design of the Oliver siphon was
also completed during the year.
Construction is being carried out mostly by district labour, with some work by
contract. Certain electrical and mechanical components of the project have been
designed by consulting engineers.
8. Vernon Irrigation District—ARDA Project 29004.—Construction of the
new pressurized irrigation and rural domestic-water system for the Vernon Irrigation
District continued throughout 1969, with expected completion date in the spring of
1971. Replacement of the old system of canals and pipe-lines, serving approximately 10,000 acres of irrigated land, began in July, 1966, and is now about 70 per
cent complete. The completed project will involve over 100 miles of new pipe-lines,
up to 48 inches in diameter, nine pumping stations totalling 1,720 horsepower, three
chlorinating stations, several pressure-reducing stations, and the reconstruction of
new intakes and storage facilities.
Work completed during 1969 included the following:—
(a) Installation by district crews of 25,000 feet of 30-inch pipe to complete
the 16-mile section of main supply-line from the temporary intake structure on the Grey Canal to the Goose Lake balancing-reservoir.
(b) Installation by district crews of approximately 80,000 feet of distribution
pipe-line in sizes 4-inch to 20-inch.
(c) Construction by contract of chlorinating stations at Goose Lake, King
Edward intake, and the main line temporary intake.
(d) Construction by contract of the main line pressure-reducing station 2 and
the Reimer Road valve chamber.
9. Winfield and Okanagan Centre Irrigation District—ARDA Project 29017.—
This project is more fully described under the Water Supply and Investigations Division section of the Report. An open gravity system is being replaced by a pressurized system utilizing available head at the existing source. The project is designed
for the needs of modern sprinkler irrigation methods and will also supply farm
domestic water.   Construction, started in 1967, is by district forces and continued
during 1969.
10. Black Mountain Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project 29018.
—This project is also more fully described under the activities of the Water Supply
and Investigations Division. The existing open gravity system, taking water from
Mission Creek, is being replaced with a closed-pipe system, supplying sprinkler pressure for irrigation and a water supply for rural domestic purposes. Work continued
during 1969, and is being carried out by district forces.
11. Glenmore Irrigation District—ARDA Projects 29020 and 29020(S).—
This project replaces an existing mainly open gravity distribution system with a
pressurized closed-pipe system fed from a balancing reservoir, constructed in 1964
under ARDA Projects 10003, 29005, and 29005(S). Available pressure is augmented by booster pumping at several locations to provide adequate sprinkling
pressure for irrigation as well as a domestic supply for predominantly farm use.
Construction is being carried out mostly by district forces, and during 1969 comprised mostly pumphouse construction and installation of remaining small pipe-lines.
Consulting engineers have provided assistance with electrical work.
12. Keremeos Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project 29027.—This
project replaces the original open gravity system, drawing water from the Ashnola
River and Keremeos Creek by pumping from two batteries of wells into the east and
west systems to provide irrigation and farm domestic water. Construction of both
systems is mosdy complete except for some pipelaying at the west system. During
1969 major work comprised completion of the west pumphouse and district office
construction under contracts, and pipe installation at the west system by district
forces.   Consulting engineers have assisted with electrical design.
13. South East Kelowna Irrigation District Second and Third Projects—ARDA
Projects 29003 and 29031.—This scheme is more fully described under the Water
Supply and Investigations Division section of this report. The project, being completed in stages, provides for the replacement of a predominantly open irrigation
works with a pressurized gravity-fed system. Work is being carried out by district
forces. Studies are under way regarding rehabilitation of the remaining works comprising storage facilities and main canals.
14. Okanagan Falls Irrigation District—ARDA Project 29035.—This project
involves replacement of the existing unsatisfactory water supply from the south end
of Skaha Lake by a new groundwater pumping system, together with replacement
of several pipe-lines and construction of a 40,000-gallon reservoir. The district is
presently supplying domestic water to about 200 connections in the townsite of
Okanagan Falls.
An 8-inch test well was drilled in 1968, under the guidance of the Groundwater
Division, which will be used as a production well in the completed system. A second
large-production well was drilled in 1969. The pumping system design will be
completed after final testing of this well.
Other work carried out by the district in 1969 included replacement of approximately 2,300 feet of steel pipe-line with 8-inch diameter asbestos-cement pipe.
15. Ellison Irrigation District Rehabilitation—ARDA Project 29036.—The
old gravity system is being replaced by more permanent works suitable for pressure
irrigation. Design is being carried out by consulting engineers, and construction by
district forces.
16. Westbank Irrigation District Second Project—ARDA Project 29042.—
This project is more fully described under the Water Supply and Investigations Division section of this report.  The first project comprised replacement of intake works
and main conduit. The second project comprises replacement of the distribution
system and reconstruction of storage dams. The system supplies both irrigation and
domestic water for farm use. Construction by district forces commenced on the
second phase in the fall of 1968.
17. Groundwater Research Project at Prince George—ARDA Project 10014.
—A report on this project is under preparation, as discussed under the Groundwater
Division section of this report.
18. Peachland Irrigation District—ARDA Project 29047.—This project provides for replacing the old open system with a pressurized pipe-line supplying both
irrigation and domestic water. A more detailed description of this project is given
in the Water Supply and Investigations Division section of this report.
19. Kamloops Indian Reserve 1 Irrigation—ARDA Project 29005.—This
project comprises an intake on the North Thompson River, with pumphouse and
distribution system to provide irrigation to some 780 acres of land within the reserve.
The Indian Affairs Branch of the Federal Government is responsible for the design
and construction of the project by direct labour.
20. Naramata Irrigation District Supplementary Water Supply—ARDA Project 29045.—This project comprises a pumphouse with 600 installed horsepower
on Okanagan Lake, forcemain, and concrete balancing-reservoir. These works are
connected to the existing gravity main and distribution system to provide a supplementary water supply during dry years, such as 1967, when insufficient run-off is
available. Construction, part by district forces and part by contract, started in the
fall of 1969.    Consulting engineers are responsible for design of the pumphouse.
21. Grandview Waterworks District Second Project—ARDA Project 29044.
—The second stage of this system, providing domestic water for farm use, was
started during the year. Engineering services are being provided by the Water
Rights Branch.
22. Black Mountain Irrigation District Additional Storage—ARDA Project
29050.—This project will increase district storage from 7,800 to 9,500 acre-feet
for irrigation use by construction of a dam at Fish Hawk Lake. Construction
during 1969 was confined to some clearing of timber. A consulting engineer is
providing engineering services.
23. Slocan Park Improvement District Water Supply System—ARDA Project
29043.—A pressurized irrigation and domestic water system will supply the small
community by a combined gravity and pumped supply from Wolverton Creek and
the Slocan River. The Water Rights Branch is responsible for the design of this
project, construction of which will commence in 1970.
24. Glenmore Irrigation District—Bulman Creek Storage Dam—ARDA Project 29049.—The Glenmore and Ellison Irrigation Districts are jointly constructing
a dam on Bulman Creek which will increase their combined storage for irrigation
purposes from 5,300 to 6,300 acre-feet. The homogeneous fill dam, to be constructed during 1970, will have a maximum height of 45 feet, crest length 1.390
feet, and volume 100,000 cubic yards. Construction during 1969 was confined to
land clearing.   Design is by consulting engineers.
Other Activities
The Division has been involved in the construction aspects of the Federal-
Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Programme. Under the Joint Agreement,
the Province is responsible for constructing approved projects.
During 1969, meetings were held with consulting engineers appointed for the
engineering design of flood-protection works within the Districts of Kent, Pitt
Meadows, and Richmond.    Efforts were largely concerned with the establishment
of construction contract procedures and standard contract documents.
P. M. Brady, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The Projects Division has as its main function the investigation, review, and
implementation of major flood-control, land-reclamation, erosion-control, and
drainage projects. This includes studies and designs for projects to be constructed
under the 1968 Fraser River Flood Control Agreement as well as the preparation
and review of proposals for submission under the Canada-British Columbia Joint
Development Act and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act.
In addition, the Division designs and supervises construction of water-damage
prevention projects either directly or under agreements with local authorities or
Lower Fraser Valley
The signing in May, 1968, of the Federal-Provincial Agreement for the implementation over a 10-year period of a major flood-control programme for the Lower
Fraser Valley has resulted in an appreciable involvement of Projects Division staff
both in studies and design.
A regional flood study covering the Lower Fraser Valley from Agassiz to the
sea was completed this year and is being used in establishing design criteria for
internal drainage behind the dyking systems. This involved an analysis of all
available run-off data for the Lower Mainland and also the relation between run-off
and physical characteristics of the watersheds. The study was programmed through
the IBM 360 computer.
The computer was also utilized in a backwater study for the same stretch of
river, providing one method of establishing a water profile for dyke-design purposes.
In co-operation with Federal Government engineers, a reassessment and redistribution of economic benefits from flood-control works in the Lower Fraser
Valley were completed and used in the establishment of a project-classification
The Fraser River Joint Programme Committee, of which the Chief of the
Division is the current Vice-chairman, was formed under the terms of the Agreement
to plan and co-ordinate studies necessary for the assessment and implementation
of the programme projects. Staff of the Projects Division is involved in work
groups that provide technical assistance to the committee's Programme Director,
and in studies and designs assigned to the Province by the committee.
Work-group functions include the assessment of dyke standards and design,
and the river-erosion studies necessary to establish the scope and estimated costs
of bank-protection works. Detailed bank-protection studies have been completed
for the Municipalities of Kent and Pitt Meadows and have been initiated in several
other areas. A general study to reassess and update the bank-protection requirements and costs for the Fraser River between Agassiz and the Pitt River is also
currently under way.
Work being carried out on assignment to the Province includes the internal
drainage and hydrology studies necessary to establish the pumping and floodbox
capacities, and the detailed design of all bank-protection works. Internal drainage
and hydrology studies have been completed for the Municipal Districts of Kent,
Pitt Meadows, and Mission, and are under way for the Township of Richmond and
the Municipal District of Matsqui.   The bank-protection works for the District of
Kent, estimated to cost $880,000, have been designed, and basic information required for design in other areas is being collected.
Preliminary designs and cost estimates were prepared for the Derby and East
Langley Dyking Districts. These districts have no works at present, and the feasibility of amalgamation of the Derby Dyking District with West Langley Dyking
District and East Langley Dyking District with Glen Valley Dyking District was
explored. A cost-benefit study indicated that the former amalgamation would be
economically sound, but in the case of East Langley Dyking District there appeared
to be no economic advantage to combining the districts.
Lower Squamish Valley
In 1965 a report was prepared on flood and erosion control in the Lower
Squamish Valley. During 1969, the design and construction of the second-stage
bank protection was completed and that of the third stage, dyke and bank protection, to be completed this fiscal year, was initiated. The total construction cost
of these two stages will be approximately $380,000. The estimated total cost of
the comprehensive flood- and erosion-control measures outlined in the 1965 report,
which was originally intended to be a joint Federal-Provincial project under the
Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act, is $2,000,000.
Alberni Flood Control
The design of the $1,400,000 flood-control project to raise River Road along
the Somass River and to control Kitsucksus Creek and improve the internal drainage
works, thus reducing the possibility of flooding in the west section of the former
City of Alberni, was completed in 1967. A second revised agreement between
Canada and the Province of British Columbia to allow for increased costs was
signed during the year under the Canada-British Columbia Joint Development Act
and the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act. A contract totalling $1,085,-
546.51 for construction under the agreement was awarded in July. Approximately
$375,000 worth of work was constructed, with the balance to be completed next
year. This work is being carried out on behalf of the Water Resources Service by
the Department of Highways.
Bella Coola Valley
A comprehensive study pertaining to river damage and prevention on the Bella
Coola River and side streams between Bella Coola and Hagensborg was initiated,
and mapping of the area was completed under private contract. During the year the
Division assisted the British Columbia Department of Highways in the assessment
of local river-erosion problems and bank-protection requirements.
Pemberton Valley Flooding
During the year, hydrometric data and survey information for the Lillooet Lake-
Lillooet River system was obtained for the Division. Some 10 river and lake gauges
were installed by the Branch and these are read by local people under a co-operative
arrangement with the Pemberton Valley Dyking District. This, together with river
and lake surveys information, will be used in the preparation of proposals to alleviate
a flooding problem in the Pemberton Valley.
Cowichan River Flooding
A preliminary report on flooding and erosion by the Cowichan River at Lake
Cowichan and in the Lower Cowichan Valley was completed in 1967.   Any further
GG 81
action on the proposals contained in this report awaits the results of studies by the
Federal Department of Fisheries on the economic value of the Cowichan River as a
fishery resource.
Kitimat River
Field survey information necessary for a study of the flooding problem at Kitimat was completed by the District of Kitimat during the year and submitted to the
Division. It is hoped that this information, together with the large-scale mapping
of the area and hydrology study previously undertaken by the Water Investigations
Branch, can be used in preparing proposals for flood and erosion control of the
Kitimat River at Kitimat.
Village of Houston
Studies and design for dykes and bank-protection works along Buck Creek and
the Bulkley River, necessary to reduce flooding within the Village of Houston, were
completed. Construction of the required works, costing approximately $100,000,
is nearing completion, and it is anticipated that the project will be completed early
in 1970.
Field surveys and studies pertaining to flooding within the Village of Lumby
were carried out and a subsequent report outlining solutions and costs was completed.
Mission Creek
Field surveys and studies pertaining to river-bank erosion near the mouth of
Mission Creek at Kelowna were carried out. The preparation of a report on this
matter was initiated and will be completed early in 1970.
Grand Forks
River-data collection and surveys, necessary for a study of flooding and bank-
erosion problems along both the Granby and Kettle Rivers in the Grand Forks area,
were carried out during the year. This information will be utilized in studies and the
compilation of a report for this area.
North and West Vancouver Flood-control Project
In 1967 an agreement was signed under the Canada Water Conservation Assistance Act providing for a major flood-control project, totalling $2,301,480, in both
the District of North Vancouver and the District of West Vancouver. While the
North Vancouver components involving control of Mosquito Creek and bank-
protection work in Capilano River were completed in 1967, there has been no
request from the District of West Vancouver concerning implementation of the
balance of the works.
Hastings Creek Flood-control Project
This year saw completion of a contract for the construction of some 7,500 feet
of reinforced-concrete pipe and culvert to intercept and collect the several branches
of Hastings Creek, and a diversion to Lynn Creek, eliminating the flooding of land
and residences below Kilmer Road in North Vancouver. The Greater Vancouver
Sewerage and Drainage Board acted as the agent for the District of North Vancouver
for this project, which cost approximately $650,000.
 gg 82 water resources service
Minor Projects
During 1969, 16 minor flooding and erosion problems were investigated
throughout the Province and reports prepared. In seven instances, assistance in the
design, supervision of construction, and financing was given by the Water Investigations Branch within the available limited budget of the British Columbia Water
Resources Service. The projects constructed included bank protection and dykes for
five properties along the Similkameen River, and channel restoration in the lower
reach of Harvey Creek below the Squamish Highway. At the end of the year, investigation of requests for assistance in several areas were pending.
Stellako River
The Federal-Provincial technical sub-committee appointed to report on the
1967 log drive on the Stellako River, particularly with respect to the effect of log
driving on the fishery resource, completed its work this year with the preparation
of a report entitled " The Stellako River Log Drive, 1967."
A. S. Stencel, R.I.A.
The most important functions performed by the Records Compilation and
Reports Section include the assembly of engineering reports, operation of the
Reports Library, collection and compilation of technical and cost records, operation of the Branch car-pool, and general office duties for the Branch.
A brief review of the statistics of the Section will indicate that the past year
has again been one of growth. This continues a trend that has been evident for
a number of years.
During the year, the Reports Library received 80 new engineering reports for
assembly and registration.    The total of available reports amounts now to 1,610.
Listed below is a numerical and percentage summary of reports received and
registered during 10-year periods:—
Number of Reports    Percentage of Total
Periods (Years) Available Available
1915-24  175 10.9
1925-34  41 2.5
1935-44  37 2.3
1945-54  115 7.2
1955-64  865 53.7
1965-69  377 23.4
Totals  1,610 100.0
In addition to the new reports, over 530 other copies of reports have been
prepared and distributed. The past 12 months also saw requests for over 100
copies of other publications, including inter-library loans, researched and completed by the staff. Another increase was recorded during the year under review
in the circulation of periodicals and technical literature.
Of the present total of 1,610 reports in the library, 980 reports have been
prepared by the Water Resources Service staff. The following table shows the
number of such reports and the various fields which they cover:—
GG 83
Technical Reports in Library, Prepared by Water Resources Service Staff
as of December 31,1969
Period (Years)
Totals  -
In order to meet the 1969 needs of all six divisions of the Water Investigations
Branch, 320 requisitions covering purchases and (or) repairs of equipment, furniture, machinery, materials, and supplies were prepared, and over 1,200 invoices
processed. The Section provided mail and messenger service to all divisions, operated the 3 3-vehicle Branch car-pool, and assisted in the processing of claims for
various water projects under construction.
B. Varcoe, Chief Draughtsman
During 1969, the draughting responsibilities of the Water Investigations
Draughting Offices were increased by the addition of the draughting requirements of
the Groundwater Division, which previously has had its own draughtsman. In
addition, more activity in the draughting requirements of the Projects Division has
necessitated the placing of another man in the ARDA draughting section.
While there has been over a 50 per cent change in draughting personnel over
the past year, a good total of drawings have been completed, despite the obvious
handicap created by the breaking-in of new draughtsmen.
Number of report drawings completed and used     93
Number of report drawings unused and (or) incomplete...    88
Number of construction drawings completed and used  347
Number of drawings completed for the Hydrology Division    24
Number of water-well location maps created from existing
mapping for Groundwater Division  102
Miscellaneous maps, signs, coloured prints, etc     12
Total number of drawings produced  666
The air-photo requirements for the Water Investigations Branch were particularly high for 1969. From requests for special flying, 2,642 air photos were received,
and from 41 requisitions for normal reprints, mosaic reprints, and enlargements,
1,658 photos were received.
Reproduction costs have increased with the added drawing production, and this
year were valued at $11,700.
F. S. McKinnon
The Pollution Control Act, 1967, relieved the Pollution Control Board of the
administrative functions associated with issuing permits. The Director of Pollution
Control, in charge of the Pollution Control Branch of the Water Resources Service,
carries out the administration under the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
Under the 1967 legislation, the Pollution Control Board acts in an advisory
capacity to the Government, sets standards for controlling pollution, and acts as an
appeal tribunal in matters of appeals against orders of the Director of Pollution
There was considerable activity in 1969 on the part of the Pollution Control
Board, involving matters of appeals, meetings, policy making, and compilation
of reports.
The Board took a major step in that its final recommendations to the Executive
Council regarding air pollution were submitted in June, 1969, in advance of the date
set originally for submission of the report. It was a lengthy document and widely
publicized in full so there is no necessity to describe the details at this time.
The membership of the Board was increased from seven members to ten, including the Chairman, who has been employed on a full-time basis since the end of June.
As provided in section 12 of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, the Board is
empowered to sit as an appeal tribunal. During 1969 only two appeals were made
to the Board, one of which was upheld and one refused. The appeal upheld was
that of various interested parties relative to the Maliview Subdivision on Saltspring
Island and the decision of the Board ordered the installation upgraded to require
primary treatment. Subsequently an appeal was filed with the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council. In addition, the appropriate officials of the City of Prince George appealed the November, 1968, decision of the Board that they "proceed immediately
with construction of works necessary to make fully operative a primary treatment
plant by November 9, 1970."   The latter appeal was refused.
The Board had four briefs presented in the course of the year that did not
require decision. Two were of a general nature in which pollution problems of a
broad nature were discussed. One brief dealt with the problems facing the pulp and
paper industry of the Province and the steps which are proposed to cope with them.
The final brief concerned the proposals to fertilize Great Central Lake to increase
the production of fish, and after consideration it was decided that the Board did not
have jurisdiction and referred the matter to the Department of Lands, Forests, and
Water Resources.
During the course of the year, 11 regular meetings of the Board were held when
routine business was transacted.
The Pollution Control Branch, which deals with matters pertaining to land and water pollution, was formed within the Water Resources Service to carry out the functions laid down in the
Pollution Control Act, 1967. The administration of the Act is carried forward under the Director
of Pollution Control, whose powers and duties are prescribed in the Act, and are, in summary,
as follows:—
(a) To determine what qualities and properties of water shall constitute a polluted condition:
(Z>) To prescribe standards regarding the quality and character of the effluent which may
be discharged:
(c) To conduct tests and surveys to determine the extent of pollution:
(d) To examine into all existing or proposed means for the disposal of sewage or other
waste materials:
(e) To notify all persons who discharge effluent into the said waters when the effluent fails
to meet the prescribed standards:
(/) To order any person to increase the degree of treatment of the effluent.
To carry into effect the intent of the Pollution Control Act, 1967, the Director issues permits
to discharge effluent and wastes to applicants who comply with the regulations and who satisfy
the Director that the wastes to be discharged will not cause pollution in accordance with the Act.
 GG 90
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C. J. Keenan, P.Eng. (January to August 31)
W. N. Venables, P.Eng. (September 1 to December 31)
The Pollution Control Branch is responsible for the administration of the
Pollution Control Act, 1967, as it pertains to the discharge of wastes to land and
water in British Columbia. Certain wastes are excluded from the provisions of
the Act and these are set out in the regulations pursuant thereto and the discharge of these wastes are controlled under other legislation by other departments of
The vehicle for controlling pollution under the Act is the permit system and the
Act specifically states that: "No person shall discharge sewage or other waste
materials on, in, or under any land or into any waters without a permit from the
It is to be noted that discharges to the atmosphere are not covered by permit
under the Pollution Control Act, 1967, at this time. The Act also provides for the
establishment of the Pollution Control Board, whose functions are set out in the Act,
and decisions of the Board that may be pertinent to the operation of the Branch are
transmitted to the Director of Pollution Control through the Deputy Minister of the
Water Resources Service, under whose a_gis the Pollution Control Branch operates.
During 1969 it became apparent that to ensure that pollution was adequately
controlled, where there was overlapping jurisdiction under other legislation it was
necessary to improve the communication and understanding with other administrations within Government and in conformance with announced policy, it is generally
accepted that a person or persons wishing to discharge should first obtain the necessary permit or permits under the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
During 1969 the Pollution Control Branch was reorganized to assume full
status as a Branch within the Water Resources Service, and as of September 1st,
three divisions and a section were brought into being and now formulate the Branch
organization. The functions and duties of the divisions are clearly defined in order
to provide an improved service to the public. The Municipal Division is responsible
for the processing of all applications for discharges for all municipal sewerage systems and other domestic wastes. The Industrial Division deals with all applications
for permits from industry not connected to a municipal sewerage system (including
industrial refuse disposal), and in the performance of their duties the engineers in
this Division are generally guided by the dictum that " if wastes are properly managed, pollution will not be caused," and in so doing concern themselves with in-plant
controls, as in many cases the quality and quantity of final discharge can be considerably reduced. The Districts Division, with offices established at Cranbrook, Vernon,
Prince George, and Victoria, is responsible for the administration of permits once
they are issued and the appeal time has lapsed. In so doing it is required to ascertain
that the works authorized by the permit are completed in accordance with the plans
and specifications, that a monitoring programme is set up to ensure that the dis-
charge is within the limits authorized by the permit, and carry out such other duties
as may be assigned to it from time to time. The Projects and Research Section is
being developed to provide the necessary contact with the Provincial Laboratories,
who carry out all the water-chemistry analyses for the Branch, to correlate the various
field studies that are being undertaken from time to time, to carry out specific studies
and research to determine the degree and impact of pollution at various levels, to
provide the expertise to the other divisions in those matters of a specialty nature.
The philosophy that pollution control is everybody's business has led to the
adoption of certain policies within the Branch that are being effected as quickly as
the availability of staff permits; for example, copies of all pollution control permits
are now available for inspection by the public at each district office; a programme to
clarify the objectives of the Act and functions of the Branch has been implemented
at various levels of government; participation by discussion with groups showing
bona fide interest in and a responsible attitude toward pollution control is being
encouraged, and the fact that the Director and the staff are the anti-pollutionists and
that the Act is to control pollution in British Columbia is being propounded.
The administration of the Branch was reorganized on September 1st when three
divisions were created. Such action was made possible by staff increase authorized
for the 1969/70 budget, and the present establishment authorizes 16 positions for
professional engineers, which include the positions of the Director, Assistant Director, three Division Chiefs, and 11 others. There are 14 other positions authorized
which are filled by clerks, technicians, draughtsmen, and stenographers, and a chemical analyst from the Branch has been seconded to the Provincial Laboratories. The
necessary administrative functions associated with the investigation and processing
of applications for permits are carried forward by the appropriate division within the
Pollution Control Branch and the facts of each investigation are laid before the
Director. The Director may then grant, amend and grant, or refuse to grant a permit.
Applicants must satisfy the Director that the waste to be discharged will not cause
pollution in accordance with the Act. All valid objections to the issuance of a
permit are investigated and, where necessary, public hearings or inquiries may be
held before a final decision is reached on an application. During the current year a
procedure whereby an applicant was advised of all objections was instituted in anticipation that he would take up the matter of the objection with the objector. Indications are that this procedure will ensure that public funds are not wasted in holding
unnecessary inquiries, and it is anticipated that the procedure will provide the communication necessary to keep both parties informed.
During 1969, 162 applications were received; 59 permits being granted, 13
amendments to permits granted, 7 applications were refused, 10 applications were
voluntarily withdrawn, and the remaining 73 applications are presently being processed or are being held in abeyance awaiting resolution of extenuating circumstances.
In many instances where a permit was granted, the applicant was requested to provide facilities in excess of those proposed on his original application. In ruling on an
application, the Director first gives consideration (assuming all other matters relative
to the application being in compliance with the Act) to any policies or requirements
that have been established by the Pollution Control Board. The policy declaration
of the Pollution Control Board, as set out in their news release of March 14th, included statements relative to discharge to salt water and a decision by the Director
to refuse a permit based on this Board policy is presently being appealed in accordance with the appeal procedures set out in the Act.
A. J. Chmelauskas, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The Industrial Division, established April 1, 1969, replaced the Pulp Mill
Division referred to in the 1968 Annual Report. This Division is now principally
concerned with the assessment and evaluation of pollution control applications,
relevant reports, and plans concerning waste-disposal facilities for all industrial discharges of effluent and (or) refuse. Applications for permits are assessed technically
to ascertain that the means or mode of disposal are satisfactory to assure adequate
containment (refuse) or receiving-water quality (effluent) consistent with the uses
made of receiving waters and the Pollution Control Board policy where applicable.
The Division has been divided into three sections to develop specific expertise
with problems of discharges associated with complex industrial processes, and to
delegate work and responsibility commensurate with the interest, training, and
competence of those working in the Division.
The Forest Products Section is involved for the most part with pulp- and
paper-mills, but also includes other attendant industries such as plywood, veneer,
particle board, and sawmills. In 1969 three existing and one new pulp-mill were
brought under permit. Ten pulp-mills in the Province are not as yet under permit;
however, all these mills were contacted early during the year and are currently
undertaking inventories and studies in preparation to making application. It is
expected that all pulp-mills will be under permit by end of 1970.
The Mining and Mineral Products Section is primarily concerned with the
metal- and coal-mining operations; however, included are the metal fabrication
and finishing operations, smelting, and industrial mineral development for limestone, cement, and pozzolan.
The General Section is involved with discharges from the petroleum refineries
and the petro-chemical industries, industrial chemicals, fermentation industries,
food-processing industries, feed-lot operations, laundromats, car-washes, etc., where
these industries are not on municipal sewers.
In addition to the evaluation of applications and technical negotiations with
the applicants, the Division is involved with field investigations, preparation of reports, recommending on the effluent, and receiving water-monitoring programmes,
reviewing statistical tabulation and plots of monitoring results in order to evaluate
the effectiveness of disposal systems.
The Division is also used in an advisory capacity to the Taxation Department
regarding property-tax exemption of pollution-abatement facilities as provided for
under section 24 of the Taxation Act.
In dealing with industrial applicants, considerable emphasis is stressed with the
applicant to consider and employ, where practical, in-plant measures which will
reduce waste load from the plant. This may be achieved by any one or a combination of the following means: Separation of sewer systems, monitoring and alarm
devices, recirculation and reuse of process waters, in-plant treatment devices, and
the implementation of good housekeeping practice.
Such systematic approach to waste management has its just rewards in economies which are realized in reduced product losses, reduced costs of water supply as
the result of reduced consumption, and reduction in the size, complexity, and cost
of any out-plant treatment.
Similarly as in effluent control, the disposal of solid waste materials is directed
toward the utilization of the waste, either immediately through some useful purpose or stored in such manner that it would be available for some potential future
use which may be developed with improved knowledge and technology.
J. E. Dew-Jones, P.Eng., Chief of Division
The work of the Municipal Division comprises the processing of applications
for permits for all non-industrial discharges. Not only do all municipal discharges
come under this category, but also any private non-industrial development not
exempted by regulation at this time. Such exemptions are now limited to single
houses and duplexes and discharges to a tile disposal-field of up to 5,000 gallons per
day of domestic waste. Municipal discharges vary from small housing schemes
under the jurisdiction of improvement districts up to the volume discharged from
the Iona Treatment Plant of the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District. Private development includes discharges under such categories as subdivisions,
construction camps, and trailer parks.
The first consideration when an application is submitted is whether or not it
comes within the scope of any policy laid down by the Pollution Control Board.
Apart from Pollution Control Board policy considerations, applicants must substantiate their submissions on technical grounds. This may involve considerable
research and investigation by the applicant and (or) the Branch, particularly in
regard to discharges to the sea.
Another technical consideration is that it is often preferable for industrial
wastes to discharge to a municipal sewer (sometimes with some degree of treatment) rather than maintain their own treatment facility and local discharge. Much
work has been done which is not directly connected with the issuance of permits
regarding this matter. Municipalities are beginning to recognize the need to assess
present and future industrial discharges which might affect their sewerage systems.
Accordingly, the number of applications covering municipal works designed to
treat wastes from industry are growing.
The work of assessing applications is both technically and administratively
complex. In general, applications are posted and advertised and commonly give
rise to objections. In addition, copies of applications are distributed to certain
other government agencies for their comment, and these must be taken into account.
It is the work of the divisions to assess all the facts and views put forward. In
doing so, the engineers involved must strive to keep up to date on the various subjects concerned with their work. The problem this poses will be appreciated when
it is realized that a recent textbook on water-quality criteria lists some 3,000
This Division gives consultation upon request, relative to those technical
matters where financial assistance is being sought by the municipality under existing
Approximately 40 permits have been issued during 1969 and 20 applications
for municipal discharges are presently being processed.
M. W. Slezak, P.Eng., Chief of Division
Prior to September 1, 1969, the district offices were supervised from Victoria by
the Assistant Director. To facilitate expansion within the Branch it became necessary to relieve the Assistant Director of these responsibilities by forming a District
Division and appointing a Chief of the District Division.
Within this Division of the Branch lies the responsibility to administer permits
granted under the Act.   At present the offices are located at Cranbrook, Vernon, and
GG 95
Prince George, in the Kootenay, Okanagan, and Prince George districts respectively,
and a fourth district was created in 1969 for the Lower Mainland and an engineer
experienced in the waste-treatment field has been recruited to fill the position of District Engineer for this office. One of the first programmes in establishing a district
office is to inventory all major outfalls and sources of pollution within the district.
During 1969, additional staff were also recruited for the established districts in
order to carry out site investigations, surveillance work, and investigations of complaints.
A heavy work load continues to be placed on district personnel due to the rapid
growth in district office activities. Temporary staff is recruited whenever possible to
assist the permanent staff to meet these growth demands. There is considerable diversification of responsibility allocated to district personnel as they monitor effluents
to ensure that the quality and quantity are within the limits of the permits, and they
assist operators in understanding the operation of treatment plants. District personnel also collect data on the assimilative capacity of the environment, which
information is utilized to process and evaluate applications.
During the latter part of the year the duties of the District Engineers have been
expanded to the public-relations field and it is anticipated that they will give talks to
schools and interested groups in order to permit a better understanding of the
mechanics of the Pollution Control Act, 1967.
Reports for the established districts are as follows:—
Kootenay District
L. N. Adamache, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kootenay District was responsible for the administration of the Act in the
Regional Districts of East Kootenay, Central Kootenay, Kootenay Boundary, and all
of the Columbia-Shuswap east of Revelstoke. The District Office which was located
in Nelson until November 1, 1969, was relocated in Cranbrook, and a sub-office
established in Nelson. The move was made to enable more efficient administration of
existing pollution control permits and to provide better service to the public.
The staff in 1969 consisted of the District Engineer, an engineering technician,
and a part-time clerk-typist. Ten new permits were issued in the Kootenay District
in 1969, where there are now a total of 32. Of this number, 20 of the permittees
have constructed works in accordance with permit requirements. The remainder are
either in the process of preparing to or constructing works. Site investigations were
conducted and reports prepared for 19 permit applications in 1969. Inspection of
works under permit was conducted on a routine basis.
The basic water-quality monitoring programme initiated for the Columbia River
Basin in August of 1968 was conducted with some modifications to the programme
in 1969. It is expected that this programme will continue indefinitely to establish the
natural, physical, and mechanical characteristics of the water resources and to enable
detection of any changes in water quality as a result of changes within the river basin.
The Elk River study was initiated with the co-operation and assistance from the
Inland Waters Branch of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and the
British Columbia Fish and Wildlife Branch, and the study will determine the effects
of coal-mining operations on the streams in the Elk River Basin. Initially, five monitoring stations will be established.
The Libby Reservoir study was commenced in 1969 for the purpose of
(a) examining the potential effects of upstream pollution on the Libby Reservoir;
(b) establishing data so that the potential effects of the Libby Reservoir on
downstream water quality may be ascertained.
Okanagan District
W. A. Kastelen, P.Eng.(Alta.), District Engineer
The Okanagan District Office was responsible for the administration of the Act
in the Regional Districts of Okanagan-Similkameen; Central Okanagan; North
Okanagan; Columbia-Shuswap, west of Revelstoke; and the Thompson-Nicola. The
District Office was relocated from Oliver to Vernon as of July 1, 1969. The office
space in Oliver was converted to a sub-office.
The permanent staff in the Okanagan consisted of a District Engineer, engineering technician, and a clerk-stenographer. Two university students were hired as temporary help in July to assist the permanent staff with sampling and stream surveys.
A continuous sampling programme of the major outfalls and streams in the
Okanagan District commenced on September 1st, and lake-sampling was added to
this programme in November. In addition to the permit sampling, samples were
collected monthly at 19 outfalls, 17 stream and 11 (2 samples per station) lake stations for chemical and bacteriological analyses.
The Canada-British Columbia-Okanagan Basin Agreement was signed in October, 1969, and it is expected that the joint Federal-Provincial water-quality studies
will be fully under way in the near future. In May of this year sampling stations were
established for the purpose of this study. The three-year Okanagan study initiated by
the Pollution Control Branch in 1968 has provided the base-line programme for the
joint study and the inventory of all major domestic and industrial-waste discharges in
the Okanagan Drainage Basin was completed this year.
Thirteen new permits were issued during the calendar year, giving a total number of 46 being administered by this office. Site investigations were conducted and
reports prepared for 19 permit applications. Inspection of treatment works under
permit were attended to on a regular basis.
Several requests for information were received and numerous pollution complaints were investigated throughout the year. One public hearing was held in Vernon in connection with the issuance of a permit to a distillery.
Prince George District
J. W. Thomas, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Prince George office was responsible for the administration of the Act in the
Regional Districts of Cariboo, Fraser-Fort George, Bulkley-Nechako, Skeena A,
Skeena B, Peace River, and Stikine.
During 1969 the District Office was initially allocated space in the office of the
Water Rights Branch in the Government Building. In February, office space in the
Professional Centre was acquired and the office was subsequently relocated.
On September 17th a part-time clerk-typist commenced work and in November
a chemical engineering graduate was added to the staff as an engineering technician.
During the year some 16 new permits were issued in the district and a total of
46 permits are now being administered by the Prince George office. Twenty-four site
investigations were made and reports prepared.
A start was made on a study of the Upper Fraser from Hope to Valemount, and
an inventory of the major domestic and industrial-waste discharges is in progress. A
sampling programme in conjunction with the study has been prepared and will be
initiated in the spring of 1970.
Several requests for information were received and numerous pollution complaints were investigated throughout the year.
 pollution control branch gg 97
Projects and Research Section
R. H. Ferguson, P.Eng.
This Section was established in mid-1969 and consists of an engineer, a
draughtsman, and a chemical-analyst who works within the Health Branch Division
of Laboratories in Vancouver.
It is the responsibility of this Section to establish a programme of water-quality
monitoring to co-ordinate monitoring work requiring analytical determination within
the capacity of the Provincial Laboratories, to assess and report on receiving water
quality and waste-water assimilation capacity, to carry out special studies related to
pollution control, and to investigate and advise Branch members on technical matters
related to pollution.
The work performed under this Section in 1969 has been primarily concerned
with the initial establishment of a water-quality monitoring network and investigation
into miscellaneous matters related to pollution control.
The Bridge Creek-Hendrix Creek-Canim Lake study initiated in 1968 continued
until late summer of 1969. This study involved sampling of the major contributory
streams to the system and the outgoing waters from the system to determine the effect
on the receiving waters of agricultural drainage and domestic-waste discharge and to
establish base-line data for future investigations of these waters.
General Office
S. J. Hives
A Senior Clerk is responsible for the operation of this Section. To assist him in
these duties are three stenographers, a typist, and a junior clerk. This Section records
all incoming mail and carries out the functions necessary to facilitate the administration of the Main Branch Office, and in this regard it should be noted that 300 pieces
of mail were registered in November, 1968, and that 750 pieces of mail were registered in the same month in 1969.
In Summary
The problem of pollution control is essentially that of the management of the
unmarketable or socially undesirable by-products of man's activities and in this regard it is reassuring to note that the immediate and potential effectiveness of the
Pollution Control Act, 1967, is being recognized.
It is acknowledged that education of, communication with, and co-operation by
the public is necessary to effect the requirements of the Act so that pollution may be
Pollution is not only everyone's business it is everyone's responsibility. By positive action major industries are indicating their willingness to accept their responsibilities and it behooves those at all levels of Government to ensure that they in turn
recognize, accept, and demonstrate a similar attitude toward effecting pollution control measures.
There is no question that if the Act as amended is accepted, respected, and
supported by all, it can provide the vehicle to effectively control pollution in the
Province of British Columbia.
W. R. Meighen, P.Eng.
Inspector of Dykes
The spring run-off in the Fraser and other major river systems was of normal or
below-normal proportions and did not produce any major threat to any of the dyking
systems in the Province.
As a result, work on the dykes and on the allied pumping and drainage works
was of a routine nature, consisting largely of necessary maintenance.
Pumps in Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows No. 2, Coquitlam, West Nicomen, Sumas, and Matsqui Districts were lifted and necessary overhaul or repair carried out.
Repairs were made to three pumphouses in the Coquitlam Dyking District.
A considerable number of meetings with municipal officials were attended to
discuss the transfer of responsibility for the dyking and drainage works to the various
Numerous meetings of the Joint Programme Committee, established by the
Federal-Provincial Governments to carry out the Flood Control programme in the
Fraser Valley, were attended throughout the year. As well, many meetings and field
inspections of work groups established by this Joint Programme Committee were
also attended.
Surveys for the Flood Control programme, authorized by the Joint Programme
Committee, are now under way in many parts of the Fraser Valley. It is anticipated
that construction will commence in some areas early in the next year.
Installation of 60-inch steel pipe used to
replace part of the Oliver siphon. The old
wood-stave pipe can be seen in the background.
' :_a.v4si-.
H lli
Installation of No. 4a domestic pump
at well-site.
Fill area for elimination of flume.
L. A. Pinske
Project Manager
Operation and maintenance of the irrigation system and the continuation of the
rehabilitation programme being carried out under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and
Development (British Columbia) Act were the main functions of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project during the year. The reconstruction programme is continuing
and on completion of the rehabilitation the administration of the system will be
handled by the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District formed as an improvement district under Letters Patent dated July 7,1964.
In May, 80.3 acres of land in the Tinhorn Creek area were sold after being
tendered for sale unsuccessfully on two previous occasions.
The disposition of numerous small portions of land and old river oxbows, which
were created by the Okanagan Flood Control channel, was continued as surveys and
administrative procedures were completed.
Rehabilitation of the system for the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District was continued by Southern Okanagan Lands Project crew. Construction included No. 4 domestic pump system; commencement of survey and constructing of
No. 1 pump system; building of chlorinator facilities at No. 7 pumphouse; completion of No. 6 pump system; replacement or reconstruction of flumes Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7,
11, 12, 13, and 14; installation of rotary screen at No. 4 pump system intake; commencement of rehabilitating the main siphon; fencing and covering of the main
canal through residential area of Oliver.
Pump and motor inspection, servicing, and overhaul as well as replacement of
deteriorated timbers on trestles, cleaning and pitching of the main canal were carried
out under the normal annual maintenance programme.
Water was diverted from the Okanagan River into the main canal on April 22,
1969, and all pumping stations energized shortly after that date.
On July 25, 1969, at approximately 9 p.m., the No. 2, 150-horsepower electric
motor burned out at No. 4 pump station. Water service was maintained on a restricted basis with the remaining pumps until July 28, 1969, at 11 p.m., when full
service was restored to No. 4 pump system.
Water service to the West Lateral area was curtailed on August 24, 1969, due
to a portion of a flume being knocked out by fire-fighting equipment while battling a
 GG 106
forest fire north of Oliver. Service was fully restored in the early evening of August
25, 1969.
The usual ditch-riding service was provided for the Black Sage Irrigation District
until September 20, 1969, when they requested to be turned off for the season.
Water which was being diverted to the main irrigation canal for irrigation and
domestic purposes was turned off September 30, 1969. No. 4a pump, pumping from
a well, and No. 8 pump, pumping from Osoyoos Lake, were immediately placed in
operation to provide domestic water on that same date.
Project crews were engaged in the installation of aeration equipment in Osoyoos
Lake for the Water Resources Service to be used in a study of aeration as a possible
means of improving water quality in the No. 9 pump system.
Annual Revenue to December 9,1969
Irrigation collections
Land sales (principal)
Sundries (topsoil, maps, payments from irrigation
district, interest, and lease rentals)      104,622.03
K. M. Hanson
Personnel Officer
In 1969, the permanent establishment of the Water Resources Service was increased by 19 new positions. Eleven of these positions were in the Pollution Control
Branch, seven in the Water Investigations Branch, and the remaining position in the
office of the Deputy Minister.
Work under the Fraser River Flood Control Agreement commenced this year
and four temporary continuous positions were established.
The table below indicates a slight increase in activity over both 1967 and 1968.
This, combined with the above-mentioned new positions, has brought about considerable more work for this office.
Extensions of service granted-   —.  	
In 1969 only one retirement took place, that of Mr. E. J. Folwell, Administrative Officer, Improvement Districts Division, Water Rights Branch, who retired after
11 years in this position.
Due to ill health, Mr. A. F. Paget, Deputy Minister, resigned and was appointed
as Consultant. Mr. Paget was replaced by Mr. V. Raudsepp. Other promotions
included Mr. B. E. Marr, Chief Engineer, Water Investigations Branch, replacing Mr.
Raudsepp; and Mr. P. M. Brady, Chief of the Projects Division, replacing Mr. Marr.
In the Pollution Control Branch, Mr. C. Keenan, Director, resigned to take up a position in industry. Mr. W. N. Venables was appointed in his place. Mr. A. J. Chme-
lauskas and Mr. J. E. Dew-Jones, along with Mr. M. W. Slezak, were all appointed
as Division Heads in the Pollution Control Branch as a result of competitions.
Field trips included a trip to the Nelson, Kelowna, Vernon, and Prince George
offices. Other trips to Vancouver, Edmonton, Calgary, Saskatoon, and Regina were
undertaken in order to recruit new staff.
The year 1969 was indeed busy, with developments such as the Fraser River
Flood Control project, and activity in the future would appear to be somewhat similar, with the Federal-Provincial study of the Okanagan Basin in the offing.
M. B. Maclean
Departmental Comptroller
The steady growth of Water Resources Service over the past several years continued through 1969 with increasing demands on the services of the Accounting
Division, particularly in respect of payroll, expenditure control, and the collection of
The Federal-Provincial Fraser River Flood Control Agreement is now well under way and the recently signed Federal-Provincial Agreement on Okanagan Basin
Studies will shortly be activated, all of which require additional expenditure control
and the preparation of claims on both the Federal and local governments.
Water-licence accounts increased from 23,116, January 1, 1969, to 23,659,
December 31,1969.
Following is a statement of Water Resources Service revenue from annual
rentals for water licences and from application fees under the Water Act, arranged
by major purposes of the water licences for 1969, and a statement of comparative
revenues over a 10-year period:—
Domestic, incidental use, and fees      $104,712.94
Funds received on application.
Comparison of Revenue for 10-year Period, 1960 to 1969, Inclusive
1960 $1,510,278
1961  1,853,653
1962  2,115,738
1963  1,935,778
1964     2,175,223
1965 $2,251,025
1966  2,285,932
1967  2,431,010
1968  2,749,848
1969  3,364,577
Printed by A. Sutton, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.


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