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REPORT of the FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31 1970 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1971

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Hon. R. G. Wilhston, Minister J. S. Stokes, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of the
FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31
1970
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971
  Victoria, British Columbia, March 1971.
To Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C, LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I respectfully submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources for 1970.
R. G. WILLISTON
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources
 The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Sir: This is the Annual Report of the Forest Service for 1970.
J. S. STOKES
Deputy Minister of Forests
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  CONTENTS
1. Chief Forester's Report.
2. Inventory Division.
Highlights	
Page
.   11
.  15
. 15
1970 Progress  15
Developments  17
3. Research Division..
Tree Improvement Studies...
Seedling Physiology Studies.
21
21
22
Soil Classification  22
Ecology  23
Canada Land Inventory  2 3
Data Processing  23
  23
  23
  23
  24
  24
  24
Silviculture	
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert.
Prince George
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Forest Productivity Committee  24
4. Reforestation Division.
  29
  29
  29
  31
  32
  3 3
Interdepartmental Forestry and Corrections Camp Programme  34
5. Information Division.
Photography	
Motion Pictures .
Library	
Reconnaissance and Survey Work-
Forest Tree Seed	
Forest Nurseries	
Planting	
Co-operation	
  37
  37
  37
  38
Film Library  38
 .  38
  38
  39
Forest Service Museum  39
Displays	
Education-
Signs	
 8 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Page
6. Management Division  43
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  43
Stumpage Adjustments  44
Sustained-yield Programme  44
Public Sustained-yield Units  44
Certified Tree Farms  45
Farm Wood-lot Licences  45
Working Plans  45
Tree-farm Licences  45
Silviculture  45
Scaling  46
Forest Recreation  46
7. Grazing Division  49
General Conditions  49
Range  49
Hay  49
Markets and Prices  49
Range and Pasture Management  49
Range Surveys  50
Range and Pasture Improvements  50
Co-operation  51
Administration  51
Grazing and Hay Permits  52
Grazing Fees  52
Control and Enforcement:  52
8. Engineering Division  55
Engineering Surveys  55
Design  57
Management Engineering  57
Construction  5 7
Reservoir Improvements .  57
Building and Marine Services  57
Mechanical  58
Forest Service Maintenance Depot  58
Communications  59
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
9. Protection Division.
Weather	
Fires	
Page
63
63
. 63
Occurrence and Cause  63
Cost of Fire-fighting  63
Damage	
Fire-suppression Crews.
Aircraft	
Roads and Trails	
Slash Disposal	
Slash-burning.
63
63
64
64
64
65
Snag Disposal  65
Fire-law Enforcement  65
Forest-use Restrictions  65
Protection Planning and Research  66
Fire Statistics  66
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  66
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks    66
Insect Survey and Control-
Research Projects	
Service and Co-operation...
10. Training School-
Basic Course 10	
Advanced Course 16	
Extra Course and Functions-
Acknowledgments	
Construction	
66
66
67
71
71
71
72
72
72
11. Accounting Division  77
Administration  77
12. Personnel Division	
  81
Communications and Training  81
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  81
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  82
13. Personnel Directory, 1970.
83
14. Appendix—Derailed Statements to Supplement the Report of the Forest
Service  85
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1970
CHIEF FORESTER'S REPORT
Unfavourable market conditions, labour troubles, a tight-money policy, and
the worst fire season on record combined to make 1970 a financial problem year
for both the Forest Service and the forest industries.
Brighter aspects, however, were recorded in a number of areas, including the
reforestation programme, further expansion of close-utilization practices, and the
development of new policies relating to multiple use of publicly owned forest lands.
Of significant importance to the multiple-use concept was the formation of the new
interdepartmental Land Use Committee, with representation from all departments
concerned with land use.
Among the year's highlights:
• Direct forest revenue collected in 1970 dropped by 27.4 per cent to $64,951,431
—but still the second-highest total on record.
• The total scale of all products was 1,932,628,437 cubic feet—an increase of 2.2
per cent over 1969.
• Unit standard surveys continued over approved and proposed public sustained-
yield units, and such information is now available on 97,000,000 acres.
• Fourteen public sustained-yield units were gazetted as Forest Reserves after consultation and approval of the new interdepartmental Land Use Committee.
• The Forest Service established a special productivity committee. Its primary
objective is a uniform method of forest-land classification for intensified management. It will co-ordinate all research done by Government, industry, and other
agencies into increased forest production throughout the Province.
• Poor lumber-market conditions resulted in an increase in log exports, from both
exportable and nonexportable lands. The log export accounted for 300,291,963
board feet—about 2.6 per cent of the Provincial cut.
• There are now 230 mills with chippers, and 202 barkers. This is a decrease
from last year and is attributed to a general consolidation of manufacturing plants.
• Recovery of flood-killed timber in Ootsa Lake continued, with significant success.
• Amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences 1 and 40 was completed, reducing the
total number to 34.
• As a result of a special study by a Forest Service/industry committee, the firm-
wood cubic scale will become the only unit of measure throughout the Province,
commencing lanuary 1, 1972.
• Conversion from manual scaling to weight-scaling continued throughout the
Province—there are now 111 weigh-scales, compared with 91 in 1969. (There
were only 40 in 1966.)
• During 1970 the Forest Service assumed responsibility for forest recreation in
areas under its jurisdiction—by the year's end, forest recreation plans were being
incorporated within the multiple-use framework of administration.
• The Engineering Division continued to provide a variety of support services for
the housing, transportation, construction, and communication needs of the Forest
Service, in addition to technical and professional investigations and reports for
administrative use.
11
 12
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Clearing operations continued on Lake Williston and on the Mica Dam and
Libby Dam pondages.
The continuing road programme included location of 150 miles of new road,
construction of 35 miles of grade, erection of two new bridges, rebuilding of eight
other bridges to increase the load capacity, and maintenance on 840 miles of
previously built roadway.
A number of engineering studies was undertaken, including a survey of mill
waste, a review of scarification equipment, an estimate of the floating wood on
Lake Williston, participation in an evaluation of potential pulpable wood residues,
and a study of log and debris salvage in the Strait of Georgia.
Forage production was below average on most Crown ranges due to dry conditions. The hay supply was adequate, and cattle prices averaged higher than in
1969.
There were 4,003 forest fires throughout the Province, and the Forest Service's
direct cost of fighting them was $9,166,167. The fires covered 260,958 acres
—compared to the 10-year-average of 263,437 acres.
Despite bad-weather setbacks, Forest Service nurseries lifted a record 35,479,700
seedlings in 1970—an increase of nearly 7,000,000 over 1969. Significant successes have been recorded in the growing of Sitka spruce and Western hemlock
in containers.
In its second year of operation, the Surrey Nursery produced 7,000,000 seedlings.
In its continually expanding operations, the Information Division late in 1970
commenced a weekly series of TV programmes relating to the Forest Service on
Victoria's new Cable 10-TV, an educational-information channel. By year's
end, plans were made to present a 13-week series of programmes on Vancouver's
Cable 10-TV outlet.
At the end of 1970 there were 906 permanent personnel serving with the Forest
Service—the same as last year.
   REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
15
INVENTORY DIVISION
HIGHLIGHTS
With continuation of unit standard surveys over approved and proposed public
sustained-yield units (PSYU), information is now available on 97,000,000 acres.
Field work in 1970 covered 6,000,000 more acres than were surveyed in 1969.
Loss-factor work commenced in northern British Columbia in the proposed
Stikine PSYU.
Stand-table information as to number of trees per acre by diameter class, snags
per acre, vets per acre in immature, etc., is now being provided.
Fourteen public sustained-yield units were gazetted as Forest Reserves.
As an aid to land-use planning, each project supervisor will provide recommendations on his project relating to ecological reserves, park reserves, recreational
areas, wild-fowl sanctuaries, etc.
1970 PROGRESS
Classification and sampling of mature and immature stands, derivation of loss
factors, and determination of the growth and yield of immature stands continued
throughout 1970.
The Division completed field work to unit standard on six public sustained-
yield units and part of a seventh, two small special sale areas (SSA), two proposed
sustained-yield units, and an unregulated area. A total of 19,495,370 acres was
brought to unit standard, an increase of more than 6,000,000 acres over the area
surveyed in 1969.
Table A—1970 Field Work
Unit Standard Inventory
Public Sustained-yield Unit, Special Sale Area, Etc.
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Immature     Mature
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Barton Hill.
Botanie	
E & N Crown (unregulated).
Fort St. James SSA 	
Furry Creek SSA 	
Kotcho (proposed)	
Moberly	
Nicola. 	
Stikine (proposed) 1_
Stuart Lake	
Takla (southern portion).
Vancouver 	
Totals..
13
66
48
6
4
250
96
59
69
67
33
58
9
84
202
13
210
130
142
107
61
35
158
769
1,151
i Map scale of 1 inch=40 chains.
2 Felled samples.
102
228
17
9
108
86
184
234
71
22
150
167,865
1,429,734
148,000
49,862
24,691
6,035,010
2,019.574
1,218,552
4,952,594
1,539,519
854,196
1,055,773
19,495,370
Loss Factors
13
       1          15
Total
.      .          282
1
 16 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Table A—1970 Field Work—Continued
Growth and Yield
Public Sustained-yield Unit, Special Sale Area, Etc.
Maps
Classified
Number of Samples
Total
Estimated
Acreage
Immature
Mature
52
85
28
Total                                                         	
1653
3 Permanent remeasurable samples.
The proposed Kotcho PSYU provided an interesting operational problem as
there were no summer access roads. Base camp was situated at the old radar
station in Fort Nelson, and fixed-wing aircraft, together with classification helicopters, were used to move men and supplies to sub-bases established throughout the
unit. Rubber rafts enabled the crews to traverse numerous areas of the Kotcho
which were relatively inaccessible by other methods.
Communications are gradually improving in the northern part of the Province
as single side-band transceivers are being placed in base camps.
The Division completed compilation of all 1969 units in Table B by December
1970, and reports were released.
Table B—Production of Final Forest-cover Maps for 1969 Projects
Public Sustained-yield Unit
Number
of Maps
Forest and Nonforest Area in Acres
Volume in
Cunits for Mature
Crown Area
Crown
Alienated
Total
31
25
30
160
11
104
21
91
44
131
23
586,258
392,590
480,242
3,996,583
81,173
1,975,063
325,233
788,231
872,515
2,871,533
319,807
112,666
12,951
5,001
56,725
22,370
278,755
2,539
145,115
87,020
15,079
7,881
698,924
405,541
485,243
4,053,308
103,543
2,253,818
327,772
933,346
959,535
2,886,612
327,688
9,049,4101
Big Valley	
13,226,5901
Cottonwood T 	
14,319,1601
5,414,7201
6,173,8602
20,449,2501
6,669,0601
60,130,3202
Similkameen 	
Wapiti       -  	
14,640,9301
17,486,3601
6,293,5401
Totals.               	
671
|  12,689,228
746,102
13,435,330
173,853,200
1 Volume at 7.1"+d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
2 Volume at 9.1"-j-d.b.h. close utilization less decay.
Decay studies continued in the hemlock-cedar wet belt of the Kinbasket
PSYU. A start was made in the northern units (proposed), with a smaller crew
operating in the proposed Stikine PSYU.
Additional data obtained in 1969 permitted division of Zone 4 spruce and
balsam loss factors into two local groupings.   These two local groupings are:
(a) Units northwest of Prince George—Carp, Crooked River, Parsnip, Stuart,
and Takla PSYU's.
(b) Units south and east of Prince George—Big Valley, Bowron, Cottonwood,
Longworth, Naver, Purden, Quesnel Lake, Robson, Westlake, and Willow
River PSYU's and the Prince George SSA.
  136"
134°
132"
126°
122°
120°
116°
114c
112°
60'
58c
56 "
Watson
f«o" Lake
1 To
54'
52°
50'
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS   (PSYU's)
PUBLIC SUSTAINED YIELD UNITS
P.S.Y.U.'s ■MB Inside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
P.H.A.
NO. 1 Prince George Pulp and Paper Limited
9. Big Valley 43. Naver
15. Carp 44. Nechako
20. Crooked River 52. Parsnip
2 Kamloops Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd.
45.  NehaIlls ton
NO
1. Adams
5. Barriere
6. Barton Hill
11. Botanie
23. Eagle
NO. 3    Northwood Pulp Limited
12. Bowron
37.     Longworth
NO. 4 Bulkley Valley Forest Industries Limited
4. Babine 40. Morice
13. Burns Lake
NO. 5 Cariboo Pulp & Paper Company Limited
17. Cottonwood 42. Narcosll
NO. 7 Intercontinental Pulp Compnay Ltd.
53. Peace 69. Takla
46. Nicola
47. Niskonllth
49.  North Thompson
39. Honkman
55. Purden
71. Stuart Lake
77. Westlake
79. Willow River
59. Raft
63. Salmon Arm
64. Shuswap
70. Spallumcheen
Robson
Smithers
Quesnel Lake
P.S.Y.U.'s I  I Outside Pulpwood Harvesting Areas
26. Finlay
29. Granby
30. Hecate
32. Kettle
33. Kinbasket
34. Klngcome
35. Lac la Hache
36. Lardeau
38. Moberly
41. Nakusp
48. Nootka
50. Okanagan
51. Ootsa
SPECIAL  SALE AREAS   IHP
27. Fort St. James (0-I-C 1888/65)
28. Furry Creek (O-I-C 3909/67)
31. Kamloops Region (O-I-C 1826/66)
54. Prince George (O-I-C 2811/62)
TREE  FARM  LICENCES ■■
56. Quadra
57. Queen Charlotte
60. Rivers Inlet
62. Salmo
65. Similkameen
66. Skeena
67. Slocan
69. Soo
72. Stum
74. Upper Kootenay
75. Vancouver
76. Wapiti
78. Williams  Lake
80. Windermere
81. Yalakom
PRINCJE
RUPERT"
/\   EorCL.
^^Edward'
„Kunghlt I.
BRITISH COLUMBIA    :
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
HONOURABLE R. G. WILLISTON, MINISTER
Scale
40    30    20    10     0 40 y \fQ 160 MILES
STATUS OF SUSTAINED-YIELD FORESTRY PROGRAMME
AS AT DECEMBER 31, 1970
L=
58°
56c
21. MacMillan, Bloedel Industries Ltd.
22. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
23. Canadian Cellulose Company, Limited
24. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
25. Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Limited
26. The Corporation of the District of
Mission
27. British Columbia Forest Products
Limited
30. Sinclair Spruce Lumber Company Ltd.
32. Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited
33. Federated Co-Operatives Limited
35. B.C. Interior Sawmills Ltd.
36. F. & R. Logging Co. Ltd.
37. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.
38. Empire Mills Limited
39. MacMillan, Bloedel Limited
41.  Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd.
MAJOR   PARKS WW
54°
1.
Bowron Lake
7.
Kootenay
13.
Mount Seymour
2.
Garibaldi
8.
Manning
14.
Stone Mountain
3.
Glacier
9.
Mount Revelstoke
15.
Strathcona
4.
Golden Ears
10.
Mount Robson
16.
Tweedsmuir
5.
Hamber
11.
Monashee
17.
Wells Gray
6.
Kokanee
12.
Muncho Lake
18.
19.
Yoho
Ca thed ra1
Caamai
Sound Q
52°
QUEEN
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
50°
Capo Co
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
116°
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 17
The growth and yield section constructed 129 zonal curves based on recompiled
average lines in Zones 4, 5, 6, and 9. Included were curves for low site in Zone 2.
Thirty local curves were prepared from data from the Botanie, Lardeau, Nicola,
and Wapiti PSYU's. In addition, 15 diameter over-age curves were drawn for
Lardeau and Wapiti PSYU's. The former curves provide mean annual increment
and the latter average tree diameters for growth types at any stand age.
After consultation with interested users, work started on the compiling of
stand-table information for all units surveyed in 1968 and 1969.
Approximately $19,000 was received from sale of 17,294 maps, reports,
Xerox printed data, manuals, and Forest Inventory Statistics 1967.
A total of 22,077 maps was supplied to the Forest Service and other departments; while 23,827 reductions printed in the new 1860 Xerox were supplied to
Forest Districts, other departments, and the public.
DEVELOPMENTS
In 1970 the forest land in 14 public sustained-yield units was placed under
reserve and gazetted as the Ashnola, Babine, Burns Lake, Carp, Crooked River,
Finlay, Granby, Morice, Nechako, Nehalliston, Ootsa, Similkameen, Smithers, and
Stuart Lake Forests.   Another 25 Forest Reserves are being processed.
Fixed-base 70-mm. photography studies continued. Photography was carried
out in the Chehalis-Dixon Lake area of the Vancouver PSYU using black and white,
false colour (infra-red), and colour negative films.
Inventory work scheduled for 1971 includes the Eagle, Longworth, Quesnel
Lake, and Takla PSYU's, the proposed Sikanni PSYU and the proposed Dawson
Creek SSA.
Decadent hemlock and cedar studies will continue in the Kinbasket PSYU, and
exploratory work will start in the Nakusp-Slocan area. Northern work will take
place in the Moberly-Dawson Creek area.
Permanent-remeasurable growth and yield work will continue in the Prince
George Forest District.
It is planned to produce stand-table information for all future unit surveys.
The land-use planner will correlate pertinent information collected on each
unit survey.
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 21
RESEARCH DIVISION
A detailed report on the research programme for 1970 will appear in the
Forest Research Review compiled at the end of the fiscal year.
TREE-IMPROVEMENT STUDIES
The clone-bank area is being constantly expanded. To date, 157 acres have
been cleared at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station and a start has been made
on a new area on the opposite side of the lake where 40 acres are now being logged.
In co-operation with the Reforestation Division, a start was made on collecting
wind-pollinated seed from the Coast-Interior transition region of the Fraser Canyon
and Pemberton areas. A high-elevation seed orchard is planned, using wind-
pollinated material from the correct geographic and elevational range. Access and
stands are both restricted, but selection is being practised where possible. The cone
crop was "spotty" in 1970, but collections were made from 50 trees and the prospects are good for a crop in 1971, when it is hoped to complete the collection from
a further 100 trees.
There were very few male and female strobili in the Cowichan Lake clone
bank, so no crosses could be made. On the other hand, there were sufficient strobili
on some of the inbreds established from seed, and 30 self- and cross-pollinations were
made on 11 Sx and S2 inbreds. Successful crosses were made on two S2 inbreds
which had only been planted in 1965. Further interspecific crosses were made with
the Asiatic Pseudotsuga; also established from seed, but no viable seed was produced.
The 19 test-sites, composed of intraspecific crosses and established on different
locations on the Coast, were all checked for survival. In addition, the heights were
measured on crosses on the five test-sites planted in 1968. In spite of browsing and
disease, some of the crosses with Washington and Oregon pollen parents look
extremely promising. Nine new test-sites have been selected and staked in readiness for some 33,000 1 + 1 seedlings from intraspecific crosses now growing in the
nursery, which will be planted next spring.
Ten test-sites of a provenance study of coastal Douglas fir were planted in the
spring of 1970. Phenological assessments involving flushing and bud set of 77
provenances were made at three test-sites which differ climatically. During the
fall, 10 additional test-sites were prepared for planting in the spring of 1971.
Arcotal continues to be a promising deer repellent after three years' trial.
At the Red Rock Nursery and Research Centre a small laboratory is being
developed where seed can be extracted, cleaned, and counted, germination tests
made, and cold-storage facilities provided. An additional area has been prepared
for a clone bank and a start has been made to provide access to a large annex on
the west side of the Fraser River. In the nursery a large number of spruce and
lodgepole pine half-sib seedlings are being grown for various investigations, and
rootstock selected for subsequent grafting.
A picetum of 20 spruce species and 57 seed sources from throughout the
world was planted near Chilliwack. A northern picetum will be established with
26 seed lots representing 12 species. These piceta are made possible through the
co-operation of the Ontario Forest Service.
Cones and scions were collected from 138 trees selected in the Smithers and
Burns Lake area, and over 600 grafts were made.    Collections made in previous
 22 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
years from Prince George and the East Kootenay were augmented by further collections of those that failed to survive grafting.
Many of the Prince George selections grafted two years ago have produced
flowers—one female and one hermaphrodite were observed, the remainder were
males.
The purpose of the range-wide assessment of genetic variation in lodgepole pine
is to establish criteria for provenance transfer and to provide a sound basis for
tree-breeding with this species. In continuing this study, preliminary morphometric
analyses of cones and needles were completed, and, at Red Rock and Cowichan Lake
nurseries, detailed observations were made weekly on the morphology and growth
behaviour of 2-f-0 seedlings of 144 provenances and 147 wind-pollinated families.
Seedlings from a pilot study of 30 provenances were transplanted and have since
been lifted for planting out in field trials in the spring of 1971. Measures were also
made on seedlings of 645 half-sib families which are being grown for breeding
arboreta.
Thirty-one hundred rootstocks were potted to receive scions from 75 lodgepole
pine plus trees from northern British Columbia and Yukon Territory. They are to
be propagated in a clone bank at Red Rock. The plus trees were located by a
faculty member and forestry students of the University of British Columbia, on
behalf of the Svenska Cellulosa Company. Wind-pollinated seed from each tree
has been cleaned for use in progeny trials.
SEEDLING PHYSIOLOGY STUDIES
Considerable effort has gone into organizing a new plant physiology nursery
and greenhouse on North Road, Victoria. The controlled-environment chambers,
laboratory facilities, and the greenhouse are in full production.
A start was made on a programme to find suitable selective herbicides for use
on the Reforestation Division nurseries. Of four herbicides tried, Propazine at low
rates gave excellent weed control with minimal seedling damage on both 1+0 and
germinating seedlings. In some instances the release from weed competition gave
better growth than periodic hand-weeding. The programme will continue with the
testing of other herbicides.
A small trial has been conducted at the Surrey Nursery and a programme
started using the controlled-environment chambers to study the factors affecting
Interior spruce seed during stratification and germination, and the subsequent
growth of the germinants.
A study is under way to map the variation of frost-hardiness in 2+0 Douglas
fir over a yearly cycle. Some technical help has been given to the Reforestation
Division's Vancouver Island nurseries in determining the degree of frost resistance
of 1+0 seedlings for their frost protection programme.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
The Forest Land Classification System has been approved as the formal mapping scheme for the forested lands of British Columbia. The mapping will provide
the necessary framework for intensive forest management on both the tree-farm
licences and public sustained-yield units.
A few experimental mappings with the above scheme have been jointly undertaken with the private companies on some tree-farm licences.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
23
The principles of the mapping system have been outlined in the recent publication, A Mapping and Interpretation System for the Forested Lands of British
Columbia (Research Note 54). A short course on the system was given in February
for industry and British Columbia Forest Service personnel.
ECOLOGY
Progress in analysing vegetational data by methods related to numerical taxonomy has been slow because few investigators in this field have used large quantities of data, and the theoretical statistical and mathematical concepts have not yet
been formalized.
Analysis of vegetational plots from the north central Interior extracted "noda"
from the data. Noda are groups of plant species indicative of site conditions and
forest productivity. Work is now directed to developing quantitative rather than
presence/absence methods, with the possibility of increasing the predictive value of
noda.
CANADA LAND INVENTORY
Representation on the Inter-Sector Analysis Committee of the Canada Land
Inventory (ARDA) continued at four meetings held in 1970. Methods and procedures have developed to the state that Research Division's function in the committee's work consists now of observation rather than active participation.
DATA PROCESSING
The main concern during 1970 was the need to replace the IBM 1440 system
located in the Vancouver Scaling Office. In the meantime, personnel have designed
a system for IBM 360 and have flow-charted and coded five of the 52 programmes
which will have to be rewritten.
No major programmes have been added to our library, but most have been
updated to handle a wider variety of applications.
In addition to the processing of Forest Research experimental data, assistance
was given to the Forest Inventory Division in developing a computerized height-
diameter-curve fitting method, to the Management Division to evaluate the results
of a scarification study, and to the Reforestation Division in various smaller
applications.
SILVICULTURE
Vancouver
In May a survival count was made on the 15,000 mud-packed Douglas fir
seedlings planted in 1969. Later in the fall a field assessment, consisting of survival
count, total height, and 1970 growth, was carried out on the 34,000 seedlings planted
in 1968 and 1969. Field data are now being checked and analysed for a final
report.
Numerous plots, including trials of tree species on the west coast of Vancouver
Island, were examined. Missing tags were replaced, established trees brushed, and
invading natural regeneration weeded out.
Prince Rupert
Work was confined to an interim assessment of a number of previously established plantation and provenance trials.   No new work was initiated.
 24 report of lands, forests, and water resources
Prince George
A number of plantations and provenance trials were re-examined and new ones
established at Valemount, Prince George, Anzac Siding, and McLeod Lake.
Third and final years' planting of cold-stored and freshly lifted white spruce
throughout the growing season was completed in the fall. The freshly lifted, early
plantings are putting on much better growth than later plantings. Survival of all
freshly lifted stock is excellent.
The final planting of container stock was completed during the summer. Preliminary results indicate a high mortality in most lodgepole pine treatments during
the summer.
Kamloops
Container planting trials were continued, with reassessment of previous trials
and establishment of new trials. On the average, containerized seedlings have not
shown any better survival than bare-root stock.
Studies on the compatibility of conifer and grass seeding have failed to produce
conclusive evidence regarding the effect of grass on tree establishment. However,
there are some indications that seeding of even bunchgrass types has some inhibiting
effects on conifer germination and survival.
Cost per survivor data collected to date shows only minor differences between
spot-seeding by Panama seeder and conventional mattock-planting on difficult sites.
The continued increase in utilization of lodgepole pine has created large acreages requiring rehabilitative measures. An intensive programme of research will
be required over the next few years to assist in the proper silvicultural management
of this species.
Nelson
Several investigations on extending the planting in the spruce zone, using cold-
stored bare-root stock, show a trend that planting can be continued up to six to
eight weeks after an area becomes plantable in spring, and the resulting survival will
be over 50 per cent. A hot, dry summer will reduce this period by about two weeks,
and poor stock, resulting from poor storage conditions or bad handling, will reduce
the period even more.
FOREST PRODUCTIVITY COMMITTEE
The Forest Productivity Committee is an intradivisional committee appointed
by the Deputy Minister to provide guidelines and leadership in the field of growth
and yield research related to the intensification of forest-management practices in
British Columbia.
A major function of this committee is to channel research projects to a goal
which will help the Forest Service determine future policy with respect to the size
of allowable annual cuts.
The committee is now involved in the problem of estimating the additional
increment from such silvicultural measures as fertilization, spacing, and thinning.
It is intended that, with industry co-operation, there will be both operational scale
trials and permanent plot experiments.
New sampling methods will have to be designed to estimate growth by successive enumerations. These data will form the basis for constructing local yield
tables of managed stands.
A forest-land classification system will be used as an integral part in the planning and design of experiments and to indicate sampling strata.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
25
Research in simulator models of forest stands and management units which
employ the single-tree approach will be investigated to provide interim estimates of
growth until accurate yield tables based on plot data are available.
The committee will also be concerned with benefit/cost ratios as criteria
determining optimum silvicultural measures.
The various projects planned will be initiated by personnel from several divisions, including the Research Division, under the general direction of the Forest
Productivity Committee.
  LODGEPOLE  PINE
reforestation division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
29
REFORESTATION DIVISION
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
In the past, some districts have been hampered in their planting programmes
by a lack of sufficient plantable area. However, as a result of an aggressive site-
preparation campaign in 1970 on the heels of a severe fire season, all districts now
have adequate plantable area to accommodate an increased planting programme in
the immediate future.
This is particularly significant in the Prince Rupert District, where the lack of
suitable planting-sites had previously been a problem. District survey crews in 1970
examined 50,847 acres, of which 32,379 acres (63.6 per cent) were found to be
understocked, and a further 3,770 acres found to be unplantable. Examination of
an additional 40,720 acres, burned under prescription in the fall, indicated that
further preparation will be required on only 6,094 acres before planting is possible.
Elsewhere in the Interior, regeneration surveys were confined mainly to sites
disturbed prior to 1970. Some 25,000 acres were examined in the Kamloops District and just over half of this area was found to be inadequately stocked and suitable for planting. In the Prince George District, 30,142 acres were surveyed and
more than 70 per cent was found to be adequately stocked, with only 4,762 acres
requiring planting. One-third of the 1,865 acres surveyed in the Nelson District was
found to be plantable.
On the lower Coast, Vancouver District crews were able to prepare planting
prescriptions for 21,300 acres (68 per cent of 31,200 acres examined). Intensive
surveys carried out on other cutover areas revealed that on the areas examined
6,537 acres are restocked and only 3,339 acres will be suitable for planting.
A number of examinations were made in specific areas throughout the Province
to determine their suitability for direct seeding.
FOREST TREE SEED
While there was a generally good flower crop for most species in 1970, the
resulting seed crop was disappointing. There was a great number of cones in evidence throughout the Province, but most often they contained no usable seed. The
result was that field crews spent many days locating areas in which picking could
be profitable. Insects, particularly the spiral cone borer (Hylemya anthracina) and
the spruce seedworm (Laspeyresia youngana), were the major destructive agents,
and populations were the highest yet recorded in many instances. Cone rust was
also prevalent.
The coastal Douglas fir crop failed to develop, except in the transitional zone
(Pemberton-Boston Bar-Hope), and the crop was severely decimated by insects.
Fortunately, the best collectable crops occurred in the Prince Rupert District, where
they were most needed, and in parts of the Prince George District. In the southern
Interior, insect damage was evident earlier in the season and the problem was well
defined before collections started. In the Nelson District, for example, no cones
were collected at all, while in Kamloops collections were mainly Douglas fir, which
did not seem to be as badly attacked as did spruce.
 30 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Summary of Cones Collected and Shipped to Duncan, 1970
Forest District
Species (Amounts in Bushels)
Douglas
Fir
Sitka
Spruce
Western      Interior
Hemlock      Spruce
Other
Total
Vancouver  	
714.0
22.5
222.5
528.0
533.0
       |       426.5
54.5      |    3,178.5
1,140.5
3,788.5
Prince George  	
|    3,269.5
1        257.5
10.5
3.0
3,502.5
788.5
Totals	
1,487.0
533.(1     1        54 5        I     7.132.0
13.5
9,220.0
Extraction of this collection commenced December 1 and was still under way
at the end of the year.
A winter collection of lodgepole pine will continue into 1971, and to date
some 2,500 bushels have been collected. This collection is being carried out with
the co-operation of the Canadian Forestry Service. Pine collections completed last
winter (1969/70) were processed at Duncan during the summer and yielded
541.185 kilograms (1,190 lb.) of seed.
Summary of Winter 1969/70 Pine Collections
Forest District
Bushels
Extracted
Seed Yield
Kilograms
Kilograms/Bushel
2,309.5
1,964.5
541.0
2,081.5
154.400
159.225
43.600
183.960
0.067
0.081
0.081
Nelson 	
0.088
6,896.5
541.185
0.078
Three new seed-production areas were established in the Vancouver District,
bringing the total plot area to 123.8 acres. While development work commenced
at the new sites, some 7.5 tons of chemical fertilizer were applied to 19.6 acres of
plots established in previous years. In the Prince George District, all seed-
production areas were cleaned, remarked, and rethinned where necessary. SPA
G-l, near Stone Creek, yielded some 95 bushels of spruce cones.
At the Campbell River Seed Orchard, controlled pollination was carried out
earlier in the year on 36 grafts involving 21 clones. Cones which subsequently
occurred for the first time in the grafted portion of the orchard produced about
1 pound of high-elevation seed, the end result of both the controlled pollination
(mentioned above) and natural (wind) pollination. It is interesting to note that
yields from the orchard averaged 25 filled seeds per cone compared to 15-20 filled
seeds per cone in a normal Douglas fir stand.
An area of 18 acres adjacent to the new Campbell River Nursery was cleared
for the site of the full-sib seedling orchard for high-elevation areas on Vancouver
Island. A further 15 acres are available for future expansion. The old Snowdon
Nursery site will be utilized for the north coast seed orchard; this will be a half-sib
seedling orchard and the stock for it is now ready. Early in 1970, the Mainland
high-elevation Douglas fir orchard was established at the Koksilah Nursery. Very
little mortality was experienced on the 10-acre area, which now contains 1,100
trees from 56 different parents.    A start on the development of the 3,000-acre
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
31
reserve for seed orchards near Prince George was made late in the year. This
area will eventually contain breeding stock for Interior spruce and lodgepole pine
genetic programmes as well as seed orchards for these species.
Special cone collections were made from 51 Douglas fir trees in the vicinity of
Pemberton, Boston Bar, and Hope. This collection will provide the basis for a
high-elevation seed orchard for the Dewdney PSYU. Further collections from
approximately 50 more trees are required.
The amount of seed weighed and treated at the Duncan Seed Centre for sowing
in 1970 amounted to 791.662 kilograms (1,740 lb.). In addition to this work,
a total of 477 germination tests were completed (56 new, 346 retests, and 75
research tests). An electronic seed-counter purchased late in the year is proving
an invaluable aid in this work. This unit not only reduces the time required in
seed-testing and permits more efficient use of manpower, but is also necessary for
genetic work. A total of 55 special requests involving 187 seed lots was processed.
These requests involved seed for the container programme and seed for research
purposes both at home and abroad. The bulk of seed in storage has now been
recleaned over the gravity table — a step necessary with the change-over to
mechanized-drill seeding in the nurseries. Because of this recleaning, seed inventories are lower than normal usage would indicate.
Tree seed in storage at the end of 1970 is equivalent to about 17Vi tons:
Agency
British Columbia Forest Service
Companies 	
Total
Amount in Kilograms
... 12,336.068
._    3,790.860
16,126.928
FOREST NURSERIES
Once again, unfavorable weather conditions resulted in a considerable difference between actual seedling inventories and planned production. This situation
was aggravated by the fact that facilities and personnel were already under the
strain of expansion.
At the Red Rock Nursery, an open winter, strong winds, and a reversal in
May-June weather patterns upset the germination of fall-sown (1969) spruce so
seriously that the few seed-beds which did have germination had to be ploughed-in.
Likewise, at Surrey, sowing in new fields, coupled with an early spring drought,
resulted in very poor germination of fall-sown beds and these also had to be turned
under. Consequently, the production of 52 million seedlings planned for 1972 is
now expected to approximate only 38 million. However, this shortage may be
made up in part by container-grown stock. During 1970, some 750,000 container
seedlings were produced and in the fall about 330,000 of these were shipped. The
balance is scheduled for planting in 1971. The success with Sitka spruce and
Western hemlock in containers is particularly significant as these species are perhaps the most difficult to grow in conventional nursery seed-beds.
In spite of the set-backs caused by weather and other conditions, Forest
Service nurseries were able to lift a record 35,497,700 seedlings during 1970, an
increase of almost 7 million (24.5 per cent) over 1969; some of these are still in
storage.
A total of 462,000 lineal feet (87.5 miles) of seed-bed was sown in 1970.
Of the 107,250 feet sown in the fall of 1969, 57,000 feet had to be ploughed-in, as
reported above. These sowings are scheduled to produce stock for planting in
fall 1971 through fall 1972.
 32 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
On September 12 a killing frost occurred generally throughout the Province.
While the frost was forecast and steps were taken to protect the 1—0 stock, the
severity of the frost was not anticipated. For the first time, 2-year-old seedlings at
Duncan were damaged by frost and slight damage was done to 1 — 0 stock at both
Surrey and Red Rock.
The lifting of 7 million seedlings at Surrey commenced in the fall of 1970.
This represents the first crop from that nursery where development began just two
years ago.
The construction of new facilities and the development of additional nursery
space are an important part of the current nursery expansion programme. Cold-
storage facilities are now capable of storing over 15 million seedlings. The sorting-
room at Red Rock was completed in 1970, and various implement sheds, crew
accommodation, storage buildings, and irrigation works were constructed there and
elsewhere.
Almost 95 acres were fallowed during the year, and most of this acreage, being
new fields at Campbell River, Chilliwack, and Red Rock, had to be reworked several
times in order to remove rubbish and to be upgraded generally with levelling and
drainage. Peat was applied to the fields scheduled for sowing in 1971. At Surrey,
an additional 25 acres were prepared for seed-bed, bringing the total area available
for sowing at all nurseries next year to 120 acres. A further 17 acres at Surrey
were rough-cleared, and 11.5 acres of sod were turned-in. Ten acres were rough-
cleared at Chilliwack Nursery in preparation for the transplanting in 1971.
PLANTING
Following a winter of less than average snow, early planting conditions in the
spring were not favourable. Planting on some projects had to be postponed or
suspended temporarily because of poor soil-moisture conditions. Indications were
that a hot, dry summer and autumn similar to 1967 could be anticipated, and this
proved to be the case in the southern Interior at least. However, rains toward the
end of the summer improved conditions so that fall planting was able to proceed as
scheduled.
Planting by all agencies totalled 33,931,100 trees on 85,336 acres. This is a
new record, being some 32 per cent over the total trees planted in 1969. It is also
significant that the proportion of trees planted by the Forest Service has been increasing steadily for the past two years, from 29.5 per cent of the total in 1968 to
37 per cent last year and to 42 per cent in 1970. The total of 14,403,000 trees
planted by Forest Service this year was almost equally divided between the Coast
and the Interior (Appendix Table 22).
Included in the Forest Service planting are some 80,000 container-grown seedlings which were set out in special plots as part of the continuing experimental programme to determine the applicability and performance of these new stock types.
Initial trials with the most recent idea of growing seedling plugs in a moulded styro-
foam block were carried out with the main objective of comparing these with the
earlier bullet, bullet-plug, and bare-root stock types. Conclusive results will not be
available for at least two years, but it is planned to continue the trials on an expanded
scale next year. The plots established over the past two years involving the use of
the bullet and bullet-plug seedlings were re-examined, and preliminary results indicate this type of container stock compares favourably with bare-root stock in terms
of survival and initial growth. This series of trials will be reviewed periodically as
are other trials to observe results over the lone term.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
33
Acceptance of Forest Service planting contracts by private planting agencies
was most gratifying during the past year. Approximately 3,905,000 trees were
planted by contractors on Crown lands in 1970, and interest in this type of arrangement is increasing, as evidenced by the number of bids which were received. Three
small contracts in the Interior were cancelled after commencement, owing to the
early arrival of winter. Twenty-four contracts to plant a total of 3,125,000 trees
have been advertised for the spring of 1971, and additional direct planting agreements are being considered.
The first, but small, company planting on a timber sale harvesting licence was
completed in the fall, and it is anticipated that timber sale harvesting licensees will
be increasingly involved in the future reforestation programme. Seven licensees
have requested sowings totalling 3,635,000 trees for planting in 1973.
In connection with the 1970 planting programme, field crews established a
total of 5,761 survival sample plots. An additional 3,305 sample plots in earlier
plantations were also re-examined. Recent plantings of lodgepole pine have been
encouraging in terms of survival and growth, and the amount of that species has
been increased in the current scheduled sowings for all districts.
Trials were established this year to determine the possibility of planting bare-
root stock throughout the growing season. Planting of spruce and lodgepole pine
on a semioperational scale was carried out in the northern Interior at weekly intervals, commencing in m:d-July and ending in mid-September. These trials utilized
regular 2 — 0 stock lifted weekly at the Red Rock Nursery and shipped to the
planting areas with a minimum of storage. Initial results are variable, but high
survival appears to depend mainly on the length of time and the degree of handling
between lifting and planting.   Further trials are planned for 1971.
CO-OPERATION
The expanding container seedling programme continues to require a high
degree of collaboration, particularly between the two main participants—the Canadian Forestry Service and the British Columbia Forest Service. Consultation on
design and arrangements for the fabrication of special equipment played an important part in this year's success. The importance of close co-operation during the
critical periods of sowing, germination, and the need for discussions and agreement
on nutrient schedules and unforeseen problems cannot be overemphasized. While
new facilities at the Duncan Nursery were used for the stock to be used in Coast
production trials, the Interior seedlings and Coast hemlock stock for genetic trials
were grown at the Burnside Road laboratory. This programme is financed jointly
by the two Services.
Entomologists on the Burnside laboratory staff also provided a valuable service
in connection with the assessment of cone seed insect populations late in the year.
This assistance enabled Forest Service crews to define the presence of insects and
to estimate the extent and significance of damage.
Co-operative activities with industry also continued during the year. Companies and other agencies took an active part in the out-planting trials with container
stock. These are to be continued in 1971. Some 34,000 seedlings of genetic significance were grown in bullets for co-operators of the Tree Improvement Board
and were transplanted into "Fertil-pots." These will be available for field planting
in spring 1971. Overwintering in the bullets last year and subsequent mortality in
the transplants indicates some of the genetic crosses involved may not be particularly
suited to transplanting.
 34 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
On another project, the Forest Service co-operated with several companies in
a trial to determine the effects of transpiration retardants. Initial results are inconclusive and further work is expected to be completed next year. Similar work is
under way with browsing repellants.
A co-operative study with the Western Forest Tree Seed Council into the
germination of Abies species was initiated at the Duncan Seed Centre, and will be
continued in 1971.
Visitors to the various nurseries continue to occupy a considerable portion of
the nurserymen's time. For example, Red Rock recorded each visit during the past
year and tallied 350 individuals who came, either singly or in groups, to tour the
nursery. In addition, a total of 284 persons attended in-service training sessions
sponsored by the Forest Service and held in the conference room. At Duncan the
nursery staff conducted seven major tours in addition to smaller local groups.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL FORESTRY AND CORRECTIONS CAMP
PROGRAMME
This co-operative programme continues to provide significant benefits to both
departments. In 1970 there was a general increase in the population of the forest
camps. The continual improvement in work habits reflects the effort put into training of the officers and, in turn, their guidance of the work crews in the field. In
many cases the performance of the inmate crews was equal to that of crews hired
from the outside.
Once again the majority of the work done by inmates was in nursery development and operation, including clearing, fencing, drainage, seed-bed preparation,
transplanting, and lifting. At coastal nurseries, inmate crews lifted over 7 million
trees, which represents about 20 per cent of the year's total lift. Residents of the
Alouette River Unit, using transplant machines, transplanted over 2 million trees—
almost one-quarter of the total transplanting programme in 1970.
Other reforestation accomplishments by the various camps include the planting
of 362,000 trees, site preparation of 1,640 acres, and stand improvement (thinning
and cleaning) work on 136 acres.
Salvage-logging operations conducted by inmate crews provided the material
for a variety of wood products used on these and other forest projects. Sawmills
located near Hutda Lake, Alouette Lake, Chilliwack Valley, and Sayward produced
lumber for buildings, bridges, and wharves, while other camps produced shakes, plot
stakes, and posts for fencing projects. Crews under the direction of trained officers
took action on 34 forest fires (a record of 25 fires in the Kamloops District alone),
with excellent results, and when not on the fire-lines these men maintained trails
and serviced campgrounds.
The establishment of two detached camps, one at Blue Mountain near Haney,
the other at Sullivan Valley near Kamloops, is indicative of the versatility of the
programme and the success being achieved in the rehabilitation of these men.
 MOUNTAIN  ASH
information division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
37
INFORMATION DIVISION
For the Information Division, 1970 was a year of expanded operations as the
Forest Service adopted new policies and responsibilities. Chief among these was
the decision to include aspects of recreation in forest-management plans, and this
served to inaugurate a combined information/public relations programme destined
to reach significant proportions in the near future.
In addition to the production of normal news releases for all media, the Division
also distributed a number of special feature articles to the press, trade journals, and
other publications. Several "guest editorials" were prepared for release by the
Minister and Deputy Minister. Several service publications were rewritten and
updated.
The year also saw the Division become deeply involved with the production and
presentation of numerous television shows. This included a series of 17 half-hour
Forest Service programmes broadcast by Victoria's education-information Cable
10-TV, commencing in early November. By year's end, arrangements had been
completed for a similar series of 13 half-hour programmes to be broadcast early in
1971 by the Cable 10-TV outlet in Vancouver.
A close liaison was continued with other forest agencies, industry, and foresters'
organizations. The Division was also active with a number of special displays in
which the sustained-yield policy was the central theme.
PHOTOGRAPHY
For the first time in several years, total production was down, but there was an
increase in colour-photography production.
Due to economy measures and lack of staff facilities, copies of file prints were
not made for the forest districts, accounting for the drop in black-and-white production.
The section produced 9,315 prints, 1,810 in colour. News releases again
accounted for a high proportion of prints.
The slide library was improved, with more than 3,000 duplicated and placed
in visisheets, under subject listing. During the year, 760 slides were added to the
library.
A total of 262 black-and-white and 520 colour negatives was added to the
photo library.
Slide production and duplication were a major portion of the section's work.
A total of 6,237 duplicates was made, including those for the slide file. The slide
show Clearing the Peace was completed and sound-taped; 12 copies of the 80-slide
show were made. Work is nearly complete on a Management Division slide show
covering the history of sustained yield in British Columbia.
Major assignments included continued coverage of the Mica pondage clearing,
fire-fighting in the Vancouver and Kamloops Districts, Ootsa Lake salvage operation,
and planting in the Kispiox area. The requirement for X-ray processing by Research Division was down and only 1,410 70-mm. film positives were produced,
approximately 50 per cent of the 1969 total.
MOTION PICTURES
No major motion-picture production was undertaken during 1970.   A total of
2,700 feet of colour film was shot.   Demonstrations of the A-26 air-tanker and the
 38 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
use of helicopters for gathering tree samples were covered. Film was obtained of
women planters in the Kispiox area and the Ootsa Lake salvage operation, and used
on educational television programmes. Coverage was given to the Mica pondage
clearing, and air footage of tanker drops was taken for the Kamloops District for use
in the tanker pilot-training programme.
Two 25-second fire-prevention clips were updated and sounded. These were
distributed to all British Columbia television stations. One training film, shot in
1968, was edited and sounded. Called Bucking Facts, it deals with the use of the
chain-saw for clearing windfalls.
LIBRARY
Librarian Miss Enid Lemon visited the Training School to help organize material
available for students taking the ranger courses.
The mailing-list for the monthly Accession List has passed the 400 mark and
requests for material have increased considerably.
Lack of space in the library is drastic and it is practically impossible to order
any more textbooks.
FILM LIBRARY
Throughout 1970 the Forest Service film library issued 2,134 films on loan,
and they were seen by a combined adult and student audience of 301,520. These
figures compare with 1,065 loans and 252,428 viewers the previous year. This
increase is attributed to more-efficient booking procedures instigated early in 1970.
The films were used by a wide variety of organizations in Canada and the
United States, and included Forest Service personnel, universities, technical schools,
service clubs, and schools of all grade levels.
It was difficult to find appropriate films for inclusion in the library. Twenty-
three films from outside sources were previewed, and only two were selected. Fourteen films were added to the library during 1970, of which 12 were Forest Service
productions.
DISPLAYS
Forest Service displays were used in six locations—Parent-Teacher Federation
Conference, New Westminster; Career Expositions in Courtenay and Penticton;
trade fair, Quesnel; Sam Steele Days, Cranbrook; and Western Forestry and Conservation Association Conference in Vancouver. There are still permanent displays
at the Pacific National Exhibition.
Some 22,750 people visited the Forest Service lookout tower during the 1970
PNE.
Panels from the Festival of Logging display at the PNE were made into a self-
supporting unit.
EDUCATION
Twenty additional school libraries, including two regional college libraries, were
provided with Forest Service information material. Individual requests from teachers
continued to increase, as did those from students and various youth organizations.
The Information Division assisted in the development of the Cowichan Valley
Forest Museum as an outdoor classroom. Initially, this will be used by elementary
schools in the Duncan area and will be extended to other school districts as required.
Tours of Victoria headquarters and the Green Timbers Nursery, as well as
lectures and information talks, were conducted by personnel of the information staff
where time permitted.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
39
SIGNS
New designs for Ranger Station and plantation signs were completed and prototypes were installed in selected areas. Panels, using the new Forest Service identification symbol for updating the old-style ranger signs, were designed and field tested.
These should be ready for distribution early in 1971.
FOREST SERVICE MUSEUM
Honorary Curator D. E. Adderley collected a large number of interesting
artifacts for the museum during the year, many coming from the Nanaimo Ranger
Station, which was closed late in 1970.
  mmaammmmmmmm
WESTERN  HEMLOCK
management division
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 43
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Poor market conditions in the second half of 1969 continued through 1970.
Tight-money policies and high interest rates were blamed for the generally low
prices and demand for lumber. In an attempt to maintain net returns, industry
concentrated on production of higher grades, and this contributed to the increased
scale for the Province as a whole. The poor lumber market also resulted in substantial increases in log exports, both from exportable and nonexportable lands.
The total scale of all products in 1970 was 1,932,628,437 cubic feet, an increase
of 2.2 per cent over 1969.
For the second consecutive year, the Vancouver Forest District recorded a
slight decrease in production. This was again offset by a substantial increase in the
Coast portion of the Prince Rupert District to give an over-all increase for the Coast.
In the Interior, the Prince Rupert and Nelson scaled production was off, but increases
in the Kamloops and Prince George Districts resulted in an increase for the Interior
as a whole.
Timber sale harvesting licences played a prominent role in the year's management activity, and the number awarded now stands at 184. These licences account
for a total allowable annual cut of 4,423,850 cunits. The move to close utilization
continued throughout the year, despite the poor market conditions. The number of
mills with chippers now stands at 230, and there are 202 barkers. This is a smaller
increase than the previous year, but this is attributed to some degree to a consolidation of manufacturing plants.
In an attempt to control the spruce bark beetle epidemic of 1968/69 in the
Cranbrook-Fernie area, and to recover as much volume as possible from the killed
trees, a crash programme of cruising was undertaken early in the year. Sales were
auctioned quickly and cutting permits issued on existing timber sales. Results have
been mixed. Salvage operations have been excellent in some areas and poor in
others.   The poor lumber market had some bearing.
December 31, 1970 saw the end of a five-year cut-control period for the estab*
lished licensees in many of the public sustained-yield units. On the whole, the results
have been very satisfactory, with the majority of operators falling within the confines
of 10 per cent, more or less, of the sum of their five-year allowable annual cuts.
A number of operators found themselves below the minimum requirements, partially
as a result of the poor market. (The logging industry was advised there would be
no reduction in individual allowable annual cuts.)
A successful pilot operation late in 1969 led to the award of a licence for the
recovery of flood-killed timber in Ootsa Lake. It was found the wood in that portion
of a tree more than 10 feet below the surface of the water was sound. The licensee
has developed a self-propelled barge from which a set of hydraulically operated
tree-shears is let down the trunk of the trees. A mechanical arm lifts the whole
tree onto a cradle on the side of the barge, and, when it is full, the trees are bundled
and dumped into the water.   The tops are left on the trees for buoyancy.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber prices were depressed throughout 1970, and stumpage rates continued
the decline that began with the market break in mid-1969.
The average price bid for Crown timber was $4.28 per 100 cubic feet, which
compares with $9.02 in 1969 and the averages for the years 1964-68, inclusive,
 44 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
when stumpage rates were $4.09, $4.20, $4.25, $3.21, and $6.26 respectively per
100 cubic feet.
Stumpage rates in the Interior are tied directly to the average market price for
dressed lumber. Consequently, the drop in price in the Interior was sharper than
for the Coast, where stumpage rates are tied to prices that develop in a log market
which maintained a level of demand that did not fully reflect the impact of the break
in the lumber market.
The weighted average price per 100 cubic feet for licences sold in the Interior
fell from $8.84 in 1969 to $3.02 in 1970, and the comparable average price on the
Coast fell from $9.60 to $8.15.
The average stumpage price detail shown in Appendix Table 63 includes the
volume sold at "salvage value only" rates, plus the volumes included in close-
utilization licences and cutting permits at a standard 55 cents per 100 cubic feet.
The average stumpage price per 100 cubic feet for all species, excluding close utilization and salvage wood, was $8.87 on the Coast, down from $10.20 in 1969; and
$3.98 in the Interior, down from $11.20 in 1969.
STUMPAGE ADJUSTMENTS
As a result of the decline in average market values, there were 11,691 downward adjustments in the stumpage rates payable for timber cut on cutting permits
and timber sales.
SUSTAINED-YIELD PROGRAMME
Public Sustained-yield Units
As indicated by Table 50, the number of public sustained-yield units in the
Province increased to 78 with the designation of the Kamloops Region Special Sale
Area as a sustained-yield unit in July 1970.
With progress in the installation of close-utilization facilities in sawmills and
other wood-conversion plants and in the conversion of harvesting operations to
close utilization, approval has been given to distribution of the uncommitted portion
of the close-utilization allowable annual cut in 27 additional public sustained-yield
units, increasing to 36 the number of units in the Province in which such distribution
has been approved.
It has been recognized that some licensees will not be in a position to convert
operations to full close-utilization standard immediately and that conversion may
be hindered by the difficulty of marketing some products during present weak market
conditions. It may take two years from the date of approval of the distribution to
reach the full close-utilization cut in these units. In accordance with this revised
cut allotment, the annual cut figures in Table 50 have been amended to show the
close-utilization allowable annual cut for all units. They cannot be related to figures
in this column in tables for previous years. It should also be noted the unit of
volume measure has been changed to the "cunit" (100 cu. ft.) in place of the former
unit of 1,000 cubic feet.
Thirteen additional public sustained-yield units were designated as Provincial
Forest Reserves during 1970, increasing the number of sustained-yield units given
Forest Reserve status to 26. Five of these units were previously designated as pulp-
harvesting forests and their revised status has reduced the number of pulp-harvesting
forests to eight.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
45
CERTIFIED TREE FARMS
Three additional tree farms were certified during 1970, one being within Tree-
farm Licence 36 and two being outside tree-farm licences. These additions, together
with revisions to existing tree farms, have resulted in an increase in tree-farm area,
but only a slight increase in the productive capacity, as indicated by Table 48.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Three farm wood-lot licences were cancelled during 1970 on sale of the farms
owned by the licensees, thus reducing the number of licences in the Province to 40,
as indicated by Table 49. Management plans were prepared for four new farm
wood-lot licences in the vicinity of Quesnel in the Prince George-Quesnel Special
Sale Area, and these licences will be issued early in 1971.
WORKING PLANS
Until recent years the forest industry in effect was in a pioneering stage. Today
it is well established throughout most of the Province, with production reaching
toward the total allowable annual cut in many areas. Orderly development and
management cannot be achieved without a plan, and it is the Forest Service's objective to compile a working plan for each public sustained-yield unit in the Province.
Basic plans for a number of the units have been completed and work is progressing on others. While the logging industry has been expanding and intensifying
its operations, other uses of the forest have also been increasing. These uses cannot and must not be overlooked. The working plan must be a plan for integrated
use. To this end, other resource agencies are invited to prepare sections covering
their aspects of resource management within the units.
The work of compiling a working plan is carried out by the District Forester's
staff, under the guidance and assistance of the Working Plans Section of the Management Division.
TREE-FARM LICENCES
The amalgamation of Tree-farm Licences 1 and 40 was completed January 1,
1970, reducing the number of tree-farm licences to 34.
During the year, three new working plans were submitted and reviewed. They
provide for a greater integrated use, with policies and procedures being developed
for recreation, stream pollution, wildlife and fishery protection.
Following the first meeting of the 29th Session of the Legislature, recommendations of the Select Standing Committee on Forestry and Fisheries regarding administration of the "contractor clause" were adopted, and tree-farm licence holders were
requested to submit amendments to the current working plans to provide for a
planned contractor programme.
SILVICULTURE
The trend toward large clearcuts, particularly in the Interior, continues. With
increasing interest in the environment, some concern has been expressed about the
desirability of this trend. As a result, an investigation is being carried out to determine the impact of clearcutting on the management of the forests and quality of
the environment.
The rehabilitation projects, located at the Blaeberry River and in the Noisy
Creek drainage, continue. The Blaeberry River project has now been completed
and the work in the Noisy Creek drainage should be completed in 1971. A final
report on the project, embodying benefit-cost analysis, should be available in 1972.
 46
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SCALING
A combined Industry/Forest Service Scaling Investigatory Committee, with the
Chief Forester as chairman, was appointed early in the year to review the units of
measure in use and to explore means of encouraging wider adoption of weight-scaling
in the Vancouver Forest District. As a result of the committee's recommendations,
the firmwood cubic scale will become the only unit of measure on and after January
1, 1972. All board foot and lumber cubic scaling will have ceased by that date.
Some policy changes were also adopted relative to weight-scaling procedures.
Conversion from manual scaling to weight-scaling continued, as illustrated by
the number of weigh-scales in use.
Forest District
Number of Weigh Scales by December 31-
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson —
Totals
1
1
16
12
3
21
17
4
5
10
27
19
20
4
16
31
20
20
6
20
37
26
22
91
1
111
Fifty-four per cent of Prince Rupert's 1970 scale was weight-scaled. (This
does not include 18 per cent of Prince Rupert's scaled production, which was barged
unsealed to Vancouver and recorded as volume scaled in the latter district.) Weight-
scaling accounted for 79 per cent of Prince George's 1970 scaled production, 58 per
cent of Kamloops', and 64 per cent of Nelson's.
FOREST RECREATION
The Forest Service has now assumed responsibility for forest recreation on
areas under its jurisdiction. To initiate this new phase, a forester was assigned to
review and make recommendations regarding the scope of Forest Service involvement in this field.
The review was completed in September with a comprehensive report to the
Chief Forester.   A policy statement has been developed to guide staff activities.
Preliminary organization and planning phases were under way at year's end,
and forest recreation activities are being incorporated within the multiple-use framework of Forest Service administration to the limit of available personnel and funds.
 grazing
division
PONDEROSA PINE
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 49
GRAZING DIVISION
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1969/70 was generally mild and snowfall light throughout the
range area. This, followed by a cool, dry spring, resulted in low soil-moisture
reserves at the start of the growing season. Below-average rainfall occurred during
the balance of the year, and forage production suffered accordingly on most ranges.
Cattle came out of the winter in good condition, but in the driest areas gains in
weights were below average. Cattle prices again increased, as did costs of operation.
Many ranches are experiencing financial difficulties. Competing land uses continue
to increase and are complicating range management.
Range
Crown ranges were ready at about the normal date. However, except for high-
elevation ranges and more northern areas, forage production was poor. Grass-land
ranges were most severely affected by drought conditions, some suffering damage
which will take considerable time and careful management to repair. Dry conditions caused many stock-watering sources to dry up, which disrupted desirable
live-stock distribution patterns. Range seedings undertaken in the fall of 1969
were adversely affected by the dry conditions, and seeding in 1970 was reduced
for the same reason.
Toxic plants and predators took their toll of cattle in some areas, but on the
average losses were no heavier than normal. Losses from hunting "accidents"
appeared to increase. The drying-up of safe watering places forced stock to
venture into boggy areas on some ranges, with resulting losses. Due to a shortage
of water, and in some cases of feed, stock strayed from normal ranges. This, together with a particularly mild fall, made recovery of stock from ranges difficult.
No serious live-stock disease problems were encountered on the range.
Hay
Hay production was above average in both quantity and quality on most
irrigated land. However, irrigation water was in short supply in some areas, particularly from small streams tributory to the Fraser River. Production from nonir-
rigated lands was drastically reduced. Swamp meadows averaged normal yields.
On the whole, hay supplies in the range area should be sufficient for the winter of
1970/71.
Markets and Prices
In spite of a drop in exports to the United States, the market for live stock
remained strong, and all classes of cattle were readily disposable. Feeder-cattle
prices were firm throughout the year at higher levels than in 1969. The weighted
average price received by cattlemen through the B.C. Livestock Producers' Cooperative Association was $30.17 per hundredweight, compared to $27.35 in 1969
—a rise of $2.82.
RANGE AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT
Further attention was given to bringing periods of use in line with range
maintenance or improvement requirements. Turn-out dates were adjusted in a
number of areas. Rotation grazing was introduced on several range units, the type
of rotation being tailored to meet requirements of both the range unit involved
 50 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
and live stock. Improved management of this type requires considerable fencing,
the cost of which has risen sharply in recent years. This, together with resistance to
change on the part of some operators, is a factor limiting progress.
Effort was directed to the development of management plans designed to
better integrate grazing by domestic stock with wildlife, recreation, and other range-
land uses. Improved plans were implemented in a number of areas, including the
Bull River and Junction range units, where Bighorn sheep are important users of
Crown range.
Pasture-development techniques were applied to several additional areas.
However, practices such as clearing, breaking, and seeding are proving costly and
many problems are being experienced. In many situations, more-extensive vegetation control methods, together with rotational grazing, will yield more economic
returns.
Division officers continued to teach and promote improved range-management
techniques through illustrated slide talks to range-user groups, field meetings, and
other means. This endeavour was co-ordinated with the activities of the Department
of Agriculture range-extension specialist. Division officers also participated in
developing integrated Unit Management Plans for a number of forest units in the
range area. They were also active in a number of land-capability studies, which
resulted in additional areas being reserved from alienation for multi-use management.
Range Surveys
Range survey field work was undertaken on the D'Arcy Mountain, Allenby,
and Nine Mile Units of the Princeton Stock Range. Intensive reconnaissances were
made of the Cahoose and Clesspocket Units of the Anahim Stock Range and the
Choelquiot Unit of the Chilcotin Stock Range. Maps and reports were completed
for surveys undertaken earlier on the Big Creek Stock Range, the Green Lake
Stock Range, and the Bedard and McLean Lake Units of the Ashcroft Stock Range.
The severe fire season drastically curtailed routine range inspections which
are normally carried out by the Ranger staff.
Range and Pasture Improvements
During the year, $218,043 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund. Net
assistance to the range-improvement programme from the Fund was $212,912, the
balance representing an increase in the inventory of materials on hand at the end of
the year. In addition, $20,000 was spent on pasture-development projects in the
Peace River area from special funds provided for that purpose. Permittees also
contributed extensively to the programme, mainly with labour and equipment.
Costs continued to rise.
Structural improvements included 84 miles of trail and road, 91 miles of
fencing, 43 water developments, 16 bridges and culverts, 36 cattle-guards, eight
corrals, two breeding pastures, one horse pasture, and three enclosures for experimental studies or demonstration purposes. Routine maintenance was carried out
on six buildings, 88 miles of fencing,. 54 miles of trail and road, and 12 water
developments, mainly within Peace River pastures.
A total of 5,195 acres was cleared of scrub trees and brush, 1,750 acres being
treated by mechanical means and 3,445 acres by prescribed burns. Some 1,200
acres of the area cleared were cultivated and seeded. A total of 54,595 pounds of
grass and legume seed was sown on denuded ground resulting from logging, other
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
51
industrial activity, or wild fire, and on sites especially cleared. The range-land drill
was used to seed 175 acres, and 78,000 pounds of fertilizer were applied to 750
acres of improved pasture.
In co-operation with other departments, a concerted effort was made to control
the invasion of knapweed into the East Kootenay Valley. Scattered patches of
this weed totalling 221 acres were treated chemically. Erosion-control measures,
involving the construction of earthen water bars and grass seeding, were undertaken
on 400 acres in the Tatlayoko Lake area.
Miscellaneous improvements included removal of abandoned buildings, garbage, and other hazards and control of toxic plants. Control of beaver and predators in several areas was undertaken in close collaboration with the Fish and Wildlife
Branch.
CO-OPERATION
Optimum use of range land can only be achieved by close liaison and cooperation between the various user-groups and administrative agencies. Close
contact with research and educational institutions is also necessary.
Liaison with the live-stock industry is maintained through range live-stock
associations.' There were 63 such organizations recognized under the Grazing Act
at the end of 1970, a reduction of four from the previous year. Recognition was
withdrawn in three cases to permit amalgamation with adjacent groups, and in the
fourth due to transfer of grazing administration in the West Creston area to the
Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area Authority. During 1970, 160 livestock association meetings were attended by Forest Service officers.
On subjects of industry-wide interest, contact was maintained with the British
Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association. The British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative, the producer-owned marketing agency, continued to supply
the live-stock price figures necessary for calculating grazing fees under the sliding
scale. The co-operative sold approximately 50.7 million pounds of beef animals
from the range area during the year.
Numerous meetings with other agencies and user-groups were held in an effort
to resolve use conflicts on range land. Some progress was made, and interagency
co-operation reached a new high. However, excessive demands by single-use advocates, combined with sensational and inaccurate publicity in some cases, further
complicated some problems.
Close contact was maintained with several Federal Department of Agriculture
research stations in connection with range and pasture research projects. Division
officers also participated in a number of seminars and in-service staff-training programmes and presented lectures at several technical and vocational schools.
ADMINISTRATION
Grazing use of Crown range was slightly reduced in 1970. However, a continuing increase in competing land uses added to the complexity of administration.
A serious fire season curtailed routine range inspection, improvement supervision,
and enforcement activities normally carried out by the Ranger staff.
During the year a minor amendment to the Grazing Regulations was made to
eliminate an anomaly in the grazing-fee structure. A manual of administrative
procedure was prepared and distributed. Policy regarding seeding of forest range
was under review at the end of the year.
Active administration was extended to several new areas, notably the range
used by guides' horses and wildlife in the Fort Nelson Ranger District.   Administra-
 52 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
tion of grazing use within the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area was turned
over to the Management Authority for the area at the beginning of the year. Problems resulting from the displacement of ranching units in the Libby Reservoir area
occupied considerable staff time. Preliminary investigation of the possibility of
contamination of domestic water supplies by stock using Crown range demanded
much attention.   This subject will require further study in depth.
Grazing and Hay Permits
During the year, 2,009 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing
of 178,332 cattle, 5,651 horses, and 2,739 sheep on Crown ranges. The number of
permits issued was about the same as in 1969. The number of cattle is 2,247 less
than in 1969.   The number of horses is up slightly, and sheep continued to decline.
Expressed in animal-unit months, the equivalent of one mature cow on the
range for one month, total use authorized for all classes of stock amounted to
822,442 animal-unit months, 14,963 less than the previous year.
A total of 195 hay-cutting permits was issued for the harvesting of 2,025 tons
of meadow hay, approximately the same as the previous year.
Grazing Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to prices received by producers the
previous year. Except for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area, grazing fees
per head per month were 55 cents for cattle, 68% cents for horses, and 13% cents
for sheep, a considerable increase over the previous year. The separate scale of fees
in effect for cultivated pastures in the Peace River area remained at $1 per head
per month for cattle, $1.25 for horses, and 25 cents for sheep. The hay-cutting fee
remained at $1 per ton.
Control and Enforcement
Procedures were changed during the year to permit field officers to deal more
promptly with trespassing stock. More than the usual number of stock counts were
made prior to turn-out. As usual, most stock-owners complied with the regulations
and permit conditions, and inadvertant violations were promptly rectified in most
cases. It was necessary for Forest Officers to seize and detain trespassing stock in
12 cases.   One case was successfully prosecuted in Court.
 engineering division
DOUGLAS FIR
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
55
ENGINEERING DIVISION
ENGINEERING SURVEYS
Field survey crews completed 150 miles of road location and surveys of several
bridge-sites and nurseries.
District field engineering included a development study of the Taku PSYU,
access route studies in 29 PSYU's, 700 miles of road evaluations in tree-farm
licences, timber sale harvesting licences, and public sustained-yield units, and continuing assistance on road reconnaissance in conjunction with timber sale cruising.
A section of the Canoe River Forest Road, south of Valemount, which has been
relocated above the Mica Reservoir flood-level. Road will provide access to future lake
from Valemount.
 Unique floating camp for workers on Williston Lake features two tiers of prefabricated
portable buildings on steel barge. Alongside (lower left) is steel barge used for transport
of fuel and heavy equipment.
Tractor-mounted tree shears used in reservoir-clearing operations. Shears cut the
trees close to ground level with a scissors action, and direction of fall is controlled by a
wedging action of the cutting blade.
—Photos by British Columbia Forest Service
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
57
DESIGN
Designs, drawings, and specifications were prepared for four pressure-creosoted
timber bridges—one for the Canoe River Road, two for the Stony Lake Road, and
one for the Kispiox-Nass Road. The latter, to cross the Nass River, will be of an
unusual trussed-girder type. Drawings were made for the reconstruction of six
bridges on the Naver and Willow road systems, to allow loads to be increased from
45 to 140 tons, with reuse of most of the glulam and sawn timber.
Other design work included seven preliminary bridge sketches and estimates,
several large culvert installations, load ratings of existing bridges, trailer snowsheds,
and miscellaneous building foundations and structural checks.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Work continued in co-operation with other agencies on evaluating the 70-mm.
fixed-airbase stereophotographic equipment for forest inventory sampling, studying
the stability of rock bluffs along the Squamish Highway, counting spawning salmon
in Campbell River, a slash-fuel study, balsam woolly aphid infestation estimates,
and growth and yield studies.
Computer programmes were established or modified for the road recorder,
roadway design, and forest-fire weather indices.
Several special studies and investigations were carried out—an inventory of
floating wood on Lake Williston, a development study of the Narcosli PSYU, and
a study on scarifying equipment. Methods of appraising for royalties from sale of
natural resources such as gravel, sand, clay, peat, marl, shale, building-stone, etc.,
were reviewed. A survey was made of the volume of mill residue not presently
utilized. Engineering staff assisted in preparing an evaluation of potential pulpable
wood residues and in a study of log and debris salvage in the Strait of Georgia.
CONSTRUCTION
Road work included construction of 34.8 miles of new grade on the Bull River,
Goat River, Kootenay Lake East, Canoe River, and Binta Lake Roads, and rehabilitation of 11 miles on the Binta Lake Road. Eight major bridges on the Naver
Ahbau and Willow River road systems were rebuilt to carry off-highway industrial
loadings of 140 tons. Permanent-type timber bridges were also erected over David
Henry Creek and the Horsefly River. Maintenance was carried out on 840 miles of
previously built road.
RESERVOIR IMPROVEMENTS
Clearing work on Lake Williston continued with the treatment of 17,100 acres
in the Finlay River section and 6,700 acres in the Parsnip River section. The waterway-improvement programme on the Mica Reservoir continued with work on
17,000 acres along the Columbia River between Beavermouth and Boat Encampment, and 550 acres in the Canoe River section south of Valemount.
Site-preparation work on the Canadian portion of the Libby Reservoir continued with an additional 2,820 acres placed under treatment, and 2,870 acres of
previously downed material burned.
BUILDING AND MARINE SERVICES
The major building project of 1970 was the seedling-sorting building now
nearing completion at the Red Rock Research Centre. In addition, office buildings were erected at Fort St. John and Clearwater, the first stage of a greenhouse and
 58 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
laboratory complex for the Research Division was completed in Saanich, and plans
and specifications for other projects were prepared for the calling of tenders.
A transporter barge and a floating camp were designed, constructed, and
placed in service on Lake Williston. Special-purpose fibreglass launches were
provided for unusual operating conditions found on Stuart Lake, Stave Lake, and
the waters adjacent to Bella Coola.
Two additional seedling refrigerator trailers and miscellaneous mobile accommodation units were purchased. The design of a mobile sewage-treatment plant
for short-term camps was completed.
Material inspection and investigation duties were varied, and special studies
were carried out in such fields as corrosion, sewage-treatment equipment, and fire
extinguishers.
MECHANICAL
A review of the vehicle inventory indicates that light vehicles, consisting of
sedans, station-wagons, panels, four-wheel-drive units (all types), and two-wheel-
drive units up to 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight (GVW), increased by 20
units.. While sedans increased by only one, conventional station-wagons and panels
decreased by seven. Four-wheel-drive crew-carrying wagons increased by three,
and 4x4 pickups and panels, by five. Two-wheel-drive units of 5,000 to 10,000
pounds GVW increased significantly by 28.
Heavy-duty trucks of 14,000 to 50,000 pounds GVW increased by three,
tanker units for fire crews remained at five. Heavy-duty units such as tractors and
graders were unchanged.
An extremely serious fire season resulted in many fire-pump, chain-saw, and
allied equipment purchases. Interest continued in snow toboggans in certain heavy
snow areas, but the need for trail motor-cycles declined. Certain districts and
divisions are interested in all-terrain vehicles (ATV's), which may be used to great
advantage in muskeg or heavy snow areas.
FOREST SERVICE MAINTENANCE DEPOT
The efficiency of the depot was increased by installing electric overhead trolley
hoists, an engine-test room, a grease ramp for heavy-transport trucks, more modern
tools, and improved storage for hose-fittings. Heating systems were converted to
natural gas, much of the storage yard was blacktopped, and fire-protection systems
increased.
Marine work included overhaul and refit of 29 launches, three jet boats; and
76 launch and small-boat "repairs. New engines and auxiliary equipment were
installed in launches and "Deep V" runabouts. Launches were updated with radars,
heating systems, hydraulic winches, and better safety equipment.
The depot made or assembled 500 signs; 80 furniture items; 40 Nash-type
winches; five portable tankers; 3,000 hose, pump, and valve fittings; special purpose
or utility trailers; fire-retardant mixers; screening-plant hoppers; and other articles.
Couplings were installed on 220,000 feet of fire hose.
Maintenance and overhaul were carried out on 700 small mechanical units and
110 light trucks, transport trucks, graders, and tractors. Over 300 new, small
mechanical units and 20 new trucks were tested and fitted out. Twenty trailers and
portable buildings were rebuilt or repaired.
Transport and warehousing services entailed hauling 3,300 tons of materials
and equipment, and towing 80 trailers and portable buildings. The trucks travelled
over 200,000 miles and completed 200 assignments. The warehouse handled 1,000
shipments to and from projects.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
59
COMMUNICATIONS
Of the 336 radios purchased, 103 replaced obsolete very high frequency
(VHF) fire portables, and 11 replaced obsolete high frequency (HF) units. Thirty-
five 3-channel, 15-watt mobiles, with quick interchangeability to ease mounting
problems, were provided for vehicles using radio-controlled roads.
Remotely controlled base stations were installed in four Ranger Districts, and
at Tabor Mountain for Prince George air operations. One VHF repeater was
installed at Natal Lookout and one relocated from McLeod Lake to Chingee Lookout. To reduce overlapping coverage, the Sumas repeater was changed to one of the
newly assigned frequency combinations. A voice-operated telephone control-patch
with increased operational flexibility replaced Vancouver's obsolete headquarters
remote-control system.
Service interruptions were reduced by modern transistorized equipment, but
lightning and man-made interference affected HF propagation, causing some impairment to fire traffic.
  protection division
WESTERN  LARCH
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
63
PROTECTION DIVISION
WEATHER
The winter snowfall was below normal in most areas of the Province, and the
early spring rainfall was light, with the month of June unusually dry. This resulted
in the development of a serious fire situation in many areas. Early in July, repeated
lightning storms started numerous fires. The lightning activity continued through
August in the southern part of the Province.
Cooler, wetter weather developed in September, with drier weather in late
September and early October. However, wetter conditions permitted termination
of the fire season on October 15.
Lightning activity was above normal through most of the Province.
FIRES
Occurrence and Cause
The summer of 1970 produced a record number of 4,003 fires, compared with
the 10-year average of 2,394. The previous record year was 1967, with 3,216 fires.
Lightning was again the largest single cause, starting over double the number
of fires attributed to lightning over the past 10 years. On a percentage basis it was
45 per cent, as compared to 37 per cent.
While the percentage comparison for fires started by people shows a slight drop
over the 10-year average, the actual number of fires attributed to people is almost
double.
Cost of Fire-fighting
In addition to the Forest Service cost of $9,166,167, there was a cost of
$2,240,070 to other parties involved in forest fire-fighting. The average cost per fire
for 1970 was $2,290—double the 10-year average of $1,197. The Prince George
District had one large and expensive fire in a well-timbered area in a remote section
near Williston Lake. This one fire resulted in an extremely high average cost. The
increased costs develop from higher fire-fighting rates of pay and increased costs in
employing tractor equipment and aircraft.
Damage
An outstanding feature of the 1970 fire season was the relatively low acreage
of burn for such a high-hazard year. The 260,958 acres of burn compares with the
10-year average of 263,437 acres. The damage value was in line with the area of
burn, with the 1970 value slightly less than the 10-year average.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
In the three southern forest districts, 13 suppression crews of five to 10 crewmen, plus foreman and cook, and 19 two-man crews were employed at strategic
locations. Small initial-attack crews were also employed in the Prince Rupert and
Prince George Districts.   Suppression crews fought 672 fires .
During low-hazard periods, these crews were employed on other useful projects.
 64 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
AIRCRAFT
Aircraft played a dominant role in protection operations throughout the 1970
season. Planes of all types were available as and when required, and with the many
operators involved, they provided a high standard of service.
Six light aircraft were operated under contract for fire-spotting in the two northern districts and the Kamloops District. Patrol flying was provided to three districts
by contract aircraft. The two northern districts found it expedient to hire aircraft as
and where required.
Helicopters were readily available in most areas of the Province, except for the
Lower Mainland. The Vancouver District found it necessary to contract one machine for the height of the fire season. The machines are used for a variety of tasks
in addition to fire-suppression needs. The three-place piston-engine types and the
light turbine-machines fill most of our needs.
Three amphibious Canso aircraft were supplied under contract as air-tankers
carrying 800 gallons. Two bird-dog aircraft operated with these machines. Eight
Avengers, carrying 500 gallons each, operated under a contract which included three
bird-dog planes. A new contract supplied three Douglas A-26 air-tankers—each
equipped to carry over 900 gallons. One bird-dog machine was included in this
contract.
As the severity of the fire season increased, additional standby aircraft were
called into service. The air-tanker action was particularly effective in "bombing"
more than 820 fires with retardants. Two and one-half million gallons of long-term
retardant mix, and one and three-quarter million gallons of short-term retardant mix
were dropped.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The programme of road and trail construction progressed with continuing reconstruction of existing roads linking up Forest Service and logging-roads. The
purpose is to improve access for protection and management.
SLASH DISPOSAL
Successful slash-burns were carried out in all five forest districts by both
industrial operations and the Forest Service.
In the Vancouver District, 570 acres of slash were burned in February and
March. No spring burning took place. Burning commenced again in early August
in the northern section of the district. Due to the existing hazard build-up along the
east coast of Vancouver Island, the Sunshine Coast, and the Fraser Valley areas,
slash-burning was restricted until mid-October. The unusually dry fall permitted
successful slash-burns until the first week in November. This resulted in a substantial
reduction in the backlog of unburned slash, as well as leaving one of the lowest
acreages of carry-over slash. Slash reports covered 67,636 acres of logged-over
lands, of which 21,629 acres were exempted from burning. A total of 68,722 acres
was burned successfully.
The Prince Rupert District experienced excellent slash-burning conditions, resulting in a great reduction of backlog areas which had been carried for several years.
One of the-worst areas of carry-over slash, in the Kitimat River valley, was successfully burned. This eliminated a potential disaster area if an accidental fire occurred
during periods of high hazard. In the spring, 730 acres of slash were burned and a
further 39,990 acres were burned in August and September. The Forest Service
burned 9,089 acres, and industrial operations burned 31,631 acres.   Slash reports
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
65
covered 32,292 acres of completed logging, of which 23,969 acres were instructed
to burn and 8,323 acres were exempted.
The Prince George District had suitable slash burning weather in the spring
when approximately 1,300 acres were burned. Continued drying in June precluded
burning from then until mid-August. A total of 21,800 acres was burned, of which
the Forest Service burned 7,000 acres and industrial operations burned 14,800 acres.
In the Kamloops District, the Forest Service burned 2,696 acres and industrial
operations successfully burned 13,768 acres.
The Nelson District obtained excellent results. A total of 28,185 acres of logging slash was burned, of which 3,430 acres were burned by the Forest Service and
industrial operations burned 24,755 acres.
Slash-burning
The practical reasons for slash-burning are many and varied.
Such burning of branches, snags, unmerchantable logs, and all other unusable
material left in the wake of a logging operation can be controlled, in both intensity
and in area covered. Such operations are conducted by trained and fully qualified
men of either the Forest Service or industry; and the burning takes place during
relatively short periods in the early fall when proper weather conditions prevail.
If logged-over regions are not subjected to controlled burning, inevitably lightning, human carelessness or some other cause will ignite them — presenting far
greater blazes, endangering surrounding timbered areas, and creating tremendously
greater smoke problems.
Slash-burning also paves the way for faster, more efficient, and more effective
reforestation measures. Seedlings can be planted easier and faster. They will grow
quicker and straighter by not having to fight their way through a tangle of snags,
branches, and other suffocating debris. The burning process also does much to eliminate insect hazards which could be extremely harmful to adjacent timber stands.
Meanwhile, with the ever-increasing trend toward fuller utilization of the whole
tree, the need for slash-burning will be reduced proportionately.
SNAG DISPOSAL
In the Vancouver District, snags on 2,609 acres were felled—547 acres under
contract and 2,062 by Forest Service crews.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
There were 34 prosecutions for violating the Forest Act. Sixteen charges involved burning without a permit, nine for refusing to render assistance in fire-fighting,
three for contravening Forest Use Restriction Orders, and the remainder for other
varying offences.
FOREST-USE RESTRICTIONS
The long, dry spell in most parts of the Province resulted in several industrial
forest-use restrictions and travel and recreation restrictions during the high-hazard
periods of the fire season. Campfire permits were suspended in all districts. Details
of restrictions follow:
Forest-use Closures, 1970
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Zone 8 	
Zones 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Zones 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10	
Whole district.	
Vancouver
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Nelson	
Restricted industrial „
Restricted industrial...
Travel and recreation
Travel and recreation
June 25
July 13
July 24
Aug. 27
July 25
July 25
July 24
Sept. 23
 66 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Suspension of Campfire Permits
Area
Forest District
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Zone 8	
Zones 1, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Whole district	
Zones 1, 2, 3 	
Zones 1, 2, 3, 4	
Whole district	
Whole district 	
Whole Province	
Vancouver	
Vancouver..	
Vancouver...	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson.-	
June 25
July 13
July 20
July 15
July 15
July 10
July 17
Aug. 1
June 29
July 25
July 25
July 23
July 23
July 26
July 26
Sept. 3
PROTECTION PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Statistics
New fire data overlays for the 1970-79 decade were prepared for the Provincial
Fire Atlas base maps. Also in conjunction with the start of the new decade, the
Fire Atlas was expanded to 290 base maps to provide complete Provincial base-map
coverage at a scale of 2 miles to the inch. Fire statistics are coded for computer use
in conjunction with the Fire Atlas.
All fire data from 1950 to 1969, inclusive, have now been coded, edit checked,
and placed on magnetic tape. Much of our work can now be directed to computer-
oriented studies. This was not previously possible.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
Field work in visibility mapping was de-emphasized this year pending an in-
depth study into detection. One crew spent a short period in the field to combine
lookout photography and visibility-mapping duties. Ten sets of photographs were
taken and field examination of seven possible lookout-sites was completed.
Fuel-moisture Indicator Sticks
The fuel-moisture stick programme produced 1,575 sets of "hazard" sticks.
Distribution records indicate the Forest Service used 43 per cent of the fuel-moisture
sticks, industry 54 per cent, and the Canada Forestry Service 3 per cent.
A humidity chamber was constructed to make the production of sticks more
efficient and to reduce the time spent at the Forest Products Laboratory in Vancouver.
Production of 1,700 sticks to meet 1971 requirements was started before the
end of the year.
Insect Survey and Control
Liaison with other Provincial Government departments, Federal agencies, and
joint Government/industry committees continued.
Protection Division represented the Forest Service on the new British Columbia Government Interdepartmental Pesticide Committee, and reviewed all plans for
spray and chemical treatments for both Forest Service and industry projects.
Research Projects
Major research and development projects for 1970 were:
Handbooks—Three handbooks in the Forest Protection Handbook series were
completed and distributed—Forest Fire Suppression, No. 3; Proper Care
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
67
and Use of Fire Weather Instruments, No. 4; and Assembly and Operation Manual for the B.C.F.S. Fire Training Simulator, No. 5.
Fire danger indices—The indices were further refined, operational procedures
established, and the new Federal danger index system was introduced
operationally on a Province-wide basis.
Detection—An in-depth analysis of the Provincial fire-detection system was
started with the Vancouver District to be studied first. This will entail
sophisticated operations research, and we were fortunate in enlisting the
aid of a member of the Forest Fire Research Institute in Ottawa. This
study will take two to three years to complete.
Sf erics—The first step in a co-operative study on the development of equipment for lightning location and storm-track plotting has been taken with
an electronics expert at Royal Roads College. It is hoped this can be
expanded.
Fire-training simulators—All six portable simulators produced in 1969 were
recalled for modification and returned to district use.
Canvas backpack tank—The Alberta Forest Service type of collapsible model
was tested, approved, and 200 units manufactured and distributed.
Propane camp stove—A prototype propane camp stove of 20,000-B.T.U.
capacity was developed for use singly or in tandam. Fifty units are being
manufactured for 1971.
Helibucket—A 125-gallon fibreglass bucket was developed and tested. Further work will be required to make it operational.
Service and Co-operation
The districts were supplied with 576 two-man, two-day emergency fire-ration
packs—bulk purchased and packaged for distribution in the spring.
Thirty Planning and Research Reports, covering a variety of protection projects, were published and distributed to field staff and outside protection agencies.
In co-operation with the Department of Transport, the Provincial fire-weather
network was reassessed and 35 Class I and 42 Class II weather stations were
selected for forecast and danger index purposes. Weather zones and forecast
regions were also established.
The need for improved lightning forecasts was indicated in 1970, and the
Department of Transport agreed to undertake a special study using improved
weather parameters tied in with the newly taped fire data.
Considerable time was spent during the year collecting and consolidating all
the data required by the Forest Fire Research Institute for their feasibility study of
a Canada-wide mobile air-tanker fleet.
Liaison continued with other agencies in areas of mutual interest, including
representation on various protection subcommittees of the National Research Council and on the Rehabilitation Committee of the Forest Service.
    REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 71
TRAINING SCHOOL
The 10th basic trainees' class (Basic Course 10) of 24 men enrolled on January 7, 1970, and 23 men completed the course on March 17, 1970. One man
voluntarily returned to his Forest District at mid-term.
The 16th class of advanced trainees (24 men) enrolled on September 16,
1970. They completed the first term on December 16, 1970, and commenced the
second term January 4, 1971.   Graduation date is April 8, 1971.
Subjects covered during the year were as follows:
BASIC COURSE 10  (SPRING 1970)
Subject Days Allotted
Opening    Vi
Mathematics   2 V2
Surveying   6
Photogrammetry   3
Fire Suppression  14
Pre-suppression  7 Vz
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  4V_t
Forest Management Policies and Procedures  7
Mapping   1
Measurements   6 V2
Reforestation    1V2
Silviculture     2 V2
Mechanical Equipment Maintenance and Operation  10
Exams   3
Spare   2
Closing    V2
Total days  72
Physical Training, 45 minutes per day
ADVANCED COURSE 16 (FALL 1970)
Subject Days Allotted
Business English   3V_;
Forest Protection Policies and Procedures  9
Botany   5
Dendrology   2
Grazing     3 V2
Entomology   3 V2
Pathology    4
Mathematics   2 V_t
Silviculture   4
Research   3
Reforestation   3
 72 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Public Speaking   4
Surveying   6
Wood Technology  2Vi
Ranger District Organization  6
Opening and Spares   2VS_
Total days   64
Physical Training, 45 minutes per day
EXTRA COURSE AND FUNCTIONS
The following extra courses and functions were held at the school:
Course for Fieldmen of the Inventory Division—The school provided room,
board, facilities, and minor assistance with instruction for this course.  A total of
74 men attended the sessions during the period May 6 to 16, 1970, inclusive.
During the period May 17 to August 15 the dormitory was occupied by one
19-man inventory-sampling crew collecting data in the Pitt Lake, Haney, and
Mission areas.
During the year the school's instructional facilities were used intermittently by
the Vancouver scaling classes.
The Canadian Foresty Association conducted one week of outdoor classroom
lectures.   A total of 1,000 elementary students from the surrounding area attended.
The annual Technical Forest Officer 2 and 3 examinations were prepared and
marked.
The reading course on the Forest Act was amended to date and 317 copies
were distributed to the districts and divisions, along with 89 copies of the mathematics reading course.
During the peak period of the fire season the school's three instructors assisted
in the Kamloops Forest District.
Remainder of the time was taken up with preparation of courses, administration, and maintenance.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Appreciation is expressed to speakers and lecturers provided by the following
agencies: F. J. Harper, St. John Ambulance; Mrs. J. E. Rebb, Queen Elizabeth
High School; Department of Transport Weather Office, Vancouver; Department of
Fisheries and Forestry, Canadian Forestry Service, Victoria; University of British
Columbia Research Forest; Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands,
Forests, and Water Resources; Okanagan Helicopters Limited; British Columbia
Institute of Technology for the use of their fire simulator in our training programme;
as well as lecturers from other divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
CONSTRUCTION
No new construction was undertaken during the year.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
73
Enrolment at Forest Service Training School, 1970
Basic Course 	
Advanced Course
24
24
Graduates of Forest Service Training School, 1970
Basic Course 	
Advanced Course
23
Nil
Graduates of Forest Service Training School Since 1946
Basic Course 	
Advanced Course
Total ____
219
319
538
  accounting
division
ENGELMAN SPRUCE
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
77
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
Unfavourable market conditions for forest products prevailed throughout 1970,
and severe labour problems affected the industry directly and indirectly. The combination of these factors resulted in a drastic decline in the financial return to the
Forest Service, although the total volume of timber scaled increased by 2.2 per cent.
At the year's end, economic conditions had not improved significantly, but a
lowering of prime interest rates in both the United States and Canada brought some
hope of an upturn in 1971.
The total of amounts charged against logging operations declined from 1969
by 32.5 per cent to $62,296,745 (Appendix Table 142). All five Forest Districts
suffered losses, the largest being 49.4 per cent in Prince George District, followed
by Nelson (48 per cent), Kamloops (45.5 per cent), Prince Rupert (23.9 per cent),
and Vancouver (14 per cent).
Direct forest revenue collected in 1970 dropped by 27.4 per cent to a total of
$64,951,431 (Appendix Table 141). Timber sale stumpage at $53,524,665 recorded the sharpest decline, 31.6 per cent, followed by the related item of timber
sale cruising and advertising, 23.6 per cent. Timber sale rental and fees remained
almost unchanged, showing a minor gain of 1.8 per cent.
Timber royalties, the second-largest revenue category, decreased from the previous year for the first time since 1961, the total of $6,217,109 representing a reduction of 1.7 per cent.
Timber licence rentals and fees and timber berth rentals and fees registered decreases of 4.9 and 3.8 per cent respectively, probably as the result of continuing
elimination of logged areas from these tenures. Timber lease rentals and fees increased by 2.6 per cent, possibly due to early payment of some charges not due until
the new year.
Grazing permits and fees rose substantially to $438,003, a gain of 14 per cent,
reflecting an increase in fees resulting from higher market prices being obtained for
stock. Forest-protection tax was relatively steady, with a minor increase of 1.3
per cent. Miscellaneous collections increased sharply to $669,194, a gain of 56.2
per cent, largely due to the recovery of fire-fighting costs incurred during the record
fire season. Weight-scaling costs recovery continued to increase, though the percentage of 11.2 was much less than that of previous years.
Financial tables covering operations on a fiscal year basis for 1969/70 can be
found in the Appendix (Tables 143 to 145). Detailed expenditure information is
published yearly by the Department of Finance in the Public Accounts.
ADMINISTRATION
Divisional administrative activity during 1970 was highlighted by the unsettled
economic climate and the impact of the all-time record fire season.
The effects of the former, as noted above, caused greatly reduced revenues and
brought inevitable collection problems. In most cases operators' accounts were
maintained on a reasonably current basis, but the necessity for application of liens
was more frequent than for some years. In some cases, co-operative payment arrangements were worked out with other creditors to enable operators to continue
until their market and labour problems eased.
Accounting for fire-suppression expenditures gave added pressure to both district and headquarters offices and was not fully completed when the year closed.
 78
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
The volume of normal accounting in all sections remained high, as expansion
continued in various Forest Service programmes such as Reforestation, Inventory,
etc.
Reduction of marine hazards by collection of drift logs continued, with
3,961,575 cubic feet marketed through Gulf Log Salvage Co-operative Association
(licensee of the Log Receiving Station), essentially the same volume as 1969, though
it includes approximately 583,666 cubic feet of low-floating logs previously marketed
directly by permittees.
Low-floating logs and deadheads recovered and marketed direct by permittees
and Harbour Commissions in the Fraser River totalled 974,000 cubic feet. Low-
grade logs recovered was down at approximately 500,000 cubic feet.
Poor markets for salvage logs have tended to lower the total recovery of lost
logs, while towing strikes and improved log security reduced somewhat the log
losses.
Log clearance from beaches increased approximately 300,000 cubic feet, with
332,000 cubic feet being removed from two licences on the Queen Charlotte Islands,
42,000 cubic feet from licences on two Interior lakes—Decker Lake and Burns Lake
—, and 448,000 cubic feet from five licences on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The Division continues in close co-operation with the forest industry's Log
Security Committee in its studies of ways to prevent log losses.
The Division participated in a substantial study directed toward determining
causes of log losses and sources of floating debris in the waters of Georgia Strait.
Export of logs controlled under Part X of the Forest Act continued at a fairly
high level during the year, mainly due to large log stocks that accompanied the low
log-market conditions.
 personnel division
ARBUTUS
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970 81
PERSONNEL DIVISION
There were no major organizational changes involving senior staff and no
disruption in the administration of the Service. The Civil Service Commission
commenced a general review of Clerks 7 and Junior Administrative Officers which
had not been completed by the end of the year. An in-service organizational study
was commenced, involving technical and professional staff and is still progressing.
Regarding employee relations, the Chief Forester and the Personnel Officer
met with the Civil Service Commission and employee groups to discuss salaries, and
this resulted in the above-noted organizational study.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The biannual meeting of District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters was
held in Victoria in January to discuss common problems. Ranger meetings were
held in Prince Rupert, Prince George, and Kamloops Forest Districts, with local
or zone meetings held in the Vancouver and Nelson Districts. District Protection
Officers met in Victoria to discuss problems met and lessons learned during our
worst fire season. Engineering and Forest Inventory conducted their usual pre-field
season orientation and safety training programme.
The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer took part in vocation
day-programmes at various secondary schools, as did other Forest Officers throughout the Province. A number of seminars and workshops were attended by various
employee groups throughout the year. Two Foresters and two Technical Forest
Officers were selected for Class XV of the Public Administration Course under the
Executive Development Training Programme, and two Foresters and two Engineers
graduated from Class XII of this programme, receiving diplomas in public administration from the University of Victoria.
Four employees graduated from the correspondence course in public administration and four employees were selected for Class VII of this course. Five Weigh-
scalers were selected for the "supervision-staff management" section of this course.
Informal training continued for junior Foresters and junior Engineers, as did the
formal training programme for district field staff.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent establishment of the Forest Service remained at 906. During
the year, 88 persons received Civil Service appointments and 115 left the Service.
Ten Forest Service employees received certificates for 25 years' continuous service.
There were 14 retirements and 37 transfers of permanent staff. Eleven graduate
Foresters and five graduate Engineers left the Service, while 14 graduate Foresters
and seven graduate Engineers were hired.
Turnover of Civil Service appointed staff, including full-time casual staff, was
9.2 per cent, a significant decrease from 12.3 per cent in 1969. Prince Rupert
suffered the greatest disruption, but was only 16.2 per cent, compared to 24.1 per
cent for 1969. Next in descending order were the Prince George District, Vancouver Scaling, and Vancouver District, with 13.8 per cent, 12.5 per cent, and 12 per
cent respectively. Nelson and Kamloops Districts were 10.2 per cent and 7.9 per
cent, while Victoria headquarters was lowest at 5.6 per cent.
Professional staff turnover decreased to 5.7 per cent from 6.6 per cent in 1969,
and technical staff at 4.8 per cent was down from 7.7 per cent in 1969. The clerical
 82 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
group had the highest turnover at 15.7 per cent, with figures ranging from 27.3 per
cent in the Prince Rupert District to 7.7 per cent in Victoria headquarters.
In the matter of discipline, one temporary employee was dismissed and two
annual increments were withheld from employees—both on temporary appointments. A total of 1,122 written applications for employment was received and
processed by the Personnel Office in addition to those handled by the district and
divisional staff.
The usual promotional examinations for Draughtsmen were held by the Civil
Service Commission. Oral examinations were held at panel interviews to fill 28
positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant Personnel Officer participated in
filling 88 other positions, and 275 candidates wrote the Technical Forest Officer 1
examination for appointment to Assistant Ranger, in which 140 candidates qualified
to fill 20 vacancies. Sixty-six employees wrote the Technical Forest Officer 1
examination for reclassification, of which 34 were successful. Technical Forest
Officer 2 and 3 examinations were held at the same time, with 76 candidates for
Technical Forest Officer 2, of which 47 qualified, and 18 candidates from services
divisions successfully completed the Technical Forest Officer 3 examination.
Twenty-four employees completed a basic-training course at the Forest Service
Training School, and 24 others completed the first half of an advanced course at the
same establishment.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Classification reviews were requested for 52 positions. By the end of the
year, 37 had been approved, 5 rejected, and 10 were still under consideration. Nine
employees were registered as Professional Foresters, and two graduate Engineers
received professional registration.
Working conditions in general remained unchanged, but bimonthly meetings
of departmental Personnel Officers with the Chairman and senior staff of the Civil
Service Commission continue to investigate areas where improved working conditions can take place.
There were 499 accidental injuries suffered by employees, of which 223 were
to temporary fire-fighters. Of the 276 for the regular and seasonal staff, 111 were
time-loss over one day and 165 required medical aid only. Our time-loss frequency
was 20.5 accidents per million man-hours worked, an increase over 16.8 for 1969.
Time-loss accidents for regular staff were 40.2 per cent of the total accidents for
this group, as compared to 32 per cent for 1969.
Twelve British Columbia Safety Council awards of merit were earned by
various groups in the Service, which included one gold and five silver awards.
Two of the silver awards were for a district and a division and qualified the
Department for the Prime Minister's safety award. There was one fatal accident in
the Forest Service during 1970.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
83
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1970
(As of December 31)
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
J. S. Stokes -       -        Deputy Minister of Forests
L. F. Swannell Chief Forester
I. T. Cameron Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
N. A. McRae      ------- Assistant Chief Forester i/c Services
Staff Division Heads:
C. Cooper - Forest Counsel
W. V. Hicks    --- Departmental Comptroller
Operations Branch Division Heads:
W. C. Phillips Forester i/c Protection Division
W. G. Hughes      - -    Forester i/c Management Division
W. E. L. Young Forester i/c Inventory Division
W. C. Pendray"    --- Director, Grazing Division
Services Branch Division Heads:
E. W. Robinson   -------   Forester i/c Reforestation Division
R. H. Spilsbury    - Forester i/c Research Division
E. H. Lyons -        -     Forester i/c Information Division
L. W. W. Lehrle -----       Forester i/c Forest Service Training School
P. J. J. Hemphill -------    Engineer i/c Engineering Division
A. E. McKeever  ----------     Personnel Officer
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver Forest District
H. B. Forse District Forester
J. A. K. Reid      --------- Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
W. G. Howard (Cultus Lake); E. J. McArthur (Hope); J. T. Schmidt (Harrison Lake); J. N.
Nelson (Mission); M. H. Mudge (Port Moody); M. N. Neighbor (Squamish); R. S. Wilson (Sechelt); K. A. Northrup (Pender Harbour); S. B. Hollinshead (Powell River); V. J.
Doerksen (Lund); G. Stefanac (Campbell River North); W. C. Archer (Sayward); R. A.
Campbell (Port McNeill N.); R. D. Moss (Port McNeill); A. J. Teindl (Port Hardy); T.
Brooks (Campbell River); H. Norbirg (Parksville); S. J. Sykes (Duncan); R. W. Thomas
(Lake Cowichan); K. Haley (Port Alberni); G. F. Hawkey (Tofino); D. E. Gill (Pemberton); D. E. deHart (Gold River).
Prince George Forest District
W. Young
W. G. Bishop
- District Forester
Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
G. W. Graham (McBride); J. H. Little (Valemount); M. A. McRae (Prince George E.);
G. E. Meents (Prince George N.); L. G. Espenant (Fort St. James); G. M. York (Quesnel);
H. T. Barbour (Dawson Creek); D. A. Amonson (Aleza Lake); H. Osborne (Vanderhoof);
V. G. Bate (Fort St. John); P. F. Griffiths (Fort Fraser); T. R. Gibbs (Summit Lake); H. L.
Miskovich (Fort Nelson); G. E. Magee (Prince George); D. F. Wallin (Hixon); E. W. Hewitt
(Quesnel); K. Rohn (Quesnel); L. McQueen (Chetwynd); K. W. Magee (Mackenzie).
J
 84 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
Nelson Forest District
J. R. Johnston District Forester
M. G. Isenor       -        - -        -        -        -        -        - Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
L. G. Taft (Invermere); J. L. Humphrey (Fernie); S. E. Anderson (Golden); J. B. Gierl
(Cranbrook E.); A. I. Ross (Creston); G. B. Allin (Kaslo); G. L. Benwell (Lardeau); R. E.
Robinson (Nelson); C. C. Jupp (New Denver); J. H. Raven (Nakusp); H. R. Wood (Castlegar); P. F. Russell (Grand Forks); W. R. Anderson (Kettle Valley); G. M. Cartwright
(Canal Flats); W. G. Benwell (Mica Creek); R. G. Treneman (Fauquier); G. F. Dodd
(Elko); G. R. Webster (Spillimacheen); L. O. Hamann (Cranbrook W.); H. B. Thompson
(Beaverdell); C. N. Bellmond (Salmo); H. D. Hamilton (Revelstoke).
Kamloops Forest District
A. H. Dixon ---- District Forester
L. B. B. Boulton -        -        -        -        - -        -        -        Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
H. V. Hopkins (Lumby); M. E. Monteith (Birch Island); D. J. Wittner (Barriere); J. P.
Weinard (Kamloops); V. D. Craig (Chase); R. C. Jackson (Salmon Arm); G. G. Jones
(Sicamous); J. Wanderer (Lillooet); A. G. Cameron (Vernon); R. W. McDaniel (Penticton); F. M. Baker (Princeton); A. P. Petty (Clinton); J. G. Ward (Williams Lake);
E. A. Bouchard (Alexis Creek); F. Pearce (Kelowna); J. D. Noble (Ashcroft); R. K.
Berard (Merritt); D. Reiter (Blue River); I. M. Loomer (Enderby); W. R. Perry (100
Mile North); T. A. Walker (Tatla Lake); J. F. Lynn (Horsefly); R. W. Donnelly (100 Mile
South).
Prince Rupert Forest District
H. M. Pogue - District Forester
W. F. Tuttle       ---------        Assistant District Forester
Forest Rangers:
F. L. Roe (Queen Charlotte City); O. D. Parsey (Prince Rupert); T. Harvie (Terrace); N.
P. Gilgan (Kitwanga); H. W. Quast (Hazelton); A. R. Pement (Smithers); R. H. Weinard
(Houston); D. B. Doerksen (Burns Lake); E. Hardwick (Bella Coola); W. H. Jones (South-
bank); D. J. Neal (Lower Post); W. C. Waldron (Kitimat); M. F. Wilkinson (Stewart).
 APPENDIX
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
THE REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
87
CONTENTS
RESEARCH DIVISION
Table
No.
11. Status of Research Projects in 1970.
12. Research Publications, 1970	
REFORESTATION DIVISION
22. Summary of Planting, 1961-70	
Page
89
89
90
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
47. Summary of Basic Data for Tree-farm Licences (Private Sustained-yield
Units)	
48. Summary of Basic Data for Certified Tree-farms (Private Sustained-yield
Units over Crown-granted Lands)         	
49. Summary of Basic Data for Farm Wood-lot Licences (Private Sustained-
yield Units)     -      .   ....   ... .. 	
50. Summary of Basic Data for Public Sustained-yield Units 	
51. Total Amount of Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During the
Years 1969 and 1970 in Cubic Feet     92
52. Species Cut, All Products, 1970, in Cubic Feet     93
53. Total Scale of All Products B'lled in 1970 in Cubic Feet (Segregated by
Land Status and Forest Districts) ...     	
91
91
92
92
54. Timber Scale Billed in British Columbia During 1970 (by Months and
Forest Districts)	
55. Number of Acres Operating Under Approved Annual Allowable Cuts,
1961-70 ....    	
56. Total Scale of All Products From Areas Operated Under Approved
Annual Allowable Cuts, 1961-70	
57. Logging Inspections, 1970 ..„	
58. Trespasses,  1970	
59. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1970	
60. Timber Sale Licence Record, 1970	
61.
62.
63.
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
99
Competition for Timber Sales Awarded, 1970  100
Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1970  101
Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Sales During 1970, per Cunit Log Scale    102
Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on
Timber Scaled on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits During 1970 103
Timber Cut and Billed from Timber Sales and Timber Sale Harvesting
Licences, 1970.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68. Shipments of Poles and Other Minor Forest Products,
69. Timber Marks Issued, 1961-70	
Wood-processing plants of the Province, 1970.
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1970	
1970.
104
105
106
106
107
L
 88 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
GRAZING DIVISION
Table
No. Page
70. Grazing Permits Issued, 1970  107
PROTECTION DIVISION
102. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1970  108
103. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1970  108
104. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last 10 Years  108
105. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1970  109
106. Damage to Property Other Than Forests, 1970  110
107. Damage to Forest Cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1970—Parts I and II
 110 and 111
108. Fire Causes, Area burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1970 112
109. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last 10 Years  113
110. Fires Classified by Forest District and Cost per Fire of Fire-fighting, 1970 114
111. Areas of Logging Slash Disposed, 1970  115
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
141. Forest Revenue, 1966-70  115
142. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, 1970  116
143. Amounts Charged Against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1960/70  117
144. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1969/70  118
145. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1969/70  118
146. Scaling Fund   119
147. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  119
148. Peace River Power Timber Salvage  119
PERSONNEL DIVISION
151. Distribution of Personnel, 1970  120
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
89
STATUS OF RESEARCH PROJECTS IN  1970
Active at beginning of year .
Terminated	
New projects .
Active at end of year .
103
12
5
96
Research Projects by Districts
Subject
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Land classification.
Tree-breeding _	
Plant ecology..
Silvicultural systems-
Natural regeneration.
Choice and trial of species..
Nursery practice 	
Direct seeding	
Planting 	
Spacing
Forest fertilization.
Tending of stands—
Statistics  _.
Management: Economics-
Totals..
5
15
1
3
3
1
9
2
46
15
12
12
1
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS,  1970
Arlidge, J. W. C. (1970): Native Forests and Vegetation, pages 14-16 in Soils of the Upper
Part of the Fraser Valley in the Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia. Report No.
10 of the British Columbia Soil Survey Research Branch, Can. Dept. of Agri.
Armit, D. (1970): A Planting Trial With White Spruce, Fort Babine. Research Note No. 50,
B.C. For. Serv., 5 pp.
  (1970):  Comparison of Mattock and Bar Planting Methods With White Spruce in
North Central British Columbia.   Research Note No. 53, B.C. For. Serv., 12 pp.
Clark, M. B. (1970): Direct Seeding—Possibilities and Limitations (a report for Interior tree-
farm foresters, Reforestation Workshop, Sept. 24, 25, 1970, Prince George).
  (1970): Seed Production of Hemlock and Cedar in the Interior Wet Belt Region of
British Columbia Related to Dispersal and Regeneration. Research Note No. 51, B.C.
For. Serv., 11 pp.
Forest Research Review for year ended March 1970.    B.C. For. Serv., 110 pp.
Illingworth, K. (1970) : Change of Status; Weed to Wood. Can. Pulp & Paper Industry 23(8),
pp. 34-35.
Karlsson, I. (1970): Delayed Incompatibility in Grafted Clones of Douglas-fir. Res. Note
No. 52, 18 pp.
Keser, N. (1969): Soils and Forest Growth in the Sayward Forest, British Columbia. Vols.
I and II, UBC Ph.D. thesis, 309 pp.
  (1970):   A  Mapping and Interpretative System for the Forested Lands of British
Columbia.   Research Note No. 54, B.C. For. Serv., 29 pp.
Orr-Ewing, A. L.  (1970):  The Growing Generation Gap Between Tree Improvement and
Forestry Practice.    Paper presented at the 1970 Annual Meeting of the Association of
B.C. Registered Foresters.    Mimeo, 6 pp.
Schmidt, R. L. (1970): A History of Pre-settlement Fires on Vancouver Island as Determined
From Douglas-fir Ages.   UBC Forestry Bulletin No. 7, pp. 107-8.
van den Driessche,  R.   (1970):  Measurement of Frost-hardiness in Douglas-fir at Three
Nurseries by an Electrical Method.   For. Chron. Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 65-66.
 90
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
91
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR TREE-FARM LICENCES (PRIVATE
(«) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of
Tree-farm
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Schedule
BI
Schedule
A2
Total
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Cut
(Cunits)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
173
53
2
7
5
Totals..
34
2,703,553
3,513,571
471,576
726,253
1,293,553
1,285,480
168,091
2,404
1,841
47,833
3,989,033
3,681,662
473,980
728,094
1,341,386
6,893,670
10,982,769
562,992
776,982
3,348,458
3,628,300
1,398,000
184,000
181,960
424,050
8,708,506
1,505,649
10,214,155
22,564,871
5,816,310
i Schedule B is vacant Crown land.
2 Schedule A is land for which the tree-farm licence-holder has cutting rights other than those conveyed by
the tree-farm licence agreement. This may include lands held in fee-simple or temporary tenures, e.g., timber
leases, licences, and berths. Following removal of the mature timber, lands held under temporary tenure are
transferred to Schedule B.
3 Two tree-farm licences located in both districts.
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR CERTIFIED TREE-FARMS (PRIVATE
(48) SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS OVER CROWN-GRANTED LANDS)
Within Tree-farm Licences
Number
of
Tree-farms
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Estimated
Forest District
Mature
Immature
N.S.R.
and
N.C.C
Total
Productive
Capacity
(Cunits)
Vancouver	
12
1
2
74,201
188
1,669
215,140
1,002
4,719
33,999
31
3,219
323,340
1,221
9,607
362,270
1,280
10,158
328,352
458
Nelson   	
4,212
Totals
15            76,058 | 220,861 |    37,249
1            !            1
334,168 |     373,708
1
333,022
Not Included Within Tree-farm Licences
Vancouver ..	
Np.lsnn
21
11
110,625
101,373
290,660
220,631
40,960
103,070
442,245
425,074
470,489
525,599
354,817
93,846
(346,096)
Totals   	
32
211,998
511,291
144,030
867,319
996,088
448,663
(346,096)
Grand totals	
47
288,056
732,152
181,279
1,201,487
1,369,796
781,685
(346,096)
Figures in parentheses are Christmas trees
 92
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
«». (PRIVATE SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS)
Forest District
Number
of Farm
Wood-lot
Licences
Productive Area (Acres)
Total
Area
(Acres)
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(Cunits)
Crown
Private
Total
Vancouver   	
Prince Rupert            	
13
5
14
4
4
1,961
1,570
3,203
1,115
1,359
258
235
165
146
617
2,219
1,805
3,368
1,261
1,976
3,086
3,261
3,589
1,420
2,071
796
332
1,028
260
Nelson	
251
Totals
40
9,208
1,421
10.629     !     13.427
2,667
(50)   SUMMARY OF BASIC DATA FOR PUBLIC SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
Number
of
Units
Productive Area (Acres)
Total Area
(Including
Nonforest)
(Acres)
Close
Utilization
Allowable
Annual
Cut
(Cunits)
Forest District
Mature
Immature
Total
Productive
(Includes
N.S.R. and
N.C.C.)
Vancouver „
Prince Rupert (Coast)	
Prince Rupert (Interior)	
6
4
7
23
24
14
3,261,291
4,327,545
5,750,543
14,740,9003
9,368,082*
2,779,447
1,483,590
324,254
3,154,641
13,971,8193
10,878,306 ■*
4,972,013
5,226,105
4,720,399
9,297,931
30,614,5983
21,354,966*
8,577,603
10,370,425
11,616,283
14,272,760
43,278,3353
28,163,359*
14,287,482
2,837,0001
2,540,6101
2,544,5003
6,575,9802
Kamlonp-
4,074,8502
2,176,8002
Totals	
78
40,227,808
34,784,623
79,791,602
121,988,644
20,749,740
1 Close Utilization Allowable Annual Cut (Cunits) 9.1"+d.b.h.
2 Close Utilization Allowable Annual Cut (Cunits) 7.1"+d.b.h.
3 Area of 23 units, plus Prince George part of Chilko PSYU.
4 Area of 24 units, including Kamloops part of Chilko PSYU.
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALE BILLED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(SD DURING THE YEARS 1969 AND 1970 IN CUBIC FEET
Forest District
10-year
Average,
1961-70
1969
1970
Increase
Decrease
Net
Increase
754,524,462
120,604,926
845,336,234
149,076,083
841,763,523
176,445,647
27,369,564
3,572,711
Prince Rupert (C.)	
Totals, Coast	
875,129,388 |     994,412,317
1,018,209,170
102.832.928"
27,369,564 |      3,572,711
23,796,853
80,135,820
235,068,087
235,968,002
146,887,519
117.515.468
14,682,540
333,228,284        375,152,916
262,700,510        262,744,626
182,195,653 |     173,688,797
41.924.632
Kamloops	
44.116  1   	
8,506,856
Totals, Interior	
698,059,428
895,639,915 |     914,419,267
41,968,748 |    23,189,396
18,779,352
—42,576,205"
Grand totals	
1,573,188,816
1,890,052,232
1,932,628,437
69,338,312 1    26,762,107
 (52)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
SPECIES CUT, ALL PRODUCTS, 1970, IN CUBIC FEET
93
Forest District
Fir
Cedar
Spruce
Lodgepole
Pine
Hemlock
Balsam
White
Pine
181,434,231
5,602,531
178,955,967
24,808,188
12,663,824
31,278,823
72,479
272,886
301,198,220
79,598,341
141,189,267
30,836,665
4,681,786
5,501
Prince Rupert (C).
Totals, Coast	
187,036,762
203,764,155
43,942,647
345,365
380,796,561
172,025,932
4,687,287
Prince Rupert (I.) —
Prince George	
292
31,096,978
109,808,108
19,954,219
5,999,090
1,074,628
13,008,888
29,682,384
28,082,643
206,696,647
72,861,811
62,924,583
370,565,684
28,566,070
112,746,110
32,179,029
12,477,708
185,968,917
22,592,933
416,229
8,319,661
17,510,680
15,595,810
21,096,254
17,187,921
17,603,769
59,995
1,788,708
Nelson  	
3,313,675
Totals, Interior
160,859,597
49,764,990
48,839,503
71,483,754
5,160,378
Grand totals
347,896,359
253,529,145
414,508,331
186,314,282
429,636,064
243,509,686
9,847,665
Forest District
Yellow
Pine
Cypress
Larch
Hardwood
Cottonwood
Unspecified
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert (C).
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)-
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson —	
Totals, Interior
Grand totals	
919
194
16,481,316
475,902
55
1,113|     16,957,218
551
4,721,633
545,529
5,267,1621
2,511,9671
9,457,709|
11,969,6761
662,837
24,731
"6877568
~46,274
292,467
321,352
10,055
"6707148
5,268,2751     16,957,218
I	
11,969,731|       1,357,716
I      	
2,801,697
3,507,517
"67309,2141
841,763,523
176,445,647
~U.55,293 |T^l8^097l'7O
1,620,925
34,368
1,949,816|..
1,675,608|..
35,5481..
208,4861..
"37869,4581„
102,832,928
375,152,916
262,744,626
173,688,797
-|   914,419,267
10,178,672|
 I
1,655,293[1,932,628,437
I
(S3)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS BILLED IN 1970 IN CUBIC FEET
(SEGREGATED BY LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
139,693,135
11,644,964
38,149,626
54.240.962
1.474.1651        3.935.751
3,967,097
1,572,687
203,311,110
9,081,811
22,299,462
38,149,626
37,206,917
6,823,068
55,437
187,057,189
143,306,165
8,458,586
49,589,800
1,048,955
8,360,026
45,566,943
6,363,453
1,584
60,908,977
28,694,000
439,328
13,186,521
52,693
312,743,141
16,641,184
16,900
189,524,268
20,308,287
21,451
104,427,114
41,744,750
148,065
50,165,195
41,183,382
1,451,894
3,200
1,310,955
904,825,884
Tree-farm licences
291,877,768
10,349,808
49,593,000
Miscellaneous	
1,474,281
29,730,545|     10,743,154
3,512,427
47,820,317
Subtotals, Crown
lands	
623,033,842
163,079,067
91,518,170
360,641,728
233,610,171
155,245,526
1,627,128,504
5.236.6871     3.920.104
1,686,821
287,660
1,428,685
7,911,592
329,179
15,919
66,294
2,054,564
12.045.232
2,719,866
6,265,865
2,084,523
4,692,334
13.371.867
57,694
3,884,760
6,894,765
1,360,419
6,245,633
13,950,351
Crown grants—
To 1887       	
179,269,031
7,584,514
4,804,615
21,834,834
22,558
2,920,670
591,585
5,911,663
189,458,133
1887-1906	
1906-14 -	
1914 to date	
19,838,426
14,932,202
67,320,821
Totals 	
841,763,523
176,445,647
102,832,928
375,152,916[   262,744,626
I
173,688,797|  1,932,628,437
 94
REPORT
OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND
WATER RESOURCES
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 (57)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1970
LOGGING INSPECTIONS, 1970
97
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Type of Tenure Operated
Timber
Sale
Licences
Totals, 1970  _.
Totals, 1969	
Totals, 1968 ,	
Totals, 1967	
Totals, 1966	
Totals, 1965	
Totals, 1964	
Totals, 1963	
Totals, 1962	
Totals, 1961	
Ten-year average, 1961-70
912
225
1,024
438
282
Cutting
Permits
(Tree-farm
Leases,
Licences,
Licences,
Farm
Crown
Wood-lot
Grants,
Licences,
and
and
Other
Timber Sale
Tenures
Harvesting
Licences)
286
205
285
327
169
1,608
552
2,027
1,000
1,043
6,830
Total
2,806
982
3,336
1,765
1,494
Number of Inspections Made
Timber
Sale
Licences
and
Cutting
Permits
2,881     |
1,272
6,230
10,383
3,511
876
7,358
11,745
4,719
C1)
7,758
12,477
5,118    |
(!)
7,431
12,549
5,566
(!)
6,174
11,740
6,231    ]
(!)
6,514
12,745
6,557    |
C1)
6,560
13,117
6,926    |
C1)
7,168
14,094
7,079    |
C1)
6,645
13,724
7,088    |
C1)
6,463
13,551
12,613
3,008
2,351
6,220
2,682
1,819
Other
Tenures
2,948
1,489
1,647
2,781
1,247
Total
5,956
3,840
7,867
5,463
3,066
16,080
10,112
26,192
17,518
8,682
26,200
17,480
10,092
27,572
17,663
9,488
27,151
18,593
9,576
28,169
17,869
6,365
24,234
17,789
13,311
31,100
18,021
7,189
25,210
18,602
6,353
24,955
18,330
6,242
24,572
17,795
8,741
26,536
i Figures not available prior to 1969.
 98
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 (59)
REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1970
99
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(Cunits)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Car Stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
Etc.
(No.)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert ...
Prince George .
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1970.
Totals, 1969„
Totals, 1968...
Totals, 1967-
Totals, 1966-
Totals, 1965..
Totals, 1964..
Totals, 1963..
Totals, 1962-
Totals, 1961-
Ten-year average, 1961-70.
264
42
143
48
75
30,271
17,083
76,078
39,931
30,374
674,530
627,850
2,456,970
355,210
573,060
622
193,737
| 4,687,620
732
233,491
| 4,451,260
890
314,595
| 6,738,850
848
310,325
| 5,498,070
998
361,021
| 6,794,860
1,357
496,254
| 9,519,950
1,709
661,821
|11,074,280
1,862
716,699
|11,659,760
1,871
615,500
| 9,217,100
1,892
720,144
|10,272,430
1,278
462,359
7,991,418
9,000
52,400
I
3,677
150
500
884
66
4,871,298
16,289
125,250
46,600
54,000
61,400
5,277
225,850
15,300
13,392
2,910,012
3,269,400
6,769
704,950
6,014,850
12,352
319,450
3,674,100
25,675
837,244
2,650,400
7,616
987,100
2,944,004
25,154
478,520
3,887,525
32,519
656,680
18,508,084
19,340
564,865
7,687,920
14,798
1,419,285
910,396
(60)
TIMBER-SALE LICENCE RECORD, 1970
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total
Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest
Protection
Tax (Acres)
285
34
320
154
965
223
335,268
95,456
295,376
419,424
318,943
308,017
79,422
Prince George	
Kamloops.	
120      [         376      |         569
85      |         376      1         706
42               137      j         301
230,054
384,381
298,908
Totals       	
566
633
1,363            2,764
......      |       	
1,464,467
1,300,782
1,199
	
	
 100
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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105
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 106 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(67) EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.),  1970
Species
Grade
No. 1
Grade
No. 2
Grade
No. 3
Ungraded
and
Lumber
Reject
Total
Exportable!
Exported
under
Permits
Fir -	
1                      1
174.051         1.610.852          2.655.886
4,440,789
31,904,887
89,657,351
83,503,550
50,089,087
1.535 857           2 904 0..
6,012,827
6,883,265
4,745,321
7,574,751
14,296,645
14,331,853
18,317,309
68,477,441
64,426,376
6,376,990
4,360,551
36,992,625
14,351,106
1,069,524
13,203,320
244
2,844,184
25,527,897
85,296,800
46,510,925
50,089,087
35,737,981
1,208,445
24,949,957
52,971
1,463,159
508,206
7,087,885
369,351
1,769,622
33,501,001
288,181
5,137,495
700,098
20,297,681
288,181
287,937
2,293,311
Cottonwood	
2,514
4,765,630
Totals, 1970	
19,334,108 | 45,779,543
184,801,044
50,377,268
300,291,963
80,734,401
219,557,562
Totals, 1969 ...
3,592,972 |  18,188,084
103,624,904
30,241,684
155,647,644
63,932,092
91,715,552
Totals, 1968 ...
21,717,373  |  26,897,011
120,670,517
16,173,878
185,458,779
97,590,782
87,867,997
Totals, 1967	
12,128,244 | 41,320,799
128,995,437
20,972,835
203,417,315
68,513,476
134,903,839
Totals, 1966—
9,751,031 | 27,322,739
88,001,394
16,931,247
142,006,411
44,092,921
97,913,490
Totals, 1965 ...
3,355,224 |   10,766,201
35,846,770
8,640,629
58,608,824
38,753,555
19,855,269
Totals, 1964—
3,748,377 j  14,590,533
30,789,610
3,825,697
52,954,217
28,446,668
24,507,549
Totals, 1963—
3,468,986 |   16,149,811
62,790,210
10,382,520
92,791,527
51,109,835
41,681,692
Totals, 1962...
3,773,734  j   11,215,447
46,151,663
13,839,528
74,980,372
44,255,041
30,725,331
Totals, 1961..
9,216,534 | 28,611,982
48,009,763
15,513,919
101,352,198
31,272,030
70,080,168
Ten-year average, 1961-70
9,008,658 | 24,084,215
1
84,968,131
18,689,921
136,750,925
54,870,080
81,880,845
i Export privilege—exported from lands Crown-granted prior to March 13, 1906.
2 Exported under permit from Crown lands and lands granted after March 12, 1906, under authority of section 97 of Forest Act.
(68)    SHIPMENTS OF POLES AND OTHER MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS,  1970
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where Marketed
Canada
United
States
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles lin. ft.
Piling       „
Stakes and sticks.     „
Cedar shakes .   pieces
Christmas trees      „
Fence-posts      ,,
Pulp-chips     _ _  units
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling   lin. ft.
Prince George—
Poles      „
Fence-posts _  pieces
Pulp chips  _ _  units
Kamloops—
Poles     lin. ft.
Posts ...  cords
Christmas trees    pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Mine timbers.—     „
Corral rails       „
Orchard props  _ —    „
Fence-posts  ._ cords
Mine props .— -    „
Palings and pickets       „
Cordwood — — -     „
Christmas trees   pieces
Shakes and shingles.—     „
Total value, 1970... 	
Total value, 1969	
6,693,808
449,006
6,817
12,908,782
16,767
6,817
184,698
218,900
182,695
19,805
16,494
677,005
36
162,460
1,378,202
93,416
347.278
1,000
4,760
74
91
6
977,555
2,379,244
$4,776,442.00
1,248,045.00
340.00
1,836,318.00
31,020.00
1,022.00
3,867,576.00
120,395.00
123,303.00
4,554.00
195,454.00
406,203.00
1,620.00
121,845.00
698,243.00
22,420.00
6,946.00
20.00
249,900.00
4,810.00
4,095.00
116.00
742,942.00
214,132.00
$14,677,761^00"
"$12,278,411.31"
410,482
42,274
539,946
329
87,560
113,253
19,805
16,494
143,045
21,999
702,671
93,416
20,544
4,342
74
91
4
164,641
154,492
4,699,742
119,828
6,817
12,368,836
16,438
6,817
184,698
131,340
69,442
533,960
36
140,461
675,531
326,734
1,000
418
2
812,914
2,224,752
1,583,584
286,964
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
107
(69)
TIMBER MARKS ISSUED, 1961-70
10-year
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Average,
1960-69
Old Crown grants	
268
300
313
356
328
341
277
328
361
220
309
Crown grants, 1887-
1906	
121
150
125
148
150
130
147
173
159
82
139
Crown grants, 1906-
1914.	
121
164
161
164
172
144
163
190
203
111
159
Section 58, Forest Act
470
589
608
672
649
679
680
805
781
540
647
Stumpage reservations
117
109
141
149
133
63
61
48
48
19
89
Pre-emptions	
3
9
13
7
8
3
6
9
13
10
8
4
8
12
20
12
18
9
27
14
24
10
27
20
4
11
214
1
24
347
11
30
502
6
14
418
8
20
Section 24, Forest Act
150
2,141
1,991
2,183
2,281
1,614
1,126
1,149
1,241
1,327
1,199
1,625
Special marks and
rights-of-way	
91
90
97
121
153
117
95
101
143
89
110
5
5
3
12
4
5
2
4
2
4
1
1
2
1
1
Totals	
3,349
3,441
3,671
3,934
3,248
2,676
2,812
3,273
3,582
2,709
3,269
Transfers and changes
691
809
725
802
740
908
593
773
554
686
728
(70)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED,  1970
Forest District
Number
of Permits
Issued
Number of Stock Under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,176
440
389
4
144,621
19,980
13,578
153
3,346
889
1,416
2,525
18
196
Totals, 1970                               	
2,009
178,332
5,651
2,739
Totals, 1969
2,018
180,579
5,545
5,106
Totals, 1068
2,053
188,183
6,338
7,090
Totals, 1»67
2,114
188,126
6,837
6,272
Totals, 1066
2,244
189,286
6,572
8,970
Totals, 1065
2,218
188,339
6,677
12,509
Total., J 964
2,104
173,677
6,231
22,478
Totals, 1963                                                      	
1,951
158,840
5,860
25,366
Totals, 1067.
1,924
146,830
5,007
23,370
Totals, 1061
1,825
132,749
4,985
21,309
 108 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(102) FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1970
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
3
6
3
1
8
10
43
13
26
18
34
243
65
123
50
101
392
84
750~~
160
41
152
767
375
TT495-
153
12
77
550
242
35
3
20
73
32
15
1
15
43
14
516
133
409
2,117
828
12.9
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
3.3
10.2
52.9
20.7
Totals	
12
75
386
1,034
163
88
4,003
100.0
Per cent	
0.3
1.9
9.6
18.8
37.3
25.8
4.1
2.2
100.0
	
Ten-year average,
1961-70	
23
64
334
429
693
_28.9~
658
168
25
2,394
Per cent	
1.0
2.8
13.9
17.9
27.5
7.0
1.0
100.0
(103)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1970
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Vancouver	
130
61
50
113
9
1
4
76
2
70
516
12.9
Prince Rupert	
21
24
1
21
6
10
1
21
4
24
133
3.3
160
61
14
37
37
7
2
37
8
37
9
409
10.2
Kamloops	
987
119
97
259
75
171
17
86
52
240
14
2,117
52.9
Nelson	
505
37
84
71
19
2
6
35
4
61
4
828
20.7
Totals	
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
•    30
255
70
432
27
4,003
100.0
45.0
7.5
6.1
12.5
3.6
4.9
0.7
6.4
1.7
10.9
0.7
100.0
Ten-year average,
1961-70	
895
227
163
296
101
127
50
175
37
279
44
2,394
37.4
9.5
6.8
12.4
4.2
5.3
2.1
7.3
1.5
11.7
1.8
100.0
(104)     NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST 10 YEARS
Causes
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970 1 Total
1
1,426
269
154
336
86
179
36
194
49
290
83
615
182
41
162
60
62
35
109
25
183
62
1,144
221
65
220
82
95
24
141
62
250
41
277
144
51
129
66
79
11
81
45
178
59
1,000
315
89
310
89
193
89
223
24
309
44
374
230
170
281
156
149
101
164
14
292
36
958
288
455
464
128
138
93
248
42
348
54
708
131
121
179
65
53
34
126
23
193
14
646
188
238
374
133
128
52
206
19
313
21
1,803
302
246
501
146
191
30
255
70
432
27
8,951
2,270
1,630
2,956
Brush-burning (not railway or right-
1,011
1,267
Road, power-, telephone-, and pipe-
505
Industrial operations (logging, etc.)	
1,747
373
2,788
441
Totals 	
3,102
1,536
2,345
1,120
2,685
1,967
3,216
1,647
2,318
4,003
23,939
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1970
109
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 110 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(106) DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  1970
Forest District
Forest
Products
Cut, Logs,
Lumber,
Etc.
Buildings
Railway,
Logging,
and
Sawmill
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
$275,440
8,670
5,395
110,712
$350
$40,496
$5,126
22,732
114,125
7,205
$321,412
8,670
65,027
335,387
14,405
43.1
1 2
36,150
70,450
4,200
750
40,100
3,000
8.7
45.1
Nelson	
1.9
Totals	
$400,217
$111,150
$84,346
$149,188
$744,901
100.0
53.8
14.9
11.3
20.0
100.0
.
Ten-year average, 1961-70
$185,583
$48,081
$155,805
$42,181
$431,650      |     	
43.0
11.1
36.1
9.8
100.0
DAMAGE TO FOREST COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,
(107—Parti) 1970—PART Ii
Forest District
Merchantable Timber
Net Area
Killed
Total
Volume
Killed
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
Net
Stumpage
Loss
Immature Timber
Net Area
Killed
Present
Value
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Acres
2,641
235
24,472
23,637
8,703
M Cu. Ft.
12,613
619
63,310
37,124
30,621
M Cu. Ft.
4,736
353
19,718
15,269
16,398
Totals-  	
Percent 	
Ten-year average, 1961-70
Per cent	
59,688      |    144,287 56,474
22.8 100.0
39.1
46,935  |  92,420  |  35,517
17.8
100.0
38.4
419,809
5,066
746,745
322,460
393,252
Acres
2,902
30
24,495
31,245
4,551
154,288
1,068
568,841
612,698
139,285
1,887,3321    |      63,223      | 1,476,1801
54.9 24.3
42.9
1,796,703 60,553       |  1,434,032
23.0
41.2
1 The dollar value of losses in merchantable and immature timber represents only stumpage loss to the
Crown.   Actual payroll loss to the Province is 10 times these figures.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1970
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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1970
AREAS OF LOGGING SLASH DISPOSED, 1970
115
Forest District
Acres Abated
by Industry
Acres Abated
by Forest
Service
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
68,722
31,631
14,800
13,768
24,755
Totals-
153,676
9,089
7,000
2,696
3,430
22,215
68,722
40,720
21,800
16,464
28,185
175,891
(141)
FOREST REVENUE, 1966-70
12 Months
12 Months
12 Months
12 Months
12 Months
to Dec. 31,
to Dec. 31,
to Dec. 31,
to Dec. 31,
to Dec. 31,
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Timber licence rentals and
fees	
$771,170.84
$825,100.86
$676,038.52
$703,048.63
$668,254.04
Timber berth rentals and fees
14,368.52
13,436.63
141,074.38
128,103.62
123,123.68
Timber lease rentals and fees
106,852.12
76,121.31
87,083.55
90,500.60
92,895.76
Timber sale rentals and fees
948,568.96
881,812.16
899,849.28
882,229.95
898,484.23
42,643,936.30
34,732,239.51
44,390,570.94
78,293,115.07
53,524,665.01
Timber sale cruising and ad-
223,236.17
229,857.61
250,745.80
213,844.25
163,321.01
Timber royalties.	
3,079,058.68
3,509,720.06
4,954,555.27
6,329,417.22
6,217,109.85
Grazing permits and fees	
153,507.63
310,718.84
350,351.93
384,123.83
438,003.68
570,202.65
579,928.17
947,389.12
993,509.64
1,006,742.58
Miscellaneous	
245,350.02
394,388.82
473,324.50
428,260.52
669,194.53
212,275.98
396,894.14
635,742.30
1,033,160.25
1,149,637.48
Totals...
$48,968,527.87
$41,950,218.11
$53,806,725.59
$89,479,313.58
$64,951,431.85
 116
REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
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 118 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(144) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR  1969/70
Timber licence rentals and fees   $664,995.36
Timber berth rentals and fees  98,592.24
Timber lease rentals and fees  89,978.10
Timber sale rentals and fees    823,881.77
Timber sale stumpage  76,476,626.79
Timber sale cruising and advertising  225,870.84
Timber royalties   6,721,325.60
Grazing permits and fees  379,639.23
Forest-protection tax  917,602.47
Miscellaneous   507,744.21
Weight-scaling  1,066,932.63
Total   $87,973,189.24
(US) FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1969/70
General administration, protection, and management of forests  $17,441,491.82
Reforestation and forest nurseries  2,234,533.60
Forest research    182,565.46
Public information and education  61,148.18
Forest Service Training School  129,352.04
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association   17,500.00
Engineering services and forest-development roads  3,043,987.28
Fire suppression  _.   3,855,169.76
Forest inventory  1,078,259.51
Silviculture   1,505,224.53
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1  180,844.08
Peace River community pastures    18,150.29
Forestry and Correction Camp Programme  12,978.64
Total  $29,761,205.19
i Statement provided elsewhere.
 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1970
119
(146)
SCALING FUND
Deficit, April 1, 1969      $233,114.32
Collections, fiscal year 1969/70     2,640,206.48
Expenditures, fiscal year 1969/70 .
Deficit, March 31, 1970	
$2,407,092.16
2,565,463.08
$158,370.92
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1970     1,924,650.54
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1970 .
Deficit, December 31, 1970	
$1,766,279.62
1,919,214.11
$152,934.49
(147)
GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Surplus, April 1, 1969	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, fiscal year 1969/70
Surplus, March 31, 1970 	
Government contribution (section 13, Grazing Act)
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1970 .
Surplus, December 31, 1970	
$5,496.13
187,162.14
$192,658.27
180,844.08
$11,814.19
189,819.61
$201,633.80
158,034.78
$43,599.02
(148)
PEACE RIVER POWER TIMBER SALVAGE
Expenditures, fiscal year 1969/70	
Recovered from British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority .
Balance
$3,474,328.05
1,686,610.33
$1,787,717.72
 120 REPORT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER RESOURCES
(151) DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1970
Personnel
Van
Prince
Prince
couver!
Rupert
George
2
2
2
15
10
15
	
2
1
2
3
1
2
107
87
123
15
95
3
71
65
30
	
6
3
4
	
1
_....
5
5
6
98
39
42
8
43
9
7
16
8
.
39
31
38
13
3
1
3
5
5
23
4
2
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters   	
Division Foresters 	
Directors of Grazing and Public Information-
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officers—	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters-
Foresters  	
Agrologists and Agrologists-in-Training	
Engineers _ 	
Forest Protection Officers	
Technical Forest Officers   	
Superintendent of Scaling and Assistants 	
Scalers, Official 	
Scalers, Official, temporary _	
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants-
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio	
Public Information Assistants 	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants-
Nursery Superintendents  	
Draughtsmen and Mapping Assistants _
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers-
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Maintenance Depot-
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians-
Launch Crewmen 	
Forest Assistants	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators-
Foremen.- _
Miscellaneous2._
Totals, continuous personnel-
Seasonally Employed
Technical Forest Officers-
Patrolmen 	
Lookoutmen.  —
Dispatchers, Radio Operators, and Clerks _
Fire-suppression Crewmen  	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc 	
Truck, Tractor, and Equipment Operators  —
Student and Survey Assistants and Engineering Aides
Forest Assistants	
Foremen	
MiscellaneousS-
Totals, seasonal personnel-
Totals, all personnel	
556
2
32
54
24
3
2
6
242
322
23
32
1
4
17
6
8
1
3
1
1
6
7
131    |      38    |      72
687    I    280~ \~"394"
1 I
2
15
6
1
1
125
3
3
50
6
34
47
3
2
10
324
32
4
69
4
22
"lO
70
2
10
2
1
2
115
26
3
1
4
24
22
1
1
3
217
"541"
103
31
5
47
7
18
3
48
8
29
104
1
70
1
18
20
28
78
4
6
1
3
10
168
10
36
14
604
18
172
171
7
41
3
54
8
55
341
9
139
25
195
41
44
120
633    | 2,299
2,353    | 2,933
344    | 2,986
I
5,232
1 Includes Vancouver Scaling and Forest Service Maintenance Depot.
2 Includes Analysts, Nursery Assistants, Programmer Analysts, Data Processing Operators, Key Punch Operators, Building Service Workers, Gardeners, Cooks, Flunkies, Labourers, Fallers, Painters, Plumbers, Powdermen,
Photographers, Stockmen, Utility Tradesmen, Mechanic Welder, Timekeeper, Watchmen, Bridgemen, Carpenters,
Power-saw Operators, Technicians, Construction Accountants, and Engineering Aides.
3 Includes Labourers, Cooks, Flunkies, Launch Engineers, Power-saw Operators, Carpenters, Snag-fallers,
Mix Masters, Swampers, Mechanics, Watchmen, Bridgemen, Rock-drillers, Launch Crew, and Boatmen.
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971

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