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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the GENERAL ADMINISTRATION,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1971

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports oj the
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH,
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH, BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, AND COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31
1970
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971
  Victoria, British Columbia, February 24, 1971.
To Colonel the Honourable Iohn R. Nicholson, P.C., O.B.E., Q.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department
of Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1970.
W. K. KIERNAN
Minister oj Recreation and Conservation
 Victoria, British Columbia, February 23, 1971.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister oj Recreation and Conservation.
Sir:   I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31, 1970.
H. G. McWILLIAMS
Deputy Minister oj Recreation and Conservation
 CONTENTS
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
General Administration	
Fish and Wildlife Branch	
Provincial Parks Branch	
British Columbia Provincial Museum.
Commercial Fisheries Branch	
Pace
.     7
. 9
. 13
. 39
_ 67
_ 89
COVER PHOTOGRAPH
Each year it is necessary to remove dozens of nuisance bears from inhabited areas. The animals are captured alive in portable traps and transported to more
suitable areas. The bears are treated with tranquillizers,
their age is determined, they are weighed and marked
for future identification (with yellow dye in this case),
and are released unharmed.
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 Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1970
H. G. McWilliams, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
Considerable progress was made throughout the year by all Branches in working toward a common goal of improving our resources in the fields of recreation and
conservation. Members of the Department were pleased to participate on many
different committees in co-operation with other departments of government at both
the Federal and Provincial level. These included many meetings with the Federal
Department of Fisheries, with particular reference to a number of cost-sharing
projects to improve the mollusc fisheries in British Columbia. Also, the Land Use
Committee is proving invaluable in co-ordinating the management of our natural
resources in the Province.
The increased public interest in our environment was evident from the continuing upward trend to 7,500,000 park visits, more than 800,000 visits to the
Provincial Museum, and the purchase of more angling and hunting licences than
ever before.
In November an unfortunate fire at Manning Park Lodge completely destroyed
24 motel units, much to the inconvenience and disappointment of many guests who
had made reservations for the ski-ing season at Gibson Pass. It is anticipated that
these units will be replaced in the summer of 1971.
The acquisition of land for Phase I of the National Park on the west coast of
Vancouver Island is moving forward steadily, but it will be some time before it is
all assembled for conveyance to the Federal authorities.
In 1970 a total of 7,100,000 trout and other game fish were stocked in 415
lakes, while the collection of 18,000,000 wild eggs will ensure a plentiful supply of
young fish for the 1971 planting programme. The development of the Creston
Valley Wildlife Management Area is progressing very well in co-operation with the
Canadian Wildlife Service and Ducks Unlimited (Canada).
It is gratifying to note a marked reduction in hunting accidents over previous
years, even with an increase in the number of hunters. No doubt this can be attributed to the success of the Hunter-training Programme.
The very popular publication Wildlife Review continues to be in demand, with
increased subscriptions and sales.
DR. G. CLIFFORD CARL
It is with regret that we must record the sudden passing of Dr. Carl on March
27, 1970. This was only a few months after he had relinquished the Director's
position in order to carry on a research programme in marine biology. His death
is a great loss to the Museum and to the Province.
  GENERAL
ADMINISTRATION
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 11
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION
General Administration consists of the Deputy Minister's Office, the attached
Public Information Officer, and the Accounts and Personnel Office.
The staff of General Administration work closely with all branches, including
the Department of Travel Industry, in such Departmental matters as putting policy
into effect, office and work facilities, personnel, and finance.
The Personnel Section of General Administration processed 53 requisitions to
the Civil Service Commission for the purpose of obtaining new and replacement
positions for all Branches of the Department.
This section also processed 81 Civil Service Commission requisitions for the
Department of Travel Industry.
The personnel officer sat in on many interviewing panels for the selection of
these candidates.
One employee in this Department completed the three-year Executive Development Course and two employees in this Department were selected for the one-year
Basic Public Administration Course. One employee in the Fish and Wildlife Branch
and one employee in the Parks Branch were awarded 25-year continuous-service
certificates.
Regular meetings are held with employees of the Parks Branch and the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for the purpose of reviewing personnel accidents and seeking
methods of improving safety.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The Public Information Officer of the Department of Recreation and Conservation has as his primary duty various writing and editing assignments for Beautiful
British Columbia magazine (Department of Travel Industry). His secondary duties
are to carry out other specific projects as determined by the Minister.
During 1970 the general public interest in the activities of the Department was
dramatically reflected in the number of inquiries received in the Public Information
Office. About four times as many inquiries were processed in 1970 as in 1965, and
of significance is the increasing level of sophistication inherent in the inquiries. Also
indicating this growing public interest in the Department was an increase by 25 per
cent during the period of 1965-70 in the number of news releases originating in the
Department (which are an administrative function of the Public Information Officer), while the number of outlets for these releases increased from approximately
300 to more than 500. Another measurement is the press clipping service which
monitors press references to the Department and activities of interest to the Department—these tripled in number during the five-year period.
During 1970, various information and education projects were completed by
the Public Information Officer and, worthy of special note, were two Province-wide
publicity campaigns based on the Litter Act, which entailed the production and distribution of two brochures. Two other brochures were produced for distribution
by the Canadian Forestry Association. Assistance to other agencies preparing
material on a multitude of subjects was provided on scores of occasions.
For the fifth consecutive year the Public Information Officer assisted the Department of Travel Industry in its annual travel writers' tour in British Columbia.
This included the preparation of numerous press kits, and co-ordination and distribution of orders from the travel writers for more than 400 photographs.
 CC 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1970 the Public Information Officer became the Department's representative on the Resource Use Information Subcommittee of the Environment and Land
Use Committee and, as well as being secretary, became involved in several research
projects and the preparation of news releases.
During the year the Public Information Officer continued to act as secretary
of the Wildlife Review Advisory Board and compiler of the Annual Report.
In 1966 a proposal made in the Department to co-ordinate public information
and education activity in a "Departmental Section of Information and Education"
was set aside because the situation at that time was found "satisfactory." In 1970,
because of the evident increase in public and press attention and the conclusion that
some co-ordination among the Department's various public information officers
might provide increased efficiency, the proposal was revived and, at the end of the
year, Branch Directors were preparing submissions on the subject for study by the
Minister.
 FISH and WILDLIFE
BRANCH
 . t. Some of the 457 delegates registering for the 50th Annual Conference, Western Asso-
cs^LS^Xi!^^ram and western Division Am-ican ~-
-«_____; t
Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area staff inspecting wood duck nesting-box.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC  15
FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH
J. Hatter, Director
The work of the Fish and Wildlife Branch covers such a diversity of activities
that the body of the Annual Report itself must of necessity be only a summary.
Instead of a further condensation of this report, the usual "highlights" of the year's
work are presented for the reader who may not wish to read the report in more
detail:
(1) Direct revenue for 1969/70 was $2,908,000, an increase of $203,000
over 1968/69.
(2) Hunting licence sales to residents and nonresidents increased 5 per cent
to a total of 159,098.
(3) Revenues generated by licensed hunters increased by $63,000 to a total
of $1,775,000.
(4) The severe 1968/69 winter effected lower harvests of big-game animals.
(5) Monitoring pesticide levels in wildlife continued; 313 specimens were
analysed.
(6) Hunting regulations were distributed by luly 1.
(7) There was active participation in the British Columbia Waterfowl Technical Committee and in the preparation of Waterfowl Management Plans
for the Fraser Valley and the Capital Regional District.
(8) The first Province-wide survey of falcon populations was conducted and
a moratorium was declared on the capture of falcons.
(9) Wildlife ranges in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench were surveyed
to provide background information for resolving conflicting range uses.
(10) There were 220,000 additional acres of wildlife habitat reserved.
(11) Over 4V_ miles of dyke were completed in the Creston Valley Wildlife
Management Area.
(12) Fourteen sea otters were introduced to the west coast of Vancouver Island
in co-operation with the State of Alaska, Federal Department of Fisheries,
and the Fish and Wildlife Branch.
(13) A tag licence ($5) was introduced for cougar.
(14) Resident anglers' licence sales increased from 187,000 in 1969 to 203,000
in 1970.
(15) 7,100,000 trout and other game fish were planted in 415 lakes throughout
the Province.
(16) 200 lakes throughout the Province were surveyed for fisheries potential.
(17) Recently constructed spawning channels at Meadow Creek (Kootenay
Lake) and Eighty three Creek (Green Lake) produced 7,000,000 kokanee
fry and 10,000 rainbow-trout fry respectively.
(18) Box Lake, near Nakusp, was chemically treated to remove coarse-fish
populations and improve angling success.
(19) Studies to assess and evaluate the angling activities of both resident and
nonresident fishermen were carried out during the year.
(20) Fish and wildlife habitat is receiving increased recognition and protection
as a result of staff involvement in the Technical Study Group operating
under the newly created Provincial Land Use Committee.
 Peale's falcon. The Queen Charlotte Islands is one of the few remaining
nesting areas in the world for this rare species.
Rocky Mountain goats.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
CC 17
A most noticeable trend during the past year is the accelerating public concern
about the future of our environment and the quality of life in years to come. Concern
is being expressed not only about environmental pollution but also about protection of land areas from alienation and water bodies from peripheral habitation.
Although these are basically land and water use matters in the administrative sense,
fish and wildlife problems become indicators of the quality of the environment, and
the public is quick to point out any apparent deterioration in recreational opportunities.
Another noticeable trend is the increasing demand for more intensive protection
and management activity, particularly as this relates to law enforcement and steel-
head-trout propagation. As we approach the level of 400,000 hunters and fishermen
in this Province, it is inevitable that increased demands will be made upon the Fish
and Wildlife Branch for more intensive management.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The regulation of hunting and activities associated with protection of wildlife
habitat continued to occupy most of the energies and resources of the Wildlife Management Division in 1970.
Regulation of hunting has, with the application of modern wildlife technology,
developed into a relatively routine programme, largely designed to allow public opportunity to harvest maximum sustained yields of game stocks. Continued public
resentment of "liberal" game-management policies indicates a need for a new look
at management objectives; the implication is that wildlife managers need to pay
more attention to the qualitative and ethical aspects of hunting. Public demands for
the management of wildlife for nonconsumptive appreciation have grown enormously
in recent years, placing added demands on the services of the wildlife manager.
The protection of wildlife populations and their habitat consumes most of the
energies of the small group of scientists engaged in the management of wildlife in the
Province. Although the scale of such work remains small and losses of wildlife to
environmental change and competitive land uses continues, substantial gains have
been made in the development of policies of multiple resource use; however, our
capacity to apply these policies still requires improvement.
New problems and demands affecting the protection and management of wildlife continually emerge from the process of social and economic development in the
Province. Industrial schemes, river-basin developments, expanding urban encroachment in rural areas, pollution, and the merging public concern about the welfare of
the environment are relatively new events, having profound effects on wildlife resources and on the kind of services the wildlife manager is expected to offer society.
The wildlife management programme in the Province is not presently scaled to
meet many of the new demands being placed on the resource. This is in part attributable to a lack of public and managerial appreciation of the social and economic
values of the resource, and to delay associated with the development of new concepts
and technology of management. Much work remains to be done in this area of
management before effective programmes can be created and applied to wildlife
conservation and to satisfying public demands for the use and appreciation of the
resource. However, these costs and benefits are not readily assessed in traditional
economic ways due to the social pattern of our wildlife use.
 CC 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Public Use of Wildlife Resources in British Columbia
Hunters in British Columbia are almost exclusively males of between 20 and 64
years of age. This age-group comprises 26 per cent of the total human population
in the Province; 28 per cent of 151,653 people in this age-group were licensed
hunters in 1969. In addition, 7,445 nonresidents were licensed to hunt in British
Columbia in 1969. Table I shows the trend in hunter numbers for the past five years.
Table I—Number oj Licensed Resident and Nonresident Hunters in
British Columbia, 1965-69
Year Resident Nonresident
1969   151,653 7,445
1968   145,052 7,093
1967   143,021 6,933
1966   134,351 6,635
1965   134,448 5,797
Revenues generated by hunters reached $1,775,000 in 1969. This was an increase of $63,000 over the 1968 total of $1,712,000. Of this total, nonresident
guided hunters contributed $185,000 in licences and $328,000 in trophy fees,
thereby supplying a considerable proportion of the Branch's revenue.
The 1970 harvest by resident hunters is not available at the time of writing, but
the results of the 1969 harvest are compiled. In 1969, 140,000 game-harvest questionnaires were sent to resident hunters. Of those contacted, 80,000 hunters
responded.
In 1969, hunters were less successful in the number of game animals harvested.
This was due in large measure to the fact that big-game populations were reduced
by the severe 1968/69 winter, and this is indicated by the lower harvest figures given
in Table II.
In the 1969 Annual Report, using incomplete data, we predicted about a 40-
per-cent reduction in big-game harvests.
Table II—Summary oj Game Harvests by Residents oj
British Columbia, 1965—69
Species
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
Deer     	
56,877
15,183
1,800
521
1,967
242
474,670
39,223
621,162
134,448
76,692
19,940
1,970
798
1,762
225
491,493
29,207
508,514
134,351
70,534
19,397
1,709
1,191
1,577
221
483,182
32,324
978,485
143,048
77,013
22,469
2,257
830
1,661
267
381,819
23,531
623,979
145,052
57,035
15,205
Elk  ..	
1,498
854
Goat                                      .
1,557
227
Pheasants     	
Grouse  — - 	
23,634
807,229
151,653
In 1969 the harvest of deer declined by 26 per cent from 1968, moose declined
by 32 per cent, and elk declined by 34 per cent. Harvests were also lower than those
of previous years for trophy species such as sheep, goat, and caribou. Hunting
seasons in most areas in the southern portion of the Province were shortened considerably in 1969 to reduce hunting pressure on depressed big-game populations.
Native upland game birds experienced an excellent production year; harvests
of native grouse were at a near record high. Only 1967, with a harvest of 979,000
birds, exceeds the 1969 harvest of 807,000 birds.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC  19
The Cache Creek Checking Station was again in operation, but on a reduced
scale. It operated 12 hours a day from September 15 to October 1 and 16 hours a
day from October 1 to November 15. The station's main purpose is to gather biological information on game populations in the northern and central portions of the
Province. Computers were again used to tabulate the information gathered and,
although shortened hours of operation resulted in a loss in the total number of
hunters checked, 95 per cent of the normal biological information on animals killed
was collected. A total of 20,412 hunters were checked in 1970, with 5,153 moose,
2,540 deer, and 17,766 grouse. A more complete summary of the Cache Creek
Checking Station operations is contained in Table III.
Table HI—Cache Creek Checking Station Results, 1966—70
Species
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Moose        	
Deer _ 	
Goat	
7,264
3,008
197
74
138
414
22
7,265
6,494
19,123
4,093
7,258
3,635
183
63
121
514
21
6,720
17,482
20,503
4,106
6,661
2,678
163
59
209
366
43
6,298
14,399
19,198
3,908
5,336
2,761
148
49
135
351
20
6,967
23,715
20,919
3,610
5,153
2,540
65
Sheep	
22
118
327
Elk-                       _
22
Waterfowl- -
3,779
17,766
Residents   -	
17,503
2,909
An important measure of an animal population is the age-structure. From this
information, inferences can be drawn about the status of a specific population and
how heavily it is being hunted. In previous years, moose and deer were aged by
using a technique based on tooth wear and tooth replacement. This technique is
reliable only in the early years of life (juveniles to 4-year-olds), but even this gross
information gives the wildlife manager some indication about the age-structure of an
animal population. This year, a tooth-sectioning machine was installed at the Cache
Creek Checking Station. By sectioning the teeth and examining the tooth rings under
a microscope, the manager can assign a more accurate age to an animal. The oldest
animal aged in 1970 was a 23-year-old cow moose from the Prince George area;
the oldest deer aged was a 21-year-old doe from the Williams Lake area.
Moose-hunting is a major attraction to nonresidents wishing to hunt in British
Columbia. The nonresident game harvests for the period 1960-69 are summarized
in Table IV. In 1969 the moose harvest was down slightly from 1968. However,
for most other trophy species, harvests were up.
Table IV—Big-game Harvests in British Columbia by Nonresident
Hunters, 1960-69
Year
Licence
Sales
Deer
Moose
Elk
Goat
Sheep
Caribou
Grizzly
Bear
Black
Bear
1960	
3,767
407
1,649
145
445
192
217
153
190
1961	
3,826
393
1,878
137
392
191
197
128
132
1962	
4,370
435
2,047
176
433
214
270
184
206
1963	
5,226
467
2,436
214
560
312
290
166
163
1964^	
5,265
427
2,512
178
439
271
331
193
183
1965 	
5,797
307
2,817
194
580
390
397
241
244
1966	
6,635
352
3,266
184
692
376
578
212
250
1967 	
6,933
417
3,328
182
569
392
492
181
152
1968	
7,093
383
3,285
205
621
415
611
268
368
1969.  ...
7,445
333
3,158
231
695
465
681
246
306
 CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A major activity of the Wildlife Management Division is the annual production
of hunting regulations. The responsibility for setting the annual hunting seasons falls
largely upon personnel in the eight regional administrative areas. To overcome the
perennial problem of hunting regulations becoming available after the hunting season
had opened in the northern areas of the Province, the target date in 1970 for distribution of the hunting regulations was advanced to luly 1. Over 275,000 copies
of regulation abstracts were distributed to subissuers throughout the Province. An
unforeseen problem with early distribution is that hunters apparently misplace or
lose their first copy of the regulations. The Branch reprinted an additional 20,000
copies to meet a continued demand throughout the hunting season.
Protection of Wildlife Resources
A recent threat to wildlife populations is that of biocides. The Division maintained its monitoring activities in 1970. A major problem area is the occurrence of
pesticide residues such as DDT and mercury in the tissues of fish and wildlife. In
some cases, the levels found exceeded the tolerances established for residues in foodstuffs, and warnings were issued to the public not to consume the affected animals.
The number of specimens submitted for analyists was 313, of which 231, or 74 per
cent, contained DDT-type residues. The number of specimens found to contain
mercury was 21. The highest levels found were 140 parts per million DDT derivatives in the fat from a pheasant from the Okanagan Valley and 13 parts per million
mercury in the liver from a pheasant in the Fraser Valley. The use of DDT and
mercury pesticides in the Province has now been reduced, and problems of this nature
are likely to decline. Because of the residual nature of some pesticides, research will
continue into their effects on fish and wildlife populations and, in particular, into
their occurrence and effects on raptorial birds.
The use of foliage-spraying techniques during the summer months is especially
damaging to nesting birds and their young inhabiting the treated areas. The damage
is due to the loss of habitat and the destruction of insects which form an important
element in the diet of the birds. There is also a danger to big-game animals which
may suffer indirect poisoning by eating noxious plants which become more palatable
as a result of increased sugar levels following herbicide application, or by eating
normally palatable plants which become noxious due to a high nitrate content in
the treated foliage. The use of alternate methods to control brush and weeds has,
therefore, been encouraged in order to overcome the possibility of this problem.
There is accumulating evidence to suggest that a number of soil sterilants commonly used in weed control are potentially dangerous by their effects on the genes
of animals (mutigenic). The low, acute toxicity of many of these compounds can
result in a lack of caution on the part of users, and standard precautions are now
being enforced to prevent entry of these substances into water bodies and other areas
of ecological sensitivity. Potential damage of an ecological or genetic nature to
man, fish, and wildlife is thereby minimized.
With the appointment of a waterfowl biologist in 1969, the Division made a
further commitment to the management of waterfowl provincially, nationally, and
internationally.
Considerable time was spent in the field during May conducting waterfowl-
breeding surveys in the Interior and investigating various private and industrial proposals of interest to marshland-habitat protection. An important effort in respect
to waterfowl has been involvement of staff in the British Columbia Waterfowl Technical Committee. The Thirty-third Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference recommended the formation of technical groups in waterfowl management which could
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 21
advise executive members of government on technical matters. Other provinces in
Western Canada began forming similar committees. In the west, all Provincial committee members and other interested people meet once a year to discuss technical
matters of common interest.
Another objective of the British Columbia Waterfowl Technical Committee is
to develop co-operative approaches to various aspects of waterfowl management.
Areas of present concern include an inventory of waterfowl populations resident
and in passage, local and pre-season banding, habitat preservation and development,
enhancement of waterfowl recreational opportunities for residents of British Columbia, and the development of resident Canada goose populations in selected areas.
Benefits to the Province through such co-operative efforts include a greater source of
funds, more professional expertise, and a minimum of duplication in all management
activities. Presently, the Federal and Provincial Governments and Ducks Unlimited
(Canada) are co-operatively developing several major marsh areas in British Columbia and actively planning the development of many others.
The Wildlife Management Division has also been involved directly in preparing
aquatic wildfowl management plans for community planners at the regional district
and local government levels. The purpose of this work is to provide local governments with information about wildfowl resources and associated recreational uses
in their area, so that they may incorporate such information in their land-use planning. Preliminary plans are now completed for the Fraser Valley and the Capital
Regional District. It is anticipated that complete reports for these areas will be
available by early 1971. Other areas for which such plans are actively being considered involve the Regional Districts of Cowichan Valley, Nanaimo, Comox, Strathcona, North Okanagan, Central Okanagan, and Okanagan-Similkameen.
As an outgrowth of worldwide interest in the birds of prey, and effects of pesticides on this form of wildlife, active participation continued in monitoring birds of
prey in British Columbia. Surveys centred on the Queen Charlotte Islands. On the
basis of our data for this area and data from our Province-wide inventory on raptors,
a moratorium was declared on the capture of all falcons in the Province.
Wildlife studies in the Libby Basin have to date been designed to evaluate the
extent of losses attributable to the Libby project, and to identify the most feasible
means of mitigating these losses. This phase of study has now been completed, and
has resulted in the decision by the Land Use Committee to improve wildlife management by adjustments in the distribution and intensity of displaced live-stock grazing.
With this decision having been taken, there is now a need to identify the areas
in which such grazing adjustments can be made, and to select areas which will yield
the greatest benefits to wildlife, and yet minimize conflict with established ranching
and other uses of Crown lands. There is every likelihood that many of the best
choices of this programme of mitigation may lie outside the immediate reservoir
area. It is also possible that the extent to which mitigation for both game and live
stock can be conducted would be unnecessarily limited if practised only within the
immediate reservoir area.
In order to determine areas most suitable for mitigation, a range-condition
appraisal was conducted in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench from Brisco south
to the United States border. The objective of this study was to ascertain the present
condition and successional stage of all plant communities in the southern Rocky
Mountain Trench. A cover-type map and the acreage of each cover type will be
included in a final report.
The Branch has commissioned a series of reports which will look into the economic significance of the resident hunter in British Columbia.   Using 1970 as a base
 CC 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
year, resident hunters will be contacted by a firm of economic consultants to determine the value of resident hunting in British Columbia.
The Wildlife Management Division participates actively in the reservation and
development of important habitat for wildlife. In 1970, 220,000 acres were added
to reserve areas, bringing these to a total of 786,000 acres throughout the Province.
Research
One of the more specific types of wildlife work is that conducted by the Wildlife
Research and Technical Services Section. Studies of the ecological position, productivity, and utilization of five important big-game winter ranges in the East Kootenay winter ranges of British Columbia were continued and are nearing completion.
The results are currently being analysed and incorporated into comprehensive reports
for each range. Detailed cover maps showing current ecological conditions, physiography, and land use, as well as tabular estimates of annual forage production, levels
of utilization by wildlife and domestic stock, and suggested range-management plans
for each range are included. Preliminary results reveal that the annual production of
grasses is largely grazed and that domestic stock removes more forage than wildlife,
especially in sodgrass communities. These studies also reveal that grazing by wild
and domestic animals continues to exceed the desirable levels under proper range
management.
To test range-improvement methods, the effects of full protection from grazing,
shrubbery removal, fertilization, and reseeding have been studied on each winter
range. Increases in yield, beneficial changes in botanical composition, and increases
in the proximate nutritional constituents have occurred, as a result of these treatments. Fertilization, particularly with nitrogen, markedly increases the protein content of forage samples. A residual effect of a single application has been observed
four years after treatment, although peak changes appear to occur in the third year.
Complementary studies carried out through the graduate student research programme have been conducted on some big-game ranges. The effects of fertilizer
applications on soil and plant phosphorus, and on forage yields, were studied on two
East Kootenay ranges which were demonstrated to be deficient in phosphorus. In
addition, the effect of grazing on the available carbohydrate reserves of certain
grasses, the age and productivity of bitterbrush, and the changes in forage yields
resulting from serai succession have received attention. The latter has revealed an
80-per-cent reduction in forage productivity when tree-canopy closure exceeds 50
per cent, as well as a decrease in the nutritive quality of understory vegetation resulting from changes in species composition. These results quantify the effects of serai
succession on range productivity and are, therefore, important for the preparation
of range-management programmes for wildlife.
An intensive study of the ecology of the Wigwam winter range, involving an
attempt to simulate on a computer the growth and competitive interactions between
trees, shrubs, and grasses, has also been continued and is nearing completion. In this
study, many of the results obtained through the efforts of the Research Section from
the student research programme, and from additional field work, will be incorporated
into the model. This simulation will be extremely valuable in predicting the results
of different strategical and tactical decisions in nature-resource management, particularly with regard to forestry, wildlife, and domestic grazing. The effects of serai
succession and hunting on a Vancouver Island deer population were studied, and
other aspects of population status and assessment received considerable attention.
The progressive deterioration of the range, reflected by decreasing age, specific body
weights, and lower deer densities, was established, but rapidly declining catches per
unit effort suggest that hunting may have played a more important role in influencing
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 23
population densities than previously suspected. The Northwest Bay deer data were
also used in a simulation model available at the University of British Columbia to
determine acceptable harvest rates and the probable effects of discontinuous rather
than annual harvests. This study will be continued in 1971 in expectation that more
refined techniques can be developed for the assessment of wildlife populations upon
the impacts of managerial alternatives.
Comparative growth rates in black-tailed deer received further attention in
1970. This study has provided basic information concerning the effect of genetic,
sexual, and nutritional factors on growth in body weight and seasonal patterns of
weight change under experimental conditions. The growth characteristics established
under known experimental conditions provide a means of comparing growth responses in free-ranging animals. The results suggest that innate patterns of seasonal
weight loss in winter have survival value for wild deer.
A continuing study of wildlife diseases and parasites provided more information
about the organisms which affect a wide variety of wildlife species and their pathological effects.
Work was done on histological sections of teeth obtained from known-age deer,
unknown-age deer, and from moose. As a result of this study it is now possible to
accurately determine the age of an animal, using the tooth-annulation technique and
to pinpoint errors made in aging by the tooth wear and eruption method.
Other studies completed in late 1969 or 1970, primarily through the student
research programme, include a detailed study of reproduction in Columbian black-
tailed deer, an intensive study of immunology of bighorn sheep and response to
lungworm infections, and a study of the food habits and habitat of waterfowl on the
Lower Mainland.
Enhancement of Wildlife Resources
Activity on the Creston Valley Wildlife Management Area land during 1970
was centred around construction of marsh-improvement works. This 16,000-acre
area of Crown land, set aside by an Act of the Legislature in 1968, will be devoted
primarily to the production and recreational uses of waterfowl. Water-level fluctuations, which coincide with the peaks of waterfowl nesting activities, generally destroy
the nests of ducks and geese. In addition, muskrat populations have little chance
to increase because of severe annual flooding. Thus, the bulk of the activity on the
management area for the next several years will be the construction of dyking systems
which will enable the Management Authority to control water levels.
During 1970, 31/- miles of dyke were completed. The installation of new pumping facilities increased the existing 50,000-gallons-per-minute capacity in the Duck
Lake Unit by approximately 80,000 gallons per minute. These construction activities
have resulted in the ability of the Authority to now control water levels for waterfowl production on 1,200 acres. The British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority
completed most of its construction activities in Duck Lake before the end of 1970.
This work consisted of the installation of permanent pumping-stations and the construction of a 10,000-foot dyke across the southern third of Duck Lake. One hundred small nesting islands are now being constructed in the southern third of Duck
Lake in an effort to increase the potential nesting habitat of that unit in the management area.
Ducks Unlimited (Canada) has contributed substantially to the construction
programme. Their personnel have assumed a responsibility for the construction of
dykes and access roads in the Leach Lake unit of the management area. To date,
Ducks Unlinrted (Canada) contractors have completed 5,500 feet of new dyke at
the south end of Leach Lake. This dyke is the first of several which will eventually
permit complete control of water levels within Leach Lake.
 CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Department of Highways had nearly completed the major access route to
the southeastern portion of Duck Lake at the year's end. The road, when completed
in early 1971, will greatly increase access to the east side.
In co-operation with the State of Alaska and the Federal Department of Fisheries, the Division trapped, transported, and reintroduced 14 sea otters to the west
coast of Vancouver Island. Difficulties were experienced with the use of sea transport for transferring the animals. The long sea voyage resulted in a high mortality
among the captured otters, however the experience gained will ensure better survival
of ensuing transplants.
Meetings
The Wildlife Management Division hosted during 1970 the Sixth Annual North
American Moose Conference held in Kamloops and the Third Annual North American Wild Sheep Conference held at Williams Lake. The Branch was responsible
as host for publication of the transactions of these two meetings and they are available upon request.
Publications
Bandy, P. I., I. McT. Cowan, and A. I. Wood. 1970. Comparative growth in four
races of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Part I. Growth in body
weight.   Can. Jour. Zool., 48 (6): 1401-1410.
Eastman, D. S., and D. lenkins. 1970. Comparative food habits of red grouse in
Northern Scotland, using fecal analysis.   /. Wildl. Mgmt., 34 (3):612-620.
Hudson, R. I., P. I. Bandy, and W. D. Kitts. 1970. Immunochemical quantitation
of ovine immunoglobulins.   Amer. J. Vet. Res., 57:1231-1236.
  W. D. Kitts, and P. J. Bandy.    1970.    Monitoring parasite activity and
disease in the Rocky Mountain bighorn by electrophoresis of seromucoids.
J. Wildl. Dis., 6:104-106.
Kemper, J. B., and D. S. Eastman. 1970. Osprey nesting survey in British Columbia, Canada.   Auk., 87 (4):814.
Ritcey, R. W., and N. A. M. Verbeek. 1969. Observations of moose feeding on
aquatics in Bowron Lake Park, British Columbia. Can. Field Nat., 83 (4):
339-343.
Spalding, D. I., and H. B. Mitchell. 1970. Abundance and distribution of California bighorn sheep in North America.    /. Wildl. Mgmt., 34 (2):473-475.
Smith, I. D. 1970. Probable effects of the Libby Dam on wildlife resources of the
East and West Kootenay. Wildl. Mgmt. Rept. No. 9. Fish and Wildlife
Branch.   68 pp.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT
Resident angling licence sales exceeded 200,000 for the first time in the
1969/70 fiscal year, and angling licence sales of all types continued to increase, as
shown in Figure I.
The total number of licensed anglers has increased by 74.1 per cent between
1960 and 1970, an average rate of increase of 7.4 per cent per year. During the
past five years the rate of increase was 9.1 per cent per year.
Total revenue from angling licence sales increased by 125 per cent between
1960 and 1970, an average rate of 12.5 per cent per year. Between 1965 and 1970
the increase has averaged 15.6 per cent per year.
The sales of annual ($10) angling licences to non-Canadians have not increased
substantially in the past four years, but the short-term (three-day $3.50) licence continues to be very popular, and 8,256 more licences of this type were sold in 1970
than during the previous year.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 25
Table V summarizes angling licence sales of all types from 1965 to 1970, and
indicates the fee charged for each type of licence.
Table V—Total Angling Licence Sales in British Columbia, 1964/65—1969/70
(Licence fees in parentheses)
Type of Licence
Fiscal Year
1964/65
1965/66
1966/67
1967/68
1968/69
1969/70
154,201
($2)
166,340
($2)
180,795
($2)
183,964
($2)
186,744
($2/$3)
203,376
($3)
Resident, steelhead _ 	
(!)
(!)
20,2712
($0.25)
38,831
($0.25)
37,848
($0.25)
43,425
($0.25)
Nonresident Canadian _	
13,981
($3.50)
14,821
($3.50)
15,019
($3.50)
15,115
($3.50)
21,954
($3)
22,662
($3)
35,420
($7)
39,075
($10)
24,792
($10)
23,654
($10)
23,272
($10)
25,703
($10)
Non-Canadian, steelhead	
(!)
(!)
1,2732
($5)
1,690
($5)
1,927
($5)
2,399
($5)
Non-Canadian, three days _
(!)
(!)
29,234
($2)
34,356
($2)
39,139
($2/$3.50)
47,395
($3.50)
Non-Canadian, minor 	
15,949
($1)
16,553
($1)
18,052
($1)
18,180    1       17,883
($1)    1          ($1)    '
1
20,731
($1)
i Not applicable.
2 Incomplete figures, licence requirement changed during the fiscal year.
Eightythree Creek rainbow-trout spawning channel near Green Lake (Clinton district),
showing stream-diversion structure in left foreground. Trees will be planted and natural
ground cover encouraged to provide shade and cover for spawning trout.
Lake survey crews each summer collect minute forms of aquatic animal and plant life
with fine-meshed plankton net (left). Contents are measured for indication of quantity and
quality of fish food in each lake. Dissolved oxygen, acidity, alkalinity, and dissolved solids
are also measured (right) to determine suitability of each lake for fish life.
 CC 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Experimental apparatus for evaluation of controlled water reuse in trays containing
trout eggs. Pumps in foreground circulate water over the trays, each of which may contain
up to 20,000 trout eggs for hatching.
Studies in progress during 1970 indicated that the fresh waters of the Province
in 1969 supported over 3.6 million days of fishing for 320,000 licensed anglers who
caught over 8.6 million fish. The magnitude of this participation, which does not
include some 50,000 unlicensed juvenile anglers, underlines the growing evidence
that serious overcrowding of some fishing waters is beginning to occur, and that interference between anglers is becoming noticeable. Resident anglers are becoming
increasingly intolerant of the presence of nonresident anglers, and conflict between
different groups of resident anglers is also rising. These are all symptoms of the
need to initiate more intensive management of sport fisheries and more sophisticated
responses to the demands of anglers. A few steps in these directions have been taken
in recent years, but any major response to these growing needs will require significant increases in Branch funding and staffing.
During the recent period of rapidly increasing demands upon the fresh-water
fishery resources of the Province, there has been a concomitant escalation in the
rate of erosion and degradation of the fishery resource as a result of expanding industrial development. Watercourses have been continually encroached upon by housing developments, roadways, pipe-lines, and dykes. Large storage reservoirs have
inundated stream fisheries and interfered with fish movements. Mining, manufacturing, pulping, and logging industries have degraded water quality. In total, these
expanding activities are reducing the supply of sport fishing as the demand for
angling increases. These opposing processes (increasing demand and diminishing
supply) will inevitably increase the value of the fishery resource.
 240.000
220,000
180,
cc
LU
o
z
<
160,     o
d
140,000
100,000
No. of Anglers „ /'
Licences *y
Revenue
-1,200.000
1.000.000
800.000
600.000
400.000
#200.000
1955 60    65    66    67    68    69    70
Angling Licence Sales and Revenue
1955-1970
200.000
150.000
100.000
50.000   -
iii
L   Resident
Canadian
, 7\7_V7 Canadian
Wm Short Term Licences
tS/Sj
mm
I
___
J
UiilU
1955    I960  "   1965    1966    1967    1968    1969    1970
Angling Licence Sales
RESIDENT-CANADIAN-NON CANADIAN
1955-1970
 CC 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Losses to the fishery resource can be reduced and mitigated by ecologically
oriented planning, by the skilled application of known techniques, and adequate
funding. The Fish and Wildlife Branch, in the last three to four years, has increased
its efforts in all aspects of habitat protection and integrated resource use. However,
this effort is being made at considerable cost to the more positive and popular aspects
of fishery management which are required to meet the demands of an expanding
multitude of anglers.
The currently evolving movement toward more wisely integrated resource use
will inevitably require major expansion of technical and planning capability by both
government and industry. It is apparent that both the positive and protective aspects
of fishery management will require significantly higher levels of Branch capability if
the sport fisheries of the Province are to be maintained.
Lake surveys—Basic physical and biological information concerning the lakes
of British Columbia is essential to their development, protection, and to the proper
management of their fisheries. Surveys of lakes have been carried out by the Branch
since 1941, and a summary of the numbers of lakes surveyed in each Fisheries Management Region is shown in the following table:
Table VI—Numbers oj Lakes Surveyed by Fisheries Management Regions, 1941—70
Year
Vancouver
Island
(Reg. 1)
Lower
Mainland
(Reg. 2)
Kamloops
(Reg. 3)
Okanagan
(Reg. 4)
Kootenay
(Reg. 5)
Cariboo
Coast
(Reg. 6)
Northern
(Reg. 7)
Totals
1941     	
1
1
1942..-	
1
1
1943 	
1
1
1948.- -	
2
1
3
1949 -—	
6
2
7
3
18
1950  	
6
36
23
4
1
8
78
1951	
9
22
4
25
3
12
75
1952  _._	
1
2
15
9
10
15
14
66
1953  	
5
5
20
8
7
1
6
52
1954.- -	
8
3
4
4
1
1
1
22
1955  	
1
3
5
2
1
4
16
1956- 	
4
3
2
7
6
1
1
24
1957 -	
4
4
11
11
4
1
1
36
1958	
10
2
5
4
14
7
16
58
1959   	
11
18
9
1
5
5
3
10
11
18
2
6
14
9
55
I960— 	
67
1961  	
8
1
5
1
10
4
2
1
8
7
3
18
4
58
1962 	
14
1963- -	
3
1
4
1964 - 	
4
6
2
1
13
1965- -	
9
6
2
1
3
21
1966	
4
6
1
4
15
1967 -
5
3
8
1968	
8
3
4
7
3
36
61
1969	
19
19
4
12
16
4
1
20
6
38
15
2
19
26
4
4
54
6
40
50
2
133
1970	
200
28
Surveys- -	
132
117
171
193
152
123
240
1,128
Lakes surveyed to
128
108
160
158
128
115
208
1,0051
i Lakes worked on, fully or partially.
Note—Some lakes received repeat work, therefore the total number of surveys is larger than actual number
of lakes surveyed.
Surveys completed during 1970 included the group of lakes in the Bowron
Lakes chain, as well as several nearby waters.
Information collected included soundings in preparation for mapping; chemical
and physical measurements such as dissolved oxygen content, pH, temperature, dissolved solids, and turbidity; and plant- and animal-life samples, including fish where
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 29
present. Intensive gill-netting was carried out in the major lakes of the Okanagan
Valley in order to obtain an indication of pesticide residues in the various species
of fish.
Steelhead harvest analysis—Approximately 37,300 steelhead were caught by
anglers during the 1969/70 season. Non-Canadian anglers caught about 3,400 of
these, and about 500 were taken by residents of other provinces. As in past years,
approximately one-third of the catch was taken from the rivers and streams of Vancouver Island.
Questionnaires totalling 20,000 in number were mailed to licensed steelhead
anglers, and replies were received from 9,369. Analysis of the information received
indicates that 24,515 of the 45,824 licensees actually fished for steelhead at least
once during the year, and 8,339 people succeeded in catching one or more fish.
Anglers spent approximately 371,000 days angling for steelhead, an average of 15
days per angler.
Top steelhead-producing rivers in the Province were the Thompson, with a
catch of 3,093; the Vedder, 2,841; the Copper, 1,534; the Morice, 1,464; the
Dean, 1,461; and the Bulkley, 1,244.
Habitat Protection
Referral systems—By agreement with the Pollution Control Branch, the Water
Rights Branch, and the Chief Gold Commissioner, all applications to these agencies
for permits are referred to this Branch for our comments, objections, or recommendations. As the number of people and standard of living in British Columbia increases, an increasing pressure is placed upon all natural resources. Consequently,
the number of applications increases annually, and attention to permit referrals consumes the major part of habitat protection time.
More than 1,500 applications for water licences were processed in 1970.
Coupled with the intensive use of water were problems of extremely low discharge
caused by the unusually dry summer. Concern that fish were suffering from lack
of water led to several meetings with staff of the Water Rights Branch. A better
understanding of mutual problems was gained and negotiations are continuing to
resolve problems. Flow studies on the Heber River were completed this summer,
and negotiations are presently under way to establish a minimum flow to be released
into the river at all times.
The number of pollution control permits processed by the Fish and Wildlife
Branch increased this year as a result of the decision that all effluent discharges must
be licensed by the Pollution Control Branch by the end of 1970. A computer programme, designed by the Habitat Protection Section, proved useful in predicting the
effects of effluent discharges into rivers throughout the Province.
Collection and dissemination of information—Field surveys are extremely valuable in providing information for the Habitat Protection Section to use in its capacity
as an adviser to the Pollution Control Branch and other agencies. During 1970,
inspections were made of all the inland pulp-mills and extensive surveys were conducted at two of these mills. Surveys conducted outside British Columbia also provided useful information, and much time was spent searching the literature for information on thermal pollution, pesticides, and methods of pollution abatement. The
collection and dissemination of information to the public, other agencies, and Branch
staff is an important function of this Section. This year, in addition to normal
methods, information was presented at three public hearings.
Mining—The Fish and Wildlife Branch, as a member of the Reclamation Committee, made recommendations for bonding and clean-up at a number of mines
 CC 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
throughout the Province.   At the insistence of the Branch, erosion-control facilities
were incorporated in strip-mining operations in the East Kootenay area.
Placer-mining operations in the Quesnel area threatened fisheries values, and
several meetings were held with the Chief Gold Commissioner and his staff to try
to resolve the problems. A reserve against placer-mining operations was agreed
upon in the South Fork of Quesnel River between Likely and Drop Creek. In order
to assist the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in its decisions to allow
or disallow placer-mining leases in nonreserve areas, the Fish and Wildlife Branch
agreed to supply maps showing the areas in which sport fish are likely to be adversely
affected by placer-mining operations.
Pesticides—A study of the effects of an organo-phosphate insecticide (sumi-
thion) on fish was started in 1969 and finished this year. The results showed the
sublethal effects of this insecticide on fish, and pointed out new methods for detecting low levels of pollution. The methods may be used to remedy pollution problems
before fish are killed.
Mercury—An extensive programme of monitoring mercury contamination of
Provincial waterways was undertaken during 1970. In lune, samples of fish from
Pinchi Lake were analysed and shown to contain relatively high levels of mercury.
The public was subsequently warned of the health danger. Collections of fish were
made in the Bridge River system where numerous mercury mines have been operating in the past and where a new mercury mine is slated to begin operation in 1971.
Collections were also made from the Fraser River near Vancouver. A programme
of Province-wide mercury monitoring is planned for 1971.
Reservoirs—Much of the work which commenced on the Libby and Ross
Reservoirs in 1969 continued in 1970. Information on the Libby Reservoir was
compiled into a preliminary report and recommendations for mitigation were proposed.
The proposed extension of Ross Reservoir on the Skagit River has required
considerable investigation. A preliminary report has been compiled and made available for public information. The report describes the biological capabilities of the
Skagit River watershed, and estimates the effects of the proposed flooding. Fish and
Wildlife Branch staff attended meetings in Seattle, Vancouver, Victoria, and on-site
in connection with the Ross Reservoir proposal.
Forestry-Fishery co-operation — A co-operative system between the Federal
Fisheries Service, British Columbia Forest Service, and Fish and Wildlife Branch
was finalized, which should provide greater protection from damage caused by logging operations. A stream-protection clause system provides for the inclusion of
stream-protection clauses in all logging contracts and the notification of fisheries
agencies when cutting permits will affect their interests. The Fish and Wildlife
Branch will soon provide forest district offices and engineering services with a
Province-wide map series showing the location of sport-fish populations. These
maps will enable foresters to predict potential problems and to take steps to prevent
them.
Habitat Improvement
During 1970, construction of habitat-improvement projects generally declined,
while postconstruction evaluation increased. In addition to on-site biological and
engineering reconnaissances for future projects, a number of diverse types of improvements was completed at the regional level.
Projects included spawning-stream improvement through removal of obstructions caused by debris, logs, storage dams, and beaver dams. Improvements were
completed at Pelican Lake (Prince George area), Dunbar and Kaslo Creeks (Cran-
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 31
brook area), Paleface Creek (Lower Mainland Region), and Haslam and Marshall
Creeks (Vancouver Island Region). In some streams, various amounts and combinations of gravel and rock were placed to create habitat for spawning and rearing
(Loon Creek near Clinton, and Peachland Creek, a tributary to Okanagan Lake).
Co-operation with the Department of Fisheries and Forestry resulted in enhancement
of holding habitat for adult and juvenile steelhead in the Big Qualicum River, Vancouver Island.
Eighty three Creek spawning channel—Construction in 1970 included the placement of rock on banks bordering artificially placed spawning gravels in Eightythree
Creek, an inlet to Green Lake in the Cariboo. In addition, shallow resting-holes
were dug in a section of cleared stream to accommodate rainbow trout during early
rearing. Spawning success and fry production were evaluated in both the artificial
channel and cleared section of stream near its exit to Green Lake. About 600
adults spawned in 1969 and 1970, and, in spite of extremely low water in both years,
production of fry to Green Lake was much higher in 1970 than in 1969. This condition is attributable to increased quantities and quality of gravel and improved
downstream access. Due to stream clearance, 50 per cent of the 1970 postspawners
descended to Green Lake, while in 1969 only 10 per cent successfully returned to
the lake. In 1969, postspawners contributed significantly to the late summer and
winter fishery. A similar contribution is expected of fish surviving spawning in 1970.
In the summer of 1970, limited pulses of water were released from irrigation dams
upstream of the channel, and a number of fry were flushed to Green Lake before
critical water levels were reached. In 1971 this method will be further explored to
increase production of fry to the lake.
Ruby Lake spawning channel—During the past two spawning seasons, cutthroat
trout from Ruby Lake near Sechelt have used more of the artificially created, outlet
spawning channel. The increase was due, in part, to modifications which reduced
the water velocity by widening the original channel and lowering the gradient. Fish
appear to prefer to spawn near pools and shade which provide cover. Fry recruitment to Ruby Lake was greater in 1970 than in 1969 or in years prior to spawning
improvement.
In a straight section of the channel, not previously used for spawning, temporary
overhead cover has been created by the installation of plywood sheeting. Should
this type of cover prove unsuccessful, several new pools will be created. These
changes in habitat are being evaluated to better understand the relatively unknown
spawning requirements of the Coastal cutthroat trout.
Meadow Creek spawning channel — Fry production in the Meadow Creek
spawning channel (Kootenay Lake area) was estimated in the spring of 1970 after
123,000 kokanee had spawned in the fall of 1969. Survival from egg deposition to
fry emergence was near 13 per cent and higher than 1969 production, but less than
first production in 1968.
In 1970 the largest adult kokanee run (since completion of the spawning channel in 1967) moved into Meadow Creek from Kootenay Lake. Nearly 700,000
fish entered the system and 220,000 spawned in the channel and 220,000 above the
channel. Approximately 260,000 more kokanee spawned in the lower reaches of
the stream between Duncan River and the spawning channel. Comparative studies
will continue in the improved and natural sections of the stream to determine their
relative efficiency as fry producers.
Stream surveys—As part of a programme to outline problems and potential of
fish production in selected tributaries of Okanagan Lake, further stream surveys were
conducted in 1970. Fish distributions and physical conditions were documented,
with special attention given to areas of irrigation intakes, diversions, and obstruc-
 CC 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
tions (both natural and man-made). Many of these structures presently preclude
upstream production potential. Although most streams had recordable flows in
headwater areas, most lower sections of streams had low, intermittent, or nil summer
flows. Spawning, rearing, and subsequent migration of rainbow trout to Okanagan
Lake were severely limited in most streams investigated in 1970.
Lake rehabilitation—In anticipation of chemical treatment of Chain Lake in
the Okanagan Region, a permanent coarse-fish barrier was constructed downstream
of the lake in 1970. In 1968, Link and Osprey Lakes, upstream of Chain Lake,
were rehabilitated as the first phase of a two-part programme to rid the system of
coarse fish. In addition, through the exceptional efforts of local residents, water
from Shinish Creek has been diverted to Chain Lake to reduce algae build-up. Link
and Osprey Lakes are now providing good fisheries for rainbow trout through restocking. Chain Lake should offer a similar type fishery after chemical treatment
and restocking.
The chemical treatment of Box Lake near Nakusp was completed in mid-
September. Excellent co-operation between 35 members of the Nakusp Rod and
Gun Club and seven Branch regional personnel resulted in good coverage of tributary streams and swamps bordering the lake. This phase of a lake-rehabilitation
project is most important in order to minimize the probability of reinvasion of the
treated lake by nongame fish. Following detoxification of the lake, it will be replanted with trout and should provide greatly improved angling in the future.
Fish Culture
A peak in production was reached in 1970 when the greatest weight and number of fish ever recorded were released into 433 lakes from the three permanent trout
hatcheries. About 7.5 million fish between 2 and 16 months of age, of various
species, weighing over 50,000 pounds, were liberated from the Fraser Valley, Kootenay, Summerland, and Loon Hatcheries. A total of 20 million eggs of all species
was collected. This level of fish production cannot be greatly increased owing to
the limited size of present hatchery facilities.
Suitable water flows persisted throughout the period of May and lune, enabling
fish-culture staff to collect 11.7 million rainbow eggs from native or "wild" stocks.
To collect this number of eggs, as well as to assess new egg-collection sites, about
16 streams were provided with weirs (fences) and associated collecting facilities at
the following lakes: Bear, Beaver (Swalwell), Bouleau, Knouff, Oyama, Pennask,
Postill, Premier, and Tunkwa. In total, 9.7 million viable "eyed" eggs were incubated.
In an attempt to restore the number of trout in the Duncan River and Wilkie
Creek (Trout Lake), about 15,000 eggs were collected from large rainbow trout
which ascend the Duncan River to the present dam.
Approximately 165,000 Yellowstone cutthroat-trout eggs were obtained from
Kiakho Lake near Cranbrook. This number was inadequate for fisheries-management purposes due to the high losses experienced in rearing this species to a suitable
size for release. Consequently, Connor Lake was chosen for evaluation in 1970
and as a collecting site in 1971.
Almost 7 million kokanee eggs were taken from fish in five streams. Most of
the eggs were from adult fish which had spent their life in ChiUiwack and Skaha
Lakes. Next year will likely be the last year for such large collections of kokanee,
most of which are planted in the Great Lakes in a co-operative exchange programme
with the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 33
This was the first year in which eggs were collected from brook trout (brood
stock) held at Kootenay Hatchery. Eggs taken from these 2-year-old fish did not
survive, for reasons presently unknown.
A small number of steelhead was reared at Fraser Valley Hatchery as part of
a project to determine the growth of this species at the water temperature of the
Abbotsford facility.
As part of a continuing programme aimed at obtaining all eggs from sites within
the Province, a start was made in evaluating a site for the collection of Coastal cutthroat and establishment of a "domestic" rainbow-trout brood stock.
Of the 433 lakes planted with fish in 1970, 360 were stocked with rainbow
trout. Aircraft were used for liberating fish in 204 of the 360 lakes stocked with
rainbow, and 40,000 miles were travelled by trucks to distribute fish to the remaining 229 lakes. Over one-half of all the lakes planted were situated in the Kamloops
and Okanagan Regions.
The total numbers and weight of each species liberated were as follows:
Numbers Pounds
Cutthroat trout        75,000 197
Brook trout  1,247,899 2,424
Kokanee      746,450 1,885
Lake trout          1,500 1,500
Rainbow trout  5,440,758 44,099
Totals  7,511,607 50,105
During 1970, several large projects were completed, or in various stages of
design. Of major importance were the completion of a preliminary design for a
new hatchery in the Fraser Valley and a study of the quality of hatchery effluents.
In connection with the proposed hatchery at Abbotsford, the groundwater supply
was pump-tested by the Department of Public Works with the Groundwater Division
of Water Resources Service being responsible for evaluation.
Design drawings for conversion of the used 3,200-gallon trailer tank purchased
in 1969 were completed in 1970. When modified, this trailer will be used for fish
transfers between hatcheries, and some distributions to lakes involving large numbers of fish.
In consultation with the Department of Public Works, plans were completed
for enlarging and improving egg incubation as well as storage and workshop facilities
at Kootenay Hatchery.
The programme, started in 1969, to compare trout foods from two companies
was continued at Summerland and Kootenay Hatcheries in 1970. This year's experiment compared the growth and survival of fish fed high- and low-fat rations.
To evaluate the effects of water reuse during egg incubation and hatching, small
incubators were constructed at Summerland and eggs were incubated in varying
amounts of fresh and recirculated water {see photograph). Several physical and
chemical parameters suspected of influencing egg mortality were monitored throughout the development period from "eyed" eggs to swim-up of the alevins.
Other applied research projects continued or undertaken during the year included additional study of fish reared in a circular pond, a comparison of egg disinfectants, monitoring water conditions within tanks used for transporting fish, and an
assessment of an antifouling paint for prevention of alga; growth in rearing ponds.
About 28,000 people (16,000 in 1969) visited Fish and Wildlife Branch fish
hatcheries in 1970.   Included in this total were numerous organized groups of school
3
 CC 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
children. An aquarium exhibit organized for "Salute to the Salmon," held at Adams
River in October, was well received by the large number of persons attending this
display.
Fisheries Research and Technical Services
Studies to determine and measure factors which regulate juvenile-trout production in an outlet rearing-stream (Loon Lake near Clinton) were continued. Fish
were counted at two traps in 1970 to facilitate calculation of fish production within
a closed study area.
A total of 13,657 spawning rainbow trout were counted into Loon (outlet)
Creek from mid-March to end of June 1970 (6,029 females and 7,628 males). Of
these, 1,383 females and 1,336 males continued downstream through the second
trap. Thus, 4,646 females and 6,292 males remained in the production-study area
between the traps, or about 4.6 fish per square yard over the spawning season.
Females and males (3 or more years old) averaged about 12.6 inches in length.
Precocious males (2 years old), averaging 7 inches in length, comprised 74 per cent
of the male spawning population. Survival of spawners back to the lake was 45
per cent.
Data on spawning-site preference and relative egg survival were obtained.
Eggs from 1970 outlet spawners produced 5,412 young which migrated to the lake
during the summer as fry, and an estimated 1,000 young which overwintered in the
outlet creek. Low survival can be partly explained by unfavourable conditions
brought on by a severe algal bloom in the lake, coupled with high temperatures and
low flows in the outlet creek during the early alevin and fry stages. Large masses
of decaying alga, blanketed the bottom of much of the stream, reduced the dissolved oxygen levels to nearly zero at times, and smothered food organisms. About
50 per cent of all fry migrating to the lake from the study area moved during this
time.   A very heavy mortality was sustained by those remaining.
From June to August, 6,243 juveniles (1 year or older) migrated from the
study area to the lake. Total contribution to the lake by the outlet stream in 1970
was 7,430 fry and 10,858 juveniles. All were fin-clipped (adipose fin) to permit
recognition of outlet-produced fish in the lake study. Studies will continue on production of young trout in rearing-streams of the Loon Lake system and will examine
differences in population density, distribution, food availability, and emigration from
both inlet and outlet streams. Some production factors such as water flow and food
also have been studied experimentally to delimit more clearly their effects.
A study of the lake ecology of juvenile rainbow trout was begun at Loon Lake
in 1970. Reliable techniques for sampling juvenile fish in the onshore and offshore
areas of the lake were developed. All age-classes were caught at night by seining
along the shoreline, but very few young were taken by mid-water trawling in the
offshore zone. Echo-sounder recordings showed that large fish were widely scattered throughout the lake or near the shore during the day, but at night were concentrated in a layer at about 30 to 50 feet depth across the lake.
Work continued on the collection and analysis of fish for heavy metal content.
Muscle and livers were analysed for copper, lead, mercury, and zinc from over 70
lakes and rivers in British Columbia to provide a base level for future assessment
of possible changes in concentration of these metals in freshwater sport fish.
The last phase of sampling for the hatchery stocking-evaluation study was completed in 1970. No differences were apparent in survival of fin-clipped young trout
that had been stocked in "barren" lakes and in lakes having rainbow trout. However, fewer fin-clipped fish survived in lakes that contained populations of both
rainbow trout and redside shiners.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 35
Increased demands for production and limited water supply are forcing fish
hatcheries to recycle water. Recycling may increase disease susceptibility and mortality of fish. Metabolites of developing rainbow-trout eggs were monitored at the
Summerland Hatchery. A slight build-up of ammonia was detected, but there was
no apparent change in oxygen, carbon dioxide, or pH under conditions examined.
Metabolites of kokanee eggs were monitored in four experimental incubators with
different recycling levels. Greater amounts of recycled water showed increased
concentrations of ammonia, and these appeared to be correlated with higher mortalities before and after hatching.
Yellow Lake, near Kaledon, was artificially circulated in the late autumn of
1969 to prevent winter kill of rainbow and brook trout. The circulation itself was
only partially successful. Nevertheless, substantial numbers of trout survived the
winter and provided an attractive and readily accessible sports fishery during 1970
in a lake where none had previously existed.
Evidence (meristic and biochemical) was found for genetic differences between
rainbow-trout populations living above and below waterfalls on Kokanee Creek,
tributary to the West Arm of Kootenay Lake. Progeny of these two stocks held
under identical conditions and diets at Fraser Valley Hatchery also showed consistent differences in growth rate (below falls greater than above falls).
Work on general characteristics (growth, age at maturity, population density,
migratory behaviour, etc.) of trout populations above and below waterfalls continued. Collections of subadult trout from above and below the waterfalls on
Kokanee Creek were made and are being held to permit selection of pure genetic
strains of above and below falls stocks. These will be subjected to a series of biochemical, physiological, and behavioural tests to determine the suitability of such
strains for stocking in discrete types of habitat.
Publications
Andrusak, H., and T. G. Northcote. Management implications of spatial distribution and feeding ecology of cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden in coastal British
Columbia lakes.   Fisheries Management Publ. No. 13, 14 p.
Anonymous. Fisheries research project summaries, 1970. Fisheries Technical Circular No. 3, 27 p.
Burns, J. E. The importance of streamside vegetation to trout and salmon in British
Columbia.   Fisheries Technical Circular No. 1, 12 p.
Dill, L. M., and T. G. Northcote. Effects of gravel size, egg depth, and egg density
on intragravel movement and emergence of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus ki-
sutch) alevins.   J. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 27 (7): 1191-1199.
Hartman, G. F. Nest digging behaviour of rainbow trout {Salmo gairdneri). Can.
J. Zool, 48 (6): 1458-1462.
Nilsson, N.-A. Cutthroat-strupsnittsoring. Svenskt Fiske Sportfiskaren 1969
(12):390-392 (in Swedish).
Northcote, T. G. Advances in management of fish in natural lakes of western North
America. In: A century of fisheries in North America, N. G. Benson (ed.),
Amer. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 7, p. 129-139.
Northcote, T. G., S. N. Williscroft, and H. Tsuyuki. Meristic and lactate dehydrogenase genotype differences in stream populations of rainbow trout below and
above a waterfall.   /. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 27 (11): 1987-1995.
Pearse, Bowden Economic Consultants Ltd. The value of non-resident sport fishing
in British Columbia.   65 p.
 CC 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Peterson, G. R., H. V. Warren, R. E. Delavault, and K. Fletcher. Heavy metal
content of some fresh water fishes in British Columbia. Fisheries Technical
Circular No. 2, 34 p.
Smith, S. B., T. G. Halsey, R. A. H. Sparrow, and G. E. Stringer (1969). The comparative survival of wild and domestic juvenile rainbow trout planted in British
Columbia lakes.   Fisheries Management Rept. No. 61, 9 p.
Whately, M. R. Effects on sports fisheries of proposed increased water storage levels
in Ross Reservoir.   Fisheries Management Interim Report, 16 p.
Zyblut, E. R. Long-term changes in the limnology and macrozooplankton of a large
British Columbia lake.   /. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, 27 (7): 1239-1250.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
We are pleased to report that there is a steady increase in general public interest
each year in the various wildlife resources of British Columbia.
During 1970, more than 10,000 mail inquiries were handled by the Public
Information and Education Section. There has also been an obvious increase in the
number of visitors to the offices of the Fish and Wildlife Branch in Victoria, Regional
Offices, and District Offices throughout the Province.
Once again, through the co-operation of the Department of Education, we were
able to provide 8,000 copies of posters and classroom lessons on the general conservation theme for distribution to schools throughout the Province during National
Wildlife Week.
Activities
A public display and information booth was provided at the British Columbia
Wildlife Federation's Sport and Vacation Show held in Vancouver, April 28 to
May 4, 1970.
The Public Information and Education Section participated in the 50th Annual
Conference, Western Association of State Game and Fish Commissioners and Western Division of American Fisheries Society, held in Victoria, July 13 to 16, 1970.
The Public Information Officer, Mr. George Ferguson, joined the Department
of Travel Industry on a two-week tour of California. Talks and slide presentations
were made to many groups about fishing and hunting opportunities in British
Columbia.
Lectures were given during a special travel counsellors' course sponsored by
the Department of Travel Industry at the British Columbia Institute of Technology.
Circulation of the Monthy Activity Report of the Branch has increased to 950
copies. The report goes to all newspapers, radio and television stations, other Government departments, rod and gun clubs, as well as to interested members of the
public.
Twelve editions of the monthly News Letter were prepared for distribution.
Many of our present information pamphlets were updated and several new
ones created.
Several hundred talks, slide presentations, and film showings were given by
conservation officers, fish and wildlife biologists, and other field staff to interested
groups throughout the Province.
We extend our appreciation to all staff for their continued and increasing efforts
in keeping the public informed on the many aspects of fisheries and wildlife management.
Hunter-training Programme
Thirty instructors' courses have been completed to date, qualifying a total of
519 instructors. These are from 19 localities on the Island and 74 on the Mainland.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 37
During the year, 81 student courses were completed, qualifying approximately
1,500 students. The majority of the student courses were sponsored by such organizations as fish and game clubs, Adult Education, local school boards, Boy Scouts,
and men's clubs.
The programme has been accepted by the Adult Education Branch, Department
of Education, and courses may be held in as many as 90 localities throughout the
Province. The Department of Education has expressed interest, particularly in the
conservation aspect of the course, and there is a possibility that it may be incorporated in a summer school course for interested teachers.
Various interested organizations and individuals have recommended that the
title be changed to convey better the content of the lectures; accordingly, it is proposed to change the name from Hunter-training Programme to Hunter Training,
Conservation, and Outdoor Safety.
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Recreation and Conservation,
announced that in 1969 all persons involved in firearms accidents would be required
to graduate from a hunter-training course before their licences would be reinstated.
In 1970, in addition to persons involved in firearms accidents, all juveniles
under the age of 18 who were involved in infractions of the Wildlife or Firearms Acts
were required to graduate from a hunter-training course before they could obtain
another hunting licence.
In 1972 it is anticipated that all juveniles between the ages of 14 and 18 and
residents of all ages applying for their first hunting licence will be required to qualify
for a hunting licence by graduating from a hunter-training course.
Fishing can still be the least expensive and most enjoyable form of outdoor recreation.
  PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH
 Park naturalist Carleton MacNaughton entrances audience of young and old alike at
Okanagan Lake Provincial Park. During the summer more than 10,000 persons enjoyed
nature talks and walks in Okanagan Valley parks as part of the Province-wide park-
interpretation programme.
Sisters Lynne and Glenda Simpson add up the day's camping receipts at Golden Ears
Provincial Park. The girls were two of the camping-fee collectors employed at various
Provincial Parks during the summer of 1970.
 popular with local residents £?£,?*?£ SS2K vSJT ^ ^ ^^
Park during early rt^rf^S^^"^*^^.^ Manning Provincial
operating by December 1970. August.   The chair-hft was completed and
 Workmen making final adjustments to Gibson Pass Ski Area Chair-lift No. 2,
prior to acceptance for public use.
Chair-lift No. 2 at the Gibson Pass Ski Area of Manning Provincial Park
was completed in November 1970.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 43
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
R. H. Ahrens, Director
In 1970 the Provincial Parks Branch, affected by continent-wide national policies aimed at slowing down inflationary trends, concerned itself with providing necessary public services and essential maintenance of the park establishment.
The unsettling effects of wage-contract negotiations in a number of British Columbia industries were expected to reduce outdoor recreation travel. However, particularly fine weather from spring through autumn resulted in an increase in visits to
Provincial Parks of 4 per cent approximately, over the last-recorded highest level;
and this was despite a period of forest closure.
The recent trend to wheeled accommodation has built to the point where overnight use of parks purely as a base for accommodation is difficult to differentiate from
camper accommodation incidental to enjoyment of park features. Policy as to what
kinds of accommodation should, or should not, be placed in Provincial Parks is
receiving review.
The Province of British Columbia has brought the Litter Act into force. The
Parks Branch, on behalf of Government, has worked out procedure for the laying
of information under the Litter Act, and certain staff of the Branch have been designated Park Rangers to enforce the statute, along with designated staff of other
departments and agencies.
Park regulations were expanded to provide for "controlled campgrounds,"
i.e., campgrounds with full registration and manned gates in effect. A pilot operation in Cultus Lake Park, which has inherited rowdyism problems as a consequence
of a large, nearby metropolitan population, will check the worth of this style of
campground operation. Other campgrounds have been designated "campgrounds"
as defined for legal purposes in application of regulations.
Interest on the part of volunteer workers in development of hikers' trails in
Provincial parks continues to be encouraging. The Marble Meadows Trail in Strathcona Park was brought to completion by Vancouver Island Hikers, and a shelter
cabin was prefabricated and erected on Marble Mountain by the Shawnigan Lake
Boys School. In the latter part of 1970, organizational meetings for trail-building
volunteers in Mount Seymour Park commenced. It is hoped that this kind of citizen
support of the park system will grow. In the same vein, assistance of the Princess
Louisa Society with development of Princess Louisa Marine Park is acknowledged.
In the proposed West Coast National Park, Phase III, the Parks Branch, with student
labour, continued improvement of the Coastal hiking trail.
The Provincial Parks Branch co-operated with the National and Historic Parks
Branch National Demand Study in public-reaction surveys of users of British Columbia Provincial parks. Data gathered here are in one phase of this 18-phase national
study.
The signing of an agreement in March 1970 by British Columbia and Federal
Canada paved the way for assembly by the Province for the first national park in
the Province since 1920.   Land assembly will take several years.
Liaison with Regional District Boards on regional park system endeavours continues to centre on park acquisition. Land-use concerns are occasioning increased
contact with Technical Planning Committees.
 CC 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PLANNING DIVISION
In general, the Planning Division of the Branch is responsible for the design
of a park system, and the extent and design of development within individual parks.
Three Sections take in the three major phases of park planning—planning for the
Provincial Park System in terms of number, kind, size, and location of areas to be
included and the acquisition of these lands; the preparation of master plans for
individual parks, which plans zone parks according to their intended uses, and suggests the method of management; and site planning, which is the detailed planning
for development of facilities and other needed improvements within the broad outlines set forward in the master plan. Although the Planning Division anticipates a
Research Section to guide its various activities, it must be pointed out that the Branch
has not, in recent years, conducted a comprehensive research programme.
Apart from normal staff turnover in 1970, some staff reorganization was necessary to efficiently undertake a major land-acquisition programme within the boundaries of the proposed West Coast National Park. At the beginning of the year, staff
number and classification were as follows:
Professional
Technical
Clerical
Total
1
4
2
1
2
2
3
1
1
7
2
Site planning — __  	
4
2
10
5
1
16
During the year, one park officer resigned to join the National Park Service,
and a mapping assistant transferred to the Branch's Engineering Division. At the
same time, one new technical position was created and filled and two professional
vacancies were filled. Because of unfavourable economic circumstances, a third
professional vacancy could not be filled.   At the year's end, staffing was as follows:
Professional
Technical
Clerical
Total
1
1
6
1
1
2
3
1
-
1
Park system planning—
3
7
1
3
1
Totals     -                                      	
10
5
1
16
Park System Planning Section
(a)   West Coast National Park Project
On the invitation of the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Recreation
and Conservation, a joint Federal-Provincial survey was carried out in 1967 of
potential national park areas on the west coast of Vancouver Island. Subsequently,
it was recommended and tentatively agreed that a national park be established over
the following three land areas:
Part I—Long Beach, approximately 16 miles of sandy beach and coastline, with
a land area of 26,000 acres.
 ■
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 45
Part II—Barkley Sound, including the Effingham Island Group, with a land
area of approximately 2,800 acres.
Part 111—The West Coast Lifesaving Trail from Port San Juan to Cape Beale,
with a tentative land area of approximately 22,500 acres (boundary subject to revision by mutual agreement).
Detailed planning and study now commenced in earnest. Mutually agreeable
boundaries had to be selected; an acquisition programme of private land within
these boundaries had to be drafted on a Federal-Provincial cost-sharing basis; and
satisfactory arrangements had to be made with the forest industries regarding the
acquisition of committed timber resources within the proposed boundaries and the
future access to committed timber resources adjacent to these park boundaries.
Finally, on April 21, 1970, the West Coast National Park agreement was formally approved by the Government of the Province of British Columbia, represented
by the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, and the Government of Canada, represented by
the Honourable Jean Chretien, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
The Provincial Parks Branch was awarded the task of land acquisition under
the terms of this agreement. A 50-per-cent cost-sharing land-acquisition arrangement by each government was agreed upon. Parts I and II lands were to be acquired
by October 1, 1972. Part III land was to be acquired and named by April 1, 1975,
following completion of a ground survey. During the last seven months of 1970
the Provincial Parks Branch had appraised properties, negotiated with the owners,
expended the Province's share of funds for the fiscal year, committed the Federal
Government's share, and, at the time of this writing, is awaiting the first payment
from Federal funds.
(£>) Provincial Park System Planning
The function of this office is to maintain a viable system of natural area Provincial parks through the selection and acquisition of culturally, scenically, and (or)
ecologically outstanding land areas, and the deletion of superfluous parkland. It is
self-evident that this necessitates projection into future Provincial parkland requirements and, consequently, the reservation from private and commercial exploitation
of the inherent natural features on such potential parkland.
In addition to this function, the Park System Planning Section has been instrumental in establishing and administering numerous general recreation reserves with
the co-operation of the Forest Service and the Lands Service of the Department of
the Lands, Forests, and Water Resources. Most of these reserves are not designated
for future park status, but, in the administrative arrangement of the Park System
Planning Section, have been incorporated in the park reserve file system. The Forest Service, in its management programme of the Provincial Forest Reserves, anticipates incorporating the function of these extant general recreation reserves. At that
time, Park System Planning Section will continue to expend its energies mainly on
its park reserve responsibility.
Parkland field reconnaissance during 1970 was spread over most of the
Province.
An over-all evaluation of the Queen Charlotte Islands as to Provincial park
potentials constituted a major project. Other investigations were carried out in the
Shuswap Lake area, Bowron River and McGregor River watersheds, the headwaters
of the Columbia River, the Valhalla Mountains west of Slocan, the headwaters of
the Tulameen, the Alta Lake area of the Cheakamus watershed, and Meziadin Lake.
 CC 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A joint inspection with Forest Service personnel was made of a park proposal around
Gwillim Lake near Chetwynd. Several reconnaissance trips were made into the
proposed reservoir area of the Skagit River, together with members of the Site Planning Section and the Forest Service to evaluate and locate mutually agreeable park
boundaries and to plan adequate recreational facilities for an extension of Skagit
River Park in the event the proposed reservoir becomes a reality. Further reconstruction of the West Coast Lifesaving Trail was continued this year, with the cooperation of the National Parks Service.
Eight new Provincial Parks were established in 1970:
Acres
1. Skagit River Park, Class A, south of Hope  3,700.0
2. Thurston Bay Marine Park, Class A, Sonora Island 875.0
3. Racing River Wayside Park, Class A, Alaska Highway   176.0
4. Buckinghorse River Wayside Park, Class A, Alaska
Highway   135.0
5. Kickininee Park, Class A, near Penticton  120.5
6. Downing Park, Class A, near Clinton  248.0
7. Drewry Point Park, Class A, Kootenay Lake  51.0
8. Chaster Park, Class C, Sechelt Peninsula  0.7
Rainbow Nature Conservancy Area, 121,900 acres, was established within
Tweedsmuir Park.
Four Provincial Parks were cancelled in 1970:
(1) Little Shuswap Park, Class C, 3.5 acres, was cancelled upon request of
its Park Board and its administration transferred to the Municipality of
Chase.
(2) Pass Creek Park, Class C, 54 acres, was cancelled upon request of its
Park Board and its administration transferred to the Regional District of
Central Kootenay.
(3) Beaver Harbour Park, Class C, 101 acres, was cancelled upon request of
its Park Board and its administration transferred to the Regional District
of Port Hardy.
(4) Cameron Lake Park, Class A, was cancelled and its land area incorporated within the boundaries of contiguous Little Qualicum Falls Park,
Class A.
Two parks were reduced in size to eliminate right-of-way conflicts—Bromley
Rock Park by 1.2 acres and Mount Robson Park by 9.6 acres.
Mount Maxwell Park, on Saltspring Island, was reclassified from Class C to
Class A status. The Provincial Parks Branch had administered this park in the
absence of a Class C park board for a number of years.
Five parks were increased in size in 1970:
494 acres were added to Kleanza Creek Park, Class A, near Terrace.
205 acres were added to Hirsch Creek Park, Class C, near Kitimat.
123 acres were added to Big Bar Lake Park, Class A, near Clinton.
76 acres were added to Goldstream Park, Class A, near Victoria.
20.6 acres were added to Inkaneep Park, Class A, near Oliver.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
CC 47
SUMMARY OF ALL PROVINCIAL PARKS TO DECEMBER 31,  1970
Classification Number Total Acreage
Class A parks  197      1,824,231   1,824,231
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (6)   1,579,694
Total protected park acreage
Class B parks	
Class C parks     74
Total parks  279
Recreation areas       5
3,403,925
4,632,971
28,514
6,485,716
102,266
Nature conservancy areas in A parks, (1)—Black Tusk (Garibaldi Park)
Nature conservancy areas in B parks (6)—
Big Den (Strathcona)      29,784
Central Strathcona (Strathcona)   215,000
Comox Glacier (Strathcona)      58,010
Eutsuk (Tweedsmuir)   629,300
Rainbow (Tweedsmuir)   121,900
Murtle Lake (Wells Gray)   525,700
44,032
  1,579,694
Total, nature conservancy areas (7)    1,623,726
The residents of British Columbia are indebted to Mr. Cornelius Bergen,
of Clearbrook, for his generous donation of 9.25 acres of land for park purposes at Burns Lake.
During 1970, 90 new recreational reserves were established on Crown land
through the co-operation of the Lands Service and Forest Service of the Department
of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources; 30 established recreational reserves were
cancelled. For its residents, British Columbia now has 2,572 areas designated for
public recreational use (apart from its Provincial Parks System), containing 458,050
acres.
Park Master Plans Section
Staff for this Section was cut in half when Jacob Masselink was transferred to
head the Park System Planning Section in March, although he continued to work,
as time permitted, on master plans for Mount Assiniboine Park and Strathcona Park.
An additional constraint on master-planning activities was the lack of student assistants for summer field work. They were victims of the economic slump which saw
Government spending reduced to the minimum.
The winter portion of the year was spent on a park system plan for Vancouver
Island produced at the request of the Minister. This "White Paper," as it was called,
inventoried parkland and outlined the long-term requirements for the region. The
White Paper was actually a task for the Park System Planning Section, but because
 CC 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
its staff members were already committed to other work, the Master Planning Section
was required to participate.
In 1970, planners carried out an aerial reconnaissance of Wells Gray Park
and a boat reconnaissance of the Murtle Lake area. A wilderness policy for this
area was recommended in the outline master plan which resulted from these studies.
A similar outline master plan was drawn up for the Berg Lake area of Mount Robson
Park following field studies. Public shelters and trail improvements were the subjects for examinations in the Black Tusk area of Garibaldi Park.
By the end of the year an over-all plan was nearly completed for Mount Seymour Park. The plan has been a back-log project for several years and it represents
the most comprehensive master plan yet undertaken.
The Master Plans Section took special interest in a study conducted in three
Provincial parks by a doctoral degree candidate in the School of Regional and Community Planning at the University of British Columbia. His study is of the human
and social aspects of wilderness in Bowron Lake, Mount Robson, and Garibaldi
Parks. The Parks Branch gave financial backing to this project, as it was anticipated
that it would be helpful in establishing policies and plans for wilderness parks.
Park Site-planning Section
Site-planning activities in 1970 were similar to preceding years but with greater
emphasis on designing for reconstruction and expansion of facilities in some of the
older and more heavily used parks.
Development plans were drawn up for the restoration of McDonald, Yahk, and
Princess Louisa Parks. Englishman River and Little Qualicum Falls Parks were
examined and an extensive trail-reconstruction programme was proposed for Youth
Crew employment. At Newcastle Island, 250 feet of new dockage was planned and
installed.
Planning efforts were also directed to other parks where continuing construction
of new development or minor additions were in progress. These included China
Creek, Syringa Creek, Paul Lake, Lac Le Jeune, Kokanee Creek, Manning, and
Mount Seymour. At Cultus Lake a new gate-house, which had been designed to
facilitate registration of campers, was installed. A landscape plan was drawn up for
the change-house area of Sun-Oka Beach Park, and Phase II of Gordon Bay campground was designed.
Two new developments involving site-planning personnel were Gordon Bay
Park campground, Phase I, and field layout and inspections of Christina Lake picnic-
ground.
Examinations of several lakes were made to determine mapping requirements
for future developments. These included Jewel, Sheep (Nancy Greene), and Nor-
bury Lakes.
In Manning Park a hazardous traffic situation was rectified by the design and
completion of a new parking-lot and entrance road for the Beaver Pond stop-of-
interest. This allowed closure of the old parking area, which was located on a highway curve with poor visibility.
Parking facilities were also increased at MacMillan Park following on-site planning and field staking of an extension to the parking-lot and redesign of the entrance
to the new "Cedar Grove" trail.
Extension work consisted of giving recreational development advice to members of municipal and Class C park boards and other agencies. This technical assistance included the production of detailed development plans for Manitou Class C
Provincial Park, Naramata; Princeton Class C Provincial Park; Bob-O-Link Park,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 49
Northfield District, Nanaimo; and Athalmer Beach, on Lake Windermere, for the
Community of Athalmer.
Planning assistance was given to the Victoria Outdoor Club with regard to their
Centennial project of trail construction in Goldstream Park.
Liaison work with the Canadian Forces Base at ChiUiwack was carried out in
conjunction with a students' summer work programme, under the jurisdiction of the
Canadian Armed Forces. This work included the field planning of recreational
facilities at Dolly Varden Creek at the south end of ChiUiwack Lake.
New road standards for campground and picnic-ground developments have
been redrafted and submitted for approval. Other projects have included a start
on the compilation of new sign standards. Research work and studies are being
made, leading toward a possible change-over, at least in part, to a system of signing
with internationally recognized symbols.
Special designs produced have included an entrance portal for the newly found
Euclataws Cave to control access to, and hopefully, deter vandalism of the delicate
limestone formations.
A plaque to designate marine parks and a small firewood corral for picnic
areas have also been designed.
Two special projects produced by the Site-planning Section were proposals for
future recreational development in two widely divergent parts of the Province.
One was a proposed new access to Garibaldi Park in the Cheakamus area, incorporating a large multi-use development along the Cheakamus River and a service
complex at Function Junction that would ultimately become the headquarters centre
for Garibaldi Park.
The other is a preliminary proposal for a park development designed to provide
a major recreational outlet on the Libby Reservoir south of Wardner on the
Kootenay River.
This is an extensive multi-use design centred on Baynes and Surveyors Lakes,
with access to 5,000 feet of potential beach frontage on the reservoir.
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
The continued demand for information of a general and educational nature
concerning Provincial parks was reflected in the 36.5-per-cent increase over 1969
in written requests, answerable by brochures or folders, which were received during
the year. In addition, an average of about three letters or memos per day was
prepared in reply to requests needing more than publications. Coupled with these
public requests was an unprecedented requirement for similar information from
other Government agencies and various travel, tourist, and outdoor-oriented organizations, as well as educational institutions.
In an attempt to meet the demand, new folders on Garibaldi and Wells Gray
Provincial Parks were made available during 1970 and revised editions of other
park and general-interest folders and brochures were received in quantity from the
printers. Toward the end of the year, work was begun on a completely revised marine
park folder and a new Tweedsmuir Provincial Park folder. New Mount Robson and
Strathcona Provincial Park folders were in the hands of the Queen's Printer and will
be ready for distribution early in the new year.
At the request of the 'Ksan Association and ARDA, a Hand of History pamphlet describing points of interest in the Hazelton area was prepared and the 'Ksan
folder revised. Special photographs were taken and used in the Hand of History
cover montage.
4
 CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The assistance of the draughting section has been invaluable in the preparation
of the maps used in various park folders.
In the interests of providing educational information to the public, a display
was set up and manned in Vernon and slide presentations were prepared for the
Agent-General in London and a University of British Columbia geography class.
In addition, illustrated talks were given to an education class at UBC and to local
senior-secondary school students as well as other interested groups.
The annual Travel Counsellors' School in Vancouver was again given a special
presentation and this year, as an innovation, similar presentations were given to
tourist groups at Salmon Arm and Revelstoke. In April, the Public Information
Officer took part in the Department of Travel Industry promotional tour of San
Francisco and Los Angeles.
Early in the summer a guest appearance was made on Barrie Clark's Open Line
show on Radio Station CKWX in Vancouver, and in December a visit was made to
Victoria's Channel 10 television station to assist in the Christmas programme. Numerous news releases were written during the year and a number of special writing
assignments completed, including a travel article for Chatelaine magazine and the
text for the plaque marking the completion of the Marble Meadows trail project in
Strathcona Provincial Park.
During the year, visits were made to parks throughout the Province and, in
August, the official opening of the 'Ksan project at Hazelton was attended. Photographs of many activities were taken for Branch records and for inclusion in the
Annual Report. Additionally, photographs and colour slides were made available
to agencies and individuals on request.
HISTORIC PARKS AND SITES DIVISION
Barkerville Historic Park
The park enjoyed another good year with a total of nearly 170,000 visitor-days.
One distinguished visitor who appeared to enjoy himself as much as anyone else was
Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, who flew in on August 6 during a whirlwind tour of
northern British Columbia. Joining whole-heartedly in the fun, the Prime Minister
drove Barkerville's four-horse stage coach, panned gold at the Eldorado Claim, and
enthusiastically applauded what proved to be one of the better Theatre Royal productions of the past eight years.
A start has been made toward the projected reconstruction and restoration of
Barkerville's Chinatown. Plans are nearing completion and work will progress over
the next five years.
New exhibits this year included the J. H. Todd Store next to the Wake-Up-Jake
Cafe, a dining-room and barrister's office in the wings of the Government Assay
Building, and a kitchen in Dr. Watt's residence.
Because of overcrowding of Barkerville's limited camgrounds, plans are being
drawn for improvement and extension of the camping facilities.
A marked increase in visitation by school groups, some from as far distant as
Vancouver, has led to planning for a start on orientation lectures and guided tours
in the coming year.
Cottonwood House Historic Park
The various buildings within the park have had their foundations replaced
during the past three years and attention was given this year to improving the exhibits.   Unfortunately, resident supervisor A. Pedersen died during the summer and
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 51
the project missed his keen interest, involvement, and knowledge. The new residence
was started during the year and should be ready for occupancy next summer.
Fort Steele Historic Park
Attendance maintained its pace, and some 125,000 visitors were attracted to
the park during the period May to October.
The shell of the new 300-seat theatre was completed during the year. While
originally scheduled for stage performances during Centennial '71, interior finishing
will not be possible until next fall, so that the theatre is not expected to be operational
until 1972.
Probably the highlight of the year was the acquisition of 10 Clydesdale horses
from OakaUa Prison Farm in Burnaby. These horses were well known throughout
the Province because of their annual performance at the horse show of the Pacific
National Exhibition. They appeared to adapt readily to their new home at the foot
of the Rockies, and only a week after their arrival were used to pull a wagon-load
of visiting dignitaries during official ceremonies at the park's annual opening on
May 16. A large corral was constructed for the horses just inside the palisade
fence, and a barn was built at the end adjacent to the workshop complex.
On June 30 a filly was born to mare Heather Winalot and soon became the star
attraction to visiting horse-lovers. Plans are being made for wider use of the Clydesdales next year through such activities as full show-harness performances on Sundays,
and daily hauling of passengers throughout the park on specially built wagons.
The Dunrobin steam train continued to do well, hauling in excess of 25,000
passengers during the summer. The engine and recently acquired British Railways
coach were painted at the start of the season. Plans were made to transfer an old
Shay logging locomotive from the Coast to the park, where it will augment the growing collection of railway equipment. While it will be used primarily as an exhibit
item in keeping with its relation to the old railway-logging days of East Kootenay,
it will serve also as a standby for the Dunrobin, as it is in excellent condition.
Historic Commemorations
Ten new stop-of-interest plaques which were to be placed this year have been
held over until next year because of the death of plaque programme supervisor L. E.
Cook. Two new plaques were cast for the Centennial '71 project and will be erected
during the coming year, along with an additional eight plaques.
The Division participated with the Historic Commemorations Subcommittee
of Centennial '71 in producing an exhibition of 15 double-sized panels which will be
shipped to museums and other organizations throughout the Province during 1971.
Through photos, colourful illustrations, and simple texts, the panels will portray the
people and events that led to British Columbia's joining of Canadian Confederation
on July 20, 1871.
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Continuing a trend of many years, there was a substantial increase in park
attendance for 1970 over 1969 {see graph). Day-use visitations were up 171,000,
and camper use 174,000, showing a 2.9-per-cent increase in the former and a 12.3-
per-cent increase in the latter.
An analysis of the point-of-origin of campers showed little change over past
years. British Columbia, 59 per cent; Canada, 18 per cent; United States of
America, 23 per cent.
 CC 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This year for the second time a survey was made to determine the type of
accommodation used by campers, with the following results: Camper-vehicles, 26
per cent; trailers, 17 per cent; tent-trailers, 17 per cent; tents, 40 per cent. These
percentages show little change from 1969.
Use of Provincial parks continued at a heavy rate, with substantial numbers of
campers turned away daily in most campgrounds during the high-use summer season.
With the appointment of a public safety officer in 1969 and a better-organized approach to hooliganism, the incidence of anti-social behaviour in the parks has
dramatically declined.
Turnover in park personnel has followed the usual pattern of past years and
can best be described as minimal. The Parks Branch has been fortunate in attracting
and retaining a highly motivated work force over the years. The dedication of these
people has made it possible to cope with the ever-increasing numbers of park users,
without lowering the quality of the services offered.
Vancouver Management District
Early in the year, J. C. Leman, Prince George District Park Officer, was appointed to the newly posted Vancouver District Park Officer position. The Vancouver District Park Officer is directly responsible to Chief of the Management Division
for the administration of the maintenance and operations of the Provincial parks in
the Vancouver Park District.
Provincial park facilities in the Lower Mainland continue to record substantial
increases in day-use. Camper-use at Alice Lake Park, Cultus Lake Park, and
Golden Ears Park recorded modest increases. At Manning Park, camper-use increased by approximately 28 per cent during the 1970 season. This substantial increase in camper-use points to Manning Park becoming a popular retreat for the
residents of the Lower Mainland area.
As in previous years, Mount Seymour Park, with 850,000 day-use visits, remains the most heavily used park in the Province. While ski-ing and other related
winter sports account for a substantial portion of the use, hiking in Mount Seymour
Park is fast becoming a popular family activity.
At Manning Park, the instaUation of a new chair-lift, T-bar, and several new
ski-runs wiU undoubtedly lead to the Gibson Pass Ski Area becoming one of the
finest family ski resorts within easy-driving distance of the Vancouver metropolitan
area. Camper-use as Manning Park showed a substantial increase, with a noticeable trend that people were staying longer in the area to enjoy the many varied and
interesting forms of outdoor recreational activities that this park offers.
Cultus Lake Park and Golden Ears Park continue to prove their popularity
with the residents of the Lower Mainland and the travelling public by recording increases in both day-use and camper-use. The introduction of a new type of camper
registration form and method of coUecting camp-site fees, plus increased patrolling
of the park areas, resulted in a substantial reduction in the incidence of hoodlumism
and vandalism.
At Garibaldi Park, the Black Tusk Nature Conservancy Area continues to provide our planning and management personnel with the most challenging task of
designing facilities and trail systems that will protect the fragile flora and fauna of
this magnificent wilderness area against overuse. A very successful Youth Crew
Programme was carried out in 1970, with the crews completing several trail projects
that will assist greatly in preserving the fragile meadows of this nature conservancy
area.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 53
Alice Lake Park continues to remain a great favourite with Vancouver people,
and is fiUed to capacity all summer.
Peace Arch Park continues to provide our visitors from the United States with
their first glimpse of Provincial parks. The peaceful scene that is created by the
well-manicured appearance of this park provided an ideal setting for picnicking, an
activity that is enjoyed by the thousands of visitors that utUize the facilities provided
for this purpose.
Vancouver Island Management District
Parks on Vancouver Island continue to receive unrelenting use and seldom
during the summer season are any of the 1,800 picnic-tables free from use. On the
Island, no doubt due to the mildness of the climate, combined with the ever-increasing
number of camper vans and trailers, there is a trend to year-round use of campground
facilities.   Seldom now are these campgrounds free of campers.
At Wickaninnish Beach, the facilities, as in the past, were overcrowded and considerable trouble was experienced in controlling unrestricted use. It is expected
that national park personnel will take over operations of facilities in 1971.
At Miracle Beach Park, campers and picnickers will miss Frank Rainbow,
supervisor, who has retired after many years of faithful service.
In other parks, the work of repair and maintenance continued. At MacMillan
Park, trail development was carried on; at Englishman River Falls Park a new trail
to the lower falls was commenced; a cleanup crew was stationed in the Forbidden
Plateau area for the summer, a Batzer mountaineering hut was airlifted into Marble
Meadows, Strathcona Park. These and a multitude of similar projects made up the
working-year for Vancouver Island Provincial parks.
Kamloops Management District
Following an established pattern, no new development projects were initiated
in the 1970/71 fiscal year. The phase development of Paul Lake, Sun-Oka Beach,
Lac Le Jeune, and Clearwater River Parks continued at a reduced pace. Minor rehabilitation work was undertaken in certain of the more badly worn parks. Two
sanistations, one at Lac la Hache and one at Okanagan Lake Park, were started and
will be completed for the 1971 season, at which time the Yard Creek picnic-shelter
started in 1969 should also be completed.
Increased maintenance funds were largely offset by similar increases in the cost
of labour, materials, and supplies. For instance, the cost of firewood to supply
campers increased by over 50 per cent in most regions. This District will be budgeting for $23,000 for firewood alone in 1971/72.
The completion of the second year of the Youth Crew Programme at Mahood
Lake saw 40 camp-sites, boat-launching and parking facilities, a service building,
and the Youth Crew camp buildings brought to standard.
District staff continued to assist Class C park boards, recreation commissions,
and civic forms of Government, including various regional districts in the formulation
of development plans and in furthering park aims. Slide talks were presented to
various clubs and literature distributed through correspondence and public inquiries.
A 21-per-cent increase in the use of District parks was of course heavily influenced by the opening of Sun-Oka Beach Park. Additional maintenance funds
provided stepped-up security patrols which, combined with the continued and
excellent co-operation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, had the effect of reducing incidents of serious outbreaks of rowdyism and vandalism.
 CC 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Northern Management District
J. W. GUlings, a recent graduate from the University of Washington and the
University of Victoria, was appointed to the position of District Park Officer, Northern Management District, to replace J. C. Leman, who was transferred to Vancouver
in April.
During the 1970 season the emphasis in the northern districts was placed on
the rehabilitation and modernization of basic facilities, rather than on the development or expansion of new parks and facUities.
Projects were initiated in each of the five regions. In an effort to meet the need
and demand for water and sewage facilities, emphasis was placed on improving these
services. The water system at Bowron Lake was extended to include the whole
campground. The water system at Furlong Bay was extended along the picnic terrace
and the first camping-loop. In Mount Robson Park, wells were driUed at Lucerne
and Robson Meadows campgrounds. Sani-stations were constructed at Charlie Lake
Park in the Peace-Liard Region, and at Beaumont Park in the Bear Lake Region.
Youth Crews were employed in both Mount Robson Park and Crooked River
Park. In conjunction with the programme at Crooked River, the fourth stage of the
redevelopment programme was completed, and 16 camp-sites were completely renovated. The planting programme was continued, and 2,000 seedlings were sited
throughout the park. The Youth Crew Programme at Mount Robson Park put the
finishing touches on last year's development at Robson Meadows campground, and
prepared an additional 20 sites for completion next year.
In addition to their normal maintenance and administrative tasks, Northern
District staff continued to provide advice and guidance on outdoor recreational
matters to regional district planning committees and other groups concerned with
and interested in natural resource management.
Nelson Management District
Wasa Lake Park in the East Kootenay and Champion Lakes Park in the West
Kootenay recorded 14 per cent and 28 per cent increases respectively in park attendance over the 1969 season. Camper attendance in the East Kootenay had 49 per
cent of its origin coming from other Canadian provinces, while the West Kootenay
had only 25 per cent from other parts of Canada as against 51 per cent from British
Columbia.
A redesign of the Syringa Creek Park's large day-use parking-lot was completed
in time for paving by the Department of Highways. The new highway from Castlegar
to Syringa Creek Park was paved in June. Although no maintenance was carried
out because of staff shortages, the park was well used by both local people and
tourists.
The development of a large day-use facility at the south end of Christina Lake
was completed in September. Approximately 24,000 yards of sand were placed
along the 1,000-foot shoreline, to make it one of the most attractive beaches on the
lake. It is expected that this park will exceed 100,000 visits per season in the next
three or four years.
The 1970 season saw an expansion of the Youth Crew Programme with the
development of a new camp at Wasa Lake Park. Once again these young men provided much-needed assistance with the over-all maintenance of parks in the Koote-
nays. Their tasks include such projects as building trails, painting buildings and furniture, installation of water lines, cutting wood, and the cleaning-up of campgrounds
and beaches. This youth programme is designed to create a challenge for the participants through a wide variety of outdoor experiences ranging from mountain climbing,
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
CC 55
glacier excursions, canoeing, water ski-ing, to learning skiUs in trapping, tanning,
knife-making, and participation in driver-training and hunter-training courses.
Our Nelson District staff were involved in assisting the Department of Highways
in planning and locating sites for their Roadside Rest-stop Programme.
District staff also assisted the Planning Division in their field examination of the
Valhalla Wilderness Park proposal near Slocan Lake; in the location of a major park
proposal near Surveyors Lake to meet future recreational needs on the Libby Reservoir; in the preparation of the report on the Top-of-the-World Wilderness proposal; in the purchase of Miss Elizabeth Rummel's leasehold improvements in Mount
Assiniboine Park for the establishment of an administrative centre and Youth Crew
camp; and in many other advisory capacities necessary for the co-ordination of the
Branch's activities.
Involvement of District staff with regional districts in regional planning and the
subsequent establishment of by-laws regulating use in unincorporated areas is a
continuous responsibility. All regional districts are being encouraged to become
involved in regional parks to meet the fast-growing need for recreational lands and
facilities by both the communities and their surrounding districts. Good progress
has been made in the East Kootenay, where the regional district has acquired approximately 350 acres of the old Forest Service nursery near Wycliff for development of a
wide variety of recreational interests, ranging from gymkhana grounds and snowmobile trails to playgrounds and picnic-sites.
The Nelson office is becoming deeply involved with land-use planning initiated
by the Minister's Land Use Committee. Reports on future recreational needs have
been prepared for guidance to other Government departments on the Lardeau and
Trout Lake valleys, on the lands surrounding Kootenay Lake, on the Granby River
valley, and on the East Kootenay Canada Land Inventory study area.
Park Interpretation
The 1970 Park Interpretation Programme has been the most successful on
record. Some 225,000 people attended the variety of programmes offered in 15
parks throughout the Province. StatisticaUy, this represents a 29-per-cent increase
over 1969 attendance; practically, it means more people visited more parks and
participated more in park activities.
Nature houses hosted 80,000 visitors, while 20,000 more turned out for morning guided walks in alpine areas, on beaches, and in the forests. Evening campfire
talks proved interesting to 38,000 campers.
The Goldstream Park salmon run, Victoria's annual fish-watching spectacle,
drew 60,000 visitors. Of these, 5,000 were school children transported to the park
during school-hours. A park naturalist provided visitors with information and
guided walks along the stream in explanation of the salmon's life-cycle.
This year, 17 seasonal naturalists were employed for the summer programmes
in parks from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
Naturalist workshops were again held in June at Miracle Beach and Manning
Parks to train new naturalists in interpretive techniques.
New programmes this year included travelling naturalists who lived in campers,
like the many park visitors they serve. These naturalists provided guided walks,
hikes, and evening campfire talks at several parks each week during the summer.
On Vancouver Island, Rathtrevor Beach, Englishman River Falls, and Little Qualicum FaUs Parks were all served in this way by one naturalist. In the Kootenays,
Champion Lakes and Kokanee Creek Parks also had a camper naturalist programme.
 CC 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia's first nature house in the Rocky Mountains was opened this
year at Mount Robson Park. A temporary tent-frame structure, located at the start
of the Berg Lake Trail, hosted 6,000 visitors. This was a good beginning in one of
our finest parks for natural history interpretation.
PUot programmes were initiated at Cultus Lake and Golden Ears Parks on the
Lower Mainland and at Alice Lake Park near Squamish.
The Langford interpretation workshop planned and constructed 28 major displays for four nature houses, together with five outdoor informational displays.
The great success of the 1970's park naturalist programme was the direct result
of hard work by a fine group of seasonal and permanent naturalists. Their common
interest is a dedication to the conservation of wild things in wild places and a willingness to tell others of this knowledge.
Youth Crew Programme
Although no more extensive than last year, the 1970 Youth Crew Programme
was organized differently. The camp at Nairn Falls Park was discontinued and a
new one was built at Wasa Park. The season started with 180 boys in the field—30
at Little Qualicum Falls, 30 at Garibaldi, 30 at Manning, 15 at Crooked River (Bear
Lake), 15 at Mount Robson, 15 at Kokanee Creek, 15 at Champion Lakes, 15 at
Wasa, and 15 at Wells Gray (Mahood Lake).
A variety of work was carried out, including trail building and light construction,
new campground construction and old campground reconstruction, painting, firewood cutting, and general park maintenance. There was heavy emphasis on safety
in all the crews, and we came through the season with only two minor accidents.
Each camp had a well-rounded programme of sports, moving-pictures, and
talks on outdoor subjects, as well as visits to historic sites or industrial points of
interest, and hikes into alpine country. By and large, the programme was very popular with all the boys, as well as with participating Parks Branch personnel.
One rather unfortunate incident was the loss, by fire, of the Manning Park cookhouse. No one was to blame for the fire, and the Youth Crew did a splendid job
as part of a successful effort to confine it to only one building of the camp. This
incident took place close to the end of the season and had no adverse effect on the
crew's operation.
As usual, each crew closed the season with a ceremony, in some cases complete
with skits put on by the boys. Certificates of merit and group photographs were
presented by a local dignitary or a member of the Provincial Legislature. On the
whole, 1970 was a successful year.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
The 1969 reorganization of the Division continued, with emphasis on project
teams. Professional staff co-ordinated the specialist function of Waterworks, Buildings, and Draughting Sections, based in Victoria; the Workshop Section at Langford;
and the Equipment, Construction, and Survey Sections in Vancouver. Field execution was, as usual, split between contract services, regional forces, and Construction
Section staff. Consultant engineering firms were retained for seven projects. Registration of sewage effluent and solid-waste disposal was undertaken as required by the
Pollution Control Act, 1967, and surveys in connection with toilet application and
garbage disposal are continuing. In addition to capital works, about half the Division's technical capacity was involved in support of the remainder of the Branch.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 57
Waterworks Section
This Section was responsible for implementing all waterworks and sewage-disposal projects. The services provided included site investigations, feasibility studies,
detailed design, materials supply, and project supervision. Execution was predominantly by regional forces, with emphasis on the training of operating staff.
Buildings Section
The introduction of a building maintenance supervisor was initiated with a
major survey of Kamloops District buildings. In addition to specific projects, standard toilet building, change-house, and picnic-shelter designs were prepared. Closer
ties with the Workshop Section were augmented with lighting and ventilation improvements, prefabricated structures, unit-cost study, and prototype design. Alterations for Planning Division offices were implemented.
Draughting Section
Final drawings were provided on a large variety of projects for all divisions of
the Branch. About one-quarter of these were directly related to Engineering Division commitments. In scope, the assignments covered topographic maps, development plans, water and sewerage layouts, working plans for buildings and structures,
detailed tourist maps, reports, and publicity assignments. In June, the Parks Standards booklet was issued in a new three-ring binder form, and a systematic updating
is continuing.   All plans were produced in the new standard-size system.
Workshop Section
A high level of production was maintained, in spite of a low-development year,
with 3,400 items produced in 60 categories. The drop-off in new installations has
been more than offset by the growing demand for replacement production. Tables,
fireplaces, and carved signs dominated, but reinforced fibreglass continues to gain
favour with the development of unique items such as the ski-rescue toboggan and the
standard marine park sign. The 1969 prototype fireplace became a standard item.
Organizational work continued, with emphasis on broad utility training and staff
rotation. Personnel were temporarily transferred to the Provincial Museum for
exhibit work and to Manning Park for field experience. In all, some 34 off-yard
jobs were carried out. A unit-cost study was completed for all 1969/70 production.
Nineteen vehicles forming the headquarters car pool were maintained and dispatched
from the Workshop. Lighting and ventilation improvements were initiated to conform with Provincial regulations.
Equipment Section
Key technical staff work was carried out in electrical and mechanical projects,
notably the conversion of ski-tows to electric drive, diesel-electric generating stations,
and distribution-system improvements. High maintenance standards were achieved
by twice-yearly inspections of all Branch equipment. Specifications were supplied
for the purchase of new and replacement equipment. Field personnel were instructed
in the proper operation and maintenance of equipment, with emphasis on safety
practice.   Monthly operating cost records were compiled for all regions.
Construction Section
The Division's continuing flexibility to execute project assignments on short
notice resides in large measure with this Section.   Its project supervisors were re-
 CC 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
sponsible for the majority of capital works, apart from the Gibson Pass programme,
which was a joint production in liaison with the Park forces. Here, as on the Sun-
Oka project, the construction superintendent's jurisdiction was extended to cover
regional development work. The first season of the Young Men's Conservation
Programme was terminated in May, with 55 candidates receiving training and guidance in construction practice, machine operation, and project safety.
Survey Section
In addition to the basic functions of topographic mapping, boundary surveys,
project control, feasibility studies, and route surveys, all surveying required in the
Branch operation was consolidated in the Survey Section. At the peak, three field
parties were involved. Engineering control of projects was strengthened by comprehensive involvement in such works as the Mount Seymour road, Gibson Pass
chair-lift, Rathtrevor Beach development, Lac Le Jeune campground, Cultus Lake
gate-house, and Christina Lake picnic area.
Vancouver Island Region
The China Creek Park development was completed, the lower Englishman
River FaUs bridge was replaced, and plans initiated to replace the lower Little Qualicum Falls bridge. Work continued at Rathtrevor Beach Park on the first-stage
development of access roads, parking-lots, equipment shed, pumping-station, trail
system, landscaping, and a double sani-station, all in conjunction with the Young
Men's Conservation Programme. A first-stage campground was developed at Gordon Bay Park and a handpump water supply installed. An entrance revision was
constructed at the Euclataws Cave. A boundary survey was completed for Strathcona Park and maps prepared for MacMillan, Goldstream, and Arbutus Grove
Parks. Quinsam campground water system was extended, and China Creek water
investigation continued. Miracle Beach water system renovation and sani-station
construction were tabled. A summer residence design for Buttle Lake was prepared.
Plans were completed for the Goldstream bridge, and the Victoria Fish and Game
Protective Association building at Goldstream was appraised for future use as a
nature interpretation centre.   Planning began for the Goldstream workshop.
Mount Seymour Region
Improvements were carried out at Princess Louisa Marine Park in the form of
flush-toilets, caretaker's residence, tables, signs, buoys, and further dockwork. The
Porpoise Bay topographic plan was completed. A one-half-mile section of the
Mount Seymour road was reconstructed to three paved lanes, and working drawings and estimates completed for the unfinished section. Initial design and costing
were undertaken for the dock extension at Plumper Cove Marine Park. Structural
assessment, combined with moving and renovating, was carried out for the Mount
Seymour V.O.C. building as a potential concession staff quarters. The North Vancouver Water District main was extended through the service area and connected
to the headquarters system. The annual Mount Seymour electrical inspection was
carried out and corrective action taken. Planning continued for permanent ski-hill
lighting, a power factor correction programme was initiated, and a survey of the
electric power rate structure begun. Ski-tow renovations continued, and the first
electric drive conversion completed for Goldie Tow. The Vancouver-based extension of Engineering Division, comprising the Equipment, Construction, and Survey
Sections, was consolidated in the staff building at Mount Seymour Park, with planning begun for permanent offices and yard facilities.
 department of recreation and conservation, 1970      cc 59
Cultus Region
A gate-house installation was designed and constructed for improved public
control of Cultus Lake Park, with exterior lighting and paved off-highway access at
Entrance Bay. A Delta Grove-Clear Creek topographic map was completed. Maple
Bay plumbing revisions were prepared, and at Entrance Bay a sani-station was commenced.   The pumping-station for Greenpoint picnic-ground was renovated.
Garibaldi Park
Improved campground toilet facilities were planned for Alice Lake Park in the
form of two six-unit buildings with septic disposal. A sani-station installation was
commenced. The Cheakamus Lake mapping project was completed and survey
control supplied for the Singing Pass Trail.
Alouette Region
Stream-bed revisions were carried out at the Gold Creek Bridge crossing for
erosion control. Transfer of the Alouette waterworks material stockpile to the
Mount Seymour centre was planned.
Manning Region
A new chair-lift, with a 3,798-foot slope length, a 1,091-foot vertical rise, and
1,100 passengers-per-hour capacity was constructed at the Gibson Pass ski area in
Manning Park. Additional work was carried out to complete the T-bar lift, expand
the generating-station capacity, relocate the toboggan run, landscape and seed slopes,
and finish the ski runs. The day-lodge catering facilities were modified to accommodate greater traffic, the observation platform was altered, and new tables designed.
The Gibson Pass map was consolidated and extended. An interpretation centre at
the top of Blackwall road was implemented with a prefabricated hut. The annual
inspection and replacement programme for Manning headquarters electrical system
required distribution, lighting, and fire-warning improvements. The Coldspring
campground water-system design continued, and a sani-station was prepared for
the lodge area. Planning began for replacements of the lodge motel and Youth Crew
cookhouse, both destroyed by fire. Foundation work and abutment design were
carried out for a new Lightning Lakes bridge, and the lake picnic area was improved
with a handpump water supply and vault toilets.
Okanagan Region
The Sun-Oka Beach Park picnic-ground at Summerland was completed with
parking-lots, playground, toilet and change building, and picnic terrace. Full irrigation, domestic water service, septic disposal system, and electric power were included, along with extensive landscaping and planting. A maintenance inspection
was carried out for all region buildings, and a programme of essential renovations
compiled. Change-houses were completed for Haynes Point Park. At Okanagan
Lake Park the campground water system was improved with conversion to drilled-
well supply and replacement of the delivery main. A sani-station above the picnic
area was initiated. Boundary surveys were carried out for Cathedral and Johnstone
Creeks, Okanagan Falls, and Ellison Parks. Control was supplied for Cathedral
Park access.
 cc 60 british columbia
Shuswap Region
The first-stage redevelopment of Lac Le Jeune Park was completed, with improved access, parking, additional camp-sites, and day-use facilities. Yard Creek
picnic-shelter was tabled. A maintenance inspection of all region buildings was
carried out and initial action implemented on a continuing renovation programme.
The Victor Lake water system improvements were tabled and a Monck Park summer residence was begun. A boundary survey was completed at Paul Lake and a
fence installed.
Cariboo Region
The Lac la Hache sani-station was begun, with provision for water system extensions.   At Skihist Park, flush-toilets were completed in the picnic area.
Wells Gray Region
A higher-capacity heating-plant was selected for installation in the Wells Gray
workshop.
Kokanee Region
A new picnic-ground was developed at Christina Lake, with parking-lots, service area, fencing, trails, vault toilets, change-houses, picnic terrace, and sanded
beach area. Syringa Creek Park was initiated with paved parking-lots. Kokanee
Creek water system was extended to Sandspit campground. Christina Lake and
Syringa Creek were examined for water supply.
Wasa Region
Extension of the Wasa workshop was planned. Moyie Lake water system was
extended to the campground. Wasa Lake sani-station construction began, and planning for the final picnic water system continued.
Bear Lake Region
The Beaumont Park sani-station was commenced to introduce this service to
Highway 16. Flush-toilet facilities were planned for Ten Mile Lake Park, but construction was tabled.
Lakelse Region
The Furlong Bay water system was extended to the picnic area and first-stage
service provided in the campground.
Mount Robson Region
Replacement of the diesel-electric generation system was initiated for Mount
Robson headquarters, and an electric-power system installed for the Interpretation
Centre. Handpump wells were drilled at Lucerne Lake campground and the proposed picnic-ground. Drilling failed at Robson River, but a weak well was obtained
at Robson Meadows.   The water survey is continuing and a sani-station is planned.
Peace-Liard Region
Boat-launching facilities at Charlie Lake Park were improved with stabilized
riprap, concrete-slab construction, and improved access. A sani-station installation
was begun.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 61
Bowron Region
The workshop and warehouse were completed at Bowron Lake Park service
area and a matching design prepared for a staff house. The water system was extended to the campground and a sewerage system planned for the service area. An
electric-power system was installed.
Historic Parks
Fort Steele railway station plumbing was designed, winter-use horse troughs
were installed, and the start made on the theatre water and sewage services. Barker-
ville auxiliary water supply was planned and design work begun for Cottonwood
House residence services.
 ORIGIN OF  CAMPERS   VISITING
PROVINCIAL     PARKS   AND   TYPE
OF ACCOMMODATION   USED
ORIGIN
TYPE  OF   ACCOMMODATION
 ANNUAL   ATTENDANCE
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30-
Camper nights
Day  visits
H
1960 1961    1962 1963 1964 1965  1966 1967   1968 1969   1970
YEAR
 Workman puts finishing touches to one of the 78 picnic-tables at Sun-Oka Beach Provincial Park, near Summerland. These massive tables are fashioned of cedar at the Provincial Parks Branch workshop at Langford, near Victoria.
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Naturalist hut in the alpine zone of Manning Provincial Park.   Guided walks
through the meadows start from here in July and August.
 Ten of Oakalla Prison Farm's popular Clydesdales were transferred to Fort Steele Provincial Historic Park in 1970. The horses lost no time in acclimatizing to their new home
near the Rockies.
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 BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Objects
(a)  To secure and preserve specimens and other objects which illustrate the natural history and the human history of the Province.
(_>)  To increase and diffuse knowledge in these fields by research,
exhibits, publications, and other means.
(Section 4, Provincial Museum Act, 1967, chap. 41, S.B.C. 1967.)
Admission
The Provincial Museum is open free to the public.   During 1970 the
hours of admission were:
lanuary 1 to May 31 10 a.m.-4.30 p.m.
Sundays 1 p.m.-4.30 p.m.
Closed Mondays.
lune 1 to September 15 10 a.m.-8.30p.m.
Sundays 1 p.m.-4.30 p.m.
September 16 to December 31 10 a.m.-4.30 p.m.
Closed Mondays.
  DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
CC 71
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Dr. I. B. Foster, Director
The following points are the highlights for the year 1970:
• A total of 848,266 visitors passed through the Museum's doors, 53 per cent more
than 1969.
• The greatest effort of the Museum was placed on the construction of new history
displays. Major advances were achieved in the street scene and primary industry gaUeries.
• All curatorial divisions expended much time and effort in moving into and reorganizing collections in the Curatorial Tower.
• More than 35 talks and lectures were given by staff members to the public during
the year.
• The "Friends of the Provincial Museum" was registered as a society and is in
addition to the more specialized Docents' Association of the Provincial Museum.
Members of both aided in many activities within the Museum. The 60 volunteer
guides helped to conduct 500 tours for 21,220 children by donating 4,786 hours
of work, the equivalent of three full-time employees for one year.
• Nine Museum handbooks were reprinted in an attempt to keep up with burgeoning demands by the public. Almost $20,000 worth were sold during the year in
spite of some of the most popular handbooks being out of print. The third volume of the Museum's scientific publication Syesis appeared, and a special archaeological supplement was being prepared as the year ended.
• Three Indians were hired for a year on the First Citizen Fund—two as apprentice
carvers and one as a teacher interpreting the Indian culture to school children.
• Many people and institutions rendered the Museum assistance, courtesies, and
information. Others donated so many valuable objects and specimens that we
are unable to list them individually as in previous reports. To all these people
we extend our sincere thanks.
G. CLIFFORD CARL, 1908-70
The museum field, particularly in the Province of British Columbia, suffered a
severe loss with the death of Dr. G. Clifford Carl on March 27, 1970.
During his many years as Director of the Provincial Museum, he maintained
a continuous contact with the smaller museums and museum personnel throughout
British Columbia. His interest and activity in this field led to the formation of the
British Columbia Museums Association in 1957, an association now recognized as
one of the most progressive in Canada. Of outstanding importance, too, was his
initiation of a series of handbooks on the flora and fauna of the Province.
The highlight of his 29 years as Director was the opening of Heritage Court in
August 1968. This new museum complex is a monument to the man known always
as being kindly and knowledgeable.
Cliff Carl's knowledge of natural history was vast; his first love, however, was
marine biology, and in lanuary 1970 he stepped down from the directorship to become the Provincial Museum's first Curator of Marine Biology. He was looking
forward to relief from administrative duties and to involvement in the proposed
"Hall of the Sea" when, after a brief illness, he died of acute leukaemia.
 G. Clifford Carl, 1908-70.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970
CC 73
ARCH/EOLOGY
The Archaeology Division has multiple responsibilities. Like other curatorial
divisions of the Museum, it is broadly charged with the collection, preservation, and
interpretation of objects and data relevant to the cultural and natural history of
British Columbia. As one of only a handful of archaeological departments in the
Province, it also shares a heavy portion of the burden for the protection of a precious, irreplaceable, and highly vulnerable resource—British Columbia's remaining
archaeological sites. Recommendations on administration of this resource are made
by the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board. The Curator is the Provincial Museum
representative on the board, and this Division maintains all Board records as well
as the central Provincial archaeological sites advisory file. In these and other respects
we are attempting to assemble a "data bank" for archaeologists working in British
Columbia. We are also expected to do our share in the scientific salvage of archaeological remains threatened by destruction from various causes. By means, and also
by more problem-oriented research, we endeavour to contribute to unravelling the
prehistory of our Province. The ultimate aim of diffusing this knowledge to the
public is attempted through direct response to inquiries, through museum displays,
education and extension services, through assistance to other researchers, and
through publication.
The Curator, D. N. Abbott, was assisted by three technicians—J. H. Sendey,
Mrs. N. I. Hayden, and Miss K. E. lamieson.
Special thanks go to the following volunteers: Miss losephine McDougall,
Denis St. Clair, Miss Sharon Keene, Alan Carl, Greg Monks, Mrs. Beth Hill, Mrs.
lean Turner, Mrs. Anna Reeves, lohn Pollitt, Ebbe Larsen, and to several members
of the Archaeological Society of Vancouver Island.
During 1970 the main emphasis was upon organizing records and collections
following the move into our new permanent quarters and upon compilation of earlier
research material into publishable form.
The writing of Reports consisted primarily of the Curator's analysis and
writing-up of the Pedder Bay site in Metchosin, excavated in 1964. The work includes a fairly detailed study of aspects of the natural and human history of southeastern Vancouver Island as they may effect the interpretation of archaeological
evidence. At the same time, Mr. Sendey has been preparing a report on the George-
son Bay site on Galiano Island. He made five return trips to the island at various
times during this year to collect additional historical and environmental information
needed to supplement the archaeological data obtained in 1968. Alan Hoover,
Assistant Curator of Ethnology, on a year's leave of absence, is preparing an archaeological report on the 1967 excavations at the False Narrows (Gabriola Island) site
for his thesis at Simon Fraser University. Mrs. Marjory Gordon, of the University
of Calgary, is concurrently analysing the skeletal material from that same excavation
for her thesis in physical anthropology. lohn McMurdo, of Simon Fraser, is working up our material from the 1968 excavation at Helen Point, Mayne Island.
Collections were moved into the new building and the space now available
has made it possible for the first time to begin organizing and storing the archaeological and human osteological collections in a logical and accessible manner by
sites and geographic provenience. This work reached only a very preliminary stage
in 1970, and further years of effort will be needed to bring the collections, and particularly the records, to the state of organization in which they will be of optimum
value as sources of information on prehistory. Thousands of man-hours were expended this year by the staff and by volunteers cataloguing collections; abstracting
entries from the old general anthropology records into new specific catalogues for
 CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
archaeology and osteology; indexing library sources and files; sorting and filing photographs, field-notes and records, journals, drawings, maps, correspondence, etc.;
attempting to keep the site inventory file current and correct; and other tasks of
similar nature. In addition, Mrs. Hayden made a start on the preliminary analysis
of faunal remains from three excavated sites (DeRv 1, DeRt 15, DfRu 24). New
accessions during the year numbered 143 lots. Most of these contained numerous
individual specimens, each of which had to be separately catalogued.
Field Work was minimal in 1970 due to the sheer lack of time and personnel.
None the less, emergency situations, major new discoveries, and the need to assess
personally certain sites which were inadequately recorded or threatened with disturbance, and requests for investigation variously necessitated the following field
trips:
(1) A salvage excavation, lasting one week, at Departure Bay, carried out by
Mr. Sendey and Miss lamieson, with volunteers Miss Sharon Keene and
Alan Carl.
(2) A one-day reconnaissance of a threatened site near Williams Lake and
others in the vicinity by Mr. Abbott, Mr. Sendey, Mrs. Hayden, and Miss
Jamieson.
(3) Another one-day reconnaissance of possibly threatened sites at Blunden
Harbour and Smith Sound by Mr. Abbott.
(4) As already mentioned, five one- or two-day trips to Georgeson Bay by
Mr. Sendey, three times accompanied by volunteer Alan Carl.
(5) A four-day trip by Mr. Sendey to check sites near Hope and to participate
in the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board's emergency salvage project at
the Katz Village site.
(6) A three-day trip to check sites near Hope, on the Harrison River, and on
the Fraser Delta by Mr. Sendey and Mr. Carl.
(7) Separate one-day trips by Mr. Abbott and Mr. Sendey to investigate,
record, and photograph an important newly discovered petroglyph site
near Nanaimo.
(8) A trip by Mr. Abbott, Mr. Sendey, Miss Jamieson, and volunteer John
Pollitt to check disturbed burial-sites near Kelowna and record sites near
Lytton.
(9) Several brief excursions to check out sites in the immediate vicinity of
Victoria by the staff.
(10) While not directly a Museum project, The Archaeological Society of Vancouver Island's training "dig" at Willows Beach in Oak Bay has received
this Division's encouragement and support, including the use of equipment
and some physical assistance. It has been under way most of this year.
All finds and records are being turned over to the Museum.
Other Activities included participation by the Curator in the British Columbia Museums Association seminar in Penticton and in two conferences at the University of Calgary on "Ancient Man and Environments in the Northwest." He also
gave a lecture to the University Extension Association in Victoria. Mrs. Hayden
gave several illustrated talks to school groups in Victoria, Lantzville, and Hammond
Bay.
We were pleased to assist visiting scholars during the year who were seeking
information relating to their own research. As well, during the summer, Bjorn
Simonsen, Field Director for the Archaeological Sites Advisory Board, shared our
facilities, and we welcomed Dr. Barbara Efrat, Honorary Curator of Linguistics,
who shared our office during the final third of the year.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 75
Mr. and Mrs. Perry Monsell, of Nanaimo; Mr. and Mrs. William Stafford, of
Williams Lake; and Mr. Kamil, of East Sooke, all were most generous of their time
and knowledge in showing us archaeological remains on their properties. The Department of Highways at Nanaimo gave very material assistance by surveying our
Departure Bay excavations into their datum and preparing a contour map for us.
Mrs. M. Backlund and Mrs. B. Stallybrass, of Galiano Island, not only contributed
a great amount of valuable information, but also donated about 400 important historical negatives.
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
The Curator, C. J. Guiguet, was assisted by W. J. Schick, Assistant Curator;
P. R. Nott, technician; and E. Lemke (until June 30), taxidermist; Mrs. M. Hoffman and Miss W. Speedily provided excellent help as volunteers. The Birds and
Mammals staff completed the arduous task of moving the Division's collections from
the old Museum to the new Curatorial Tower. When finally settled in and with the
equipment functioning, this Division's output should greatly increase.
Research included six weeks of zoological exploration during June and August
on islands in Barkley Sound, 14 days of general collecting for scientific study and
display in the Peace River district during October, four days at Hedley on specific
display collecting in March, six days on northern Vancouver Island in November
for reconnaissance on possible future field work in view of the heightened industrial
activity beginning in that area, and several short local field trips in accordance with
the Division's routine collecting programme. Laboratory research was confined
mainly to mensuration for statistical analysis of a large series of small west coast
mammals.
Collections restoration continued throughout 1970 to the extent that upward
of 7,200 mammals (80 per cent of the total collection) have been treated. The
preparation of material for display terminated in June, when Mr. Lemke resigned.
The latest of our dioramas—that of the west coast forest (Roosevelt elk habitat) —
was completed by Clarence Tillenius, artist; John Hermann-Blomme, taxidermist;
and members of the display staff. A total of 234 specimens of birds and mammals
was collected by staff, and by donation from the general public. These specimens
will ultimately be used for both display and scientific study. Notable accessions
were a right whale dolphin—the first for Canada {see Syesis 3:2:188); an adult
male Caspian tern collected in Barkley Sound—the first record of the species in
British Columbia {see Syesis 3:2:187); and a wood ibis collected at Telegraph Creek
—also the first recorded in British Columbia.
Publications and Reports included short papers on the above-mentioned
specimens, an article on the Roosevelt elk for a local newspaper, scientific data on
the California sea lion and the elephant seal (will be published in Syesis), a rough
draft of Barkley Sound nesting sea bird colonies scheduled for use in a revision of
Drent and Guiguet's Catalogue of British Columbia Sea Bird Colonies. Extensive
field-notes from the British Columbia Coast were indexed and bound.
Jack Schick, Assistant Curator, delivered talks on British Columbia fauna to
groups in Victoria and Campbell River.
BOTANY
The Curator, Dr. A. F. Szczawinski, was assisted by Dr. T. C. Brayshaw, Associate Curator, and Mrs. S. Y. Newnham, herbarium assistant. Volunteers in the
Division included R. A. With, illustrator, employed by the National Museum, who
 CC 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
helped in preparing a number of botanical drawings; Miss Sheilagh Craig, who during the summer months was engaged in the preparation of botanical drawings; and
Mrs. D. Peakman and Mrs. M. Hale, who provided much appreciated general help
in the Division.
The Botany Division's most notable achievement of 1970 was in its ability to
attract well-known botanists for both contractual and volunteer work. Of particular
significance, Dr. T. M. C. Taylor completed a manuscript of the Rose Family
{Rosacea) of British Columbia and made considerable progress on a similar manuscript for the Legume Family {Leguminosce). Dr. Brayshaw made good progress
on the Willow Family {Salicacae) with the completion of many illustrations and
distribution maps. The flora of the Saanich Peninsula, a study completed by Dr.
Szczawinski one year ago, is now in the final stage of revision and will be ready for
publication in 1971. The collection now consists of 55,304 sheets, which is an
increase of 1,216 sheets over 1969. As our herbarium is listed in Index Herbari-
orum, there has been a marked increase in requests for loans of our material; this
year a total of 1,543 sheets was loaned out—triple that of any previous year. An
increased work load resulting from our move was completed, including the unpacking and reorganizing of 55,000 herbarium sheets into new cases.
Collections involving aquatic plants, which hitherto have been weakly represented in the herbarium, were added to extensively from collecting trips conducted
in the areas of the Saanich Peninsula, Gold River, Campbell River, Kelsey Bay, and
Kamloops. Eight local trips to obtain living plants for landscaping the Museum
Complex grounds were made with V. W. Ahier and J. Derrick. Various institutions
as well as biologists, foresters, agriculturists, and individuals have contributed a
number of plant collections and individual plant specimens during 1970. Deserving
a special mention were the National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa; Mrs. G.
Mendel, Kitimat; Dr. T. M. C. Taylor, Victoria; Dr. V. C. Brink, Vancouver;
A. Luckhurst, Victoria; and J. Risse-Sawitski, Prince George.
Display Work centred upon resolving the storyline for displaying the most
ecologically complicated Province of Canada.
Field Work included collecting trips and surveys to the Nimpkish Valley,
Gold River area, Kelsey Bay, Haydon Lake, Fraser Valley, Skagit River Valley,
and the Okanagan. Plants added to our collection included Euonymus occidentalis
—newly discovered both in this Province and Canada.
In connection with the work of the ecological committee of the International
Biological Programme, botanical studies were made of San Juan Ridge near Port
Renfrew, and the Rae-Boat Basin area at western Vancouver Island. It was subsequently recommended by this Division that both the Rae-Boat Basin and the
Skagit Valley become ecological reserves. In the Skagit Valley, moreover, the distribution of California rhododendron {Rhododendron macrophyllum) was mapped
as part of preliminary studies involving proposals for extending the Ross Lake Reservoir. The Curator, with Dr. Sigurd Olsen of the College of Fisheries, University
of Washington, Seattle, made a study of the occurrence of aquaspheres (fibrous
balls) at Heydon Lake. The study will be extended to cover other areas of the
Province in the future.
During the year a number of botanists from Canada and abroad worked in our
herbarium. Dr. B. Boivin, University of Toronto, set aside 795 sheets during his
check of Canadian flora records which were sent to Toronto on loan for critical
study; Dr. J. H. Soper, Chief Botanist, National Museum, Ottawa, and the Curator
conducted joint studies of the flora of the national parks in British Columbia; Dr.
J. M. Gillett, of the Plant Research Institute, Ottawa, made studies of the family
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 77
Hypericacete; Dr. R. T. Ogilvie, University of Calgary, Alberta, carried out ecological studies and checked our herbarium material; Dr. H. T. Harrington, Colorado
State University, Colorado, studied weeds of suburban areas of Victoria; and Dr. J.
Kajak, University of Warsaw, Poland, examined our aquatic plants collection.
The botanical staff gave lectures at Victoria, Campbell River, and Vernon;
a series of lectures on the ecology of southern Vancouver Island was given to Dr.
Ogilvie's students by the Curator and Associate Curator. The Associate Curator
spent two days demonstrating facets of the local vegetation pattern to forest research
officers at the Canadian Forest Service Laboratory, Victoria. The Curator gave a
lecture to the British Columbia General Practitioners at the Vancouver General
Hospital on the toxicity of plants, and later discussed the same subject on local
television.
ETHNOLOGY
1970 was an especially satisfying year for the Ethnology Division as it marked
the first time in which the ethnological collection was housed under a single roof
under controlled and secure conditions. The collection is now organized and accessible, facilitating research for the staff and students of British Columbia Indian cultures. The Curator, Peter L. Macnair, was assisted during the year by Mrs. Susan
C. Douglass and Miss Kathy Jamieson (March 15 through August 31). Employed
under the Thunderbird Park carving programme were Henry Hunt, chief carver,
Tony Hunt, carver, and apprentice carvers Ron Wilson (June-December), Lawrence Bell (June-December), and Oscar Matilpi (July-August). During the year
the able volunteer assistance of Mrs. June Ruskin and Mrs. Pauline Green was
greatly appreciated.
Work with the Collection included fumigation prior to moving it into the
storage area and installation in specially designed cabinets. The entire Newcombe
collection of photographs (over 2,500 negatives) was recatalogued. A 5- by 7-inch
print was made from each negative and the prints were mounted on cards to which
descriptive notes were added. Significant purchases during the year were one Chilkat
blanket, one Kwakiutl button blanket, two Kwakiutl dance aprons, one Kwakiutl
dancing headdress, two Tsimshian painted boxes, four silver bracelets, two Nootka
dance screens, and two contemporary Kwakiutl masks. The most outstanding donation of the year came from the G. W. Dea Ville estate and included, significantly,
two argillite totem poles, eleven mountain goat horn spoons, three Haida silver
spoons, one Tsimshian mask, and a Tsimshian puppet in the form of an owl.
Mrs. Douglass made a preliminary study of the textile collection.
A selection of superior pieces from the ethnological collection was loaned to
the Musee de l'Homme for their show "Masterpieces of Indian and Eskimo Art
from Canada." The show was later exhibited in Ottawa. A replica totem pole
from Kitwancool and a large feast dish carved by Henry Hunt were loaned to the
exhibit "Flora Pacifica" in Honolulu, Hawaii.
Field Work included virtually every week-end, January through April, with
the Curator attending Coast Salish winter dances in a continuing study of that institution. In June and September, several Kwakiutl potlatches were filmed and tape-
recorded.
The Curator gave five lectures to anthropology students at the University of
Victoria; a Heritage Court Presents lecture entitled "A Visit to the Home of Bak-
bakwalanooksiway, the Cannibal at the North End of the World," ably assisted by
the Hunt family and Mrs. Douglass; "Technical Achievements of the Northwest
Coast Indians" to the Canada-Indian Cultural Association and the students in the
 CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Indian studies programme at the Institute of Adult Studies, Victoria; a lecture upon
"The Role of the Community Museum" to the Alert Bay Museum and Library
Association; discussions on "Northwest Coast Indian Art: A Structural Analysis"
to the International Association of Art Critics; and a lecture on "The Mungo Martin
Memorial Pole" to the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society.
Thunderbird Park had its most active year. Tony Hunt nearly completed
the frontal painting for the Kwakiutl House inside the Museum. Henry Hunt carved
a speaker's figure to accompany the house. Several masks and other paraphernalia
were carved for the Heritage Court Presents lecture and for the Mungo Martin pot-
latch. The apprentice carvers finished the weeping woman of Tanoo pole. Mr. Bell
completed a replica of a shaman's grave figure and two smaller carvings; Mr. Wilson
worked on a replica of a shark mortuary from Skedans. Mr. Matilpi carved two
masks and two feast bowls for eventual use in the potlach programme designed by
the Education Division.
The most significant work produced by the Thunderbird Park carvers was the
Mungo Martin memorial pole. Carved from a 32-foot cedar, this pole honouring
the late Mungo Martin is without question the finest pole yet produced by the father-
and-son team of Henry and Tony Hunt. It was erected at Alert Bay on September 18.
In line with an increased awareness of the urgent need to preserve native Indian
language material, the Museum appointed, in September 1970, Dr. Barbara S. Efrat
as Honorary Curator of Linguistics. This appointment is primarily a research position to facilitate the continuing investigation into the structure of several indigenous
Coast Salish languages and to provide work space and a safe repository for irreplaceable data. Since the number of speakers of the particular native languages
under study is unfortunately diminishing rapidly, the preservation effort by the Museum is of prime historical significance.
HISTORY
The History Division's staff concerns itself with all facets of the white man's
experience in British Columbia from the 1770's to the present. During 1970, the
Curator, Daniel T. Gallacher, the Assistant Curator, David E. Gillett (to September
30), together with two technicians, Monte J. Wright and Miss Katherine Jamieson
(the latter from September 1 to December 31), made significant progress, particularly in the fields of displays, restoration, accessions, and publications. To these
ends they were ably assisted by volunteers, including Mrs. Marjorie Parsons, Mrs.
Nel Skuce, Mrs. Stella Heard, Mrs. Lena Vincent, and Mrs. Elenor Palmer, all of
whom worked at length sorting and cataloguing the collection. Mrs. Skuce began
extensive archival research into the development of British Columbia commercial
outlets for the years 1886-1914.
Collections were enlarged considerably as a result of newspaper, radio, and
television appeals for display objects. Public response went beyond our immediate
requirements; however, since approximately half of the items donated need not be
used in the current exhibit, but will help instead to round out the coUection. It is
intended to publish aU accessions for 1970 under separate cover, probably in a compendium for the years 1970-74.
Field Work was devoted solely to either acquiring objects or studying structures and sites for possible duplication in the displays. Barkerville, the Lower Mainland, southern Vancouver Island, Kamloops, Merritt, the Okanagan, the Gulf Islands, and Princeton were all visited to seek objects, photograph sites, and study local
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION,  1970 CC 79
historic documents. Some follow-up work remains to be done in each instance, and
it is intended to conduct similar surveys throughout the rest of British Columbia in
1971/72.
Research efforts were fourfold—historiographical study on colonial leadership
patterns {see Syesis 3:172-186); extensive searches through archives and libraries
for both graphic and descriptive information on display objects and structures suitable for duplication (including stores, residences, sawmills, barns, mines, etc.);
historical investigations for other government agencies, community museums, and
the public; plus scientific examination of aU incoming objects.
Display Work included development of storylines, consultation with persons
having first-hand historical knowledge or detailed research relating to the exhibit,
advising the Chief of Exhibits in the display design, and giving lectures on the current exhibit programme in an attempt to generate widespread support for this venture. Furthermore, either press, television, or radio interviews were given monthly
to maintain continued public interest in the display.
Other portions of this report {see especially "Exhibits") discuss the current
history display's construction, and since the Curator will in due course publish a
monograph relating to the galleries in question, only a brief outline of the storyline
is given below:
"Consolidation: 1871-1971" will deal with our present complex society by historical
analysis of institutions, the economy, socio-cultural phenomena, technological successes,
ecological disasters, and other occurrences during the past century relevant to British Columbia's evolution. "Settlement: 1821-1921" will treat both urbanization and industrialization extensively—two remarkable features of our modern society. "Discovery: 1771—
1871" will depict that period of the Province's history in which the land and resources
were first discovered and exploited.
Thus the History Division is currently in the forefront of a permanent interdisciplinary exhibit programme linked by a common basis of ecological interpretation. In each of the three above-mentioned eras (1771-1871, 1821-1921, 1871-
1971), historical examples of adherence to, or violation of, basic ecological principles will be described in depth.
MARINE BIOLOGY
The all-too-brief tenure of Clifford Carl as the Museum's first Curator of
Marine Biology ended with his death on March 27. Having stepped down as
Museum Director at the end of 1969, Dr. Carl had sought to organize the Marine
Biology Division, while simultaneously planning extensive galleries popularly to
be known as "The Hall of the Sea," scheduled for construction five years hence.
Over the past three decades Dr. Carl had collected and maintained the Museum's marine specimens, and in the first quarter of 1970 he devoted most of his
time to reorganizing those collections in the tower. Included in this task were his
efforts to classify the ichthyological and herpetological collections for placement in
systematic groups. He was, of course, consulted at length by staff members on all
aspects of the Museum, and he still found sufficient time to continue teaching a
credit course to senior students at the University of Victoria on British Columbia
vertebrate life. His record of public service never diminished in that he regularly
wrote a column for the Victoria Daily Times on the same subject, and he maintained
close contact with visitors to the Museum.
Dr. Josephine F. L. Hart was appointed Honourary Curator of Marine Biology in April. She has spent considerable time in the organization and identification
of a large collection of reptant decapod crustaced, which is composed of material
collected by the Fisheries Research Board as well as her own specimens.   The aim
 CC 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
is to make a named reference collection for the Museum and also one for the biological station at Departure Bay. This material will be of great value in her long-
term project of composing a Museum handbook on the crabs of British Columbia.
Field work consisted mainly of a short collecting trip in June on the CGS G. B. Reed.
Dredging was done mainly in fjords, while circumnavigating Vancouver Island, and
crabs were obtained from over 60 locations.
While the marine floors of the tower were without a Curator of Marine Biology
for most of the year, other scientists in museum-related activities helped to make
the space productive. K. Strong, a teacher from Oak Bay Junior Secondary School,
spent much of the summer working the herpetological collections and doing research
on garter snakes. Dr. D. V. Ellis, and his assistant, Miss Penelope Brown, in their
work on a time-series study of the benthos of Satellite Channel, have been using
the collections of the University of Victoria (1965-70), which were deposited in
the Museum. He also held laboratory classes in marine ecology in the building.
There were nine students in the class who utilized the benthos material for identification work. One graduate student, James Goddard, also made use of this material
in his marine ecology research. Since September, Mrs. Katherine D. Hobson has
been working on systematics and ecology of Polychaete worms.
EXHIBITS
J. J. Andre officially became Chief of Exhibits on May 1. He was ably assisted throughout the year by Alec M. James, Chief of Display Production; Frank
L. Beebe, Illustrator; Lloyd G. Cook, Museum Technician; Thomas L. Putnam,
Museum Technician; Erik Thorn, Chief of Travelling Exhibits (to September 30);
Edgar M. Mullett, carpenter; Jack E. Waters, carpenter; Tony A. Konings, carpenter and display technician; and Frank Dann, carpenter (on loan from the Parks
Branch, from September 28).
In 1970 the Museum began to build its first major permanent exhibits. Influenced by the outstanding displays in other museums, including Milwaukee and
Mexico City, the display staff worked with the Curators to develop imaginative
storylines on the natural and human history of British Columbia. Ecology was
chosen as the unifying theme. By mid-1969, initial drawings for both floors had
been completed; history was chosen as the first of a four-phase exhibit programme.
On July 7, 1970, construction was begun upon a comprehensive presentation of the
white man's experience in British Columbia from 1771 to 1971. This display will
occupy about 25,000 square feet on the top floor of the exhibit building. For the
sake of brevity, only the project's major elements as achieved to date are given
below.
Beginning with a general floor plan, the Curator of History and Chief of Exhibits evolved a series of galleries which will lead the visitor backward in time and
which will depict the most important features of British Columbia's development.
The Director, Chief Conservator, Chief of Exhibits, and Curator of History attended
a continuing series of biweekly planned meetings, while the display team constructed
from drawings and photographs a 1-inch-to-the-foot model of the exhibit. After
some alterations in the over-all plans, working drawings (including blueprints)
were made in order that framing could begin. Thus, by mid-year, the first stage had
passed and construction of the street scene (c. 1900) was under way. At the end
of December all framing had been completed, plastering was almost finished, painting was proceeding apace, and a considerable amount of interior decorating had
been done.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 81
During this second stage, work on adjacent galleries began—most notably upon
the farm scene, sawmill, mine shaft, fish-packing house, and Barkerville gallery.
Simultaneously, the Chief of Exhibits and the Curator of History worked together
to design the areas scheduled for fur-trade and exploration as weU as for maritime
history. Still to be designed are the galleries chosen for "Consolidation: 1871—
1971," and the old world.
In conjunction with this and other work in the nonhistory area, displaymen
completed work on the Coast forest diorama, designed new covers for the Museum's
publications, and both improved and maintained all existing displays. Much of the
exhibit work was possible through the co-operation and efforts of other Government
departments, especially Public Works, which provided architectural, engineering,
electrical, and carpenter work throughout the year. Also of great help were the
Parks Branch, the Vancouver Island Regional Correction Centre, and the British
Columbia Corrections Service. Each of these was instrumental in either obtaining
lumber for us, or in providing transportation of large objects across the Province.
Temporary Exhibits on View During 1970
Art Show—Greater Victoria School Board.
Art Show—University of Victoria.
A. Mikelson sculptures—wood carvings.
Stephen Lowe—Chinese water colours.
J. Egoyan—oil paintings.
Dr. M. Huculak—Ukrainian costumes.
Leonardo da Vinci scale models—replicas of da Vinci's inventions, sponsored
by IBM Company.
International Photographic Salon.
Pollution exhibit—sponsored by the National Museum.
The late E. F. Hagell, Painter of the West—water colours, sketches, and oils.
Moon rock—sponsored by the National Museum, courtesy of the National
Aeronautical and Space Administration.
CONSERVATION
The Chief Conservator, Philip R. Ward, is assisted by the Assistant Conservator, Christopher A. Russell (from April 15), and John H. Smyly, technician. During the earlier part of the year the Conservation Division organized its facilities and
developed procedures in its new quarters which is one of the most extensive conservation laboratories in Canada. The Museum's history display programme required the Division to concentrate for most of the year upon the preparation of
historical material.
More than 500 small objects from the History Division's collections and some
200 ethnological specimens have received treatment, as has a variety of others,
ranging from a sawmill to a walrus-ivory cribbage board, and from a pot-bellied
stove to a spruce-root hat. In addition, many individual small items from the collections of the History, Ethnology, and Biology Divisions have been fumigated.
Perhaps the most important single event, in the long term, has been the design
and introduction of a flexible, permanent collections' condition record. Each major
object passing through the laboratory is now photographed and its condition recorded in detail, together with descriptions of any treatment it receives.
The tradition of service to other institutions was continued with the extensive
repair of a large figure of a bear from a totem pole at Kitwanga for the Skeena Totem
 CC 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Restoration Society; cleaning and repair of a coUection of ethnological material
belonging to Victoria's Christ Church Cathedral; and examination of a third-century
a.d. Egyptian mummy for the Vancouver Centennial Museum.
Field work this year was confined to a brief visit to Hazelton by Mr. Ward to
check the condition of the 'Ksan Museum collection and a number of one-day visits
by members of the Division's staff to the Lake Cowichan area to prepare the skeletal
remains of a street-car for removal to Victoria.
EDUCATION SERVICES
The Education Officer, Mrs. W. A. Wood, is assisted by Mrs. Maxine Pape
(from May 1), Mrs. Florence Scaplen (to June 30), and over 60 members of the
Docents' Association of the Provincial Museum.
During its second year of operation, Education Services continued to develop
popular programmes which correlate with the courses of study designed by the
Department of Education.
Children's programmes included:
Digging Up the Past—A Grade VII programme in which children attempted
to reconstruct history from information they gathered from excavating a
simulated site in the classroom. As would an archaeologist, the students
excavated, recorded, analysed, and interpreted various artifacts.
Potlatch—To survey some of the implications of the potlatch in the life of
northwest Coast Indians, children participated in a potlatch held in the
dance house located on the third floor of the Museum. As guests of a
Kwakiutl Chief, the children played games, watched dances, ate potlatch
food, and received gifts.
Last Best West—A Centennial museum box filled with history objects that
children could handle was transported by two volunteer teachers, Mrs.
Isabel Sinclair and Mrs. Nancy Thomson, to various schools in the
Greater Victoria School District.
Chain of Life—The second museum box taken to schools in the Greater Victoria School District was displayed and interpreted by Mrs. Dorothy Hanson and Mrs. Ona Chadwick, who gave students an opportunity to take
part in experiments that illustrate the meaning of ecology.
Crawly Creatures—In five Saturday classes of six weeks' duration each, the
Education Officer and Miss Jennifer Napier guided children aged 7—12
to find life in pond water with the use of microscopes.
Fossil Fun—Gary Green, a Museum staff member interested in palaeontology,
conducted two Saturday classes of six weeks' duration each by taking
small classes of children on field trips to Sidney, Sooke, and Duncan in
search of fossils.
Life—Michael Miller taught the life-cycles of many creatures to children aged
9-12 in three classes each of six weeks' duration.
Kumtuks—In a programme directed to children aged 9-14, Mrs. Maxine Pape,
Mrs. Kathleen Craig, and Mrs. Ona Chadwick taught three classes of one
week's duration during July and August. This programme emphasized
the culture of the Coast Salish Indian. A total of 100 children attended
this programme.
Discovery—Children aged 7-9 discovered the wonders of the Museum through
the efforts of Mrs. Barbara Elliott and Miss Mary Phelps, two Macaulay
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 83
Elementary teachers who volunteered to teach three classes during the
summer.   Sixty children attended this programme.
Wider World Around Us—-Part of the "Summer Happening" presented by the
Greater Victoria School Board, this programme was taught by Mrs. Dorothy Armstrong, of Lampson Street School.   Sixty children learned fundamental principles of ecology in this course conducted during the month
of July when local flora and fauna are so abundant.
Kindergarten—Puppets and films were part of a special pilot project undertaken by volunteers Mrs. Kathleen Walker and Mrs. Anna Foster early
in 1970.
Indian programmes:  Programmes in this series were designed to further the
knowledge of the culture of various Indian groups.   One programme, for example,
included lessons prepared by Mrs. Pape for children of the Tsartlip Indian Day
School.   The classes were taught at the school, and most of the children also attended classes under her supervision in the Museum.   At the Victoria Native Friendship Centre, young people and adults proved most interested in learning more about
their culture and traditions.   This was accomplished in part by having them work
on various arts and crafts.
Adult programmes were:
Heritage Court Presents—Six speakers delivered highly acclaimed illustrated
lectures during February, March, and April.   The programme is gaining
in popularity and will continue next year.
Hesquiaht Dancers—The Nootkan group from Port Alberni gave a professional
performance showing the traditional singing and dancing of their tribes.
Batik Lessons—One class for six weeks in May and June was given to Indian
adults by Mrs. Anna Foster.
Indian Studies Programme—Through the aegis of the Institute of Adult Studies,
Mrs. Maxine Pape made presentations to the 60 adults attending the
Indian Studies Programme.   Lectures, accompanied by discussion groups,
were held each Friday afternoon during the period October to December.
Students of the Faculty of Education at the University of Victoria have spent
some 20 hours teaching students at the Museum as part of their teacher-training
programme.
The majority of the teaching load in this Division is carried by volunteers.
These 60 docents have given a total of 500 tours, which included providing instruction to 21,220 children. The total is fewer than in 1969 due to a consolidation of
programming made necessary by a shortage of clerical staff. Two volunteers, Mrs.
Anna Reeves and Mrs. Mary McCormack, have worked generously each week
performing receptionist and filing duties.
At the third annual Docents' Course held in September, members of the
Museum and University of Victoria staffs trained 20 new docents to teach in the
galleries of the Museum.
The Education Assistant, Mrs. Flo Scaplen, who acted as tour director, left
in June and was not replaced. Through the First Citizen Fund, Mrs. Maxine Pape,
a Coast Salish Indian, was hired to arrange programmes involving Indians.
MUSEUMS' ADVISER
Generally, community museums throughout the Province, stimulated by increased local interest, municipal support, and renewed activity within their own
organizations, continued to improve during 1970. The inherent problems of meagre
finance, staff shortages, and inadequate facilities are still the paramount obstacles
 CC 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
faced by the operators of small museums, many of which are manned entirely by
volunteers. SmaU grants, on a pro rata basis, have now been made available from
the British Columbia Cultural Fund, but only in areas where local Community Arts
Councils have been formed. It is apparent, however, that a more effective use of
available moneys could be obtained through a distribution system administered by
a group whose sole interest lies in the field of museum advancement. That well
over 350,000 visitors are attracted annually into these smaU institutions indicates
their value as major contributors to community culture and education.
The growth of new museums in the past has always been accelerated by Federal and Provincial funds earmarked for commemorative projects, and continuing
the trend, a number of community museums are now in the planning stage, with
two or three already approved as Centennial projects for 1971.
Through the medium of correspondence, newsletters, and meetings, the Museums' Adviser maintained communication throughout the year with some 90
museums and allied organizations. Augmenting this service, scheduled visits to
over 50 museums and communities were achieved. The resulting increase in inquiries and requests for assistance under the advisory programme indicated a wide
acceptance of the advisory service, and forecast the need for a more active programme in 1971. The appointment (ex officio) of the Museums' Adviser to the
executive council of the British Columbia Museums Association made possible a
more effective working relationship with that body in the latter's drive for improved
museum services. Plans for training in museum management, sponsored by the
Canadian Museums Association, progressed satisfactorily in British Columbia—
particularly in the case of the successful completion of a three-day workshop at
Langley. Designed to upgrade the skills of people working in small museums, the
workshop was the first of the training sessions to be held in an area dominated by
community museums.
The British Columbia Museums Association Convention held at Penticton in
September was a highly successful event and provided the opportunity for many
museum staff members to participate in the programme.
Visitors to the Advisers' office at Victoria were numerous and from all parts
of the Province and Canada, including several group tours through the Provincial
Museum by historical societies. A visit from V. N. Styrmo, Museums' Adviser
from Ontario, proved to be both interesting and valuable; discussions were held
on aU phases of advisory services currently in effect in both Provinces. Where no
comparative yardstick previously had been available for assessing the status of local
museums, the discussions clearly indicated a similarity of purpose, problems, solutions, and advisory assistance being offered. Clearly, British Columbia museums
are in the vanguard of effective advisory services for community museums.
FRIENDS OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
During the latter part of 1969, after the completion of the new Provincial
Museum building, it became evident that both the Museum and local organizations
with interests related to museum work could benefit by closer association. The
Museum desired citizen participation and specialized voluntary help, while local
organizations desired the used of the Museum's meeting-rooms and other facilities.
The coincidence of needs led to the formation of the Friends of the Provincial
Museum Society.
The 10 founding organizations were as follows:
(1) The Archaeological Society of Vancouver Island.
(2) The British Columbia Historical Association (Victoria Branch).
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 85
(3) The British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society.
(4) The Docents' Association of the Provincial Museum.
(5) The Outdoor Club of Victoria.
(6) The Thetis Lake Sanctuary Association.
(7) The Vancouver Island Rock and Alpine Society.
(8) The Victoria Amateur Movie Club.
(9) The Victoria Camera Club.
(10) The Victoria Natural History Society.
At a meeting held June 10, 1970, the Directors representing the member organizations formally approved the constitution and elected the following regular
officers: President, Mr. Douglas Turnbull; Vice-President, Mrs. Kathleen Craig;
Secretary, Miss Winifred Speechly; and Treasurer, Mrs. L. Pamela Lewis.
Application was made for registration as a society, and this was approved by
the Registrar of Companies on July 20, 1970.
In September, the Friends of the Provincial Museum was granted registration
as a charitable organization under the Federal Income Tax Act (effective July 20)
and, after obtaining the approval of the Minister, was able to accept donations on
behalf of the Museum. One of the highlights of the year was the visit to Victoria
on November 7 of 55 members of the Vancouver Museums and Planetarium Association and the Archaeological Society of British Columbia. A lunch was arranged
for the visitors, followed by a special tour of the Museum. On December 15, the
Friends of the Provincial Museum were cohosts with the Museum staff at a special
preview of the moon-rock exhibition by some 200 invited guests.
One of the first projects of the society was the operation of the Museum gift
shop, which had been operated by the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare
Society on a temporary basis during the summers of 1969 and 1970. The gift shop
was reopened November 17 to sell books and publications related to museum interests and gift items with special emphasis on arts and handicrafts native to British
Columbia.
The society has undertaken to finance the rehabilitation of the original school-
house of St. Ann's Academy, when that building is moved to a site adjacent to the
Museum. The society is accepting gifts for a fund to establish a suitable memorial
to the late Dr. G. Clifford Carl.
PUBLICATIONS
Brayshaw, T. C.   The Dry Forests of Southern British Columbia.   Syesis, 3:17-43.
Foster, J. B.   The Provincial Museum.   Museum Roundup, 40:60.
 ■— The Provincial Museum.    Beautiful British Columbia, Winter 1970, pp.
4-17.
Gallacher, D. T.    Businessmen or Bureaucrats?   Historians and the Problem of
Leadership in Colonial British Columbia.   Syesis, 3:173-186.
  History on the Drawing Boards.   University of Victoria Alumni Quarterly,
Autumn 1970, pp. 9, 10.
  Second Thoughts on the Albany Seminar.   Museum Roundup, 37:31-33.
■ Third Thoughts on the Albany Seminar.   Museum Roundup, 38:41-43.
 "What Culture?  What Heritage?" (review).    Museum Roundup, 39:41,
42.
"Canada's First Century" (review).   Museum Roundup, 40:67.
Gillett, D. E.   Pacific Northwest Museums'Conference, 1970.   Museum Roundup,
38:20-24.
 CC 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Guiguet, C. J., and W. J. Schick.   The First Record of Right Whale Dolphin, Lisso-
delphis borealis (Peale) from British Columbia.   Syesis, 3:188.
Kyte, J.   Reaching Your Public.   Museum Roundup, 37:44-46.
  Development of Community Museums in British Columbia—I.   Museum
Roundup, 39:39, 40.
Schick, W. J.   He will end by destroying the earth.   Greater Victoria Shopper, September 17, 1970.
  First British Columbia Specimen Record of Caspian Tern.   Syesis, 3:187.
Szczawinski, A. F.   J. W. Eastham (1870-1968).   Syesis, 2:265.
 • The Pacific Rhododendron.   Beautiful British Columbia, Spring 1970.
 Our Wild Orchids, Beautiful British Columbia, Winter 1970, pp. 42-45.
Ward, P. R.   Art Objects: Their Care and Preservation, vol. 1 (review).   Museum
Roundup, 37:17-20.
  Stitch It or Stick It? (accessioning textiles).   Museum Roundup, 38:46,
47.
  Design for Scientific Conservation  of  Antiquities   (review).    Museum
Roundup, 39:43-45.
Where Do We Go From Here? (museum techniques training).   Museum
Roundup, 40:30.
Wood, W. A.    Education Services Programme—Provincial Museum.    Museum
Roundup, 37:27-29.
  Programmes Need Energy Rather Than Money.   Museum Roundup, 39:
49, 50.
  Museums Make Past Live.    Wildlife Review, June 1970, pp. 10, 11.
 The
"Grand Hotel"—a faithful (if scaled-down) version of Nanaimo's well-known
Royal Hotel as it stood during fin de siecle.
The telegrapher's shack, circa 1909. Adjacent to the railroad station, it will emphasize
communications as an integral part of transportation and settlement.
 Construction of the gold-rush diorama designed to depict Barkerville, circa 1862.
, ■ ■   : ■
COLUMBIA   ■.       ,f-g
The "Columbia Printers" as it was nearing completion in the street scene. Like the telegrapher, the
printer used both advanced technology and special
skills to act as an intermediary between groups attempting to communicate. Unlike the telegrapher,
he often added his own views to the messages he sent.
 COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH
 Unloading and heading halibut at Vancouver.
Dungeness crab, west coast of Vancouver Island.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 91
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
R. G. McMynn, Director
GENERAL
The major importance of British Columbia's salmon resource as the main
base for the Province's fishing industry was again underlined in 1970. Salmon,
especially the excellent landings of coho and chum, together with buoyant prices,
were responsible for record returns to fishermen. These returns exceeded the $60
million year of 1966 by several millions of dollars. This occurred in spite of the
fact that, except for salmon, the catch of all other species declined. 1970 was an
interesting and, in many ways, productive and satisfying year for the small staff of
the Province's Commercial Fisheries Branch.
Before the presentation of detailed fishery statistics, a brief overview of some
of our activities is in order.
Aquatic Plants
The establishment of a major aquatic-plant industry in British Columbia continues to be plagued by bad luck or mismanagement. In 1970, one company completed construction of a large and sophisticated kelp-drying plant at Masset, Queen
Charlotte Islands. The same company had designed a kelp-harvesting vessel whose
construction was well along before financial problems put a stop to both of these
projects.
Considerable interest is being shown by a company in the red-algae resource
off our coast. Several one-year licences have been issued to this company for exploratory purposes. Red-algae on the east coast of Canada provide a valuable
source of carrageenin (a complex phyco-colloid whose jellying properties are in
high demand) and apparently west coast varieties also provide an attractive source
of this material. Although major aquatic-plant developments have been disappointing, a modest industry has evolved from the activities of an enterprising company's manufacturing and marketing of mulch. This product, mostly finely ground
fir bark, is "fortified" with seaweed and is in fair demand by gardeners and greens
keepers.
Oysters
During 1970 the Provincial Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance requested that the Federal Department of Health and Welfare assume the
responsibility of looking after the public health aspects of the Province's mollusc
fisheries. To facilitate this transfer of responsibilities, the Federal-Provincial British Columbia Fisheries Committee established a technical subcommittee. The
chief tasks of this subcommittee are to suggest amendments to existing legislation
and to draft new legislation in order that Federal Health and Fishery authorities
can effectively perform their new responsibilities in the mollusc fisheries. The
Commercial Fisheries Branch, together with officials from Federal Health and Welfare, Federal Fisheries and Forestry, and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
spent considerable time and effort on these tasks. Draft regulations for the sanitary control of the mollusc fisheries have evolved and procedures suggested for their
effective administration.
In conjunction with the Federal Department of Health and Welfare, a three-
week water-quality survey of Ladysmith Harbour was carried out.   In this study,
 CC 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
services of the Branch's patrol vessel MV Marten were invaluable. The study should
result in a reclassification of some of the "restricted" shellfish areas to "approved."
The oyster industry of British Columbia was exposed to several Government/
industry-financed studies in 1970. These included two by C. Planta and one by
E. Bissell. These studies illuminated the problem areas and marketing difficulties
inherent in oyster-farming. A major problem to many oyster-growers is that of
land tenure. It is hoped that a satisfactory answer to this problem may be found
by a technical subcommittee of the Minister's newly created Land Use Committee.
Several avenues are being explored, which include zoning, redating of licences for
a further 21-year term, and licensing. The oyster industry has produced annually,
since 1960, an average of some 125,000 gallons of shucked oysters. At current
wholesale prices, 1970's production was worth about $700,000. With the present
oyster grounds under lease, this production will not significantly increase untU such
time as the growers can afford to more intensively farm their leases and (or) develop
additional methods of rearing and processing. It is in the fields of research and
demonstration that government can significantly assist the industry. Some of the
joint Federal-Provincial projects currently under way, outlined later in this report,
illustrate what can be done in this regard. The industry is making productive use
of oysters occurring on vacant Crown foreshore, but this uncertain supply is a
tenuous base on which to build stable markets. As a result, more and more of the
growers are looking toward more intensive seeding programmes and to alternate
methods as a basis for their operations.
Federal-Provincial Projects
Four fishery projects financed jointly by industry and the Federal and Provincial fishery agencies were under way during 1970.   These are briefly outlined.
1. Economic survey of the oyster industry in British Columbia—The British
Columbia Oyster Growers Association shared equally with the Federal and Provincial Governments in underwriting the costs of this survey. Mr. E. Bissell, Western
Consultants Limited, completed his study with the publication of a two-volume
report. A number of recommendations were made by Mr. Bissell and these have
received the close attention of the contracting parties.
2. Mechanical harvesting of razor clams—The Queen Charlotte Islands support a substantial razor-clam population, which commands a high price. The
establishment of a razor-clam industry at Masset would contribute greatly to the
local economy by gainfully employing a number of the native Indians in the canning operation. Clams have been, in the past, sporadically harvested by hand-
digging, but this method does not produce the constant supply required by a canning operation. If mechanical means of harvesting could be developed, a productive industry would result. In 1970, Provincial and Federal fishery authorities
undertook a feasibility study in this regard. This study indicated that a mechanical
digger was feasible and would provide the basis for an economic operation. As a
consequence of this study, a three-year programme, involving B.C. Packers and the
Federal and Provincial Governments, has been initiated to develop, construct, operate, and evaluate a mechanical razor-clam digger.
3. Aquatic plant study—In anticipation of the commencement of one or more
seaweed-harvesting operations on the Pacific coast within the new few years, certain studies have been initiated by the Branch in conjunction with the University
of Victoria. The objective of these studies is to evaluate effects of harvesting on
regeneration of the plants in order that appropriate management regulations can
be implemented by the Provincial Government. These studies commenced in 1970
under the direction of Dr. A. Austin, and will continue through 1971.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
CC 93
4. Raft culture of oysters—Dr. D. B. Quayle, of the Pacific Biological Station,
is in charge of a Federal-Provincial fishery project involving the raft culture of
oysters. This experiment was designed to determine the economics of using ferro-
cement flotation as a substitute for logs in rafts which are used to hold oyster strings.
The study will continue for two to three years. In 1970, four cement logs were
constructed, and oyster seed collected for the experiment.
The Commercial Fisheries Branch is extremely enthusiastic about these cost-
sharing projects as they are extremely practical and should be of real value to the
fishing industry. The generous support of the industry, and particularly that of
the Federal Department of Fisheries and Forestry, is gratefully acknowledged.
Wholesale Value of Fish and
Fish Products
1965   $84,666,000
1966   118,000,000
1967      99,800,000
1968   119,255,000
1969      83,000,000
Value of Gear
1965   $12,281,000
1966   11,414,000
1967   11,637,000
1968   13,032,000
1969   13,394,000
Number of Licensed
Fishermen
1963   15,370
1966   11,977
1967   12,117
1968   12,133
1969   10,942
Number oj Licensed Boats
1964
1966
1967
1968
9,343
7,435
7,639
7,548
1969   7,181
BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY
The canned-salmon pack for 1970 was 1,423,476 48-pound cases, 799,323
more than the 1969 pack of 624,153 cases. Included in the 1970 pack were
27,892 cases of sockeye, 15 cases of chinook, and 21 cases of chum, all imported
from the United States.
Eighteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1970. The locations
were as foUows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, five; Central Area, two; Vancouver Island, three; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, eight.
Comparative Pack by Species (48-pound Cases)
1969
Sockeye   359,607i
Chinook   5,301 i
Steelhead   585
Blueback   2,146
Coho   55,801
Pink   154,188
Chum   46,524
1970
395,603
10,006
555
2,881
111,463
660,381
242,587
 CC 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HERRING PRODUCTION
Once again the herring fishery was closed for reduction purposes. Herring
stocks are showing signs of recovery, particularly in southern waters, but surveys
indicated they were not yet large enough to reopen the fishery completely. Insignificant amounts of herring were taken for use as food and bait.
HALIBUT FISHERY
Halibut landings by British Columbia fishermen in 1970 were the second
highest on record. Up to September 30, when the season was over for all practical
purposes, landings in British Columbia ports by Canadian fishermen totalled 27,-
400,000 pounds, worth $10,700,000. This compares with the record year of 1969
with landings of 31,400,000 pounds, worth $13,300,000. Previously the biggest
year was 1960, when 27,160,000 pounds were landed.
PACIFIC OYSTER BREEDING,  1970
Pendrell Sound
Weather conditions during the summer of 1970 appeared generally favourable
for Pacific oyster breeding. In Pendrell Sound there were no salinity problems such
as existed in 1969, and there were several long periods when the surface water
temperature did not fall below 68 °F.
The first spawning occurred on or about July 6, providing enough larvae for
a modest commercial set, presuming adequate survival. By July 22, however, for
some unexplained reason, the number of larvae from this spawning had decreased
appreciably in spite of an average surface water temperature of 71 °F and satisfactory salinities. As a consequence, shells exposed between July 22 and July 27
had collected an average of only six spat per shell. In the meantime, however, on
July 13, large numbers of early-stage larvae, numbering up to 200 per gallon, appeared in the plankton. By July 22 these numbers had fallen to an average of
about 20 half-grown larvae per gallon and to 10 per gallon on July 27. Shell counts
on August 11 gave an average of 37 spat per shell, with a range of 17 to 69 per
shell on experimental shellcultch. Commercial cultch averaged 6 to 30 per shell,
depending on location. There was a small spawning on about August 4 and this
produced a small additional spatfall late in the month.
While on the whole a commercial set resulted, the spatting was found to be
irregular, with large differences between shells, between strings, between rafts, and
locations of rafts.
About 150,000 shell strings or the equivalent in the form of cemented veneer
plates were exposed in 1970.   The latter were designed for export to France.
Ladysmith Harbour
Since Ladysmith oyster-growers evince little interest in collecting seed, no
breeding studies were made in that area.
SPORT-CAUGHT FISH CANNERIES
Four canneries designed to custom-can sport-caught fish operated during
1970. They were located at Brentwood, Nanaimo, Quadra Island, and Westview.
Production to the end of December 1970 was 122,984 cans, an increase of 32,489
over the previous year's total.   A total of 3,951 sportsmen used these facilities, of
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970 CC 95
whom 3,127 were residents and 824 nonresidents. The following number and
species of fish were canned: Chinook, 3,820; coho, 9,604; pink, 689; chum, 129;
sockeye, 277; game fish, 317. In addition, the canneries smoke-cured a total of
1,508 pounds of sport-caught fish.
REVIEW OF FISHERIES PRODUCTION, 1969
The total wholesale value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1969
amounted to $82,959,000, the lowest since 1963, and was $26,341,000 below the
1968 value. Salmon landings of 83,300,000 pounds were the lowest since 1960.
Salmon products accounted for 70 per cent of the total wholesale value for the
Province. Halibut landings amounted to 27,196,000 pounds. The landed value
climbed from $4,379,000 in 1960 to a record $11,578,000 in 1969. Due to the
low level of herring stocks, the reduction fishery was closed in 1969. Only 2,208
tons of herring were landed, and the total wholesale value of all herring products
was $559,000.
As marketed wholesale, the principal species were salmon, with a value of
$57,982,000; and halibut, with a value of $13,814,000.
In 1969 the total wholesale value of shellfish amounted to $3,542,000. The
value of the clam production was $226,000; oyster production, $856,000; crab
and shrimp production, $2,460,000.
Gear and Equipment
The 1969 inventory of fishing-gear included 10,999 salmon gill-nets, 519 salmon purse-seines, 11 salmon drag-seines, 131 herring gill-nets, 98 herring purse-
seines, and 16 herring trawl-nets, with a total value of $8,632,000. Wire, cotton,
and nylon trolling-lines were valued at $629,000.
Salmon-cannery Operations
Fifteen salmon canneries were licensed to operate in 1969. The locations were
as follows: Skeena River and Prince Rupert, five; Central Area, one; Vancouver
Island, two; Fraser River and Lower Mainland, seven. In 1968, 21 canneries were
licensed; this year saw the permanent closing of two canneries on the Skeena River,
one in the Central Area, and one on the Fraser River, due to cessation of operations
by two old-established canning companies and consolidation of operations by another. A cannery in West Vancouver has been razed, but the company is still active
and expects to rebuild at a future date. A new cannery was built at Westview on
the Lower Mainland coast, but did not start operating until late in the season.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by canners licensed to operate in 1969, amounted
to 624,153 cases, 1,122,836 less than the 1968 pack. This pack was the lowest
since the 1921 total of 602,657 cases.
Sockeye Salmon
The 1969 sockeye pack was 359,608 cases. This was a decrease of 251,403
cases from 1968's total of 611,011 cases. Sockeye was by far the most valuable
species, with a wholesale value of $20,300,000.
 CC 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pink Salmon
Although all salmon landings were down, the pinks were particularly low with
a total of only 13,820,000 pounds, valued at $2,225,000. The pink pack had a
marketed value of $30,110,000, far below the figure for 1968 of $67,436,000.
Coho Salmon
Coho was another hard-hit species in 1969, but in spite of this accounted for
20 per cent of the total salmon catch. Again most of the coho was marketed in
frozen form, valued at $8,710,320, down from 1968's total of $11,098,039.
Chinook Salmon
The canned pack of chinook salmon in 1969 was 5,301 cases, 2,105 less than
the 1968 pack. Here again, main utilization of this species was in the frozen
dressed form, with a value of $7,297,424, whereas the canned pack was only worth
$188,820.
Chum Salmon
The chum pack was down to 46,524 cases, worth $1,459,133, and the value
of the frozen dressed was $3,202,028. High demand for frozen chums created an
artificiaUy high market for the late runs in October and November, pushing the
price to fishermen to more than 40 cents, about three times the contract price.
Steelhead
The 1969 steelhead pack amounted to 585 cases, 348 less than the 1968 pack
of 933 cases. Although steelhead are not salmon, some are canned each year,
principally those caught incidental to fishing other species.
Other Canneries
Shellfish canneries—In 1969, seven shellfish canneries were licensed to operate in British Columbia and produced the following pack: Clams, 10,943 cases;
crabs, 5,910 cases; oyster stew, 12,887 24/10-ounce cases; oysters, 141 cases.
Specialty products—Sundry processing plants produced the following: Fish
spreads, 47,939 24/21/. -ounce cases and 583 24/4-ounce cases; smoked oysters,
572 %-gallons; pickled oysters, 90 gallons; sliced salmon in oil, 5,052 cases of
2 V_-ounce tins; creamed salmon, 3,409 cases; creamed tuna, 787 cases. In addition, there was a pack of 138,407 48-pound cases of various-sized containers of
tuna and 1,868,430 pounds of halibut, cod, and turbot were processed for inclusion
in frozen, prepackaged fish and chips
Fish-curing
Twenty-three smoke-houses processed the foUowing: Herring (kippers, 55,188
pounds; bloaters, 4,500 pounds); cod, 761,927 pounds; salmon, 386,255 pounds;
kippered salmon, 498,300 pounds; mackerel, 9,630 pounds; eels, 6,000 pounds;
steelhead, 397 pounds; trout, 5\Vz pounds.
Pickled Herring
Three plants put up the following: 428 cases of 6/10-ounce jars; 8,056 cases
of 12/12-ounce jars; 5,031 cases of 12/16-ounce jars; 393 cases of 12/32-ounce
jars; 228 cases of 4/128-ounce jars; 514 25-pound kits; 2,143 128-ounce tins; 228
100-ounce tins; and 170 100-pound barrels.
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970
Frozen Herring Bait
CC 97
Seven firms reported a total production of 1,030,832 pounds of frozen bait
in 1969.
Mild-cured Salmon
Three plants were licensed to operate in 1969 and produced 219 tierces. In
1968, three plants were licensed and produced 466 tierces.
Salmon Roe
Ten plants reported the following production for 1969: 131,442 pounds; 1,950
cases of 24/3-ounce jars; 23,000 1-pound tins; 12,750 pounds packed in wooden
barrels of salmon-roe caviar; 185,214 pounds of salted salmon roe; 25,500 pounds
of salmon-roe bait; and 140,186 pounds of salmon roe, use not specified.
Halibut
British Columbia fishermen delivered 27,200,000 pounds of halibut to Canadian ports, about 34,000 pounds more than the record 1960 total and bettered the
last 10 years' average by 2,500,000 pounds. The landed value was $11,600,000.
Another 6,600,000 pounds, valued at $2,800,000, were landed in American ports.
Total Canadian landings reached 33,800,000 pounds, worth $14,400,000.
Fish Oil and Meal
There was no herring fishing for reduction purposes and a negligible amount
was taken for other purposes. The fishery is not expected to be opened for seining
before 1972, and possibly the closure will extend beyond this point.
Fish-offal reduction—During the 1969 season, five plants were licensed to
operate and they produced 771 tons of meal and 46,897 gallons of oil. In 1968,
nine plants produced 2,378 tons of meal and 171,127 gallons of oil.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1—Licences Issued and Revenue Collected, 1966 to 1970, Inclusive
Licence
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Number
Revenue
Salmon cannery. -..-	
Herring cannery	
23
9
4
19
59
11
3
9
3
1
1
400
1
10
3
26
19
$4,600
22
8
3
19
86
11
1
9
1
1
387
145
4
44
189
2
$4,400
21
1
3
19
65
5
1
9
363
1
97
5
44
133
3
$8,400
15
3
21
61
7
2
5
295
2
1,048
4
31
103
3
$6,000
17
3
19
64
7
3
5
2
358
2
309
3
51
107
1
$6,800
900
400
1,900
59
11
3
9
3
100
100
10,000
100
363
75
260
190
800
300
1,900
86
11
1
9
1
100
400
300
3,275
2,130
500
100
450
300
3,325
2,300
700
200
250
300
3,275
Fish-processing _ —
Shellfish cannery-	
Tuna-fish cannery —	
2,320
700
300
250
50
Fish-buyers-	
9,675
18,125
25
2,278
125
1,330
600
14,750
50
4,001
100
1,550
1,030
600
17,900
50
Province of British Co-
2,375
100
440
1,890
20
2,313
75
2,550
1,070
200
Sport-caught fish cannery—
Aquatic-plant harvesting —
Oyster-picking permits
Totals
601
$19,073
932
$22,108
770
$38,038
1,600
$35,156
951
$38,153
 CC
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 2—Species and Value oj Fish Caught in British Columbia,
1965 to 1969, Inclusive
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
$52,071,000
11,752,000
10,191,000
1,740,000
723,000
1,800,000
708,000
661,000
321,000
296,000
$86,572,000
8,305,000
10,741,000
2,079,000
797,000
1,837,000
964,000
1,126,000
451,000
383,000
$79,747,000
2,638,000
7,353,000
2,469,000
801,000
972,00
765,00
1,023,000
347,000
421,000
3,117,000
$99,956,000   '
331,000
8,385,000
2,378,000
995,000
1,122,000
743,000
1,183,000
349,000
222,000
$57,982,000
Herring -	
Halibut   	
559,000
13,814,000
2,460,000
Lingcod 	
920,000
937,000
Oysters	
Sole             	
856,000
1,352,000
275,000
Clams _   -	
226,000
1,090,000
4,197,000
4,704,000
3,591,000
2,488,000
Totals	
$84,475,000
$117,984,000
$96,536,000
$119,255,000
$82,959,000
Table 3—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1965 to 1969, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned
(48-pound cases)
1965
Area
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
Total
165,0951
4,682
l,567i
5,998
3371
19,522
172,7481
121,543
17,161
80,702
1,718
3,0331
1,9221
506
1,778
101,235
166,382
48,0541
245,7971
6,400
4,571
7,9201
8431
21,300
273,9831
Coho                          -  -  	
Pink                      -	
287,925
65,2151
508,655
405,3011
913,9561
1966
Sockeye	
Red spring.	
Pink spring....
White spring.
Steelhead	
Blueback	
Coho _ _
Pink  	
Chum..
Totals.
287,3191
4,2541
1,583
2,054
4571
20,989
136,7501
252,773
36,078
742,259
120,6291
1,7431
2,095
2,045
2,0221
98
123,7851
699,021
124,706
1,076,956
407,949
5,998
4,488
4,099
2,480
21,087
260,536
951,794
160,784
1,819,215
 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION, 1970         CC 99
Table 3—British Columbia Salmon Pack, 1965 to 1969, Inclusive,
Showing Areas Where Canned—Continued
(48-pound cases)
1967
Area
Total
Species
Fraser Area
and
South Coast
North Coast
355,5831
3,4451
1,843
1,988
322
7,799
87,892
503,470
30,5871
203,208
2,404
3,304
1,695
974
558,8911
5,8491
5,147
3,683
1,296
7,799
138,878
650,142
94,0221
Red spring 	
Pink spring — —
White spring _ - ,	
Coho                         	
50,986
146,672
73,435
Pink	
Totals              	
983,0301
482,678
1,465,7081
1968
Sockeye	
398,438
8521
1,471
8231
263
10,389
92,619
227,8931
79,225
212,573
802J
2,3321
1,134
670
611,011
1,655
3,8031
1,9571
933
10,389
177,2051
669,3461
270,6871
Pink spring.	
White spring „,, .	
Coho   	
Pink   	
84,5861
441,453
191,4621
Totals                           	
811,9741
935,014
1,746,9881
1969
Sockeye  	
Red spring 	
253,458
1,402
1,4461
656
295J
2,146
39,0461
109,830
36,212
106,1491
5731
8231
400
2891
359,6071
1,9751
2,270
1,056
585
2,146
55,801
154,188
46,524
Steelhead	
Coho 	
16,7541
44,358
10,312
Pink             	
Totals         	
444,4921
179,6601
624,153
Printed by K. M. MacDonald, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1971
1,430-371-1539

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